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219.Журнал Сибирского федерального университета. Сер. Техника и технологии №2 2014

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Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Журнал Сибирского федерального университета
2014
Journal of Siberian Federal University
7 (2)
Техника и технологии
Engineering & Technologies
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??.-????. ???, ?-? ???.-???. ????
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??.-????. ???, ?-? ????. ????
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Editorial Advisory Board
Chairman:
Eugene A. Vaganov
Members:
Josef J. Gitelzon
Vasily F. Shabanov
Andrey G. Degermendzhy
Valery L. Mironov
Gennady L. Pashkov
Vladimir V. Shaidurov
Vladimir V. Zuev
Editorial Board:
Editor-in-Chief:
Mikhail I. Gladyshev
Founding Editor:
Vladimir I. Kolmakov
Managing Editor:
Olga F. Alexandrova
Executive Editor for Engineering &
Technologies:
Vladimir A. Kulagin
CONTENTS / СОДЕРЖАНИЕ
Ekaterina S. Lopatina,
Vitali S. Biront and Sergey B. Sidelnikov
Metallographic Tests of Modifying Ability of Rods from
Aluminum Alloys Obtained by Combined Casting and RollingExtruding
? 127 ?
Albert I. Begunov and Mikhail P. Kuz?min
Thermodynamic Stability of Intermetallic Compounds in
Technical Aluminum
? 132 ?
Oleg V. Belousov, Anastasia V. Sirotina,
Nataliya V. Belousova, Elena V. Fesik,
Roman V. Borisov, Gennadiy D. Malchikov
Formation of Nanomaterials Based on Non-Ferrous and Noble
Metals in Autoclaves
? 138 ?
Sergei S. Dobrosmislov, Vladimir I. Kirko,
Genadiy E. Nagibin and Zahar I. Popov
Electronic Structure of SnO2 when Doped with Sb and V
? 146 ?
А.Л. Белоусов, Т.Н. Патрушева
}??*2!%.!%??/? %*?,??/? ?=2?!,=?/
? 154 ?
Sergey V. Belyaev, Nikolai N. Dovzhenko,
Sergey B. Sidelnikov and Andrey L. Kiselev
Modeling Thermal Conditions of the Process Combined RollingExtruding
? 167 ?
???????? ?.?. ?????? ????????? ?.?. ???????
???????????? ??????? ?.?. ?????????
????????? ? ?????? 27.03.2014 ?. ?????? 84x108/16. ???. ???. ?. 10,0.
??.-???. ?. 9,5. ?????? ???. ?????? ????????. ????? 1000 ???. ????? 1204.
?????????? ? ?? ??? ???. 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 82a.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Editorial board for Engineering & Technologies:
Vladimir Kulagin ? Series Editor, Siberian Federal
University, Russia
Yury Alashkevich ? Siberian State Technological
University, Russia
Sereeter Batmцnkh ? Institute of Heat Engineering
and Industrial Ecology Mongolian Academy of
Sciences, Mongolia
Yuri Biba ? Dresser-Rand Company, USA
Carsten Drebenstedt ? Technische University
Bergakademie Freiberg, Germany
Yury Galerkin ? Saint Petersburg State Polytechnic
University, Russia
Gennady Gritsko ? Institute of Petroleum Geology and
Geophysics Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian
Branch, Russia
Georg Guggenberger ? Institute of Soil Science Leibniz
University Hannover, Germany
Lev Endzhievsky ? Siberian Federal University, Russia
Feng-Chen Li ? School of Energy Science and
Engineering Harbin Institute of Technology, China
Vladimir Makarov ? Siberian Federal University, Russia
Aleksandr Mineev ? Siberian Federal University, Russia
Vladimir Moskvichev ? Special Designing and
Technological Bureau ?Nauka? Krasnoyarsk
Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of
Sciences, Siberian Branch, Russia
Bernard Nacke ? Institute of Electrotechnology Leibniz
University of Hannover, Germany
Oleksandr Nemchin ? CEO of the State Research
Institute of Innovative Technologies in Power
Energy and Energy Efficiency of the Fuel and
Energy Ministry of Ukraine, Ukraine
Valeriy Nikulin ? Kamsk Institute of Humanitarian and
Engineering Technologies, Russia
Oleg Ostrovski ? University of New South Wales,
Australia
Harald Oye ? Norwegian University of Science and
Technology, Norway
Vasili Panteleev ? Siberian Federal University, Russia
Petr Polyakov ? Siberian Federal University, Russia
Victor Timofeev ? Siberian Federal University, Russia
Ibragim Khisameev ? Kazan State Technological
University, Russia
Anatoly Shvidenko ? International Institute for Applied
Systems Analysis, Austria
Galina Chiganova ? Siberian Federal University, Russia
????????????? ? ??????????? ???
?? ? ??77-28-722 ?? 29.06.2007 ?.
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? ??????? ?????? ???? ????????????
???????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ??
????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ? ?????????
????» (???????? 2010 ?.)
К.А. Финников
`?=?,? 2?C?%"/. C!%????%" " ?,?*%C%!???"%?
?",?=2??? q2,!?,??=
? 172 ?
Л.В. Кулагина
h?3???,? 2?C?%?=??%%K????/. C!%????%" "
2?.?%?%?,???*,. C??=.
? 190 ?
Р.А. Назиров, Т.В. Белов
b?, ?,? ?%C!%2,"???, 2?C?%C?!??=?, 32?C?,2??
?= !=?C!??????,? 2??C?!=23!?/. C%??L " ?2??%"/.
%?!=????, . ? ?="???/?, "??2,?,!3??/?,
-=?=?=?,
? 207 ?
И.Ю. Краснов, Е.С. Горюнов
o?="?/L !=??%? , 2%!?%???,? C!%?/?????/.
??.=?,??%"
? 214 ?
М.А. Казанцев,
А.И. Легалов, И.В. Чемидов
h?2??!=?,
="2%?=2,?,!%"=??/. ?*?=??*,.
*%?C??*?%" " ,?-%!?=?,%??3? ?,?2??3
C!??C!, 2, !=?,%.??*2!%??%L C!%?/?????%?2,
? 222 ?
Victor V. Ivanov, Andrey V. Sidorak,
Aleksandr А. Shubin and Igor N. Kotlyarov
The Laboratory Equipment for the Prompt Functional
Properties Measurement of Electrocontact Materials
? 229 ?
С.А. Подлесный, Г.Б. Масальский
o32, C%"/???, *=???2"= C%??%2%"*, ,?????!%"
" *%?2?*?2? ?,!%"/. , %2????2"???/. 2??????,L
? 235 ?
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 2 (2014 7) 127-131
~~~
??? 621.09
Metallographic Tests of Modifying Ability
of Rods from Aluminum Alloys Obtained
by Combined Casting and Rolling-Extruding
Ekaterina S. Lopatina*,
Vitali S. Biront and Sergey B. Sidelnikov
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
Received 14.11.2013, received in revised form 27.02.2014, accepted 06.03.2014
Proposed new ways of obtaining rods-modifiers from aluminum and aluminum alloys. Were researched
of their modifying ability and tested in industrial conditions modification technology in the production
of aluminum alloy ingots.
Keywords: modifying, structure, combined casting and rolling-extruding, subgrain structure, rodsmodifiers.
Structure and properties of deformed semi-finished products from aluminum and aluminum
alloys largely depend on the quality of the ingot which is determined by the shape, size and internal
structure of the grains. It is important to properly evaluate expediency of application the method of
modification and find ways to overcome its negative aspects. Therefore, the search for new modifiers
which have high ability of modifying along with the ability to maintain the chemical composition
of the alloy after uploaded it and the study of the structure and properties of obtained semi-finished
products is an actual task.
One of the leading causes of obtaining small grains as a result of the modifying effects on the
melt is the process of homogeneous nucleation of the main substance as a result of the transformation
of clusters into sTable nuclei. The number of nuclei in a supercooled liquid immeasurably more than
the number of any foreign particles introduced into the melt with modifiers. Therefore it is necessary
to study the modification mechanism of aluminum alloys based on the formation of a homogeneous
nucleation, arising on the basis of advanced subtly differentiated sub grain structure of rod-modifier.
Most progressive trend in the manufacturing of non-ferrous metals and alloys is a combining
in one process stream of casting and deformation. Complex of special properties of aluminum semifinished products can be obtained using the methods of the combined casting and rolling-extruding
(CCRE).
To get modifying rods used molten aluminum grade A7 and also alloys AD31, 6082, V95pch,
2219. As a basic equipment to obtain rod-modifier used laboratory installment of combined casting
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: eslopatina@mail.ru
# 127 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Ekaterina S. Lopatina, Vitali S. Biront ? Metallographic Tests of Modifying Ability of Rods from Aluminum Alloys?
Fig. 1 Scheme of metal movement by the method CCRE
and rolling-extruding created on the basis of technical solution protected by patent RF ?2200644. The
metal is heated in an electric furnace to a temperature of 720 °?, obtained melt and pour it directly into
the caliber of rolls (Fig. 1). After the capture by the rolls of crystallized in the form of a rectangular
billet metal compressed by rolls and reached the matrix under the influence of the supplied by rolls
friction stresses extruded as rod of given diameter through caliber hole of the matrix. To prevent the
penetration of the metal into the gap between the rolls and the matrix, the last with a special wedge
device was tight compressed to the rolls and overlap caliber downstream of the rolls.
This technology provides the most favorable conditions of high speed crystallization-deformation
of the metal and obtaining rod which has sustained petty subgrain structure. Stability of rod?s subgrain
structure related to the onset of recrystallization temperature. The experimental results showed that
temperature of the beginning and end of recrystallization for rods from aluminum grade ?7 obtained
with using method CCRE are equal ??? = 290 °?, ??? = 350 °?. This is on 40-70 °? more than the
recrystallization temperature of aluminum rod produced by traditional technology of bar rolling, that
is indicating a more sTable subgrain structure of rod obtained with using method CCRE.
Were established the optimal technological parameters of modification aluminum alloys by
aluminum rod obtained with using method CCRE. The study of these parameters was conducted using
method Alkane-test. Maximum modification effect is achieved by introduction in liquid aluminum
3-4 % (Table 1) rod-modifier diameter 5-9 mm (Table 2), and the temperature of molten aluminum at
the moment of modification should be in the range 700-720 °?.
To obtain a homogeneous fine grained structure throughout section of the ingot necessary
maintaining a minimum of 5 minutes and thorough mixing of the melt (Fig. 2) after the introduction
of the modifying material.
Were carried out experiments on the modification of aluminum alloys ?D31 and 6082 by rods
from alloys of the same composition obtained with using method CCRE. Analysis of the macrostructure
Alkane-test probe showed that in the initial state the number of grains in an area of 1 cm 2 is 5-15 pcs.
After the introduction of modifying additive (2,5 % per 1 kg of melt) in the samples there is a significant
grain refinement to 1200-2000 pcs/cm 2 which proves the possibility of use as a modifying additive to
grind grain in ingots of aluminum and its alloys rods of technical aluminum grade ?7 and rods of
alloys ??31 and 6082 produced by method of casting and rolling-extruding.
Also studied modifying possibility of rods under industrial conditions of production serial of
ingots from different aluminum alloys such as ?95??, 2219 and AD31.
# 128 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Ekaterina S. Lopatina, Vitali S. Biront ? Metallographic Tests of Modifying Ability of Rods from Aluminum Alloys?
Table 1. The influence of modifier amount on grain refinement of aluminum ingots grade A7 based on the results
macro-analysis
Number of grains
per 1 cm 2
after 1 min
55
Number of grains
per 1 cm 2
after5 min
70
The average
grain size
after 5 minutes, um
1450
?
p/p
modifier amount
(% by mass)
1
1
2
2
650
750
425
3
3
1900
2000
225
4
4
1400
1600
255
5
5
700
800
360
Note: The original grain size is 4.0 microns
Table 2. Number and size of the grains of the modified aluminum grade A7 based on the results microanalysis
?
p/p
1
Rod diameter,
mm
3
Temperature
parameters, °?
?? ? 720; ?? ? 675
Number of grains in
1 cm 2, pcs
1700-1800
2
5
?? ? 700; ?? ? 690
11500-12500
98
3
7
?? ? 700; ?? ? 690
11000-12000
109
4
7
?? -700; ?? ? 650
11200-12000
105
5
7
?? ? 720; ?? -650
11500-12500
100
6
9
?? -720; ?? ? 650
11200-12000
105
The average grain size, um
267
Note: ?? ? temperature of molten aluminum with the introduction of the modifying rod, ?? ? casting temperature
of probe Alkane-test.
a
b
c
Fig. 2 Macrostructure of Alkane-test probes from aluminum ?7 (Ч 1,1), modifiable by rod diameter 9 mm from
?7: a ? original aluminum ?7; b ? sampling in 1 minute after injection of rod, without mixing; c ? sampling in 5
minutes after injection of rod, with mixing
To estimate modifying ability of rods from aluminum ?7 obtained with using method CCRE
and compare their effectiveness with the applicable on Verhnyaya Salda Metallurgical Production
Association (VSMPA) modifiers there have been several versions of melts and obtained experimental
ingots from alloys ?95?? and 2219.
# 129 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Ekaterina S. Lopatina, Vitali S. Biront ? Metallographic Tests of Modifying Ability of Rods from Aluminum Alloys?
a
b
c
d
Fig. 3 Macrostructure of ingots diameter 52 mm from alloy ?95?? (a, b) and alloy 2219 (c, d): a ? modified by ?7
and Al-Ti -?; b, d ? modified by ?7; c ? modified by Al-Ti ? ?
Table 4. Quantitative parameters of the structure experimental ingots of alloy AD31
Diameter of ingot, mm
Grain size, um
Number of grains in
1 cm 2
without addition of rod
110
192,9
2687,0
with addition of rod diameter 9 mm
from alloy ?7
110
147,8
4576,9
without addition of rod
192
212,1
2222,4
with addition of rod diameter
9 mm from alloy ?7
192
197,2
2571,9
State of the sample
Macrostructure study showed that the introduction of into the alloy ?95?? new modifying
material in the form of rod from ?7 jointly with ligature Al-Ti-B and without this ligature has provided
reasonable homogeneous, dense, fine grained equiaxed structure (Fig. 3 a, b). Macrostructure of the
alloy 2219 modified by rod ?7 (Fig. 3 d) has a similar fine grain structure; it can be concluded about
perspective of the new modifier material during casting of industrial ingots from different aluminum
alloys.
Have been conducted studies of rod modifying ability obtained with using method CCRE
during casting ingots diameter 110 mm and 192 mm from alloy ?D31. Quantitative parameters
of the structure experimental ingots of alloy AD31 determined by the results of microstructural
analysis (Table 4).
Thus, the study of the processes of a homogeneous modification and implementation of this process
with the use of materials obtained by the method of high speed crystallization-deformation provide
an opportunity to improve the quality of aluminum ingots by grinding their grain structure without
contaminating the chemical composition by the substance of modifier. Technology of combined casting
and rolling-extruding allow obtaining rods-modifiers with subgrain subtly differentiated structure
required for effective modification of ingots. Established optimal ratio of technological parameters of
production modifying rods and technology of modifying ingots with their use based on which provides
methods for producing high-quality ingots.
# 130 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Ekaterina S. Lopatina, Vitali S. Biront ? Metallographic Tests of Modifying Ability of Rods from Aluminum Alloys?
Testing of modification technology in obtaining industrial ingots in Verhnyaya Salda Metallurgical
Production Association showed that the modification by rod from aluminum obtained with using method
CCRE results in the homogeneous grain structure of ingots from aluminum alloys. Consequently,
these rods can be used as modifiers under industrial conditions.
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?? ??????????? ???????,
?????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????
? ????????-???????????
?.?. ????????,
?.?. ?????? , ?.?. ???????????
????????? ??????????? ???????????
??????, 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
?????????? ????? ??????? ????????? ???????-????????????? ?? ???????? ? ???????????
???????. ???? ??????? ?? ?????????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ? ????????????
???????? ?????????? ??????????????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ???????.
???????? ?????: ???????????????, ?????????, ??????????? ????? ? ????????-???????????,
??????????? ?????????, ??????-???????????.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 2 (2014 7) 132-137
~~~
??? 669.713.7, 669.714.2
Thermodynamic Stability
of Intermetallic Compounds
in Technical Aluminum
Albert I. Begunov and Mikhail P. Kuz?min*
Irkutsk State Technical University,
83 Lermontov Str., Irkutsk, 664074, Russia
Received 07.03.2013, received in revised form 02.04.2013, accepted 21.01.2014
For the following systems Al-Ti, Al-Ni, Al-Zr, Al-Cr, Al-Fe, Al-V the wide range of intermetallic
compounds based on aluminum was considered. Thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs energy
and formation enthalpy characterizing the properties of resulting intermetallic compounds were
calculated. The relations of these two characteristics versus temperature were established in a wide
range. On the basis of the obtained relations the comparative assessment of the compound stability for
each binary system was carried out. The level of each intermetallic compound stability was revealed
on the ground of the affinity with aluminum. The possibilities of practical application of obtained data
for actual metallurgical tasks were defined.
Keywords: formation enthalpy, Gibbs energy, intermetallic compound, binary systems, technical
aluminum
Introduction
It is known that except main impurities of iron and silicon technical aluminum may contain also
some impurities of refractory metals especially titanium and vanadium. Behavior of these impurities
in crystallization and formation processes is poorly studied and interesting in terms of improving
the processes of technical aluminum refining, as present technologies are not sufficiently effective in
completeness these metals extraction.
At the iron concentration of 1330 ppm the concentration of vanadium can be 104 ppm, and
titanium ? 66 ppm [1]. Technical aluminum can also contain impurities of nickel, zirconium and
chromium. When the content of impurities is only 50 ? 100 ppm or less, the formation of intermetallic
compounds (IMC) of these impurities with aluminum can significantly affect the mechanical and
strength properties of the metal obtained and products based on it.
Interpretation and discussion of research results
To study the properties of intermetallic compounds formed the main direction of research was
studying the characteristics of their thermodynamic stability. Such characteristics as Gibbs energy and
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: mike12008@yandex.ru
# 132 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Albert I. Begunov and Mikhail P. Kuz?min. Thermodynamic Stability of Intermetallic Compounds in Technical Aluminum
formation enthalpy of the compounds were considered in a wide temperature range. For instance, from
the standard reference temperature of 298 K to 2000 K.
The quantity of intermetallic compounds formed is large and only for precisely identified
compounds is: five for Al-Fe system (FeAl, FeAl2, FeAl3, Fe2Al5, Fe3Al), two for Al-Ti (AlTi, Al3Ti),
four for Al-Ni (AlNi, AlNi3, Al3Ni, Al3Ni2), one for Al-Zr (AlZr2), three for Al-Cr (CrAl3, CrAl4, CrAl7)
and two for Al-V system (AlV3, Al5V8). A total, there are 17 identified intermetallic compounds of
congruent and partially incongruent melting in six considered systems. Even more IMC in these
systems cannot be definitively identified [1,2].
For all considered systems the calculations were carried out using classical calculations according
to Vant Hoff?s equation and reference data for standard formation enthalpy, entropy, temperature rows
of heat capacity and the temperatures and heats of phase change [2-4]. The calculations were carried
out in a wide temperature range. The standard temperature of 298K was chosen as initial one and in
the capacity of the final temperature, it was chosen the melting temperature of intermetallic compound
or metal-impurity.
For some compounds the calculations were made with a help of the following software: ?CHS
Chemistry 5? and ?SELECTOR?. However, these programs does not contain source data for the most
part of considered intermetallic compounds. Therefore, for such compounds the special methods
of binary systems thermodynamic characteristics calculations were applied [5]. These methods
were adapted specifically for intermetallic compounds based on aluminum. Before calculating of
studied systems thermodynamic characteristics, the accuracy of every technique was tested on
30 ? 60 other intermetallic compounds. The inaccuracy of methods used is negligible ? from 1 to
3 % [4].
The calculation results indicate that chemical affinity between aluminum and titanium is
slightly dependent on temperature and in the aluminum ? nickel system this dependence is observed.
Formation enthalpy of IMC for Al-Zr, Al-Cr, Al-Fe and Al-V systems in the considered range with
increasing temperature shifts in the positive direction. Gibbs energy considerably shifts (3-4 times)
in the negative direction, that is the affinity of the elements of these compounds and thermodynamic
stability of IMC increases (Fig. 1, 2).
According to the data obtained, all considered compounds are stable in frames of studied
temperature range, i.e. in frames of the temperature values aluminum forms IMC of different
composition. In system of Al-Ti the most thermodynamically probable is the formation of Al3Ti, in
system of Al-Ni ? Al3Ni2. In systems of Al-Zr, Al-Cr, Al-Fe and Al-V are primarily formed compounds
AlZr2, CrAl7, Fe3Al and V5Al8 respectively.
The character of enthalpy and Gibbs energy change in four last systems is slightly differs from
each other. At the same time for IMC of all six systems Gibbs energy is considerably below zero, i.e.
the compounds are quite stable at the temperatures from 298 to 2000 K. This statement refers to the
melting temperature of aluminum (933 K) and intermetallic compound (table).
Summary and conclusions
The literature has a few data allowing to track the influence of the temperature on enthalpy.
Therefore, the obtained data of the enthalpy versus temperature dependences are interesting due to the
opportunity to determine heat capacity of liquid alloys on their basis.
# 133 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
A (Al-Ti)
'H,
kJ/mole
0
?20 0
50
00
1000
B (A
Al-Ni)
1500
2000
2500
0
?50 0
?40
?100
?60
?150
500
100
00
1500
2000
2500
AlNi
?80
AlTi
?200
AlNi3
?100
Al3Ti
?250
Al3N
Ni
?120
?300
?140
?350
?160
'G
kJ/mole
'H,
kkJ/mole
0
?20 0
?,?
50
00
1000
1500
2000
2500
Al3N
Ni2
?400
'G,
kJ/mole
k
?,?
0
0
?50
?40
?60
AlTi
?80
Al3Ti
?100
500
100
00
1500
2000
2500
?100
AlNii
?150
AlNii3
?200
Al3N
Ni
?250
Al3N
Ni2
?300
?,?
?120
?140
?,?
?160
C (Al-Zr)
D (A
Al-Cr)
40
'?,
kJ/mole
20
0
?2
20
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
?20
?4
40
298
?8
80
?10
00
?,?
?12
20
0
?5
50
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
1000
150
00
2000
?60
CrAl3
?80
CrAl4
?100
CrAl7
T
T,K
?120
'G, 0
kkJ/mole
?20 0
500
10
000
1500
2000
250
00
?60
??
?80
?100
?2000
?120
?2550
?3000
500
?40
?1000
?1550
0
?40
?6
60
'G,
kJ/mole
'?,
0
k
kJ/mole
?140
?,?
?160
?180
CrAl3
CrAl4
CrAl7
T,K
Fig. 1. The change of enthalpy and Gibbs energy of intermetallic compounds in aluminum versus temperature
(systems: A ? Al-Ti; B ? Al-Ni; C ? Al-Zr; D ? Al-Cr)
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Albert I. Begunov and Mikhail P. Kuz?min. Thermodynamic Stability of Intermetallic Compounds in Technical Aluminum
E (Al-Fe)
F (Al-V)
0
'H,
kJ/mole
0
150
100
?50
50
?100
'H,
0
kJ/mole
?50
500
1000
1500
?,?
?250
0
0
500
1000
1500
2000
?,?
?350
'G
0
kJ/mole
0
?100
?150
?300
?350
V5Al8
?300
?200
?300
2500
VAl3
?250
?100
?250
2000
?200
?200
?200
1500
2000
FeAl
FeAl2
FeAl3
Fe2Al5
Fe3Al
?150
?50
1000
?150
0
?100
'G,
kJ/mole
500
FeAl
?400
FeAl2
?500
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
VAl3
V5Al8
FeAl3
?600
Fe2Al5
Fe3Al
?,?
?700
?,?
Fig. 2. The change of enthalpy and Gibbs energy of intermetallic compounds in aluminum versus temperature
(systems: E ? Al-Fe; F ? Al-V)
Refractory, heat resisted and mechanically stable extraneous crystals of IMC in aluminum and
alloys based on it are undesirable. Therefore, the development of efficient methods of refractory
intermetallic compounds refinement is reasonable. It is also advisable to conduct the refinement with
a view of further usage of metals-impurities especially such as zirconium, titanium and vanadium.
These metals have a high value in the world market so their extraction from the technical aluminum
can bring significant economic effect.
The results obtained on the thermodynamic stability and the affinity of the compounds to technical
aluminum can be useful for engineering, electroconductivity, mechanical strength problems and also
to improve other properties of technical aluminum samples.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Albert I. Begunov and Mikhail P. Kuz?min. Thermodynamic Stability of Intermetallic Compounds in Technical Aluminum
Table. ?H and ?G values at the melting temperatures of aluminum and intermetallic compounds (IMC)
?
1
2
3
4
5
6
System
Al-Ti
Al-Ni
Al-Zr
Al-Cr
Al-Fe
Al-V
IMC
933 K
?H, kJ/mole
??? Tm.
?G, kJ/mole
?H, kJ/mole
?G, kJ/mole
Tm.
IMC,K
AlTi
-73,691
-70,369
-75,727
-67,097
1720
Al3Ti
-141,314
-129,539
-142,039
-120,417
1668
AlNi
-119,804
-105,109
-154,389
-90,406
1911
AlNi3
-168,469
-199,435
-142,920
-170,228
1115
Al3Ni
-140,702
-154,091
-138,747
-156,874
1115
Al3Ni2
-298,049
-266,634
-320,317
-246,106
1406
AlZr2
-95,139
-150,083
-72,086
-190,462
1623
CrAl3
-55,558
-102,758
-49,742
-113,875
1143
CrAl4
-70,869
-134,819
-56,998
-154,117
1303
CrAl7
-80,927
-165,558
-73,488
-182,786
1063
FeAl
-33,219
-80,009
-4,04
-120,208
1583
FeAl2
-58,385
-113,948
-37,239
-144,555
1365
FeAl3
-89,785
-153,378
-61,239
-193,072
1430
Fe2Al5
-159,908
-142,927
-106,016
-145,076
1444
Fe3Al
-8,658
-137,018
-17,900
-117,513
825
VAl3
-100,557
-136,710
-82,170
-167,446
1633
V5Al8
-269,018
-397,915
-179,443
-572,148
1943
References
[1] ????? ?.?. ???????? ????????????? ???????: ???????. ?.: ???. ???-?? ???.-???. ???-??,
1959.
[2] ??????? ?.?. ????????????? ? ????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????????. ?.:
???????????, 1983.
[3] ?????????? ?.?. ???????? ????????????????? ????????? ?????????????? ?
???????????? ??????? ?.: ?????, 1968.
[4] ??????????? A.?. ????????????????? ??????? ? ???????????. ?.: ???????????, 1985.
[5] Grjotheim K. Molten Salt Technology: Theory and Application. Pekin: Northeast University
of Technology Press, 1991.
[6] Knacke O. Thermo-chemical properties of inorganic substances. Berlin: Bookbinding:
Luderitz & Bauer, 1991.
[7] Sandler S.I. // John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1999.
[8] ??????? ?.?. // ?????????? ????????. 2013. ? 8.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Albert I. Begunov and Mikhail P. Kuz?min. Thermodynamic Stability of Intermetallic Compounds in Technical Aluminum
????????????????? ????????????
?????????????????? ??????????
? ??????????? ????????
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????
????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ???????????
??????, 664074, ???????, ??. ??????????, 83
?????????? ??????? ??? ?????????????????? ?????????? ?????? Al-Ti, Al-Ni, Al-Zr, Al-Cr,
Al-Fe, Al-V. ?????????? ????? ????????????????? ??????????????, ??? ??????? ?????? ?
????????? ???????????, ??????????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????????????
??????????. ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????????? ?? ??????????? ? ???????
?????????. ?? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????????? ??????
???????????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ???????. ???????? ???????
???????????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????? ?? ??? ???????? ? ????????.
???????? ?????: ????????? ???????????, ??????? ??????, ?????????????????? ??????????,
??????? ???????, ??????????? ????????.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 2 (2014 7) 138-145
~~~
??? 542.941:541.123.24
Formation of Nanomaterials Based
on Non-Ferrous and Noble Metals
in Autoclaves
Oleg V. Belousova,b*, Anastasia V. Sirotinab,
Nataliya V. Belousovab, Elena V. Fesikc,
Roman V. Borisova, Gennadiy D. Malchikov b
a
Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology of SB RAS
42 Karl Marx, Krasnoyarsk, 660049, Russia
b
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
c
Samara State Aerospace University
named after academician S.P. Korolyov
34 Moscow highway, Samara, 443086, Russia
Received 26.10.2013, received in revised form 26.12.2013, accepted 01.03.2014
The physicochemical laws of formation of multicomponent phases containing noble metals in
hydrothermal conditions were investigated. Approaches to a purposeful variation of structure and
composition of mono-, bi- and polymetallic phases based on non-ferrous and noble metals were
realized. Structural, phase and chemical stability of polymetallic nanostructures in some carrier
materials was investigated.
Keywords: nanomaterials, non-ferrous metals, noble metals, autoclaves, phase formation
Introduction
Fine-dispersed powders have a unique set of thermodynamic, mechanical, electric and other
properties differing from those of bulk materials, and find more and more extending practical
application [1]. In some cases bi- and polymetallic particles of noble metals are more effective then
single metallic nanoparticles. Catalysts based on such particles are suitable for solving problems of air
purification, decreasing of automotive gases burning-out temperature and hydrogen purification for
the fuel elements [2].
Chemical resistance of noble metals predetermines the unique opportunities of their use in
nanotechnology, especially for materials contacting with water medium. However by going from microto nanostate, physical, thermodynamic and chemical properties may change significantly, therefore
both the determination of stability thresholds of polymetallic nanoparticles and nanostructures, and
the study of specific mechanisms of their transformation are obviously very important.
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: Ov_bel@icct.ru
# 138 #
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Oleg V. Belousov, Anastasia V. Sirotina? Formation of Nanomaterials Based on Non-Ferrous and Noble Metals?
Nowadays the approaches to the methods of chemical synthesis of noble metal nanocrystal
powders are multiform and versatile: from the physical dispersion to the steam condensation. One of
the most commonly used, effective and economically expedient methods of the synthesis of bimetallic
nanoparticles is the reduction of noble metals from water solutions of their chlorocomplexes [3].
The analysis of the modern state of researches in the field of obtaining of powders, including
bimetallic, with given properties, the investigations of their structure and various physicochemical
regularities [4-12] show that the correct choice of the synthesis method and the control of main
experiment parameters predetermine the production of high-quality materials based on the noble metal
nanoparticles with the required dispersity, composition and structure.
One of the ways to achieve this purpose is to carry out the processes under hydrothermal conditions
with the use of autoclave technologies which were well proved, for example, in thermolysis of ammoniac
complexes of noble metals [13], in the reactions of contact reduction [14-17]. The application of autoclave
technologies for obtaining and studying the properties of noble metal compounds, which differ by their
inactivity, is rather attractively for some reasons, namely, ecological safety of processes, effective
use of reagents, relative simplicity of standardization of experiment conditions [18]. Despite obvious
advantages, autoclave processes haven?t found wide application over methodological difficulties.
The purpose of the present work was to study the physicochemical laws of formation of nanophases
based on non-ferrous and noble metals.
Experimental Section
Fine-dispersed powders of noble metals, complex salts of some noble and non-ferrous metals;
N2H4·2HCl; NaBH4 were used in the present work. Solutions were prepared in 0,05? ??? and 1? ??l
purified by isothermal distillation. The purity of each reagent was at least of CP grade.
Experiments were conducted in air thermostat in quartz autoclaves in accordance with a procedure
published elsewhere [17] and in fluoroplastic autoclaves [18].
X-ray diffraction (XRD) data were collected on a PANalytical X?Pert PRO MPD powder
diffractometer. The microstructure characteristics of the materials were determined using the fullprofile analysis of XRD patterns by the Rietveld method. The full-profile refi nement was performed
by the derivative difference minimization. The peak shape was approximated by the TCH pseudoVoigt function taking into account the instrumental, microstrain and crystal size contributions.
XRD pattern of a coarsely crystalline corundum sample was used for the instrumental broadening
determination.
The adsorption measurements were conducted using nitrogen adsorption method (ASAP 2420,
Micromeritics Inc.). The specific surface area was calculated from the adsorption isotherms according
to the BET method.
The chemical composition of solid phase was found by the dissolution of powders accompanied
by the atomic absorption analysis with the use of AAnalyst-400 spectrometer (PerkinElmer).
The transmission electron microscopy analyses (TEM) were performed using a JEOL JEM-2100
microscope equipped with an Oxford Instruments Inca TEM 250 energy dispersion spectrometer; the
accelerating voltage was 200 kV.
The investigation of complex salts thermolysis was conducted using thermal analysis (NETZSCH
STA 449 C/4/G Jupiter).
# 139 #
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Oleg V. Belousov, Anastasia V. Sirotina? Formation of Nanomaterials Based on Non-Ferrous and Noble Metals?
Concentrations of ions of the metals in solution were found by atomic absorption (A Analyst-400,
Perkin Elmer) and spectrophotometric analysis (Shimadzu UV-300). The amount of solid phase was
determined by gravimetric analysis.
Results and discussion
Chlorocomplexes of platinum (II) in muriatic solutions under standard conditions are stable, as
because of kinetic difficulties, reaction
2 [PtCl4] 2- = [PtCl6] 2- + 2Cl ? + Pt
(1)
doesn?t proceed in spite of the thermodynamic possibility. The situation changes by carrying out
the process under the hydrothermal conditions, and at 180°? the rates of direct and reverse reactions
become appreciable. This allows controlling purposefully the structural characteristics of metallic
platinum in a wide range by changing the ratio of Pt (II) and Pt (IV) concentrations, and thus by
changing the direction of reaction (1).
Fine-dispersed palladium, reduced from the muriatic solutions of palladium (II) chloride by
sodium formate or hydrazine chloride, has a monoblock structure and represents the chain-aggregated
crystallites with average size of 10 nm. The main parameters of purposeful variation of nanodispersed
palladium size in hydrothermal conditions were established earlier [15] and the mechanism of adequate
explanation of occurring processes was suggested.
The application of autoclave technologies was found to be rather successful not only for the
smooth variation of fine-dispersed palladium structural characteristics, but also for the development of
the unified techniques of synthesis of nanocrystal powders of platinum metals. The cases of kinetically
inactive complexes, in particular rhodium and iridium, deserve a special attention.
The experimental data show that in autoclave rhodium is reduced quantitatively for 20 minutes at
60°?, and iridium ? within 3 hours at 120°?.
The comparison of processes of iridium and rhodium reduction under the action of microwave
irradiation and thermal heating shows that the direction of reactions and visually observed effects are
similar, but the temperature and the time of reactions are essentially different. The use of microwave
heating allows decreasing time and temperature of reduction process, especially for iridium: the total
time of reduction process is decreased in three times and the average temperature is decreased from
120 є? to 100 є?.
According to the X-ray diffraction method, the crystallite sizes of iridium and rhodium blacks
amount to 9,4 and 6 nm, respectively. The size of rhodium particles determined by transmission
electron microscopy is about 15 nm that allows suggesting that the structure of Rh black is close to
monoblock, unlike earlier used techniques of synthesis in open systems, when the rhodium black has
polyblock structure.
The coarsening processes of fine-dispersed rhodium powders were studied at 130 є? and 180 є?.
It was found that the rate of rhodium growth in muriatic solutions was very slow and it depended
essentially on temperature. Thus, at 180 є? the rhodium black in 1M muriatic solutions of rhodium (III)
chloride grew up to 11,6 nm, and at at 150 є? ? up to 8 nm.
The research of behavior of fine-dispersed platinum metals in hydrothermal conditions shows the
significant role of chemisorbed oxygen in the dissolution processes of fine-dispersed Pt, Pd ? Rh in
# 140 #
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Oleg V. Belousov, Anastasia V. Sirotina? Formation of Nanomaterials Based on Non-Ferrous and Noble Metals?
Fig. 1. The influence of chemisorbed oxygen on the solubility of palladium (2?Pd(II)V = 6?m0/d?), rhodium
(4/3?Rh(III)V = 6?m0/d?)
muriatic solutions. The quantity of dissolved metal (Pd, Rh) was shown to be in good agreement with
specific surface area of corresponding metals (Fig. 1).
The researches of reduction of noble metals from muriatic solutions of their complexes by platinum
metals with smaller standard redox potential showed the possibility of production of bimetallic particles
with various structures (mechanical mixes of individual metals, solid solutions, isolation of reducing
metal by cementing agent).
The reason of such difference in solid phase structure and was studied by us in [15]. The mechanism
of formation of substitution solid solutions as a result of the reduction of chlorocomplexes of platinum
and iridium by fine-dispersed palladium (equations (2) ? (3)) was proposed:
[PtCl4]2- + Pd = Pt + [PdCl4]2-,
(2)
2[IrCl6]3- + 3Pd = 2Ir + 3[PdCl4]2-.
(3)
The reduction of palladium and platinum
3Pd 2+ + 2Rh = 3Pd + Rh3+,
(4)
3Pt2+ + 2Rh = 3Pt + Rh3+
(5)
by rhodium obtained according to the classical technique and having polyblock structure leads to the
formation of not solid solutions, but of a mechanical mix of individual metals [15, 19]. The main reason
is the ratio between the rates of coarsening and reduction processes. Actually there is a small growth
of particles of Rh black having polyblock structure and the rate of this process is much slower then the
rates of reactions (4, 5).
In case of gold reduction by palladium which quickly coarsens in muriatic solutions, Au- Pd
substitution solid solution is obtained, while in case of contact reduction of gold (III) chlorocomplexes
by platinum, which growth rate is insignificant, a mechanical mix is formed.
The scheme of the coarsening process and the formation of solid phase at the contact reduction
was shown in Fig. 2.
# 141 #
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Oleg V. Belousov, Anastasia V. Sirotina? Formation of Nanomaterials Based on Non-Ferrous and Noble Metals?
Pd
Pd
?, [PdCl4]2-
Coarsening of particles
Pd
?,
+ [AuCl4]-
Pd-Au
- [PdCl4]2-
Formation of solid solution
Pt
?, + [AuCl4]- [PtCl4]
Pt, Au
2-
Isolating of Pt particles by gold layer
Fig. 2. The coarsening and phase formation model at the cementation
Really, the use of rhodium black obtained in autoclave conditions and having monoblock structure
for the reduction of palladium from muriatic solutions of its chlorocomplexes (reaction (4)) leads to the
formation of Pd-Rh substitution solid solution.
Let?s consider the phase formation in alkali solutions of halogen-ammoniac complexes under the
autoclave conditions. The main reaction (6) is the irreversible reduction of metal by the intraspheric
ammonia:
[?(NH3)4-iCli]2-i + 2OH- ? ? + 1/3N2 + (10/3-i)NH3 + iCl- + 2H2O,
(6)
where ? ? metals: Pt, Cu, Au, Ag, Ir, Ga, Bi, Ni, Co, etc.
The state of solid metal phase (powder, sponge, suspended matter in a solution, noncoherent or
dense coating on substrates) depends on the composition and the structure of the initial complexes, the
composition and pH of the solutions, temperature, time, agitation, etc. The conditions in the system
predetermine primary routes leading to the metal phase. The irreversible reduction of ammoniac
complexes was realized for platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, cobalt, nickel, etc. [20-22]. The
same processes of autoclave thermolysis proceed in aminocomplexes of platinum, where amine is
ethylenediamine, pyridine, glycine and others.
The performance of the experiments in a dispersion medium for the metallic phase precipitating
in structurally constrained conditions, which can control a particle size, is of basic interest. In
autoclave conditions the aminocomplexes of platinum metals and also of cobalt, nickel, copper and
gold in alkali solutions are irreversibly reduced by the intraspheric ammonia to the metallic state.
Representing mechanisms of metal deposition on substrates, many researchers place special emphasis
on hydroxoforms. On the other hand, methods of sol-gel technology widely used for the synthesis of
hydroxides and oxides of amphoteric metals which are intermediate products of oxide carriers or surface
layers on dense sorption-inert materials of carriers (metals, ceramics) are known. Autoclaves conditions
allow controlling the crystalline state of hydroxides and oxides. A combination of sol-gel technology,
# 142 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Oleg V. Belousov, Anastasia V. Sirotina? Formation of Nanomaterials Based on Non-Ferrous and Noble Metals?
autoclave methods for producing metal dispersions in gel-like medium of hydroxides allows widening
preparation possibilities for new catalyst systems, combining all sequential technological operations.
For example, boehmite is formed in autoclave conditions. Under the same conditions ammoniac
complexes of platinum metals are reduced to the metal state. Combining these two processes, one can
produce a suspension or a coating containing boehmite and platinum metals. Drying and calcination
will lead to the desired combination of metal on ?-Al2O3. Such method of the synthesis is likely to give
the uniform distribution of metal in hydroxide and then in aluminum oxide. Besides, the reduction of
metal and the crystallization of the metal phase proceed in a ?microreactor? of gel, which contributes
to the high dispersity of metal particles. Preliminary experiments yielded positive results on platinum
and ruthenium systems.
Investigated samples differed in quantity of the deposited metal. It was established that the
increasing quantity of deposited metal results not only in increasing surface of ruthenium coating but
also in the uniformity of its distribution over the surface.
Based on the fact that at autoclave thermolysis in alkali solutions there is the reduction (6) of the
ammoniac complexes of metals, having at standard conditions negative electrode potentials (Ni, Co),
by the intraspheric ammonia, we proposed that at high temperature ammonia «at the moment of gas
emission» can play a role of the reducing agent for the metals forming oxygen-containing anions.
The stoichiometry of reaction (7)
3[Pt(NH3)4]Cl2 + 6NH4ReO4 + 6KOH =
= 3Pt + 6Re +8N2? + 2NH3?+ 6KCl+ +30H2O
(7)
was studied and proved [23].
The deposition was a solid solution or a mixture of metallic phases of platinum and rhenium.
Preliminary researches shown that reactions with participation of chromate and molybdate proceed
similarly:
[Pt(NH3)4]Cl2·H2O + (NH4)2CrO4 + 6KOH =
= 3Pt + ?r + 2N2? + 10NH3?+ +6KCl + 10H2O,
(8)
12[Pt(NH3)4]Cl2·H2O + (NH4)6Mo7O24·4H2O + 24KOH =
= 12Pt + 7Mo + 11N2? + 32NH3?+ 24KCl + 64H2O.
(9)
The obtained results give one more variant of autoclave synthesis of bimetallic dispersed materials.
The experimental facts listed in the present work illustrate the possibilities of autoclave technologies
for synthesis of non-ferrous and noble metals in the nanostate.
This work was supported by the Integration Project ? 29.
References
[1] ????? ?.?. // ?????????? ?????????? ?????? (?????? ??????????? ???????????
???????? ??. ?. ?. ??????????). 2001. ???. XLV. ? 3. ?. 20-30.
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[3] Harpeness R., Gedanken ?. // Langmuir. 2004. V. 20. ? 8. ?. 3431-3434.
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[4] Komarneni S. // Current science. 2003. V. 85. ? 12. ?. 1730-1734.
[5] ????? ?.?. // ?????????? ?????????? ??????. 2006. ???. L. ? 4. ?. 46-54.
[6] ????????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ????? ?.?. // ?????????? ?????? ??????????
????? ?. 2007. ???. 81. ? 6. ?. 866-873.
[7] ??????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. // ?????????? ??????
?????????????? ?????. 2007. ???. 52. ? 3. ?. 371-377.
[8] ?? ?., ??? ?. ???? ?., ??? ?. // ?????? ?????????? ?????. 2008. ???. 112. ? 35.
?. 13510-13515.
[9] Gubin S.P., Koksharov Yu.?., Khomutov G.B. // Russian Chemical Reviews. 2005. V. 74. ? 6.
P.489-520.
[10] Tretyakov Yu.D., Lukashin A.V., Eliseev A.A. // Russian Chemical Reviews. 2004. V. 73. ? 9.
P. 831-846.
[11] Buchachenko ?.L. // Russian Chemical Reviews. 2003. V. 72. ? 5. P. 375-391.
[12] Wang J.A., Domingues J.M. et al. // Chem. Mater. 2002. V. 14. ? 11. ?. 4676-4683.
[13] ????????? ?. ?., ?????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. // ?????????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????.
2004. ???. 49. ? 11. ?. 1745-1750.
[14] ???????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?., ????? ?.?. // ????? ?????????????. 2010. ?. 1. ? 1.
?. 91-97.
[15] ????????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. // ?????????? ??????
?????????????? ?????. 1995. ???. 40. ? 4. ?. 678.
[16] ????????? ?.?., Kochubeeva ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. // ?????????? ??????
?????????????? ?????. 1988. ???. 33. ? 9. ?. 2328-2332.
[17] ????????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. // ?????????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????. 1991.
???. 36, ? 10. ?. 2571-2576.
[18] ???????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. // ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????.
2010. ???. 83. ? 6. ?. 1086-1088.
[19] ????????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. // ?????????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????. 1997.
???. 42. ? 7. ?. 1019-1021.
[20] ????????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. // ??????????????? ?????. 1987. ???. 13.
? 4. ?. 554-557.
[21] ????????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. // ??????????????? ?????. 1985. ???. 11.
? 9. ?. 1276-1280.
[22] ????????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. // ??????????????? ?????. 1986. ???. 12.
? 11. ?. 1546-1549.
[23] Malchikov G.D., Zarazhevsky V.I., Grebnev V.V., Fesik E.V. // Russian Journal of General
Chemistry. 2008. V. 78. ? 11. P. 1997-1999.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Oleg V. Belousov, Anastasia V. Sirotina? Formation of Nanomaterials Based on Non-Ferrous and Noble Metals?
???????????? ??????????????
?? ?????? ??????? ? ??????????? ????????
? ??????????? ????????
?.?. ?????????,?, ?.?. ?????????,
?.?. ??????????, ?.?. ??????,
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ????????? ?
?
???????? ????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ???
??????, 660049, ??????????, ??. ?. ??????, 42
?
????????? ??????????? ???????????
??????, 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
?
????????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
??. ????????? ?.?. ????????
??????, 443086, ??????, ?????????? ?????, 34
??????????? ??????-?????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ? ???????????????
???????? ????????????????? ???, ?????????? ??????????? ???????. ??????????? ???????
????????????????? ???????????? ????????? ? ??????? ????-, ??- ? ????????????????? ???
?? ?????? ??????? ? ??????????? ????????. ??????????? ???????????, ??????? ? ??????????
???????????? ????????????????? ???????????? ? ????????? ????????.
???????? ?????: ?????????????, ??????? ???????, ??????????? ???????, ?????????,
???????????????.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 2 (2014 7) 146-153
~~~
??? 666.3
Electronic Structure of SnO2
when Doped with Sb and V
Sergei S. Dobrosmislova*, Vladimir I. Kirkob,
Genadiy E. Nagibina and Zahar I. Popovc
a
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
b
Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University
89 Ada Lebedeva Str., Krasnoyarsk, 660049, Russia
c
Kirensky Institute of Physics
50/38 Akademgorodok ,Krasnoyarsk, 660036, Russia
Received 04.02.2014, received in revised form 27.02.2014, accepted 05.03.2014
There was carried out theoretical and experimental investigation of the influence of Sb and V dopes on
the electrophysical properties of the SnO2-based ceramic materials. Modeling was done with the help
of the program package VASP within the density functional formalism. The SnO2-based ceramics was
synthesized according to the standard technology at the sintering temperature 1300 є? with different
Sb dope concentrations (1 to 5 %). The material made with V dopes had a low electrical conductivity.
The structure investigation showed Sb being completely dissolved in the SnO2. The calculations showed
that the activation energies are Egap(SbSn47O96)= 1.19 eV and Egap(VSn47O96)= 1.33 eV. The experimental
investigation showed that the increase of the stibium oxide concentration leads to the decrease of the
band-gap energy from 1.33 eV to 0.75 eV. The difference between the calculated activation energy
value of the Sb-doped SnO2 and that obtained from the experiments is 19 %.
Key words: ceramics, tin dioxide, electrical conductivity, voltage-current characteristic (VCC),
energy-band structure, quantum-chemical modeling
Introduction
The SnO2-based chemically resistant material of a high electrical conductivity is being
widely used in many industries [1] ? electronics, electrotechnology, electrochemistry, catalysis,
biotechnology, metallurgy, atomic and chemical industries, etc. [2]. Pure tin dioxide is badly sintered
that is caused by domination of the evaporation-condensation process over diffusion [3], as well as
low conductivity associated with the high activation energy (4.3 eV). To improve sinterability glassforming dopes are used such as MnO2[4], CoO[5], CuO[6]. The investigations carried out formerly
revealed that the ceramics obtained with the manganese (IV) and copper (II) oxides combination
had the best physical-mechanical properties [7]. To improve electrophysical properties there are
widely used Sb2O3[8] and V2O5[9]. While sintering the Sb and V dissolution in the SnO2 crystal
lattice occurs [10].
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: dobrosmislov.s.s@gmail.co
# 146 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Sergei S. Dobrosmislov, Vladimir I. Kirko? Electronic Structure of SnO2 when Doped with Sb and V
However, the influence of the Sb and V atoms on the SnO2 electronic structure is not well
investigated. The difficulty lies in the nonuniform ceramics structure because electrical conductivity
is a function of the sintered material boundaries [11] and as a consequence depends on many factors
such as the grain size, porosity, averagepore size, etc.
Modelling the energy-band structure and experimental investigation of the electrical physical
properties will allow studying thoroughly the dope influence on the tin dioxide electronic structure.
The aim of the present paper is to investigate theoretically and experimentally the influence of Sb
and V atoms on the electronic structure of tin dioxide in rutile phase.
Research technique
Structure modeling.All calculations are done within the density functional formalism (DFT) [12,
13] with the help of the program package VASP (Vienna Ab-initio Simulation Package) [14, 15]. The
program above uses the pseudopotential method and expansion of the wave functionson plane wave
basis. In the program to reduce a number of basic functions effectively and increase calculating speed
Vanderbilt pseudopotentials are used for all atoms [16]. When optimizing the geometry all atoms?
coordinates in a supercell are variated by the conjugate gradient method with the usage of forces acting
on atoms. The geometry optimization is being conducted until forces acting on every atom become
lower than 0.05 eV/Е.
The synthesis technique.The furnace charge preparation ? pressing the powder with 5 %
polyvinylalcohol (PVA) ? sintering at 1300 є?.
For physical-mechanical tests the ceramic specimens were made in the form of cylinders 15 mm
in diameter and of 10 mm height. For electrophysical measurements the specimens had the rectangular
shape 5Ч4Ч50 mm.
The experimental technique.The investigation of physical-mechanical properties of the specimens
was carried out according to the State Standards 24468-80, 530-95, 20419-83. The resistivity within
the temperature range 20?1000 °? was measured with the four-point probe method [17]. To measure
mechanical characteristics there was used the instrument Instron 3369. Phase composition, elements
distribution and material structure will be identified by the X-ray phase analyzer XRD 6000 and
electron microscope JEOL JSM-6490 LV.
Energy-band structure calculation
Tin dioxide is a semiconductor with the forbidden band energy 3.54 eV [18] and rutile crystal
lattice structure.
Brillouin zones for the structure and calculated SnO2 energy-band structure [19] are presented in
Fig. 1.
There were calculated energy-band structures for supercells SbSn47O96 and VSn47O96. When
calculating the energy-band structure every direction in the reciprocal space was divided into 5 dots.
Energy-band structure for SbSn47O96 is presented in Fig. 2.
When doping SnO2 with V and Sb the activation energy decreases. At equal dope concentrations
the band-gap energy, however, is greater by 0.14 eV when doping SnO2 with vanadium atoms. The
calculations carried out also showed that stibium as a dopant distorts the materials? conduction levels
much more. This may be caused by stronger interaction energy of stibium with tin dioxide.
# 147 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Sergei S. Dobrosmislov, Vladimir I. Kirko? Electronic Structure of SnO2 when Doped with Sb and V
?)
b)
Fig. 1. (a) Brillouin zones for the rutile structure, (b) calculated SnO2 energy-band structure
?)
b)
Fig. 2. Calculated energy-band structure: SbSn47O96 (Efermi = 7.14 eV) Egap(SbSn47O96) = 1.19 eV; VSn47O96 (Efermi =
7.15 eV) Egap(VSn47O96) = 1.33 eV
Experimental results
The vanadium oxide influences negatively on the physical-mechanical properties of SnO2. This
may be caused by its poor solubility. Stibium oxide doesn?t have an influence on the properties. Most
probably, a complete dissolution of stibium takes place in the SnO2 crystallattice and the influence on
the sinterability is absent.
The synthesized material structure
In case of the usage of MnO2 ? CuO dopes CuMnOx phase forms (mainly CuMn2O4, Cu1.5Mn1.5O4)
that is a glass phase on the grains? boundaries and contributes to sintering [7]. A slight shift of the SnO2
crystal lattice picks witnesses the manganese oxide dissolution (Fig. 3).
# 148 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Sergei S. Dobrosmislov, Vladimir I. Kirko? Electronic Structure of SnO2 when Doped with Sb and V
Table 1. Physical-mechanical properties of the SnO2-based ceramics
?
1
2
3
4
5
Furnace charge composition
Sintering
temperature,
є?
Density,
kg/m3
Open
porosity, %
Strength,
MPa
1300
6121
1,77
432
1300
6315
2,15
413
1300
6215
2,42
399
1300
6127
2,88
424
1300
6206
4,84
401
95 %SnO2-1 %Sb2O32 %MnO2-2 %CuO
94 %SnO2-2 %Sb2O32 %MnO2-2 %CuO
93 %SnO2-3 %Sb2O32 %MnO2-2 %CuO
92 %SnO2-4 %Sb2O32 %MnO2-2 %CuO
91 %SnO2-5 %Sb2O32 %MnO2-2 %CuO
Resistivity
mOhm*m,
T=1000 °C
0,28
0,27
0,24
0,23
0,2
6
94 %SnO2-2 %V2O5-2 %CuO
1300
4621
28.4
51.9
-
7
94 %SnO2-2 %V2O5-2 %MnO2
1300
5389
16.4
192.7
-
8
94 %SnO2-2 %V2O5-2 %AgO
1300
5008
23.03
58.1
3,9
?)
b)
Fig. 3.X-ray phase analysis of the ceramics: (?) ? 94 %SnO2-2 %Sb2O3-2 %CuO-2 %MnO2 (b) ? 92 %SnO22 %Sb2O3-2 %CuO-4 %MnO2
Electrophysical properties of the SnO2-based ceramics
The investigation of the electrophysical properties of the material with the V2O5 dope revealed that
at temperatures about 1000 є? electrical resistance remains high. This means either that the vanadium
solubility in the SnO2 crystal structure is low, or the binding energy V ? O is high.
For semiconductors there is characteristic an exponential relationship between the resistivity and
temperature [20]:
? = ?0 · exp(Ea /2kT),
(3)
where ?0 ? an initial electrical resistivity, Ohm*m; Ea ? the band-gap energy, J; k ? the Boltzmann
constant; T ? temperature.
# 149 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Sergei S. Dobrosmislov, Vladimir I. Kirko? Electronic Structure of SnO2 when Doped with Sb and V
Fig. 4. Raster electron microscopyphotography of the 94 %SnO2-2 %Sb2O3-2 %CuO-2 %MnO2 ceramics (JEOL
JSM-6490 LV), x500
?)
b)
Fig. 5. The resistivity of the SnO2-based ceramics with different stibium oxide concentrations
The resistivity measurement results for the ceramic material with different stibium oxide
concentrations are presented in Fig. 5.
In Fig. 5b there are presented the resistivity measurement results for the ceramic materials with
different stibium oxide concentrations in the logarithmic coordinate.
As follows from the experimental results, an increase of the stibium oxide concentration leads to
the band-gap energy decrease from 1.33 eV to 0.75 eV.
When increasing the stibium oxide concentration up to 5 % there takes place a qualitative change
of the VCC curve shape. This may be associated with a partial and chaotic Sb atoms dissolution in the
SnO2 crystal lattice.
Conclusions
Theoretical investigation showed that at equal V or Sb dope concentrations the band-gap energy
is greater by 0.14 eV when doping SnO2 with vanadium atoms.
# 150 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Sergei S. Dobrosmislov, Vladimir I. Kirko? Electronic Structure of SnO2 when Doped with Sb and V
Table 2. The ceramic materials? activation energy
Composition
95 %SnO21 %Sb2O32 %MnO22 %CuO
94 %SnO22 %Sb2O32 %MnO22 %CuO
93 %SnO23 %Sb2O32 %MnO22 %CuO
92 %SnO24 %Sb2O32 %MnO22 %CuO
91 %SnO25 %Sb2O32 %MnO22 %CuO
?Act, eV
1.33
1.33
1
1
0.75
Fig. 6. Voltage-current characteristics (VCCs) of the specimens at threefold measurement (?=1000є?): 1 ? Current
strength increasing; 2 -Current strength decreasing: (?) 94 %SnO2-2 %Sb2O3-2 %CuO-2 %MnO2 (?) 91 %SnO25 %Sb2O3-2 %CuO-2 %MnO2
The difference between the calculated Sb-doped SnO2 activation energy and that obtained from
the experiments is 19 % that in case of ceramics is satisfactory.
The V-doped material made according to the standard ceramic technology has a low electrical
conductivity. This may be associated with a poor solubility of vanadium in the tin dioxide and requires
a change of the synthesis technique.
The experimental investigation showed that the increase of the stibium oxide concentration leads
to the decrease of the band-gap energy from 1.33 eV to 0.75 eV.
The reported study was partially supported by RFBR, research project No. 14-02-31309.
References
[1] Zuca St., Terzi M., Zaharescu M. and Matiasovski K. // Journal of Materials Science, 1991.
? 26. P. 1673?1676.
[2] Ninstro D., Fabbri G., Celotti G. C., Btllosi A. // Journal of Materials Science, 2003. ? 38
P. 2727?2742.
[3] Cerri J.A., Leite E.R., Gouvea D., Longo E. // Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 1996.
? 79(3). 799 p.
[4] Yatao C., He P., Huang P. etc. // ECS Transactions, 2010. ? 28 (8). 107?115.
[5] Varela J.A., Cerri J.A., Leite E.R. etc. // Ceramics International, 1999. ? 25. 253?256;
# 151 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Sergei S. Dobrosmislov, Vladimir I. Kirko? Electronic Structure of SnO2 when Doped with Sb and V
[6] ???????????? ?.?., ????? ?.?. ? ??. // ????????? ? ??????????? ????????. 2010. ? 6.
?. 710.
[7] ???????????? ?.?., ????? ?.?. ? ??. // ??????? ??????. 2012. ? 1 (41). ?. 118?122.
[8] Ciorcero J.R., Pianaro S.A., Bacci G. etc. // Journal of Materials Science: Mater Electron,
2011. ? 22. P. 679?68.
[9] Mahipal R.B., Mastikhi V.M. // Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, 1992. ? l.
P. 245?249.
[10] ??????? ?.?., ?????????? ?.?. ? ??. ????????? ????????? ?????? ???????????
???????. ?. 3. ?.: ?????, 1987. 287 ?.
[11] Takahashi T. Minh N.Q. Science and Technology of Ceramic Fuel Cells. ELSEVIER. 1995.
[12] Kresse G., Joubert D. // Phys. Rev. 1999. V. 59. P. 1758.
[13] Laasonen K., Pasquarello A., Car R. etc. // Phys. Rev. 1993. V. 47. P. 10142.
[14] Kresse G., Furthmьller J. // Phys. Rev. 1996. V. 54. P. 11169.
[15] Kresse G., Furthmьller J. // Computer Material Science. 1996. ? 6. ?. 15.
[16] Moroni E.G., Kresse G., Hafner J., Furthmьller J. // Phys. Rev. B. 1997. V. 56. P. 15629.
[17] Dharmasema K.P., Wadley H.H.G. // J.Mater.Res. 2002. Vol. 17. ? 3. P. 625.
[18] ???????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ? ??. // ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ? 5 ?. ?.: ???.
???????., 1964. 1112 ?.
[19] Mishra K.C., Johnson K.H., Schmidt P.C. // Phys. Rev. B. 1995. V. 51. P. 13972.
[20] ???????? ?. ?????? ????????????????? ???????????: ????. ???????. ???????????:
????, 2009.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Sergei S. Dobrosmislov, Vladimir I. Kirko? Electronic Structure of SnO2 when Doped with Sb and V
??????????? ????????? ???????? ?????
??? ??????????? Sb ? V
?.?. ?????????????, ?.?. ??????,
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ??????
a
????????? ??????????? ???????????
??????, 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
?
???? ??. ?.?. ?????????
??????, 660049, ??????????, ??. ??? ?????????, 89
?
???????? ??????
??????, 660036, ??????????, ?????????????, 50 ???. 38
????????? ????????????? ? ????????????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????????
??????? V ? Sb ?? ????????????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ?? ??????
???????? ?????. ????????????? ?????????????? ? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????
VASP ? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????. ???????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?????
??????????????? ?? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ???????? 1300 є?, ?
????????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????(?? 1 ?? 5 % ). ????????, ??????????
??? ????????????? ???????, ??????? ?????? ???????????????????. ???????????? ?????????
???????? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ? ???????? ?????. ??????????? ??????? ????????,
??? ??????? ????????? ?????????? Egap(SbSn47O96)= 1,19 ?? ? Egap(VSn47O96)= 1,33 ??.
????????????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ? ???, ??? ?????????? ????????????
?????? ?????? ???????? ? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ???? ? 1,33 ?? 0,75 eV. ????????
????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ?????, ????????????? ???????,
? ?????????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? 19 %.
???????? ?????: ????????, ??????? ?????, ??????????????????,
??????????????, ?????? ?????????, ????????-?????????? ?????????????.
?????????????
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 2 (2014 7) 154-166
~~~
??? 666.247.2
?????????????? ???????? ?????????
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ?????????*
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
??????, 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
Received 24.12.2013, received in revised form 15.01.2014, accepted 02.02.2014
? ?????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????? ???????????????, ?????????????? ?????
?????????????? ????????? ? ?????????, ??????? ????? ???? ???????????? ??? ??
????????. ?????????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ??????????, ????? ??? WO3, V2O5, TiO2,
Cr3O8, NiO, MoO3. ???????? ?????????????? ???? ?????????? ? ????????? ?????? ??
?????????. ????????? ????????????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????
? ??????????? ??????????? ??????, ???????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ?????????????
???????. ????????, ??? ?????????? ? ????????????? ?????????????? ???????? ??????
???????????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ? ????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????
? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????.
???????? ?????:
??????????.
??????????????,
?????????,
??????
????????,
??????????????
????????
?????????????? ?????????? (???) ???????? ???????? ???? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????? ????????????? ????????. ??? ????? ??????? ??????????? ? ????????????? ????? ?
??????? ??????? ??????? ? ????? ???? ???????????? ? ???????? ?????-????, ?????????????
?????? ??????? ????, ? ????? ??? ???????????????? ? ??????? ? ??? ?????????? ?????????? [1,
2]. ? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???? ???????? ? ???? ??????????? ?, ??? ?????????,
????? ???????????? ? ? ????????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????.
?????????????? ??????????, ?????????? ?? ?????? ???????, ?????? ???? ??????????
???????? ? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ? ??? ??????. ??? ???????????? ????? ????????????????? ??????, ?????????? ?????, ???? ? ??????????. ? ???????? ????? ????????????
?????????????? ????????, ?????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ????????, ????????????????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ?????????. ? ????? ?????? ?????????? ? ?????????????
??????? [3] ???????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ?? ?????? Sn????????????? In2O3:Sn (????? I??) ? F-????????????? SnO2:F (????? FTO).
??? ????????? ???????? ??????, ??? ???????, ????????? ????????? ???????, ???????
???????? ?????????? ?????? ? ????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ????????
???????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? [4]. ??????????-??????? ?????????
????? ???? ?????????????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????????????
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: dt-vyper@yandex.ru
# 154 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ?????????. ?????????????? ???????? ?????????
????????? [5]. ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????????? ????? ?????? ????, ?????????? ??? ????????????? ???????.
?????????????? ? ?????? ?????, ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????????????? ??-??
??? ?????????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ???????? (????????, ??????, ???????????, ???????????).
1. ????????????? ?????? ???????????????
? ????? ??????? ? ??? ???????, ??????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ??????????
??????? ??????????. ? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????, ? ????????? p- ? d-??????????? ?????????. ??? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????????, ??????? ????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ????????.
???, ?????????????? ?????? ?????????????? ? ??????? ??????????. ??? ??????? ????? ?????
? ??????????? ? ????????????-?????????????????? ????????? ???????????.
?? ????? ???????????? ???????, ??????? ???????????? ?? ???????? ?????, ???????? ??????????. ????? ???? ???????? ????? ????? ???? ??????. ???????????? ???? ??????????
???????, ????? ?????? ????? ??????? ????????? ???????????. ????? ???????, ????????,
????? ???? ??????? (?????????????, ?????), ???? ??? ????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ????. ?????????? ????? ???????????? ?????????, ??????? ?????????????
????? ????????????? ??????????????? ????????, ?????? ??? ???????? ? ?????? ???????????? ?????????. ????? ????? ???????????? ????? ? ??????? ? ????????? ??????????? ???? E
????? ????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ??????:
E
hv
hc
,
O
(1)
??? ? ? ???????, h ? ?????????? ?????? ? c ? ???????? ????? ? ???????.
???????? E ????????? ? ????? ? ?????? ????? ? ? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ? ??????? ???????????? ?????????, ????????? ??????? ? ??????? ????? ?????????? ???????????
???? (???? ????????? ? ?????????? ????????????? ???? ????).
??????????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ????? ??????????. ????? ???????, ????????? ????????????????-????????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?, ?????????????, ????? ????????? ????????? ??????? E ??? ??????????? ???????? ????? ???????? ? ???????????? ???????????.
???????????? ?????????, ?????????????? ????????????-????????????????? ???????,
????????? ???????????, ???? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ??? ????????????-?????????????????
????????? ?????? ? ???????????????? (??) ??? ??????? ???????????? (??) ?????????. ????? ????????? ????????? ? ??????? ???????, ?? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ????? ???? ?????????????? ????????? ???????: ?????????????? ? ??? ????????? ?????, ??????? ?????????????? ???? ????? ????????????-?????????????????? ???????? ????????
?????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????????? [6]. ??????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?????? ??? ????? ???????????, ???? ???? ?? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ???????,
????????, ????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ????????????-?????????????????? ????????? ????????? ? ??????? ??????? ???????, ? ??????? ? ? ??.
# 155 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ?????????. ?????????????? ???????? ?????????
???. 1. ?????????????? ????? ??-??????????
??????????????? ???????? ????? ???? ??????? ??? ?????????? ? ??????? ???????.
????????????? ??????? ? ??? ?????????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ????.
?????????????? ????? ??-?????????? ????????? ?? ???. 1.
??????????????? ???????? ?????? ???? ? ???????? ? ??????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ??????????. ?? ????? ?????????? ? ???????? ? ????????????? ?/??? ?????? ? ????????.
????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ??????????????
????????????, ???? ????????? ????? ???-???????? ??????? ? ??-??????? ? ???????????? ????????? ???????? (???????????) ?? ??????????? ??????????. ????? ???????, ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????? ?, ?????????????, ??????????????
?????????. ??????? ??????? ????? ??????????? ? ????? ????????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ??????, ????? ????, ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????
(????????? ??????? ?? ???????).
2. ?????????????? ???????? ?????????
?????????????? ????????? (???) ?????????? ???? ?????????? ???????? ? ???????????
?? ????????/?????????? ?????? (?????????? ? ?????). ???, ???????????? ? ??????????????
???????????, ??? ???????, ?????????????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ????????????. ? 1996 ???? Philips ? ?????????????? ? ??????? ?. Griessen ?????????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ????????, ?????? ????? ????????? ??????????????
?????????????? ?????????? [7]. ? ????????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ????????????
? ?????????????? ?????????????? ??????????, ???? ????????? ????????????? ?????????????
?????????? ?????? ??????? [6]. ????????, ???????????????? ???????? ????? ??????? ???????????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ????? ?? ???????? ???????.
? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????? ????????. ??????????? ?? ??? ???????? ??? ?????????, ??????????? ?? MeO6 ?????????.
?? ?????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ?????????????? ??-??????????, ????? ??? WO3, V2O5,
TiO2, Cr3O8, NiO, MoO3, ? ????????? ???????????? ??-?????????. ?????????????? ??????????
? ??????? ?????????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ??????? ? ??????????? ? ?????????
??????????? ????????????? ???????. ???????? ???????????????? ?????????????? ????????# 156 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ?????????. ?????????????? ???????? ?????????
??????? 1. ???????? ???????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? [9]
?????
??????? ????????
(?) ??? ??????? (?)
??????????
???????????????
?????????????
???????????: ?, (??2/??)
?? 42 (650 ??) ?? 115
(633 ??)
WO3
?
??????????
?????
TiO2
?
??????????
?????
5
LixCoO2
?
???????? ?????
?????
-10
MoO3
?
??????????
?????
77 (700 ??)
V2O5
?
??????-??????
???????? ?????
15 (600 ??)
IrOx
?
?????/?????
??????????
-30
Nb2O5
?
??????????
??????????
<12
NiO
?
??????????/
??????
??????????
-36 (640 ??)
Li0,5Ni0,5O
?
??????????
????????????????
-40 (650 ??)
?????? ?????????????? ?????????, ????? ??? WO3 ? NiO, ????? ????????????? ??????????? ~ 40 ??2/?? ? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????? ??????, ????? ??? PEDOT, ? ?????
100 ??2/?? [8].
???????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ????. 1. ???????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????????, ??? ????????? ? ??????? ? ???????? ???????????? ???????????.
??? ? ????? ?????????????? ?????????, ?????? ???????? ????? ? ????? ?????????
?? ??? ??????: ???????? ???????????? ????????? (??????? ? ??????????????? ?????????)
? ??????? ???????????? ????????? (??????? ? ?????????? ?????????). ?????? WO3 ? NiO
???????????? ????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ? ??????? ??? ?????????????? (????. 1)
[9]. ?? ????? ???? ? ????????? ????? ??????? ??? ????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ?????????
?????????????? ???????????, ?????????? ?? WO3 ? NiO ?????? ??????? ?? ???? ?? ?????????????? ??????? (????? ??? ??????????????? WO3 ? ?????????? ??? ?????????? NiO).
?????? ?????? NiO ?????????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????? ? ??? ???????????, ??
???, ? ?????????, ????? ????????????? ?????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ? ????? ????????????. NiO ????????? ???? ???????????? ?? ?????? ???????????, ????? ??? ?????????
????????, ????????? ?????? ???????, ??????????????? ????????? ? ??., ?? ???? ???????
?????????? ~ 4000 ???? ? ??? ???????????? NiO. ??? ???????? ???????????, ?? ?????? ????????
NiO ???????? ????? ??? ???????? (??? ??????).
?????????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? WO3 ?????? ???????? ????? ??????? ????????
???????????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ?????????????? ??????????? (CE) ??
????????? ? ????????????, ??????????? ?? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? [10].
??????????????????? ?????? ?????? TiO2 (????????? ??????) ???? ???????? ?? ITO
???????? ? ??????? ????-???? ??????, ??? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ?
?????????????? [11], ?? ???????? ???????????? ???? ?????????, ? ?????????????? ????????# 157 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ?????????. ?????????????? ???????? ?????????
????? ?? ???? ???????????. ??? ????????????? ?????? doctor-blade [12] ???? ??????????? ???????????? ?????? TiO2 (????????? ??????) ?? FTO ????????? (nc-TiO2/FTO), ??? ????????
?????????? ????? ???????????? ? ????????????? ???????????. ???????? ?? ????? ???????????????, ???????????? TiO2 ?????? ???????? 110 ?? ???????? ???????? ??????????????
?????? ? ???????????? ??? ???????????? ? ???????? ????????????. ????????????? ??????????? ????????? 36 ??2/?? ? ???? ?????????? ?? ???? ????????? ???????????. ? ????????????????? ?????? ???? ???????? ????????? ???????????, ?? ???????????? ????????????
????. ?????? ? ??????? ??????? ???????????? ????????????? ????????? ? ?????? ?????????
???????? ???? ??????????, ???, ? ???? ???????, ????? ???????????? ?????????? ?? ? ????????
?????????????? ????????.
???? ???????? [13], ??? TiO2, ????????? TiO2-ZrO2, ? NiOx ?????? ???????? ??????????
?????????????? ? ??????? ?????????????? ???????????. ??? 90 ?? TiO2/ZrO2 ?????????
???????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????? ???, ??? ? ?????????, ????????? ???? (26 ??2/??),
?? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????????? ???????????.
?????? ?????? ?????? ????? (CeO) ???? ???????? ??????????-??????? ??????????? ????????? [14]. ??????????? ???????? ???? ?????? ????????????? ? ?????? ????????????? ?
?????? ?????????. ??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ? ???? ??????? ?? ????? ??????????
????????????, ?? ???????? ? 400-500-?? ????? ????????????????? ????? ???????????.
??????????? ?????, ???????????? ??? ?????? ?????????????? ? ?????????????? ????, ?????????? ???????? ????? 17 ? 19 mC·?m-2·?m-1. ??? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?? ????????? ? ??????? ???????? WO3, ??????????? ??????????-??????? ???????????, ???????
???????? ????????? ????? 200 mC·?m-2·?m-1 [15]. ??? ?? ????? ????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ????????????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ??? ??????????
????????????.
????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ????????? ????? Ce-Ti ???????? ????????????? ????????????? NiOx ? WO3. ????? ????, CeO2 ? TiO2 ???????? ?????????? ???????????, ??????? ????? ???????? ??????????-??????? ?????????? [14].
??? ????????????????? ???????????? ?????? NiO, ?????????? ??????? ????????????
????????? (LPD) [13], ???? ???????? ????????? ?? ????????? ? ????????, ??????????? ??????? ????????, ? ????????? ??????????.
3. ?????? ????????? ??-??????
????????? ??????, ????? ??? ????????? ????????? [16], ?????????? ????????? ?? ??????? ???? (CVD) [17], ?????????? [18], ?????-????????? [19], ????-???? ??????? ? ?.?., ???? ???????????? ??? ????????? WO3 ?????? ?? ??????.
????-???? ????? ???????????? ?????????? [20] ? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ? ?????????????? ???????????????. ???? ????? ??? ??????????? ??? ????????? ?????????????? ???????? ??????? ? ?????????? ????????? W(OR)6, ??? ?????????????? ?????????
WO(OR)4, ??? WO2(OR)2 [21]. ?? ??? ?????????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ? ????????? ? ???????????. ????? ????, ?????? ??????????? ????? ?????????????, ??????? ????? ???????? ??
????? ???????? ??????????????? ???? (???????????????) ???? WO3. ???? ??????? ???????
????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??? WO3 ???????? ?? ?????? ???????????? ??????? [22].
# 158 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ?????????. ?????????????? ???????? ?????????
?????????, ?????????? ??????????????????? (peroxotungstic) ??????? (PTA), ???????? ??
??????? ???????????? ??????? ? H2O2 (30 %) ????????? ? ????? ???????????. ??? ???? ???????????? ??? ????????? WO3·H2O ?????? ?? ?????????? (? ????????? FTO) ??????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ??????????. ?????? ???? ?????????? ? ????????? ??????????
200?300 єC ? ????????? ?????????. ??????????? ??????? ?????? (300?500 ??) ???????? ????? ???????????????? ???????? (3?5 ???). ??????, ???????? ????? 500 ?? ???????? 60?70 %
??????????? ? ??????? ??????? ???????.
?????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ? ?????????????
??????????????? ??????????????? ??????. ????????, ??????????????????? ?????? WO3
???? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ???? (OMCVD), ????????? ?????(?????)????????. ?????? ????? ? ??????? ????????
20?40 ??. ???????? ??????????? WO3, ??????????? ?? ITO ???????? (WO3/ITO) ? 2 M HCl,
???? ?????? ??? 1 ? ? ???????????? ????????????? ??????????? ??? 630 ?? ?????? ?????????? 22 ?? 2/?? [23]. ?????? ?????????? HCl ?? ???????? ?????????? ??? ?????????????
?????????????.
Beydaghyan ? ??. [24] ????????, ??? ???????? ? ??????? ?????? WO3 ????? ???????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????????. ???????? ?????????, ??????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ??? ?????????????
? ???????????? ???????????. ?????? [10] ????????????? ???????? doctor-blade ? ????????????????? ????????? ??? ????, ????? ?????? WO3 ? ???????????? ????????? ?????? TiO2.
? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ? ?????????? 0,2 ??? ??????? ???????
FTO, ??????? ????????????? 15 ??/? ? ???????????? 90 %. ??? ???? ????? ???????? ?????? ??????, ?????? ??????? ??? ????????? ?? 5 ???. % TiO2 ? ????????? ????????? ??????
??????? ????????????-????????? ????????. ????? ???????????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?
???? ?? ????????? FTO. ??????? ???????? ? ??????? 15 ???, ????? ???? ???????? ? ????
??? 450 єC ?? 1 ?, ????? ??????????????????? TiO2 ??????. ????? ?????? WO3 ? nc-TiO2/FTO,
??? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ???????-????????? (H 2W2O11). ??? ????? 4,6 ? ?????????????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ???? ?????????? ? 25 ?? H 2O2 (30 %). ???????
H 2O2 ??? ????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ? ??????? ????? Pt ? ??????? ???????? ???????????, ???? ?? ???????????? ????????? ????. ????? ????? ??????? ??? ????????? ?? 50
?? ??????????? ????, ????? ?????????????? 500 ?? ????????, ? ???????? ?? ???????? ?
???????? ???????, ????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ? ????????? ? ??????????????.
??????? ?????????? ?????? ???? ?????????????? 550 ??. ?? ????????? ? ???????????????? ????????, ?????????????? ????-???? ???????, ??? ?????? ???????? ????? ???????? ?
??????? ????? ?????????. ????? ????????? nc-TiO2 ???? ?????????????? ??????????????
????, ??????? ????????? ?????? ????? ????, ??? Li+, Na+ ?/??? W6+ ? ??????, ????? ?? ???????
???????? ????? ???????????? ????????? (nc-TiO2/FTO). ???????? TiO2/FTO ???? ???????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ?????????. ??? ??????????? ????? ???? ????????? ????????
W6+ (???? ?? ??????????? H2W2O11) ? ?????? TiO2 ???????? ?????????? ?????????:
TiO2(transparent) + xW3+ + xe ? ? WxTiO2(blue),
# 159 #
(2)
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ?????????. ?????????????? ???????? ?????????
??? W6+ ?????? ???? Li+ ? ?????????:
TiO2(transparent) + x(Li+ + e ?) ? LixTiO2(blue).
(3)
????? ????????? ?? ?????? ???? (LPD) ???????? ?????? ??? ??????? ??????????
Nagayama ? ?????. [25] ??? ???????????? SiO2 ???????? ?? ?????????? ?????????. ? ??? ???
??????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ???????, ? ??? ????? Ti, Sn, Zr, V, Fe, Ni, Zn ? Cd [13]. ?????
???????? ? ???? ?????????? ???????? ? ?????? ???????, ?????????? ??????????? ?????????
(??? ???????, ????-?????), ??????? ???????? ?????????????, ????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????? ??????? ??????, ??????? ????? ?????????? ??????????????? ?? ???????????
????????. ?????? ?????? ??????? ??????, ???????? ? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????????? SnO2:F
?????????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ? ?????? ????????. ?????? ???????? ???????? ????
???????? ?? 0,1 ? (NH4)2ZrF6 ? 0,2 M H3BO3. ?????????? ????????? TiO2 ? ZrO2 ???? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? (Ti:Zr=2:1) ????? ??????????? H3BO3.
?????? ?????????? ??????????, ??????????, ??????????? ??????? ? ???????? ???? ? ?????
??????? ??????? ? ??????????.
??? ????????? ?????? NiO ?????????? ??????? NiF2 ??? ??????????? ??? ????????????? ??????? NiF2·4H2O ? ???????????????? ???? ? ??????? ????, ? ????? ????????????? ???
???????? ?????????? ??????? ??????. ????????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ??????????
10 ?? ??????????? NiF2 ? 20 ?? 0,5? H3BO3. ???????? ???? ????????? ? ??????? ??? ??????????? 30 єC, ????? ??????? ? ??????? ???????????????? ?????. ????????? ????????? ? LPD
?????? ???? ??????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ????????. ?? ????? ????????? ????????
(1?5 ?) ?????????????? ????????????.
???????? ????????? ?? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ????????????? ???????????????????? NiF2 ???????? ? ??????? ???????? ???????????. ??????????? NiF2 ????????
?? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ???????, ????????, ??-?? ?????????. ??? ???????? ?? ?????,
???????? (50-75 ??) ???? ??????-??????????? ?????. ????? ????? ??? 75 єC ? ??????? 1 ? ???
???? ????? ?????????. ????? ?????, ???????, ? ?????? ?????????????????? ? ????? ???????????? ??? ??????? ???????????? [13].
?????????? NiOx ?????? ???? ????? ?????????. ????? ?????????? ??? 200 °? ?? ??????? ? ??????? 1 ? ??????????????? ???? ??????????? NiO ??????? ??? ?????????? ?? ????.
??? ?????????? ?????????? ??? 400 °? ? ??????? 2 ? ???? ??? ??? ???????.
4. ?????? ????????????
? ????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ???????? ?????????? InSnO ? ?????????????? ?????? NiO ??????????? ?????????????-?????????????? (??) ????? [26]. ????? ??????????? ?
?????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ?? ?????????????? ????? ? ????? ??????? ?? ???????? ?
???????? ? ???????????? ????. ?????????? ????????? ? ???? ???????????? ?????? ? ??????
????????? ???????? ?????? ???? ? ???????? ?????????????????? ?????? ??????. ???????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ???? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?????????. ????????????
????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ????????????????? ???????????? In:Sn = 9:1 ? ?????????? ?? ???????????? ????????????, ??????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ??????
??????.
# 160 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ?????????. ?????????????? ???????? ?????????
?????? ???? ???????? ??????? ????????????????? ????? ??????????? ???? ?????????
?? ???????? ?? ??????, ?????????????? ????????? ? ?????????????? ????? ? ????????? ??????? ????????, ???????? ????? ? ??????????????????? ????????. ????? ???????????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ???? ??? ???????? ?? ??????? ??? ???????????
450 єC.
??????????? ?????? ??????? ??????-??????? ??????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ? ?????????????? ??????-???????? ?????????? Veeco scaning probe multimode microscope.
????????????????? ?????????? ???? ??????? ? ???????? ? ??????????? ??????? ? ????????? ???? ? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ???? DAZHENG PS-305D.
????????? ???????????????? ?????? ???????????? ?? ?????-???????????????? VERTEX80V ? ????????? ???? ???? ???????? ????? ? ???????? ??-?????????.
??????????????????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ????????????? ????-3, ?????????? ?
Bragg?Brentano ?????????????.
????????????????? ?????????????? ???? ??????? ? ????????????????? ??????. ????????????? ?????? ???? ???????? ? ???????? ?? ????????????? ??-50-1 ? ?????????????? ??-8.
????????????????? ???????????? ?????? ????????? ??? ???????? ???????????? 10 ??/? ? 50
?? ??????????? ????????? ??????, ?????????? 1? LiClO4 ?????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????-????????? ? ?????????? ?????????.
5. ?????????? ? ?? ??????????
? ????? ????????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ???? ???????????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ??? ???????????. ?? ?????? ???? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? (ITO) ? ???? ?????? ?????? ???????? 450 ??,
????? ?? ??? ? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ???
??????????? ???????. ?????????????? ?????? NiO ????? ???????? ??-???????. ????? ???????, ? ?????? ???? ???????????? ?????????? ??????, ??????? ?????? ??? ????????? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??????? ? ?? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ????????????.
??????? ?????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????, ??????
? ??? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ????? ? ?? ?????????. ???????????, ??? 2%-?
??????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??? ????????? ?????? ???????????????
?????????. ??? ???? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ????? 3-???????? ?????????? ? ????????, ????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????, ??????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ??????, ??????????? ???????????? ?????? ??????????????? ? ???? ??????????
?????.
?? ???. 2 ???????????? ???-??????????? ?????? ?????? NiO ?? ITO-??????, ??????????
?? ????????? ???????????? 5 ?????? ??????????-???????, ?????? ???? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ???????? ??? ??????????? 450 ?? ? ??????? 3 ???.
?????????? ?????? NiO ???????? ??????? 150 ?? ????? ???????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ?????, ??????????? ? ????????? ????? ????????? ???????? ????????. ????????????? ??????????? ????????? 5?30 ?? (???. 2).
?????????? ?????? NiO ????? ?????? ????, ??????? ?????????????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ??????. ??? ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????? NiO ? ??????????????
# 161 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ?????????. ?????????????? ???????? ?????????
??????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ? = 633 ?? ?? ?????????? ????? ? NiO ?????? ???????. ??????????? ?????? NiO ???????? 150 ?? (5 ?????) ????????? 62 %, ?????? NiO ???????? 300 ?? (10 ?????) ? 51 % ? ?????? NiO ???????? 450 ?? (15
?????) ? 41 %. ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ???
??????????????? ??????, ???????? ??? ???? ??????? ?????????????? ?????? ??? ??????????
?????????????? ????. ??? ???????? ?????????? ????????????, ???????????? ?????? NiO ????????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?? ??????? (?? 85 ?? 81 %).
??????????? ??????? ??????????? ??-?????? ? ??????? ? ??-?????????? ?? ?????????
?????? ?? ?????? (???. 3, 4).
??????? ??????????? ?????? ? ????????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ??? 1 ? 500 ?????? ???????. ??????????? ???????????? ????????, ??? ??????????? ? ??????? ?????????
????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ????????? 70-80 %. ??-???? ?????? ITO ?? ?????? ?????????.
??????????? ? ??????? ?? ????????? 10-40 % ? ?????????? ????????? ? 10-55 % ? ????????????? ?????????. ??????????? ? ??????? ?? ???????????.
???. 2. ???-??????????? ? ????????????? ?????? ??????, ?????????? ?? ????????? ??????
???. 3. ?????? ??????????? ??-??????, ????????????? ??-??????? (??????? ????????).
1 ? ????????????? ????????? ???? ? 1; 2 ? ?????????? ????????? ???? ? 1; 3 ? ?????????? ?????????
???? ? 100; 4 ? ?????????? ????????? ???? ? 500
# 162 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ?????????. ?????????????? ???????? ?????????
???. 4. ?????? ??????????? ??-??????, ????????????? ??-??????? (??????? ??-????????).
1 ? ????????????? ????????? ???? ? 1; 2 ? ?????????? ????????? ???? ? 1; 3 ? ?????????? ?????????
???? ? 100; 4 ? ?????????? ????????? ???? ? 500
???. 5. ??????????? ?????????????? ??????
??? ?????? ??????????????? ?????????? (???. 5) ????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? 0,3 ??, ? ??????? ??????? «????» ??? ?????????? ????????????. ? ???????? ????????????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ????????????????? ? ?????????
LiClO4 ? ??????????? 2:1. ????? ?????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ????? ? ?? ?????? ?????
?????????? ???.
??????????? ?????????? (????? 12 ?) ? ??????????????? ??????????? ?????? ????? ?
?????????????? ????????, ??? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ??????? ???????.
?????? ???????????????????? ??????, ?????????????? ?? ???. 6, ??????????? ?? ????????????? ??-50-1 ? ?????????????? ??-8. ???????? ????????? ?????????? 10 ??/?.
???????? ??????????????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?????? 500 ?????? ???????? ? ??????????? ??????????????, ??????????? 98 %, ???
??????????? ????????? ????????? ? ???????? ???? ?, ??????????????, ???????? ? ?????????
???????, ??? ??????? ? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????.
????????? ????? ??? ????? ???? ????????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ????
? ??????. ?????? ?????? ????????????????. ?????????????? ?????????????? ??????????
????? ?? ???????? ?? ??????? ? ????? ? ?????????????? Ni(III).
?????????? ? ???????? ??? ???? ?????? (II), ????????? [Ni(OH)2], ? ? ? ?????: ?-Ni(OH)2
??????????????? ? ?????????????? ???????, ?-Ni(OH)2 ????????? ???????? ???????????????
# 163 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ?????????. ?????????????? ???????? ?????????
?????? ?-Ni(OH)2 ????. ??????? ???????????? ?-???? ??????????? ????? ???? ???????? ?
??????????? ?? ??????? ????????????? ??????????. ??? ???? Ni(OH)2 ???????? ???????????
? ?????? ??????.
?????? ???? ??? ???????? ???? ???????? ??????????????? ??????, ? ? ?-NiOOH [27].
?-NiOOH ????? ???????? ? ???? ????? ??????? AxHy(H2O)zNiO2. ???? ? ???? ??????? (?
???????? K+ ? Na+) ?????????? ? NiO2 ????. ???????? ????????? ?????? ? ?-NiOOH ?????????
????? 3 ? 3,75. ??? ?? ????? ? ? ? ?-NiOOH ????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????, 4,7 ? 7 Е
??????????????. ??? ???? NiOOH ?????????? ????? ? ?????? ??????.
? ??????? ????????????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????? NiO ???????????? ? Ni(OH)2 ???
?????????? ? ?????????? ???. ?? ???. 7 ???????? ????? ????? ??????? ?????????/?????????????? ???????????????? ????????? NiO ? ?????? ??? ???????????, ???????????? ???? ? ??.
[28].
????? ???? ???????????? ? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ????? Ni(II) ? Ni(III).
??????? ?? ?-NiOOH ? ?-NiOOH, ??????? ???????? ???????????, ????????? ???????????
?-NiOOH. ??? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ????????? (4) ?
(5) ????????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????.
Ni(OH)2 ? NiOOH + H+ + e-,
(4)
Ni(OH)2 + OH- ? NiOOH + H2O + e-.
(5)
?????????????
??????????
???. 6. ???????????????????? ?????? 2-??????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ????????? 10 ??/?. ??????
?????? ???????????? ?? ???????. ??????????: 1 ? ??????? LiClO4 ? ????????????????? + ???
?-NiII(OH)2
?-NiIIIOOH
?-NiII(OH)2
?-NiIIIOOH
???. 7. ????? ????? ??????? ?????????-?????????????? NiO [11]
# 164 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ?????????. ?????????????? ???????? ?????????
??????????
?????????????-?????????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????????, ? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ?? ???????????????? ????????? NiOOH ? ??????????
Ni(OH)2 ? ????????? ????? ? ? ?????? ?? ??????????. ?????????? ??? ????????? ???????????
?????????????? ?????? NiO ???????????? ??????? ????????? ? ????????????? 2 %. ????????
????????????????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ??? 370?450 єC.
?????????? ?????? NiO ?? ?????????? ?????????? ??????, ??????????? ? ???????????????
? ??????????? ????????????? ???????????, ??????????? ????? 500 ?????? ?????????????????????????, ?? ????? ????????????? ?????.
?????? ??????????
[1] Bange K., Gambke T. // Advanced Materials. 1990. V. 2. P. 10-16.
[2] Agrawal A., Cronin J.P., Zhang R. // Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells. 1993. V. 31. P. 9.
[3] Exarkhos G.J., Zhou X.-D. // Thin Solid Films. 2007. P. 515-521.
[4] Zoller A., Gotzelmann R., Matl K., Cushing D. // Applied Optics. 1996. V. 35. P. 5609-5612.
[5] Macrelli G., Poli E. // The Electrochemical Society Proceeding Series. 1996. PV. 96-24.
P. 338.
[6] Monk P.M.S., Mortimer R.J., Rosseinsky D.R. Electrochromizm and Electrochromic devices //
Cambridge University Press, New York. 2007.
[7] Huiberts J.N., Griessen R., Rector J.H. et al / // Nature. 1996. V. 380. P. 231-234.
[8] Rougier A. // Materiaux pour l?йnergie, Amiens. 2009. P. 26-30.
[9] Granqvist C.G. Handbook of Inorganic Electrochromic Materials. Amsterdam. 2002. P. 650.
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[11] Dinh N.N., Oanh N.T.T., Long P.D. et al // Thin Solid Films. 2003. V. 423. ? 1. P. 70-76.
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V. 95. ? 2. P. 618-623.
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[14] Porqueras, Person C., Corbella C. et al // Solid State Ionics. 2003. V. 165. P. 131-137.
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[16] Deb S.K. // Philosophical Magazine. 1973. V. 27. P. 801-822.
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[23] Meda L., Breitkopf R.C., Haas T.E., Kirss R.U. // Thin Solid Films. 2002. V. 402. ? 12.
P. 126-130.
# 165 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ?????????. ?????????????? ???????? ?????????
[24] Beydaghyan G., Bader G., Ashrit P.V. // Thin Solid Films. 2008. V. 516. ? 8. P. 1646-1650.
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[26] ??????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. ?????????????-?????????????? ?????. ????????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????. ?.: ???. ?????. 2006. 288 ?.
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Electrochromic Oxide Materials
Andrei L. Belousov and Tamara N. Patrusheva
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
The paper discusses the theoretical basis of electrochromism, the concept of electrochromic devices
and materials that can be used to create them. Most attention is paid to oxide materials such as
WO3, V2O5, TiO2, Cr3O8, NiO, MoO3. Characteristics of these materials and their preparation
methods are shown. The paper presents experimental data on the nickel oxide thin films production
using a solution method to be applied without vacuum equipment. It is shown that the obtained and
investigated electrochromic material changes the light transmittance upon application of a voltage
and can cycling the processes of darkening and discoloration for a long time.
Keywords: electrochromism, chromophores, metal oxides, electrochromic devices.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 2 (2014 7) 167-171
~~~
??? 621.777
Modeling Thermal Conditions
of the Process Combined
Rolling-Extruding
Sergey V. Belyaev*, Nikolai N. Dovzhenko,
Sergey B. Sidelnikov and Andrey L. Kiselev
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
Received 14.11.2013, received in revised form 28.02.2014, accepted 01.03.2014
Were obtained the dependences and through them analyzed the thermal interaction of the metal and
the tool during combined rolling-extruding. Given graphs temperature change of deformable metal to
obtain rods by method CRE at various geometrical and technological parameters of the process.
Keywords: temperature conditions, modeling, combined rolling-extruding, aluminum alloys,
deformation.
In the implementation of the process combined rolling-extruding (CRE), like any other continuous
process of metal forming, important to create thermally stable conditions of the instrument ? rolls
and matrix, well as ensuring a constant temperature of the product outlet of the matrix channel [1,2].
Further industrial development of this new way metal forming is constrained because of the lack of
theoretical studies of the thermal conditions of the process. Therefore the analysis of the thermal
interaction at CRE in order to create a mathematical model of calculation thermal conditions is actual
task. The scheme of thermal interaction is shown in Fig. 1.
Deformation zone during CRE can be divided arbitrarily into three characteristic zones: rolling,
decompression and extruding, differing in intensity heat release but similar in nature of action heat
sources. In the volume of each zone operates volumetric heat source from plastic form changing of
power with density qv, and at the contact boundary of a deformable metal and rolls permanent acting
source of heat from external friction with density qr.
Due to the high thermal conductivity of non-ferrous metals and alloys, small cross size of the
deformation zone compared with the size of the rolls it can be assumed that the temperature at all
points of the cross section of a deformable metal is identical and changes only along the length of
deformation zone.
At the value of the Peclet number Pe = v?l?/a?10, and at CRE Pe?100, then, without much error
heat propagation can be taken into account only in the direction normal to the surface of the contact of
bodies, that is, the problem can be reduced to one-dimensional. Due to the fact that on contact surface
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: 244812@mail.ru
# 167 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Sergey V. Belyaev, Nikolai N. Dovzhenko? Modeling Thermal Conditions of the Process Combined Rolling-Extruding
Fig. 1. The scheme of thermal interaction at CRE: 1 ? rolling zone; 2 ? decompression zone; 3 ? extruding zone
Fig. 2 Scheme to the calculation of the temperature conditions of the process CRE
of the deformable metal and working instrument time of thermal interaction at CRE is small enough,
and the heat does not have time to spread to a considerable depth, is possible, without compromising
the accuracy of the final results, we neglect the curvature of the rolls on the arc length of the capture
zone of rolling. Therefore, to solve the problem the deformation zone and rolls can be represented as
bodies of classic shape: deformable metal in the form of an infinite plate with thickness 2H, and rolls ?
in the form of semi-infinite spaces (Fig. 2).
Place the origin of coordinates in the middle of the plate. Then the conditions of the problem
in a mathematical form can be written as a system of two differential equations of unsteady heat
conduction:
# 168 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Sergey V. Belyaev, Nikolai N. Dovzhenko? Modeling Thermal Conditions of the Process Combined Rolling-Extruding
­
w 271 ( x, t ) w71 ( x, t ) qQ
0, at 0 d x r ? ,
a
1
°
c1U1
wx 2
wt
°
®
2
° a w 7 2 ( x, t ) w7 2 ( x, t ) 0, at r ? d x rf , t ! 0,
2
wx 2
wt
Ї°
(1)
with the following boundary conditions:
­T1 ( x,0) ?10 , T2 ( x,0) T20 ,
°T ( r H , t ) T ( r H , t ),
2
° 1
°T2 ( f,W ) limited,
°°
®
wT ( x,W )
° wT1 ( x,W )
O2 2
qW ,
°O1 wx
wx
°
°O wT1 ( x, t ) 0, at x 0.
°Ї 1 wx
(2)
at
?
rH ,
To solve the problem of unsteady heat conduction applied the analytical method of Laplace integral
transforms. This method has several advantages over other classical methods thanks to standard
methods of application and receipt of the decision in a convenient form for calculation and theoretical
analysis. A result of solving problem is analytical dependence of the temperature distribution in a
deformed metal and instrument:
­
2 qW t
4 qV t
H x
Hx
H x
[ierfc (
) ierfc (
)] [i 2 erfc (
)
° T1 ( x , t )
U
b
(
k
1)
c
(
k
1)
2
a
t
2
a
t
2
a1t
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
°
°
q t
'TK
Hx
H x
Hx
° i 2 erfc (
)] [ erfc (
) erfc (
)] V T10 ,
k1 1
c1 U1
2 a1t
2 a1t
2 a1t
°
°
°
2q t
4 qV k1t
xH
xH
xH
H
)] W
ierfc (
)
[i 2 erfc (
) i 2 erfc (
®T2 ( x, t )
b2
c1 U1 ( k1 1)
2 a2 t
2 a2 t
a1t 2 a2 t
°
° 2q k
° W 1 [ierfc ( x H ierfc ( H x H )] 'TK k1 [ erfc ( x H ) k1 1
° k1 1
2 a2 t
a1t 2 a2 t
2 a2 t
°
° erfc ( H x H )] T .
20
°
a1t 2 a2 t
Ї
(3)
Rolling zone (index ?), decompression zone (index ?) and extruding zone (index ?) have the same
character of the heat sources. In the volume of each zone operates volumetric heat source of plastic
form changing of power density qv (Fig. 1). At the contact boundary of deformable metal (index 1) and
rolls (index 2) permanent source of heat from external friction with density q?. During the passage of
a deformable metal working channel of the matrix (index 3) volumetric heat sources are absent, and at
the contact boundary with the matrix are only sources of heat from external friction forces q?. Average
outlet profile temperature based on the additivity property of Fourier equation will be equal to the
temperature changes during the passage of a deformable metal above the thermodynamic typical zones
at CRE:
T1? (t1? ) T10 '?1D ( 't1D ) '?1E ( 't1E ) '?1T ( 't1T ) '?1? ( 't1M ),
where T10 ? initial temperature of the billet heating;
# 169 #
(4)
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Sergey V. Belyaev, Nikolai N. Dovzhenko? Modeling Thermal Conditions of the Process Combined Rolling-Extruding
t1?
't1D 't1E 't1T 't1? ? total time of deformation elementary unit;
'?1D ; '?1E ; '?1T ; '?1?
? temperature change of elementary block during the passage of
thermodynamic zones at CRE: rolling, decompression, extruding and squeezing through the working
channel of the matrix accordingly;
'T1i
FKi
c1 U1 V1i
1
'ti
[
і q ( H , t )dt
1
0
2b1'TB
bi
'ti
'ti
0
0
і q1 ( H , t )dt іq
V
(t )dt ].
q b 't 2
H
H
1
{qW k1'ti [1 4i 2 erfc(
)] V 1 [ i 4t 3 2i 3erfc(
)] k1 1
c1 U1 2
a1'ti
a1'ti
(5)
(6)
H
)]}.
'ti [
ierfc(
a1'ti
S
1
Oi ci Ui ; Oi ; ai ? coefficients of heat accumulation, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity;
ci, ?i ? heat capacity and density of billet materials (index 1) and rolls (index 2);
k1 b1 b2 ; 'TB T10 T20 ; ?10 and ?20 ? initial temperature of heating the billet and rolls;
q? and qv ? density of the heat sources at the surface and in the volume of billet;
'?1?
't1? ? ??
2'T??? � b1
(qW M � k3 ),
?1 U1 F?? (k3 1)
S � 't1?
(7)
where ??? and F?? ? perimeter and area of profile;
't1?
F?? h??
,
v??? hJ 2bK
(8)
where h?? ? the average height of matrix?s calibration belt;
???? ? average speed of deformable metal;
????? ? the temperature difference between the profile and matrix;
qW ?
P? v prof V ST ,
(9)
? ? ? coefficient of friction on the surface of matrix?s calibration belt;
?prof ? average speed of deformable metal outlet channel of the matrix;
?S? ? average deformation resistance of metal in extruding zone.
With the application of the obtained dependences developed an algorithm for calculating the
change in temperature of the metal and instrument at CRE, which was implemented in the program
Microsoft Exel. The program allows at discrete input data to determine the temperature conditions of
the process CRE.
The calculation results in graphs for aluminum alloys are shown in Fig. 3. In zones of rolling
and decompression temperature of deformable metal decreases due to intense heat exchange with
rolls. In extruding zone, on the contrary, there is a fairly sharp increase in temperature and achieve
its maximum value at the exit from the channel of matrix through more intensive heat strain during
extrusion profile.
Results of the research were used to select the optimal temperature and speed regimes during
pilot testing, as well as in the rod development production technology of aluminum alloy by method
CRE.
# 170 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Sergey V. Belyaev, Nikolai N. Dovzhenko? Modeling Thermal Conditions of the Process Combined Rolling-Extruding
Fig. 3 The temperature change of deformable metal along the deformation zone during the production of rod
from alloy ?V93 at initial temperature of heating billet T10 = 480°C and 550 °C rolls T20 = 150 °C with different
deformation speed of deformable metal (?): 1 ? T10 =550°C, ?=1,49 s-1; 2 ? T10 =550°C, ?=0,74 s-1 ; 3 ? T10 =480°C,
?=1,49 s-1; 4 ? T10 =480°C, ?=0,74 s-1
References
[1] ??????????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ??????????????? ?????? ???????
??????? ???????? ? ???????: ??????????. ?.: ???? ?????, 2005. 344 ?.
[2] ???????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ??????????? ?.?. ? ??. ????????? ??????????? ???????:
????????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ????????: ??????????. ??????????: ???, 2009. 256 ?.
????????????? ???????? ???????
???????? ??????????? ????????-???????????
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ????????,
?.?. ???????????, ?.?. ???????
????????? ??????????? ???????????
??????, 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
???????? ??????????? ? ???????????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ??????? ?
??????????? ? ???? ??????????? ????????-???????????. ???????????? ??????? ?????????
??????????? ?????????????? ??????? ??? ????????? ??????? ??????? ??? ??? ??????
?????????????? ? ??????????????? ?????????? ????????.
???????? ?????: ????????????? ???????, ?????????????, ??????????? ????????-???????????,
??????????? ??????, ??????????.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 2 (2014 7) 172-189
~~~
??? 621.4
?????? ???????? ?????????
? ?????????????? ????????? ?????????
?.?. ????????*
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
??????, 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
Received 24.10.2013, received in revised form 12.12.2013, accepted 01.03.2014
????????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????:
??????????? ??????? ????? ? ???????? ???? ????? ????????? ???????? ???????
????????????? ? ????? ???????, ?? ????????? ? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????,
??????????? ???????????? ?????????????????? ????????????????? ????????? ? ???????
????. ????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????????? ? ?????????????? ?????
?????????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????????? ? ??????????? ? ???????
??????? ????????? ????????? ? ?????????????? ??????????????. ??? ??????????????
????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ???????.
????????, ??? ?????? ????? ? ???????? ???? ????? ???????? ??????? ?????????????
????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????????????? ????????????? ?????????. ??
????????? ??????????? ?????? ????? ??????? ????? ? ??????????? ???????? ???????????
? ??????????????????? ??????????????? ?? ?????? ??????????????? ?????????
?????????.
???????? ?????: ????????? ?????????, ??????????????, ????????,
????????????????? ?????????????, ????????? ?????????????, ???????????.
??????????,
1. ???????????? ? ?????????????? ?????
???????? ?????? ?????????
???????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ? ????????? ????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????, ????????????? ? ????????????? ??????????, ?????????????????? ??????????? ???????. ???????? ?????????????? ???????? ????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ????????????? (??? ????? ??????? ????? ? ???, ???
????? ????????? ????? ? ???????????? ????????????) ? ??????????????? ?? ????????? ?
????????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ? ????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ?????, ????????????? ???, ??? ? ???? ????? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ???????????, ????????
??????? ?????????. ? ????????? ????? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ? ???????? ???????????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ? ????? ???????? ???????, ?????? ????????? ????? ? ? ???????? ?????????? ?????????. ????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????
????????? ????????? ????? ?????, ? ?????????, ? ?????? [1].
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: f_const@mail.ru
# 172 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????. ?????? ???????? ????????? ? ?????????????? ????????? ?????????
?????????? ?????????? ?????????, ????????? ?? ????????????? ? ??????? ? ???????????? ??????? ? ?? ????????????????????? ?? ????????? ? ??????? ?????? ?????????
?????????????? ???????, ?? ?????? ??????? ? ??????????? ? ????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ????? ? ????????? ????????????. ? ?????????, ???
????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ???????? ???????? ????
????? ??? ???????, ??????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????????????, ? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????? (?? ?????? 10 ???) ?????????. ??? ???? ?????????? ?????? ????????, ????????? ? ??????? ???? ?????? ? ??? ?????????? ????? ???????? ?
???????? ?????????. ??????????? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ????? ???????????
??????????, ?????????? ??? ???????????? ? ??????? ???????? ????? ?????, ???, ? ????? ???????, ???????? ????????????? ?????????, ?? ? ?????? ? ??????? ????????????? ?????????????
??????????, ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ???????. ??? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????, ?? ?????? ?????????????? ?????? [2] ? ??
2000 $/??? ????????????? ????????. ??? ?????????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????
???????? ????? ????????? ? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????.
????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ???
?????????? ????????? ? ?????? ???????, ??? ????????? ???? Fluidyne, ? ??????? ??? ????????? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ???????, ? ??? ??????? ????????, ??? ????? ??????????? ?????????????? ???????. ?????????? ?????? ???? ??????? ??????????? ? 1970?1990-? ??.; ????
???????? ????? ??????????? ??????????? ? [3, 4]. ? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ? ??????
??????????? ???? ? ??? ??. ?.?. ?????????? ??? ???????????? ?.?. ?????????, ?? ?? ??????????? ??????? ??? ???????? (????????, [5]). ? ?????????????? ????????? ????????? ????????
???????? ???? ????? ?????????? ? ????????; ??????? ?????????? ??????, ????????? ???????????? ?????????, ????? ???? ?????????? ?????? ? ????????, ????????????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ??????????????. ? ???? ????? ?????????????? ????????? ????? ???? ???????
??????? ? ????? ??????? ?????? ??????.
? ????????? ????? ??????? ? ?????????????? ????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ????, ?????? ??? ? ?????? ????? ????? ????????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????
??????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ??????????. ???
???????????? ????????? a < 0, a ? g ??????????? ???????? ???????? ? ???? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????????. ? ?????????? ???????? ???? ?????????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ? ????, ? ? ?????????? ? ???????????
?????????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ??????? ???? ? ????????, ??? ???????? ? ????????????
??????? ??? ?????????????? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ???? ? ????? ?????????????? ???????. ??? ???? ??????? ?????? ??????? 0,1 ? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ????? ????????
~0,1 ?, ??? ?? 1?2 ??????? ??????, ??? ? ?????????? ????????? ? ??????? ???????. ??????????????, ?????????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????,
??? ???????????? ????????? ?????????. ????? ????, ?????????? ???????? ???? ? ?????????
??????????? ??????? ????????????? ?????????????? ???????. ?? ???? ???????? ????? ??????????????? ????????? ??????????? «Dry Fluidyne engine», ???????? ?? ????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????, ?? ?????? ?? ???? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????. ? ?????????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ? ???????? ??? ?????????? ?????????????????
# 173 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????. ?????? ???????? ????????? ? ?????????????? ????????? ?????????
?????????? ?????????, ? ??????? ???????? ??????? ????????????? ????????????? ? ???????
???????????? ????????? ????.
??? ?? ???????? ????????, ?????????? ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ?? ????????? ???? ??????????? ??? ???????? ? ?????????. ???????? ??????? ???? ????????? ???????
???????????? ????? ????? ?????? ???????????? ????????????. ??????? ????? ??????????
????????????? ????????? ???? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ? ??? ????? ????????? ???, ???? ????????? ?????????, ?????? ?????????? ? ????????????? ?????????????;
? ?????????, ?????, ??????????? ?????????????? ? ???????? ???????? ????, ????? ???? ??????? ????? ??????? ? ????? ??????? ?????. ?????????? ???? ? ?????? ??????? ????? ?????
????????? ?? ????????, ? ????? ????????????? ?????????????? ???????. ????? ????, ?????????? ?????????????? ????? ????????? ????? ????? ???????????? ??? ???????? ????????.
??????????? ?? ???? ???????? ?????????.
??????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ? ????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ???? ?? ???? ??????????? ?? ???????? ???????? ? ???????
????????, ??????????? ? ???????? ????????, ??????????????, ? ??????????????????? ? ?????????????????? ????????? ???????????? [3]. ??? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ???? ? ??????? ??????? ? ?????? ? ???????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ??? ????????????, ??????? ? ???????????? ???????? ???????????. ? ????????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ?
??????????? ???? ??? ??? ??????????? ?? ????? ??????? ? ?????? ??? ????????? ????????????? ????????????????? ????, ??????? ? ?????????? ?, ?????????????, ??????? ???, ??????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ? ? ??? ????? ?????. ?? ???? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ????? ????????, ??? ???
?????????? ????? ????? ? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????. ? ????????? ?????
?????????? ?????? ??????? ? ?????????? ???? ? ?????????????? ???????????????: ? ???????????, ????????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ? ?????????????, ? ??????????, ?????????????
????? ????????????? ? ???????? ????????, ??? ???????? ?? ???. 1. ?????????? ? ?????????
???????????? ???????????? ?? ? ???? ????????? ?????????? ? ??????, ? ??? ??????????? ????
????? ??????????????. ? ???? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ????? ???????
????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????, ???? ? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ????????????
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???????? ?????????????? ??????????. ? ???????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ????????????? ????????? ????? ????????????? ???????? ????????, ?.?. ???????? ??????, ?????????? ? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ???????:
N ??
N Vh max Vc max V?? ,
??? V h max, Vc max, VTO ? ???????????? ?????? ???? ? ???????? ? ????? ???? ?????? ???????????????. ?????? ?????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????? ??? ?????????. ????????
???????? ? ??? ?? ????? ???? ??????????????? ?????????, ??? ??? ????????? ????????
??? ??????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ? ?????????, ??? ??????????? ??? ???????
??????? ????? ? ?????????? ??????? ????????????, ? ????????? ??????? ???????? ???????
?????? ??????? ????? ? ?????????, ?????????? ????? ?????????????, ????????????. ???????
??? ????????????? ?????? ???? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ???????????
???????? ???????? ? ???, ? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??? ?? ???????? ???????? ?????????. ????? ??????????? ????? ????????, ???????????? ????????? ??????????
???????? ?????????? ?????????:
Eff
1 p p
N ??
K ,
(9)
?????? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ??? ???? ???????? p ? (0, 1) . ?????????????, ?????, ?????????? ??? ??????? ???????? p ? ??????????????? ???????????? ????????? Eff,
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???????? ???????????? ???????? ??? ??? ??????????????? ? ?????? ?????? ???????? ????????.
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?????? ?????????????? ??????????, ???????? ?? ??? ?????????????. ?????? ? ????????????????????? ?????????????? ????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????. ????????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ?? ????????????? ??????????? ???????. ? ?????????, ?????????? ??? ????????, ??? ? ??? ????? ????????:
? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????????? ? ???????? ??????????? ?????????;
? ?????????? ???????? ????;
? ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ????????????? (? ?????????????? ?????);
? ???????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ????????????.
?????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ???????????. ????????????? ??????? ????????? ??? ????????????? ???????? ????????? ??????????:
? ??????????? ??????????? ? ????????????: 800 ? 320 ?;
? ??????? ????????????: ???????? ?????? ? ????????? ????????? 0,5 ??;
? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ????: 10 ???.
?????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????????? ????? ?????? ?????? ????? ???? ? ?????????, ???????, ?????? ?????? ??????????, ??????????? ? ???? ??????? ??????? ???????? ??????.
?????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ?? ????????????? ????????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ? ???? ???????????. ? ??? ?????????:
? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ?? ???????: ???????????? ?????, ????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ???????, ???????????? ????? ???????? ???????;
? ????????? ????????????: ?????, ???????, ???? ?????????? ????????????.
??????????????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ?? ???????. ?????? ?
????????????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ?? ???? ????? ???????? ? ??????? ????????,
??? ??????????? ????????? ????????, ????????????? ? ???????????? ??????????. ?
???? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ?????, ???????????? ?????
???????? ??????? ? ???????? ?? ????. ?? ?????? ???????? ?????????????? ????? ??????? ????? ????????? ????????????, ? ????? ?????? ??????????????? ?????? ????????
?????????, ????????????? ? ????????????? ????????????? ????????? ? ?????????????
???????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ?????. ????? ??????????? ????? ???? ????????????
? ????????? ????:
V t Vmax Vmin Vmax Vmin
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??? {?} ? ??????? ????? ?????; T ? ???????????? ?????; ?0 ? ?????????? ????????, ??????????????? ????? ?? ???? (??? ????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ????); p(x) ? ???????,
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???????????? ?? ???????? ????????? ??????? ? ????? ?????????? ?????
pi
§ i ·
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? ???????????????? ???????? (10). ??? ???? ??????????? ??????????? ????????: ?????? pi
??? ???? ????????, ???????? ?? ???? ? ???????????? ????? ???????? ???????. ???????? N
?????????? ?? ??? ???????????, ??? ??? ??? ??????, ??? ??????? ??????? ???????? ? ??????
????????? ????????????, ?? ??? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????, ??? ????? ? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????. ?????????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ??? N = 12.
4. ?????????? ???????????????? ?????????????
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????????? ???????????? ???????; ?) ????? ? ????????? ????????????? ? ??????????????
?????????? ?????????????; ?) ?? ??, ??? ? ???????? (?), ??? ??????????????? ????????????.
?????????? ????????????? ???????????? ?? ???. 5 ? ???? ?????? ????? ?? ??????? «????????
???????? ? ???», ?????? ?? ??????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??? ??? ?????? ???????? ????????.
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???????? ????????
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?????????.
??? ?? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ??
???. 6, 7. ?? ???? ???????? ????????? p ??????? ??????? ??????????? (9), ??? ?????????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????, ??????????? ? ??????????? ??????, ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ? ???????????? ???????? ????? ????????????. ????? ???????,
? ??????????? ????? ???????????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ???????????
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??????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ???? ??????????? ??? ???? ???????????? (???. 7, 8). ?? ???. 7 ??????????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ? ???????????? ????? ????????? ????????? ??? ??????? ? ??????? ?????????. ?? ???. 8 ??????????
??????????? ?????? ??? ????????? ????????? ? ????????? ?????????????. ??????? ????????,
??? ??????????????? ??????? ?????? ? ????? ????????? ???????????? ???????, ??????????? ???????????? ?? ???????? ? ?????????????. ? ????????? ????????? ????????? ??????
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?? ????????? ????????????? (????????? ??????)
2) ?????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ? ??????? ???? ??
??????? ??????? ? ???????? ????? ???????????;
3) ?????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ???????;
4) ??????? ???? ?? ???????? ??????? ? ??????? ????? ???????????.
??? ????? ??????, ??????????????? ??????? ?????? ? ????????? ???????????? ???????,
? ??????? ? ????????? ? ????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ????? ????? ?????????
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?????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ??????? ? ???????? ????????
????????? ???????????? ??? (??. ???. 5): ??? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ???, ????????? ? ???????????? ????????? ???????????? ???????, ?? ????????? 3 %.
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?????? ???? ??????? ? ????????????? ???????? ?? ???? ????? ?????????? ?????????????
???????. ?????????? ???????????? ?? ???. 9. ??? ????? ????????, ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?? ???????? ?? ???? ???????? ?????????? ???????. ? ?????????, ??? ??????????
???????? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ?? 1/10 ??????? (??? 36°, ???, ??????????,
???? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ???????) ??????????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ?? 10?20 % ?? ?????? ?????????. ????? ?????????, ??? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ?? ??????? ????????? ????????????
??????? ????????.
??????????
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??????? ?????? ?????? ? ????? ??????? ??? ?????????????? ???????? ???????. ? ???????
?? ???????????? ????? ????????? ????????? ?????????????? ????? ???? ??????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ????? ????? ???????? ???? ?? ????? ????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ? ???????????????? ???????? ? ?????? ??????????????. ?????? ????????????????? ??????????
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?????? ???????????? ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????
???????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????. ??? ????? ??
??????????? ???????????????? ?????????????, ?????? ??????????? ?? ????????????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ????? ? ??????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ??????? (?????????????) ????? ????????? ???????????? ???????.
????????????? ?????? ???????? ? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????? ???? ??????????? ????????? ???????????????????????? ????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ???????
? ?????????????. ?????? ?? ???????????? ????????????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??????????
???????????? ???????????????????????? ????????? ? ????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????????.
???????????? ????????? ? ?????? ???????? ???? 13-01-00052 ? 14-08-31632 ?
???. ??????? ??? ?? ??? ?? 2014 ?. ? ???? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ??
??-6296.2013.8.
?????? ??????????
[1] Thombare D.G., Verma S.K. // Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. Vol. 12. Issue 1.
January 2008. P. 1-38.
[2] Stirling Engine Assessment. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2002. 1007317 / ????? ???????: http://
www.engr.colostate.edu/~marchese/mech337-10/epri.pdf
[3] ????? ?., ????? ?. ????????? ?????????: ???. ? ????. ?.: ???, 1986.
[4] Reader G.T., Clarke M.A., Taylor D.R. // Paper No. C20/82. Proceedings of the Institute of
Mechanical Engineers, Reading, England (1982).
[5] ???????? ?.?. ?????? ?? ? 2215887 (1999).
[6] Sainsbury G.M. European patent WO 88/ 05223 (1988).
[7] Slavin, V.S., Bakos G., Finnikov K.A. // Applied Energy. Vol. 86. Issue 7-8. July ? August,
2009. P. 1162-1169.
[8] Bert J., Chrenko D., Sophy T., et. al. // Renewable Energy 47: 167-174, November, 2012.
[9] Sharma A., Shukla S.K., Rai A.K. // Thermal Science, 2011. Vol. 15. No. 4. P. 995-1009.
[10] Gedeon, D. // 3rd Edition, Gedeon Associates, Athens, OH, 1999.
[11] ?????????? ?? ??????????????? / ???. ? ????.; ???. ?.?. ??????????. ?.: ???????????????, 1987.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????. ?????? ???????? ????????? ? ?????????????? ????????? ?????????
Analysis of Thermal Processes
in a Liquid Piston Stirling Engine
Konstantin ?. Finnikov
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
Application of the thermodynamic principles of Stirling engine for the power industry can give a large
capability to increase the energy conversion efficiency. However, it is not possible yet to produce
large-scale power facilities competitive with conventional ones on the base of existing technological
implementations of Stirling engine principles. The reason is high costs of Stirling engines caused
by numerous difficulties in operation with high pressure and volatile working gas that is typically
helium or hydrogen. The liquid piston engine can be an alternative approach in that many problems
inherent to a conventional Stirling engine can be eliminated. The analysis of studies of liquid piston
Stirling engines has shown that one of the most attractive direction of this technology development is
associated with the use of liquid metals with low melting temperature (particularly, Na-K eutectic) as
the both working liquid and heat carrier.
A liquid piston Stirling engine is remarkable for the following features. The first is an opportunity of
supplying heat to a working gas during expansion process and rejecting it during compression processes
by means of a liquid heat carrier. The second feature is larger, as compared with the conventional
Stirling engine, opportunity of controlling the operation regime by setting a consequence of expansion
and compression processes in working cavities. These features are analyzed in the present study with
respect to possibility of increase of engine efficiency.
The analysis is carried out on the base of numerical simulation of gas dynamics and heat exchange
in working cavities and regenerative heat exchanger of a Stirling engine. Optimization simulation is
carried out for the purpose of finding out the optimum time dependency of working cavities volumes
that may be realized in a liquid piston engine. It is shown that organization of heat exchange between
a working gas and liquid heat carriers within hot and cold cavities of engine can result in a significant
growth of the engine thermodynamic efficiency. The obtained estimations count in favor of that the
liquid piston Stirling engine can be an effective and competitive power facility.
Keywords: Stirling engine, liquid piston, Fluidyne, heat exchange, thermodynamic efficiency,
numerical simulation, optimization.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 2 (2014 7) 190-206
~~~
??? [665.63+662.764]:62.50
???????? ?????????????????? ?????????
? ??????????????? ?????
?.?. ????????*
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
??????, 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
Received 12.11.2013, received in revised form 21.12.2013, accepted 18.01.2014
???????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????????? ????????? ????????
? ??????????????? ??????????? ? ????????????? ? ???????????? ?????????????????
??????? ? ??????? ??????? ????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????
?????????? ??????-???????????????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ??????????????? ?????.
???????? ?????: ?????????????? ?????????????, ??????? ? ??????????????? ???????????,
???????????????, ????????? ?????.
????????
?????? ????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ?????, ? ??????? ??????????????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ????????????????? ????.
??? ??????????????? ????, ????????? ????????, ???????????????? ???????, ???????????
????, ????????????? ????????, ????????? ?????? ???????????? ????????, ???????????????? ?????????, ?????????????? ????, ?????????????? ?????????????? ?????????, ???????
???????????? ? ????? ??? ?????? [16].
? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ????????????????????? ? ??????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ????????????? ? ????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????????? ? ??????? ???????????????????? ???????????? ????????????, ? ??????????? ????????? ?????, ??? ??? ?? ????????? ????????? 25 % ?? ????????? ????
??????????????? ????????? ????????????????????? ??????? (???).
? ??????????? ?? ????????? ???????????????? ????????, ??????-?????????? ???????
??????????? ????? ? ???? ??????? ????????? ???? ????????? ??????????? ? ??????????.
?????? ? ??? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ????? ? ?????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??
????????? ? ?????? ???? ??????????? ????????????????? ?? ??????????? ? ???????????????
????????? ?? ???? ????????????????? ????????????. ????? ???????, ?????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ??????????????, ????????????, ?????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????????, ??????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ? ???????
??????? ??????? ? ?????????.
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: klvation@gmail.com
# 190 #
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?.?. ????????. ???????? ?????????????????? ????????? ? ??????????????? ?????
??????????? ?????????? ? ????????????????, ??????? ????????? ???????????? ???????
?????????, ???????? ? ?????????? ?????? ? ????? ???????????? ????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ??????-?????????????? ??????? ?????????????????, ?????????????????? ? ????????????????? ?????????. ? ?????? ??????????????? ????????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????????
?? ?????????? ??? ?????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ? ????????? ??? ????????????? ?????????????. ???????? ??????? ????????? ??????
?????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????.
??????????????? ???????? ????? ???????????? ???????????????? ? ????????????, ???
?????? ???????????? ???????? ???????????????? ???????????? ????????? ???, ?? ???????
???????? ???? ???????????? ????????????? ?????? [7-11]. ????????????? ?????? ?????????
???????????????? ????????? ???????? ? ?????????????? ??????? ? ??????? ????? ??????????????? ??????????. ? ???? ????? ??? ??????????????? ???????? ????? ????????? ????????? ???????????????? ????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ? ??????????????? ??????? ??????,
????????? ????????? ??????, ????????? ???????? ????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ???????? [12-17].
???????????? ??????? ????????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??????????????
??????, ??????????? ??????????????? ? ??????????? ??????. ?? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ??? ????????? ???????????????? ????? ????????? ??
?????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????????, ??? ?? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ?? ????????????????.
?????????? ?????? ? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????? ? ????? ???????????
??????????? ? ???????????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ????????????????????
????????? ? ?????????. ?????? ? ???? ??????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?. ?. ?????????, ?. ?. ???????, ?. ?. ????????, ?. ?. ?????????, ?. ?. ?????????, ?. ?. ??????, ?. ?. ?????? ?
??. [13, 14, 18, 19].
?????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????????? ????????? ???????? ? ???????????????
??????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ? ???????? ????????????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ??????? ??????????????? ?????????. ???????????? ????? ???????? ?? ??? ????????? ????? ? ?????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ????. ????? ?????? ? ????? ???????? ? ????????? ????????????? ??????????????? ?????????,
??????????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ?????? ?? ???????. ????? ????, ?? ????
??????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????? ???????? ? ????? ???????? ??????? ??????????????? ????????.
?????????? ??????? ???????, ???????????? ? ????????, ??? ???????, ????????? ????????
?? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ? ??? ????????? ????? ??????? ???????????????? ?????? ????????. ????????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ????????? ???????
? ??????????? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ? ??????????.
????? ???????, ?????, ?????? ?????, ????????? ?????????????? ???????. ??????? ???????????, ??? ????????????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ?? ??????
???????????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ???????? ? ?????????????. ??? ??????????? ???????? ?? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ???# 191 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????. ???????? ?????????????????? ????????? ? ??????????????? ?????
????? (????? ???????????), ????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ??????, ? ?????
???????? ??????? ?????????? ????????, ??????????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ???????. ?
????? ? ?????????? ???? ????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????? ??????, ??? ???????,
??????????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ? ? ?????? ????????????? ??????????????.
??????, ???????? ?? ?????????? ??????????, ?????????????????? (?????????????) ??????
???????? ????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????, ??? ??? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ? ???? ??????? ????????? ??????????
?? ??????? ??????????.
? ??????? ????????????? ????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ?. ?. ?????????, ?. ?. ?????????, ?. ?. ????????? [3, 13-15, 20-23]. ? ??????? ?????? ?
???????????????? ??????????? ????????????????? ???????? ?????? ?. ????????, ?. ?. ?????????, ?. ?. ???????????, ?. ?. ?????????? ? ??. ?????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????????? ?????? ?????? ?. ?. ??????????, ?. ?. ??????????, ?. ?. ?????????,
?. ?. ????????, ?. ?. ?????????????? ? ??. [4, 14, 17, 19, 24].
???????? ???? ????????????
???????? ???? ??????????? ? ??????????? ????????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????
???????? ?? ??? ????????? ????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ? ??????????????? ??????????? ? ??????????????? ????????????? ?????????????????? ????????? ? ????????? ????? ? ????? ????????? ????????????? ? ????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?? ???? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ???????????
??????. ????????????? ? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ??????????????
????????????????? ?????????, ????????????? ? ????????????? ??????? ???????? ????????
????????????? ? ????????????? ???????????? ? ???????????? ????????????, ???????????
?????????????, ??????????, ????????, ????????????????, ???????? ???????? ? ????????????.
???????? ????????????
????????? ?????? ????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????????? ????????? ? ????????????? ???????????? (????? ????????????? ? ??.) ? ???????????? ????????? COMSOL Multiphysics ??? ?????? ????????? ? ???????? ????????????. ????????
???????? ? ?????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????? ? ????????? ????. ???????? ????????
??????. ?????????? ?????????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ? ?????? ??????
?? ?????????.
?????????, ??? ???? ??????? ??????? ? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ???? ???????? r?, ??????? ?????????? ????? ???????. ???????? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ? ???? ??????? ????????? ????? ? ????? ??????? ???????. ????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????
?????, ??????????? ? ???? ???????, ?????? ???? ???????, ??????????? ?????. ? ???????????
?????? ??????? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ???????. ?????? ??????? ??? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ???????. ?? ????? ?????????????? ?? ?????? ????????????? ?????- ? ???????????. ?????? ??????????????? ?????? ??????????? ? ??????????
???????????. ???????????????? ???????????, ??? ??????????? ? ???? ??????? ???????????
???? ?????????.
# 192 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????. ???????? ?????????????????? ????????? ? ??????????????? ?????
??????? ????????? ??????????? ? ?????????????? ??????? ???????, ???????????? ??????? ????????, ?? ??? ????????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ??????.
??? ????????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ?????????:
? ?????? ????? ????? ??????????? ?????;
? ???????? ????????? ????????????, ????? ????????????? ??? ??????????? ???????????, ??????????????? ? ??????;
? ????? ??????? ?????????????? ????????????? ???????, ??????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ????? ?????? ???????? ? ????????, ??????? ????????? ? ????????????????? ???????????;
? ????????????? ???????????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ?????, ???? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ?? ???? ???????, ?????? ??? ????????? ??????????
???????? ?? ????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ? ??????? ?????????;
? ??????????? ????? ????????? ?? ????? ??????;
? ???????? ? ??????? ????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ??????????;
? ??????? ????????? ????????????? ????????.
?????? ?? ??????? ???????? ???????? ????, ?????? ??????????????? ??????? ?????
??????????? ?????????? ???????????:
1. ????????? ?????????????:
u
l
t
0.
(1)
??? ?????????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????????? (1) ????? ???????? ? ????
?x
t
?xu
l
?x
,
?
(2)
????? x ? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ? ????? (0 ? x ? 1); ? ? ????? ????????.
2. ????????? ???????? ? ????
u
u
u
t
l
?
P
l
(3)
0.
3. ????????? ?????????? ???????:
?T
S
t
u
S
l
?x
q Q T
?
K1 TC T ,
??? q ? ??????? ???????? ???????; Q(T) ? ?????? ?? ?????????; S ? ????????, ?????? S Cv ln
(4)
P
??
(? = 1,0 ? 1,4, ??? ??? ??? ????????? ???????? ????? Cv ? Cp ?????????????); K1 ? ???????????
????????????? ??? ???????? ??????.
????????? (4) ????? ???? ?????????????? ????? ???????? ???
T
t
1 ? T
u
T
u
l
l
xq
Cv
Q T
Cv
# 193 #
K1 TC T .
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????. ???????? ?????????????????? ????????? ? ??????????????? ?????
4. ????????? ???????????:
TC
t
w
TC
l
(5)
K 2 T TC ,
??? K2 ? ??????????? ????????????? ??? ?????? ????.
????????? (1)?(5) ???????????? ????? ?????????????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ????,
??????? ????? ???? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ????? ? ????????????
???????? ???????? ? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ???????? ? ???????????? ??? ????????? ??????
?????????? ????, ??????? ??????? ?? x ? u.
??? ????????? x, u, ?, P, T, Tc ??? ??????? ????? ? ??????? ? ?????? ????????
????????????? ????????? ??????? ??????. ??? ????? ? ?????????? (1)?(5) ?????????
????????? ???????:
x l ,0
1
l ,u l ,0
2
l ,T l ,0
3
l ,TC l ,0
4
l ,? l ,0
5
l
(6)
(t )
(7)
? ????????? ???????:
x 0, t
1
t ,u 0, t
t ,T 0, t
2
3
t ,TC ( L, t )
4
(t ),?(0, t )
5
???????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?? (1)?(5). ? ???? ?????? ?????????
????? ???? ??????????? ????????. ??? / t 0 ?????? ????????? ? ????? ?????? ?????????
(1)?(5) ?????????? ? ???? ?
d
, ??? ??? ???????? ???? ???? ??????????? ??????????. ?????
dl
l
?????? ????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ????? ???? ???????????? ? ????
dx
x
,
u?
dl
Mu P
,
d u2
dl 2
?uP
? 1 M
R
?v
1
(8)
x
RQ(T )
q
,
u
?v M
1
??? ?, ? ? ?????????.
??????? (8), ????????? ?? ???????????? ???????????????? ?????????, ?????? ?????
???? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ????? ? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ?
????? ?? ????? ?????? ????????. ??? ??????? ????? ???? ???????????? ??? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ????, ??????? ??????? ?? x ? u.
??????? ???????????? ??????
??? ??????????? x ? u ??? ??????? ????? ? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ????,
??????? ???????? x ? u ?? ????? ? ?????? ????????.
du
dl
dx
x
,
ul
dl
R Mxq uQ(T )
?v u ?P Mu
0 l
,
L.
# 194 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????. ???????? ?????????????????? ????????? ? ??????????????? ?????
????????? ???????:
x(0) ?1 ,
u (0) ? 2 .
???? ????????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ??????? ?????? ????
? ?????????? ?????????, ?/?:
x(0) 0,346,
u (0) 1,0.
????? ????????? 0,01 ?? ????? ????? ???????? ? = 0,00011 ? ?????? ?? ?????????
Q = 0,00001498 ??/?; ????????? 0,1 ?? ? ? = 0,011 ? Q = 0,001498 ??/?; ????????? 1 ?? ?
? = 0,07 ?, ??????????????, ?????? ?? ????????? Q = 0,1498 ??/?; ????????? 2 ?? ? ?????
???????? ? = 2,3 ? Q = 0,27818 ??/?. ? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????: ???????? ?
P = 101 000 ??, ??????? ???????? ? q = 26 000 000 ??/?? (? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ????????), ???????? ?????? ? ? = 144, ?
??
?v
1,1. ?????????? ????????, ?????????????? ?? ???. 1
? 2, ??????????, ??? ???????? ??????? ? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ????? ????, ???
? ?????? ????? ?? ?????????, ??????????? ??????? ?? ???????? ?????? ???????. ?????????
????????? ??????? ????? ????? ????????? 1 ??, ?????? ?? ???????? ??????? ??? ???? ??????
??????????? ????????? ????????.
??? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????????? ?????????, ??????????? ??????????????? ????????, ????? ???????? ?? ????? ???
? ???? ??????? ????????? ???????? ?? ?? ??????????. ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ? ????? ????? ??????? ??????? ??? ?????????? (?????????) ?????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???????, ????????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ?????????
?????????? ? ?????? ??????????.
???. 1. ????????? ???????? ??????? ????? ??
????? ????: 1? ??????? ????? 1 ??; 2 ? 2 ??;
3 ? ?????? 1 ??
???. 2. ????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????
?? ????? ????: I ? ??????? ?????? ????????? 1 ??;
II ? 2 ??; III ? ????? 1 ??
# 195 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????. ???????? ?????????????????? ????????? ? ??????????????? ?????
???. 3. ??????? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?? ???????? ??????????????? ??????? ??
????????? ?????? ????????
?? ???. 3 ???????? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?? ???????? ??????????????? ??????? ?? ????????? ?????? ????????. ?????, ??? ?? ???? ?????????? x ? ???????????? ?????? ????????????? ??????? ? ???????? ??????????????? ??????? ??????????? ???
x < 9 % (??? ???????? ?????? ~ 1 ??) ? ????????? ?????????? ??? ????? ??????? x. ??? ?????
????? ? ????? ??????? ????????????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ??????, ?? ????????, ???????????.
??? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ???????? ?????? ????????????, ??? ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????????? ???????, ?????????? ? ???????
??????? ???????? ???????????? ????????, ? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????? ???????????. ??????? ???????????? ?????? ?????? ?? ???????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ?????? ?? ???????? ??????????????? ???????, ??????
???? ?????? ??????? ??? ???????, ??? ???? ???????? ??????????????? ???????. ???, ? ????
???????, ??????????, ??? ? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????? ?????? ?????
???????? 1 ??? ?? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ???????.
???????????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????
? ??????????????? ???????????
?????????? ??????? ????? ???????????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ???????? ?????????????? ???? ???????????????? ?????????? ???? ? ?????????????????? ???????? ? ??????????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ?????????????? ????????????? ? ????????? ????.
?????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????????? ???? ???????????? ?????????? ???? ?
?????????????????? ???????? ? ??????????????? ?????????????? ????????????. ?????? ??
?????? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ??? ????? ?????????? ?????????, ??????????? ????
???????:
# 196 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????. ???????? ?????????????????? ????????? ? ??????????????? ?????
?1T1
l
T1
t
?2T2
l
T2
t
ж1 l , t T2 T1 ,
ж 2 l , t T1 T2
(9)
f l,t ,
??? Ti = Ti (l, t), i = 1, 2 ? ??????? ????????????? ???????????; ?i = ?i(l, t), i = 1, 2 ? ????????
???????? ?????????????? ?????? ? ?????? ????; f(l, t) ? ??????? ???????? ???????????; жi = жi
(l, t), i = 1, 2 ? ????????????, ??????????????? ???????? ????????????????? ????.
????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ? m ????????????? ?????? ? ?????????????? ?
????
m
f l, t
? j l vj t .
j 1
? ???????? ??????? ??????????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ????:
b
a l lj e
?j l
0, l
c l lj
,l
0, l j ;
l j , l ;
??? lj ? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????; a = 738,91; b = 2; ? = 20.
???????? ??????? ????????? (9) ?????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ?????????:
Ti l ,0
0 , ? i 1, 2 ,
T1 0, t
T1?? t , ? T2 1, t
(10)
T2?? t ,
(11)
??? T1?? (t), T 2?? (t) ? ???????? ???????. ?????????? ???????? ????? ???
2
?
T1* 1, t
I
T1 1, t
(12)
dt ,
0
??? ? ? ????????????? ????? ???????? ??????????; T1*(1, t) ? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ????????; T1?? (1, t) ? ???????????? ????????. ???????????? ??????????? ?????? ??
?????? m + 1 ??????????? ???????????: ??? j = 0 ? ?? ???? ????????? ????????? ???????
?? ????? ?????? (????????????) ????? v 0 (t) = T2?? (t); ??? j = 1,?, m ? ?????????????
??????? ??????????? vj (t). ????? ???????, ???????? m + 1 ? ????????? ??????? ??????????????? ?????????????. ??????? ??????????? ??????????? vj (t), j = 0,?, m ?????????????? ? ????
1
vj t
1
u j t , ? T1 l , ? g j l dld?, j
0
(13)
0,..., m,
0
????? vj (t) ? ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? (? ?????? ?????? ????????????)
1
? ????????? ?????? uj (t, ?), ????????????? ? ???????????? 0 ? ? ? t T, ? j ?
T1 l , ? g j l dl ?
0
??????????? ?? ????? ???????????, ??????????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ????? ??????? ??????? ??????????????? ???????? g j (x). ????? ???????, ??????
# 197 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????. ???????? ?????????????????? ????????? ? ??????????????? ?????
??????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????: ????? ????? ??????? ??????? g j (l), ??? ???????
???????? ??????? ????????? T1(1, t) ?????????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? (12).
???????????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????????. ?? ???. 4 ? 5 ????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ??????????????? ??????? ??????????????? ???????? ? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ?????, ?????????????? ?? ????? ????????.
?? ?????? ?????????????? ??????, ?????????? ??????????? (1)?(5), ?????????? ????????? ?????????????????? ?????? ??? ????????? ????:
u
,
l
u
t
x
t
u
t
l
x x
,
u
l
u
T
u
R
l
l
T
t
1 ? T
RT
l
u
T
u
l
l
(14)
,
xq
Cv
Q T
Cv
K1 TC T ,
Tc
T
w c K 2 T Tc .
t
l
? ??????? (14) ??????? ????????? ? ????????? ??????? (6)?(7). ?????? ????????? ??????????? ?? ??????????:
vimin
vi (t ) vimax .
(15)
????? ????????? ?????????? zi, i 1, 5 , ?????? ??????????? (15) ? ?????????
vimax
vi vi vi min
zi2
0, i 1, 5.
(16)
????? ????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ??????:
0, t
t
b1v1 (t ),
x 0, t
t
b2v2 (t ),
???. 4. ????????? ??????????? ? ??????????
?????? ? ??? ??????????? ???????? ? ????????
????????? g0, g4
u 0, t
t
b3v3 (t ),
???. 5. ????????? g01, g41 ? ??????????? g0n, g4n ?
??????? ??????? ??????????????? ????????
# 198 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????. ???????? ?????????????????? ????????? ? ??????????????? ?????
T 0, t
t
Tc 0, t
t
b4v4 (t ),
b5v5 (t ).
?????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ???? ?????? ??????? ? ?????????? ????? ??????????
vi(t), i = 1,5 ?? ??????????? (15), ??????? ????????????? ??????? ????????? (16), ??????????????? ????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ????????:
T L
2
? c* l , t
?? l, t
dldt ,.
(17)
0 0
?????? ????????? ???????????:
x
l
1
? ,
l
u
l
2
? ,
T
l
3
? ,
4
? ,
T?
l
5
(18)
? .
C ?????? (18) ??????? (14) ????? ????? ???:
t
x
t
u
t
T
t
u
1
u
2
u
3
3
x
w
X2,
3
5
RT
4
R
1 ? T
Tc
t
X1,
1
Q T
Cv
xq
Cv
4
u
K 2 T Tc
(19)
X3,
K1 TC T
X4,
X 5.
?????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ? ????????? ???????????? ??????
???????????? ??????????, ??????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ???????
????????:
1
t
????? ?i l , t
,
3
1
1
RT
3
?2
t
?2
?3
t
?1
?4
t
?3
?5
t
?5 K2
1
1
R
?4
q
Cv
?2
1
4
2
2
?4
1
l
,
,
2
l
?3
QT
Cv 2
3
1
?4
3
2Tc 2Tc* ? 4 K1
4
3
l
1
Cv
5
l
(20)
,
QT
T
K1
?5 K2
4
l
,
.,
?i l , t ? ??????? ????????.
1
?1u ? 3 RT / ,
2
? 2u ,
3
?1
4
? 3 R ? 4u ,
5
? 5 w.
? 3u ? 4 1
T,
# 199 #
(21)
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????. ???????? ?????????????????? ????????? ? ??????????????? ?????
? ??????? (21), ???????? ?? (20) ?1 , ? 2 , ?3 , ? 4 , ?5 , ??????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????? i , i 1, 5
1
l, t
T l, t
QT
RT 3 l , t
3R
u 1
,
2
Cv
l
l
l
l, t
u l, t
1
q
u 2
,
2
4
2
Cv
l
l
x l, t
T l, t
1
u 3 1
T 4 2
,
2
4
l
l
l
l
l
l, t
u l, t
R
QT
4
2 4
3
5K2
l
l
Cv
l
l, t
l, t
u 4
4 K1 ,
l
l
l, t
2 Tc Tc* w 5
5K2
4 K1 .
l
4
t
2
t
3
t
4
t
3
R
5
t
(22)
????????? ???????
i
l ,T
0 , i 1, 5.
(23)
????? ?????????????? ???????
1
1
t
0, t u 0, t
3
0, t RT 0, t /
3
0, t
0, t ,
2
t
2
0, t u 0, t ,
1
0, t
3
0, t R
5
L, t w.,
3
t
0, t
4
0, t 1
(24)
T 0, t ,
4
t
4
0, t u 0, t ,
5
t
???
i
t , ( i 1, 5 ) ? ??????? ????????;
1
1
L, t
T
2
0,
0,
2
T
L, t
3
0,
0,
3
T
L, t
0,
0,
4
T
4
L, t
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??????????????? ????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ????????????? ???????? ? ??????????????? ??????????? [25].
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????????? ?????????? ???????, ???????????? ??????????????? ? ????- ? ????????????????? ???????, ?????? ?????? ???? ??? ????????????????? ??????? ?????? ??????????????? ?????. ???????? ????????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????????, ??????????????
?????????? ? ???????????????? ???????? ????????? ? ?????? ?? ????????????? ???????????
???????????? [7, 25?28].
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?????????????????? ???????? ? ????????????????????? ??????? ??????????????. ?????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ?? ??? ????????? ?????
? ??????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ? ??????????? ????????. ??? ???? ??????????? ???????? ????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????, ???????? ???????????
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??????????? ???????????? ? ???????? ?????? ????????? ??????????????? ??????????
????????????? ???????????.
5. ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?? ???????? ??????????????? ??????? ?? ????????? ?????? ????????. ????????? ????????? ??????? ????? ?????
????????? 1 ??, ?????? ?? ???????? ??????? ??? ???? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ????????. ??? ????????? ????????????? ???????????, ??? ?? ???? ?????????? ????????????
?????? ????? ??????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ? < 9 % ? ?????????
?????????? ??? ????? ??????? ?. ??? ????? ????? ? ????? ??????? ????????????? ????????
??????? ??????? ??????, ?? ????????, ???????????.
6. ?? ?????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ???????? ???????? ? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????????????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ?????, ??? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ??????
??? ?? ?????? ?????????????? ????????????.
?????? ??????????
[1] ?????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. ???????? ? ???????? ????????????????????? ? ??????????????? ??????????????. ?.: ?????, 1982. 584 ?.
[2] ???????? ?.?., ????? ?.?. ?????????? ????????????????? ??????. ?.: ?????, 1965.
247 ?.
[3]. ????????? ?.?. ????????????? ? ??????????? ?????????????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ??????????. ?.: ?????, 1991. 240 ?.
[4] ?????????, ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ????????????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ?
??????????????? ???????????: ????. ??????? ??? ?????. ??????????: ??? ????, 2006. 210 ?.
[5] ??????? ?.?., ??????????? ?.?. ?????????? ???????? ??????? ????? ? ?????? ??????. ? ?.: ?????, 1984. 283 ?.
[6] ?????? ?.?., ?????????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. ???????? ??????? ??????? ? ??????
?????????? ?????. ?.: ???????????, 1981. 240 ?.
[7] ???????? ?.?. ??????????? ???. ? ????. ????. ????. ??????????, 2009. 22 ?.
[8] ?????????, ?.?., ???????? ?.?. // ?????????? ? ???????????? ??????????????. 2006.
? 3. ?. 89.
[9] Demidenko, N.D., Kulagina L.V. // Chemical and Petroleum engineering. 2006. Vol. 42. ? 34.
P. 128-130.
[10] Demidenko, N.D., Kulagina L.V. // Chemical and Petroleum engineering. 2007. Vol. 43. ? 34.
P. 128-130.
[11] ?????????, ?.?., ???????? ?.?. // ?????????? ? ???????????? ??????????????. 2007.
? 3. ?. 25-27.
[12] ????????? ?.?. ??????????? ?????????????? ???????. ???????????: ?????, 1999.
392 ?.
# 204 #
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?.?. ????????. ???????? ?????????????????? ????????? ? ??????????????? ?????
[13] ????????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ????? ?.?. ????????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????: ??????????. ???????????: ?????, 2012. 424 ?.
[14] ????????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ????? ?.?. ????????????? ? ??????????? ?????? ?
??????????????? ???????????. ???????????: ?????, 2006. 551 ?.
[15] ????????? ?.?., ?????????? ?.?. ?????????????, ?????????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ????????????. ???????????: ?????. ???. ???-???, 1978. 285 c.
[16] ????????? ?.?. ??????????? ?????????????? ???????. ???????????: ?????. ???.
???-???. 1999. 393 ?.
[17] ????????? ?.?. ????????????? ? ??????????? ?????????????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ??????????. ?.: ?????. 1991. 240 ?.
[18] ?????? ?.?. ?????? ?????????????? ??????????. ???????????: ?????, 1973. 352 ?.
[19] ????? ?.?. ??????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ?????????????? ??????. ?.: ?????,
1975. 478 ?.
[20] ??????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ??????????
??????????. ?.: ?????, 1980. 430 ?.
[21] ??????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ????????? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????. ?.:
?????, 1976. 500 ?.
[22] ??????? ?.?. ?????? ?????????????. ?.: ????. ??., 1979. 439 ?.
[23] ??????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ?????? ??????????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????????. ?.: ?????. 1987. 624 ?.
[24] ???????????? ?.?. ??????????? ?????? ? ??????????????? ???????????. ?.: ?????,
1977. 480 ?.
[25] ?????????, ?.?., ???????? ?.?. // Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering &
Technologies 1 (2014 7) 54-62.
[26] ?????????, ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. // ??????? ??????. 2006. ? 2 ?. 89-92.
[27] Demidenko, N.D., Kulagina L.V. // Cieplne Maszyny Przeplywowe. Turbomachinery. ? 128.
Lodz: Academicke Centrum Graficzno-Marke-tingowe. 2005. P. 138-146.
[28] ?????????, ?.?., ???????? ?.?. // ?????????? ???????. 2006. ? 7. ?. 35-37.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????. ???????? ?????????????????? ????????? ? ??????????????? ?????
Researching of Heat and Mass Transfer Processes
in Technological Furnaces
Ludmila V. Kulagina
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
Research outcomes by analysis methods of non-stationary processes for objects with distributed
parameters and application in industry of highly efficient methods and means for optimal control in
systems and modes of simulation in chemical engineering installations on an example of technological
furnaces.
Keywords: mathematical simulation, systems with distributed parameters, heat and mass transfer,
numerical method.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 2 (2014 7) 207-213
~~~
??? 692.232.42 : 536.212.3
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?? ????????????? ????????????? ?????
? ???????? ???????????
? ????????? ?????????????? ????????
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????????? ??????????? ???????????,
??????, 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
Received 04.03.2011, received in revised form 08.12.2013, accepted 24.12.2013
???????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ????? ? ????? ????????? ???????
?????????????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????. ???????????, ??? ??????????
????????????? ????????????? ?????????????????? ???? ??? ?????????? ?????? ????????
??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ?????????
???? ?????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ? ?????? ????????? ??????.
???????? ?????: ???????? ????????????? ??????, ???? ????????? ????????? ??????,
????????????? ????????????? ?????, ????????????? ????????????? ???????????
??????????.
???????? ????????????? ?????? (???) ????????? ? ?????? ? ????? 1970-? ??. ?????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????, ? ????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ??? ?????????????.
? ????? ?????? ??? ????????? ? ?????? 1990-? ??., ?????? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ?????. ?
1995 ?. ?????????????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ?????????????? ???? ???????
??????? ? ????????? ???????? ? ????? ??????? ??????????? ? ????????????? ?????????????
??????????? ???????????. ? 2001 ?. ????????? ????????????? ????????????? ??? ?????????
?????????? ??????????? ? 1,15 ?? 3,70 m2·°C/W. ? ????? ? ???? ????? ??????, ??????????????
????????????? ??? ???????, ?????? ??????????????? ????? ?????? [1, 2]. ???? ????????????
?????? ?? ???????, ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????????, ???????? ????????????? ?????? ??? ????? 7-10 ??? ????????????. ??????? ????????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ???? ???????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????????? ????????, ??-?? ?????????? ???????????,
??? ?????????????? ????????? ??????. ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ? ???????
????????????? ???????????????? ??????????????? (?????? ????????????? ?????, ??????????????? ????????????? ????????) ??-?? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ????????????? ?????????
?, ??? ?????????, ??????? ????????? ???????? ??????. ????? ??????? ? ??????? ????????
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: nazirovra@gmail.com
# 207 #
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?????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ?????? ?
??????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ????????????? ???????), ????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ????????, ?????? ????? ? ???????? ?????? ????????????? ??????????. ?????
???? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????????????????? ??????? ? ???????? ????????????, ??????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ???????
???? ??????????? ???????????.
???????? ????????????? ?????? ??????????? ?? ????????????? ??????, ??????? ????????????, ??? ???????, ????????? ???????? ????? ???? ????????????? ? ??????? ????? ?????
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??????????? ????? ? ???? ???????????? ??????????, ??????? ? ???????????? ??????? ???????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????????. ??????? ???? ????????? ??? ????????????? ??????? ?. ??????????? (????. 1).
????? ???????? ???? ?????? ??????? ???????????????? ??????????? ?????????????????? ???? ??? ?? ?????????? «????????» ?????? ? ???????????? ???. ????? ??????????? ????
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?????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ??? ?????????????? ? ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ???????????, ????? ??? ???????? ?????? ? ???????????
??????????? ??? ??????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????? [3]. ??? ?????????? ????????
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??????
1. ?????????? ????????? ? ????? ?????? ????????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ????????????????? ?????. ?????????? ????????????? ?????????????
?????????????????? ???? (? ??? ????? ?? ???? ????????? ???? ? ???????????????? ?????????)
??? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ????????? ?????????????? ???? ?????????? ?????????? ? ????????
?????????? ? ?????? ????????? ??????.
# 212 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ?????. ??????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?? ????????????? ??????????????
2. ????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ???????, ???, ??????????, ????? ? ?????????? ??????????
????????? ?, ??? ?????????, ?????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????.
3. ?????????? ???? ????????????? ?????????? ??????????, ? ?????????????, ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ????????? ??????? 263,15 K (????? 10 °?). ??? ???????????
????????? ??????? 258,15 K (????? 15 °?) ??????? ?????????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????, ? ??? ????? ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????????.
?????? ??????????
[1] ???? 23-02-2003. ???????? ?????? ??????. ?.: ???????? ??????, ???? ???, 2003. 26 ?.
[2] ?? 23-101-2004. ?????????????? ???????? ?????? ??????. ?.: ???? ???, 2004. 140 ?.
[3] ???? 11024-84. ?????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ? ?????????????? ??? ????? ?
???????????? ??????. ????? ??????????? ???????. ?, 1985.
Influence Resistance heat Insulant Distribution
of Temperature Fields
in wall Fences Ventilated Facades
Rashit A. Nazirov and Timofey V. Belov
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
The results of calculation of temperature fields in the nodes of frame fi xing ventilated facade wall
enclosures. Found that increasing the resistance of heat transfer heat-insulating layer in the device
inside the wall structure helps to reduce the heat flow values and the increase in the local area of low
temperatures in the wall fence at fixing anchor.
Keywords: ventilated facades, mount hinged facade, the distribution of temperature field, thermal
resistance of the internal insulation.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 2 (2014 7) 214-221
~~~
??? 62-52; 51-74; 519.711.3
??????? ?????? ? ??????????
???????????? ??????????
?.?. ???????*, ?.?. ???????
??????? ??????????????? ???????????
??????, 634050, ?????, ??. ?????, 7
Received 02.02.2013, received in revised form 27.02.2013, accepted 24.12.2013
? ?????? ??? ???????? ???????? ??????? ? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????,
??????? ? ????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????. ???????????? ??????????
????????????? ?????????? ?????????, ??????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ??? ??? ???????
? ??????????. ?????????? ????????, ??? ????????????? S-????????? ??????? ??????? ?
?????????? ?????????????? ??????????????? ?????????, ? ????????? ?????????????
?????, ???????????? ????????? ???? ?????? ?????, ??? ??????????? ?? ????????????
??????????, ? ????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????????? (????????? ???????).
???????? ?????: ??????? ??????, ??????? ??????????, ??????????? ?????????.
????????
? ????????? ????? ?? ??? ??????? ????????? ? ??????????? ??????????????? ?????????,
? ????? ???????, ? ? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????????????? ??????? ? ? ??????, ?????????? ????????????? ? ?????????? ????? ? ????????????????? ??? ????????? ??????? ?
?????????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????????. ?????????, ?????????????? ??????
?????????? ? ???????????, ???????? ?????????? ?????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ????? ????? (???????) ? ???????? (??????????). ??? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ????????? ???? ??????????? ?????????, ??????????? ????????????
S-???????? ??????? ??????? ? ??????????.
???????????? ???????? ??????? ? ??????????
?? S-???????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ?
???????????? ? ????????? ??????? ? ????????? ????????? (???. 1).
S-???????? ??????? ??????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ???? ????????? ????????: ???
??????? ? ??????????????? ??????????, ??????? ? ? ?????????????. ??????? ???????????????? ????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ? ?????????????? ???????, ??????? ??????????????
????????? ? ? ????????.
??? ???????? ??? ????????? S-???????? ???????? ??????? ? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ????????? (????. 1).
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: kiu@tpu.ru
# 214 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
F??? , ??
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a??? ,
a0 ,
??
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T???? ,c??.
???. 1. ????? ??? ??????? ??????? (??????) ? ????????? (?????) ???????; ??????? ???????? ???? ????????? (??): F??? ? ?????????, F0 ? ?????????; ????????? ???????? ???? ????????? (??/?): ???? ? ?????????, ? 0 ? ?????????; ???????????? ??????? (?): T???? ? ?????, T1???? ? ??????? ???????, T2???? ? ?????????
???????, T3???? ? ???????? ???????
??????? 1. ????????? ??????? ??????? ? 0 ?? 5 ?? ? ?????????? ? 0 ?? 5 ?? ?? 2?
??? ?????????, ??????? ?????????
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????? ??????? ??????? S-????????? ??????? ???????
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????? ???????? S-????????? ??????? ???????
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????? ??????? ??????? S-????????? ??????? ??????????
T3????, % ?? T????
????? ???????? ??????? S-????????? ??????? ??????????
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?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????. ??????? ?????? ? ?????????? ?????????-??? ??????????
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a0 ,
??
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a??? ,
??
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T???? ,c??.
???. 2. ????? ??? ??????? ??????? (??????) ? ????????? (?????) ??????????; ???????????? ??????????
(?): T???? ? ?????, T1???? ? ??????? ???????, T2???? ? ????????? ???????, T3???? ? ???????? ???????
??? ????????? ??????? ??????? ? ??????????, ??? ??????? T1 = T3 = 0, ????????? ??
???. 1, 2 ?????????? ??????.
???????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? T???? ? ?????????? T???? ??????????? ?????????????, ?????? ? ?????? ??????? ??????? T???? ? ?????????? T????, ??????? ? ???????? ????????
??????? T1???? ? T3???? ? ??????? ? ???????? ???????? ?????????? T1???? ? T3????:
T???? = T???? ? (T1???? + T3????); T2???? = T???? ? (T1???? + T3????).
?????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ? ??????????
?????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ? 0 ?? 5 ?? ?? S-?????? ?? 2 ? ? ?????? ???????
??????? ??????? 0,4 ?, ? ???????? ? 0,6 ?. ?????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??
S-?????? ?? 2 ? ? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????? 0,6 ?, ? ???????? ? 0,4 ?.
???????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????????, ????????? ? ????. 2.
??? ????????????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ??????????????? ??????? ? ??????? ??????? ?? ???????? (??? ?? ??????? ? ?????? ???????) ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????????
# 216 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????. ??????? ?????? ? ?????????? ?????????-??? ??????????
F??? ?? ????????? ???????? ???????. ????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? (F??? = 0 ) ? ???????? ???????? (5 ??) ? ??????????? ?? ????. 2 ??????????? ?? ???. 4.
??? ??????? ??????? ????????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ???. 3.
??????? 2. ???????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ? ??????????
??????
F??? = 5,0
??????????
F??? = 0
T???? = 2,0
T1???? = 20; // (0,4 ?)
T???? = 2,0
T1???? = 30; // (0,6 ?)
F0 = 0,0
T3???? = 30; // (0,6 ?)
F0 = 5,0
T3???? = 20; // (0,4 ?)
5 ??
0 ??
20%
50%
30%
2 c??.
???. 3. ??????? ??????? ?? S-?????? ? 0 ?? 5 ?? ?? 2 ? (???????? ?????) ? ???????????? ? ???????????
?? ????. 2
5 ??
0 ??
30%
50%
20%
2 c??.
???. 4. ??????? ?????????? ?? S-?????? ? 5 ?? 0 ?? ?? 2 ? (???????? ?????) ? ???????????? ? ??????????? ?? ????. 2
# 217 #
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?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????. ??????? ?????? ? ?????????? ?????????-??? ??????????
??????? ?????? ? ?????????? ??????????????
????????????? ?????
?????????, ??????????? ???????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????????,
???????? ?????????????? ?? ??????? «??????????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ?????????».
??? ???????? ??????????? ? ???????? ???????????? ?????, ?? ??????????????? ???????????? ?? ????????? ??????, ? ?????? ? ?????, ??? ?????????? ?? ????????????? ??????? ??
????????? ?????????????. ??????? «??????????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ?????????»
?????? ????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ? ??????????????? ??????????????????. ??? ?????????, ????????? ????????????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ??????????,
???????? ?????????? ? ???????????, ????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ?????. ????????????? ?? ??? ?? ??? ???? ???????? ????????????, ???????????????, ???????????????????
? ????????????. ??? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ????? ?
???????? ????? ??????? ????????????? ???????????? S-???????? ??????? (???. 1).
????????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ??????????????
????????????? ?????
?? ????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ? ?????????? ???? ????????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????????? ????? [1].
?????? ?????????????? ??????? ?? ????????? ??????: ??????????? ????????? ? ???????????????? ???????, ???????? ???????, ???? ?????????? ? ???? ??????? ???????? (???. 5) [2].
???? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ???? ?????? ?????????
?? S-???????? ???????? (???. 6 ? 7). ??????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ??????????? ??
??????? ?????????? ??????? ? ??????? ??????????? (????????) (???. 7).
???. 5. ?????? ?????????????? ????????????? ????? ? ??????? Matlab / Simulink
# 218 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????. ??????? ?????? ? ?????????? ?????????-??? ??????????
50 Гц
0 Гц
0,4 сек.
0,6 сек.
1 сек.
2 cек.
???. 6. ??????? ??????? ??????? ????? ?? S-????????? ??????? ? 0 ?? 50 ?? ?? 2 ?
50 ??
5 ??
0 ??
0, 6 ???.
1 ???.
2 c??.
0,4 ???.
0, 45 ???.
0,75 ???.
0,3 ???.
1,5 c??.
???. 7. ??????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ?? S-??????
?? ? ???????????????? ??????? ????????? 7,5 ??? ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ????????, ?????? ?? ?????????????? ???????? (????? ?????? ????? ? ???????????).
?????????? ???????? ???????, ?????????????? ????? ??????????????? ???????, ? ??????????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ????????? ?????????
??????????.
? ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????????? ???? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????, ??????????? ? ?? ? ???????? ??? ??????? (???. 8).
# 219 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????. ??????? ?????? ? ?????????? ?????????-??? ??????????
???. 8. ?????? ?????????? ?????????????: ?) ???????? ??????? ? ??????? ???????? ???? ??????;
?) ???????????????? ??????; ?) ?????? ???
?)
?)
???. 9. ??????????????? ??????? «ESD-TCL» (??? «?????») (?), ????????????? ????? ? ???????????
???????? (?)
?? ???. 8 ??????????? ????????? ?????? ????????????????? ??????? ?????????, ? ?????
?????????? ???????????????? ????????? ??????????????? ? ????????? ????????? ????????
??????? ?????????????? ? ??? ??????????.
??? ?????? ? ??????????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ????? (???. 9). ?????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????? ???? ?????? ??
????? S-???????? ?????, ?????? ? ?????? ???????? ???????.
?????????? ??????????? ????????????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????????
??????? ??????? ???????? ???? ?????? ?? S-???????? ???????? ??????? ? ??????????.
??? ?????? ??? ?????????? ????? ????????????? ??????? ??????? ? ???????? ???????????.
# 220 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????. ??????? ?????? ? ?????????? ?????????-??? ??????????
???. 10. ??????? ???????? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ? ?????????? (????????? ????????????)
??????????
? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ? ??????????, ????? ??????????????? ????????, ??????????? ? ??????????? ?????????. ????????????? S-????????? ??????? ??????? ? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????????? ?????????
????????????? ????? ???????????? ????????? ???? ?????? ?????, ??? ??????????? ?? ???????????? ??????????, ? ????? ?? ??????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????????? (????????? ???????). ????????????? ???????? ????????????? ? ???????? ???????????? ???????????
??????????????? ??????? «ESD-TCL 7,5» ??? «?????».
?????? ??????????
[1] ?????? ?., ?????? ?., ????? ?. MATLAB 7 ? ????????????????, ????????? ??????.
???.: ???-?????????, 2005. 737 ?.
[2] ????????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ? ??. // ????????????. 2001 ? 2.
Smooth Starting and Smooth Stopping
of Industrial Mechanisms
Ivan Yu.Krasnov and Evgenii S. Goryunov
Tomsk Polytechnic University
7 Usova Str., Tomsk, 634050, Russia
At the present paper the algorithm of smooth starting and smooth stopping for the industrial
mechanisms, having at the structure asynchronous motors presented. Results of modeling of transitive
processes, proceeding in asynchronous motor are presented, during its starting and stopping. Results
have shown, that using of a S-shaped profile of starting and stopping of electric drive of the load-lifting
mechanism, in particular the passenger lift, provides smoothness of a motion of a cabin of the lift that
affects comfort of passengers, and also affects safety of mechanical parts of the equipment (a reducer
of a drive).
Keywords: smooth start; smooth stop; asynchronous motor.
# 221 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 2 (2014 7) 222-228
~~~
??? 004.3
?????????? ??????????????????
????????? ??????????
? ?????????????? ??????? ???????????
???????????????? ??????????????
?.?. ?????????*, ?.?. ????????, ?.?. ????????
?
??? «??? «??????????»,
??????, 660021, ??????????, ??. ???????????, 19
?
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
??????, 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
Received 17.10.2013, received in revised form 19.12.2013, accepted 01.03.2014
??????????? ??????????? ???????, ?????????????? ????????????? ??????????
????????????? ??? ??????????? ???????????? ? ??????????? ??????????????????
????????? ??????????. ???????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????????
??????????, ?????????? ??? ????????? ????????????? ?????? ? ???????????.
???????? ?????: ??????? ?????????? ???????, ?????????????????? ????????? ?????????,
??????? ?? ????????????, ??????, ???????????????? ?????????, web-?????.
????????
???????? ????????, ????? ? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ???
?????? ???? ????????????? ????????????. ? ?????????, ??? ????????? ??? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ??????????????, ?????????? ? ???????? ????? ????? ? ???????? ???????????? [1]. ??? ??????? ? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????? (???), ??????????, ????????????, ??????? ? ????????? ?????? (???)
???????????? ????????????. ??? ??????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ???????
???????, ?????????????? ????? ??????????-?????????? ?????????, ????????? ??? ?? ?????? ?????????? ????????????, ??? ? ?? ?????? ?????????? ??????? (Warehouse Management
System ? WMS) [2].
????????? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ?????:
1. ?????????? ????????? ????????. ?????????????????? ?????? ????????? ??????????
????????? ?????????????, ?????????? ????????? ?????????. ???????? ?????????
????? ??????? ????????, ??? ????????????? ???? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????? (?? 70 %) ?? ???? ?????????????? ???????????? ???*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: mkaz@mail.ru
# 222 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ???????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ???????????????
??? ??????????, ????? ??? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ??????????, ?
????? ????????????? ????????, ?????????? ?????? ?????, ?? ????????? ??????? ??????? ? ?????? ????????????? ? ????? 2,5 ??.
2. ?????????? ??????? ???????. ??????? ???????? ?? ???????? «????? ? ????????», ?. ?.
????????? ???????? ? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ?, ??? ?????????, ??????????? ??????? ??? ??????????.
3. ?????????????? ???????????????????? ???????. ???? ???????? ????? ???????, ???
?????? ? ???? ????? ???????? ?????? ????? ???? ??????, ??? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????????.
??? ????????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????, ???????????, ??? ? ??? ?? ??????????? ??? «??? «??????????» ???? ??????? ?????????????????? ????????? ?????????
????????? ???? Kardex Shuttle Xp [3]. ?????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ???????????, ????????? ?? ??????? ? ????????????????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????. ????????????? ????????? ???????? ? ??? ??????? ????? ?????, ??????? ?
????? ??????? ????????? ???? ??????????? ??????????????? ????????. ?????????? ?????
???????????? ????? ? ???? ???? ? ????????????? ?? ??? ???????????? ?????? ???????????.
?? ??????? ????????? ???? ???????????? ?? ??????, ?? ??????? ????????????? ????????? ??????, ?????????? ???????? ??? ? ???????? ?? ????. ????? ???? ???????? ? ???? ??????, ?????????? ?????? ?????? ? ??????????? ?? ??? ??????????? ?????????. ????? ???? ??? ????????
???????? ?????? ? ??????????? ?? ?????? ???????, ??????? ????????? ??? ????????????????? ???????? ? ???????? ???????, ???????? ?????? ?? ????? [3].
???????? ?????????????????? ????????? ????????? (???) ????? ???????????? ? ????
?????????????:
1) ? ????????? ?????? ???????????;
2) ? ?????? ??????????? ? ???????? ???? ?????? ? ???????? ????????? ? ??????
???;
3) ????????? ? WMS-????????.
???????? ???????? ? ?????? ??????????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????, ? WMS-??????? ?? ????????????? ??? ????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ??-?? ????, ??? ???????? ? ???? ??????? ?????????? ?????, ????????? ?????????? ?
????????????? ?????????? ????????? ? ?????????????? ????????????????? ? ???? ????????????. ??? ?? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ? ?? ????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ????????? ???????????. ?????????? ???????, ?????????????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ?????????????? ???????, ??????????????? ?? ?????????????
????????????. ? ????? ? ???, ??? ????????????? ??? ????????????? ???????? ??????????,
?????????? ??????????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ??????????, ???????????????? ?? ?????
???????????.
? ??????? ???????????? ??? ?? ??????????? ??? ???? ??????????? ? ???????? ???????
?????????? ???????, ??????? ???????? ?????????? ? ???????? ???????????? ? ??????????????? ???????????? [4], ? ????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ????? ????? 1?. ??????? ????????????? ??????????????? ?? ?????? ???? ??????????????? ? ??? ????????????? ???????????? ??????????.
# 223 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ???????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ???????????????
??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????
??? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? [5], ?????????????? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ?? ???? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ???. ? ???????????? WMS ????????? ??????????, ??????????? ????? ??????????? ????? WMS ? ??????
????????. ????? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ?? ???. 1.
??? ???????????? ??????? ??????????, ???????? ? ?????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??????. ?????????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ?? ???????
??????? ?? ????????????. ??????? ???????? ???????? ???? ??????????? ????????? ??????
(???, ?????????, ??????, ??????????) ??? ???????????? ???? ????????? ??????? ????????
??????????????? ? ??????????? ????????????. ??? ????????????? ?????????????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ???????????? ? ??????????? web-??????????, ?????
???? ?????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ? ??????? ? ???? ??????
? ??????? ? ???????????? ? ????????? ????????? ??? ??????? ??????????. ??????????????
????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????? get-????????
????????? http.
??? ???????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ? ??????????????
??????? ???????????? ???? MS SQL Server. ? ???? ??????, ??????????? ??? ?????? ???????
?????????? ???, ????????? ????????? ???????:
? ??????? ???????, ?????????? ????? ???????, ????? ??????????, ?????? ???????;
? ??????? ??????????, ? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ?????????, ??????? ??????????
????????? ? ???? ??????;
? ???????? ???????, ??????????? ??? ??????????? ???????;
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? ??????? ? ?????? ? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ?????????.
??? ??????? ???????????? ????????????: ?????? ???????, ???????? ????????????
?????????; ????????? ??????? ??????? ??????????, ?????????? ??????. ??????????? ????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ???, ? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ????? ?? ??? ?????????
??????? ????????? ????????. ????????? ???????, ? ?????????? ?? ??????????. ? ??????????
???????????? ????? ?????????? ???????, ? ?????????? ??????? ?? ??????. ? ???? ?????? ????????? ?????? ??????. ??? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ?????????
???. 1. ????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????
# 224 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ???????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ???????????????
?????????? ???????????? ????????? ???????, ??? ?? ??????? ????????????? ????????? ???????, ??? ????????? ????????? ????????? ????? ??????. ?? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ? ????????????? ????????? ?????? ?
????????, ???? ??????? ???????????? ? ????. ???? ?????? ? ?????????? ? ?????? ??????????
??????? ???????????, ?? ???????????? ????? ?????????? ???????. ??? ????????????? ????????? ?????? ? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ??????????, ???? ????? ??????? ??? ?? ?????????. ???? ??????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ? ???????, ?? ?? ????????? ?????? ??????????
?????????? ??? ?? ?????, ? ???? ?????? ???????? ??????.
?????????????? ????????? ? ????????
?????????? ???????????????? ?????????, ??????????????? ??? ?????????? ???, ??????????? ???????????? ??????.
WMS ???????? ????????? ??????????, ?????? ? ??????? ?????????????? ? ???????
??????, ????????????? ?? ??????? ??????:
? ?????? ??????????;
? ?????????;
? ??????????????? ?????.
? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ???? ????????? ????????? ??????????:
? ????? ????????? ????;
? ?????????? ???????.
? ??????????, ?????????? ? ??, ???????? ?????????????? ???????. ??? ?????????
??????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ???? ?? ????????, ??????? ??????????, ??? ???
??????? ????????? ?????? ?? ????????. ?????? ????????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????
?? ???. 2.
???????? ????? ? ???????? ????? ???????, ???????????? ?? ???. 3.
???????????? ???????? ????? ?????????? (???) ? ? ??????? ??????? ?????-????? ?????????? ???? ? ????????? ???? ?????? ??????? ? ?????????, ??????? ???????? ??????????? ??
???. 4.
????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????, ???? ??? ???????? ?????????? ??????????????? ???????. ?????? ??????????? ???????? ?? ???. 5.
???. 2. ????? ????????? ???? ?? ???????
# 225 #
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?.?. ????????, ?.?. ???????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ???????????????
???. 3. ????? ????? ???????
???. 4. ?????? ?????????, ???????????? ??????? ?? ????????????
???. 5. ??????????? ???????
??? ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ????? «????????????? ????????? ???????», ????? ???? ????? ????????? ???????????? ?????-????? ??????????. ???????, ????????? ??? ???????????, ???????????? ? ???????. ???? ??????????? ?? ????????.
??? ??????? ?????? «????????????? ? ?????????» ????????? ????? ???????????? ???????,
??????? ??????????? ? ????????? ?????????? ? ??????????.
????? ?????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ?? ????????, ?????????? ?????????
?????????? ? ???????. ?????????? ???? ???????? ????????? ?? ???. 6. ??? ???????? ????????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????? ????? ? ??????????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?? ????????.
??? ????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????????? ??? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ??????, ?
????????? ? ??????, ?????????, ? ????? ????????? ?????????? ??????, ? ? ????? ?????????.
?? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ?????, ??????, ????????? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ???????? ?
# 226 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ???????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ???????????????
???. 6. ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ???????
???. 7. ?????? ???????? ????????
??????? ? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????, ??????? ?????????? ????????
?????????.
? ??????? ??????? ?????-????? ???????? ?????? ????? ???????? ????????, ??? ?????
??????????? ????????? ?????? ? ??? ? ????????????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ???????. ???????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ???. 7.
????????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ??? ??????????. ??? ???????
?????? «??????» ?????????? ????? ????? ??????? ? ???????, ?????????? ?????????? ?? ????? ??????, ??????????? ? ???? ??????, ? ???????????? ???????????????? ?? ??????????
????? ? ????? ?????? ???????. ??? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ???
????? ???????? ?????-????? ??? ????????? ??????????. ?????????? ???????? ? ??? ??????, ??
??????? ??? ???? ????????, ??? ??? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????.
??????????
? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ???????????? ??????,
????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????, ??????? ????????? ???????????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ???????. ????????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ?????????????? ???? ?????????
??? ? ??????? ? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ???????, ??? ????
??????????? ???????? ????? ????????????? ????????????.
# 227 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ???????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ???????????????
?????? ??????????
[1] ?????? ?. ?. // ????? ? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????. 2010. C. 136-137.
[2] ???? ?????? ? ??????? ???????? WMS ? ?? ????????????? ????????? ??????????????
? ????????? Fraunhofer (Fraunhofer Institute for Material Flow and Logistics) (????????) ? http://
www.warehouse-logistics.com/3/3/wms-online-selection.html
[3] Kardex Remstar Shuttle XP ? http://www.kardex-remstar.ru/fileadmin/user_upload/ kardexremstar/ pdf-new-03-2012/ ru/ Kardex_Remstar_ShuttleXP_RU_low.pdf
[4] ???????? ?.?. // ??????? ??????. ? 4 (50) 2013, ?. 27-32.
[5] ???????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. // ????????????? ? ???. ???. ????????? ??? ???
? 2013619118 ?? 25 ???????? 2013.
Integration Automated Storage
into Information System
of Electronic Factory
Mikhail ?. Kazantceva,
Alexander I. Legalov and Igor V. Chemidovb
a
JSC «NPP «Radiosvyaz»,
19 Dekabrystov, Krasnoyarsk, 660021, Russia
b
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
b
In this article describes a comprehensive solution that provides automated preparation of components
for production with the use of automated warehouses and architecture of in-house software, created
to improve the efficiency of the complex.
Keywords: warehouse management system, automated storage, workpiece kitting task, server,
graphical user interface, web-form.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 2 (2014 7) 229-234
~~~
??? 620.162: 62-9
The Laboratory Equipment
for the Prompt Functional Properties Measurement
of Electrocontact Materials
Victor V. Ivanov, Andrey V. Sidorak,
Aleksandr ?. Shubin* and Igor N. Kotlyarov
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
Received 12.11.2013, received in revised form 18.02.2014, accepted 03.03.2014
The automated laboratory equipment for efficient interrupting electrocontact materials testing
with respect to their general functional properties during their development and/or improvement
is presented. The equipment for estimating erosion resistance, transient resistance of loaded pair
contacts and also welding resistance during on-off cycles by break force measurement (380/220 V,
current is 15-30 ?, power factor ?=0.8, frequency of on-off cycles is 0.01-10 Hz, controlled duty cycle).
The equipment control, monitoring, recording and primary processing of parameters taken from the
detecting device are performed using specialized software. The equipment was tested on two type
contact materials, Ag and Ag/(15%CdO). The results and appropriate correlation are presented in this
article.
Keywords: automated laboratory bench, contact resistance, arc erosion performance, electrical
conduction measuring.
Introduction
Control and operative assessment of the functional material properties is required at studying new
materials. Presence of the measuring means in the form of the specialized laboratory benches allows
to effectively and operatively solving a problem of the material synthesis with demanded properties.
In development and perfection of the new serial electrocontact materials there is a problem of the
operative estimation of the basic functional properties of the materials for the purpose of culling and
making of corrections in the composition and technology. Serial equipment for measurements of the
electrocontact material functional properties is practically absent. It is a serious obstacle for studying
such materials.
The main causes of the interrupting contacts failure in switching low-voltage electrical equipment
working in air (as a part of the automatic circuit breaker, contactors, solenoid starters, relays) are:
oxidation of the contact surfaces and formation a low conductive layers of operation that is
characteristic for materials with the significant content of the ignoble components;
wear of contact elements under the influence of an electric arc ? spark erosion;
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: Ashubin@sfu-kras.ru
# 229 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Victor V. Ivanov, Andrey V. Sidorak? The Laboratory Equipment for the Prompt Functional Properties Measurement?
welding of contacts (including so-called ?cold welding? and welding under the influence of
electric arc of interruption).
Therefore, testing of such indicative characteristics as long stability of intercontact resistance in
the loaded contact pairs, electric wear resistance of a contact material and resistance to welding are
necessary.
We developed and used the laboratory bench for measurement of erosion properties of materials,
contact resistance on working contacts in the presence of ?operation layers? and resistance to welding
during performance of cycles I-O (input ? output). The detailed description of this equipment is
presented below.
The similar equipment for the certification of electrical contacts is represented in [1-4]. One used
for testing as at ac voltage (U=220V and I=20A [2] or 90A [3]) and other at dc voltage [4], but at much
lower voltage, 42V.
The bench for measurement of properties
of electric-contact materials
Main purpose of the equipment: the control of a transitional voltage drop on working contacts
(in the presence of ?operation layers?), the evaluation of erosion properties of materials (the erosive
wear as a result of the arc breaking), as well as the resistance to contact welding during repeated I-O
cycles. This bench imitates the work of the AC contactor (general diagram of installation is similar
to that described in [1]). The electrical scheme of the bench for measurement of erosion properties of
materials is given in Fig. 1. The bench consists of 3 parts: power block, I-O device of testing contact
tips and control block.
The power block involves an isolating transformer T1 (380/380V, 30 A), a ballast choke L1 with
the value of inductance of 30 mH, the rated current is 30A and rheostat R1, with the aid of which the
current control is produced. In the power block the contactor CM1 is also mounted, with the aid of
which turning off of the voltage supplied to the contact tips is carried out.
Fig. 1. The block-scheme of the equipment
# 230 #
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Victor V. Ivanov, Andrey V. Sidorak? The Laboratory Equipment for the Prompt Functional Properties Measurement?
The control block includes the shunt R2, where according to a voltage drop the current magnitude
passing through the contact pair is determined. The electromagnet M1 closes and breaks the contact pair
moving a mobile contact. The analog-to-digital converter represents 2 modules (made by Advantech)
for measuring the temperature and voltage and a module of strain gauge by means of which the effort
of pressing and breaking of contacts is defined. The digital-to-analog converter represents the module
of a discrete output of data (made by Advantech).
The bench is the independent system implementing the mode of repeated I-O cycles of the contact
pair. The control of transient resistance (with user-defined periodicity) and overheat temperature of
tested contacts is performed. The bench control is carried out by means of the specialized software.
This software allows to control and store data, time and force from the strain gauges. It also allows
to switch off equipment at the end of the experiment and in case of overheating of contact tips and to
specify operating frequency.
The main characteristics of the bench
1. Standard size of contact tips for a tested material is PP0820 (d= 8 mm, h= 2-3 mm).
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Voltage on contacts ? variable, 380 V, 50 Hz.
AC rated current of test is 15-30 A.
Power factor is fixed, ?=1-0.3.
Contacting by an electromagnet. The contact breaking by a spring with adjustable effort.
The intercontact distance is regulated in the range of 0?15 mm.
The operating frequency is specified in the range of 0.01 to 10 Hz. The load cycle is changing
with a maximum load of 50 % (0.25 s ON and 0.25 s OFF) at the unlimited minimum
value.
8. Total number of I-O cycles in the test is adjustable; automatic switching-off after completion
of the expected number of cycles.
9. Work of mechanical system (I-O) occurs both when the AC circuit is switched on and without
operating current.
10. Switching on AC is carried out at the opened contacts or simultaneously with the starting of
the electromagnet.
11. Measurement of transient resistance is made at AC.
12. Sequence of measurements of transient resistance is made automatically with the set number
of I-O cycles after several I-O cycles at no-load operation. The transient resistance is estimated
as an average value from several measurements (the divergence of measured values is also
fixed).
13. The information is loaded into a data file. It is compatible with the ?MS Excel? program in
which processing of results is made. The interface to a computer ? RS232.
14. The measurement of erosive wear is made via the weighing of contact tips with the holders on
the analytical balance before and after of tests.
The photographs of installation, contacts and control block are given in Fig. 2. In actual
measurements the force of clamping of contacts was 10 N. This duty ratio is possible because of
low current on which the testing is carried out, the current that does not cause strong heating of
contacts.
# 231 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Victor V. Ivanov, Andrey V. Sidorak? The Laboratory Equipment for the Prompt Functional Properties Measurement?
Fig. 2. The elements of the laboratory equipment for measuring the erosion wear of contact materials: a ? the main
frame of the bench, b ? the control block, c ? the element of the device for fastening and moving the contact tips
and view of a contact surface after testing
The transient resistance was measured after every 100 I-O cycles, the total number of cycles of
the experiment was usually 10000 times that is sufficient for the evaluation of the erosion wear for
non-optimized materials.
Example of received data
For illustration of test equipment (laboratory benches) exploration, silver samples which were
made with powder metallurgy method and industrially manufactured widely used ? Ag/15CdO. The
comparison of the results is represented in the Fig. 3-5.
Results demonstrate positive influence of CdO additive on erosion resistance of arcing
electrocontacts. Difference is measured more than one degree in mass loss. Observations, including
visual, show that after about 1000 I-O cycles all work surfaces had contact with arc (Fig. 3). That
point explains abrupt rise of wear rate in the beginning for silver contact surface. Surface, which has
interaction with arc, has a layer development. This layer is hardened with oxides and tempering. Then
presence of such layer leads to linear rising of wear from I-O cycles number.
The rates of electrocontacts from I-O cycles number are represented in the Fig. 4, and demonstrate
the material tendency to welding. The break force rates of silver pair reduce about up to 1000 I-O
cycles, what is explained with running-surface of electrocontacts. As opposed to silver contacts, SCO15 has higher gap force rate (Ag ~3N, Ag/15CdO ~6N)
Variation dependence of contact resistance R i on I-O cycles number is shown in Fig. 5. For contact
pair containing silver Ri value rises after two first tens I-O cycles and further possess the value about
# 232 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Victor V. Ivanov, Andrey V. Sidorak? The Laboratory Equipment for the Prompt Functional Properties Measurement?
Fig. 3. Dependence of mass loss from number of the
I-O cycles for Ag and Ag/(15CdO)
Fig. 4. Dependence of the break force from number of
the I-O cycles for Ag and Ag/15CdO electrocontacts
?)
b)
Fig. 5. Contact resistance for a symmetrical contact pair: ? ? Ag, ? ? Ag/15CdO
0,012-0,015 ?m. The intermediate resistance value of Ag/15CdO possess the value Ri = 0,003 ?m, that
is considerably lower than for pure silver, although resistivity of composite considerably higher [5].
Lower intermediate resistance for Ag/15CdO apparently is provided with inclination to welding, what
entails better contact of the electrocontact's surface opposed silver pair.
Conclusions
The laboratory bench for efficient interrupting electrocontact materials testing with respect to
their general functional properties during their development and/or improvement is presented. The
main properties of materials for testing are: transient voltage drop on closed contacts under the rated
current; erosion wear resistance, break force. This equipment was tested on traditional contact materials
# 233 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Victor V. Ivanov, Andrey V. Sidorak? The Laboratory Equipment for the Prompt Functional Properties Measurement?
and it was used for comparison test of new materials to form corrective actions to composition or
technology.
Measurement of the whole range of functional properties of the material at the same time provides
the profound knowledge of the nature of each property. This knowledge allows conscious controlling
of chemical and phase composition of the electrocontact material.
References
[1] Guerlet J.P., Ladenise H., Lambert C.A. // Electrical contacts. 1984. P. 525-530.
[2] Streicher E., Leung C., Fitzgerald D. // 54th IEEE Holm Conference, 27-29 October 2008,
Orlando, FL, USA, 2008. P. 301-307.
[3] Dongwei Li, Zhengxiang Song, Jianhua Wang et. al. // 55th IEEE Holm Conference, 14-16
September 2009, Vancouver, British Colombia, Canada, 2009. P. 7-12.
[4] Sekikawa Junya, Kubono Takayoshi // 53th IEEE Holm Conference, 16-19 September 2007
Pittsburgh, PA, USA 2007. P. 275-279.
[5] Rцhberg J., Honig T., Witulski N. et. al. // 55th IEEE Holm Conference, 14-16 September 2009,
Vancouver, British Colombia, Canada, 2009. P. 187-194.
???????????? ?????
??? ?????? ??????????????
??????? ??????????
????????? ????????????????
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ???????,
?.?. ?????, ?.?. ????????
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
??????, 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
??????????? ?????????????????? ???????????? ????? ??? ???????????? ????????????
?????????? ????????? ???????????????? ?? ???????? ?????????????? ????????? ???
?? ?????????? ?/??? ?????????????????. ???????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????????
?????????????, ?????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ????, ? ????? ??????
?????????? (??????????? ?????? ?????? ???????) ? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ??????
?????????-?????????? (380/220 ?, ??? 15-30 ?, ??????????? ???????? ?=1-0,3, ???????
?????? ?-? 0,01-10 ??, ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????). ??????????
?????????????, ???????? ???????? ????????????, ??????????? ? ????????? ?????????
?????? ?????????????? ? ??????? ??????????????????? ???????????? ???????????.
????? ??????????? ?? ???? ????????????, ? ????? ????? ??????????????? ??????????.
??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?? ??????? ???????????? ????????????? ????????
?????????? ???????? Ag ? Ag/15CdO ? ???????????? ?????????? ?????.
???????? ?????: ????????????????? ????????, ????????? ???????????????,
?????????????? ????????, ???????????? ?????, ?????????????, ?????????? ?????????????,
?????? ??????????.
# 234 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 2 (2014 7) 235-247
~~~
??? 378:62(571)
???? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????
? ????????? ???????
? ????????????? ?????????
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ??????????*
????????? ??????????? ???????????
??????, 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
Received 12.11.2013, received in revised form 28.11.2013, accepted 15.12.2013
? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ? ????????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ????????
?????????? ???????????? ? ??????? ??????? ? ??????????, ???????? ???????? ???????
???????? ????????????, ????????? ?????? ???? ??? ?????? ????????, ??????????? ??????
???? ? ???? ???????.
???????? ?????: ???????? ?????????? ?????????, ?????? ????, ?????? ??????????
???????????.
???????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ????????? ??? ???????? ? ??????? ??????????? ????????, ????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????, ???????????????, ????????????? ? ??????????????? ???, ????????????????? ?????????? ?????????????????????? ???????????. ??? ?????? ??????????????? ????????, ??????????? ? ?????
???????????? ?????????????? ?????????. ????? ?? ???????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ?
????? ??????? ?????? ???? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ?
??????? ??????? ? ??????????.
??????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ????: ? ???????????, ? ?????????????, ? ?????????????? ?????, ? ???????????. ??? ??????????? ????????? ???????????,
??????? ?????????? ? ????: ??????? ? ??????????? ????????, ???????????? ??????????????????? ??????????????? ????????, ???????????? ????????? ? ???????????, ???????????
???? ?????????, ??????? ??????? ????? ?? ?????? ??????????????? ?????, ???????? ???????????????? ??????????? ?????? ? ??. ????????? ????????????? ???????? ?? ?? ??????
?? 2020 ???? (?????????? ????????????? ????????????? ?? ?? 17 ?????? 2008 ?. ? 1662-?)
???????????????, ??? ? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ? ????????????
????? ??????????????? ???? ????????????? ??????, ?????????? ?? ????????????? ????????
?????????? ? ??????? ?????????????, ??????????? ? ??????????????. ? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????, ????? ??????? ?????????? ? ????????????, ? ??????? ???????????
???????????.
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: MasalskyGB@mail.ru
# 235 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ??????????. ???? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ? ????????? ????????
? ???????????? ? ????????? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ????? ????????? ????????
??????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??? ???????, ??? ? ?????????? ????????
[1]. ? ???????? ??????? ????? ?????????: ??????? ? ????????????? ????????? ? ?????????,
?????????? ???? ? ?????????? ???????????; ??????????????? ????????; ??????????????? ????;
?????????? ???????; ??????????????? ??????? ? ??????????; ??????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ????? ? ???????????; ???????? ?????????? ????????????; ??????? ???????? ?
???????? ? ??? ??????. ????? ??????? ????????, ??????? ???????????? ??????????????, ?????????? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ?? ??????????? ???????????????? ??????, ????????????
??????????? ?????????, ?????????? ? ??????????? ? ???????????? ?? ??????? ?????? ? ??.
????? ?????????? ???????? (??????? ????): ????????????????? ?????? ? ?????, ????????? ??
????, ????????????? ??? ????????????? ? ?????????????? ? ????????? ????? ?????????????;
???????? ????????; ???????? ????????????-?????????????????? ???????; ???????? ??????????????? ???????? ? ??????????????? ?????; ??????? ?????????????? ? ???????? ????????????? ?
????????; ????????????? ??????? ???????? ? ??????? ?????????? ????? ? ??.
??????? ?????? ????? ?? ?????? ???????: ????? ????????? ????? ??? ???????? ? ???????????? ? ???????? ?? ?????????? ????????????; ???????? ??????-??????-????????????????
?????????; ??????? ?? ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ? ?????? ????????????;
???????????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ?????? smart-??????????,
???????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ??????????; ????????? ?????? ?????????????????????????????? ??????????????? ????????, ??????????????? ? ??????? ????????????????????? ????????????; ??????? ?? ?????????????-??????????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ? ????????? ??????; ???????? ??????? ????????????? ???????;
???????????? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????
????? ? ?????? ?????????? ????????; ???????? ?????? ???????????????-???????????? ???????????? ????????.
?? ???? ???? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????????, ???????????? ?? ?????? ?? ???????????? ??????????????? ?????? ? ??????, ?? ? ?????? ???????????, ??????????????? ?? ??????? ?? ?????????? ?? ???????? ??? ???????? ????? ??????????????????? ??????? ? ??????????. ?????????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ? ???????? ???????????????
????????: ???????????????? ????? ???????????? ????????, ????????? ???????? ???????????
??????????????? ???????. ??? ???????, ??????????????? ??????????????, ????????????? ?
?????????????? ?????????????? ???????, ??????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????????
????. ???????????? ?????? ???????? ? ???????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ????????, ??????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? [2]. ?????????? ??????? ?????????????
??????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? Internet ?????????? ? ???????? Web 2.0 ? Web 3.0 ??? ???????? ???????? ? ??????? ???????? ???????????????? ???.
??????? ????????? ? ????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ???????????:
? ???????????? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ? ?????? ?????????? ????????, ??????? ??????? ?? ????????? ???????
(??????? ???????? ??????);
? ????????, ???????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????????????? ???????? (??);
# 236 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ??????????. ???? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ? ????????? ????????
? ?????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ????????, ?????????? ? ???????? ??????????????? ?????? ???????? ?? ???? ????????? ??????? (ISO, EFQM, ENQA ? ??.);
? ???????? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ????????;
? ??????? ????????????? ?????? ???????????????-???????????? ???????????? ??;
? ?????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ??????????, ????????????
?????????? ? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ??;
? ????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ????????;
? ????????????? ???????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ? ????????????? ?????? ??????
????????????? ? ?????????? ?? ???????;
? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??? ? ???????????;
? ????????????????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ?? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? (???????????? ????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ? ?????????);
? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ? ????? ??????? ???????? ???????????.
?? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????
? ?????? ??????????? (ENQA) ???? ??????????? «????????? ? ????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ???????», ??????? ???????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ? ??????? ?????? ? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ? ????????????
??????????? ????????, ???????????? ??????? ???????? ???????????. ??????? ???????? ????
? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ENQA, ??????? ??????????????? ? ??????
?????????? ????????????, ???????? ??? ??????????: ??????????? ????????, ?????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ???????? [3].
?????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????:
? ????????, ???? ? ?????? ???????? ???????? ????????????????? ??????????? ? ????;
? ?????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ? ???? (????????? ??; ?????????? ? ??????????
??????????? ????????????? ??? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????);
? ?????????? ? ???????????? ??????????????? ?????;
? ?????????? ? ??????????? ??????????????? ?????;
? ????????????????? ????????? ?????????.
?????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????:
? ?????????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????????, ?????????????? ??????????
?????????;
? ?????????? ? ??????????? ???? ? ?????? ????? ????????????;
? ?????????? ? ??????????? ??????????;
? ????????????????? ????????? (??????????) ????????? ?????????? ?????????.
?????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????:
? ?????????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????????, ?????????????? ??????????;
? ?????????? ? ???????? ??????? ???????????;
? ?????????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ? ?????? ????? ????????????;
? ?????????? ? ??????????? ???????????;
? ????????????????? ???????? (???????????) ????????? ???????????.
# 237 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ??????????. ???? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ? ????????? ????????
? ????????? ????? ??????????? ??????????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????, ??????????? ?? ???????????? ??????????? ???? ??? ????? ????????????? ??????????. ???
?????????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???? ????????????? ?? ????????????? ????????? ???
????? 9000 ? ????????? ? ??????????? ENQA.
??????????? ???????? ??????????? ? ???? ? ??? ??? ????????????, ??????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????????, ???????? ????????, ?????? ??????????? ??????, ?????????????????????? ????, ?????????? ??????? ? ??., ? ????? ?????????? ????????? [4]. ??? ??????????? ????????? ??????????????? ?????? ? ???? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????,
???????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ? ???????? [5]. ??? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????? ??????????, ?????????? ?? ?????? ???????????????? ????????.
????????????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????, ???????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ?????? ?????, ???????????? ?????????????
??????????? (??? ????? ? ???????????? ???????? ???????????) ? ??????????? ????? ?? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? (??? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????) [6]. ??????????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????????? ???????? ????????
? ????????? «EUR-ACE ???????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????».
??????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? (????) ??? ?????? ???????? ??????????????? ???????? ? ????? ?????? ???????????????? ????? (??). ???????? ??????????????????????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ??????? ??????? ? ??????????, ????????????
??, ??????????????? ? ?????? ??????????? ????????????? ? ??????? ????????? ????????
??????? ???????????. ???????? ????:
? ???? ?????????;
? ?????????? ?????????;
? ???????? ? ??????? ???????;
? ????????????-????????????????? ??????;
? ?????????? ? ???????????????? ????????????;
? ???????????-??????????? ????;
? ?????????????? ???????????;
? ??????? ? ??????????;
? ??????????.
???????????? ???????? ???????? ???? ? ???????? ????????????????????? ???????????
???????????? ???????????? (???????????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?????, ????????????? ?????????? ? ??????????????? ?????).
???????? ???????? ? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ?????: ???????????? ????????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ???????????, ??????????????? ?? ??????????????? ????????, ?????????? ??????? ?????? ?????, ? ????????????
?????????????, ??????????????? ?? ????????? ????? ?????, ????????? ?????????? ???????
? ??????????? ???????? ?????; ???????????? ? ????????????? ? ???????????? ??????????; ???????????? ? ???????????-??????????? ???? ??????-???????? ???????? ? ????????? ????????????? ????. ????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ????? ????????: ?????????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????, ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????????
# 238 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ??????????. ???? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ? ????????? ????????
? ???????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ??????, ????????????????? ????????????????
?????????? ??? ??????????? ????????, ????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ? ?.?. [7].
????????? ? ?????????, ??????? ?? ????? ??????????????? ??????, ????? ?????????
??????? ???? ?? ???????????? ? ????????? ???????????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????
?????????? ??????????? ?????, ??????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ? ??????????????????????? ???????????. ???????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ????????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ???? ?????????? ??????? ? ?????? ???? ?????? ?????????? ????? ???????????
?????????, ?????? ? ?????????. ?????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ? ????????? ????????????? ??????? ??? ????????? «CDIO Initiative». ?????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ????????????
??????? ????? ??????? ? ?????????. ? ?????? ????????? CDIO (Conceive ? Design ? Implement ?
Operate) ????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ? ??????????? ??????????
????????????, ?? ???? ????????? «?????????? ? ????????????? ? ??????????? ? ?????????»
[8]. ??? ? ?????? ??? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ????????????? ????????
????????? ? ?? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????, ????????????? ????????????, ????????????????, ?????????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ????????. ???????? ????? ?????????????
???????? ?? ????????-??????????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ???????????-??????? ?????????.
??????? ????????, ??? ????????? CDIO ?????? ??????????????? ? ?????????? ????? ? 6080-? ????? ? ?????? ????????????? ????? ? ?????????????. ?????????? ?????????? ????????
??????? ???????????? ???????????, ?????????? ???, ??????????????, ?????????? ? ?????????.
???????????? ??? ??? ?????? ?????????? (???. 1) ? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????, ????? ???????? ???????? ?????????,
???????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ???????????.
???. 1. ??? ??? ?????? ??????????
# 239 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ??????????. ???? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ? ????????? ????????
??????????? ??????????? (???????) ????????:
U1 ? ????? (???????????, ????????????, ????????????? ? ???????) ?? ??????????, ?????????????? ? ????????? ???????????? ????????????, ??????? ????? ?????? ??????????, ????????, ???/???;
U2 ? ????? ?????????????? ???????????????? ???????? (????????????, ?????????????,
???????? ? ???????), ???.;
U3 ? ????? ?????????????? ??????-????????????? ???????? (????????????, ?????????????, ???????? ? ????????????), ???.;
U4 ? ??????????-???????? ???? ????????????, ?????????????, ???????? ?????? ? ?????????? ??????? (??????????????? ??????????????? ?????????, ???????????????? ? ???????????? ??????????, ????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????????, ?????? ? ???????
?????????-??????????????? ????????????, ????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????????);
U5 ? ????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ???????????? ? ???????????????? ???????????, ? ??? ????? ???????? ???????????.
??????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ????? U?? (??????????) ??????? ? ?????????????? ??????????? ????????, ??????????? ??????????-???????????????? ????????????,
??????????? ????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ? ?????? L ? ??????? ???????????, ??????????? ? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ? ???????? ????????.
?????????????? ????????? ???????, ?? ????????? ? ????, ????? ????????:
Z1 ? ??????? ???? ????????????, ??????????? ?? ???? ??????? ????????????, ?????????????, ???????? ??????? ? ???????;
Z2 ? ????? ??????????? ???????????, ???.;
Z3 ? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ? ???????????? (????????????? ????? ?????), ???/
???;
Z4 ? ????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ? ???????, ???/???;
Z5 ? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ????? ? ???????, ???/???. ? ???;
Z6 ? ????? ?? ??????-????????????? ?????????? (????????????? ??????-?????????????
?????), ???/???;
Z7 ? ???????? ? ??????? ??????-?????????????? ?????, ???.;
Z8 ? ???????? ? ??????? ?????????????-???????????????????? ???????, ????/???.;
Z9 ? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ??????? (??????????????? ????? ?????????);
Z10 ? ??????? ????????????????? ????????? ??????-??????????????? ???????????? (?????, ?????, ????????? ????????, ?????????????? ?????? ? ?.?.).
????????? ???? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????????????, ??????-????????????? ?
????????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? Sij, ??????? ?????????????? ????????? ??????? ? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????????? U??(t) ? Z(t). ? ?????????? X(t) ??????? ???????:
X1 ? ??????????? ?????????, ????????? ?? ???? ??????? ????????????, ?????????????,
???????? ??????? ? ??????????? ??????? ??????? (???????? ? ?????? ???????????? ??????),
???.;
X2 ? ??????? ??????????? ?????????, ????;
X3 ? ??????? ?? ??????????? ?????????, ???.;
# 240 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ??????????. ???? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ? ????????? ????????
X4 ? ???????????-??????????? ???? ???????????????, ??????-????????????? ? ????????????? ???????????? ????, ???.;
X5 ? ????? ??? ? ???, ??????? ? ??????????????? ????????, ???.;
X6 ? ??????? ??????? ??? ? ???, ??????? ? ??????????????? ????????, ???.
? ????????????????? ??????????? W(t) ????? ???????:
? ?????????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????????;
? ???????????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ??? ???????;
? ???????????????.
?????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ???? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ????
?????????? L.
? ??????????? ???????????? ???? ????? ???????:
Y1 ? ????? ??????????? ????, ???/???;
Y2 ? ????? ??????????? ??????-????????????? ??????????, ???/???;
Y3 ? ????? ???????????? ?????? ???????????? (?.?.?., ?.?.?.), ???/???;
Y4 ? ????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????????? ???????????, ?????????????? ? ????????? ????????????, ???/???;
Y5 ? ????? ??????-???????????? ??????????, ? ??? ????? ???????????, ???. ??????/???;
Y6 ? ?????? ?????????? ????????????-????????????? ????????????, ? ??? ????? ? ?????????????, ??????? (?????????, ???????, ??????????, ??????????? ???????????, ?????????
? ?.?.), ???/???;
Y7 ? ?????????-???????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? (???????? ????? ???? ??????
?????? ?????????????? ? ??????? ???????????? ????), ??????????????/???;
Y8 ? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? (???????? ????? ???? ?????? ??????
???????????), ???????????/???.
??????????? ??????? ? ???????? ?????????? ???? ? ?????? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ????:
?
?? ? ?????? ??? ? ? ? ?
? ?,
? ? ?????? ? ?
(1)
??? A(X, Z) ? ??????? ???????, b ? ?????? ????????????? ????? ?? ??????; F(X) ? ?????????
?????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????, V ? ??????.
??? ?????? (1) ???????? Z-???????????????, ????? ???????? ????? Z (????????, ????? ?????? Z1 ? Z4), ??? ?? ???????? ?????? ?????????? U ??? ?????????? ???????????? ???? L. ????
????? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ??? ???????????? ???????? U ? ??????????????? ?????
Z, ?? ??????? L-???????????????. ?????????? ????????? ?????? (1) ?????????? ???????????
?????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????. ????????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????????? ???????????.
?????? ???? ? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?????, ?????????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????????, ????????,
????????. ?????????? ? ????????? ????? ??????? ? ????? ??????? ??????????? ???????
? ????????????? ? ?????????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????. ??????? ???????? ????? ?
??????? ????????? ??????????? ?? ???????. ?????????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ?
# 241 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ??????????. ???? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ? ????????? ????????
?????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ???????????? ??????????. ???????? ????????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????, ? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????????? ? ????????????, ??????????? ?????????? ??????.
????????? ?????? ???????? ???????????????? ???????????? ?? ???????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ????????? ?? ? ???????, ??? ????? ?? ??????????? ??????.
???????? ???? ? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ? ???????????? ???????, ??????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ????????? 5-?? ? 6-?? ???????????????? ??????, ?????????????????? ?????????????
????????? ?????????????.
???????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ? ??????, ??????? ?????????????? ? ?????? ?????????????? ??????? ???????????? ? ????????????
? ?? ????? ?????????? ?????????.
???????????? ??????????? ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ????????? ? ??????? ????????????
???????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ? ?????? ??????-???????????? ???????? ????????
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?? ??????, ??????? ???????????? ? ??????????.
????????? ????? ????????? ????? ???? ?????? ?????????? ???????????, ??? ????????
?????? (1), ?????????????? ? ???? ??????????? ????? ?? ???. 2.
?? ?????? (???. 2) ???????, ??? ????? ??????????? ????????? (X1) ? ??????? ???????????
(X2) ? ??????? (X3) ??????? ?? ????????? ??????? X k = (X3, X4, X5, X6) ? ?????????? (Z). ?????
?1 ? ?????????? ???????, ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????, ? ? ????????
???????, k(?) ? ???????????? ????????.
??? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? Z1 ? ?????? ????????? ????????? ???????
???????????, ????????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? Z3, Z5, Z9, Z10, ??????? ?????????
???? ????? ??????????? X2 (????? ??????????????).
??? ??????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ???????????. ? ????? ???????????????? ???????, ??? ???, ????? ????? ??????? ?? ?????
?????????? ? ????????? ??????? (???. 3).
????? ????????? X (???????????, ??????? ? ?.?.) ? ???????? ?????????? Y ??????????????
? ??????????, ? ?????? ??????? e ?????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ????????????????
???????????? ???????????, ????????, ?????????????? ???? ??????? ?? ??????? ???? ??????
??
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# 242 #
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?
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Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
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???????
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?????
U??
Y
???
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?-???????
?????????
??????
Y?
???. 3. ?????????? ? ????????? ???????
(???????) ???????????? ????????????? ???????????? ??? ????????? ??????????????? ??????? ? ??????.
? ???? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ? ???????????
?? ??? ??????? ???????? ? ?????? ??? ???, ??????? ?????????????? ??????????? ???????????. ??????????? ?????? ????? ???????????? ??? ????????????? ?????????? ???????????
?? ?????? ?????????? ? ?????? ?????? ??????????? (??????????) ??????????. ???????? ???
????????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ????????????? ??????????
?
? ??? ??
??? ?? ???? ? ???? ?? ???? ,
(2)
??? ?i, ?j ? ???? ???????????; yi, xj ? ???????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ?????????, ?????????? ? ????????? ?????? ????????.
???????? ???????? ? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ???????
??????? ? ?????????? ??????? ? ???????? ??????? ??????????????, ??????????????, ?????????? ???????????-??????????? ????, ????????????????? ??????????? ????? ? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????????, ?????????? ????????? ? ?????????. ?????? ???????
? ???????? ??????? ? ?????? ????? ???????? ???? ???????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ?
??????? ??????? ? ??????????, ? ?? ????? ??? ????? ?? ????? ???????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ???????????????? ?????? ????????? (??? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ???????/
??????? ? 1/2). ??????? ???? ?? ?????????? ????? ? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????, ??????????? ????? ? ???????? ? ?????????? ? ????????????
?????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ????????? XXI ????. ??????? ????????? ????????? ???????????? (4?6 ???) ???????? ??????????. ??? ????????????????????? ??????????
?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ??????????, ??????? ?????
???????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ????????? ????. ? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????
??? ??????? ? ?????????, ????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ??????, ? ????????????
???? ???????? ???????? ? ????? ?????????? ??????? ? ??????????. ?? ???????????, ?? ??????
?? ?????? ????????????? ??? ??????? ?? ??????????? ?????? (?? ??????? ????????? ???????,
?????????????? ????? ?????????????? ?? 45?50 % ?? ???????????? [9]). ??????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????, ??????????? ? ????????????? ??? ????, ????? ????? ????? ??
???? ????????.
# 243 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ??????????. ???? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ? ????????? ????????
?? ????????? ???? ? ?????? ??????????? ????????????????? ?????????????????
????????? ??????? ??????? ????????????????? ???????????. ????????? ???????????
???????????? ? ???????????? ????????????????? ????????????. ????????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ????? ? ????? ????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ???????
??????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ? ??????? ?????, ??????? ? ?????????? ?? ???????
??????.
???????? ??????????? ???????????? ? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? (???), ????????? ? 2006 ?. ?? ???? ??????? ???????????? ?????:
? ???????????? ????????????? ??????????????? ????????, ??????????????? ? ??????? ??????????????? ????????????;
? ????????????? ????????????? ????????? ???????????? ??? ?????????? ????????;
? ????????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ???????? (? ???????????);
? ???????????? ?????????? ??????: ??????? ???????????????? ???????? ? ??? ? ???????? ? ??????? (??????????? ??????) ? ??????? ? ????? ???????????, ???????????
?????????? ?????????;
? ???????? ? ???????? ??????? ???????? ??? ?? ???? ?????????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? (ENQA) ? ??????????
? ??? 9000-2008;
? ???????????? ????? ??????-??????? ????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?????????????????????? ????, ?????????????? ????????;
? ?????????? ?????????? ????????????????.
?????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ????????????? ???????????????
????????. ????? ????????? ????????????:
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?????, ??????? ? ??????????;
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? ????????????? ????????????.
? ????? ? ????????? ? 2011 ?. ?? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ? ????????????, ? ???? ?????? ?? ??????? ????????? ?????? ? ???????? ??????????.
??? ?????????? ????????????? ?????? (????. 1), ?????? ????? ??????????????? ? ???????????????? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????? ????????????. ??? ????????? ????????? ?? ??????????
???????????????? ???????????. ??????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ? ??????????????.
??? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? (????????????), ?? ??? ????? ???? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ??????? ????????, ????? ??? ??????????? ? ?? ???????
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2004?2007 ????? (???. 4).
???????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ???????????, ?????????? ???????? ?????? ? ??????????????? ???????, ? ????????????? ????????????????? ??????????.
??????
1. ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ??????? ??????? ? ?????????? ? ????
?? ???????????? ????? ? ??????? ??????? ????. ??? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???????????
???????? ???????????, ??????? ? ?????.
2. ?????????? ??????????? ????? ???? ??? ??????? ??????????. ????????? ???? ???????????? ?????????? ????????, ?? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ????? ??????????????, ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ??????????? ?????????????? ? ?????????????.
# 245 #
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????????? (??????) ??? ??????, ????????????? ? ?????? ??? ???.
4. ??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????? ????????
?????????-?????????????? ???????? ?????? ? ?? ????????, ???????? ??????? ? ????????????
??????????? ???? ?????? ? ??????????? ??????????, ??????? ??????? ?????????? ? ????????????.
?????? ??????????
[1] ????????? ?.?. ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ?????
???????????????? ?????? // ??????? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ????? «??????????
??????????? ??? ????? ????????????????», 23?28 ???????? 2013 ?. ? ??????: ?????, 2013.
?. 186?197.
[2] ?????????? ?.?. ?????????? ??????????? ?????????????, ???????????????
? ?????????????? ????????????: ?????????, ???????????, ??????: ??????? ???????.
?.: ????, 2010.
[3] ???????? ?.?. ????????????????? ??????? ???????? ???????????????? ??????????
??????? ????????????????? ??????????? ? ????????? ?????????? ENQA / ???????????????
??????????: ???????? ? ??????, 2007. ? 3(49). ?. 97?102.
[4] ??????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. ?????????-???????????????? ?????? ???????? ???????
???????????. ?.: ????????????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????, 2001.
[5] ??????? ????????????????? ??????? ? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ?
???????? ????????????????? ???????????. ???: ???.com, 2007. 44 ?.
[6] ???????? ?.?. ?????????? ?????????????? ????? ? ?????????????? ??????????
??????????????? ???????? ? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ????????????: ????. ?????.
???. ????: ?????, 2010. 182 ?.: ??. ??? ??, 61 10-13/1021.
[7] ????????? ?.?. ? ????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ????????
??????????? ??????????? // ?????????? ???????????. 2012. ? 10. ?. 76?79.
[8] CDIO Standartds [??????????? ??????] ? ????? ???????: http://www.cdio.org,
?????????. ? ????. ? ??????.
[9] ?????? ?.?. ??????? ??????????? ? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????? ???????????
XXI ???? // ????????????? ???????????. 2011. ? 4.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ??????????. ???? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ? ????????? ????????
Towards a Higher Training Quality
in Engineering and Technology
in the Context of Global and National Trends
Sergei A. Podlesniy and Gennadiy B. Masalskiy
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
The paper considers global and national trends in a higher quality assurance for engineering and
technology education, the major elements of the university-based quality system, the university quality
assessment model structure and the university activity relevant fields.
Keywords: engineering education quality, university model, engineering education model.
the analytical balance before and after of tests.
The photographs of installation, contacts and control block are given in Fig. 2. In actual
measurements the force of clamping of contacts was 10 N. This duty ratio is possible because of
low current on which the testing is carried out, the current that does not cause strong heating of
contacts.
# 231 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Victor V. Ivanov, Andrey V. Sidorak? The Laboratory Equipment for the Prompt Functional Properties Measurement?
Fig. 2. The elements of the laboratory equipment for measuring the erosion wear of contact materials: a ? the main
frame of the bench, b ? the control block, c ? the element of the device for fastening and moving the contact tips
and view of a contact surface after testing
The transient resistance was measured after every 100 I-O cycles, the total number of cycles of
the experiment was usually 10000 times that is sufficient for the evaluation of the erosion wear for
non-optimized materials.
Example of received data
For illustration of test equipment (laboratory benches) exploration, silver samples which were
made with powder metallurgy method and industrially manufactured widely used ? Ag/15CdO. The
comparison of the results is represented in the Fig. 3-5.
Results demonstrate positive influence of CdO additive on erosion resistance of arcing
electrocontacts. Difference is measured more than one degree in mass loss. Observations, including
visual, show that after about 1000 I-O cycles all work surfaces had contact with arc (Fig. 3). That
point explains abrupt rise of wear rate in the beginning for silver contact surface. Surface, which has
interaction with arc, has a layer development. This layer is hardened with oxides and tempering. Then
presence of such layer leads to linear rising of wear from I-O cycles number.
The rates of electrocontacts from I-O cycles number are represented in the Fig. 4, and demonstrate
the material tendency to welding. The break force rates of silver pair reduce about up to 1000 I-O
cycles, what is explained with running-surface of electrocontacts. As opposed to silver contacts, SCO15 has higher gap force rate (Ag ~3N, Ag/15CdO ~6N)
Variation dependence of contact resistance R i on I-O cycles number is shown in Fig. 5. For contact
pair containing silver Ri value rises after two first tens I-O cycles and further possess the value about
# 232 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Victor V. Ivanov, Andrey V. Sidorak? The Laboratory Equipment for the Prompt Functional Properties Measurement?
Fig. 3. Dependence of mass loss from number of the
I-O cycles for Ag and Ag/(15CdO)
Fig. 4. Dependence of the break force from number of
the I-O cycles for Ag and Ag/15CdO electrocontacts
?)
b)
Fig. 5. Contact resistance for a symmetrical contact pair: ? ? Ag, ? ? Ag/15CdO
0,012-0,015 ?m. The intermediate resistance value of Ag/15CdO possess the value Ri = 0,003 ?m, that
is considerably lower than for pure silver, although resistivity of composite considerably higher [5].
Lower intermediate resistance for Ag/15CdO apparently is provided with inclination to welding, what
entails better contact of the electrocontact's surface opposed silver pair.
Conclusions
The laboratory bench for efficient interrupting electrocontact materials testing with respect to
their general functional properties during their development and/or improvement is presented. The
main properties of materials for testing are: transient voltage drop on closed contacts under the rated
current; erosion wear resistance, break force. This equipment was tested on traditional contact materials
# 233 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Victor V. Ivanov, Andrey V. Sidorak? The Laboratory Equipment for the Prompt Functional Properties Measurement?
and it was used for comparison test of new materials to form corrective actions to composition or
technology.
Measurement of the whole range of functional properties of the material at the same time provides
the profound knowledge of the nature of each property. This knowledge allows conscious controlling
of chemical and phase composition of the electrocontact material.
References
[1] Guerlet J.P., Ladenise H., Lambert C.A. // Electrical contacts. 1984. P. 525-530.
[2] Streicher E., Leung C., Fitzgerald D. // 54th IEEE Holm Conference, 27-29 October 2008,
Orlando, FL, USA, 2008. P. 301-307.
[3] Dongwei Li, Zhengxiang Song, Jianhua Wang et. al. // 55th IEEE Holm Conference, 14-16
September 2009, Vancouver, British Colombia, Canada, 2009. P. 7-12.
[4] Sekikawa Junya, Kubono Takayoshi // 53th IEEE Holm Conference, 16-19 September 2007
Pittsburgh, PA, USA 2007. P. 275-279.
[5] Rцhberg J., Honig T., Witulski N. et. al. // 55th IEEE Holm Conference, 14-16 September 2009,
Vancouver, British Colombia, Canada, 2009. P. 187-194.
???????????? ?????
??? ?????? ??????????????
??????? ??????????
????????? ????????????????
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ???????,
?.?. ?????, ?.?. ????????
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
??????, 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
??????????? ?????????????????? ???????????? ????? ??? ???????????? ????????????
?????????? ????????? ???????????????? ?? ???????? ?????????????? ????????? ???
?? ?????????? ?/??? ?????????????????. ???????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????????
?????????????, ?????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ????, ? ????? ??????
?????????? (??????????? ?????? ?????? ???????) ? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ??????
?????????-?????????? (380/220 ?, ??? 15-30 ?, ??????????? ???????? ?=1-0,3, ???????
?????? ?-? 0,01-10 ??, ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????). ??????????
?????????????, ???????? ???????? ????????????, ??????????? ? ????????? ?????????
?????? ?????????????? ? ??????? ??????????????????? ???????????? ???????????.
????? ??????????? ?? ???? ????????????, ? ????? ????? ??????????????? ??????????.
??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?? ??????? ???????????? ????????????? ????????
?????????? ???????? Ag ? Ag/15CdO ? ???????????? ?????????? ?????.
???????? ?????: ????????????????? ????????, ????????? ???????????????,
?????????????? ????????, ???????????? ?????, ?????????????, ?????????? ?????????????,
?????? ??????????.
# 234 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 2 (2014 7) 235-247
~~~
??? 378:62(571)
???? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????
? ????????? ???????
? ????????????? ?????????
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ??????????*
????????? ??????????? ???????????
??????, 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
Received 12.11.2013, received in revised form 28.11.2013, accepted 15.12.2013
? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ? ????????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ????????
?????????? ???????????? ? ??????? ??????? ? ??????????, ???????? ???????? ???????
???????? ????????????, ????????? ?????? ???? ??? ?????? ????????, ??????????? ??????
???? ? ???? ???????.
???????? ?????: ???????? ?????????? ?????????, ?????? ????, ?????? ??????????
???????????.
???????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ????????? ??? ???????? ? ??????? ??????????? ????????, ????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????, ???????????????, ????????????? ? ??????????????? ???, ????????????????? ?????????? ?????????????????????? ???????????. ??? ?????? ??????????????? ????????, ??????????? ? ?????
???????????? ?????????????? ?????????. ????? ?? ???????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ?
????? ??????? ?????? ???? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ?
??????? ??????? ? ??????????.
??????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ????: ? ???????????, ? ?????????????, ? ?????????????? ?????, ? ???????????. ??? ??????????? ????????? ???????????,
??????? ?????????? ? ????: ??????? ? ??????????? ????????, ???????????? ??????????????????? ??????????????? ????????, ???????????? ????????? ? ???????????, ???????????
???? ?????????, ??????? ??????? ????? ?? ?????? ??????????????? ?????, ???????? ???????????????? ??????????? ?????? ? ??. ????????? ????????????? ???????? ?? ?? ??????
?? 2020 ???? (?????????? ????????????? ????????????? ?? ?? 17 ?????? 2008 ?. ? 1662-?)
???????????????, ??? ? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ? ????????????
????? ??????????????? ???? ????????????? ??????, ?????????? ?? ????????????? ????????
?????????? ? ??????? ?????????????, ??????????? ? ??????????????. ? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????, ????? ??????? ?????????? ? ????????????, ? ??????? ???????????
???????????.
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: MasalskyGB@mail.ru
# 235 #
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???????? ? ??? ??????. ????? ??????? ????????, ??????? ???????????? ??????????????, ?????????? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ?? ??????????? ???????????????? ??????, ????????????
??????????? ?????????, ?????????? ? ??????????? ? ???????????? ?? ??????? ?????? ? ??.
????? ?????????? ???????? (??????? ????): ????????????????? ?????? ? ?????, ????????? ??
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???????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ??????????; ????????? ?????? ?????????????????????????????? ??????????????? ????????, ??????????????? ? ??????? ????????????????????? ????????????; ??????? ?? ?????????????-??????????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ? ????????? ??????; ???????? ??????? ????????????? ???????;
???????????? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????
????? ? ?????? ?????????? ????????; ???????? ?????? ???????????????-???????????? ???????????? ????????.
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????. ???????????? ?????? ???????? ? ???????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ????????, ??????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? [2]. ?????????? ??????? ?????????????
??????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? Internet ?????????? ? ???????? Web 2.0 ? Web 3.0 ??? ???????? ???????? ? ??????? ???????? ???????????????? ???.
??????? ????????? ? ????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ???????????:
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? ?????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ????????, ?????????? ? ???????? ??????????????? ?????? ???????? ?? ???? ????????? ??????? (ISO, EFQM, ENQA ? ??.);
? ???????? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ????????;
? ??????? ????????????? ?????? ???????????????-???????????? ???????????? ??;
? ?????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ??????????, ????????????
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? ?????? ??????????? (ENQA) ???? ??????????? «????????? ? ????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ???????», ??????? ???????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ? ??????? ?????? ? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ? ????????????
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? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ENQA, ??????? ??????????????? ? ??????
?????????? ????????????, ???????? ??? ??????????: ??????????? ????????, ?????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ???????? [3].
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# 237 #
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???????????? ???????????? (???????????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?????, ????????????? ?????????? ? ??????????????? ?????).
???????? ???????? ? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ?????: ???????????? ????????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ???????????, ??????????????? ?? ??????????????? ????????, ?????????? ??????? ?????? ?????, ? ????????????
?????????????, ??????????????? ?? ????????? ????? ?????, ????????? ?????????? ???????
? ??????????? ???????? ?????; ???????????? ? ????????????? ? ???????????? ??????????; ???????????? ? ???????????-??????????? ???? ??????-???????? ???????? ? ????????? ????????????? ????. ????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ????? ????????: ?????????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????, ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????????
# 238 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ??????????. ???? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ? ????????? ????????
? ???????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ??????, ????????????????? ????????????????
?????????? ??? ??????????? ????????, ????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ? ?.?. [7].
????????? ? ?????????, ??????? ?? ????? ??????????????? ??????, ????? ?????????
??????? ???? ?? ???????????? ? ????????? ???????????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????
?????????? ??????????? ?????, ??????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ? ??????????????????????? ???????????. ???????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ????????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ???? ?????????? ??????? ? ?????? ???? ?????? ?????????? ????? ???????????
?????????, ?????? ? ?????????. ?????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ? ????????? ????????????? ??????? ??? ????????? «CDIO Initiative». ?????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ????????????
??????? ????? ??????? ? ?????????. ? ?????? ????????? CDIO (Conceive ? Design ? Implement ?
Operate) ????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ? ??????????? ??????????
????????????, ?? ???? ????????? «?????????? ? ????????????? ? ??????????? ? ?????????»
[8]. ??? ? ?????? ??? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ????????????? ????????
????????? ? ?? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????, ????????????? ????????????, ????????????????, ?????????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ????????. ???????? ????? ?????????????
???????? ?? ????????-??????????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ???????????-??????? ?????????.
??????? ????????, ??? ????????? CDIO ?????? ??????????????? ? ?????????? ????? ? 6080-? ????? ? ?????? ????????????? ????? ? ?????????????. ?????????? ?????????? ????????
??????? ???????????? ???????????, ?????????? ???, ??????????????, ?????????? ? ?????????.
???????????? ??? ??? ?????? ?????????? (???. 1) ? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????, ????? ???????? ???????? ?????????,
???????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ???????????.
???. 1. ??? ??? ?????? ??????????
# 239 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ??????????. ???? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ? ????????? ????????
??????????? ??????????? (???????) ????????:
U1 ? ????? (???????????, ????????????, ????????????? ? ???????) ?? ??????????, ?????????????? ? ????????? ???????????? ????????????, ??????? ????? ?????? ??????????, ????????, ???/???;
U2 ? ????? ?????????????? ???????????????? ???????? (????????????, ?????????????,
???????? ? ???????), ???.;
U3 ? ????? ?????????????? ??????-????????????? ???????? (????????????, ?????????????, ???????? ? ????????????), ???.;
U4 ? ??????????-???????? ???? ????????????, ?????????????, ???????? ?????? ? ?????????? ??????? (??????????????? ??????????????? ?????????, ???????????????? ? ???????????? ??????????, ????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????????, ?????? ? ???????
?????????-??????????????? ????????????, ????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????????);
U5 ? ????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ???????????? ? ???????????????? ???????????, ? ??? ????? ???????? ???????????.
??????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ????? U?? (??????????) ??????? ? ?????????????? ??????????? ????????, ??????????? ??????????-???????????????? ????????????,
??????????? ????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ? ?????? L ? ??????? ???????????, ??????????? ? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ? ???????? ????????.
?????????????? ????????? ???????, ?? ????????? ? ????, ????? ????????:
Z1 ? ??????? ???? ????????????, ??????????? ?? ???? ??????? ????????????, ?????????????, ???????? ??????? ? ???????;
Z2 ? ????? ??????????? ???????????, ???.;
Z3 ? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ? ???????????? (????????????? ????? ?????), ???/
???;
Z4 ? ????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ? ???????, ???/???;
Z5 ? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ????? ? ???????, ???/???. ? ???;
Z6 ? ????? ?? ??????-????????????? ?????????? (????????????? ??????-?????????????
?????), ???/???;
Z7 ? ???????? ? ??????? ??????-?????????????? ?????, ???.;
Z8 ? ???????? ? ??????? ?????????????-???????????????????? ???????, ????/???.;
Z9 ? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ??????? (??????????????? ????? ?????????);
Z10 ? ??????? ????????????????? ????????? ??????-??????????????? ???????????? (?????, ?????, ????????? ????????, ?????????????? ?????? ? ?.?.).
????????? ???? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????????????, ??????-????????????? ?
????????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? Sij, ??????? ?????????????? ????????? ??????? ? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????????? U??(t) ? Z(t). ? ?????????? X(t) ??????? ???????:
X1 ? ??????????? ?????????, ????????? ?? ???? ??????? ????????????, ?????????????,
???????? ??????? ? ??????????? ??????? ??????? (???????? ? ?????? ???????????? ??????),
???.;
X2 ? ??????? ??????????? ?????????, ????;
X3 ? ??????? ?? ??????????? ?????????, ???.;
# 240 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ??????????. ???? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ? ????????? ????????
X4 ? ???????????-??????????? ???? ???????????????, ??????-????????????? ? ????????????? ???????????? ????, ???.;
X5 ? ????? ??? ? ???, ??????? ? ??????????????? ????????, ???.;
X6 ? ??????? ??????? ??? ? ???, ??????? ? ??????????????? ????????, ???.
? ???
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