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215.Журнал Сибирского федерального университета. Сер. Техника и технологии №3 2012

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Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Журнал Сибирского федерального университета
2012
Journal of Siberian Federal University
5 (3)
Техника и технологии
Engineering & Technologies
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Editorial Advisory Board
Chairman:
Eugene A. Vaganov
Members:
Josef J. Gitelzon
Vasily F. Shabanov
Andrey G. Degermendzhy
Valery L. Mironov
Gennady L. Pashkov
Vladimir V. Shaidurov
Vladimir V. Zuev
Editorial Board:
Editor-in-Chief:
Mikhail I. Gladyshev
Founding Editor:
Vladimir I. Kolmakov
Managing Editor:
Olga F. Alexandrova
Executive Editor for Engineering &
Technologies:
Vladimir A. Kulagin
CONTENTS / СОДЕРЖАНИЕ
С.В. Караджи, Р.З. Тумашев
q!="???,? =.!%?,?=?,???*,. .=!=*2?!,?2,* ?%C=2%??/.
"???%" ? !=??,??%L -%!?%L %?, ?%C=2*,
? 245 ?
В.И. Марьянчик, А.В. Минеев
`?=?,? ?,?!%?,?=?,???*%?% "%???L?2",
?%?3 C?=?2=
?= C!,?=K%L?3?
? 258 ?
И.М. Блянкинштейн
l?2%?%?%?,???*,?
=?C?*2/
?%"?!????2"%"=?,
2?.?%?%?,???*%?%
%K%!3?%"=?,
??
2?.?,???*%?%
%K??3?,"=?, , !??%?2=, ,?C/2=?, , *%?2!%? , ?,=??%?2,*,
="2%2!=??C%!2?/. ?!???2"
? 263 ?
Evgeny V. Morozov,
Olga V. Shabanova and Oleg V. Falaleev
NMR Imaging Application for Study of the Polymethylmethacrylate
Colloidal Crystals Infiltration in the Inverse Opals Preparation
Technology
? 275 ?
Vladimir S. Kazakov, Evgeni V. Temnykh
Pavel A. Rastovtsev and Pavel A. Potekhina
Composite Multicomponent of Gallium Pastes$Solders
? 285 ?
Н.Г. Василовская, И.Г. Енджиевская,
О.В. Слакова, Г.П. Баранова
??%!?2,???*,? =?C?*2/ C!%????= "?C3?,"=?, "?!?,*3?,2=
?=2=!?*%?% ???2%!%????,
? 294 ?
???????? ?.?. ?????? ????????? ?.?. ???????
???????????? ??????? ?.?. ?????????
????????? ? ?????? 30.06.2012 ?. ?????? 84x108/16. ???. ???. ?. 9,9.
??.-???. ?. 9,4. ?????? ???. ?????? ????????. ????? 1000 ???. ????? 10630.
?????????? ? ?? ??? ???. 660041 ??????????, ??. ?????????, 82a.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Editorial board for Engineering &
Technologies:
Vladimir A. Kulagin
Yury D. Alashkevich
Viktor G. Anopchenko
S. T. Batmunkh
Yury B. Galerkin
Gennadiy I. Gritsko
Georg Guggenberger
Carsten Drebenstedt
Lev V. Endjievsky
Sergey V. Kaverzin
Feng-Chen Li
Vladimir ?. Makarov
Alexander V. Mineev
Vladimir V. Moskvichev
Bernard Nacke
Oleksandr F. Nemchin
Valeriy A. Nikulin
Oleg Ostrovski
Harald A. Oye
Vasiliy I. Panteleev
Sergey P. Pan?ko
Peter V. Polyakov
Anatoli M. Sazonov
Viktor N. Timofeev
Ibragim Khisameev
Anatoly Z. Shvidenko
Galina A. Chiganova
Sergey I. Konovalenko,
Sergey A. Ananyev and Sende S. Garmayeva
Rare and New Minerals of the Tashelga-Maizaskaya Zone of
Gornaya Shoriya, Their Peculiarities and Nature
? 301 ?
А.С. Осипов
h?C%???%"=?,? %2!=???,L %2 C%??2,?=???L C%"?!.?%?2,
?? -%!?,!%"=?, C!%,?"%???%L C%? !,?=?,, C!, "/?%*%L
?=C!="????%?2, ,??3???, " -=?,!%"=??/. =?2???/. !???2*=.
? 3C!="? ??%L C%? !,?=?,?L
? 311 ?
А.А. Минина, В.И. Пантелеев, Е.В. Платонова
nK??C????,? *=???2"= .??*2!%.??!?,, " ?,?2??=. 2 ?%"%?%
.??*2!%??=K???, C?!?????%?% 2%*=
? 319 ?
Ю.В. Краснобаев, Д.В. Капулин, Д.В. Гончарук
a/?2!%??L?2"3??,? ,?C3????/? ?2=K,?,?=2%!/ ?=C! ???,
? ?%?3???/? C!,??,C%? C%?2!%??,
, ?,?*!?2?/?
3C!="???,??
? 327 ?
Р.В. Брежнев, Ю.А. Маглинец, Е.А. Мальцев,
С.Е. Перфильев, А.Ю. Сидоров,
Г.М. Цибульский, А.С. Шокол
o!%?!=???%-2?.?%?%?,???*= ,?-!=?2!3*23!= ,?-%!?=?,%??%L
C%???!?*, !????, ?=?=? 2?!!,2%!,=???%?% 3C!="???,
? 340 ?
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?? ? ??77-28-722 ?? 29.06.2007 ?.
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???? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ??
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????????? ????» (???????? 2010 ?.)
А.В. Василенко, В.Б. Кашкин
n???*= "?, ?, =?2!%?%?,???*%L !?-!=*?,, ?= %C2,???*3?
?C32?,*%"3? ?,?,? ?" ?,
? 353 ?
Peter N. Kuznetsov,
Svetlana M. Kolesnikova, Ludmila I. Kuznetsova,
Evgeny S. Kamensky and Vladimir A. Kashirtsev
Extraction of Brown Coals from Kansk-Achinsk and Lena Basins
with Toluene and Water Containing Fluid
? 358 ?
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 3 (2012 5) 245-257
~~~
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Corresponding author E-mail address: svkaradji@gmail.com
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????. ????????? ???????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ??????????
???. 11. ????????? ????????? ???????
???. 12. ??? ????????? ?????
?????? ?????????????? SST ??????? ? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????????? ? ?????????????????? (???. 4, 5, 13, 14). ???????? ???????????? ??????, ????????? ?????????????? ???? ???????? ??????? ????????????. ??? ?? ??????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ?????, ???????? ??????? ? ??????????? ????????? ???, ????? ????? ???????
??? ?????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ???????.
?? ????? ? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????, ??????????????? ???????????? ????? ?? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????. ?? ?????? ?????????? ???????
??????????? ???????? ? ????????? ?????. ? ?????????? ??????? ??? ?????? ???????? ???????
???? ???????? ???????? ????????, ??????????? ?????????? ??????.
????????? ????? ????????? ? ???????????? ????????????? ????????, ??? ?????? ?? ??????????? ????????? Flowvision, ?????? SST, ?????? ????????? ???? ?????????, ??????????
? ????????????. ??????????? ???????? ????? ??? ? ????, ?????????? ?? ??????? ????, ???, ??????????, ???????? ? ???, ??? ?? ???? ??????? ????????? ?????? ??????????, ??? ??????? ??????? ????? ??????????? ?????, ? ?? ???? ????????????? ???????.
# 253 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
???. 13. ????????? ????????????????? ? ????????? ????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?? ???????? ????????
?????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?? ???????
???. 14. ????????? ????????????????? ? ????????? ????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?? ????????????
???????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?? ???????
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????. ????????? ???????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ??????????
???. 15. ????????? ??????????????? ??????? ?????? ????????????? ???????? (????? ?????? ??????) ??
?????? ??? ? ????
???. 16. ???? ??????? ????? ? ?????????? ?????? ??????
????????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ????????, ??? ???????? ???????? ? ??????? ???????
? ???? ??????????? ????? ?????? ??????????. ?? ???? ??????????????? ?????? ??????
?????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?
???????????? ?????????.
??? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????? ???? ????????? ??????????????
??????? ?????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????? (???. 15). ??? ?????, ? ??????, ??????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ???, ????? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ???? ????? ???????. ? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ???? ??????, ???????????? ? ??????, ??????? ????????????
????????? ? ???????? ???????, ??? ? ????????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????
???????? ? ????? ?????????.
?? ??????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ?????? ??? ???????????
??????? ?????????? ???? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????, ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ???? ??????. ? ???? ????? ???? ??????????? ????????? ?????????????
??????? ?? ????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ??????, ??????? ????????? ???? ?. ?? ???. 16
??????? ????? ??? ??????? ??????? ?????. ???? ? ???????? 12,9є, 24,8є, 55,4є ? 63,1є.
? ?????? ????, ??? ??????? ? ?????????? ???? ?????????? ( ? ? ??) ? ? ????? ? ? ?????
???? ??????????? ???????????????? ? ?????????? ????????, ? ????? ???? ????????????, ???
? ?????????? ?????? ??? ???? ?????? ? ? ??? ?????????? ????? ?? ?????? ????????? ????????,
# 255 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????. ????????? ???????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ??????????
???. 17. ??????????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ???? ??????
,
???. 18. ???? ?????????? ?? ????????? ??????
????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????, ???????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ????
?????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ???????? (???. 17).
?? ???. 17 ???????? ???????? ?????, ?????????? ?? ????????????, ? ??????? ? ? ???????
?????????? ?????????????. ?????? ?? ????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ???? ????????????
?? ??????? ????? ???????? ???????? ?? ???? ????????????? ???????. ??????????? ?? ???. 17
?? ? ???
??? ? …‘• ? ?? ???????? ????????????? ?? ? ??????, ???
????? ???????????????? ?????? ???
??? ? ????????????? ????????, ??????????? ??? ???? ?????? ? ? ?. ????? ???????, ??? ??????
??????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ????????? ? ????, ??????????? ?? ??????????????? ???????, ???????? ?? ??????????? ? ????????? ????????, ????????, ???????????
????? ?????????? ????????, ????? ? …‘• ? ??????, ??? ??? ????????????? ??????? ??????????
??? ??????????. ??????????? ????????? ????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ??? ????
?????? ?????? ?? ???? ??????, ?????????? ? [9]: ???????? ? ??????? …‘• ? .
??????
?????????? ????????????????? ? ????????? ?????? ????????, ??? ??????? ???????? ??
????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ??-?? ?????????? ????? ?????????? (???. 18). ??# 256 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????. ????????? ???????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ??????????
??? ???????, ????????????? ????? ????????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ?? ????????.
???? ??????? ?????? ????????? ????? ??????????, ?????? ?????, ????? ???????? ? ???????
? ?????????? ???????????? ????, ??????????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ?????.
?????? ?? ????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ???? ????????, ??? ????????????? ????????
?????? ??? …‘• ? ? ??????????? ?? ???? ?????? ? (???. 17).
?????? ??????????? ?????, ??? ?????????, ?????? ? ??????? ?? ????? ? ??????? ?????? ?
?????? ? ?????? ????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ???????, ? ?? ????? ??? ? ??????? ?????? ?
??????? ???????? ?? ???? ??????? ??? ????????? ???? ?? ???? ????? ??????? (???. 15).
?????? ??????????
[1] Harvey H. Habbard, Aeroacoustics of flight vehicles, Volume 1, Noise sources, NASA
Reference publication 1258. Vol. 1. WRDC Technical report 90-3052, 1991. 592 p.
[2] ???????????? ?. ?. ???????????????? ?????? ?????? ????????????. ?.: ??????????????, 1986. 288 ?.
[3] ?????? ?. ?. // ????? ???? ??. ?. ?. ??????????. ???. 1099. 1968. 279 ?.
[4] ?????????????? ?. ?., ???? ?. ?. ???????? ? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ???????
????????? ?????????. ?.: ?????, 1978. 352 ?.
[5] ????????? ?. ?. ??????? ??? ????????? ????????, ??????????? ? ??????????? ??????
? ????????????. ?.: ?????????, 1962. 183 c.
[6] ??????? ?. ?. ?????? ? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? (?????????
???????? ? ??????????? ??????). ?.: ??????????????, 1972. 329 ?.
[7] ?????????? ?. ?., ????? ?. ?. ???????????? ????????????. ?.: ?????????, 1962. ? 24.
?. 134-141.
[8] ??????? ?. ?. // ?????????? ???????: ????? ????????. ???, 2010. ?. 1620.
[9] ???????? ?. ?. ???????????????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??????????. ?.: ??????????????, 1972. 448 ?.
Aerodynamics of Axial Rotors
with Different Axis of Blade Alignment
Sergey V. Karadzhi and Ramil Z. Tumashev
Moscow State Bauman University
5 2-nd Baumanskaya Str., Moscow, 105005 Russia
Experimentally and numerically investigated the influence of the line of blade alignment on integral
aerodynamic characteristics of axial rotor. Velocities on the exit of rotor were measured and compared
for rotors with different axis of blade alignment. Recommendations on development of rotors with
forward swept blades were made.
Keywords: axial rotor, forward-swept blade, experimental investigation, numeric investigation.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 3 (2012 5) 258-262
~~~
??? 622. 276
?????? ?????????????????? ???????????
?? ??????????? ???? ??????
?.?. ?????????*, ?.?. ??????
????????? ??????????? ???????????
???????? ????? ? ????
?????? 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 82, ???. 6 1
Received 13.08.2012, received in revised form 20.08.2012, accepted 27.08.2012
?????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ?????????????
?????????????????? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ???? ?????? ? ????? ?????????? ???????
????? ? ????????.
??????????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ???????? ? ???????? ??????????
? ???????, ??? ??????? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ???? ??????
????? ???????????. ??? ???? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????
? ??????????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ????????.
???????? ?????: ????????, ?????, ?????????????, ?????????????? ???????, ???????????,
?????????, ?????????.
????????
? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ? ???????? ????????? ??????????
????????? ????????????? ??????? ??????????? ???? ?????? (???) ?????????? ???????????
??? ???????? ?????????. ??? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ???????, ??????????? ????? ??
????????? ? ????????.
???????? ?????? ?????????????, ??????????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ??????????
?????????-?????????, ??????-????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????????, ??? ??? ?????
??????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????????
?????????? ?????????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? (????) ???????????? ??????? ????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ? ???????? ?????????-?????????
? ????????????? ???????? ????????? ??? ??????????, ?? ???? ? ???????????????? ???????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ? ????????. ????? ???????, ?? ?????????? ???????????? ???????
????????, ??? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????????????? ??????? ? ????????, ??????? ?? ??? ???, ?????????? ????????????? ??? ? ?????????????????? ???????.
???? ????? ??????????? ? ? ????? ??????????????? ????? ? ??? ?????????? ????????????? ???, ????????, ??? ??????????? ????????????? ??????, ????????? ?????????? ???????
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: maryanchikvi@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 258 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ??????. ?????? ?????????????????? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ???? ??????
? ?????????? ???????????????? ?????????, ? ????? ??? ???????? ??????????, ???????????
??????? ??????? ??????? ?? ????? ??????? ????????. ??? ?????????? ???? ????? ?????????
??????????? ????? ? ????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????????.
?????? ?????????????????? ???????????
???????????? ?????? (?????????), ?????????????? ????? ?????????????? ??????????
?????, ??????????? ? ??????? ????????? ? ??????????????? ???????? ??????, ???????, ???
???? ?????? ???? ????? ???? ??????? (?????????? ???????).
? ?????????? ????????? ???? ???????????? ?????????, ?????????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? (????????-?????? ???????, ????????? ????????????? ? ?.?.).
???????????? ???????????, ? ??????? ???????????????? ???? ??????? ?????????, ???????????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????????, ? ?????????, ??? ???????????????, ? ??? ????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ????.
????????????????? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ??? ????????? ??? ? ????? ?????????? ??????? ????????????? ? ????????, ?????????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????
??????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????????, ?? ???? ????????? ????????? ? ???????
?????????????? ????????? [1].
?????????? ??????????? ????????? ? ??????? ? ????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????
???????????????? ??????????? ?? ??? ? ??????? ??????????????? ???????? ?? ??????.
?????? ??????? ???????? ????????, ??????????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ??????
? ????
??
???
?
??????
?
?,
(1)
??? ? ? ????? ????? ????????; ?p ? ????????? ????? ????????; f ? ??????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????; C ? ???????? ????? ? ????????.
?????? ???????? ????????????, ????????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ??? ????????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ? ?????????:
???????? ?
?
???
? ?? ??? ? ????? ? ? ????,
(2)
??? r ? ?????????? ?? ??? ?????????; r0 ? ?????? ?????????; ? ? ???????????? ????????;
??????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????
?? ? ? ?
??
??
,
??????, ????????? (2), ????????
?? ?
??
?
? ?;???.
(3)
?? (3) ?????, ??? ???????? ?0 ??? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ???????????? ?????? ????? ??? ????????, ??? ??? ???????? ???????? ? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????
?????????. ????????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ????? ??????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?? ???????? f(r), ??????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ??????????????? ??????????. ??? ??????????
?????? ????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????????
# 259 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ??????. ?????? ?????????????????? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ???? ??????
?
? ? ???? ???? ? ??? ?????? ? ?? ??.
??????????????, ?? ????????? (3) ???????? ????????? ??? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ? ?????:
? ? ??
???
?
? ? ???.
(4)
??? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ????, ????????????? ?????????? ????????????, ?????????? ????????? ???????.
? ? ?? ? ,
(5)
??? ? ? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ?? ?????.
????????? (1) ? (4), ?? (5) ???????? ???????? ????????????? ???????????????? ???????????
?? ??? ? ?
???
.
(6)
?????
?????????? ????????? ????? ???????????? ????????, ????????? ?? ????????? ?????????
???????????? ???????? ? ????????, ???? ??????? f(r), ????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????, ??????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ? = ?(X). ??????
?? ???????? ????????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ? ??????? ? ??????????
??????? ??? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ?????. ???????? (6) ??????????, ??? ??? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????, ????? ???????????? ????????? ??????????????
?? ??????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????, ??????? ???????????? ?????? ?????
??????????? ??????????????? ??????????? (?????????? ?? ????? ?), ? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? (???????? ????? ? ??? ?) ? ????????? ???????? ???????????? (????????? ????????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ???????? f(r)).
?????? ???????, ???????????? ? ????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ?????????, ???????????????
??????? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ? ? .
(7)
? ????????, ??? ?????????? ?????? ???????????, ????? ?????????????? ???????? ????????? ????? ?. ?????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?? ???? ???? ???????????
?????????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ?, ??? ??? ??????? ?????? ???? ????????????? ? ????????? ?????????? ???????, ? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ?.?.
????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ???????? (6):
? ???
???
?????
(8)
.
????????? ?? ????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? 103 ??, ? ??? ???????? ????????
??? ??????????? ???? ? 10 ?? [2], ?? ???? ????? ???????, ??? ? ????? ? ????????
10 ?? ? ? ?103 ??.
(9)
# 260 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ??????. ?????? ?????????????????? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ???? ??????
???????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ?? 10 -2 ??? ??
103 ??? [2], ??? ???????? ????????? ?????? ? ?????? ????????????? ?????????? 10 -2 ??? ?? 10
?? [3], ?????? ?????:
10 -2 ??? ? < r > ?103 ???.
(10)
? ??????????, ???????? ? ???????? ???????? ????? ? ????????? ?????? ???????? ? ? 103 ?/?,
????????
106 ?? · ?? ? K ?1012 ?? · ??.
(11)
???, ????????? ????? ????????? ??????????? ??? = 105 ??,
10 ??? · ?? ? K ? 107 ??? · ??.
(12)
??????????
??????????? (12) ????????? ?????????, ??? ????????????????? ????????? ??? ?????
???? ??????????? ???? ??? ????????????? ??????????? (? ????????? ??? ????????????)
???? ?? ?????? ????????, ????? ?????????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ?????? ????????? ??????????. ??? ???????? ? ???, ??? ???????????????
??????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????????? ???????????:
?? ? 10 ???; f ? 102 ??.
?????????????, ???????????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ? ????? ??????????? ????????
?????? ????? ??????? ??????????? (12):
10 ??? · ?? ? K ? 103 ??? · ??.
?????? ??????????
[1] ????????? ?. ?. ?. ?. 2008128101 (1972) // ?. ?. 1973. ? 11.
[2] ????? ?. ?., ????????? ?. ?. ?????? ????????? ??????. ?.: ??????????????, 1955.
[3] ???????? ?. ?. ?????????? ?? ???????? ????? ? ????. ?.: ?????, 1984.
(13)
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ??????. ?????? ?????????????????? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ???? ??????
Analisys of Hydrodinamic Processing
for Wellbottom Zone
Vladimir I. Maryanchik and Aleksandr V. Mineev
Siberian Federal University
Oil and Gas Institute
building 6, 82 Svobodny Str., Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
The article is devoted to solving the actual problem to improve the efficiency of the hydrodynamic effects
on the bottom zone of the reservoir, to increase the flow of oil to the well. Considering the spread of
momentum in the oil hydraulic reservoir and the condition under which the impact of hydraulic pulse
of the bottomhole formation zone will be effective. This takes into account the physical characteristics
of the oil reservoir and process parameters of the hydrodynamic pressure pulsator.
Keywords: well, flow rate, permeability, hydraulic impulse colmatation, depression, repression.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 3 (2012 5) 263-274
~~~
??? 629.113
???????????????? ??????? ?????????????????
???????????????? ????????????
??? ???????????? ????????????, ???????,
?????????, ???????? ? ???????????
???????????????? ???????
?.?. ????????????*
????????? ??????????? ???????????
?????? 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79 1
Received 13.08.2012, received in revised form 20.08.2012, accepted 27.08.2012
? ??????? ????????????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ??? ????????????
????????????, ???????, ???????? ? ??????????? ???????????????? ??????? ???????
???????????????? ????????. ? ?????????? ?? ???????????? ? ??????? ???????????
?????????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????????? ??????? ??
??????? ??????????? ???????????, ??????????? ??????? ?????????, ?????????? ? ??????????
?????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????, ???????? ?????? ?????????????????????,
???????????? ?????? ? ???????? ???????????????? ????????????, ???????? ????????????
???????????????? ???????????? ?? ??????????????? ?????????, ????????? ???????????
??????? ???????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ???????.
???????? ?????: ??????????????? ????????????, ???????????, ????????????, ???????????????
????????, ????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ???????????????? ???????.
????????
??????????????? ???????????? ??? ???????????? ???????????? ? ??????? (????), ?????????, ???????? ? ??????????? ????????????????? ??????? (???) ???????? ?????? ???????????? ???????????????-??????????? ???? ???????????????? ? ????????????? ???????????, ??????? ??????????? ? ????????????? ???????. ??????????? ??????? ????????????????
???????????? ?????? ?? ??? ???????? ?????????? ? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ???????????: ??????????????????, ???????? ? ????????????? ????, ????????? ? ???????? ???,
??????? ????? ????????? ? ??? ????????????, ?????????????????, ?????? ?????????? ????? ?
???????????? ???, ? ?????????????, ? ?? ????????????? ?????? ??????????? ? ?????. ???????
?????????? ??????-???????????? ????? ????????????????? ? ????????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????? ????????? ?????????????, ????????????
? ???????? ?????? ??? ???????????? ? ???????????? ???.
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: blyankinshtein@mail.ru.
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 263 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????????. ???????????????? ??????? ????????????????? ???????????????? ?????????????
????????? ???????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ? ??????? ?????????, ????????????
??? ???????? ?????????? ??? ? ???????? ????, ??? ?????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ????????, ???????????????? ????????? ? ??. ??????? ???????? ?????????? ???????
???????????????? ????????????, ????????????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ?????????, ??????????? ???????????? ? ???? ???????
???????????? ??????? ???????? ? ?????????? ???????? ?????????, ??? ????????????? ??????? ????????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ? ?????????. ? ?????????? ????????????
?????? ? ???????????? ????? ??????????? ???, ???????????? ???????????? ??? ??????????
????? ? ????????. ??????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ???
???????? ?????????? ???, ?? ?????????? ?? ????????????? ???????, ????? ??????? ? ?????????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????: ?????????? ? ??????????, ????????????? ???????????? ????????????, ? ????? ??????? ????????? ? ?????????, ?????????? ? ?????????? ?
????????.
? ??????? ???????? ????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ???? ???????????, ????????, ???????? ???????????, ??????????? ???????? ???????? ? ??????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ??????, ?? ? ???? ????????? ?????????
?????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ????? ??????? ???
???? ?? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ? ????? ???????????? ? ???????????? ???.
????? ???????????????? ?????????, ?????????? ???? ??????? ???????????????? ????????????, ????????? ?????????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????????????????, ????????????
?????? ? ???????? ???????? ?, ? ?????????, ?????????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????????
????????? ???????? ???????, ??? ????? ?? ?????? ??? ?????? ? ???????????? ?????????????
????????, ?? ? ??? ?????? ????????????? ??????????????-??????????????? ??????? ?? ?????
???????????????? ????????????.
??????? ???? ? ????????? ????????????????????? ? ???????? ???????????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????? ??? ???????????? ?? ??????????????? ?????????. ?????? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ???? ??????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????? ?? ???????????????
????????? ?? ???????????? ??????, ? ??? ????? ? ?? ???????? ????????????????? ?????????.
?????????????, ????????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ?????? ??????-???????????? ?????????.
??????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ??????????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????? ???, ?????????????
???????? ????????????? ???????, ? ????? ? ????????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ????????????, ??????????? ??? ????????, ?????? ? ??????????.
???????????? ??????? ????????????
??????? ???????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ????????????? ????? ????????
?????????? ??? ? ????????????????? ???????????? ? ?????? ???????????????, ????????????? ? ??????? «???????? ? ??? ? ??????????????? ???????????? ? ???????? ????????? ?
?????».
??????????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ???????? ????????? ??????????
???, ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????, ?? ??????? ? ?????????? ???????????,
# 264 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????????. ???????????????? ??????? ????????????????? ???????????????? ?????????????
???. 1. ??????????? ????? ??????? «???????? ? ??? ? ??????????????? ???????????? ? ????????
????????? ? ?????»: ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ????????; ??????????????
?????
???????????? ?? ???. 1. ?????????????????????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ??? ???????????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ??? ????????, ???????????????? ????????? ????????? ??
??????? ????????. ?????????????? ???????????? ????? ???????????? ????????? (??), ???????? ? ???????????? ?? ????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ? ????????? ????????? ?????????.
? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? U1, U2, ?, Ui,
??????????????? ?? (????????, ??????? ?? ?????? ????????????, ??????? ?? ?????? ???????
? ?.?.). ??? ???? ?? ?????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????? ?1,
?2, ?, ?j, ??????? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ???????????????? ??????? (????????,
???????? ???????????? ????? (??), ?????? ??????? ? ?.?.). ?????? ??? ???????? ???????????
??????????? ????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ????????? ???????????
???????????.
???????? ?????????, ??????????????? ?? ???? ?????????? ???????, ???????? ????????? ?????????? ????? (?? ????? ? ??????? ?1, ?2 , ?31?3j, ?4, ?, ?i). ? ????? ?????? ? ???
????? ??????? ????????? ?????????: ? ? ??????????? ?????????? ?????, °?; D ? ??????????? ????????, ?? ??. ??.; V ? ????????? ???????, %; ? ? ????????????, ??; ? ? ????????????????
?????????; t ? ?????, ?; f ? ??????????? ??????? ??????; ? ? ??????????? ?????????; ? ? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ?????????????; i?(s) ? ?????????? ?????? ??????? (????????????
??????, %); ?i? ? ???????????? ??????, ??, ? ??. ??????? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ??????????
???????? ?????????: ?? ???????????????????? ????????? ?????????, ???????? ????????????
? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ? ????? ? ????????? ??????????? ??? ? ???????????????? ????????????, ????????, ??????????? ? ????????????? ???????.
# 265 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????????. ???????????????? ??????? ????????????????? ???????????????? ?????????????
?????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????????, ???????????? ??????? ?? ???????????????? ??????????????? ???????. ????????, ?????????? ????????? ?????????, ???????? ?? ??????? ?????????, ? ??? Y1 = ?(Yantr, Yphiz, Ypsih, Yintel), ?.?. ??? ?????????????????? (Yantr), ???????????????
(Yphiz), ??????????? (Ypsih) ??????, ???????????????? ??????????? (Yintel) ? ??. ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ??? Y2 = ?(Yst, Yusm, Yts, ?) ? ???????????????? ????????????
Y41 = ?(Yst, Yts, ?) ? ??? ????????? ???????????? ????????? (Yst), ????????? ???????????? ???????????????? ?????????? (Yusm), ???????? ????? (Yts) ? ??. ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? Y31 = ?(Yst, Ymch, Yts, ?) ? ??? ????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ????????? (Yst), ??????????????? ?????????????? (Ymch), ???????? ????? (Yts) ? ??.
? ????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????????? ????????? ???????. ?????????????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ???, ??????? ????????? ? ?????????
(??????????? ?????? Pi(?i, ?i, zi), ??????????? ?????????). ??????, ??? ?????????? ????, ?
?????? ????????, ???????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ??
????????? ???????? ???????? ? ? ???????????????? ???????????? ? ????????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ????????????.
?????, ???????? ???????????? ?????????, ?????????? ?????????? ????????????????
???????? ?? ?????????????? ???????????????? ????????????, ???????????????? ?????????
?????????, ?? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ??? ?????????, ??????? ??????????? ???,
??????? ?, ??? ?????????????, ?????????? ???????? ????????? ? ?.?. ? ???????????? ? ?????????????? ???????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ???????????? S(t), ???????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????, ???????? ???????????? ?? ?????(-?)
?????????? ??????????? ??? (????????, ??????? ??????????? ??????????? U1 ? ???? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ??????), ? ???????? ?????????????? (????????:
?1 ? ???????? ??; ?2 ? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ????; ?j ? ?????? ???????) ?????????????? ????????????? ????????, ????????????? ?? ??????? ????????????, ??????????? ?
? ???? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? (?? ????? ?????????? ??????????????
?????? RM).
??????????????? ????????????, ???????????? ??? ??????????, ???????????, ???? ???,
??????????????? ??????? ????????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ? ??????????? ??????????. ?????? ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ? ???????? ???????????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ?? ????? ? ??????? ????, ??? ??? ??????? ??????????? ?? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ??? ????? ??? ????????????, ??? ? ??????????? ???????????
????????????????? ??????????? ??? ????????????. ?????? ???????? ???????????? ???????
??????????? ???????? ???????????????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ????? (???. 2) ??????????, ??? ???? ?? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ? ????????????
?? ??????????????? ????????? ? ????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ? ?? ????????, ?
?????????? ???? ??????????? ?? ????? ???????????????? ???????????? ?? ????? ???????????
?????????? ? ???????? ???????? ????????????, ??? ?????????? ??? ?????.
?? ??????? ??????????????? ???? ?????????, ??????????? ?? ???. 1 ? 2, ????? ???????
????????? ??????.
# 266 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????????. ???????????????? ??????? ????????????????? ???????????????? ?????????????
???. 2. ???????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ???????????????? ???????????? ?? ??????
?????????? ?????: ?? ? ??????????? ???????; ?? ? ??????????????? ????????????; ??? ? ???????????????????? ???????????; ?? ? ????? ???????????? ?????? ? ???????? ?????????; ?? ? ?????????????;
??? ? ????????? ?????????; ?? ? ??????????? ???????; ?? ? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????
????????????; ?? ? ?????????-???????? ?????????; ?? ? ????????????? ????????; ? ? ????; ? ?
???????; ?? ? ???????????????? ????????????; ?? ? ??????????? ?????????????; ?? ? ????????
?????????; ?? ? ??????? ????????????; ??? ? ?????????? ???????? ???????????; Kij ? ???????????
?????????? ???????? ??????? ????????????; ???????????? ?????; ????????????? ?????
1. ??? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ???? ? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ??
?????????.
2. ? ???? ??????????? ???????? ? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ? ??????????
??? ????????? ? ???????????????? ??? ???????? ???????????? ?? ??????? ???????????
??????????? U(t) ?? ?????????????? ?????????????? ????????? ???? ?? ??????????? ???
????????? ??????????? ?????????. ? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????
??? ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????? U1, ??????????? ?? ?????????, ?? ??????
????????????? ????? ? ?????????, ??? ????????????? ??????????? ??? ???????? ?, ??? ?????????, ??????? ???????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????. ????????, ??? ?????????
???????? ?? ??????? ?? ???? ? 41.24?2003 (??????? ??? ??? ? 24) ??????? ??????????? ??
????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????: «???? ?????? ?????? ? ?????? ?????????
???? ???????, ?? ?? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????? ???? ???????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????, ??????? ???????????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ? ????????? ???????????». ? ???? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????????. ??????????? ???????????? ????????????
????? ?????????? ? ? ?????? ??????????? ??????????, ?????????? ????????? ???.
3. ??? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ???????? ?????????
??????? Pi(?i, ?i, zi) ? ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ??? ? ?????????????? ???????.
4. ?????? ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ? ???????? ???????????????? ???????????? ?? ????? ???????????????, ??? ??? ??????? ??????????? ?? ????? ????????????????
???????????? ?????????? ??? ??? ????? ??? ????????????, ??? ? ??????????? ???????????
????????????????? ??????????? ??? ????????????.
5. ???????????? ???????????? ???????????? ?? ??????????????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?? ????# 267 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????????. ???????????????? ??????? ????????????????? ???????????????? ?????????????
???????, ??? ???????????? ???????? ???????????????? ???????????? ? ??????? ???????? ??
????? ???????????????? ?????????.
?????????????, ????????? ?????????? ?????, ????????? ?????????????? ?????? ? ????????
?????? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????
?????????????? ?????????? ??? ?1 ? ?2, ??????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ???????????
?????? ?kj ???????????? ?????? ? ???????? ???????? ???????????????? ????????????, ?????????????? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ?? ??????????????? ?????????, ??????????? ?????????????? ? ????????????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ? ???????????
?????????? ??? ?? ?????? ????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????.
? ??????????????? ???? ?????? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ???
?1(t) = ?(U1(t), U2?j = const),
(1)
??? ?1(t) ? ???????? ?????????????? ???????? ??? (???????? ?? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ?????????, ?????? ???????, ????????? ???? ? ??.); U1(t) ? ??????? ??????????? ??????
?????????? ??????? ???????; t ? ?????. ??? ?????? ??????? ? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? (?????????).
?????? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ???
?2 = ?(Pi (?i, ?i, zi), U1?j = const),
(2)
??? ?2 ? ??????????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???; Pi(?i, ?i, zi) ? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ??? ? ????????? 3D-???????? ????????????? ???????.
?????? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ???
Kkj = ?(Q1, Q2, Qi, ?, Qn),
(3)
??? Kkj ? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? j-?? ??????? ????????????, j = 1, ?, m (m ? ?????????? ???????? ???????????????? ???????????? ? ??????????????? ???????); Qi ? ????????
???????????????? ????????????, i = 1, ?, n (n ? ?????????? ??????????????? ??????? ???????????????? ????????????).
??????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ?????
??? ??????? ??????????????? ???????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????????? ???????
???, ????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????? ???????? (?????????? 1), ??????????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ??????, ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ? ??????????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ???????????, ?? ??????? ?????????
???????? ?? ??????? ? ?????? ?????????? ?????????.
??????????? ?????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?????????????-?????????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????? (???????) ???????? ?? ?? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ??????????
?????? ????????? (??????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ?min ?? ?max)
? ???? ?????????? (?????????) ??????? ????
D = Dn???
+ ae?bt,
max
(4)
# 268 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????????. ???????????????? ??????? ????????????????? ???????????????? ?????????????
??? Dn???
? ?????????? ???????? ???????? (%, ??1) ? ?????????????? ?????? ?? ?????????max
??? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ????; ae ?bt ? ???????????? ????????, ??????????? ?????
?????????? ?????????, a ? b ? ???????????? ?????????; t ? ???????????? ?????? ??????????
?????????, ?.
???????????? ?????? ????????? ?? ?????? ???????????????? ? ?????????? ?????????
? ?????????????? ?????? ???????????????? ???????????? (???) [1].
????????? ?????????? ???? ?????? ? ????? ??????? (?????? ???? ? ????????? ??????
?????????? ?????? ??????? u[t], ?????? ???? ? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ???? u1[t]) ??????? ??????? ? ??????? (???????? ??) y[t] ?????????? ???????:
y[t ] D1 � y[t 1] D 2 � y[t 2] D3 � y[t 3] D 4 � y[t 4] D5 � u[t 1] D 6 � u[t 2] D 7 � u1[t 1] D8 � u1[t 2],
y[0]
y[ 1]
y[2]
(5)
y[ 3] 0,
??? ?i ? ???????????? ?????????.
? ?????????? ????????-????????????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ???????????: ???? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?? ???????? ???????? ?? ??????? ? ??? ?????????? ????????? ??? ?????????.
??????????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ??
?????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????, ??? ?????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ???????????,
??????????? ? ???????? ????????????, ?? ???????????? ? ??????????? ???? ? 52160?2003
???????? ???????????? 0,25 ??1. ??????? ?????????? ???? ????????? ?????????? ????????
???????????? ???????? ??, ???? ?????????????? ???? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ???????
??????? ???????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ?? ? ?????? ??? ????????? [2].
????????????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ?????????, ?????????? ?? ??????????? ????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?
?????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ?? ? ???????????????????? ???????? ?????,
????????? ????????? ??????? ????????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ?????????, ??????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ???, ???????? ? ??????????? ????????? ?, ??? ?????????, ????????? ????????????????? ????????? ? ??????? ?? ??? (?????? ??
? 2215276).
?????? ?????? ??????? ??????? Pi(?i, ?i, zi) ? ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ??? ? ?????????????? ??????? ? ?? ???????????????????? ?????????? (???)
????????? (?????????? 2) ??????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ???? ???????????, ?????????? ? ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ???????????
????? ???.
??? ??????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????
?????????????? ?????????? ???, ???????? ???????? ??????????? ??? ???????
????????????? ?????, ? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????? ??
?????? ???????-????????????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ????? [3]. ??? ???? ???????????
# 269 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????????. ???????????????? ??????? ????????????????? ???????????????? ?????????????
????????? ????? ?? ??????????? ??? ? ?? ??? ??????? ? ??????? ??????? ?????????
??????? ??????? ????????? ???????, ? ? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ??? ???????????
???????????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ?????
?????????? ? ?????????.
????????? ????????? ????? ??????????? ? ????? ???? ???
R??? i = Ri + ?
(6)
??? Ri ? ???????? ???????? ?????????; ? ? ???????????????????? ??????????? ?????????.
????? ????????? ? ???????????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????
Ri
xi x yi y zi z 2
2
2
,
(7)
??? i = 1, ?, 3 ? ??????? ????? ????????? ??????????; xi, yi, zi ? ???????????????? ??????????
i-?? ????????? ??????????; x, y, z ? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ?? ???????????
??????????.
??????? ????????? ? ????? ???????????? (7) ???????? ???????????? ??????? ???????
???????. ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? x0, y0, z0, ???????????? ??? ???????????????
??????? ???????, ?????????? ?? ????????? ?????? ? ????? ??????????? ?????. ??? ???????????? ????????? ????????????? ??? ???????.
? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ??? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????????????????? ???????????? ?????????
3D-????????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ????????????? ??????? ????? ?????
? ???????????? ??????????????? ???. ??? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ?
???????? ?? ???????????? ????????????? ??????.
????????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ?????????, ?????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????????
???????, ?????????????? ??????????? ???????????????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??? ? ???????? ????????????:
1) ?????????? D ????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ? ?? ??????????????
????? ?????? ???? ???????, ?.?. ???????????? ?????????????? ????????;
2) ??? ????????? ??????? L ????? ???????????? ??????? ??? ????? ???????? ??????
???? ?? ?????? ??? ?????.
??? ?????????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????????????????
???????????? ????????? ????????? ??? ? ???????????? ? ??????? ????????????????? ???? c
????????? ????????? ????????? 3-?? ??????? ? ?????????? ???????
? = a0 · exp[a1D + a2 D2 + a3L2 + a4L2 D + a5L2 D2 + a6L3],
R 2 = 0,89?0,99,
(8)
??? R 2 ? ??????????? ????????????.
????????????? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??? ? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ??? ????????????? ??????????? ??????? (??????? ?? ? 2239505, ? 2291751,
? 2314492) [4].
# 270 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????????. ???????????????? ??????? ????????????????? ???????????????? ?????????????
??? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ? ???????? ???????????????? ????????????, ???????????? ??? ????, ?????????? ? ???????? ??????????
??? (?????????? 3), ???????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????????.
??? ??????????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ????????????, ??? ??????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????
?????? ? ????????, ? ??? ?????? ???????????.
???????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????, ??????????? ???????? ????????????, ??????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ? ?????????? ???????. ??????????? ?????????? ???????? Kkj ???????????? ???????????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ??????????????
K kj
n
¦Q G ,
ij
(9)
i
i 1
??? Qij ? ??????? ???????? ????????????, i = 1, ?, n ? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ????????
??????? ???????????? (n ? ?????????? ??????????????? ??????? ????????????), j = 1, ?, m ?
?????????? ????? ??????? ???????????? (m ? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ? ??????????????? ???????); Gi ? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ????????????.
????????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????????,
?????????? ???????????? ???????? ???? ??????????? ?? ????????? ???????:
Kij
Qij qi??
qi?? qi??
,
(10)
??? Kij ? ????????????? (?????????????) ?????????? i-?? ???????? j-?? ??????? ????????????;
qi?? ? ??????????? ???????? i-?? ??????????; qi?? ? ????????? ???????? i-?? ??????????.
???????? ?????? ???????? j-?? ???????? ??????? ????? ???? ????????? ?? ???????
K kj
n
¦K G ,
ij
(11)
i
i 1
??? Kkj ? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? j-?? ???????.
??????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????
K11G1 + K21G2 + ? + Kn1Gn + C = Kk1,
K12G1 + K22G2 + ? + Kn2Gn + C = Kk2,
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
K1mG1 + K2mG2 + ? + KnmGn + C = Kkm.
(12)
? ?????? ????? ????????? ??????? (12) ???????? Kkj ???????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????????? ?j ???????? ???????????????? ???????????? (??????? ?? ???????????
???? ??????), ??????????? ?? ?????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????? ???????? ???????????????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ? ???????? ???????????????? ??????????. ????????? ?????????? ?????????????, ?????????? ??? ??????? ??????? (??
???????) ???????????????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ????????????, ????????????
???????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ???????????????? ???????????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? Kkj ??????? ???????.
# 271 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????????. ???????????????? ??????? ????????????????? ???????????????? ?????????????
??????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ? ???????? ???????
????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????, ??? ????????? ? ??????? ????????????
??????? ? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ? ???????? ???????????????? ????????????, ?????????? ?? ??????? ?????????????? ??????? ???? ?? ?? ?????????? ???????, ?? ?????? ??????????. ? ???? ????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????,
???????? ? ????????????????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ?
?????????? ????????????? ?????????????.
???????????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????? ????? ? ??? ?? ??????? ??? ????????? ??????? ???????????? (???????? ?????) ????????? ????????? ????????. ??? ????????,
??? ? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ????? ????????? ??
??? ???? ???????? ???????????????? ????????????.
???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ????? ??????? ??????? ????? ? ???????? ?? ????????????? ???????????????? ???????????? (R 2 = 0,78?0,89), ??? ????????????
?????????????? ????????????? ??? ? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ? ????????????????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ??? ???? ???.
?????? ???????????? ?????? ? ????????????? ????????? ????? ???????????????? ???????????? ?? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ????????????????????? ????????,
???????? ?????????? ? ????????, ??????????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?? ???????? ???????????????? ???????????? ??? ???? ? ?????????? ???? ??? ????????? [5].
? ?????? ??????? ?????? ????????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ?? ??????????????? ????????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????????, ???????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????
Kk1 > Kk2 > Kk3 > Kkj > ? > Kkm,
(13)
??? Kkj ? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? j-?? ???????, j = 1, ?, m (m ? ?????????? ????????
???????????? ? ??????????????? ???????).
????? ???????, ????????????, ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? Kkj ???????????????? ????????????, ?????????? ????, ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ???????????? ? ???????????? ????????????? ??? ???????? ????????????.
???????????? ???????? «?????????? ????????????? ??????? ???????». ???????? ????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ?????? ?? ????????????, ?????????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ??? ?????. ????????? ?????????? ????? ????????????, ??? ??????? ????????? ? ????? (?? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? Kkj) ??????? ?, ? ??????? ?
????? ? ? ?.?. ? ??? ?????????? ??????? ????????????.
??????? ????????????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ??????????????? ? ????????????
?????????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????????? ????????
??????? ???????????? ??? ????? ????????????? ??????? ???????????? ? ??? ????? «?????????? ??????» ?? ???????????? ? ??????????????? ?? ???????? ?????????, ? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ???????????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?
????????????????? ??????????????? ??????? ???????????? ??? ?????????.
? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ? ????????????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ?
# 272 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????????. ???????????????? ??????? ????????????????? ???????????????? ?????????????
?????????????? ????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????, ?????? ?? ??????? ?????? ??????????:
? ????? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ?? ???????, ????????????????? ??????????? ? ????????? ? ?????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ?? ???? ?????-??????
??????, ???????????? ?? ????????? ???, ??? ????????? ????????? ????? ?? ?? ??????????, ??????????? ??????? ?? (???????? ????), ? ??????????, ??????????? ??????? ?? (??????? ???????? ???????????? ???????, ????? ? ????? ????), ? ????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ? ?????? ? ??????????. ?????????? ???????? ?? ??
?????? ? ??????? ??????????, ? ????? ?????? ????????? ????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ? ??????? RGB ???????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????????
?????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ???????????????? ??? ? ??? ????????????? (?????? ?? ? 2366930);
? ????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ??????????, ????????????????? ??????????? ???-???????? ???????? (?????????) ??????????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?
????????? ??????????? (???????) ???????????? ??????, ? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ??????????, ?????????? ?? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ??
??????????? ?????, ?????????? ?? ???????????? ? ?????????????????? ?????? ????
???????????? (?????? ?? ? 2457457 ?? 27.07.2012), ? ?????? ????????? ???????.
??????????
????? ???????, ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ????????????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ??? ? ?????? ???????????????, ?????????????
? ??????? «???????? ? ??? ? ??????????????? ???????????? ? ???????? ????????? ? ?????»,
????????? ??????????????? ??????? ???????????? ? ???????? ????? ??????? ?????, ?????????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????, ???????? ? ????????????????????? ?????????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ??? ????, ?????????, ???????? ? ??????????? ???.
?????? ??????????
[1] ???????????? ?. ?., ???????? ?. ?., ????? ?. ?. // ?????. ????????. ???. ????. ??-??.
2004. ???. 34. ?. 149?155.
[2] ???????????? ?. ?., ???????? ?. ?. // ?????????? ????????????? ?????????: ????????? ????., 2003. ???. 10. ?. 31?36.
[3] ???????????? ?. ?., ????????? ?. ?., ?????? ?. ?. // ????????????? ??????????????. 2009. ? 11. ?. 31?35.
[4] ???????????? ?. ?., ?????? ?. ?. // ????????????? ??????????????. 2010. ? 8.
?. 30?32.
[5] ???????????? ?. ?. ?????? ????????????????????? ???????????????? ????????????
??? ???????????? ???????????? ? ??????? ???????????. ??????????: ???. ?????. ??-?, 2010.
104 ?.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????????. ???????????????? ??????? ????????????????? ???????????????? ?????????????
Methodological Aspects
of Improving Process Equipment Maintenance, Repair,
Testing, Testing and Diagnosis Of Motor Vehicles
Igor M. Blyankinshteyn
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
With regard to improvement of equipment for maintenance, repair, monitoring and diagnosis of
vehicles have methodological problems. As a result, their formalization and solutions are developed:
mathematical models between the output parameters of vehicles on the input control inputs,
methodology of analyzing the structure, parameters, and technology of laser measurement system and
methodology of the evaluation of competitiveness, technical level and quality of production equipment
and methodology certification process equipment for consumer properties , the concept of virtual
controls and diagnostic parameters of vehicles.
Keywords: process equipment, qualimetry, certification, consumer characteristics, the concept of
control and diagnostics of vehicles.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 3 (2012 5) 275-284
~~~
??? 537.9:543.429.23
NMR Imaging Application for Study
of the Polymethylmethacrylate
Colloidal Crystals Infiltration
in the Inverse Opals Preparation Technology
Evgeny V. Morozova,b*,
Olga V. Shabanovab and Oleg V. Falaleeva
a
Kirensky Institute of Physics,
Krasnoyarsk Scientific Centre SB RAS,
50 Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russia
b
Special Designing and Technological Bureau
«Nauka» KSC SB RAS,
53 Mira, Krasnoyarsk, 660049 Russia 1
Received 13.08.2012, received in revised form 20.08.2012, accepted 27.08.2012
NMR Imaging results of polymethylmethacrylate colloidal crystals infiltration are presented. For
infiltration study the colloidal silica and fluids with different relation of surface tension and viscosity
were utilized. Wetting front has a trend to be steady while propagated into bulk sample as revealed by
means of NMR Imaging. As regards of powder sample, the wetting front instability was observed. Both
the wetting front dynamic and structural properties of samples namely porous media permeability,
fractal dimension of porous space and tortuosity were successfully measured. NMR Imaging techniques
was demonstrated to be suitable for noninvasive study of infiltration processes occurred in the course
of inverse opals preparation.
Keywords: NMR imaging, inverse opals, PMMA colloidal crystals, infiltration, wetting front
instability.
Introduction
Last two decades can be marked by vigorous investigation of new challenging nanomaterials ?
inverse opals. Investigations involved development, synthesis and properties characterization of these
materials [1-3]. The inverse opal is well known to be a three-dimensional highly ordered structure
consisted of spherical voids surrounded by solid walls. Due to the dielectric constant difference
between void space and solid walls medium the inverse opals structure can be regarded as a photonic
crystal [4]. Photonic crystals are interesting for both fundamental and applied points of view. There are
optical filters, wave guides, different types of sensors, antireflecting coating etc. which were developed
on the base of photonic crystals (for instance, [5]).
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: morozov_if@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Evgeny V. Morozov, Olga V. Shabanova? NMR Imaging Application for Study of the Polymethylmethacrylate?
There are some methods to fabricate inverse opals but the most convenient is template approach
[3, 6]. This approach involves the crystallization of a colloidal dispersion of monodisperse spheres
(the most widely used is polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)) to form a material with a threedimensional periodic structure in which 24% of the volume is air (a colloidal crystal or opal). Inverse
opal structures can readily be fabricated from colloidal crystal (opal) templates, by filling the voids
in the opal with a dielectric material, and then removing the original opal template by calcination
(thermal treating at t > 500 єC). In this sequential process the stage of PMMA colloidal crystals
infiltration by sol-gel precursor (colloidal SiO2) is the most important. The size of samples, their
structure, both cracks and heterogeneities formation is strongly influenced by features of preparation
technology. Thus the study and nondestructive monitoring of colloidal crystals infiltration seems to
be an urgent problem.
Among the experimental approaches to study transport to porous media there are some
advantageous methods based on NMR phenomenon and particularly the NMR Imaging [7]. Nuclear
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (NMR Imaging or MRI) is well known noninvasive and sufficiently
informative technique fi rst of all in medicine. Apart from medical and biomedical application NMR
Imaging nowadays actively becomes integrated into chemical engineering and materials science
[8]. So, the polymerization processes, cementation, chemical waves propagation, catalysts materials
etc. were successfully studied by MRI [9-11]. Some NMR Imaging works were devoted to study
of wetting front propagation into soil (natural porous media) [12-13]. At present there is no any
information concerned about MRI application for study the PMMA colloidal crystals infiltration
during the inverse opals preparation. The detailed visualization of wetting front structure and
dynamic as well as liquid phase distribution inside of colloidal crystal seems to be successfully
addressed to NMR Imaging.
Experimental part
NMR imaging techniques
The principles of NMR Imaging method are well described in literature [14]. It is necessary to
make mention only on specific techniques employed in the experiments. For image acquisition the spin
echo based technique (Multi Slice Multi Echo [15]) was made use of. Basic timing diagram of spin
echo pulse sequence is presented in Fig.1. In such type of techniques two RF pulses are applied: 90є
(excited) and 180є (generated spin echo signal). In comparison with other imaging techniques the spin
echo one possessed by some substantial advantages, first of all this technique allows us to acquire T1,
T2 and proton density weighted images.
The described spin echo pulse sequence is defined by set of parameters: ?E (Time Echo) ? time
interval between 90є pulse and echo signal; TR (Time Repetition) ? time interval between every applied pulse train (from first exciting 90є pulse to second one). A pulse sequence is repeated defined
number of times. The signal intensity I after 180є pulse can be expressed as follows [14]:
I
Є
§ TE TR ·є
§ TE ·
ёё» expЁЁ
ёё ,
M 0 «1 expЁЁ
© T1 №ј
© T2 №
¬
(1)
where T1 ? spin-lattice (longitudinal) relaxation time, T2 ? spin-spin (transverse) relaxation time, M0 ?
initial magnetization (depended from proton density in object under study).
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Evgeny V. Morozov, Olga V. Shabanova? NMR Imaging Application for Study of the Polymethylmethacrylate?
Fig.1. Timing diagrams of pulse sequences for the spin echo (left) and pulsed gradient spin echo (right) techniques
For self-diffusion measurements the pulsed gradient spin echo technique was employed [15]
(Fig. 1). In this case a pulsed gradient is introduced into a spin echo sequence. The signal intensity I
can be expressed as follows [14]:
I
1 ·
§
M 0 exp bD , with b J 2 GG 2 Ё ' G ё ,
3 №
©
(2)
where G is the diffusion gradient strength, ? is the duration of the diffusion gradient, ? is the time between the gradient pulses, ? is the gyromagnetic ratio, and D is the self-diffusion coefficient for a given
substance. Thereby the diffusion experiment allows the self-diffusion coefficient D to be extracted
from dependence of ?lnI vs. b.
All imaging experiment were carried out using NMR microimaging installation based on Bruker
AVANCE DPX 200 with 4.7 T magnetic field, probe PH MICRO 2.5 (radio frequency coil diameter 25
mm), at 25 є?.
Samples preparation
Some aspects of the sample preparation are illustrated in Fig.2. Monodisperse PMMA spheres
with diameter 300 nm (Fig.2a) were prepared by the method of Schroden et al. [6, 16]. PMMA
colloidal suspensions were left in open glass ampoules (~20 mm) with hemispherical bottom
at 25 єC. After 2?3 weeks, water in the colloidal suspensions evaporated to leave well-ordered
PMMA photonic crystals of the round shape. Then the colloidal crystals were left to dry in air at
25 єC for a further 1?2 weeks. After drying the large-sized pieces (about 7x7x10 mm) were cut
out and taken for the fi rst experiment (bulk sample, Fig.2b). Residual part of colloidal crystals
was slightly crushed (according to technology practice) to obtain a powder for second experiment
(powder sample, Fig.2c). Bulk sample was then placed into a glass tube with the infiltrating liquid.
Noncompacted powder sample was filled up to glass pipe with open ends in order to provide air
free yield. The glass pipe with powder sample was then mounted into MRI probe and infiltration
occurred top-down.
The colloidal SiO2 obtained by alkali silicates acidic leaching and set of liquids possessed
by different values of both surface tension and viscosity (Table 1) were utilized for infiltration
experiment.
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Evgeny V. Morozov, Olga V. Shabanova? NMR Imaging Application for Study of the Polymethylmethacrylate?
Table 1. Parameters of surface tension ? and viscosity ? for different types of liquid media utilized for PMMA
colloidal crystal infiltration.
? (N/m)
?, 10 (Pa·c)
-4
H 2O
Glycerol
Isobutyl alcohol
Ethanol
Hexane
0.073
0.065
0.023
0.023
0.018
8.9
9450
39.5
10.96
2.94
a
b
c
Fig.2. Electron microphotography of PMMA colloidal spheres deposited on aluminum substrate (a) and bulk
sample (b), powder sample (c) photos
For PMMA colloidal crystal infiltration by SiO2 sol the dwell time ?d has a decisive importance.
Dwell time is defined by period between of SiO2 sol preparation and the infiltration of sample being
started. It is concerned with intensive sol-gel transfer processes occurred in the colloidal silica
(particularly at the very first time after preparing) to result in spatial gel structures growth accompanied
by substantial viscosity increasing.
Results and discussion
Bulk sample infiltration
Because the colloidal silica is commonly used for inverse opals preparation, that is the SiO2
precursor which was chosen for PMMA colloidal crystals infiltration. Besides of colloidal SiO2 the liquid
media listed in Table 1 and liquid glass as well were utilized additionally for infiltration experiments. It
enables to reveal the more suitable media for comparative study of wetting front propagation dynamic.
So, the preliminary results have shown that the glycerol is the most convenient liquid (large value of
viscosity is provided), due to the optimal infiltration time accompanied with sample structural integrity
retention; hexane is imbibed too fast to be detected by imaging technique, and sample infiltration by
ethanol (as well as by water) leads to violent cracks formation with subsequent sample fracturing (as
can be seen in Fig.3a).
The most informative results were obtained in case of glycerol infiltration. In particular, the
internal defects in form of microcracks were also successfully revealed in different samples by means
of MRI. These microcracks lead to wetting front distortion in appropriated parts of sample as it is
shown in Fig.3b,c. As soon as the liquid media appears inside of microcrack it becomes a secondary
source of wetting front propagation.
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Evgeny V. Morozov, Olga V. Shabanova? NMR Imaging Application for Study of the Polymethylmethacrylate?
a
b
c
Fig.3. Images of PMMA bulk samples transverse slice in the course of infiltration by water (a) and glycerol (b, c).
Image parameters: TR/TE 160 (a), 68 (b), 48 (c); slice thickness 0.5 mm (a, c) and 0.4 mm (b)
I/I0
1,2
1
17 min
36 min
0,8
60 min
90 min
0,6
0,4
0,2
0
0
0,5
1
1,5
2
2,5
L, mm
Fig.4. Image of sample transverse slice in the course of glycerol infiltration (left), cross section time-spaced profiles (right). Image parameters: TR/TE 48; slice thickness 0.5 mm
If there is no any internal microcrack-scale defect, the wetting front has a trend to be steady over
the time of whole process occurred. For a high quality sample the NMR image of sample transverse
slice in process of glycerol infiltration is presented in Fig.4. For this process the cross section timespaced profiles (I/I0 vs. L) were plotted. The intensity I0 corresponds to NMR signal from 1H located
outside of porous media while I being variable correspond to signal intensity inside of sample (L
corresponds to wetting front lengths). It is worth noticing that the normalized signal intensity I/I0
inside of sample is substantially less as compared with those corresponded to external part. It is caused
by (firstly) absolute proton density decreasing (1) while wetting front having moved from interface into
deep of sample and (secondly) surface relaxation effects. The wetting front interface keeps being sharp
with wetted part intensity having the same value over the all time of process.
Fresh prepared SiO2 sol in the most cases of infiltration give rise to bulk PMMA sample fracturing
and there is no fracturing when utilized SiO2 sol with ?d more than 20 min. For this reason the SiO2 sols
set with equal concentration but different dwell times 20 min, 90 min, 180 min were used for study. In
all cases if the sample did not have a crack the wetting front was a steady. The NMR image of sample
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Evgeny V. Morozov, Olga V. Shabanova? NMR Imaging Application for Study of the Polymethylmethacrylate?
1,2
1
I/I0
0,8
4 min
11 min
22 min
39 min
0,6
0,4
0,2
0
0
1
2
3
L, mm
Fig.5. Image of sample transverse slice in the course of SiO2 sol (?d 180 min) infiltration (left), cross section timespaced profiles (right). Image parameters: TR/TE 48; slice thickness 0.5 mm
transverse slice in process of SiO2 sol infiltration with ?d 180 min is presented in Fig.5; the cross section
time-spaced profiles also were plotted. The sharp form of wetting front interface can be found out in
the all NMR images, making it possible to measure the dynamic of front propagation.
Infiltration is modeled using a variety of methods, depending on scale and scope of the problem
[17]. Among of them the Green and Ampt approach accounts for a number of variables and is widely
used for different applications. This approach was to recognize that infiltration is driven by capillary
and gravitational forces but hindered by fluid viscosity. It is assumed:
- the hydraulic gradient to be linearly distributed between sample surface and position of the
wetting front,
- the medium behind the wetting front to be fully saturated,
- the medium ahead of the wetting front to be at its initial water content.
Based on this approach Kao and Hunt presented a model for wetting front propagation in porous
media [18]. Horizontal wetting front lengths were predicted to propagate as the square root of time
as:
1
L
§V ·2
BЁЁ ёё k 4 t 2 ,
©P№
1 1
(3)
where L ? distance from the source to the wetting front, ? ? fluid-air interfacial tension, ? ? fluid
viscosity, k ? porous media permeability, B ? a dimensionless geometric factor determined to be 0.5.
In Fig.6 the wetting front lengths L vs. square root of time t1/2 are presented for some fluids which
were used. For colloidal silica the data presented for different dwell times. In terms of data from
Table 1 and Fig.6 the bulk PMMA colloidal crystal permeability was calculated according to (3) to
be k = 0.3-1.7 mD (~10 -15 m2). In conclusion the porous media described can be referred to as weakly
permeable (corresponded to a range of 1-10 mD).
Powder sample infiltration
For infiltration in powder sample only glycerol and colloidal silica were utilized. The NMR images
of sample longitudinal slice in process of infiltration are presented in Fig.7 (images are pointed out for
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Evgeny V. Morozov, Olga V. Shabanova? NMR Imaging Application for Study of the Polymethylmethacrylate?
6
4
y = 0,13x
isobutyl alcohol
y = 1,90x
alkali silicate
y = 0,06x
3
2
1
1,8
1,5
1,2
L, mm
L, mm
5
glycerol
0,9
0,6
0,3
0
0
5
10
1/2
20 min
y = 0,48x
90 min
y = 0,47x
180 min
y = 0,28x
0
15
0
2
4
1/2
1/2
6
8
1/2
t , min
t , min
Fig.6. Time dependence of wetting front length for different fluid (left) and colloidal silica with different dwell
times (right)
a
b
c
d
Fig.7. Images of sample longitudinal slice in the course of glycerol infiltration, 15 min (a), 35 min (b) and SiO2
sol (?d 180 min), 5 min (c), 10 min (d). Image parameters: TR/TE 24 (a, b), 48 (c, d); slice thickness 0.6 mm (a, b),
0.5 mm (c, d)
different time after infiltration being started). The inhomogeneous pattern of powder can be observed:
there are areas in the image with relatively large-scale size grains as well as with small ones. The
first mentioned corresponds to low signal intensity while the second one corresponds to high signal
intensity. The topmost part in the images corresponds to fluid-powder interface. The same nature of
infiltration was observed when used both glycerol (Fig.7a,b) and colloidal silica (Fig.7c,d). Since the
SiO2 sols with dwell time ?d < 2 h practically does not differ on their properties, it was decided to use
sols with ?d 1 h, 3 h and 5 h. It was not found out the alteration of infiltration law against of dwell time,
but as ?d increased the rate of wetting front displacement appropriately decreased.
By means of NMR Imaging the wetting front instability was clearly visualized in process of
PMMA powder infiltration. It is well-known to be a ?fingering? (like the ?viscous finger formation? in
Hele-Shaw cell), which usually having been observed when studied of transport to porous media [19].
It does not allow the Green and Ampt approach to be applied for wetting front propagation dynamic.
However the fact of wetting front instability could testify to fractal nature of porous space. The area S
of figure is known correlate to its own perimeter L as follows [20]:
S v Ld ,
where d is a topological dimension (to be 2 for two-dimensional space). For fractals d would be a
fractional number and always will vary from 2. In Fig.8 the dependencies of lnS vs. lnL are presented
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Evgeny V. Morozov, Olga V. Shabanova? NMR Imaging Application for Study of the Polymethylmethacrylate?
6
6
5,5
5,5
5
5
lnS
lnS
4,5
y = 1,29x - 0,45
4
4,5
1h
3,5
4
3
3,5
2,5
y = 1,30x - 0,18
3h
y = 1,31x - 0,24
5h
y = 1,32x - 0,49
3
2
3,6
3,8
4
4,2
lnL
4,4
3,6
4,6
3,8
4
4,2
4,4
4,6
lnL
Fig.8. Dependencies of lnS vs. lnL for samples infiltrated by glycerol (left) and colloidal silica with different ?d
(right)
1
0,9
1h
D/D0
0,8
0,7
3h
0,6
5h
0,5
0,4
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
?, ms
Fig.9. Dependencies of D/D0 vs. ? for experiments with different SiO2 sol dwell times
(in this case L corresponds to contour length of wetted part in image). One can see that parameter d ~
1.3 and it does not depend on fluid utilized, being a property of powder itself.
Pore space of powder sample can also be characterized to measure of water self-diffusion
coefficient behavior after infiltration having been finished. The self-diffusion coefficient D in common
case is known depends on ? i.e. D=f(?). It was determined that [7]:
D' 4 S
1
D0
9 S V
D0 ' OD0 ' ,
(4)
where D0 is a water self-diffusion coefficient outside of porous media (D0 = 2.1·10 -3 mm2/s for pure
water), S is a surface area of porous space, V is a total pores volume. At ??? (4) can be written:
Є D' є
lim «
»
¬ D0 ј
' of
1
,
T
(5)
where T is tortuosity of porous space. Thus the asymptotic behavior of D/D0 vs. ? allows T to be
evaluated from (5). Self-diffusion coefficients measuring were carried out as soon as powder sample
infiltration by SiO2 sol was finished. In Fig.9 these dependencies are presented for different dwell
times. In result the dependencies proved to be asymptotic and they does not be affected to dwell time,
# 282 #
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Evgeny V. Morozov, Olga V. Shabanova? NMR Imaging Application for Study of the Polymethylmethacrylate?
being also a property of powder itself. For PMMA powder sample the tortuosity T was found out to
be 2.27.
Conclusions
In this work the NMR Imaging method was successfully applied to study PMMA colloidal crystal
infiltration in process of inverse opals preparation. Some facilities of this technique were tested for
noninvasive visualization of liquid phase interaction with porous media. Wetting front propagation
dynamic, wetting front instability, structural properties of samples were studied. So, bulk sample
permeability was measured to be 0.3-1.7 mD, for powder sample both the fractal dimension and
tortuosity were measured to be 1.3 and 2.27 appropriately. Such information can assists to adjust some
technological parameters for colloidal crystals infiltration. MRI as a tool proved to be helpful for
monitoring of essential stage of inverse opals preparation. It is worth noticing that the NMR Imaging
possibility in this field of research now is hardly exhausted and further activity is looking forward.
References
[1] Cao G., Brinker C. J. // World Scientific. 2006. Vol. 1. P. 628.
[2] Cai M., Zong R., Li B., Zhou J. // J. Mat. Sci. Lett. 2003. Vol. 22. P. 1295-1297.
[3] Waterhouse G. I. N., Waterland M. R. // Polyhedron. 2007. Vol. 26. P. 356-368.
[4] John S. // Phys. Rev. Lett. 1987. Vol. 58. P. 2486-2489.
[5] Park S. H., Xia Y. // Langmuir. 1999. Vol. 15. P. 266-273.
[6] Schroden R. C., Al-Daous M., Blanford C. F., Stein A. // Chem. Mat. 2002. Vol. 14.
P. 3305-3315.
[7] ?????? ?. ?., ??????? ?. // ?????? ?????. 2002. ???. 71. ?. 899-949.
[8] Stapf S., Han H. S. I. NMR Imaging in Chemical Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, 2006.
P. 560.
[9] ?????? ?. ?., ??????? ?. // ?????? ?????. 2002. ???. 71. ?. 672-699.
[10] ?????? ?. ?., ??????? ?. // ?????? ?????. 2003. ???. 72. ?. 183-212.
[11] ?????? ?. ?., ?????? ?. ?., ???????? ?. ?. ? ??. // ?????? ?????. 2007. ???. 76.
?. 628-645.
[12] Amin M. H. G., Richards K. S., Chorley R. J. // Magn. Reson. Imaging. 1996. Vol. 14.
P. 879-882.
[13] Amin M. H. G., Hall L. D., Chorley R. J. // Magn. Reson. Imaging. 1994. Vol. 12. P. 319-321.
[14] Callaghan P. Principles of nuclear magnetic resonance microscopic. Clarendon Press, Oxford,
1991.
[15] Bernstein M. A., King K. F., Zhou X. J. // Elsevier Academic Press, 2004. P. 1040.
[16] Schroden R. C., Balakrishan N. // University of Minnesota, 2001. P. 32.
[17] Cueto-Felgueroso L., Juanes R. // Water resources research. 2009. Vol. 45. P. 1-23.
[18] Kao C. S., Hunt J. R. // Journal of environmental engineering. 2001. Vol. 127. N. 2.
P. 162-169.
[19] Posadas A., Quiros R., Tannus A., Crestana S., Vaz C. M. // Nonlinear processes in geophysics.
2009. Vol. 16. P. 159-168.
[20] Feder J. Fractals. Plenum press, New York. 1988.
# 283 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Evgeny V. Morozov, Olga V. Shabanova? NMR Imaging Application for Study of the Polymethylmethacrylate?
?????????? ???-??????????
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?????? 660049, ??????????, ????, 53
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? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ???????????????? ???????????? ????????
?????????? ?????????? ???????????????????? ????? SiO2 ? ?????????? ? ??????????
?????????? ?????????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ????????. ? ??????? ???????
?????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ? ?????????????????????
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???????? ?????. ?????????? ?????????????? ?????? ??? ???????????? ???????????????
????????, ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ????????????.
????????????????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ??? ?????????????? ???????? ?????????
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Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 3 (2012 5) 285-293
~~~
??? 621.791.3
Composite Multicomponent
of Gallium Pastes?Solders
Vladimir S. Kazakov, Evgeni V. Temnykh*,
Pavel A. Rastovtsev and Elena A. Potekhina
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 13.08.2012, received in revised form 20.08.2012, accepted 27.08.2012
Contact interaction of copper-zinc and copper-silver alloys is investigated with eutectics melts
of the system Ga-Zn as composite components of gallium pastes ? solders have been revealed.
Interaction products have been determined depending on the structure and temperature of contacting
components. Structures of developed new low temperature solders have been approved on the basis
of gallium.
Keywords: gallium, pastes ? solders, brass, copper-silver alloys, interaction, eutectic.
Introduction
The low temperature of fusion and high moistening ability of gallium gave the bases to use it as a
base component for creation of pastes ? solders (metal glues or cements).
In a basis the fluxless soldering of diverse materials lays interaction of powder and other disperse
materials with gallium melt. Interaction products of gallium with metals (Cu, Ag, Ni, Mn and etc)
have the temperature of fusion much more (up to 900 °?), than clean gallium so making the soldering
at the temperature, for example 50 °?, it is possible to receive permanent joints which can work at
temperatures more than 250 °? or even higher.
Fusible diffusion hardening gallium pastes ? solders, possessing unique properties [1-4], have
also essential lacks: high cost, duration of hardening processes, the small impact strength, limited
time of safety of technological properties after preparation and a number of other restrictions of their
application.
For increase of technological opportunities and operational characteristics of gallium pastes ?
solders the additional researches directed on the search of new structures and structures of initial
solid and liquid phases of solders with the purpose of elimination of available lacks and creation of
new competitive technologies of connection of diverse materials of the type metal ? ceramics, metal ?
glass, metal ? graphite, etc, are necessary.
In recent years scientific and practical interest to this subject has essentially increased [5-7], the
convertible and irreversible processes occuring at heating and cooling of basic components of gallium
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: info@sfu-kras.ru, vtemnyh@sfu-kras.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Vladimir S. Kazakov, Evgeni V. Temnykh? Composite Multicomponent of Gallium Pastes ? Solders
pastes ? solders and determining their physicomechanical properties are thoroughly studied. There are
technological recesses for their effective application [8-11].
Doubtless practical interest as main initial hard components of these solders are powders of copper
alloys with zinc in the field of solid solutions and eutectic Cu-Ag as presence of atoms of zinc and silver
in corresponding structures accelerates the process of jet diffusion [1, 8, 9]. And as a liquid basis it is
possible to use fusible eutectic alloys of gallium with zinc, tin, indium which have the temperature of
fusion less than 25°?. Varying components and structures of solid and liquid phases, it is possible to
find an optimal composite structure of solders with the minimal contents of gallium and silver, and
as well modes of the soldering in each concrete case of diverse materials connection, beginning with
room temperature.
The purpose of the present work is kinetics study , the mechanism and products of interaction of
components of gallium pastes ? solders, including with the maximal content of zinc and the minimal
contents of gallium and silver.
Materials and methods
For research of contact interactions were used standard single-phase brasses ?63 and ?68 with
the content of zinc of 37 % and 32 % on weight accordingly (the rest is copper) in the form of plates,
powders and chip materials, eutectic alloys of gallium (GOST 12797-77) with mark zinc ??? at
the contents of zinc up to 20 % on weight and powders of solder ??? 72 in accordance with GOST
19738-74.
Dispersivity of gallium pastes ? solders fillers were changed from 100 nanometers up to 200
microns.
Junction quality, the form and the sizes of the formed phases have been investigated in optical
microscope AXIO-Observer. Z1m, ?arl Zeiss. For definition of element composion of phases EDX the
spectrometer Oxford Instruments of scanning electronic microscope JEOL JSM 7001F of the shared
Center by instrument base of the Siberian federal university has been used. Scanning of samples junction
was carried out at an accelerating voltage 20 ??, on a line with a step from 1 micron and less.
The phase structure of interaction products of alloys with gallium melts was determined on x-ray
diffractometer D8 Advance. Experiment parameters are: Bragg-Brentano geometry, an initial corner
of scanning 20°, final ? 90°, the step of scanning 0,007°, the time of scanning 0,1 s/step. At this the
data on the phase structure, received by us earlier [1], and as well known structures of double alloys
[10] were taken into account.
Results
In the first stage the research of interaction products of pure copper plates with liquid gallium
through its interlayer with thickness no more than 0.3 mm at temperatures from 30°? to 200°? has
been carried out. It has been found, that as a result of jet diffusion at the temperature of 150°? the
intermetallic CuGa2 is formed (Fig. 1), that corresponds to the data [2, 3, 5]. This intermediate phase
contains the maximal content of gallium and has the minimal temperature of fusion 254°?.
In an interval of temperatures of 150-200°? it is formed not only intermetallic CuGa2, but also
thin layers of a firm solution of gallium in copper, and also intermetallic Cu9Ga4 (Fig. 2). The chemical
composition of intermetallic CuGa2 (the junction middle) corresponds to 64 % of gallium by mass, and
# 286 #
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Vladimir S. Kazakov, Evgeni V. Temnykh? Composite Multicomponent of Gallium Pastes ? Solders
b
a
b
Fig. 1. Microstructure, a line of scanning (?) and concentration curves (b) elements distributions on junction of
copper plates with gallium after isothermal exposure at 150 °C for 120 hours.
a
b
Fig. 2. Microstructure, a line of scanning (?) and concentration curves (b) elements distributions on junction of
copper plates with gallium after isothermal exposure at 200 °C for 120 hours.
intermetallic Cu9Ga4 (on junction edges) ? 42 % of gallium by mass. Comparing the obtained data with
a known diagram Cu-Ga [13], it is possible to be convinced, that in our case the formed intermetallic
Cu9Ga4 is a phase ?, to be exact, a phase ?3 with the maximal gallium contents.
At copper plates contacting through a melt interlayer Ga-Zn (Zn ? 5 % by mass) at the temperatures
150 °C is found out not only intermetallic CuGa2, but also very thin layer intermetallic Cu9Ga4 (a
phase ?3) on junction edges (Fig. 3). The additive in to gallium melt of atoms of zinc starts to promote
displacement of chemical reaction of gallium with copper in area of formation intermetallic with the
big content of copper and the greater temperature of fusion of 468 °C.
Further, at copper plates contacting through a melt interlayer Ga-Zn (Zn ? 10 % by mass) at the
same temperatures a mixture of crystals of the phase Cu9Ga4 is formed and fine crystals of zinc, the
intermetallic CuGa2 has not been found (Fig. 4). In this case in comparison with previous one the
# 287 #
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Vladimir S. Kazakov, Evgeni V. Temnykh? Composite Multicomponent of Gallium Pastes ? Solders
a
b
Fig. 3. Microstructure, a line of scanning (?) and concentration curves (b) distribution of elements on junction of
copper plates by the alloy Ga-Zn with the zinc content of 5 % after isothermal exposure at 150 °C for 120 hours.
a
b
Fig. 4. Microstructure, a line of scanning (?) and concentration curves (b) distribution of elements on junction
of copper plates by the alloy Ga-Zn with the zinc content of 10 % after isothermal exposure at 200 °C for 120
hours.
crystal structure of intermetallic Cu9Ga4 corresponds to the phase ?1 (32 % of gallium by mass, and
the rest is copper) [13]. The zinc contents on junction (about 18 %) is almost twice more of initial one,
that it is possible to explain by pressing out atoms of zinc in to the depth of soldered seam in process of
growth of new phases from two sides.
At contacting brasses plates ?63 through liquid gallium at temperature 150 °C (Fig. 5) the phase
layer ? essentially is extended in comparison with contacting conditions, shown in Fig. 3. The increased
zinc content on the junction edges on the bounetary of brass interface and formed new intermediate
phases is also observed.
After contacting of brass plates ?63 through the melt interlayer Ga-Zn (Zn ? 10 % by mass) at
the same temperatures 150 °C intermetallic Cu9Ga4 is also absent. The phase ?1 (32 % of gallium by
# 288 #
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Vladimir S. Kazakov, Evgeni V. Temnykh? Composite Multicomponent of Gallium Pastes ? Solders
a
b
Fig. 5. Microstructure, a line of scanning (?) and concentration curves (b) elements distributions on plates junction of brasses ?68 of gallium after isothermal exposure at 150 °C for 120 hours.
b
a
b
Fig. 6. Microstructure, a line of scanning (?) and concentration curves (b) elements distributions on plates junction of brasses ?63 through the melt interlayer Ga-Zn (Zn ? 10 % by mass) alloy Ga-Zn at 200 °C for 120 hours.
mass, and the rest is copper) with the maximal contents of gallium and thin layers of a firm solution of
gallium in copper on junction edges prevails (Fig. 6).
After contacting of single-phase brasses plates ?63 and ?68 through the melt interlayer GaZn (Zn ? 10 % by mass) at temperatures 200 °C are present, by structure, a solid solution of
gallium and zinc in copper, phase versions ? and zinc crystals, at this the maximal content of zinc
on junction edges reaches 52 % by mass (Fig.7), and is not decreased below 20 % in the middle
of the seam.
Results of x-ray phase analysis of interaction products of brasses with the Ga-Zn melt after
contacting at the temperature 150°? have confirmed the presence of the following formed phases: a
solid solution of gallium in copper, the intermetallic CuGa2 and Cu9Ga4, and a firm solution of gallium
in zinc as well (Fig. 8).
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Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
a
b
Fig. 7. Microstructure, a line of scanning (?) and concentration curves (b) elements distributions on plates junction
of brasses ?63 alloy Ga-Zn with the zinc contents of 10 % after isothermal exposure at 200 °C for 120 hours.
Platinum, syn
1500
1400
d=2.12686
1300
1200
1100
1000
Lin (Counts)
900
800
700
500
d=1.30355
d=1.84759
600
d=1.13294
d=1.19913
d=1.18312
d=1.27111
d=1.38640
d=1.79914
d=1.45622
d=2.01917
d=2.26662
d=2.54781
d=1.96048
100
d=2.35380
d=3.20469
200
d=2.91412
d=3.61052
300
d=1.11173
400
0
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
9
2-Theta - Scale
File: LatunGaZn_1.raw - Type: 2Th/Th locked - Start: 20.000 ° - End: 90.004 ° - Step: 0.022 ° - Step time: 0.6 s - Temp.: 25 °C - Time Started
Operations: Smooth 0.150 | Background 1.000,1.000 | Import
01-089-7382 (D) - Platinum, syn - Pt - Y: 13.12 % - d x by: 1. - WL: 1.5406 - Cubic - a 3.92400 - b 3.92400 - c 3.92400 - alpha 90.000 - beta
00-001-1242 (D) - Copper - Cu - Y: 35.06 % - d x by: 1. - WL: 1.5406 - Cubic - a 3.59700 - b 3.59700 - c 3.59700 - alpha 90.000 - beta 90.00
03-065-9062 (N) - Copper Zinc - Cu0.7Zn0.3 - Y: 84.54 % - d x by: 1. - WL: 1.5406 - Cubic - a 3.68400 - b 3.68400 - c 3.68400 - alpha 90.00
01-071-8791 (I) - Gallium Z inc - Ga0.0196Zn0.9804 - Y: 11.26 % - d x by: 1. - WL: 1.5406 - Hexagonal - a 2.65910 - b 2.65910 - c 4.99220 01-071-0458 (N) - Copper Gallium - Cu9Ga4 - Y: 12.83 % - d x by: 1. - WL: 1.5406 - Cubic - a 8.74700 - b 8.74700 - c 8.74700 - alpha 90.00
Fig. 8. Diffractogram of interaction products of brasses ?68 with the melt Ga-Zn (Zn ? 10 %) after contacting at
the temperature 150°? for 120 hours.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir S. Kazakov, Evgeni V. Temnykh? Composite Multicomponent of Gallium Pastes ? Solders
a
b
Fig. 9. Microstructure, a line of scanning (?) and concentration curves (b) elements distributions on hardened
paste at 150°? with the content: brass chip ?63 of 45 % by mass, eutectic Cu-Ag 10 % and alloy Cu-Zn of 45 %,
in which zinc is of 10 % on by mass
At transition to powder and chip compositions (gallium pastes ? solders) the element and phase
structure of interaction products of brasses and copper ? silver alloy with gallium and alloys of gallium
with zinc essentially is not changed (Fig. 9). As a result of jet diffusion the brass particles are surrounded
if go from the center of a particle, with a layer of a solid solution of zinc and gallium in copper, further
follow versions of a phase ?. The zinc content in a composition is not reduced less than 10-20 % by
mass along the whole length of a line of scanning, including interaction products of a eutectic particle
Cu-Ag with the melt Ga-Zn. It is seen from the left part (Fig. 9 b) of concentration curves of elements
distribution on the hardened paste, where silver atoms are present. Besides having at preparation of
paste the equal sizes of particles of a brass and eutectic Cu-Ag it is visible in Fig. 9, that speed of
interaction of gallium with an eutectic alloy is much higher in comparison with interaction of gallium
with brass. Eutectic particles have completely reacted with gallium, and brass particles in the middle
have kept the initial structure under all other equal conditions of reaction.
Thus zinc atoms presence in initial brasses and liquid gallium displaces the chemical reaction
of gallium with copper into the area of intermetallic formation with higher copper content: the
intermetallic Cu9Ga4 at the temperature less than 150°? is formed; according to the Cu-Ga diagram
[13] the intermetallic CuGa2 is to be formed at the temperature 254°?.
Thus zinc atoms presence in the initial solid phase (brass) and in initial liquid phase (an alloy of
gallium with zinc) as a result of contact interaction of these diverse phases gives a mixture of fragile
crystals of the intermetallic Cu9Ga4 and relatively plastic, strong and enough ?refractory? zinc with
fusion temperature more 400°?. And crystals of zinc surround crystals of fragile intermetallic (it is
distinctly visible in Fig. 7), that means destruction of fragile intermetallic skeleton which is present
at hardening of known pastes ? solders at the use of a powder of copper or bronze as the initial solid
component at them.
The addition of disperse particles of a copper-silver alloy in to the structure of gallium pastes ?
solders appreciably accelerates the process of their hardening due to the greater speed of jet diffusion
of gallium in heterogeneous structure eutectic Cu-Ag [1].
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Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir S. Kazakov, Evgeni V. Temnykh? Composite Multicomponent of Gallium Pastes ? Solders
The offered model of structure of hardened gallium pastes ? solders has been realized in developed
and approved solder by us [9] and will be improved further.
Conclusions
1. Presence of zinc atoms in the initial powder of a single-phase brass and in the gallium melt
accelerates and displaces chemical reaction of gallium with copper in area of intermetallic formation
with the bigger copper content: in zinc contents pastes ? solders on the basis of gallium the intermetallic
Cu9Ga4 is formed at temperatures less 200°C.
2. Pastes ? solders on the basis of an alloy of gallium with zinc, incorporating two fillers as solid
particles of brass and eutectic Cu-Ag, harden faster and have the structure which does not contain a
fragile intermetallic skeleton.
3. Composite multicomponet gallium pastes ? solders, possessing more technological and higher
operational properties, are perspective for diffusion soldering of diverse materials.
The work is executed within the framework of the federal target program.
References
[1] Temnyh V.I., Kazakov V.S., Mityaev A.E. // Technology of machine engineering. 2006. ? 9. P.
46-50.
[2] Novosadov V.S. // Scientific problems of materials connection by gallium pastes. ? M.: ???
??? Mashprom, 1972. P. 27-31.
[3] Tikhomirova O.I. // Scientific problems of materials connection by gallium pastes. ? M.: ???
??? Mashprom, 1972. P. 6-10.
[4] Temnyh V.I., Kazakov V.S., Mityaev A.E, Temnyh E.V. // Technology of mechanical engineering.
2008. ? 9. P. 63-70.
[5] Ancharov A.I. // Inorganic materials. 2006. ? 10. P. 1164-1170.
[6] Ancharov A.I., Grigorjeva T.F., Barinova A.P., Lyakhov H.Z. // Phase transitions, the ordered
conditions and new materials .2006. ?4. P. 1-4.
[7] Silvana Sommadossi, Horacio E. Troiani, Armando Fernandez Guillermet. // J. Mater. Sci.
(2007) 42: 9707?9712.
[8] Temnyh V.I., Kazakov V.S., Mityaev A.E, Temnyh E.V. // Welding Manufacture. 2010. ? 8. ?.
32-35.
[9] United States Patent Application 20060189155
[10] United States Patent 4659384
[11] Temnyh V.I., Kazakov V.S., Zelenkova E.G. The patent ? 2317882 Russian Federation.
[12] Kazakov V.S., Temnyh E.V. // The collection of materials of the All-Russian scientific and
technical conference of students, post-graduate students and young scientists «Youth and science: the
beginning of XXI century». Krasnoyarsk. SFU. 2009. P. 83-86.
[13] Hanssen ?., Anderko K. Structure of double alloys, transl. from English, M. 1962
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir S. Kazakov, Evgeni V. Temnykh? Composite Multicomponent of Gallium Pastes ? Solders
????????????????? ??????????????
????????? ?????-??????
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ??????,
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ????????
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
?????? 660041 ??????????, ?????????, 79
??????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????-???????? ? ?????-?????????? ???????
? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? Ga-Zn ??? ??????????????? ?????????????
????????? ????-???????. ?????????? ???????? ?????????????? ? ??????????? ?? ??????? ?
??????????? ?????????????? ???????????. ???????????? ??????? ????????????? ?????
?????????????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??????.
???????? ?????: ??????, ?????-??????, ??????, ?????-?????????? ??????, ??????????????,
?????????.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 3 (2012 5) 294-300
~~~
??? 691
????????????? ??????? ????????
??????????? ???????????
?????????? ?????????????
?.?. ???????????, ?.?. ???????????,
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????????? ??????????? ???????????,
?????? 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79 1
Received 13.08.2012, received in revised form 20.08.2012, accepted 27.08.2012
?????????? ???????????? ??????? ? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?
????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?? ??? ??????. ???????????? ?????????? ????????
??????????? ? ????????????????? ???????, ?????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????,
??????? ????????? ?????? ? ??????-?????????? ??????????, ???????????? ? ???????????
??????????? ??? ?????????? ? ????????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ????, ????????????????
??????? ??? ???????????.
???????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???. ??????????????, ??? ? ????????
???????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????? ????? ?????????????
?????? ?????????????? ????? ? ??????? ???????? ?????.
???????? ?????: ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????????? (???), ??????????
??????????? ?????????? ????????????? (???), ????? ?????????????? ?????, ????? ????????
?????, ?????????? ?????? ???????????.
??????? ???? ? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ? ?????? ???????? ???????? ????? ??
???????????? ?????????, ? ??? ????? ? ?? ?????????????????, ??? ??????? ?? ????????? ??
???? ??????????? ???????????? ????????????. ?????? ??????? ????????????????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ???????? ??? ????? ????????? ???????, ????? ??? ?????????????, ??????????, ?????????????? ? ???????????????, ???????? ????????? ? ??. ???????? ??????????
??????????, ????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ???????.
? 2004 ?. ? ?????? ???????????????? ? ???????? ????????????? ??????????? ???? ?????? ????????? ????????????? ? ???????????? ????, ?? ???? ???????? ?????????? 3-4 % ???????
??????????? ? ??????. ??? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ? 2009 ?. ?
??????????? ?????? (???. ?????????, ?. ??????????), ?? ???? ? ???????????????? ???????? ??
???????? ??????, ???????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ??????????????????? ????? 16 000 ?3 ???/???.
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: putinap@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 294 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????????, ?.?. ???????????? ????????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????
? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ????? ? ??????? ???????? ??????????, ? ??????????????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ?????, ??????? ????????? ?????????????????? ??????????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ????????????
????????????-?????????? ???? ???? ??????-????????. ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ??????-????????; ???????? ??????? ???????? ????????? Mg:Fe?2:1. ?????? ? K (Mg, Fe)3[Si3AlO10] [OH, F]2 ??? K 2O·6(Mg, Fe)·Al 2O3· SiO2·2H 2O. ????????????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?? ???. 1.
??????? ?????????? ????????? ???? ??? ???????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ? ??????
????? ????? ?????????? ????, ? ???? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ???? ?????????????
???????? (???? ????? ?g2+) [1]. ????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ????, ????????? ??
??????????????? ????? ???????? ? ??????? ???? ? ????????? ????????? (???. 2).
??????? ???????? ?????????????? ????, ??? ???????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????? ????????????? ???????? [2]. ???????? ???? ? ??????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????. ???????????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ??
(Si3 4+·Al3+) ?102(Mg2+, Fe2+, Fe3+)6(OH-)4
???????? ?????
(Si34+ Al3+) ?102(?+ )2
???? ??????????? ???????
(Si3 4+·Al3+) ?102(Mg2+ , Fe2+, Fe3+ )6(OH-)4
???????? ?????
(Si34+ Al3+) ?102???. 1. ????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????
(Si3 4+·Al3+) ?102(Mg2+ , Fe2+, Fe3+)(OH-)4
4+
3+
(Si3 Al ) ?10
???????? ?????
2-
[Mg(6 ?2?)]2+ ? m ?2?
????????? ????
(Si3 4+·Al3+) ?102(Mg2+ , Fe2+, Fe3+)(OH-)4
4+
3+
(Si3 Al ) ?10
2-
???. 2. ????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????????
# 295 #
???????? ?????
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????????, ?.?. ???????????? ????????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????
??????? ?? ?????, ? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ???????????? ??? ???????????? ????? ??????????? ? ??????????????? ????.
???????????????, ????????? ? ?????????????????? ???? ? ???????????? ??????????
8-20 %. ? ?????? ?????????? ???? ?? ????? 2 % [3].
??????-?????????? ???????????? ????????, ??? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????
????????? ? ??????????? ???? ? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ???????????????? ???????.
?????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ????????? ???????, ?????????? ?? ??????? ????????: SiO2-40,2940,42; Al2O3-10,48-10,92; Fe2O3+ FeO-11,0-14,47; MgO-17,94-22,28; K 2O-3,99-4,08; ???-1,29-1,35;
Na2O-0,60-1,0; F ? 0,91; P2O5-0,633; MnO ? 0,467; TiO2 ? 0,466.
?????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????-?????????? ????????, ????????? ???????????? Ti, ????? ??????????? ??????????? 5-9 ? ??????????? ?? ?????????.
???????? ??????? ???-1. ?????? ?????? ????? 1-3 ??.
?????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ? ???????????????? ??????????, ???????????? ? ???? ??????? ??? ?????????? ? ????????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ????, ??????????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????????.
?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????????.
?? ????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????????. ?? ?????? ??? ???????????
?????????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ?????? ??? 80-100 0?,
????????? ? ??????? ????????????? ???? (???. 3). ??? ?????????? ??????????? ??? 200 0? ?
255 0? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ????, ????????? ? ????????? ?????? (???????????), ??????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ????? ? ?????? ????????????? ?? ?????????? ??
?????????. ??? ???? ??????????? ?????? ? ????? ????????.
???. 3. ??????????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????????
# 296 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????????, ?.?. ???????????? ????????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????
? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ???? ? 4,31 %, ?
??????????? ? ?? 1 %.
??????????, ????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ????, ?? ??????????? ?????? ???????????. ????????? ???? ? ???????????? ? ????????? 400-700 0? ????????? ? ???? ???????? ????????, ?????? ???? ???????? ??????????? ?????????, ? ????????? ????????, ????????, ?????????????.
?? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ? ???????? 800-900 0?, ????????????? ??????? ?????????????????? ????, ???????? ? ?????? ????????????????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ????????? ????????, ?? ?????? ??? ?? ????? ???????. ??????? ??? 710-780 0? ? 810-840 0? ??????? ???? ????????? ??????????, ??????? ??????????, ? ??????? ? ????????? ?????????????
?????.
????? ???????? ?????????? ? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????
????????????? ?????? ??????????? ?? ???????????, ??? ??? ???????????? ???? ?????? ???
???????????? ????? ??????????? ? ??????????????? ????. ????????, ??? ????? ????? ????????????? ?????? ?????????????? ????? ? ??????? ???????? ?????, ??? ??????????????
?????????? ??????? ??????????? ????? ? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ???????????????? ??????? ?????, ????????? ? ????????? ??????????? ????.
??????? ??? ???????????? ? ???? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????. ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ???? ???????????? ????? ? ????? 800 0?.
??? ?????? ????????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ???? ???????????? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ???-1 ? ?????????? 2,5 ??, ??????? ????????????? ? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????. ?????????? ???????????????????
? ??????????????? ????????????????? ??????? ???????????? ? ????. 1 ? 2.
????? ???????, ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????????????, ???????????, ???????????????? ??????? ???????????, ?
????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ??????????????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ? ?????????,
?????????????? ? ???????? ???????????, ?????????????, ?????????.
???????? ???????? ? ?????? ???????????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????
(?????????) ????????? ? ????? ???????? (A,B)7-8[Z4O11]2(OH,F)2, ??? ?-K, Na, ??; ?-Al, Fe3+,
Fe2+, Mg ? ??.; Z-Si, Al. ?????? ????????? ? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ????? [Si4O11]. ? ???-
??????? 1. ?????????????????? ?????? ????? ???????????: ????? ??? ????? 2,5 ??, ??????? ??? ???????
500 ?
?????? ??????
??? ???????, ?
????? ???????, %
>1,0
4
0,8
-1,0+0,5
152,25
30,4
-0,5+0,25
316,75
63,35
-0,25+0,1
23,4
4,68
<0,1
3,6
0,77
????? ???
500
100
# 297 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?????
?????????
(??)
???????
(?/??3)
?????
???????
m?, ?
???????
1
2
3
4
<0,1
<2,9
3,6
????????? ??????????
????????,
????? ?
d, ?/??
????????, n
5
<2,9
4,42
>2,9
0,05
???????
2,3
513
1179,9
80
2,6
4
10,4
0
????????
5
7
35
2
???????
3,6
18
64,8
4
??????
3,1
7
21,7
1
???.
???????
3,4
48
163,2
11
?????????
3,2
4
12,8
1
?????????
4,3
???*
0
?????
???*
0
??????
???*
0
601
1487,8
100
??????????
2,3
400
920
69
???.
???????
3,4
93
316,2
24
???????
3,6
7
25,2
2
?????????
3,2
12
38,4
3
???????
2,7
???????????
16
43,2
3
528
1343,0
100
????????
5
236
1180,0
76
???.
???????
3,4
70
238,0
16
?????????
3,2
30
96,0
6
???????
3,6
4
14,4
1
??????
3,1
4
12,4
1
344
1540,8
100
?????
-0,25+0,1
>2,9
0,53
????????
???.
???????
3,4
400
1360,0
79
??????
3,6
64
230,4
13
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34
124,0
7
???????
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5
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1
503
1732,4
100
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2,3
493
1133,9
98
???.
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3,4
5
17
1
?????????
3,2
2
6,4
1
500
1157,3
100
????????
5
38
190
14
?????
-0,5+0,25
<2,9
4,79
?????
-0,5+0,25
>2,9
0,21
8
?????
?????
-0,25+0,1
7
6
??????????
?????
-0,25+0,1
d*n
??????????
???????? ??
???????, ??,
???? %
??????? 2. ?????????????? ???????????????? ?????? ?????
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????????, ?.?. ???????????? ????????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????
1
2
3
4
5
4,98
799
59
???????
3,6
4
14,4
1
??????
3,1
93
288,3
21
?????????
3,2
8
25,6
2
?????????
4,3
1
4,3
0
12
27,6
2
379
1321,6
100
?????????? 2,3
500
1150
99
???.
???????
3,4
4
13,6
1
504
1163,6
100
????????
5
5
25
2
???.
???????
3.4
181
615,4
59
?????
-1+0,5
>2,9
0,02
?????????? 2,3
4
9,2
1
???????
3,6
17
61,2
6
??????
3,1
90
279
27
?????????
3,2
12
38.4
4
????????
4,6
2
9,2
1
?????????
4,3
2
8,6
1
313
1046
100
?????????? 2,3
513
1179
94
?????????????????????? ???????
2,9
? ????????
????????? ?
????????
25
72,5
6
538
1251,5
100
?????
>1,0
?????
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4
8
235
?????
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7
3,4
???????
???????????
2,3
? ???.
????????
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6
???.
???????
??????????. ???* ? ??????? ??????????? ? ?????? ?????, ?? ?? ????? ? ?????????????? ???????
??? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ??????????
????????, ? ????? ?????? ?????????, ???????-?????????? ????????, ?????????? ? ??????????? (???????).
????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????, ?? ??? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ????????? ????????? ???????
?? ??????? ??????????? ??? ??????, ??? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ?
?????? ??????? ???????????. ????? ???????, ?????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????????
???????? ?????, ????? ??? ?????????, ????? ?????? ???????? ??? ???????? ??????.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????????, ?.?. ???????????? ????????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????
?????? ??????????
[1] ???????, ?. ?., ??????? ?. ?. ???????????????????? ??????? ??? ????????? ????????
????????? ? ?????????????? ???????????? ?????????? // ???????. ????? 4 «?????????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ???????? ????????????. ????????????? ?????.
?., 1991. 56 ?.
[2] ?????, ?. ?. ?????????????? ???????? // ????????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????
????????? ?????????. ?.: ???, 1965. ?. 345-374.
[3] ????????, ?. ?., ??????????? ?. ?. ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ????????????????? ???????. ?.: ?????? ?????, 1975. 296 ?.
Theortical Aspects
of Deposit Swelling Vermiculite Tatar
Nina G. Vasilovskaya and Irina G. Endzhievskaya,
Oksana V. Slakova and Galina P. Baranova
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
Researches of the composition and the structure of the vermiculite of Tatar deposit were conducted for
getting constructional materials on its basis. You can see the results of the studying its chemical and
mineralogical composition. Furthermore, there are findings from the comprehensive thermic analysis,
by which we can form an opinion about the physicochemical modification, arose in the vermiculite?s
concentrate from the heating and connected with different kinds of water condition, characterized the
process of vermiculite?s exfoliation.
Keywords: exfoliated vermiculite of tatar deposit (EVT), the concentrate of vermiculite of tatar deposit
(CVT), the batch of vermiculite?s layers, the batch of micaceous layers, the chemical composition of
the concentrate.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 3 (2012 5) 301-310
~~~
??? 549.523
Rare and New Minerals
of the Tashelga-Maizaskaya Zone
of Gornaya Shoriya,
Their Peculiarities and Nature
Sergey I. Konovalenko?,
Sergey A. Ananyevb* and Sende S. Garmayeva?
?
Tomsk State University,
36 pr. Lenina, Tomsk, 634050 Russia
b
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia1
Received 13.08.2012, received in revised form 20.08.2012, accepted 27.08.2012
Rare and new minerals (tashelgite, mukhinite, hibonite, goldmanite and others) discovered in the
process of geological studies of the 20th and the 21st centuries in the carbonate stratum of the Tashelga
polymetamorphic complex (R3-Rz3ts) composing the graben-syncline structure within the KuznetskAlatau shear zone in Gornaya Shoriya are described. It is shown that the unique mineralization
of skarnoids, calciphyres and metasomatites of the district is preconditioned by the processes of
metamorphism and further metasomatosis of original carbonate marine sediments contaminated by
laterite metabasite weathering products. The impact of the basic rock chemistry on the whole further
polychronic endogenous rock mineralization is traced even in such relatively closed systems of the
zone as granite pegmatites.
Keywords: Gornaya Shoriya, Tashelga-Maizaskaya zone, tashelgite, mukhinite, fe-hibonite,
goldmanite.
The Tashelga-Maizaskaya zone located in the south of the Kemerovo Region (Fig. 1) was attracting
the attention of researchers for a long period of time with wide development of ore mineralization
of different types and presence of extremely rare and even endemic species in the latter. Two new
minerals ? mukhinite and tashelgite and rare minerals ? hibonite and goldmanite were discovered here
in the 20th and the 21st centuries within a relatively limited area. Our work is aimed at characteristic of
these phases and explanation of the reasons for their occurrence.
According to the latest data, the Tashelga-Maizaskaya zone occupying the basin of the Tashelga
River and spatially coinciding with the same?name graben-syncline joint structure 30x6km in size, is
allogenic in relation to the surrounding rocks and represents an independent microlithon participating
in the construction of the Kuznetsk-Alatau shear zone [1]. The structure is composed of carbonate
strata of the Tashelga polymetamorphic complex (R3-Rz3ts) including calcite and dolomite marbles
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: sananiev@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 301 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Sergey I. Konovalenko, Sergey A. Ananyev? Rare and New Minerals of the Tashelga-Maizaskaya Zone?
Fig. 1. Sketch map of the Tashelga-Maizaskaya zone location
with subordinated amphibolites, quartzites and crystalline slates. The mineralization discovered to
date is developed in carbonate rocks only. The impact of their material composition, as will be shown
below, is traced to this or that extent in the nature of the whole further endogenous polychromic and
polygenic mineralization and in many ways defines its uniqueness.
Hibonite was the first rare mineral discovered in this zone. Its spectacular black-brown tabular
crystals up to 3cm across in calcite marbles of the Tashelga River estuary were discovered in 1938 by
the professor of the Tomsk Polytechnic Institute K.V. Radugin. He passed the fining to the department
mineralogists, and further crystal studies were conducted by A.M. Kuzmin. The latter determined the
composition of the mineral, its physical properties, carried out goniometric measurements, studied
the paragenesis and finally referred it incorrectly to hegbomite [2, 3]. The error was detected by
T.A. Yakovlevskaya in the process of materials generalization for preparation of the reference book
?Minerals?. The mineral gained its current name only after her publications [4]. Unfortunately, the
native priority in mineral discovery was already lost then because the similar Gornaya Shoriya mineral
phase called hibonite was discovered and described by foreign researchers in marbled limestones of
Madagascar [5].
Nonetheless, the mineral turned out to be extremely rare in nature, especially in such large and
well-formed crystals. Furthermore, the Tashelga variety is noticeably enriched with ferric iron and is
a ferriferous mineral variety as compared to all other known findings representing practically ironless
hibonite varieties (Table 1).
We found out that the intensive black-brown colour of the Gornaya Shoriya hibonite is defined by
iron ions forming a part of the mineral [6]. The analysis of the optical absorption spectrum received
(Fig. 2) shows that there are both bi- and trivalent iron ions simultaneously present in Fe-hibonite. The
first ones are detected on the basis of intensive absorption belts 1800, 2070, 2400 Nm in the IR spectrum
zones and are associated with electronic transitions from the 5E(D) level to the orbital triplet 5T2(D)
level split down by the crystalline field into three sublevels in Fe2+ ions occupying the tetrahedral site
in the mineral structure (Dq=485cm-1). The remaining insignificant part of Fe2+ ions fills the octahedral
# 302 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Sergey I. Konovalenko, Sergey A. Ananyev? Rare and New Minerals of the Tashelga-Maizaskaya Zone?
Table 1. Chemical composition of Fe-hibonite (mass %)
Components
1
2
3
4
5
SiO2
4.44
1.03
0.72
0.53
0.42
TiO2
5.15
5.10
5.79
5.82
6.23
Al2O2
66.16
73.67
72.51
74.97
73.69
Fe2O3
11.54
9.90
10.57
9.96
10.05*
FeO
-
0.35
-
-
-
MgO
0.93
1.59
1.38
1.62
1.15
MnO
0.54
-
0.16
0.12
-
CaO
10.47
8.67
8.47
7.94
9.01
*
nnn
1.16
-
ND
ND
ND
Sum
100.39
100.31
99.60
100.96
100.55
300
500
700
900
2400
2070
1080
920
745
800
640
550
385
405
450
475
1800
Note: 1 ? analyst I.P. Onyfriyenok [2]; 2 ? analyst N.A. Stukalova [9]; 3 ? microprobe MAR-2 IZK SB of the USSR AS, average
for 5 points, analyst T.I. Medvedyeva; 4 ? microprobe MAR -3 SB of the USSR AS, analyst N.S. Karmanov; 5 ? microprobe
???????, IGEM, microprobe G.N. Muravitskaya. * ? iron re-calculated for Fe2O3.
1100 1500
2300
O, ??
Fig. 2. Fe-hibonite optical absorption spectrum
cavities of the structure. This occurs in the form of weak absorption belts in the 920-1080Nm zone of
the spectrum, corresponding to 5T2(D)? 5E(D) transitions (Fig. 2 and 3).
Fe3+ ions occupy octahedral sites in the Fe-hibonite structure. In the optical spectrum strong
absorption belts in the ultra-violet zone (385-405 Nm) correspond to them. These are associated with
transfer to high excitation levels of D(4E4T2) therms weaker in intensity 450, 475, 640 and 800 Nm,
corresponding to sixtet-quartet transitions from the 6A1(S) position to the 4A14E(G), 4T2(G) and 4T1(G)4
positions forbidden by spins. Splitting of the ? A14E(G) transition belt into two components is
observed. This is evidently associated with reduction of the local structure symmetry as a result of
Fe3+- octahedral distortion. Finally, a weak wide belt in the 745Nm zone occurred in the Fe-hibonite
absorption spectrum testifies to presence of a small amount of exchange-coupled pairs Fe2+VI -Fe3+VI in
the mineral.
The results received agree well with the following ideas: spinel block packages containing both
Al-octahedra and Mg-Fe-tetrahedra are present in the hibonite structure in addition to plane-coupled
# 303 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Sergey I. Konovalenko, Sergey A. Ananyev? Rare and New Minerals of the Tashelga-Maizaskaya Zone?
Fig. 3. Fe-hibonite infra-red spectra
Fe-octahedra pairs (corundum-hematite) [7]. Unfortunately, it is impossible to reliably evaluate the
Fe2+ and Fe3+ correlation in the Gornaya Shoriya Fe-hibonite on the basis of the optical spectroscopy
data. According to the published chemical analyses [5], Fe3+ noticeably prevails in the mineral. This is
also confirmed by the IR-spectrum of Fe-hibonite received by us (Fig. 3), in which a strong absorption
belt is present in the zone of the characteristic frequency of Fe3+ ions being in the octahedral site
(460 cm-1).
The first endemic of the Tashelga-Maizaskaya zone ? a complex C?, Al, Mg and Fe oxide tashelgite
was discovered in the association with Fe-hibonite. Its history started in the middle of the previous
century when V.I. Nefedev received the specimens with pseudohegbomite from Tomsk. He described
a potentially new mineral species in addition to already known phases in the course of study of their
mineral paragenesis. He called it lodochnikovite [8, 9]. However, the quantitative chemical composition,
the crystalline texture, thermic, spectroscopic and other important characteristics of this mineral were
not defined at that time. Consequently, lodochnikovite did not receive an independent status. Only a
half a century later the former lodochnikovite was approved by the Commission on New Minerals,
Nomenclature and Classification of the International Mineralogical Association (5th of June 2010, IMA
2010-017) as a new mineral species and received the other name ? tashelgite associated with the place
of its finding. It became possible only after repeated detail study carried out by the authors of this work
together with the group of colleagues. The detail description of tashelgite was published in [10]. It was
found out that it does not have close analogues in the mineral reign and represents a new structural
type. The uniqueness of the tashelgite structure (Fig. 4) is as follows: it contains functionally different
Al atoms with three coordination types ? octahedral, tetrahedral and diorthogroups [11]. According
to this, the crystallochemical formula of the mineral will look as follows (Z= 4): Ca2 Mg2 IV Fe(2+)N2
[ AlVI14 O31(OH)][AlIV2 O][AlIV ][ AlIV(OH)]. Here Roman figures mean the atom coordination, and
square brackets mean Al-octahedra belts, inter-layer Al-diorthogroups and inter-layer Al-tetrahedra
of two types ? without OH-groups and hydrated. The OH-groups are identified on the basis of the
local basicity balance. The idealized tashelgite formula looks as follows: CaMgFe2+Al9O16(OH). The
following composition (mass. %) corresponds to it: CaO 8.82, MgO 6.34, FeO 11.29, Al2O3 72.13, H2O
1.42, sum 100.00. The real one is given in Table 2.
# 304 #
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Sergey I. Konovalenko, Sergey A. Ananyev? Rare and New Minerals of the Tashelga-Maizaskaya Zone?
Fig. 4. Crystalline texture of tashelgite: general view, projection bc [10]
Table 2. Chemical composition of tashelgite (mass. %)
Components
Content, mass. %
Content Range
CaO
7.98
7.75 ? 8.33
MgO
6.75
6.51 ? 7.09
MnO
0.45
0.26 ? 0.59
Mn
12.09 ? 12.84**
Fe2O3
70.10 ? 71.61
Fe2O3
FeO
11.32
Fe2O3**
1.40
Al2O3
70.70
*
H 2O
***
Sum
References
1.8
100.40
Note: * ? the content of total iron re-calculated for FeO makes 12.58%; the division of FeO and Fe2O3 was made with the use
of the intensity of J(FeK?5 / J(FeK?1) lines in the X-ray iron radiation spectrum; ** ? re-calculated from the total FeO content;
*** ? on the basis of the thermogravimetry data as loss on ignition up to 1000? ? in vacuum.
The sizes of tashelgite inclusions are much smaller than that of Fe-hibonite, making shares of mm
and first mm. The mineral usually forms long prismatic needlelike slightly flattened crystals stretched
along Axis a (Fig. 5). Almost all of them are polysinthetically twinned along (001) and, as a result, bear
coarse longitudinal combination hatching. The main simple forms are {001} and {010}. In addition
to crystals, diverse columnar inclusions (up to 1cm across) of fibrous-diverse and radial columnar
structure are found.
The colour of individual grains varies from blue-green to colourless and white. The luster is
vitreous. Cleavage and jointing are lacking. The tashelgite hardness is very close to Fe-hibonite
hardness and makes 7.5 as per the Mohs scale.
The mineral is found in the same association as Fe-hibonite. It includes Fe-hibonite, grossular,
vesuvian, magnetite, hercynite and leucosapphire, the typochemical peculiarities of which were
described by us earlier [2]. The analysis of the sequence of these minerals formation shows that Fehibonite was the first one to crystallize, then grossular, vesuvian of the first generation, magnetite,
hercynite and vesuvian of the second generation occurred, and leucosapphire and tashelgite completed
# 305 #
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Sergey I. Konovalenko, Sergey A. Ananyev? Rare and New Minerals of the Tashelga-Maizaskaya Zone?
Fig. 5. Long-prismatic tashelgite crystals. SEM image. Field width ? 30 micron
mineral formation. The latter grows not only over but partially in vesuvian-2 and hercynite, and also
forms isolated crystal phenocrysts in massive calcite. Later, magnetite inclusions and one perovskite
grain were discovered in tashelgite with the help of a microprobe.
When examining the above-given paragenesis, it is easy to find out that CaO, Al2O3, FeO,
TiO2, SiO2 and MgO are species-forming components in the sequence of reduction of the value and
the frequency of occurrence in minerals. Only calcium is indisputably autochthonous because it
determines the composition of marbles. The rest of them require supply and, meanwhile, they are
mostly exceptionally low-mobile elements. The latter circumstance makes the idea of the mineral
association belongingness to typical calcareous skarns very unlikely [2, 3]. The geological position of
occurrence surely contradicts to that as well.
Alongside with that, the confideness of the mineralization zone to the contact of migmatized
amphibolites and migmatites of the Konzhinsky complex with marbles definitely indicates their
genetic connection with migmatization events, i.e. belongingness to skarnoids. A.I. Letuvninkas was
the first one to pay attention to this [13]. Simultaneously he thought that all mineral parageneses of the
zone were formed metasomatically and admitted large-scale supply of aluminum, iron and titanium to
marbles by acidic solutions rich in volatiles, coming from the amphibolite migmatization zone.
Consequently, the structure of the mineralization zone should be described in detail because
it makes this point of view doubtful. According to the undestroyed exploratory trenches and rare
natural outcrops, this zone has a near-meridional strike conformable with the strike of surrounding
rocks. Massive pyroxene-garnet skarn is developed in its western contact where marbles join directly
migmatized amphibolites and migmatites. It consists of an intermediate in composition diopsidehedenbergite and grossular with relatively high iron content (25-30 % of andradite minal). Garnet is
subordinated in general. In addition, meionite is present as a secondary mineral, and hydroxylapatite
and rutile are present in accessory quantities. The skarnoid association is gradually replaced in the
eastern direction by white grainy marble. The latter becomes more fine-grained and gains a typical
grey and grey-bluish colour with the distance from the contact. Dispersed Fe-hibonite, vesuvian,
subordinated grossular dissemination occurs in it, and marble transfers to typical calciphyre with
dotted belt-like mineralization stressing the primary stratification of carbonate sediments which were
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Sergey I. Konovalenko, Sergey A. Ananyev? Rare and New Minerals of the Tashelga-Maizaskaya Zone?
contaminated some time by the silicate material and oxides resistant to element weathering (Al, Fe3+,
Ti). Concretions and small lenses (up to 5-10cm) of silicate minerals (vesuvian plus grossular) and
dominating Fe-hibonite occur in the eastern contour of the zone in calciphyres. A continuous belt of
sites with varying Fe-hibonite content (above 50 % of the volume), with varying vesuvian, grossular,
hercynite, magnetite, corundum, perovskite and tashelgite (found only here) content is traced at the
contour eastern flank. The eastern limb of the zone is cut by a tectonic fault.
The identified pattern of construction of the described mineralized zone testifies to its possible
formation by means of supply of chemical components (Mg, Fe, Si and partially Al) from the side
of Konzhinsky amphibolites suffering migmatization. It occurs from the western side only, in the
immediate contact with alumosilicate rocks. Nonetheless, this zone does not contain Fe-hibonite at all.
It is impossible to explain the occurrence of the dispersed Fe-hibonite dissemination in calcite marbles
far away from the linear zone of contact skarnoids in this way. The nature of mineral distribution in
calciphyres and their concentration in the form of large conformable lenses and belts in marble at a
significant distance from the contact with the migmatization zone (tens of meters) testify to the only
possible way of occurrence of such accumulations. They occur in the process of re-crystallization of
laterite-like sediments in particular which some time contaminated the limestones of the carbonate
cover inside the ocean uplift composed of metabasites of the MORB type (Konzhinsky amphibolitic
complex). As for the metamorphism period, it corresponds to the Riphean age ? ? = 694±43 mln. years
ago according to the recent data [14]. The level of rock transformation corresponded at that time to the
transient facies from the green schist to the epidote-amphibolitic one in the low and moderate pressure
zones (?=490-570є?, ?=2-4 Kbar). Later, repeated tectonic strata processing occurred together with
regional heating and metamorphism, especially during the period of formation of the KuznetskAlatau shear zone. At that time metamorphism reached the amphibolitic stage with migmatization
and anatexis occurrence. At the same time the Tashelga polymetamorphic series was formed and the
rocks contacting it were transformed. This was repeated metamorphism for them. It led to occurrence
of contact skarnoids and re-crystallization of earlier occurred metamorphic mineral parageneses,
including hibonite ones. The occurrence of the zone endemic ? tashelgite in the composition of the
hibonite association is probably associated with this stage.
Calciphyres with metamorphic mineral parageneses are developed in the Tashelga-Mayzaskaya
zone and outside the occurrence described above. Nonetheless, they are different in composition there.
The most interesting ones are revealed in the basin of the right tributary of the Tashelga River ? the
Mramorny creek, near the same-name iron-ore deposit where dispersed dotted dissemination of fine
(1-3mm) irregular in shape pink-lilac semi-transparent corundum grains is observed, accompanied by
black-green phlogopite, dark and emerald-green muscovite, graphite and sulfides (pyrite, pyrrhotite)
in small and middle-grained calcite marbles. The discovered mineralization emphasizes the primary
marble stratification, sometimes forming lens-shaped (up to 20x50cm) accumulations consisting of
small-grained aggregates of the same mineral phases. The grains of all minerals have a ?melted?
view with rounded peaks and edges of coarsely cut crystals. This indicates nonequilibrium growth
conditions. The chemical composition of mica and corundum of this association defined with the help
of a microprobe is given in Table 3.
Quite low chrome concentrations in pink corundum and especially emerald-green muscovite
draw attention. This muscovite is simultaneously rich in V2O3 (0.85 mass %) and thus is not fuchsite
# 307 #
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Sergey I. Konovalenko, Sergey A. Ananyev? Rare and New Minerals of the Tashelga-Maizaskaya Zone?
Table 3. Chemical composition of calciphyre minerals (mass. % ) in the area of the Mramorny Creek
Components
1
2
3
4
5
36.50
SiO2
-
34.73
43.43
37.49
TiO2
0.02
1.26
1.34
-
-
Al2O2
99.34
21.17
36.28
3.98
21.81
Cr2O3
0.21
0.34
0.08
0.20
0.28
V2O3
0.18
0.02
0.85
21.87
11.29
Fe2O3
-
-
-
2.48
1.31
FeO
0.17
10.46
1.15
4.00
-
MnO
0.05
0.72
0.03
-
-
MgO
0.00
16.21
0.82
0.09
-
CaO
-
-
-
30.45
22.23
Na2O
-
0.40
0.64
-
-
K 2O
-
10.23
10.66
-
-
H 2O +
-
ND
ND
-
1.76
F
Sum
-
2.12
0.92
-
-
99.97
97.66
96.2
100.56
95.18
Note: 1 ? pink-lilac corundum; 2 ? phlogopite; 3 ? emerald-green muscovite; 4 ? emerald-green goldmanite [17];
5 ? vanadium epidote ? mukhinite [18].
frequently accompanying noble corundum in ruby-bearing calciphyres [15, 16] but muscovite rich in
roscoelite minal. In this context we have to recall two more rare minerals of the Tashelga-Mayzaskaya
zone ? goldmanite and mukhinite.
The first one of them is calcium-vanadium garnet and the second one is vanadium epidote. They
were discovered in the second half of the 20th century in metamorphosed carbonate rocks of the
Mramorny deposit. Mukhinite was discovered here for the first time as a new mineral species [18], and
goldmanite was found in the deposit first time for the USSR [17]. Both minerals are found in the same
paragenesis and are in close aggregation forming fine grains and hypidiomorphic crystals from shares
of mm to 3 mm in size in a thin veinlet (up to 1 cm) together with later sulfides ? pyrite, pyrrhotite,
sphalerite and galenite. Mukhinite individuals have a thick black colour, at the background of which
emerald-green transparent grains of vanadium garnet are very contrast. They have all advantages
of a true gem. It was noted that this epigenetic mineralization is confined to the calcite marble zone
highly enriched with emerald-green vanadium-bearing muscovite. It evidently became a source for
this element for its own minerals in the course of the metamorphogenic-hydrothermal process.
It should be noted here that classic tsavorite deposits (of vanadium-bearing grossular) in the
Mozambique mobile belt of Eastern Africa similar in the geological position (contact of marble strata
with graphitized crystalline slate and gneiss), according to foreign researchers, were formed in the
process of regional carbonate-clastic strata metamorphism reaching the level of the amphibolitic
facies [19]. Basic carbonate sediments some time contaminated with stable weathering products of
alumosilicate rocks surrounding sedimentation basins served as the sources for vanadium and other
elements xenogenic to marbles.
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Sergey I. Konovalenko, Sergey A. Ananyev? Rare and New Minerals of the Tashelga-Maizaskaya Zone?
The above-described examples of the mineralization in carbonate rocks of the Tashelga complex
demonstrate the cases of direct impact of the basic sedimentary rock composition peculiarities on
the nature of metamorphogenic parageneses occurred later, because the components some time
contaminating the sediment are transformed into independent mineral phases in the process of recrystallization. Then they can partially dissolve and re-deposit at the following metamorphism stages
or in the process of metasomatosis, forming new mineral species. The system generally remains open,
and the specifics of its phasal composition is defined by low-mobile and inert chemical elements Si, Fe,
V, Ti and, of course, Al. However, the observations show that this impact is also traced in a weakened
form in other even relatively closed endogenic geological systems of the zone, for example granite
pegmatites. They are significantly younger than metamorphogenic and metasomatic rocks, bedding
in them in the form of conformable ? cross-cutting vein bodies. In the earliest barren veins the impact
of surrounding marbles leads to occurrence of rare diopside crystals in vein contacts. No xenogenic
minerals are formed in later spodumen pegmatites, and rock-forming albite-oligoclase is developed
instead of albite regular for them. A visible share of grossular minal occurs in the almandine-spessartine
accessory garnet. The indicated facts testify to the occurred assimilation of calcium of the marbles
hosting veins with basic pegmatite melts.
In the conclusion it should be stressed that the rare natural mineralization identified in the
Tashelga-Maizaskaya zone, in addition to the scientific interest, is definitely of practical value as well,
primarily as the source of unique collection material and, probably, extremely deficient gems.
References
[1] ???????? ?. ?., ?????? ?. ?., ??????? ?. ?. ? ??. // ????? ??????: ??????????-????????
???????, ????????????? ??????????, ????????????? ????????????: ????????? ??????. ???.
???????????: ???-?? ?? ???, 2011. ?. 14-16.
[2] ??????? ?. ?. // ???????? ? ?????????. 1960. ? 4. ?. 63-75.
[3] ??????? ?. ?. // ???????? ???????? ???????????????? ?????????. 1961. ?. 120.
?. 42-49.
[4] ??????????? ?. ?. // ??????? ???. 1961. ?. 90. ???. 4. ?. 458-461.
[5] ????????: ?????????? / ??? ???. ?.?. ???????. ?.: ?????, 1967. ?. II. ???. 3.
?. 195-198.
[6] ??????????? ?. ?., ??????? ?. ?., ?????? ?. ?. // ??????????: ????????? ???????
??????? ???????????. ?????, 2008. ?. 40-48.
[7] ????? ?. ?., ????????? ?. ?., ??????? ?. ?. ?????? ?? ????????????? ???????????. ?.:
?????, 1982. 136 ?.
[8] ?????????? ?. ?. // ??????? ???. 1953. ?. 82. ? 4. ?. 311-317.
[9] Nefedov E. J. // Geologie. 1955. Vol. 4 (5).
[10] ??????? ?. ?., ??????????? ?. ?., ??????????? ?. ?. ? ??. // ??????? ???. 2011. ?. 140.
???. 1. ?. 49-57.
[11] ??????????? ?. ?., ??????? ?. ?., ????? ?. ?. // ???????????????. 2010. ?. 55. ? 4.
?. 606-611.
[12] ??????? ?. ?., ??????????? ?. ?. // Journal of Siberian Federal University Engineering &
Technologies 1 (2008 1) 33-39.
# 309 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Sergey I. Konovalenko, Sergey A. Ananyev? Rare and New Minerals of the Tashelga-Maizaskaya Zone?
[13] ??????????? ?. ?. // ???????? ? ?????????. 1971. ? 1. ?. 58-64.
[14] ?????????? ????????????? ? ???????????????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????. ???????????: ???-?? ?? ???, ?????? «???», 2000. ?. 101-102.
[15] ?????????? ?. ?., ??????????? ?. ?., ??????? ?. ?. // ???????? ?????? ?????????????.
1982. ?. 24. ? 2. ?. 57-66.
[16] ????? ?. ?. ????????????? ?????? ? ???????? (?? ??????? ?????). ??????????, 1991.
130 ?.
[17] ?????? ?. ?., ???????? ?. ?. // ????. ?? ????. 1970. ?. 193. ? 4. ?. 906-908.
[18] ?????? ?. ?., ???????? ?. ?. // ????. ?? ????. 1969. ?. 185. ? 6. ?. 1342-1345.
[19] ????????? ?. ?. ???????? ??????????. ?.: ???-?? ?????. ?????????? ?????, 2000.
?. 264-265.
?????? ? ????? ????????
?????????-????????? ???? ?????? ?????,
?? ??????????? ? ???????
?.?. ????????????,
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ?????????
?
??????? ??????????????? ???????????,
?????? 634050, ?????, ??. ??????, 36
?
????????? ??????????? ???????????
?????? 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
??????????? ?????? ? ????? ???????? (????????, ???????, ???????, ????????? ?
??.), ???????????? ? ???? ????????????? ???????????? XX ? XXI ????? ? ???????????
????? ????????????? ???????????????????? ????????? (R3-Rz3ts), ?????????? ???????
????????????? ????????? ? ???????? ????????-??????????? ????????? ???? ?????? ?????.
????????, ??? ?????????? ????????????? ??????????, ??????????? ? ????????????? ??????
??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????????
??????? ???????, ???????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????.
??????????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ????? ?? ??? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????
?????????????, ???? ? ????? ???????????? ????????? ????????, ???????? ????????
????????? ????????? ??????.
???????? ?????: ?????? ?????, ??????????-????????? ????, ????????, ???????, Fe-???????,
?????????.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 3 (2012 5) 311-318
~~~
??? 621.396.67
????????????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ???????????
??? ???????????? ???????????? ???????????
??? ??????? ?????????????? ?????????
? ???????????? ???????? ????????
? ??????????? ????????????
?.?. ??????*
????????? ??????????? ???????????
?????? 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79 1
Received 13.08.2012, received in revised form 20.08.2012, accepted 27.08.2012
??????????????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ? ???????????
????????????, ????????????? ??? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????, ??
???????? ????????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????? ??? ??????? ??????????? ??
??????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ? ???????????? ???????? «?????» ? ?????????
??????????????. ?????????? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????????
???????? ???????.
???????? ?????: ???????????? ???????? ???????, ?????? ???????????? ???????? ???????
? ??????????? ???????????? ????, ????????? ??????????????, ??????????????? ?????????.
?????????? ??????, ? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????? (???) ? ???????????
???????????? ???? (???), ? ???????????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ??????????, ???????? ????????? ???????? ? ??????????????????. ????????, ???
????? (? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ???????? «???????????? ???????????»), ??? ???????
??????????? ???????, ??????????? ?????? ?? ????? ????????? ?????????????? ? ??????????????? ??????????????, ??????? ? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ? ????????????? ??????????? ????. ???, ? ???? ???????, ????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ???????????????? ?????? ?
?????. ?? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ?????,
?????????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ??????. ?????? ? ??? ??????? ????????????
??????????? ????? ?????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ???, ?????????? ???????????? ? ??????????????? ?????????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ????????, ?????????? ?? ???
???? ?????? ???????????? ???????????. ??????? ??? ? ??? ???????? ??? ????? [1?3], ?
??????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ????????,
??????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????. ???, ? ?????? [1] ? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ?????? ?????????? ?:
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: osipovalexandrs@gmail.com
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 311 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????. ????????????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????????
?=
4? F (u0 )
і
2
2
F (u ) g (u ) d:
(1)
,
4?
2
??? g(???
??) ? ??????? ???????; d : sin ?d?d? ; F (u ) ? ?? ?? ???????? ? ??????????? ????.
??? ??????? ??????? ???????, ????? ?????? ???????, ?? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ??????? ????????, ??? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ???????, ???????? ? ??????????? ????????? ? ????????????? ????????????? ???????? (?. ?. ?.) ???????, ? ? ?????????
?????????????? (??) ??????????? ???????? «????» ??? ??????? ? ???????????? ? g(???
??) >>1.
? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ?. ?. ?. ??? ? ??? ??? ???????????
?? ??????????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ???? ? ???????????? ???????? «?????» ? ?? ? ???????? ????????????.
? ???????? ???????? ??????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ???? ?????????? (???. 1) ???????????? ???????? ???????? ???????, ????????? ?? N ?????????????? (??????????????
? ????????????) ???????????? ??????????, ? ?????? ?? ??????? ????? ???????? ?????????
? ???? ???????? ?????. ?????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????????? ? ?????
d. ????? ????????, ??? ??????? ????????????? ?? ?????? h1 ??? ??????? ???????? ??????????
????????????.
????????? ??????????? ?? ???????????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ? ??????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ???? u (?,?) , ?
?????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ????? (???????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????????? ??? ???????????? R? ? ?????????????? R? ??????????? R? = + 1, R? = ? 1), ????????????
?????????? [1]
?
???. 1
# 312 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????. ????????????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????????
F (u ) i ? F? (u ) i ? F? (u )
N
i ? ¦ [ yn j cos ? sin ? sin(khn cos ?) zn ( 1)sin ? cos( khn cos ?)] (2)
n 1
N
i ? ¦ [ yn j cos ?sin(khn cos ?)]
n 1
??? ? ????????? ????? ??????
F (u) i? (aH y + bH z) i ? (a1H y) i ?eH v + i ?e1H v ,
??? v =
(3)
y
? 2N-?????? ??????-??????? ?? ??????????-??????? ?????????????: yn ? ? ????z
?????????, ? zn ? ? ??????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????? ???????????, (n= 1, N ) ;
a= jcos?sin?sin(khn cos?) ,
a1 = jcos?sin(khn cos?) ,
(4)
b= sin?cos(khn cos?) N-?????? ???????-???????; H=
a
a
; H = 1 ? 2N-?????? ???????-???????;
0
b
k = 2?/? ? ???????? ????? (? ? ????? ?????); hn h1 (n -1)d , h1 ? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ????????????, d ? ??? ???????; ?????? H ???????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????.
??? ?????????, ? ?????????, ???????? ??????????? ???? ???????? ??????? ? ??????????? u0 (?0 , ?0 ) ??????????, ????? ? ????? ?????????? ? ?????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????? ???? ( F? (u 0 ) ? F? (u 0 )) ????
????? ? ????? ?? ???? ????? ???? ??? ????? ? / 2, ?. ?. ????? ????? ???? ? ????? ??????????
p
F? (u 0 )
r j,
F? (u 0 )
(5)
??? ????? «+» ? «?» ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ???????????.
? ???????????? ????????? (? = 0) ?? F? (u 0 ) ???????????? ?????? ?????? zn ???????????
??????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ? ????? ???? ???????? ??????? ? ??????????? ? = ?0, ? = 0 ??? ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????????:
N
r1
¦y
n
sin(khn cos ? 0 )
n 1
N
¦z
n
(6)
sin ? 0 cos(khn cos ? 0 )
n
??? ? ????????? ???? (???????? (3) ? (4))
# 313 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????. ????????????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????????
r1 =
a1H (? 0 )y
.
b H (? 0 )z
(7)
??? ??????? ?? ?????????? ???????????, ??? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????????? ? ?0 (?0 0) ?????????? ???????? ???????????????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ???????? ? ???????? ??? ????? ? ????????? 180° ? ????????????? ? ??????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????? ???????????.
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??? F (u ) ? ?? ?? ????????, d : sin ?d?d? ; u0 ? ???, ???????????? ??????????? (?0 ,?0 ) ??
????? ??????????.
? ????????? ????? ?????? ? ?????? (3) ??????????? (8) ????? ???
D=
??? W=
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,
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; P=
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? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?
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%= bmn ; ? = cmn ? ?????????? ??????? ??????? N ? ??????????
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?
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yo
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?.?. ??????. ????????????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????????
??? ????? ? ????????????? ? ??????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????
???????????, ?????????????? ???????????? ?. ?. ? ? ??????????? ? = ?0, ?0 = 0, ????????????
?????????? ??????????? [1]:
y0
?B-1a1 (?0 ) , z 0
C-1b(?0 ).
(10)
?????????? (10) ? (7), ????? r1 ?a1H (?0 )B-1a1 (?0 ) / bH (?0 )C-1b(?0 ) ?, ?????????????, ??? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ? ???????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ??? ????
????????????? ???????? ?. ?. ?. ? ??????????? ?0 ?????? ? ?? ?????????? ????????:
? bH (?0 )C-1b(?0 ) / a1H (?0 )B-1a1 (?0 ) ,
(11)
??? bH (?0 )C-1b(?0 ) , a1H (?0 )B-1a1 (?0 ) ? ???????????? ?.?.?. ??? ???????????? ? ??????????????
???????????? ??????????????.
????????? ????????, ???, ????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ?? ( F? (?) ? F? (?))
?? ????? ???????????? ????????, ??? ????????? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ???? ? ????? ?????????? ? ??????? ?????????????? ???? ?????????? ????????? ?????
? ????????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ? ?????????? ?????
? ??????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ? ? ???, ??? ? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?.?.?. ??? ???????????? ? ?????????????? ????????????.
??? ????????? ? ??????????? ?0 , ?0 ???????????, ???????? ?? ????????, ? ??????? (5)
?????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ??????. ??? ???????????? «?????»? ???????? ???????????? ? ?? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ? ??????? ??? ??????? ????????? ?????? ? ?
? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????
M
g (u ) = 1 + ¦ qi ?(u u i ),
i =1
??? ?(u u i ) ? ?????? ??????? [1].
??? ????????? ?????? ? ? ? ? ???? ?????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????
[4].
???????? ?????? ????????? ???????????. ???????????, ??? ??????????????? ??????? N
= 7, d = 0,5?, h1 = 0,25?, ?0 = 80°, ??????????? ????????.
????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????? ? ???????.
????????? ????? ? ?????????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ?????????????? ??????????? (9)?(11). ??????????? ????????????? ????? ? ?????????????? ??????????, ??? ????? ?? ???????, ????????? ??????? sin khn cos ?0 , n= 1,7 . ?????????? ?????
?? ???? ?????????? ??????????? ? ????????????? ???????? ???? (? ??????? ??????????????
???????
n
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5
6
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?????????). ???? «+» ??? «?» ????????????? ???? ???? 0 ??? ? ? ????????????, ???????????§ 2?
·
??, ?????? «+» ??? «?» ??????? sin Ё hn cos ?0 ё ??? ?????????????? ?????????? ? ???????
?
©
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·
cos Ё hn cos ?0 ё ??? ???????????? ??????????.
© ?
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??????????????? ??????? ??????????-???????? ????????????? ????? ? ?????????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ?? ? ??????????????? ?????????????? (??????????? ???????????? ????????????? r ?? ???? ?) ???????????? ?? ???. 2.
??? ?????????? ??????, ??? ???????????? ? ???????????? ????????? ????? ????????
???????? ??????????? ??????????? ???? ? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ?.?.?. ? ?????????????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ????? ????. ?? ???? ?????????????
??????? ? ??????????? ????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ? ???????
????? ????? ?????????????? ???????-??????????????? ???????, ??????? ? ????? ?????
???????? ???????????. ??? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????????????? ??????? ????????????? ????????? ???????? ? ???????? ??? ????? ? ????????????? ? ??????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ????? ???????????? ???,
??? ???? ???????? ??? ????? ? ???? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ????????????? ?? 0 ?? ?, ?
????????? ????? ? ????????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ?
?????????? ????? ? ??????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ???, ?? ???????
???????????? ?. ?. ?. ??? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ????????????? ?. ?. ?. ???
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-8
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-14
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???. 3
?????????????? ???????????, ?. ?. ??????????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ???????
????????.
?? ???. 3 ????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????????? ? ??????????????? ?????????????? ??? ??????? N = 10, d = 0,5?, h1 = 0,25?, ?0 = 70°, ??????????? ? ????????????? ?
????????????? ????????????? 0,5 ??? ???????????? «?????» (???????? ??????) ? ? ????????????? ???? «?????» ? ???????????? ?1 = 62° (??????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ?????),
?2 = 77°, ?3 = 78° (??????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????) ? ???????? ??????????????
q1 = q2 = q3 = 10 (????????? ??????).
??? ????? ?? ???. 3, ? ??????????? ?0 = 70° ??????????? ????????????? ????? 0,5, ? ???????? ???????????? ?????????????? «????»: ? ??????????? ?1 = 62° ? ???????? ?60 ??; ? ???????????? ?2 = 77° ? ?3 = 78° ? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?25?? ???????? ?????? 4° (????????
?????? ?? ?? ?????????? ????????). ??? ???? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? (?? 2 ??)
?????? ???????? ???????? ??????, ?????????? ?????? ?? (?? 1°).
??????
1. ????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ???? ? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ?. ?. ?. ? ?????????????? ?????????? ?? ???????????? ???????????
????. ?? ???? ????????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ????? ????? ?????????????? ???????-???????????????
# 317 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????. ????????????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????????
???????, ??????? ? ????? ????? ???????? ???????????. ??? ???? ??????????? ???? ???????
?????????? ???????? ??????? ? ????????.
2. ? ???????? ???????????? ???? ? ???????????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ??? ?
??????????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ?????????????? ?????????, ? ???????? ???????????? ? ?? ??????????? «????», ?. ?., ???????? ???????? ??????? ?????????????, ????? ???????? ????? ??.
?????? ??????????
[1.] ?????????, ?.?. ? ??????? ???????? ??????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ???? // ????????????: ????. ??????. ????.-????. ??. ???????: ???? ?????. ???-?? ??? ?????. ??-??, 1981.
???. 59. ?.81?89.
[2.] ?????????, ?.?. ???????? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ???? // ??????? ?? ????. ???. ???????????? ? ???????????. ??????,
1982. ??? ???II. ???. ?4. ?. 712?715.
[3.] ??????, ?.? ???????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ?
??????????? ???????????? ???? // ????????????: ????. ??????. ????.-????. ??. ???????: ????
?????. ???-?? ??? ?????. ??-??, 1985. ???. 73. ?.76?84.
[4.] ???????, ?.?. ?????????????? ?????? ???????? ???????. ?.: ???-?? ???.- ????. ???.,
1963. 735 ?.
Using Reflections from a Padding Surface
for Forming Arbitrary Polarization
in Phased Antenna Arrays
with Controlled Polarization Under High
Directionality of Radiation
Alexanlr S. Osipov
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
This article presents a solution to the problem of synthesis of a phased antenna array with controlled
polarization when placed above a plane, ideally conducting padding surface for gain maximization.
An analysis of numerical results from the phased antenna array synthesis under the constraints on
radiation polarization in the direction of the main lobe and the presence of deep nulls in the radiation
pattern is presented.
Keywords: phased antenna arrays, synthesis of a phased antenna array with controlled polarization,
directional diagram, polarization diagram.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 3 (2012 5) 319-326
~~~
??? 621.311.65
??????????? ???????? ?????????????? ? ????????
???????? ???????????????? ??????????? ????
?.?. ???????,
?.?. ????????? *, ?.?. ??????????
?
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
??????????????? ????????,
?????? 660049, ??????????, ??????, 70
?
????????? ??????????? ??????????? ,
????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ??????
?????? 655017, ??????, ?????????, 27 1
?
Received 13.08.2012, received in revised form 20.08.2012, accepted 27.08.2012
????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ?
??????? ???????? ????????????????. ?????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????????
??????? ??????? ????, ??????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ????????? ?????????????? ????????
????????????? Z ?? f (Q ) ?????????? ??????? ????? ? ?????????? ? ????????? ????, ? ?????
????????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????? ??????
????????.
???????? ?????: ??????????? ?????????? ????????, ??????????? ??????, ?????????
??????????????,
???????
?????,
???????
??????????,
??????
?????????,
????????????????????? ??????????.
? ????????? ????? ???????? ???????????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????? (??), ?????????? ??????? ? ??????? ????? ?????? ?
?????????? ???????????? ???????? (cos ?) ???????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ??????????
???? 13109-97 ???????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ?????????????????? (???????????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ? ?cu) ? ???????? ????????????? ????? ??????????? 35 ??, ?????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????????? (??) ??????????????? ??????? ?????????? [1, 2].
???????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??????, ??? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ????? ?????? ????????
?? ???? ????????? ????. ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ? ????? ????? ???? ?????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ????? ???????????? ????????? ??? ?????????
???????????????????.
?????? ?????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ?????????????? ??
???????? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ? ????? 27,5 ? 35 ?? ??????? ???*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: pvi0808@rambler.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 319 #
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?.?. ??????, ?.?. ????????????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ? ???????? ???????? ?????????????????
???????. ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ???? ????????????? ??? ????????????????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ?? ? ???????????? ?????????? (??????????????, ????????
????? ? ?.?.). ??? ??????????? ??????? ????? ??? ? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ??, ??? ? ? ???????
?????????? ???????? ?????? ? ???? [3].
???????? ????????????? ?????? ??, ??????????? ? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????, ???????? ?????????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????????? ???????,
??????????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????? (??). ???? ??????????
?????????????? ???????????? ????????, ??????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ????????? ?????????????? (??) ???????? ????????????? ???? Z?? ?????????? ??????? ????? ? ?????????? ?
????????? ????, ? ????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ? ?????????? ?? ?????? ??????
???????? [4, 5].
??? ???????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ???????? ???????????????? (??) ????????????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ????? ? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? (???. 1).
??????? ???????????????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ????????????? ??, ???????????? ? ????? ???????? ?????????? U? ? ???????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????????? U? ???????? ???????? (???????? ????????????????? ????) ? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?????????? U?. ? ????? U? ????? ????? ???? ?????????? ???????? ???????? S?
(??? ? ??????? ???????????????? «??? ??????? ? ?????» ? ??? ? ?????????? ????????????,
????????????? ? ?????????? ????) [6]. ????? ?????? U? ? ?????? ??????????? ???? U?1
??????? ???????? ????????????? Z?, ???????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????????? ??????? ???????? ????? ???? ?? ???????????. ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????????
?????????? ?? ????? U? ? Uc ?????????????? ??????? ??1 ? ??2, ??????????? ???????? ???
????????????????????? ????????? (???). ??????? ????????? ????? ??????????????? ???-
???. 1. ??????? ????????? ?????
# 320 #
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?.?. ??????, ?.?. ????????????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ? ???????? ???????? ?????????????????
???. 2. ????????? ????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ???? ? ??????????
???????? ????????????????? ??????????? ?? ? ????? U?1 (?? 3). ?????? ????????????????,
?????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ??????????, ???????? ????????????? ?????? ???????? ? ???? U? ? U? ?? ???? ???????? ?????????? U?, ??? ???????? ?????????? ????
???????? ?????????? (???) ??? ? ???? U? ? U? ?? ???? U? (???).
?????? ??????? ???????????????? ??????? ? ????? (???. 1) ??? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ? ?? ???????? ?????????????????????. ???????? ???, ?????????????
????????????? ??? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ????? U?, U?
??? U?1 ??? ??????????? ???? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? (?????? ???? ???????? ????????). ?????? ????????? ????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ???? ? ?????????? ???????? ??
???. 2.
? ????????? ????? (???. 2) ???????, ??? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????
?????? ?? ????? U?? ?? ???? ????????? ?? ??? ???, ??????????? ???????? ????? ???????????
??????? n. ? ????? U?? ???????????? k ?????????? ???? ?? ????????? J?1? ? ???????????? ? ???????? ???????? ??????? ????????. ??????????? ?? ??? ??? ?????????? ????? (R ????.? ? ?????.?),
??????? ??????????????? ??? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????????????????, ?? ??????????
????????? ????????? (? ??? ????? ???????????? ????????, ???????? ???, ??? ? ??.) [7]. ?
??????? ??????????? ????????? ????? ?????? ????????? ???????????? ? ????????????????
??????????? ?? ? ??????????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ?????? ???????? ? ?????????? ????????? ?????, ????????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ? ?????????? ??? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ???????, ????????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????? ? ????.
???????????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??????????, ??????? ???????? ? ???????? ??????
? ???? ???????? ? ?????????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ???? ???????? U?? ? ????? I?i ? ?????? ????????? ????? [8].
# 321 #
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???? ? j-? ????; U ( j )Q ? U ( j )Q 0 ? ?-? ???????????? ?????????? ? j-? ???? ?????????????? ???
????????? ?? ? ?? ??????????; K ( j )-Q ? ????????????? ????????? ?????????? ? j-? ???? ?????
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K IQi
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Z ( j )Qi
Z ( j ) ??Q
? K ( j )-Q
K IQi �
Z ( j ) ??Q 0
Z ( j )Qi
Z ( j ) ??Q 0
,
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??? Z ( j ) ??Q ? Z ( j ) ??Q 0 ? ??????? ????????????? ???????????? j-?? ????, ?????????????? ???
????????? ? ?????????? ??; Z ( j )Q ? ????????????? i-? ?????, ??????????? ? j-?? ????.
??? ?? ???? Z ?? f (Q ) ??????? ?? ???? ????????? ????? ? ?? ??????????. ??????? ??
? ????????????? K IQ ? K-Q ??? ??????? ????????????? ???? ?? ???????????? ??????????
Mathcad 2000 Professional [9].
? ???????? ??????? ????????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ? ????? ???????? ?? ??? ????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? (?????????? «???????»).
??? ?????????? ???????????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?? ????
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?????????? ?? ????????, ??????????? ???? 13109-97. ??????, ??????????? ??? ??????????? ?? ?? ????? 27,5 ??, ???????? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????. ??????????
??????? ????????? ? ????. 1 ? 2.
???????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ???. 3, ?, ? ?? ????????? ????? ? ?? ???. 3, ?.
? ????? ????????? ??? ??????? ?? ???????? ????????????? Z ?? f (Q ) ????????:
Z?Q ? ????????????? ???????? ???????;
Z TBQ , Z TCQ , Z TН Q ? ????????????? ??????? ????????, ???????? ? ??????? ?????????? ??????????????;
??????? 1. ?????????? ????????? ????????????? ??????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ??????
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??????????? ??
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?????????
T1
5,71
9,05
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T2
???????????
????????
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???. 3. ???????????? ????? ? ????? ????????? ?????????? «???????»
Zн Q ? ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ??????? 35 ??;
Z ??Q ? Z?Q ? ????????????? ?????????????? ??????? ???? ???-1,05-75-2?? ?????????
3,85 ??? ? ???????? ????-200, ????????????? ? ????????? ????? ?? ??????????;
Z ??? Q ? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ???? ? ????????? ???, ? ??????
???????? ?????? ??????? 5-, 7-, 9-, 11-? ???????? ? ?????????????? ??????, ??????????? ??
13-15-? ?????????. ????????? ????????, ???????????? ???, ???????????? ????????, ???????????? ?????????????? ????????, ????????????? ? ????????? ????? ?? ??????????;
JQ ? ????????? ?????? ????, ???????????? ??????? ?????????.
?? ???. 4 ???????????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ???? ???????????? ??? 27,5 ?? ???
?????? ?????????? ??, ?????? ??????????? ?? ? ???????? (??????????? ?????) ? ?????? ??????????? ??? (????????????? ?????).
??? ?????????? ???
Z??Q
Z1Q � Z 2Q
Z 3Q
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??? Z1Q Z?Q Z ??Q , Z 2Q Z ??Q Z ?Q , Z 3Q
??? ??????????? ??
(3)
Z ??Q .
# 323 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ????????????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ? ???????? ???????? ?????????????????
???. 4. ????????? ?????????????? ???????? ????????????? ????
Z??Q (?? )
??? Z 4Q
Z 4Q �
( Z1Q � Z 2Q Z 3Q � Z1Q Z 3Q � Z 2Q )
,
( Z1Q � Z 2Q Z 3Q � Z1Q Z 3Q � Z 2Q Z 4Q � Z1Q Z 4Q � Z 2Q )
(4)
Z ??Q Z ?Q ,
? ??? ??????????? ???
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Z 5Q �
( Z1Q � Z 2Q Z 3Q � Z1Q Z 3Q � Z 2Q )
,
( Z1Q � Z 2Q Z 3Q � Z1Q Z 3Q � Z 2Q Z 5Q � Z1Q Z 5Q � Z 2Q )
(5)
??? Z 5Q Z???Q .
??? ?? ? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ?? (??????????? ?????) ??????????????? ? ??????????? ???????? 7-? ????????? ????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ?? ?? ??????????? ???????. ??? ???? ??????? ????????, ??? ??? ????????? ?? ?? ????? 27,5 ?? ?????
????? ????????????? ????????? ????? ? ??????????, ??????????????? ?????????????? ? I? ?
???. ??? ?????????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????????:
K I? (??) = ???(??) = Z??? (???)/ Z??? ,
(6)
K I? (??) = ???(??) = Z??? (???)/ Z??? .
(7)
? ????. 3 ???? ???????? ????????????? K I? ??? ??????? ?? ????????? ? ?????????????????? ???????? ????, ? ????? ???????? K 2I?, ??????? ??????????, ?? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?? ??????? ? ??? ????????? ??. ???????? ?K 2I? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ????? ??????
????????.
????????, ??? ? ?????????? ?? ? ???????? ?? ????? ????? ???????? 5-? ????????? ???? ?
2,32 ????, 7-? ????????? ???? ? ? 5,93 ????, ? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?? ???? ???????? ????????? ?????? ?? ???????? ??????? ? 5,39 ? 35,15 ???? ??????????????.
# 324 #
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Z???
?
Z??? (??)
Z??? (???)
K I? (??)
K I? (???)
K2I? (??)
K2I? (???)
1
4,3
4,4
4,4
1,02
1,02
1,05
1,05
3
12,8
16,0
16,8
1,25
1,31
1,56
1,72
5
21,4
49,6
2,1
2,32
0,10
5,39
0,01
7
29,9
177,4
1,3
5,93
0,04
35,15
0,00
9
38,5
36,3
0,6
0,94
0,02
0,89
0,00
11
47,0
20,0
0,7
0,42
0,01
0,18
0,00
13
55,6
13,0
8,8
0,23
0,16
0,06
0,02
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64,1
8,9
11,6
0,14
0,18
0,02
0,03
17
72,7
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0,01
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19
81,2
3,9
21,0
0,05
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0,00
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89,8
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0,08
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0,08
25
106,8
0,9
32,1
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0,30
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0,09
27
115,4
2,1
35,5
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0,31
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0,09
29
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31
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42,0
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33
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35
149,6
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37
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51,4
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166,7
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3,92
????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ????? ???? ???????? ? ???? ?????????? ? 44,31 ???? ?
??????????? ????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?? ???????? ???????.
????????????? ? ????????? ???, ??? ????? ?? ???. 4, ????????? ??????????? ?????????
????????? ?????????? ? ???? ????? 5-, 7-, 9-, 11-? ???????? ? ??????????? ??????? ????????
???????? ????? ???????? ???????. ???????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?? ????????? ? ????????? ????????? ?? ? ???????? ??, ????????? ?????? ????????
???????? ?? ?????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ? 3,92 ???? ? ?? ????????? ????????, ??????????? ???? 13109-97, ??? ??????????????? ? ??????????? ????? ??????? ????????????? ?????????? ??? ? ???????? ?? ??? ??? ?? ???????????? ??????????
????????.
?????? ??????????
[1] ????????? ?.?. ?????????? ???????? ?????????????? ? ?? ???????? ?? ????????????
????????????. ?.: ???????????????, 1986. 168 ?.
[2] ?????????????????? ????? ?? ??????????????, ?????????? ? ????????????. ????
13109-97 ?. ????????????? ???????. ????????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????????????.
????? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ? ???????? ???????????????? ?????? ??????????// ??# 325 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ????????????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ? ???????? ???????? ?????????????????
????? ???????????. ?????????????????? ????? ?? ??????????????, ?????????? ? ????????????. ? ?????.: ???????? ? 12 ? 97 ?? 21 ?????? 1997 ?.
[3] ?????? ?.?. ????? ???????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ? ???? ???????????????? ???????????????? ??? ??????
?????????? ????????????????. ?.:, ??? 1978. 206 ?.
[4] ?????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. ???????????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ????: ??. ??????????. ?????.: ???-?? ???, 2010. 345 ?.
[5] ?????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. ??????????? ???????????????? ????????????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ????: ??. ??????????.
????????.: ??? 2011. 215 ?.
[6] ??????? ?.?. ???????????????? ??????????????????? ???????? ?????. ?.: ?????????, 1980. 295 ?.
[7] ????????? ?.?. ???????????????? ??????????????????? ???????? ?????. ?.: ?????????, 1982. 524 ?.
[8] ??????? ?.?. ?????? ???????????????? ???????????? ???????????. ?.: ??????????????? 1984. 472 ?.
[9] ???????? ?.?., ??????????? ?.?. MathCAD 2000 ? ??????????, ?????? ? ? Internet, ??????, 2001. 592 ?.
Ensuring Quality of the Electric Power
in Systems of Traction Power Supply
of the Alternating Current
Aleksandra A. Minina?,
Vasily I. Panteleev and Elena V. Platonovab
a
Siberian Federal University,
Polytechnic Institute
70 Lenin Str., Krasnoyarsk, 660049 Russia
b
Siberian Federal University,
Khakass Technical Institute - a branch,
27 Shchetinkina, Abakan, 655017 Russia
?
The mathematical modeling of means of compensation of jet capacity in system of traction power
supply is executed. The alternative practical design procedure of a traction network allowing on the
basis of the analysis of the frequency characteristic of entrance resistance Zen =f(?) to define ranges
of currents and tension in elements of a network is offered, and also to estimate levels of active losses
and an overload of compensating devices currents of the highest harmonicas.
Keywords: compensation of jet capacity, resonant contour, frequency characteristic, ranges of
currents, ranges of the tension, the highest harmonicas, compensation devices.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 3 (2012 5) 327-339
~~~
??? 621.314
????????????????? ??????????
????????????? ??????????
? ????????? ????????? ??????????
? ?????????? ???????????
?.?. ???????????*,
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ?????????
?
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???????? ??????????? ? ?????????????? ??????????
?????? 660074, ??????????, ??. ??????????, 26 ?
?
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??. ?.?. ?????????»
?????? 662972, ???????????? ????,
????????????, ??. ??????, 52 1
Received 13.08.2012, received in revised form 20.08.2012, accepted 27.08.2012
?????????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????
??????????? ???? ? ????????? ????????? ??????????. ????????? ??????? ??????????
?????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????????????.
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???????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ? ???? ??????? ???????, ?????? ?? ??????? ?????
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???????? ?????: ????????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????, ???????
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??????????????????? ?????????? (???) ?????? ?????????????? (???) ????????? ?????,
????????? ? ???????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????? (???). ?
?????? ??? ??????????? ???, ??????????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????
??????? (??). ??? ????????? ???????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ???, ???????? ??
?????????? ? ??????? ??????? ???????????????? ?????, ????????? ? ?????????? ???????
?????? ???. ??? ?????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ???????????? ?????????????? ? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ? ??????????? ???????
?????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ?????? ??? ? ??? ? ????? ???????????? ???
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: uvkras@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 327 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????????, ?.?. ???????? ????????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????? ? ??????????
???????????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ?????? ??????? ?? ???????????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? [1].
??? ??????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ????????? ????????? ??? ? ??????
????????? ????? ???????????????? ?????????, ? ?????????????? ? ?????? ???????????????
????????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ? ????????? ?????????? ???. ???????????????? ?????????? ????? ????? ??????????? ? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ?? ?????? ??????????
????????? ? ????????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ????? ? ?????????
????????? ?????????? (??), ????????? ?? ???????????? ????????????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ??????, ??? ? ???????? ????? ???????? ?????????????? ???. ? ????? ? ???? ????????? ??????, ???????????? ?? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ???????
??????? ??????????, ???????? ?????????????????.
? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????????, ??????????? ?????????, ??????????? ? ??????????????? ???????
[2?4]:
? ????????? ??? ? ???????????? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ????;
? ?????????? ??? ??? ????????????? ????????? ????????;
? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ??????? ???;
? ???????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ???;
? ??????????? ????????????????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ???;
? ????????? ????????? ??????????;
? ?????????? ???????? ???????????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ???????????????;
? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ? ????? ? ??????.
? ????????? ???? ??????????????? ??????? ????????????? ??????????????? ??? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?????????, ??????????? ? ??????????????? ???????, ?? ? ??????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ??? [5]. ??????? ????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ????? ???
????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ???, ?????? ?? ???????????
?????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ??????? ??????, ????????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ?? ??????? ????????? ???????? ??? ????????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ??. ??? ???? ?????????? ??????
?????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???? ?????????? ?? ???????????
?????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ?? ???? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ??,
????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ? ?????????? ???????????????? ????? ??????.
?????? ????????????
? [5] ????????? ????? ? ??????????? ?????? ????????????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ???? ? ??? (???. 1), ??????????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ? ??????????
???????, ????????? ??????????? ????????. ????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????
# 328 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????????, ?.?. ???????? ????????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????? ? ??????????
???. 1. ??????? ???? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????
't ?.? T ,
(1)
??? T ? ?????? ??????????????.
?? ??????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ? ???????-?????????? ?????????? (???) ? ??????? ? ??????????-?????????? ?????????? (???), ??????? ????????????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ??????????????? ????????? ??????? ? ????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ? ??? ? ??????? ? ???, ???????????? ?????????, ???????? ???.
????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????
??? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ???? ??? ??
???????????.
?????? ?????????????? ?? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????, ??? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ?? ???????? ? ???????????? ??????.
????????? ?????????, ?????????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ????????????, ????????? ?? ???. 2. ????? I?, I? ? IL ? ???? ????????, ???????????? ? ???????? ????????? ???????
???, UC.? ? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ???????, U? ? ??????? ?????? ???, U??? ? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ???????-???????????
??????????, m = 1, 2, 3,? ?? ????????? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????? «?» ? «??».
?????????? ???????????? ??????? ????????????????? ??????????????? ??????????, ??????????????? ? ?????????????? ???????????????? ??????, ????? ???
W? ( p )
d d (1 e pT ) ,
(2)
??? d = LC/T, L ? C ? ????????????? ? ??????? ????????? ??????? ???.
? [5] ????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ??? ??????????? ???? ? ??? ??????????????? ?????????? (2), ??? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????
???????????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ???. ???????? ?????
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>
@
d
2U C .? (mT ) U C .? ((m 1)T ) ,
U ?? K ?
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???????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ???????, Um ?
????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???.
????? ? ????? ? ?????? ?????????? ??????? (1) ?????????, ??? ?????????? ????????????
???????? ?????????? ?t?.? ???? ? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ????? ??? ??????????
# 329 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
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???. 2. ????????? ?????????, ?????????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ????????????
? ??????? ??????? mT, ?, ?????????????, ???????? ??????? ????? ????????? ????????????
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U ?.? (mT ) U ?.? ((m 1)T ) U ?.? (mT ) .
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????? ???? ???????????? ? ???? ??????????????? ?????????? ??????? C? ???????????? ? ???
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?????????? URC ?? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? RC ????????????. ????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? RC ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ?????????????? ? ?????????? ????????, ?? ? ?????????? URC ????? ????? ??????????,
?, ?????????????, ?????????? ?????????? UC ?? ??????? ????????????, ????????, ????? ????????? ??????????????? ?????????? URC ?? ????????? ?????????? U??? ?? ??????????????
?????????.
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?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ?IC.? ???? ????????????
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# 330 #
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?????????? (???. 2), ?? ??? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ???? ????????????
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I ? .p (mT ) I ? .p ((m 1)T )
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I ? .p (mT W) I ? .p ((m 1)T W) ,
???
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??? ? < T ? ? ????? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????.
??? ???? ????? ??????????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????, ??????????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ???????-??????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ??????? mT, ????????????? ? ???????? ???, ????? ??????? ??????? (mT+?) ??????????? ???????
?? ???????? ??????? mT ????????????? ???????????? ???????? ????? ???. ??? ??? ??????????? ???? ? ??? ????????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????? (mT+?) ???????
??????? ??????????????? ????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ????? ???. ?????????, ??? ???????, ? ??? ??????????? ???? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? K?.?? > 0,25, ?? ?? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ????????
?????, ??????? ? ???????? ??????? ??????????????. ????????????? ????????? (6) ?????????
?????????? ?IC.?(mT) ? ?????? ??????? (mT+?). ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ????? ????????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????
????? ??? ?????????, ?? (5) ????? ???????? ? ????
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'I C .p ((m 1)T W) .
?
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??????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ??????. ??????????????, ? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ???????-??????????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? (3) ? (4) ????? ????? ???? ??????????? ????? ??????? ??????? mT ? ???????????
??????? ??????? (m?1)T+?.
?? ???. 3 ????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ??????????, ???????????? ?????????? ????? (2) ???????????? ???????? ??????? ???.
?????????? ??????? ? ???????? (???1????3) ???????????? ??????? ??????? ????????
? ??????? ??????? (mT+?) ? ???????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????????? ? ?????? ?????????????? ?. ?????????? ?????? ???????? (???)
???????????? ?????????? (6), ??????????? ?1 ?????????? ?????????? ???????? (7) ? (8), ? ??????????? ?2 ? ?3 ? ???????? (3) ? (4) ??????????????.
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U ?.??
m
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??????? ???????-???????? ???????????????? (???) MAX130B, ?????????????? ????????? ? ????????????????? ATMEGA128A1. ??????? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ????????? ?????????: ????????????? ???????? L = 110?180 ???? ? ??????? ?? ???? ???????????? ????, ???????
???????????? ????????? ??????? C = 1000 ???, ?????? ?????????????? ? = 25 ???, ???????
?????????? U?? = 25?80 ? ? ???????? ?????????? U??? = 15 ?.
?? ????????? ?????????? ???. 4?6 ????????? ????????????? ????????? ? ?? ??????????? ???? ? ?????????????????? ???????????. ?? ???? ?????????? ??? 1 ???????? ????????
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??????? RC-????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ?? ???4, ??? ? ???????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ?5 (???. 7).
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?? ???. 4?6 ? ???. 8, ??????? ? ???, ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????????
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???? ????????
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?????? K, ????????? ? ? ?????? VD. ????????? ??????? ????? ???????????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ????????? ?? ????????, ?? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ??????
???????.
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? ????? ??? ????? ??????????????? ???????? ? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?????????????
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??????? ?????????? ? ??????? ?? ???????. ?? ???. 12 ?????????? ????????????? ? ???????
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????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????????, ??? ??????? ???????? ?????????????, ??????????? ?? ???. 9. ?? ????????? ???????????? ???. 10?12 ?????# 337 #
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????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????. ??? ???????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????????? ???? ????????, ?????????? ? ????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????, ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ?? 3?5
???????? ??????????????, ?????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ????????, ???
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????????????? ???????????? ? ??????? ??????? ? ?????????? ????????? ?????????????
? ??????? ?????????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ? ?????? ????????? ??????????????? ??????????, ??????? ????? ???? ??????????? ??? ???????
?????????, ??????????? ? ??????????????? ????? ?????????? ???.
?????? ?? ????????????? ???? ???????? ??? ????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ?? ????
???????? ? ?????? ?? ??????????????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ???? ????????. ????????? ????????? ???????, ????????????????? ???? ????????, ??????????? ??????????????? ?????, ?????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ? ???, ?????????
# 338 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????????, ?.?. ???????? ????????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????? ? ??????????
????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ???? ???????? ?? ???????????? ??????????????
???.
?????? ??????????
[1] ?????????? ?. ?. // ???. ?????: ???????????????. 2004. ?. 47. ?4. ?. 39?48.
[2] ??????? ?. ?. // ??????? ???????????. 2007. ? 13. ?. 19?21.
[3] Potter G. // White Paper from Astec Power. 2004. ? 4. P. 13?15.
[4] Morrison D. // Power Electronics Technology. 2006. ? 1. P. 16?18.
[5] ??????? ?. ?., ???????? ?. ?., ???????? ?. ?., ?????? ?. ?. ??????? ??????????????
??????????? ?????????. ???????????: ?????, 1994. 318 ?.
Quick-Switching Voltage Regulator
with Modular Principle and Discrete Control
Yuri V. Krasnobayeva,
Denis V. Kapulin and Dmitriy V. Goncharukb
a
Siberian Federal University
Institute of Space and Information Technologies
26 Kirenskogo Str., Krasnoyarsk, 660074 Russia
b
JSC ?Information Satellite Systems? Reshetnev Company?
52 Lenin Str., Zheleznogorsk, Krasnoyarsk region, 662972 Russia
a
A discrete principle control for step-down switching converter with modular construction is considered.
An embodiment of the principle control at digital control signal by microcontroller is proposed. The
results of researches for models of switching converters, made on the one or pare power modules, each
of which has a microcontroller control unit are given. An astatism achieve for output voltage and short
duration transients in converters are given.
Keywords: high-speed switching converter, power module, digital control.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 3 (2011 5) 340-352
~~~
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?
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?????? 127490, ??????, ???????????, ??. 51, ???. 25 1
?
Received 13.08.2012, received in revised form 20.08.2012, accepted 27.08.2012
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1
Corresponding author E-mail address: asidorov@sfu-kras.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 340 #
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????????? ? ??. ??.
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? ???????????????? ?????? ??? [1-4], ???????? ???????????????? ????? ???????, ??? ??????????? ????????????? ?????? ?????????????? ???????????? (???), ?? ??????????????? ?
???????????? ?????????, ????????, ??????, ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ??. ?????
???, ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????????? ? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ????????? ????????????? ????????.
? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????-??????????????? ??????????????, ?????????????? ????? ?????????? ? ??????? ????? ???????????????? ?????????? ???????? ???.
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1. ?????????? ????????? ???????? ??????. ?????????? ?? ????????? ??????? ? ???????
??????, ????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ??????????, ??????????????? ?????????, ?????????? ? ??????????? ??????. ????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????
??????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ? ???????????, ????????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ??????????????????? ??????????, ??? ??????????, ??? ? ?????????????, ????? ?????????? ? ???????? ????????, ????????? ?????????? ? ????????, ????????????? ?? ??????????? ????????? ? ?????????. ??? ?????????????? ?????????? ? ???????????
?????? ???????????? ??????, ????????? ? [5].
2. ?????????? ????????????? ??????. ???????????? ???????? ? ?????? ? ?????????,
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5. ?????????? ????????? ???????? ???????. ???????????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????????? ??????? ? ????????? ?????? ? ????????? ????????. ??? ???????
?? ??????????? ???????? ??? ??? ???? ?????????? ??????????????? ????? ?????? ??????
????? ???? ???? ????????. ? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????, ?????????? ??????????. ??? ???????? ??????? ? ???????? ???????????????? ????, ????????????
???????, ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ?????, ??????????? ???????
??? ?????????? (??????????? ????????????). ?????????? ???????? ????????? ???????????
?????? ?? ?????????, ????????????? ?? ????????????? ? ???????????? ??????????. ??? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ? ????????? ????????
???????, ? ????? ??????????? ????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ???.
6. ?????????? ?????????? ??????????-?????????? ??????????. ????????? ?????? ?????? ????????????, ??????? ?? ?????????? ? ???????? ???????????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????, ??????????????????? ????? ? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?
????????????? ?????? ??????????????, ????????? ? ??????????? ????? ? ?????? ?????????????? ???????, ?????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ? ??????????????? ??????
?????????????? ? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ???????.
???????????? ??????????????? ??????? ????????????
??????? ??? ???????? ????????? ????????????? ???????. ?????? ? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ???????????? (??). ??? ???????????? ? ?????????? ????????????? ???????
?????? ????????? ???????, ? ????? (?? ???? ??????????????? ???????? ???????????????
?????) ?????????. ??? ???? ????? ???????????? ? ?????? ??????? ? ???????? ??? ???????????? ??????, ??????? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ????????????? ???????, ???????????
????? ?????? ? ??? ?????????? ???????. ??? ????? ??? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ??????
? ??????????? ????????, ?? ????????? ? ?????????? ????? ???? (??????? ????). ????? ????,
???????, ???????????? ? ?????? ??????? ? ????????? ??????????????, ?????? ???????????,
# 342 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ????????? ??????????-??????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ??????????
???????? ??????? ????????. ? ?????? ???? ?????? ???????? ????????? ???????, ???????????? ? ???????? ???? ? ?????????, ??????????????? ? ?????? (???????????? ???????? ????????).
??? ????????????, ? ????? ???????, ?????????????? ???????? ?? ?, ? ?????? ? ???????
??????, ??????????? ????? (? ??? ????? ? ????? ????????? ???????????), ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????. ??? ?????????? ????????????? ? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????????????? ??????? ? ?????????. ??? ???????? ? ?????????? ??????? ??????? (?? ???????? ?????? ?
?????? ? ???????? ?????????, ??????? ???????????? ??????????????, ???????????? ??????? ?
??.), ???????? ? ??????? ????????? ???????????, ? ????? ?????????????? ???????.
? ????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????????
????? ???????? (????????, ????????????? ????? ?????? ??????? ????????????? ???? ? ????????? ???????? ???????), ? ????????? ???? ?????????? ?????? (????????, ??????????? ???).
? ?? ?????? ???? ??????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????????????? ??????? ? ??????, ????
?????????? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??? ?? ??? ??? ???? ??????????. ??? ????? ????
???????????? ?? ?????? ???? ??????????????.
???????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ??????:
?) ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????; ??????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ???
??????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????? (??????? ?????????? ?????? ?
?????????);
?) ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????; ? ???? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ???????????????? ??????????;
?) ??????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ??????: ?????? ???? ??????? ???????; ?????????
???????? ???????.
??????????????, ? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ????????????? ??????? ????????? ?????
??????, ??? ?????????? ?????? ???? ? ???????????? ?????? ????????? ? ?????????? ???????
???????, ??????????? ????????????? ???????????, ????????? ??????????? ????????? ? ??????? ??????? ? ????????????? ???????????, ??????????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ???????
?? ????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ???.
?????????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ? ?????? ??????, ?? ???????
??? ?????? ?? ?????????????? ???????????????? ??? ??????? ?????????????? ??????? ??
? ? ???????????? ? ???? ????????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ??? ???????????
???????? ?? ???? ??? ????? ???? ?????????. ?????? ?? ???????? ????????? ?????????????
? ???????????? ??? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ? ????, ??? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ? ???????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ????????????.
? ????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????:
? ???????. ??????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????? ??????, ??????? ???????? ????????, ??? ??????? ????????, ?????? ????????????? ? ???????????????. ? ?????
?????? ??? ?? ???.
? ??????. ??????? ?????????? ??????????, ???????????? ??????, ??????? ?? ???????????? ? ??????? ?????? ????. ?????? ????????? ??????????? ???????, ???? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ? ?????? ????, ??????? ???????? ??????????, ???????????
???????.
# 343 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ????????? ??????????-??????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ??????????
????????? ??????????-??????????? ???????
? ?????? ????????? ????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ???????, ??????? ???????? ??????
???, ?????????? ?????????-?????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? ????????? ?. ???????????,
???????????????? ??????? Intel P6, ???????????? ??????? Blade Server. ??????? ???????? ?
?????????????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ???????????? ?????? ????????? UNIX ? Windows.
????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ???????????? ???-????????, ??? ???? ??????????? ??????????????????? ???????. ??? ???? ???????????? SilverLigth-???????, ASP.
net, C#.net, JavaScript, PHP ? ??????????, ?????????? ??? ??????????? ???-??????? Internet
Informational Services(IIS), ? ????? OpenSource ??????? MapServer, DeepEarth; ??? ?????????
?????? ??????????: ???????? MathLab, OpenSource ?????????? GDAL, ENVI, Erdas Imagine,
Scanex Image Processor.
???? ???????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?????????????? ?????. ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ????????, ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????????.
???????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????????? ???????????:
? ???????? ??????? ???????-36TM;
? ???????? ??????? ?????-??TM;
? ????? ?????? ? ?????????????, ?? ???? ??????? IBM.
??????? ????????????? ? ?????????????????? ???????????? SpotTools ???????????? ???????? ??????????, ??????????????? ? ???????? ???????? DS4700, ????????? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ?? ?????? 1?.
?????????????????????? ??????? ???? ??? ? ????????????????? ??????? MatLab ???????????? ???????? ??????????, ??????????????? ? ???????? ???????? DS4700, ?????????
?????? ????????? ??????? ?? ?????? 2B, ? ????? ?????? ?????????? ???????.
???????? ?????? IBM DS4700 ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????
?????????. ???????????? ???????? ????????????, ???????????????? ??????, ?????????????
????????? ??????????.
??????????? ?????? ???????? ?? ????????? x64 ??? ???????????? ???????? SLES 11. ?
??? ?????? ?????? ????????? ??????????: FTP-??????, LDAP-??????, ???? ??????? ??????????, ?????? ??????? ??????????.
?????? web-????? ???????? ?? ????????? x64 ??? ???????????? ???????? Windows 2003
Server. ? ??? ?????? ??????: web-server IIS 6.0, ???????????????? MapServer, ?????? GeoMap,
?????????? ?????????? ??????????-?????????? ??????????? (???), ?????????? ?????????
???????, ?????????? ?????????????? ???????? ?? ???? ?????? (??) ? DomainCommon.dll.
? ???? ??????? ???? ?????? ????????? IBM P6, ?? ??????? ?????????? ???? Oracle.
??????? ?????????????? ??????????????????? ?????????? ? ? ????????????????? ?????????? MapInfo, ??????????????? ? ???????? ??????????, ????????? ?????? ??????????
?????? ? ?????????? ? web-?????.
?????????? ???????????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ? ????????? ??????????. ?? ???????
??????? ?????????? Silverligth-??????, ??????? ???????? ? ????????-???????????? ????????????. ?????? ??????????????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????,
????????? ???? Internet ?? ????????? HTTP, ? ????? ? MapServer ?? ????????? WMS. MapServer,
# 344 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ????????? ??????????-??????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ??????????
???????? ? ?????????? ????????????, ????????? ? ????????? ??????????. ????? ?????????
??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????? WCF (Windows Communication Foundation), ? ??????? ?????? ??????????????? ?? ????????? SOAP. ?????? ???????? ??
Internet Information Services (IIS) ?????? 6.0. ?????? ? ???????? ?? IIS ????????????? ???????????? ?? ?????????? QueryLib ? DomainCommon.
? ?????????? ??????????????? ? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ? ????????????????? ??????? GDAL (Geospatial Data Abstraction Library).
?????????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ??????
??? ???? ?????????????? ????????. ??? ?????? ????? ????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????. ? ??????? ???? ?????? ????? ????????? ??????????? ? ????????? ??????, ?????????
????????? ????????? ??????. ???? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ?? PHP,
??? ????????? ? ???????? ?????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????, ????????? ????????????? ????, ??????????? ??????????? ? ??., ??? ???? ???????? ????????? ????????
?????????? ?????????? ????????.
????? ????, ????????????? ??????????? ?????????? GDAL ????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ? ?????, ??? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????
? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ?????????????. ??? ?? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????????????? ??????? ??????, ?????????, ?????????? ? ???????? ??????????? ???????
(?????) ??? ???????? ??????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????? ??? ??.
?????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ???????? ?????????
?????? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????? ?????????
?? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ??? ? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ???????????????
???????????? ?????? ???. ??????? ???????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ?????????????? [7]. ?? ??????????? ???? ? ???? ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????????????????? ??????, ?????????? ?????????????
???????? ??????????? ????????????. ????? ????, ??????????? ?? ??? ???????? ?????????
??? ???????? ???????. ????????????? ???? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????
?????? ???????????? ??? ? ????????????, ??? ? ?? ???????. ? ????? ? ???? ???????????????
? ?????? ???????? ?????? ? ???????? ?????? ??? ????????????? ???????, ??????????? ???????? ???????????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ??? ??????? ? ?????? ??? ?? ???-??????.
? ?????? ?????????????? ????????????? ?????? ??? [?????] ? ???????? ???????? ???????????????? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ??????????, ?????????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????????? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ??????
GLCF (Global Land Cover Facility). ????? GLCF ???????????? ????? ???????? ???????? ??????
???? ?????? ???????? Landsat, ????????? ?? ????????? FTP. ????????? ?????????? ?????????
????????????? ???????????? FTP ??????? GLCF ? ????????? ? ???????? ????? ??????????
? ????? ???????????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? Landsat. ?????
???????, ? web-??????????? ????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ???? ?
????? ???????.
? 2012 ?. ? ??? ????????? ? ??????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ????? (??
???) «??????????» ??????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ????????????? ?????? ???
# 345 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ????????? ??????????-??????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ??????????
??? ? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?????
(????? ???) ??????????. ? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ???????, ????? ??????? ????? ????????? ?????? ?? ??????,
?????????, ?????????? ? ??????????????? ?????? ???. ??? ???? ??????????????? ? ?????????????????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ? ????????????? ??? ????????????
????????????? ?????? ??? ??? ??????? ????????? ?????. ????????? ???? ????? ?????????
???????????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ????????????? ???? ?????????? ? ??????? ?????????-????????????? ? ??????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ?
???????????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????.
?????????????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????? ? ?????????????? ?????????? ??? ?
?????????????? ????????? ?? ?? ?????? ???? ????????? ? ?????? ???????????????? ????????? ? ??????? ??????????????? ? ?????????????? ??????? ? ????????? ???? ???????? ? ??
?????? ????????-??????????. ??????????? ??????????????? ????????????????? ? ?????????
????? ??????? ??????? ? ????????????? ? ???????????????? ???????? ?????? ??????????????
?????????????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????? (????? ???).
????? ??? ????????????? ??? ??????????? ? ?????? ??????????????? ????????????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ???, ?????????
??????????, ?????????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ? ???????????
??????????. ???????? ???? ??????? ??????????? ? ????????? ????????????? ?????????????
?????????????? ?????????????-??????????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ????????????.
????? ??? ??????????? ?? ???? ???????????? ???????:
? ?? ??? ??? «?????????? ??????????? ???????» (?. ??????) ? ???????? ???????? ????????? ????? ???;
? ???????????? (?. ??????), ?????????? (?. ???????????), ???????????????? (?. ?????????)
??????? ?? «??? «???????» «????????????»;
? ?????????? ????????????? ?????? «??????????» (?. ????????????).
??? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ? ?????? ??????? ????????????? ??????????
????????? ?????? ?? ?????????????? ? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ????????????????, ??
?????? ??????? ??? ?????? ????????????? ??? «??? ??» «??????? ?????????? ???????
????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ISO 19115, ISO 19115-2, ISO 19139».
? ????????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ???. ???????? ????? ???, ???????? ???? ????????????? ?????????? ??? ? ?????????????? ?????????, ????????? ?? ?? ?????? ??? ???????
????????? ?????????-????????????? ? ??????? ?????, ????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????????? ? ??????????? ???????????????
?????????????? ??????????????? ??????????????, ? ?????????? «??????????» ? ? ??????????? ??? ? ?????.
? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?? ??????????/??????????? ????????????? ?????? ??? ???
? ????? ? ????????? ????? ?????????????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ??????, ???????????????
?????????, ???????? ? ??????????????? ??? ??????????? ????????? «??????-?» ????????
?????????? ???, ??? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ? ???????? ???
# 346 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ????????? ??????????-??????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ??????????
«??????-?», ? ????? ????????????? ??????? ? ??? ?? ???? ????????????? ???????? ???????????????? ????????????????????/??????? ?????????????? ???.
????? ? ?????? ????????????
? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? SPOT-4, Terra
(Modis), Aqua (Modis), ??????????? ?? ???????? ????????? ??????. ????? ???????? ???????
??????????? ????????? Landsat ?? ???????????? ????, ??????????? ?? ???????? ??????????. ??? ????????????? ???????? ?????? ?????? web-????????? ??? ??????, ????????? ? ?????? ??????????? ??????. ????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ?????? ????????
?????????? ????????????????:
? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? (????? ??????????, ???? ??????, ????????,
???????, ????????????????? ??????????, ??????????);
? ??????? ????????? ?????-???????? (?????????, ???????????, ????????) ? ?????????
geo-???????? (Microsoft Virtual Earth, Open Street Maps, Yahoo ? ?.?.);
? ??????? ???????????? ???????;
? ????????? ? ????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ???????;
? ?????????????? ??????? ?? ???????? ??????????? (??????????????, ???????????? ????????????? ? ??.).
????????? ?????????? ???????????? (?????? ??????????? ?? ?????, ????? ???????????,
???????????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ? ???? ??????) ???????????? ?? ???. 1.
?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ???????????????, ???????? ????????, ???????, ???? ?????? ? ?.?. ????? ??????? ?? ???????????? ??????????
?????????????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ?????; ??????????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????, ??????? ??????????? ?? ?????????????? ????????, ? ??? ????? ? ??????
?????????? ??????????? ?????? ? ?????? ???.
???. 1. ???????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????
# 347 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ????????? ??????????-??????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ??????????
?????????? ??????????????? ???????
? ????? ????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????????????? ???? ????????????? ????????????? ???????? ?? ?????. ????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????? ????????????
?????? ?? ???????????, ??? ?????????????? ????????? ?? ??????? (1-2 ??????), ????????????
????????????? ????????????? (?? ????????????? ???? 1252,9 ???. ??), ????? ??????? ???????? (???????? ??????? ??????? ?? 4 ?). ??????????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ?
???? ???????? ???? ??????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ????????????????? ??????????, ?? ? ??????? ??????????? ????? ?????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??? ???????
?? ?????????? ?? ????????????? ???????????. ????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????
???????? ? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ???????????????????? ????? ? ????????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???, ?? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???????????????????? ????? ? ??????????? ? ??? ????????? ???????? ???????? ? ??????????. ?
????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ???????, ?????????? ??????, ????????????? ??????, ???????? ??????, ???. ?????????? ???????????, ?? ??????????? ? ????????????????? ????????,
? ????? ????, ?? ??????? ???????? ? ?????? ????? (?????? ???), ?????????? ????????? ??
?????????? ?????????.
??? ?????????? ???????? ????? ???????????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????,
????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ??????, ?????????? ???????? ????????? ???????: ??????? ??? / ???????????????????? ????, ??????? ?????????? ????? / ???????????????????? ????, ??????? ????????????? ?????? / ???????????????????? ????, ??????? ???????? ?????? / ???????????????????? ????, ??????? ??? / ???????????????????? ????.
???????? ???????? ???? ???????? ?????????????? ??????, ????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ??????, ??????? ?? ????????? ??????:
1. ????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ????????? ???? ?? ????????? ?????????? ?
?????????? ???????, ???????, ??????????????? ?????, ??? ?????????????? ??????,
?????.
2. ??? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ???????????????????? ????? ? ??????
???????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????? ??? SPOT4 ? Landsat 5, ???????????
? ???????????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????. ? ?????????
??????????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ?????:
??????????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ???. ?????????? ??????? ???????,
???????? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ?????????????? ???????.
????????????? ??????????? ??????, ???????:
o ???????????? ???????? ??????????????? ????????????? ? ????????????
?????????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ??????;
o ?????????????? ????????? ???????????????????? ????? ? ?????????????? ???????
Maximum Value Composite (MVC) ?? ??????????? ???????????? ? ??????? NDVI
?? ????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????????
(??????? ????????, ????????? ? ?????????);
o ????????????? ??????? ????????????? ????????? ? [8].
3. ????? ??????? ???????? ? ?????? ???????????????????? ????? ? ???? ?????????
???????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ????????# 348 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ????????? ??????????-??????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ??????????
-
- ???????
???????????????????? ?????
? ?????? ????????
-
- ???????
???????????????????? ?????
? ????????????? ?????
???. 2. ????????? ????????????? ????????
??? ?????? ???, ?????????? ????? ???????? ????????? ?? 30 ?. ????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? (SPOT4 ? 10 ?/???, Landsat
5 ? 30 ?/??? ).
4. ?????????? ????? ????????? ??????? ????????.
?? ??????? 2 ???????????? ????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????, ????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ??????.
???? ???????? ?????? ? ????????????? ??????
???? ?? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ? ??????? ???????????? ????????
????????????? ??????????? (????), ????????????? ??? ????????? ????????????? ????????
????? ????????? ??????? ? ??????-??????????? ???????????? ? 2011 ?.
????? ?? ????? ???? ???????? ????? ???????? ?????????????? ? ?? ?????????? ? ???????? ???????????? (??????), ???, ? ???????????? ????????? ??? ????, ????????. ???????????????????? ?????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? (???????????) ? «???????? ???????».
????-???????? (???????????) ? ?????????????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ????????????. ? ????-???????? ????????????? ???? ???????????
???, ????? ?????, ???? ??????? ???????? ? ?????????? ??????????. ??? ????? ???? ????????,
???????-???????, ???????? ? ??????????? ????????.
??? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ? ??????????????
? ????????????? ??? [9]. ? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ? ??? ??? ??????
??????? ????? ????????????? ????. ?? ????????? ???????????????, ??????????????? ?????,
???????????? ?????? ? ??????? ????? ???? ?????????? ????????????????? ????? ? 1:100000.
? ?? ?????? ????????? ??? ? ??? ????, ??? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ??????????????
??????. ?? ?? ????????? ??????????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????? ? ????????, ???????????????? ??? ????????? ???????-????????????????. ?? ??????? 3 ???????? ????? ??????????? ??? ???????? ?????????????? ?????? ????????????? ????.
# 349 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ????????? ??????????-??????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ??????????
???. 3. ????? ??????????? ??? ???????? ?????????????? ?????? ????????????? ????
????? ???????, ??????????? ?????? ????????? ?? ?????? ????????????? ? ???????????????? ????????, ???????? ? ????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ??????, ?? ? ?????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????????? (?????, ????????) ? ??????????????????
(?????????).
??????????
? ?????? ??????????? ??????????-??????????????? ?????????????? ??????????????
????????? ??????? ????? ???????????????? ??????????, ??????????????? ?? ?????? ???????????????? ?????? ?????? ? ????????? ??????????? ??????????. ??? ????????? ??????
???????? ?????, ????????? ? ??????????, ??????, ???????????? ? ????????????? ??????????
? ???????? ??????????????? ??????????, ? ????? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ???????,
?????????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ????? ? ????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????.
???????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????????:
1. ??????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ????????????? ? ??????????? ????????
?????????????? ??????? ?????.
2. ??????????? ????? ????????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ?? ???????? ????????????
??????????? ??????? ? ?????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?? ???????.
3. ??????? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ????????, ?????????? ????????? ??????????
????, ???????????? ???????, ? ???????? ??? ????????????? ????? ?????????????.
4. ??????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????????? ?????? ?????? ? ?????????? ???, ??????????? ???????????? ????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ??? ????????? ???????????? ??????.
????????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?? ??????? ????? ?????? ? ??????? ????????????, ??????????? ??????????????? ??????, ?????????????? ???????? ??????.
# 350 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ????????? ??????????-??????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ??????????
?????? ??????????
[1] ???????? ?.?. ?????????????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????
???????????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ?? (????????? ? ??????????? ????????) /?.?. ????????, ?.?. ?????, ?.?. ??????? ? ?.?. //??????????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????????
????? ?? ???????. 2008. ???. 5. ??? 2. ?. 419-429.
[2] ??????? ?.?. ?????????? ?????????????????? ?????? ?????, ????????, ?????????
? ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????
/?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????, ?.?. ??????? ? ??. //????????-?????? ??????. 2004. ???. 5.
[3] ??????? ?.?. ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? /?.?. ???????, ?.?. ?????, ?.?. ???????, ?.?. ??????, ?.?. ??????? //??????????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????? ?? ???????: ?????????? ??????,
?????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????, ???????????? ??????? ???????? ? ???????. 2004. ?. 437-443.
[4] ?????????? ?.?. ???????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????????? ????????????
????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????? /?.?. ??????????, ?.?. ????????, ?.?. ???????? ? ?? //???????? ?????????????? ???????: ????????? XI ????????????? ?????????????????? ???????????. ??????????, 2009. ?. 22-25.
[5] Yu. A. Maglinets, G. M. Tsibul?skii, E.A.Maltsev. Multipurpose Geoinformation Management
System of Territories Along the Yenisei Meridian //International Journal ?Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis. Advances in Mathematical Theory and Applications?, Vol 21, 2011,No. 2, 290?292 pp.
[6] D. A. Perfil?ev, Yu. A. Maglinets, G. M. Tsibul?skii. One Class of Metallographic Images //International Journal ?Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis. Advances in Mathematical Theory and
Applications? Vol. 19 No. 2 2009, 334-341 pp.
[7] ???????? ?.?. ???????? ?????????????? ? ??????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????? /?.?. ????????, ?.?. ????????, ?.?. ????????? // ??????????? ???????? ??????????????
???????????? ????? ?? ??????? / ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ???. 2007. ?. 4. ???. 1.
?. 133-137.
[8] ???????? ?.?. ?????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?? ????????? / ?.?. ????????, ?.?. ?????, ?.?. ???????? //??????????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????? ?? ???????. 2006. ?. 3. ? 2. ?. 271-280.
[9] ????????? ?.?. ???????????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??? ??????????? ?????? (???????????? ????) // ?????. ??????. 2007. ? 1. ?. 2.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ????????? ??????????-??????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ??????????
Software Technology
Information Infrastructure Support
for the Tasks Territorial Administration
Ruslan V. Brezhneva,
Yurii A. Maglinets , Evgenii A. Maltseva,
Sergei E. Perfil?ev?, Anatoliy Yu. Sidorov?,
Gennady M. Tsibul?skii?, Andrey S. Shokolb
a
Siberian Federal University
Institute of Space and Information Technology
26 b Academica Kirenskogo str., Krasnoyarsk, 660074 Russia
b
Research Center for Earth Operative Monitoring
b.51, h. 25 Decabristov str., Moscow, 127490 Russia,
a
The questions of development of program-technological infrastructure for information support of
solving task of territorial management based on methods of remote sensing of the Earth are considered
in this article. General requirements of software and hardware complex were formulated. Architecture
and structure of this complex also technologies of interaction with extended systems were described.
Examples of solving of application tasks of Krasnoyarsk region were given.
Keywords: database of satellite images, program-technological infrastructure, remote sensing of the
Earth, spatial data, fire plowing, geoinformational system, web-service.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 3 (2012 5) 353-357
~~~
??? 621.391.64
?????? ??????? ??????????????? ?????????
?? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ?????
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ??????*
????????? ??????????? ???????????
?????? 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79 1
Received 13.08.2012, received in revised form 20.08.2012, accepted 27.08.2012
?????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ??????????????? ????????? ??? ????? ?????
??????????? ??????? ? ???????? ?????. ? ?????????????? ????????????????? ??????
??????? ATOVS (??????????? ??????? NOAA) ?????????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ?????
??????????? ? ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? (0,8 ???) ? ???????
?????????? (1,5 ???) ? ??????????? ?? ???? ????? ? ????????????????? ???????.
???????? ?????: ??????????????? ?????????, ?????????? ?????, ??????????? ?????.
????????
????? ?? ????????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????. ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????
????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ? ????????? ????/? ??? ???????????? ??????
?????????????-??????? ??????????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ?????????. ? ?????? ??????
?????????? ????? ????? «??????? ? ?????».
??????????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ????? ???? ????, ???????????? ??? ???????? ??????????. ????? ?????????????
????????? ????? ????? ????????? ? ???? ?? ???? ???????????? ?????????, ??????????? ???????? ????????????? ???? ???? ??-?????????, ??? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ????????????
????????? ?? ????? ????? ????????? ????????? ?? ???? ?????????? ????? ????? ?????????.
????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ???? ??-??????? ???????????
?????????????? ??????????? ?? ????? ???? ????. ???, ??????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? (? = 1.45-1.55 ???) ? ?????? ????????? (? = 0,808 ???).
??????? ????????? ? ??????????????? ????????? ? ????????? ????? ???????? ????????
? ???????? ??????????????? ??????? ????????? ? ??????? ?????????? (??), ??? ? ???? ??????? ????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????.
? ????????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??????????????? ????????? ?
??????????? ?? ??????????????? ????? ?? ??????, ?????????? ???????? AVOTS, ???????????
???????? ?????????? ? ?????? ?????? 2250 ?? ? ???????????????? ??????????? 20-50 ??. ???*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: rtcvbk@rambler.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 353 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ??????. ?????? ??????? ??????????????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ????????????
???. 1. ???????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????
?? ?????????? ? ??? ????????????? ???????? ???????. ?????????????? ???????????????
?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? AAPP (ATOVS and
AVHRR Pre-processing Package) [1]. ??????????? ????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??????? AAPP ???????? ??????? ???????? ???????????, ????? ???? ? ?????????????.
???????? ????????
???????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ?? ? ?????. ?? ?????????
????????????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ???? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??
???????? [2,3] ??? ?????? ????? ?????:
n 1 N dry N H 2O u 10 6 ,
N dry
§
526Q 2
11,69
ЁЁ 237,2 2 1 2 2
v1 Q
v2 Q 2
©
N H 2O
· Pdry
ёё
,
№ T
651,7Q 32 PH 2O
,
Q 32 Q 2 T
??? ? ? ???????? ????? ? ??-1, ?1 = 114 ??-1, ?2 = 62.4 ??-1, ?3 = 111.575 ??-1 ? ?????????,
Pdry ? ???????? ?????? ??????? ? ???, PH2O ? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ???? ? ???,
? ? ??????????? ? ?.
????? ??? ??????? ???? ???????????? ???? ?:
J
§ R†
·
arcsinЁЁ
sin(S E ) ёё,
R
h
i
© †
№
??? R† ? ?????? ?????, hi ? ?????? ???????? ????. ???????? ???? ?i ??? ??????? ??????????
???? ???????????? ????? ???? ? ??????????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ???????????
????????? (???. 1).
# 354 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ??????. ?????? ??????? ??????????????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ????????????
?????????????? ?????????? ???? ???????????? ??? G
¦E
i
J i 1 .
i
??????????
? ????. 1 ????????? ????????????????? ??????, ?????????????? ??? ????????. ????????
???????? ???? ????: 0.808 ??? ??? ?????? ?????????, 1.55 ??? ??? ?????? ??. ??? ???????
??????? ????????? ? ???, ??? ????????????????? ??????? ? ?????????????? ??????????? ??
??????????.
?? ???. 2 ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????
N = (n ? 1)Ч106 .
?????????? ???????? ??????????????? ????????? ? ???????? ??????????????? ???????
????????? ???? ? ??????????? ???? (???. 3, 4).
??? ?????, ???????? ?????????? ???? ? ???????????? ???? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ? ????????????. ????????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????, ????????????? ??? ??? ???????? ?????????? (??????? ????? ??????? ??????), ??? ? ??? ????????? ????????? ?????????
??????? 1. ????????????????? ?????? ??????? AVOTS
01.01.2011
??????, ?
481
56.00° ?.?. 92.92° ?.?.
????????,
???
993
01.07.2011
????? ????, ???????????,
??????, ?
°?
°?
-30.1
-30.0
481
56.00° ?.?. 92.92° ?.?.
????????,
???
947
????? ????, ???????????,
°?
°?
9.8
19.3
591
975
-27.5
-27.3
662
925
7.7
19.6
780
950
-22.2
-21.4
899
900
6.6
19.9
978
925
-19.7
-18.0
1388
850
3.6
16.3
1184
900
-19.0
-16.4
1899
800
-0.3
11.9
1614
850
-18.9
-15.7
2436
750
-7.4
9.0
2070
800
-20.4
-16.9
3004
700
-15.1
5.9
2553
750
-24.1
-18.9
3604
650
-18.6
1.1
3063
700
-31.7
-21.9
4242
600
-22.2
-3.6
3606
650
-39.4
-24.3
4922
550
-27.4
-8.4
4186
600
-44.1
-27.2
5655
500
-34.0
-13.5
4808
550
-47.5
-31.0
6447
450
-40.3
-19.3
5477
500
-49.3
-35.5
7309
400
-47.0
-26.5
6201
450
-51.4
-41.1
8259
350
-54.3
-34.3
6990
400
-55.0
-47.4
9317
300
-57.1
-42.5
7859
350
-56.6
-54.2
10523
250
-59.5
-50.7
8830
300
-61.5
-61.2
11946
200
-60.4
-57.8
9943
250
-67.7
-67.5
13795
150
-74.2
-50.9
11284
200
-67.2
-66.6
16420
100
-273.1
-52.0
13032
150
-69.0
-65.4
20923
50
-273.1
-50.3
15501
100
-86.3
-64.5
26981
20
-273.1
-43.6
19805
50
-273.1
-54.9
# 355 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
???. 2. ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ? ????????????. ???????? ?????
????????????? ????????, ????????????? 01.01.2011, ?????????? ? 01.07.2011.
???. 3. ??????????? ?????????? ???? ?? ???? ?????. ???????? ????? ????????????? ????????,
????????????? 01.01.2011, ?????????? ? 01.07.2011.
???. 4. ??????????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????? ????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ?? ???? ?????
? ????????????
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ??????. ?????? ??????? ??????????????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ????????????
??????????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????, ??????? ??????????????? ?????????
?????????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ?????.
??? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????????? ????? ????? ?????????? ??? ???????????
?? ???????? ???? ?????, ???????????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ????????????.
?????? ??????????
1. International ATOVS Processing Package. ??????????? ??????: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/
opsats/polar/iapp/.
2. Smith F. The Infrared & Electro-Optical Systems Handbook: ? 8 ?. ?. 2. Atmospheric
propagation of radiation. / F. Smith. ? SPIE press, 1993. ? 322 p.
3. ???? ?.?. ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ? ?????????. ? ?.: ????? ? ?????, 1981.
288 ?.
Method of Estimation of Atmospheric Refraction Effect
on Satellite-to-Earth Optical Communication Link
Alexander V. Vasilenko and Valentin B. Kashkin
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, Russia, 660041
Method of estimation of atmospheric refraction effect on Satellite-to-Earth optical communication
link is suggested. Misalignment and refraction angles are found for several meteorological conditions
and zenith angles for informational (1.5 ?m) and tracking (0.808 ?m) channels using ATOVS/NOAA
experimental data.
Keywords: astronomical refraction, optical communications, satellite communications.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 3 (2012 5) 358-364
~~~
??? 622.74 : 662.75
Extraction of Brown Coals
from Kansk-Achinsk and Lena Basins
with Toluene and Water Containing Fluids
Peter N. Kuznetsov*a,
Svetlana M. Kolesnikova , Ludmila I. Kuznetsovaa,
Evgeny S. Kamenskya and Vladimir A. Kashirtsevb
a
Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology , SB RAS,
42 K. Marx str, Krasnoyarsk, 660049 Russia
b
Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, SB RAS,
3 Koptyug ave, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia 1
a
Received 13.08.2012, received in revised form 20.08.2012, accepted 27.08.2012
The conversion of different brown coals from the Kansk-Achinsk and Lena Basins in an aqueous
medium and in toluene containing mixtures with water and tetralin additives was studied under
supercritical conditions over the temperature range of 375?550 °C and at pressures from 7 to 40
MPa. It was found that the liquefaction of brown coals in the medium of toluene solvent with small
amount of hydrogen-donor tetralin co-solvent effectively occurred at low temperature 400 °C. On the
other hand, coal methanation, hydrolysis, and oxidation reactions with the predominant generation of
methane, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen prevailed in the water containing mediums. In a supercritical
toluene at 440 °C, the addition of a small amount of water (15 %) stimulated destruction of coals with
the predominant production of liquid products and moderate gas yields. The use of calcium oxide,
sodium hydroxide and hematite as the catalysts increased the yields of liquid products.
Keywords: brown coals, toluene, tetralin, supercritical conditions.
Introduction
Because of instability on world oil market, the diversification of energy carriers is practically
implemented in many countries with the involvement of various nontraditional types of organic raw
materials, primarily, coal, whose reserves are much greater than oil and gas reserves. However, coal
is difficult for processing. The organic matter of coal (OMC) has a macromolecular structure with
molecular-size pores [1]. Because of this, chemical transformations can be limited by a transfer of
solvent molecules within OMC.
Along with the development of traditional technologies for coal conversion, the processes based
on the chemistry of extreme actions attract increasing attention. In particular, supercritical coal
extraction pioneered by U.K. National Coal Board [2,3] provides a promising method to overcome
some difficulties in the traditional coal liquefaction processes [3?14]. The supercritical solvents have
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: kpn@icct.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 358 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Peter N. Kuznetsov, Svetlana M. Kolesnikova? Extraction of Brown Coals from Kansk-Achinsk and Lena Basins?
an increased dissolving power, a low viscosity, and high diffusion coefficients, which are close to those
of gases. This makes it possible to increase the conversion and selectivity of coal into liquid products
which can be easily separated from the solid coal residue (mineral matter and unconverted organic
matter) by depressurization.
Various organic substances (aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, and heterocyclic
compounds) are used as solvents. Tetralin exhibits usually high efficiency due to hydrogen donor
ability [10]. Toluene is of special interest to technology because it is a typical component of low-boiling
fractions obtained in various coal conversion processes, and has easily attainable critical temperature
(318,6 °C), pressure (4,11 MPa), and density (0,292 g/cm3) [4, 5, 11, 14?16]. However the degrees of coal
conversion in toluene solvent are usually low [4, 17]. According to Kershaw et al. [4], the conversion of
Australian brown coals varied from 30 to 35 % at 400 °C and was more lower for medium-rank coals
even at a temperature of 425 °C [17]. Co-solvent additives are used to increase the solvent power and
the efficiency of coal processing with toluene [4, 6, 8, 18]. According to [4], the conversion of brown
coal in a supercritical toluene with the tetralin addive of only 5 % increased by 10?15 %.
Water is an unique solvent in terms of abundance and, environmental and technological safety
(Tc = 374 °C, Pc = 21,8 MPa, and ?c = 0,322 g/cm3). It has been shown that water stimulates the cleavage
of ester bonds [9, 19?22] and provides thus deep conversion of organic matter of coal. The efficiency of
processes in the solvents under supercritical conditions can be improved also by using the appropriate
catalysts [25, 26].
The objective of this paper was to study the conversion of brown coals from different deposits
with supercritical toluene fluid with tetralin and water co-solvents and the effects of the catalysts on
the conversion.
Experimental
The samples of brown coals from the Borodino deposit of the Kansk-Achinsk Basin and Kangalas
and Zhigansk deposits of the largest Lena Basin were used in this study. The characteristics of the
composition of coals are shown in Table 1 and 2. The data show that the coals differed with the
composition of both organic matter and mineral constituents.
The solvent extraction of coals was performed in a rotating 250 ml autoclave. A 15-g portion of
coal samples and required amounts of solvents were loaded in the autoclave. Toluene and the mixtures
of toluene with water and tetralin additives were used as the solvents. Calcium oxide (3 wt % on an
OMC basis), sodium hydroxide (2 wt %) and a fine powder of hematite (50 m2/g) served as the catalysts.
The charged autoclave was purged with argon to remove air. The reaction was started by heating
(10 K/min) the autoclave up to the required temperature in the range of 375 to 550 °C. The reaction
time at a specified temperature was 1 h. The autogenous pressure in the autoclave during the reaction
depending on the content of solvents attained 40 MPa.
After completion of the reaction and cooling of the autoclave, the volume and composition of the
gases produced were measured, and solid and liquid products were removed from the autoclave to a
filter. The solid residue on the filter was exhaustively extracted with toluene in a Soxhlet apparatus.
The degree of coal conversion was evaluated from the change in the ash content after the reaction. The
yield of liquid soluble products was calculated by difference between the overall coal conversion and
the yield of gaseous products.
# 359 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Peter N. Kuznetsov, Svetlana M. Kolesnikova? Extraction of Brown Coals from Kansk-Achinsk and Lena Basins?
Table 1. Composition of brown coals
Basin
Deposit
Ultimate analysis, % on a daf basis
?d, wt. %
C
H
N
S
O
Kansk-Achinsk
Borodino
4.9
71.9
4.8
1.0
0.4
21.9
Lena
Kangalas
8.0
71.1
5.6
1.0
0.5
21.8
The same ?
Zhigansk
11.5
67.7
4.8
27.5
Table 2. Concentrations of the main components of brown coal ashes
Coal
SiO2
Al2O3
CaO
MgO
Fe2O3
Na2O
K 2O
Borodino
52.0
6.0
25.0
5.0
6.0
0.3
0.3
Kangalas
53.0
15.0
17.0
3.0
7.0
2.0
0.6
Results and Discussion
The yield of organic matter extracted from brown coal samples by boiling toluene in a Soxhlet
apparatus did not exceed 1-2 wt %. The extract yield of 22 wt % from Borodino brown coal was
produced with supercritical toluene (toluene vapour pressure of 0,31 g/cm3) at the temperature of
400 °C (symbol a in Figure).
The addition of tetralin with hydrogen donor activity allows the conversion of coal to be greatly
increased. Shown in Figure are the data on Borodino brown coal extraction with the toluene-tetralin
mixtures depending on the density of toluene vapour, the density of tetralin vapour being constant
(0,07 g/cm3). One can see from Figure that the addition of tetralin to toluene containing media results
in large increase in coal conversion (by 2 times) and yield of solubles. The increase in toluene vapour
density from 0,144 (subcritical conditions) to 0,350 g/cm3 (supercritical conditions), and total pressure
from 7,0 to 12,5 MPa hardly affects the conversion of Borodino brown coal, the yields of gases being
no more than 8 %. This means the conversion to depend mainly on hydrogen donor activity of tetralin
co-solvent irrespective of sub- or supercritical toluene states.
Tables 3 shows the data on the conversion of Borodino and Kangalas brown coals in the aqueous
solvent at various temperatures. In the experiments with Borodino coal at a supercritical point (at
375 °C and at a water vapour density of 0,322 g/cm3), the conversion was only 10 %, the gas yield
calculated on the weight of organic matter of coal being 15 wt. %, i.e. more than coal conversion. As
the temperature increased to 410 °C the conversion increased to 24 %. The yield of gaseous products
increased to 21,5 wt. %, the yield of solubles being only 2,5 %.
The reaction with Kangalas coal was performed at high temperature of 550 °C to stimulate coal
conversion. Supercritical conditions were not attained at this temperature because of too high working
pressure up to 29-40 MPa even at the 0,13?0,17 g/cm3 density of water vapor. Under these conditions,
the conversion of Kangalas coal attained 51?52 %, a lot of gaseous products (47,8-53,1 %) was produced
(methane and carbon dioxide predominately). One can see from Table 4 that methane was the main
component (53,9-57,9 %) at high temperature and low water vapour, whereas carbon dioxide (78,5# 360 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Peter N. Kuznetsov, Svetlana M. Kolesnikova? Extraction of Brown Coals from Kansk-Achinsk and Lena Basins?
16
Conversion, wt.% on daf
50
Conversion
Liquids
40
14
MPa
12
Pressure
30
10
a
20
8
10
0,10
Gas
0,15
0,20
0,25
0,30
0,35
6
0,40
3
Toluene density, g/cm
Fig. The conversion of Borodino brown coal in the toluene-tetralin mixtures depending on the toluene vapour
density at 400 °C and constant tetralin vapour density of 0.07 g/cm3. The symbol a denotes the reaction in a single
supercritical toluene
Table 3. Characteristics of brown coal conversion in the aqueous mediums
Coal conversion, Yield, wt % on daf coal
wt %
gas*
solubles*
Water vapor
density, g/cm3
Temperature,
°C
Working
pressure, MPa
Borodino
0.322
375
22
10
15.0 (6.4)
- (3.6)
The same
0.380
410
35
24
21.5 (9.1)
2.5 (14.9)
Kangalas
0.130
550
29
52
47.8 (29.1)
4.2 (22.9)
The same
0.170
550
40
51
53.1 (30.9)
- (20.1)
Deposit
*Shown in parentheses are the values recalculated based on a carbon balance in gaseous products.
Table 4. Composition of the gaseous products of brown coal conversion in the aqueous mediums
Gaseous products, vol. %
Water vapor density,
g/cm3
Temperature,
°C
??4
??
??2
?2
other
Borodino
0.322
375
5.6
4.0
81.5
6.8
1.8
The same
0.380
410
13.4
2.9
78.5
5.0
0.2
Kangalas
0.130
550
57.9
0.8
23.0
16.5
1.8
The same
0.170
550
53.9
0.7
29.4
12.8
3.2
Deposit
81,5 %) did at low reaction temperature and high water vapour. It appears from these data that the
reaction of brown coals in aqueous medium at both low (375?410 °C) and high (550 °C) temperatures
occurred mainly via gasification with moderate conversion into solubles.
# 361 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Peter N. Kuznetsov, Svetlana M. Kolesnikova? Extraction of Brown Coals from Kansk-Achinsk and Lena Basins?
Table 5. Brown coal conversion in the mixture of supercritical toluene with water additive at 4400C. Toluene and
water vapor densities were 0.36 and 0.06 g/cm3, respectively
Deposit
Borodino
The same
??
Zhigansk
Kangalas
The same
??
??
Catalyst
Working pressure,
MPa
Coal conversion,
wt %
?
CaO
NaOH
?
?
???
NaOH
?-Fe2?3
32
32
33
32
29
34
32
33
31
41
39
41
41
51
53
48
Yield, wt % on an OMC
basis
gas
solubles
14.7
16.3
15.4
25.6
19.1
19.9
9,4
31,6
?
?
14.9
36.1
15.3
37.7
-
The data in Table 3 show that the yield of gases calculated on daf coal was close or even exceeds
that of total coal conversion. This means that gaseous products resulted not only from the coal matter
but also from water. Taking this into account, the recalculation based on carbon balance in gaseous
products was made and percentage of carbon of coal converted into carbon containing gases (CH4, CO2
and CO) was evaluated, and then the percentage of carbon converted into solubles was determined.
The recalculated data in Table 3 (in parentheses) show that the percentages of carbon of Kangalas coal
converted into gases were 29-31 %, whereas the conversion into solubles increased to 20,1-22,9 % at
550 °C.
In the mixture of supercritical toluene with 15 % of water, the coals also underwent mainly
gasification into CH4 and CO2 at the high temperature of 550 °C. At lower temperature of 440 °C
dramatic decrease in the extent of gasification was observed. On the conversion of Borodino coal, the
yield of gaseous products decreased to 14,7 % on daf coal. Unfortunately, it was impossible for the
reaction in toluene mixture to recalculate the yield of soluble products based on carbon balance in the
gaseous products. However, the yields of solubles determined by conventional procedure was not less
than 31,6 % for Zhigansk coal and 16,3 for Borodino coal at 440 °C (Table 5).
The addition of catalysts allowed the conversion of coal at 440 °C to be increased by 7?12 %
due to mainly soluble products (Table 5). In the presence of NaOH and CaO catalysts, Kangalas coal
produced 36-38 % of soluble products, the yields of gases (primarily, CH4 and CO2), being no more
than 15,3 % (Table 6).
Special autoclave experiments with toluene?water mixture were performed at 440 °C with no
addition of coal to the autoclave. A little of gases was produced in the experiment without coal (by
a factor of 20 as compared to that with coal). Mainly CO2 (43,5 %) and H 2 (42,1 %) were present
in the gaseous products, the concentration of CO was much less (14,4 %) and no methane was
produced (Table 6). No products of toluene destruction (such as benzene) were also observed in
the liquid phase. The data suggest that toluene was not subjected to demethylation with water under
these reaction conditions, and toluene oxidation occurred to a very small extent. The production of
gases in the presence of coal resulted thus from the reaction of coal oxidation and methanation with
water.
# 362 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Peter N. Kuznetsov, Svetlana M. Kolesnikova? Extraction of Brown Coals from Kansk-Achinsk and Lena Basins?
Table 6. Composition of the gaseous products of brown coal conversion in the mixture of supercritical toluene
with water additive at 4400C.
Deposit
Catalyst
Composition, vol. %
??4
??
??2
?2
other
Borodino
?
33.1
9.0
47.4
6.5
4.0
The same
CaO
30.2
11.9
49.4
7.3
1.2
??
NaOH
34.1
0.4
55.5
8.4
1.6
Zhigansk
?
34.3
9.6
46.9
6.6
2.6
Kangalas
???
39.2
7.8
39.1
9.8
4.1
The same
NaOH
34.1
0.7
49.7
13.1
2.4
?
0.0
14.4
43.5
42.1
-
no coal
Data in Table 5 show that in terms of overall conversion and yield of soluble and gaseous products,
Kangalas coal behaved more reactivity than Borodino coal. This can be due to less hydrogen content
and to higher contents of alkali-earth metal compounds in Borodino coal. The latter has been shown
[25, 26] to increase the density of cross-linking and to reduce the reactivity of organic matter for
destruction.
Acknowledgement
This work was supported in part by an Integration Program of the Siberian Branch of the Russian
Academy of Sciences (Project No. 106).
References
[1] Krichko A.A., Gagarin S.G., Makar?ev S.S. // Khim. Tverd. Topl. (Moscow). 1993. N 6. P. 27.
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[3] Papic M.M., Whitehead J.C. // CIM Bulletin. 1985. N 11. P. 66.
[4] Kershaw J.R., Overbeek J., Bagnell L.J. // Fuel 1985. Vol. 64. N 8. P 1070.
[5] McHugh M.A., Krukonis V.J. Supercritical Fluid Extraction: Principles and Practice. Boston:
Butterworth_Heinemann, 1994. 512 p.
[6] Shishido M., Mashiko T., Arai K. // Fuel 1991. Vol. 70. N 4. P. 545.
[7] Kolesnikova S.M., Kuznetsov P.N. // Khim. Tverd. Topl. (Moscow). 2008. N 2. P. 21.
[8] Sangon S., Ngamprasertsith S., Prasassarakich P. // Proc. 12 Int. Conf. Coal Sci. Cairns, 2003.
P. 3B5 on CD ROM.
[9] Townsend S.H., Klein M.T. // Fuel. 1985. Vol. 64. P. 635.
[10] Kershaw J.R., Jezko J. // Separation Sci. Technol. 1982. Vol. 17. N 1. P 151.
[11] Brunner G. Gas Extraction: An Introduction to Fundamentals of Supercritical Fluids and the
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[12] Rocha S.R.P., Oliveira J.V., Avila S.G. et al. // Fuel. 1997. Vol. 76. P. 93.
[13] Yuan Q., Zhang Q., Hu H., Guo S. // Fuel. 1998. Vol. 77. P. 1237.
[14] Murty Balijepalli S.N., Ravikumar Y.V.L., Dutt N.V.K. // Fuel. 1997. Vol. 76. N 2. P. 165.
[15] Simsek E.H., Karaduman A., Caliskan S., Togrul T. // Fuel. 2002. Vol. 81. P. 503.
# 363 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Peter N. Kuznetsov, Svetlana M. Kolesnikova? Extraction of Brown Coals from Kansk-Achinsk and Lena Basins?
[16] Hourcade M.L., Torrente C., Galan M.A. // Fuel. 2007. Vol. 86. P. 698.
[17] Philip Cahill P., Harrison G., Lawson G.J. // Fuel. 1989. Vol. 68. P. 1152.
[18] Kuznetsov P.N., Kolesnikova S.M., Kashirtsev V.A. et. al. // Khim. Tverd. Topl. (Moscow) .
2010. N 4. P.14.
[19] Tanaka T., Tsutsumi A., Yoshida K., Inaba A. Abstracts of Papers Int. Conf. Coal Sci. Tokyo,
1989. P. 850.
[20] Townsend S.H., Klein M.T. // Fuel. 1985. Vol. 64. P. 635.
[21] Hu H., Go S., Hedden K.// Fuel Proc. Technol. 1998. Vol. 53. P. 269.
[22] Bermejo M.D., Cocero M.J., Fernandes-Polanco F. // Fuel. 2004. Vol. 83. P. 195.
[23] Barton P. // Ind. Eng. Chem. Process. Des. Dev. 1983. Vol. 22. P. 589.
[24] Sato Y., Chakrabarty S.K. // Liquid Fuels Technol. 1983. Vol. 22. P. 195.
[25] Kuznetsov P.N., Kuznetsova L.I. Khim. Tverd. Topl. (Moscow). 2008. N 6. P. 57.
[26] Kuznetsov P.N., Kuznetsova L.I., Bimer J. et al. // Fuel. 1997. Vol. 76. P. 189.
?????????? ????? ????? ??????-?????????
? ???????? ?????????
? ??????- ? ?????????????? ??????
?.?. ????????a,
?.?. ???????????a, ?.?. ?????????a,
?.?. ?????????a, ?.?. ?????????
a
???? ?? ???
?????? 660049, ??????????, ??. ?.?????? 42
?
????????? ???????????? ????????
? ????????? ?? ??? ??. ?????????
?????? 630090, ???????????, ??. ???????, 3
??????? ??????????? ????? ????? ??????-????????? ? ???????? ????????? ? ?????? ????? ? ?
????? ??????? ? ????? ? ?????????? ??? ???????????????? ?????????? ? ?????????????
????????? 375-550 °? ? ???????? ?? 7 ?? 40 MPa. ???????????, ??? ? ????? ??????? ?
???????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????? ???????? ????? ?????
?????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ??????????? 4000 °C. ? ?????? ????? ???????? ???????
?????????????, ????????? ? ????????? ????? ????? ? ???????????? ? ???????? ????????????
????????? (??????, ???????? ???????? ? ????????).? ????? ??????? ? ????????????????
???????? ??? 400 °? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???? (15 %) ??????????? ???????
?????????? ????? ? ???????????? ??????????????? ?????? ????????? ??? ?????????
???????????????. ?????????? ? ???????? ????????????? ?????? ???????, ?????????? ??????
? ???????? ????????? ????????? ????? ?????? ?????????.
???????? ?????: ????? ????, ??????, ????????, ???????????????? ???????.
?????
?????? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????? ?????????
?? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ??? ? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ???????????????
???????????? ?????? ???. ??????? ???????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ?????????????? [7]. ?? ??????????? ???? ? ???? ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????????????????? ??????, ?????????? ?????????????
???????? ??????????? ????????????. ????? ????, ??????????? ?? ??? ???????? ?????????
??? ???????? ???????. ????????????? ???? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????
?????? ???????????? ??? ? ????????????, ??? ? ?? ???????. ? ????? ? ???? ???????????????
? ?????? ???????? ?????? ? ???????? ?????? ??? ????????????? ???????, ??????????? ???????? ???????????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ??? ??????? ? ?????? ??? ?? ???-??????.
? ?????? ?????????????? ????????????? ?????? ??? [?????] ? ???????? ???????? ???????????????? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ??????????, ?????????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????????? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ??????
GLCF (Global Land Cover Facility). ????? GLCF ???????????? ????? ???????? ???????? ??????
???? ?????? ???????? Landsat, ????????? ?? ????????? FTP. ????????? ?????????? ?????????
????????????? ???????????? FTP ??????? GLCF ? ????????? ? ???????? ????? ??????????
? ????? ???????????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? Landsat. ?????
???????, ? web-??????????? ????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ???? ?
????? ???????.
? 2012 ?. ? ??? ????????? ? ??????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ????? (??
???) «??????????» ??????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ????????????? ?????? ???
# 345 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ????????? ??????????-??????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ??????????
??? ? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?????
(????? ???) ??????????. ? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ???????, ????? ??????? ????? ????????? ?????? ?? ??????,
?????????, ?????????? ? ??????????????? ?????? ???. ??? ???? ??????????????? ? ?????????????????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ? ????????????? ??? ????????????
????????????? ?????? ??? ??? ??????? ????????? ?????. ????????? ???? ????? ?????????
???????????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ????????????? ???? ?????????? ? ??????? ?????????-????????????? ? ??????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ?
???????????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????.
?????????????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????? ? ?????????????? ?????????? ??? ?
?????????????? ????????? ?? ?? ?????? ???? ????????? ? ?????? ???????????????? ????????? ? ??????? ??????????????? ? ?????????????? ??????? ? ????????? ???? ???????? ? ??
?????? ????????-??????????. ??????????? ??????????????? ????????????????? ? ?????????
????? ??????? ??????? ? ????????????? ? ???????????????? ???????? ?????? ??????????????
?????????????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????? (????? ???).
????? ??? ????????????? ??? ??????????? ? ?????? ??????????????? ????????????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ???, ?????????
??????????, ?????????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ? ???????????
??????????. ???????? ???? ??????? ??????????? ? ????????? ????????????? ?????????????
?????????????? ?????????????-??????????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ????????????.
????? ??? ??????????? ?? ???? ???????????? ???????:
? ?? ??? ??? «?????????? ??????????? ???????» (?. ??????) ? ???????? ???????? ????????? ????? ???;
? ???????????? (?. ??????), ?????????? (?. ???????????), ???????????????? (?. ?????????)
??????? ?? «??? «???????» «????????????»;
? ?????????? ????????????? ?????? «??????????» (?. ????????????).
??? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ? ?????? ??????? ????????????? ??????????
????????? ?????? ?? ?????????????? ? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ????????????????, ??
?????? ??????? ??? ?????? ????????????? ??? «??? ??» «??????? ?????????? ???????
????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ISO 19115, ISO 19115-2, ISO 19139».
? ????????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ???. ???????? ????? ???, ???????? ???? ????????????? ?????????? ??? ? ?????????????? ?????????, ????????? ?? ?? ?????? ??? ???????
????????? ?????????-????????????? ? ??????? ?????, ????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????????? ? ??????????? ???????????????
?????????????? ??????????????? ??????????????, ? ?????????? «??????????» ? ? ??????????? ??? ? ?????.
? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?? ??????????/??????????? ????????????? ?????? ??? ???
? ????? ? ????????? ????? ?????????????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ??????, ???????????????
?????????, ???????? ? ??????????????? ??? ??????????? ????????? «??????-?» ????????
?????????? ???, ??? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ? ???????? ???
# 346 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ????????? ??????????-??????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ??????????
«??????-?», ? ????? ????????????? ??????? ? ??? ?? ???? ????????????? ???????? ???????????????? ????????????????????/??????? ?????????????? ???.
????? ? ?????? ????????????
? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? SPOT-4, Terra
(Modis), Aqua (Modis), ??????????? ?? ???????? ????????? ??????. ????? ???????? ???????
??????????? ????????? Landsat ?? ???????????? ????, ??????????? ?? ???????? ??????????. ??? ????????????? ???????? ?????? ?????? web-????????? ??? ??????, ????????? ? ?????? ??????????? ??????. ????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ?????? ????????
?????????? ????????????????:
? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? (????? ??????????, ???? ??????, ????????,
???????, ????????????????? ??????????, ??????????);
? ??????? ????????? ?????-???????? (?????????, ???????????, ????????) ? ?????????
geo-???????? (Microsoft Virtual Earth, Open Street Maps, Yahoo ? ?.?.);
? ??????? ???????????? ???????;
? ????????? ? ????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ???????;
? ?????????????? ??????? ?? ???????? ??????????? (??????????????, ???????????? ????????????? ? ??.).
????????? ?????????? ???????????? (?????? ??????????? ?? ?????, ????? ???????????,
???????????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ? ???? ??????) ???????????? ?? ???. 1.
?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ???????????????, ???????? ????????, ???????, ???? ?????? ? ?.?. ????? ??????? ?? ???????????? ??????????
?????????????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ?????; ??????????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????, ??????? ??????????? ?? ?????????????? ????????, ? ??? ????? ? ??????
?????????? ??????????? ?????? ? ?????? ???.
???. 1. ???????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????
# 347 #
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?.?. ???????, ?.?. ????????? ??????????-??????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ??????????
?????????? ??????????????? ???????
? ????? ????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????????????? ???? ????????????? ????????????? ???????? ?? ?????. ????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????? ????????????
?????? ?? ???????????, ??? ?????????????? ????????? ?? ??????? (1-2 ??????), ????????????
????????????? ????????????? (?? ????????????? ???? 1252,9 ???. ??), ????? ??????? ???????? (???????? ??????? ??????? ?? 4 ?). ??????????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ?
???? ???????? ???? ??????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ????????????????? ??????????, ?? ? ??????? ??????????? ????? ?????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??? ???????
?? ?????????? ?? ????????????? ???????????. ????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????
???????? ? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ???????????????????? ????? ? ????????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???, ?? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???????????????????? ????? ? ??????????? ? ??? ????????? ???????? ???????? ? ??????????. ?
????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ???????, ?????????? ??????, ????????????? ??????, ???????? ??????, ???. ?????????? ???????????, ?? ??????????? ? ????????????????? ????????,
? ????? ????, ?? ??????? ???????? ? ?????? ????? (?????? ???), ?????????? ????????? ??
?????????? ?????????.
??? ?????????? ???????? ????? ???????????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????,
????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ??????, ?????????? ???????? ????????? ???????: ??????? ??? / ???????????????????? ????, ??????? ?????????? ????? / ???????????????????? ????, ??????? ????????????? ?????? / ???????????????????? ????, ??????? ???????? ?????? / ???????????????????? ????, ??????? ??? / ???????????????????? ????.
???????? ???????? ???? ???????? ?????????????? ??????, ????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ??????, ??????? ?? ????????? ??????:
1. ????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ????????? ???? ?? ????????? ?????????? ?
?????????? ???????, ???????, ??????????????? ?????, ??? ?????????????? ??????,
?????.
2. ??? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ???????????????????? ????? ? ??????
???????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????? ??? SPOT4 ? Landsat 5, ???????????
? ???????????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????. ? ?????????
??????????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ?????:
??????????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ???. ?????????? ??????? ???????,
???????? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ?????????????? ???????.
????????????? ??????????? ??????, ???????:
o ???????????? ???????? ??????????????? ????????????? ? ????????????
?????????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ??????;
o ?????????????? ????????? ???????????????????? ????? ? ?????????????? ???????
Maximum Value Composite (MVC) ?? ??????????? ???????????? ? ??????? NDVI
?? ????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????????
(??????? ????????, ????????? ? ?????????);
o ????????????? ??????? ????????????? ????????? ? [8].
3. ????? ??????? ???????? ? ?????? ???????????????????? ????? ? ???? ?????????
???????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ????????# 348 #
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??? ?????? ???, ?????????? ????? ???????? ????????? ?? 30 ?. ????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? (SPOT4 ? 10 ?/???, Landsat
5 ? 30 ?/??? ).
4. ?????????? ????? ????????? ??????? ????????.
?? ??????? 2 ???????????? ????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????, ????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ??????.
???? ???????? ?????? ? ????????????? ??????
???? ?? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ? ??????? ???????????? ????????
????????????? ??????????? (????), ????????????? ??? ????????? ????????????? ????????
????? ????????? ??????? ? ??????-??????????? ???????????? ? 2011 ?.
????? ?? ????? ???? ???????? ????? ???????? ?????????????? ? ?? ?????????? ? ???????? ???????????? (??????), ???, ? ???????????? ????????? ??? ????, ????????. ???????????????????? ?????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? (???????????) ? «???????? ???????».
????-???????? (???????????) ? ?????????????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ????????????. ? ????-???????? ????????????? ???? ???????????
???, ????? ?????, ???? ??????? ???????? ? ?????????? ??????????. ??? ????? ???? ????????,
???????-???????, ???????? ? ??????????? ????????.
??? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ? ??????????????
? ????????????? ??? [9]. ? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ? ??? ??? ??????
??????? ????? ????????????? ????. ?? ????????? ???????????????, ??????????????? ?????,
???????????? ?????? ? ??????? ????? ???? ?????????? ????????????????? ????? ? 1:100000.
? ?? ?????? ????????? ??? ? ??? ????, ??? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ??????????????
??????. ?? ?? ????????? ??????????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????? ? ????????, ???????????????? ??? ????????? ???????-????????????????. ?? ??????? 3 ???????? ????? ??????????? ??? ???????? ?????????????? ?????? ????????????? ????.
# 349 #
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?.?. ???????, ?.?. ????????? ??????????-??????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ??????????
???. 3. ????? ??????????? ??? ???????? ?????????????? ?????? ????????????? ????
????? ???????, ??????????? ?????? ????????? ?? ?????? ????????????? ? ???????????????? ????????, ???????? ? ????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ??????, ?? ? ?????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????????? (?????, ????????) ? ??????????????????
(?????????).
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? ???????? ??????????????? ??????????, ? ????? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ???????,
?????????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ????? ? ????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????.
???????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????????:
1. ??????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ????????????? ? ??????????? ????????
?????????????? ??????? ?????.
2. ??????????? ????? ????????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ?? ???????? ????????????
??????????? ??????? ? ?????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?? ???????.
3. ??????? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ????????, ?????????? ????????? ??????????
????, ???????????? ???????, ? ???????? ??? ????????????? ????? ?????????????.
4. ??????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????????? ?????? ?????? ? ?????????? ???, ??????????? ???????????? ????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ??? ????????? ???????????? ??????.
????????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?? ??????? ????? ?????? ? ??????? ????????????, ??????????? ??????????????? ??????, ?????????????? ???????? ??????.
# 350 #
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?????? ??????????
[1] ???????? ?.?. ?????????????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????
???????????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ?? (????????? ? ??????????? ????????) /?.?. ????????, ?.?. ?????, ?.?. ??????? ? ?.?. //??????????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????????
????? ?? ???????. 2008. ???. 5. ??? 2. ?. 419-429.
[2] ??????? ?.?. ?????????? ?????????????????? ?????? ?????, ????????, ?????????
? ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????
/?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????, ?.?. ??????? ? ??. //????????-?????? ??????. 2004. ???. 5.
[3] ??????? ?.?. ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? /?.?. ???????, ?.?. ?????, ?.?. ???????, ?.?. ??????, ?.?. ??????? //??????????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????? ?? ???????: ?????????? ??????,
?????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????, ???????????? ??????? ???????? ? ???????. 2004. ?. 437-443.
[4] ?????????? ?.?. ???????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????????? ????????????
????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????? /?.?. ??????????, ?.?. ????????, ?.?. ???????? ? ?? //???????? ?????????????? ???????: ????????? XI ????????????? ?????????????????? ???????????. ??????????, 2009. ?. 22-25.
[5] Yu. A. Maglinets, G. M. Tsibul?skii, E.A.Maltsev. Multipurpose Geoinformation Management
System of Territories Along the Yenisei Meridian //International Journal ?Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis. Advances in Mathematical Theory and Applications?, Vol 21, 2011,No. 2, 290?292 pp.
[6] D. A. Perfil?ev, Yu. A. Maglinets, G. M. Tsibul?skii. One Class of Metallographic Images //International Journal ?Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis. Advances in Mathematical Theory and
Applications? Vol. 19 No. 2 2009, 334-341 pp.
[7] ???????? ?.?. ???????? ?????????????? ? ??????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????? /?.?. ????????, ?.?. ????????, ?.?. ????????? // ??????????? ???????? ??????????????
???????????? ????? ?? ??????? / ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ???. 2007. ?. 4. ???. 1.
?. 133-137.
[8] ???????? ?.?. ?????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?? ????????? / ?.?. ????????, ?.?. ?????, ?.?. ???????? //??????????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????? ?? ???????. 2006. ?. 3. ? 2. ?. 271-280.
[9] ????????? ?.?. ???????????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??? ??????????? ?????? (???????????? ????) // ?????. ??????. 2007. ? 1. ?. 2.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ????????? ??????????-??????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ??????????
Software Technology
Information Infrastructure Support
for the Tasks Territorial Administration
Ruslan V. Brezhneva,
Yurii A. Maglinets , Evgenii A. Maltseva,
Sergei E. Perfil?ev?, Anatoliy Yu. Sidorov?,
Gennady M. Tsibul?skii?, Andrey S. Shokolb
a
Siberian Federal University
Institute of Space and Information Technology
26 b Academica Kirenskogo str., Krasnoyarsk, 660074 Russia
b
Research Center for Earth Operative Monitoring
b.51, h. 25 Decabristov str., Moscow, 127490 Russia,
a
The questions of development of program-technological infrastructure for information support of
solving task of territorial management based on methods of remote sensing of the Earth are considered
in this article. General requirements of software and hardware complex were formulated. Architecture
and structure of this complex also technologies of interaction with extended systems were described.
Examples of solving of application tasks of Krasnoyarsk region were given.
Keywords: database of satellite images, program-technological infrastructure, remote sensing of the
Earth, spatial data, fire plowing, geoinformational system, web-service.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 3 (2012 5) 353-357
~~~
??? 621.391.64
?????? ??????? ??????????????? ?????????
?? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ?????
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ??????*
????????? ??????????? ???????????
?????? 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79 1
Received 13.08.2012, received in revised form 20.08.2012, accepted 27.08.2012
?????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ??????????????? ????????? ??? ????? ?????
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??????? ATOVS (??????????? ??????? NOAA) ?????????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ?????
??????????? ? ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? (0,8 ???) ? ???????
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???????? ?????: ??????????????? ?????????, ?????????? ?????, ??????????? ?????.
????????
????? ?? ????????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????. ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????
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?????????????-??????? ??????????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ?????????. ? ?????? ??????
?????????? ????? ????? «??????? ? ?????».
??????????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ????? ???? ????, ???????????? ??? ???????? ??????????. ????? ?????????????
????????? ????? ????? ????????? ? ???? ?? ???? ???????????? ?????????, ??????????? ???????? ????????????? ???? ???? ??-?????????, ??? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ????????????
????????? ?? ????? ????? ????????? ????????? ?? ???? ?????????? ????? ????? ?????????.
????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ???? ??-??????? ???????????
?????????????? ??????????? ?? ????? ???? ????. ???, ??????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? (? = 1.45-1.55 ???) ? ?????? ????????? (? = 0,808 ???).
??????? ????????? ? ??????????????? ????????? ? ????????? ????? ???????? ????????
? ???????? ??????????????? ??????? ????????? ? ??????? ?????????? (??), ??? ? ???? ??????? ????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????.
? ????????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??????????????? ????????? ?
??????????? ?? ??????????????? ????? ?? ??????, ?????????? ???????? AVOTS, ???????????
???????? ?????????? ? ?????? ?????? 2250 ?? ? ???????????????? ??????????? 20-50 ??. ???*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: rtcvbk@rambler.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 353 #
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?? ?????????? ? ??? ????????????? ???????? ???????. ?????????????? ???????????????
?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? AAPP (ATOVS and
AVHRR Pre-processing Package) [1]. ??????????? ????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??????? AAPP ???????? ??????? ???????? ???????????, ????? ???? ? ?????????????.
???????? ????????
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???????? [2,3] ??? ?????? ????? ?????:
n 1 N dry N H 2O u 10 6 ,
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Pdry ? ???????? ?????? ??????? ? ???, PH2O ? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ???? ? ???,
? ? ??????????? ? ?.
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????????? (???. 1).
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???????? ???? ????: 0.808 ??? ??? ?????? ?????????, 1.55 ??? ??? ?????? ??. ??? ???????
??????? ????????? ? ???, ??? ????????????????? ??????? ? ?????????????? ??????????? ??
??????????.
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N = (n ? 1)Ч106 .
?????????? ???????? ??????????????? ????????? ? ???????? ??????????????? ???????
????????? ???? ? ??????????? ???? (???. 3, 4).
??? ?????, ???????? ?????????? ???? ? ???????????? ???? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ? ????????????. ????????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????, ????????????? ??? ??? ???????? ?????????? (??????? ????? ??????? ??????), ??? ? ??? ????????? ????????? 
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