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234.Журнал Сибирского федерального университета. Сер. Техника и технологии №7 2014

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Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Журнал Сибирского федерального университета
2014
Journal of Siberian Federal University
7 (7)
Техника и технологии
Engineering & Technologies
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??.-????. ???, ?-? ???.-???. ????
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??.-????. ???, ?-? ????. ????
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?.?. ????
Editorial Advisory Board
Chairman:
Eugene A. Vaganov
Members:
Josef J. Gitelzon
Vasily F. Shabanov
Andrey G. Degermendzhy
Valery L. Mironov
Gennady L. Pashkov
Vladimir V. Shaidurov
Vladimir V. Zuev
Editorial Board:
CONTENTS
Rinat G. Galeev, Valery G. Konnov,
Michail A. Kazantsev and Sergey V. Chentsov
Product Lifecycle Support for Radioelectronic Production at JSC
&SPE &Radiosvyaz[
? 758 ?
Andrey V. Shvatsky,
Michail A. Kazantsev and Denis V. Kapulin
Methods of Design of Electronic Document Management System
for Unaccounted Designer Documentation at Radioelectronic
Enterprise
? 767 ?
Elena G. Esyukova and Elena E. Noskova
Operational Scheduling Assembly Process Radioelectronic
Products
? 779 ?
Vladimir I. Ivanchura,
Yuri V. Krasnobayev and Sergei S. Post
The Imitation Model of the Autonomous System of Power
Supply
Editor-in-Chief:
Mikhail I. Gladyshev
? 791 ?
Founding Editor:
Vladimir I. Kolmakov
Sergey A. Bronov,
Evgenyi M. Kurbatov, Pavel V. Avlasko,
Vasiliy A. Povalayev and Darya D. Mishchenko
The Simulation System for High-Precision Objects for Example
the Spacecraft?s Electromechanical Systems
Managing Editor:
Olga F. Alexandrova
Executive Editor for Engineering &
Technologies:
Vladimir A. Kulagin
? 797 ?
???????? ?.?. ?????? ????????? ?.?. ???????
???????????? ??????? ?.?. ?????????
????????? ? ?????? 27.10.2014 ?. ?????? 84x108/16. ???. ???. ?. 10,3.
??.-???. ?. 9,8. ?????? ???. ?????? ????????. ????? 1000 ???. ????? 3144.
?????????? ? ?? ??? ???. 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 82a.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Editorial board for Engineering &
Technologies:
Vladimir Kulagin ? Series Editor, Siberian
Federal University, Russia
Yury Alashkevich ? Siberian State
Technological University, Russia
Sereeter Batmцnkh ? Institute of Heat
Engineering and Industrial Ecology
Mongolian Academy of Sciences,
Mongolia
Yury Biba ? Dresser-Rand Company, USA
Valery Dovgun ? Siberian Federal
University, Russia
Carsten Drebenstedt ? Technische
University Bergakademie Freiberg,
Germany
Yury Galerkin ? Saint Petersburg State
Polytechnic University, Russia
Gennady Gritsko ? Institute of Petroleum
Geology and Geophysics Russian
Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch,
Russia
Georg Guggenberger ? Institute of Soil
Science Leibniz University Hannover,
Germany
Lev Endzhievsky ? Siberian Federal
University, Russia
Feng-Chen Li ? School of Energy Science
and Engineering Harbin Institute of
Technology, China
Vladimir Makarov ? Siberian Federal
University, Russia
Dmitry Markovic ? Institute of
Thermophysics Russian Academy of
Sciences, Siberian Branch, Russia
Aleksandr Mineev ? Siberian Federal
University, Russia
Vladimir Moskvichev ? Special Designing
and Technological Bureau ?Nauka?
Krasnoyarsk Scientific Center of the
Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian
Branch, Russia
Bernard Nacke ? Institute of
Electrotechnology Leibniz University
of Hannover, Germany
Oleksandr Nemchin ? CEO of the State
Research Institute of Innovative
Technologies in Power Energy and
Energy Efficiency of the Fuel and
Energy Ministry of Ukraine, Ukraine
Valeriy Nikulin ? Kamsk Institute of
Humanitarian and Engineering
Technologies, Russia
Valery Okulov ? Technical University of
Denmark, Denmark
Oleg Ostrovski ? University of New South
Wales, Australia
Harald Oye ? Norwegian University of
Science and Technology, Norway
Alexey V. Chubar,
Oleg V. Pastushenko and Igor P. Kolchanov
Prospects of Improvement of Descriptions of Tent-Bed Test
for Control of Impermeability of Systems of Space Vehicles of
Connection
? 811 ?
Sergey A. Temerbaev,
Valery P. Dovgun and Elena S. Shevchenko
Power Quality Improvement in Off-Grid Renewable Energy
Systems
? 821 ?
Viktor G. Patyukov,
Stanislav A. Ryabushkin and Vitaly A. Shatrov
Telemetry, Command and Ranging System of Geo Spacecraft
? 832 ?
Valentin B. Kashkin and Aleksandr O. Klykov
Mapping of Tropospheric Delay of GLONASS/GPS Signals
with use Satellite Remote Sensing Data of the Atmosphere
? 839 ?
Alexey А. Erokhin, Vasily S. Panko,
Yury P. Salomatov and Mikhail I. Sugak
Antenna Arrays on Surfaces of Revolution
? 846 ?
Alexander V. Soldatov, Andrey S. Popov,
Gennady M. Aldonin and Valentina G. Andyuseva
Structural Topological Analysis of Cardiac Conduction System
? 853 ?
Alexey V. Turov
Regional Scientific and Technical Organization?s Role in the
Telecommunication Complex Development of Krasnoyarsk
Region
? 857 ?
Vladimir A. Makarov, Oleg I. Podkopaev,
Dmitry G. Koz?min, Vladimir I. Naidko,
Aleksandr F. Shimanskiy and Svetlana A. Kopytkova
Lignite from Central Watershed of the Yenisei River and
Prospects for their use for Manufacture of Germanium
? 862 ?
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vasili Panteleev ? Siberian Federal
University, Russia
Sergey Panko ? Siberian Federal
University, Russia
Petr Polyakov ? Siberian Federal
University, Russia
Victor Timofeev ? Siberian Federal
University, Russia
Ibragim Khisameev ? Kazan State
Technological University, Russia
Anatoly Shvidenko ? International Institute
for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria
Galina Chiganova ? Siberian Federal
University, Russia
????????????? ? ??????????? ???
?? ? ??77-28-722 ?? 29.06.2007 ?.
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???? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ??
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????????? ????» (???????? 2010 ?.)
Vladimir A. Kulagin and Nikita Y. Sokolov
Cavitation Shutoff Elements Pipeline Systems
? 872 ?
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
СОДЕРЖАНИЕ
Р.Г. Галеев, В.Г. Коннов, М.А. Казанцев, С.В. Ченцов
h?-%!?=?,%??= C%???!?*= %!?=?,?=?,, C!%,?"%??2"= ,????,L !=?,%.??*2!%??%L =CC=!=23!/ ?=
C!??C!, 2,, n`n &moo &p=?,%?" ??[
? 758 ?
А.В. Швацкий, М.А. Казанцев, Д.В. Капулин
l?2%?/ C%?2!%??, ?,?2??/ .??*2!%??%?% ?%*3???2%%K%!%2= ??3?2???%L *%??2!3*2%!?*%L ?%*3???2=?,,
?= C!??C!, 2,, !=?,%.??*2!%??%L C!%?/?????%?2,
? 767 ?
Е.Г. Есюкова, Е.Е. Носкова
nC?!=2,"?%-*=????=!?%? C?=?,!%"=?,? ?K%!%??/. 2?.?%?%?,???*,. C!%????%" !=?,%.??*2!%??/.
,????,L
? 779 ?
В.И. Иванчура, Ю.В. Краснобаев, С.С. Пост
h?,2=?,%??= ?%???? ="2%?%??%L ?,?2??/ .??*2!%C,2=?,
? 791 ?
С.А. Бронов, Е.М. Курбатов,
П.В. Авласко, В.А. Поваляев, Д.Д. Мищенко
q,?2??= ?%???,!%"=?, ? C?!?????%L ?2!3*23!%L ?? C!??,?,%??/. ?,?=?,???*,. %KA?*2%"
? 797 ?
А.В. Чубарь, О.В. Пастушенко, И.П. Колчанов
o?!?C?*2,"/ 3?3????, .=!=*2?!,?2,* ,?C/2=2????%?% ?2???= ??
*%??,???*,. =CC=!=2%" ?" ?,
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? 811 ?
С.А. Темербаев, В.П. Довгун, Е.С. Шевченко
r?3????,? *=???2"= .??*2!%.??!?,, " ="2%?%??/. ?,?2??=. .??*2!%??=K???, , ,?C%???3??,.
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? 821 ?
В.Г. Патюков, С.А. Рябушкин, В.А. Шатров
q,?2??= 2?????2!,,, *%?=?? , ?=???%?2, ??%?2=?,%?=!?/. *%??,???*,. =CC=!=2%"
? 832 ?
В.Б. Кашкин, А.О. Клыков
o%?2!%??,? *=!2 2!%C%?-?!?%L ?=??!?*, ?,??=?%" cknm`qq/GPS C% ?=??/? ?C32?,*%"%?%
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А.А. Ерохин, В.С. Панько, Ю.П. Саломатов, М.И. Сугак
`?2???/? !???2*, ?= C%"?!.?%?2 . "!=???,
? 846 ?
А.В. Солдатов, А.С. Попов, Г.М. Алдонин, В.Г. Андюсева
q2!3*23!?%-2%C%?%?,???*,L =?=?,? C!%"%? ??L ?,?2??/ ??!??=
? 853 ?
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А.В. Туров
p%?? !??,%?=???%L ?=3??%-2?.?,???*%L %!?=?,?=?,, " !=?",2,, 2???*%??3?,*=?,%??%?% *%?C??*?=
j!=??% !?*%?% *!=
? 857 ?
В.А. Макаров, О.И. Подкопаев, Д.Г. Козьмин,
В.И. Наидко, А.Ф. Шиманский, С.А. Копыткова
k,??,2/ ?!?????% 2????, !. e?,??L , C?!?C?*2,"/ ,. ,?C%???%"=?, ?? C!%,?"%??2"= ??!?=?,
? 862 ?
В.А. Кулагин, Н.Ю. Соколов
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? 872 ?
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 7 (2014 7) 758-766
~~~
??? 65.011.56
Product Lifecycle Support for Radioelectronic Production
at JSC «SPE «Radiosvyaz»
Rinat G. Galeeva, Valery G. Konnova,
Michail A. Kazantseva and Sergey V. Chentsovb*
a
JSC «SPE «Radiosvyaz»
19 Dekabristov Str., Krasnoyarsk, 660021, Russia
b
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
Received 12.08.2014, received in revised form 14.09.2014, accepted 02.10.2014
The problems of PLM-management of electronic equipment production at JSC «SPE «Radiosvyaz» are
considered. The problems arising in the implementation of information management tools to support
the process of high-tech products. Also analyzed problems with implementation of PLM-systems in
production management processes of high-tech products. The implementation peculiarities of common
information space to organization production processes support of electronics products are given.
Considering the results of the practical aspects of implementing an integrated approach to automation
can be used in enterprises of electronic industry.
Keywords: radioelectronic equipment pre-production, information production support, Enterprise
Information Infrastructure, ERP, PLM.
?????????????? ????????? ??????????? ????????????
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??????, 660021, ??????????, ??. ???????????, 19
?
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??????, 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
??????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????????? ????????????? ??????????
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*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: svchen@mail.ru
# 758 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Rinat G. Galeev, Valery G. Konnov? Product Lifecycle Support for Radioelectronic Production at JSC «SPE «Radiosvyaz»
???????????????? ????????, ??????????? ??? ????????? ?????????????? ???????
????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????????????????? ?????????. ???????
??????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????????? ???????????? ??? ????????? ?????????
??????????? ???????????? ??????? ????????????????. ?????????? ?????? ?????????????
???????????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ? ????????????? ? ????? ????
???????????? ?? ???????????? ???????????????? ??????????????.
???????? ?????: ??????????? ???????????? ???????????????? ??????????, ??????????????
????????????? ????????????, ?????????????? ?????????????? ???????????, ERP-???????,
PLM-???????.
????????
???????? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ??????-??????????????? ?????????? ?? ?? ???????????? ???????? ??????. ??? ??????????? ?????? ??????????????? ??????? ??????? ?????
????????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????????, ??? ?? ????????? ?????????? ????????????????????? ???? ?????????????? ?????? ? ????? ? ?????????? ????? ?? ???????????
????????, ???????? ?? ??????????? ?????????????????? ? ???????????? ???????????. ?????
?? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????, ????????? ????????????????????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ? ??????? ?????? ????? ? ?????????? ??????? ??????
??????????? ???????????? ???? ?? ????????? ???????? ????? ???????? ???????? ??????????,
???????????? ?? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? [1, 2].
???????? ?????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ????? ?? ????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????, ? ???????, ??? ????????,
????????? ???????????????? ??????????. ????? ??????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ?? ??????????????? ? ??????????????? ??????????????, ??????????? ? ????????? ???????????? ?????????. ?????????? ?????? (??? ?????????, ??? ? ??????????) ?? ????????? ????? ????????? ?
????? ???????? ? ????????? ?????? ????????????????????? ??????????? ?????????. ????? ???????, ??????????? ????????????????????? ???????????? ??????? ????????????????
?????????? ??????????? ? ??? ????? ? ???????? ??????-???????????????? ??????????????
?????????? ? ???????????? ????? ??????? ?? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????????????????????????? ????, ???????????? ???????? ??????????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????.
??????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ???????????
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??????????? ??? «??? «??????????» ? ?????????? ????? ? ??????? ???????? ??????
? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????, ????????????, ??????????? ????? ? ?????????
? ????????? ??????????? ?????????????????? ??????. ?? ??????????? ??????? ??????????????? ?????????????, ????? ????????? ? ?????????????, ??? ??????????? ????????? ????
«?????????? ? ???????? ????????????» ???????. ???????? ??????????? ?????? ???????????:
?????????? ? ???????????? ??????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ?????, ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????/GPS, ?????? ??????? ????????? [3, 4].
# 759 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Rinat G. Galeev, Valery G. Konnov? Product Lifecycle Support for Radioelectronic Production at JSC «SPE «Radiosvyaz»
????? ?? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????????????????? ?????????, ?????????? ? ????????? ??????????? ????????????? ? ???????
?????????? ??????-????????????????? ? ??????-??????????????? ????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ?????, ? ????? ? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ???? ? ??????? ??????????????? ????????????. ??????, ?????????? ????????????, ?????????? ?? ??????????
????????????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ?
???????, ???????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ???????. ?????????? ? ????????????
?????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ???????????, ??????????????
??????????, ????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????, ???????????? ???????? ????
? ???????????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????????????? ?????????????
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? ????????? ????? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????????? ????:
? ?????????? ????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ?????, ????????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ??????? ??????-???????????
???????;
? ?????????? ???????? ????? ? ????? ?????????? ?? ???? ????????????? ??? ???????????? ?? ??????-???????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ????/????????;
? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ????????????????????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ??????????
??????????, ???????????? ?? ??????? ????????????? ?????????????? ??????????;
? ??????? ?? ?????????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ????? ????????????? ??????????;
? ???????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ? ????? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ? ????????? ????????????? ?????????? ? ??????????????? ?????????;
? ??????????? ???????? ??????-???????????? ?????? ??? ????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ??????;
? ?????????? ???? ? ????? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????????? ????????? [5].
????? ????????, ??? ? ???????? ?????????? ??????????????????? ?????????? ???? ?????????????? ???????????? ???????? ??? ???????? ???? ?????????? ???????????? ?????. ? ??????? ????????? ????????????? ??????? ?????, ????? ??? ??????, ?????????, ???????????
?????????, ??????? ? ?. ?., ? ??????? ???????????????? ??????? ? ????????? ? «???????????»
???????. ????? ???? ????? ??? ??????????????? ???????????, ???????????? ? ????????
?????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????, ??????????? ? ????????? ????????????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ????????????????. ?? ???? ??? ?????????? ??????? ????,
??? ??? ???????????? ?? ???? ?????????????? ??????, ?, ????????, «???????????» ??????
???????? ????????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????????? ??????? ?? ?????????????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ? ???????? ? ??????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????? ???? ??????????? ????????????. ?? ??????? ???? ???????? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ???? ??????????? ???????????? ??? ?????????
????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ? ????????????? ???????? ???????????? ????? (??? ??????????????? ?????????? ????????????
# 760 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Rinat G. Galeev, Valery G. Konnov? Product Lifecycle Support for Radioelectronic Production at JSC «SPE «Radiosvyaz»
?????). ?????? ????? ? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ? ??????????? ?? ??? «??? «??????????». ??? ???? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ?
??????? ????? ???????? ??????, ? ????? ?? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ? ??????????????
??????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ????.
? ????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ????? ???????? ??? ????????
??????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????-???????????????? ?????????????, ????????????? ? ??????????????? ???????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ???????? ??????????????? ???????????? ? ??????????. ????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ? ?????????????
????????? ?????????????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ??????????????-???????????????
?????????? ???????????? (PLM-???????) ? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? (ERP???????).
???????????? «??? «??? «??????????» ?????????? ??????-?????????????????, ?????????????????????, ???????????????? ??????, ? ????? ??????????? ? ???????????????? ????????????. ????? ????, ????? ???????????? ????? ??? ???????, ????????? ? ????????? ????????
?????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ???????. ?????? ???????
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?????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ? 1970-? ??. ???, ??
???? ????? ?? ???? ??????????? ???????:
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? ????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????? ? ??????????? ??????????????? ????;
? ????? ???????? ????????????? ??????? (???), ??????????? ? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ? ? ??????? ????????.
????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????? ???? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????
?????. ? ?????? 2000-? ??. ?????? ?????? ?? ????????????? ????????????? ?????? ? ?????????????? ?????????????? ????????, ?????????? ? ??????????? ?????????????-?????????????
????. ? ???????? ??????????-?????????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ????????????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? 3-????????? ???????????
?? ?????? web-??????????.
????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????????????, ????????? ?? ?????? web, ????? ??????? ?????
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?????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????? «1? ???????????». ????? ????????? ?????# 761 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Rinat G. Galeev, Valery G. Konnov? Product Lifecycle Support for Radioelectronic Production at JSC «SPE «Radiosvyaz»
???????? ??????? ? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ?????????? ????? ?????????
???????? ?????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ??????? ????? ????????????? ????????????
???????????. ??? ?????????? ??????? ?????????????? ? ????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ????? 1?, ? ??? ??????? ????????? ??????, ?????? ?????????? ????????? ? ??????????
????????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ??????????, ???????????? ??? ????? ?????? ??????
????????????? ???????????. ?????????? ????? ??????????????????? ????????? ????????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????? ???????? xml ? ???
????????, ? ????? ?? ?????? ??? ?????? ? ?????????????? ????? T-SQL ? ??????? ??????????
??? ??????.
???????????? ? ????????? ?????????????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????????? ? ??????? ??????????????-??????????????? ?????????? ????????????. ? 1990-? ??. ??
??????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ? ???????, ????????????????
????????? ????? ??????????????-??????????????? ?????????? ????????????. ???????? ?????
??????? ?? ????? ????? ????????????, ??-?? ???? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ???????. ????? ???????? ? 2007 ?. ??????? ? ?????????
??????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????????-??????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ????????????? ????????? «??????: PLM» ?? ??????????? ???? ???????????? ??????
?????????????? ????????????.
?????? ?????????????? ???????????? (???) ??? «??? «??????????» ????????????
????? ???????????? ?????????????? ??? ??????, ? ??????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ????????, ??????????, ?????? ? ???????? ??????????. ????? ?????????????? ????? ?????????
??????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ????? ????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????
???????????? ???????. ??? ???? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ???, ?? ??????????? ? ?? ??????? ?????-???? ????????????? ? ???????? ??????, ????????? ????????????
? ???????????. ?? ??????? ?????? ? ?????? ??? ?? ??????????? ???????? ? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ?? ???? ?????? «??????: PLM», «?????????», «?????? 3D». ????? ???????, ?????????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ????? ???, ?????????????? ?? ???. 1.
??????? ????????, ??? ?????????? ??????? ??????, ???????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????????, ????? ??? «??????????» ? «1?: ?????????? ???????????????? ????????????», ?
???????? ????? ?????, ?????????? ? ??????? ????????????, ??????????? ??? ??????????????????? ???????????, ?? ???????????? ???? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ????????????. ???, ??? ??????? «??????????», ??????????? ?? ???? ????????? MRP II
(???????????? ???????????????? ????????) ? ?????????? APS (??????????????????? ???????????????? ????????????), ?? ??????????? ???? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????
MES (??????? ???????????? ????????????????? ????????????) [6]. ??????? «1?: ??????????
???????????????? ????????????» ????????? ? ?????? ERP ? ???????????? ???? ???????????
???????????? ??? ??????? ??????????????? ????????????. ? ???? ???????, «??????????»,
??? ? «??????: PLM», «?????????», «?????? 3D», ?????????? ? ?????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ????? ????????????? ?????????????? ? ???? ??????? ? ?? ??????????????????? ???????. ??? ?????????, ??? ???????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ????? ?????????, ???
?????????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ?
# 762 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Rinat G. Galeev, Valery G. Konnov? Product Lifecycle Support for Radioelectronic Production at JSC «SPE «Radiosvyaz»
???. 1. ?????????????? ?????????????? ??? «??? «??????????»
??????????. ?????? ?? ????? ????????????? ?? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ???????? ??????-???????????? ?????????, ?????????? ?????????, ???????????? ? ??????????????? ???????????? [7] ????????????? ??? ??????? ????????????? ????? ????????????? ????????????????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ? ????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ?????,
??????? ?????????????? ????? ??????????? (???. 1).
????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ???????????, ????
???????????????? ??????? ????????? ? ?????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ????????????.
???????????? ?????? ?? ????????????? ???????????, ????? ???????? ????????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ? ?????.
??? ????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ? ????? ?????????????? ???????????? ? ERP-????????. ?? ??? ?????????? ??? ??????? ??????????
PLM ? ERP, ??? ??? ????????? ??????? ??????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ??????????
? ??????????? ?????????.
??????? PLM ? ERP ????????????? ??? ??????? ????????? ?????: PLM ?????????????
?? ???????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ? ????????? ??? ????????????, ? ERP ? ?? ????????????
????????????, ?????????, ??????? ?????????? ?????, ????? ???????? ? ?. ?. ??? ???? PLM??????? ????????????? ??? ?????? ? ???????????????????? ??????? (????????, ?????????, ????????) ? ?????????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????-????????? ??????????, ?
ERP-??????? ???????? ?? ?????????????????? ??????? ? ?????????????? ??? ??????????
????????????. ??????? PLM ?? ????? ?????? ? ????????? ???????????, ???????? ????????, ????????? ??????? ??????????, ?????????? ???????????? ???????????, ????????????
???????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ????? ?????????. ?? ???? ???????????? ???????????
??? ????? ?????-???? ??????????? ????????????, ?????????? ???? ?????????? ????? ????? ???
????????? ?? ?????????? ????????????. ? ?????? ???????, ERP-??????? ?? ????? ??????? ??# 763 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Rinat G. Galeev, Valery G. Konnov? Product Lifecycle Support for Radioelectronic Production at JSC «SPE «Radiosvyaz»
??????????? ??????? ???? ???, ??? «????????» ? ??????? ???????????? ????????????? ? ????
??? ??????????????, ????? ????????????? ? ?????????? ???? ?????????? ?????????, ???????? ? ??????? ???????????? ???????.
?????????????? ???? ?????????? ?????? PLM ? ERP ??????? ? ???????? ?????? ? ????????????? ?????????, ?????????? ?????? ??????? ???????, ????????? ????????????????????? ???????????. ????????????? ???????????????? PLM+ERP-??????? ???????????? ?????????????, ??????????????? ? ??????????? ???????????????? ????????? ??????????????
? ????????????, ??? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ????????
????????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ?????????????? ? ?????????? ????????????.
???????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ??????????????? ???????????? ??? ?????????? ????????????????? ?????? ?????? PLM ? ERP ?? ???????????????????
???????????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ? ???????????? ??? ????????????? ?????????? ? ??????-????????????? ????????? ? ?????? ? ??? ??????? ????? ?????????????
??????????????-??????????????? ?????????? ????????????. ? ?????????? ?????????? ? ERP??????? ?????????? ????????????, ???????????? ????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?
?????????? ??????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ??????. ??? ???? ?? ? ?????? ???? ?????????????? ??????????????? ??????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ??????????
?????????????, ??? ?????????????? ????????????? ????????????? ??????????????? ? ??????????????? ??????? ????? ????????? ?????????????.
???????? ?????????? ???????, ??????????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????
??? «??? «??????????» ?????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ????????????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????? ????????????? (?????) ? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????, ???????
??????????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ??????????????? ????????????
???????????. ?????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????????????? ?????? ?? ????????????
?????????????? ? ??????????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ?????? PLM????????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ????????????? ? ???????? ??? ??? ???????????
??????????????-??????????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????. ??? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????????? ???? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ??????????:
? ???????????? ??????? ???????????????, ???????????????, ???????????????? ? ????
?????????;
? ????????????? ?????? ??????? ? ???? ?????? ?????????????? ??????;
? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ???????, ??????? ???????? ?????? ? ??????????, ???????????? ? ????????????? ???????, ?????? ?????????? PLM
? ERP-?????? [8, 9].
??? ?????????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????????????
????????:
? ???????????? ??????-????????? ???????????, ??????????? ???????????? ?????????
?????????????????? ???????, ????????? ????????? PLM;
? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ????????????
????????????;
# 764 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Rinat G. Galeev, Valery G. Konnov? Product Lifecycle Support for Radioelectronic Production at JSC «SPE «Radiosvyaz»
? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????????? ???????, ????????
?????????????? ERP- ? PLM-?????? [8, 9].
?????? ??????????? ????????? ERP-?????? ?? ??????????????????? ????????????,
???????? ????????? ???????? ????????? PLM, ?????????????? ????????? ????????????????????????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ? ??? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????: CAD
(??????? ??????????????????? ??????????????), CAM (??????? ??????????????? ??????????
????????????), PDM (??????? ???????? ??????), FRP (??????? ??????????? ????????????),
MRP II (??????? ?????????? ????????????????? ?????????), MES (??????? ???????????? ????????????????? ????????????). ???????? ?? ????????????? ???? ????????????? ?????????
???????????, ??????????? ?????????????? ???? ??????????? ?????????????????? ???????
?????????? ???????????? ? ?????? ?????????????? PLM- ? ERP-????????? (???. 2).
?????????????? ??? ???????? ??????????????? ??????? ????????????? ??????????
???????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????,
???????????????, ???????????????? ? ?????????-??????? ?????????. ????? ????? ????????
??????????? ?????????????????? ??????? ??? ???????????? ????????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ???? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????, «?????????» ?????????? ????? ?????? ????????????? ? ?????? ?????????????? ????????????
???????????. ????? ????????, ??? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????, ???????????, ??? ????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????????
?????????? ? ?????????. ???????????????? ? ?????????? ????? ??????? ??????????????????
??????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????????, ?? ???????????, ? ??????????? ??????? ????????.
???. 2. ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????
??? «??? «??????????»
# 765 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Rinat G. Galeev, Valery G. Konnov? Product Lifecycle Support for Radioelectronic Production at JSC «SPE «Radiosvyaz»
??????????
???? ?????????? ? ????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ???????
?????????? ???????????? ??? «??? «??????????» ??????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ????????, ????????? ????????? ? ????? ??????????????? ??????????, ????????????, ???????????????? ? ???????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????. ??? ????????? ????????????? ???????
?????????????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ????????
?????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????? ??????????????-???????????????
?????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ???????????????? ??????????.
????????? ? ?????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ???????, ????? ? ??????????? ???? ???????? ??????????? ????????????????
?????? ?????? PLM ? ERP ? ?????? ??????? ??????????????? ???????????? ???????????. ?????? ? ???????? ??????????? «?????????» ?????????? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ?
?????? ??????????? ??????????????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ? ????????????? ??????????
?????????? ?????????????? ? ???????????? ?????????, ???, ??????????, ??????? ?? ?????
??????? ????????????? ??????-???????? ??????????? ? ????? ?????????????? ???????????
???????? ???????? ? ????????? ????????????????????? ??????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ? ?????.
?????? ??????????
[1] ?? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?? ??????
?? 2025 ????: ?????? ???????????? ?????????????? ? ?????????? ?? ?? 7 ??????? 2007 ?.
? 311.
[2] ????? ?. ?., ????? ?. ?. ????????? ???????? CALS-?????????? ? ??????????????
??????. ?.: ??? CALS-?????????? «?????????? ?????????», 2002. 102 ?.
[3] ?????? ?.?. // ????? ? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????. 2010. ???. 5. C. 136.
[4] ?????? ?.?., ??????????? ?. ?., ???????? ?.?. // ????? ? ??????????? ????? ??????????
?????????. 2012. ???. 7. C. 150.
[5] ?????? ?.?., ???? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. // ??????????? ???????? ????????????????. ??????????: ???. ?????. ??-?, 2011. ?. 3.
[6] ??????? ?. // ??????????. 2012. ? 3 (10). C. 28.
[7] ???????? ?.?. // ??????? ??????. 2013. ?4 (50). ?. 27.
[8] ?????? ?.?. ????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ????????????? ??
?????? PLM-???????. ?.: ??????????????, 2008. 265 c.
[9] ?????? ?.?. // ???? ? ???????. 2008. ? 3. ?. 91.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 7 (2014 7) 767-778
~~~
??? 004.3
Methods of Design
of Electronic Document Management System
for Unaccounted Designer Documentation
at Radioelectronic Enterprise
Andrey V. Shvatskya,
Michail A. Kazantseva and Denis V. Kapulinb*
a
JSC «SPE «Radiosvyaz»
19 Dekabristov Str., Krasnoyarsk, 660021, Russia
b
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
Received 02.08.2014, received in revised form 18.09.2014, accepted 29.09.2014
The problem of the efficiency increasing for services production facility using automated control
systems. The analysis and research of design, engineering and manufacturing processes at the
enterprise is carried out. With structural analysis technique and object-oriented programming the
automated control system for document management is developed. This system accompanies the
launch in the manufacture parts and assembly units.
Keywords: design of information systems, electronic documents, production planning
?????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????????????
?????????? ??????????????? ????????????
?? ??????????? ???????????????? ??????????????
?
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ????????
??? «??????-???????????????? ??????????? «??????????»
??????, 660021, ??????????, ??. ???????????, 19
?
????????? ??????????? ???????????
??????, 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
??????????? ?????? ????????? ????????????? ???????????????? ????? ?????????????????
??????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????????????? ?????? ??????????. ??? ??????
? ????????? ???????????? ???????????????, ??????????????? ? ????????????????
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: dkapulin@sfu-kras.ru
# 767 #
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Andrey V. Shvatsky, Michail A. Kazantsev? Methods of Design of Electronic Document Management System?
????????? ???????????. ? ?????????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ? ???????????????????????? ???????????????? ??????????? ?????????????????? ??????? ??????????
?????????????????, ?????????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ??????? ? ????????? ??????.
????????
?????:
??????????????
??????????????
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??????,
?????????????
????????
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??? ???? ?????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ???????????? (??), ??????????? ?????? ? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ?? ????????????????????? ??????????. ?????????????? ????????? ??????????? ? ?????? ????????????
?????????????? ? ???????????? ??.
???????? ?????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????
?????????? ???????????, ??????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ??????????????, ?????????????? ??????????. ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ????? ???? ????????????
??? ????????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ??? ??????????????? ????????, ??? ???????????
?????????? ??? ??????????????? ??????????? ?????????, ??? ? ????????? ?????????? ???????????. ??????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????????????? ????? ???????????????
???????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????????????, ???????????????? ? ????????????????? ?????????? [1?3]. ??, ???????? ??????????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ????????????? ???????? ??????????????, ?????? ???????? ?? ?????????
????????? ??????? ??????????? ? ?????? ??????, ??? ????? ????????? ??????? ??????????????, ?????????? ??? ???????????? ? ?????? ????????????? ?????. ? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ???????????????? ???????? ? ?????? ?????? ?????????
?? ????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ????? ???? ?????????????
??????????? ????????? ??????? ??????????????? ????????????? ????????? ????????????????, ????????????????, ????????????????? ????????????????, ??? ???????? ???????????
?????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ? ???????? ?????????? (??? ????????????
??????????) ????????, ?? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ????????.
?????????? ??????
??????? ?????????? ?? ????? ??????????? ? ???? ???????, ??? ??????? ????? ????????????? ????????? ???? ??????????????, ?? ??? ???? ???????? ???????? ????? ??????????,
????? ?? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????. ? ????? ? ????
????????? ????????? ??? «???????????» ????? ?????????? ? ?????, ?????????? ????????,
?????????????????? ?????????????? ? ????????????????? ????????????. ????? ????, ??????,
?????????? ?? ?????? ???????????????? ??????????????, ???????? ? ??????? ? ?? ??????
???????, ??????? ????? ??????? ?? ????? ???? ??????, ??????, ??????? ??? ???????.
?????? ????? ??????? ? ???????? ??????? ??????????, ???????????????? ?????? ?????,
?????????????? ???????? ? ??????????????? ???????? ?????????? ??, ??????? ???????# 768 #
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Andrey V. Shvatsky, Michail A. Kazantsev? Methods of Design of Electronic Document Management System?
??? ? ??????????????? ?? ??????, ???????????? ??????????????? ? ????????????????
??????????????. ? ????????? ????? ??????? ? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ? ?????? ?????????? ?????????????????, ???????????????? ? ???????????????? ??????????
[4?6]. ?????? ????? ????????? ?? ? ?????? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????????????????????????? ??????????. ??????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ? ???????????? ????????? ????????????? ???????????????? ???????????????????? ???????????, ??????????
?????? ? ???????????? ??? ???????? ?????????????????? ??????? ?????????? (???), ??????????? ???????????? ? ????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????, ?????????????
? ????????? ?? ????????? ?????? ?????????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????????
??????????????? ????????????.
????? ???????
?????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ??????????????????
??????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ??? «??? «??????????». ???????? ????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ??????????????
? ???????????? ??????? ????????????, ???????????? ????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????. ????? ?? ????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ????????????? ???????????????? ???????????????? ?????? ?? ???? ?????????? ????????
???????????? ? ????????? ? ???????? ???????????????? ????????. ??????????? ???????
????????? ?????????????????? ????? ? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????????????, ???????????????? ? ?????????????????
??????????.
?? ???????????? ???????????????? ??????????????, ? ??????? ?????????
??? «??? «??????????», ?????????????? ????????? ????? ?? ???????? ????? ????????????,
???????? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ?? ???????. ???????
??????? ?? ????? (????????? ???????, ??????, ???????? ? ????????) ? ????? ???????? ????????? ????? [7]. ???? ? ?????? ?? ???????????????? ???????????????? ??????????? ??????
??????? ??????????????? ???????????? (????) [8, 9]. ? ?????? ????????? ?? ?? ???? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? (???), ???????????? ??? ????????? ???????? ? ??????????
?????? ????? ???????????????, ??????????????? ? ?????????? ??????????, ??????????? ???
?????????? ????????, ?????????????, ?????????? ??????????????? ????????? ? ?. ?. ?????
??? ? ??????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ?????? ????? ?????????????? ??????
??????? (???), ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ???????????? ??. ?????????? ???
???????????? ????? ???? ??????? ??????? ??????????????????? ?????????????? (????) ???
???????? ????????? ???????: ????????????????, ???????????? ? ?. ?. ????? ??? ???????? ?????? ??????? ? ????? ?????? ???????? ??? ????????? ??????, ??????? ??????? ????????
??????????? ?????????? ??????? (???).
??????? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ?? ???????????? ????????????????? ??????? ??????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????, ?? ????????? ???????
?????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????. ??? ????, ???? ???? ???????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????????????, ?????????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????, ??????????? ????????? ? ?? ?????????. ??????????????? ???????? ???? 2.503-90 ??????????????
# 769 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Andrey V. Shvatsky, Michail A. Kazantsev? Methods of Design of Electronic Document Management System?
??????? ???????? ????????? ? ?? ? ??????? ??????? ????????? ?? ??????????. ????? ???????, ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ?
????????????.
???????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ??? ???????????, ???????? ???????? ??? ????????????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ???? ????? ????????? ? ???????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ?? ??????????? ???????, ???????????? ?????????? ???????
????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ?????????, ??????????????? ???????????? ????? ???????.
???? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ??????? (??), ??????????: ??????????? ?? ???????????? ?????????, ????? ?? ????????????????? ? ?????????????? ??????? (?? ???????? ?????
??????????? ???????), ???????? ???????????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ????????????, ???????? ?????? ????????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ? ???????? ??????? (???) ? ?????????????
????????? ? ?????????? ???????????. ??? ???? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ??
?????-???? ????? ????????????; ?????? ?????????, ?? ????? ????? ???????????? ?????? ????
??????. ??? ??? ???????? ?????????????? ?? ???????? ?????????, ?????????????? ????????? ??? ???????, ??? ?????? ?? ????? ???? ???????????? ??????? ??? ?????? ??????? ?
???? ????????.
??? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?? ????????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ????? ?? ? ??, ???????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ????.
????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ? ?????????????? ?????????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ???????, ?. ?. ? ??????????? ?????????????? ???, ???, ??? ? ?. ?. ???
???? ????????? ?????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ???? ?????? ??????? ??????????
??????? ?? ??????? (????) ? ?????? ?????????????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????
????????????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????????, ??? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ? ?????????? ????????-???????????????? ???????. ? ??????
????????-???????????????? ???????, ?????????????? ? ???????????????? ????? ?????? ?????? ? ?????? ????????, ??????? ??? ???????????? ????????? ????? ????????? ??, ???,
???, ?? ????????????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ????????? ? ????????, ?????????? ? [6].
??? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ???????????????? ??????????????? ????????????
????????????? ????????, ???????????? ? [10, 11]. ????? DO ? ????????? ???????? ??????????????, PRJ ? ????????? ????????, DV ? ????????? ???????, ITM ? ????????? ?????????
???, DM ? ????????? ???, DD ? ????????? ??????????????? ??????????, SZ ? ?????????
????????? ???????. ??? ??????? ??????? ? ???????????? ????????? ????? ???????????????
???????????? (DP), ? ???????? ????????? ??? ? ???. ????????????? ????? ?????????????
????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ? ??, ??? ????? ??????????????? ??? ???????????? ????? ??. ????? ???????, ????? ?????????? DP = {DM, DD, SZ}.
????????? ??? ????? ???????????? ????????:
ITM = {ASM, PART, CT, CX, STPT, OTPT, MAT},
??? ASM ? ????????? ????????? ??????; PART ? ????????? ???????; CT ? ?????????
??????????; CX ? ????????? ??????????; STPT ? ????????? ??????????? ???????; OTPT ?
????????? ?????? ???????; MAT ? ????????? ??????? ?? ????????? [10, 11].
# 770 #
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Andrey V. Shvatsky, Michail A. Kazantsev? Methods of Design of Electronic Document Management System?
???????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ??????? ? ?????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ???. ????? ???????, A ? ???????????? ???????
??? ????????? ????????? ???:
fA: ITMA ? {prodA},
(1)
??? A ? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ???????; prodA ? PROD: PROD = {prodA, prodB,?,
prodN}; ITMA ? ????????? ????????? ???, ITMA ? ITM: {itmi,A}, itmi,A ? ITMA, i = {1, n}, n ? ?????????? ????????? ???.
??????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ???? ???????, ???????? ??? ?????????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ? ???? ?????? ?????????????? ???????, ??????????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ???????:
OP = {PROD, ITM, DM, DD, SZ}.
(2)
? ?????? ?????????? ????? ??? ????? ???????? prj1,A ? PRJ ????? ??????????? ?????????
???????, ?????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????? dm1,A ? DM, ??????????????? ?????????? dp1,A ? DP ? ????????? ??????? sz1,A ? SZ. ??? ????????? ????????
?????????????? ??????? A ? ?????? ?????????? ??????? Z
OPZ,A = {prjZ , prodZ,A, {itmi,A}, {dmj,A}, {kdk,A}},
??? prjZ ? PRJ ? ?????? Z; prodZ,A ? PROD ? ??????????????? ? ?????? ??????? Z ??????? A;
i = {1, n}, n ? ?????????? ????????? ???; j = {1, m}, m ? ?????????? ???; k = {1, p}, p ? ?????????? ??????????????? ??????????.
?????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ???????? ??? ???????? ???? ??? ????????? ???????? ???, ???????, ??? ? ? ?????? (1),
gA: DMA ? {itmA}.
(3)
???????? ??????? ? ???????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ????? ????? ???????????????
????????????, ??????? ????????? DP ????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ??? ?????????
ITM:
yA: ITMA ? {dpA},
(4)
??? {dpA} ? DP ? ??????????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ?.
????? ???????, ????????? (3), (4) ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????????
?????? ????? ???? ?? ?????. ?????? ?? ??????????? ????????????? ????????? ????????????
?????????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ? ???? ??????????? ??? ??????, ??????? ????????? (3), (4) ????? ??????? ? ???????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ?????????????? ??? ?????????? ???? ? ??????
?????????????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????????.
??? ???????, ??????????????? ?? ???????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????
??????? ????? ?????????????? ????????? ????? ? ????????. ???????? ????? ????? ??????
??????????????? ??????? ?????? (?? ????????? ????????: ????? ??????????? ????????# 771 #
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Andrey V. Shvatsky, Michail A. Kazantsev? Methods of Design of Electronic Document Management System?
?????????? ???????????? ??????????, ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????
? ?. ?.), ?????????? ???????? ????? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????, ??????????
???? ???????? ???????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ? ???????????????? ???????.
?????????? ???????? ??????????????-??????? ????????? ??????????? ??? «??? «??????????», ??????????????? ?????? ????????? ?? ? ?? ??? ???????? ??????? ? ????????????
(???. 1). ?? ???. 1 ????? ?????? ???????? ?????????????, ??????????????? ??????????? ?
??????????????? ????????????????. ????? ????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ?????????????? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ???????????? (???. 2).
????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ??????????? ???? ? ??? ??????????????? ????????????? ????? ? ?????????? ?????????????. ??? ???? ????? ???????? ??????? ????????????? ?
??????????????? ?? ???????, ??????? ?? ????????? ????????????? ??????? ?? ?????????
????????? ????????, ?? ?????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ??????????, ????????? ?????? ?????? ?????????????.
?????????? ?? ?????? ????????????? ?????????, ??????????? ?? ???. 2, ??????????????
?????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ? ???????????? (???. 3).
??????????? ?? ???. 3 ?????????????? ??????????? ????????? ?? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? (as-is) ???????. ???, ????? ???????? ??? «?????» ???? ??????? ??????? ?????? ???????????, ?????????? ? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ?????, ??????
?????? ? ??????????? ??????????:
???. 1. ???????? ??????????????-??????? ????????? ??? «??? «??????????»
# 772 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Andrey V. Shvatsky, Michail A. Kazantsev? Methods of Design of Electronic Document Management System?
???. 2. ??????????? ???????????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ? ????????????
???. 3. ?????????????? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ????????????????
?
?
?
?
???????????? ???????? ? ???????????????? ???????????? ? ???????? ????;
?????????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????????? ???????;
??????? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ?? ? ??;
???????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ????? ???????? ????????? ???????.
???????????? ?????????????? ?????? ???????????? ????????????????, ?? ?????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ? ??????????? ????, ????????? ?? ???. 4.
???????? ????????????? ????? ????? ???????? ??, ??? ?? ? ?? ???????? ?????????? ?
??????????? ?????????, ? ????????????, ????????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ????????
# 773 #
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Andrey V. Shvatsky, Michail A. Kazantsev? Methods of Design of Electronic Document Management System?
???. 4. ?????????????? ?????? ???????????? ????????????????
? ?????? ?????????????? ? ????? ?????????????? ????????????. ?????????????? ??? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????, ??????????? ????????? ??????, ??? ??????? ?????
???????????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ????????????????? ???????.
?????? ? ??????? ???????? ? ??????????? ????, ? ?? ????? ? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ??????????, ????????? ? ????????????. ? ?????????????? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ????????????
??????????, ?????????? ????????????? ?????, ????????????? ??????? ? ????????????, ?????????????? ??????? ????????????????? ????? ????? ? ? ????? ?????? ????? ??????????,
?? ????? ????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????????? ????????????.
?? ???. 5 ???? ????????? ????????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????????????? ????????????. ???????? ??????????? ????,
??????? ??????? ?????????????? ? ?????? ?????????????? ?????? ????????? ??????????,
??????????? ?? ???. 4.
??????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ???? ?????????
??????? ????????? ?? ???. 6. ?????? ?????????????? ??????? ????????????????? ?? ???. 7?10,
??? ???????? ???????????? ? ????????? ????????? ???????, ?????????? ?????????????????
?????? ?? ???????????.
?????????? ?????? ???????????????? ?????????????????? ???????. ? ??????????? ????? EditSlug (???. 7) ???????-??????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????: ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ????? ??????, ????????? ??????? ? ??????????, ????????? ?????? ???????????. ?? ????????? ? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ???????, ?? ???????-???????????
????? ???????, ??? ?????????????, ????? ????????????. ????? ???????? ???????, ????????????? ?????????, ???????? ???????, ?????????, ? ????? ???????.
??? ?????????? ??????? «????????????» ???????-??????????? ???????? ????????
????? ????????? ??????? (???. 8), ??????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ? ???????????? ??# 774 #
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Andrey V. Shvatsky, Michail A. Kazantsev? Methods of Design of Electronic Document Management System?
???. 5. ????????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????????
?????????????????
???????. ????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????-???????? ?????????????????
?????? ???????? ?? ? ????? EditOfficial, ??? ?????????? ?? ????????? ??????? ?????, ????? ?
?????????, ???????????? ???????? ??????? ?? ???????? ????????? ????????. ????? ????????????? ??????????? ????????? ??. ? ?????????????? ????? ????? ????????-?????????
?????????? ????? ?????????? ???????, ??? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ?
??? ???????????????? ???????????????? ????????, ??-?? ???? ?????????? ????????? ???????????????? ??????. ? ??????? ??????? «??????? ?? ?????????» ??????????? ???????????????? ?????? ? ?????? ?? ?????? ? ??????? ?? ????????? ??????? ? ?? ?? ?????????
?????????????? ???????????????? ????. ????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ????# 775 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
???. 6. ??????????? ??????????? ?????????????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????????
?????????????????
???. 7. ?????????? ????? ????????? ??????? ?????????-?????????????
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Andrey V. Shvatsky, Michail A. Kazantsev? Methods of Design of Electronic Document Management System?
?? ????? ?????????? ? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ???????. ????? ?
????????????? ?????????????????? ???????
????????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????????? ? ????????? ??????? ??. ???,
??? ????????? ??????????????? ??????
??????????? ????????????? ? ?? ?????? ?
????, ??????????? ?? ???. 9.
????? ???????, ????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????????????? ??????? ? ?????? ?????????????????
???????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????, ????????? ? ????????????? ???????????????,
??????????????? ? ???????????????? ????????????. ?????????? ??????? ?????????
???????????? ? ???????????? ??????? ??
???????????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ????
?????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????? ? ????????????? ??????
??????????????? ????????? ????? ?????????????????? ???????????? ???????????????. ????? ????, ????????????? ????????????? ?????????????????? ???????
???????????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ?? ???? ???????? ????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ?????????, ???????? ? ??.
???. 8. ????????????? ????????? ???????
??????
??????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ???????????????, ??????????????? ? ???????????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????, ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????????????? ?????? ??????????. ??? ??????????????
??????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ????????? ???????, ??? ??? ????????? ?????????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ? ????????????? ????? ???????????????? ????????, ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ? ?. ?. ?????????? ????????????? ? ?????? ???????
? ?????????????? ? ?????????? ?????????????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????????????? ????????? ?????????????? ????????? ????????. ????? ????, ??????????????? ???????? ????? ???? ???????????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ??????????????? ????????????
??????????? ??? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????? ????????????????? ????????????
? ??????????.
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Andrey V. Shvatsky, Michail A. Kazantsev? Methods of Design of Electronic Document Management System?
???. 9. ???????? ????????????? ??????????????? ????????????
?????? ??????????
[1] ??????? ?. ?. // ??????????. 2013. ? 3. ?. 47?49.
[2] ?????? ?. ?. // ??????????. 2012. ? 3. ?. 38?41.
[3] ??????? ?. ?., ????????? ?. ?. // ???????????? ? ??????????????. 2008. ? 2. ?. 177?
182.
[4] ???????? ?. ?., ????????? ?. ?., ????????? ?. ?. // ???????? ???????? ???? ??.
?.?. ?????????. ?????????? ?????????. ?????? ????????. 2005. ?. 146?152.
[5] ???????? ?.?., ?????????? ?.?. // ??????-??????????? ??????? ????? ????. ?????????????? ??????????. 2009. ???. 6. ?. 538?542.
[6] ???????? ?. ?., ??????? ?. ?., ????????? ?. ?. // ??????? ???? ??????. ?????: ?????????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ??????????. 2011. ? 1. ?. 328?334.
[7] ???? 2.101-68. ?????? ??????? ??????????????? ????????????. ???? ???????. ?.:
??????????????, 2013. 4 ?.
[8] ???? 2.102-68. ?????? ??????? ??????????????? ????????????. ???? ? ????????????? ??????????????? ??????????. ?.: ??????????????, 2007. 29 ?.
[9] ???? 2.052-2006. ?????? ??????? ??????????????? ????????????. ??????????? ?????? ???????. ????? ?????????. ?.: ??????????????, 2006. 34 ?.
[10] ???????? ?. ?., ????????? ?. ?., ????? ?. ?. // ?????????? ???????????. 2010. ? 5.
?. 23?29.
[11] ???????? ?.?. ??????????? ???. ... ????. ???. ????. ?????: ???., 2013. 23 ?.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 7 (2014 7) 779-790
~~~
??? 004.4
Operational Scheduling Assembly Process
Radioelectronic Products
Elena G. Esyukovaa and Elena E. Noskovab*
a
JSC «SPE «Radiosvyaz»
19 Dekabristov Str., Krasnoyarsk, 660021, Russia
b
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
Received 14.06.2014, received in revised form 21.08.2014, accepted 20.09.2014
This article describes features of operational scheduling in radioelectronic factory. The main
optimization criteria used in preparing the operational schedule of production, with the definition of
criteria groups which inhere in the production of electronic assembly processes. It suggest a software
implementation of the ant colony algorithm and its modifications, solving the problem of optimal
schedules work as global optimization problems in a reasonable time.
Keywords: Operational scheduling, radioelectronic factory, assembly processes, ant colony
algorithm.
??????????-??????????? ????????????
????????? ??????????????? ?????????
???????????????? ???????
?
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ????????
??? «??????-???????????????? ??????????? «??????????»
??????, 660021, ??????????, ??. ???????????, 19
?
????????? ??????????? ???????????
??????, 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
??????????? ??????????? ??????????-???????????? ???????????? ? ????????????????
????????????. ????????? ???????? ???????? ???????????, ???????????? ??? ???????????
???????????? ????? ???????????? ???????, ? ?????????? ?????? ?????????, ????????
????????? ????????? ????????????????? ????????????. ?????????? ???????????
?????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ??? ???????????, ????????? ??????
??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ??
?????????? ?????.
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: een90@mail.ru
# 779 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Elena G. Esyukova and Elena E. Noskova. Operational Scheduling Assembly Process Radioelectronic Products
???????? ?????: ??????????-??????????? ????????????, ???????????????? ????????????,
????????? ????????, ???????? ?????????? ???????.
????????
??????????? ???????????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ???????? ????? ??????? ? ?????????
?????? (???), ? ??? ???????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ????????????? ??????? (???). ????? ???????????? ??????? ? ??????? ????? ?????????
?????????? ???????? ?????, ??? ??????????? ????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ? ??????? ??????? ??????? ? ??? ???????????. ?????? ??????????-???????????? ???????????? ??
????? ???????????????? ???????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ?
???????? ???????, ? ?????? ????? ? ???????? ????????.
? ????????????, ??????????? ??????? ???????????????? ???????, ????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? «??????-???????????????? ??????????? «??????????» ? ???????
?????????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ?????, ? ????? ????????????? ?????? ? ??????????. ??? ???? ?????
???? ???????????????? ????????? ????????????????? ???????????? ?????? ????? ????????
??????????????? ???????? ?????? ???????????????? ???????.
??????????????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ??????
????????????????? ????????, ??????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????? ? ??????, ????, ?????????, ?? ??? ?????????? ??????? ???????, ?????????? ??????????? ???????????.
???????? ?????????? ???????????????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????????
????????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ????, ? ??????? ??????????? ???? ???????????? ???????. ?????? ???????????? ????????? ????? ?????? ??, ??? ?? ????? ?????? ?????????
?????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ???????
?????????. ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ?????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ????????? ??????????????? ????????? ???????, ?? ? ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????????????? ????????. ??? ???? ??????? ????????????? ????????? ??????????? ? ??????
?????? ?????, ? ???????????? ??????? ???? ????? ? ????????? ? ????????????? ????????????
?????????? 20?60 % ?? ????? ???????????? ???????????? ? ???????????????.
????????? ??????? ????? ?????????????? ? ????????? ?????????:
? ?????? ??? ???????????? ????????? (????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ????????, ????????????);
? ?????? ??? ??????; ????? ?????? (?????????????);
? ??????? ?????? (????????? ??????? ?????? ? ???????);
? ?????? ??? ????????? (???????????? ??????? ??? ????????? ??????? ??? ??????).
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??? ???? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????? ? ?????????????
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Elena G. Esyukova and Elena E. Noskova. Operational Scheduling Assembly Process Radioelectronic Products
?
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?? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????.
????? ???????????? ??????-????????? ?????????? ????????????? ??? «??? «??????????» ???????????? ?? ???. 1.
???????????? ????? ????? ?????????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ???????. ? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ? ???????-????????????? ????? (???) ????????? ????????? ???????, ???????????? ? ??????????? ???????, ??????? ???????? ??????????
??? ??????? ???????????? ????? ????????????. ????? ???? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ?? ????????????????? ??????, ??? ??????????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????.
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???????????? ??????? ???????, ? ?? ????????? ???????? ????????????, ??????? ??????????
???????? ?????????, ???????????? ? ?????? ????????.
?????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?? ????? ???????????????? ? ???????????????? ????????????. ??? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ?????
?????????? ? ????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ????????? ??????, ? ?? ????? ??? ??? ???????????????? ? ???????????????? ???????????? ??? ?????????????? ??????????.
?? ???. 2 ???????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????????? ??????? ??? ????????????.
??? ????????? ??????????????? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ? ???????
# 781 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Elena G. Esyukova and Elena E. Noskova. Operational Scheduling Assembly Process Radioelectronic Products
??????? (??????????????? ???????????? ? ????????? ?????????????), ??????????????? ????????? ???????????? (??????????????? ????????????) ? ?????? ????????? ???????. ??????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????. ?????????? ? ??????????????? ?????????
???????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ????? ?? ???????????? ???????. ?????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????, ??????????? ??????? ? ??????????
??????????. ??? ?????????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ???? ???? ??? ????????????
??????????????? ????? ??? ????? ???????????.
? ???????????? ? ?????? ????????? ???? ????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ??????????????? ??? (???) ? ????? ?????????????? ????????? ??? ? ????????????. ?? ???????????
??????????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? (??????) ??? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ?
????????? ??????????? ?????????.
?? ??????????? ????? ???? ??????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ?????????????? ???????:
? ????? ???????? ?????????????????? ?????????;
? ?????????? ?????????;
? ????? ??????? ? ????????? ??????;
? ???????????? ???????????? [1].
?????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????? ??????????
????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????, ??????? ???? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????????? ????????????, ?????????????? ??????????
????????? ???????:
?????????????????????
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???. 2. ????? ?????????????? ??????? ??? ????????????
# 782 #
????????????????
??????
?????????
????
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Elena G. Esyukova and Elena E. Noskova. Operational Scheduling Assembly Process Radioelectronic Products
? ??????????????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????? ?? ?????????, ???????, ???????, ?????? ??????????? ??????? ???????;
? ?????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ??????????, ?????????????? ???????????? ?????????, ??????? ???????? ? ???????? ??????? ????????????;
? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ? ????? ? ??????? ?????????? ????? ?? ??????? ???????.
??? ?????????? ??????? ??????????????? ???????????? ???? ??????? ?????????????
??????????? ?? ???? ???-??????????, ??? ?????????? ???????????????????? ? ?????? ?????????? ? ?????????????????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ?????????, ?????????????
???????? ?????????? ? ????????????? ???????????? ???????????.
??? ??????????? ??????? ??????????-???????????? ???????????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??????????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ???? ???????
???????????? ??????????, ?????????????? ?????????? ????????????????? ????? ??? ?????????? ??????????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ???? ?????
?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????-???????? ???????????????? ?????????.
? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ???? ?? ????????? ??????? ????????????,
?????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ? ????????? ?????? ????????????, ???????? ? ??????????????? ???????, ??????????? ????????????? ????? ????????????????? ???????????? ?
?????? ??????? ???????????????? ? ???????????????? ?????. ??? ???? ???????????? ??? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ????????, ? ????? ???????????
???????? ???????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????????????? ???????? ? ????.
? ?????????????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????????-???????????? ???????????? ???????????? ????? ??????? ????????????? ??????, ??????? ????????? ???????, ????? ???????
?????????? ????? ??????????? ? ?????? ?????????? ????????. ??? ?????? ????? ???? ?????? ????? ??? ???????????. ????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????: ???????????
????? ???????????? ????????????????? ?????, ??????????? ??????? ???????????, ????????
???????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ?.?. ????? ???????????? ??? «????????»
? ???????????? ??????????-???????????? ????? ????? ?????????????? ? ??????? ???????
????????? ????????????????, ????????????? ??? ???????????? ???????.
? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ? ??????? ??????????-???????????? ???????????? ???? ??????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ???????????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ???????????, ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????
??????? ???????? ???????????????? ???????? ?? ????? ?????. ????? ???????????? ???????
????????????? ???????? ??????? ????????????? ????? ??????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ? ??? ??????????? ? ????????? «???????» ????????, ???????
«?????????» ?????? ????????, ????????? ? ?????? ?????? ?????????. ????????????? ??????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ??, ??? ?????? ????? ?? ??????? ??????????
??????????? ?????? ??????????????? ?????? ????????????????? ???????.
???????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????-???????????? ???????????? ?????????
??? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?? n ??????? ?? m ???????: n/m/G/Cmax [2]. ????????????? ?
????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??? ???????? ????? ???????? ??????????????? ????????,
# 783 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Elena G. Esyukova and Elena E. Noskova. Operational Scheduling Assembly Process Radioelectronic Products
??? ???????? ? ??????????/??????? (???????-???????, ?????? ? ?.?.). ????? ????? ????????????
????????????????? ??????? ?????? ??????????.
????? ???? ????????? M = {M1,?,Mm} ? ???????? ?????????? ???????; J = {J1,?,Jn} ? ???????? ?????????? ???????;O = {O1,?,On} ? ???????? ?????????? ????????. ??? ?????? ????????
uij?O ???? ?????? Ji , ??????? ??? ???????????, ?????? Mj, ?? ??????? ??? ?????? ???? ??????????, ? ????????????????? ????????? pij ???????? uij, ??? pij ? ??????????????? ????? ?????.
????????? ????? ????????? ??????? ???? ???????? ????? ???????, ????? ????? ??????????
????? ????????? ???????? ???? ??????????. ??? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???? ????????? ?????????????????? ????????, ?????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ???? ?????? ?? ????????
?????. ????????? ??????? ????? ?????????????????? ????????? ??????? ?? ???????, ?.?. ????????? ??????????, ??? ??????? ?????? ????????? Cmax ????? ??????????? ??? ??????????????
???? ???????????.
minCmax
^ `
min max Sij p ij : J i Џ J, M j Џ M .
?????????? ????? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ????? ? ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ? ???? ????????????? ?????; ???????????? ?????????? ???????, ?????? ??????? ? ?????? ?????????????
???????????.
????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????? G = (V, A, E), ??? V ? ????? ?????,
A ? ?????????????? ????? ???, E ? ????????????? ????? ??? [3]. ???? V ????????????? ????
????????? ? ???? ????????? ?????, ????????? ? ??????. ?????????????? ???? A ???????????? ????????? ??????????????? ????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ??????, ? ?????????????
???? E ? ??? ???? ????????, ??????? ????? ????????? ?? ??? ?? ????? ??????. ???? ?????,
????????? ?? ????, ????????????? ????????????????? ????????? ????????. ? ????????? ????????? ???????? ??, ???? ?????????????? ???? ??????? ????? ??? ???? ???????? ?????? ??????, ?????????????? ?? ?????? ??????, ? ? ?????? ? ????????? ???????? ?? ? ???? ?????????????? ????, ????????? ?? ???? ????????, ??????????? ?? ????????? ??????. ???????????
???????????? ????????????? ?????? ????? ???? ?? ?????? ????????????? ???? ? ??????????
????? ???????, ????? ???????????? ???????????? ???? ??? ?????????????.
?? ???. 3 ??????????? ????????????? ???? ??? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????
3/3/G/Cmax, ??? ?ij ? ???????? ????????? i-? ?????? ?? j-? ??????.
????, ??????????? ???????? ?ij ? ????????? ?iu, ???????? ??????????????? ??????.
????, ??????????? ???????? ?ij ? ????????? ?bu, ? ????????????? ????.
???????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ? ???????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????? (??? ????????????????? ??????????? ????????? (???) ???????????? ?????????? «???????» ???????? ??? 1 % ?? ?????? ?????????? ????????), ??????? ????????? ???????????? ????????, ??????? ????????? ????????
??? ?????????? ??????? ? ???? ???????????? ????????.
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1. ???????????? ????? ???????????????? ???????? ??????.
# 784 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Elena G. Esyukova and Elena E. Noskova. Operational Scheduling Assembly Process Radioelectronic Products
O1
Oc
O1
O1
O2
O2
O2
O3
O3
O3
O?
???. 3. ????????????? ???? 3/3/G/Cmax
2. ????????????? ?????????? ?????????.
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4. ?????????? ????? ????????? ????? ????????? ?????.
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???? 3?6 ???????????, ???? ?? ????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????, ???????
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???????????????? ????????? ?????????:
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?????. ?????????? ?????? ???????? (group_count) ???????? ???????????. ??? ??????? ?????????? ? ???? ????????? ????? ? O? ?? ????????????? ?????. ? ????????? ????????? ??????
???????????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ??????? k-?? ???????, ???? k ?? ????????? ????????
# 785 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Elena G. Esyukova and Elena E. Noskova. Operational Scheduling Assembly Process Radioelectronic Products
ant_count ? l-? ??????, ?.?. ?????????????? ant_countЧgroup_count ???????????????? ??????.
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??????.
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?????? ??????????, ??????????? ????????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????. ?????????
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???? ij, ?? ???????? ????????? ??????? bu Џ N ij ?? ?????? ???????????? ????????.
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?????????? [4].
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?????????? ij? hg; Ck ? ?????? ????????? ??????????-????????, ??????? ??????? ????? ????????, ????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????; q ? ????????? ?????, ????????? ?????????????? ? [0,1]; q0 ? ????????, ????????????, ????? ?? ????????? ???????? ??????? ? ???????????? ? ?????? ???????? (1).
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?? m ???????, ??? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????.
# 786 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Elena G. Esyukova and Elena E. Noskova. Operational Scheduling Assembly Process Radioelectronic Products
????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? Lk . Lk ? ????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ???? ???????, ?.?. ????? ????????? ???? ???????? ? ?????, ?????????? k-? ????????, ?? ?????? ?? ????????? ??????? ????, ????????????? ?? ??????? (1). ????
????????? ???????? Lk ??? k-?? ??????? ??????, ??? ???????? ???????? Cmax, ?? Cmax ?????????
???????? Lk , ?????? ????????? k-?? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ??? ???????????.
????? ??? ??????? ? ?????? ???????????????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ???? ??
????????? ?? ???????? ???????, ?????? ??????? ???????? ???? ????, ?????????? ??? ?????? ???? ??????? ? ???????????? ?? ????????? ?????????? [4]:
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,
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ij, bu Џ V k t ij, bu ђ V k t .
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????? V k(t) ? ???????, ?????????? ???????? k ? ??????? ??????? t.
??????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ????????? p?[0,1], ??????? ????? ??? [4]
W ij ,bu t 1
1 p � W ij ,bu t 'W ij ,bu t ;
m
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(4)
k 1
??? m ? ?????????? ???????? ? ???????. ?? (4) ???????, ??? ????? ???????????? ???????? ???
?????? ???? ????????????? «????????» ?????, ? ??????? ?????? ??? ????.
??? ????????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? «???????»
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??????????? ??????, Q L+ ??? L+ ? ????? ???????? Cmax.
???? ??????? ????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ???????, ?????????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????? Cmax. ???? ? ??????????? ???? e ??????? ????????, ?? ????? ???????? Cmax ??????? ????? ???????? [4]
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?????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ???????? e. ???? ?? ???? 5
???????? Cmax ???? ?????????, ?? ?? ???? 6 ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ? (5).
?? ???. 4 ??????????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????
???????? ?????? ??? ?????? 9/5/G/Cmax ?? ?????? ????????????????? ??????????? ????????? ?
???? ????????? ????? ????? ??????????? [5].
??????? ?????? ?????? ???????????, ??????? ? ?????????? ?????? ? ?????? ???????
??????????????? ????????????, ??????????? ? ???? ???????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? (??), ????????????? ????? DLL-?????.
# 787 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Elena G. Esyukova and Elena E. Noskova. Operational Scheduling Assembly Process Radioelectronic Products
???. 4. ????????? ?????? ?????? ???????????
?????? NET ? ??????? ???????????? ??????????:
? CommonSnappableTypes.dll ? ?????? ? ????????????? ?????, ???????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????, ?? ??????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? WindowsForms;
? AntColony.dll, AntColonyElite.dll ? ??. ? ????????????? ???????? ?? ?#, ??????? ?????????? ???? ?? ?????? CommonSnappableTypes.dll;
? Production.??? ? ?????????? WindowsForms, ?????????????? ??????????? ????????
??????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????.
??? ?????????? ???? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????, ????????? ???
???????? ????????? ???????? ??????, ??????????? ??????? ???????????????, ?? ???????
?? ??????????? ????????? ? ???? ???????????? ???????? ? ??????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ?????????????? ? ?????????? ? ????????
??????? ? ?? ?????? ???????.
?????????? ??????? ?? ?????????????? ?????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ????? ????????, ????? ???????-??????????, ????? ?????? ?
?????? (???), ???????????????? ????? ?????? ? ?????? (????), ????? ?????????? ??????? (??), ???????????????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ? ????????? «???????» ????????
(???).
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Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
????? ????? ?????????????????
???????? (?.?.)
Elena G. Esyukova and Elena E. Noskova. Operational Scheduling Assembly Process Radioelectronic Products
?????????? ??????????????? ???????? (??.)
???. 5. ??????????? ???????????? ????????????????? ????? ?? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????
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??????? ?????? ??????????. ?????????? ???????? ????????? ?? ???. 5, ????? ?? ??????? ??????? ? ????. 1.
? ?????????? ????????????? ????????????????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ??????????
?????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ????? ?????????? 20 ???????? 16 ????????/???????????? ??????????? ?? 17 % ?? ????????? ? ???????????, ?????????? ???????
?????? ? ??????. ?????????? ????????????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ? ?????????
«???????» ???????? ???????? ????? ????? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????? ? ??????? ?? 5 % ? ????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ????????? ???.
??????
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??????? ??????????????? ????????????.
# 789 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Elena G. Esyukova and Elena E. Noskova. Operational Scheduling Assembly Process Radioelectronic Products
??????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ????????????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ? «????????» ????????? ? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????????-??????????? ????? ????????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????????????
???????? ??????. ? ??????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ???????? 1-25 % ??? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ???? ??????????????? ????????, ??? ? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?????. ???????????
??????????-??????????? ??????, ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????????????
?????, ???????? ? ????????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ?????, ????????? ??????????? ?
?????????? ?????? ????????????.
??????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?? ??????????? ????????
????????, ??? ????????????? ??????????? ????????? ? ? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ? ????????? «???????» ???????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ??????.
?????? ??????????
[1]???????? ?.?. // ??????? ??????. 2013. ? 4(50). ? 27.
[2] ?????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. // ???????? ? ?????? ??????????. ?.: ?????, 1975. 256 ?.
[3] ?????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. // ????????? I ?????????????? ???????-????????? ???????????
?????????, ?????????? ?? ??????? ??????. 2010. ?. 248.
[4] ?????? ?.?. // Exponenta Pro. ?????????? ? ???????????. 2003. ? 4. ?. 70.
[5] ??????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ?????????? ?.?. ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ????: ????????????? ? ???????????????
??????????? ???????? ??? ??? ? 2012617897.2012.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 7 (2014 7) 791-796
~~~
??? 621.31:629.78
The Imitation Model of the Autonomous System
of Power Supply
Vladimir I. Ivanchura,
Yuri V. Krasnobayev and Sergei S. Post*
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
Received 03.08.2014, received in revised form 12.09.2014, accepted 04.10.2014
The article presents a imitation model of autonomous system of power supply based on solar and
storage batteries and load. Logic operation simulation models consistent with the logic element
operation autonomous systems of power supply in real time. The load is defined timing diagram power
electricity. There are timing charts, confirming the adequacy of the developed model.
Keywords: solar array, imitation model, storage battery, Solar controller.
???????????? ??????
?????????? ??????? ??????????????
?.?. ????????,
?.?. ??????????, ?.?. ????
????????? ??????????? ???????????
??????, 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????????? ??
?????? ????????? ? ?????????????? ??????? ? ????????. ?????????? ??????????? ?????????
(??) ? ?????????????? (??) ????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????????? ???????.
?????? ???????????????? ???????????? ??????? ????????????? ?????? ????????????????
????????? ?????????? ??? ? ???????? ???????. ???????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????
??????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????????
????????? ??????? ????? ??, ????? ?? ???????? ????? ? ??????????? ????????? ??????????
??, ? ????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ?? ???? ??????????? ??????.
?????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ???????
??????????? ??????????????, ? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????, ???????????? ?
???? ??????? ????????? ????? ?? ?????? ??, ? ????? ?????????, ????????? ? ???????????
???????????, ?????? ??? ?????????? ????????????? ??, ?? ??????????????, ??????????
????????? ????????? ? ??, ? ????? ?? ????????????? ? ?????????? ?????????????.
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: serseric@mail.ru
# 791 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir I. Ivanchura, Yuri V. Krasnobayev? The Imitation Model of the Autonomous System of Power Supply
???????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????????????. ?????????
????????? ?????????, ?????????????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????.
???????? ?????: ????????? ???????, ???????????? ??????, ?????????????? ???????,
?????????? ????????? ???????.
1. ????????
?????????????? ????????? ??????? ? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????????
? ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????????. ????????? ??????? ????????, ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????, ??? ?? ????????????????? ?????????????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????. ????????????????? ?????????? ???
??????? ?????????????? ????????? ??????? ? ?????????????, ????????? ?? ???????? ?????
????????? ????????? (??), ???????? ???????? ????????? ???????. ??????????? ?????????
??????? ?????????? ?? ????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ???
???????????????? ??? ??????????? ?????????, ??? ? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????
?????????? ?????????? [1].
??????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ???????????????? ?????? ?????? ????????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????????? ? ?????? ????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????. ????????????? ????????? ? ????????????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ?? ???????????????? ??? ????????? ??? ???????, ??? ? ??????????
????????. ?? ????????? ? ????????????? ???????????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????
??????? ? ??????? ?????? ????????? ????????????????? ??????. ??? ??????????????? ????????????? ?? ? ?? ???? ????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????, ??????? ???????? ??
?????????????? ??????, ?.?. ??????, ????????? ?? ?? ????????????? ?????????????? ????, ?
?? ?????????, ? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????. ?????? ?? ???????????? ????????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ???????. ?????????? ???????????? ???????????????
?? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?? ?????????????. ?????????? ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ? ?????????? ??????????????.
2. ?????????? ??????
??? ?????????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????????? (???) ??
?????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ??? ???
????????? ?????????????? ??????????????? ????????? ? ?????????????? ??????? ? ???????? ????????? ????????? ????????????????? ?? ??????? ????????. ??? ???? ??????????
??????? ??????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ???????? ? ???????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ???. ????? ????????? ? ?????????????? ??????? ???????
??????????, ?????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ?????????????. ????? ?????????? ??????????? ?
??????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ???.
??? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????????. ??? ?? ?????????? ????????????? ?????? ??????????? ????????????? Simulink, ???????? ? ?????? ?????? MatLAB. ????? ?? ??????? ??? ??????????
# 792 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir I. Ivanchura, Yuri V. Krasnobayev? The Imitation Model of the Autonomous System of Power Supply
???????? ??????????? ?????????????, ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ? ?????????????
?????????????. ????? ?????? ? ??????? ?? ??????? ????????????????? ????????????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????, ? ?????????????, ???????? ???????? ??????????, ?
????? ???????????? ???????? ? ?????????????????? ??????? ??? ??????????????? ????????? [2].
3. ??????? ??????
?? ???. 1 ? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????? ?????????? ???; ?? ???. 1 ? ?????????? ????????? ???????, ??????? ????? ?????????? ?????????????. ? ????? ????????? ???
????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ???? ?????????? ????????, ???? ??????? ????????? ????? ?? ?????? (? ????????), ??????????? ?????????? ????? (?), ?????????? ?? ?
????????? ??????, ???????? ???????? ???? ?????? ? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ??, ? ?????
??????? ???????????? ????????? ??????.
???????? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ??, ???????????
????? ??????? ????????? ?? ???. 2.
???. 1. ?????? ?????????? ??? ? ?? ?????????
???. 2. ??????????? ????? ???????????? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ???????
# 793 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir I. Ivanchura, Yuri V. Krasnobayev? The Imitation Model of the Autonomous System of Power Supply
?????? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ????????????? ? ?????????? ???????, ? ??? ????? ? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????????. ????? ???????? ? ??????? ??????????? ?????
???????????? ? [3, 4].
?????? ????????? ???????, ??????????? ????????? ??????? ? ?????????????? ???????
??????????? ? [5, 6]. ????????????? ????????? ????? «Load» ? ????????????? ?????????????
??????? ?? ????. 1 ???????????? ?? ???. 3.
?????? ????????? ????????? ????????, ?????????????? ? ????. 1.
?? ???. 4 ???????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ?? ???????
????????.
?????????? ?????? ?????? ? ?????. ????? ????????????? ???????????? ?? ??????????
? ??????? ????? ???, ??? ???????? ?? ???. 5. ??? ????? ?? ???????, ?? ???????? ?????????? ?
?????? ??????? t1, ? ? ??????? ??????? t2 ??????? ???????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????. ? ?????? ??????? t3 ??????? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ? ? ?????? ???????
t4 = ?? ????????? ??????????.
???. 3. ????????????? ????????? ????? «Load»
??????? 1. ??????????? ????????????? ??????? ? ??????? ?????????? ???
??????????
????????????
????????, ??
?????? ?????????????
1
40
20:00 ч 23:00
1
65
12:00 ч 16:00
1
5
13:00 ч 15:00
?????
1
100
13:00 ч 14:00
?????????????????
?????
5
15
21:00 ч 24:00
????????????
????????? Samsung
??????? Acer Aspire
4720Z
???????? ??????????
??? ???????? Nokia
# 794 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir I. Ivanchura, Yuri V. Krasnobayev? The Imitation Model of the Autonomous System of Power Supply
???. 4. ????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????
???. 5. ????????? ?????? ???????????? ?? ? ??????? ?????
?? ???. 6 ????????? ????????? ????????? ???? I?? ? ?????????? U?? ??????????????
??????? ?? ?????. ?? ??????? ??????? t1 ?? ?? ?????????? ? ??? ?? = 0. ? ?????? ??????? t1
?? ?????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ????, ? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ?????, ???????????? ?? ??????? I?? = P?? / U??. ? ?????? ??????? t2? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? (??.
????. 1), ? ??? ?????? ?????????. ? ?????? ??????? t4 ?? ????????? ?????????? ? ?? ?????????
? ????? ???????. ???????? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????
??? ???????? ?????????? ?? ?? ?? ?????? 10, 5 ?.
??? ????? ?? ????????? ?????????, ?????????? ?? ???????? ???? 10,5 ? ? ??????????
???????? ?? ??????????. ?????????????, ???????????? ? ??????? ???????????.
4. ??????????
1. ? ????? Simulink (MatLAB) ??????????? ???????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????
??????? (????????????? ? 2013612150). ?????? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????
????????? ??????????? ??, ??? ????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????? ??? ??????????????
?????????? ???.
# 795 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir I. Ivanchura, Yuri V. Krasnobayev? The Imitation Model of the Autonomous System of Power Supply
???. 6. ????????? ?????? ???? ? ?????????? ?? ? ??????? ?????
??????????? ? ?????????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????????: ????????? ???????, ?????????????? ???????, ??????????? ????????? ??????? ? ????????.
2. ?? ????????? ???? ????????? ????????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????????. ??????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????. ??????
????? ???? ???????????? ??? ?????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????????.
?????? ??????????
[1] ?????????? ?.?. ? ??. ????????? ??????? ?????? ???????????????? ??????????? ????????? / ???. ???. ??????????. ??-?. ??????????, 2008. 176 ?.
[2] ?????? ?.?. ????????????? ?????????????????? ????????? ? MatLAB, Simulink ?
SimPowerSystems. ?.: ??? ?????; ???.: ?????, 2008. 288 ?.
[3] ???? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ?????????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. ??????????????????? ??????????????? ??????? (??? ? 2013). ?????, 2013. ???. 6.
[4] ????????????? ? ??????????????? ??????????? ????????? ??? ??? ? 2013612150.
[5] Implement generic battery model. URL: http://www.mathworks.com/help/physmod/powersys/
ref/battery.html
[6] ????????? ?. ?????????? ?? ?????????????? ????????? ???????. ?.: ???????????????, 1983. 360 ?.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 7 (2014 7) 797-810
~~~
??? 004.94 : 62-83
The Simulation System for High-Precision Objects
for Example the Spacecraft?s Electromechanical Systems
Sergey A. Bronova*,
Evgenyi M. Kurbatovb, Pavel V. Avlaskoa,
Vasiliy A. Povalayeva and Darya D. Mishchenkoa
a
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia,
b
JSC ?Information Satellite Systems? Reshetnev Company?
52 Lenin Str., Zheleznogorsk, Krasnoyarsk region, 662972, Russia
Received 19.07.2014, received in revised form 05.09.2014, accepted 29.09.2014
Proposed basic principles of the simulation system for high-precision objects (for example, the
spacecraft?s electromechanical systems), allowing to resolve the contradiction between accuracy
and computational speed by changing the structure of the model and the corresponding calculation
methods in the process of modeling. Proposed solutions to the problems associated with providing
mathematical correctness by changing models and methods, the adequacy of the models of individual
modules and the entire object in the simulation.
Keywords: modeling system, precision systems, spacecraft, solar system, antenna system, precision
electric drive.
??????? ????????????? ? ?????????? ??????????
??? ???????????? ???????????? ????????
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ?????????,
?.?. ??????? , ?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ????????
?
????????? ??????????? ???????????
??????, 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
?
??? «?????????????? ??????????? ???????
????? ????????? ?.?. ?????????»
??????, 662972, ????????????, ??. ??????, 52
?
?????????? ? ????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????????
???????????? ???????? (?? ??????? ??????????????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????),
??????????? ????????? ???????????? ????? ????????? ? ????????? ?????????? ?? ????
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: sbronov@sfu-kras.ru, sapr@front.ru
# 797 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Sergey A. Bronov, Evgenyi M. Kurbatov? The Simulation System for High-Precision Objects for Example?
????????? ????????? ?????? ? ??????????????? ??????? ??????? ? ???????? ?????????????.
?????????? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ???? ???????, ????????? ? ????????????
?????????????? ???????????? ??? ????? ??????? ? ???????, ????????????? ???????
????????? ??????? ? ????? ??????? ? ???????? ?????????????.
???????? ?????: ??????? ?????????????, ???????????? ???????, ??????????? ????????,
??????? ???????? ???????, ???????????? ?????????????.
???????????? ????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????
????????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????????????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ????????. ? ????????? ????? ?????? ??????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ??????
?????????????, ? ????? ?????????? ?? ????????????????. ???????? ???????? ?????????
????????: ???????????, ?????????? ??? ???? ?????????? ???? ????????? ???????????? ???????, ????????????? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??????? ????????? ???????,
??????????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????, ????????????? ????????? ???? ??????? (????????, ?????????????? ????? ???? ? ??????? ?????????? ??????????????) ? ??. ??? ??? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ????????????? ??????? ? ????????
???????????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????. ?? ??? ? ?????? ???? ????????? ??????
? ???????????? ??????? ????????, ??????? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ??? ???????
??????????? ? ???????? ??????????. ?????? ?????????, ??? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????? ?? 10?15 % ?????????? ??? ???????????? ?????.
????????????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ??? ?? ???. ????????, ???????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ????????? (??? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??? ?????????
???????) ????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ????????? ??????? ?????, ???
???????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ???? ???????? [1-4]. ????????????? ????? ??????????????? ? ????????????? ?? 10?15 % ????????? ????????? ? ????????????????? ??????????????, ?? ?? ???? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ? ???????????? ??????????, ??? ???
??????????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ???? ?? ????????? ? ????????????
??????????.
??? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????????? ???????,
???????? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????????? ???????: ????????????, ????????? ? ??????????? ????????????, ????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ????????? ????????? ? ?????? ??????????? ???????, ?????? ?????????
? ??. ? ?????????? ?????? ? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????, ??? ?????? ?? ?????
?????????? ??????? ?????. ???????? ??? ??????? ??? ??????? ???????? ?????? ? ?????????
? ????????????? ??????????????? ???????? ? ?????? ??????????? ???????. ??????????
??????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????????-?????????????? ????????? ???????? ? ????, ??? ?????????? ???????? ????? ????? ??? ??????????????, ??????? ??????????
?????????? ? ????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????: ???????????? ???????
??????? ????? ?????????????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ??????? ?????? ?????
? ???? ????.
????? ???????, ??? ????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ????? ????????: ???????????? ????? ????????? ? ???????? ?????.
# 798 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Sergey A. Bronov, Evgenyi M. Kurbatov? The Simulation System for High-Precision Objects for Example?
??? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ????? ???? ???????, ? ????? ????????????????? ??????????. ??? ???? ??????? ????????? ? ???? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ????????,
?? ?????? ?? ??????.
? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ? ???????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????
?????? ? ?????????? ??????? ?????????????: ? ???? ??????? ? ?????????? ??????????. ???
???? ???????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ????? ? ??? ?? ????????? ? ? ???????????
?? ?????? ????????????? ? ??????????? ?????????. ???? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??? ????????? ?????????, ?? ????? ???????????? ?? ?????????? ??????; ????
?????????? ??????? ????????, ?? ????????? ????? ?????? (?, ??????????????, ????? ???????)
??????. ?????? ??????, ???? ?????? ????????: ?????? ??? ???????? ?????? ????? ???????
?????????????. ?? ? ???????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ? ?????? ???????
???????? ???????????. ? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ? ?????? ???????
? ???????? ????????. ????????, ??? ???????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ????????: ????????? ? ??????, ???????? ? ?????????? ?????????, ?????????? ? ??????
????????????????. ??? ????????? ? ??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????, ? ??? ??????????? ? ????? ???????????????? ????? ??????? ? ????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ?????????. ????? ??????? ?????
????????? ????? ? ????? ??????? ????????. ????????, ??? ???????? ?? ?????????? ??????
?? ?????? ?????????????? ????????? ? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????????????? ?????????
????????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????????. ???????? ? ?????? ????????, ?????????? ? ????? ?????? ????????.
???? ??????????????? ???????? ???????? ? ????????? ? ???? ???????? ??????????
?????? ????????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ????????????? ????????????
??????????????? ??????????? ?????????.
??????????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ? ?????????????? ???????????? ?????? ????????????? (????????, Simulink ?????? MATLAB) ????? ???????? ???????????????
?????????. ? ??????????? ????? ????? ??????????? ??????? ????????????? ? ??????????
?????????? ? ???? ???????????????? ???????????? ????????.
???????? ?????????? ??????? ????????????? ???????????? ????????
? ?????????? ??????????
??????? ????????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ? ????? ???? ???????????? ?? ???. 1.
????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????????? ????? ????????? ??????? ???????
? ???????????? ???????.
? ??????? ????? ??????? ??????? ????????????? ?????? ??????? ???????????, ???
????????????? (????????? ??????????????, ?????? ?????????????? ????????? ? ?. ?.), ?????
????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ? ??.
? ??????? ????? ??????? ??????? ????????????? ?????? ??????? ? ??????? ????? ?????????, ?. ?. ??????? ? ???????. ???????? ??????????? ? ???????? ??????????. ??? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ???????, ? ??????? ?????????? ????? ?????????. ???
???????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ????? ????????? ? ??????????? ?? ???????? ???????# 799 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Sergey A. Bronov, Evgenyi M. Kurbatov? The Simulation System for High-Precision Objects for Example?
???. 1. ??????????? ????? ??????? ????????????? ? ?????????? ??????????
??? ????????? ? ????????? ?? ????????? (???????, ?????????, ????????????? ??? ??.). ?????
?????????? ??????? ??????????, ?? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????
??? ???????????? ???????? ??????????. ??????? ????? ??????????????? ? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ??????? ??????? ? ???????????, ? ??????? ????????????
?????????? ????????? ? ??????? ??????????.
? ??????? ????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ? ?????
????? ????, ???????? ????? ? ?????? ???????.
?????????? ??????? ???????? ??? ??????? ???????? ???? ????????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??????????? (?????????) ?, ??????????????, ????????.
?????????? ??????? ???????? ???????????? (?????????), ??????????? ????????? ?????? ??????????: ????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????, ????????? ??????????????, ?????????????, ????????????, ?????????????? ?????????????? ??????? ?? ?????
????? ? ?????? (????????, ???????????? ??????? ? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????) ? ??.
???? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ? ??????? ? ???????? ?????????????. ??????? ????? ????????? ?????? ????? ? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????????????.
???? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ??? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ? ????? ????????? ????????? ?? ???????? ????? ?????????? ??????????????.
???? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?? ????????? ?????? ?, ????????, ??????????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ??????????????.
???? ???????????? ???????????? ??????? ????????????? ????????? ????? ????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ? ?????? ??????? ?????????. ??? ??????? ?? ????????? ????????? ?
????? ?????? ????? ???????.
# 800 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Sergey A. Bronov, Evgenyi M. Kurbatov? The Simulation System for High-Precision Objects for Example?
???? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????, ?????????? ????? ? ????????????
? ????????????? ????????. ?? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????????????? ??????????,
???????? ?????? ????? ????????.
???? ?????????? ????????? ???? ?????????? ??? ????????? ????? ?????????? ????????????.
???? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ? ???????????? ? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????????. ? ?????? ????????????
?????????? ?????????????? ???? ???? ?? ????????????.
???? ?????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ?????, ????????????? ?? ?? ?????? ? ???? ????????, ????????? ? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ????? ????????? ??????? ?????????????, ? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ? ??????????????? ??????? ???????.
???????????? ????????? ??????? ????????????? ????????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????????. ??????? ??????? ??????? ? ?????????? ?????????. ?? ? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ????????????? ?? ????????? ??? ??????: ???????????? ????????, ???????????? ????????
??????????, ???????????. ??????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????,
?????????? ? ???????? ?????????????. ??????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ? ??????? ? ?? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????????????. ????? ???????, ????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ? ??????? ????????? ??? ?????????. ? ???????? ????? ??????
???? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ??????? ?????????????.
? ?????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????? ??????? ????????????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ? ????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ? ? ???? ??????????????
? ???????????????? ?????????. ? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????
?????? ??????????, ???????? ???????? ????????? ?????????, ? ??????? ? ???????. ???????
??????? ????? ??????? ? ??????? ?????????????? ???? ?? ???????????? ???????????.
?????????????? ?????? ????????????? ??????????????
??? ??????????? ?????????
???????? ???????????? ???????, ????????????? ???????? ??????????????? ? ?????????????? ???????????? ???????, ?????? ???????????? ????????????? ??? ??????????? ?????????. ?? ???????? ????????????????, ?????????????? ? ??? ???? ???????????? ????????,
???????????? ? ???????? ????????? ???????? ???????, ??????? ? ?????????? ??????????. ?
???????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ?????????
??? ??????????? ????????? (? ???????????????? ?????????) ????????? ???????????.
???????????? ????????????? ?? ??????? ?????????????, ??? ??? ???????? ????, ????????? ????????? ?????????, ?????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ??????. ? ?????? ??????
? ???????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ? ????????? ???????. ??? ????? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? (????), ? ?????
?????????? ?????????????? ? ????????????? ???????????.
???? ????? ????????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? (????????? ??????? ?????????) [7-9].
# 801 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Sergey A. Bronov, Evgenyi M. Kurbatov? The Simulation System for High-Precision Objects for Example?
???????? ?????????????? ?????? ???? (???????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?
????????????? ?????) ? ????????? ????? ????? ???
d?
dt
Ri u ,
?
Li ,
??? ? ? ?????? ??????????????? ???????; R ? ??????? ????????????? ???????; i ? ??????
????? ???????; L ? ??????? ?????????????? ???????; u ? ?????? ???????? ??????????
???????.
????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????????????, ????????? ?? ???? ????????.
??? ??????????? ????? ???? ???????? ???????????????? [7] ? ???????????? ? ???? ????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ?????????????.
????? ???????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ??????: ? ?????????????? ??????????????
????????????????? ?????????????; ? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ????????? (?????????
????? ????? ????????? 120°); ? ?????????? ?? ????????????? ????????? (????????? ????????????? ? ??????????? ?????????????? ???? ??? ? ?????? ???????). ???????? ?????????
?????????? ?????????. ????? ???????, ?????????? ?? ????? ????? ????????? ?????? ????
? ?????? ?????.
?????? ???? ????? ????????????? ? ????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ? ??????? ????????????? ??????:
d\1x
dt
d\1 y
Ѕ
°
°
°
Z1\1x D1\1 y D1k2\ 2 y u1 y ;
°°
ѕ
D 2 k1\1x D 2\ 2 x (Z1 Zr )\ 2 y u2 x ; °
°
°
D 2 k1\1 y (Z1 Zr )\ 2 x D 2\ 2 y u2 y ,°
°ї
D1\1x Z1\1 y D1k2\ 2 x u1 y ;
dt
d\ 2 x
dt
d\ 2 y
dt
??? 1x, 1y, 2x, 2y ? ??????? (???????????) ?????? ? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ? ?????? ??????? ?????????; ? ? ??????????????? ??????????????? ???????; u ? ?????????? ??????? ??????????????? ???????; ?1 = 2?f1 ? ??????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????;
f1 ? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????; ?r ? ??????? ???????? ??????; ?1, ?2, k1,
k2 ? ??????????????? ?????????, ?????????????? ????? ????????? ???????:
D1
R1
L1V
,
D2
R2
, V 1 k1k2 , k1
L2V
Lm
L1
,
k2
Lm
L2
,
??? R1, R2 ? ???????? ????????????? ???????; L1, L2 ? ??????????? ????????????? ???????;
Lm ? ???????? ????????????? ????? ?????? ? ?????? ?????????.
????????? ????????????????? ???????
M
Lm
(?1 y ? 2 x ?1x ? 2 y ) .
? L1L2
??????????? ????? ?? ???????????????:
# 802 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Sergey A. Bronov, Evgenyi M. Kurbatov? The Simulation System for High-Precision Objects for Example?
i1x
1
(\1x k2\ 2 x ) i1 y
L1V
1
(\1 y k2\ 2 y ) ;
L1V
i2 x
1
(\ 2 x k1\1x ) i2 y
L1V
1
(\ 2 y k1\1 y ) .
L1V
??????????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ???? ????????????? ???? ????????? (???????????????? ????????????? ??????????????, ?????????????? ? ?????????????
?????????). ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ????? ??????????, ??? ????????????? ????
????????? ?????? ??? ?????????. ??? ????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ???????, ??? ??? ? ??? ??????????? ?????????????????? ???????, ?????????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ???????. ?? ??? ???? ?? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ???????.
?????????? ???? ?????? ????? ???? ????????????? ????????, ???? ?????? ??????????? ??? ???? ????? ???? ????????? ??????????. ? ?????????, ????? ?????????? ????????
???????????????? ???????? ???????:
d\1x
dt
d\1 y
dt
d\ 2 x
dt
d\ 2 y
dt
Ѕ
°
°
°
Z1\1x D1\1 y u1 y ;
°°
ѕ
D 2\ 2 x (Z1 Zr )\ 2 y u2 x ;°
°
°
(Z1 Zr )\ 2 x D 2\ 2 y u2 y ,°
°ї
D1\1x Z1\1 y u1 y ;
??? ????????? ????????? ?????????: D1k2\ 2 x # 0 , ?1k2 ? 2 y # 0 , ? 2 k1?1x ? 0 , ? 2 k1?1 y ? 0 , ??? ???
???????? ?1, ?2, k1, k2 ???? (? ??????? ????????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ????? 0,4?0,2) ?
?? ???????????? ???????????? ????? ????? ???????? ??????? ???????.
?????????? ????????? ?????? ???? ????? ???? ??????? ? ?????????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ???????, ???? ?? ?????????? ??????? ?? ???????? ?
???????? ??????????:
d?1x
dt
Є
є
Є
? 2k k
? ? k k ? ? є
?1«1 2 2 1 2 2 » ?1x «?1 1 22 1 2 1 2r » ?1 y ? 2 (?1 ? r ) »ј
«¬
«¬ ? 2 (?1 ? r ) »ј
d?1 y
dt
?1? 2 k2
U 2 x0
2
? 2 (?1 ? r ) 2
?1k2 (?1 ? r )
? 22 (?1 ? r ) 2
U 2 y 0 u1x ;
Є
є
Є
? ? k k (? ? ) є
? 2k k
«?1 1 22 1 2 1 2 r » ?1x ?1«1 2 2 1 2 2 » ?1 y ? 2 (?1 ? r ) »ј
«¬
«¬ ? 2 (?1 ? r ) »ј
?1k2 (?1 ? r )
? 22 (?1 ? r ) 2
U 2 x0 ?1? 2 k2
U 2 y0
2
? 2 (?1 ? r ) 2
u1 y ,
??? U2x0 ? U2y0 ? ????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????, ??????? ???????? ???????????
(?? ???? ??????? ?????? 0).
# 803 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Sergey A. Bronov, Evgenyi M. Kurbatov? The Simulation System for High-Precision Objects for Example?
???????????????? ?????? ? ???? ??????
Lm
u
2
? L1L2 [? 2 (?1 ? r ) 2 ]
M
^
u [(?1 ? r )U 2 x 0 ? 2U 2 y 0 ]?1x [(?1 ? r )U 2 y 0 ? 2U 2 x 0 ]?1 y ? 2 k1 (?1 ? r )(?12x ?12y )
`
?????????? ????? ????? ???? ???????? ?????? ???? ? ??????, ???? ?? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ???????:
d? 2 x
dt
Є§
є
Є
? 2k k є
?? kk ·
? 2 «1 21 1 22 » ? 2 x «Ё1 12 2 12 2 ё ?1.0 ?r » ? 2 y ё
Ё
«¬ ?1 ?1.0 »ј
«¬© ?1 ?1.0 №
»ј
d? 2 y
dt
?1? 2 k1k2
?12
?12.0
U1x 0 ? 2k1 ?1.0
?12 ?12.0
U1 y 0 u2 x
Є§
є
Є
?? kk ·
? 2k k є
«Ё1 12 2 12 2 ё ?1.0 ?r » ? 2 x ? 2 «1 21 1 22 » ? 2 y ё
Ё
¬« ?1 ?1.0 ј»
¬«© ?1 ?1.0 №
ј»
? 2k1 ?1.0
??12
?12.0
U1x 0 ?1? 2 k1k2
?12 ?12.0
U1 y 0 u2 y ,
??? U1x0 ? U1y0 ? ????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????, ??????? ???????? ???????????
(?? ???? ??????? ?????? 0).
???????????????? ?????? ? ???? ??????
M
Lm
?L1L2 (?12 ?12.0 )
[(?1.0U1x 0 ?1U1 y 0 ) ? 2 x (?1U1x 0 ?1.0U1 y 0 )? 2 y ] .
???????? ??? ????? ???????????? ?????????, ????? ????????? ???????????? ????????????????? ?????????? ? ????????. ????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????? ????????? ????????????????? ???????:
M
Lm
JV L1 L2 [(D 1 D 2 V Z1 Z 2 ) 2 (D 1 Z 2 D 2 Z1 ) 2 ]
^
u D 2 k1 Z 2U 12m D 1 k 2 Z1U 22m U 1mU 2 m (D 1 D 2 V Z1 Z 2 ) � sin>T r (T1 T 2 ) (H 1 H 2 )@ `
(D 1 Z 2 D 2 Z1 ) � cos>T r (T1 T 2 ) (H 1 H 2 )@ ,
??? ??????? ?????????????? ??????????: ?1, ?2 ? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ? ???????
???????? ??????????; ?1, ?2 ? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ? ??????? ???????? ??????????; U1m, U2m ? ????????? ??????? ? ??????? ???????? ??????????.
? ?????? ????????????? ?????? ????????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ????????????????? ??????? ??? ????????????? ??????????
M
Lm
U U
� 1m 2 m sin(? r ?1 ? 2 ?1 ? 2 ) .
J? L1L2 ?1?2
# 804 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Sergey A. Bronov, Evgenyi M. Kurbatov? The Simulation System for High-Precision Objects for Example?
??? ????????????? ????????????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ????????
??? ????? ??????? ????????? ????????????????? ???????
M
??? q1
U1m
, q2
Z1
q1q2 Lm
� sin(? r ?1 ? 2 ?1 ? 2 ) ,
J? L1L2
U 2m
.
Z2
????? ???????, ?? ??????? ? ?????? ????????????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ? ?????? ????????? ????????????????? ??????? ? ?????????????? ?????.
????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????????. ?????? ?
???? ????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????? ? ???????-?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ??????????????? ??????. ?? ??? ???? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ? ???? ????????? ????????????????? ??????????????? ??????????:
u1a
u1b
u1c
U m1a cos(?1 ?1 ?1a );Ѕ u2 a
°
U m1b cos(?1 ?1 ?1b ); ѕ u2b
U m1c cos(?1 ?1 ?1c ); °ї u2c
U m 2a cos(? 2 ? 2 ? 2a );Ѕ
°
U m 2b cos(? 2 ? 2 ? 2b ); ѕ
U m 2c cos(? 2 ? 2 ? 2c ), °ї
??? ?1a, ?1b, ?1?, ?2a, ?2b, ?2? ? ???? ???????????? ??????? ??????????????? ???.
? ?????? ????????????? ?????? ???? ? ?????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ????????
??????? ???????? ???:
u1x
u1 y
u2 x
u2 y
Ѕ
°
U1m sin(?1 );
°
ѕ
U 2m cos(? 2 ? 2 ?1 ? r );°
U 2m sin(? 2 ? 2 ?1 ? r ), °ї
U1m cos(?1 );
??? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ? ?? ???????? ???????? ????????:
d?1
dt
?1 ,
d? 2
dt
?2 .
? ???????????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????, ??? ????? ??????????? ??? ???????
????????, ?? ????? ???? ??????? ??? ??????. ??????? ??? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?????
?????????? ? ????? ?????? ?????? ???????-??????????? ???????????????:
u1k
u2 k
?
­
1,
cos(?1 ?1 ?1k ) t arccos[cos(?1t )];
????
°°
2
U m1k ®
?
° 1,
cos(?1 ?1 ?1k ) arccos[cos(?1t )],
????
°Ї
2
?
­
cos(? 2 ? 2 ? 2k ) t arccos[cos(? 2t )];
????
°°1,
2
U m 2k ®
?
° 1,
????
cos(? 2 ? 2 ? 2k ) arccos[cos(? 2t )],
°Ї
2
# 805 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Sergey A. Bronov, Evgenyi M. Kurbatov? The Simulation System for High-Precision Objects for Example?
??? k = a, b, c ? ??????? ???;
d?1t
dt
?1t ;
d? 2 t
dt
?2t ; ?1t, ?2t ? ????у?? ??????? ??????????
??? ??? ??????????????? ???????; ?1t, ?2t ? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??????????
??? ??? ??????????????? ???????.
? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ???????-?????????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????, ??????? ?????? ????? ????????????? ????? ?????????? ???????, ?? ??? ???? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????????: ????????????? ???????????? ??????, ?????????? ????????????? ?????? ? ????????????.
?????????????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ????????? ??
???. 2. ????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????, ?? ??????????? ????? ????? ???????? ? ???
?????? ????? ????????????. ????? ???? ??????????????? ??? ?????? ????, ???????, ????????,
??? ??????????? ???? ? ????? ????????? ????? ?????????????? ????? ?????? ? ?? ??? ???
??????? ?????????????? ???????????.
????????????? ???? ????? ??????????? ? ???? ????? ????????? (???. 3), ?? ???????
??????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ????? ? ????? ? ????????? ? ?? ???????? ? ????????.
????????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????????? G. ????????
????? ??????????? ???????????? ?? ???????????? ????, ??? ?????????? ??? ???????? ???????????? ? ?? ?????????? ?????-???????? ???????????????. ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????: ? ??????? ????????? ?????? ? ???????? ?????????????. ????? ????, ? ?????
????????? ??????? ???, ???????? ????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ?????????????.
???????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ?? ????????? ????????:
GD
A1D? i1D1 ?
? 11 ?;
BD
A1D? .
? Ѕ
BDiD
; GT AT1 ?iT11 ?
°°
ѕ ? 11 ?;
°
1?
°ї BT AT .
BT iT? ;Ѕ
°°
ѕ
°
°ї
???. 2. ????????????-??????? ????. ????? ????????????? ??????????????
# 806 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Sergey A. Bronov, Evgenyi M. Kurbatov? The Simulation System for High-Precision Objects for Example?
???. 3. ????????????-??????? ????. ????? ?????????
??????? 1. ????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????????? ???????????
?
?1
?2
iK
1
0
0
>0
2
0
0
<0
3
1
0
>0
4
1
0
<0
5
0
1
6
0
1
GK1
eK1
GK2
eK2
?K
0
0
GD
eD
0
GD
eD
0
0
?D
GD
eT
0
0
?D
GD
eD
0
0
?D
>0
0
0
GD
eD
0
<0
0
0
GT
eT
0
7
1
1
>0
GT
eT
GT
eT
?T
8
1
1
<0
GT
eT
GT
eT
?T
????? ???????????? ? ? ? ???????????? ?? ???????? ?????-???????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????, ??????????????, ?????? ? ????????????.
?????? ?????? ?????????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ? ????. 1. ? ?? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ?? ???????? ?? ???????? (??? ????????)
???????????? ? ??????????? ????. ????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ??????????.
????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ??? ????????????? ???????????? ????????????????? ????????, ??? ? ?? ?????????? ????????????? (????????????).
?????????? ????????? ????????????? ? ????????? ??? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ? ?? ??????????????? ?????? ???????:
?
§ 1
1 ·
ёёiK .
? K eK 1 eK 2 ЁЁ
© GK 1 G K 2 №
??? ?????? ????? ???? ???????? ????????? ???????: ????? ?????????? ???? ??? ?????????? ????????????? ?????? ? ???????????? (????? ????????? ?????? ???? ?????????????
# 807 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Sergey A. Bronov, Evgenyi M. Kurbatov? The Simulation System for High-Precision Objects for Example?
???. 4. ????????????? ??????????
???????????? ???????????? ? ??????); ????? ??????? ????????????? (????????????) ??????????? ?????????? (????? ????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ???), ????? ????????
???. ????? ???????, ?????????? ??? ??? ???????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????????.
??? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ????? ????????? (???. 4).
?????????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ?????? ????? ???
d? r
dt
1
>M M s @,
J
d? r
dt
?r ,
??? ?r, ?r ? ??????? ???????? ? ???? ???????? ???? ?????????; J ? ?????? ??????? ???????????
???? ???????? ? ???? ?????????; M ? ???????????????? ??????; MS ? ??????????? ?????? ????????.
????? ????????? ?????? ????? ?????????, ? ???????, ???????????? ??????? ??????, ????? ??????? ???? ???????????? ??????? (????????, ??????????? ??? ?? ???? ????????) ? ?. ?.
??? ??????? ????????? ??? ???????? ???? ???????? ???? ????????? ????, ??? ??????????? ?
?. ?. ?? ???? ???????????? ???????? ????? ????? ????? ????????? ????????? ???????.
????? ?? ??????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ??? ????????, ????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ????????? ?????????????? [5, 6].
???????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????????
? ?????????? ??????????
?????, ??? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ???????????, ????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????, ? ????????? ?? ???????? ??????. ? ???????????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ? ??????? ??????????, ??? ???
# 808 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Sergey A. Bronov, Evgenyi M. Kurbatov? The Simulation System for High-Precision Objects for Example?
??????? ? ??? ???????? ???????, ??????? ????? ?? ????? ???????????? ???????????? ?? ???????? ??? ???????? ?? ????????? ? ??????? ????????.
?????????? ??, ??? ?????? ????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ????? ?????. ????????, ??? ?????????? ??????? ???? ????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????????. ? ?????? ????????????? ???????????? ????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ???? ? ???????????? ??????? ?????????. ??????? ???????? ?????? ??????
???????? ????? ??????? ?? ????? ????????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?????????, ???????????? ? ??????. ??? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ????? ?? ????? ???????????
?? ??????? ????? ??? ????????, ?? ??? ??????????? ????? ??? ??????????? ?????????????
?????? ??????.
???? ?????????? ????????? ????????????? ?????? ?????, ????? ?????? ? ?????? ??????????, ????? ????? ??? ????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????????.
???????????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ? ???????? ????????? ??????????
?????????: ? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ???? ????, ??? ? ?? ???????????????. ????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ?? ????? ?????? ? ??????.
? ????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ??????. ????????, ??? ???????? ??
?????? ???? ? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ? ??????
? ?????? ??????? ????????? ? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ? ????????? ?????????, ??? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????????. ?????? ???????
??????????? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ?????????, ??????? ?????? ?? ????? ? ?????
??????. ?? ? ????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ?? ?????
?????? ? ??????.
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????????????? ? ??????????? ?? ???????????? ?????? ? ????? ???????????? ???????? ??????
????????? ? ?????? ?? ???????. ? ????????? ????? ?????????? ???? ????????? ???????? ?
??????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????????, ??????????? ??????? ??????? ???????
?????????? ?????????: Simulink (??? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????) ? MathCAD (???
????????? ? ??????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ?????).
???????? ????????, ??????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ??????
???????????? ??????? ?????????????, ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ?? ???????. ?
??????????? ???????????? ??? ??????? ????????????? ????? ???? ?????????? ? ???? ???????????????? ???????????? ????????.
?????? ??????????
[1] ???????? ?.?. // ??????????? ? ??????? ?????????? : ??. ????. ??. ??????????, 2002.
???. 7. ?. 210-243.
[2] ???????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. // ??????????? ? ??????? ?????????? : ??.
????. ??. ??????????, 2002. ???. 8. ?. 87-94.
# 809 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Sergey A. Bronov, Evgenyi M. Kurbatov? The Simulation System for High-Precision Objects for Example?
[3] ????????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. // ??????????? ? ??????? ?????????? : ??. ????. ??.
??????????, 2002. ???. 7. ?. 147-149.
[4] ?????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ?????????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. // ??????????????? ???????????????. 2010. ? 2. ?. 1-6.
[5] ?????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ?????????? ?.?. ? ??. // ??????????????? ???????????????.
2010. ? 9. ?. 34-40.
[6] ?????? ?.?. // ???. ?????. ???????????????. 2004. ?. 47, ? 4. ?. 61-65.
[7] ?????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ? ??. // ??????????? ? ?????????????? ??????????. 2008. ? 2. 19 ?. ????? ??????? : http://fetmag.mrsu.ru.
[8] ?????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ? ??. // ??????????????? ???????????????.
2013. ? 6. C. 3-8.
[9] ?????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ? ??. // ??????????????? ???????????????.
2013. ? 4. C. 3-9.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 7 (2014 7) 811-820
~~~
??? 629.78
Prospects of Improvement of Descriptions
of Tent-Bed Test for Control of Impermeability
of Systems of Space Vehicles of Connection
Alexey V. Chubar?*,
Oleg V. Pastushenko and Igor P. Kolchanovb
a
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
b
JSC ?Information Satellite Systems? Reshetnev Company?
52 Lenin Str., Zheleznogorsk, Krasnoyarsk region, 662972, Russia
b
Received 12.08.2014, received in revised form 02.09.2014, accepted 02.10.2014
The variants of application of charts of bench control of casework impermeability by gas analysis
methods in the space-rocket engineering are examined. Basic descriptions of test bench for space
vehicles impermeability control are presented by example of workplace of a vacuum plant of GVU600. Decisions are given, allowing improving precision descriptions of bench for the tasks related
to determination of values of actual loss of analyzed gas components from the cavities of controlled
systems of the modern design-layout connection space vehicles.
Keywords: impermeability control, determination of actual loss.
??????????? ????????? ?????????????
?????????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ?????????????
?????? ??????????? ????????? ?????
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????????, ?.?. ?????????
?
????????? ??????????? ???????????
??????, 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
?
??? «?????????????? ??????????? ???????
????? ????????? ?.?. ?????????»
??????, 662972, ????????????, ??. ??????, 52
??????????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ???????-??????????? ??????? ????
?????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????????????? ????????. ??
??????? ???????? ????? ????????? ????????? ???-600 (??? «???») ???????????? ????????
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: alexchub@mail.ru
# 811 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Alexey V. Chubar, Oleg V. Pastushenko? Prospects of Improvement of Descriptions of Tent-Bed Test for Control?
?????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ????????????? ???????????
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????????????? ??????? ??? ? ???????? ??????? ??? ??? ?????????, ??????????? ????????????? ????? ??? ???????????? ? (???) ?????? ???????, ??? ???????, ?????????? ???????
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???? [1]. ??? ?????, ??? ???????, ????????????? ????? ??? ???????? ??????? ??????? ??? ???
?????????, ?????????? ?? ?????????????.
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????????? ??????????? ? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ????????? (????????,
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??????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? (????????????) ???? ????? ????????? ???? ???
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????.
# 812 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Alexey V. Chubar, Oleg V. Pastushenko? Prospects of Improvement of Descriptions of Tent-Bed Test for Control?
?????? ???? ?????????? ???????? ?????????????
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??????????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ???????: ????????????????, ?????? ??????????????????, ????????? ?????, ?????? ???????????? ????????? ? ?.?.
??? ???????, ?????, ???????? ? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ????? ????????????????
???????? ????????? ?? ?????????????, ??????????? ? ???? ??????? ???????????? ?????????.
??? ?????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????? ???
????????? ????????? ????????? (??).
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????? ? ?????? ?? ? ??????????? ????-?????????????????? ?????????????. ? ?????? 1970-? ??.
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# 813 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Alexey V. Chubar, Oleg V. Pastushenko? Prospects of Improvement of Descriptions of Tent-Bed Test for Control?
????????????? ??? ? ????? ?????????, ??? ? ? ??????? ???? ? ????????? ???????????. ???
???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????????,
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?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ????????????? ? ?????????????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ??? ??????????????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ????????? [3].
? ????????????? ????????? ?????????:
? ????????????? ??????? ???????????? ? ????????, ??????????? ???????????? ? ????????????????, ?.?. ???????????? ????????????? ??????????, ? ????? ??????????,
????????????? ?????? ??????? ?????;
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? 10,6 ?? [(5 ? 8) 10-2 ?? ??. ??.]. ????????? ??????? 17 ? 22, ????????? ?????????????? ????????? ???????????? 23 ?? ???????? ?????? ???????? (????? ??? ?????) ? ??????? ? ??. ????????? ?????? 19, ????????? ?????? 17, ????????? ?????????????? ????????? ???????????? 23
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# 814 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Alexey V. Chubar, Oleg V. Pastushenko? Prospects of Improvement of Descriptions of Tent-Bed Test for Control?
???. 2. ?????????????? ????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?
?????????
??? SQ ? ????? ???????????????? ?????????, ?3 ??/?; QK.T ? ????? ???????? (????? ??? ?????)
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???????? ??????, ?.
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?????? 19 ? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????????????? ????????? ???????????? ??? ? ? ?. ????????? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? (?????????, ?????? ??? ??????),
????????? ????????? ???????????? ? ? ?? ?????? ?????????? ????? ?? ??????? ?????????.
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# 815 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Alexey V. Chubar, Oleg V. Pastushenko? Prospects of Improvement of Descriptions of Tent-Bed Test for Control?
???. 3. ??????? ??????????? ????? ???????????????? ???????? ????????? ?? ?????????????
???????????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ?????? ? ????????. ? ???????????
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????????) [5].
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Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Alexey V. Chubar, Oleg V. Pastushenko? Prospects of Improvement of Descriptions of Tent-Bed Test for Control?
????????????, ????, ????????? ??????? ??????, ????????? ? ??????????? ????????????????
????????????.
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????????? ???????? ?????????, ?? ????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????, ???????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????????????
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# 817 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Alexey V. Chubar, Oleg V. Pastushenko? Prospects of Improvement of Descriptions of Tent-Bed Test for Control?
???. 4. ???????? ??????????? ?? ????? ? ??????? ?????? ???-600
???? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????? ?? ??????????? (???. 4) ?????????? ???????????
??????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ???? ? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ?? ?????????????.
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?? ? ???????? ? ??????????.
?? ???. 5 ????????? ????? ?????????????? ??????? ??? ????-?????????????????? ?????????????, ??????????? ? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ??? ????????????? ??????????????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? [9].
? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ???????????? (8) ???????????? ????? ????????? ?????????? (??????????? ???????????? ????????, 2), ???????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ???? (1)
? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? (3), ??????????? ??????????? ???????? (4), ???????????? ???????????? ??????? (5) ? ??????????????? ?? ???????? ????.
???????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ?? ???? ?????:
????????? ????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ?????? (6) ???????????????? ??????? (???????? ? ?? ??????????? 7) ? ?????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ????.
? ???????????? ? ????????? 1 ? 2 ? ????????? ???????? ???????? ??????????????? ????????, ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????????? ???????, ???????? ??????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????? ???? ? ??????.
????? ?? ??????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ??????, ??????????? ???????? ?????????
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??? ?????? ????????? ??????? ????? ???????? ????????????? ??????.
# 818 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Alexey V. Chubar, Oleg V. Pastushenko? Prospects of Improvement of Descriptions of Tent-Bed Test for Control?
1
t = const
2
3
4
8
6
5
7
???. 5. ????? ?????????????? ??????? ??? ????-?????????????????? ?????????????
? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ?? ????? ????????
???????? [10], ??????? ?????????????? ?? ???? ????????? (??????????????) ???????? ????????????? ?????? ???????????? ????, ??????????? ? ?????? ? ???????????? ?????????????.
??? ???? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ????????????, ???????, ? ???? ???????, ??????????????
?? ???? ?????????? ? ????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ????????? ???????????? ????????.
??????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ?
?????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ????, ?? ??????????? ? ????? ??????? ??????????? ??? [4].
????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????? ???? ????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ????????????.
????? ????, ?????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ? ???? ??????????
???????????????? ???????? ????????? ????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????? ??? ?????????????? ?????? ???????????? ?? ???? ????????????? ???????????.
?????????????????? ??? ???? ?????????? ?? ???? ?????????? ???????, ?????????? ??
???????? ???????? ?????????????, ? ????????? ??? ?????? ????????? ? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ????????????? ????????????, ??????????? ? ?????? ????????????
??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ? ??? ?? ?????? ??? ????????????? ?
???????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ??????.
??????????
????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ???????
? ?????????? ???????????????? ??????????? ?????????.
??????????? ??? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ??? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????????
??????????? ???????? ????????? ? ???????? ?????? ???????? ???? ?? ?????????????? ??# 819 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Alexey V. Chubar, Oleg V. Pastushenko? Prospects of Improvement of Descriptions of Tent-Bed Test for Control?
????? ??????? ? ?????????? ???????? ??????? (??????? ???????-????????????) ?? ????????????? ??????? ????? ??????? ?? ????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ??????, ?????????????
???????????? ???????.
???????? ????????? ? ????????????? ? ????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ??
?????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ???????
??????????????? ??? ?????? ????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ????????????? ??????.
?????? ??????????
[1] ????????? ?.?. ?????? ? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ?????, ??????? ? ??????
??????????? ?????????: ????. ???????. ?.: ???-?? ??? ??. ?. ????????????, 1974. 231 ?.
[2] ???????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. ?????????? ??????????????: ????. ???????. ???.: ??????????? ??????????, 1997. 320 ?.
[3] ????????????? ????????: ?????????? ? 7 ?. / ???. ?.?. ?????. ? 2. ??. 1. ?.: ??????????????, 2003. 302 ?.
[4] ??????? ?.?., ?????????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. // ????????? ??????? ? ??????????. 2012.
??? 22. ? 4. ?. 207?211.
[5] ??????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. ?????????? ????????????
?????????? ???????? ??????????: ???????. ?.: ???-?? ???? ??. ?.?. ???????, 2008. 688 ?.
[6] ??????? ?.?. // ????????????? ???????. 1990. ? 5. ?. 34?35.
[7] ??????????, ?????????????? ? ????????????: ??????? / ???. ?.?.????????. ?.: ???????????? ????? «????????», 2010. 384 ?.
[8] ???????? ?.?. ?????????? ? ??????????????: ????. ???????. ?.: ????????, 2005. 304 ?.
[9] ??????? ?.?. // ????????????? ???????, 1997. ? 2. ?. 20?23.
[10] ???. 2444713 RU. ?????? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ? ????????? ?????? /
?.?. ????????, ?????. 2010130688 ?? 21 ???? 2010.
[11] ??????? ?.?. // ??????? ??????? ????? ? ???????. ???. ?????? ? ??????? ????????
???????. ???????, 1976. ???. 1 (5). ?. 3.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 7 (2014 7) 821-831
~~~
??? 621.311
Power Quality Improvement
in Off-Grid Renewable Energy Systems
Sergey A. Temerbaev,
Valery P. Dovgun* and Elena S. Shevchenko
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
Received 15.06.2014, received in revised form 21.08.2014, accepted 04.10.2014
In this paper a grid-interfacing converter system with voltage and current harmonics compensation
capability is considered. The idea is to integrate the power generating functions of the converter with
the power filter harmonic mitigation capabilities. The analysis of compensation characteristics of
different hybrid power filter configurations is carried out. The control method based on adaptive digital
system processing is proposed. The current detecting scheme independently controls fundamental
current and harmonic distribution system currents. Computation of the harmonic compensation
current is performed by the adaptive notch infinite impulse response (IIR) digital filter. The filter`s
parameters are made adaptive with respect to the grid frequency fluctuations. MATLAB/SIMULINK
power system toolbox is used to simulate the proposed system. The presented simulation results confirm
the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Keywords: renewable energy system, harmonics, hybrid power filter, power quality.
????????? ???????? ??????????????
? ?????????? ???????? ????????????????,
???????????? ?????????????? ????????? ???????
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ??????, ?.?. ????????
????????? ??????????? ???????????
??????, 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
? ?????? ??????????? ??????????, ?????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????
????????? ????? ? ?????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ????????????????. ???? ???????????
? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ???????? ??????? ???????? ? ????? ??????????.
???????? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ????????????????????? ?????????.
????????? ????? ?????????? ???????????????? ???????, ?????????? ?? ?????????????
?????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ????????. ????? ????????? ????????????
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: Vdovgun@sfu-kras.ru
# 821 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Sergey A. Temerbaev, Valery P. Dovgun? Power Quality Improvement in Off-Grid Renewable Energy Systems
???? ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ? ?????? ????????.
?????????? ??????????????? ??????? ?????????????? ? ??????? ????????? ????????????
??????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????????. ??? ????????????? ????????????
??????? ???????????? ????? MATLAB/SIMULINK power system toolbox. ??????????
????????????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????????? ???????.
???????? ?????: ?????????????? ????????? ???????, ?????????, ????????? ??????? ???????,
???????? ??????????????.
Introduction
In classical centralized power systems, large power generation plants produce most of the power,
which is then transferred over long distance transmission lines. However, necessity of electricity
access in remote area has led to expanding decentralized power systems mainly based on renewable
energy sources (RES). An off-grid renewable energy system is a stand-alone power system located in
a remote area. The last decades a large number of renewable generation units have been installed in the
low voltage distribution systems. Photovoltaic (PV) and wind power systems are typical examples of
renewable energy sources. RES require a power electronic converter to interface with the utility grid,
because the generated power is dc or has an ac frequency that is either nonconstant or higher than the
utility frequency [1, 2]. Renewable generation units may operate in utility grid-connected, connected
in the hybrid generator systems (in parallel with diesel generators or miniturbines), or a stand-alone
mode.
A good power quality is an important factor for the reliable operation of electrical loads. High
penetration of nonlinear loads such as compact fluorescent lamps, light-emitting diode lamps, switching
mode power suppliers give rise to serious challenges in power quality, especially for off-grid power
systems. Harmonic distortion produced by nonlinear loads causes several problems such as increased
power losses in customer equipment, power transformers, flicker, shorter life of organic insulation.
The installation of RES to the distribution system may have a significant impact on power quality. In
some cases inverter-based renewable generation units can increase the current and voltage distortions
in the system to which they are connected.
Between the different technical options available to power quality improving the active power filters
(APF) have proved to be an important alternative to compensate for current and voltage disturbances
in power distribution systems. In recent years active power filters have been widely investigated for the
compensation of harmonic currents.
However, in many cases installing of pure active filters is not cost effective solution because their
ratings are close to load. An attractive solution is to integrate primary power generation function of
the converter with the APF capabilities for current and voltage disturbance mitigation. In other words,
power converter should be able to maintain power transfer between the renewable energy source and
the local grid, and be able to improve the power quality at the point of common coupling.
Another cost-effective solution may be hybrid compensating device consisting of an active filter
and shunt passive filter. One of advantages of this hybrid power filter is the decrease in the required
power rating of the converter.
The shunt active filter for current harmonic compensation in a renewable energy system is
considered in [3, 4]. In this works feedforward-type active filter, which detects load current harmonics
and generates an opposite current to cancel out distortions, is used.
# 822 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Sergey A. Temerbaev, Valery P. Dovgun? Power Quality Improvement in Off-Grid Renewable Energy Systems
Calculation of compensating signals is the important part of AHF control and affects their
transient as well as steady-state performance. Different control methods have been proposed, ranging
from the use of fast Fourier transform (FFT) to the instantaneous P-Q theory, artificial neural networks
and adaptive notch filters.
The current harmonic compensating approach, considered in [3, 4], uses an adaptive line enhancer
(ALE) based on finite impulse response (FIR) digital filter. The serious limitation of ALE is a relatively
slow rate of convergence. Application an infinite impulse response (IIR) notch filter is attractive since
it requires much smaller filter length and provides better convergence properties compared to the ALE
with FIR filter.
This article focuses on power quality improvement in the off-grid renewable energy systems with
the help of hybrid power filters (HPF). Active part of HPF may be integrated with the power electronic
converter. Compensating characteristics of different HPF configurations, suitable for integration with
renewable energy units, are considered. The load harmonic compensation is performed through using
the adaptive two-band infinite impulse response (IIR) filter. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness
of the proposed method.
Renewable Energy System Configuration
Renewable energy sources are interfaced with the grid through power converters. Depending
on their operation in off-grid system, power converters may have the following modes of operation:
voltage-source, current-source, and active power filter mode [2, 6]. In voltage-source mode converter
can operate in off-grid system as a grid-forming unit. In this mode of operation the ac voltage and
frequency are controlled to meet the power quality requirements.
According to [1, 2] most of the power converters in RES systems operate in current- source mode.
PV inverters and wind power systems are typically renewable generation units, operating in currentsource mode with dc to ac energy conversion. In this mode control of RG unit is performed by injecting
of current with the same frequency and phase of grid voltage. Amplitude of current depends on the
power available from a renewable source.
In active power filter mode AC current or voltage harmonics are generated to mitigate waveform
distortions.
Hybrid Power Filter Analysis
There are two main categories of APF exist: shunt filters and series filters. The shunt APF should
operate as a current source and inject the compensation current into power system to cancel the
harmonic current, produced by current type nonlinear load [5]. The series active filter operates as a
voltage source and generates a voltage proportional to the source current harmonics. The series APF
can effectively suppress harmonics generated by voltage-type nonlinear loads.
In this section the following topologies of hybrid power filters are considered:
1. HPF with shunt passive filter and shunt active power controlled by the PCC harmonic voltage VCPh.
2. HPF with passive filter and active filter connected in series and controlled by the grid harmonic
current IGh.
3. Combined HPF with shunt passive filter and series active filter controlled by the grid harmonic
current IGh.
# 823 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Sergey A. Temerbaev, Valery P. Dovgun? Power Quality Improvement in Off-Grid Renewable Energy Systems
A. Shunt hybrid power filter controlled by the harmonic voltage VCPh.
This topology is shown in Fig. 1. It is suited with the DPG unit connected in parallel to the grid.
The grid is presented by a sinusoidal voltage generator in series with grid impedance
ZG = RG + j?LG. The nonlinear load is presented as harmonic current source. ILh is the harmonic of
distorted load current, and IGh is the harmonic of the grid current. The passive filter has two branches
tuned to 5-th and 7-th harmonics. The shunt AF is assumed to be an ideal current source that injects
a compensating current, proportional to the harmonic components of the coupling point voltage VCPh:
I AF = Gaf · VCPh.
With reference to Fig. 1, the grid current and PCC voltage can be deduced as a function of the
load current ILh:
I Gh
Yg
Yg Y pf Gaf
I Lh ; VCPh
1
Yg Y pf Gaf
I Lh .
(1)
According to (1) active power filter attenuates propagation of voltage and current harmonics
generated by the nonlinear load.
Fig. 2 shows a set of curves representing a frequency characteristics of distributing factor IGh /ILh
and trans-resistance VGh /VLh.
Equations (1) yield the following:
VCPh | 0, I Gh | 0 if G af !! Yg Y pf .
(2)
The line current and CP voltage are almost sinusoidal if (2) is satisfied for each harmonic of
order h.
B. Series hybrid power filter controlled by the grid harmonic current IGh.
This configuration is shown in Fig. 3. The AF is equivalent to controlled voltage source:
A AFh = Raf · IGh.
The grid current and PCC voltage
I Gh
Z pf
Z pf Z g R af
I Lh ; VCPh
Z g Z pf
Z pf Z g Raf
I Lh .
The AF is controlled in such a way to act as a resistor in series with grid impedance. Frequency
characteristics of distributing factor IGh /ILh and trans-resistance VGh /VLh are presented in Fig. 2.
The larger Raf is chosen, the lower the harmonic current IGh and VCPh will be. In this structure the
rating of APF is very small. It is preferred for power filter mode.
ZG
I Gh
VCPh
I AF
Z PF
Fig. 1. Topology of shunt HPF
# 824 #
I Lh
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Sergey A. Temerbaev, Valery P. Dovgun? Power Quality Improvement in Off-Grid Renewable Energy Systems
1.5
1
0.5
50
150
250
350
450
550
650
750
850
950
Frequency, Hz
1
0.75
0.5
0.25
50
150
250
350
450
550
650
750
850
950
Frequency, Hz
Gaf = 1;
Gaf = 5;
Gaf = 10
Fig. 2. Frequency characteristics of shunt HPF
ZG
I Gh
VCPh
I Lh
Z PF
Fig. 3. Topology of series HPF
A. Combined hybrid power filter controlled by the load harmonic current IGh.
This configuration is shown in Fig. 5.
Compensating voltage of AF is proportional to the harmonic components of the grid current:
VAFh = Kaf · ICh.
The grid current and PCC voltage
I Gh
Z pf
Z pf Z g K af
I Lh ; VCPh
Z pf ( Z g K af )
Z pf Z g K af
I Lh .
A set of curves representing a frequency characteristics of distributing factor IGh /ILh and transresistance VCPh /VLh is shown in Fig. 4.
The combined topology is suited with the RES units in the voltage-source mode.
# 825 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Sergey A. Temerbaev, Valery P. Dovgun? Power Quality Improvement in Off-Grid Renewable Energy Systems
1
0.5
50
150
250
350
450
550
650
750
850
950
650
750
850
950
Frequency, Hz
1
0.5
50
150
250
350
450
550
Frequency, Hz
Raf = 1;
Raf = 5;
Raf = 10
Fig. 4. Frequency characteristics of series HPF
ZG
I Gh
I Lh
Z PF
Fig. 5. Topology of combined HPF
Calculation of the Compensating Signal
The control strategies to generate compensating signals are based on the frequency-domain or
time-domain techniques [1, 2, 5]. Control strategy in the frequency domain is based on the Fourier
analysis of the distorted current or voltage. The high-order harmonic components are separated from
distorted signals and combined to form compensating commands. But the discrete Fourier transform
(DFT) loses accuracy in nonstationary situations.
Commonly used calculation methods in the time domain are the instantaneous active and reactive
(P-Q) theory approach, neural network theory, notch filter approach, adaptive signal processing. Most
of these algorithms have a much better dynamic response than the DFT. In this paper computation of
the load harmonic compensation current is performed by the adaptive notch IIR filter.
The magnitude characteristic of the ideal notch filter is defined as:
H(e j ? )
­1 ? z ?0
®
Ї1 ? ?0
(3)
# 826 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Sergey A. Temerbaev, Valery P. Dovgun? Power Quality Improvement in Off-Grid Renewable Energy Systems
1
0.5
50
150
250
350
450
550
650
750
850
950
650
750
850
950
Frequency, Hz
5
2.5
50
150
250
350
450
550
Frequency, Hz
Kaf=1;
Kaf=5;
Kaf=10
Fig. 6. Frequency characteristics of combined HPF
In (3) ?0 is the notch frequency. Notch filter extracts fundamental sinusoid from distorted current
waveform without harmfully phase shifting of the high-order harmonics. The ideal notch filter has zero
bandwidth. However, zero bandwidth cannot be realized in practice.
The simplest type of adaptive notch digital filter is the adaptive line enhancer (ALE) proposed by
B. Widrow [7]. The adaptation of the finite impulse response (FIR) filter is realized by using the least
mean square (LMS) algorithm. Shortcomings of this ALE are relatively low convergence speed and
potential instability.
An infi nite impulse response (IIR) filter provides a sharper magnitude response than the FIR
adaptive line enhancer. Also, it requires much smaller filter length, than the ALE based on FIR
filter.
Consider the two-band infinite impulse response (IIR) filter (Fig. 7). It realizes two doublecomplementary transfer functions:
F1 ( Z )
F2 ( Z )
En ( Z )
X (Z )
1
[1 A( Z )],
2
(4)
Ebp ( Z )
1
[1 A( Z )],
2
(5)
X (Z )
where A(z) is a second-order all-pass transfer function. F1(z) is a notch-type transfer function and
F2(z) is a bandpass-type transfer function. The tuning frequency is equal to ? 0.
A lattice-form realization of all-pass IIR digital filter is shown in Fig. 8. Input and output signals
in Fig. 8 are x(n) and y(n). Transfer function of the lattice all-pass filter is the following:
# 827 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Sergey A. Temerbaev, Valery P. Dovgun? Power Quality Improvement in Off-Grid Renewable Energy Systems
A( z ) =
z ?2 + k1 (1 + k 2 ) z ?1 + k 2
Y ( z)
=
X ( z ) k 2 z ? 2 + k1 (1 + k 2 ) z ?1 + 1
(6)
The polynomials of numerator and denominator of Equation (6) have mirror symmetry.
Accordingly, lattice IIR-filter realizes all-pass transfer function with module equal 1 in the all
frequency range. Using equation (4), the transfer function of the notch filter, shown in Fig. 6, is
presented as:
F1 ( z )
1 ( z 2 2k1 z 1 1)(1 k 2 )
,
2 k 2 z 2 k1 (1 k 2 ) z 1 1
(7)
where k1 is the adaptive coefficient which should converge to ?cos? 0 for reject a sinusoid with
frequency ? 0.
Adaptive IIR filter in Fig. 8 is adapted by using adaptive algorithms related to the lattice FIR
filters. The lattice structure of second-order FIR filter is shown in Fig. 9. In this article, gradient lattice
algorithm [8] is used for adaptation purposes. It has been chosen because of its low complexity and
high-speed convergence. Update of the coefficients k1 and k2 by using gradient algorithm is given as
follows:
k i (n 1)
k i ( n) 2P
(ei (n)ri 1 (n 1) ei 1 (n)ri (n)),
Di (n)
where ? is an adaptation step. Parameter Di(n) is defined as:
Di ( n)
E Di ( n) ei21 ( n) ri 21 ( n 1),
where ? is a forgetting factor: 0< ? <1.
En z X z
A z
Y z
Ebp z Fig. 7. Two-band IIR filter
Fig. 8. Lattice structure of second-order all-pass IIR filter
# 828 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Sergey A. Temerbaev, Valery P. Dovgun? Power Quality Improvement in Off-Grid Renewable Energy Systems
Fig. 9. Lattice structure of second-order FIR filter
Simulation Results
The system was simulated using MathLab/Simulink to verify the proposed algorithm. Fig. 10
shows the model and parameters are presented in Table I.
Schematic diagram of proposed controlled shunt HPF is shown in Fig. 7. The linear load is defined
as resistance R, non-linear load includes a rectifier with RL load on the dc side. Passive filter includes
two LC circuits, tuned to 5th and 7th harmonics. Simulation process is divided into steps: connection of
PF and connection of AF.
The grid supplies a non-linear current load, the THD1 of grid current is 21,4 %. At the first
simulation step the passive filter is connected in 0,2s and a waveform of grid current is more sinusoidal
(THD1=18,8 %). Simulation results are performed in Fig. 11.
Fig. 10. MATHLAB scheme of shunt HPF system
Table 1. Parameters of the Model
Grid
Load
Passive filter
AC=220 V
R1=3.7 ?
C5=263.9 ?F
f=50 Hz
L1=10 mH
L5=1.57 mH
Rg=0,1 ?
R2=15 ?
C7=143.25 ?F
Lg=0,2 mH
L7=1.47 mH
# 829 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Sergey A. Temerbaev, Valery P. Dovgun? Power Quality Improvement in Off-Grid Renewable Energy Systems
Tim
me
Fig. 11. Grid current on the first simulation step.
Tim
me
Fig. 12. Grid current on the second simulation step
The second step is APF connection in 0,5 s (Fig. 12). The resulting THD1 of grid current is equal
to 3,12 %.
Conclusion
In this paper a grid-interfacing converter system with voltage and current harmonic compensation
capability is considered. Compensating characteristics of different hybrid power filter topologies are
considered. A novel adaptive method for grid current harmonic compensation is proposed. The load
harmonic compensation is performed by using the lattice-form adaptive notch IIR filter. It is shown that
adaptive notch filter can be successfully employed in active harmonic filter for the sake of harmonic
mitigation. The proposed approach does not need any training of the notch filter. The performance
of the proposed control system is verified by computer simulation in MATLAB/SIMULINK. The
simulation results are presented showing the effectiveness of the proposed method.
References
[1] Blaabjerg F., Teodorescu R., Liserre M., Timbus A. // IEEE trans. on industrial electronics.
2006. Vol. 53. ? 5. P. 1398?1409.
[2] Rocabert J., Luna A., Blaabjerg F., Rodrigues P. // IEEE trans. on power electronics. 2012.
Vol. 27. ? 11. P. 4734?4749.
[3] Cirrincione M., Pucci M., Vitale G. // IEEE trans. on industrial electronics. 2008. Vol. 55. ? 5.
P. 2093?2110.
[4] Cirrincione M., Pucci M., Vitale G., Miraoui A. // IEEE trans. on Industrial Electronics. 2009.
Vol. 56. ? 8. P. 3128?3143.
[5] Akagi H. // Proceedings of the IEEE. 2005. Vol. 93. ? 12. P. 2128?2141.
[6] Serban E., Serban H. // IEEE trans. on power electronics, 2010. Vol. 25. ? 12. P. 2981?2992.
# 830 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Sergey A. Temerbaev, Valery P. Dovgun? Power Quality Improvement in Off-Grid Renewable Energy Systems
[7] Widrow B., Stearns S. P. Adaptive signal processing. Englewood Cliffs., NJ: Prentice-Hall,
Inc. 1985.
[8] Hodkiss W.S., Presley J.F. // IEEE trans. on circuits and systems. 1981. Vol. CAS-28. ? 6.
P. 550?561.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 7 (2014 7) 832-838
~~~
??? 621.396.94
Telemetry, Command and Ranging System
of Geo Spacecraft
Viktor G. Patyukova,
Stanislav A. Ryabushkin and Vitaly A. Shatrovb*
a
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
b
JSC M. Reshetnev Information Satellite Systems
52 Lenina Str., 662972, Zheleznogorsk, Krasnoyarsk Kray, Russia
b
Received 09.08.2014, received in revised form 04.09.2014, accepted 11.10.2014
The article describes the telemetry, command and ranging system of GEO spacecraft. It addresses RF
signals passage in ground-to-spacecraft path. Results of RF link budget calculations are presented.
The article also addresses unaccountable parameters of using onboard and ground equipment having
performances required by the link budget. System operation in ranging mode is described, as well as the
existing problems of its usage. Prospects of existing disadvantages handling and system performance
improvement were given.
Keywords: GEO spacecrafts, TCR systems.
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??????????? ?????????
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??????, 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
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????? ????????? ?.?. ?????????»
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? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????????, ?????? ? ????????? ??????????????? ???????????
?????????. ?????????? ?????? ?????????????? ???????? ?? ???? ?????-??. ????????????
?????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????. ???????? ???????????? ?????????
????????????? ????????? ? ????????? ????????????, ???????? ?????????, ?????????
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: vitalys@iss-reshetnev.ru
# 832 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Viktor G. Patyukov, Stanislav A. Ryabushkin? Telemetry, Command and Ranging System of Geo Spacecraft
???????? ????? ?????. ??????? ?????? ??????? ? ?????? ????????? ?????????, ? ?????
???????????? ???????? ??? ??????????. ???? ??????????? ???????????? ???????????
????????? ? ????????? ?????????????????? ???????.
???????? ?????: ??????????????? ??????????? ????????, ??????? ??????????, ?????? ?
?????????.
Introduction
The spacecraft commanding system can be subdivided into two major components: onboard
control subsystem and ground control segment (OCS and GCS). Data exchange between them is
ensured by telemetry command and ranging system (TCR). TCR utilises a mission-specific RF
link for data exchange between OCS and GCS (there are also scenarios of TCR operating via relay
satellite).
TCRs possess a number of special features uncharacteristic of satellite telecommunications
systems but significantly impacting their design:
1. TCR shall enable SC commanding in various flight modes: during SC positioning to its
nominal orbital slot and in-orbit mission, in oriented and non-oriented SC attitude, in nominal operating
conditions and in presence of contingencies and emergencies in the SC.
2. Sources of data transmitted on TCR links are located both onboard the SC and on the ground,
whereas SC telecom payload is a mere repeater for signals coming from the ground stations.
3. TCR links shall simultaneously transmit data and do the ranging.
4. TCR shall ensure advanced validity for data sent to SC and enable mandatory acknowledgement
of data passage, because sending of an unauthorised command (command transformation) or command
omission can lead to serious and sometimes ? irreversible consequences.
5. Amount of data transmitted on TCR RF links is relatively small.
6. In Russian practice, TCR systems interact with SC in sessions much shorter than intervals
between them (this enables controlling multiple SC from one ground station).
Signals usd by tcr
Creation of combined TCR links requires solving a number of specific tasks related to selection of
signal structure and processing method. All data handled by contemporary TCRs is digital. It simplifies
processing and allows usage of the most noise-immune modulation and encoding methods.
Combined TCR links require multiplexing of various data types. Thus return link requires
multiplexing of information coming from numerous telemetry sensors together with MLTC (memoryload telecommand) acknowledgements, at the same time maintaining a possibility for ranging. This is
achievable, for example, with frequency division multiplexing and multi-modulation. For this purpose,
telemetry sensors? signals are first converted into digital form and then subjected to time multiplexing.
The resultant digital stream STM, also referred to as TCR TM signal (in pulse-code modulation), is
then used as frequency or phase modulating (shift keying) signal for a harmonic wave having frequency
FTM. The same way, digital acknowledgement signals SACK and ranging signals SR are used to
modulate (shift-key) their subcarriers of FACK and FR. In turn, the sum of signals on subcarriers
modulates (shift-keys) the carrier wave f0 in phase or frequency. A signal made this way is defined as
PCM-FM(PM)-PM(FM).
# 833 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Viktor G. Patyukov, Stanislav A. Ryabushkin? Telemetry, Command and Ranging System of Geo Spacecraft
Fig. 1. TCR RF link signal spectrum
To perform high-accuracy RF measurements of velocity and distance, and to facilitate
communication establishment in the resultant spectrum, it is preferable to have the essential component
of the spectrum in carrier frequency. This is why the carrier is most commonly phase shit-keyed not at
±90° but at ±60°. An example of signal spectrum is shown in Fig. 1:
It is obvious that in such link the total power is divided between TM, acknowledgement, ranging
and carrier signals. This results in signal-to-noise ratio reduction for each individual signal and,
correspondingly, degradation of noise immunity.
Tcr rf link
Fig. 2 shows a diagram of TCR link energy levels.
In order to enable spacecraft control by means of TCR system, onboard and ground equipment
development includes link budget calculation. The link consists of two parts: ground-SC and SCground. In energy aspect, both parts are critical, the first one ? because of the temptation to Tx power
minimisation and ground stations simplification, the second one ? because of onboard equipment
mass, dimension and power consumption constraints. The key feature of the link is high signal losses
caused by signal attenuation in RF paths and by big distance. The ground-SC link, beside free space,
also passes atmosphere which causes additional nonlinear distortions.
The key characteristics to be taken into account for calculation of a typical TCR uplink are listed
below:
? ground antenna ? 11 m;
? output power ? 650W;
? EIRP ? 83,03dBW;
? overall propagation losses ? 201,89dB;
? pointing losses ? 0,6dB;
? polarisation loss ? 0,3dB;
? PFD on SC Rx antenna ? 85,62 dBW/m2;
? losses in hardware paths ? up to 4,5dB.
Provided the aforesaid performances, TCR stable operation is ensured.
Unaccountable peculiarities
of signal propagation
The distance L between transmitting and receiving points is measured with a help of modulated
signals by determining the time ?t of radio waves propagation; herewith, it is assumed that
# 834 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Viktor G. Patyukov, Stanislav A. Ryabushkin? Telemetry, Command and Ranging System of Geo Spacecraft
Fig. 2. Architecture and energy diagram of one SC communication link section
L = c0 ?t ,
(1)
where c0 is the speed of electromagnetic wave propagation in vacuum. As it is possible to measure the
?t interval with a very high precision, the distance L can be accurately determined; however, Earth?s
atmosphere and ionosphere have a notable contribution to ranging errors. The reason is that the speed
of RF waves propagation in atmosphere and ionosphere is different from c0 and that beam lines get
bent. Therefore, the true distance L0 between transmitting and receiving points will be different from
the measurement by ?L, which is calculated as a sum of values ?Lt and ?Li (troposphere-induced and
ionosphere-induced errors) calculated as follows [1]:
?Li = ? f ?2 I e cos ?1 ? m ,
(2)
H
?Lt = cos ?1 ?b ? N (h)dh , ?Lt =
0
N0
,
b1 cos 2 ?b
(3)
where N0 is the reduced near-surface refraction factor, b1 is the refraction factor (variable within 0,12
to 0,14 km-1), ? = 40,4 is a constant for ionosphere refraction factor calculation applicable if electron
density Ne(h) is measured in m3, h is the altitude over the surface of Earth, f is signal frequency, ?b
H
is beam line zenith angle at Earth surface, I e = ? N e (h)dh is integral electron density, ?m is beam line
0
zenith angle in ionosphere primary maximum.
Calculations of ?L for TCR RF link show small values, but in satellite slant range measurements
requiring an accuracy of within ten metres, this value becomes significant.
When signal source or receiver move, a change of frequency occurs which is caused by Doppler
effect. Doppler frequency shift ?f 0 is determined by wavelength and projection of speed vector on the
# 835 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Viktor G. Patyukov, Stanislav A. Ryabushkin? Telemetry, Command and Ranging System of Geo Spacecraft
line connecting the transmitter and receiving points. Atmospheric and ionosphere contributions cause
an additional frequency shift ?f, therefore the total frequency shift ?fs is found as a sum:
?f s = ?f 0 + ?f .,
(4)
?f = ?0?1 [ N A v2 ? ? A v1 (1 + N A )]
(5)
where ? A and NA are respectively refraction angle and reduced refraction factor in point A (SC location
point), v2 and v1 are projections of SC speed vectors on the SC-ground line and its perpendicular,
respectively, ?0 is wave length in vacuum.
Ranging mode
One of TCR?s main purposes is ranging (RNG) of the spacecraft (SC), which implies measuring
the distance to SC. The time method of ranging with a continuous signal is only possible when a
baseband signal is used as the message-bearing one. This may be a broadband signal in a noise or
pseudonoise form (usually, RNG uses pseudonoise signals which shift-key the carrier). In another case,
the distance is determined by phase method. GCS measures the instantaneous difference in phases of
signal generated by the station itself and the one returned by the SC. Knowing the measured phase
shift and the frequency of processed signal, it is possible to calculate signal propagation time and,
correspondingly, distance.
There is a need for measuring the SC range with a great precision, for example, in satellite
navigation, the requirements for ground-to-SC and SC-to-SC distance measurement accuracy are
constantly growing.
In control operations of telecommunications SC using European standards, the ranging function
is implemented with several baseband tones (frequencies). The highest tone (major tone) ensures
measurement accuracy, whereas the rest of tones are needed for ambiguity solution [1, 2]:
Major tone: ?
100 kHz
Minor tones: ?
27 kHz
4 kHz
283 Hz
35 Hz
Phase shift measurement includes summing of the following delays:
? Transmitting path delay in ?GCS hardware ? antenna feed input coupler? section;
? Transmitting path delay in ?coupler ? reflector aperture plane? section;
? Time of signal propagation in ?GCS antenna ? SC antenna? section;
? TCR onboard hardware delay;
? Time of signal propagation in ?SC antenna ? GCS antenna? section;
? Delay in ?reflector aperture plane ? LNA input? section;
? Receiving path delay in ?LNA input ? GCS hardware? section.
Phase shift measurement includes summing of the following delays:
? Transmitting path delay in ?GCS hardware ? antenna feed input coupler? section;
? Transmitting path delay in ?coupler ? reflector aperture plane? section;
? Time of signal propagation in ?GCS antenna ? SC antenna? section;
# 836 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Viktor G. Patyukov, Stanislav A. Ryabushkin? Telemetry, Command and Ranging System of Geo Spacecraft
Fig. 3. Ranging signal spectrum
? TCR onboard hardware delay;
? Time of signal propagation in ?SC antenna ? GCS antenna? section;
? Delay in ?reflector aperture plane ? LNA input? section;
? Receiving path delay in ?LNA input ? GCS hardware? section.
SC ranging only requires measuring the time of signal propagation in space. The other delays
are constant and their values are obtained during development and testing of space system, and in
particular ? onboard and ground measuring equipment.
Thus, total delay in ground and onboard hardware paths reaches several tens of milliseconds, and
its measurement and calibration error does not exceed 50 nanoseconds, which theoretically makes it
possible to measure the distance to SC with a 16-metre accuracy. Various aspects of delay measurement
error reduction including the errors induced by the near-Earth wave propagation environment, and
possibility of use of digital processing for received signals, were covered in articles [4, 5, 6].
The difficulty of ranging method implementation consists in correct adjustment of GCS
equipment: it is required to accurately (not more than 50 ns total) measure the aforementioned delays
in transmitting and receiving paths and in digital processing devices. As ranging signal?s bandwidth is
>100kHz (see Fig. 3), there are some distortions in the duration of signal passage through the ground
paths: roughly, different parts of signal experience different delays.
6. Conclusion
1. The following effects are often ignored in link budget calculations: RF waves, refraction and
dispersion due to fluctuation and non-uniformity of troposphere and ionosphere; Doppler effect during
SC launch; RF waves delay in troposphere and ionosphere; signal frequency shift under influence of
troposphere and ionosphere.
2. System performances enhancement (data rate, command rate, RNG accuracy etc.) demands
higher consumption of resources, which are strictly limited onboard the SC, and as for the ground
control segment, higher resource allocation may result in exposure of some areas to antenna side lobes.
# 837 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Viktor G. Patyukov, Stanislav A. Ryabushkin? Telemetry, Command and Ranging System of Geo Spacecraft
Another way of performances improvement is use of new technologies in equipment manufacturing
or sophistication of mathematical apparatus by scientific and statistical data and experience, which
is rather hard to achieve due to absence of hardware components and corresponding educational
establishments in Russia.
Acknowledgment
Work is performed with financial support of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian
Federation in the Siberian federal university (Contract No. 02.G25.31.0041).
References
[1] Yakovlev O., Yakubov V., Uryadov V., Pavelyev A. Radio wave propagation. M.: LENAND,
2009. 496 p. (in Russian).
[2] Bartenev V., Bolotov G., Bykov V. etc.; under editorship of Kantor L. Satellite communications
and broadcasting: Reference book. revised and enlarged. M.: «Radio i svyaz», 1997. 528 p. (in
Russian).
[3] Dudko B. Space radio systems: tutorial. Tomsk: Tomsk State University of Control Systems
and Radio-electronics, 2007. 291 p. (in Russian).
[4] Patent RU ? 2414736. Method of time intervals digital measurement. / V. Patyukov,
E. Patyukov // Published: 20.03.2011. ? Bull. ? 8. (in Russian).
[5] Patyukov V., Shatrov V. // VI All-Russia conference Radar ranging and radio communications.
RAS Institute of Radio-engineering and Electronics, 2012. Vol. II. P. 13?17. (in Russian).
[6] Patyukov V., Shatrov V. // VII All-Russia conference Radar ranging and radio communications.
RAS Institute of Radio-engineering and Electronics, 2013. P. 176?179. (in Russian).
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 7 (2014 7) 839-845
~~~
??? 629.056.8
Mapping of Tropospheric Delay of GLONASS/GPS Signals
with use Satellite Remote Sensing Data of the Atmosphere
Valentin B. Kashkin* and Aleksandr O. Klykov
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
Received 19.07.2014, received in revised form 14.08.2014, accepted 28.09.2014
The estimation of the tropospheric delay based on satellite remote sensing data of the atmosphere is
discussed. A technique for calculating and plotting of tropospheric delay maps is proposed. The winter
and summer maps of delay covering large areas are given. Wet component of the tropospheric delay is
distributed unevenly throughout the study area and varies considerably during the day.
Keywords: GLONASS / GPS signals, vertical profiles of troposphere, maps of the tropospheric delay.
?????????? ???? ???????????? ???????? ????????
???????/GPS ?? ?????? ????????????
?????????????? ???????????? ?????????
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ??????
????????? ??????????? ???????????
??????, 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
??????????? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?????? ????????????
???????????? ?????????. ??????? ???????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ???? ????????????
????????. ???????? ????? ????????, ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ? ?????.
??????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????????? ?? ??????????
? ??????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ???.
???????? ?????: ??????? ???????/GPS, ???????????? ??????? ?????????, ?????
???????????? ????????.
????????
???????? ????????? ??? ??????? ????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????????????
??????? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ? ???????? ?????????? [1]. ?????????
??????????? ? ???, ??? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ???????????????, ?????????? ?????*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: rtcvbk@rambler.ru
# 839 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Valentin B. Kashkin and Aleksandr O. Klykov. Mapping of Tropospheric Delay of GLONASS/GPS Signals?
??? ?????????? ?? ???????? ? ???????????, ????????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ????????
? ??????? ?????????. ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????????
?? ????????? ?? ????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ? ????????? ? ? ?????? ?????
?????????. ?????????????? ???????? ? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????. ?????????????? ???????? ? ??????, ??????????? ????? ????????? (??????????, ?????????? ?
???????????) ??????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????. ???????? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ? ?? ????, ??????? ?????? ???????? ????? ?????????.
? ????????? ????? ??? ????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????, ??????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ???????? ????????????????? ??????????:
???????????, ????????? ? ???????? ? ????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????
??????????? ?????? (????) [2]. ? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ????? (????????????????) ? ??????? ??????????. ????????, ??????????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ? ????? ???
????? ???????? ???? (????? ????????), ????? ???? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?????????. ???????? ?? ???? ???????? ???? (??????? ????????), ?? ??????? ?????????? ????? 10 % ?? ????? ????????, ?????? ???????, ??? ??? ??????? ??? ? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?
?????? ????????.
??? ????? ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ????? ???????????? ?????? ?
???????????? ???????? ??????????, ?????????? ? ??????? ???????????? ??????????????
???????????? ????????? ????? [2].
????????? ? ?????? ????????????
??????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ???????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ?????????. ?????????? ????????
?????, ?? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ????. ? ?????????? ???????? ?? ???????? ?????????? R,
? ??????????????? PR [1]:
PR
R ?t d ??? d ???? ?,
(1)
??? d??? ? ???????? ? ?????????; d???? ? ???????? ? ??????????; ?t ? ???????? ???? ????? ?? ???????? ? ?????????; ? ? ?????? ???????????.
???????? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ?? ???????????, ????????, ?????????? ???????? ???? ? ?????? ?????? ????????? ? ?? ???? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????.
? ???????, ????? ???? ?????????? ????? 0°, ??????? ? ???????? ???????????? ???????? (???).
???????? ??????????????? ????????? c ? ?????????? ??????????? n ??????????? ????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ?, ????????? ? ? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ???? ? ? ????
????? ????????????? [3]:
?
c0
77,64 §
4810 u e ·
6
, n 1
uЁ p ё u 10 ,
n
T
T
©
№
(2)
??? ?0 ? ???????? ????? ? ???????, ?/?; T ? ???????????, ?; ? ? ? ???????? ? ???.
????? ???????????????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ???? ?? ????? z1 ?? ????? z2 ? ?????
? ? ???????. ??? ??? ???????? ? ????? ??????, ??? ? ???????, ?? ????? ? ????? ???????? ??
????? ??:
# 840 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Valentin B. Kashkin and Aleksandr O. Klykov. Mapping of Tropospheric Delay of GLONASS/GPS Signals?
'? =
z2
і
z1
n
dz c0
z2
і
z1
1
dz
c0
1
c0
z2
і ( n 1) d z .
(3)
z1
???????????? ????????, ?????????? ? ???????? ??????????:
'z
z2
і (n 1) dz.
(4)
z1
???????? ?????????? ?? ????????????? ????, ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ni
??? ??????? ???? ? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?li ? i-? ???? ???????? li ???
' li
li ( n i 1),
???????? ni ???????????? ?? ??????? (2), ???????? ? ??? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ????
?i ??????????? ???
7 ,665u t
ei
6,1070 u 10 243,33 t u U i / 100,
(5)
??? t ? ??????? ???????????, °? ? ???? ? Ui ? ??????? ????????????? ????????? ????, %.
????????????? ???????? ?? ???? ?????, ?? ??????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ????????.
????????, ??? ??? ????????????? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ???????. ?????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ?????, ????????, ??????????? ???????? ????? NOAA
(???).
???????????? ??????? ????????? ? ?????? ????????????? ?????? ?? ?????????, ???
?????? ???????????? «??????» ?? ??????. ???????????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ?????
??????????, ??? ?????????, ???????????, ??????????? ? ???????? ?????, ?????? ??? ???????
???? [4].
??????? ATOVS ???????????? ????????????? ???????????? ????????? ????? ? ????????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ???? ? ???????? ???? ? ???????????? ?????????
? ? ??????????????. ??????????? ????? ??? ????? ? ???????? ????? ??????? ?? ??????????
????????? ????????? (???????????, ????????, ???????????? ???????????). ??? ???????? ?
????, ??? ? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ????? ????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ???, ? ?????? ????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ????? ????????? ? ????????? ??????? ??????? ??????????. ?????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????
?????????, ?????? ?? ??????? ????????????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????? ????? ???
????? ?????? ?????????????? ???? ?????????. ?????????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ??????. ?????? ATOVS ?????? ???????????, ?????????,
??????????? ? ???????? ?????, ??????????? ??????????????? ?? ? ??????, ? ? ?????????????
??????? [5-7].
? ??? ?????? ?? ????????? NOAA ? ????????? ATOVS ??????????? ???????? ???????
[8], ?????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ?
???????? ?????????.
# 841 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Valentin B. Kashkin and Aleksandr O. Klykov. Mapping of Tropospheric Delay of GLONASS/GPS Signals?
?????????? ??????? ????? ?????? (GDAS) Air Recourse Laboratory NOAA (ARL) ???????????? ????????? ? ???????? ?????? ? ????????? ????????? ?? ????? ???? [9]. ?? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ATOVS.
?????? ???????? ? ???????????????? ??????????? 1° ?? ?????? ? ??????? ? ?????????
?????????? 3 ?. ???? ARL ????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????
??? ???????????? ????????? ? ???????, ? ????? ?????? ? ?????????????? ????. ???????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??????????????? ?? ?????, ?? ??????????? ??????????? ??? ??
?????? ?? ?????? [10].
???? ARL ????????? ???????? ??? ????????? ???????, ???????????? ???? ??? (? ?????????? ?????? ????? 700 ???????? ?? ?????? ?????????), ??? ? «?????????» ????? ?????? ??
??????????? ??? ???????.
?? ????? ???????????????? Python ???? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ??? ?? ??????
?????? (2, 4, 5). ? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? GDAS ???? ???????? ?????????, ??????????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ?? ???? ???????, ????????????
??????? ???????.
?? ?????? ???? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ???? ??? ?? ?????????
?????????? ? ???????????????? ??????????? 1° ?? ?????? ? ???????. ??? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? Surfer-8.
?????????? ? ?? ??????????
? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ??????? GDAS ?? ?????? ? ???? 2014 ?. ??? ????????? ?????????. ?? ???. 1 ???????????? ????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? (????), ??????????
????? ????????, ????? ???????????? ? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ?? ??????????
?? ?????? ?? 0° ?? 80° ? ?? 70° ?? 110° ?? ??????? ?? 29 ??????, 00:00 UTC.
?? ???. 1 ?????, ??? ???????? ????? ??? ? ????? ????????????? ? ?????? ? ????????. ??????
?????????? ???????? ? ?????? 30-40° ?.?. ??????????? ???????? ??????, ??? ?????? ??? ??????? ???? ????????? 3-4 ?? ? ?????. ???????? ????? ???????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ???????, ?? ????? ????? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ??????
?????????. ??????? ???????????? ??? ?????? ??? ???????? ?? ???????? ????? ? ????????. ?
??? ????? ? ??????? ??????????? ? ?? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????????.
?? ???. 2 ?????????? ????? ???????? ???????????? ????????, ???????????? ?????? ? 0°
?? 80° ?.?. ? ??????? ? 70° ?? 110° ?.?. ?? 29 ???? 2014 ?., 00:00 UTC.
? ?????, ?????? ????? ????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ? ????? ????? ???????????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ????. ?? ????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ??????? ??????????
???????? ??? ???????? ?? ?????? ? ????????, ?? ???????? ????? ??????, ??? ?????.
???????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ?? ???????
?????????? ? ???????? ???????. ?? ???. 3 ????????, ??? ?????????? ??? (??????? ?????? ????????, ????? ? ??????? ????? ???) ?? 12 ? 29 ???? 2014 ?. ?? ?????????? ? 0° ?? 80° ?.?. ? 70°
?? 110° ?.?. ???? ??????? ??????? ??? ???????? ????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ? 00:00
UTC ? ????? ??? ? 12:00 UTC. ??????? ????????, ??? ??????? ?????, ????????, ?? ?????????
90°, ??????????????? 00:00 UTC, ? ?????? ???????????? ????? 7 ??? 8 ?, ? ??? 12:00 UTC ? 19
??? 20 ?. ????? ???????, ???. 3 ????????????? ????????? ??? ? ??????? ?????.
# 842 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Valentin B. Kashkin and Aleksandr O. Klykov. Mapping of Tropospheric Delay of GLONASS/GPS Signals?
???. 1. ????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ?? 29 ?????? 2014 ?., 00:00 UTC
???. 2. ????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ?? 29 ???? 2014 ?., 00:00 UTC
?? ???. 3 ???????, ??? ?? ??????? ??????? ????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ????????
? ??????? 12 ? ??????????? ?? ??????????. ?? ??????? ?? 15° ?? 60° ??????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ?? 1 ??. ? ????????? ????? 60° ?? 70° ??????????? «?????», ???
???????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ?? 1 ?? 2,4 ??. ?????? ?? (2) ??? ????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ? 19-20 ? ???????? ???????.
????? ???????????? ????????? ?? ???. 3 ??????? ??? ??????? ???????????? ???. ?
??????? ?? ???? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ?? ???????? ??
1 ?? 6 ??, ????? ??????, ? ???????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ?? 3-13 ??.
# 843 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Valentin B. Kashkin and Aleksandr O. Klykov. Mapping of Tropospheric Delay of GLONASS/GPS Signals?
???. 3. ????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? 29 ???? 2014 ?.? 00:00 ?? 12:00 UTC
??-????????, ??? ??? ??????? ? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ? ???????? ????? ?
???????????? ??????????? ???????.
???????? ????? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ? 00:00 UTC ? ????? ?????? ???
? 12:00 UTC ?? ???. 3 ?????? ???????? ?? ??????????????? ????? ???????? ??????? ????????,
??? ??????????????? ? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ? ????????? ???.
??????????
? ????????? ????? ??? ????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????,
??????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ????????????????? ??????????, ?????????? ??
????? ? ????? ?????? ???????? ????. ? ???????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? (2, 4) ? ?????????????? ????????????? ??????????????? ?? ??????, ?????????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????. ????? ?????????
?? ?????? ?????????? ??? ? ????? ?????? ???????? ????, ?? ? ??????? ????? ???????? ???????????? ????????.
? ???????? ??????? ????????? ????? ??? ?? ??????? 0°- 80° ?.?. 70°-110° ?.?. ????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ?? ???. ????? ??????????? ???????? ????????
?? ?????? ????????? ??? ??????? ????. ???????????? ???????? ????????????? ??? ???????? ?? ?????? ? ????????. ??????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ????????. ??
????????? ? ??????? ????? ???????????? ????? ??????? ?? ??????? ????. ????????, ????????
??????? ?? ?????, ????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ? ??????? ???.
?????? ??????????
[1] ????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ???????. ???????? ?????????? ? ????????????????. ?.:
????????????, 2010. 800 ?.
# 844 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Valentin B. Kashkin and Aleksandr O. Klykov. Mapping of Tropospheric Delay of GLONASS/GPS Signals?
[2] ?????? ?.?., ?????????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. // ?????? ??????????? ????????????????.
2014. ? 5. ?. 37-42.
[3] ??????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ??????????????? ?????????. ?.:
??????, 2009. 496 ?.
[4] ??????? ?.?. ?????????: ?????????? ???????. ?.: ???????????????, 1991. 509 ?.
[5] ?????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ????????????? ???????????? ????? ?? ???????. ????????
????????? ???????????. ?.: ?????, 2001. 254 ?.
[6] NOAA TOVS and ATOVS. URL: http://www.class.ngdc.noaa.gov/data_available/tovs_atovs/
index.htm
[7] ?????????? ?.?. ??????????? ????????????. ?.: ???????????????, 1983. 308 ?.
[8] ??????? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? «???????». URL: http://
scanex.ru/ru/stations
[9] EMC: Global Data Assimilation Group Documentation. URL: http://www.emc.ncep.noaa.gov/
gmb/gdas/
[10] Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS1) Archive Information. URL: http://ready.arl.noaa.
gov/gdas1.php
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 7 (2014 7) 846-852
~~~
??? 621.396.677
Antenna Arrays on Surfaces of Revolution
Alexey ?. Erokhina, Vasily S. Pankoa*,
Yury P. Salomatova and Mikhail I. Sugakb
a
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
b
Saint Petersburg Electrotechnical University ?LETI?
5 Professora Popova Str, St. Petersburg, 197376, Russia
Received 02.08.2014, received in revised form 22.09.2014, accepted 04.10.2014
In this paper explicit analytical expressions are derived which describe radiation pattern of multi ring
antenna array and multi ring continuous radiator allocated on an arbitrary surface of revolution.
Radiation patterns of semi-spherical, conical and hyperbolical antenna arrays are shown.
Keywords: scanning, ring antenna, antenna array, surface of revolution.
???????? ??????? ?? ???????????? ????????
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????, ?.?. ??????????, ?.?. ??????
?
????????? ??????????? ???????????
??????, 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
?
?????-????????????? ?????????????????? ??????????? ??????
??????, 197376, ?????-?????????, ??. ?????????? ??????, 5
? ?????? ?????? ????????? ????? ????????????? ?????????, ??????????? ?????????
?????????????? ?????????????? ???????? ??????? ? ??????????????? ????????????
??????????, ????????????? ?? ???????????? ??????????? ????????. ???????? ?????????
?????????????? ???????????????, ?????????? ? ??????????????? ???????? ???????.
???????? ?????: ????????????, ????????? ???????, ???????? ???????, ???????????
????????.
1. Introduction
Directional properties of antenna arrays of various kinds are studied in the literature in detail [13]. In [4] and [5] main characteristics for certain class of arrays ? ring and multi ring having a planar
shape are described. These results can be generalized to the case of antenna arrays which are located
not in the plane but on an arbitrary rotational surface (sphere, cone and similar). In this paper we will
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: vpanko@sfu-kras.ru
# 846 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Alexey ?. Erokhin, Vasily S. Panko. Antenna Arrays on Surfaces of Revolution
derive an expression for radiation pattern of such arrays and will present results for base surfaces of
different kind.
2. Radiation pattern of antenna array allocated
on a surface of revolution
Let us consider antenna array consisting of N identical elements allocated in z = z0 plane. Radiation
pattern of such array is [1]:
N
r
r
ik x sin ? cos ?+ yn sin ? sin ? )
f (?, ? ) = F? (?, ? )eikz0 cos ? ? I&n e ( n
,
(1)
n =1
r
where F? (?, ? ) ? radiation pattern of array element; I&n ? amplitude and phase of n-th element excitation;
??, ?? ? coordinates of ?-th element, k ? free space wave number.
From this expression it can be seen that location of array plane z0 makes an impact on phase
characteristics of array only. Considering a ring array we obtain:
2? (n ? 1)
?
?
? ?? ,
xn sin ? cos ? + yn sin ? sin ? = R sin ? cos ?? ?
N
?
?
where R ? array radius; ? ? angular location of ?first? element.
As a rule, for ring array it is reasonable to assign:
I&n = I&n ei?n = I 0 ei?n ,
where I0 ? equal amplitude of array elements excitation, ?? ? excitation phase.
Phase distribution in ring array with maximum radiation in direction (?0, ?0) can be expressed as
2? (n ? 1)
?
?
?n = ?kR sin ?0 cos ??0 ?
? ?? .
N
?
?
To avoid an influence of ring plane location on phase radiation pattern while consideration of
multi rings antennas, it is necessary to set a phase distribution as following:
?
2? (n ? 1)
?
??
?
?
?n = ? ?kz0 cos ?0 + kR sin ?0 cos ??0 ?
? ??? .
N
?
?
?
?
?
?
Now the expression for radiation pattern of ring array allocated in z = z 0 plane can be
written as
?
?
?
N
ikR ?sin ? cos ???
r
r
ikz0 (cos ?? cos ?0 )
?
f (?, ? ) = F? (?, ? )e
I 0 ? e ??
?
2 ?(n ?1) ?
2 ?(n ?1) ? ?
?
?? ? ?sin ?0 cos ??0 ?
?? ? ?
N
N
?
?
??
?
.
n =1
Radiation pattern of ring array element can be expressed as
r
r
F? (?, ? ) = p (?, ? ) F (?, ? )ei?(?,?) ,
i.e., as the product of three factors. Let is suppose that array elements have identical polarization and
r
phase characteristics p (?, ? ) , ? (?, ? ) but different amplitude patterns ? Fn (?, ? ). Therefore, we can
write:
# 847 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Alexey ?. Erokhin, Vasily S. Panko. Antenna Arrays on Surfaces of Revolution
?
?
?
N
ikR ?sin ? cos ???
r
r
i ?? kz0 (cos ?? cos ?0 )+? (? , ? )??
?
f (?, ? ) = p (?, ? )e
I 0 ? Fn (?, ? )e ??
2 ?(n ?1)
N
?
2 ?(n ?1) ? ?
?
?
?? ? ?sin ?0 cos ??0 ?
?? ? ?
N
?
?
??
?
.
n =1
If array element possesses phase center, then we can assign ? (?, ? ) = const in expression for
r
F? (?, ? ) and will not pay attention to the influence of element phase characteristic. The same can be
said about polarization characteristic. Finally, we obtain
N
i ? kz (cos ?? cos ?0 )??
f& (?, ? ) = e ? 0
I 0 ? Fn (?, ? )e
?
?
2 ?(n ?1) ? ?
? 2 ?(n ?1) ?
?
?
?? ? ?sin ?0 cos ??0 ?
?? ? ?
ikR ?sin ? cos ???
N
N
?
?
?
?
??
?
?
.
n =1
Then we will examine antenna array consisting of M rings whose centers is situated on 0Z axis.
For radiation pattern of such multi ring array we can write:
M
Nm
m =1
n =1
ikz cos ?? cos ?0 )
f& (?, ? ) = ? I m e m (
? Fnm (?, ?)e
?
2 ?(n ?1)
? 2 ?(n ?1)
?
?
??
?
?
?? m ? ?sin ?0 cos ??0 ?
?? m ? ?
ikRm ?sin ? cos ???
Nm
Nm
?
?
?
?
?
??
?
,
(2)
where the following variables describe an every m-th ring array: I? ? amplitude of elements excitation
(within every ring amplitude is supposed to be uniform); zm ? location of array center along 0Z axis;
Fnm (?, ? ) ? amplitude radiation pattern of ?-th element; Rm ? radius; Nm ? number of elements; ? m ?
angular position of ?first? element.
This expression allows us to explore the effect of the amplitude distribution for individual ring
array I?, rings location along 0Z axis zm, various orientations of elements Fnm (?, ? ) and ring radii (Rm)
on radiation pattern of multi ring array allocated on surface of revolution. The simplest case is I? = I0,
zm =0, Fnm (?, ? ) = F0 (?, ? ) .
3. Continuous circular radiators on a surface of revolution
Expression for normalized radiation pattern of a continuous ring radiator with an arbitrary
direction of radiation maximum (?0, ?0) can be obtained from (1) in the limit when N ? ?:
F (?, ? ) =
2?
1 ikz0 cos ?
ikR0 ?sin ? cos(??? )?sin ?0 cos(?0 ?? )??
e
d? ,
?e ?
2?
0
where R0 ? ring radius; ?0, ?0 ? maximum radiation direction; k ? free space wave number.
Then after transformation described in [4] we will derive:
)
(
F (?, ? ) = J 0 kR0 sin 2 ? + sin 2 ?0 ? 2sin ? sin ?0 cos (? ? ?0 ) .
where J0 ? Bessel function of first kind of zero order.
Phase distribution ?(?) in continuous ring radiator with radius R0, situated in z = 0 plane and
having radiation maximum in ?0, ?0 direction:
? (? ) = ?kR0 sin ?0 cos (?0 ? ? ).
If the ring is located in plane z = z0, then phase distribution becomes:
? (? ) = ? k ?? z0 cos ?0 + R0 sin ?0 cos (?0 ? ? )?? .
# 848 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Alexey ?. Erokhin, Vasily S. Panko. Antenna Arrays on Surfaces of Revolution
Let us suppose that radiating system consists of a number of continuous ring with different radius,
and radiation maximums coincide with each other:
? = ?kz cos ?0 .
Here we assume that the centers of the rings are located on the axis 0Z. Radiation pattern of such
a system can be written as:
M
f&? (?, ? ) = 2?? Rm I&m eikzm cos ? J 0 ?? kRm ? (?, ?, ?0 , ?0 )?? ,
m =1
where ? (?, ?, ?0 , ?0 ) = sin 2 ? + sin 2 ?0 ? 2sin ? sin ?0 cos (? ? ?0 ) , R? ? ring antennas radii; ? ? number
of rings.
To get all the rings radiating in the same direction (?0, ?0), it is necessary to set
? ik ? z cos ? + R sin ? cos (?0 ?? )??
.
I&m = I m e ? m 0 m 0
Now it is possible to write the expression for normalized radiation pattern in that case:
F? (?, ? ) =
M
1
M
?I
m =1
m
Rm
?R
m =1
I e
ikzm (cos ?? cos ?0 )
m m
J 0 ?? kRm ? (?, ?, ?0 , ?0 )?? .
If we assume all rings are located on certain surface of revolution:
f& (?, ? ) =
R0
? I ?? z (r )?? e
rJ 0 ?? kr ? (?, ?, ?0 , ?0 )?? dr ,
ikz (r )(cos ?? cos ?0 )
0
where I(z) ? amplitude distribution; R0 ? antenna radius; z(r) ? function describing the antenna
surface.
For direction of radiation maximum (? = ?0, ? = ?0), this expression can be written in the following
form:
f& (?0 , ?0 ) =
R0
? I (r )rJ
0
.
?? kr ? (?0 , ?0 , ?0 , ?0 )?? dr
0
This integral does not depend on ?0, ?0 and is fully determined by antenna radius and amplitude
distribution. Its maximum equals to:
f&max =
R0
? rI (r )dr .
0
This expression determines maximum field of antenna allocated on a surface of revolution.
As can be seen in this case, field amplitude is fully determined by antenna aperture R0 (not taking
into account shape of amplitude distribution). This fact that antenna can be lengthy does not
affect to field amplitude in direction of radiation maximum, because integral does not depend
on z(r).
Antenna can have arbitrary shape of surface of revolution. Maximum power is radiated in the
direction of surface axis of revolution, and does not depend on surface shape.
# 849 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Alexey ?. Erokhin, Vasily S. Panko. Antenna Arrays on Surfaces of Revolution
4. Examples of antenna arrays on surfaces of revolution
Let us consider various kinds of antenna arrays allocated on surfaces of revolution. Fig. 1-3
demonstrates semi-spherical, conical, hyperbolical array and radiation patterns of such arrays for three
scan angles and N ? ?.
5. Conclusion
In this paper we derived analytical expression which can be used for calculation of radiation
patterns of multi ring antenna arrays and multi ring continuous radiators allocated on an arbitrary
surface of revolution.
This work was supported in part by Ministry of education and science of Russian Federation
(research in the scope of basic part of government job), Siberian Federal University.
The authors would like to thank the support by the Ministry of Education of Russia together with
the Siberian Federal University and JSC ?Academician M.F. Reshetnev Information Satellite Systems?,
Contract ? 02.G25.31.0041.
0
-5
-10
-15
-20
-25
-30
-180 -160
0 -140 -120 -100
0 -80 -60 -40 -20
0
20
40
60
80 100 120 140 160 180
Fig. 1. Semi-spherical array (top), radiation pattern of semi-spherical array (bottom)
Tq
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
0
-5
-10
-15
-20
-25
-30
-180 -160 -140 -120 -10
00 -80 -60 -40
0 -20
0
20
40
60
80 100 120 140 16
60 180
Tq
Fig. 2. Conical array (top), radiation pattern of conical array (bottom)
0
-5
-10
-15
-20
-25
-30
-180 -160 -140 -120 -100 -80 -60 -40 -20
0
20
40
60
80 100 120 140 160 180
Fig. 3. Hyperbolical array (top), radiation pattern of hyperbolical array (bottom)
Tq
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Alexey ?. Erokhin, Vasily S. Panko. Antenna Arrays on Surfaces of Revolution
References
[1] Antenna Engineering Handbook / John L. Volakis, Editor. // 4th Ed. McGrow Hill, 2007.
[2] C.A. Balanis. Antenna theory: analysis and design. Second ed. John Wiley & Sons, 1997.
[3] ?.?. ???????, ?.?. ????????, ?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ??????, ?.?. ????? // ??????
?????????? ???????????? ????????????. ????? «??????? ? ??????????». ?. 4, ? 1. ?. 40.
[4] ?. ?. ?????????, ?. ?. ????? // ???????. 2010. ? 10. ?. 17.
[5] V. S. Panko, Y. P. Salomatov, M. I. Sugak // Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering
& Technologies 6 (2014 7) pp. 641-647.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 7 (2014 7) 853-856
~~~
??? 616.12-073.97-71
Structural Topological Analysis
of Cardiac Conduction System
Alexander V. Soldatov, Andrey S. Popov,
Gennady M. Aldonin* and Valentina G. Andyuseva
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
Received 05.06.2014, received in revised form 15.08.2014, accepted 22.09.2014
In this paper the method of structural-topological analysis of cardiac conduction system based on wavelet
analysis of electrocardio signal reflecting conductive network of heart topology has been considered.
Keywords: electrocardiography, wavelet analysis.
??????????-?????????????? ??????
?????????? ??????? ??????
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ?????,
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ????????
????????? ??????????? ???????????
??????, 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ??????????-??????????????? ??????? ??????????
??????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????-??????? ????????????????????, ??????????? ??????????
??????? ????????? ??????.
???????? ?????: ???????????????????, ???????-??????.
The presence of dynamic chaos and 1/f ? -fluctuations in the data physiology suggests fractal
function and fluctuations, determined by the topology of biosystems. Scale-invariant biological
structures and processes are closely related to physiological manifestations. Fractal topology of His
system, conducting electrical signals from the atria to the ventricles was thoroughly studied. The
nervous system is observed in the fractal structure on a macroscopic level, particularly in the neural
structures, and in individual neurons structures (Fig. 1).
Adequate models of the processes occurring in the cardiac conductive system are very important
for the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. In the currently existing models the basic property inherent
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: komenzo+aldonin@yandex.ru
# 853 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Alexander V. Soldatov, Andrey S. Popov? Structural Topological Analysis of Cardiac Conduction System
Fig. 1. Fractal structure of the vascular and cardiac conductive system
in nervous tissue ? distribution of soliton excitation through the conductive network, branching with a
definite scaling is not exhibited. Excitation of conductive network in the form of single waves (solitons)
over conductive network are extended from the heart pacemaker. The fluctuations in each fragment
occur when the sectional branches network changes. The sum of these fluctuation generates the signal
spectrum. The conductive network branches with scaling close to the ?golden section? according to the
law of Fibonacci. This explains electrocardio signal spectrum characteristics as 1/f, which corresponds
to the network topology. The general model of dynamic processes in living organisms ? branching
structure ?communication systems? explains the formation of the spectral characteristics of the
processes in them.
Thus, to diagnose the state of the cardiovascular system we can use the information contained
in the distribution network topology, and the spectra electrocardiosignal (ECS). Signal coming from
electrode reflects the state of heart conductive system. The turbulence occurs when the excitation wave
propagation along the nerve and vascular bed determines the spectral characteristics of the signals.
Normally, the electrical pulse is generated in the sinoatrial node (SA) (Fig. 1), located at the
confluence of the right atrium of the superior vena cava. Wave depolarization spreads quickly over the
right and left atrium, reaching the atrioventricular (AV) node, where it is significantly delayed. Then
pulse spreads rapidly over the bundle of His and runs along the right and left bundles of His branch.
They branch out into Purkinje fibers, aloneg which the pulse diverges to myocardial fibers, causing
their contraction.
Real ECS consists of three waves P, QRS and T varying amplitude (Fig. 2a), and its range form
?
1/f . Corresponding conductive network topology of heart is shown in Fig. 2b.
ECS contains spatio-temporal information about the work of the heart conductive system. Wavelet
transformations reveal analyzed process structure as pictures of local extrema surfaces lines, as well as
somopodobie of this structure. This helps to identify cardiovascular disease at an early stage.
Most adequate representation of the ECS spectrum is wavelet transformation which is presented
in Fig. 3.
Wavelet diagrams (Fig. 4) consistently reflect all the excitation propagation phases through
the conducting network, which allows linking the presence or lack of excitement in all network
fragments.
# 854 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Alexander V. Soldatov, Andrey S. Popov? Structural Topological Analysis of Cardiac Conduction System
0
50
100
150
200
F, Gh
Fig. 2. Image signals: a ? real ECS; b ? spectrum
Fig. 3. ECS and its wavelet transform
Thus the wavelet representation of the ECG signal can be used as a tool for the detection of various
cardiovascular diseases, such as ?myocardial infarction?, ?His bundle branch block?, etc. Using these
wavelet data we can watch the whole process of the signal generation and its path from the pacemaker
to the heart branching conductive network in real time.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Alexander V. Soldatov, Andrey S. Popov? Structural Topological Analysis of Cardiac Conduction System
?
b
c
d
e
f
Fig. 4. Wavelet chart: a ? Getting Started pacemaker; b, c ? P-wave; d, e, f ? QRS complex. Yellow shows the
passage of excitation fragments of heart distribution network
References
[1] Uritskii V.M., Muzalevskaya N.I. // Biomedical informatics and eniology (problem, results,
prospects): Comp. works. SPb.: Publ. Olga, 1995. P. 84-129.
[2] Aldonin G.M. // Journal of Radio Electronics. 2006. ? 11.
[3] Yakovlev A. N. Introduction to wavelet transformation. Novosibirsk: NGTU, 2003. 104 p.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 7 (2014 7) 857-861
~~~
??? 621.396.4
Regional Scientific and Technical Organization?s Role
in the Telecommunication Complex Development
of Krasnoyarsk Region
Alexey V. Turov*
Government Krasnoyarsk Region
110 ????, ??????????, 660009, ??????
Received 09.08.2014, received in revised form 04.09.2014, accepted 02.10.2014
Regional scientific-technical organization plays an important role in the expansion of the sphere of
information technologies in the economy of the Krasnoyarsk region. This paper deals with the aspects
of interaction between the state and regional structures involved in the telecommunications business.
Keywords: information technologies, telecommunications providers, telecommunication services and
systems.
???? ???????????? ??????-??????????? ???????????
? ???????? ????????????????????? ?????????
????????????? ????
?.?. ?????
????????????? ????????????? ????
??????, 660009, ??????????, ??. ????, 110
???????????? ??????-??????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ???? ? ??????????
????? ?????????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ????????????? ????. ? ?????? ??????
??????????????? ??????? ?????????????? ????? ???????????? ? ?????????????
???????????, ???????????????? ? ???????????????????? ???????.
???????? ?????: ?????????????? ??????????, ?????????? ?????, ????????????????????
??????? ? ???????.
The telecommunication complex of Krasnoyarsk Krai is one of the most developing economic
sectors. It includes 254 telecommunications providers with 589 federal licenses for providing various
services in 18 spheres: Internet access ? 140 providers, data transfer ? 98 , local telecommunication ?
79 , cellular services ? 5, TV broadcasting ? 35, radio broadcasting ? 34, cable TV ? 40, mail service ?
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: miskk@it.krskstate.ru
# 857 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Alexey V. Turov. Regional Scientific and Technical Organization?s Role in the Telecommunication Complex Development?
11, etc. According to the Federal State Statistics Service the volume of the telecommunication services
provided in Krasnoyarsk Krai in 2013 increased by 4,3 % compared to the previous year and made
26,89 billion rubles against 25,789 billion rubles in 2012. For a good understanding of the scale of
communication services requirement: Krasnoyarsk Krai is one of the largest regions in Russia, which
comprises 61 municipal territories and 517 rural settlements located in the territory of 2,4 mln sq. km
where about 3 million inhabitants live.
Special features of the Krai, such as the extended territory with various climatic zones, the big
amount of remote settlements, low population density cause different levels of penetration of modern
telecommunication services. While the central part of the region is equipped with wire telecommunication
systems, northern areas have none of them. Access to such remote settlements is carried out by means
of satellite channels that bring low quality and high costs with them. Despite of modern technologies
development, in some cases presence and quality of telecommunication infrastructure are insufficient
for providing of the telecommunication services meeting modern requirements. Infrastructure
development is uneven; there are disproportions in level of availability of services for separate groups
of the population and areas. Infrastructure development in remote and small locations is economically
unattractive for telecommunication providers. Previous years some very demanded content resources
appeared which increase this attractiveness and give the corresponding acceleration for introduction of
new telecommunication systems and emergence of additional telecommunication services. Elements
of remote trade, remote education and a telemedicine are also powerful drivers of development of
modern infocommunication technologies. Thus the public sector also plays very important role. On the
one hand, for state it is necessary to provide proper level of management with federal authorities and
their structural divisions in the subjects of the Russian Federation. On the other hand, it is necessary to
provide equal availability to receiving the government and municipal services to each inhabitant. It is
impossible without modern telecommunications and interaction with the state information systems of
various levels. For realization of these tasks the Government of Krasnoyarsk Krai successfully realizes
a number of actions to form the electronic government systems in the territory.
The idea of creation and formation of the electronic government is directed to providing of the
government services to citizens in a convenient alternative form, with application of progressive means
and IT technologies.
According to the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation dated 7 May, 2012, No. 601 [1],
by 2018 in Krasnoyarsk Krai it is necessary to achieve the following indicators: 70 % of the population
should receive government services in electronic form, 90 % of inhabitants should be satisfied with the
government services. Technically in Krasnoyarsk Krai the infrastructure of the electronic government
is developed and functioning, it includes a set of the regional-centralized technical, program and
departmental systems, such as:
? The protected network of data transfer uniting all executive authorities of Krasnoyarsk Krai;
? The Consolidated Register of Government and Municipal Services;
? Regional system of interdepartmental electronic interaction and rendering services in electronic
form ? ?Yenisei ? the Government Services? (?Yenisei-GU?) [2];
? The regional accredited certification authority of Electronic Signatures;
? The state and municipal services Portal of Krasnoyarsk Krai;
? Electronic document flow system;
# 858 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Alexey V. Turov. Regional Scientific and Technical Organization?s Role in the Telecommunication Complex Development?
? 28 departmental information systems working in an interdepartmental electronic interaction.
Regional system of interdepartmental electronic interaction ?Yenisei-GU? is the core of the
electronic government of Krasnoyarsk Krai. It allows to create inquiries to departments of various
level ? federal, regional, municipal. Interaction of experts and inquiry-and-answer data transfer is
realized by means of the protected communication channels, including the use of the qualified electronic
signature. According to the Resolution of the government of Krasnoyarsk Krai the Yenisei-GU system
has the status of the State information system of Krasnoyarsk Krai.
The ?Yenisei-GU? system and infrastructure systems of the electronic government cooperate with
Federal System of Interdepartmental Electronic Interaction (SMEV). The representatives of all levels
of local governments, including administrations of all rural settlements of Krasnoyarsk Krai have the
regulated access to the infrastructure. Considering geographical extent of the region and unevenness
of communication services coverage the organization of such access was one of the main problems of
the electronic government formation. And the experts solved it thanks to the potential of the regional
IT companies, telecommunications providers and the scientific and technical companies.
The expert groups on introduction of above-mentioned information technologies participated
actively in development and introduction the main systems of the electronic government as well
as auxiliary ones. Skills and abilities of regional experts allowed to localize, install and put into
commercial operation software products and computing systems of leading global manufacturers.
Satellite communication stations and antenna systems providing communication services and access
to necessary information systems are installed all over Krasnoyarsk Krai. A number of the unique
information systems allowing to solve effectively both registration and production and technological
tasks in the public and municipal administration is developed and created by the specialists of the
regional companies. Examples of such automated information system (AIS) are AIS ?Targeted social
assistance?, AIS ?Medicine?, AIS ?Archives?, AIS ?Labour and employment?, AIS ?Culture?, AIS
?Architecture and construction?, AIS ?Registry office?, AIS ?Preschool child?, AIS ?Web registry?,
Integrated Urban Information Billing Systems ?Sprint ? HCS (Housing and communal services)?
and ?Sprint-Transport?, etc. These information systems are highly demanded by inhabitants of the
region. For example, 462 814 inhabitants made an appointment to visit a doctor remotely by AIS ?Web
registry?. Electronic registration of payment in public transport is made in ?Sprint-Transport? system.
Monthly more than 7 million trips are registered. At registration of long-distance trips the GLONASS
technologies are used.
The general statistics for 2013 in ?Yenisei-GU? system is as follows:
? all executive authorities participating in the interdepartmental interaction are connected to the
system ? 638 users;
? 100 % access for all 517 local governments is organized (including access by means of the
electronic government terminal devices ? Infomats) ? 1 654 users;
? 54 830 outgoing electronic requests were created, 49 318 answers were received.
With introduction of AIS ?Preschool child? system developed in Krasnoyarsk Krai transparent
and up-to-date information about the waiting list to kindergartens is available to parents on the Internet.
Remote record to the waiting list to kindergarten through a regional portal of the government services
and a network of the Multipurpose centers is possible. In 2013 automatic picking in preschools is
made for the first time in the region. That reduced labor costs of specialists of boards of education in
# 859 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Alexey V. Turov. Regional Scientific and Technical Organization?s Role in the Telecommunication Complex Development?
8 times. Today all municipalities successfully work in system though earlier separated information
systems prevented to make the complete picture with the situation with quantity of places and the
queue movement in the preschools.
It is very important that AIS ?Preschool child?, as well as other introduced departmental information
systems, functions not as a separately taken automated link but all of them are the components of the
infrastructure of the electronic government of Krasnoyarsk Krai. Parents? applications are processed
in the ?Yenisei-GU? system; there is an automatic check of authenticity by means of electronic
interdepartmental inquiries to the divisions of FMS and the Registry office.
Experiment of Krasnoyarsk Krai on introduction of socially significant information systems was
reflected in the federal collection of the Expert center of the electronic state ?The Best Practices of
Regional Informatization?. More than twenty IT companies and the communication organizations are
brought in the federal Register ?Honour Book?.
For the high social importance the system was awarded the second degree diploma of the first
all-Russia competition of projects of regional informatization ?PROFESSIONAL IT? (Syktyvkar);
and also the 1st place at the V all-Russia competition of IT projects ?Electronic municipality-2013?
(Yekaterinburg).
The government and municipal services Portal of Krasnoyarsk Krai (www.gosuslugi.krskstate.
ru) is the important part for providing the government services to inhabitants of Krasnoyarsk Krai.
The all-Russia Unified system of identification and authorization (ESIA) is used to access the Portal. It
means that there is a common login and the password for accessing to the regional and federal portals.
In the regional portal there is a simplified system of registration if a citizen plans to receive only
regional and municipal services, it is quite enough of it.
In 2014 the service of Internet acquiring in the regional portal is planned to introduce for
convenience of citizens. Thus, users will have a possibility to pay the state taxes for rendering of
services in electronic form. And in this regard the citizens using electronic services have an attractive
prospect. The Ministry of Economic Development of the Russian Federation plans to reduce twice
since 2015 the size of the state duty for the services rendered in electronic form.
Modern IT technologies are applied also in a network of the Multipurpose centers (MPC). Today
in Krasnoyarsk Krai 20 MPC divisions use the ?Yenisei-GU? by means of the uniform information
system ?Yenisei- MPC ?. 37 746 applications were created in 2013 by this system.
In MPC for convenience of citizens the electronic queue is introduced, the uniform regional callcenter of the electronic government concerning receiving the government and municipal services (tel.8
800 200 3912) is operating. The call is free for locals. In 2014 opening of 7 more divisions of MPC is
planned. Their activity will be based also on modern information technologies for operative and highquality service to citizens in a one-window mode.
The program of the Government of Krasnoyarsk Krai on installation of the electronic government
terminal devices ? Infomats ? allows to solve in a complex not only the problem of providing of
the interdepartmental electronic interaction, but also to reduce a digital inequality in the region. All
installed Infomats were produced in Krasnoyarsk Krai. Today 474 operating Infomats are available
in all municipalities including rural settlements; they allow to keep the electronic register of services,
to receive the government services and to render them by means of the protected communication
channels, and also to have obligatory connection to federal system of interdepartmental electronic
# 860 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Alexey V. Turov. Regional Scientific and Technical Organization?s Role in the Telecommunication Complex Development?
interaction. It should be noted that access to official sites, portals of government services, a call to the
uniform call-center of the electronic government on the basis of MPC of Krasnoyarsk Krai is free for
citizens.
Thus, the necessary conditions for work with electronic government systems are provided to
municipalities and rural councils by installation of the Infomats with the separate communication
channels for Internet connection. All Infomats allow to make authorization of the citizens? appeals
by means of the universal electronic card or the social card. They have the function of remote
payment, including taxes, duties and fines. Since 2013 operative informing of the municipalities on the
emergencies occurred in Krasnoyarsk Krai is made through a network of the Infomats. The cardiograms
can be transferred from the municipal medical and obstetrical stations to the Uniform regional center
of diagnostics and consultation by means of the voice menu of the Infomats. Krasnoyarsk Krai is
unique among Russian subjects because of such developed network of the Infomats with wide applied
functionality for the civil and municipal servants, inhabitants of the region, and for execution of the
federal law of July 27, 2010 ? 210-FZ ?About the organization of providing the state and municipal
services?.
The willingness of experts to work with new technologies and population awareness are
necessary for successful promotion and providing electronic government services also. For these
purposes experts and designers of the region created the Internet portal of promoting the systems of the
electronic government: www.24vkurse.ru. For the training of the specialists rendering the government
and municipal services, monthly training practical works and seminars are organized, training video
instructions are developed.
The State information system of web video conferences ?Yenisei-Videomost? allows to hold
methodical meetings on using of the electronic government systems and rendering of services in
electronic form distantly for all areas of the region, including remote and northern. The 24-hour service
of technical support is organized for operation of the electronic government systems. Continuous
monitoring of an assessment of the quality of public services is carried out by the specialists of
departments.
This is the infrastructure created by the Government of Krasnoyarsk Krai with the assistance of
the regional companies. It allows inhabitants of the region to use telecommunications and to receive
the government services of federal and regional levels electronically.
References
[1] Decree of the President of the Russian Federation dated 7 May, 2012 No. 601 On Main
Directions of Developing the System of Public Administration.
[2] Resolution of the Government of Krasnoyarsk Krai dated December 25, 2012, ? 697-p. On
Establishment of the Regional System of Interdepartmental Electronic Interaction and Rendering
Services in Electronic Form ? Yenisei ? the Government Services (Yenisei-GU).
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 7 (2014 7) 862-871
~~~
??? 546.05: 546.264, 661.183.3
Lignite from Central Watershed
of the Yenisei River and Prospects
for their use for Manufacture of Germanium
Vladimir A. Makarova*, Oleg I. Podkopaevb,
Dmitry G. Koz?minc, Vladimir I. Naidkoa,
Aleksandr F. Shimanskiya and Svetlana A. Kopytkovab
a
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
b
OJSC ?Germanium?
1 Transportnuy Str., Krasnoyarsk, 660027, Russia
c
Ltd ?Berezovskoe Kar?eroupravlenie?
7a Pogranichnikov Str., Krasnoyarsk, 660111, Russia
Received 21.06.2014, received in revised form 29.07.2014, accepted 15.08.2014
Lignite from central watershed of the Yenisei river localized within the Meso-Cenozoic cavity deposit
considered as a promising new source of germanium raw materials in Russia. Germanium separating
possibility from lignite during the combustion process has been studied on the base of physical and
chemical properties research in order to develop the industrial technology.
Keywords: germanium, raw materials, deposit, lignite, ash, temperature, particle size, air
consumption.
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: volodya-ambal@yandex.ru
# 862 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir A. Makarov, Oleg I. Podkopaev? Lignite from Central Watershed of the Yenisei River and Prospects?
??????? ???????? ??????? ?. ??????
? ??????????? ?? ?????????????
??? ???????????? ????????
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ??????????, ?.?. ????????,
?.?. ???????*, ?.?. ??????????, ?.?. ??????????
?
????????? ??????????? ???????????
??????, 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
?
??? «????????»
??????, 660027, ??????????, ???????????? ??????, 1
?
??? «??????????? ?????????????????»
??????, 660111, ??????????, ??. ?????????????, 7?
??????? ???????? ??????? ?. ??????, ?????????????? ? ???????? ???????????????? ?????????
??????? ???????, ??????????????? ??? ????? ????????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????
? ??????. ????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????-?????????? ??????? ? ???????????????
????????????, ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ?? ???????? ? ???????? ??
???????? ??? ?????????, ? ? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ??????????.
???????? ?????: ????????, ?????, ?????????????, ??????, ????, ???????????, ?????? ???????,
?????? ??????, ??????? ??????????.
?????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ????? ???????? ????? ??? ????????????????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ????????????. ? ????????? ????? ????? ??? ????????????? ??????????
??????????? ? ???????? ??????????? ???????, ?????????-?????????? ????? ?????, ????????????????? ?????????, ???????????? ?????????? ? ???????????, ????????????, ??????????, ??????????? ? ???????????????? ????????? [1]. ?????? Ge ? ????????? ????: ? ??????????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ? ???????, ?????????????, ????? ??? ??-??????,
????????, ????? ? ??????????? ???????? ? ?.?., ? ?????? ? ????????? ????? ~ 200 ?/??? [2, 3].
? ???? ???????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? [4]:
? ???? ? ??????? (??????, ?????);
? ?????????? ????????-???????? ????????????? (???, ??????, ??????, ???????, ??????).
? ???????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ??? ???????????? ?????: ????????????? ?????????? (???????????) ?????????????, ??????????????? ??????? ????????-????????
?????????????, ???????????????? ??????? ?????????????, ????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????????.
? ??????? ??????????????? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????, ??????? ??? ???????????? ? ??????????? ?????, ??? ???????, ??????? ? ??????? ? ????????????
???????? ???? ?????????????????, ???? ?????? ? ????????? ?????????? ???, ??????? ???????? ???????? ? ?????????? ?? 600 ?/? [4].
?? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ? ????? ??????????? ????, ???????? ???????? ??????? ?. ?????? [5], ? ????? ? ????????? ??????????? ???
????????????????? ????????????? [6].
# 863 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir A. Makarov, Oleg I. Podkopaev? Lignite from Central Watershed of the Yenisei River and Prospects?
??????? ???????? ??????? ?. ??????, ?????????????? ? ???????? ???????????????? ????????? ??????? ???????, ??????????????? ??? ????? ????????????? ???????? ????????????
????? ? ??????.
?????????? ???????????????? ???-???????????? ????????? ????????????? ?????
???????-????????? ?????, ????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ?????? ???????,
?????????? ? ???????? ??????, ???????? ? 60-? ??. ???????? ???????? [5]. ???????????? ???????? ? ???????? ?????? ??????? ???? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ??????? (???????
«?????????») ?? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????.
? ???????????? ????? ????????? ??????? ????????????? ?? ?????????? ???? ???????
???????????: ???????-????????? ????? (???) ? ??????????? ?????. ????????????? ???????
??????? «?????????» ? ??????? ??????? ? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????
?? ???. 1.
?? ??????????? ????????-????????? ????? 2011-2013 ??., ??????????? ??? «???» ?? ?????????? ?????????? ???????, ???? ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????, ?????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ?2 (9585 ??) ? ?? ????????? ?1 (645 ??), ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ?1 (305 ?). ????? ????????? ????????? (??????? ????????? ?2) ??????????????
??????? ? ??????? ??????? ?????????? 1112 ?. ???????-????????? ???? ? ????????????? ??????
??????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ???. 2 ? 3 ??????????????.
«??????????» ??????? ? ????? ??? ?????? ??? ???????????? ?????, ????????????
????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ????, ???-????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ????????????????? ??????????? ??????????? (?????????) ????????? ??????? ?
?????-?????? ?????. ?????? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ??????. ?????????
???????? ????????????? ????????? ?????? ???????????, ??????? ???????, ????? ?????????????? ????? ? ?????????? ??????? (???. 4).
?????????? ???????? ? ???????? ?????????? ?? 14 ?? 640 ?/?. ??????? ?????????, ????????? ???????????? ?????????, ???????????? ???????????? ???????, ????? ????????????????? ??????????? ? ??????????????, ????????????, ???????, ???????????. ?????????????
???????? ? ???????? ????????? ?????? ??????? (?????????? «????????????, ????????????????? ??????») ???????????. ??????????? ??? ???????????? ???????, ??????? ???????????????
???, ??? ? ??????? ???????? ? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ????????, ??? ?? ?????????.
?????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????, ??????????? ??????? (59,6?69,8 %) ?
???????? (23,8?33,9 %), ??????????? ???????? ????? ??????? (4,6?5,4 %) ? ???? (0,2?0,8 %)
[5].
??????? ????????? ???? ???????? ???????? ??????? (? ??????? 26 %) ??? ???????????
???????? ?????? (7,6 %), ???????? (7,3 %) ? ??????? (5,1 %). ?????????? ?????? ???????? ?
???? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? 20 ????????????? ?????????? ?????????, ?? ???????
16 ??????????????? ?????????? ????????????, ?? ????????????? ????????? 50 % [5].
? ????? ? ??? ??? ??????? ???????? ?? ????, ? ??? ???????? ?? ??????????, ???????? ?????????? ????????, ??? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ???????? ??????? ??????? ???????
? ?????????? ???????????? ???? ????????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????, ?
??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? (???. 1).
# 864 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
???. 1. ??????? ??????? ??????? ? ?????????? ??????? ? ??????????????? ?????????????? ????????:
1 ? ?????? ??????? ???????????????????? ????????????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ???????????
??????????? ?????; 2 ? ?????? ???????????????? ????????? ?????????????? ????? ???????-?????????
?????; 3 ? ?????? ????????????????? ????????? ?????????????? ????? ????????? ?????????;
4 ? ?????? ??????? ???????; 5 ? ?????? ????????? ??????? (??????? «?????????»); 6 ? ??????????
????????-???????? ?????????????; 7 ? ?????? ????????????? ??????; 8 ? ?????????????? ??????;
9 ? ?????????????? ?????
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir A. Makarov, Oleg I. Podkopaev? Lignite from Central Watershed of the Yenisei River and Prospects?
???. 2. ???????-????????? ???? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ????????: 1 ? ???????
???. ???????????-????????? ?????. ??????-???????????? ?????????. ????? ????????? ? ?????????
???? ? ????????????????????? ??????????, ???????; 2 ? ?????? ???. ?????? ? ???????? ?????.
??????? ?????. ????? ???????????, ? ????????? ???? ? ????????????????????? ??????????, ???????;
3 ? ??????? ?????????? ???????; 4 ? ?????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ????????;
5 ? ??????? ??????? ? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ?1; 6 ? ??????? ?????? ???????
????????: ? ? ?? ????????? ?1, ? ? ?? ????????? ?2; 7 ? ????????, ?????????? ? 2011-2013 ??. (?????? ??
??????, ????? ? ???????, ?????? ? ????????? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ???????); 8 ? ????????
??????????????????, ?????????? ? 2011-2013 ??.; 9 ? ????????, ?????????? ? 2003 ?. (?????????, 2004);
10 ? ????????, ?????????? ??? ????????????????? (1960, ??????? ???????); 11 ? ????????-?????????
??????? ?????? ????????? ? ?? ??????
??????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ???????? ??? ?????????????? ????????? ???????? ? ????????? ????? ?? ?? ????? ???????. ? ?????? ?????? ????????? ??????????
???????? ??????????????? ????????????, ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ?? ???????? ? ???????? ?? ???????? ? ????? ?????????, ? ? ??????????? ? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????.
?????????? ? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ? ???? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ?????????????? ???????????? XRF-1800 ? ????????????? XRD-7000
????? Shimadzu. ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ?? ??????? STA 449 F3 Jupiter.
??????? ?????? ?? ????????????? ???? ??????? [7] ? ???????? ???????? ????, ????????????? ?? ?????????? ??????. ? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ? ????????
?????????????????? ???????? ?????? 250 ?. ???????? ?????? ??????? ? ? ??????? ???????# 866 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir A. Makarov, Oleg I. Podkopaev? Lignite from Central Watershed of the Yenisei River and Prospects?
???. 3. ????????????? ?????? ??????????? ????????????? ?? ????? ??????? 2 ? 1/17: 1 ? ????????????
?????????. ????? ?????????, ????????, ??????, ??????? ??????; 2-5 ? ??????? ?????????:
2 ? ????????????? ????????????????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ? ????????????? ???????????,
3 ? ????????????????????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ?????????, 4 ? ?????????????????????
??????????????? ??????????????? ?????????, 5 ? ????????????????????? ????????????,
???????????????? ? ??????????????? ???????????; 6-9 ? ??????????? ???? ? ?????????? ??????????:
6 ? ??????? ???? (Ge >100 ?/?), 7 ? ?????? ???? (Ge 50-100 ?/?), 8 ? ???????????? ???? (Ge 30-50 ?/?),
9 ? ??????? ? ??????????????? ???????????? (Ge < 30 ?/?); 10 ? ????????????? ????????? ? ??
????????; 11 ? ????????? ? ????????? ????????, ?? ?????? ? ???????; 12 ? ?????? ????????? (????? ?
????????? ? ??????? ?????????, ? ??????????? ? ????? ?????????; ?????? ? ????????? ? ???????????????
(%), ? ??????????? ? ?????????? Ge, ? ?/?/)
??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ???? ?? ??? ?????????????. ? ???? ????????
???? ??????? ???????????? ? ?????? ????? ???????? ?? ????????? 1,0?1,2 ??/???. ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ??????.
? ????. 1 ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ? ???? (?????????? ??????????????? ?????).
? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ????? ?????????? ??????? (68,0) ? ????????
(27,0 ???. %). ?? ????? ????????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????? (1,0), ???????? (0,5)
? ?????? (0,4 ???. %). ??????? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ???????
0,020 ???. %, ??? 200,0 ?/?.
# 867 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir A. Makarov, Oleg I. Podkopaev? Lignite from Central Watershed of the Yenisei River and Prospects?
???. 4. ??????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ????????????????????? ??????? ??????????
??????????? ?????????????
??????? 1. ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ? ????
???????
?????????? ? ???????, ???. %
?????????? ? ????, ???. %
Ge
0,02
0,05ч0,25
C
68,0
-
O
27,0
54,0
Si
1,0
16,2
Al
0,5
9,6
Fe
0,4
6,0
??
0,1
1,6
?
0,1
1,3
Ti
0,1
1,2
Na
<0,02
0,4
Cr
<0,02
0,3
Mg
<0,02
0,3
V
<0,01
0,2
Co
<0,01
0,1
Ni
<0,01
0,1
La, Sm, Sc, Y (? ?????)
<0,01
<0,1
??????? ??????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????? (16,20), ???????? (9,60), ??????
(6,0) ??????? (1,6) ? ????? (1,3 ???. %). ?? ?????? ?????????????? ???????? ??????? ???? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ???: ????? (58,0), ??????? ?????? (5,6), ??????? Fe2O3 (3,2), ???????
????? K 2SO4 (2,4) ? ???????? K Al Si3O8 (30,0 ???. %).
?????????? ???????? ? ???? ?????????? ?? 0,05 ?? 0,25 ???. % ? ??????????? ?? ???????
???????? ???????. ??????????? ??? ???, ??? ? ???????? ??? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ??
??????????? ??????? ??????? ????, ??????? ???????????? ???????? ????? ???????? ?????????
????????????? ???????????? ? ??????????? ?? ???????????? ???????? ????????? PO2. ??????????? PO2 ? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ????
# 868 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir A. Makarov, Oleg I. Podkopaev? Lignite from Central Watershed of the Yenisei River and Prospects?
????????????? ?????????? Ge?, ??????? ???????? ??????? ???????, ???? ?????????? ???????? GeO2. ? ??????????? ?? ????? ???????? ?????????????? ????? ????? ? ??????? ?????.
????? ? ?????? [8] ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ??? ??????? ????????????, ?????????????? ?? ???. 5. ?? ??????????? ?????? ???????, ??? ????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ???? 1090 °? ? ????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ? ???????; ????????, ??? 1200 °? Ge? ????????, ???? ??????????? ???????? ?????????
????????? ? ????????? PO2 = 3·10 -12 ч 3·10 -9 ??? (3·10 -7-3·10 -4 ??). ????? ???????, ??? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ? ??????? ????????? ? ????????? ???????????, ???????? Ge, ?? ???????
???? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ? ??????????? ??????, ??????????? ??????????? ????? 1090 °?, ? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ? ? ????????? ???? ????????.
???????????, ??? ??????????? ? ???? ???????, PO2 ?, ??????????????, ????????????? ???????? ????? ??????? ? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????????? ????????: ???????? ?????? ???????, ????????? ? ???????? ?????? ???????.
???????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ?? 36,0 ?? 50,0 ???. %. ??? ???????? ?? ??????? ?? ?????? ????? ?? ?????? 10 ???. % ? ??????? 200 ?. ??? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ?? ???????? ? ?????? ??????????.
?? ???. 6 ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ?? 500 °?. ?? ?????????? ?????? ???????, ??? ? ????????? 67?125 °?
?????????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ? ?????????? 3,5 ???. %. ??? ~ 212 °? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ???????, ??????? ????????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ?? 375 °?. ?????????? ??????? ??????? ? ??????? ????????? 70 ???. %. ??? 470 °? ????????????? ???????????
????????????. ??? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ????. ????????? ??????? ??????????
3,5ч5 ???. %.
???????????, ??? ??? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ???? 1090 °? ??????? ????? ???????? (?? 60 %) ???????? ? ???? ? ????????? ????? GeO2. ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ?
???? ??????? ? ????? ?????? ??????????? ? ????????????? ??????? ???????. ?? ???. 7 ????????
?????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? Ge ?? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ??????? ?
???????? ?????? ? ????????? ?? 1 ?? 10 ??.
??????? ??????? ? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ? ??????? ???? ??????????? ???
???????? ?????? ??????? 4-5 ?/???·??2. ??????????? ? ???? ??????? ??? ???? ??????????
???. 5. ???????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ? ???? ?? ????????????
# 869 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir A. Makarov, Oleg I. Podkopaev? Lignite from Central Watershed of the Yenisei River and Prospects?
???. 6. ??????????? ???????
???. 7. ??????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ? ??????????? ?? ??????? ???????
1150-1200 °?. ?????????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ? ??????????? «?????????», ? ????? ???????? ??????? ? ??????? ?????. ??? ??????? ??????????, ?????? 4 ?/???·??2,
????????? ???????????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????? ???? ? ??????????? ?? ????????? ??????? ???????, ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ?? ???. 8. ???????
?????????? Ge ????????? ?? ?????????? Ge ? ????.
???????????, ??? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????? ????, ???????????? 94,0 %, ???????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?? 3 ?? 5 ??.
????? ???????, ??? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ? ???????
????, ?????? 94,0 %, ???????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ????????? ????????:
# 870 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir A. Makarov, Oleg I. Podkopaev? Lignite from Central Watershed of the Yenisei River and Prospects?
???. 8. ??????? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ?? ??????? ?????? ???????
??????????? 1150 ч 1200 °?; ?????? ??????? 4 ?/???·??2; ????????? ??????? 10 %; ?????? ?????? 3ч5 ??.
??????????? ????????????????? ???????????? ?? ???????? ???????? ? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ? ??????? ???? ? ??????????? ??????? (????) ????????? ???????? ???????
?? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ??????????. ??? ?????????????? ? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ???? ??????????? ?????????, ??? ?????????????????? ???????, ?????????? ? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?. ??????, ???????? ?????????????
?????? ??? ????????????? ????????? ????????.
?????? ??????????
[1] Claeys Cor L. Germanium-based technologies: from materials to devices. / L. Cor Claeys, E.
Simoen ? Berlin [etc.]: Elsevier, 2007. 449 p.
[2] ?????? ?.?. // ???????? ?????. ??????? ???????????. 2007. ? 4. ?. 32?40.
[3] ????????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ? ???????? [??????????? ??????]. URL: http://www.
metalbulletin.ru.
[4] Max Frenzel, Marina P. Ketris, Jens Gutzmer. On the geological availability of germanium.
Miner Deposita (2014) 49:471?486.
[5] ???????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. // ???????? ???????? ???????????????? ????????????. 2009.
?. 314. ? 1. ?. 41?43.
[6] Yakushevich ?.S., Bratskaya S.Yu., Ivanov V.V. etc. // Geochemistry International, 2013. Vol.
51 ? 5. Pp. 405?412.
[7] ?????? ?? ? 2293133 ????????? ?.?. ?????? ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??
?????????? ????? / ????. 10.02.2007.
[8] ????????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. ??????????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ????????: ??????????. ??????????: ???. ?????. ??-?, 2013. 104 ?.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 7 (2014 7) 872-880
~~~
??? 533.528
Cavitation Shutoff Elements Pipeline Systems
Vladimir A. Kulagin* and Nikita Y. Sokolov
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
Received 14.08.2014, received in revised form 05.09.2014, accepted 02.10.2014
The paper presents a theoretical justification of cavitations in piping systems. One of the simplest
theoretical estimates of discontinuous stress assessment is made on the assumption that the break
occurs at the micro cavities , the size of which in order of magnitude equal to the average distance
between the molecules. Making the assumption that a fracture will occur when the tensile strength
values of capillary forces on the bubble surface, which conditionally replaced micro cavity can
determine the value of these stresses by using Laplace?s formula. To calculate the complex pipeline can
be successfully used the equation N.A. Kartvelishvili obtained based on the equation Allievi. Produced
records frictional energy losses when the regulation does not occur, there is an increase of errors at
each step of the calculation. This phenomenon is explained by the peculiarities of the phenomenon of
wave reflection from obstacles with a constant increase in amplitude. In [1] we found the equation of
water hammer considering energy loss. Derived equation strike and friction. By solving the system of
equations can obtain information about the nature occurring in the hydraulic transient phenomena.
Keywords: cavitation, microcavities, pipeline systems, the gap equation of water hammer, accounting
energy losses.
????????? ? ????????? ???????? ????????
?????????????? ??????
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????
????????? ??????????? ???????????
??????, 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
? ?????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????? ?
?????????????? ????????. ????? ?? ????????????? ????????????? ?????? ?????????
?????????? ???????? ??????, ????????? ?? ????????? ?????????????, ??? ??????
?????????? ?? ?????????????, ?????? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????? ????? ????????
?????????? ????? ??????????. ???????? ?????????????, ??? ?????? ?????????? ???
?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ??? ?? ???????????
????????, ???????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????, ????? ?????????? ???????? ????
?????????? ? ??????? ??????? ???????. ??? ??????? ??????? ????????????? ?????
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: v.a.kulagin@mail.ru
# 872 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir A. Kulagin and Nikita Y. Sokolov. Cavitation Shutoff Elements Pipeline Systems
???? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ?.?. ?????????????, ?????????? ?? ?????? ?????????
???????. ?????????? ???? ?????? ??????? ?? ??????, ????? ????????????? ?? ??????????,
????? ????? ???? ???????????? ?? ?????? ???? ???????. ??? ??????????? ?????????????
??????? ????????? ???? ?? ??????????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????.
? ?????? [1] ??????? ????????? ??????????????? ????? ? ?????? ?????? ???????. ????????
????????? ????? ? ?????? ??????. ? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ?????
???????? ???????? ? ????????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ?????????????? ???????.
???????? ?????: ?????????, ????????????, ?????????????? ???????, ??????, ?????????
??????????????? ?????, ???? ?????? ???????.
?????????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ??????????????? ? ????????? ??????? (?????), ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ????????, ??? ??? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ????????. ?? ????????? ???????? ???????, ??? ??? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ?????????. ??? ???????????
???????? ????????? ???????? ????? ???
?
??
?
?
? ???? ?
? …‘ђ•– .
(1)
?? ???? ???????, ??? ??? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ? ????????? ?????? ??????
???????? ????? ????? ????????????? ???????? ??? ???? ????????? ????? ?????????????.
????????? ???-???-??????? ???? ??????? ????????????? ?? ????????? ????????? ????????, ???? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ???????????. ???? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ?? P-V?????????? (???. 1) ?? ????? A ?? ????? C ?? ???????? A-D-B-E-C, ?? ?
????? A ??? ????????? ??? ????????, ??? ??????? ?????? ????????? ???????????????.
? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ? ??? ??? ?????????? ????????
(T = const), ???? ????????????? ????? A-B-C. ????? ???? ??? ??? ???????? ???????? ? ???, ?????????? ???????? ? ???????? ???????? ? ???????. ? ????? A ??????? ??????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????. ? ?????? ???????? (?????????????? ????????, ?????? ?????, ??????????
????????) ??????? ??????? ????? ????? A ? ????? D, ? ??? ?????????? ?????? ????????????
(????????, ????????? ??? ????) ???????? ????????? ????? ???????? ????????, ?.?. ? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????. ??? ???? ?????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ?
??????? ??????? ???????? ???? ????? ???????? ?????.
????????, ??? ???? ? ?????? ?????? ????? ??????? ????? 100 °? ??? ???????? ?? ????????? ???????? ???? 0 °?. ????????, ??????????????, ? ????? ??????????? ???? ????? ?
?????? ????????? ??????? ?? ?????????????? ??? ??????. ??? ???????????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????: ???????? ????????? ????????? ?? ??????????????? ?????????
??? ????????????? ????????? (? ?????????, ???????? ??????????? ???????? ??? ??????
???????) ?????? ????.
?? ????? ????????, ??? ???????? ?? ????? ?????????????? ???????-?????? ????????????
??????????? ??????????. ??????, ?? ????????????? ?. ????????, ??????? ? 1843 ?. ?. ?????
????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????????, ??? ??????? ? ??? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????. ?? ??????? ?. ????? ??????? ???????????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????????????. ???????? ???# 873 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir A. Kulagin and Nikita Y. Sokolov. Cavitation Shutoff Elements Pipeline Systems
???. 1. ????????? ???-???-???????. ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ?????????
?????? ???????, ? ????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ??????????? [1 ? ??.] ? ?
???????? ?????? [2] ? ??.
???????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ???? ????????
?. ???????? [2]. ? ?????? ? ?????? ??? ??????? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????? 4,2·107 ??, ? ? ????? ? 2,8·107 ??. ???????? ???????????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ?????????? (????????????? ????????): ?? 50 ??
1000 ??? [3]; ?? ?????? ?.?. ???????? [4], ?? 1500 ???. ? ????????? ????? ?????? ? ???,
????????? ?????????? ?. ???????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????? ??? ???, ????????
???????.
????? ?? ????????????? ????????????? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????, ????????? ?? ????????? ?????????????, ??? ?????? ?????????? ?? ?????????????, ??????
??????? ?? ??????? ???????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ??????????. ?????? ?????????????, ??? ?????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ??? ?? ??????????? ????????, ???????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????, ?????
?????????? ???????? ???? ?????????? ? ??????? ??????? ???????:
? ? ?? ? ?? ?
??
?
(2)
,
??? ? ? ??????????? ??????????; R ? ?????? ??????? ??? ????????. ?????? ?? ???? ???????,
?
??? ???? ( ? ? ??? ? ???? ? ? ? ? ???? ??) ???????? ???????? Z = 109 ??.
?.?. ???????? [5] ? ?.?. ????????? [6] ???????? ??????? ????????: Z = 1,6·108 ??. ??
?????? ?????????? ?? ?????????????, ??? ?????? ?????????? ??-?? ???????? ?????????? ?
# 874 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir A. Kulagin and Nikita Y. Sokolov. Cavitation Shutoff Elements Pipeline Systems
?????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????? ?????????????, ?????????? ?????????? ????? ????. ??????????? ????????????? ??????? ????????? ? ????????? R > 10 -7 ?? ????????
???? ?????? ? ???? ??? ?????????? ???????? ????, ? ???????? Z ??? ????? ????????? ? ???????????? ? (2) ????? 1,5·108 ??, ??? ?????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ????? ?????? ????????.
? ??????? ?? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ??????
(????????? ? ???????????) ????? ? ??????? ????????, ??? ???????, ?? ??????? ????????????? ???????-?????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????. ? ????, ??????? ? ??????? ??
??????????? ???????? ? ??????? ???????? ???????, ??? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ??????. ??????? ???????? ? ??????? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ????
????????? ????????????? ???????? Pd, ??????? ??? ??????? ??????????? (20 °?) ? ????,
?.?. ? ???????? ?????????? ????? ????????, ??????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ? ??????? ????
????????.
??? ??????? ???????? ? ?????? ?? ???????? Pd ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ???????, ??????????? ???????? ??? ???????? ??????????, ?.?. ??????????
??????? ??????? ??????? ???? ??? ????????? ??? ?????? ???????????? ? ????????? («???????? ???????»).
???????????? ???????? ??????? ? ???????? ?????????? ??? P?? = Pd. ??????, ??? ????????
?. ?????? ? ?????? ?????????????, ??? ??????? ? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ? ??? ????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ??????, ?
??????? ???????? ????, ??? ???????? ?????????? ????? ????????. ??? ??????? ? ????????
???????????????? ????????? ????????? ????? ????????? ??? ???????? P?? > Pd. ???? ? ?????????? ??????, ?????????? ???????? ?.?. ?????, ????????? ?? ??, ??? ???? ? ??????? ???????? ? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ? ???????? ????? ????????? ???????????? ?? ????????
????????????? ????????, ?????????? ?????????? ??????????. ??? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ???????, ????????, ??????? ????????????? ???? ????? ??????????? ?????
???????? ????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ????????.
????????, ??? ???????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ????????
?????????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ? ??????????????? ?????????. ?? ???????
???????? ? ????????? ? ???????? ?????? ????, ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????, ??? ???? ????????? (???????? ?.?. ????????-??????). ????????? ????????? ???? ???????????? ?? ???????????. ????? ??????? ? ???????????????? ?? ????????????????? ?????????
??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ????.
?? ??????????? ??????, ? 1 ??3 ??????????? ???? ?????????? ?? 500 ???. ???? ?????????
(????????????? ? ???????????? ?????????) ? ????????? ?? ?????????? ?? 20 ???. ??????????
????????? ??????? ???? ?????????, ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ???????????????
[7, 8], ?????????????? ? ???????????? ????????????? ???? [9, 10], ???????????? ?? ???. 2, ???
???? ? ?
??????
???
?
(3)
?????? ???? ?????????. ???? ????????????, ??? ? ???????? ???????????? ???? ? ?????????
?? R0min ?? R0max, ?? ???????????? ????, ????????? ? ?????????????? ????? ??? ???????? ??????????, ?.?. ?? ?????????? ? ??????? ?????? ????????,
# 875 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir A. Kulagin and Nikita Y. Sokolov. Cavitation Shutoff Elements Pipeline Systems
1000000
????????? ????????????? "????" ?????????
[10]
[9]
[8]
[7]
100000
n, 1/??3
10000
1000
100
10
1
0.1
1
R0, ???
10
100
???. 2. ????????? ????????????? «????» ????????? ?? [7-10]
?
?
????? ? ???? ???? ???? ? ??? ? ??? ? ???? ??? ???? ? ??? ,
????
????
(4)
??? NRo ? ????? ???????????? ????.
????????? ???????????? ? ???????????? ????????? ??????????????? ???? ? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ???? ?????????? ?????????? ????????????? [10, 11] , ??????? ?????????????? [12] ??? ??????????. ?? ???. 3. ???????? ????????????? ????????? ?? ????????
NR. ?? ???????? ?????, ??? ????????????? ???? ????????? ? ?????????? ???? ?????? ???????????? ? ??????? ?? ???????? (????????) ??????. ? ??????????? ????? ????????? ??????????
?????????? ??????? ?????????????.
???????????? ??????? ????????????? ??????, ?????????????? ?? ???. 3, ? ??????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ????. ?? ?????? [12], ? ??????????? ???? ???????????? ?????????
? R = 5 ??? ????? ??????? 10 -1-10 -2 1/??3. ? [13] ???????? ???????? (???????????? 102 1/??3 ???
?????? ?????? ???????), ??? ??????? ? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ???? ????????? ? ???.
????????????? ???????????? ? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? [14] ????????????? ?
??????? ??? ??????? ???????????? ? ?????????, ???????????? ?? ????? ??? ??????, ????????? ?????????????? ????????? ????? ?????? ? ???????? ???? ??????? ??????????? ??????
??????????? ???????????????? ?????? ??? ????????????? ?????????? ???????:
1. ?????????, ??????????? ? ??????? ???????? ? ????????, ????? ???????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????? ?? ??????? (? ??????? ?? ???# 876 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir A. Kulagin and Nikita Y. Sokolov. Cavitation Shutoff Elements Pipeline Systems
?)
?)
???. 3. ????????????? ????????? ??????? ?? ????????: ?) ??? V = 8 ?/?, ?) V = 10,5 ?/?
?????????????? ??? ????????? ? ????????????????? ?????????) ? ??????????, ??????????????,
????????????.
2. ????????????? ? ???????? ????????? ????? ??????? ?? ????????? ??????????????? ??????? (???? ? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ????? ???????? ??
??????? ????????).
3. ??????? ????????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????????,
??? ????????? ? ??????????????, ???????????? ?????????, ??????? ??????? ????????, ????# 877 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir A. Kulagin and Nikita Y. Sokolov. Cavitation Shutoff Elements Pipeline Systems
??? ???? ?????????, ?????- ? ????????????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????, ?????????????
? ?.?.
4. ??? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ??? ??? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????????? ????????. ???, ? [12] ????????, ??? ??????
??????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ????? ???????? ??????, ??????? ??????????? ????????????????? ? ???????? ????? ????????, ??? ??? ??????.
5. ?????? ?? ??????? ?????? ? ?????????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ????????????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ? ????? ???????????? ?????? [15]:
? ????????? ??????????? ???????;
? ????????? ?????????????? ?????? ??????;
? ?????????? ??????????????????? ??????????;
? ????????????? ??????????????????? ???????? (????????????, ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ? ?.?.);
? ?????????? ?? ????????????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ????????????? ??????.
6. ? ???????? ?????? ?? ???????? ? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ? ?? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????? ?????????.
7. ??? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????????
??????????.
8. ???????? ????????????? ? ????? ?????? ???????????????? ?????? ??? ??????????
??????? ?????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????????? ???? ???????????, ???????, ?
???? ???????, ????? ???????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ???? ? ?????. ?
???? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ???????-?????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????.
9. ?????????? ????????????? ????? ??????????? ???????, ?????????????? ????? ?????
????????, ????????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ? ????????, ??????? ? ????????, ? ?????????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ? ????????????? ????????????? (???????????????, ??????????? ??????????? ? ?.?.).
10. ?????????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????????, ?????????? ??????? ???????? ??? ????????, ?????????? ? ???????? ?? ?????? ????????.
??? ??????? ??????? ????????????? ??????? ????? ???? ???????????? ?????????
?.?. ?????????????, ?????????? ?? ?????? ????????? ???????:
?
? ??? ? ? ? ??? ? ? ?????? ? ? ?? ??? ? ? ? ??? ? ??
?
?? ?
?? ?
?? ?
?? ?
(5)
??? ????? ? ????? ? ????? ? ??????? M ? N ? ?????? ??????? t; ????? ? ???????? ???????? ? ??????? M,
? = 2L/C; L ? ?????????? ????? ????????? M ? N.
??????? ??? ? ????
???
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?????? ? ????
???
?
???
? ????
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? ???? ?
?
??? ? ? ?? , t ? ?????? ???????.
# 878 #
(6)
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir A. Kulagin and Nikita Y. Sokolov. Cavitation Shutoff Elements Pipeline Systems
????????? (6) ????? ??? ??????????? ????????. ??? ??????? ??????????????? ????? ?
??????? ????????? (6) ?????????? ????????? ??? ????? ??????????, ??????????? ?????????
(6), ? ?????????? ?????????. ?????? ?????????:
???
???
???
???
???
?????? ? ?????? ? ??????? ? ?????? ? ???? ?
(7)
????? ? ????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ? ?????? ????? ???????, ? ?????? ? ? ????????????
??????? ??????? ???????. ?? ??? ??????? ??????? ???????, ?.?. v/2. ?????? ?????? ????????, ???
??????????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????? ? ??????, ?????????????? ????????????????
??????? t ?? v/2.
??????? ???????? ???????? ?? ??, ??? ??? ?????? ????????? (6), (7) ?? ???? ?????? ??????
?????? ?? ??????. ?????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ? ????????? ????????.
? ????? ??????, ???? ?? ????????? ?????? ???????, ?? ?????, ????? ????????????? ??
??????????, ????? ????? ???????????? ???? ???????????? ?? ?????? ???? ???????, ??? ??????
?????? ?????????????. ??? ??????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????? ????????? ???? ??
??????????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????.
?????????????, ??? ????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ??????????? ??????????
????????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?? ??????. ? ?????? [1] ??????? ????????? ??????????????? ????? ? ?????? ?????? ???????. ?????????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????
??
???????? ???????? ????????, ?? ? ?? ?????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ???? ? ?? .. ??? ?????????????? ??????? ? ??? ???? ? ? ??? ???? ? ???????? ??? ???????????????? ??????? ? ??? ???? ? ????? ? ??? ???? ? ????.
? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ????? ??????????? ? ????
? ? ????? ???? ? ?? ??? ? ? ?
?? ?
???
?
??? A ? ??????? ?? ??????? ? ?? ????? ????????; ? ? ??????????? ??????????????? ??????,
??????????? ?? ???????? ???????????????????.
????????? ????? ? ?????? ?????? ????? ????? ???
???
??? ?
???
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? ???? ? ?? ???????? ? ???? ? ? ??? ? ?? ???
????
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?? ?
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? ?? ????
??????? ? ???? ? ?? ????
?
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???
? ???? ? ?
???
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???
? ?? ? ?? ?????? ? ?? ?? ?
???
?
?????
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? ???? ? ? ??? ? ?? ?????? ? ?? ? ?? ??
?
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? ?? ?? ?
(9)
?????????? ? ???? ??
???
??
???
??
???
? ????? ?? ?? ?
??? ???????
? ????? ?? ?? ?
??? ???????
???????
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???????
??
(10)
??
(11)
???? ???? ? ???? ???? ? ????? ???? ? ??
# 879 #
(12)
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir A. Kulagin and Nikita Y. Sokolov. Cavitation Shutoff Elements Pipeline Systems
???
????
???
(13)
? ???? ?
???
???
? ??????? ? ?? ???
???
???
? ??????? ? ??? ???
?????? ? ????
?????? ? ????
???
???
???
???
? ???? ??
???
???
? ???? ??
?? ?? ? ??? ? ????? ? ??
(14)
(15)
(16)
????????? (10)-(11) ???????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ????????; ????????? (16) ? ????????? ??????? ??? ??????. ????????? (14)-(15) ????????? ??????? ? ?????.
???? ? ??љ? ? љ? ?
??
? ??
? ? ??
?
?? ? ??
? љ? ? љ? ? ??????????????????
?
????? ?
?
? ? ??? ??? ? ???? ? ?
? ? ? ???? .
???
? ? ??
? ?????????? ??????? ??????? (8)-(16) ????? ???????? ???????? ? ????????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ?????????????? ???????.
?????? ??????????
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
Temperley H.N.V., Chambers L.G. // Proc. Phys. Soc. (London). 1946. 58. P. 420-436.
Briggs L.S. // Journ. of. Appl. Phys., v. 21, 1950. P. 721.
Harvay E.M., McErloy W.D. Whiterley A.N. // Journ. of. Appl. Phys. V. 18. 1947. P. 162-172.
Plesset M.C. // ASME, 1969. P. 15-25.
???????? ?.?. ???????????? ?????? ????????. ?.: ?? ????, 1945.
????????? ?.?. // ????. 1942. ?. 12, ? 11-12. ?. 525-538.
??????? ?.?. // ?????? ? ??????? ??????? ???????????. ?. 1. ?.: ?????, 1968.
[8] Flannigan D.J. and Suslick K.S. // Research Letters Online, 2005. V. 6, ? 3. P. 157-161.
[9] ???????? ?.?. // ?????? ? ??????? ??????? ???????????. ?. 1. ?.: ?????, 1968.
[10] Hopkins S.D., Putterman S.J., Kappus B.A. // Phys. Rev. Lett, 2005. V. 95, 254-301.
[11] Flannigan D.J., Hopkins S.D.,Carlos G.C. // Phys. Rev. Lett. 2006. V. 96. 204-301.
[12] ???????????????? ??????? ???? ? ???????? ?????????? // ??. ?????????????? ?????????? ? ??????????. ?.: ?????, 1973. C. 231-239.
[13] ????????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. // ??. ?????????????? ?????????? ? ??????????. ?.:
?????, 1973. C. 239-242.
[14] Kulagin V.A., Kulagina T.A., Kulagina L.V. // Journal of Siberian Federal University.
Engineering & Technologies. 2008 (1). Issue 1. 76-85
[15] ????????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ????? ?.?. ????????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????: ??????????. ???????????: ?????, 2012. 424 ?.
e, air
consumption.
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: volodya-ambal@yandex.ru
# 862 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir A. Makarov, Oleg I. Podkopaev? Lignite from Central Watershed of the Yenisei River and Prospects?
??????? ???????? ??????? ?. ??????
? ??????????? ?? ?????????????
??? ???????????? ????????
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ??????????, ?.?. ????????,
?.?. ???????*, ?.?. ??????????, ?.?. ??????????
?
????????? ??????????? ???????????
??????, 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
?
??? «????????»
??????, 660027, ??????????, ???????????? ??????, 1
?
??? «??????????? ?????????????????»
??????, 660111, ??????????, ??. ?????????????, 7?
??????? ???????? ??????? ?. ??????, ?????????????? ? ???????? ???????????????? ?????????
??????? ???????, ??????????????? ??? ????? ????????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????
? ??????. ????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????-?????????? ??????? ? ???????????????
????????????, ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ?? ???????? ? ???????? ??
???????? ??? ?????????, ? ? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ??????????.
???????? ?????: ????????, ?????, ?????????????, ??????, ????, ???????????, ?????? ???????,
?????? ??????, ??????? ??????????.
?????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ????? ???????? ????? ??? ????????????????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ????????????. ? ????????? ????? ????? ??? ????????????? ??????????
??????????? ? ???????? ??????????? ???????, ?????????-?????????? ????? ?????, ????????????????? ?????????, ???????????? ?????????? ? ???????????, ????????????, ??????????, ??????????? ? ???????????????? ????????? [1]. ?????? Ge ? ????????? ????: ? ??????????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ? ???????, ?????????????, ????? ??? ??-??????,
????????, ????? ? ??????????? ???????? ? ?.?., ? ?????? ? ????????? ????? ~ 200 ?/??? [2, 3].
? ???? ???????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? [4]:
? ???? ? ??????? (??????, ?????);
? ?????????? ????????-???????? ????????????? (???, ??????, ??????, ???????, ??????).
? ???????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ??? ???????????? ?????: ????????????? ?????????? (???????????) ?????????????, ??????????????? ??????? ????????-????????
?????????????, ???????????????? ??????? ?????????????, ????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????????.
? ??????? ??????????????? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????, ??????? ??? ???????????? ? ??????????? ?????, ??? ???????, ??????? ? ??????? ? ????????????
???????? ???? ?????????????????, ???? ?????? ? ????????? ?????????? ???, ??????? ???????? ???????? ? ?????????? ?? 600 ?/? [4].
?? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ? ????? ??????????? ????, ???????? ???????? ??????? ?. ?????? [5], ? ????? ? ????????? ??????????? ???
????????????????? ????????????? [6].
# 863 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir A. Makarov, Oleg I. Podkopaev? Lignite from Central Watershed of the Yenisei River and Prospects?
??????? ???????? ??????? ?. ??????, ?????????????? ? ???????? ???????????????? ????????? ??????? ???????, ??????????????? ??? ????? ????????????? ???????? ????????????
????? ? ??????.
?????????? ???????????????? ???-???????????? ????????? ????????????? ?????
???????-????????? ?????, ????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ?????? ???????,
?????????? ? ???????? ??????, ???????? ? 60-? ??. ???????? ???????? [5]. ???????????? ???????? ? ???????? ?????? ??????? ???? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ??????? (???????
«?????????») ?? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????.
? ???????????? ????? ????????? ??????? ????????????? ?? ?????????? ???? ???????
???????????: ???????-????????? ????? (???) ? ??????????? ?????. ????????????? ???????
??????? «?????????» ? ??????? ??????? ? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????
?? ???. 1.
?? ??????????? ????????-????????? ????? 2011-2013 ??., ??????????? ??? «???» ?? ?????????? ?????????? ???????, ???? ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????, ?????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ?2 (9585 ??) ? ?? ????????? ?1 (645 ??), ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ?1 (305 ?). ????? ????????? ????????? (??????? ????????? ?2) ??????????????
??????? ? ??????? ??????? ?????????? 1112 ?. ???????-????????? ???? ? ????????????? ??????
??????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ???. 2 ? 3 ??????????????.
«??????????» ??????? ? ????? ??? ?????? ??? ???????????? ?????, ????????????
????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ????, ???-????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ????????????????? ??????????? ??????????? (?????????) ????????? ??????? ?
?????-?????? ?????. ?????? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ??????. ?????????
???????? ????????????? ????????? ?????? ???????????, ??????? ???????, ????? ?????????????? ????? ? ?????????? ??????? (???. 4).
?????????? ???????? ? ???????? ?????????? ?? 14 ?? 640 ?/?. ??????? ?????????, ????????? ???????????? ?????????, ???????????? ???????????? ???????, ????? ????????????????? ??????????? ? ??????????????, ????????????, ???????, ???????????. ?????????????
???????? ? ???????? ????????? ?????? ??????? (?????????? «????????????, ????????????????? ??????») ???????????. ??????????? ??? ???????????? ???????, ??????? ???????????????
???, ??? ? ??????? ???????? ? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ????????, ??? ?? ?????????.
?????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????, ??????????? ??????? (59,6?69,8 %) ?
???????? (23,8?33,9 %), ??????????? ???????? ????? ??????? (4,6?5,4 %) ? ???? (0,2?0,8 %)
[5].
??????? ????????? ???? ???????? ???????? ??????? (? ??????? 26 %) ??? ???????????
???????? ?????? (7,6 %), ???????? (7,3 %) ? ??????? (5,1 %). ?????????? ?????? ???????? ?
???? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? 20 ????????????? ?????????? ?????????, ?? ???????
16 ??????????????? ?????????? ????????????, ?? ????????????? ????????? 50 % [5].
? ????? ? ??? ??? ??????? ???????? ?? ????, ? ??? ???????? ?? ??????????, ???????? ?????????? ????????, ??? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ???????? ??????? ??????? ???????
? ?????????? ???????????? ???? ????????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????, ?
??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? (???. 1).
# 864 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
???. 1. ??????? ??????? ??????? ? ?????????? ??????? ? ??????????????? ?????????????? ????????:
1 ? ?????? ??????? ???????????????????? ????????????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ???????????
??????????? ?????; 2 ? ?????? ???????????????? ????????? ?????????????? ????? ???????-?????????
?????; 3 ? ?????? ????????????????? ????????? ?????????????? ????? ????????? ?????????;
4 ? ?????? ??????? ???????; 5 ? ?????? ????????? ??????? (??????? «?????????»); 6 ? ??????????
????????-???????? ?????????????; 7 ? ?????? ????????????? ??????; 8 ? ?????????????? ??????;
9 ? ?????????????? ?????
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir A. Makarov, Oleg I. Podkopaev? Lignite from Central Watershed of the Yenisei River and Prospects?
???. 2. ???????-????????? ???? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ????????: 1 ? ???????
???. ???????????-????????? ?????. ??????-???????????? ?????????. ????? ????????? ? ?????????
???? ? ????????????????????? ??????????, ???????; 2 ? ?????? ???. ?????? ? ???????? ?????.
??????? ?????. ????? ???????????, ? ????????? ???? ? ????????????????????? ??????????, ???????;
3 ? ??????? ?????????? ???????; 4 ? ?????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ????????;
5 ? ??????? ??????? ? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ?1; 6 ? ??????? ?????? ???????
????????: ? ? ?? ????????? ?1, ? ? ?? ????????? ?2; 7 ? ????????, ?????????? ? 2011-2013 ??. (?????? ??
??????, ????? ? ???????, ?????? ? ????????? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ???????); 8 ? ????????
??????????????????, ?????????? ? 2011-2013 ??.; 9 ? ????????, ?????????? ? 2003 ?. (?????????, 2004);
10 ? ????????, ?????????? ??? ????????????????? (1960, ??????? ???????); 11 ? ????????-?????????
??????? ?????? ????????? ? ?? ??????
??????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ???????? ??? ?????????????? ????????? ???????? ? ????????? ????? ?? ?? ????? ???????. ? ?????? ?????? ????????? ??????????
???????? ??????????????? ????????????, ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ?? ???????? ? ???????? ?? ???????? ? ????? ?????????, ? ? ??????????? ? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????.
?????????? ? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ? ???? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ?????????????? ???????????? XRF-1800 ? ????????????? XRD-7000
????? Shimadzu. ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ?? ??????? STA 449 F3 Jupiter.
??????? ?????? ?? ????????????? ???? ??????? [7] ? ???????? ???????? ????, ????????????? ?? ?????????? ??????. ? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ? ????????
?????????????????? ???????? ?????? 250 ?. ???????? ?????? ??????? ? ? ??????? ???????# 866 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir A. Makarov, Oleg I. Podkopaev? Lignite from Central Watershed of the Yenisei River and Prospects?
???. 3. ????????????? ?????? ??????????? ????????????? ?? ????? ??????? 2 ? 1/17: 1 ? ????????????
?????????. ????? ?????????, ????????, ??????, ??????? ??????; 2-5 ? ??????? ?????????:
2 ? ????????????? ????????????????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ? ????????????? ???????????,
3 ? ????????????????????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ?????????, 4 ? ?????????????????????
??????????????? ??????????????? ?????????, 5 ? ????????????????????? ????????????,
???????????????? ? ??????????????? ???????????; 6-9 ? ??????????? ???? ? ?????????? ??????????:
6 ? ??????? ???? (Ge >100 ?/?), 7 ? ?????? ???? (Ge 50-100 ?/?), 8 ? ???????????? ???? (Ge 30-50 ?/?),
9 ? ??????? ? ??????????????? ???????????? (Ge < 30 ?/?); 10 ? ????????????? ????????? ? ??
????????; 11 ? ????????? ? ????????? ????????, ?? ?????? ? ???????; 12 ? ?????? ????????? (????? ?
????????? ? ??????? ?????????, ? ??????????? ? ????? ?????????; ?????? ? ????????? ? ???????????????
(%), ? ??????????? ? ?????????? Ge, ? ?/?/)
??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ???? ?? ??? ?????????????. ? ???? ????????
???? ??????? ???????????? ? ?????? ????? ???????? ?? ????????? 1,0?1,2 ??/???. ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ??????.
? ????. 1 ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ? ???? (?????????? ??????????????? ?????).
? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ????? ?????????? ??????? (68,0) ? ????????
(27,0 ???. %). ?? ????? ????????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????? (1,0), ???????? (0,5)
? ?????? (0,4 ???. %). ??????? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ???????
0,020 ???. %, ??? 200,0 ?/?.
# 867 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir A. Makarov, Oleg I. Podkopaev? Lignite from Central Watershed of the Yenisei River and Prospects?
???. 4. ??????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ????????????????????? ??????? ??????????
??????????? ?????????????
??????? 1. ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ? ????
???????
?????????? ? ???????, ???. %
?????????? ? ????, ???. %
Ge
0,02
0,05ч0,25
C
68,0
-
O
27,0
54,0
Si
1,0
16,2
Al
0,5
9,6
Fe
0,4
6,0
??
0,1
1,6
?
0,1
1,3
Ti
0,1
1,2
Na
<0,02
0,4
Cr
<0,02
0,3
Mg
<0,02
0,3
V
<0,01
0,2
Co
<0,01
0,1
Ni
<0,01
0,1
La, Sm, Sc, Y (? ?????)
<0,01
<0,1
??????? ??????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????? (16,20), ???????? (9,60), ??????
(6,0) ??????? (1,6) ? ????? (1,3 ???. %). ?? ?????? ?????????????? ???????? ??????? ???? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ???: ????? (58,0), ??????? ?????? (5,6), ??????? Fe2O3 (3,2), ???????
????? K 2SO4 (2,4) ? ???????? K Al Si3O8 (30,0 ???. %).
?????????? ???????? ? ???? ?????????? ?? 0,05 ?? 0,25 ???. % ? ??????????? ?? ???????
???????? ???????. ??????????? ??? ???, ??? ? ???????? ??? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ??
??????????? ??????? ??????? ????, ??????? ???????????? ???????? ????? ???????? ?????????
????????????? ???????????? ? ??????????? ?? ???????????? ???????? ????????? PO2. ??????????? PO2 ? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ????
# 868 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir A. Makarov, Oleg I. Podkopaev? Lignite from Central Watershed of the Yenisei River and Prospects?
????????????? ?????????? Ge?, ??????? ???????? ??????? ???????, ???? ?????????? ???????? GeO2. ? ??????????? ?? ????? ???????? ?????????????? ????? ????? ? ??????? ?????.
????? ? ?????? [8] ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ??? ??????? ????????????, ?????????????? ?? ???. 5. ?? ??????????? ?????? ???????, ??? ????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ???? 1090 °? ? ????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ? ???????; ????????, ??? 1200 °? Ge? ????????, ???? ??????????? ???????? ?????????
????????? ? ????????? PO2 = 3·10 -12 ч 3·10 -9 ??? (3·10 -7-3·10 -4 ??). ????? ???????, ??? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ? ??????? ????????? ? ????????? ???????????, ???????? Ge, ?? ???????
???? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ? ??????????? ??????, ??????????? ??????????? ????? 1090 °?, ? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ? ? ????????? ???? ????????.
???????????, ??? ??????????? ? ???? ???????, PO2 ?, ??????????????, ????????????? ???????? ????? ??????? ? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????????? ????????: ???????? ?????? ???????, ????????? ? ???????? ?????? ???????.
???????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ?? 36,0 ?? 50,0 ???. %. ??? ???????? ?? ??????? ?? ?????? ????? ?? ?????? 10 ???. % ? ??????? 200 ?. ??? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ?? ???????? ? ?????? ??????????.
?? ???. 6 ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ?? 500 °?. ?? ?????????? ?????? ???????, ??? ? ????????? 67?125 °?
?????????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ? ?????????? 3,5 ???. %. ??? ~ 212 °? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ???????, ??????? ????????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ?? 375 °?. ?????????? ??????? ??????? ? ??????? ????????? 70 ???. %. ??? 470 °? ????????????? ???????????
????????????. ??? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ????. ????????? ??????? ??????????
3,5ч5 ???. %.
???????????, ??? ??? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ???? 1090 °? ??????? ????? ???????? (?? 60 %) ???????? ? ???? ? ????????? ????? GeO2. ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ?
???? ??????? ? ????? ?????? ??????????? ? ????????????? ??????? ???????. ?? ???. 7 ????????
?????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? Ge ?? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ??????? ?
???????? ?????? ? ????????? ?? 1 ?? 10 ??.
??????? ??????? ? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ? ??????? ???? ??????????? ???
???????? ?????? ??????? 4-5 ?/???·??2. ??????????? ? ???? ??????? ??? ???? ??????????
???. 5. ???????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ? ???? ?? ????????????
# 869 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir A. Makarov, Oleg I. Podkopaev? Lignite from Central Watershed of the Yenisei River and Prospects?
???. 6. ??????????? ???????
???. 7. ??????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ? ??????????? ?? ??????? ???????
1150-1200 °?. ?????????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ? ??????????? «?????????», ? ????? ???????? ??????? ? ??????? ?????. ??? ??????? ??????????, ?????? 4 ?/???·??2,
????????? ???????????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????? ???? ? ??????????? ?? ????????? ??????? ???????, ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ?? ???. 8. ???????
?????????? Ge ????????? ?? ?????????? Ge ? ????.
???????????, ??? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????? ????, ???????????? 94,0 %, ???????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?? 3 ?? 5 ??.
????? ???????, ??? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ? ???????
????, ?????? 94,0 %, ???????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ????????? ????????:
# 870 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir A. Makarov, Oleg I. Podkopaev? Lignite from Central Watershed of the Yenisei River and Prospects?
???. 8. ??????? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ?? ??????? ?????? ???????
??????????? 1150 ч 1200 °?; ?????? ??????? 4 ?/???·??2; ????????? ??????? 10 %; ?????? ?????? 3ч5 ??.
??????????? ????????????????? ???????????? ?? ???????? ???????? ? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ? ??????? ???? ? ??????????? ??????? (????) ????????? ???????? ???????
?? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ??????????. ??? ?????????????? ? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ???? ??????????? ?????????, ??? ?????????????????? ???????, ?????????? ? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?. ??????, ???????? ?????????????
?????? ??? ????????????? ????????? ????????.
?????? ??????????
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Simoen ? Berlin [etc.]: Elsevier, 2007. 449 p.
[2] ?????? ?.?. // ???????? ?????. ??????? ???????????. 2007. ? 4. ?. 32?40.
[3] ????????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ? ???????? [??????????? ??????]. URL: http://www.
metalbulletin.ru.
[4] Max Frenzel, Marina P. Ketris, Jens Gutzmer. On the geological availability of germanium.
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[5] ???????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. // ???????? ???????? ???????????????? ????????????. 2009.
?. 314. ? 1. ?. 41?43.
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51 ? 5. Pp. 405?412.
[7] ?????? ?? ? 2293133 ????????? ?.?. ?????? ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??
?????????? ????? / ????. 10.02.2007.
[8] ????????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. ??????????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ????????: ??????????. ??????????: ???. ?????. ??-?, 2013. 104 ?.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 7 (2014 7) 872-880
~~~
??? 533.528
Cavitation Shutoff Elements Pipeline Systems
Vladimir A. Kulagin* and Nikita Y. Sokolov
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
Received 14.08.2014, received in revised form 05.09.2014, accepted 02.10.2014
The paper presents a theoretical justification of cavitations in piping systems. One of the simplest
theoretical estimates of discontinuous stress assessment is made on the assumption that the break
occurs at the micro cavities
1/--страниц
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