close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

218.Журнал Сибирского федерального университета. Сер. Техника и технологии №7 2013

код для вставкиСкачать
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Журнал Сибирского федерального университета
2013
Journal of Siberian Federal University
6 (7)
Техника и технологии
Engineering & Technologies
???????????? ?????
???????? ??? ?.?. ???????
???????? ??? ?.?. ?????????
???????? ??? ?.?. ???????????
???????? ??? ?.?. ???????
??.-????. ???, ?-? ???.-???. ????
?.?. ???????
??.-????. ???, ?-? ????. ????
?.?. ??????
??.-????. ???, ?-? ???.-???. ????
?.?. ????????
??.-????. ???, ?-? ???.-???. ????
?.?. ????
CONTENTS / СОДЕРЖАНИЕ
С.Д. Гарькавенко, А.М. Сазонов
`?=?,? !??3??2=2%" C%????2= ?=C=?%"
&c?!-??[
???2%!%????,
? 739 ?
В.А. Макаров, А.И. Фертиков,
А.А. Белозерова, С.М. Макеев, Г.В. Белоконов
n2!=???,? C!,!%??/. , 2?.?%????/. ?%?%2%!3??/. %KA?*2%"
" ?,2%??%.,?,???*,. , K,%??%.,?,???*,. C%? . (d?K*%??*=
C?%?=??, e?,??L?*,L *! ?)
? 750 ?
Editorial Advisory Board
Chairman:
Eugene A. Vaganov
Members:
Josef J. Gitelzon
Vasily F. Shabanov
Andrey G. Degermendzhy
Valery L. Mironov
Gennady L. Pashkov
Vladimir V. Shaidurov
Vladimir V. Zuev
Editorial Board:
Editor-in-Chief:
Mikhail I. Gladyshev
Founding Editor:
Vladimir I. Kolmakov
Managing Editor:
Olga F. Alexandrova
Executive Editor for Engineering &
Technologies:
Vladimir A. Kulagin
М.Р. Геворкян
~"??,!?/? *=??,-?=?%?"?2/ o!,??"=??*%?% %-,%?,2%"%?%
C% ?=
? 761 ?
Svetlana S. Bondina,
Sergey A. Ananyev and Tatyana A. Ananyeva
Concretion Onyx of the Torgashino Deposit $ New Type of
Carbonate Vein Onyx (Krasnoyarsk Territory)
? 769 ?
В.Е. Кисляков, Д.А. Лакин
h?????%"=?,? ?*%!%?2, %22=L*, ?!3?2%???%"/. 2?? " "%??
? 774 ?
Fathi Habashi
Can the Toxicity of Asbestos be Reduced?
? 779 ?
И.В. Мещеряков, А.Н. Анушенков
p=?!=K%2*= , ,?????%"=?,? ?,?!%3?=!?%-*=",2=?,%??%?%
=CC=!=2= !%2%!?%?% 2,C=
? 786 ?
???????? ?.?. ?????? ????????? ?.?. ???????
???????????? ??????? ?.?. ?????????
????????? ? ?????? 29.11.2013 ?. ?????? 84x108/16. ???. ???. ?. 10,0.
??.-???. ?. 9,5. ?????? ???. ?????? ????????. ????? 1000 ???. ????? 4116.
?????????? ? ?? ??? ???. 660041 ??????????, ??. ?????????, 82a.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Editorial board for Engineering & Technologies:
Vladimir Kulagin Series Editor, Siberian Federal
University, Russia
Yury Alashkevich Siberian State Technological
University, Russia
Sereeter Batmцnkh Institute of Heat Engineering
and Industrial Ecology Mongolian Academy of
Sciences, Mongolia
Yuri Biba Dresser-Rand Company, USA
Carsten Drebenstedt Technische University
Bergakademie Freiberg, Germany
Yury Galerkin Saint Petersburg State Polytechnic
University, Russia
Gennady Gritsko Institute of Petroleum Geology and
Geophysics Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian
Branch, Russia
Georg Guggenberger Institute of Soil Science Leibniz
University Hannover, Germany
Lev Endzhievsky Siberian Federal University, Russia
Feng-Chen Li School of Energy Science and
Engineering Harbin Institute of Technology, China
Vladimir Makarov Siberian Federal University, Russia
Aleksandr Mineev Siberian Federal University, Russia
Vladimir Moskvichev Special Designing and
Technological Bureau ?Nauka? Krasnoyarsk
Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of
Sciences, Siberian Branch, Russia
Bernard Nacke Institute of Electrotechnology Leibniz
University of Hannover, Germany
Oleksandr Nemchin CEO of the State Research
Institute of Innovative Technologies in Power
Energy and Energy Efficiency of the Fuel and
Energy Ministry of Ukraine, Ukraine
Valeriy Nikulin Kamsk Institute of Humanitarian and
Engineering Technologies, Russia
Oleg Ostrovski University of New South Wales,
Australia
Harald Oye Norwegian University of Science and
Technology, Norway
Vasili Panteleev Siberian Federal University, Russia
Petr Polyakov Siberian Federal University, Russia
Victor Timofeev Siberian Federal University, Russia
Ibragim Khisameev Kazan State Technological
University, Russia
Anatoly Shvidenko International Institute for Applied
Systems Analysis, Austria
Galina Chiganova ? Siberian Federal University,
Russia
????????????? ? ??????????? ???
?? ? ??77-28-722 ?? 29.06.2007 ?.
????? ???????? ? «???????? ???????
????????????? ??????? ???????? ? ???????,
? ??????? ?????? ???? ????????????
???????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ??
????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ? ?????????
????» (???????? 2010 ?.)
Dmitry A. Lapshin, Eduard F. Grabchak,
Irina S. Kuzmina, Yuliya A. Goryacheva
and Aleksandr L. Kozhanov
Efficiency Improvement for Platinum Concentrates
Production from Electrolytic Slimes at Polar Division
of OAO MMC Norilsk Nickel
? 800 ?
Leonid S. Pinchuk and Victor A. Goldade
Smart Materials in Materials Science
? 805 ?
А.К. Абкарян,
Р.Б. Абылкалыкова, В.А. Падар,
Ф.М. Носков, А.А. Калитова,
Г.М. Дюсупова, Г.Б. Мухаметхан
n?%K???%?2, ?2!3*23!%%K!=?%"=?, " ?,?2???
?",??? $ ???? C!, ,?2???,"?/. ?,?=?,???*,.
?=?!3?*=.
? 818 ?
Э.М. Гильдебрандт,
Е.П. Вершинина, Е.А. Селина
j,??2,*= "/.%?= ??23?,. "????2" C!, ?=?!?"=?,,
*%*?%C?*%"%L *%?C%?,?,,
? 828 ?
В.Н. Тяпкин,
Д.Д. Дмитриев, А.С. Першин
`??%!,2?/ =?=C2=?,, ??%?%?3??"/. =?2???,
C%?2!%???/. ?= K=?? ?,K!,??%-??!*=???/. =?2???
? 835 ?
Almohammad A. Mohammad,
Nataly P. Kulikova and Evgeny A. Sorokin
The Experimental Stand for an Efficiency Assessment of Application of a Multiple-Pass Heater as
Means of Cooling of Working Liquid of a Hydraulic
Actuator
? 845 ?
В.П. Довгун, Д.Э. Егоров,
В.В. Новиков, Е.А. Толстихина
j%!!?*?, *%.--,?,??2= ?%??%?2, " .??*2!,???*,.
??2 . ??-2??%K/"=??,. C!??C!, 2,L
? 851 ?
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 7 (2013 6) 739-749
~~~
??? 550.8:553.411
?????? ??????????? ????????
??????? ????????????? «??????»
?.?. ???????????, ?.?. ???????*
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
?????? 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
Received 04.06.2013, received in revised form 12.08.2013, accepted 24.08.2013
? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ????????, ??????????????? ????? ???
????????????? «??????» ? ???????????? ????. ???????? ???????? ??????? ????????
?????????????????? ????? ? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ??? 120-?????? ???????
?????????????? ???????? ?????????????. ??????????? ????????????? ?????????????
??????????? ?????????????????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ? ????
2011?2012 ??., ?????????? ???????? ???????. ???????????????? ???????? ?????? ???????
?? ????????.
???????? ?????: ????????????? «??????», ??????, ???? ?????????????, ????, ??????,
????????????? ?????????????.
????? ???????? ? ????????????? ????????
????????????? «??????» ??????????? ? ??????????? ?????? ????????????? ???? ?
0,5 ?? ?? ???. ???????????? ? ???????????? ????? ?????? ???? ?????????????, ??????????
?? ???????? ????????????? ? ?????????? ????, ? ??????? ?????? «??????» ????????? ??? ?
??????? ???? ???? ? ????? ????????????-????????? ????? ????????????? ????? (???. 1).
??????? ??????? ???????? ???? ????????????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ????? 450 ? ?
?????????????? ??? ?????????????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????? ???? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????. ????????
???? ????????????? ????????? 30 ?. ??????????? ???? 10-20°, ??????? ?? ???-?????? ???
?????? 30-60°. ? ????????? ???? ????????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ???? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ???? ??????????, ?????? ?????????? «?????» ??? «????????». ?????
???? ??? ?????????? ?? 25 ?? 200 ?, ???????? ???????? ?? 0,2 ?? 6,5 ?, ? ? ????????? ????????
????????? 14 ?. ????????? ????????? ???? ?????????? ?? ??????? ?? ??????? 250 ?. ???????????? ???????? ???? ????????????? ? ????????? ????????? ????????? ???? ????????????? ????? ??????? ????????????-?????????? ? ?????????????? ????????. ?????????? ?????, ?????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ???? ???? ?????????????, ???????????? ??????
???????????????? ???????????, ??????? ? ?????????????, ???????????? ????????????????
????????????.
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: garkavenko_sv@mail.ru
# 739 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
???. 1. ????????????? ???? ????????????? «??????» (?), ?????????????? ????????? ?????
????????????? (?)
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????????, ?.?. ???????. ?????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ????????????? «??????»
? ???????????? ? ?????????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? [3] ?? ????????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????? «??????»
???????? ? ??????? ??????. ???????????? ????????????? ???????????? ????????? ? ????????? ???? ?????????????, ? ?????????? ????????? ????? ? ?????????????????? ????????????????? ?????????????, ???????? ?? ??????? ??????? ????????????? ?????.
???? ????????????? «??????» ??????????? ?? ??? ???? ? ????????? ? ?????????? [4].
?????????? ???? ??????? ?? ?????????????????? ????????? ???? ????????????? ? ?????? ????? ?????? ? ????? ?????-?????????? ??????? ????????????? ?????. ????????? ????
???????????? ????????????????? ??????? ???????. ? ????? ??? ???? ??? ???????????? ??
??????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????????. ?????????? ???? ?????????????? ?? ??????????? ?? ??????? 300 ?, ????????? ? ? ?????? ??????, ?? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ?? 100 ?.
???????? ??????????? ???????????? ??? ???????? ????? ??????????????? ??? ?????????????????????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?????????????. ????? ???????????, ??? ????
?????? ? ??????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ????????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ????????
?????????? ???????? ??????. ???????????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??? ????????????? «??????» ?? ??????????? ????? ??? ??? «???????????? ??????».
?????????????????? ??????
???????? ????????????? «??????» ???????????? ??? ????? 120 ???. ?????? ??????????
? «????» ????????????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ??????, ????? ???? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ????, ????????? ? ????????? ? 1897-1998 ??. ???????? ?.?. ?????????.
? ????? ??????? ?? ?????????? 60 ??? ?? ????????????? «??????» ??????????? ?????????????????? ?????? ? ? ????????? ??????? ??? ????????? ? ???????????, ?? ??????????? ???????
???????????, ??? ????????????? ?? ????? ????????????? ????????. ? ???????? ???? ?????
?????? ????? 20 ?? ??????.
??????????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ? 1948 ?. ? ?????????????? ? ???????????? ? ???????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ???????? ?? ???????.
?????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ????????????? ?? ????????????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? «????????????» ?? 1948-1952 ??. [4]. ????? ????
???????????? ???? ????????? ????????-??????? ???, ?????? ???? ????????????? ? ????????
????????? ????????? ???. ? ?????????? ?????????? ????? «????» ????????????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ?? 3300 ? (???????? ????? 11 ???. ?3), ?? ???????
25 ? ???????? ? ???????????, ??????????? ?? ????? ? 1, ?? 320 ?. ?? ???? ?????????? ???????? ? ???????????????? ?????????? ?????. ?? ?????????? ??????????? ? ?????? ?????????????? ????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ????????? ?1 ? ?2
????????? ?? «????» ????????????? ? ????????? ?????. ???????? ?????????? ??? ????????
??????? ??????? 3 ?/? ??? ???????????????????? ?? ?????? ???????????. ??????? ?????????????? ???????? ???? ????????????? ????????? 7 ?, ????? ?????????? ????, ?????????????
??? ???????? ?? ????? ??????????? ????? ??????????????? ????, 1650 ?, ??????? ??????
???????, ???????????? ?? ?????? ???? ???????, ?????????? ? 1933 ?., ????????? 100 ?. ?????
# 741 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????????, ?.?. ???????. ?????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ????????????? «??????»
???????????? ???? ?????????? ?????? ???? ????????????? ??????? ? 9 ? ??????, 3000 ???. ?
???? ?? ??????? ??????????? 3 ?/?. ? ????? ?.?. ????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????????
«??????» ? ?????? ????????? ??? ? ?????????? 9225 ?? ??????, 3016 ? ???? ?? ??????? ??????????? 3,06 ?/?. ????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ?????? ? ?????? ???????, ?????????????
? ????????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ?? ??? ???????? ???? ?????????????.
??? ???? ????? ???????????? ???????????? ???? ?????? ?????????????? ????????????? ??????
? ????????????? ????????.
?????????????????? ?????? ?? ????????????? ???? ?????????? ????????? ?????????????????? ??????????? ? 1974-1975 ??. [5]. ????????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????
?????????????? ???? ????????????? ?? ??????? ? ?? ??????? 200 ? ?????????? ?? ????
400 ? 100 ? ??? ????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ??????, ? ????? ????????
????????????? ? ????????? ?????????????? ???? ????????????? ?????????? ??????????
???????? ?? 450 ?. ??? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ????????? 5169 ?. ? ?????????? ???????, ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ? ????????? ????? (????? 50 % ?????) ?
??????????? ???????? ?????????? ????. ?? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ???????????,
??? ?? ?????????? 3600 ? ? ?? ??????? 400 ? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ???? ??????
100-200 ? ????????? ????????. ??????????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ????? ? ??????? ??????? ??? ? ??????????? ?????, ?.?. ????? ??????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ??????????
????????? ??????????. ?? ??????? 12 ?????? ???????, ??????? ??????? ?? ??????-????????????, ??????? ?? 80 ?? 250 ? ? ???????? ????????? ?? 400 ?. ?? ?????? ??????? ??????
[8], ?????? ?????????? ? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????, ??? ??????? ???????????????
??????????? ???? ?????????????. ????????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ??????? ????????????
???????????. ??????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????????, ?? ? ? ??????????
? ??? ???????????????? ???????. ?????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ???????: ??????? ??????? ??????, ?????????? ?? ????????, ?????????? ?? ???????? ??????? ??????, ????????????
??? ??????? ?? ??????????, ?????????? ? ?????? ?????, ? ?????? ????????? ????, ?????????
2,7 ?/?3, ? ?????????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ? ?????? ??????, ???????????? ??? ??????? ?? ??????????, ?????????? ? ??????? ??????? ??????. ? ?????????? ?????? ????????????? «??????» ??????? ? 70 ? ??????, 8200 ???. ? ???? ?? ??????? ??????????? 8,5 ?/?.
????????-????????? ?????? ?? ????????????? «??????» ????????? ? 1984-1989 ??. ???
???????????? ?.?. ???????? [7]. ???????? ??????? ????????????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ? ?? ??????? 300
? ??????????? ????? ???? ????????????? (?????? ?????? 6-12, ?????????? ????? ?.?. ???????) ? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????, ? ?????????? ???? ????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ????????? ?2. ??? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ??????? ??????
1290 ?. ?, ?? ??????? ???????? ?????? ? ????, ????????? ???????? ? ??????????? (6866
?. ?) ? ?? ????????? ?????????, ????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ???????????. ??????????
????? ????????????? ????????? ???????, ???????? ?????????? ? ??????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ? ???????? ?????????????????? ??????????. ? ???????? ????? ???????
????? ????????????? ?? ?????? ?. ?. ???????? ?? ??????-?????? ?? ?????????? 2100 ? ??
?? 5 ?? ?? 26,3 (???. 1). ? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ???? ????????????? ?? ???? ?????????, ???????? ???????????? ?? ?? ????????, ????? ??????? ????
# 742 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????????, ?.?. ???????. ?????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ????????????? «??????»
? ?????? ????????????? ????????????? ??????, ? ????? ?????????????? ???????? ??????????
?? ?????? ? ????????? ?????, ?? ? ? ????????? ????????????? ? ?????????????????? ???????. ????????????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????????
?????????? ??????????:
1) ?? ????????? ????????????? «?????????» ? ??????-?????????? ?????? (????????
?????????? ?????? ? ????? 1 ?/?, ????????????? ?????? ??? ????????? ?? ??????????
? ??????????? 1,0 ?/?, ??????????-???????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ????? 2,4 ?/?,
??????????? ????????, ?????????? ? ?????? ????????, 3,0 ?, ???????????? ????????
???????? ?????? ????? ? ?????????????? ???, ?????????? ? ?????? ???????? ???????,
5 ?),
2) ? ???????????? ????????????? ???????? ???? ?????????????,
3) ?????????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ????????????.
??????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ???????? ? ?????? ???? ????????? ????????
?????????? ??? ???????????????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ?? ???????, ????????? ? ????????? ?????? ???????????, ???????? ? ?????? ????????????? ?????. ??? ???? ??? ????????
??????? ? ????????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ????????????? ?? ??????? ????????????? ?? ??? ???????? ????. ???? ????????? ???? ????????? ?? ?????? ?.?. ?????? [1]
????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ?????, ??? ?????????? ???????? 20 % ?? ????????? ??? 10-15 % ?????????? ??????????? ?? ?????. ????? ? ????????? 7,2 ??????????? ? ????
???? ???????? ? ??????????, ????????? ? ? ????????????. ?????????? ??????? ????????? ?1
?????????? ?? «????» ????????????? ? ????????? ????? ?? ??????? 550 ? ???? ???????
??????? ????????? ?2 ?? ???????? ???????? ??????? ? ??????, ???????? ??????????.
?????? ?????????????????? ???? ????????? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ?? ????????? ??????????
2,0 ?/? ?????? ?????. ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ??? ????????? ????????? ?????
????, ?????????? ? ??????? ????????? 2,0 ?/?, ? ????? ????? ????, ?????????? ?? ?????????,
???????? ? ???????.
?????????? ????????????? ???????? ??????? ? ????. 1.
????? ???????, ?.?. ???????? [7] ?????? ?????? ??????? ? 20-22 ? ??? ??????? ??????????? ???? 3 ?/?, ???, ??????????, ????????? ?? ???????????? ???????? ?????????????, ?
??????????????? ?????? ? ???????? ??????? ? ?? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ????????????
???. ????? ? ??, ??? ? ?????? ??? ???????? ?? ?????? ????????-??????? ????, ?? ? ????????????, ????????????? ? ???? ????????????? ????.
? 2002-2006 ??. ???????????? ?????? ??? «???????????? ?????-????????????? ????????»
????????? ????????? ?????? ? ???????? «??????»-???????????? ?????? ???? ? ????? ????????? ????????????? ? ????????????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ????? ? ??
??????????????, ? ????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? [9]. ??? ???? ??????????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ?? ????????? ????????. ?? ??????? ????-??????????, ????????????? ????? ?? -12,5 ? ?? 6,0 (???. 1) ????????????? «??????», ???? ???????? ?????????? ?????? (872 ?), ????????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ??????? 10582 ?.?. ??????
??????????? ???? ????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ?? ?????????????
«??????». ?????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ???????????????? ????????? ??????? ????????# 743 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????????, ?.?. ???????. ?????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ????????????? «??????»
??????? 1. ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ??????? ????????????? «??????»
?????????
??????? 1*
??????? 1**
??????? 1***
????, ???. ?
?1+?2
6439
5920
?1+?2+?3
2705
7613
??????? ??????????, ?/?
?1+?2
3,0
3,8
?1+?2+?3
7,8
3,1
??????, ??
?1+?2
19563
22396
?1+?2+?3
21088
26121
*?????? ?????????? ? ???????? ????????????? ?????? ???? ?????????????,
**?????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ????????????? «?????????»,
***?????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ????????????.
?????? 5 ?????? ??? ? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ????-?????????? ?? ?????????? ?1 ? ?2. ??? ????????????? ?????????? ??? ???? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ????????????? «??????» ? ???????? ??????????? ?????? 1 ?/?, ???????????
????????? ??????? ???? 2 ?, ???????????? ???????? ?????? ????? ? ?????????????? ???
5 ?, ??????????-???????????? ?????????? ?????? 2,3 ?/?. ??? ????????????? ?????????
??? ??????????-???????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? 3,5 ?/?. ??????? ??????? ??? ?????? ??? ? 1, 2 ? 3 ???????? ??????? ???????????? ???????, ? ?????? ??? ? 4 ? 5 ? ???????
????????????? ??????. ?????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ??? ???????????????? ?? ???????? ???? ?? ???????. ??????????? ????????? ???? ??????????? ?? ????????
?.?. ?????? [1] ? ?????, ?????????? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ????? ? 15 % ?? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ???????, ???????? ?? ?????? ?????. ? ?????????? ???????? ???????
?????????? ??????? ????????????? ?? ????????? ?1 ? ?2 ????????? 44 ? ??????, 10,6 ??? ?
???? ?? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ? ???? 4,2 ?/?. ?? ??????????? ???????? ???? ???????????
??????????? ???????-????????????? ?????? ????-??????????? ???????. ? ?????????? ???????? ???? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? 12 ??? ??? ?????????????????? ?? ???? 900 ???. ?
? ???. ????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ????????????????
????????? ?? ???????????????? ?? ????????????? ???? ???? ?????? ??????? ? ????????
????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????, ?? ??????????????? ???????? ?? ?????????.
? 2006 ?. ?????????????????? ?????? ?? ????????????? ???????? ??? «????????????
??????» ?? ????????? ???????? ?? ???????? ? ?????? ?????? ?? ????????????? «??????».
??????? ???????? ????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ?1 ? ?2, ????????
???????, ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ??????????????? ??????? ??? [6]. ????????
???????? ?????????????????? ?????: ??????? ??????????????? ?????? ????????????? ???????, ???????? 6,5 ???. ?. ? ????? ????? 40-80 ? (?? ???????? ??????????? 25-30 ?), ????????? ????? 700 ??????? ????? ??????? 75 ???. ?. ? ?? ???? 40-60 ? 40-60 ? (?? ???????? ???????????
10-20 ? 10-20 ?), ???????? 8,8 ???. ??????????, 45 ???. ???????? ????, ??? ???????????????
# 744 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????????, ?.?. ???????. ?????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ????????????? «??????»
????? ?? ????? ??????? ??????? ?? ???? ?????????????? ????? ???, 1,5 ???. ???????? ???
??????????? ?????????? ??????? ???, ????????? ?????????, ????????????, ???????, ???????????????? ? ??????????????? ???????. ? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ???????? ??? ??????? ? ???????? ? ?????. ??????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ??? ?
??????????-????????????????? ??????? ???????? ????? ???. ?? ???? ????????? ????????????? «??????» ???? ????????? ?? ??? ????????????? ? «??????» (???????? ????? ?????????????
?? ???. ????????????) ? «????????????» (????? ????? ????????????? ?? ???. ????????????
?? ??). ?????? ????????????? ?? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ???????????????
???????? ? 2011-2012 ??. ?? ????????? (????????????? «????????????») ? ?????????? (????????????? «??????») ?????????. ?????? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????? ? ????????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ????????????. ??????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ??? ???????????????? ?? ?????
?????, ???????? ??????? ????????? ???? ???????. ??????????? ???????????? ?????????
??? ????????? ????? ???? ???????????? ?????????? ? ????? ????? ?????? ????. ?????
???? ? ????? ????????? ????????????? ?????? ?????? ???? ?? ??????????? ????????????.
??????????? ????????? ???? ????????? ?? ???????? ?.?. ?????? ????? ?????? ???? ?? ????
????????????? ?????? (20 % ?? ?????????). ?????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ?? ???? ???
(?????????, ??????????, ????????????) ? ???????? ?????? ??????, ???????????? ?? ???????
???????????? ??????????. ?????, ??????????? ?? ???? 20-40 ? 30-50 ?, ??????????????? ??
????????? ?1, ??????????? ?? ???? 20-40 ? 55-80 ?, ? ????? ?????, ??????????? ????????????
? ??????? ???????? ?0,4, ? ?? ????????? ?2, ?? ????? ?????? ???? ? ?? ????????? ?1. ??????, ??????????? ? ??????? ???????, ???????? ? ??????????, ?? ???????? ??????? ? ????????????? ?
?????????-???????? ???? (???????, ???, ????????) ? ? ???????????? (????. 2).
????????? ????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ? ???????????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ?? ? ?????????-???????? ???? (???? ???????, ????????, ??????????, ???) 9 % (1,7 ?
???????) ? ???? ??? ??????? 15 % (2,7 ? ???????).
?? ???? ?????? ???????? ?????? ????????????? «??????» ??????????? ?? 22 ?, ? ??????? ?
?? 70 ? ?????? (???. 2).
??????? 2. ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ??????? ????????????? «??????»
?????????????
????????? ????????
«??????»
«????????????»
????????:
- ???????? ??????????, ?/?
0,8
1
- ??????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????, ?
3
3
- ???????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ????? ?
?????????????? ???, ?
3
5
- ????, ??? ?
2,1
2,1
- ??????? ?????????? Au, ?/?
4,7
3,7
- ??????, ?
10,0
7,8
?????? ????????? ?1+?2:
# 745 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????????, ?.?. ???????. ?????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ????????????? «??????»
???. 2. ???????? ?????? ??????? ????????????? ?? ????????: ?) ?????? ? ??????? ??????, ?? ?) ???????
??????????, ?/?
?????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????????????? ?????
??? ??????? ????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????????????? ????? ?
1948 ?? 2012 ?. ?? ????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ???? 2011-2012 ??. ?? ????????? ??????????????????, ? ????????? ?????? ? ??????? ????????? ? ??????? ????????? ?1 + ?2 ? ?????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ????????? ?? ??????? (1)
C1 = 0,5C2 = 0,25P1 = 0,12P2.
(1)
???????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ????????????? ? ?????????? ???????, ???????????? ? ????????? ?1 + ?2 (???. 3).
?? ??????? ?????, ??? ?? 1990 ?. ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????????, ? ????? ????????
???????, ??? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? (39 %) ????????? ????? ????? ?????? ???????? ??????(120 %). ??? ??????????????? ? ???, ??? ??????????
????? 2006-2011 ??. ?? ??????????? ??????, ????????? ?????. ???????? ???????????? ?? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?????? 1984-1990 ??. ? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ??????????
?????? ? ????????? ????????? ??????????-???????? ???? ?? 29 ? ?????? ?? ????????? ?1 + ?2.
??????? ????????, ??? ??????? ??????? 1990 ?. ???????????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????????
? ???????, ?? ? ?? ????????? ?????? ??????????, ???????????? ?????? ???? ?? ??????? ????? ??????????? ???????. ?? ?????? ????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ???????????
???????? ?? ??????????????. ?? ????? ???????? ????????????? ? 2011-2012 ??. ?????????
?????????????? ???????? ???????????? ????? ????????? ??????? ?? ????????? ?1 + ?2 ? ? 29
?? 18 ? ??????, ?? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ???????. ???, ??? ?????? ??????? ? 1990
?. ??????????? ?1 ? ?2 ???? 6 ? 94 %, ? ? 2011-2012 ??. ? 45 ? 55 %. ?????????????, ???? ???
???????? ??????? ?? ????????? ?2 ? ????????? ?1 ??? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????????
???????, ?? ???, ????????, ????????? ?? ????????????? ????????? ???? ????????? ?2 ??? ??????
??????? ?????????????. ??????, ?????????? ??? «???????????? ??????», ???????????? ??
???????? ????????? ????, ???????, ?? ????, ????????, ???????????? ????? ???????????
??? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????????. ??????????? ????????? ???????
? ????????????? ????? ?????????????????? ????? ? ??????????? ??? ???? ?????????, ??
?????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ? 18 ? ?????????? ? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????
?1 + ?2 ?? ????? ????????? 48 ? ???????? ?????? ????????? ?1 ? 22 ? ??????? ?????? ?????????
?1 + ?2.
# 746 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????????, ?.?. ???????. ?????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ????????????? «??????»
???. 3. ???????????? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????????????????? ??????
???. 4. ???????? ???????? ??????? ????????????? «??????» ?? ????????? ? ??????????? ??????
??? ???????, ??? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ? ?????? ??????????? ????????
???????? ??? ????? ??????? ? ????? ?????????????????? ????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ???????? ? ????????????? ????????????. ? ????????? ???? ? ???????? ?????????? ?? ??????????????? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ????????????? 3-? ??????
????????? ?????????, ??? ????????????? ???????? ???????????, ???? ????? 50 % ??? ???????
???????? ? ????????? ?1. ? ????????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ???????? ?? ???????
??????????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ?1 ? ?2 ? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ?? ?????????????????, ??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????????????? ????? [3].
??????????? ????????????? ??????? ????????? ??? ?????? ?? ???????? ? ???????? ??????
????????????. ?????????? ?????? ?? ?????????????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????????????? ??????? ????????? ? ???????? ??????? ?????????????????. ?? ???? ???? ??????????????? ??????? ????????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ????? (????????? ??????????
?????, ????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ???? ? ??.), ???????????? ?????????????? ?????# 747 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????????, ?.?. ???????. ?????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ????????????? «??????»
????? ?????????????????? ?????. ??? ????????? ?? ????????????????????? ??????????? ??
????? ????? ? ???????? ???????? ????? ?????? ???????? ???????, ???????? ???????? ?????.
??? ??? ? ???????? ????? ???? ?????????? ????????? ? ??????? ???????? ??????????????????
????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????, ??? ?????????, ???????? ????????????? ????????? ???????, ????????? ??????? ????????????????? ? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ? ??????????????? ?????? ? ???? ????????? ??????.
??????
? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????? ????????????? «??????» ???????? ?????????
????????:
1. ???????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????????, ??????? ????????????? ????????:
?? ?????? ? ??????????? ????? ????????????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ?? ??? ???. ????????????, ?? ????????? ? ? ????????. ???????? ???? ????????????? ?????????? ?? ???????????
?? 5 ??, ?? ??????? ?? 500 ?, ?????????? ??????? ??? ??????????????? ????????? ???.
2. ?????????????? ??????????? ? ???????????????? ??????? ????? ? ???, ??????????????????, ?????????-????????????? ? ?????-??????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????????, ??????????????? ???????? ???.
3. ?????????? ????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ??????????????? ??? ???? ????????????? ? ????????? ???, ? ????? ?????????? ???????????????? ?????????????????? ????? ????????????? ?????????????. ???????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ???????????
?????? ????? ??????????? ???? ????? ??? ? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ?? ??? ??? «???????????? ??????» ?? ??????????? ?????.
4. ???????? ???????????? ?? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?????? 1984-1990 ??., ?????????? ???????????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ? ????????? ????????? ??????????-????????
???? ?? 29 ? ?????? ?? ????????? ?1 + ?2. ??????, ?????????? ??? «???????????? ??????»,
???????????? ?? ???????? ????????? ????, ???????, ?? ????, ???????????? ????? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????????? ? ??????????? ???????????
??? ???? ?????? ??????????? ????? ???????.
5. ?????? ????????????? ??????? ? 4,3 ??? ? ???? ?? ??????? ??????????? 4,2 ?/?, ??????? 18 ?, ? ??? ????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ????????? 1,1 ??? ? ???? ?? ??????? ??????????? 4,9 ?/?, 5,6 ? ???????.
?????? ??????????
[1] ????? ?.?. ??????? ??????? ? ???????-???????????? ?????? ?????? ?????????????.
?.: ?????, 1974. 303 ?.
[2] ???????????? ???????????? ?? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ????????????? ?
?????????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? (????????????). ??? ??, 2007. 47 ?.
[3] ?????? ??????????????? ??????? ???? ???? ???? ????????????? «??????»: ????? ?
??????-????????????????? ??????. ???????, 2010.
[4] ??????? ?.?. ????? ? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????:
????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? «????????????» ?? 1948-1952 ??.. ?????? ????????????, 1953.
# 748 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????????, ?.?. ???????. ?????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ????????????? «??????»
[5] ????? ?.?. ?????????????? ????????????? «??????» ? ??????-?????????? ?????? ????????????? «????»: ????? ???????????? ?????? ? 1974-1975 ??. ????????, 1976.
[6] ???????? ?.?. ???????? ????????????? ????????????? «??????»: ????? ? ?????????
??????? ?? ????????? ?? 01.01.2011. ??????????, 2011.
[7] ???????? ?.?. ????????-????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???? ??????????? ?????????????: ????????????? ????? ??????-????????? ??? ?? ??????? ?? ?????????? ????????????? ?
1984-1989??). ??????????, 1990.
[8] ??????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?, ?????? ?.?. ? ??. ????????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ?????? ????: ?????. ?????, 1982.
[9] ??????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. ? ??. ????????? ?????? ? ?????????????????? ?????? ???? ????-??????????? ????????????? ??????: ?????. ??????????,
2006.
Analysis of the Reserves Estimation Results
for the Gerfed Gold Deposit
Svetlana D. Garkavenko and Anatoly M. Sazonov
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
The article deals with the geology and metallurgic ore types of the Gerfed gold deposit in the Krasnoyarsk
Territory. The main aspects of the geological exploration and results of reserves estimation for a
120-year period of the deposit geological study are given. The economic efficiency of the geological
exploration performed has been studied using the method of brining the costs of works in compliance
with the current prices of 2011-2012. We have also calculated specific costs and have analyzed the
dynamics of the reserves estimation by periods.
Keywords: Gerfed gold deposit, gold, Magistralnaya vein, ore, reserves, economic efficiency.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 7 (2013 6) 750-760
~~~
??? 550.84
????????? ?????????
? ??????????? ???????????? ????????
? ????????????????? ? ???????????????? ?????
(?????????? ???????, ?????????? ????)
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ????????,
?.?. ??????????*, ?.?. ??????, ?.?. ?????????
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
?????? 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
Received 22.10.2012, received in revised form 09.08.2013, accepted 22.08.2013
???????????? ????????? ? ?????? ???????-????????? ????? ?? ?????????? ????????????
???????, ?????????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????, ???????????? ? ??????????
??????????? ?????????? ??????-????????? ? ????????? ???. ????? ???????????? ????? ??????
????????? ??????????????? ????- ? ???????????????? ??????? ? ???????? ???????????
????????????? ?? ??? ??????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ??????.
???????? ?????: ?????????? ???????, ??????????? ? ????????? ???????????? ???????,
??????? ??????, ????- ? ???????????????? ??????, ????????? ??????.
????????
?? ?????????? ??????? ??? ????? 100 ??? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????????????
?????? ?????????? ????????. ??????? ??????????????? ????? ???????? ???????????? ???????
? ?????????????? ???? ????????????, ?? ??????? ?? ??? ??????? ?????? ????? 60 ? ??????.
??????????? ????? ?????????? ? ???????? ????? ??????????? ?????, ??????? ???
????????? ?????????? ???? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? [1]. ??
??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????????? «???????» ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ????? ????? ???????? ????????-??????????? ??????: ????????? ?? ?????? ?
??????-?????????? ?? ??????? [2].
?????????????? ??????? ?????? ? ?????? ?????????? ????????????? ????, ?????????????
? ??????????-?????????? ???????????? ????????????????? ????. ? ???????? ???? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????????????? ???????? ? ????????? ??????????????? ?????
??????????: ????????-???????, ??????-??????????? ? ?????????????????? ??????? (???????????????? ???), ??????????-???????.
? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??????????, ?????, ?????????, ??????? ? ???????????? ??????? (???. 1). ?????????????? ? ?????????
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: tolkien1988@mail.ru
# 750 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
???. 1. ????????????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ??????????. ????? ?????????? ??
?????????? ?.?. ?????????? ? ?.?. ????????? (2008 ?.). ????????????? ?????????????: 1 ? ????????
????????, ??????????; 2 ? ??????? ?????; 3 ? ?????????? ????? ? ????????, ??????? ?????????
??????????, ????????????; 4 ? ?????????? ????? ? ?????????; 5 ? ??????????? ?????; 6 ? ???????????
????? ? ??????????; 7 ? ??????????? ????? ? ????????????; 8 ? ??????????? ????? ? ?????????
?????????????? ???????????????? ? ????????????; 9 ? ?????????? ?????, ??????? ???????? ? ??????
??????-???????????; 10 ? ?????????? ?????, ?????? ???????? ? ?????? ???????-????????????;
11 ? ??????????? ?????, ???????????? ????? ? ?????? ???????-??????-????????? ??????????????;
12 ? ?????????? ????? ? ?????? ??????-???????-?????????, ? ????????? ?????????????; 13 ? ???????
?????, ??????????? ????? ? ???????, ??????????????? ??????, ??????????; 14 ? ????????-??????????
???????? ??????????. ??????? ??????: 15 ? ??????? ???????????? ?????; 16 ? ??????? ????????????
???????; 17 ? ????????? ?????????????? ???????; 18 ? ??????? ???????. ????????????, ???????
?????????? ??????: 19 ? ???????; 20 ? ???????. ???????? ??????: 21 ? ????? ????????????? ??????;
22 ? ?????????? ??????. ????????? ?????????: 23 ? ???????????; 24 ? ???????, ???????-???????,
25 ? ?????????? ??????
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ????????? ????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????
?????? ??????????????? ? ???????? ?????????????, ??????-????????????? ? ??????????????? ?????, ???????? ?????? ???????? ????????-??????????? ?????????. ????????? ??????
??????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????, ?????????? ? ?????? ????????????? ??????.
????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????, ? ???????????????? ?????
?????????????? ????? ????????????? ???????????? ???????, ????????? ? ??????-????????
???????????, ??????????? ??????????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????. ? ??????????????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ????????, ? ? ???-???????? ? ????????????
????????-??????????? ?????????. ??? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ? ??????????
?????? ????????????? ????????????? ??????-????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ???????? ???????, ????????? ? ??????-???????? ???????????. ????? ??? ?????????? ????? ??????? ?????????????, ??? «?????????», «??????????-?????????», «???????? ??????», «?????????» ? ??.
? ????????????? ?????, ?? ???????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ????? ? ??????????
??????????? ?????????? ?????, ????????? ??????? ?????, ?????????????? ?????? ???????????, ? ??????? ??????? ???????? ???-???????????? ???? ????????????. ??????? ??? ????????????. ??????-???????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ??????.
?? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ??????????, ? ????? ?
??? ??????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? (?????????????? ?????? ??????? ? ????????????????? ????????? ? ??????? ??? ? ??????). ????????
??????? ? ??????? ??????? ???? ???????????? ? ??????? ??? ????, ?????, ??????, ??????,
??????, ???????.
????????, ??? ??????? ????????? ????? ? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????
?????????? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ?, ?????? ?????, ??????? ????????? ????????.
??????????? ?????????????? ???????? ??????? ???? ??????????? ???????????? ???????
? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ????, ???
????????? ????? ? ???????? ??????????? ????? (??????-????????? ? ??????-?????-??????????
???????, ???????????? ???? ????????????), ??? ? ?? ???????????? ? ???????????? ???????? (????????????? ???????????? ?????????????, «??????? ??????????») [3].
?????????? ?????? ? ???????? ????????????
????????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ? ???????? ??????????? ?????. ?? ????????????? ? ??????????????? ??????? ?? ???????????? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ? ??????? ???? ???????????? ????????, ???????? ?? ????????????? ????????????? ??????? ? ????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ????????. ????????
??????????? ??????????????????? ???????? ????????? ??????????, ?????????? ?? ???????
????? ?????? ??????????-???????????? ?????????, ? ????? ??????? ??????????? ????????,
??????? ??????? ? ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????????? ????? ??? ?????????
? ??????????? ??????????? ? ????????? ???????? ?????? ? ??? ?????????-?????????. ???????? ??????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ????- ? ????????????????? ??????????? ?? ????? ? ??? ?? ???????, ? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????
? ??????????, ??????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ????????? ?? ??????
?????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????.
# 752 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ????????? ????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????
???. 2. ????????? ? ???????????? ??????? ???????????? Au ? ????? ????????? ??????, ??????????????
??????? ? ?????? (1 ? 2), ??????? (3 ? 4) ? ??????? ??????????? ??? ? ?????? [4]
????????????????? ?????? ????????? ?? ???? 200?20 ?. ????? ???????? ??
???????????-??????????? ?????????. ??????? ?????? ???????? ?? ???????? ????????????????????? ???? ? ?????????? 20-40 ??. ???????? ???? ? ??????????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ???????-?????????? ????????? ? ????????? ?????????? ? ?? ????? ????????? ??
????? ????????.
???????????????? ?????? ????????? ?? ???? 200?40 ? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ???? ??????? ????????? ???? ????????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ? ?????????? ? ?????????. ? ???????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??? ???????? ????????????? ?????? ?????????????? ??????? ??????, ??????? ??????? ??????????????? ?? ????????? ??????????.
?????? ???????????? ?????? ????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ??? ????????? ?????????????????????????? ?? ??????? ????? ?????????-??????????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????????
?????? [4]. ????? ?? ??????? ???????? 9480 ???? ???? ??????.
? ????? ????? ???? (???????) ?? ??????????? ????? ??????, ??? ??? ?????? ??? ????????
???????? ????????????? ???????????? ??? ?????? ????????. ?? ?????? ?????????? ??????? [5], ? ???? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????? (???. 2).
???????????? ????????????
??????????? ?????????? ????????? ? ?????? ???????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????????????? ????????????? (????????? «?????? ?????») ? ??????????????????????? (Mobilab
X-50 ALPHa SERIES (???)) ????????. ????????????????? ????? ????????????? ? ???????
??????? ???????? (????) ? ? ?????? (???). ???? ?????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ???????
??? ????????. ?????? ????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ???????????, ??????
??????????? ??? ???????? ???????????????? ????.
?????????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ? ?????????????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????????? (Microsoft Office Excel, Statistica, ArcGIS,
Surfer). ??? ??????? ????????? ????????????? ????? ????????? ????????? [6] ? ?????????
??????? ????????????? ??????, ?????????? ?? ???????????? ???????????????? ?????????????? ? ?????????? ????? ????????????? ????? ? ?????????????? ???????????, ? ????? ? ???# 753 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ????????? ????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????
????????? ? ?????????? ?????????. ????????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????
??????????? ? ? ?? ?? ????? ?????????.
?????????????? ????????????? ?????
?? ??????????? ????????????? ????? ????????? ????? ????- ? ???????????????? ???????? ?? 32 ?????????. ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ????????, ??? As, Fe, K,
Ca, Mn, Rb, Sr, Zr. ????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ????????????? ????, ?
????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ? ???????? ??????, ??????????? ?????? ? ???????????
?????????.
?????? ? ?????? ? ????- ? ???????????????? ????? ????? ???? ??-???????. ? ???????????????? ???? ??? ???????? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????: ????????????
???, ????????? ????????? ????? ?. ????, ? ????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ???-?????? ???????
(???. 3). ? ????????????????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ?????? ???????: ?????????????? ?????, ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ??? ? ????? ?????????? ??????????
?????????????? ??????? ?????? ? ??????? ??????-???????? ?????????????? ????. ? ?????
????? ??????? ????? ?????? ?. ?????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?????????????.
????????????????? ???? ?????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????
?????. ??? ??????????????? ??????????????? ????? ??????? ?????????????. ?????? ??????????? ????? (???????????, ? ????????? ??????????) ??????????????? ??????????? ????? ?
??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ? ?????????????. ???
??????????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ? ??????? ????? ???????, ?? ???????
?????????? ? ??????????? ????.
????? ? ??????? ? ???????????????? ????? ????????????? ???????? ?? ??????????, ??
????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ??????? ??? ??????, ????? ????????? ?
??????, ? ????? ??? ????????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ??? (???. 4). ? ??????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ???? ???????????????? ???????
???????, ???????, ????????, ????????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????. ?????????????????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ? ???????? ??????????? ????? ? ??????????? ?????. ????????????????? ????? ??????? ????? ???????????
??????????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ? ???? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ?????, ? ????? ?????????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????.
???????????????? ???? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ? ???
??????????????? ??????????? ??? ????????????. ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ?????? ?????????????? ??????? ??????, ?????? ???????????? ???, ????? ????? ???. ?????? ? ?.
??????.
??????? ? ???????? ? ???????????????? ????? ????? ???? ?????: ?????????? ??????
??????????? ????? (??????????????? ??????) ? ??????? ????????-??????????? ?????????, ????????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ???? ????? ??????????? ???????
(???. 5). ??????????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ? ?????? ???????????? ???, ?????????????? ??????? ??????, ? ??????? ??? ??????, ??????. ????????-?????????? ????????
???? ??????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ? ???????? ? ?????????????????
# 754 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
???. 3. ????? ????????????????? (?,
???????????????? (?, ?) ???????? As ? Fe
?)
?
???. 4. ????? ????????????????? (?,
???????????????? (?, ?) ???????? K ? Ca
???. 5. ????? ????????????????? (?,
???????????????? (?, ?) ???????? Rb ? Sr
?)
?
???. 6. ????? ?????????????????
???????????????? (?) ???????? Zr
?)
(?)
?
?
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ????????? ????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????
???. 7. ????? ????????????????? ???????? ?????? (?) ? ??????? (?)
?????. ??????????? ???? ? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ?????????.
???????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ????????????????? ???? ?????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ????? (???. 6). ?????????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????.
?????? ? ????????????????? ???? ? ????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????
????????????? ????????? ???????????? ???????, ??????????? ? ??????-?????????? ???? ? ?????????????? ?????, ??????? ??????, ?????? 13, ????, ? ????? ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ??? (???. 7). ????? ??????? ???????? «??????????» ? ?? ??? ??????? ????? ?. ??????.
?????? ?? ??????? ????????????? ????? ?????????????? ?????, ??????? ??????, ???? ???????????? ????? ???????, ??? ??????, ????????? ???????.
?????????? ?????????? ???????
??????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????. ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ??? ????????????????? ???? ?
?????? ? ??? ????????????????? (????. 1).
???????? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ? ???? ???????? ??????????, ??? ????????
??? ? ????????? ?????????????????? ???? ????? ?????? FII (19 %). ???????? ????? ???????
??????? ???????????? ?????????????? ????? ?????????, ??? K, Ti, Rb, Fe ? Zr, ????????
????????????? ????? ? Ca. ?????????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ??????????????? ????????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????, ?????????? ????? ??????? ????????, ????? ??? ? ??????,
? ????? ? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ????????-??????????? ?????????. ?????????????
???????? ??????????????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????. ????? ????? ????????? ????????? ????????????, ??? ?????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????????. ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? (Ti, Fe, Zr)
? ???????? ????????????. ??????????? ?????, ????????, ??????????? ??????????? ?????????
???????????? ????????, ? ??? ??????????????? ???????? ????????.
?????? FI ????? ? ???? 16 % ?????????? ? ??????????????? ???????. ?????????????
???????? ??????? ??????? ??????????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ??????????
# 756 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ????????? ????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????
??????? 1. ?????????? ?????????? ???????
?
????????????????? ????
???????
1
??????????-??????????? (???????????)
(FI(16 %)=Mn78 Fe64Ca56Zn35/Zr60)
2
???????? (?????????)
(FII(19 %)=Ti80 K78Rb62Fe54Zr24/Ca50)
3
?????????
(FIII(9 %)=Sr82 Rb54 Pb38 Zn 22)
4
?????????? (FIV(6 %)=As98)
???????????????? ????
??????????? (???????????)
(FI (14 %)=Mn85 Zn84 Ca47 Sr22)
????????
(FII(10 %)=K88 Rb47 Zr23/Pb24 As23)
????????? (FIII(11 %)=Sr68 Ca60Rb24/Cu67)
?????????? (????????)
(FIV(26 %)=Fe80 Ti78 As67 Rb64)
????? (Ca, Zn), ? ???????? ??????? ??????? ???-???????????? ???? ???????????? (Mn, Fe).
?????????? ????????????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ? ???????? ??????????????? ????? ??????????? ?????. ????? ???????, ?????? FI ???????? ??????????-???????????
????????????. ???? ???????????????? ??? ????????????? ? ??????????? ????? ? ???? ??????????.
?????? FIII ????? ? ???? ?????????????? ???? (9 %) ?????????? ? ??????? ??? ?????????, ??? ??? ???????? ? ????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????? Sr ? Rb. ?????????????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ? ???????? ???????? ????? ????????-??????????? ?????????.
?????????????? ???????? ??????? FIV ????? ????????? ???. ?????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ??????. ?????????? ????????? ??????? FIV ????????????? ????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ???, ??????????????
?????, ??????? ??????, ???????? ????? ?????????????? ????. ????? ????, ?????????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????????? ????? ? ? ?????? ???.
??????. ? ????? ? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????? ? ????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ????? ???????? ?? ??????, ??? ??????????? ?????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????
???????.
?????????? ????????????????? ??????? ????? ???? ????????? ? ? ????????????????
?????, ?? ??? ? ????????????? ???????? ??????????. ?????? ???????? ????? ???????? ??
?????? FIV, ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ? ???????????????? ???? ???????? ?? 26 %.
??????? ???????? ?????? ? ??????? ? ?????? ??????? ????????? ?? ??, ??? ?? ???????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????? ??? ? ?????????????, ?????????, ??????????????? ????????? ? ??????? ??????????????. ????????????? ???????? ????? ??????? ???????????????
????????? ? ?????????????? ????????? ?. ???? ? ? ?????????? ???????, ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ????? ?????. ????? ???????? ????????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? FIV ????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????
?????????. ? ?????? ?????? ??? ???????? ?????? ? ??????????? ??????????????? ?????????
????????????????? ???????, ????????????? ? ????????? ?. ????. ?? ?????? ? ?????????????
Fe ? As ?? ?????????? ???? ? ???? ???? ? ??????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ?????????????
«?????????» ?? ????.
# 757 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ????????? ????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????
??????
???????? ???????????????? ????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ???????. ?????????
?????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ????? ?????????????? ??????????????, ?????????? ????????????? ??? ??? ???? ?????????? ????????? (????. 2).
??????? 2. ????????????? ?????????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????
?
?/?
????????????? ??????????????
??????
????????????????? ??????
????????????????
??????
????????? ???????
1
??????????????
?????
2
??????????????
??????? ??????
3
??????????????
????
????????
?????????
4
??????????????? ???????????? ??????????
As ? Au. (?????? FIV ????? ????????????????
?????????? ? ???????)
????? ??????????? ???????? As ? Au ?? ????
?????????????? ?????. ?????????? ???????????
???????? Mn, Rb, Sr. (?????? FIV ?????
???????????????? ?????????? ? ???????)
???????????????? ???????? Au (?????? FIV ?????
???????????????? ?????????? ? ???????)
??????????????? ???????? Fe ? ???????? ????????
????? ?????????? ?????. ?????? ???????????
????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? Fe ?
?????????? ????????? ? ???????? ????????
????????????? ? ???????????. ?????????? ???? K
???????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ? ????????
??????????? ????? ? ? ???????? ???????????
?????. ??????????? ????? ? ???????????
?????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ????.
???????????? ?????? Rb ? Sr ???????????????
?????? ??????????? ????? ? ??????? ????????????????? ?????????. (???????? ???????? FI, FII,
FIII ?????????? ????????? ????????????)
????????????????
????? Mn
???????????
???????????
?????? ??????????
?????
??????????? ???????
5
???????????
????????? ?. ????
???????????????? ???????? ???? As
6
???????????
??????? ?????? ?
???
?????????? ??????
??????????? ???????? Rb, Sr (?????? FII)
????????????
(??????????) ???
??????????? ???????? ???? As, Rb, Sr, Au (??????
FII, FIV)
7
8
# 758 #
???????????
???????? ???? As,
Fe (?????? FIV)
???????????
???????? K, Ca, Mn
(?????? FIV, FII)
???????????
???????? Fe ? As
(?????? FIV)
?????????
???????????
???????????
?????????? ????
As, Fe, Ca, K, Mn
(?????? FI, FII,
FIV)
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ????????? ????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????
?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ?????? ??????????????? ?????? ?. ????, ????
?? ??????? ??????? ????????? ??????????????? ? ????????? ?????????? ???????. ????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ???-???????? ????? ???????. ????? ????, ? ??????? ?????? ??????????, ???????, ???????????????, ??????
?????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????, ????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????? ????
?????????. ?????????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ???????
? ??????? ??? ? ?????? ?????????? ???????. ??????????? ??????? ????????????? ????
???????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????, ? ????????? ?????????? ????????
??????.
?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????? ?
??????????? ???????? ? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ?????.
?????? ??????????
[1] ????????? ?????? // ???????? ? ???????? ?????????? ??????: ? 6 ?. ???.: ??????,
2002. 366 ?.
[2] ?????? ?.?., ???????????? ?.?. ???????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ??????: ????? ?? ????????? ? 28 ? «???????????????????». ???????????, 1998.
[3] ?????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. // ???????? ? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????. ??????????: ????????, 2000. ?. 133?143.
[4] ??????????? ?.?. ???. ? ?-?? ????.-???. ????. ?., 2007. 360 ?.
[5] Brent I.A. McInnes, Colin E. Dunn, Eion M. Cameron, Linus Kameko // Journal of Geochemical Exploration 57, 1996. P. 227-243.
[6] ?????? ?.?., ???????????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ????????? ?????? ?
????????: ????. ???????. ??????: ????????? ???. ??-?, 2007. 30 ?.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ????????? ????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????
The Repercussion ot Natural
and Technogeni? Ore-Gold Objects in Litogeochemical
and Biogeochemical Fields
Vladimir A. Makarov,
Aleksey I. Fertikov, Antonina A. Belozerova,
Stanislav M. Makeev and Georgiy V. Belokonov
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
This research wass carried ouy within the geological-searching works on the auriferous Dubkosh
area, which bounds the fragment of the same named graben. This graben is confined in the structures
of plicated framing. The estimate of searching informativity of litogeochemical and biogeochemical
methods and studying the possibility of using them for separation natural and tecnogenic geochemical
gold anomalies was the purpose of this research.
Keywords: dubkoshskaya area, technogenic and natural objects of gold, placer gold, litho-and
biogeochemical survey, factor analysis.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 7 (2013 6) 761-768
~~~
??? 552.16
????????? ?????-?????????
????????????? ???????????? ?????
?.?. ????????*
?????????? ??????????????? ???????????,
???????, ??????, ????? ????????, 1
Received 09.11.2012, received in revised form 14.08.2013, accepted 27.10.2013
?????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ????? ????????? ???? ???????????????????, ??????? ??????????? ?? ?????????, ?????????? ? ???????????-??????????.
????? ????????? ???????? ????? ?????, ??????????? ? ???????, ??????? ??????? ?
??????.
???????? ?????: ??????????? ????, ?????.
?????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? [1] ??????? ????? ????????? ???? ????????
??????????, ? ??? ????? ????????-?????????, ??????? ??????????? ?? ?????????, ?????????? ? ???????????-??????????. ????? ????????? ??????-?????????? ???????? ?????
?????, ??????????? ? ??????? [2].
?????. ?????? ??? ????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ?? ????
?.?. ???????? ? 1972 ?. ? ??????? ?????????? ??????, ?????? ????????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? (?????????????? ?-?,
???????). ??? ???? ????????? ?????? ????? ?????? ????? 2 ??, ??? ??????? ????? 11 ??, ???
???????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ????? ?????? ??????????????????.
???????????? ????? ?????????? 0,12 ???%. ????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ????
I?, ??????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ? ??????????????? ????????? ?
???? ??????? ?????????, ???????? ?-????????? ? ????? ? ???????? ?????????? ??????????
???????????? «????????» ???????. ???????????, ??????? ??????? ??????????????? ?????? ?
??????????, ? ????? ???????????? ??-?????????? ????????? ??????? ??????????????? ??
?? ???????????? ??????? ?????. ??? ?????? ??????? ? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????? ?????
?????????? ?????? ??????? [2].
?? ????????? ????? ?.?. ?????????? ? 1973-1974 ??. ???? ????????? ????????????????
???????? ? ????????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ?????? ????????? ???, ????????????
??????? ?????????????. ? ?????????? ? ??????? ????????????? ??????, ?????????? ?? ?????
????????, ????? (??????), ??????, ???? ?????????? 19 ?????? ?????????? ? ???????? ??????.
????????? ????????? ???????? 0,17-0,28 ?? ???????????? ????????? ???????? (4 ?????), ????
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: rgev@ysu.am
# 761 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????. ????????? ?????-????????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????
???. 1. ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????????
??????. ????????? ? 1 ? 2. ??? 10,5 ? 11,0 ??
(5 ?????), ???? ??????? ???????????? ?????
(4 ?????) ? ?? ?????? ????? ????????????
??????????? ???-???????-???????????????,
????????-???????????????,
???-????????,
????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????
???????, ???????????? ???????????????
??????. ????? ??????????????? ????????? ???????? ????? ???????????, ??? ?? ?????????????????? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ?
???????????????, ????????, ????????, ???????????, ???????, ? ????? ?????????????
(???. 1, 2).
????? ???? ?????????? ??? ??? ?????
????? ?????? ? ??????, ?????????? ???????????? ???? ????????? ???????????? ?.?. ??????? ? ??. [2] ?? ??????-????????? ????????? ??. ????? ? ??????????????? ?????? ?
??????? ?????????? ???????. ????????? ??????? ?????? ?? ????????? ??????? ????????
????????? ????? ??? ? ????????? ????????-
??????? ????? ??????-??????-???????????
(?????????????) ?????. ????????? ?? ??????
???. 2. ????????? ??????????? ???? ????????? ??. ????? ????????? ? ??? ?????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?? ? ?? ???????, ??????? ??????? ????? ?????. ????????
??? ????? ??????????, ? ???????? 0,1-0,3 ??.
????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ??????????.
????? ?? ????????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ???? ?????? ???? ??????? ????? ? ???????? ?. ???? (????????? ????) ? ????? ? ???????? ????????????? (9 ??????????) ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ? ???? ????????? ???????????? [2].
????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ? 1973-1978 ??. ?? ?????????? ??????? ???? ?????????? ????? 40 ?????????? ??????? ? ?? ????????. ??????
? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ????????? ??????? (?? 0,3 ??), ??? ???? ???????????
??????????? ??? ????????? ??????? ?????????. ? ???????????-??????????? ??????????
?????? ??????????? ?????????????, ???????????, ????????, ??????, ????????, ?????????,
??????, ??????, ???????.
????? ???????, ?? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ???????? ??????
????? ??????? ?????? ????????????? ?????? ?????????????? ??????, ??????? ? ???????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????, ? ????? ????? ????????? ??????? ? ????????
????????????????? ????????. ?? ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ????????
???????????????, ?????? ??? ?? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????????? ? ?????? ???????, ??? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ? ??????# 762 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????. ????????? ?????-????????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????
????????????????? ????? ??? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ????? ???? ?????????? ????????? ???? ???????? ??????? ?????????????????? ????? [2].
??????? ????????, ??? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????? ? ????? ? ????????????? ?????
????? ??????????-????????????? ???????? ? ???????? ????????? «??????????????? ???????????????» ?????? [2]. ? ???? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ??????? ??????? ????????????????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ? ? ?????? ???????? ????????
???????????????? ????????? ????? ? ????????? ?????, ????, ?????, ????????, ??????????,
????? ? ??.
???????????. ???? ?? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ? ????? «???????????» ????????????? ? ???????? ? ???????????. ???????? ????? ???????? ????????????: ?? ????-???????,
????????-???????, ??????????, ???????????? ?? ?????????-???????. ?????????-???????
????????????????? ????????? ???????? ?? 0,5 ?? 5 ?? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????
????? ?????? (3-4 ??) ????? ????????????? ??? ??????????? ? ???????????? (??????????)
????????????? (???????????? ??????????? ????). ????? ????? ?????????? ??? ??????????????. ????????? 5,5, ??. ??? 3,31. ?????????, ??????????? ?? ????????? (010) ? ????? (010),
?????? ????????? ?????????. ????? ?????????????, ?????? ? ????? ????????????, ???????
??? ???? ?????????? ???????. ?????????? ???????????: Nm = 1.672, Ng-1.965, Np-1.667, Ngo
o
Np-0.029, CNg-42 , 2V=+58 , ??? ???????? ??????? ????????. ? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????: Ti, Al, Mn, Na ? ??. ?????????????? ????????????? ?????? ????????? ??
???????????? ????? ??????? ? ???????????? ??????? ???? ? ??????? ?????? ????????? ? ??????????, ?????????? ??????? ? ??????. ??? ?????? ? ???????? ????????-????????? ???????????, ????????, ???????????????? ???????? ?? ????? ??-?? ????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ??? ? ????? ??????? ???? ??? ??????? ??????????????.
?????????. ? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????, ????????????
??? ???????????, ???????????, ?????????? ? ??????????, ?.?. ??????? ?????????-?????????????????? ?????????????. ????? ??? ?????? ????? ???????? ???????, ?????-???????, ???????????????? ????????? (???. 3).
?????? ?????????????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ? ???????????,
????????????? (???????????) ??????? ? ???????? ?????????? ?????????. ??????? ????????
???. 3. ?????????, ??????, ?. ???????
# 763 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????. ????????? ?????-????????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????
? ???????????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? (???????-?????????? ??????) ?
??????-?????????? ????????? ??. ????? (????). ????? ????, ??????? ??????? ? ??????? ????
???-???, ??????????? ???????????? ? ?. ?????????, ? ? ????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ??????. ??????????? ????? ??????? ?? ????, ?????? ?????? ?. ????????? (????????? ??.) ?
??????????? (???????-???????????) ???????, ????? ??????-???????, ??????-????????? ????.
?????? ????? ?????????? ?? 0,075 ?? 1,25 ??, ????? ?????????????? ??? ????????????, ????? ??
??????? ??????????. ? ????????? ?? ???????? ??????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ???????????????. ??????????, ???????? ???????, ????? ??????????, ????? ?????????? ? ??????????????? ? ????????-???????????. ?????????? ??????????? 1,78; ????????? 7,5, ???????? ??? 4,52.
??????? ??????????? ? ???????????????, ?????????? ? ???????????.
??????????? ?? ?????????????? ??????? ????? ???????? ????? ??????-???????, ???? (????? ???-1, ? ???-13) ??????-????????? ????. ?????? ????? ?????????? ?? 0,075 ?? 1,25 ??, ????? ???????????? ??? ????????????, ????? ?? ??????? ?????????? (????????, ??????????????
? ???????? ???????). ? ????????? ?? ???????? ??????? ????? (???-1, ???-3) ??????? ??????? ?????? ???????????????. ?????????? ??????????? ???? ????? ?????? 1,78. ????? ?????
???????? ???? ???????????????? ?? ????????????? ???????????????? «??????» MS-46 ? ????????? ???????? ? ????????? ?? ???. ?????? ?????????????? ??????? ????????? ? ????. 1.
????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????, ??? ??????? ?? 52-54 % ??????? ?? ?????????????? ?????????? ? ???????? 20-22 % ?????????? ? 19-22 % ?????????????? ???????????.
??? ???? ??????? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? ????? ?????. ??????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????????-
??????? 1. ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ????????
??????????
???-1
???-2
???-3
???-7
???-13
1
2
3
4
5
6
SiO2
39,94
38,95
38,30
37,58
37,54
37,72
TiO2
0,05
0,07
0,13
0,13
0,04
0,04
Ai2O3
21,22
20,43
20,75
20,56
20,21
21,20
Cr2O3
0,015
0,03
0,015
0,00
0,015
0,015
FeO
25,65
25,44
25,81
25,61
25,41
25,14
MnO
0,53
0,63
0,75
0,66
0,69
0,63
MgO
5,51
5,36
5,52
5,35
5,15
5,26
CaO
8,82
8,71
8,54
8,29
8,89
8,49
?????
101,735
99,64
99,815
98,18
97,945
98,495
Si
3,052
3,049
3,002
2,996
3,005
2,988
Ti
0,003
0,004
0,008
0,008
0,002
0,002
Al
1,910
1,885
1,916
1,931
1,906
1,979
Cr
0,001
0,002
0,001
0,000
0,001
0,001
Fe?
(0,065)
(0,093)
(0,091)
(0,080)
(0,106)
(0,032)
1,639
1,665
1,692
1,707
1,701
1,665
Fe
(1,574)
(1,572)
(1,601)
(1,627)
(1,595)
(1,633)
Mn
0,034
0,042
0,050
0,045
0,047
0,043
?
# 764 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????. ????????? ?????-????????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????
??????????? ????. 1
1
Mg
2
3
4
5
0,628
0,626
0,645
0,636
6
0,615
0,621
Ca
0,722
0,731
0,717
0,708
0,762
0,721
?????
7,989
8,004
8,031
8,031
8,039
8,030
?????
21,2
21,1
21,6
21,1
20,3
20,6
?????????
53,1
52,7
53,3
53,6
52,7
54,0
??????????
1,1
1,4
1,7
1,5
1,6
1,4
?????????
21,0
19,8
19,4
19,5
19,9
22,2
????????
3,3
4,7
4,6
4,0
5,3
1,6
Ti-????????
0,2
0,2
0,3
0,3
0,1
0,1
????????
0,1
0,1
0,1
-
0,1
0,1
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
?????
?? ?? ??? ???????????? ???????????, ?? ??? ???????????? ? ??? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????. ??? ????? ????? ? ????????? ?? ????? ???????????? ????? ???????????? ? ? ?????????? ????????? ?? ?????????. ?????? ? ?????? ?????? ????? ??? ???? ??????? ? ???????
???????, ??????????? ??? ????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ???????.
??????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????????? ????? ??????? ?? ????????? ???????? ? ???? ??????????? ?? ????? ????????????? ?????, ?????? ??????? ?? ????????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????. ??????? ??
???????????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ????????? ????????????, ?? ???????????
??????, ??? ??????? ?? ??????????? ??????.
?????? ? ???????????????????? ???????????, ????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????????????? ???????, ???????? ???????????, ?????? ?????????? ????????? ??????-????????
????? ????????? ?? 1 ??. ?????????? ??? ?????????? 4-6 % ?? ?????? ??????. ?????????? ?????? ? ??????????????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????? (???. 1015) ????????? ? ????. 2.
????????????? ??????? ??????? ????? ????????? ???????? ? ??????? ? ????? ???? ????????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ????? ?? ????????? ?????, ?? ?? ????? ????????????
????? ? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ????????? ???????????.
?????????????. ????? ????????????? ?????-?????????????? ???????? ???????????
?????????? ? ????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ?? ?????? ? ? ???? ????????
???????????? ????? ????? ????????? ?? 2-4 ??. ?????? ????????????? ???? ??????? ????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ? ???? ??????? ? ???? ?
???????? ??????????? ? ????-???????? ????????. ???? ????? ??????, ? ?? ??????? ? ????????????. ????? ??????, ???? ??????????. ????? ?????. ????? ????????????? ?? ???????.
????????? 5,5-7. ????????? ?????????????? ????? ???????????; ? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????????, ??????????? ???????????.
?????? ????? ?????????????? ?? ???? ???? ???? ???????????????? ?? ?????????? «??????» ?? ??? ?? ???????? ? ? ???? ?? ?????????, ??? ? ???????. ?????????? ???????? ????????? ? ????. 3 ? ?? ???. 4.
# 765 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
??????? 2. ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????
SiO2
38,10
Si
TiO2
0,65
Al
?????????? ?????
? ????????? ?? 24(0)
0,929
6,00
0,071
Al2O3
18,70
Al
3,349
Fe2O3
7,21
Fe
9,840
FeO
20,51
Ti
0,084
MnO
0,87
Mg
1,429
MgO
6,15
Fe
+2
2,661
CaO
8,21
Mn
0,112
Na2O
0,10
Na
0,037
??????
??? ? %
????????
+3
K 2O
0,20
Ca
1,363
H 2O
?? ???.
K
0,037
?.?.?.
?? ???.
?
?????
100,70
?????. % ???????? ??????
?????? ???????
?????????
? 45,?
4,273
????????
?????????
? 15,5
? 15,4
5,639
?????
??????????
? 22,8
? 1,8
?
??????? 3. ?????????? ???????? ??????????????
??????????
???-3
0,03
SiO2
0,05
???-4
0,05
???-7
0,00
0,00
0,00
???-13
0,03
0,00
???-15
0,00
0,00
TiO2
0,18
0,16
0,11
0,02
0,09
0,24
0,19
0,21
0,08
0,05
Al2O3
20,17
17,63
16,18
15,60
9,68
16,27
16,14
18,97
13,12
19,85
Cr2O3
45,69
46,27
52,20
51,95
55,40
49,25
49,74
48,38
52,12
45,02
FeO
19,76
23,41
16,46
15,98
17,16
15,56
17,37
19,10
19,57
20,55
MgO
13,20
10,86
13,34
14,03
11,82
14,56
17,75
12,41
10,80
11,07
?????
99,03
98,39
98,34
97,78
94,15
95,88
96,22
99,07
95,69
96,54
Si
0,002
0,001
0,002
0,000
0,000
0,000
0,001
0,000
0,000
0,000
Ti
0,004
0,004
0,003
0,005
0,002
0,006
0,005
0,005
0,002
0,001
Al
0,680
0,752
0,613
0,594
0,397
0,627
0,627
0,711
0,526
0,765
Cr
1,198
1,144
1,327
1,327
1,524
1,274
1,296
1,217
1,402
1,165
Fe
(0,153) (0,131) (0,074) (0,097) (0,100) (0,122) (0,094) (0,087) (0,092) (0,091)
0,641 0,523 0,443 0,432 0,499 0,426 0,479 0,508 0,557 0,562
(0,488) (0,392) (0,369) (0,335) (0,399) (0,304) (0,385) (0,421) (0,465) (0,471)
+3
Fe+2
Mg
0,530
0,623
0,639
0,676
0,613
0,710
0,626
0,589
0,546
0,540
?????
3,055
3,047
3,027
3,034
3,035
3,043
3,034
3,030
3,033
0,033
0,4
0,4
0,5
0,5
0,2
0,1
65,0
60,4
69,4
57,7
30,0
35,3
26,1
37,8
????????????
Cr =3
Cr
0,3
0,5
0,2
0,6
65,9
75,4
62,9
64,2
29,5
19,7
31,0
31,1
58,9
55,3
33,5
37,0
Cr / Cr + Al
63,8
60,4
68,4
69,1
79,3
67,0
67,2
63,1
72,5
60,4
Fe+2 + Fe+3 + Mg
48,0
38,6
36,6
32,8
39,4
30,0
38,0
41,7
45,9
46,5
Al =
Cr + Al + Fe+3
Al
Cr + Al + Fe+3
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????. ????????? ?????-????????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????
???. 4. ????????? ??????? ??????????????: 1 ? ???? ? ???????????? ????? ??????????????
?? ????????????? ???????; 2 ? ???? ?????? ? ??????????? ?????????????? ?? ?????????????
?????????????? ??????? ?? ?????; 3 ? ???? ?????????????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ? ????????????
? ??? ?????????? ???????????
?????????? ???????? ????????? ?? ??, ??? ? ??????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ?? ??????? ???? ? ???????? ????? ?????. ?? ????????????? ?.?. ??????? ???????????
????? ???????? ? ???? ????????????, ????????? ? ? ??????????? ? ??? ????? ????? ??????????????? ? ??????? (???. 4). ??? ?????? ?? ??????? ? ?????????????? ? ???????????
?????????????? ?????????????? ??????? (????), ?? ?????????? ?? ??? ??????? ???????????? (60-70 % ????????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ? 75-85 % ? ?????????) ? ??????? ????????????? (?????????????? 4-8 ? 1-5 % Fe+3 ? ??????????).
????? ????????????? ???????? ? ?????????????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ???????
????, ??? ? ????????? ??????????????. ???????????????? ????????????? ????????.
? ??????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????????, ????????, ???????????, ???????
? ???? ??????????? ? ?????????, ??????, ??????, ??????, ??????. ?? ?????????? ???????
?????????????, ??? ? ???????????, ???????????????? ???????????????? ???????? ?? ?????, ?????? ??? ?? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????
?????.
?????? ??????????
[1] ?????? ?.?. ?????-??????????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????
????????? ???. ??????: ???. ?? ???. ???, 1981. 261 ?.
# 767 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????. ????????? ?????-????????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????
[2] ???????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ??????????? ????????????????? ???? ??????? (?????
??????). ??????: ?????, 2003. 259 ?.
Jewellery Gemstone
in Sevan Ophiolite Association of Belt
Marina R. Gevorkyan
Yerevan State University
1 Alex Manoogian, Yerevan 025 Armenia
The rocks of ophiolote association of Armenia contain variety types of mineral resources and also
gemstones which are divided into jewelries, jewelry-stones and stones (semiprecious). Among jewelry
gemstones are particularly important diamond, chromediopside and garnets.
Keywords: ophilite, diamond, chromediopside, garnets.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 7 (2013 6) 769-773
~~~
??? 549.742.111
Concretion Onyx of the Torgashino Deposit ?
New Type of Carbonate Vein Onyx
(Krasnoyarsk Territory)
Svetlana S. Bondinaa*,
Sergey A. Ananyev and Tatyana A. Ananyevab
a
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
b
Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University
named after V. P. Astafiev
89 Ady Lebedevoy, Krasnoyarsk, 660049 Russia
a
Received 02.12.2012, received in revised form 09.09.2013, accepted 14.10.2013
A new type of carbonate vein onyx is identified. The onyx composition is calcite. Banding is preconditioned
by alternation of the zones of light calcite, and calcite rich in ferruginized argillisite. Three types of
vein bodies are composed of poorly dislocated, brecciated and concretion onyx. The latter type is
presented by easily dissected concretions (5-12 cm). Calcite crystal fragments (1-3 cm) overgrown
by concentric-zonal ferruginized much argillisite-altered calcite onyx looking like ?rounded pebble?
(2-4 cm) from outside, overgrown in its turn by concentrically banded large radial-columnar calcite
crystals form the concretions. Concretions are interesting in terms of collection material.
Keywords: Krasnoyarsk Territory, Torgashino deposit, vein onyx, concretions.
Carbonate onyx is a banded calcite or aragonite aggregate. The name of the stone is ancient Greek
(?onyx? ? nail). Its pinkish and yellowish tints reminded of nails to the Greeks. Nowadays onyx is
generally interpreted as different banded stones ? chalcedonic (agate), fluorite, carbonate (?marble?,
cave) and others. We are of the opinion that the name of banded carbonate rocks ? ?marble onyx? ?
widely used in literature and agreeing well with the early propositions of other researchers [1] is not
correct. This rock, neither by genesis nor structural or textural peculiarities, or sometimes composition
(aragonite onyx), has nothing in general with marble. Carbonate onyx is the most acceptable name for
this rock.
Carbonate onyx can have calcite, calcite-aragonite or aragonite composition. It is found in two
morphologically and genetically different types of bodies. One of them represents vein (stratal) type
and is a result of fracture system filling. The other one is a dripstone type in the form of crusts,
covers, stalactites, stalagmites and other similar formations in karst cavities. The following is taken
into account for onyx classification in addition to formation conditions and the mineral composition:
dominating colour ? white, green, yellow, pinkish-yellow, pink, light-brown, brown, dark-brown;
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: srk_sibir@mail.ru
# 769 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Svetlana S. Bondina, Sergey A. Ananyev? Concretion Onyx of the Torgashino Deposit ? New Type of Carbonate?
transparency ? semi-transparent, translucent, non-transparent; banding morphological peculiarities ?
straight-line, undulating, concentric, banded-spotty; carbonate and clay-carbonate aggregate texture ?
cryptocrystalline, fine-grained, transversal-fibrous, columnar, plicate, pelitomorphic, breccia;
structural aggregate peculiarities ? banded, concretion, compact, porous etc.
The Torgashino limestone deposit is one of the places of vein carbonate onyx location [2]. This
deposit is located at the northern end of the Mana downfold in the northwestern part of the Eastern
Sayans, in the field of development of the Torgashino and the Shakhmatovo Lower Cambrian suites
composing a single carbonate stratum. The total area of its development at the Yenisey and the Bazaikha
Rivers watershed is about 50 sq.km. The carbonate stratum is mainly composed of limestone with
dolomite limestone and dolomite lenses and interlayers, with single brecciated limestone, siltstone and
sandstone interlayers. Gray and light-gray colours are typical for carbonate rocks. They are massive,
fine- and small-grained. Stratification is rare. Karst surface and underground cavities containing cave
dripstones and sometimes filled with loose clastic material are widely developed within the carbonate
stratum.
The Torgashino carbonate onyx deposit is territorially located at the southern outskirts of the
City of Krasnoyarsk, at the northern slope of the Torgashino Ridge, in limestone production pits of the
Krasnoyarsk cement plant and other enterprises of the city. The discovered bodies are located within
the currently closed Uval Promarteli, Tsvetushchiy Log pits and the currently operating Cherny Mys
pit. Carbonate onyx bodies were found at the area of 3.3x2.5 km. They have an irregular shape; their
genesis is preconditioned by filling of fracture structures with banded carbonate aggregates, frequently
bearing indicators of tectonic activation and imposed argillisite alteration processes. Two largest vein
bodies are 10x10x7m and 10x5x5m in size. The sizes of other known vein-shaped carbonate onyx
bodies across do not exceed two meters. The total volume of bodies, together with minor veins, is
estimated equal to 1.1 th.cub.m.
Carbonate onyx has monomineral calcite composition. No aragonite or dolomite is detected in
this rock. Banding is associated with clean yellowish, yellowish-green calcite interlayers alternating
with calcite coloured by an admixture of pelitomorphic material ? the argillisite-alteration product
brownish-red in colour preconditioned by elevated ferric hydroxide content.
The analysis of the Torgashino deposit onyxes different in ornamental properties allows to
identify four structural types amidst them: straight-banded, undulating-banded, concentric-zonal
and banded-spotty. Onyxes of the fi rst three types are characterized by mainly clear pattern and a
different width of bands. Thin-banded varieties with the width of coloured bands from millimeter
fractions to 1.5 mm, banded varieties with the band width up to 5-10 mm and wide-banded varieties
with the bands 15 to 50 mm wide are identified. Thinner rhythmicity can be visually seen in the
latter two varieties. Different-banded types characterized frequently by regular replacement of
banding types from vein contacts to the center are generally observed. The bands 1-12 mm wide in
banded-spotty onyxes have bulges and crimps, amidst which white, light-yellow spots of irregular
shape, about 15x25mm in size are present. The pattern of rocks depends on, but is not limited to,
the section orientation. In longitudinal sections of undulating-banded onyxes it becomes spotty or
concentric-zonal. The texture of light-coloured bands is small and fi ne-grained, plicate and plicatecolumnar; and of dark-coloured ones ? cryptocrystalline. In some cases wide bands are composed
of drusy pinky-white calcite.
# 770 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Svetlana S. Bondina, Sergey A. Ananyev? Concretion Onyx of the Torgashino Deposit ? New Type of Carbonate?
Stone ornamentality is enforced by different colours of banded and spotty aggregates. The redbrown colour dominates in some varieties, and the yellow colour dominates in the other ones. Reddishbrown onyxes have multiple tints ? from cherry-red to orange and pink. The yellow colour is mainly
presented by light-yellow and greenish-yellow tints, rarely honey ones. With banding type replacement
the intensity of colour changes as well ? from thickly coloured to light, almost white.
Fracturing in carbonate onyx bodies allows to produce defectless blocks 10x10x10 cm in size and
above. In some cases blocks up to 10x50x50 cm in size can be produced. All carbonate onyx varieties
are easily polished, close to mirror, and shine through in plates up to 1 cm thick. The stone preserves
integrity when cut into plates up to 5 mm thick and further treated.
The analysis of various forms of fracture structure filling with carbonate material shows that
three types of onyx veins can be identified:
1. veins composed of poorly dislocated onyx,
2. brecciated onyx veins, and
3. veins filled with concretion onyx.
Banded varieties with different patterns (straight-banded, undulating-banded, etc.) were formed
in the first vein type filled with poorly dislocated onyx. The mineral formation process occurred
continuously in fractures which extended in the process of tectonic movements at the catagenesis stage.
Banded onyx veins were hardly influenced by disjunctive dislocations, which a clear undisturbed onyx
pattern testifies to. Multiple aggregate generations are distinguished on the basis of colour boundaries
and colour replacement of these generations as well as crystal sizes. The bands were painted in darkbrown to yellowish-white colours due to increased content of ferruginized argillisite. Late fracturing
sometimes occurring in carbonate onyx bodies led to pattern and colour destruction. The fractures
located almost perpendicular to the layers are usually filled with later calcite.
Brecciated onyx veins are the second vein type. They are filled, like the first type, with banded
carbonate onyx. Their peculiar feature is clearly expressed disjunctive dislocations. Multiple fractures
and crushed zones with later vein extension were cemented by later yellowish-white large-crystalline
calcite. The onyx colour in such veins is usually dark-brown or reddish-brown, which is associated with
presence of ferruginized argillisite. Accordingly, brown bands have thin-banded, cryptocrystalline
and even pelitomorphic construction, and light pinkish-white and white bands have middle-banded
construction.
The third type of veins is a unique formation. The study of similar deposits shows that a new
aggregative type of fracture carbonate onyx ? concretion ? has been discovered (Fig. 1, 2). Concretions
were formed in fracture cavities filled with clayey products (ferruginized argillisites), on the walls
of which calcite crystal druses were located. These crystal fragments up to 10-15 mm in size served
as concretion cores. Initially, they were overgrown by concentric zonal ferruginized, intensively
argillisite-altered calcite onyx, so that these formations looked like rounded pebbles. The size of the
latter usually varies from 1 to 3 cm. Afterwards, with fracture structures extension, ?pseudopebble?
was overgrown by large radial-columnar irregularly coloured (concentrically banded) calcite crystals
(Fig. 3) [3].
Vein cavities are filled with concretions tightly neighbouring each other, usually 5-12 cm in
diameter. In some cases they are easily dissected into individual aggregative formations when such
veins are destructed.
# 771 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Svetlana S. Bondina, Sergey A. Ananyev? Concretion Onyx of the Torgashino Deposit ? New Type of Carbonate?
Moreover, we found a single gigantic concretion, the diameter of which exceeded one meter
(Figure 4). This concretion had a fragment of light-gray calcite limestone up to 20 cm across in the
center. An aggregate of compact concentrically zonal light greenish-white calcite onyx up to 40 cm
thick was formed around it. The concretion had a flattened round shape and, being about 50 cm thick,
had a fracture face revealing its internal construction. The size of this concretion testifies to uniqueness
of some of such formations at the Torgashino deposit. Moreover, the diagenetic process of concretion
formation traditional in the genetic terms is supplemented by the variant of concretion onyxes in the
Torgashino strata being the products of the low-temperature hydrothermal process corresponding to
the catagenesis stage.
Carbonate onyx of the Torgashino deposit can be used for manufacture of high-class stone-cutting
and mosaic products, and fine-patterned onyx can be selectively used as jewelry- ornamental raw
material for inserts in fancy goods: rings, brooches, cuff links etc. The stone block nature allows to
use it for facing of building interior elements. All carbonate onyx varieties, including concretion onyx
of the Torgashino deposit, appeal as excellent collection material. This is what makes these formations
unique.
References
[1] Putolova L.S. Semiprecious and Colored Stones. Moscow: Nedra, 1991. 192 p.
[2] Zadisensky YU.A., Ananyev S.A. Marble Onyx of the Torgashino Deposit and its Ornamental
Peculiarities // Abstracts of the Reports of the 5th International Symposium ?Mineralogical Museums?.
Saint Petersburg, 2005, p. 340-341.
[3] Ananyev S.A., Ananyeva T.A., Bondina S.S. Collection Concretions at the Krasnoyarsk Territory
// Geological and Mineral Resources of Central Siberia. Materials of the Jubilee Scientific-Practical
Conference. OJSC Krasnoyarskgeologosyemka Publishing House. 2010, p. 186-189.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Svetlana S. Bondina, Sergey A. Ananyev? Concretion Onyx of the Torgashino Deposit ? New Type of Carbonate?
????????????? ??????
????????????? ????????????? ?
????? ??? ???????????? ???????? ??????
(???????????? ????)
?.?. ????????,
?.?. ??????? , ?.?. ?????????
?
????????? ??????????? ???????????
?????? 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
?
???????????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ???????????
??. ?.?. ?????????
?????? 660049, ??????????, ??. ??? ?????????, 89
?
??????? ????? ??? ???????????? ???????? ??????. ?????? ?????? ???????????.
???????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ? ????????, ????????????
???????????? ????????????. ??? ???? ??????? ??? ??????? ????????????????????,
????????????? ? ????????????? ????????. ????????? ??? ???????? ????? ???????????????
??????????? (5-12 ??). ?????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? (1-3 ??),
??????? ????????? ?????????????-????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????????????
??????????? ???????, ??????? ??????? ??? «????????? ??????» (2-4 ??), ???????, ? ????
???????, ????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????????-???????????
??????????? ????????. ????????? ???????????? ??????? ??? ????????????? ????????.
???????? ?????: ???????????? ????, ???????????? ?????????????, ??????? ?????,
?????????.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 7 (2013 6) 774-778
~~~
??? 622.271.5
???????????? ???????? ???????
????????????? ??? ? ????
?.?. ????????*, ?.?. ?????
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
?????? 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
Received 15.11.2012, received in revised form 22.08.2013, accepted 06.09.2013
? ?????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ?????????
????????????? ???????????????? ?????? ? ?????? ?????? ? ????????? ? ???? ????????
??????? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ??? ? ???????? ???????.
???????? ?????: ??????????????? ?????, ?????????, ????????????? ????, ???????.
? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ?? 28 ????? 2001 ?. «? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ? XXI ????» ???????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????????
?????????? ?????????? ???????, ??????? ????? ? ???????. ??? ?????????????? ? ??????
????????????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? («??????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?? 2020 ????» ?
???????????? «??????????-???????? ???????» ??? «???????? ? ????????? ???????
??????» [1]).
?????????? ??????????? ????? ???????? 6,3 ??? ?? ???????? ???????? ????????? ????,
???????? ?????????? ? ?????. ?? ?? ????? ????????? ??? ???????? ? ??????? ???????? ??????????, ??????? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ???????????? ???? ? ??????? ??????????
????????? ????.
?????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????, ?????????? ???????????? ?? ????? ? ??????? ????????????? ??????????, ???????????? ????????? ???????????? ? ?.?.
? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???? ?????? ?? ?????????, ???? ????????
? ???????????? ???????? ?? ????????. ? ?????? ???????, ????????????? ??? ? ?????????????
??????????? ?????????? ????? ????? ?? ??? ??????????, ? ??? ???????????? ????? ?? ??????????? ????????.
??? ??????????? ???? ? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ?????, ?????????
?????????????? ? ??????????? ? ???? ???? ??????????????. ? ????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ????, ??????, ????????. ?????? ???? ???? ?????????? ??????????
????? ????. ????????? ????? ?????, ??? ???????????? ? ???? ? ????????? ???? [2].
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: VKislyakov@sfu-kras.ru
# 774 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ?????. ???????????? ???????? ??????? ????????????? ??? ? ????
? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ??????????
???? ? ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????.
???? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ???????????, ????????????? ? ??????????? ???????.
? ????????? ????? ???????? ?????????, ??? ????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?????????????? ???. ????????? ??????? ????????? ? ????? ?? ??? ???, ???? ????? ????, ????????????? ?? ???, ?? ????? ??????????? ??? ????, ????? ??? ????????? ????????????? ???? ?
???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???? ? ???? ???????????????? ??? ?? ???????????. ????????????? ???? (???) ? ??????? ????????? ??????????? (???? ??????????????), ?????????? ?
????? ???? ? ???????? ????? ??? ???????????? ??????????.
????? ?? ??????? ????? ????????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ????????????? ???????????????? ?????? ? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ???????
?? ????????????????? ????????? ??????????? ?? ??? ???????????????? ??????, ?? ? ?????????? ?????, ?????????? ?????????? ????? ??? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????
????????.
??? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? [3] ? ?? ????????? ???? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????????????? ???? ? ????????
????????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ??? ???????????????? ??????.
????? ???????, ????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ? ???????? ????????????????? ??? ? ?????? ?????.
?????? ???????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ????????????
?? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ????????????? ???
? ?????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ????? ??????
??????? ??? ????????????? ? ????????? ?????????? ?? 1 ?? 7 є? ? ???????? ?????? ????????
15, 30, 50 ?. ? ???? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???? (t?) ? ???? ????????
? ???.
?????????? ??????? ??? ?????????????? ????????? ???????. ??????????? ???????
????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????, ? ???????? ?????????????? ? ??? ???????????
??????? ?????? ??????, ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ???????. ???????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ? ????????????? ??????? ??????????? ????.
????????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ?? ???. 1.
????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ???? ? ?????? ???????? ??????? ???, ??????????? ????? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ? ????? (??????????? ???? ??????????) ?? ?????. ?
???????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ???? ??????? ???.
?? ??????????? ???????????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ????? ?????????, ??? ???????? ? ????????????? ??????? ???.
?????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????????? ????
?? ??????? ??????????? ?????????????? ????
??????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ???????????? ?? ??????????? ???? ?????? ??????
??? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????. ????? ?????? ????? ???????? ???????????? (??????# 775 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ?????. ???????????? ???????? ??????? ????????????? ??? ? ????
???. 1. ????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ???: 1 ? ?????? ? ?????; 2 ? ??????? ???;
3 ? ?????? ? ??????; 4 ? ????; 5 ? ???????????? ????; 6 ? ????
????????) ???? [4]. ?????????? ??????????????? ??????? ???? ?????????? ? ?????????????
???? ? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? 0 є?. ???????????? ??????? ???????? ????????
???? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ? ???????? ????????? ????????? (? ????????? ????) ?
??????????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ????.
??? ????????? ?????????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ?????????????? ????????? ???????? ???.
????? ??????????? ???????? (??3) ???????????? ?? ????????? (1)
V0
m???.? / ? ? m? / ? ? ,
(1)
??? m???.? ? m? ? ???????? ????? ???? ? ????? ??????, ?; ?? ? ?? ? ????????? ???? ? ?????????
??????, ?/??3.
??? ??????????? ??? ? ???? ?????????????? ?????????? ????? ???????????, ???????? ???
?????????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????????, ??????? ????????? ??????????? ?????
?????????? ? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ????? (???).
???? ??????? ?????? ????, ??????????? ?? ? ????????? ?????? ???????:
V
4 / 3 �S � R3 ,
(2)
3V
4 �S � R3 ,
(3)
3 �V
.
4 �S
(4)
R
3
??? ???? ????? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????, ????????????? ???????? ??????? ????,
????????? ? ??? ????????? (4):
2
§ 3 �V ·
ё .
S 0 4 � S ЁЁ 3
ё
© 4 �S №
? ???????????? ??????? ??????? V ?? ????????? (1):
S0
.
4,835 � 3 V0
2
(5)
(6)
# 776 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ?????. ???????????? ???????? ??????? ????????????? ??? ? ????
? ??????? 1 ???????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ???.
???????? ????? ???
m???.???
m ? m? .
(7)
??? ?????????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ???? ???????????? ?????? ????????? ??????
m
m???.??? q � ? � 10 3 ,
(8)
??? q ? ???????? ??????? ???, ??/???; T ? ????? ?????????? ??????? ? ????, ???.
? ???? ???????, ?????? ???????? ??????? ??? ????? ????????? ???:
q
a � e b�t? ,
(9)
??? a ? b ? ???????????? ????????????, ????????? ?? ???????? ????? ???????:
a
0,0839 � m???.??? 12,386 ,
(10)
b
0,0004 � m???.??? 0,1696 ,
(11)
t? ? ??????????? ????, є?.
?????? ???????? ??????? ??? ? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ???? ???????????? ??
???. 2.
??????? 1. ????????? ???
???????? ?????
???????????? ???????, ?
?????? ???????, ??
??????? ???????????
???????, ??2
15
1,52992
29,413
30
1,92758
46,69
50
2,28539
65,633
???. 2. ?????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ??? ? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ????
# 777 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ?????. ???????????? ???????? ??????? ????????????? ??? ? ????
??????
?? ??????????? ???????????? ????????, ??? ??????? ? ??? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ???? ??????? ????? ???????, ??? ???????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????
?????? ?? ?????????? ????? ? ??? ????????????????? ? ???????????.
?????????????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ????????, ??? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ??? ??????????????? ???????? ? ??????? ???????? ??????? ??? ? ?????? ??????? ???????????.
?????? ??????????
[1] ??????? ???????? ??? ????????????? ?????????? ????????? [??????????? ??????].
????? ???????: http://www.morskayakollegiya.ru/morsk/osvoenie_mineral/nauchnye _issledo/.
[2] ??????? ? ??????? [??????????? ??????]. ????? ???????: http://www.natuerlich .ru/art1/
ocean5.shtml.
[3] ???????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ????? ?.?. // ???????? ? ?????????. ?? ???, 2010. ?. 51.
[4] Wei X., Miranda P., Shen Y. // Phys.Rev.Lett. 2001. V. 86. P. 1554.
The Rate of Defrost Ice-Ground Bodies
in the Water
Victor ?. Kislyakov and Dmitriy ?. Lakin
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
The paper concerns urgent problems of a refrigerant is used in the development of alluvial deposits
of the continental shelf in the winter and the related study of the properties of the ice-ground bodies
during defrost.
Keywords: continental shelf, cooling agent, ice-ground bodies, defrost.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 7 (2013 6) 779-785
~~~
??? 622.341
Can the Toxicity of Asbestos be Reduced?
Fathi Habashi*
Department of Mining, Metallurgical and
Materials Engineering
Laval University,
Quebec City, Canada G1V 0A6
Received 17.08.2013, received in revised form 22.09.2013, accepted 03.10.2013
Asbestos, an extremely useful natural resource, has been studied extensively mineralogically and for
industrial application. Its extraction from ores has been greatly improved with respect to safety in the
work place. In spite of that, there is a decisive effort in many countries to ban its use on the grounds
that it is a toxic substance. This action resulted in drastic decrease in production and the possibility
of destroying the industry. The chelation of asbestos with organic dyes seems to be a promising way
to abate its toxicity. Dyeing can be done when the fibers are slurred in water at ambient conditions in
the same way as textile fibers.
Keywords: asbestos, toxicity.
Introduction
Dyestuffs have been used for many decades to stain cells and microorganisms for identification
purposes [1]. They have also been used to identify clay minerals through a color reaction, e.g.,
montomorillonite gives a blue color with benzidine but illite does not [2]. Reactions like these were
exploited by engineers to separate minerals by flotation [3]. For example, Alizarin Red S is more
adsorbed on apatite than calcite, hence separation by flotation can be made possible [4]. Fly ash,
which is mainly a silicate, is suggested as a cheap material for removal of certain dyestuffs from
textile waste water [5]. Activated charcoal is also used for the same purpose. Dyestuffs are also
adsorbed on metallic surfaces to inhibit their corrosion [6] and used to color certain metals on which
an anodic oxide film has formed [7]. This shows the diversified reactions of dyestuffs with materials
other than textile fibers ? their most important application. In the present communication the reaction
of dyestuffs with chrysotile asbestos is reviewed with respect to the toxicity issue [8-11].
Structure of absestos
Asbestos is an industrial mineral of great economic importance. It occurs in nature in a variety
of forms but the most important is chrysotile which represents more than 90 % of the asbestos used; it
is a hydrated magnesium silicate, 3MgO.2SiO2.2H2O. The given formula, however, represents only the
ratio of the components and a more exact formula would be Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4 [12].
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: v.a.kulagin@mail.ru
# 779 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Fathi Habashi. Can the Toxicity of Asbestos be Reduced?
Fig. 1. Asbestos fibers under the microscope. The fibers that are visible to the naked eye are composed of hundreds
of thousands mono-fibers called fibrils in close packed parallel arrangement
Fig. 2. Cross section of fibrils at high resolution electron microscope showing the scroll-like structure. A typical
fiber consists of 12 to 20 layers rolled up like a scroll
The asbestos fibers that are visible to the naked eye are composed of hundreds of thousands monofibers called fibrils in close packed parallel arrangement (Fig. 1). The mono-fibers have a tubular shape
formed by the rolling up of a sheet composed of hydrated magnesium silicate. This sheet is composed
of silica groups in tetrahedral pyramid form linked to each other to form a first layer and conjugated
to octahedral groups of hydrated magnesia. The latter groups are bulkier than their conjugate silica
groups and the sheet that they form has to curve to accommodate the excess encumberment of the
magnesia. Lateral crystal growth of the sheet eventually leads to the formation of a tube. A typical fiber
consists of 12 to 20 layers rolled up like a scroll (Fig. 2). The inner and outer diameters are respectively
in the order of 50 to 250 Е. The hydration represents about 14 % of the mass and is in the form of
hydroxyl groups linked to the magnesium and covering the external surface (Fig. 3).
A sliver of chrysotile asbestos with cross section 0.1 mm square contains about 20 x 106 fibrils
all in parallel orientation. It is possible therefore to strip from asbestos fiber bundle very fine threads,
# 780 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Fathi Habashi. Can the Toxicity of Asbestos be Reduced?
Fig. 3. Schematic illustration of the hydrated magnesium silicate sheets rolled in form of scrolls to form an asbestos fiber. Hydroxyl groups linked to the magnesium and covering the external surface
each of which still contains many thousand fibrils. Aqueous suspensions of chrysotile asbestos show a
marked alkaline, e.g., 10 g suspended in 1 L of distilled water shows a pH of 9.5 at room temperature.
This is due to the reaction:
Mg3Si2O5(OH)4 + 5 H2O ? 3 Mg2+(aq) + 6 OH-(aq) + 2 H4SiO4(aq)
The toxicity issue
Asbestos is claimed by some as a workplace problem that can be adequately addressed with
current dust control technology and appropriate practices and not an environmental issue, and by
others as a toxic and carcinogenic material that must be banned immediately. It was demonstrated,
for example, that heavy smokers in particular are more susceptible to have cancer of the lung; it
seems that any fiber lodging in the lung because of its large surface area is capable of adsorbing
carcinogenic substances from tobacco smoke. The accumulation of siliceous dust in the lungs may
result in causing a disease called silicosis, and this may be cured by surgery. In case of lung cancer
due to asbestos, however, this is not possible because the disease spreads rapidly from the lungs to
other organs.
As a result of this controversy, the consumption of asbestos in many countries has been decreasing
gradually over the past few years, which forced production decline, and in some cases plant shut
downs. The industry is looking for substitutes for asbestos, but the long term environmental effects
of other minerals or synthetic substitutes that have been proposed are unknown. There are two widely
accepted screening toxicity tests for asbestos: hemolytic and cyto-toxicity.
Hemolytic: In these tests red blood cells are left in contact with certain amount of fiber and
after various periods of time, the cells are centrifuged; and the hemoglobin content of the
supernatant solution is measured using spectrophotometric methods. Usually, 72 % of the cells
undergo hemolysis when contacted with dry fibers, and 65 % when contacted with wet fibers.
# 781 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Fathi Habashi. Can the Toxicity of Asbestos be Reduced?
Cytotoxicity: In these tests P 388D1 cells are incubated with a certain amount of fibers for
various periods of time. The number of healthy and dead cells is then measured using Trypan
Blue dye. Usually, 81 % of the cells die when contacted with dry fibers and 50 % when contacted
with wet fibers.
While hemolysis is a short-term test in which the membrane stability is involved, cytotoxicity as
outlined above gives a global picture of the toxicity of the fibers. Hence, the two tests do not necessarily
correlate together since the factors involved are not the same.
The chelation of asbestos
Chrysotile asbestos has the advantage of a large surface area and, unlike activated charcoal, is
white in color so that the action of dyes can be followed easily. When a sample of asbestos fibers is
agitated at room temperature with an aqueous solution of an organic dye, the fibers become immediately
colored. When the colored fibers are separated by filtration, dried and examined by the scanning
electron microscope they are homogeneous and contain no precipitates. When boiled with distilled
water under reflux condenser, they do not lose their color thus indicating that the dye is chemically
bound to the fiber. Table 1 gives the color of the dye solution and the color of the asbestos treated by
these dyes.
The appearance of new peaks in X-ray diffraction patterns and in infrared spectra together with
the absence of precipitates supports the view that chelates are formed with asbestos, apparently with
its Mg(OH)2 component (Fig. 4). This resembles the process of mordant dyeing of textile fibers where
Mg(OH)2, Al(OH)3, or Cr(OH)3 are first precipitated on textile fibers then known as ?lakes? [13]. Some
organic compounds, e.g., bromocresol purple and phenolphthalein, although they are not dyestuffs, they
color asbestos. They have nearly similar structure and behave nearly the same way towards asbestos.
The toxicity of the colored fibers was measured by the tests mentioned earlier and compared with the
uncolored sample. It was found that some dyes, e.g., Thiazol Yellow G and Trypan Blue decreased the
toxicity of the fibers (Table 2).
Conclusions
Chrysotile asbestos can be colored by a variety of dyes at ambient conditions like textile fibers
forming stable magnesium chelates. Certain dyes render it less toxic as measured by the homolytic
Fig. 4. Formation of a chelate between Mg(OH)2 and alizarin
# 782 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Table 1. Color of dye solutions and color of the asbestos treated by these dyes [Habashi, 1992, Awadalla and
Habashi, 1990]
pH of application
Color of dye solution
Color of asbestos
Alizarin
9.5-10
5-6
2-3
Violet
Brown
Yellow
Blue-violet
Brown
Yellow
Basic Fuchsin
9.5-10
5-6
2-3
Purple
Red rose
Pale red
Colorless
Pale red
Pale red
Brilliant Blue R
9.5-10
6-7
2-3
Colorless
Blue
Blue
Blue
Blue
Blue
Brilliant Yellow
9.5-10
6-7
3-5
1-1.5
Red
Orange
Yellow
Green
Precipitate
Red
Orange
Yellow
Bromocresol Purple*
9.5-10
6-7
2-3
Violet
Yellow
Yellow
Blue
Yellow
Yellow
Crystal Violet
9.5-10
5-6
2-3
Violet
Violet
Greenish yellow
Violet
Violet
Greenish yellow
Hydroxyquinoline
1-2
>2
Yellow
Insoluble
Gray
--
Malachite Green
9.5-10
6-7
2-3
Greenish blue
Greenish blue
Green
Pale blue
Pale blue
Greenish blue
Methyl Blue
9.5-10
6-7
3-5
Colorless
Blue
Blue
Blue
Blue
Blue
2-10
Pale blue
Pale blue
Methyl Violet
9.5-10
6-7
1-3
Violet
Violet
Greenish yellow
Violet
Violet
Greenish yellow
Phenolphthalein*
9.5-10
6-7
2-3
Pink
Colorless
Colorless
Pink
Pale pink
Colorless
Thiazol Yellow G
9.5-10
6-7
2-3
2-9.5
Red
Yellow
Orange
Blue
Yellow
Yellow
Orange
Blue
Methylene Blue
Trypan Blue
* Not a dye
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Fathi Habashi. Can the Toxicity of Asbestos be Reduced?
Table 2. Toxicity of chelated asbestos [Habashi et al., 1988, 1991]
Concentration of chelating
agent on asbestos grade
7 RF66, %
0
Hemolysis
Cytotoxicity
72
81
0
65
50
0.2
2.0
54
1
59
13
2.1
6
0
*
2.5
6
12
Trypan Blue
4.0
1
4
Brilliant Yellow
0.2
57
85
0.9
40
74
1.0
73
14
0.5
2.0
69
23
61
51
2.4
12
46
0.4
2.7
54
46
40
57
3.9*
90
13
5.3
64
24
Chelating
None (dry asbestos)
None (asbestos suspended
in water)
Thiazol Yellow G
Methyl Blue
Alizarin
Toxicity
* Chelating agent contacted with asbestos at the boiling point.
and cyto toxicity tests. This is a promising area of research that may lead to the preparation of colored
asbestos that is nontoxic. Since the major application of asbestos, about 70 %, is in the fabrication of
asbestos cement whereby the fibers are slurried in water with Portland cement, the addition of a dye
in this step is a simple matter. Colored asbestos is stable with respect to boiling water that suggests a
chemical reaction with magnesium hydroxide in the silicate structure.
References
[1] Carter C.F. and Smith A.L. Principles of Microbiology, Mosby. St Louis, 1957.
[2] Dodd C.G. in Clays and Clay Technology, Proceedings of the First National Conference, edited
by J.A. Pask and M.D. Turner, Department of Natural Resources Bulletin 169, Division of Mines, San
Francisco, California, 1955, p. 105-110.
[3] Somasundaran P. and Nagaraj D.R. in Reagents in the Mineral Industry, edited by M.J. Jones
and R. Oblatt, Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, London, 1984, p. 209-219.
[4] Fu E. and Somasundaran P. // Int. J. Min. Processing 18 (1986) 287.
# 784 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Fathi Habashi. Can the Toxicity of Asbestos be Reduced?
[5] Khare S.K. et al., // J. Chem. Tech. & Biotech. 38 (1987) 99.
[6] Makhlouf M.Th. and Khalil Z.H. // J. Chem. Tech. & Biotech. 38 (1987) 89.
[7] Giles C.H. // Chem. Ind. (London) (1959) 1400.
[8] Habashi F. et al. Can. Patent, 1, 220, 492 (1988).
[9] Habashi F. et al. // Bull. Can. Inst. Min. & Met. 84 (945), 67-79 (1991).
[10] Awadalla F.T., Habashi F. // J. Materials Sci. 25, 87-92 (1990).
[11] Habashi F. // Textile Chemist & Colorist 24 (4), 23-25 (1992).
[12] Michaels L. and Chissick S.S. (editors) «Asbestos», vol. 1 and 2 (Wiley, New York 1979).
[13] Trotman S.R. and Trotman E.R. The Bleaching, Dyeing, and Chemical Technology of Textile
Fibers, Griffin, London 1948.
??????????? ???????
????? ???? ??????????
????? ??????
??????? ?????? ???????????
? ????????????????
??????????? ??????
??????, ?????? G1V 0A6
?????? ? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ? ??? ?????? ?????? ??? ?????????????????
? ????????????? ?????????????. ?????????? ??? ?? ??? ???? ??????????? ???????? ? ?????
???????????? ?? ??????? ?????. ???????? ?? ???, ?? ?????? ??????? ????????????? ??????
??? ??????? ??? ????????????? ?? ??? ?????????, ??? ?? ???????? ????????? ?????????. ???
???????? ? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????????.
????????????? ??????? ? ????????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????????? ????????
????????? ??? ???????????.
???????? ?????: ??????, ???????????.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 7 (2013 6) 786-799
~~~
??? 621.311.22
?????????? ? ????????????
???????????-?????????????? ????????
????????? ????
?.?. ?????????*, ?.?. ?????????
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
?????? 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
Received 10.12.2012, received in revised form 24.08.2013, accepted 12.10.2013
??????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????????-??????????????
???????? ????????? ????. ???????????????? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????? ? ????????
?? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????. ??????????? ????????? ????????????
???????????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ?? ???????? ?????? ????? ??????? ?
????????. ??????? ????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ? ??????, ?????????? ????????
?????????, ??????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ??????. ?????????? ?????????????
???????? ?????????, ??????????? ? ????????. ? ???????? ??????? ??????????
??????????? ??????????????? ???????? ??? ?????????????? ????????? ???????????????,
?????????????, ?????????????, ??????????????, ????????????? ? ????????? ??????????.
??????? ??????????????????? ???????? ????????? ?? ???? ?????????????? ????????.
?????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ??????????????.
???????? ?????: ?????????, ?????????, ???????????-????????????? ???????, ?????????,
????????, ???????????, ?????????????, ??????????, ??????????????, ?????.
????????????????? ???????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ??????? ????? ? ?????? ??????
?????????? ? ??????????? ????? ????????? ???????? ??????????????: ??????????, ???????????????, ??????????????, ?????-??????, ??????????????????, ???????, ????????????????, ???????????, ?????????????, ?????????????????? ? ?????? ??????. ???????? ????
????? ??? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? «???????? ? ????????» ? «???????? ? ??????? ????». ????????????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ? ?????????
? ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????, ??????? ????? ????????? ?? ????????? ?????. ? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????????? ?? ???? ?????????????? ???????????? [1-3]. ? ???????????? ???????????-????????????? ????????? (???)
?????????? ?????? ?????????? ??-?? ???????? ??????, ???????????? ??????????? ???????.
????????????? ? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ? ??????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ???? ???
?????????? ?????????????? ????? [4, 5]. ????? ?? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ??????
??? ???????? ????? ??????????? ??????? ???? ?????, ???????? ?? ???????? ? ????? ?????
???????? ? ??????? [6].
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: 550781@mail.ru
# 786 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ?????????. ?????????? ? ???????????? ???????????-?????????????? ???????? ??????????
? ????????? ????? ??????? ??????????????? ??? ? ???????????? ?????????? ?????
? ???????? ? ??????????????? ??????? ??? ????????????? ??????? ???? ??? ???????????????? ???????????. ???????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ??????????????????
??????? ??? ????????????? ????????-??????????? ????????? ? ?? ???????, ????????????
????????????? ?????? ????????, ?? ?????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? [7-11]. ? ?????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????????? ??? ????? ????????????. ???????? ???????? ?
???????? ? ????????? ??? ??? ?????????? ??????? ??? ???????????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????, ???????????????? ???? ?? ????????????, ?????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ? ???????????????
?????????? ? ????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ???, ?
????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ????????????????? ?????.
? ?? ?? ????? ?????????? ??? ???? ???????????? ????????????? ?????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ????????????????? ????????? ?? ???? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????, ???????? ?? ??????????? ????? ????????????,
???????? ??????- ? ????????????????, ?????????? ???????????????? ????????, ?????????? ??????. ??? ? ?????????????? ????? ?????????????? ? ????????? ?????????????????,
??????????, ?????????????????? ?????????. ??????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ?????????????? ???????? ??? ????????? ??????????, ????????????????
???????? ? ?????????, ?????????????? ????????? ??????????? ? ??????????????? ???????,
????????? ??????-?????????? ??????????, ?????????? ???????????? ??????????. ???????
??????? ??????????? ?? ?????????????? ????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????, ???????? ?????????? ????????????, ??????????????? ??????? ? ??????? ????????????? ????????????? [12].
????????????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??????????????, ?????????????????, ????????????, ?????????????? ? ????????????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ????
?? ?????? ??????????????? ?????, ???? ?? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????? ????????
??? ????? ? ??? ???????????????? ? ???????????? ??? ???????. ??? ???? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ???? ? ????????????????? ??????????,
?? ?????????????? ? ?????????????, ? ????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ?????.
??? ??????????? ??? ????????? ?????? «?????????????????», «????????????????
????» ? «????????????» ?? ???? ????????????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ??????????????
?????, ?????????????? ? ???????, ??????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ??? ????????? ?
???????? ?????? ??????-????? ? ?????????????????? ???????????, ????????????? ? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ? ????????, ?????????? ???????? ? ???????? ?????? ?????, ?
????? ?????????????????? ??????????? ?? ?????????????? ?????, ????????????????? ??
???? ??????????????? ????????? ????????, ??????????? ?????????, ??????? ???? ? ?????????? ???????????? ????????. ? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????? ??????
???????????? ? ??????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ? ???????????? ?????? ????????? ????????. ???????????????? ? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ????????
??????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????????? ???????????, ????????? ??????????????
???????, ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????, ???????????? ?????????????? ????# 787 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ?????????. ?????????? ? ???????????? ???????????-?????????????? ???????? ??????????
???. 1. ???????????-????????????? ???????
?????, ??????????????, ??????, ????????????????, ?????????????? ? ?????? ???????????????? ???????? [13].
????????????? ??? (???. 1) ???????? ??????? ???????? 1 ? ???????? ???????? 2, ??????
3, ?????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? 4, 5, 6, 7 ? ??????? 8, 9, 10, 11, ???????? ?????? 12, ???
13 [14]. ?????? ? ??????? ???????????? ????? ??????? ???? ??????-????? ?? ?????? ? ???????
??????? ? ???????? ???????? 14.
?????????????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ????????? ????? ???????
???????? 1 ????????? ? ??? 2. ? ???????? ???????????????? ?????????????? ?????, ??????????? ? ??????? ?????? 14, ??????????? ? ??????????? ????? ?????? 4, 5, 6, 7. ? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? 8, 9, 10, 11 ????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ????? ?????????
? ???????????, ?????????? ?????????????? ????, ????????? ?????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ???????, ?????????? ??. ??? ?????????? ????? ?????? ? ???????
???????? ? ??????? ????????? ? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????. ??? ?????? ?? ????
?????? ? ???? ??????? ???????? ???????? ? ???? ????????????? ?????????, ???????????? ??????????? ???? ? ??????? ??????. ??? ???????????? ?????????????? ????????? ????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?? ??????????????? ????????. ???????
????????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????????
????? ????? ?????? ? ??????? ??????, ? ?????????? ???? ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ???????.
??????????????? ????????????? ? ???????????????? ?? ?????? ???? 13 ???????
?????????? ??? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ??????,
??????? ? ???????????, ?? ???????? ???????? 1 ? ????????? 2. ??? ????????? ???????? ??
?????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ????? ??????? ??????? ????????, ?????????
? ????????????? ??????????????? ?????????. ??? ???????? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ?
?????? ?????? ?????????? ????????, ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????????????? ?????????. ????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????? ???,
?????? ? ??????????? ????? ??????? ? ??????. ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ? ??????????? ??????. ???????????? ?????? ????????????? ?? ??????? ? ??????? ? ???????????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????.
# 788 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ?????????. ?????????? ? ???????????? ???????????-?????????????? ???????? ??????????
??????? ???????? ??????????????? ????????? ? ??????? ? ??????? ????? ??????-?????
???????????????? ??? ??????? ?? ???. 2. ????? ????? ??????? ???? ??????-????? ???
???????????? ?? ???. 3.
?????????????? ????? ????????? ??? ????????? ? ???????? 4 ? ???????? 10 ? ???????
?????? 7, ???????? ?? ?????????? 11. ????? ????? ???? 8 ?????? 7 ? ???? 6 ??????? 5 ????????
? ??????? ?????? 9 ? ????????? ?? ???????? ????? ???????? 3. ?????????????? ?????, ???????
????????, ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ?, ??????? ?? ??????????, ????????
????????????? ???????. ? ??????? ?????? ????? ???????????? ??????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ??? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????. ? ???????? ????? ????????????
????????????????? ?????????, ?????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????? ?
???????. ??????? ???? ????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ? ????? ?????
? ?????? ? ???????.
????????? ??????? ??? ??????-????? ?????????????? ??? ???????????? ?? ???. 4. ??????? ????????? ??????? ? ??????? ???? ?? ??????? ????? ?? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ??
???. 5.
???. 2. ????? ???????? ??????????????? ????????? ? ???????
???. 3. ????? ??????? ????: 1 ? ??????; 2 ? ???????? ????????; 3 ? ??????; 4 ? ???????? ????????; 5 ?
??????; 6 ? ???? ? ??????? ???????; 7 ? ????? ?? ?????? ? ??????? ???????; 8 ? ???? ??????; 9 ? ???????
??????; 10 ? ????????; 11 ? ??????????
# 789 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ?????????. ?????????? ? ???????????? ???????????-?????????????? ???????? ??????????
???. 4. ??????? ???? ???
(?)
(?)
???. 5. ????????? ??????? (?) ? ??????? ???? (?) ?? ??????? ???????
???. 6. ?????? ???? ?????? ? ???????: 1 ? ????? ? ???????????; 2 ? ??????; 3 ? ??????????? ??????;
4 ? ??????? ??????; 5 ? ??????; 6 ? ????? ????? ??????? ? ????????
????????, ???????????? ? ???? ?????? ? ??????? ??????? ????, ?????????? ???????? ??
???. 6.
????????? ???????? ?????? 1 ?????????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?????? 4. ? ?????? ?????????? ???? ?????? ???????? ??????? 2 ?????????? ?????????. ??? ?????????? ????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????? ????????? ? ??? ???? ?
????? 6. ????? ???? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ? ????????? ????????????? ?????????, ??????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ?????????????? ?? ????????.
?????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????????????? ???????? ????????? ????? ????? ??????? ?
???????? ? ??????? ???????. ???? ????????????? ???????? ? ?????? ??? ??????, ??? ??????
???????? ?????? ??????. ????????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ?? ????# 790 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ?????????. ?????????? ? ???????????? ???????????-?????????????? ???????? ??????????
???. 7. ??????????? ????????? ??????? ?? ???????? ???????? ????? ??????? ? ???????? ?? ???????
???????? ???????? ??????: 1 ? ? = 0,05 ??; 2 ? ? = 0,1 ??; 3 ? ? = 0,15 ??; 4 ? ? = 0,2 ??; 5 ? ? = 0,25 ??;
? ? ?= 250 ? ?1; ? ? ?= 150 ? ?1; ? ? ?= 50 ? ?1
???? ????????? ???????, ?? ???? ? ??????????? ?????? ??? ????????????? ??????? ?????????
?????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????. ???? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????? ??????. ????? ????? ??????? ? ???????? ??????? ????? ? ???????? 0,1?0,5
??. ??? ???????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ±2...5 % ?? ??? ???????? ????????,
??? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ???????????? ?????? ??????, ???????????? ??? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????????. ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ? ??????? ??????
?????? ?????????????? ????? ????? ?????? ????????, ? ??? ????? ? ???? ?????? ???????? ?????
??????????, ??? ???????? ? ??????????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????????? ????? [15].
?????????? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????? ? ????????, ???????? ???????? ?????? ? ???????? ? ?????? ?? ???????? ???????? ????? ??????? ? ???????? ?P?????. ?????????? ?????????
?????? ?? ?????????????????? ??? ?? ????? 20 ?3/?. ??????????? ??????????? ????????????
?? ???. 7 [16].
?????????????? ?????????? ??????????, ??? ????????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ?? ???????? ????????? ???????. ??? ????? ?????? ??? ????????????? ?????????, ????????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ???? ??????? ??????????? ??????, ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????. ?????????????, ?????????? ?????? ?????????
??????? ????????????? ?????? ???.
??? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????? ? ???????? ?? ??????????????
????????????? ?????? ????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ????????????? ??? ??????
??? ? ?????? ?????????. ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ????????????? ? ? ?? ???????????? ????????? K?max ??????????? ?? ???. 8 [6]. ?? ???????? ???????, ??? ?
???????? ????? ???????? ?????? ??? ?????????? K?max ???????? ???????????? ??????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????????????.
# 791 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ?????????. ?????????? ? ???????????? ???????????-?????????????? ???????? ??????????
???. 8. ??????????? ???????????? ???????????????
????????????? ?? ???????????? ?????????:
1 ? ?= 0,01 ??; 2 ? ?= 0,02 ??; 3 ? ?= 0,03 ??;
4 ? ?= 0,04 ??
???. 9. ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ??
???????? ????????: 1 ? ?= 0,01 ??; 2 ? ?= 0,02 ??;
3 ? ?= 0,03 ??; 4 ? ?= 0,04 ??
???. 10. ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ??
???????? ????????: 1 ? ? = 0,04 ??; 2 ? ? = 0,03 ??;
3 ? ? = 0,02 ??; 4 ? ? = 0,01 ??
???. 11. ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ??
??????? ???????? ???????? ??????: 1 ? ? = 0,04
??; 2 ? ? = 0,03 ??; 3 ? ? = 0,02 ??; 4 ? ? = 0,01 ??
??? ??????????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ????, ????????????????
???????????? ????????????? ????????? ???????? ??? ????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ??
?????????, ???????????? ??????????? ??????????, ???????????? ?? ???. 9 [6]. ?? ??????? ???????? ???????, ??? ??? ?????????? ?????? ????? ??????? ? ???????? ? ???????? ????????
Sh ???????? ???????? Kc?? ?????????. ???? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????? ??????. ????? ???????, ??? ????????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????
?????? ????? ????? ???????.
??? ??????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????
????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????. ??? ??????????? ???????? ?? ???. 10 ? 11.
?????? ???????? ????????????, ??? ???? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????? ??????. ??????????? ?????????? ????? ??? ???????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ?????? ??? ????? ?? ????? 0,1 ± 0,02 ?? [17].
# 792 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ?????????. ?????????? ? ???????????? ???????????-?????????????? ???????? ??????????
?? ???????? ??? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ?? ???????? ??????, ???????? ?? ?????????? ????? ? ???????????, ???????????
?????? ? ????? ?????????? ?? 10 % ?? ???????? ??????, ???????? ? ???????? ????????? ???????? 0,05...0,1 ??. ????? ???????, ??? ???????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ?? ±2...5 % ?? ???
???????? ????????, ??? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ????????????? ?????? ?????? ???,
???????????? ??? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????. ??? ????? ???????? ?????? ??????
????? ????? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ????? ???. ??? ??????????? ?????? ?????
??????? ? ???????? ????????, ????????????? ?? ???????? ??????, ??????????. ??? ??????
???? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? 8?10 -4?8?10 -3 ??.
??? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????. ??? ??????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ??
???? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ??????. ??????????? ????? ??????? ? ??????? ?? ???????????? ??????? ? ????????? ? ????????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ????????, ????????
??????????? ????????????? ???????? ? ?????? ? ?????? ????? ??? ?? ????????? ??????? Re,
Re ?, Sh? ? ?. ?? ???. 12 ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????.
? ????????? ?????? ??????? ??? ???? ???????? ??????? ???????? ????????, ?????
??????? ????????? ? ???????? ????????, ??????????????? ??????????????? ??????.
? ??????????? Re ? Sh ? ???????? ??????, ? ? ??????????? Re ? ? ?????????????? ???????????.
????????? ????????? ?????? ? ?????? ????? ???????? ? ??????? ? ???????? ??? ?????????? ????? ????????????? ????? ?, ??? ?????????, ?????? ??????????????? ?????????. ???????? ???????????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ???????, ????????????? ? ??????. ??? ????????
?????? ??????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????? ??????????? ?? ???? ?????????? ???????.
?????????? ?????, ?????????? ?????????????? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ? ??????, ????? ??????????
???????, ????????????? ? ?????? ??? ???????? ??????. ? ???????? ???????? ????? ?????????????? ?????, ?????????? ????? ????? ? ????????????? ? ??? ?? ???? ????????????? ?????,
????? ??????????? ? ???????? ???????, ??????? ????????? ??????????? ?????, ?????????
???. 12. ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ?????? ?? ???????? ? ???????
# 793 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ?????????. ?????????? ? ???????????? ???????????-?????????????? ???????? ??????????
(?)
(?)
???. 13. ????? ????? ?????? ? ???????, ???????????? ???????????? ?????? (?) ? ??????????????
????? (?)
????? ?????, ????????????? ? ??????? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ? ??????
??????? ???????? [18].
?? ????? ??????? ?????????????? ????? ? ??? ????????? ??????? ??????? ??????????
????????, ? ??? ????? ????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ?????? ? ??????? (???. 13). ?????
??????????? ??????? ????? ??????? ? ?????? ????????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????????
??????? ??????? «???? ?????? ? ???? ???????» [19].
????????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ?????? ? ????????? ???????????? ? ????? ?? ????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ??????: ?????????? ?? ?????
????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ? ?????????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ??????? ? ????????? ??????; ??? ??????????
??????? ????? ??????? ???? ?????? ? ??????? ??????? ????????? ? ?????????? ?????????????
???????? ? ???????, ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? ??????? (???. 14); ??? ?????????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????? ???? ? ???????? ?????????? ???? ?????? ? ???????
????????? ? ?????????? ????????, ??????? ?? ????? ? ??????????? (???. 15), ?????? ???
???????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ???????. ? ????
?????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ? ?????? ?????????? ????? ???????
? ?????? ? ??????? ????????, ????????????? ?????????, ???????????, ? ?????? ?????????,
??????? ?? ??????? ????? ?????????????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????????? [20].
?? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ? ????? ????????,
??? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ?????????. ????? ???????? ????????? ? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ???????, ??? ???????? ? ????????????? ??????? ?????????, ??????? ???????????? ???????????? ?? ???????
?????????? ??????? [21].
?????????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ??? ?????? ??????????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????????????. ?????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????????
# 794 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ?????????. ?????????? ? ???????????? ???????????-?????????????? ???????? ??????????
?
???. 14. ????????????? ????? ????? ??????? ?
??????
???. 15. ??????????? ????? ? ???????? ???????????? ????? ??????? ? ??????
?????? ???????? ? ??????????? ????????. ?????????? ????? ????? ??????? ???? ??????????? ?????????, ?? ?????????? ?????? ? ?????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ?? ???????? ???????? ? ????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????. ???????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ????? ????? ??????? ? ????????, ? ????? ????
???????. ??? ???????? ??????????????? ????????? ?? ????? ??????? ? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ????????, ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????????????? ?????????.
????????? ??????? ????????? ? ?? ???????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????? ???, ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ???????? ???????? ??????. ?????????? ??????? ????????????
????????? ? ????????????? ?????? ? ??????. ???????????? ?????? ????????????? ?? ??????? ?
??????? ? ???????????? ? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? [22].
????? ???????, ??????????? ?????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ???????????: ??????,
?????? ? ???????? ????? ? ??????? ? ??????, ?????????? ???????????? ???????, ????????
???????? ??????, ???????? ???????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ???????, ????????? ? ??????? ??????, ????? ??????????, ?????????????? ????????????? ?????? ????? ?????????
? ?????? ???????, ???????? ?????????????? ???????????, ?????????????? ????????? ???
???????????? ?????????? ???????, ????????? ?? ?????????? ? ??????? ? ?? ?????? ? ??????.
? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ????? ???????? ???????? ? ????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?? ???. ??? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ? ??? ????????????????? ????? ?????????????????? ????????????? ????????? ????????, ??????? ????????? ???????? ???????????????? ??????????????
?????????? ???????.
??? ?????? ??? ?????????? ????? ??? ?????????????????, ????????????? ? ????????
?????????, ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????????? ? ??????????? ?? ????????
?????????? [23]. ????????????? ??????????????? ?????????, ??????????? ? ???, ?????????
?? ???. 16.
?????????? ? ??????????????? ????????? ?? ???? ??? ????????? ???????? ?????????????????? ???????? ????????, ????????, ?????????, ?????? ? ?????????. ? ???????????????
???????? ????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ??? ???????????, ?????????? ? ??????
????????? ? ??????????? ????????, ?? ??????? ? ??????????, ??????? ???????????? ? ?????,
# 795 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ?????????. ?????????? ? ???????????? ???????????-?????????????? ???????? ??????????
???????? ????????, ??????????? ? ???
?????????????????
?????????????
????????
???????????????
???????????
?????? ??????????????
?????
??????????????
???????????????
?????????????
?????????
???????????????
????????????
??????????
???. 16. ????? ????????????? ??????????????? ?????????, ??????????? ? ???
??????? ???????????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ???????????. ??????????????? ???????? ??? ?????????????? ????????? ?????????????, ??????????????, ????????????? ??? ??????????? ?? ???. 17.
?????????????? ????????? ?????? ? ???????????????? ??????? 6, ??? ?????????? ??????? ????????????? ?????? ? ??????? ????????????. ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ???? ??? 1, ??????? ??????????????? ? ???????? ?????? ? ?????? ?? ????????
??????????????, ???????? ? ???? ????????????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????.
? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????????????, ??????????????, ????????????? ?????????????? ????, ? ????? ?? ????????? ? ???????????????. ????? ???? ???????????? ????? ????????? ? ????????????? ????????? 6 ? ????? ? ??????????????? ???????
????????????.
?? ???. 18 ???????????? ??????????????????? ???????? ????????? ?? ???? ?????????????? ???.
? ????????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ?
?????????????? ? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????? ????????. ??????????????? ????????? ?? ???? ???????? ????????????? ????? ???????, ????? ???? ????????????? ? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ?????????????? ?????. ????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ? ???????????, ????????, ????????? ??
???. 19.
? ??????? ???????????? ????????????, ? ????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ????????
??? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ???????????????? ????????, ???????? ??????????? ????????
????????????? ?????????? ????????????????? ??? ??? ??????????? ???????????????? ????????. ????????? ?????? ???? ??????????????? ?????????, ??????????? ?????????? ??? ????# 796 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
???. 17. ??????????????? ???????? ??? ?????????????? ????????? ?????????????, ??????????????,
????????????? ??? ?? ???? ???: 1 ? ???, 2 ? ?????????????? ?????, 3 ? ????????????????,
4 ? ?????????????? ????????, 5 ? ???????, 6 ? ??????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????, 7 ? ???
???????, 8 ? ???????? ???????, 9 ? ??????, 10 ? ????????? ????, 11 ? ??????? ?????? ??????????????
?????, 12 ? ??????????, 13 ? ????????, 14 ? ??????????, 15 ? ?????? ???????? ????????
???. 18. ??????????????????? ???????? ????????? ?? ???? ???: 1 ? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ?
??????????? ??????????????; 2 ? ???????????????? ???????????-????????????? ??????? ??????????
????; 3 ? ???????? ????????? ?????; 4 ? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????, ??????? ?
?????????
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ?????????. ?????????? ? ???????????? ???????????-?????????????? ???????? ??????????
????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ? ???????????????? ??????????????
??????????? ???????
???????????????? ?????????? ???
?????????? ???????? ???????????
?????????????? ????????????
????????? ? ???????????????
???????????? ??????? ???????
????????????? ?????????????????
??????? ? ?????????? ???????????
???? ??? ????????? ?????
?????? ??????????? ???????
??????? ?? ?????
????????????????? ???
????????????? ? ???????????????
?????? ?????????? ??????????,
????????? ????? ???????
???????????
???????? ?????? ????????? ???
???????????? ??????????? ?
??????? ???????????????????
???????????
????????? ?????????
?????????????, ??????????????,
????????????? ???
????????????? ???????????????
????????-??????????? ????????? ?
?????????? ?????? ??????
???????? ???????? ??
??????????????? ?????? ???
???????? ????????, ?????????, ????,
??????????? ?????????? ???????
????????????? ?????????? ???
????????????
????????? ???????????
??????????? ????????? ? ??????????
??????? ? ????- ?
????????????????????? ?????????
???????????? ??????? ????? ??
????????? ???????????
??????????
???. 19. ????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ? ???????????????? ??????????????
?????????? ? ???, ?????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????????????
????????? ?? ???? ??????? ???????? ? ????????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????????? ? ?????? ?? ???????????.
?????? ??????????
[1] ??????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. ???. ?? 2169625 // ?. ?. 2001. ? 18.
[2] ????????? ?.?., ????? ?.?. ???. ???? 1778320 // ?. ?. 1992 ? 44.
[3] ????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ?????????? ?.?. ???. 1789794 ???? //
?. ?. 1993 ? 3.
[4] ????????? ?.?., ???? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. ? ??. ???. 2317849 ?? // ?????. 27.02.2008.
[5] ???????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. ???. 74084 ?? // ?????. 20.06.2008.
[6] ????????? ?.?. // ???????? ? ?????: ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????? [??????????? ??????]. [conf.sfu-kras.ru]. [2010]. URL: http://conf.sfu-kras.ru/sites/mn2010/
pdf/16/71.pdf.
[7] ????????? ?.?., ???? ?.?., ????????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ???. 2315711 ?? // ?. ?. 2008
? 3.
[8] ????????? ?.?., ???? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. ? ??. ???. 2317944 ?? // ?. ?. 2008 ? 6.
[9] ??????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ???. 2138335 ?? // ?. ?.
1999 ? 27.
[10] ????????? ?.?., ???? ?.?., ????????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ???. 2288938 ?? / ?????.
12.10.2006.
[11] ????????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ? ??. ???. 2203738 ?? // ?. ?. 2003 ? 13.
# 798 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ?????????. ?????????? ? ???????????? ???????????-?????????????? ???????? ??????????
[12] ???????? ?.?. ???????. ???. ? ????. ????. ????. ?.: ??????????????, 2007. 35 ?.
[13] ??????? ?.?. // ??????? ????. ?????, 2008. ?. 14. ???. 4. ?. 861-869.
[14] ????????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. ???. 115690 ?? // ?. ?. 2012 ? 13.
[15] ???????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ????????????? ????????????????? ? ?????????????
??????? ? ???????? ?????????. ?.: ??????????????, 2008. 116 ?.
[16] ????? ?.?. ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????. ?.: ???????, 1997. 308 ?.
[17] ????????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. // ??????????? ?????????? ????????
??????????? ????????. ??????????, 2012. ???. 10. ?. 311-318.
[18] ??????? ?.?. ????????????? ???????? ????????? ????: ?????? ? ????????. ?.: ??????????????, 2001. ?. 76-134.
[19] ????????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. // ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????
????????. ??????????, 2012. ???. 10. ?. 248-257.
[20] ????????? ?.?. ???????? ???????? ? ?????????? ?????? ? ?? ?????????? ? ??????????????. ?.: ?????, 1992. 176 ?.
[21] ????????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. // ??????-??????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????. ???????????, 2009. ?. 5. ?.110-118.
[22] ????????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. // ??????????? ??????? ? ?????????? [???????????
??????]: [technology.snauka.ru]. [2012]. URL: http://technology.snauka.ru/2012/04/568.
[23] ???????? ?.?., ??????????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ??????????? ???????????? ?????????. ?.: ?????, 1989. 420 ?.
The Hydroimpact Cavitation Device
Ivan V. Mesheryakov and Alexander N. Anushenkov
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
Structural features of the proposed hydropercussion-cavitation devices are considered. Influence of
clearance between rotor and stator on characteristics of the device is analyzed. Parameters of the
effective functioning of device depending on sizes of clearance are installed. Cross-sectional shapes of
stator and rotor are studied. Basic parameters affecting the efficient operation of device are identified.
Classification of the basic processes implemented in device is proposed. As an example of application
device is presented technological complex for intensification of dressing, dephosphorization and
desulphurization of ores. Multifunctional laboratory installation based on developed device is
presented. Perspective directions of application device in the industry are formulated.
Keywords: hydropercussion cavitation device, activation, resonance, grinding, homogenization,
mixing, hydroblow, intensification, clearance.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 7 (2013 6) 800-804
~~~
??? 620.22
Efficiency Improvement for
Platinum Concentrates Production
from Electrolytic Slimes at Polar Division
of OAO MMC Norilsk Nickel
Dmitry A. Lapshin*,
Eduard F. Grabchak, Irina S. Kuzmina,
Yuliya A. Goryacheva and Aleksandr L. Kozhanov
Polar Division of OAO MMC Norilsk Nickel,
PO 4324, 8 Leninsky, Norilsk, 663300 Russia
Received 28.10.2012, received in revised form 12.08.2013, accepted 22.08.2013
Slime processing at PD OAO MMC Norilsk Nickel involves oxidizing-sulphatizing roasting, calcine
leaching with sulphate solution, calcine cake smelting into anodes followed by electrolytic dissolution,
and a number of processes designed for accompanying elements recovery. Resulting final products are
platinum-palladium (60-65 % ? Pt+Pd) and rhodium-ruthenium (2.0-3.5 % Rh) concentrates (KP-1 and
KP-2, respectively), refined silver, selenium of technical grade and tellurium. Process cycle duration,
considerable work-in-process amount, a great number of operations and low efficiency of individual
operations are considered to be disadvantages of the slimes processing method. We determined optimal
process conditions for copper slimes calcine cake repulping with sulphate (reagents, consumption and
sodium hypochlorite feed rate) offering 6-7 fold increase of Pt recovery into solution and 1,5-2,0 fold that
of Pd. PGMs precipitation from resulting solutions was fount to yield precipitate with Pt and Pd content
amounting up to 55 %; this makes it possible to produce it as final product. The product is then sent to
a final product (KP-1 concentrate) packaging section bypassing smelting and electrolysis stages with
inherent high PGMs losses, resource intensity and long duration time.
Keywords: slime, concentrates, PGM.
Introduction
Polar Division (PD) of OAO MMC Norilsk Nickel is the major Russian producer of PGM
concentrates. Copper-nickel ore processing technology currently applied by Polar Division implies
platinum group metal concentration in slimes from copper and nickel electrorefining.
Slime processing at PD OAO MMC Norilsk Nickel involves oxidizing-sulphatizing roasting,
calcine leaching with sulphate solution, calcine cake smelting into anodes followed by electrolytic
dissolution, and a number of processes designed for accompanying elements recovery. Resulting
final products are platinum-palladium (60-65 % ? Pt+Pd) and rhodium-ruthenium (2.0-3.5 % Rh)
concentrates (KP-1 and KP-2, respectively), refined silver, selenium of technical grade and tellurium.
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: dalapchin@gmail.com
# 800 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Dmitry A. Lapshin, Eduard F. Grabchak? Efficiency Improvement for Platinum Concentrates Production?
Process cycle duration, considerable work-in-process amount, a great number of operations and
low efficiency of individual operations are considered to be disadvantages of the slimes processing
method.
One operation of copper slime processing flow sheet includes calcine repulping with sulphate
solution (250-280 g/dm3 of CH2SO4) to extract tellurium. Part of platinum metals (PGM) passes
into solution along with tellurium. To recover PGMs from solutions after copper slime calcine cake
repulping a method of precipitation thereof with hydrazine hydrate and thiourea was implemented
at Polar Division. Resulting PGMs residue contains up to 60 % of Pt and Pd sum. The product is
then sent to a final product (KP-1 concentrate) packaging section bypassing smelting and electrolysis
stages with inherent high PGMs losses, resource intensity and long duration time [1]. This ?shortcut?
method produces no more than 10 % of initial platinum metals content of copper slime, whereas annual
economic benefit amounts at least 7 mln Rub. Therefore, development of a method offering higher
PGMs recovery into residue is topical challenge.
Results and discussion
Precipitation rate of PGMs from solution after copper slime calcine cake repulping is 95-99 %,
therefore for PGM recovery into residue to increase, the amount of PGMs passed into repulp solution
should be higher.
Oxidants addition at the repupling stage is the simplest technical solution offering higher PGMs
recovery into solution. For the experiment the most available reagents not introducing foreign impurities
(hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite) were chosen. Present study addresses dependence
of PGMs passing into solution on amount of sodium hypochlorite (5-100 % of initial volume) and
hydrogen peroxide (5-50 % of initial volume) as well as reagent addition time (from 15-20 minutes to
2 hours) at the acid repulping stage.
Test results are shown in Fig. 1-3.
As can be seen from the results, 10 % addition of initial NaClO volume resulted in Pt recovery
growth from 6 to 50-55 % and from 35 to 60-65 % for Pd. Further increase in sodium hypochlorite
flow rate produced modest growth of platinum and palladium recovery rate (up to 70 % and 80 %,
respectively).
In contrast to PGMs recovery, Rh, Ru and Ir extraction curves are comparatively flat with a
maximum growth observed at 25 % of sodium hypochlorite addition, where Ir recovery rate changed
from 45 to 90-95 %, from 28 to 40-45 % for Rh and from 20 to 30-35 % in case with ruthenium.
Along with PGMs recovery we investigated selenium and tellurium extraction into solution since
they pass into residue in downstream PGMs precipitation resulting in lower platinum and palladium
content thereof.
Selenium and tellurium recoveries reached their peaks at 5 % of sodium hypochlorite initial
volume.
Sodium hypochlorite feed rate produced little effect on metal recovery results. However, on
addition of sodium hypochlorite within 20 minutes chlorine gas release was observed at 25 % of
oxidizer initial volume which may entail extra costs for commercial process realization. On the other
hand for 120 minutes of sodium hypochlorite addition the chlorine gas release was not observed
everywhere over the flow-rate range being studied.
# 801 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Fig. 1. Relationship between metals recovery rate into solution and NaClO amount (NaClO addition time ?
20 min.)
Fig. 2. Relationship between metals recovery rate into solution and NaClO amount (NaClO addition time ?
120 min.)
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Dmitry A. Lapshin, Eduard F. Grabchak? Efficiency Improvement for Platinum Concentrates Production?
Fig. 3. Relationship between metals recovery rate into solution and H2O2 amount (H2O2 addition time ? 20 min.)
H2O2 addition in the amount of 5-50 % of initial volume resulted in lower Pt, Pd and Se recovery
into solution. It is known from the literature [2] that hydrogen peroxide, under certain conditions,
exhibits reducing properties. Identical behavior of Pt, Pd and Se recovery curves suggests selenium
reduction by hydrogen peroxide and precipitation thereof as platinum and palladium selenides. The
same mechanism of selenium precipitation for its recovery from platinum-bearing solution has been
mentioned in other works [3].
Hydrogen peroxide addition did not produce any effect on Rh, Ru, Ir and Te recovery everywhere
over the flow-rate range being studied.
It is known that rare platinum-group metals extraction from sulphate solutions, unlike Pt and Pd,
is a very complicated technological challenge through the ability of these metals to form multicharge
poly-nuclear complexes. Therefore, 5-10 % of sodium hypochlorite addition for two hours is required to
maximize Pt and Pd transfer into solution together with minimum rare platinum-group metals passing
into solution and to lower chlorine gas release. In this case Pt recovery increased from 6 to 50 %, Pd ?
from 35 to 65 %, Rh ? from 28 to 39 %, Ru ? from 20 to 30 % and Ir ? from 45 to 80 %.
Resulting solutions were tested on PGM precipitation therefrom under conditions close to
commercial. Platinum and palladium content of obtained precipitates amounted up to 55 %.
Conclusions
In order to increase PGMs pass into solution the addition of sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen
peroxide at the stage of copper slimes calcine cake repulping with sulphate was tested.
# 803 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Dmitry A. Lapshin, Eduard F. Grabchak? Efficiency Improvement for Platinum Concentrates Production?
1. Relationships between PGMs recovery and sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide flowrates were established.
2. We determined optimal process conditions for copper slimes calcine cake repulping with
sulphate (reagents, consumption and sodium hypochlorite feed rate) offering 6-7 fold increase of Pt
recovery into solution and 1,5-2,0 fold that of Pd.
3. PGMs precipitation from resulting solutions was fount to yield precipitate with Pt and Pd
content amounting up to 55 %; this makes it possible to produce it as final product.
References
[1] ???????? ?.?. ? ??. // ??????? ???????????. 2006. ? 12. ?. 54-55.
[2] ??????? ?.?. ????? ? ?????????????? ?????: ????. ???????. ?.: ?????? ?????, 2001.
743 ?.
[3] ?????? ?.?. ???????. ???. ... ????. ????. ????. ?., 2008. 24 ?.
????????? ????????????? ????????????
?????????? ????????????
?? ????????????? ??????
? ?? ??? ???? ??????????? ???????
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ???????,
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ????????, ?.?. ???????
??? ??? «?????????? ??????»
?????? 663300, ????????, ??. ?????????, 8, ?/? 4324
??????????? ?????? ? ?? ??? «?????????? ??????» ?????????????? ?? ??????????,
?????????? ????????????-???????????????? ?????, ????????????? ?????? ? ?????-??????
????????, ?????? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ? ?? ????????????????? ???????????, ? ????? ?????
??? ????????, ??????????????? ??? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????. ? ?????????? ? ????
??????? ????????? ????????? ???????-??????????? (60-65 % ? Pt+Pd) ? ?????-??????????
(2,0-3,5 % Rh) ???????????, ??-1 ? ??-2 ??????????????, ? ????? ?????????????? ???????,
??????????? ????? ? ??????.
? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????????????
???????????????? ?????, ???????????? ????? ?????????????? ????????????,
??????????????????? ? ?????? ?????????????????? ????????? ????????.
??????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ?????-????????? ??????????? ???? ?????? ???????
????? (???????, ?????? ? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ??????), ??????????? ????????
?????????? ? ??????? ??????? ? 6-7 ??? ? ???????? 1,5-2,0 ????. ??????????, ??? ??? ?????????
?? ?? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?? ? ??????????? ????? ??????? ?
???????? ?? 55 %, ??? ????????? ??? ????????? ? ???? ??????? ?????????.
?????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ???????????? ??????? ????????? (??????????? ??-1), ?????
???????? ?????? ? ???????????, ????????????????? ???????? ???????? ??, ?????????
???????? ? ??????????????????.
???????? ?????: ?????, ???????????, ?????????? ???????.
# 804 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 7 (2013 6) 805-817
~~~
??? 620.22+681.5
Smart Materials in Materials Science
Leonid S. Pinchuk and Victor A. Goldade*
V.A. Belyi Metal-Polymer Research Institute,
National Academy of Science of Belarus,
32A Kirov Str., Gomel, 246050 Belarus
Received 26.11.2012, received in revised form 12.08.2013, accepted 08.09.2013
The basic categories of materials which form the row in order of complication of their performance
such as simple?multifunctional?adaptive?active?smart are considered. Energy aspects of external
effects upon materials, and behavior of materials response to the stimuli of physical, chemical and
biological nature, are examined. A model of smart material is proposed as the atom-molecular
structure provided with a feedback system which corrects the primary reaction of material upon effect
of surroundings via optimal usage of its energy.
Keywords: smart material, surroundings, external stimuli, feedback system, model.
Smart materials are materials organized in a special way. They differ from common materials in
that the elements of its structure have properties of cybernetic system thus allowing the material to
adapt efficiently to varying operating conditions. A model of smart material is proposed as an atomicmolecular structure provided with a feedback system that optimally corrects a primary reaction of the
material to external stimuli. The experimental results that support the advisability of smart material
model realization in materials and engineering systems are reported.
Introduction
The smart material (SM) and intelligent material terms were proposed in the 1960s when a
demand arose for materials that interacted with strong electromagnetic fields of electronic information
systems. Now these problems are solved via designing tiny electronic systems, which became possible
owing to advances in nanotechnology that operates with structural elements 0.1ч100 nm in size. Nano
and smart materials are key words in materials science of the 21st century.
Up to now, a great amount of disembodied data concerning SM has been accumulated in the
scientific literature and on the Internet. A demand arose for the systematization of the data most of
which serves to some extent to provide sensation and advertisement. This task is still critical despite
the fact that the problems of SM development and operation are considered in more than a hundred of
books some of which are mentioned in our references [1?5].
The aim of the work is to substantiate the methodology of SM development based on the criteria
of the nature of energy effects upon the material, its response, and feedback mechanisms.
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: victor.goldade@gmail.com
# 805 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Leonid S. Pinchuk and V. A. Goldade. Smart Materials in Materials Science
1. Retrospection
The history of improvement of materials is dialectically associated with the history of society
development. Aspiration to discovery of new materials was in all ages due to the people?s wish to
improve their own life.
The names of the historical stages (stone, copper, bronze, and iron ages) imply the significance
of materials in ancient history of mankind. The next generation of materials launched its life cycle
in the second millennium AC, when fast development of metallurgy changed abruptly the level of
engineering and technology of materials. First industrial plastic mass products appeared at the turn
to the 20s century. A new era of ceramic materials which were used by people even in the neolith
epoch, started in the 1930s owing to the advances in powder metallurgy. In such a manner, main types
of materials being at the disposal of humanity were introduced in production. Scientific engineering
revolution that took place late in the 1940s resulted in the creation of principally new materials, i.e.,
superconductors, semiconductors, synthetic diamonds, and so forth.
At that time the specialists in the materials science believed that natural resources of traditional
engineering materials were exhausted. The designers of the equipment that operates under extreme
conditions such as high temperatures (engines), deep vacuum (space apparatuses), super-high speed
friction (arms), etc. were among the first to comprehend this fact. In the second half of the 20th century
the development of composite materials that combine dissimilar components became the main trend in
the materials science. The up-to-date tendency in material improvement is in the creation of SM with
involvement of nanotechnologies [5].
The history of SM commenced in 1834 when French physician and mathematician A. Ampere
proposed a ?cybernetics? term. This Greek word was used to call the science about the methods of
society management using the term that in ancient times denoted the science about ship navigation
(kybern?tes, governor, pilot).
Cybernetics in its modern understanding as the science about general regularities of
information reception, storage and processing was born in the USA. Professor Norbert Wiener,
Massachusetts Technological University, was the fi rst to use this term [6]. Electron computing
facilities formed the basis of management systems that realized cybernetic methods. N. Wiener
and J. Von Newmann, the creator of digital computer, connected I. Pavlov?s and I. Sechenov?s
ideas about the self-regulation of biological systems with the principles of operation of facilities
that realize artificial intelligence [7].
The SM research findings have being discussed in scientific journals. Smart Materials Bulletin
has been released for more than 20 years. Permanent headings devoted to SM are available in numerous
journals including Advanced Composite Bulletin, Progress in Materials Science, Computational
Materials Science, etc. This proves the fact that the development of smart engineering systems has
become a leading tendency in the materials science of the 21st century.
2. Main Concepts
The classes of materials form the following raw in increasing complexity of their performance:
simple ? multifunctional ? adaptive ? active ? smart.
Simple materials perform just one main operating function in engineering item. The main word
is used here because almost always a complex of physical, chemical, mechanical, and other natural
# 806 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Leonid S. Pinchuk and V. A. Goldade. Smart Materials in Materials Science
properties of the material is realized in the article in an uncontrollable manner and imparts an additional
operating property to it.
Multifunctional materials perform both main and additional functions in an article. This can
be exemplified by bronze (engineering and tribotechnical material), engineering plastics (protection
of metallic parts from corrosion and creation of electric isolation), ceramic materials (high hardness,
dielectric properties, thermal and chemical resistance).
Adaptive materials change pointedly their structure under the action of operation factors when
their intensity reached a threshold value [8]. Principally, the structure of any material alters naturally
under external stimuli. Pointedly implies that the structural alteration of an adaptive material is useful
in terms of the efficiency of the article that is made of this material.
A grease can serve as an example of the adaptive material. It is a greasy lubricating material
obtained by the introduction of a solid thickener (soap, paraffin, black, etc.) into a liquid oil. Under loads
lower than the yield strength of the spatial frame formed by the thickener, the grease has properties of
solid. Under heavy loads, it transforms into an abnormally viscous lubricating fluid. After unloading,
the frame structure is recovered and the lubricant is again similar to solid [3].
The memory effect is the recovery of the original article shape damaged by plastic deformation,
during heating. The recovery of the shape of steel articles results from martensitic transformation or
reversible twinning in the steel structure [9]. Irreversible alteration of the alloy structure with shape
memory is used in self-opening antennas of space ships, undetachable (free of welding, soldering, and
gluing) pipe connections, and in orthopedics in fixation of hard-accessible bone parts.
Active materials, while performing the functions that are intrinsic of engineering materials, have
beneficial physical, chemical, or biological influence on the mated parts and environment [10].
Magnetic fluid (MF) that seals the connection of the spinning shaft and housing of the machine
can be exemplified as an active material. When exposed to the governing magnetic field, the MF
ductility is lowered down and the MF layer in the connection gap resists actively to the pressure of the
sealing medium. With increasing pressure and squeezing the interlayer from the gap, its adhesion to
the magnet poles increases. Thus the stability of the interlayer position in the gap and impermeability
of the connection are provided [11].
A chemically active filtering material consists of carbon tissue impregnated with complexons,
namely, amino polycarbonic acids and their derivatives. The complexons are remarkable by that they
react with metal cations and form stable coordination compounds. The filtering material mechanically
catches hard impurity particles in the fluid under filtering and exhibits its activity via bonding
chemically the ions of hard metals solvated in it [12].
A carrier of microorganisms in biological filters is a biologically active material. The agglomerates
of microorganisms in the carrier vapors give rise to a biological film. The water passing through the
filter clears itself from solid impurities and the microorganisms immobilized on the film decompose
the organic components of flows [12].
A smart material performs functions compatible with its natural properties and when the
energy of external effects reaches a threshold it, fi rst, transforms this energy into the alteration of
its own structure to provide a higher level of performance and, second, controls and automatically
regulates this level with a feedback system (FS) via comparison of the external effect and the
degree of property alteration. When external effects are ceased the SM regenerates, i.e. recovers
# 807 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Leonid S. Pinchuk and V. A. Goldade. Smart Materials in Materials Science
its original characteristics. However, due to the energy losses spent on structure reconstruction
(release of Joule heat, hysteresis, friction, incompleteness of phase transitions, etc.) absolute
SM regeneration never occurs. The efficiency of SM structure reconstructions ? = W? / W < 1,
where W and W? are the specific energy of external effect and the activation energy of structure
reconstruction, respectively.
3. Energy Aspects of the External Effects on Materials
In operation of engineering articles, materials are exposed to the impacts of the mated parts and
surroundings. Any external effects execute a work on the material changing its structure and internal
energy; the latest depends on the thermodynamic parameters of the material (volume, temperature,
concentration, an so forth). The regularities of material responses to external effects determine the
feedback mechanisms that occur in SM.
Physical effects include mechanical stresses, temperature, and physical fields such as nuclear,
gravitational, and electromagnetic fields.
Mechanical stresses initiate collisions and interaction of gaseous particles, homogenization or
breaks in fluid continuity, as well as elastic or plastic deformation of solids. Deformation is responsible
for the reconstruction of the solid structure, occurrence of anisotropy in it, which is ultimately displayed
in the break of the solid continuity. It is initiated as crack formation and finished as specimen damage.
Mechanical stresses complicated by friction induce the material fatigue that implies a local increase in
dislocation and vacancy density. Tribochemical reactions occur on the friction surface thus inducing
the wear of tribopairs. Therefore, the energy of mechanical effect initiates the primary reconstruction
of material structure that serves in SM as a signal to activate FS.
The FS energy is governed by the variation in the internal energy of the material that causes
the structure transformation. According to the first law of thermodynamics, the transition of an
adiabatically isolated material from state 1 into state 2 yields the variation in the internal energy U
equaling work PdV that is done within the material by an external mechanical force in an infinitely
2
slow quasi-static process: U 2 U1
і PdV , where ? is external pressure and V is material volume. In a
1
general case, according to the second law of thermodynamics dU = TdS ? PdV, where T is temperature
and S is material entropy. Minimum U at constant entropy, volume, and mass of the material determines
its stable equilibrium. Any deviations from minimum are potential sources of the feedback energy in
SM.
Temperature is one of the basic thermodynamic parameters of the state that characterizes the
heat equilibrium of material. The processes that run at nonequilibrium temperature (phase transitions,
diffusion, viscosity fluctuations, thermoelectric phenomena, etc.) are accompanied by variations in the
internal energy of the material and govern the feedback mechanism in SM.
Physical fields are responsible for the interaction of the material element structure. The nuclear
forces that act between nucleons and govern the structure and properties of the nuclei of chemical
elements are of significance when smart nuclear reactions run. The gravitational field is universal
interaction between any matters. The effect of this indispensable companion of all processes that occur
on the earth should be taken into account particularly in evaluating the state of colloid systems in liquid
# 808 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Leonid S. Pinchuk and V. A. Goldade. Smart Materials in Materials Science
and gaseous phases. The electromagnetic field induces the interaction of electrically charged particles
or those having a magnetic moment. External electromagnetic field interacts with the charged particles
of the material creating the induced currents that are responsible for energy losses and damping of
electromagnetic oscillations, electric polarization, and magnetization of materials by varying their
dielectric and magnetic permeability. Polarized and magnetized materials are the sources of electric
and magnetic fields whose energy is beneficial for functioning FS in SM.
Surroundings have a chemical effect on materials. Chemically resistant materials do not enter
into chemical reactions with the surroundings, but absorb their active molecules that are concentrated
in the surface layer of condensed materials. This phenomenon ? adsorption ? alters the composition of
the sample surface layer and its surface energy thus governing the mechanisms of feedback formation
in SM.
Chemical reactions can be accompanied by the release of heat and light, variations in the
aggregate state, and other energy transformations that are advisable to use for activating FS. An
energy barrier between the initial and transitional states of the reacting material, or activation
energy, is governed by variations in Gibbs energy ?G in the material. A decrease in the Gibbs energy
during reaction (?G ? 0) is a necessary condition for spontaneous (without energy supply from
outside) reactions. The set of energy sources of reaction activation in materials (plasmochemical,
radiation-chemical, thermal, photothermal, electrochemical) provides a variety of energy methods
for FS stimulation.
Biological effects on materials are mainly attributed to microorganisms (bacteria, microscopic
fungi, and sometimes protozoa and viruses) organized in biological systems. Biological damage of
materials is due the necessity of energy supply of microorganisms on account of external sources that
are presented by materials. The energy interaction between biosystem and material is based on atomicmolecular processes where the biological catalyzer of energy exchange or enzymes play a major role.
The internal energy of materials is converted into, e.g., the energy of creation of electrochemical
potentials that arise from concentration gradient of ions ?+ or Na+ at different sides of the biological
membrane of microorganisms [13]. The reduction of internal energy is responsible for the biological
damage of materials.
4. A Model of Smart Material
Primary reconstruction of material structure is an inevitable consequence of its interaction with
the surroundings. This response of the material to external stimuli results from physical, chemical, and
biological processes that occur in the material.
Smart materials differ from simple ones in FS availability (Fig. 1) which corrects the primary
reaction of the material to environmental effects via secondary reconstruction of its structure. Let us
exemplify this fact in the following manner.
The feedback systems are often presented as a circuit [14] in which a signal from the amplifier
output comes to its input (Fig. 2). A converter block is a device that converts the input signal z into the
output signal Z from which in the next block its part (signal x) branches off. The x ? X transformation
occurs in the feedback circuit following a special algorithm. The feedback system is characterized by
the coefficient ? of signal transmission along its channel X = ?Z. In the systems with negative feedback
Uout < Uin, consequently, x < X < 0 and ? = X/Z < 0.
# 809 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Leonid S. Pinchuk and V. A. Goldade. Smart Materials in Materials Science
Surroundings
Secondary structure reconstruction in SM
SM
Processes in SM
? deformation
? transport phenomena
? phase transitions
? electrical phenomena
? magnetic transitions
? surface phenomena
? biological processes
FS
Initial structure reconstruction in SM
Fig. 1. Diagram of bonds via which the structure of smart material (SM) and surroundings interact with assistance
of feedback system (FS). The continuous lines correspond to the primary reconstruction and the dashed lines correspond to secondary reconstruction of SM structure
Uin
Block of Uin and X
signals composition
z
Converter
X
Feedback circuit
Z
Block
of signal Z
branching
Uout
x
Fig. 2. Block diagram of feedback system [14]
A final SM reaction to external effects results from smart correction of its susceptibility to external
effects. The correction occurs most often (as shown in Fig. 1) by the same mechanisms as the primary
structure reconstruction. The SM structure is repeatedly transformed under the action of FS signals
owing to the energy of external effects. Firstly, this leads to the economy of the internal material
energy and prolongs its service life. Secondly, this allows the efficiency parameters of the material
to be optimized by the criterion of minimum energy losses. The SM structure under external effects
varies with time by the necessary and sufficient principle.
It can be seen in Fig. 1 that the cycle of the secondary reconstruction of the material is closed in
a black box presented by the SM structure. External effects are transmitted to it as a rule by means of
FS. At the output from the black box, we have the SM properties that are optimized by the criterion of
energy conservation. Therefore, the SM model can be presented in a simplified form as shown in Fig. 3.
We can comment it as follows. The environmental effects (or operating conditions) cause the primary
reconstruction of SM structure. The FS sums up the data about the degree of this reconstruction
and intensity of external effects and then initiates (on account of external energy) the secondary
reconstruction of SM structure that governs its operating properties. The mechanism of information
transfer from environment to FS as well as energy, physicochemical, and biological mechanisms of
secondary reconstruction are understandable principally but not fully elucidated. On this basis, the
SM structure presented in Fig. 3 as a picked out rectangle can be likened to a black box in which the
processes run to transform a common material in a smart one.
# 810 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Leonid S. Pinchuk and V. A. Goldade. Smart Materials in Materials Science
S
RI
FS
R II
Properties
of SM
Structure of SM
Fig. 3. Simplified model of smart material. S ? surroundings, RI ? RII ? primary and secondary reconstruction
of the materials, FS ? feedback system
5. Experimental Results
The modern materials science has at its disposal a sufficiently wide nomenclature of SM for
machine building (tribological, anticorrosion, sealing, and some other designations), medicinal
equipment (materials for endoprostheses, applicators, physiotherapeutic articles, and so forth), tare and
packing manufacture (baro-, thermo-, and photochrome materials that signalize leakages and worsening
quality of the packed products), biotechnologies, filtration systems, radiation protection, etc. [1-5].
Below are given the experimental results that confirm the advisability of SM model realization (with
different degrees of completeness) in adaptive, active, and smart materials and engineering systems.
A polymer anticorrosive film designed for packing metallic parts is a typical example of SM
[15]. In its surface layer, it contains a complex of contact and volatile corrosion inhibitors (CI). A part
packed in the cover of such film is protected from corrosion at the initial stage of storage owing to the
transfer of contact inhibitor from the film to the part surface. With evaporation of the volatile inhibitor,
a partial pressure of vapors of the second inhibitor is additionally created in the cover, its adsorption
on the surface protects the parts from corrosion for a long time (for years). The evaporation is ceased in
the sealed cover once a critical pressure is achieved. If the sealing is failed, the evaporation continues
producing a protective environment in the cover until the inhibitor is present in the film.
Figure 4, a shows the microstructure of the polyethylene film made by sleeve molding and
thermodiffusive saturation (while the sleeve is blown up) of the polymeric basis with volatile CI G-2
in the oil solution of the contact CI MSDA [16]. The micropores are seen through which contact CI
is delivered to the film surface and volatile CI is evaporated. At the initial stage, kinetic curves of
G-2 evaporation from the films (Fig. 4, b) are parabolic dependencies m/m0 = a?0,5, where m and m0
are CI amounts desorbed for time ? , and ?0 ? ?, ? is a coefficient. This indicates that the rate of
evaporation is limited by CI diffusion in the film pores. The kinetics of evaporation of initial G-2 is
linear. The evaporation of volatile CI depends on its concentration in the film, production method, and
is accelerated with temperature elevation.
In this smart system, the evaporation of volatile inhibitor functions as FS. It is limited by partial
pressures of its vapors in the hermetically sealed cover. A second FS can operate in smart film that is
based on the color chemical reaction of the volatile inhibitor with filler particles in the film that are,
e.g., green in color. When the inhibitor is exhausted, the filler changes its color from green to red. This
is a signal for repacking the part in a new cover made of a fresh film [15].
It is rather difficult to obtain FS in the structure of one material. It is a far easier to create it in
an engineering system (electric, tribological, etc.) where a material displays the features of artificial
intelligence owing to the fact that FS functions are spread between the system elements. A friction unit
# 811 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Leonid S. Pinchuk and V. A. Goldade. Smart Materials in Materials Science
?
b
m/m0, %
20
5
15
4
3
10
2
20 ?m
5
1
0
100
200
300 W, h
Fig. 4. Microstructure (?) of the film surface and kinetic curves (b) and evaporation of volatile CI G-2 from the
film: CI concentration: 1ч3 ? 0.09 wt %; 4 ? 1.4 wt %; 5 ? G-2 in its original state. Temperature 25 °C (1, 4, 5),
50 °C (2), and 60 °C (3)
in which the effect of selective transfer is realized can serve as a classical example of smart system. It
was discovered in the 1960s by Russian tribologists D. N. Garkunov and I. V. Kragelsky in copper alloy
friction against steel under boundary lubrication with alcohol-glycerin mixture which excludes copper
oxidation. At sliding velocities of up to 6 m/s, pressures from 30 to 40 MPa and temperatures from
40 to 70 °C a servovit copper film about 1 ?m thick is forming on the friction surface of the steel part
under steady state friction. The lattice in this film has numerous vacancies: more than 10 % of lattice
nodes are not occupied with atoms. The wear of such pair is reduced to the transfer of the servovit film
from one surface to another. Owing to this, the coefficient of friction in the pair declines down to the
values that bare characteristic of liquid lubrication, which provide the effect of wearlessness [17].
The smart system of selective transfer is controlled by FS whose function is performed by the
electric field of the steel?alcohol mixture?copper galvanic pair. The servovit film consists of colloid
copper particles that result from the anode reaction in this pair and forms via the electrophoresis
mechanism in its field [18].
The human joint that operates under significant loads for decades and is characterized by
extremely low coefficient of friction (0.02 ч 0.05) and cartilage wear compensation, is a smart friction
assembly. The sympatic nervous center that regulates the permeability of blood capillaries, production
of lubricating synovial fluid, its circulation in the cartilage friction zone, etc. plays the role of FS [19].
Joint endoprostheses (implants of movable bone junctions) differ from natural joints primarily in the
absence of cartilages, antifrictional microporous bodies filled with synovial fluid (SF). When a healthy
joint is loaded, the SF is released from the micropores on the friction surface sites that undergo the
highest load and lubricates them. The creation of an artificial cartilage is the first step in approximating
implants to a smart system. It is a microporous layer (Fig. 5, a) that forms on endoprosthesis parts
made of ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). The material has operated reliably in
endoprosthetics friction pairs since the 1960s. The micropores of artificial cartilage can be filled with
drugs to accelerate the healing of the operative wound [20].
# 812 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Leonid S. Pinchuk and V. A. Goldade. Smart Materials in Materials Science
2
?
b
I, pA
B
4
3
3
?
2
1
?
1
20 ?m
0
50
100
150
T, є?
Fig. 5. Cross section (?) and TSC spectra (b) of UHMWPE cartilage: 1 ? initial UHMWPE structure; 2 ? friction
surface; 3 ? microporous layer. ? ? initial sample; B ? after friction in synovia (? = 2 MPa, v = 0. 1 m/s)
Operation on the joint is not just the removal of pathologically modified tissues but also a procedure
that destroys natural distribution of the biophysical field of the joint. The defects of the biofiled can be
compensated by electric polarization of the artificial cartilage. The polarization charge formed in the
dielectric part of endoprosthesis is maintained for a long time at friction. It enhances the adsorption of
SF and products of its tribodestruction on the surface of artificial cartilage. A peak that corresponds to
the polymer melting temperature (135 °C) is enhanced on the spectra of thermally stimulated currents
(TSC) of the UHMWPE electret samples subjected to friction in SF (Fig. 5, b). This indicates that
the electret field-induced adsorption of tribodestruction products of the synovia has occurred on the
friction surface [21]. The adsorption layer is capable of self-recovery, provides boundary lubrication
and protects the polymer part from fatigue wear in the form of subsurface cracks [20].
Unipolar joint endoprostheses operate in the friction pairs with a natural cartilage. The spherical
head of the endoprosthesis traumatizes and damages the cartilage with time. In order to prolong the life
of the reconstructed joint, an artificial cartilage is formed on the UHMWPE head and its micropores
are filled with drugs, namely, chondroprotectors that accelerate the physiological regeneration of the
cartilage [22]. The chondroprotector is released from the micropores in those parts of the natural
cartilage that contact the head and are deformed by it. This serves as a signal for activating a natural
joint FS to initiate the regeneration of the cartilage tissue. Presently smart endoprostheses with artificial
cartilage are clinically tested at behest of the Ministry of Health of Belarus.
The smart sealing system (Fig. 6) is provided by a liner in the form of a T-shaped porous polymer
ring whose communicating pores contain up to 30 wt % of liquid metal [23].
As the set of electromagnets is switched on, a magnetic flow arises in the liner that induces
annular currents in the liquid-metal filler. When exposed to the compressing electromagnetic force,
the filler occupies the position in the liner volume that is symmetrical relative to magnetic poles. At
pressure difference ?? occurring in the liner the liquid metal moves from this position to one of the
magnets. Its interlinkage, induction annular current, and, respectively, electromagnetic force to hold
the filler in the pores increase. Therefore, depending on the pressure difference, the electromagnetic
force directed inversely to the vector ?? varies automatically. The experiments show that these smart
liners reliably seal media under excessive (2 to 3 MPa) and vacuum pressure (up to 10-4 mmHg). Here,
# 813 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Leonid S. Pinchuk and V. A. Goldade. Smart Materials in Materials Science
~U
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Fig. 6. Induction liquid-metal liner: 1 ? ferromagnetic shaft; 2, 6 ? energizing coils of electromagnets; 3 ? magnetic circuit; 4 ? ?-shaped porous ring with liquid-metal filler; 5 ? diamagnetic dividing bushing; 7 ? seal unit
case
the electromagnetic interaction between the liquid-metal filler and magnetic system field performs the
FS functions.
An electret biodestructable polyolefin-based film [24] was developed in connection with the
following problems. Utilization of packing wastes became a global challenge long time ago; therefore,
accelerated biodestruction in soil is a necessary demand for packing films throughout the world
[25]. This is achieved by filling a polymer binder with substances that serve as energy sources for
microorganisms, i.e. by biopolymers, primarily, starch, some inorganic salts, etc. [26]. Nowadays,
chemical technological reserves of film biodestruction acceleration with the use of these methods
are exhausted. However, the barrier can be overcome when forming a polarization charge of optimal
density in the film [27]. When employing the film, the charge increases the storage terms of certain food
products without preservatives [28] and improves the deformation strength characteristics of packing
[12] and storage conditions of packed fur and textile products [24]. When recycling the films in soil an
electret charge (with the surface density 4 to 8 nC/cm2) causes an accelerated biological proliferation of
the films (up to 40 %) with the colonies of soil microorganisms [29]. As a result, the electret film starts
losing strength almost immediately on being appeared on a trash dump and is destroyed faster than the
non-electret one (Fig. 7) degrading totally within 2 years. The electret charge field is an ecologically
safe factor and disappears in the course of film biodestruction.
The electret biodegradable film is a typical active material that organizes in a particular manner
the surroundings soil microbiota. The film does not belong to SM since it does not have FS to
regulate the activity of microorganisms in the course of film biodestruction that is degraded into fi ne
(of mm-order) ecological harmless fragments. To convert a biodestructable film into biodegradable
one (fi nal products are water and ??2), one should create a control system of energy exchange
between microorganisms and polymer electret that can optimally concentrate the energy on the
hard-degradable film parts.
Conclusions
Modern materials science possesses an ever-increasing variety of smart materials. It has become
critical to move the process of smart materials and smart engineering systems creation from heuristic
# 814 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Leonid S. Pinchuk and V. A. Goldade. Smart Materials in Materials Science
V, ?P?
6
1
5
4
2
3
2
t0
1
0
2
4
6
8
10 t, month
Fig. 7. Ultimate tensile strength of starch-filled (20 wt %) polyethylene films vs. exposure time in soil: 1 ? 2 ? nonelectret and electret films; t0 ? biodestruction incubation period of non-electret film
insights to the professional ?handicraft? methodical basis that allows specialists to develop SM in their
routine work. The following prerequisites exist for such change.
External (operating) effects on materials are a primary chain and energy source for a SM
cybernetic system. They implement their function via altering the internal energy and structure of
the material. The regularities of material responses to chemical, physical, and biological effects are
responsible for the realization of the set of feedback mechanisms. The latter, depending on the degree
of primary structure transformation, spends a part of the energy of external effects on its secondary
reconstruction. This process determines the economy of the material?s internal energy in response to
external effects thus prolonging its service life. Under the action of FM, the SM structure varies with
minimal energy losses following the necessary and sufficient principle.
References
[1] Gandhi M.V., Thompson B.S. Smart materials and structures. Berlin: Springer, 1992. 309 p.
[2] Lazzari B., Fabrizio M., Morro A. Mathematical models and methods for smart materials. New
Jersy: World Scientific Publishing Co, 2002. 374 p.
[3] Richtering W. Smart colloidal materials (progress in colloid and polymer science). Berlin:
Springer, 2006. 184 p.
[4] Leo D.J. Engineering analysis of smart material systems. NY: John Wiley & Sons, 2007. 576 p.
[5] Varadan V.K. Handbook of smart systems and materials. London: Taylor & Francis, 2009.
446 p.
[6] Wiener N. Cybernetics: On control and communication in the animal and the machine. Paris,
MIT Press; 2nd revised ed., 1961
[7] Von Neumann J. The theory of self-reproducing automata. A. Burks, ed., Univ. of Illinois
Press, Urbana, IL, 1966
[8] Pleskachevsky Yu.M., Shilko S.V., Stelmakh S.V. // Journal of Wave-Material Interaction. 1999.
Vol. 14. ? 1?2. P. 49.
[9] ??????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ????????? Z.P. ?????? ?????? ?????. ?.: ???-?? ???,
1987. 218 ?.
# 815 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Leonid S. Pinchuk and V. A. Goldade. Smart Materials in Materials Science
[10] ????????? ?.?. ???????. ???. ... ?-?? ???. ????. ?????, 2000. 44 ?.
[11] ?????????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. ????????? ????????. ?.: ?????, 1989.
240 ?.
[12] Pinchuk L.S., Goldade V.A., Makarevich A.V., Kestelman V.N. Melt Blowing: Equipment,
technology, and polymer fibrous materials. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 2002. 212 p.
[13] ???????? ?.?. ?????????? ????????????? ???????. ?.: ?????, 1989. 288 ?.
[14] ?????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. // ?????????? ????????????: ? 5 ?. ?. 3. ?.: ??????? ???????
????????????, 1992. ?. 384.
[15] Goldade V.A., Pinchuk L.S., Makarevich A.V., Kestelman V.N. Plastics for corrosion inhibition.
Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 2005. 384 p.
[16] Pinchuk L.S., Goldade V.A., Liberman S.Ya., et al. Patent 5028479 U.S. (1991).
[17] ???????? ?.?., ??????????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ????????????? ??????? ? ????? ??????.
?.: ?????????, 1969. 103 ?.
[18] ???????? ?.?., ????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. ??????-?????????? ???????? ??????????????
????????. ?.: ?????, 1979. 188 ?.
[19] Chernyakova Yu.M., Pinchuk L.S. // J. Fric.Wear, 2007. Vol. 28. N 4. P. 389.
[20] Pinchuk L.S., Nikolaev V.I., Tsvetkova E.A., Goldade V.A. Tribology and biophysics of
artificial joints. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2006. 350 p.
[21] Pinchuk L.S., Tsvetkova E.A., Kadolich Zh.V. // J. Fric. Wear, 2001. Vol. 22. N 5. P. 69.
[22] L.S. Pinchuk, Yu.M. Chernyakova, E.A.Tsvetkova, et al. Patent 14349 BY (2011).
[23] ????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. ?????? 709878 ???? (1980).
[24] ????????? ?.?. ???????. ???. ... ????. ????. ???? (????.). ?????, 2010. 21 ?.
[25] ??????? ?.?. // ??????????? ? ??????????? ??????????, 2006. ? 1. ?. 39.
[26] ????? ?. // ???? ? ????????, 2007. ? 3. ?. 43.
[27] Pinchuk L.S., Goncharova E.P., Goldade V.A., et al. Patent 13328 BY (2010).
[28] ????????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. // ???????? ?
??????????? ???????????????????? ?????????, 2006. ? 5. ?. 59; ??????? ??????????????,
2006. ? 12. ?. 42.
[29] ???????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. ? ??. // ??????????? ?????????, 2011. ???.
26. ? 2. ?. 205.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Leonid S. Pinchuk and V. A. Goldade. Smart Materials in Materials Science
????? ?????????
? ????????????????
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ????????
???????? ???????? ????????????????? ??????
??. ?.?. ?????? ??? ????????
???????? 246050, ??????, ??. ??????, 32?
????? ???????? ? ??? ?????? ??????? ?????????????? ????????, ???????????? ??
???????? ???, ??? ???????? ??? ????????? ????? ???????? ??????????????? ???????,
??????????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ???????? ????????????. ??????????
?????? ?????? ????????? ??? ??????-???????????? ?????????, ?????????? ????????
???????? ?????, ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ??
??????????? ?????????? ?????. ????????? ?????????? ?????????????, ??????????????
???????????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ? ?????????? ? ???????????
????????.
???????? ?????: ????? ????????, ?????????? ?????, ??????? ???????????, ???????
???????? ?????, ??????.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 7 (2013 6) 818-827
~~~
??? 539.213.536
??????????? ????????????????????
? ??????? ?????? ? ???? ??? ???????????
???????????? ?????????
?.?. ????????*, ?.?. ?????????????,
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ???????, ?.?. ?????????,
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ???????????
?
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
?????? 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
?
????????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
??. ?. ?????????? (????),
?????????? ????????? 070002, ????-???????????,
??. 30-? ??????????? ???????, 34
Received 21.08.2013, received in revised form 07.08.2013, accepted 14.10.2013
??????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??? ?? ??????? ??????? ????
???????? ? ???????????? ?????????????? (Cu-Pb). ????????, ??? ????? ???? ?????
???????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????, ?????????? ??? ??????? ?????????.
???????? ?????: ???????????????? ????????, ???????????? ???????, ????????????
??????????, ???????????? ??????????, ????????????, ??????????? ???????????,
???????????????????? ??????, ????????? ??????? ????????, ?????? ?????????
??????????.
????????
???????????? ??????-?????????? ?????????, ???????????? ? ???? ???????? ?????? ?
???? ??? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????, ???????????? ???????????? ???????. ???
???????, ????????, ? ????????? ???????????????. ?????????????? ???????? ???????????
??????? ???? ????????? ?? ????, ? ????????????? ???????? ? ?? ?????? ??? ??????? ?? ??????
??????.
????????, ??? ????????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ??? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ????????????? [1, 2]. ? ????????????? ????????, ??????????? ????????????? ??????????, ????????? ?????????????
?????????, ??????????? ????????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?, ? ?????????, ??????? ????????? ??????????. ? ???? ?????? ???????????, ???????? ?
???????????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ? ???????. ???????????? ?????????? ? ??*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: abkaryan_artur@mail.ru
# 818 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ????????????? ??????????? ???????????????????? ? ??????? ?????? ? ?????
??????, ?????????? ???????, ????? ? ??????????? ???????????????? ???????????. ????????????? ????????? ??????? ????? ????????????????? ???????? ??? ??????????. ? ????????
?????????? ? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????????????? ????????
??? ????? ???.
? ??????? ?.?. ??????? [3] ???????????? ????? ????????????? ??????? ?????????????
??????? ? ? ??????????? ?? ???????????, ???????????? ????????, ? ????? ?? ??????? ????????? ??????????, ??????? ??????? ? ?????????? ???????? ??????
? = ? 0 exp
U 0 ?' ?
,
RT
??? U0 ? ????????? ??????? ????????? (??); ?? ? ??????????-?????????????? ????????? ?????????; ? ? ???????????? ??????????; ?0 ? ???????????????????? ?????????, ?????? ?? ???????
???????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ??????; T ? ???????????; R = kNA; ??? NA ? ????? ????????; k ? ?????????? ????????? [3].
?. ????? [4] ??????????? ????????? ???????, ?????? ? ???????? ??????????. ?? ??????
????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ???????????????????? ??? ???????????????? ???????? ? ?????????, ??? ??? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????. ???? ??? << ??, ?? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????
W T § E ·
? exp Ё a ё ,
© RT №
??? ? ? ???????????, ??????????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????
[6].
? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ? ??????? ????????, ????? ??? ? ??, ??????? ???????????
?????????? ???????? ? ????? ????????????????? ???????? [4].
?. ?????? ? ?. ?????? [5] ????????, ??? ??? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ~ 1/? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ? ~ ??, ??? ? ? ???????? ??????? ?????????,
? ? ?????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ????????, ? ? ????? ?????????? ????????. ???????????? ???????? ????? ?????? ????????? ? ??????? ??????? ???, ??? ?????? ? ??????,
??? ??? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ???? ????? ????? ????
??? ?????? ????????.
? ??????? [6, 7] ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ? ??????? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????. ??????? ??????? ????????, ??? ???????????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????????? ??????? ?? ???? ?????????????? ???????? ?????? ? ??????????????? ????????. ??? ?????????? ?????? ???????????
????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????????????. ????????, ?????????????? ????? ???????????, ? ???
???????? ????????? ????????????????? ????. ?????? ?????? ??????? ?????-??????????????
???????????.
????? ???????, ???????? [6, 7] ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????, ????????????? ? ??????-?????????. ???? ? ??????? ????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ???????, ?? ? ??????, ???????????? ? [6, 7], ??? ????? ????????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ????????????:
# 819 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ????????????? ??????????? ???????????????????? ? ??????? ?????? ? ?????
Rr
R0 e
r DV
P
,
??? R± ? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ???? ??????????????? ????????????, R0 ? ???????????, ??????? ?????????? ?????? R±, ???? ? ? ??????????? ???????????
?????? ?????????? ?????? ????, ? ? ????????? ????????, ? ? ??????? ????????.
?? ?????? ???????, ??? ???????????????????? ? ????????????? ?????????? ??? ??????
????????? ??????????? ? ??????? ????????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ??? ??????????.
????????? ???????? ?????? ????? ???? ??????????? ?? ???? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ? ?????????????? ????????. ???????????
????????? ????????????????? ???? ????? ????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ?????????????
??????????? ????????????? ??????????? ? ? ??????????? ????? ???.
???????? ??????? ?. ????????????? [8] ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????
????? ????????? ? 1,5-2 ???? ???????? ????? ? ???????.
??????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ?? ???? ?????????? ??????, ??????? ????????
????????? ??? ????????? ??????????-?????????????? ???????? ??. ? ??????? [6, 7, 9] ????????? ????? ???????????? ??? ????????????? ?????, ??????????? ??? ???????? ????? ??
??????????? ??????????, ??? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????
?????.
? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????? (????????, ? ?????? ???????????? ?????) ?????? ??????????? ???? ??????????? ????? ????, ???? ?????????? ???????
????????????? ????????????? ???????????. ? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????? (??????? ??????? ???????? ??? ?????? ????????????) ???????? ???????????????? ??????? ?????? ???? ???????.
????? ?????? ?????? ???? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ???????????????????? ?
???? ???????? ???????? ???? ? ?????? ??? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????.
? ???????????? ? ?????????? ????????? «?????? ? ????» ??????????? ??????? ????????? ??? ????????????? ??? ??? ???????????? ?? 600 °? ?????????? [10]. ? ??????????????
?????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ?????, ?????????? ??? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ??? ????????????, ?? ??????????? 600 °?.
???????? ????????????
?????????? ? ???? ????????? ??????? ???? ? ?????? ????????? 0,1Ч10Ч20 ?? ????????? ???? ? ?????? ? ? ??????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ? ??????? 20
??? ????? ???????????????? ??????? ??? ??????????? 600 °?. ??????? ?????? ??????????? ?
?????????? ???????????? ???????, ?????????????? ???????????? ????????? ? ????????????.
??????? ????????? ????????????? ?????? ? ???? ????????? ?? ???????????? ?????????????
?????? ? ???? ? ?????? ????????? ? ?????? ??????????????? ? ? ???????. ?????? ????????????? ?????? ? ???? ??? ??????????? 600 °?, ???????????? ?? ????????? ?????????????????
? ?????????????? ????????, ?? ????????? 0,09 % (??.), ? ????????????? ???? ? ?????? ?? ????????? 0,023 % (??.) [11].
??? ???????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ? ??????? Cu-Pb ???? ????????????
?????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ????????????.
# 820 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ????????????? ??????????? ???????????????????? ? ??????? ?????? ? ?????
????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???? ???????? ? ????????? ?????????, ?? ??? ????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ??? ???????? ???????????????????? ??????.
?????????? ? ?? ??????????
? ???? ????????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ???????????????? ??????? ???
????????? ???????????, ? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ???? ?????? ????????? ? ??????????? ?? ??????. ????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ?? ????. ??? ???????????? ????????? ???????????????? ??????? ? ???????? ???? ??? ??? ?????????? ??????????
?? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ?????????????? ???????????.
?? ???. 1?, ? ???????????? ???????, ?????????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ????, ?????????? ?? ?????? ????? ??????????? ???????????????? ???????.
????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ???? ????????????. ????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ????? ?????? ????? ???????????? ? ?????????????, ??? ????? ??
???????????? ???. 1.
?? ???. 2 ????????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ??????? Pb ?????
???????????? ???????. ?????????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ????????????????????? ??????????????? ???????. ?? ????????????? ???????? ????? ??????, ??? ????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ???? ????????? ????????????????? ??????????? ?
? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ??????.
?? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????????? ??????? ???? ?????????? Cu > 28,7 %,
Pb>71,3 %, ??? ???? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ???? ? ??????. ??? ?????? ???????????
? ?????????? ???????????????? ???????, ?????????????? ???????????? ?????????, ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????? (Cu, Pb) ???? ? ?????.
?? ??????? ????? ??????????? ???? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ???????. ??????????????
??????????? ??????????? ???? ? ?????? ???????????? ? ????. 1.
??????????? ????? ??? ????????? ?? ???? ????????????????? ???????????? ?????????
??????, ??????? ????? ???? ???????????? ?????? ?????????. ?? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ??? ?? ??????????, ? ??? ???????????? ??????????, ??? ???????, ???????? ???????????? ????? ????????????????. ?????????????, ??? ??????????? ????? ??? ? ????? ???????? ? ??????? ?????? ????? ????? ?????????? ????????.
???????? [1, 2] c ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????, ??? ???????, ???????????. ??? ?? ????? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ???????? ??????????.
?????? [3] ???????, ??? ??????? ???????? ???????? ?? ????? 10 -5-10 -7 ? ?? ????? ???????? ? ??????????? ?????? ????? ????, ??????????? ?? ???????? ???????? 0,1 ? ????? ??.
?? ?? ??????, ? ??????? ????????????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ?
????????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ????????. ??? ???? ????????? ?????????? ?????? [3] ?????? ? ??????????????? ? ????????
???????, ???, ? ???? ???????, ???????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????? ????? ????????
? ???????? ??????????? ????????. ?????? ?????? ??????? ????? (??????? ????? ????????
? ???????? ??????-?????? ?????????? ????????) ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ?
????? ?, ??-????????, ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ?????.
# 821 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ????????????? ??????????? ???????????????????? ? ??????? ?????? ? ?????
?
?
???. 1. ??????????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ???? ????? ????????? ?? ?? ??????, ?600,
?????? ??????? ????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? (?); ??????????-???????????????? ???????????
????????? ???. 1? ?1400 (?)
????????????? ?????? ???? ? ?????? ?????????, ?? ??? ??????, ? ?????????? ?????????? ????????, ?????????????? ????????????? ??????????, ???????????? ????????? ??
????????????? ?????? ???????. ??? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????
? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ????????????????? ???? ?? ???????? ?????????? ?? ?????????, ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????. ????? ????????
???????? ?? ????????? ???????? ????? ? ???????? ? ????? ?? 2 ?? 5 ??/?.
????? ??????? [4] ???? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ?? ??????????????
??????, ??????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ????????. ?? ???????, ??? ???????? ??????
??? ??????? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ?? ?? ??????, ? ?? ???????? ?????. ???????? ???# 822 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ????????????? ??????????? ???????????????????? ? ??????? ?????? ? ?????
???. 2. ??????????????????? ??????, ?????????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ????
??????? ????????
??????? 1. ?????????? ??????, ?????????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ???? ???????
????????
Cu
Pb
??????????, %
28,7
71,3
??? ???????? [5] ??? ??????????? ?????????, ??????????????? ? ???????? ??????????? ??????????, ? ????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ?????, ?????
???????. ? ????? ?????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????, ??????? ??????????????? ? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ??????????
[6]. ???????? [7] ? ???????? ????? ????????? ???????????, ?????????? ??????????? ????????
??????? ??????????. ???????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ? ??? ???????? ??????????.
?? ???. 3 ? ? ????. 2 ???????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?? ???? ?????? ISTM
(????? ? 00-046-1037), ?? ??????? ?????, ??? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ? ????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ?
?????????? ??????? ??????.
? ??????? [8] ????????, ??? ? ???????? ????????? ??????????, ??-??????, ?? ????? ????
??????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????, ??-??????, ?????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ? ???? ????????????? ????????? ? ???????? ??????????? ??????????.
????? [7] ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ~??2?2 (?? ? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ?? ?????, ? ? ??????????? ?????? ????, ? ? ???? ????????). ? ??? ???????
??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ?? ???????, ??? ? ??????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????.
????? ???????, ?????????? ???????? ????? ????????? ????????? ????? ?????-???????
?? ???????????. ???????? ???????? ?????-??????? ?? ?????????? [9]. ????????? ?????????
????????????????? ???? ? ??? ???????????????? ??????????, ???????? ??????????? ???????????????? ???????? ?? ???? ?????????????? ???????? ?????? ? ??????????????? ????????.
# 823 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?
?
???. 3. ??????????????????? ?????? ???????? ???????????????? ??????? ? ???? ???????? ?????????
Cu-Pb
??????? 2. ??????????? ?????????? ???, ??????????? ?? ???. 3
?
2?, ????
?, ????
Sin ?
d/n, A
I, %
1
12,3
6,15
0,1071
7,190
5,5
2
24,8
12,4
0,2147
3,587
8,8
3
31,2
15,6
0,2689
2,864
100,0
4
36,2
18,1
0,3107
2,479
61,5
5
40,5
20,25
0,3461
2,226
2,2
6
52
26
0,4384
1,757
25,2
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ????????????? ??????????? ???????????????????? ? ??????? ?????? ? ?????
???. 4. ?????? ?????????????? ???????? ????????? ????????????????? ????, ?????????? ??????????
???????? ? ???? ???????? ???? ? ??????
?? ???. 4 ?????????? ????? ?????? ????????. ?? ??? ????????? ?????? ???????? ???????,
???????????????? ??? ???????????? ?????? ???? ? ???????? ???????????? ????????. ????????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????? ? ????, ??? ??? ??????? ???? ???????????? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ????????? 300 ?/?.
??????????? ????? ??? ????? ?????????? ???? ??? ???????????? ???????? ? ????????
??????????? ??????????, ??? ???????? ?????? ???????? ?? ????? ?????-??????? ? ????? ?
???? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ???????????, ??????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ??????. ? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ?
???????????? ????????? ???????. ? ????? ?????? ????? ???? ???????????? ????? ???????????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ????? ????.
?????????? ???????????
?????????? ???????? ??????????????? ? ????? ???????????? ??????? ? ??????? ???????????? ????? ? ??????? ????. ? ?????? ???????????? ????? ???????????? ????? ???? ????????? ? ????? ????? ??????. ??? ???? ?? ???????? ????????????? ?????????? ?? ???? ??????????? ???????? ??? ??????? ?????????. ??????? ????????????? ???? ? ???????????? ???
???????, ??????????? ??? ??? ????, ??? ? ??? ??????, ????????????? ???????? ???????? [12].
??????????? ????????????? ??? ?? ??????????, ????????? ????? ???? ? ?????? ??? ???????????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ????? ? ??????? ?????? ?? ????????
«???? ???????». ? ???? ?????? ? ??????? ????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ???????, ??? ?
???????????? ???????, ??? ????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??????????. ??????? ? ???????????? ? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ? ??????????? ??? ??????? ??? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ???????????. ?????
???????????? ??????? ????? ? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ????????.
? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ? ????? ??????? ?????? ? ????
???????? ??????????? «???? ???????». ? ????? ??????? ????? ??????????? ???????????? ??# 825 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ????????????? ??????????? ???????????????????? ? ??????? ?????? ? ?????
???????? ?????? ?? ????? «?????-???????» ?? ??????? ????????? [13]. ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????????? ????, ??? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ????????????
????? ??? ? ????????, ???????????? ?? ???????????? ???? ? ????? ????????????, ??????????, ????? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?????????
«?????-???????» ?? ??????? ?????????. ?????????? ????????? «?????-???????» ?? ??????????????? ????????? ????? ???? ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ??????, ????????????? ???????? ?????? ??? ????????? ?????????????.
??????
1. ??????????? ???????? ???????????????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ???? ? ????? ??????????? ?????? ? ???? ??? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????.
2. ??????????, ??? ??? ?????????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ? ????, ???????????? ?????????? ??????, ????? ????????????? ???????? ???????????????? ???????, ??????? ?????????, ???????? ?? ????????? ???????? ???????????.
3. ? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????
??????????? ? ??????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ? ????, ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ???? ???????? ? ???????????? ????????? ???????????????? ???????.
4. ???????????? ????? ??? ? ???? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ????????? ???????
???????? ? ??????????? ??????????????? ????????, ?????????? ?? ?????? ????????? ??????????
?????? ??????????
[1] ?????????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ????? ?.?. ???????????????? ?????? ? ?????????????
????????. ???????????: ?????????, 2008. 312 ?.
[2] Sauvage ?. // Acta Materialia. Vol. 53 (2005). P. 2127-2135.
[3] ?????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. // ???. 1958. ?. 28. ?. 1719-1726.
[4] Takacs L. // J. Met. 52, 12 (2000).
[5] ?????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. ?????? ?????????. ?.: ?????, 1965. 202 ?.
[6] Falk M.L., Langer J.S. // Phys. Rev. 1998. V. E57. P. 7192-7204.
[7] Lemaitre A., Carlson J. // Phys. Rev. E, 2004, 69.
[8] ?????????? ?.?., ???????????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. // ???????????????
???????? ???????????? ????????????????. 2011. ?. 8. ? 3. ?. 83-88.
[9] ???????? ?.?. // ???. 2003. ?. 390. ? 2. C. 209?213.
[10] ????????? ????????? ??????? ????????????? ??????; ???. ?.?. ???????. ?.: ??????????????, 1997. 1024 ?.
[11] ???????? ?.?., ????? ?.?. ? ??. // ??????? ??????????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ????????????. 2006. ? 4. ?. 52-54.
[12] ??????? ?.?. ?????? ?????? ? ?????. ?.: ?????????, 2006. 304 ?.
[13] ??????? ?.?. ?????????????? ? ?????????? ? ????? ? ???????. ?.: ???, 1985. 289 ?.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ????????????? ??????????? ???????????????????? ? ??????? ?????? ? ?????
Features of Structure Formation
in Lead-Copper During Intense Dynamic Loads
Artur K. Abkaryana, Ryza B. Abylkalykovab,
Valery A. Padara, Fedor M. Noskova, Aysulu A. Kalytovab
Guahar M. Dyusupovab and Guldana B. Muhamethanb
a
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, Russia 660041
b
S. Amanzholov East Kazakhstan
State University Governmental Enterprise
34 Gvardeyskoy Divizii Street, Ust-Kamenogorsk,
East-Kazakhstan region, 070020 Republic of Kazakhstan
The possibility of metastable phases formation at the interface of two metals with limited solubility
(Cu-Fe) was investigated. It is shown that such phases may be the as a product of solid state reactions
taking place at high pressures.
Keywords: mechanochemical processes, solid-phase reactions, plastic deformation, dynamic loading,
mass transfer, electron microscopy, x-ray analysis, abnormally fast diffusion, the theory of shear
deformation.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 7 (2013 6) 828-834
~~~
??? 669.713
???????? ?????? ??????? ???????
??? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????
?.?. ????????????,
?.?. ?????????*, ?.?. ??????
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
?????? 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
Received 03.05.2012, received in revised form 24.08.2013, accepted 19.09.2013
??????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?
?????????????? ????????. ???????????? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ? ?????? ???????????
???? ? ???????? ????? ?????????? ??????????????????? ???????. ?????????? ??????????????
? ?????????????? ???????????????? ??????. ????????? ????????? ??? ???? ?????, ????
? ???????????? ??????????, ?????????? ?? ????????? ??? ?????? ???? ??????????????.
?????????? ????????? ???????????? ? ???? ???????????? ????????????. ???????????,
??? ??? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????
???????????? ??????????? ????. ??? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ????
??????????. ????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ??????.
???????? ?????: ????????, ???????????? ??????????, ??????? ??????????.
?????? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ????? ????????????, ???????????? ?? ????????
??????-?????????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????????, ???????????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? [1-3].
??????????????? ??? ? ??????? ??????? ???????????????? ??????????????? ?????,
?????????????? ????? ????????????????? ????? ???????????? ????????????? ? ????????????. ????????? ???????????? ??????? ????????????? ???????????????? ???? ?????????? ????? ???????? ???? ? ?????? ????????? (~100 °?) ? ???????????? ?? ??????????? ?????????
(~500 °?). ??? ????????????? ??????? ??????? ????? ????? ??????? ??????????? ?????, ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ????? ????? ???? ????????? ???????????????
?????? ???????? ?????. ???????? ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ????? ?????????
?????????????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ? ?????????? [4].
???????????? ???????? ????? ????? ???? ????????? ?? ???????????, ?????????? 40 ?
50 % ????. ???????????? ???????? ????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ????? ???? ?????????
?????????????????? ????????: -315+200; -200+71; -71 ???. ????? ????????? ? ??????????????
???????? ??? ???? ???????????? ? 200 ? 300 °?. ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ? ????????? 12 ?.
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: vershinina_2710@mail.ru
# 828 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????????, ?.?. ?????????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?????????????
???????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ?????????????? ?????? ??????? 1,5 ?? ? ????????? 3 ??, ????? ??????????? ??? ????????????? ? ????, ?????????? ?? ???????? ???????????. ????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????, ??????????, ????????? ?????
?????, ? ????? ????????????? ? ????.
?? ???. 1 ? 2 ????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????????????? ?????? ??? ??????????? 200 °? ? ??????????? (?m/s)2 ? f(t), ??? ?m/s ? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ???? ????. ????????? ???????????? ???? ??????????
? ???????????? ????????? ? ??????? 810 ????? ?????????????? ????????, ????? ???? ?????
????? ?? ???????????. ??? ????, ??? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????????
???????, ????????? ????????????, ??? ???????? ????????? ???? ? ???????????? ??????.
2
3
2
( ' m/s) ·10 , ? /??
3
4
y = 0,028x
2
R = 0,980
0,20
0,15
y = 0,013x
2
2
R = 0,989
0,10
1
0,05
y = 0,008x
2
R = 0,961
0,00
0
2
4
6
t, ?
8
???. 1. ???????? ????????? ???????, ??????????? 40 % ???? ? 60 % ????? ??? ??????????? ??????????????
???????? 200 °? (1 ? ???? ??????? ? 300 ???; 2 ? ???? ??????? ? 200 ???; 3 ? ???? ??????? ? 70 ???)
2
3
2
( ' m/s) ·10 , ? /??
4
3
0,40
y = 0,041x
R2 = 0,996
0,30
0,20
y = 0,014x
R2 = 0,983
2
1
0,10
y = 0,009x
2
R = 0,967
0,00
0
2
4
6
8
10
t, ?
???. 2. ????? ????? ???????, ??????????? 50 % ???? ? 50 % ????? ??? ??????????? ??????????????
???????? 200 °? (1 ? ???? ??????? ? 300 ???; 2 ? ???? ??????? ? 200 ???; 3 ? ???? ??????? ? 70 ???)
# 829 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????????, ?.?. ?????????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?????????????
' m/s, ?/??
2
0,08
6
5
0,06
3, 4
2
0,04
1
0,02
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
t, ?
???. 3. ????? ????? ???????? ? ??????????? ???? 40 % (1-3) ? 50 % (46) ??? ??????????? ??????????????
???????? 300 °? (1, 4 ? ???? ??????? ? 300 ???; 2, 5 ???? ??????? ? 200 ???; 3,6 ? ???? ??????? ?
70 ???)
??? ?????????? ??????????? ?? 300 °? ???????? ????? ?????, ??? ???????? ?????????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????????, ????????????? ? 79 ???, ??? ???? ????? ??????????? ?m/s ? f(t) ?? ????? ?????????? ? ????????? 48 ? (???. 3). ? ???? ?????? ????????
????????? ????????? ???? ??????????? ?????????????? ???????, ?? ??? ???? ????????
????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?? 0,880,94 (?? ???. ?? ????????). ??????????? ?????????, ????????? ?????? ???????????, ????? ???? ??????????? ???, ??? ???????????? ? ?????????? ???? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????????
??????????.
??? ????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????????????
?????????? ? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????
?m = A
B ?t
,
1+ B ?t
(1)
??? ? ? ? ? ??????????.
?????????? ???????? ??????? ? ????. 1. ?????????? ????? ?????????? ?, ???????? ? ????????? (1), ? ?????????? ????? ????? ???????, ?????????? ? ???? ????? ? ?????? ????????.
????????? ???? ??????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ??????:
? ??? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????
???????????? ??????????? ????;
? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ? 200 ?? 300 °? ?????????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ???????? ? 4 ????;
? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ? ???????????? ?????????? ? 40 ?? 50 % (?? 25 ????????????? %) ????????????? ???????? ? (?? 15-30 %), ?.?. ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????.
# 830 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????????, ?.?. ?????????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?????????????
??????? 1. ?????????? ????????? ????????????????? ?????? ?? ????????? (1)
???, %
??????
50
300 °?
A
B
R2
0,906
0,0522
0,48
0,913
0,272
0,979
0,0607
0,385
0,889
0,217
0,955
0,0721
0,431
0,975
0,0128
0,259
0,969
0,065
0,893
0,998
-200
0,0151
0,284
0,976
0,080
0,74
0,996
-71
0,0264
0,257
0,989
0,083
1,168
0,999
?
?
R
0,0123
0,168
-200
0,0131
-71
0,0212
-300
-300
40
200 °?
2
???????????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????????
??????????? ?? ???????????????? ???? (2829 %) ? ????????? ?????, ??????????????? ?????
????? ????????????? ???????????? ? ??????????????????? ???????.
???????? ??????? ???? ? ???????? ?????? ? ???????????? ??????? ????? ???????? ?
?????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????????????? 1018 ?/?. ??????? ??????????? ?????, ??????? ? ????????? ? ??? ???????????, ??? ???????? ?? 500 ?? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ?????. ??? ?????????? ??????? ????? ??? ????????? ? ?????? ?????????, ???? ???????
?????????????? ?????????? ?????.
????? ???????? ??? ???????? ????????? ?????????????:
? ??? ????????? ???? «?????????????» ??????? ???????, ??????????? ??? ????????
??????? ?????;
? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ? ???? ??????? ???, ???????????? ? ??????? ????? ?????;
? ?????????? ??????? ????????????, ???????? ? ?????? ????.
??? ?????? ???? ???????????? ?????????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ?? ???? ?????? (1, 2, 3) ??????????? ??????????????. ? ????? ????????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ??????????? (?), ???????????? (?) ?
??????? (?) ??? ????? ?? ?????? 10 ? 25 ?? ?? ???????????.
??? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ?????. ????? ?????????? ? ????????? ?????? ????, ????????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? (???) ? ?????????? ???????? ???? ? ?????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ???????. ???
???? ???, ???????????? ? ????????, ? ????? ????? ??????????? ? ??????????. ????????????
???????????? ???? ????? ????????? ? ??????? ????. ???? ??????? ????????? ? ???????? ??????????? ??????, ??, ??????? ????? ??????????? ??????? ????, ????? ?????????? ????? ?????,
???????????? ? ???????.
???????? ?????????????? ?????????????, ??? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ??
200 ?? 350 °? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ???? ????? ????????????????, ? ???????????? ? ??????? ???????. ????? ??????? ??????????? ????????????????
? ?????????? 6 ?. ? ???? ????????? ??????? ????? ?? 300 °?, ???????? ????????????? ??? ????? ??????????? ???? ?????????, ????????? ????????? ?????? ??????, ????????????? ? ????
# 831 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????????, ?.?. ?????????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?????????????
V, ??
3
?
16
14
?
12
10
?
8
6
4
2
0
0
10
20
30
40
t, ???
???. 4. ????????? ?????? ????????????? ???? ?? ??????? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????
(???????????? 1)
2
V , c?
6
?
1200
y = 50,96x
2
R = 0,992
1000
800
?
600
y = 28,745x
2
R = 0,9815
400
?
y = 14,502x
200
2
R = 0,9986
0
0
5
10
15
20
25 t, ???
???. 5. ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ????????? ??? ???? ????? ????????????? 1 (????) ?
?????????????? ???????????
?????? ? ?????? ? ?????? ????? ?????????. ????? ?????? 5 ??? ????????? ????????? ??????
??????? ???? ? ??????? ??????.
????????? ????????? ??? ???? ?????, ???? ? ???, ?????????? ?? ????????? ??? ??????
???? ??????????????. ????? ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ?? ???. 4, 5 ? ???? ???????????? ????????????.
???????? ?????? ????, ????????????? ?? ????????? ??????? ???????, ????? ????????
«????????????» ???????????. ?? ???. 5 ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ?? ??????? ???? ????? ????????????? 1.
# 832 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????????, ?.?. ?????????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?????????????
??????? 3. ?????? ????? ??????? ???????????, ?????????? ?? ???? ?????, ???? ? ???, ??3/? (???
??????????? ????? 300 °? ??? ??????????? ???????????)
????????????
?????
????
?????????
?????
1
????
6,2/3,2
4,7/2,4
3,5/1,8
???
5,5/2,9
5,8/3,0
5,5/2,9
2
????
4,2/2,2
3,8/2,0
2,8/1,5
???
3,7/1,9
3,0/1,6
2,3/1,2
3
????
5,0/2,6
3,3/1,7
2,7/1,4
???
4,5/2,3
3,7/1,9
2,8/1,5
????
2,8/1,5
???
2,7/1,4
? ????. 3 ???????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????, ??????????? ? 1 ? ????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ? ??? ??????????? ???????????. ??? ???????? ????????? ??????????????:
? ?????, ?????????? ?? ??????????? ???? ????? (????? ?????), ?? ????? ???????????
??????? ????????;
? ????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ???? ? ??????? ??????, ??? ????????????.
??????
?? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????????
???????????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ???????????:
1. ????????? ??????? ??????????? ????? ???? ? ???????????? ??????; ?????????? ??????????? ?? 200 ?? 300 °? ???????? ? ?????????? ???????? ????? ????? ???????? ? 79 ???,
??? ????? ???? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????
??????????.
2. ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ???? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ?????.
3. ????? ???????????? ??????????, ?????????? ?? ??????????? ???? ?????, ???????????
?? ????? ??????????? ??????? ????????; ????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ???? ? ???????
??????, ??? ????????????.
?????? ??????????
[1] ???????????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. ? ??. // ???. ?????. ??????? ???????????. 2008. ? 6. ?. 27-29.
[2] ???????????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. // ???. ?????. ??????? ???????????.
2009. ? 5. ?. 14-16.
[3] ???????????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. // ???. ?????. ??????? ???????????. 2009. ? 6. ?. 41-44.
[4] ???? ?.?. ????? ??????????? ??????????????. ?.: ???? ? ???????, 2001.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????????, ?.?. ?????????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?????????????
The Kinetics of Release of Volatile Substances
when Coke-Pitch Composition
was Heated Under Isothermal Conditions
Eduard M. Gildebrandt,
Evgeniya P. Vershinina and Elena A. Selina
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodniy, Krasnoyarsk, 660014 Russia
The kinetics of release of volatile substances when coke-pitch composition was heated under isothermal
conditions had been examined. Studies were conducted on the composition with different content of
pitch and coke charge of different granulometric composition .Gas content was identified using the
volumetric method. The measurements were performed for samples of coke, pitch and coke-pitch
composition. The results were presented in the form of kinetic dependencies.
Found that with increasing degree of dispersion of coke charge the limit loses of low-boiling components
of the pitch increase. With increasing temperature, the limit loses of pitch increase. The evaporation of
volatile components occurs in the diffusive regime.
Keywords: kinetic, coke-pitch composition, low-boiling components.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 7 (2013 6) 835-844
~~~
??? 621.396.669.8
????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????,
??????????? ?? ????
????????-?????????? ??????
?.?. ??????,
?.?. ????????*, ?.?. ??????
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
?????? 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
Received 25.12.2012, received in revised form 07.07.2013, accepted 21.09.2013
??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????, ??????????? ?? ???? ????????-??????????
??????? ? ??????????? ? ???? ???????? ???????, ? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ????????
??????? ????????? ?????????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ?????, ???????????? ?
???????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ? ???????? ?????? ? ???????????
??????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ? ???????????? ???????. ?????????
????????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????????, ??????? ?????? ? ???????????
?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????-?????????? ??????.
???????? ?????: ???????? ????????? ? ???????, ???????????? ???????, ????????-??????????
???????.
????????
? ????????? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ??????????????? ???????? ??????? ???????????
????? (???). ???????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ? ?????????????? ????????, ?????????? ??????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ? ???? ???????????? (??). ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ????????????? ???: ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????
?????, ???????? ????? ????????? ??????????, ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ?
??????????? ?? ???????? ?? ????? ?????, ??????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????????? (??) ? ???????? ??, ??????? ?????????????????? ??? ??????????? ???
??????????????, ??? ? ?????????????? ?????.
??? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ???????????? ???????????? ?? ? ????????? ?????????????????? ? ??????????? ????????????? ????? ???? ???????????? ??? ????????????
???????? ??????? (???) ?? ???????????? ??????, ??? ? ???????????? ??????? (???), ??????????? ?? ???? ????????-?????????? ?????? (???). ??? ? ???????? ????????????? ??
????????? ????? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ??
? ??????? ????????? ?????, ????????? ???????? ??????? ? ?? ? ??????????? ?? ????????
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: dmitriev121074@mail.ru
# 835 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ????????? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????, ????????????
?????. ?????? ??? ????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????????????, ?????????? ???????
?????????? ??????????, ???????? ??????????????????? ?????, ?, ??? ?????????, ???????
????????? [1]. ?????????? ??? ????? ??????? ???? ????????????, ?? ??? ???????????????
??????????? ????????? (??) ? ?? ? ???????????????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ????????????? ????? ??????? ????????????. ?????? ???????? ?????????????
???????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? (??) ?? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????,
???????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????????????? ???????? ???????. ???
???????? ? ???? ??????????? ????????????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ???, ????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ?? ? ?? ??????????? ????? ? ???????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ?????.
? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ? ????????? ?????????? ???, ??????????? ?? ???? ???.
1. ?????????? ???????????? ????????-?????????? ???????
? ?????? ????????? ?? ?????????
? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ??? ????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????. ?? ?????????? ???????? ?? 19 ??????????? ?? ??????????? ????????, ? ??????? ?????? ?? 7 ????? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? (?????????) (???. 1) [2].
?????? ???????, ????????? ?? 7 ???????????, ? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ????????,
50 % ? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ??????????, 50 % ? ?? ????????????
??????????. ??? ????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ???? ?? ??????????? ?? ?????? ????????, ??? ????????? ??????? ????? ???? ?? ?????.
???????????? ???????? ? ?? ?????? ???????? ? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ??? ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ??????????? (???. 2). ?????? ????? ?????? ????? ???????????? ??????????: ?????? ??????????? ?? ????????????? ???????????, ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ? 20 % ? ?? ??????????? ??, ??? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????
???. 1. ??????? ???????????? ????? ?? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ???????
# 836 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ????????? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????, ????????????
???. 2. ?????????? ? ??? ??????, ??????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ??: ???????? ????? ?
???????? ??, ??????????? ? ?? ? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ???????????
????????
?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????, ??? ???????? ? ??? ??????? ?????????? ?? ??????? [3].
???????????? ???????? ? ?? ? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ????? ???????????, ??????????? ?? ???. ?????? ??? ?? ?????? ??????????, ?????????
???????? ? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ?? ??????????????? ???????????.
??? ????????? ????????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ???????
??????????-???????? ????????????? (???) ?????????? ??????? ???. ??? ????????? ????????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ????? ? ??????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ? ???????????
???????? ???????? ??, ?? ? ? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ??????? [3].
? ????? ?????? ?? ? ??????? ???? ??? ??? ?????? ? ???????? ???????????? ? ????
E (W j ,?i , ?i )
2
N???
2
¦ Eij �W j ,
(1)
j 1
j?
??? W j Aj � e j ? ??????? ??????????? ??????????; Eij ? ?? ?? j-?? ?????????? ? i-? ????????2
??? ??????????; E (W j ,?i , ?i ) ? ????????? ?? ???????.
?????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ????????:
N ???
¦A
2
j
1.
(2)
j 1
???????? Eij ???????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ? ? ???????? ??????? ??? ?????????
?????????? ??? ???????????? ????? ?i, ?i. ??? ????????? ??????? ??? ????????? ??????? (1)
??????? ?????, ?????????? ??????????. ? ?????? ????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ??????
???????.
# 837 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ????????? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????, ????????????
????? ??????? ????????????? ?????????? ? ???? ???????
*T
Є¬W1 , W2 ,...,W j єј .
W
(3)
??? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ? ???????????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ? ?????? ?????. ??? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ?
???????? ????????????? ??????? ? ?????.
? ???????? ???????? ??? ??????? ?? ???????????? ??????????? ???????? (??) ???????
? ???????? ?????? ? «?????». ????? ????, ?????????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ????? ?
???????????? ?????????? ????? ? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ??. ?????? ??????? ?? «????», ??????? ????? ???????? ????????? ???? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ???
???????? «????»: w > 0 ? ????????? ?????? ??????? ? ?????? ?????, ?????????? ? ???????????
?????????? ????????; w < 0 ? ?????????? ??????? ? ?????? ?????, ?????????? ? ??????????
?????????? ????????.
??? «?????» ????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ??? ?????????? ???????, ? ????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ? ????????? ????? ??. ?????? ??? ?????? «????» ?????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ? ???????????? ????? ??, ????? ????? ???????
?????????????, ??????? ?????????? ???? ????????? ? ?????????? ? ????????????? ???????? ??????? ???? ?????????? ??????? ??? ???????? «????».
?? ?????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ??? ??????? ??? ????????:
f i = wi(|E(?, ?)????, i|2 ? |Ei(?, ?)|2),
(4)
??? wi ? ??????? ??????????? «????»; |E(?, ?)????, i|2 ? ????????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ? ?????? ????? ????????????; |Ei(?, ?)|2 ? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ? ?????? ????? ????????????.
????? ???????, ??????? ????? ???????? f i, ??????????????? ?????? ????????? ? ????????? ???? ????????????. ???? ????????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ??????? F(x). ????????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ????????????
???????? ??????? ???????
_
F ( x)
_
_
_
_
(5)
max{ f1 ( x), f 2 ( x), f 3 ( x),...., f k ( x)} .
? ???????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ????????????? ??????? ???????????. ????? ???????? ???????????? ?? ??? ?????? ???????? ????? ? ??????? ????????????
2
2
???????? ??????? ????? ????????? ????????? ? ?????????????? 'E ( E (?, ?)????,i ?i (?, ?) ) .
?? ?????? ?E ????????? ?? ?????, ? ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????Є wE wE
wE є
???? ????????? ? ?????????? (?Emax) ? ??????????? ???????? ??????? «
,
,...,
»
wW j »ј
«¬ wW1 wW2
T
’E
? ????? ????????????? ???????????. ????? ?????????? ??????-???????? W ??? ????? ????????? W1 = W0 ±?·?E, ??? ? ? ?????? ????, ?????????? ??????????. ??????? ??????????? ?? ???
???, ???? ||W1 ? W0|| < ? (? ???????? ????? ??????? ???????), ?. ?. ???? ??????? ????? ??????# 838 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ????????? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????, ????????????
???. 3. ?????????? ? ??? ??????, ??????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ? ??????? ???????? ?????????:
???????? ????? ? ???????? ??, ??????????? ? ?? ? ?????????? ?????????
??? ????????? ???????? ? ?????????????? ????????? ???????? ??? ?????? «????» ?????????
????????. ?????????? ???????? ????? ???????? ??????????, ???? ???????? ??? ?????????
???? ?????? ??? ?????????? ????????.
? ?????????????? ???????????????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ??? ????????, ?????????? ?? 7 ???????????. ?????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ? ??????????? ????????
???????? ?? ? ????? ?????? ? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ????????, ?????????? ?????????
?? ???. 3.
????? ???????, ?????????? ???????????? ??? ? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ???
???????????? ???????????? ??????? ?? ? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ? ? ???????????
??????? ????????? ?? ????? 45?50 ??, ??? ???? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ??
10 % ? ?? ????? ?? ? ??????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ?????? ??????? ? ??????? ????????
(?? ????? 0,3 ??) ?? ???? ??????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ? ??, ?? ???????????? ??????????? ??????.
2. ???????? ????????? ????????-?????????? ???????
? ??????? ????????? ??????????
? ???????? ?????????, ??? ?????????? ?????, ??????????? 7 ????? ?? ????????? ????????, ??????????? ????????? ??????? ????? ???? ?? ?????. ??? ?????????? ?????? ??????/
??? (??) ? ????? ?? ????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????. ????? ????????? ?????????
????????? ???, ?????????? ? ?????? ???????, ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????. ????????? ? ??? ??????? ???? ??????? ????????????? ???????????? ??, ??? ????????? ????????
?????????? ??????????? ?????? ? ????????? ????, ??? ????????? ????? ?????? ??????? ??
??????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? [4].
???????? ??? ??????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ????????? «????».
?????????? ? ?????? ???????? ??? ????????? ??????? ?? ?????????????? ????????? ? ???????? ???????? ???????? ?? ??????? ?? ?????? ????? 3 ??. ?????????? ????????? ?? 7 ?? 37
# 839 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ????????? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????, ????????????
(? ??????????? ?? ?????? ??), ??? ? ??????? ????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ??????.
? ?????? ??????????????? ???????? (?????????) ? ???????? ????????????? ???????
??????? (???????? ????? ??????, ???????? ??????????) ??????? ?????????? ?????????
?????????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ?? ?????? ???????. ???? ?????????? ???????????, ?? ??????? ????????? ??????? ? ????????????? ?? ???. ???? ?????????? ?? ???? ?? ???????? ??????, ?? ??????? ???????????? ? ???????? ????? ?????? (????????????). ??? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ???????????
???????.
??? ??????, ????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ???????????? «?????» (?? ?????????????? ?????????), ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ? ?????? ????????? ???????????:
? «????» ??? ???????????? ????? ?? ??????????? ?? ?????????????? ?????. ?????????? ?????? «????» ??? ??????? ??? ???????? ? ???????? ??????????;
? ??????? ?????? ??, ??????????? ????????, ?????????? ???????? 1Ч1° ???? 2Ч2°;
? ??? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????? ??????? 19 ?????, ??? ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ???? ?? ???????????? ??????;
? ????? ???????, ?? ?????? «?????» ?????????? ???, ??? ??????? ????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ??;
? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ??????? ???? ??????? ????????? ??????? + ?????? ??????. ????????? ???????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ????.
?????????? ??? ????????: ?????? ??????? ?????????; ????? ???????????? ???? ???????? ???????? 0,83 ? 0,45.
??? ??????, ????? ?????? ??????? ?????????, ?? ???? ?? ?????? ????????????? ? ??????
??????????????? ???????????? (???. 4, ?), ??????? ???? ???????????? ????????????? ????????? «????». ??? ??? ??????????? ?????? ? ???? ???????? ?????? ?? ????????? «?????», ??
????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ?? ??? ?????????? ??????.
??? ??????? ???????? ? ????????? ???????? ???????? ???? 30° ?? ?????????? ????????
??? ?????? «????». ???????? ???????? 25 ? 10°. ????????? ?????????? ???? ? ????? ???????
?)
?)
???. 4. ??????????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ??????: ? ? ?????? ??????? ?????????; ? ? ?????? ???????
?????????? 0,83 ? 0,45
# 840 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ????????? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????, ????????????
?????? AA? ? CC? ?????????????? (???. 4, ?). ??????????? ?????? AA? ? CC? ???? ??????????
??? ???????????? ???? ??.
????? ???????, ???????? ????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ?????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ??? ?? ??????????.
???? ??? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ??????, ????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??? ????????? ???????? ?????? ? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ??. ??? ????????, ?????
??????? ?? ?????? ????????? ????????? ???, ? ?????? ? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????????, ??? ??? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????????? ? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ?? ?????????, ????????????
? ?????? 1.
????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????.
???? ????????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ? ??????? ???????????, ?? ???????, ????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????, ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ????????????. ???? ?????? ????????? ?? ???????????
????, ?? ???????????? ?????? ???????. ??? ???? ????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????????
????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ???????? ?? ??????? ??????, ????? ???? ?? ??????????????
???????. ??? ?????????? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ? ?????????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????. ??? ????????? ?????? ???? ??????? ? ????? ??? ?????????? ?????????
?????? ????? ?? ????? ?????????? ? ????????? ?????? ???????????? ? ?????? ??????? ???
?????? ????????? ??????? ??? ????????? ?????. ??? ???????? ? ???? ????????? ????????
?????? ??????? ? ?????.
????? ????, ??? ??? ?????? ??? ?????????? ???, ??????????? ?? ?????????? ?????, ????????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ?????, ?? ??? ????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ??, ?? ??????? ????? ??????????????
??????.
?)
?)
???. 5. ?????????? ???? ??????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ???? ?????????? ???: ? ? ???????? ??;
? ? ?? ????? ??????? ??? ? ?????????? ??????? ?????????
# 841 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ????????? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????, ????????????
??????? ????????????? ??? ??????????????? ??????? ?????, ? ????????? ??? ???????????? ???? ? 1, ??? ???????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ????, ?????????
??????? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ????.
?????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????. ? ?????????? ??????? ??? ? ??????
?????? ????? ???????????? ??????? ? ?? ? ?????????? ????????? ??????. ?????????? ? ??
????????? ????? ???????? ? ?????? ???????. ????? ??? ???????????????? ???????????? ????
? 1 ?????????? ?????? ??? ??? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ? ??????????? ??????. ??
???. 5 ????????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ? ?????????? ???? ??????? ????????? ??.
????? ???????, ?? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ?????, ??? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ??? ????????? ????????? ???? ?????? ? ???????? ???????????? ????????
?? ? ?? 3?4 ????? ? ???????? ??????? ????????? ?? ???????. ??? ???? ??????????? ???????
??????? ? ????????? ?? ??? ?????????? 4 ????? ????????????.
3. ????????????????? ????????????
??? ????????????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ? ???????? ??? ?????? ????? ?????????? ??? ? ?????????? ???????? ?? 7 ?????????? ??????? (???. 6, ?). ????? ??????? ?? ??????????, ?????????? ? ??????? ???????????.
????????? ????????????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ?? ??????????????????? ?????????????????? ????????????-?????????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ???? (???. 6, ?)
??? ??????? ?????????? ????????, ??? 7-??????????? ???????? ??? ???????????????? ?
????????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? (???. 7) ? ? ?????? ?????????? ??????
(???. 8).
???????????? ??????? ? ?? ???????? ?????????????? ?? ???? ???????????? ???? 180° ?
????? ?? ??????????? ???????.
??? ????? ?? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ???, ??????? ?? 7 ??????????
???????, ?????????? ??????????????? ? ????????, ????????? ??? ??????? 3Ч3°, ? ??? ??????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ?? 20?25 ??. ???
???? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ??? ????????? ??, ??? ?????????????? ???????????? ?????????????, ??????????? ?????? ??? ? ????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ????????.
?)
?)
???. 6. ?????? ??????????????? ????????: ? ? ??????? ???; ? ? ????????? ?? ? ????????? ??????
# 842 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ????????? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????, ????????????
?)
?)
???. 7. ?? 7-?????????? ?? ? ???????? ?????????: ? ? ????????; ? ? ??????? ????????? ???????????
?)
?)
???. 8. ?? 7-?????????? ?? ? ????????????? ???????????? ?????? ? 5: ? ? ????????; ? ? ???????
????????? ???????????
??????????
????????????? ? ???????? ???????? ? ????????? ??????? ??? ? ???????? ????? ?? ??????? ? ???????? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ? ????????????
???????, ??? ???? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ?? ?? ????? 45?50 ?? ??? ?????????????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ???????. ?????????????? ???????????? ???????? ???
????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ??.
??????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ??? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?????? ??? ????????? ? ???????, ??????????? ?? ??????? ????????? ??, ?????????? ?? ??? ?????, ??? ?????? ????????? ?? ???????? ????????.
# 843 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ????????? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????, ????????????
????? ???????, ???????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ??? ? ???????????? ?????????.
?????? ??????????
[1] ?????? ?. ?????????? ????????? ????????. ?.: ????? ? ?????, 1989. 440 ?.
[2] ?????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. // ??????? ???.??? ??. ????.
?. ?. ?????????. 2012. ???. 2 (42). ?. 106?109.
[3] ????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. // ?????????? ????????????????. 1988. ? 4. ?. 3?15.
[4] ?????? ?.?. // ???????????? ? ??????????: ????????? VI ????????????? ???????????.
?.: ??? ??. ?.?. ???????????? ???. 2012. ?. 1. ?. 58?62.
[5] ?????? ?.?. // ???????????? ? ??????????: ????????? VI ????????????? ???????????.
?.: ??? ??. ?.?. ???????????? ???. 2012. ?. 1. ?. 76?79.
The Adaptive Algorithm Multibeam Antenna,
Built on the Hybrid-Reflector Antenna
Valeriy N. Tyapkin,
Dmitriy D. Dmitriev and Aleksandr S. Perschin
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
The adaptive multibeam antenna that is based on hybrid-reflector antenna with the reflector feed as
the antenna array, which used an accelerated algorithm synthesis directivity diagram to suppress the
designed noise, using as criteria the antenna directive gain at the given points, and which substantially
limit the size of the objective function and duration of the synthesis. An experimental study of the
proposed algorithms, and draw conclusions about the possibility of multibeam adaptive hybridreflector antennas.
Keywords: adaptation algorithm for noise, multibeam antenna, hybrid-reflector antenna.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 7 (2013 6) 845-850
~~~
??? 62-713:62-82
The Experimental Stand for an Efficiency Assessment
of Application of a Multiple-Pass Heater as Means
of Cooling of Working Liquid of a Hydraulic Actuator
Almohammad A. Mohammad*,
Nataly P. Kulikova and Evgeny A. Sorokin
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
Received 11.08.2013, received in revised form 04.09.2013, accepted 18.10.2013
In this article the problem of increase in operability of a hydraulic actuator by use of a multiple-pass
heater as means of cooling of working liquid is considered. For studying of thermal processes, check
of mathematical model and an assessment of efficiency of application of a multiple-pass heater the
developed experimental stand is given.
Keywords: hydraulic actuator, means of cooling of working liquid, multiple-pass heater, experimental
stand.
Modern hydroficated cars and the mechanisms applied practically in all industries, are operated in
the most various conditions and quite often work in extreme conditions which are defined by production
and natural factors.
The main factor defining efficiency of hydroficatedself-propelled cars is (air) ambient temperature
on which temperature and viscosity of working liquid depend on. Other production and natural factors
influence overall performance of a hydraulic actuator indirectly, through an operating mode of a
hydraulic actuator and temperature of working liquid [1].
High temperatures have essential impact on productivity and durability of a hydraulic actuator
as a whole. At increased temperatures there is an increase, both the volume of working liquid, and
pressure in a hydraulic system. Viscosity decreases below admissible level, and volume losses sharply
increase (internal movement and external leaks), increases direct contact of the interfaced surfaces of
friction of details, local heating, there is an intensive wear and ?gripping? of rubbing surfaces. It leads
to partial or full loss of operability of the hydraulic equipment [13]. Therefore in hydraulic actuator
system the increasing attention recently is paid to a problem of an exception of overheating of working
liquid.
The vast experience of operation of hydraulic actuators shows that the specified problem can be
solved successfully by reduction of losses of power and if necessary use of the corresponding heat
exchangers.
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: alnaef@mail.ru
# 845 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Almohammad A. Mohammad, Nataly P. Kulikova? The Experimental Stand for an Efficiency Assessment?
The greatest distribution was gained by heat exchangers with air cooling (oil, heaters). They are
carried out as automobile radiators or in the form of pipes, ribbed for increasing a surface of a heat
transfer. For increase in efficiency of a heat transfer the surface of the heat exchanger is blown by air
from the fan.
The multiple-pass heater [4] (Fig. 1) belongs to heaters of cooling systems, mainly hydraulic
systems of transport, hoisting-and-transport and digging cars. The multiple-pass heater contains the
heating element formed by a set of heat releasing tubes 1, connected among themselves tube plates 2,
a collector 3 and 4, side shields 5, input 6 and output 7 branch pipes, the top reservoir with liquid 8
with a set of ports round each heat releasing tube 1, the pump 9, the bottom reservoir10. The moistened
surface of heat releasing tubes provides stronger heat sink from a surface of tubes.
To increase overall performance of a hydraulic actuator by cooling system introduction ? a
multiple-pass heater, it is necessary to study the thermal processes happening in use of a hydraulic
actuator. Complexity of these processes demands carrying out the pilot research, allowing to check
results of mathematical models. The purpose of a pilot research is the assessment of efficiency of
application of a multiple-pass heater for cooling of working liquid.
When performing experiment it is necessary to solve the following problems: to study the processes
happening in a hydraulic actuator; to check and modify mathematical model of a multiple-pass heater;
to estimate influence on working process of the device of cooling of working liquid.
The accompanying task puts detection of dependence of intensity of cooling from parameters
of a multiple-pass heater and weight of working liquid, and also temperature of liquid sprayed a
heater.
Pilot research has to be conducted in the conditions close to operational operating modes. The
experimental stand which scheme is submitted in Fig. 2 was for this purpose developed. The stand
represents a tank with working liquid, with a heating element established in it.
For determination of temperature of working liquid, in the period of a warming up, measuring
probes of TP1, TP2, TP3 which are connected to the measuring ITM-4 block by means of cables are
established.
Fig. 1. Heater Device
# 846 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Almohammad A. Mohammad, Nataly P. Kulikova? The Experimental Stand for an Efficiency Assessment?
Fig. 2. Scheme of the experimental stand
Tight measuring probes of TP1, TP2, TP3 are executed from stainless steel. In probes thermal
elements as which nickel thermal resistors are used settle down. The measuring ITM-4 block represents
the four-channel measuring instrument of temperature. The range of measurement of temperature is
from a minus of 40 (0/zero) °C to plus of 150 °C. Measurement error ± 0,5 °C.
When carrying out researches possibility of change of volume of working liquid in a hydraulic
tank and a way of an irrigation of a heat-radiating surface of a heater is provided.
At research of the device of cooling of working liquid, the stand works as follows. Working liquid
in a tank is warmed with the help of heating element, regulated by a rheostat, up to the demanded
temperature. By means of the pump working liquid gets to a heater, with forced-air cooling through
which heat is transferred to environment. For increase of efficiency of heat exchange processes on a
heater surface we offer use of wetting of this surface by cooling liquid. Thus, after a heater we receive
the cooled working liquid which arrives further on plums in a tank.
At production of a multiple-pass heater important that the heat carrier (working liquid) and a
material of which the heater is made, possessed compatibility. When carrying out pilot studies the heat
exchanger made of aluminum is used.
In the course of carrying out pilot studies the following parameters were supervised:
? temperature of working liquid in a hydraulic tank;
? air temperature;
? temperature on an entrance to a heater;
? temperature at the exit from a heater;
? period of operation of a heater.
? way of an irrigation of a heat-radiating surface of a heater.
Temperature of air was taken by means of the TL-2 thermometer. Temperature of working liquid
was taken by means of submerged tight measuring probes executed of stainless steel. In probes thermal
elements as which nickel thermoresistors are used are located.
Temperatures of working liquid taken value were fixed by the ITM-4 device.
Values of controlled parameters, when carrying out experiment, were entered in the register.
Researches were conducted at the volume of working liquid in a hydraulic tank of 25, 50 both 100
liters and various ways of an irrigation of a heat-radiating surface of a heater (dispersion, drop, jet).
# 847 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Almohammad A. Mohammad, Nataly P. Kulikova? The Experimental Stand for an Efficiency Assessment?
On received, during experiment, to data dependences of temperature of working liquid on
warming up time, for liquid volumes in a tank of 25, 50 and 100 liters are constructed at different ways
of an irrigation of a heat-radiating surface of a heater (dispersion, drop, jet).
Thermal calculation of the stand
Capacity of a hydraulic tank gets out on the relation:
Vt= (1 1,5)Q? ,
(1)
where: Qh ? pump output.
We coordinate with all-Union State Standard 12448-80 and we choose hydraulictank capacity
according to an exception of overheat of a hydraulic actuator.
We determine the area of heat transfer ofhydraulic tank by a formula:
F
2
t
(6,0 6,9)3 Vt ,
(2)
where: Ft ? area of heat transfer of a tank; Vt ? tank storage capacity.
Let?s determine the area of heat-radiating surfaces of a hydraulic actuator by a formula:
Fha
Ft � D t ,
(3)
where: Ft ? the tank area; ?b ? coefficient
By a formula (4) we will determine quantity of heat allocated by a hydraulic actuator (at tl):
Qha
(1 K tot ) � N ? � k t � k p Q?
,
(4)
where: Qha ? quantity of heat allocated by a hydraulic actuator, kt ? coefficient of time of operation
under loading, kp ? coefficient of efficiency of nominal pressure, QT ? quantity of heat allocated with
heating element, nt ? output ? input ratio in total.
Let?s determine established temperature in a hydraulic actuator:
t es
Qha
k ha � Fha
t 0 max ,
(5)
where: tes ? established temperature of working liquid, K hs ? coefficient of heat transfer of surfaces of
the hydraulic equipment, Tomax ? maximum temperature of air.
If the established temperature of working liquid exceeds admissible, in a hydraulic actuator it is
necessary to apply the heat exchanger, which area is calculated according to the following equation:
F?
Qha
t es t 0 max � k?
Fha �
k ha
,
k?
(6)
where: FT ? area of heat-radiating surfaces of a hydraulic actuator, m sq, kt ? coefficient of a heat
transfer of the heat exchanger.
Let?s determine the current temperature of working liquid in a hydraulic actuator by a formula:
tl
§
Qha Ё
1
� Ё1 W �k � Fha
k � Fha Ё
mha �C ha
© exp
·
ё
ё t 0 max
ё
№
# 848 #
(7)
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Almohammad A. Mohammad, Nataly P. Kulikova? The Experimental Stand for an Efficiency Assessment?
where: t ? time for which heat is allocated, with c, kt ? coefficient of a heat transfer of surfaces of
the hydraulic equipment in environment, Fha ? average thermal capacity of materials of which the
hydraulic actuator is made
C ha
Cl � ml C he � mhe
ml mhe
(8)
where: Cl ? heat conductivity of working liquid, ml ? mass of working liquid, kg, m he ? mass of the
hydraulic equipment, kg, Che ? thermal capacityof the hydraulic equipment , J / kg °
Let?s determine the mass of liquid, believing that its volume in a hydraulic system exceeds liquid
volume in a hydraulic tank by 1,5 times.
ml
U � Vt �1,5 ,
(9)
where: p ? density at temperature of liquid, for used oil.
We count temperature of working liquid in time range with, with an interval 300 with (for
convenience of calculation we will make the table and we will bring in it all parameters determined
by calculation).
Temperature of over +700 ?is recognized as a zone of dangerous temperatures for hydraulic
actuator operation as in this range intensive oxidation of working liquid, curing of rubber consolidations,
increase of wear of details of the hydroequipment, reduction of volume efficiency of a hydraulic actuator,
speed of movement of a working link of hydraulic engines and car productivities, external leakages
of liquid which can lead to receiving strong burns of the operator begins. Therefore at achievement of
temperature of working liquid, there will be an automatic turning on of the heat exchanger.
By results of calculation we build the schedule tl ? ?. The schedule constructed by a settlement way
allows to judge a thermal mode of a hydraulic actuator.
Thus, the stand allows to obtain data on influence of temperature of liquid sprayed a heater on
intensity of cooling of working liquid, and as a result, to establish optimum design data of heatexchange
devices.
References
[1] ???????? ?.?. ??????????? ????????????????? ??????????????? ??????? ??? ??????
????????????. ??????????, 1998. 240 ?.
[2] ????????? ?.?. // ?????? ????. 2009. ? 7. [??????????? ??????]. ????? ???????:
http://www.ritm-magazine.ru/
[3] ????? ? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ??? ????????? ????? ? ?????????????
[???????????
??????].
?????
???????:
http://www.nnovgorod.teleweek.ruwww.ti-nn.
ru/?id=11032
[4] ?????? RU ? 121559 U1 / ?????. 27.10.2012., ???. ? 30.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Almohammad A. Mohammad, Nataly P. Kulikova? The Experimental Stand for an Efficiency Assessment?
????????????????? ????? ??? ??????
????????????? ??????????
????????????? ??????????
??? ???????? ??????????
??????? ???????? ????????????
?.?. ????????,
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ???????
????????? ??????????? ???????????
?????? 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
?????, ????????? ? ?????? ??????, ????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????????
????????????? ????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?
?????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????.
???????? ?????: ??????????????, ???????? ?????????? ??????? ????????, ?????????
????????????, ????????????????? ?????.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 7 (2013 6) 851-860
~~~
??? 621.300
????????? ???????????? ????????
? ????????????? ?????
??????????????? ???????????
?.?. ??????*, ?.?. ??????,
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ??????????
?????????? ??????????? ???????????,
?????? 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
Received 24.02.2012, received in revised form 03.07.2013, accepted 09.09.2013
? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ?????
??????????????? ??????????? ? ??????? ????????? ????????????????????? ?????????
(???). ??? ?????????????? ??? ??????????? ?????, ?????????? ?? ????????????? ???????
? ???? ??????????? ????????????????, ???????????? ?? ????????????? ???????? ????.
???????????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????
???????? ???????? ????????? ? ??????? ?????? ????????. ???????? ?????? ???????,
?????????????? ???????????? ?????.
???????? ?????: ????????? ???????????? ????????, ?????????? ????????, ?????????
??????? ????????.
????????
??????????? ????????? ? ?????????????? ?????? ??????, ????????? ? ??????? ? ???????????????? ?????????????, ??????? ? ????????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????
????? ????? ???????. ????????? ????????????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ?????????????
?????????? ???? ?????????? ???????? ? ????? ???????? ? ??????? ?????????????.
??????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????????,
??????????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ???????????, ??????? ??????? ????????????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ??????????. ?? ??????? ???????? ???? ????? ???????????
???????????? ????????? ???? ? ??????? ?????????? ??????????????. ?????? ???? ???????????? ????? ????? ????????????? ?????????, ????????????? ? ???????? ???????? ????.
??????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ???, ??? ??? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ????. ????????????? ???????? ????? ???????? (?? ????????? ? 1-?)
??? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ? ????. 1 [3]. ? ??????? 1 n ? «??????????» ???????????.
??????, ??????????? ? ????. 1, ???????? ????????????. ???????? ??????????? ?????????, ??????????? ? [6], ???????? ????????? ???????? ? ??????? ???? ??????????? ????? ????
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: Vdovgun@sfu-kras.ru
# 851 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ??????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ????? ????????????????
??????? 1. ????????????? ???????? ????? ???????? ??????????? ????????????
n
5
7
11
13
17
19
23
25
6
0.175
0.11
0.045
0.029
0.015
0.01
0.009
0.008
12
0.021
0.014
0.075
0.059
0.011
0.009
0.015
0.011
??????????? ????. ???, ????????????? ???????? ????? ????????? ????? ????????? 40 %. ????? ????, ??????????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ???????????????? ???????? ? ????????? ???????? ???? ?????? ????????.
?????? ?????????? ???????????????? ????? ?????? ??????????? ????????, ??? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????????????? ? ????????? ???? ???????????, ? ?????
???????????????? ?????? ?????????? ? ?????. ?????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ? ???????? ? ???????? ?????. ???????????????? ?????? ?????? ???????????????? ???????? ? ??????? ? ?????????????? ??????? ? ??????????????? ? ??????????? ????????????? ???????, ??????????? ???????? ????????, ????? ? ??????
????????? ???????? ??????, ?????????????? ? ??????????????? ??????????, ?????????????
????????? ????????.
???????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????? (??). ?????????? ????????, ?????????? ????????????? ??
??????? ???????? ?????????, ???????????? ??????????
QC = U2 / XC ,
??? XC ? ????????? ????????????? ?? ?? ??????? ?????? ?????????.
????????? ????? ?????????? ? ????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ?????????????????
??. ?????? ??????? ? ????????????? ??????????????? ???????. ??????? ??????????? ?
??????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ????? ???????? ? ????????????? ????????? ??????, ??????????? ???????? ???????? ? ?????? ????????????? ?? ?????. ???
????????? ???????????? ???????? ??? ???????????????? ??????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????????????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ? ????????
??????? ????????.
????????? ?????? ???????? (???) ???????????? ????????? ????????-??????????? ????,
?????????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ????????, ???????????? ??????????
?????????. ????????? ????????????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ???????? ? ?????????????. ??? ??????, ?? ??????? ??????????? ????????????, ????? ????????? ????????????
????????? ???????: ?????????? ????????, ????????? ???????????? ????????, ??????????
???????? ?????????? ??? ????? ?????? ????????????????? [5]. ??? ??????????????? ?? ????????????, ?????? ???????????? ???????????.
???????? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????????, ???????????
???????????? ????????? ???????: ?????????? ?????? ????????, ????????? ????????????
????????, ???????? ????????. ? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ? ???????? ????????
???????????? ?????? ???-??????????? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ? ????????????? ??# 852 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ??????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ????? ????????????????
?????? (IGBT). ?????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ? ???, ??? ??? ????????
??????????? ????????????, ?????????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?? ??????
?????? ???? ? ????????????? ????????. ?????????? ??? ??????????? ? ?????????, ???????
?????????, ????????????? ?????????????????? ????????????. ??????? ????????? ?????
????????, ????????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ???????????????? ????? ????????????????????? ?????????.
? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ?????
??????????????? ??????????? ? ??????? ????????????????????? ?????????, ?????????
?? ????????? ???????? ???????? ? ??????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ???????????.
??? ?????????????? ??? ??????????? ?????, ?????????? ?? ????????????? ??????? ? ????
??????????? ????????????????, ???????????? ?? ????????????? ???????? ???? [7]. ?????
?????? ????????? ???????????? ??? ?????????????? ??????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ?????. ??????????, ???????????????? ? ??????? ????????????? ??????, ????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????
????????? ? ??????? ?????? ????????.
????????? ???????
????????? ????????????????????? ?????????
???????? ????????????? ??? ???????? ???????????????? ????????????? ??????, ??????????? ?? ??????? ???????????? ????????? (???. 1). ??? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ?????????????? ???????, ?????????? ?? ???. 2, 3.
?????????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ??????? ??????, ????????????? ???????? ??????????????? ????????? ? ?????. ??????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????, ???????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????, ?????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?? ??????? ????? ?? ????????. ????????? ????? ???????? ?????? ??????????
???????? ???????????? ????????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ???????? ????? ???????????????
????????????? ??????.
?????????? ???????? ????????????????? ?????????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? QC ? n2 / (n2 ? 1) ???. ?????
n = ?0n / ?1 ? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????????????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ??????? ???????? ?????????. ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????
???. 1
???. 2
???. 3
# 853 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ??????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ????? ????????????????
n2
U0 ,
n2 1
??? U0 ? ?????????? ???????? ????.
???????????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????? ???????? ???????? [1, 4, 5] ??????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????, ?????????????? ?????????? ????????
???? ???????????? ???????. ????? ?????? ????????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????. ?????? ????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????, ? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ???????
?????? ??????? ? ????????????? ???????? ????. ????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????? ? ?????????????? ????. ???? ??????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ? ???????? ????? ?? ????????, ????????? ???? ????????? ? ???? ????? ???????? ?
????????? ???. ?????????? ??????? ?????? ????? ???????? ????????????? ??? ?????? ????????????? ?????????????? ???????. ????? ???????, ??? ?????????????? ????????? ????????????????????? ????????? ????? ?????????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? «?????? ? ???????? ????».
?????????? ??????? «?????? ? ???????? ????» ????????????? ??????, ?????????? ??
???. 4. ????? Zc = Rc + j?Lc ? ??????????? ????????????? ???? ?? ??????? ???, ? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????, Z? ? ??????????? ????????????? ???????. ???????? ????????
???????????? ?????????? ???? J?.
??????????? ????????????? ??????? ? ???? ?? ???. 4 ???????? ???????? ????. ??????????? ???????? ???? k-? ????????? ?? ??????? ????
UC
U0 UL
H ? jZ I?
J ?
Z?
.
Z? Z?
(1)
?? ??????? (1) ???????, ??? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ???? k-? ????????? ????????
???????????? Hc( j?) ?? ??????? ???? ????????? ?????? ???? ?????? ? ????.
?????????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????????, ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ??????-???????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? s:
– s
2
Zi2 – s
2
Z 2j n
Z s G
i 1
n 1
j 1
GZ cs .
????? ?i ? ?j ? ??????? ????? ? ??????? Z(s), G ? ?????????? ?????????.
???. 4
# 854 #
(2)
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ??????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ????? ????????????????
???? ? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????? ???? ??????????? ?? ?????? ???
????????? ??????????? ????? ? ??????????. ????????? G ????????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????? ????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????.
??????? ???????? ????? ??????? «?????? ? ????????» ???? ???????? ?????????????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? s:
Z s sL? Z s H ? s N s D s .
sL? N s Ds (3)
?? ??????? (3) ???????, ??? ??????????? ???????? ????? Hc(s) ????? ???? ?? ????????
????? ???????? ????????????? ??????? Z(s). ?? ???????? ??????? Z(s) ?????? ????????????
???????? Hc(s) ????????? ????????, ?????? 1. ??????? ????? ? ????????? ???????? Hc(s) ??
??????? ?? ????????????? ???????? ????. ???????????? ??????? Hc(s) ????? ?????????
?? ?????????? ????? ????????? ?????? ? ????????. ????????????? ????? ???????????
??????? ?????????? Hc(s) ?? ???? ????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????????
???????.
?????????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????????, ????????????
?????? ????????. ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????????
s
1–
n 1
1
Z s Y s 2
Z 2j 2
Zi2 j 1
G
– s
n
i 1
.
?????????? Y(s) ? ???? ????? ?????????
1 n ki s
.
¦
G i 1 s 2 Zi2
Y s (4)
??????? (4) ????????????? ?????????, ???????????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????2
????????? ????????????? ????????, ??????? ??????????? ??????? ?i . ????? k i ???????????? ?? ??????? [7]
ki
s
2
Zi2 Y s s s2
Zi2
(5)
???????? ????????? i-?? ?????????????? ??????? ????????? ?? ????????
Li
1
;
ki
Ci
ki
Zi2
.
(6)
? ??????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????
??????????? ??????????. ??? ???????? ????????? ??????????. ?????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ??????? ?????????????. ??? ??????????????? ?????????, ??????????? ??? ??????? ?????????, ??? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????. ????????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ???????????
???????????, ??????? ??? ????????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ?????? ??? ????????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????. ????????? ????????????? ???????
# 855 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ??????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ????? ????????????????
???. 5
?? ??????? ???????? ????????? ????? ????????? ????????, ?????????? ?????????? ????????
??????? ?????????????? ????????? ????????. ?????????? ????????? ?????????????? ? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? (???. 5).
?????????? ???????? ???????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ???? ????????? ?:
Q???
U 2 § D sin D ·
Ё
ё.
Z1 L ©
S
№
????? ?1 ? ??????? ?????? ?????????. ????????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????. ???????? ??????? ?????
????????? ???????? ???????????? ? [8].
?????????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?????????????????????? ??????????. ????????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ????????, ??????????? ?????????? ????????, ? ????? ???????????? ?????? ?????, ???????????? ?????????? ?????????.
?????? ?????????????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ????????? ???????.
1. ?? ?????? ???? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ???
Q???
P? tgM ? tgM ?? ,
??? PH ? ???????? ???????? ????????, tg?H ? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????,
tg??? ? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????, ?????????? ??????????????. ????????
??????? ????????????? ? 49 ?? 22.02.2007 ??? ?????????? 6 ?? tg??? = 0.4.
2. ?? ?????? ???? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ???? ? ????????. ??? ?????
?????????????? ?????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ????. ?????????? ???????????
????????? ?????????????? ???? ??? ????????? ??????? ?????? ??? ????, ????? ??? ?????????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ?????? ???????. ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ????, ???????????? ????????? ????????????? ????????????.
3. ?? ?????? ??????, ?????????? ?? ?????????? ??????, ??????????? ????????????
??????? ??????? «?????? ? ???????? ????» Hc(s). ??? ????????? ???????? ?????????????
???????????? ???????????? ???????, ????????????? ? ??????? ?????? ?????????. ?? ??????
Hc(s) ???????????? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ??? Z ??(s), ??????????????? ????????? ??????????-????????? ??????????????. ??????????? G ? ????????? (2) ????????????
?? ???????
# 856 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ??????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ????? ????????????????
G
U ?2
.
Q??? Z ??c j1
(7)
??????? ???????????? ??????? ? ?????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ????????????? Z(s). ??? ???? ??????????? ?????????????? ??? ??????? «?????? ? ???????? ????». ??????? ???????? ????????????? Z ??(s) ?????????? ????????? ??????????????
???????. ??????? ??? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ????????????? ???????. ??????????
????????????? ???????????? ???????, ?????????????? ????????? ????????? ????????
????????????? ???????.
4. ?????????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????????, ???????????? ?????????????
Z ??(s), ???????????? ?? ?????????? ?????. ????????????? ???????? ????????? ??????? Ci*,
Li* ?????????????? ? ??????? ?????? (5, 6). ????? ???????????? ?????????????? ????????
????????? ?? ????????? ? ??????? ???????? ?????????: Ci = Ci* / 314, Li = Li* / 314.
5. ???????????? ?????????? ????????, ???????????? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?????????, ?? ???????
n2
.
1 n2
6. ?????????????? ??????????? ???????? ????? ????????? ????????????????? ????Qi
U 2 C i*
???.
?????? ???????
?????????????????????? ??????????
??? ??????????? ????????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ???.
?????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????????????????? ??????????, ??????????????
?????????? 5-, 7- ? 11-? ???????? ??? ????????? ? ???? 6 ??. ?????????? ????????? ????????
??????? ????????? ?? 2500, ?????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? 1 ???. ??????? ???????
????????? ?????????????? ? ??????? ????? ??????????????? 6 ?? ?????????????? 7 ??.
?????????? ????? ????????? 4,0 ?, ????? ??????? ???-3. ? ???????? ???????? ?????? ???
??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????, ??????????? ? ?????? [9]. ??????????? ????????
??????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? 555 ??? ? 850 ???? ??????????????.
??????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????
tgM
?
Q
?
P
?
850
1.53 .
555
?????? ????? ???-3 ????? ???????? ???????? ????????????? 0.363 ??/??, ???????????
???????? ????????????? 0.319 ??/??. ????????????? ????????????? ???????? ???? ?? ??????? ???????? ????????? Zc = (2.5 + j2.23) ??.
?????????? ???????? ???
Q???
P? tgM ? tgM ?? 3 � (1.53 0.4) 628 ????.
?????? ??? ????????? ??? ????? ????. ??????? ???????? ????????????? ???????, ????????????? ? ??????? ?????? ?????????
# 857 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ??????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ????? ????????????????
Z cs s
2
4,95 s 2 6,95 s 2 10,95
.
2
ss 2 36 s 2 9.75
2
2
2
????????????? ???????? ?????? ????? Z'(s) ?????: n5 = 4.95, n7 = 6.95, n11 = 10.95. ???????
??????? Z'(s) ??????? ??????? 6 ? 9.75. ????????????? ?????? ???????????? ????????????
?????????? ???? ???????.
??????????? G, ?????????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????,
?????
G
U ?2
Q Z ??c j1
(3,464 � 10 3 ) 2
| 1.428 .
209.3 � 103 � 40.152
??????? ??????? ???????????? ???????
Y s 1
s s 2 36 s 2 95,06 .
1.428 s 2 24,503s 2 48,303s 2 119,902 ????????? ??????? ???????, ???????????? ? ??????? ????????????? ????????, ????????? ? ????. 2. ???????? ?????????? ????????, ???????????? ???, ? ? ????. 3.
???????? ??????????? ??? ???????, ???????????? ? ??????? ????????? Pspice, ????????? ? ????. 4.
?????? ???????? ???????? ???? ? ????. 5.
?????????, ???????????? ????? ? ????? ?? ? ????? ????????? ???, ????????? ?
????. 6.
????????????? ?????? ??????????, ??? ????????? ??? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ?? 0.928. ??? ???? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ???????? (?? 65,3 %) ? ?????????? (?? 45,1 %), ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ???????????????.
??????? 2. ????????? ??????? ???????
? ?????????
ki
5
7
11
Li, ???
Ci, ???
0.227
14
30
0.214
15
14
0.194
16
5
??????? 3. ?????????? ????????, ???????????? ???????? ???
Q1, ????
Q2, ????
Q3, ????
Q?, ????
127.8
59.98
21.57
209.3
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ??????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ????? ????????????????
??????? 4. ???????? ??????????? ???
???????, ??
???????? ???, ???. ??.
186
3.09
250
0.079
312
2.5
350
0.044
519
3.6
550
0.038
??????? 5. ????????????? ?????? ????? ? ?????
I1, A
I5, A
I7, A
I11, A
KI
?
??? ???
87.98
15.4
9.7
4
0.212
0.535
? ???
91.1
1.22
0.426
0.15
0.014
0.928
??????? 6. ????????? ?????? ?????
???????????
???????? ????, A
?????? ????????
????????, ???
??????
??????????, ?
KI
???????????
????????
??? ???
91.6
66
551
0.212
0.535
? ???
54.8
23
302
0.014
0.928
??????????
??? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ???????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ? ???? ? ????? ???????? ? ??????? ????????????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????????
????????????????????? ??????????. ????????? ????????????????????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???, ??????? ?????? ???????? ? ?????????? ? ?????, ???????? ???????? ?????????????? ? ????????????. ???, ???????????????? ? ???????
????????????? ??????, ???????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ????????
?????????, ? ????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ????????. ???????????? ????? ??????????????
???????? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ????????.
?????? ??????????
[1] ????????? ?.?. ?????? ????????? ? ???????? ???????????????? ???????????????.
4-? ???., ?.: ???????????????, 1994.
[2] ????? ?., ??????? ?. ???????? ??????? ? ????????????? ?????. ?.: ??????-XXI, 1985.
336 ?.
[3] ???????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ??????? ?. ?. ? ??. ?????????? ????????? ?????????????? / ???. ?.?. ?????. ?.: ???????????? ??? ???, 2006. 320 ?.
# 859 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ??????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ????? ????????????????
[4] Das J. // IEEE trans. on industry applications, 2004. Vol. 40. No. 1. P. 232-241.
[5] Phipps J. // IEEE industry application magazine, March/April 1997. P. 68-82.
[6] Merhej S., Nichols W. // IEEE trans. on industry applications. 1994. Vol. 30. No. 3. P. 533542.
[7] ?????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. // ???????? ?????. ???????? ??????????.
2011. ? 910. C. 31-39.
[8] ????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ??????????? ?.?. ???????????????? ????????????? ? ?????????????????. ?. ????????: ????, 2004. 214 ?.
[9] ????????? ?.?., ????? ?.?. // ??????? ???????????? ? ?????????. ???????? ???????????? ????????????????? ??????????????? ???????????. 2010. ? 1. ?. 129-132.
Power Factor Correction in Electrical Grids
of Oil-Extracting Plants
Valery P. Dovgun, Denis E. Egorov,
Victor V. Novikov and Ekaterina A. Tolstichina
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
Problems of the power factor correction in electrical grids of oil-processing plants are considered. A
novel approach of passive harmonic filter design is presented. The proposed approach is based on the
consideration of the filter as a reactive two-port loaded by the grid impedance. The design procedure
is discussed in detail and illustrative example is presented.
Keywords: power quality, nonlinear load, passive harmonic filters.
??? ????????????? ????????? «????». ??? ??? ??????????? ?????? ? ???? ???????? ?????? ?? ????????? «?????», ??
????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ?? ??? ?????????? ??????.
??? ??????? ???????? ? ????????? ???????? ???????? ???? 30° ?? ?????????? ????????
??? ?????? «????». ???????? ???????? 25 ? 10°. ????????? ?????????? ???? ? ????? ???????
?)
?)
???. 4. ??????????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ??????: ? ? ?????? ??????? ?????????; ? ? ?????? ???????
?????????? 0,83 ? 0,45
# 840 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ????????? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????, ????????????
?????? AA? ? CC? ?????????????? (???. 4, ?). ??????????? ?????? AA? ? CC? ???? ??????????
??? ???????????? ???? ??.
????? ???????, ???????? ????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ?????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ??? ?? ??????????.
???? ??? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ??????, ????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??? ????????? ???????? ?????? ? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ??. ??? ????????, ?????
??????? ?? ?????? ????????? ????????? ???, ? ?????? ? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????????, ??? ??? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????????? ? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ?? ?????????, ????????????
? ?????? 1.
????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????.
???? ????????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ? ??????? ???????????, ?? ???????, ????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????, ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ????????????. ???? ?????? ????????? ?? ???????????
????, ?? ???????????? ?????? ???????. ??? ???? ????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????????
????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ???????? ?? ??????? ??????, ????? ???? ?? ??????????????
???????. ??? ?????????? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ? ?????????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????. ??? ????????? ?????? ???? ??????? ? ????? ??? ?????????? ?????????
?????? ????? ?? ????? ?????????? ? ????????? ?????? ???????????? ? ?????? ??????? ???
?????? ????????? ??????? ??? ????????? ?????. ??? ???????? ? ???? ????????? ????????
?????? ??????? ? ?????.
????? ????, ??? ??? ?????? ??? ?????????? ???, ??????????? ?? ?????????? ?????, ????????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ?????, ?? ??? ????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ??, ?? ??????? ????? ??????????????
??????.
?)
?)
???. 5. ?????????? ???? ??????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ???? ?????????? ???: ? ? ???????? ??;
? ? ?? ????? ??????? ??? ? ?????????? ??????? ?????????
# 841 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ????????? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????, ????????????
??????? ????????????? ??? ??????????????? ??????? ?????, ? ????????? ??? ???????????? ???? ? 1, ??? ???????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ????, ?????????
??????? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ????.
?????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????. ? ?????????? ??????? ??? ? ??????
?????? ????? ???????????? ??????? ? ?? ? ?????????? ????????? ??????. ?????????? ? ??
????????? ????? ???????? ? ?????? ???????. ????? ??? ???????????????? ???????????? ????
? 1 ?????????? ?????? ??? ??? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ? ??????????? ??????. ??
???. 5 ????????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ? ?????????? ???? ??????? ????????? ??.
????? ???????, ?? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ?????, ??? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ??? ????????? ????????? ???? ?????? ? ???????? ???????????? ????????
?? ? ?? 3?4 ????? ? ???????? ??????? ????????? ?? ???????. ??? ???? ??????????? ???????
??????? ? ????????? ?? ??? ?????????? 4 ????? ????????????.
3. ????????????????? ????????????
??? ????????????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ? ???????? ??? ?????? ????? ?????????? ??? ? ?????????? ???????? ?? 7 ?????????? ??????? (???. 6, ?). ????? ??????? ?? ??????????, ?????????? ? ??????? ???????????.
????????? ????????????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ?? ??????????????????? ?????????????????? ????????????-?????????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ???? (???. 6, ?)
??? ??????? ?????????? ????????, ??? 7-??????????? ???????? ??? ???????????????? ?
????????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? (???. 7) ? ? ?????? ?????????? ??????
(???. 8).
???????????? ??????? ? ?? ???????? ?????????????? ?? ???? ???????????? ???? 180° ?
????? ?? ??????????? ???????.
??? ????? ?? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ???, ??????? ?? 7 ??????????
???????, ?????????? ??????????????? ? ????????, ????????? ??? ??????? 3Ч3°, ? ??? ??????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ?? 20?25 ??. ???
???? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ??? ????????? ??, ??? ?????????????? ???????????? ?????????????, ??????????? ?????? ??? ? ????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ????????.
?)
?)
???. 6. ?????? ??????????????? ????????: ? ? ??????? ???; ? ? ????????? ?? ? ????????? ??????
# 842 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ????????? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????, ????????????
?)
?)
???. 7. ?? 7-?????????? ?? ? ???????? ?????????: ? ? ????????; ? ? ??????? ????????? ???????????
?)
?)
???. 8. ?? 7-?????????? ?? ? ????????????? ???????????? ?????? ? 5: ? ? ????????; ? ? ???????
????????? ???????????
??????????
????????????? ? ???????? ???????? ? ????????? ??????? ??? ? ???????? ????? ?? ??????? ? ???????? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ? ????????????
???????, ??? ???? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ?? ?? ????? 45?50 ?? ??? ?????????????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ???????. ?????????????? ???????????? ???????? ???
????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ??.
??????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ??? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?????? ??? ????????? ? ???????, ??????????? ?? ??????? ????????? ??, ?????????? ?? ??? ?????, ??? ?????? ????????? ?? ???????? ????????.
# 843 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ????????? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????, ????????????
????? ???????, ???????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ??? ? ???????????? ?????????.
?????? ??????????
[1] ?????? ?. ?????????? ????????? ????????. ?.: ????? ? ?????, 1989. 440 ?.
[2] ?????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. // ??????? ???.??? ??. ????.
?. ?. ?????????. 2012. ???. 2 (42). ?. 106?109.
[3] ????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. // ?????????? ????????????????. 1988. ? 4. ?. 3?15.
[4] ?????? ?.?. // ???????????? ? ??????????: ????????? VI ????????????? ???????????.
?.: ??? ??. ?.?. ???????????? ???. 2012. ?. 1. ?. 58?62.
[5] ?????? ?.?. // ???????????? ? ??????????: ????????? VI ????????????? ???????????.
?.: ??? ??. ?.?. ???????????? ???. 2012. ?. 1. ?. 76?79.
The Adaptive Algorithm Multibeam Antenna,
Built on the Hybrid-Reflector Antenna
Valeriy N. Tyapkin,
Dmitriy D. Dmitriev and Aleksandr S. Perschin
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
The adaptive multibeam antenna that is based on hybrid-reflector antenna with the reflector feed as
the antenna array, which used an accelerated algorithm synthesis directivity diagram to suppress the
designed noise, using as criteria the antenna directive gain at the given points, and which substantially
limit the size of the objective function and duration of the synthesis. An experimental study of the
proposed algorithms, and draw conclusions about the possibility of multibeam adaptive hybridreflector antennas.
Keywords: adaptation algorithm for noise, multibeam antenna, hybrid-reflector antenna.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 7 (2013 6) 845-850
~~~
??? 62-713:62-82
The Experimental Stand for an Efficiency Assessment
of Application of a Multiple-Pass Heater as Means
of Cooling of Working Liquid of a Hydraulic Actuator
Almohammad A. Mohammad*,
Nataly P. Kulikova and Evgeny A. Sorokin
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
Received 11.08.2013, received in revised form 04.09.2013, accepted 18.10.2013
In this article the problem of increase in operability of a hydraulic actuator by use of a multiple-pass
heater as means of cooling of working liquid is considered. For studying of thermal processes, check
of mathematical model and an assessment of efficiency of application of a multiple-pass heater the
developed experimental stand is given.
Keywords: hydraulic actuator, means of cooling of working liquid, multiple-pass heater, experimental
stand.
Modern hydroficated cars and the mechanisms applied practically in all industries, are operated in
the most various conditions and quite often work in extreme conditions which are defined by production
and natural factors.
The main factor defining efficiency of hydroficatedself-propelled cars is (air) ambient temperature
on which temperature and viscosity of working liquid depend on. Other production and natural factors
influence overall performance of a hydraulic actuator indirectly, through an operating mode of a
hydraulic actuator and temperature of working liquid [1].
High temperatures have essential impact on productivity and durability of a hydraulic actuator
as a whole. At increased temperatures there is an increase, both the volume of working liquid, and
pressure in a hydraulic system. Viscosity decreases below admissible level, and volume losses sharply
increase (internal movement and external leaks), increases direct contact of the interfaced surfaces of
friction of details, local heating, there is an intensive wear and ?gripping? of rubbing surfaces. It leads
to partial or full loss of operability of the hydraulic equipment [13]. Therefore in hydraulic actuator
system the increasing attention recently is paid to a problem of an exception of overheating of working
liquid.
The vast experience of operation of hydraulic actuators shows that the specified problem can be
solved successfully by reduction of losses of power and if necessary use of the corresponding heat
exchangers.
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: alnaef@mail.ru
# 845 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Almohammad A. Mohammad, Nataly P. Kulikova? The Experimental Stand for an Efficiency Assessment?
The greatest distribution was gained by heat exchangers with air cooling (oil, heaters). They are
carried out as automobile radiators or in the form of pipes, ribbed for increasing a surface of a heat
transfer. For increase in efficiency of a heat transfer the surface of the heat exchanger is blown by air
from the fan.
The multiple-pass heater [4] (Fig. 1) belongs to heaters of cooling systems, mainly hydraulic
systems of transport, hoisting-and-transport and digging cars. The multiple-pass heater contains the
heating element formed by a set of heat releasing tubes 1, connected among themselves tube plates 2,
a collector 3 and 4, side shields 5, input 6 and output 7 branch pipes, the top reservoir with liquid 8
with a set of ports round each heat releasing tube 1, the pump 9, the bottom reservoir10. The moistened
surface of heat releasing tubes provides stronger heat sink from a surface of tubes.
To increase overall performance of a hydraulic actuator by cooling system introduction ? a
multiple-pass heater, it is necessary to study the thermal processes happening in use of a hydraulic
actuator. Complexity of these processes demands carrying out the pilot research, allowing to check
results of mathematical models. The purpose of a pilot research is the assessment of efficiency of
application of a multiple-pass heater for cooling of working liquid.
When performing experiment it is necessary to solve the following problems: to study the processes
happening in a hydraulic actuator; to check and modify mathematical model of a multiple-pass heater;
to estimate influence on working process of the device of cooling of working liquid.
The accompanying task puts detection of dependence of intensity of cooling from parameters
of a multiple-pass heater and weight of working liquid, and also temperature of liquid sprayed a
heater.
Pilot research has to be conducted in the conditions close to operational operating modes. The
experimental stand which scheme is submitted in Fig. 2 was for this purpose developed. The stand
represents a tank with working liquid, with a heating element established in it.
For determination of temperature of working liquid, in the period of a warming up, measuring
probes of TP1, TP2, TP3 which are connected to the measuring ITM-4 block by means of cables are
established.
Fig. 1. Heater Device
# 846 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Almohammad A. Mohammad, Nataly P. Kulikova? The Experimental Stand for an Efficiency Assessment?
Fig. 2. Scheme of the experimental stand
Tight measuring probes of TP1, TP2, TP3 are executed from stainless steel. In probes thermal
elements as which nickel thermal resistors are used settle down. The measuring ITM-4 block represents
the four-channel measuring instrument of temperature. The range of measurement of temperature is
from a minus of 40 (0/zero) °C to plus of 150 °C. Measurement error ± 0,5 °C.
When carrying out researches possibility of change of volume of working liquid in a hydraulic
tank and a way of an irrigation of a heat-radiating surface of a heater is provided.
At research of the device of cooling of working liquid, the stand works as follows. Working liquid
in a tank is warmed with the help of heating element, regulated by a rheostat, up to the demanded
temperature. By means of the pump working liquid gets to a heater, with forced-air cooling through
which heat is transferred to environment. For increase of efficiency of heat exchange processes on a
heater surface we offer use of wetting of this surface by cooling liquid. Thus, after a heater we receive
the cooled working liquid which arrives further on plums in a tank.
At production of a multiple-pass heater important that the heat carrier (working liquid) and a
material of which the heater is made, possessed compatibility. When carrying out pilot studies the heat
exchanger made of aluminum is used.
In the course of carrying out pilot studies the following parameters were supervised:
? temperature of working liquid in a hydraulic tank;
? air temperature;
? temperature on an entrance to a heater;
? temperature at the exit from a heater;
? period of operation of a heater.
? way of an irrigation of a heat-radiating surface of a heater.
Temperature of air was taken by means of the TL-2 thermometer. Temperature of working liquid
was taken by means of submerged tight measuring probes executed of stainless steel. In probes thermal
elements as which nickel thermoresistors are used are located.
Temperatures of working liquid taken value were fixed by the ITM-4 device.
Values of controlled parameters, when carrying out experiment, were entered in the register.
Researches were conducted at the volume of working liquid in a hydraulic tank of 25, 50 both 100
liters and various ways of an irrigation of a heat-radiating surface of a heater (dispersion, drop, jet).
# 847 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Almohammad A. Mohammad, Nataly P. Kulikova? The Experimental Stand for an Efficiency Assessment?
On received, during experiment, to data dependences of temperature of working liquid on
warming up time, for liquid volumes in a tank of 25, 50 and 100 liters are constructed at different ways
of an irrigation of a heat-radiating surface of a heater (dispersion, drop, jet).
Thermal calculation of the stand
Capacity of a hydraulic tank gets out on the relation:
Vt= (1 1,5)Q? ,
(1)
where: Qh ? pump output.
We coordinate with all-Union State Standard 12448-80 and we choose hydraulictank capacity
according to an exception of overheat of a hydraulic actuator.
We determine the area of heat transfer ofhydraulic tank by a formula:
F
2
t
(6,0 6,9)3 Vt ,
(2)
where: Ft ? area of heat transfer of a tank; Vt ? tank storage capacity.
Let?s determine the area of heat-radiating surfaces of a hydraulic actuator by a formula:
Fha
Ft � D t ,
(3)
where: Ft ? the tank area; ?b ? coefficient
By a formula (4) we will determine quantity of heat allocated by a hydraulic actuator (at tl):
Qha
(1 K tot ) � N ? � k t � k p Q?
,
(4)
where: Qha ? quantity of heat allocated by a hydraulic actuator, kt ? coefficient of time of operation
under loading, kp ? coefficient of efficiency of nominal pressure, QT ? quantity of heat allocated with
heating element, nt ? output ? input ratio in total.
Let?s determine established temperature in a hydraulic actuator:
t es
Qha
k ha � Fha
t 0 max ,
(5)
where: tes ? established temperature of working liquid, K hs ? coefficient of heat transfer of surfaces of
the hydraulic equipment, Tomax ? maximum temperature of air.
If the established temperature of working liquid exceeds admissible, in a hydraulic actuator it is
necessary to apply the heat exchanger, which area is calculated according to the following equation:
F?
Qha
t es t 0 max � k?
Fha �
k ha
,
k?
(6)
where: FT ? area of heat-radiating surfaces of a hydraulic actuator, m sq, kt ? coefficient of a heat
transfer of the heat exchanger.
Let?s determine the current temperature of working liquid in a hydraulic actuator by a formula:
tl
§
Qha Ё
1
� Ё1 W �k � Fha
k � Fha Ё
mha �C ha
© exp
·
ё
ё t 0 max
ё
№
# 848 #
(7)
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Almohammad A. Mohammad, Nataly P. Kulikova? The Experimental Stand for an Efficiency Assessment?
where: t ? time for which heat is allocated, with c, kt ? coefficient of a heat transfer of surfaces of
the hydraulic equipment in environment, Fha ? average thermal capacity of materials of which the
hydraulic actuator is made
C ha
Cl � ml C he � mhe
ml mhe
(8)
where: Cl ? heat conductivity of working liquid, ml ? mass of working liquid, kg, m he ? mass of the
hydraulic equipment, kg, Che ? thermal capacityof the hydraulic equipment , J / kg °
Let?s determine the mass of liquid, believing that its volume in a hydraulic system exceeds liquid
volume in a hydraulic tank by 1,5 times.
ml
U � Vt �1,5 ,
(9)
where: p ? density at temperature of liquid, for used oil.
We count temperature of working liquid in time range with, with an interval 300 with (for
convenience of calculation we will make the table and we will bring in it all parameters determined
by calculation).
Temperature of over +700 ?is recognized as a zone of dangerous temperatures for hydraulic
actuator operation as in this range intensive oxidation of working liquid, curing of rubber consolidations,
increase of wear of details of the hydroequipment, reduction of volume efficiency of a hydraulic actuator,
speed of movement of a working link of hydraulic engines and car productivities, external leakages
of liquid which can lead to receiving strong burns of the operator begins. Therefore at achievement of
temperature of working liquid, there will be an automatic turning on of the heat exchanger.
By results of calculation we build the schedule tl ? ?. The schedule constructed by a settlement way
allows to judge a thermal mode of a hydraulic actuator.
Thus, the stand allows to obtain data on influence of temperature of liquid sprayed a heater on
intensity of cooling of working liquid, and as a result, to establish optimum design data of heatexchange
devices.
References
[1] ???????? ?.?. ??????????? ????????????????? ??????????????? ??????? ??? ??????
????????????. ??????????, 1998. 240 ?.
[2] ????????? ?.?. // ?????? ????. 2009. ? 7. [??????????? ??????]. ????? ???????:
http://www.ritm-magazine.ru/
[3] ????? ? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ??? ????????? ????? ? ?????????????
[???????????
??????].
?????
???????:
http://www.nnovgorod.teleweek.ruwww.ti-nn.
ru/?id=11032
[4] ?????? RU ? 121559 U1 / ?????. 27.10.2012., ???. ? 30.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Almohammad A. Mohammad, Nataly P. Kulikova? The Experimental Stand for an Efficiency Assessment?
????????????????? ????? ??? ??????
????????????? ??????????
????????????? ??????????
??? ???????? ??????????
??????? ???????? ????????????
?.?. ????????,
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ???????
????????? ??????????? ???????????
?????? 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
?????, ????????? ? ?????? ??????, ????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????????
????????????? ????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?
?????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????.
???????? ?????: ??????????????, ???????? ?????????? ??????? ????????, ?????????
????????????, ????????????????? ?????.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 7 (2013 6) 851-860
~~~
??? 621.300
????????? ???????????? ????????
? ????????????? ?????
??????????????? ???????????
?.?. ??????*, ?.?. ??????,
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ??????????
?????
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа