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236.Журнал Сибирского федерального университета. Сер. Гуманитарные науки №9 2014

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Æóðíàë Ñèáèðñêîãî ôåäåðàëüíîãî óíèâåðñèòåòà
2014
Journal of Siberian Federal University
7 (9)
Ãóìàíèòàðíûå íàóêè
Humanities & Social Sciences
Редакционный совет:
академик РАН Е.А. Ваганов
академик РАН И.И. Гительзон
академик РАН А.Г. Дегерменджи
академик РАН В.Ф. Шабанов
чл.-корр. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук
В.Л. Миронов
чл.-корр. РАН, д-р техн. наук
Г.Л. Пашков
чл.-корр. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук
В.В. Шайдуров
чл.-корр. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук
В.В. Зуев
CONTENTS / ÑÎÄÅÐÆÀÍÈÅ
Valeriy A. Kryukov and Anatoly N. Tokarev
Problems of Forming Relationships between the Indigenous
Peoples and Resource Corporations: from Asserting the Rights
to Joint Participation in Projects
– 1436 –
Nikolai G. Shishatsky
Indigenous Minorities of the North as a Factor of Preservation
and Sustainable Development of the Northern Territories
– 1449 –
Editorial Advisory Board
Chairman
Eugene A. Vaganov
Members:
Josef J. Gitelzon
Vasily F. Shabanov
Andrey G. Degermendzhy
Valery L. Mironov
Gennady L. Pashkov
Vladimir V. Shaidurov
Vladimir V. Zuev
Editorial Board:
Editor-in-Chief
Mikhail I. Gladyshev
Evgeniya I. Mikhailova,
Alla V. Lapteva and Valery S. Efimov
Scenario of the Future of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic.
Foresight Research
– 1457 –
Mariya I. Ilbeykina
Indigenous Peoples
Anthropology
as
a
Research
Space
of
Visual
– 1471 –
Founding Editor
Vladimir I. Kolmakov
Managing Editor
Olga F. Alexandrova
Executive Editor
for Humanities & Social Sciences
Natalia P. Koptseva
Vladimir S. Luzan
Cultural Policy in Northern Territories: Specifics, Problems and
Prospects
– 1494 –
Компьютерная верстка Е.В. Гревцовой
Подписано в печать 26.09.2014 г. Формат 84x108/16. Усл. печ. л. 15,8.
Уч.-изд. л. 15,3. Бумага тип. Печать офсетная. Тираж 1000 экз. Заказ 2437.
Отпечатано в ПЦ БИК. 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 82а.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Consulting Editors
for Humanities & Social Sciences:
David Anderson – Professor, The University
of Aberdeen, Scotland
Gershons Breslavs – International Institute
of Applied Psychology, Latvia
Milan Damohorsky – Professor, Charles
University in Prague
Hans-Georg Dederer – Professor, Passau
University, Germany
Sergey Devyatkin – Associate Professor,
Novgorod State University
Sergey Drobyshevsky – Professor, Siberian
Federal University
Oleg Gotlib – Associate Professor, Irkutsk
State Linguistic University
Tapdyg Kerimov – Professor, Ural Federal
University named after the first President
of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, Ekaterinburg
Boris Khasan – Professor, Siberian Federal
University
Galina Kopnina – Professor, Siberian
Federal University
Natalia Kovtoun – Professor, Siberian
Federal University
Alexander Kronik – Ph.D., LifeLook.Net,
LLC, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
Liudmila Kulikova – Professor, Siberian
Federal University
Suneel Kumar – Assistant Professor,
Department of Strategic and Regional
Studies, University of Jammu
Liudmila Mayorova – Ph.D. Associate
Professor, Siberian Federal University
Pavel Mandryka – Associate Professor,
Siberian Federal University
Boris Markov – Professor, Saint-Petersburg
State University
Valentin Nemirovsky – Professor, Siberian
Federal University
Nicolay Pak – Professor, Krasnoyarsk State
Pedagogical University named after
V.P. Astafev
Nicolay
Parfentyev
–
Professor,
Corresponding Member of the Peter
the Great Academy of Sciences and
Arts, Honoured Scientist of the Russian
Federation, South Ural State University
Natalia Parfentyeva – Professor, Member of
the Composers of Russia, Corresponding
Member of the Peter the Great Academy
of Sciences and Arts, Honoured Arts
Worker of the Russian Federation,
South Ural State University
Nicolai Petro – Professor, Rhode Island
University, USA
Daniel Pivovarov – Professor, Ural Federal
University named after the first President
of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, Ekaterinburg
Elena A. Bryukhanova and Michael V. Kobalinskiy
The Indicators System Formation for Quality of Life Evaluation
as the Basis for Sustainable Socio-Economic Development of
Indigenous Minorities of the North
– 1510 –
Semen Ya. Palchin
Problems of Economic Rights of the Indigenous Small-Numbered
Peoples in the Krasnoyarsk Territory
– 1521 –
Elena A. Bryukhanova and Aleksandr M. Matveev
Territorial Peculiarities of Settlement of the Indigenous Minorities
of the North (by the example of Taimyr Dolgano-Nenets and
Evenk municipal regions of Krasnoyarsk Krai)
– 1541 –
Anahit Yu. Khudaverdyan
Decapitations in Late Bronze Age and Iron Age sites from Sevan
region (Armenia)
– 1555 –
Natalia A. Yelovskaya and Irina F. Sidiakova
Harmony of Sounds in Boris Pasternak’s Poetry
– 1567 –
Lydia L. Ravikovitch
Songs about Saint Petersburg by Sergei Slonimsky. On the
Question of Interpretation of the Poetic Text
– 1578 –
Natalia V. Vinokurova
Stable and Mobile Elements of the Author’s Style of
A.K. Glazunov(by the Example of Scherzos of the Early
Symphonies)
– 1591 –
Anna E. Klimenko
Music for Wind Instruments Ensemble in Russia at the End of
XVIII and in the 1-st Third of XIX Century (on the Example
of A. Alyabjev’s Oeuvre)
– 1599 –
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Igor Pyzhov – Associate Professor , Siberian
Federal University
Oyvind Ravna – Professor, University of
Tromso – The Arctic University of
Norway
Irina Rubert – Professor, Saint-Petersburg
State University of Economics
Andrey Smirnov – Corresponding Member,
Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute
of Philosophy RAS, Moscow
Olga Smolyaninova – Professor, Siberian
Federal University
Vladimir Suprun – Professor, Institute of
Philosophy and Law of SB RAS
Viktor Suslov – Corresponding Member
RAS, Institute of Economics and
Industrial Engineering of SB RAS
Roman Svetlov – Professor, Saint-Petersburg
State University
Elena Tareva – Professor, Moscow City
Pedagogical University
Kristine Uzule – Ph.D. Baltic International
Academy, Riga, Latvia
Eugeniya Zunder – Professor, Siberian
Federal University
Свидетельство о регистрации СМИ
ПИ № ФС77-28-723 от 29.06.2007 г.
Серия включена в «Перечень ведущих рецензируемых научных журналов и изданий, в которых должны
быть опубликованы основные научные результаты диссертации на
соискание ученой степени доктора и
кандидата наук» (редакция 2010 г.)
Natalya V. Pokrovskaya
Art groups in Russia After 1917
– 1606 –
Elena A. Chereneva
Unconscious Mechanisms of Social and Psychological Adaptation
of Mentally Retarded Children
– 1620 –
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 9 (2014 7) 1436-1448
~~~
УДК 330.59; 338.24
Problems of Forming Relationships
between the Indigenous Peoples and Resource Corporations:
from Asserting the Rights
to Joint Participation in Projects
Valeriy A. Kryukov* and Anatoly N. Tokarev
Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering of SB RAS
17 Lavrentiev Av., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Received 15.06.2014, received in revised form 24.07.2014, accepted 16.08.2014
The authors show the necessity of co-participation of the indigenous peoples in development projects
aimed at development of mineral resources extracting subsurface natural resources; there has been
developed an approach to the assessment of institutional transformations in the relationships between
the indigenous peoples and the resources’ extractors. The paper offers promising forms of interaction
between mining companies and the indigenous peoples of the North, which are expected to improve
the social and economic benefits of the indigenous population in course of the development of natural
resources in locations of their traditional residence.
Keywords: indigenous peoples of the North, territories of traditional land management, use of
subsurface natural resources, participation, institutional changes.
Today, the search of approaches to
solving one of the major problems of economic
development of the northern areas, i.e. proper
combining of modern industry and maintaining
traditional lifestyle and forms of traditional
economic activities of the indigenous peoples,
is becoming increasingly important. People are
getting more and more aware of the fact this does
not involve merely connection of modern science
and technology and traditional lifestyle and forms
of economic activities of the indigenous peoples.
Neither does it mean conservation or stagnation
in prevailing prehistoric “technological” ways of
life. There is necessity to revaluate the principles of
interaction of the indigenous peoples and modern
*
state, the indigenous peoples and subsurface
resources’ extractors. Technocratic solutions
do not play a major role here, more important
task is to create a new institutional environment
along the changing understanding of interaction
between parties [Uchet interesov…].
Mining industry (subsurface resources’
extracting) affects the traditional economy in two
major ways:
– via changing the environmental situation
in the region (extraction of raw materials often
harms the ecological bases of traditional land
management) [Rekommendatsii…];
– via changing the social and economic
environment, which modifies social organization
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: valkryukov@mail.ru
# 1436 #
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Valeriy A. Kryukov and Anatoly N. Tokarev. Problems of Forming Relationships between the Indigenous Peoples and…
and priorities of those keeping the traditional way
of life [Istomin].
Environmental component of subsurface
extractors’ influence, on reindeer husbandry as an
example, is expressed primarily in the destruction
of ecosystems of reindeer pastures through their
pollution with products of extraction, through
harming the soil surface layer with the technique
employed during the development and extraction
of mineral raw materials.
Moreover, burning of associated petroleum
gas has a great impact on the environment in the
places of residence of the indigenous peoples of
the North [Kak potushit’…]. Another common
example of environmental impact is laying of
pipelines and roads, which are an obstacle to
the migration of reindeer herds. They can make
certain areas of pasture, even environmentally
clean ones, inaccessible for reindeer herders.
Social and economic influence of mining
industry on traditional land management
(including reindeer herding) is connected
with:
– the general change in economic condition
of the regional population, its social
structure and purchasing power;
– the appearance of a new group of people –
the personnel of mining companies
and settlements (often in the previously
unpopulated areas) [Kalugin].
These factors have an ambiguous impact on
the traditional lifestyle of the indigenous peoples.
On the one hand, the emergence of generally
well secured groups may provide the indigenous
peoples with new markets for their products
and thus stimulate their traditional economic
activities. On the other hand, the relationships
between the indigenous peoples and subsurface
resources’ extractors may take conflicting nature,
for example, as a result of shooting reindeer,
belonging to herders, or as a consequence of
unequal exchange.
1. Approaches how to take into account
the indigenous peoples’ interests
The modern world practice has accumulated
a considerable variety of different forms of conflict
resolution between the need in development
of natural resources of the North and sving the
forms of traditional economic activities of the
indigenous peoples [Ot paternalizma…].
The following main approaches may be
distinguished.
Paternalistic approach:
– participation of companies which extract
resources in addressing the economic
problems of the indigenous peoples,
usually in the form of assistance in
solving social and economic problems at
no cost;
– the indigenous peoples (more precisely,
the economic structures acting on their
behalf) are given the due place in solving
a series of problems which extractors face
and which may positively affect solving
the problems of the indigenous peoples.
Approach based on participation:
– formation of rules and procedures which
will enable the indigenous peoples to
exercise their traditional economic
activities in the long run;
– formation of procedures to make up for
damage to traditional economic activities
caused by mining companies.
Participation of the indigenous peoples in
the development of mineral resources should not
imply performing all the works in the development
and production of subsurface products or in
the construction of pipelines, but certain more
narrow and specialized activities:
– involvement of the indigenous peoples
in the processes of eco-monitoring and
control during mining;
– employment of the indigenous peoples
in the development of mineral resources’
# 1437 #
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Valeriy A. Kryukov and Anatoly N. Tokarev. Problems of Forming Relationships between the Indigenous Peoples and…
projects (after the indigenous peoples
have passed appropriate training and retraining programs);
– providing the indigenous peoples with
consumer services (including selling
traditional products), and in the long
term – performance of works in rotational
camps and participation in building
programs. These directions can be
effective only after the implementation
of special training programs for the
indigenous peoples, after the formation
of appropriate organizational structures
(e.g., corporations of the indigenous
peoples).
Approach based on the recognition of the
exclusive rights of the indigenous peoples:
– the indigenous peoples are assigned
the property rights to land and natural
complexes located in places of their
residence and economic activity;
– creation of economic structures and
entities representing the economic
interests of the indigenous people and
carrying out activities in the areas of their
residence and traditional economy;
– the indigenous peoples shall receive
a portion of revenues from business
activities in the field of exploration and
mining.
One of the most important tasks for the
indigenous peoples of Russia is a movement
from upholding the exclusive rights to the land
to participation in the processes of preparation
and implementation of development and mining
projects [Maksimov]. The main problems in this
sphere concern:
– poor identification and improper
structuring of forms of participation of
the indigenous peoples in discussions and
negotiations about the implementation of
projects;
– lack of proper institutions and structures,
authorized to represent the interests of the
indigenous peoples;
– scope of issues and direction of activities
of the indigenous peoples which come
out during preparation of the projects and
their implementation in places where they
live;
– acute lack of experts and expertise
among the indigenous peoples – the
emphasis in education over the years has
been on the training of specialists in the
field of culture, secondary education,
medicine.
In Russia in this sphere – as well as in many
other areas of management and regulation of
economic processes – there happens unification
of conditions of land and subsurface management.
Unfortunately, in this situation, economic and
social problems of the indigenous peoples lose
their connection to the land and the projects
implemented in the territory of their residence,
and get increasingly dominated by paternalistic
approach.
Several Russian special laws declare the
rights of the indigenous peoples regarding the
use of renewable natural resources and the form
of compensation for damages. Also an access
to certain types of resources for traditional
economic activities of the indigenous peoples is
stated as certain. But these rights, declared by the
Russian legislation, are not fully implemented
in practice – due to the institutional reasons
noted above, as well as due to the weakness of
the Russian legislation in terms of the postulated
procedures for conflict resolution.
Analysis of foreign experience and its
comparison with the Russian experience leads to
the conclusion that Russia has not yet managed
to solve the problem of the indigenous peoples
during resources’ extracting in accordance with
the international best practices
# 1438 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Valeriy A. Kryukov and Anatoly N. Tokarev. Problems of Forming Relationships between the Indigenous Peoples and…
In foreign practice, problems of legal
regulation of the use and protection of lands by
the aboriginal people are solved in collaboration.
In foreign legislation the rights of the indigenous
peoples to land are not only recognized. The
scope and content of these rights are defined in
detail.
The indigenous peoples’ rights to land in
the Russian laws and regulations are declared
only, excluding, and sometimes neglecting the
requirements of the land and forest legislation. If
foreign legislation on land rights of the indigenous
peoples fits adequately the overall system of law,
the Russian legislation can not be attested as such
[Pavlov].
Russian law scarcely touches upon the
land sector problem in differences between
the indigenous peoples and people of other
nationalities and does not consider it necessary
to include the interests of society and state in the
law on the indigenous peoples’ problems. This is
one of the major conceptual distinctions of the
Russian legislation from foreign one.
Given the positive and negative experience
of the legal regulation of relations in the field of
land use and protection (as regards the indigenous
peoples) in foreign countries, one can not only
create their own legal model of problem solving
in accordance with global trends, but also avoid
many mistakes.
2. Stages of field development
and socio-economic effects
on the indigenous peoples
Implementation of development projects in
certain deposits of minerals in lands of traditional
land management often has a decisive influence
on the socio-economic development of specific
groups of population, including representatives
of the indigenous peoples. Dynamics of the
development of oil and gas fields is important
in terms of consideration of the interests of the
indigenous peoples because of the following
reasons and considerations:
– general policy of the relationship between
the indigenous peoples and oil and gas
sector should be formed at the earliest
stages of development of deposits and
provinces. At the same time the most
appropriate and effective common is the
one which involves environmental impact
and ethnological expertise, development
of integrated adaptation programs of the
indigenous peoples;
– dynamic nature of the deposits’
development determines the choice for the
different stages of the most appropriate
and effective forms of the indigenous
peoples’ participation in development of
subsurface mineral resources;
– levels of rent income of oil companies,
some of which may be allocated to
finance socio-economic development
programs and the adaptation of the
indigenous peoples, vary considerably at
different stages of oil and gas deposits’
development;
– at different stages of deposits’
development there are different levels
of impacts of industrial development on
the environment and traditional nature
management;
– the indigenous peoples have to enter
into relationships with different types of
companies, including socio-economic
agreements. For example, for a specific
period of development there may dominate
large integrated or, conversely, small
companies. These types of companies
differ in the level of financial capacity, in
their goals and objectives in relation to this
area at a certain stage of development.
Potential benefits and costs of the
development of subsurface mineral resources for
# 1439 #
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Valeriy A. Kryukov and Anatoly N. Tokarev. Problems of Forming Relationships between the Indigenous Peoples and…
the indigenous peoples in the lands of traditional
land management are largely dependent on the
stages of deposits’ development. At each stage
the rational policy of the indigenous peoples
should take into account the state of mineral and
raw resources’ base, the level of income of oil
companies and modify accordingly. The main
factors, conditions and features of accounting the
indigenous peoples’ interests at different stages of
hydrocarbon deposits’ development are presented
in Table 1.
In the process of oil and gas development
major environmental costs are connected with
the stage of investment and maximum production
Table 1. Features of taking into account the interests of the indigenous peoples at various stages of oil and gas
development
Benefits, costs and
opportunities for coparticipation of the
indigenous peoples
Main influence of the
extractors on the ecology
Stage
Search and
exploration
Exploration,
formation of the
infrastructure
elements
Relatively low
Early mining
Development of
Burning of
mineral resources, associated gas
burning of
associated gas
High
High
Environmental and social
costs
Demand for production of Low
Increasing
the indigenous peoples
(investment)
Potential opportunities for the indigenous peoples:
Falling
mining
Mature
Liquidation
works, recultivation of lands
Decreasing
High
Low
– co-participation in
extracting mineral
resources
– provision of consumer
services
– employment
Increasing
High
High
Weak
Low
High
High
Decreasing
Low
High
Decreasing
Low
Potential benefits for the
indigenous peoples
Policy of local authorities
Low
Growth
High
Decreasing
Participation
in programs of
adaptation and
development
Priorities in the indigenous Negotiatins,
peoples’ policy
environmental
monitoring,
services for
extractors
Forming partnership:
Environmental
monitoring,
training of the
indigenous peoples
Monitoring the
implementation
of agreements,
participation in
projects
Environmental
monitoring and
control
Environmental
monitoring and
control
Claims for a part
of rental income,
services for the
companies
Environmental
monitoring,
services for the
companies
– the indigenous peoples
and government
Environmental
monitoring,
training programs
of the indigenous
peoples
Production
services
Environmental
monitoring
Environmental
monitoring
Production
services
Consumer services
– the indigenous peoples
and extractors
Environmental
monitoring,
programs of
adaptation and
development
Consumer
services, economic
agreements
# 1440 #
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Valeriy A. Kryukov and Anatoly N. Tokarev. Problems of Forming Relationships between the Indigenous Peoples and…
(maturity). As production in the fields decline
the environmental costs are reduced. But the
risks associated with inadequate measures of
subsurface extractors during liquidation works
increase significantly.
Potential benefits and opportunities for coparticipation of the indigenous peoples in the
realization of the projects also change significantly
during the development of mineral resources.
At step of search and exploration opportunities
to benefit are notably limited, relatively low
are the environmental risks. As production
increases, potential benefits for the indigenous
peoples associated with co-participation in the
implementation of projects increase too. And
simultaneously environmental pressures on areas
of traditional nature management grow. Rational
approach is connected with the formation of
conditions for the indigenous peoples benefiting
from the development of subsurface resources
in the lands of traditional management (at least
commensurate with the environmental costs).
The key to achievements in this direction is
the active participation of all organizations and
representatives of the indigenous peoples in
development of subsurface mineral resources.
3. Ways of increasing benefits
from socio-economic effects
of the development of mineral resources
for the indigenous peoples
One of the main tasks of transformation in
relationships between the indigenous peoples and
extractors is to minimize the social and economic
costs that arise during the development of
subsurface mineral resources, and to maximize
the potential benefits that these activities can
bring. Analysis of Russian and foreign experience
shows that an increase in socio-economic benefits
from the development of mineral resources for
the indigenous peoples is linked with a number
of directions. These directions can be considered
as a basis for by-step changes, aimed at a more
complete account of the interests of the indigenous
peoples.
1. Development and expansion of activities
within the economic agreements. This trend
reflects the presence of special rights of the
indigenous peoples on wildlife resources.
Additional costs borne by extractors are related
to compensation for the restriction of traditionally
nature management and can be prescribed by
economic agreements between businessmen and
the indigenous peoples. One of the parties in such
agreements may be local authorities.
Under current conditions in Russia the
economic agreements with the extractors are
focused on ensuring a minimum acceptable
standard of living for the indigenous peoples.
In world practice, a considerable portion
of the potential benefits to the indigenous
peoples are connected with the conclusion and
implementation of agreements on the delivery
of social and economic benefits and advantages
[Obzor zakonov…]. These agreements are complex
and multilateral in their character (unlike,
for example, narrow economic agreements
implemented in Khanty-Mansi Autonomous
Okrug in the territories of tribal lands), covering
issues of participation of the indigenous peoples
in the project, including the provision of consumer
and production services, which is reflected in the
following directions.
2. Provision of consumer services. The term
“consumer services” means, first of all, sales of
products of the traditional economy, including to
the employees of companies that operate in the
territories of traditional nature management.
3. Provision of type 1 production services.
These services include the organization and
provision of hotel services, room cleaning,
preparation and delivery of food for the workers
of mining companies (especially in remote
areas and rotational camps). Such an experience
# 1441 #
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Valeriy A. Kryukov and Anatoly N. Tokarev. Problems of Forming Relationships between the Indigenous Peoples and…
Impact on
benefits from
development
Reducing
mining costs
Considering
indigenous
peoples
Impact on oil
and gas sector
Co-participation
in development
Additional
benefits
Production
services
Socio-economic
benefits
Part of taxes and
rental income
Economic
agreements
Environmental
monitoring
Enivironmental
costs
Efficiency of
the deposit’s
development
Additional
costs
Fig. 1. Potential benefits and costs of the main actors in the subsurface mining in the lands of traditional land
management
occurs during the development of subsurface
resources in Alaska and the Canadian province
of Alberta.
4. Provision of type 2 production services.
These services include the participation of the
indigenous peoples’ organizational structures
in the implementation of construction programs
in the field facilities. It should be noted that
the provision of consumer and production
services requires training of relevant personnel
and formation of the indigenous peoples’
corporations.
5. Taxes and rental income shall be directed
partly to fulfill the needs of the indigenous
peoples. Russian and foreign experience shows
that this trend may realize in various forms:
in part of the property tax connected with the
production assets of mining companies operating
in the lands of traditional land management; in
part of the rental income from regional budgets;
introduction of additional royalty or tax on
production.
From the standpoint of the most significant
negative effects for the indigenous peoples
environmental costs prevail. Implementation of
projects in the sphere of subsurface mining often
leads to environmental pollution, disturbance
of natural systems, which are the basis of life
of the indigenous population. Decline in the
number of deer, decreasing hunting and fisheries
result in a drop in revenues and an increase in
unemployment among the indigenous peoples in
the areas of traditional nature management.
In the course of mining projects there
is a complex of technological solutions and
measures, which helps to minimize the negative
environmental impact of these projects on the
environment. These activities involve striking
capital and operating costs. If subsurface extractors
(usually within a weak system of state regulation)
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significantly reduce the cost of environmental
measures, the population of the territory, including
representatives of the indigenous peoples, suffers
from serious environmental damage. At the same
time the demand to meet stringent environmental
regulations requires higher costs connected
with monitoring and control of environmental
conditions and the technologies used.
Place and role of the considered areas in
relation to their impact on overall benefits to the
society and on the efficiency of field development
from the standpoint of subsurface extractors are
shown in Fig. 1.
4. Assessment of institutional changes
scenarios concerning relationships
between the indigenous peoples
and subsurface extractors
A number of scenarios are based on the
enlisted ways of increasing socio-economic
benefits of mineral resources development in the
lands of traditional land management (where the
indigenous peoples live) considering changing
environmental costs. In summary, the basic
conditions of scenarios in relation to the change
in certain rights of the indigenous peoples are
presented in Table 2.
Scenario 1. Development and expansion
of economic activities within the agreements.
Low expenditure of subsurface extractors on the
environment.
Additional costs within the economic
agreements aimed at compensating the limitations
of traditional land management enjoys no
significant effect on performance of oil and gas
development from the standpoint of subsurface
extractors. Since these costs for subsurface
extractors are relatively stable, their impact
is inversely proportional to the volume of the
reserves extracted from the developed deposits. In
this scenario, the total amount of benefits for the
indigenous peoples from the project is negative
for the entire period of operation, which is due to
a high level of environmental costs (subsurface
extractors spend little money on environmental
measures). Also the indigenous peoples do
not benefit greatly from the narrow economic
agreements. This scenario fully characterizes
the current situation in the development of
subsurface deposits in the areas of traditional
land management: there are high environmental
costs and risks for the indigenous peoples and the
environment, on the one hand, and on the other,
there is a relatively small level of compensation
provided by businessmen to the indigenous
peoples (Fig. 2).
Scenario 2. Provision of consumer services
for subsurface extractors. Rising expenditure on
environmental measures.
Under this scenario, the amount of consumer
services provided by the indigenous peoples rises
rapidly: the indigenous peoples sell more of their
products to employees of the companies involved
in the project. In the case of the provision of these
services the part of the oil extractors’ income
spent on buying consumer goods produced by
the indigenous peoples is seen as a benefit for the
latter.
According to this scenario there will
be an increase (compared to the scenario
1) in expenditure of subsurface extractors on
environmental protection. These costs of the
companies are more consistent with the objectives
of minimizing the environmental impact on the
areas of traditional land management, but they
still do not meet the required level.
Increased costs of environmental measures
should be coupled with an increase in expenses
connected with monitoring and control processes
during the development of subsurface resources.
At the same time co-participation of the indigenous
representatives in the monitoring and control of
the environment seems rather effective (from the
standpoint of social and economic benefits for the
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Table 2. Structure of benefits from oil project for the indigenous people: scenarios’ features
Powers and benefits for the indigenous peoples
Scenarios
1
2
3
4
5
– natural resources
A
H
H
H
H
– resources on the surface (land)
L
A
H
H
H
– subsurface resources
L
L
L
L
A
Disposition rights to :
1
Co-participation in environmental monitoring
L
A
A
H
H
Powers2 specified by benefits agreements
I-1
I-2
I-2
I-2
I-3
Environmental costs of subsurface extracting
low
average
average
Economic agreements
Consumer services provided by the indigenous
peoples to subsurface extractors
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
Benefits and costs for the indigenous peoples
Production services - type 1
Production services - type 2
Part of tax revenues is at the indigenous peoples’
disposal
normative normative
yes
Benefits for indigenous peoples, $/t
Note 1. Degree of implementation of the main powers within the framework of property rights (low - L, average A, high - H). 2. Powers of the indigenous peoples: I-1 - right to enter the narrow economic agreements; I-2 - right
to conclude a comprehensive agreement on obtaining social and economic benefits and advantages; I-3 – right to
a part of the rental income.
8
6
4
2
0
-2
-4
-6
1
2
3
Scenarios
Environmental costs
Consumer services
Production services - 2
Total
4
5
Economic agreements
Production services - 1
Taxes for indigenous peoples
Fig. 2. Structure of benefits for the indigenous peoples for the entire project period
whole society), especially in the areas of oil and
gas projects.
It is important to analyze the effectiveness
for subsurface extractors along with the
assessment of projects in terms of community
benefits (bearing in mind federal budget, social
and economic benefits for the regions and the
indigenous peoples). If a project is rejected by
potential investors for financial and economic
reasons, society will not receive the potential
benefits and will not incur potential social and
environmental expenses. Extent of liabilities of
oil and gas companies within the framework of
the narrow economic agreements is not critical
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for subsurface extractors in terms of overall
efficiency of the project. The situation with
the cost of environmental protection measures
during implementation of the projects can have
a tremendous impact on investment decisions.
The increased costs on the environment can lead
to the fact that some projects will be ineffective
from the standpoint of subsurface extractors and
will not be realized.
Due to the framework of the weak regulatory
system as a whole (characterized, for example,
by soft rules and regulations in the field of
ecology) Russia has seen realized extracting
projects that would not be considered effective
and, therefore, implemented in a rigid system of
monitoring and controlling of the development
of mineral resources from the state. The most
important factor in the formation of an adequate
system for monitoring and controlling the state
of the environment in the areas of subsurface
development projects should be proactive
participation of the indigenous peoples in this
process.
Provision of consumer services for mining
companies can substantially increase the benefits
from the projects for the indigenous peoples. But
these benefits can not fully compensate for the
high environmental costs (Fig. 2). In addition,
within the case of the cumulative impact on
the environment by oil and gas companies the
possibility of the indigenous peoples to provide
these services is reduced, as natural productivity
in the areas of influence of industrial projects
drops.
Scenario 3. Provision of type 1 production
services.
Under this scenario, in addition to
providing consumer services the indigenous
peoples may render production services for
oil and gas companies and their contractors.
The indigenous peoples’ participation in the
provision of specified production services
(service in camps, cooking meals) is a balanced
way of getting common positive consequence
for the indigenous peoples from these projects:
in this case, the benefits of another region’s
residents are not reduced. In this scenario,
growth of benefits for the indigenous peoples
from the project realization may become possible
(Fig. 2). Providing services of type 1 can be
effective from the standpoint of companies,
as it results in total (though relatively small)
reduction of costs caused by the implementation
of the project with the appropriate organization
of granting these services.
Scenario 4. Provision of type 2 production
services. Rising expenditure on environmental
measures.
In this scenario, production services of type
2 emerge to prominence: participation of the
indigenous peoples in the construction programs
at the stage of deposit’s development and building
facilities there. It should be noted that the provision
of consumer and production services requires the
relevant training of employees and formation of
adequate organizational structures. Under this
scenario, the costs of environmental protection
measures are borne at the required level, which
minimizes the impact of development of natural
resources on the environment in the areas of
traditional land management.
This scenario is one of the most favorable
from the point of view of the indigenous peoples:
the benefits from the project increase, while
environmental costs minimize. Moreover, this
scenario has its own internal logic: the higher
the degree of participation the indigenous
peoples in projects (up to implementation of the
construction programs at the first stages), the
lower the environmental costs. Co-participation
of the indigenous peoples in the development of
subsurface riches allows:
– to monitor the process of deposits’
development;
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– to control the compliance with
environmental requirements;
– to contribute to the construction of
facilities (in accordance with the
development project), which sets the level
of impact on the environment.
Participation of the indigenous peoples
in the development of subsurface resources
complies with the interests of the state as an
owner of these resources. Adequate monitoring
and control of processes of mineral resources
development are aimed at full realization
of the rights of ownership. Therefore, the
common interests of the state and indigenous
peoples should be a basis for the formation of
partnerships, including the management of the
processes of subsurface resources development,
which are focused on improving the social and
economic benefits for the whole society.
A reasonable part of the potential benefits
for the indigenous peoples (especially their
participation in the projects) is not associated
with additional costs of oil and gas companies
and their contractors. Provision of consumer and
production services by the indigenous peoples
(in remote areas with poor infrastructure) will
reduce the total cost of the projects. Thus,
the indigenous peoples’ participation in the
provision of services (including environmental
monitoring and control) will lead to an increase
in community benefits. This fact is an important
argument in favor of practical implementation
in Russia of the described scenarios, which
take into account the interests of the indigenous
peoples and their participation in the processes
of mineral resources development, in monitoring
and control of the ecological state during the
development of mineral deposits.
Scenario 5. A part of tax revenues from
the extraction of subsurface resources comes
directly to the indigenous peoples.
This scenario can evolve in various forms.
– A part of the property tax (derived
from the production assets in the considered
deposit) is used for the needs of the indigenous
peoples. Practical implementation of this
approach is in the purview of local authorities:
the property tax in modern Russian conditions
has regional status. This approach is
impractical for some individual projects to
develop mineral resources. In the case of
positive results this experience can become
more widespread and common for the projects
on the mineral resources development in the
areas of traditional land management.
– A part of rental income comes from
regional budgets. In this case, the overall level
of benefits for the indigenous peoples increases
due to the fact they begin to share the regional
income from extraction of raw materials.
This direction can bring ample benefits to the
indigenous peoples, if a substantial portion of
rental income from the extraction of mineral
resources goes to the regional level budgets.
– The above-mentioned approach may
not always be welcomed by the population
living in this region of the Russian Federation,
as it reduces the benefits (though slightly)
for the whole population. Therefore one
had better prefer an approach used in the
Canadian province of Alberta, although it
is difficult to realize in practice. There, if
mining occurs in the areas where Aboriginal
Identity Peoples live, additional royalties are
charged, increasing overall tax burden on oil
and gas companies. Subsurface extractors pay
an additional royalty to Aborigines, without
lowering the level of tax revenues, which come
to budget.
Under this scenario, the indigenous peoples
do not have only special rights to the ground,
but also certain powers to the subsurface area
(if property rights are meant as a set of powers),
because the indigenous peoples directly receive
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rental income from the development of this
deposit.
In the considered scenarios federal tax
revenues remain virtually unchanged, if there
are relevant institutional changes. In this
situation there occurs a major growth of social
and economic benefits for oil and gas regions,
primarily due to lower environmental costs.
However, efficiency of projects for oil and gas
companies in a number of directions is reduced.
But within the framework of the adopted
hypotheses IRR remains at an acceptable level,
so mining companies are interested in investing
in projects with the simultaneous implementation
of measures under consideration, taking
into account the interests of the indigenous
peoples during the development of subsurface
resources.
Based on the above analysis, the following
conclusions are provided. One of the foundations
for the transition from paternalism to partnership
is co-participation of the indigenous peoples in
the development of subsurface resources in the
projects, including the provision of consumer
and production services for mining companies
and their contractors. As a consequence, there
must be an active position of the indigenous
peoples organizations in matters of protection
of their interests, which is a prerequisite for
the transformation of the special rights of the
indigenous people in the territories of traditional
land management into real social and economic
benefits through the development of various
forms of participation in the implementation of
development projects.
The scenarios, as described above, show
the trend and the possible dynamics of the
transition to a more complete consideration for
the indigenous peoples in projects in the sphere
of subsurface extracting in the territories of their
traditional economic activities: from narrow
economic agreements to partnership in the
implementation of projects. This truly dynamic
wave must be combined with the formation of
specific organizational structures, including
corporations of the indigenous peoples.
References
1. Istomin, K. (2002). Olenevody respubliki Komi i neftedobycha: tochki vzaimodeistiia i
konflikta [Komi reindeer herders and oil production: in terms of interaction and conflict]. Mir korennykh
narodov. Zhivaia Arktika (World of the indigenous peoples. Living Arctic), 11–12, pp. 100–106.
2. Kalugin, Z.I., Soboleva, S.V., Tapilina, V.S. (2006). Malochislennye narody Sibiri: izgoi XXI
veka? [ peoples of Siberia: excluded people of the 21st century?] Region: ekonomika i sotsiologiia
(Region: economics and sociology), 2, pp. 200–216.
3. Kriukov, V.A, Tokarev, A.N. (2005). Uchet interesov korennykh malochislennykh narodov
pri priniatii reshenii v sfere nedropol’zovaniia [Consideration of the interests of the indigenous peoples
in decision-making in the sphere of subsurface mining]. Seriia: biblioteka korennykh narodov severa
(Series: library of the indigenous Peoples of the North). Moscow, 10, 172 p.
4. Kriukov, V.A., Silkin, V.Iu., Tokarev, A.N., Shmat, V.V. Kak potushit’ fakely na rossiiskikh
neftepromyslakh: institutsional’nyi analiz uslovii kompleksnogo ispol’zovaniia uglevodorodov (na
primere poputnogo neftianogo gaza) [How to extinguish the torches in Russian oil industry: an
institutional analysis of the conditions of complex hydrocarbons’ usage (on the basis of associated oil
gas) – Ed. by V.V. Kuleshov, IEIE SB RAS, Novosibirsk, 2008, 340 p.
5. Maksimov, A.A. (2005). Prava korennykh narodov Severa na zemliu i sovmestnoe upravlenie
[Rights of the indigenous peoples to land and natural resources: efficient use and joint management].
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Seriia: biblioteka korennykh narodov severa (Series: library of the indigenous Peoples of the North).
Moscow, 3, 89 p.
6. Obzor zakonov i normativnykh aktov Arkticheskikh stran po zashchite prav korennykh
narodov. Soglasheniia i rezoliutsii [Overview of the laws and regulations of the Arctic countries to
protect the rights of the indigenous peoples. Agreements and resolutions] Comp. by R.V. Suliandziga.
Seriia: biblioteka korennykh narodov severa (Series: library of the indigenous Peoples of the North).
Moscow, 2005, 8, 155 p.
7. Pavlov, P. (2002). Prava korennykh narodov Severa na zemli: rossiiskaia retrospektiva i
mezhdunarodnaia perspektiva [Rights of the indigenous peoples to land: Russian retrospective and
international perspective]. Mir korennykh narodov. Zhivaia Arktika (World of the indigenous peoples.
Living Arctic), 11–12, pp. 35–53.
8. Piliasov, A.N. (ed.) Ot paternalizma k partnerstvu (stroitel’stvo novykh otnoshenii narodov
Severa i gosudarstva) [From paternalism to partnership (construction of new relations between the
peoples of the North and the state)]. Magadan, Northeastern Interdisciplinary Research Institute
(named after N.A. Shilo). Far Eastern Branch RAS, 1998, 198 p.
9. Rekommendatsii VII s’ezda korennykh malochislennykh narodov Severa, Sibiri I dal’nego
Vostoka Rossiiskoi Federatsii [Recommendations of VII Congress of the Indigenous Peoples of the
North, Siberia and Far East of the Russian Federation]. Salekhard, 28-29 March 2013. Mir korennykh
narodov (World of the indigenous peoples), 2013, 30, pp. 9–20.
Проблемы формирования отношений
коренных народов и ресурсных корпораций:
от отстаивания прав к соучастию
в реализации проектов
В.А. Крюков, А.Н. Токарев
Институт экономики и организации
промышленного производства СО РАН
Россия, 630090, Новосибирск, пр. Акад. Лаврентьева, 17
В статье показана необходимость соучастия коренных народов в реализации проектов
освоения недр; разработан подход к оценке институциональных трансформаций во
взаимоотношениях коренных народов и недропользователей. Предложены перспективные
формы взаимодействия между компаниями-недропользователями и КМНС, направленные на
повышение социально-экономических выгод коренного населения в процессе освоения недр на
территории их традиционного проживания.
Ключевые слова: коренные малочисленные народы Севера, территории традиционного
природопользования, недропользование, соучастие, институциональные изменения.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 9 (2014 7) 1449-1456
~~~
УДК 330.59+338.24
Indigenous Minorities of the North
as a Factor of Preservation
and Sustainable Development
of the Northern Territories
Nikolai G. Shishatsky*
Institute of Economics and Industial Engineering of SB RAS
50 Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk, 660036, Russa
Received 07.06.2014, received in revised form 07.07.2014, accepted 30.08.2014
The article presents generalized problems and trends of indigenous minorities of the North (IMN)
adaptation to new condition of social-economic development of Russia and analyses some particularities
of their political and juridical status.
The modern evolution of indigenous minorities of the North is based on the composition of innovativeness
and conventionality elements. It causes the necessity to apply an institutional- evolution approach for
the investigation of problems of IMN sustainable development.
The given approach allows identification of the role of informal rules in IMN life activity and helps to
show peculiarities of informal rules formation.
Numerous legislative acts of the federal and regional level adopted at present (formal regulations),
having direct or indirect relation to IMN, are mainly declarative due to the absence of effective tools
for their implementation.
The development of such tools is an urgent theoretical and practical task which resolution should take
into consideration the evolution of ownership forms of traditional economies and reasons of happened
naturalization of traditional IMN lifestyle.
Keywords: indigenous minorities of the North, sustainable development, legal status, joint management
of resources, areas of traditional nature management.
The work is accomplished in the frames of investigations financed by Krasnoyarsk Regional Fund of
support of scientific and scientific-technical activity and under the thematic plan of SibFU, developed
on the instructions of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation.
Social-economic reforms of the recent
years have significantly influenced the idea of
sustainable development and the quality of life
in general, as well as sustainable development
of areas of traditional nature management and
particularly- the quality of life of indigenous
minorities of North (IMN).
*
Protecting their interests, IMN are at the
forefront of the struggle of the humanity for
their survival under the conditions of ecological
crisis.
The culture of indigenous peoples is based
on the awareness of the oneness and continuous
connection of a man and nature. It includes
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: nik@ksc.krasn.ru
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principles of rational use of resources and due
respect of environment, i.e. basic principles of
sustainable development`s concept. Conventional
nature management is based on an exceptional
knowledge of nature peculiarities, gained from
the centuries-old experience of indigenous
peoples. It includes the principle of inexhaustible
use of renewable biological resources, which is
also among the basic principles of the society
sustainable development concept.
It is obviously that the loss of experience
and mentality, which were developed by
indigenous peoples within centuries, can
become an irreplaceable loss of humanity at
present. They are to be preserved and passed to
the representatives of other nationalities for the
purpose of collaborative activity with indigenous
peoples towards the protection of the nature of
our planet and searching new ways for sustainable
development of civilization.
The Russian Federation, fully supporting
the declared goals and principles of UN and ILO
international documents in respect of tribal
peoples and peoples of roving life, and actively
participating in various UN events, such as
International decades of indigenous peoples and
etc., still remains one of the countries, which
hasn’t yet ratify ILO Convention №169 “On
Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in Independent
Countries” (1989) and the only country that has
not yet signed the UN Declaration on the Rights
of Indigenous Peoples (2007).
ILO Convention №169 approves a wide
range of indigenous people’s rights, including
rights for recourses and homeland areas, and other
authorities which are considered to be important
for them.
Joining the Russian Federation to the ILO
Convention №169 and its ratification was initiated
by the 1st Congress of Indigenous Minorities of
the North in 1990. The Congress considered the
participation in this Convention to be a kind of
guarantee for keeping political rights and initial
basis for the development of Russian legislation
on IMN rights.
Nearly all summarizing documents of
Parliament meetings and scientific conferences
hold by Chambers of Federal Assembly of the
Russian Federation and subjects of the Russian
Federation on socio-economic and cultural
development of IMN, recommended to ratify the
Convention №169
An expert`s Report which was presented
at one of the meetings dated May 17, 1993,
was ended by the words: “The ratification of
the Convention seems appropriate only upon
providing conditions ensuring their fulfillment
by Russia. Otherwise it can cause contradictions
between domestic legislation and international
obligations of the Russian Federation. Considering
the strict control of ILO over the implementation
of its Conventions, such situation can cause
international implications undesirable for Russia”
[1]. Apparently this “confidence” does not exist
so far, therefore the ratification issue has been
practically removed from the agenda.
The following circumstances supported the
restrained position in this issue are essentially
important:
1. Areas of IMN residence in Russia
possess the unique combination of industrial
development, settlement pattern and ethnic
structure. For example, the population size of
Greenland comprises to 55 thousand people,
and 86 % of them are indigenous peoples. There
are only 79 settlements with relatively low
number of dwellers, 13 thousand people live in
the capital of the island Nuuk. The population
of the Northwest Territories of Canada, before
the separation of Nunavut area was practically
the same as in Greenland, wherein these lands
accounted for approximately one third of the
entire country territory. More than a half of
dwellers are aborigines. Less than 20 thousand
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people live in the capital of the territory Yellowknife . (Innu of in the Eastern Arctic
make up about 85 % of the population). The
North of Canada is more industrially developed
than Greenland, but far less than the North of
Russia.
Regions of the Russian Federation which
are considered to be the territories of traditional
residence of IMN, make almost the half of the
country`s territory. According to the census of
2010, 247.6 thousand people IMN lived here
(about 95 % of the total IMN population of the
country). The specific weight of IMN in the total
population size of this territory was only 6,3 %.
They do not form the majority of the population
even in their autonomous regions. Under these
conditions it is more complicated than for example
in Canada, to solve the problem of expansion of
collective rights of indigenous peoples without
infringement of rights of the rest of population
living in this area.
2. Almost nowhere in the world there are
so many permanent non aborigine people living
in traditional IMN areas as it is in Russia.
A significant proportion of the population is
Russian old residents- descendants of those who
moved in this region several centuries ago and
who helped aborigines to survive in difficult
climatic conditions. The major of old residents
has the same style of life as peoples of the North.
Introduction of new rights and privileges for
indigenous people can cause the aggravation of
international relations and worsen the existing
complicated social situation of the North.
3. Receipt of land rights by indigenous
peoples can cause formation of a group of
businessmen from the peoples of the North, but
it would not guarantee the preserving traditional
nature management and traditional culture as well
as keeping peoples themselves as independent
and distinctive ethnic groups. Attention should
be paid to three important aspects.
Firstly, an obtaining clearly documented
contractual rights to certain territories will
mean the loss of any rights of the North peoples
to the remaining significantly larger part of the
territory. Such is the Canadian-American pattern
of indigenous peoples development, where
one of the most interested stakeholders of the
Agreement on land use signed by Inuvialuits of
Western Arctic of Canada were oil companies,
which got easy access to the oil-rich areas as a
result. Under these conditions, the required bases
for keeping traditional culture and appropriate
life-supporting system are being narrowed down
simultaneously.
Secondly, if valuable mineral resources
will be explored on the territories designated for
the populations of the North, the significant part
of lands will not at all be used for traditional
nature management. Besides, as the Russian
experience shows, even the major of these
territories will be controlled by large business
and the population of the North will be satisfied
with a little as it is usually happen when oil
companies sign agreements with the owners of
tribal lands.
Thirdly, we should not eliminate the risk
that the owners of such lands, after receipt of
gratifications from oil-and- gas and other raw
material companies will become idle rentiers
without kith or kin forgotten their traditional
economic activities.
4. Political elite of the North peoples
actively supports the Convention ratification.
Their interest is quite understandable and clear.
But the population itself is more passive because
additional rights assume not only specific
privileges but also the increased responsibility.
In most cases the population is not ready for this
mission due to different reasons. For example,
many regions do not have any local initiators,
which would take all troubles on solving
problems, stipulated by the last RF laws which
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directly relate to the life activity of indigenous
minorities of the North.
5. There are no clear criteria for ethnic
identification. After ratification of a Convention
a lot of problems will arise on determination
of those who will fall within it. However,
this problem is now posed as one of the most
important when practical implementation of the
adopted federal laws on indigenous peoples of
the North is discussed. At present it is common
for Russia to consider ethnic self-consciousness
to be the main characteristic of being attributed
to IMN and this indicator is very uncertain. Any
additional rights and particularly benefits for
certain populations become an object of interest
of many, including those who are not related to
these peoples originally ( recently, after granting
certain privileges to peoples of the North, their
number noticeably increased, as virtually all
children of mixed marriages were recorded as
representatives of these peoples)
For example, it is known that in the KhantyMansi Autonomous Okrug after assignment of
inherited ownership of tribal lands possessing
deposits of oil to Khanty and Mansi, mass
marriages of Azerbaijanis with local girls became
very popular. All children from these mixed
marriages are considered to be representatives of
indigenous people. Thus, over the certain period
of time the descendants of not even the northern,
but the southern nations may become the owners
of tribal lands in this Okrug (particularly those
which are rich in oil).
Such problems exist in the other states.
It is not coincidentally that the most countries
of the Arctic ring having much more favorable
conditions for the ratification of the discussed
Convention have not done it still.
The greatest progress in the development
of indigenous people of the North is observed
at present in the North America and
Scandinavia.
Even a few decades ago, until the middle of
the XX century high rates of aborigine`s ill being
were natural for these countries and were referred to
physiological and social peculiarities of aborigine,
the processes of assimilation and dissolution
of aborigines in a society were interpreted as
legitimate and positive phenomenon.
The crisis took place in 60-70s of the XX
century, when the period of restoration of justice
for indigenous peoples started. It was stimulated
by a threat of total destruction of indigenous
people as the result of implementation of largescale resources and hydro-energetic projects on
their territories.
As the result of continuous and complicated
public discussion a new paradigm on the
legal status of indigenous peoples of the
North was formed during the elaboration and
implementation of social-economic development
trends on territories of their traditional residence
and economic activity. This paradigm has its
own peculiarities in different countries, but is
characterized by common fundamental points,
connected with significant increase of a legal
status of indigenous peoples in taking and
implementation of managerial decisions in the
sphere of life-support and economic development
on the areas of traditional nature management of
IMN.
A key role is played by:
– the ownership rights of IMN to land and
nature resources;
– questions connected with the involving
IMN in the process of nature resources
management;
– granting social and economical privileges
to IMN for development of nature
resources;
– political rights of IMN, connected with
the self-government
Agreements of the Inuit of Nunavut
settlement area and the Tribal Union of gvichey
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with Her Majesty the Queen of England (i.e.
the Government of Canada) can be given as
examples of parity approach to address a problem
of sustainable development of IMN residential
territories. These agreements which were
elaborated in detail by both Parties, stipulate
specific areas under their jurisdiction, describe
rights of aborigines living on the territories of
non-indigenous population, owned by municipal,
regional and federal government for land and
mineral resources, ways for nature management
as well as parity management and monitoring
tools.
The process of meeting territorial
requirements of indigenous peoples of Alaska
and Northern Canada has caused the problem of
joint (cooperative) management of resources [2].
Joint management of resources is a
component of the state policy which is based on
comprehensive agreements on territorial demands
of indigenous peoples and includes indigenous
peoples’ participation in making decisions on
quotas for fishing and hunting, questions of
subsoil and forest management, protection and
monitoring of the environment in areas defined
by land agreements.
The purpose of joint management is to share
responsibility for specific resources, where a
substantial overlap of interests exists and to share
social and economic benefits from the use of these
resources. Specialized Councils having the right
to elaborate non-regulative proposals for public
offices become the subjects of joint management.
Principles of joint management are widely
used in nature parks and reserves and suppose
collaboration of administration of specially
protected natural territory and communities
traditionally exploit its resources.
Joint management operations include
recognition of the important role that indigenous
communities play in preservation of resources.
Joint management was introduced in Northern
Canada and Alaska in the middle of 1970-s
due to danger of undermining the populations
of fish and game. The USA Federal Law on
conservation areas of Alaska which are of the
national interest has provided advisory role
of indigenous communities in regulation of
fisheries and management of wildlife resources
within these areas. It is common for the North
of Canada that joint management operations are
stipulated by agreements on land requirements
of indigenous peoples, for example, in
agreements with the native population of Yukon.
If land law does not provide joint management
operations within a specific area, the initiative
of its introduction goes from the below level rural communities; the availability of a strong
local leader, aimed at addressing traditional
life support problems as well as development of
traditional economy and resources protection
become a key factor.
The principle of supporting indigenous
population, according to which locals should fully
benefit from the development of area resources in
order to be protected from the possible damages
and to receive compensation for caused damages,
was recognized at the same time as indigenous
rights to land and resources were assumed. This
principle was implemented in agreements on
providing social-economic benefits and privileges
to locals (SOPV). SOPV for indigenous people
of the North means the following: environment
protection, employment and economical
development, respect for traditional culture and
values. SOPV for the state implies: the possibility
of making decisions without an expensive and
labor-intensive assessment of the environmental
impact.
An experience of Canada and other northern
countries on creating prerequisites for sustainable
development of IMN places of residence, based
on the principle of parity, is extremely useful for
Russia at present.
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The following statements and principles of
sustainable development of IMN and their living
areas in the North can be defined on the basis of
the positive achievements of this experience:
1. Indigenous peoples of the North, Siberia
and Far East of Russia should get prepared
for creation of a stable, harmonious system
of relations with the state and nonindigenous
population, which would be aimed at preservation
of their originality, culture and traditional
economic activity, economic independence and
nature environment. The most promising is the
way of parity and reasonable compromise with
the state. This way is possible only provided both
Parties are tend to the shared goal – to ensure a
sustainable development of the region, where
indigenous peoples live.
2. The main problems of the economics of the
North and life activity of its people, preservation
of ecological potential and saving the last in the
world reserve of free territories should be solved
from positions of national strategy of Russia. Much
will depend on the success of macroeconomic
policy, which stimulate the demand for the
products of leading branches of northern economy
and for exploration, transport loading, capital
construction. The most important is reduction
credits costs and regulation of transport tariffs
for the purpose to support sustainable economic
relations with hinterlands.
3. In perspective, industrial development of
the North should be based on the recognition of
indigenous people by their partners during the
development, supported by implementation of
extensive rights of indigenous people to lands,
resources and self-government. The basis of
a partnership is a formation of clear rights of
IMN to the land, resources and self-government.
Elaboration of agreements with the peoples
of the North is a tool for reinstatement of true
relations, reduction of information uncertainty
over ownership and management of land and
resources. Integrated policy is required, which
would initiate an economic activity of indigenous
people, their aspiration for changes and desire to
work for the sake of changes. Fundamentals of
such policy are usually expressed in a concept
of partner relations of the state, business and
non-indigenous majority of population with the
peoples of the North.
4. To turn to the rule the principles of civilized
relations, partnership and provision of citizen`s
rights in protection of original environment and
traditional way of life of small ethnic indigenous
communities and local people, federal regulation
in this field is required. Federal laws should clearly
describe the obligations of business and state
against indigenous minorities, especially when
resources are developed and energetic facilities
constructed in the areas of traditional residence
and nature management of these people. Federal
legislation should also describe the mechanism
of providing rights to ethnic minorities to protect
their native place of residence and traditional
way of life according to the Constitution of the
Russian Federation.
This mechanism must include the
following:
– scientific
investigation
of
basic
characteristics of traditional way of life
and native place of residence of smaller
peoples and ethnic communities, located
in the area of existing or projected
economic activity;
– Determination of possible negative effects
of such impact;
– Development of measures to reduce and
prevent negative effects;
– Assessment of impact during the project
implementation and elaboration of
correcting measures to prevent negative
influence of this activity on traditional
way of life and original environment of
indigenous and local population.
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5. Creation of territories of traditional nature
management (hereinafter, TTNM) under the
conditions of expanding intensive exploit of North
resources is the only possible way to protect IMN.
The main idea of TTNM includes :
– Creation of optimal conditions for life
activity and sustainable ethnic and
demographical development of indigenous
ethnic minorities;
– Protection of socio-economic and legal
interests of indigenous peoples;
– Restoration of traditional economic
activity of IMN;
– Protection of the of natural resource
potential of IMN living areas;
– The elimination of existing and prevention
of possible conflicts.
Existing
legal
problems
on
the
implementation of TTNM concept require
development and adoption of «Regulations on
establishment and application of TTNM”, which
would include criteria for determining optimal
sizes and principles of identifying functional areas
and their economic activity; the procedure for
non-traditional activities, management pattern,
protection and control of applying TTNM.
In order to achieve the specific results in this
field it is necessary to address the following tasks
[3]:
– to elaborate clear criteria for determination
of the required size of the projected
territory and its location;
– to develop economic concept and
program for development of traditional
industries, based on the development
of existing economic units within the
particular territory and reconstruction
of its lost components. The main goal of
the program is to create due conditions
for maximal employment of indigenous
people, ecological safety, and sustainable
social and economic development;
– to develop particular concepts and
programs
for
sustainable
ethnodemographic, cultural and environmental
development of autochthonic ethnic
groups, aimed at the reconstruction of the
existing system of marriage ties, provision
of medical care; restoration of culture and
spiritual traditions and language;
– to develop ecological concept and
program of utilization resources of the
given territory, to provide their relations
with the existing environmental and
legislation system;
– to develop a legislation basis supporting
the status and regulating character of
using the given territories
References
1. Materials of the Conference on ratification RFILO Convention N 169 as of May 27, 1993
(1993) [Materialy soveshchania po ratifikatzii RF Konventsii MOT N 169 ot 27 maya 1993] // http://
www.businesspravo.ru/docum/documshow_documid_38024.html
2. Joint Management in the Arctic: examples of Canada, Alyaska and Scandinavia (2008)
[Sovmestnoye upravleniie v Arktike: primery Kanady,Alyaski i Skandinavskikh stran]. Мoscow.
3. Shishatsky N.G., Kirko V.I , Keush A.V. (2012). Social-economic problems of creating
territories of traditional nature management//Arctic and the North [Socialno-economicheskie problemy
sozdaniya territorii traditsionnogo prirodopolsovanya//Artika i Sever]. № 7. Pp. 178-185.
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Nikolai G. Shishatsky. Indigenous Minorities of the North as a Factor of Preservation and Sustainable Development…
Коренные малочисленные народы Севера
как фактор сохранения и устойчивого
развития северных территорий
Н.Г. Шишацкий
Институт экономики и организации
промышленного производства СО РАН
Россия, 660036, Красноярск, Академгородок, 50
В статье в обобщенном виде представлены основные проблемы и тенденции адаптации
коренных малочисленных народов Севера (КМНС) к новым условиям социально-экономического
развития России, проанализированы особенности их политико-правового положения.
Современная эволюция коренных малочисленных народов Севера основывается на сочетании
элементов традиционности и инновационности. Это обусловливает необходимость
использования институционально-эволюционного подхода при исследовании проблем
устойчивого развития КМНС.
Данный подход позволяет выявить место неформальных правил в жизнедеятельности КМНС
и показать особенности становления формальных правил.
Принятые в настоящее время многочисленные законодательные акты (формальные правила)
федерального и регионального уровня, имеющие прямое или косвенное отношение к КМНС,
носят во многом декларативный характер из-за отсутствия действенных механизмов их
реализации.
Разработка таких механизмов является настоятельной теоретической и практической
задачей, решение которой должно учитывать эволюцию форм собственности отраслей
традиционного хозяйствования и причины натурализации традиционного уклада КМНС.
Ключевые слова: коренные малочисленные народы Севера, устойчивое развитие, правовой
статус, соуправление ресурсами, территории традиционного природопользования.
Работа выполнена в рамках исследований, финансируемых Красноярским краевым фондом
поддержки научной и научно-технической деятельности, а также в рамках тематического
плана СФУ по заданию Министерства образования и науки Российской Федерации.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 9 (2014 7) 1457-1470
~~~
УДК 316.4:316.7
Scenario of the Future of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic.
Foresight Research
Evgeniya I. Mikhailovaa, Alla V. Laptevab and Valery S. Efimovb*
a
North-Eastern Federal University in Yakutsk
58 Belinskogo Str., Yakutsk, 677027, Russia
b
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
Received 03.06.2014, received in revised form 21.07.2014, accepted 28.08.2014
The results of Foresight research, and namely presenting scenarios of the future of the Sakha
(Yakutia) Republic, its indigenous peoples, are introduced. Both envisaging further development
and realistic images of the republic’s future, suggested by the experts, are discussed. A field of
scenarios of the future of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic till 2050 is presented, scenario conditions
and factors being viewed. A baseline scenario of the formation of multi-structure economies and
society, blending traditional, developed industrial and post-industrial (cognitive) structures,
is described. Within the frame of a baseline scenario reproduction of the republic’s indigenous
peoples’ identity, culture and languages will be provided by special cultural policy, cultural and
educational practices. Scenarios which are alternative to a baseline one are elaborated. These are
“corporate colonization”, “demographic and cultural dissipation”, “temptation of a consumption
society”, “cultural break-through”. The opportunities of “discovering the North” (analogous to the
“discovery of the east” in the XX century) for the whole mankind are discussed. The conditions for
this might be the following ones: accumulation of the indigenous peoples’ cultural heritage on the
basis of use of modern informational technologies; consolidation of northern peoples and shifting
their culture from the level of local ethnic cultures to the level of “northern civilization” of a special
type. The North-Eastern Federal University should play its special role of a strategic subject,
organizing the development and implementation of new cultural, educational, medical practices,
necessary cultural policy.
Keywords: research of the future, foresight, the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic, scenarios of the future,
preservation of the indigenous peoples’ identity, languages and cultures.
Introduction
The article presents the results of Foresight
research of the future of the Sakha (Yakutia)
Republic, a joint project of the specialists of
North-Eastern and Siberian federal universities1.
It discusses a field of scenarios, or variants of the
republic’s future till 2050.
*
Foresight was realized in 2010-2013.
It comprised a complex of economical,
demographic, socio-anthropological research,
a large-scale sociological survey of Sakha
representatives (the Yakuts) and the republic’s
indigenous minorities, and a Delphi survey of
the experts on the variants of the republic’s and
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: efimov.val@gmail.com
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Evgeniya I. Mikhailovaa, Alla V. Lapteva… Scenario of the Future of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. Foresight Research
its peoples’ future. The project’s conception
is introduced in Efi mov and Lapteva’s article
(2012). Some results of a sociological survey
and the forecast for the reproduction of the
indigenous peoples’ (those being the Yakuts
and the indigenous minorities of the North)
languages and culture are presented in Efi mov
and Lapteva’s publications (2014а; 2014b).
Some results of a Delphi survey of the experts
are presented in the articles by Borisova et al.
(2013а; 2013b).
The present article dwells upon a field of
scenarios of the future and a baseline scenario
(Re. to: UNIDO Technology Foresight Manual
(2005а; 2005b) about the methods of elaborating
scenarios within a Foresight frame). Unlike
classical elaboration of a scenario its Foresight
elaboration regards a baseline scenario to
be a scenario of “the desired future” but not
of a “middle” variant of a scenario object
(Pereslegin 2009, 64-80). At that other
(alternative) scenarios are viewed as risks of a
baseline scenario.
Scenarios of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic’s
future were elaborated the following way. The
specialists carried out a survey of analytical
reports on the most significant tendencies in
economical development, demographic and
socio-cultural processes on a global scale (40
for the Next 40; Mapping the Global Future
2004; Foresight 2020 Economic, industry and
corporate trends 2006; Global Trends 2025: A
Transformed World 2008; World Development
Report 2009; World Development Report
2010; The World in 2050: The Accelerating
Shift of Global Economic Power: Challenges
and Opportunities 2011; Global Trends 2030:
Alternative Worlds 2012; Manyika J. et al. 2013;
etc.), singled out “mega-trends” which set an
external context and boundaries of possible
future of the regions of Russia’s north-east.
The forecasts and programme documents of the
Russian Federation, concerning the future of the
country’s north-eastern regions were also studied
(The forecast for a long-term socio-economical
development of the Russian Federation up to
2030; The state programme of the development
of the Far East and Baikal region up to 2025,
2013; etc.); scientific literature about ethnosocial processes and prospects of cultural policy
were analyzed (Popkov 2012; Lashov 2013;
etc.).
The variants of the republic’s development
with reference to megatrends and internal
processes were discussed with the experts in
the course of interviews and seminars. The
experts suggested hypothetic scenario variants
of the future both taken in general and in certain
spheres (economy, demography, the indigenous
peoples’ culture and languages), the variants
being included into the list of a Delphi-survey.
Then they carried out a survey, getting 1800
experts (scientists, representatives of government
authorities, educational, cultural and medical
establishments, public organizations, local
communities) involved. The experts assessed
probability (or realness), advisability (or
prospectivity) of various variants of the future,
their possible influence on the fortunes of the
republic’s indigenous minorities. The analysis of
the survey data made it possible to distinguish
the most important scenarios, estimated as
medium- and highly probabilistic and potentially
significant regarding the indigenous minorities’
future.
The images of the future were elaborated
and a field of possible scenarios of the Sakha
(Yakutia) Republic’s future was formed on the
basis of these results.
Images of the future
Analysis of processes and various subject’s
intentions (desires, plans) made it possible to
outline four variants of the Sakha (Yakutia)
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Evgeniya I. Mikhailovaa, Alla V. Lapteva… Scenario of the Future of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. Foresight Research
Republic’s long-term future. Each image of the
future is presented in its metaphoric nomination,
key statements (what will be happening) and
“musts” (what must be done to achieve such a
future). As the most fundamental changes in the
indigenous peoples’ life are closely connected
with the change of their life and activity, it is
a certain socio-economical way of life (which
should be either preserved or re-cultivated) that
lies in the basis of each image of the future.
Yakutia is a virgin land
The indigenous peoples’ harmonious, selfvalued life based on traditional economy and use
of modern technical means (means of transport,
communication, manufacture and private life).
The Yakuts and indigenous minorities of the
North must re-establish traditional economy
and mode of life on the whole; minimize
other cultures’ influence. The number of rural
population must grow. Industrial, service,
cognitive sectors must develop like sectors of
employment of the representatives of other, nonindigenous peoples. Industry development must
be localized territorially by means of norms and
bans, limiting the activity of extracting companies
and their influence on surrounding territories;
labour migration to the areas of the indigenous
peoples’ residence should be limited. Industry
development is allowed only to the extent which is
necessary as a source of revenue to the republic’s
budget. A flow of rent payments (due to taxation,
structure of the republic’s budget, etc.) from
industrial, service, and cognitive sectors should
be secured to finance the indigenous peoples’
social support.
Industrial Yakutia: development
of the indigenous peoples
on the path of an industrial way of life
The Yakuts and indigenous peoples of the
North must become familiar with an industrial
way of life (in which the main mass of surplus
value is created), and namely to work at factories
and plants, live in cities and urban settlements.
The representatives of the indigenous peoples
must be trained to become engineers, qualified
workers, and specialists for an industrial
sector. The companies must be given quotas of
working places for the representatives of the
indigenous peoples at all levels: from workers
to executive staff and top-managers. Active
investment policy (involvement of Russian
and foreign investors for infrastructure and
industry development; development of the
system of legal norms, ensuring industrial
development in compliance with ecological
demands and goals to preserve the indigenous
peoples’ residential territories and economy) is
necessary.
Post-industrial Yakutia
in its service way of life: development
of the indigenous peoples
on the path of a service way of life
The Yakuts and indigenous peoples of
the North must become familiar with life and
activity in service way of life, and namely to
concentrate in Yakutsk, a capital city, and large
cities, be engaged in service sphere, education
and public health service, mass media, state
and municipal administration. It is necessary to
expand service sector and improve the quality
on account of use of modern technologies,
develop international cultural and extreme
tourism, economical and cultural cooperation
with Asian peoples and circumpolar territories.
Involvement of the representatives of the
indigenous peoples in industrial structures
should be avoided as it is destructive for their
way of life, social structures, and mentality.
The republic’s industry should develop on the
basis of use of non-indigenous peoples’ labour
resources.
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Post-industrial Yakutia
in its cognitive way of life
(economy of knowledge): development
of the indigenous peoples on the path
of a cognitive way of life
The Yakuts and indigenous peoples of the
North must adjust their life and activity to a
cognitive mode of life, and namely to concentrate
in Yakutsk, a northern megalopolis, be engaged in
education and science, innovation business, sector
of finance, administration, creative industries,
etc. A cluster of innovative-and-technological
and cultural types of activity must be developed
by the North-Eastern Federal University. The
university must integrate into international
research networks, initiate projects significant at
the global level for developing arctic territories,
preservation and development of the indigenous
peoples of the North. The republic must become
one of political, economical and cultural leaders
of circumpolar civilization, an active international
player in the sphere of legal control of economical
development of the Arctic.
Expert estimation of the variants
of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic’s future
A Delphi-survey made it possible to assess
prospectivity and realness of the suggested
images of the future. The variants “Post-industrial
Yakutia in its cognitive way of life” and “Yakutia
is a virgin land” were defined by the experts as
the most promising ones in the long-term future.
At that “Yakutia is a virgin land” variant is
regarded as the least realistic of all suggested. As
for “Post-industrial Yakutia in its cognitive way
of life” variant, it was viewed as rather realistic.
“Industrial Yakutia” is considered as having
prospects and realistic to a moderate extent.
“Post-industrial Yakutia in its service way of life”
is regarded as realistic but least promising of all
taken into consideration. Thus, “Post-industrial
Yakutia in its cognitive way of life” is considered
to be a variant of the future till 2050, combining
prospectivity and realness.
Different age groups of experts differently
assess the variants of the future. Young experts
(at the age up to 29) evidently prefer “Postindustrial Yakutia in its cognitive way of life”
future. Experts at the age between 30-49 consider
“Industrial Yakutia” and “Yakutia is a virgin
land” variants to be rather prospective. From the
point of view of the experts over 50, “Yakutia is
a virgin land” is viewed as the most promising
variant. However, it is assessed as low-realistic.
Thus, there are two groups in Yakut society that
direct their attention towards different variants of
the future: some of them see the perspective in
introducing Yakutia to post-industrial, cognitive
society; others – in restoration and preservation
of traditional manufacture and way of life.
The conclusion that might be drawn is that
Yakutia’s future will be determined by two key
vectors of development. These are “Industrial
Yakutia” and “Post-industrial Yakutia in its
cognitive way of life”. However, there are social
groups in Yakutia that consider the idea of “a virgin
land” to be important. The strategy of the Sakha
(Yakutia) Republic’s development must take its
citizens’ system of values into consideration and
combine industrial and post-industrial (cognitive)
development with the search for various forms of
“being virgin” for their local realization.
3. A scenario field
of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic’s future
Variability of the future of Yakutia
and people, residing here, is a result of
superimposition of external factors and external
subjects’ actions, on the one hand, and internal
processes and internal subjects’ activity, on the
other hand. Global factors, or key constants,
which are determined by objectively specified
global trends, can be singled out. Corresponding
changes will take place with greater probability
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SCENARIO FIELD AND MAIN FACTORS
Global factors as key constants
Variable factors as conditions for development
World economy
growth
Diversification and
growth of Russian
economy
New federalism,
strengthening the
regions
Raising the
subjectness of the
Sakha Republic
Scenario
“CULTURAL
Demand for
natural resources
BREAKTHROUGH”
Baseline scenario
Urbanization
(growth of cities
and population
number)
“Yakutia is forever”
Scenario
“TEMPTATION OF
A CONSUMPTION
SOCIETY”
Scenario
“CORPORATE
COLONIZATION”
Informatization
of life and activity
World economy
stagnation
Russian economy
stagnation
Unitary or
corporate state
Scenario
“DEMOGRAPHIC AND
CULTURAL
DISSIPATION”
Loss of the Sakha
Republic’s
subjectness
Variable factors as conditions for degradation
Fig. 1. A field of scenarios of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic’s future: key factors, basic and alternative scenarios
at practically any combinations of external and
internal factors, which are regarded as specified
scenario conditions.
There is also a variable part of scenario
conditions, which is determined by peculiar
features of the world economy development,
economical and political situation in Russia,
activity and inactivity of cultural and political
elite of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. These
factors can acquire different, even opposite
meanings. They can create conditions for
Yakutia’s development or conditions under which
the development processes will be blocked and
degradation processes will be possible.
Global factors as key constants
• Demand for natural resources in the
world markets.
The constant is availability of the demand.
At that different dynamics is possible. These are
increase or decrease. However, drastic collapsing
demand for oil, gas, coal, metals, wood, fertilizers,
etc. is almost impossible in prospect of the
nearest decades. Demand for natural resources
from the Asian-Pacific region countries will be
a powerful driver for Yakutia’s socio-economical
development.
• Urbanization, growth of cities and
number of townspeople. There will be an
intensive growth of cities in the countries of Asia
and Africa with predominantly rural population.
At that styles of life, consumption formats,
migration dynamics will change. This will
become a powerful driver for global changes. The
growth of number of townspeople will also be in
progress. Almost 70% of the representatives of
the indigenous peoples, born in 2021-2030, will
be townspeople (Efimov, Lapteva, 2014a).
• Informatization of life and activity.
Within the period till 2050 all the regions of
the world will be fully provided with cellular
communications and Internet. Billions of people
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will join a global informational flow. This will be
accompanied by unification and standardization
of cultural codes and communicating languages.
Global informational field will cause threats
and challenges for the existence of culture and
languages of the indigenous peoples of the North.
Even at present in the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic
there are 132 sim-cards for 100 persons; 99,8%
of the residents watch TV programmes; 34% of
flats and houses have Internet providers (Re. to:
Sviaz’ v Rossii – 2010). Within the period till
2050 involvement into informational flows will
be almost complete.
Variable factors as conditions for
development or degradation.
World economy dynamics (limiting
variants):
• either continuation of world economy
growth and globalization, and namely
expansion of globally distributed
production
systems,
markets
of
commodity and services, capitals and
labour; involvement of new territories in
worldwide production and consumption
processes;
• or
world
economy
stagnation;
economical and political regionalization
and fragmentation; protection of the
countries’ capital and labour markets;
“freeze” on processes of new territories’
development.
This dynamics will depend on many factors,
including tempos and success of development
of production of the sixth technological
structure; degree of successfulness of efforts on
“reorganization” of the world financial system,
lowering of international tension.
The size and quality of the Russian
economy growth (limiting variants):
• either deep structural and technological
modernization, formation of diversified
structure of economy (including
extracting sectors, deep processing,
high-technology productions, centres of
economy of knowledge); active creation
of productions of the 5-6th technological
structures; settlement of infrastructural
and institutional deficits; high growth
rates;
• or “sticking” of Russian economy in the
situation of “a raw materials donor” for
other countries; low growth rates (or
sequence of rates of growth and decline)
at freeze on the sectoral structure,
transformation
of
infrastructural,
institutional and budgetary deficits into
chronic ones.
Development / closing up of federalism in
Russia (limiting variants):
• either development of federalism,
expansion of the sphere of powers of
federation subjects; conversion to a new
model of inter-budgetary relations and
redistribution of financial resources in
favour of regions and municipalities;
higher transparency and accountability of
power at all levels, lowering of corruptive
costs; formation of civil society institutes,
implementation of policy of subsidiarity
and citizens’ participation in development
processes;
• or transition from a federal state to actually
a unitary one, that is reduction of sphere
of federal subjects’ powers, strengthening
of powers of federal authorities and
intermediate structures (federal districts,
for example); redistribution of profits in
favour of a federal centre;
• or actual transition to a corporate state,
transfer of a wide range of powers and
resources, concerning the development
of
Russian
regions,
corporate
establishments, and namely natural
monopolies, federal state corporations,
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Russian and international consortiums,
etc.; reduction of powers and resources
of both regional and federal authorities.
At the level of statements Russia will be
called a federal state, but the main control
levers and resources will be under the
corporate institutes’ control.
but not the ethnos for economy”). A cognitive
perspective frame presupposes a certain way of
the development of industrial types of activity, as
well as ecological and cultural ones, providing for
the preservation of “virgin” natural and ethnocultural territories.
Long-term target goals
of a basic scenario
3. “YAKUTIA IS FOREVER”
baseline scenario
A baseline scenario is a form of integration
of acceptable images of the future and the most
probable and desirable particular scenarios;
their “desirability” means they reflect interests
and designated aims of various economical,
social and cultural groups in the republic.
Elaboration of a baseline scenario presupposes
the processes, which are important for
realization of business and social activity of
various population groups with different values
and vital preferences.
A limiting frame for a baseline scenario is
a frame of a multi-structure society, considering
such issues as preservation of the indigenous
peoples’ traditional forms of life and activity,
development of a full-fledged industrial sector,
formation of a significant sector of post-industrial
economy, ensuring integration into the world
processes of development, and a new quality of
life and employment to be important.
A baseline scenario “fits” in a global
(embracing many countries and regions, including
Yakutia) process of “cognitivization” of systems
of work and life organization, social institutes and
communicative interactions, political institutes
and management systems. This process opens a
“cognitive perspective” (Efimov, Lapteva, 2013)
of human civilization development: formation
of post-industrial structure with a focus on its
cognitive components and transition to “a clever
society” with its characteristic “economy of
welfare” paradigm (“economy for the ethnos
In medium-term perspective (till 2030) a
guiding line is considered to be an “industrial
Yakutia” image of the future. It implies a faster
development of an industrial sector of economy,
transport and energy infrastructure, expansion
of extracting industry sector. A service sector of
economy must develop. Education and medical
modernization is necessary. At the same time the
problems of preservation, ecological protection
and provision of the necessary facilities on
the indigenous peoples’ residential territories
within the frames of a traditional way of life and
traditional types of management.
The image of the future in long-term
perspective (till 2050) is “multi-structure
Yakytia”. It comprises 1) territories of the
indigenous peoples’ residence with necessary
facilities within the frames of a traditional way
of life and management; 2) a sector of industrial
economy, including production, deep processing
of natural resources and enterprises of a service
type for resource-producing production; 3) a
developed sector of post-industrial economy. On
the whole reality of the republic’s indigenous
peoples must become multi-structure, including
a traditional way of life and elements of industrial
and post-industrial (cognitive) ways of life, which
should be adopted.
Target goals of a baseline scenario for longterm perspective (till 2050) are the following
ones:
• the Yakuts and indigenous peoples of the
North must adjust the life and activity
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to a cognitive mode of life, and namely
to concentrate in Yakutsk, a northern
megalopolis, be engaged in education
and science, innovation business, sector
of finance, administration, creative
industries, etc.;
• a cluster of innovative-and-technological
and cultural types of activity must
be developed by the North-Eastern
Federal University within the frames
of a strategic partnership with large
companies, bodies of power and foreign
partners. The university must integrate
into international research networks,
initiate projects significant at the global
level for developing arctic territories,
preservation and development of the
indigenous peoples of the North;
• the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic must become
one of political, economical and cultural
leaders of circumpolar civilization, an
active international player in the sphere of
legal control of economical development
of the Arctic;
• certain residential territories of the
indigenous peoples of the North must
be kept in a “virgin” state – industrial
economic activities should be limited
there; this will make it possible for the
groups, focusing on “Yakutia is a virgin
land” image of the future, to realize
their life values and ideals; it will be an
extra “supporting point” for preservation
of the indigenous peoples’ culture and
languages.
Components of a baseline scenario,
referring to different spheres (development of
economy and infrastructures, demographic
and migration processes, population’s health,
reproduction of the indigenous peoples’
identity, culture and languages), are shown
schematically (Fig. 2).
Reproduction of the indigenous
peoples’ identity, culture
and languages within the frames
of a basic scenario
A baseline scenario implies the possibility
to stop the processes of “blurring” the indigenous
peoples’ identity, culture and languages due to a
special cultural policy, cultural and educational
practices (decline in the number of people who
know the indigenous peoples’ native languages,
reduction of the interest to a native language
and national culture among the youth, identity
transformation).
At the same time positive tendencies
contributing to culture preservation and
development should be supported. These
are regeneration of culture in its spiritual,
psychological and “material” manifestations,
strengthening of national identity and selfconsciousness, establishment of new institutes
and instruments of cultural policy, use of
modern informational environments and
technologies for reproduction of identity,
cultures and languages. It’s important to take
into account that, according to the experts’
assessment, there is a short period (till 2020)
for the possibilities to develop new cultural and
educational practices. If positive tendencies
are not taken up within this period, an existing
“wave” of regeneration of national culture will
“abate” in medium- and especially long-term
perspective.
Important elements of a baseline scenario:
• initiation of interuniversity research
cooperation on the basis of the NorthEastern Federal University which will
make it possible to determine a “cultural
and value” nucleus of the Yakut people,
form a concept of a new anthropotype of
“the Man of the North”; the results must
become the basis for the development
of cultural policy, new cultural and
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Support of
traditional
economy
Popularization
The youth’s
of family
healthy way of
values
life
DEMOGRAPHIC POLICY
x Development of extracting productions – scale
development
x Formation of service sector business for support of
“raw materials projects”
x Attracting the indigenous population to new working
places
Support of sectors
of the economy of
knowledge
NEFU is an R&D centre
for new technical,
educational and
cultural practices
CULTURAL POLICY
x The indigenous peoples’ demographic
welfare – long life-time, low mortality at
the working age
x Formation of multicultural identity – the Yakuts and the
indigenous minorities of the North know three languages (native,
Russian, foreign), have a complicated identity – ethnical, civil,
civilizational
Formation of regional and
international social alliances
Maintenance of multicultural
environment
Fig. 2. Components of a baseline scenario of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic’s development
x Integration of cultures – formation of multicultural environment, including the
indigenous peoples’ languages and culture, the Russian language and culture,
the English language and the world culture
Introduction to the system of
international legal norms.
Development of the system of
these norms
Culture of the peoples of the North
in cyberspace
Establishment and support of new institutes –
educational, media, social ones
Components
of policy
Processes as
scenario
components
2050
x Development of high-technology productions with
high extra costs
x Formation of sectors of the economy of knowledge –
development, engineering services for geological
prospecting, extraction, construction in conditions of
the North, etc.
x Keeping the educated Yakut youth – attractive working places,
accommodation, developed social and cultural infrastructure
x Attraction of labour migrants and providing them with necessary facilities
x Creation of new instruments of cultural policy
x Use of ICT, virtual settings for preserving the indigenous peoples’
languages and culture
x Wide use of the indigenous peoples’ languages in educational and
cultural practices
x Creation and maintenance of conservation ethnocultural territories
THE
INDIGENOUS
PEOPLES’
CULTURE AND
LANGUAGES
Cluster policy
2030
NEW POSITIONING AND GROWTH ON NEW BASES:
x Development of processing and manufacturing productions
x Manufacture of products, goods from unique local raw materials
x “Production of beauty items” (lapidary, jewelry industries)
x Development of cultural and intellectual services
Industrial policy –
creation of diversified
industry
ECONOMIC POLICY
Practices of support
Support of families
of the adults’ health
with children.
Payment of maternal
labour
x Transition to an urban pattern of family – families having few / no children, decline of birth
Improvement
of child
x Preservation of the indigenous population number due to a special demographic policy
mortality
x Demographic growth of the indigenous
peoples due to high birthrate
DEMOGRAPHY,
MIGRATIONS
2020
Policy of diversification of
the “pool” of partners
(Russian and foreign)
x Development of extracting productions – point wise
(camps, imported working force)
x Attraction of investments
x Transport and energy infrastructure formation
x Expansion of a services sector for population
x Modernization of a budgetary sector (public health,
education)
x Rise in traditional economy’s profitability
Private-state partnership.
Investment policy “Rules of
the game” for cooperation
ECONOMY
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•
•
•
•
•
educational practices, establishment of
new institutes ensuring reproduction of
identity, culture and languages of the
indigenous peoples of Yakutia;
establishment of new institutes and
creation of new instruments of cultural
policy (educational, cultural, media,
social), focused on the reproduction of
identity, culture and languages of the
indigenous peoples of Yakutia;
active use of modern information-andcommunication technologies, virtual
settings; growth of accessibility and
popularity of the indigenous peoples’
cultural heritage and languages on the
Internet;
formation and preservation of virgin
ethno-cultural territories, the places of
settlement of the indigenous peoples of
the North, where industrial production
activity should be limited, high
living standards should be provided,
conditions to support the most authentic
forms of traditional economic activities
and way of life in general should be
created;
formation of multicultural identity when
the Yakuts and the representatives of the
indigenous minorities of the North know
three languages (native, Russian, foreign)
and have a complicated identity (ethnic,
civil (Russian), civilizational (common to
mankind);
formation of a sustainable multicultural
environment in which the indigenous
peoples’ culture and languages are
preserved and occupy their special place;
the Russian language and culture as a
communicating language of the Russian
peoples and culture of professionals;
the English language as a language of
intercultural communication.
4. Alternative scenarios
Alternative scenarios are variants of the
future which can be realized partially or fully
under certain external and internal factors.
Alternative scenarios are less probable, but
consequences of their realization can be very
significant. These scenarios are realized in the
situation when a baseline scenario is “blocked”.
Alternative scenarios are regarded as risks in
respect of a baseline scenario. In the course of
expert discussions the four alternative scenarios,
described below, are distinguished.
“Corporate colonization”
alternative scenario
Within the frames of this scenario large
corporations, having the largest investment
resources and a high potential of lobbying the
decisions, which are necessary for them, in state
and international structures, are key economical
and political subjects in the world and in Russia.
These corporations become new subjects of
colonial policy and can extract natural resources
on the northern territories without taking the
indigenous peoples’ interests into consideration.
In Russia the variant of corporate colonization
can be strengthened by merging of state and
corporate structures, limitation of the regions’
rights and possibilities, pursuing independent
socio-economical and cultural policy.
Actions of corporate structures – new
colonizers – are focused on a faster development
(extraction, transportation, sales) of natural
resources. At that minimization of tax payments
to the republic’s budget and saving of expenses
on the development of infrastructures are
achieved. “Withdrawal of natural rent” results in
the decrease in the resources volume, which the
republic has for pursuing effective demographic
and cultural policy; development of education
and medical care; solution of the tasks of the
protection of the indigenous peoples.
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Realization of such a scenario can lead to
worsening of ecological problems, complication
of interethnic relations, resulting from labour
migrants’ attraction without their necessary
adaptation and forming-up migration policy; rapid
demographic and socio-cultural degradation of
the indigenous peoples.
“Demographic and cultural dissipation”
alternative scenario
In this scenario existing negative
tendencies, which will lead to the Yakut ethnos’
decline in long-term perspective, gradually
become stronger. Without developing strong
demographic and cultural policy, realized
through new cultural, educational practices,
transformation of health system and social
support, the following will take place in mediumand long-term perspective:
• decline in the indigenous peoples’
number, resulting from 1) a transition to
a model of an urban family with a few
children, 2) high mortality rate of people
at the working age, caused by external
(social) reasons, 3) growing migration
flow of young people to the regions and
countries with higher standards of life;
• “dissipation” of languages – from
generation to generation fewer and fewer
representatives of the indigenous peoples
will know native languages, use them as
means of communication;
• “dissipation” of national culture – loss of
the young people’s interest to the national
culture, substitution of national culture
by mass unified culture;
• deformation of identity – entering a
foreign environment from childhood
will lead to “failures” in the formation
of ethno-cultural identity; it will be
displaced by other identifications – civil,
professional, sub-cultural ones.
“Temptation of a consumption society”
alternative scenario
This scenario implies that Yakutia
successfully integrates into global economy
in the roles of natural resources and processed
production supplier; GDP and the republic’s
budgetary income grow, transport and social
infrastructure develop; standards and quality of
life, the population’s income grow.
Free access to global information space via
telecommunication, high mobility (visits to other
regions and countries in order to tour them, get
education, job, etc.) result in assimilation of other
cultural values, pictures of the world, behaviour
patterns by the Yakuts and the indigenous
minorities of the North.
This scenario is quite comfortable and
promising for a consuming person but it leads
to the loss of identity, native languages and
cultures as well as to the assimilation of the
representatives of the indigenous peoples into a
global “consuming society”. Within the period
till 2030 the indigenous people’s cultures are
placed to the periphery of social and cultural life.
They will not be lost only in rural territories,
their mediums being people of older generations.
Within the period after 2030 the indigenous
peoples’ culture and languages will be displaced
from their everyday life: only small majority of
the representatives of the indigenous peoples
will keep their identity, speak and think their
native language, turn to their cultural traditions.
Cultures of the republic’s indigenous peoples
as archaisms are preserved only in museums,
libraries and scientific establishments
“Cultural break-through”
alternative scenario
A distinctive feature of this scenario is a faster
formation of the system of practices and institutes
(educational, cultural, political), necessary for the
reproduction of identity, languages and cultures
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of the Sakha people and the indigenous minorities
of the North in the republic. The work, necessary
for the formation of cultural and value nucleus
of the indigenous peoples who are trying to
understand its meaning and forms of existence in
modern world, will be completed in a short period
of time (one-two decades). Forms and ways of a
full-fledged transfer of culture and languages in
the riches of their content and their realization in
people’s life from generation to generation will
be worked out.
The forms and ways of “presenting” the
culture of the indigenous peoples of Yakutia
to the world and other peoples will be found.
“Discovery of the North” for the whole mankind
will take place. It is analogous to “discovery of the
East” in the XX century and the time when the
elements of the cultures of peoples of southern and
eastern Asia (India, Japan and China in the first
place) became popular worldwide (they spread to
both the level of pop-culture with its simplified
representations of “the east” and the level of real
translation of deep civilizational codes).
1
The probable conditions of realization of
this scenario are:
• the North-Eastern Federal University’s
activity aimed at the activization of the republic’s
artistic elite, formation and “promotion” of the
northern peoples’ culture;
• formation of the northern peoples’
international cooperation in order to protect their
interests and consolidate their efforts, aimed at
accumulation and “crystallization” of cultural
heritage – at transfer of the northern peoples’
culture from the level of local ethnic cultures to
the level of a special type of northern civilization,
circumpolar civilization;
• faster realization of a “cognitive” phase
transfer by leading countries – to post-industrial
/ cognitive phase of the development; growth of
demand for specific resources for the activities,
which are characteristic to a cognitive phase,
the resources being sign-symbolic systems,
ontologies and types of world-views, lifestyles
and ways of being a human, which are kept by
various ethnic cultures.
The authors express gratitude to the sociologists of the North-Eastern Federal University under the direction of U.S. Borisova, who carried out a field part of the research within the frame of the Delfi-survey of the experts.
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14. Pereslegin S.B. Novye karty budushchego, ili Anti-Rend [New maps of the future, or AntiRand]. Moscow, AST MOSKVA; St.-Petersburg, Terra Fantastica, 2009. 701 p.
15. Popkov Iu.V. (2012). Etnosotsial’nye protsessy i etnonatsional’naia politika [Ethnosocial
processes and ethnonational policy]. Herald of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 8 (12), 1067-1074.
16. Sviaz’ v Rossii – 2010. Statisticheskii sbornik, Federal’naia Sluzhba Gosudarstvennoi
Statistiki (Rosstat) [Communication in Russia – 2010. Statistical collection, Federal State Statistics
Service (Rosstat)]. Moscow, Rosstat, 2010.
17. The forecast for a long-term socio-economical development of the Russian Federation up to
2030. Moscow, 2013. 354 p. Available at: http://www.economy.gov.ru/minec/activity/ sections/macro/
prognoz/doc20130325_06 (accessed 15 May 2014)
18. The state programme of the development of the Far East and Baikal region up to 2025,
approved by the order of the Russian Federation government No 466-p dated 29.03.2013. Available at:
http://base.garant.ru/70351168/ (accessed 15 May 2014)
19. The World in 2050: The accelerating shift of global economic power: challenges and
opportunities. PricewaterhouseCoopersLLP, 2011. 25 p. Available at: http://www.pwc.com/en_GX/gx/
world-2050/assets/pwc-world-in-2050-report-january-2013.pdf (accessed 15 May 2014)
20. UNIDO Technology Foresight Manual. Vol. 1. Organization and Methods. Vienna, United
Nations Industrial Development Organization, 2005a. 246 p.
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Evgeniya I. Mikhailovaa, Alla V. Lapteva… Scenario of the Future of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. Foresight Research
21. UNIDO Technology Foresight Manual. Vol. 2. Technology Foresight in Action. Vienna,
United Nations Industrial Development Organization, 2005b. 274 p.
22. World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography. Washington: The
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development; The World Bank, 2009. 383 p. Available
at:
http://wdronline.worldbank.org/worldbank/a/c.html/world_development_report_2009/abstract/
WB.978-0-8213-7607-2.abstract (accessed 15 May 2014)
23. World Development Report 2010: Development and Climate Change. Washington: The
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development; The World Bank, 2010. 417 p. Available
at:
http://wdronline.worldbank.org/worldbank/a/c.html/world_development_report_2010/abstract/
WB.978-0-8213-7987-5.abstract (accessed 15 May 2014).
Сценарии будущего Республики Саха (Якутия).
Форсайт-исследование
Е.И. Михайловаа,
А.В. Лаптеваб, В.С. Ефимовб
а
Северо-Восточный федеральный университет
Россия, 677027, Якутск, ул. Белинского, 58
б
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия, 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
Представлены результаты форсайт-исследования – сценирования будущего Республики Саха
(Якутия), ее коренных народов. Обсуждаются выделенные экспертами как перспективные и
реалистичные образы будущего республики. Представлено поле сценариев будущего Республики
Саха (Якутия) в горизонте времени до 2050 г., обсуждаются сценарные условия и факторы.
Описан базовый сценарий формирования многоукладных экономики и общества, сочетающих
традиционный уклад, развитый индустриальный и постиндустриальный (когнитивный).
В рамках базового сценария воспроизводство идентичности, культуры и языков коренных
народов республики будет обеспечиваться специальной культурной политикой, культурными
и образовательными практиками. Обозначены сценарии, альтернативные базовому:
«корпоративная колонизация», «демографическая и культурная диссипация», «соблазн
общества потребления», «культурный прорыв». Обсуждаются возможности «открытия
Севера» для всего человечества, аналогично тому как в ХХ столетии происходило «открытие
Востока». Условиями этого могут стать аккумуляция культурного наследия северных народов
на основе использования современных информационных технологий; консолидация северных
народов и перевод их культуры с уровня локальных этнических культур на уровень особого
рода «северной цивилизации». Особой должна стать роль Северо-Восточного федерального
университета как стратегического субъекта, организующего разработку и реализацию
новых культурных, образовательных, здравоохранительных практик, необходимой культурной
политики.
Ключевые слова: исследование будущего, форсайт, Республика Саха (Якутия), сценарии
будущего, сохранение идентичности языков и культур коренных народов.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 9 (2014 7) 1471-1493
~~~
УДК 304.2
Indigenous Peoples as a Research Space
of Visual Anthropology
Mariya I. Ilbeykina*
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
Received 14.05.2014, received in revised form 04.07.2014, accepted 30.08.2014
The article reviews visual anthropological projects that study culture of indigenous peoples both
in foreign and domestic practices. Development of visual anthropology as a separate area of the
humanities, from the moment of appearance of the first visual anthropological experiments to the
topical research, is considered, the main lines of its development in the context of the indigenous
peoples’ visual systems study are specified, i.e. such an ethno-cultural group, which development
is not indicated in the finished form, but continues in the process of interaction with a multicultural
community.
Keywords: visual anthropology, indigenous peoples, visual sociology, “camera-intermediary”, visual
systems, contemporary museum practices.
Visual anthropology is a method of
describing and analyzing the phenomena of
culture, founded on photos, video and audio
records. Visual anthropology works not only
with cultural, but also with social problematics
[30].
Visual anthropology that appeared within
the frames of cultural anthropology and was
actively developed in the West since the 60s of
the 20th century and in Russia since the 90s of the
20th century is widely used as a tool for applied
research of “the little-known aspects of culture”
[1]. Nowadays study of “the little-known aspects
of culture” refers to the most accurate, reliable
presentation of everyday life not only of the ethnic
communities members, but also representatives of
regional, age, creative, confessional, professional,
marginal and other communities.
*
S.A. Smirnov writes in detail about the
fate of anthropology and its role for the social
philosophy of the 20th century, in modern
anthropology he simultaneously sees powerful
philosophical basis and defi nite application
of humanitarian practices designed to create
and implement “the projects of man”. Other
researchers defi ne anthropology as an instrument
of culture transmission from generation to
generation, as a communicative network within
a particular community (L.S. Klein), as a tool
of reduction to a common denominator the
dynamic and adaptive approaches (S. Lurie),
as well as reflection through the knowledge of
other cultures (High Anthropological School,
Chisinau). Visual anthropology becomes a
mean of immersing into a studied culture and
its representation’s research tool in visual
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: circ-circ@mail.ru
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systems: in the early 20 th century the tendency
to the dialogue of visual anthropological
communication was supported by M. Mead
and G. Bateson, R. Berdvistel, K. Levine and
E. Hall. Referring to the experience of visual
anthropology research practices related to
indigenous peoples, it is necessary to mention
A.Baliksi who carries out comparative analysis
of video filming, conducted by representatives
of indigenous peoples in different countries;
V.M. Magidov who acted as a historian-analyst
of the domestic projects and worked with such
video archives as “Kinoatlas of the USSR”;
A.V. Golovnev who emphasized the moment of
identity detection in “anthropological cinema”
(“Anthropological cinema are films about the
peoples and cultures, about religions and rituals,
about the owns and the others, about the national
character and cultural heritage”), and the moment
of self-identification (“This is a cinema research
of a man in his self-identity and the sense of
self”) [20]; it is important to note the collective
monograph “Culture of Indigenous and SmallNumbered Peoples in the Context of Global
Transformations” [57]: the monograph contains
extensive material concerning methodology
of cultural studies, works with the concept of
“ethnicity” and gives many examples of practical
researches of indigenous and small peoples’
culture, including work with visuality (visual
arts, decorative and applied arts, correlation of
verbal and visual concepts).
A working definition of “indigenous peoples”
that we use was presented by N.P. Koptseva [4447] in the collective monograph “Culture of
Indigenous and Small-Numbered Peoples in the
Context of Global Transformations” [57], and
reads as follows: “indigenous peoples” means
people who “have always been here”, that their
roots go far in the past and there is no evidence
of any peoples who previously lived here, whose
descendants still present in the population.
The main feature of the indigenous peoples is
their long-term residence in the territories that
were forcibly included into the large nation
state, their remaining land was often reduced
in size, that also reduced their ability to sustain
their existence, and they eventually started to
be treated as another “minority group” within
the large pluralistic society” [57, P.14]. There is
another definition that works with the concept
of “authenticity”: “... the population is known as
“indigenous” (aboriginal) peoples who have some
specific rights, as well as national and international
protection mechanisms. In Russia, this category
of population is defined by law as “indigenous
small-numbered peoples”. Their number is about
quarter of a million, but it grows as well as the
number of applicants to get into this list approved
by the government” [92, P.7]. However, in the
first mentioned definition it was clearly indicated
that specificity of the term “indigenous” is that it
has a scientific status (as opposed to “aboriginal
peoples”), cultural-anthropological value, it
reflects not rigid condition of an ethno-cultural
group, but the process of an ethno-cultural group
interaction with the so-called “Large (pluralistic)
society” [57, ibid.].
This approach is important to us primarily
due to the fact that, unlike other existing definitions
([23], [54], [57], [92]), here the emphasis is laid
on the fact of interaction of the multicultural
community and local culture. Hence, the subject
of interest for this article are projects that are not
confined solely on working with the peoples who
lived in Siberia before the Russians arrived –
Nenets, Selkups, Khanty, Mansi, Siberian Tatars,
Chulyms, Kazakhs, but projects working with
the phenomenon of community authenticity in
general. We are going to consider projects that
involve visual component not as an illustration to
the basic material, but that, interpreting visual
component as varied, fundamentally different
from verbal, language of communication (in
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particular, theoretical developments of this ideas
belong to M. McLuhan [60] and D. McDougall
[99], V. Benjamin [8] and R. Barth [7]).
Visual-anthropological practices
of the first half of the 20th century:
“indigenous” as the objective of research
Visual anthropology appeared over half
a century ago within the frames of American
cultural anthropology and now it is developing as
a scientific discipline, which is an integral part
of the cycle of cultural and socio-anthropological
sciences. In Russia the phrase “visual
anthropology” appeared only in 1987 (Parnu, the
International Festival of Visual Anthropology).
In the late 80s in Khanty-Mansi Autonomous
District a seminar on visual anthropology, led
by professor of Anthropology from University
of Montreal Asen Balikci, took place and in 1991
in Moscow professors Evgeny Aleksandrov and
Leonid Filimonov created the first in Russia
Center for Visual Anthropology.
Visual anthropology is a modern
interdisciplinary field of knowledge that appeared
on the basis of socio-philosophical and culturalanthropological studies, it synthesizes visual arts,
social cognition and information technologies
[31]. In this article we define visual anthropology
as a systemized method of research of different
cultures’ visuality.
Initially, the objectives of visual anthropology
include:
– conservation of little-known and
endangered cultures images,
– revealing their diversity and universal
essence,
– implementation of a dialogue between
representatives of the separate worlds (the
dialogue of “I am” – “ the Other” level).
Since the moment of its origin visual
anthropology solved the problems it faced one
way or another.
Originally, experience of referring to the
visual materials was used in anthropology as
illustrations to the collected information, where
the principle of spectacularity and exoticism of
“the other” culture comes to the fore (photographic
survey of Torres Strait aborigines by A. Heddon
in 1898, photographic fixation in the studies by
E.Sh. Curtis, video of Australian Aborigines’
dance by W.B. Spencer in 1901) – Eurocentrism
provoked vision of an unknown community’s
culture as “wild” and “uncivilized”. The next
step was use of visual material as a result of field
research, where the principle was accumulation
of the received material uninterpretable in the
process of fixation (even a researcher might not
always understand it). This includes research
work experiences with the primitive and
indigenous cultures by E.B. Tylor, L.H. Morgan,
Ch. Letourneau.
In 1922 there was “the quiet revolution”
in visual anthropology: American film director
and documentary filmmaker Robert Flaherty
created a film “Nanook of the North” (Fig.12), thereby opening the perspective of using
film-making techniques in science. “Nanook of
the North” established the following methods
and principles about the culture of “the other”
in films: the principle of respect for the hero,
awareness and articulation of an unexplored
culture dignity that, in comparison with the
usual culture, creates new layers of self-analysis
of “a Western man”. From a tool of fixation
camera becomes an “intermediary” (animism
of mechanical means), allowing to turn to cocreation of the film director and the film hero. It
is noteworthy that at the same time “Argonauts
of the Western Pacific” by B. Malinowski and
“The Andaman Islanders” by A.R. RadcliffeBrown, as well as researches by E.E. EvansPritchard that are also based on the principle of
immersion into the culture under study and its
representation through people’s behavior in real
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Fig. 1. Nanook of the North directed by R_Flaherty 1922
behavior appeared. Naturally, to the full extent,
Flaherty’s film cannot be called precisely visualanthropologic, it still has the features of a feature
film (casting, scenery creation, neglecting veracity
of some ethnographic moments for the sake of
entertainment), but thanks to “Nanook of the
North” cinema became a research tool. In 193642 M. Mead and G. Bateson used photography as a
mean to analyze communication in everyday life
on the island of Bali. Margaret Mead established
the tradition of analytical ethnographic film,
where human behavior is studied on the
background of a particular historical setting,
taking into account everyday environment with
all the accompanying factors (music, rituals,
ecology, etc.), i.e. without introducing any
artistry. Gradually, due to collaboration with
Gregory Bateson, a technical tool – a camera,
becomes a tool for establishing connection with
representative(s) of another culture, or a partner
that decides that to shoot, and this is continuation
of the tradition established by R. Flaherty (it is
referred to the photoproject by Mead “Balinese
Character”, 1942). Mead’s anthropology sets
objective to abandon verbality as the only way
to deliver information, and in cooperation with
G. Bateson she created a film that synchronized
sound and action: all the techniques to create
greater authenticity of the reconstructed in realtime traditional rite that visualize collective
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Fig. 2. Nanook of the North directed by R_Flaherty 1922
knowledge of the initiation rite that allows to
abandon the script (“Trance and Dance in Bali”,
shot in 1937, released in 1952 (Fig. 3, 4)) and
to continue R. Flaherty’ tradition of a “slightly
planned story” are used. Visual representation of
the studied material becomes a compulsory part
of cultural analysis (rhythm, composition of an
event and communication within a community
are important), which subsequently gave rise
to other sciences (proxemics and kinesics by
E. Hall). In Russian ethnography the object of
cultural anthropology are peasant societies as
well as representatives of different nationalities
that inhabited both the Russian Empire and the
USSR (here “Collection of the Russian Empire
Attractions”, 1903-16 by S.M. Prokudin-Gorsky
(Fig. 5), “Geographical Cinema Atlas” (“Cinema
Atlas of the USSR”) by D.I. Shcherbakov and
“The Sixth Part of the World” by D. Vertov coexist equally). Objective of a created product is
displaying of the most important, characteristic
and typical, reflecting the image of a region and
the true picture of its inhabitants’ life. On the
other hand, Russian ethnographic films of the
1900-1950s represented life of indigenous peoples
(representatives of various regions of the country)
from the position of their backwardness (and a
component of the popular scientific ethnographic
film – the explanatory inscription – was a direct
proof of that); archaic way of life was represented
from the certain ideological positions. Starting
from the 30s of the 20th century, representatives
of cultural anthropology moved from studies of
primitive and peasant societies to the study of
modern industrial societies (works by D. Vertov
“Kino-eye” and “The Man with a Movie Camera”,
“The Shanghai Document” by Ya. Blyokh, etc.).
A brief overview of visual-anthropological
practices of the first half of the 20th century,
focused on work with “the other” in relation
to a researcher, makes it possible to draw the
following conclusions:
– since its origin, visual anthropology
is understood as an independent scientific
discipline and, at the same time, as a special
area of humanitarian practice. The benchmark
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Fig. 3. Trance and Dance in Bali M_ Mead 1952
Fig. 4. Trance and Dance in Bali M_ Mead 1952
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Fig. 5. Alim-Khan S. Prokudin-Gorsky 1911
is the idea of creating a product as a result of
study: a film is not a goal in itself; it is a mean of
further analysis of a phenomenon of interest. An
example of this are the early works in the field of
visual anthropology by A. Haddon, B. Spencer,
R. Flaherty, M. Mead use film footage for the
analysis of human behavior. The problem of reality
description, perceived as an objective reality and
the problem of creation a visual document of
confirmation are solved. Indigenous peoples are
studied as representatives of a special, another
community which exclusiveness determines their
special world view.
– in creation of any visual anthropological
product there is a principle that is, in relation to
films, named “observational” films, or an attempt
of deep penetration into a different culture
and a sympathetic attitude to it. This “outward
glance” was developed in the early 20th century
by Robert Flaherty who prioritized the principle
of responsible attitude towards representatives
of the communities that were within the camera
coverage.
– by the end of the first half of the 20th
century the emphasis from the study of “the
other” within a state was shifted toward the study
of “the other” within a city, within a city dweller
and within oneself.
Visual-Anthropological Practice
of the Second Half of 20th Century:
“Indigenous” as a View Aspect
So-called “Harvard movement” (the
60s of the 20th century), which originated at
the Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology
at Harvard University changed attitude to
visual anthropology. This school’s approach
is characterized by a tendency to abandon the
principles of fictional films (with their staging,
plot selectiveness and casting), immerse into the
atmosphere of a culture under study and show it
from the inside (directors-anthropologists John
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Marshall, Robert Gardner, Timothy Ash became
the brightest representatives). Visual anthropology
is not just the culture of “the other”, it introduces
the context of what is happening and provokes a
viewer to move to the level of a researcher. An
example of this is a work by Timothy Ash and
Napoleon Chagnon “The Ax Fight”, 1975 (Fig. 6),
where in addition to watching the film it is offered
to study a sufficient amount of additional material
in the form of text and graphic disclosures made
in the format of an electronic presentation. Their
approach considerably influenced formation of
the French anthropological school: Jean Rouch
who started using light portable camera (fulllength films “Chronicle of a Summer”, 1961 and
“I, a Negro”, 1958) became one of the ideologists
of “verite” (“a new wave”) in cinema, making it
possible to shoot real events in a live dialogue of
a person who shoots and a person who is being
shot. The principle of “a slightly planned plot”
is maintained but, the boundaries between a
researcher and a researched are erased – a genre
of documentary interview allows to synchronize
what is happening on the screen and what is
happening in the inner world of a man. Categories
of real time, real space and reality of an action
happening are brought to the foreground.
In the mid-80s in the U.S.A. Society of
Visual Anthropology is organized (SVA) [93], its
objectives are conducting and curatorial custody
of scientific researches in the field of anthropology
(photography, cinema, non-camera sources of the
culture of dance, gestures, symbolics (verbal,
visual, audio, etc.) of different nations of the world).
Henceforth the sources for visual-anthropological
research are all evidence of culture fixation in
the audiovisual form: it is not only gramophone
records, but also architecture, religious
buildings, rock painting, etc. Jay Ruby [104], an
American anthropologist, professor of Temple
University, USA, defines visual anthropology
as a subdiscipline of cultural anthropology that
aims to study human culture using video and
photo shooting in the process of research. Such
studies are more focused on the social contexts
of images creation and less on a photo as a text.
The result of researches exists in the format of
ethnographic photography and ethnographic
Fig. 6. The Ax Fight Ash_Chagnon 1975
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films (according to J. Ruby, ethnographic film is a
film produced by an anthropologist or someone in
collaboration with an anthropologist). In the basis
of the reason for visual anthropology existence
J. Ruby sees the idea that culture can be directly
manifested through the observed forms of its
existence, in particular, through the symbols
embodied in specific human activities (dances,
rituals, a system of gestures formation, etc.).
Culture is the sum of “scenarios” in which people
are involved, where scenarios imply meanings
or texts, i.e. complete and coherent sequence of
symbols used by man. Moreover, the source of
information about the culture of an object under
study can also tell about a researcher (Ruby notes
that “over the past decade a social approach to
the history of photography started developing, at
that, photos [...] tell us something both about the
depicted culture and the culture of people who
make photos”.
Another discovery of visual anthropology of
the second half of the 20th century is ability to
analyze material embodiment of visual culture of
a society under study: this trend was named joint
(contact) anthropology and “biodocumentary”
films. John Adair’s and Sol Worth’s experiment
with Navajo Indians “Through Navajo Eyes”
(“Navajos Film Themselves Series”, 1960s (Fig.79)) can be first of all referred to such projects:
Navajo Indians got video cameras and recorded
exactly what they felt important and deserving
attention. An image that has more amplitude than
a concept reveals importance of the role of visual
perception in the certain communities’ life, that
is, within the culture where it was generated and
where it functions.
Visual anthropology was created for
the dialogue of cultures, but it is important
to reconsider the position of Eurocentrism.
Asen Balikci, professor of anthropology at
anthropology department of University of
Montreal, focuses his projects on the opportunity
to see the culture of the little-known peoples
through their eyes (“The Netsilik Eskimo Today”,
1972, “Siberia through Siberians Eyes”, 1992).
The aim is to see through the eyes of “the other”,
to introduce and explicate another layer of reality
perception – imaginative, worthy of existence
along with the verbal differences (differences in
language, grammar and syntax structures, etc.)
The situation of a coup occurs: a look at everyday
day of an unknown ”other” happens in in a
mode of self-presentation and self-selection of
what is important; selection of such momentous
events and points is carried out not by a director
in cooperation with a representative of another
culture, but authentically. Process should follow
the path of formation of the necessary points
Fig. 7. Through Navajo Eyes Worth_Adair 1966
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Fig. 8. Through Navajo Eyes Worth_Adair 1966
Fig. 9. Through Navajo Eyes Worth_Adair 1966
of contact of an addressant and an addressee,
but not direct reference of one to another. In
modern Western science researcher D. Schwartz
supports the approach: she carried out photo
research work in North American Waukoma
farming community. The obtained results are not
“objective visual documents” or “photographic
truth”, they represent a point of view. D. Schwartz
applied the interview method: the old photos
of Waukoma physical environment, as well as
research images made by her in the modern times
were used. The aim of the study was to reveal the
range of values carried by the fixed images for
different members of society, among which there
were representatives of the indigenous population
of a region.
Visual anthropology has little in common
with verbal constructs of the world awareness
and a place in it. This idea is supported by
an anthropologist and a filmmaker David
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MacDougall [97] (“there are as many
anthropologists as anthropologies”): knowledge
of the world through words and through images
are two fundamentally different methods.
According to McDougall, “written” and “visual”
do not speak differently but say different things”
(and once again it confi rmed the relevance of
S. Worth’s research). Not a text itself and its
“objectivity”, but “subjectivity” of a researcher
who decrypts this text, comes to the forefront.
Visuality allows us to perceive other people’s
experiences by involving affective and emotional
knowledge. It comes from the field experience
and directly embodied in it, reflecting both
personal experiences of a field anthropologist
and his/her contact with carriers of another
culture. By offering to test and experience the
relationship and connections between objects,
their objective application, subject’s intentions
and emotional intensity of what is happening in
another culture, visuality expands the boundaries
of our comprehension.
If at the time of ethnographic films’ origin
the basic principle was camera invisibility and
“absence” of a person who shoots in what is
being shot, since the mid-1960s an author openly
positions him/herself in a film. In the case when
an author him/herself presents in a shot, he/she
has an equal position with the others as a person
who acts and reflects in the same environment
as the heroes who are being shot (“Chronicle of
a Summer” by Jean Rouch, 1961). In the United
States in the 90s of the 20th century the issues
of author’s reflection were raised. Regardless of
shooting methods (observation, participation,
reconstruction, induction, etc.), an author tries to
uncover and reveal necessity and validity of the
method he/she chose/invented for the study. In the
80s there was a tendency to shift interest from an
author to a viewer: at that moment meaning was
formed not by a party that presented information,
but a party that decoded it. Stuart Hall, one
of the founders of the Birmingham Centre
for Contemporary Cultural Studies notes that
information, particularly television, is decoded
by a viewer according to the two schemes. The
first one is “dominant reading” where a text leads
a viewer, and everything transmitted by it is not
questioned, but quite the opposite, approved
and legitimized. For example in the UK TV
functions as the primary means of production and
distribution of documentary films. In general, in
the UK, visual anthropology originated in this
way – it was a film “Disappearing World”, shown
in 1971 on TV. The film was made by Brian Moser,
a geologist from Cambridge, whose experience
of work and travel in Latin America became a
reason to pay special attention to the situation of
indigenous peoples. Under the auspices of Denis
Forman – the director of independent Granada
Television, “Disappearing World” was released
in the series format and caused a massive public
outcry. There was an act of representation, which,
according to S. Hall generates the common
knowledge that constitutes the core of culture.
In addition, according to the article by Jay
Ruby [104], visual mass media are increasingly
recognized as being important for almost
everyone. This area is the most promising in the
development of interactive digital ethnography.
Digital technologies has radically changed the
way it is possible to conduct a research and
interact with people – such a communication
scale was impossible a decade ago [76]. Films
on DVD mediums are more accessible than rare
video tapes with ethnographic films; the role of
photography is important: the future belongs
to of these mediums, it is much more attractive
for an ordinary viewer to see the results of a
new research using video or photo film, find
the website with the possibility of “free surf”
of the material. Combination of ethnography,
cultural anthropology and art is another popular
cultural practice of understanding image of
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the world through art [41]: all kinds of photo
exhibitions, ethnographic film festivals, etc.
are referred to it.
Next, it is necessary to introduce museum
component into the context of indigenous visualanthropological projects. A vector “society in a
man” determined by visual anthropology makes
it possible to work with unusual sources of
information (a transition from ethnographic films
to the analysis of Internet resources took place),
including relevant cultural practices. Relevant
cultural practices manifest themselves more
intensively in museum activities that become
an active space of social communications.
Working with mental-historical aspects of social
life, a museum, one way or another denotes the
boundaries of communication of “I am” – “The
Other”. Apart from recording the features of
“The Other” social subject’s worldview, visual
anthropology records the features of perception
of the world of “I am” and allows to manifest
various social stereotypes, fix and overcome
them, and this fact changes stable social
communications where leveling of social values
and creation of conditions for a renewed and
escalated perception of a value content in a new
form could happen [30]. Visual anthropology
operates by visual images. An image defines
specific character of social communication that
is determined by the special qualities of the space
where such communication takes place (in this
context the social space of museum is considered).
The main purpose of museum social space is
organization of special cultural practices that help
to understand that the values which it collects and
stores live and act at the present time. A museum
acts as an “accumulator” both of tangible
(things-values, museum services) and intangible,
symbolic benefits (images, values, myths and
symbols). These tangible and intangible benefits
make up the content of social values. Historical
reconstructions and historical simulations
belong to such museum’s practices, assuming
knowledge of the past through its modeling in the
present time. Ethnic villages also belong to such
practices. “Paleo village” (Primorsky Krai) is
one of such projects – especially designed space
where reconstructed houses are located. Everyday
life of ancient tribes from different historical
periods is reconstructed. In “Paleo village”
there is reconstruction of craft technologies
of the ancient tribes of Primorye, as well as
educational and interactive theatrical excursion
programs for children and youth audiences [31].
A lot of work connected with implementation of
innovative outlook at ethnographic material was
done by the Krasnoyarsk Museum Centre [57]
and Krasnoyarsk Museum Biennale: for several
years museum’s projects that in different ways
conceptualize the theme of the cultural heritage
of indigenous population in different territories,
won Grand Prix (Fig. 10).
It is worth to pay attention to Anadyr, the
administrative center of Chukotka Autonomous
Okrug. In 2005, the city was acknowledged as
the most comfortable in Russia, and if we look
at the photos [89], we will see that it is connected
not only with exclusive decisions in the field
of housing and public utilities. We appeal to
urban branch of anthropology [77]: residential
architecture of Anadyr (Fig. 11-12) is painted in
different bright colours, banners with stylized
elements of Chukchi life (shaman’s drum, the
polar bear, the reindeer, salmon caviar) are
placed on the houses’ walls. The project is named
“Chukot Artics”; apart from the visual image, the
banner also bears verbal information – names
of the images in the indigenous language. Such
connection of urban space and anthropological
time (synchronous existence of indigenous and
non-indigenous population) is considered to
be the most successful: there is no harsh and
deliberately accentuated demonstration of a
certain group (indigenous population), on the
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Fig. 10. Odin’s steel, State Art Museum, Surgut
contrary, the fusion of cultural patterns is carried
out in the language of different cultures (both
verbal and visual, national and global, unique and
everyday).
A brief overview of visual-anthropological
projects devoted to indigenous makes it possible
to make the following conclusions:
– projects, which are characterized by
syncretism, fusion of visual anthropology and
other methods for studying the human nature are
the most productive nowadays. Media resources
(photos, videos and electronic media) are more
often used in ethnography as cultural texts
and as means of the ethnographic knowledge
representation; as well as the contexts of cultural
production, social interaction and individual
experience, which all by themselves represent
the fields of ethnographic fieldwork. Visuals
images and technologies today form the areas,
methods and media of ethnographic research and
representation. Images should not necessarily
replace words as the dominant method of
research or representation, they should rather be
considered as an equally important element of the
ethnographic world. Visual images should and
can be included into the research when they are
needed and contribute to clarifying the research
topic. Images should not necessarily be a leading
research method, but due to their connections
with other sensual, material and discursive
elements of the research, brand new, previously
ignored aspects may appear;
– ethnographic film, the most commonly
used format of visual anthropologists’ work with
the topic of indigenous, is, on the one hand, a
new form of the world representation (since its
origin), and on the other – practical product which
documents the material that undergoes the most
difficult verbal description of fixation (emotions,
gestures, dances, etc.);
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Fig. 11. Anadyr, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug
Fig. 12. Anadyr, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug
– the area that studies the role of visual
phenomena in a community’s life as well as every
“little-known aspects of culture”, not only from
the perspective of visual images presentation, but
also from the perspective of studying the specific
characteristics of choice of the visualization
method, is considered to be prospective. It
appears that in anthropological practices sociocultural construction of visual images that form
social time and social space are put in the first
place;
– visual anthropology was initially
focused on the topic of meeting the traditional
communities and the modern world, civilizational
collisions. Today we can say that “indigenous as
the goal” changes into the format of “indigenous
as a tool”: the culture of “the other” is studied
within the culture, through the eyes of a culture
bearer. In other words, we are talking about
transition of interaction of “a separate cultural
group – an industrial society” to interaction of “a
particular group – a bearer of another vision – a
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multicultural society”, i.e. in the process of work
with the visual systems of the two parties engaged
in a dialogue, a “content-context” correlation
steps in: a statement which mechanism of action
exists under the general laws of communication
is formed: addressant – message – addressee,
what is reported (represented visually), by whom
and to whom.
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hk_6h2BIlqDA
Индигенные народы
как исследовательское пространство
визуальной антропологии
М.И. Ильбейкина
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия, 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
Статья посвящена обзору визуально-антропологических проектов, исследующих культуру
индигенных народов как в зарубежных, так и в отечественных практиках. Рассматривается
развитие визуальной антропологии как отдельной области гуманитарного знания – с момента
появления первых визуально-антропологических опытов до актуальных исследований,
обозначаются основные линии ее развития в контексте изучения визуальных систем индигенных
народов, т.е. такой этнокультурной группы, чье развитие не обозначается в законченном
качестве, а продолжается в процессе взаимодействия с мультикультурным сообществом.
Ключевые слова: визуальная антропология, индигенные народы, визуальная социология,
«камера-посредник», визуальные системы, современные музейные практики.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 9 (2014 7) 1494-1509
~~~
УДК 323.2 (=47+57–81)
Cultural Policy in Northern Territories:
Specifics, Problems and Prospects
Vladimir S. Luzan*
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
Received 18.06.2014, received in revised form 07.07.2014, accepted 14.08.2014
This paper attempts to uncover relevant methodological and practical approaches to the implementation
of state cultural policy in the Russian Federation, bearing in mind its regional context and a task of
preserving original habitat and sustainable socio-cultural development of the indigenous peoples of
the North, Siberia and Far East.
The author notes that the analysis of contemporary studies in cultural policy and existing practice
reveals insufficient attention of scientists to ethno-cultural aspects, characterized by internal
contradictions: on the one hand, there is integration into regional and global socio-cultural space, on
the other, there is a desire to preserve ethnic and cultural unique identity.
In conclusion, the author indicates promising directions of development of regional cultural policy
in the northern territories, the implementation of which will help preserve the original habitat of the
indigenous peoples and develop their self-identification.
Keywords: сulture; indigenous small-numbered peoples; regional cultural policy; self-identification;
culture development; culture processes.
Introduction
Russian society is gradually coming to
understanding that the further development
of the Russian Federation as one of the
leading states and equal member of the world
community is possible only provided that one
of the priorities of national development is not
just saving fundamental Russian culture, but
also keeping the cultural diversity of peoples
inhabiting Russia, including the indigenous
small-numbered peoples of the North, Siberia
and Far East. This understanding is due to the
fact that culture in its semiotic and symbolic
forms preserves, multiplies and translates the
*
entire collective human experience, created in
various fields. In addition, the culture reflects the
specifics of a mixture of socio-cultural groups.
If people understand this specific feature, this
will facilitate greatly the comprehension of
state building of a society able to respond to
current challenges. In this regard, scientists have
to conduct study of state cultural policy in its
regional context, since further social and cultural
development of the indigenous peoples largely
depends on this very kind of domestic policy.
However, the internal problems of Russian
modernization are exacerbated by the fact that
global processes make changes to all the traditional
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: vladimir_luzan@list.ru
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ways of social and individual existence of the
indigenous peoples. No other era has not been
characterized by such a high social dynamics as
the present one. At the same time, the indigenous
peoples are in constant interaction with various
social groups, classes, and with each other. The
indigenous peoples move within geographic
space, their migration and assimilation increase.
As a result of constant change, both at the global
and local levels, there has appeared a particularly
acute problem of the preservation of national
identity and self-identification of indigenous
peoples. Their future depends on success of
the process of preserving original habitat of the
indigenous peoples.
Meanwhile, the indigenous peoples can
not lock themselves up into geo-cultural space
and are trying to overcome their isolation via
engaging in cross-cultural interaction, not only
with neighboring Russian regions, but also with
foreign states. In this regard, there is a need to
create such regional cultural policy that would
satisfy the most ethno-cultural needs, and not
only of the individual but also of the ethnic group.
This policy shall take into account the fact that
Russia throughout its history has always been a
poly-ethnic state.
It is worth emphasizing that in the context
of this paper the terms “regional cultural policy”
and “cultural policy in the northern territories”
are used as synonyms.
Conceptual research base. Interdisciplinary
study of the problem of cultural policy in the
traditional territories of the indigenous peoples’
dwelling causes appeal to scientific papers in
several scientific and theoretical directions.
In particular, contemporary research practice
effectively covers issues of creating cultural
policy at the state level. Among the authors
there are P.S. Gurevich, V.K. Iegorov, V.J. Kelle,
L.N. Kogan, D.S. Likhachev, V.M. Mezhuev,
A.K. Uledov, etc.
Wide range of issues relating to culture
functioning in modern society is illuminated
by the authors, who are forming the modern
idea of culture as a factor in social and cultural
regulation of social life. Some of researchers are
M.B. Gnedovskii, N.G. Denisov, B.S. Ierasov,
L.G. Ionin, M.S. Kagan, V.A. Kurennyi,
B.K. Markov, E.A. Orlova, M. Pakhter, A.J. Flier,
N.A. Khrenov, I.G. Iakovenko, etc.
The European experience of formation
and implementation of culture policies and
importance of culture in the regional context
are revealed in the works of foreign authors,
such as M. Bassan, F. Bianchini, E. Grosjean,
M. Dragicevic-Sheshich, M. Pike, J. Tommani, as
well as in materials of various state institutions
and publications of local authors – S.E. Zuev,
O.V. Khlopina, P.G. Shchedrovitskii, etc.
At the same time, the analysis of
cultural policy research unravels insufficient
attention of authors to ethno-cultural aspects,
characterized by internal contradictions. On the
one hand, these aspects imply integration into
the regional and global socio-cultural space, on
the other – the desire to preserve ethnic and
cultural identity.
The study of the problems identified is of
importance especially during implementation
of state cultural policy in its regional context, as
conceptual development of federal cultural policy
has virtually ignored spatial factor in culture. This
fact creates serious problems for conservation of
local ethnic cultures.
There is a particularly interesting culture
studies’ examination of state cultural policy
in Russia, the author of which – S.S. Zagrebin
notes that “culture study’s defi nition of cultural
policy is somewhat ideal model based on the
principle of deep abstraction from the topical
historical realities” [Zagrebin, 2008: 54-58].
Applied aspect is limited to “only departmental
understanding of culture, when cultural policy
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Vladimir S. Luzan. Cultural Policy in Northern Territories: Specifics, Problems and Prospects
is treated as activities of regional culture offices
in relation to cultural and art institutions”
[Zagrebin, 2008: 56].
Traditionally, the empirical concept of
culture in Russia has been associated with the
practice of enlightenment (including artistic and
artistic-educational activities), as well as with
“gathering” and study of historical and cultural
materials of folklore and ethnographic character.
This, in particular, was described by Iu.V. Osokin,
who wrote that such empirical understanding of
culture “was reflected in the profile orientation
of a number of specialized research, training
and cultural institutions. The first developed
methodology concerning primarily activities in
clubs and libraries, as well as amateur art; the
second engaged in training of specialists in the
field of cultural, educational and entertaining
activities – mainly in librarians and clubs)”
[Osokin, 2007: 1072].
Thus, it is possible to fix a gap between the
empirical understanding of culture in industrial
way and theoretical understanding of culture as
the most important sphere of human activity,
which aims at creation, transmission and
preservation of the ideals having dual economic
and spiritual nature. This gap has its own form
at the level of real cultural policy when created
concepts, strategies , targeted programs, statesupported projects affect only the content that is
associated with amateur performances, folklore
and ethnographic movements, historical and
cultural monuments, artistic and educational
events and so on and so forth.
As Ie.V. Vinokurova, another researcher of
cultural policy making in the northern territories,
rightly pointed out, culture studies’ isolation
from real cultural processes occur for two main
reasons: lack of scientific validity of state cultural
policy, objectives of which are formulated very
declaratively, and lack of regional application
of culture studies in the field of cultural policy,
lack of studies able to enrich theoretical science
[Vinokurova, 2011: 206].
However, despite the gaps, the relevance
of understanding the specifics of state cultural
policy is confirmed by the fact that in recent
years this subject was described in numerous
doctoral research papers. The authors include
A.S. Balakshin, P.L. Volk, L.Ie. Vostriakov, Iu.Ie.
Ziiatdinov, M.I. Krivosheev, Ie.V. Kuznetsov,
N.N. Kurnaia, O.P. Ponomarenko, G.A. Smirnov
and others.
Stating the problem. One of the fundamental
conceptual foundations of state cultural policy in
Russia at the present stage, including its regional
aspect, is decentralization, which on the one hand
makes it possible to implement regional cultural
policy in the local context, on the other hand it
significantly complicates the formation process
of a common cultural space within a particular
region and the country as a whole.
Absence of ideological constraints have
opened up possibilities for increasing the role of the
Russian Federation’s regions in the development
of the world cultural diversity. Experience of longterm coexistence, conservation and development
of the cultural identity of many peoples in Russia
has become popular with the world community
because of the need of saving cultural diversity.
Incidentally, the new content of state cultural
policy actualized scientific justification of, on the
one hand, the preservation of ethnic and cultural
identity of the Russian peoples under influence
of globalization processes, on the other hand, the
axiological approach to the contribution of ethnic
cultures in the global cultural space.
In circumstances, where threat of breaking
a single cultural space of the Russian Federation
is visibly growing, when discrepancy between
federal and national-regional aspects of the
implementation of state cultural policy arises, it
is the regional and local level which is in charge
of practical solution of problems of reforming
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the social sphere and provision of existing social
standards.
Any region, as a subject of the Russian
Federation, is a multipart socio-economic
complex, a political formation in which there is a
certain coherence and interdependence between
production, commercial, social and cultural
spheres, between the structures of regional and
local authorities. These connections promote the
fullest use of natural and productive resources,
scientific and cultural potential, and satisfaction
of diverse needs.
Regional culture is a multi-valued concept.
It has a special world and is characterized by
solitude, insularity, fixation on everyday life, the
desire to preserve a certain degree of immunity
to innovation. It is sometimes poorly receptive
of innovation, other values, tends to a peculiar
refraction of an idea in value system. On the other
hand, this is an open culture, reaching outwards
to dialogue with other cultures, to a constant
increment of value wealth.
A look at the possibility of updating Russian
culture through values of regional cultures may
be accompanied by the fear that for many years
the exclusive approach to the regional culture has
deprived it of many inherent values. We must
not forget that the region can serve as a cultural
reservoir of the country, but among other things
it can adversely affect the culture.
As the G.M. Kazakova says, “regional culture
incorporates both ethnic and national dimension.
But compared to the “ethnic”, the regional culture
has, first, a higher degree of abstraction, since
a regional community sometimes represents
a mix of ethnic groups. Within the region, as
it was already noted, the ethnic groups live in
direct contact with each other, acquiring in the
process of joint sociocultural adaptation and
common economic activities some similarities
and symptoms, which often differ notably from
those traditionally attributed to them. Culture
of ethnic groups is always “supplemented” by
such features, which are caused by the specific
circumstances of their existence. Regional culture
becomes an indicator of ethnically heterogeneous
elements, providing within the local area the
opportunity of intercultural and interethnic
cooperation and also implementing the model
of multicultural unity in practice. Secondly,
regional culture is different from ethnic in more
mobile configuration of cultural properties and
characteristics of a particular region. Regional
culture changes with every change in conditions
of its existence” [Kazakova, 2009: 12].
Structurally, regional culture is complex
and polybasic. According to G.M. Kazakova, the
fundamental bases of regional culture and, as
a consequence, regional cultural policy, are the
following [Kazakova, 2009: 12-15]:
– generic structure levels (material,
spiritual, artistic, folk, professional,
traditional, innovative culture, etc.);
– subcultures with different criteria (social
class, professional, ethnic, national,
religious and other);
– utilitarian practice sphere;
– set of institutional and non-institutional
forms of creation, storage and
dissemination of cultural values (the
first forms include institutions that were
designed to implement the spiritual
production, spiritual consumption, as well
as to manage cultural process, the second
forms refer to the consumer behavioral
culture of the inhabitants in the region);
– levels of culture consumption and art
perception.
Functionally, regional culture is intended to
encode, store and transfer local human experience
in all areas of activity done by the population of the
regional community. This culture is meant to ensure
the reproduction of the cultural life of the region,
continuity of the regional cultural process, as well as
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the completeness of individual experience. Regional
culture is polyfunctional. A list of functions
includes adaptation, socializing, transformative,
educational, informational and communicative,
creative, regulatory, artistic, aesthetic, axiological,
symbolic and other activities.
In the light of regional cultural policy
the outlined above specific features are often
overlooked, not only due to a lack of conceptual
understanding of the culture managers, but
also due to the existing legal conditions under
which the main purpose of government is to
ensure people’s access to cultural institutions of
all types. As an example, one may consider the
experience of cultural design for original habitat
of the indigenous peoples in culture “sector”
in Taimyrsky (Dolgano-Nenets), Evenkiysky
and Turukhansky Municipal Districts of the
Krasnoyarsk Territory.
In the structure of the executive power, the
majority of the Russian Federation’s regions have
special structure divisions for the indigenous
peoples’ problems. These divisions coordinate
relevant regional programs and issues of
socio-economic development of these peoples.
However, even if such divisions exist, usually
the main authority on culture projects is assigned
to specialized bodies in the field of culture. For
example, in the Krasnoyarsk Territory such
authority is given to the Ministry of Culture of
the Krasnoyarsk Territory (hereinafter – the
Ministry of Culture). As part of efforts to design
and implement culture projects and introduce
ethnic cultural indicators of quality of life by
the Ministry of Culture has developed Program
on realization of main strategies of cultural
policy in the Krasnoyarsk Territory for 20092020 (hereinafter referred to as the Program).
The Program has been specified for each
municipality.
During making the Program its creators
applied program-target method, aimed at
addressing the priorities of culture sector
development. These priorities were set by the
decree of the Government of Krasnoyarsk
Territory of 20.01.2009 № 24-p “On approval of
main cultural policy strategy in the Krasnoyarsk
Territory for 2009-2020” [Reference legal system
“ConsultantPlus”]. The program identified the
structuring development blocks of the cultural
space of the Krasnoyarsk Territory in the unity
of its historical, cultural and socio-economic
characteristics elicited by the main strategies for
the cultural policy of the Krasnoyarsk Territory
for 2009-2020.
Implementation of the Program focuses
on the following tasks, which are extremely
important for designing cultural original habitat
of the indigenous peoples [Official Site of the
Krasnoyarsk Territory]:
• development and introduction of
systematic actions positioning the region
in Russia and abroad as the region with a
high cultural potential;
• modernization of material and technical
equipment of state regional and municipal
culture institutions;
• creation of new culture infrastructure
objects;
• preservation of tangible and intangible
cultural heritage and its integration into
social and economic development of the
region;
• development of human resources
industry;
• increasing accessibility for residents
of the region of cultural activities and
cultural values;
• modernization of providing services
in the field of culture, introduction
of information technologies into this
sphere;
• introduction of incentive mechanisms
in local government and nonprofit
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organizations to implement projects in
various cultural activities;
• development and introduction of a system
to identify and support the leaders of the
cultural process in the region;
• formation of a system of unique
recognizable events in the Krasnoyarsk
Territory.
To understand how to create state
mechanisms of cultural design in the original
habitat of the indigenous peoples the most
appropriate way is to focus on specific program
activities on the example of Taimyrsky (DolganoNenets), Evenkiysky, Turukhansky Municipal
Districts.
The program of implementation in Taimyrsky
(Dolgano-Nenets) Municipal District of main
cultural policy strategies in the Krasnoyarsk
Territory for 2009-2020 was designed to meet the
following criteria [Official Site of the Krasnoyarsk
Territory]:
– Permanent population is 34.1 thousand
people as of 01.01.2013.
– Number of settlements is 27, including
four settlements with a population of less
than 70 people.
– Network of culture and education
institutions in the field of culture and
art in Taimyrsky (Dolgano-Nenets)
Municipal District includes 26 libraries;
22 Houses of Culture; 4 institutions
of additional education of children in
the sphere of culture and art; 3 centers
of folk art; local culture institution
“Cinema and leisure center Arctic”;
local culture institution “Cultural and
recreation center” in Dikson; vocal and
dance ensemble “Chokurkan” in culture
department administration in the rural
settlement of Khatanga; information
centre “Khatanga” in culture department
administration in Khatanga.
Besides municipal cultural institutions there
are the following state regional budgetary culture
institutions: “Taimyr House of Folklore” and
“Taimyr Regional Museum”.
The cultural and educational services in
institutions in the field of culture and art, which
the regional residents have access to, do not fully
conform to the standards recommended by the
Federal Government decree of 03.07.1996 № 1063p. In this area there are no intra-settlement cultural
institutions. In the district center of Dudinka there
is no showroom, in Kayak settlement there is no
library. Number of seats in the House of Culture
in Tukhard settlement is 53.3 %, in the House of
Culture in Nosok settlement is 30.8 % and in the
Municipal House of Culture in Dudinka – only
25.4 % of the corresponding standard.
Calculation of the financing measures
aimed at ensuring the regulatory requirements
of the Taimyrsky (Dolgano-Nenets) Municipal
District in cultural and art objects shows that
by 2020 the total amount of funds raised for the
implementation of all planned activities should be
1,146,007.0 thousand rubles. By the way, from the
government standpoint it is intended to achieve
the following ethnic and cultural indicators of
life quality of the indigenous small-numbered
peoples:
1) Construction of 6 cultural and leisure
institutions in Dudinka, Nosok, Novaia, Potapovo,
Tukhard, Khatanga;
2) Construction of a district showroom in
Dudinka;
3) Major repairs and reconstruction of 19
cultural and educational institutions;
4) Educating 93 people various specialties
in the field of culture for free;
5) As a part of the organization of events
contributing to the creation of a unique image of
the territory to hold the International Cultural
Forum of the indigenous small-numbered peoples
every two years.
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Analysis of existing funding in culture
sector in Taimyrsky (Dolgano-Nenets) Municipal
District shows that the share of expenditure in
culture sector in the budget of the municipality
was 334,688.93 thousand rubles in 2011, and in
2012 – 386,653.62 thousand rubles (116% growth)
[Culture of the Krasnoyarsk Territory in figures
for 2011-2012, 2013]. Actual expenditures in
“culture” industry for 2012 exceeded 11,000.0
rubles per 1 inhabitant.
The program of implementation in
Turukhansky Municipal District of main cultural
policy strategies in the Krasnoyarsk Territory for
2009-2020 was designed to meet the following
criteria [Official Site of the Krasnoyarsk
Territory]:
– Permanent population is 17.9 thousand
people as of 01.01.2013.
– Number of settlements is 34, including 11
settlements with a population of less than
70 people, 4 settlements are not currently
inhabited.
– Network of culture and education
institutions in the field of culture and art
include 26 libraries; 20 culture and leisure
institutions; 2 museums; 3 institutions of
additional education in the field of culture,
including 2 children music schools and
children art school.
The cultural and educational services in
institutions in the field of culture and art, which
the regional residents have access to, do not fully
conform to the standards recommended by the
Federal Government decree of 03.07.1996 № 1063p. The area has no organized film showing process.
There is no any culture and leisure institution in
the village of Staroturukhansk. A building of
club in Sovetskaia Rechka settlement does not
meet fire safety requirements. Number of seats in
the rural House of Culture in Farkovo is 58.6 %,
and in the House of Culture and Leisure in Igarka
is 0 % of the corresponding standard.
Calculation of the financing measures aimed
at ensuring the regulatory requirements of the
Turukhansky Municipal District in cultural and
art objects shows that by 2020 the total amount of
funds raised for the implementation of all planned
activities should be 563,953.0 thousand rubles.
By the way, from the government standpoint it
is intended to achieve the following ethnic and
cultural indicators of life quality of the indigenous
small-numbered peoples:
1) Building culture and leisure 3 institutions
in Igarka, Sovetskaia Rechka, Farkovo;
2) Construction of an exhibition hall for
Turukhansky Regional Museum;
3) Building a branch of Centralized
Information Library System number 11 in
Sovetskaia Rechka;
4) Construction of an art school in Igarka;
5) Major repairs and reconstruction of 39
cultural and educational institutions;
6) Educating 40 people various specialties
in the field of culture for free;
7) As a part of the organization of events
contributing to the creation of a unique image
of the territory to hold the ethnographic festival
“Astygan kiarenii” (the Kets celebrate) every two
years and annual holidays Reindeer Herders Day,
River Day, Fisherman Day.
Analysis of existing funding in culture
sector in Turukhansky Municipal District shows
that the share of expenditure in culture sector in
the budget of the municipality was 165,786.40
thousand rubles in 2011, and in 2012 –193,096.18
thousand rubles (11 6% growth) [Culture of
the Krasnoyarsk Territory in figures for 20112012, 2013]. Actual expenditures in “culture”
industry for 2012 exceeded 10,000.0 rubles per 1
inhabitant.
The program of implementation in
Evenkiysky Municipal District of main cultural
policy strategies in the Krasnoyarsk Territory for
2009-2020 was designed to meet the following
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criteria [Official Site of the Krasnoyarsk
Territory]:
– Permanent population is 15.9 thousand
people as of 01.01.2013.
– Number of settlements is 23, including 2
villages with a population of less than 70
people.
– Network of institutions of culture and
education in the field of culture and arts
includes 25 libraries; 20 culture and
leisure institutions; 3 children art schools;
Evenkiysky Regional Museum with two
branches.
The cultural and educational services in
institutions in the field of culture and art, which
the regional residents have access to, do not fully
conform to the standards recommended by the
Federal Government decree of 03.07.1996 №
1063-p. In this area there are no intra-settlement
cultural institutions. In Kuz’movka settlement
there is no library, in Oskoba – House of
Culture.
In the village of Tura, administrative
center of Evenkia, there is a regional ethnopedagogical centre of retraining, the purpose of
which is to preserve the language and culture of
the indigenous population. The center publishes
books on the Evenki language, folklore, flora
and fauna, sewing beads, traditional musical
instruments and other occupations.
The main cultural institution engaged in
activities to preserve and promote the culture,
traditions, crafts and fine arts of the indigenous
peoples of the North, their folklore and national
holidays is the Centre of Folk Art. But because of
the remoteness of the territory the performers face
the problem how to organize concerts and tour
activities both in the municipality and out of it.
Calculation of the financing measures aimed
at ensuring the regulatory requirements of the
Evenkiysky Municipal District in cultural and art
objects shows that by 2020 the total amount of
funds raised for the implementation of all planned
activities should be 489,063.0 thousand rubles.
By the way, from the government standpoint it
is intended to achieve the following ethnic and
cultural indicators of life quality of the indigenous
small-numbered peoples:
1) Construction of 4 culture and leisure
institutions in the townships of Kuz’movka,
Essey, Kuiumba, Mutorai;
2) Construction of Evenkiysky Regional
Museum in Tura;
3) Construction of a rural library in
Tutonchany township;
4) Major repairs and reconstruction of 21
cultural and educational institutions;
5) Educating 40 people various specialties
in the field of culture for free;
6) As a part of the organization of events
contributing to the creation of a unique image
of the territory to hold the annual International
Forum “Tunguska phenomenon”.
Analysis of existing funding in culture
sector in Evenkiysky Municipal District shows
that the share of expenditure in culture sector in
the budget of the municipality was 160,424.60
thousand rubles in 2011, and in 2012 –213,976.64
thousand rubles (133% growth) [Culture of
the Krasnoyarsk Territory in figures for 20112012, 2013]. Actual expenditures in “culture”
industry for 2012 exceeded 13,000.0 rubles per 1
inhabitant.
In general, the total amount of financing
required to achieve all stated ethno-cultural
indicators of the life quality in the Taimyrsky
(Dolgano-Nenets), Evenkiysky and Turukhansky
Municipal Districts in the Krasnoyarsk Territory
by 2020 is more than 2.2 billion rubles, excluding
funding for the ongoing activities of existing
culture and education institutions in the field of
culture.
Conclusion. In the current situation
there are such state mechanisms concerning
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cultural design of the original habitat of the
indigenous small-numbered peoples, which
are less attuned to the specifics of national
culture preservation, but aimed at achieving
average for Russia availability in a number of
formal attributes (for example, in presence of
cultural centers, libraries, seats in the rooms,
etc.). Moreover, 100% achievement of these
indicators in the case of the indigenous smallnumbered peoples may not always mean their
actual cultural development. We can also admit
a lack of ethno-cultural indicators of the life
quality of the indigenous small-numbered
peoples in the legal framework, while there is
a large quantity of different economic, social
indicators, achievement of which is estimated as
the efficiency of public administration. In this
respect, we can identify the following areas of
regional cultural policy, without which the full
development of the indigenous small-numbered
peoples can significantly slow down:
А) Introduction of a system of ethnological
expertise and applied research in the field of
cultural design for the original habitat of the
indigenous small-numbered peoples;
B) Development of special programs to
improve self-identification of the indigenous
small-numbered peoples via PR-actions, creating
a sense of national pride, as well as helping to form
an idea of ethnic involvement in multinational
space of Russia and the world, perceiving the
ethnos as a unique and equal entity;
C) Approval by the executive bodies of the
Russian Federation of a list of the most necessary
cultural and entertaining events, promoting the
development of ethnic and cultural indicators of
the life quality for the indigenous small-numbered
peoples;
D) Development of regional programs for
the preservation of national indigenous peoples’
languages. It is indispensable to create conditions
for the possibility of the national languages’
usage not only in everyday life, but also in public
sphere, at conferences, symposia, seminars, etc.;
E) Adoption of regional laws relating to the
protection and preservation of epic heritage of the
indigenous small-numbered peoples;
F) Development of a set of regional programs
in support of traditional types and forms of artistic
creativity for the indigenous small-numbered
peoples, namely creation of workshops, art
classes, art schools, art studios with special areas
and subjects;
G) Multilateral agreements between
the indigenous small-numbered peoples and
already existing scientific innovative centers –
universities, laboratories, small businesses in
all major development directions, which enlist
economy, business, education, science, medicine,
art, etc.
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Vladimir S. Luzan. Cultural Policy in Northern Territories: Specifics, Problems and Prospects
Культурная политика в северных территориях:
специфика, проблемы, перспективы
В.С. Лузан
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия, 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
В статье предпринята попытка раскрыть актуальные методологические и практические
подходы к реализации государственной культурной политики Российской Федерации в ее
региональном аспекте в контексте сохранения исконной среды обитания и устойчивого
социально-культурного развития коренных малочисленных народов Севера, Сибири и Дальнего
Востока.
В статье отмечается, что анализ современных исследований культурной политики и
существующей практики выявляет недостаточное внимание авторов к ее этнокультурным
аспектам, характеризующихся внутренней противоречивостью: с одной стороны, интеграцией
в региональное и мировое социально-культурное пространство, с другой – стремлением
сохранить этнокультурную самобытность.
В заключение автором сформированы перспективные направления развития региональной
культурной политики в северных территориях, реализация которых будет способствовать
сохранению исконной среды обитания коренных малочисленных народов и развитию их
самоидентификации.
Ключевые слова: культура, коренные малочисленные народы, региональная культурная
политика, самоидентификация, культурное развитие, культурные процессы.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 9 (2014 7) 1510-1520
~~~
УДК 330.59; 338.24
The Indicators System Formation for Quality
of Life Evaluation as the Basis
for Sustainable Socio-Economic Development
of Indigenous Minorities of the North
Elena A. Bryukhanova and Michael V. Kobalinskiy*
Krasnoyarsk Branch of the Institute of Economics
and Industrial Engineering of SB RAS
50 Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk, 660036, Russia
Received 04.07.2014, received in revised form 20.07.2014, accepted 08.08.2014
The article provides with the evaluation of the efficiency of the mechanisms of the state support of
economical and social development of the indigenous minorities of the North. It summarizes the
practice of working out the programmes of these minorities’ development and evaluation of quality of
their life.
The authors suggest taking into consideration the evaluation of the conditions of the indigenous
minorities of the North, living in their area, and namely in the territories with a high relative density
of the peoples of the North, compactly and dispersibly settled and doing their traditional activities, as
indicators of socio-economical condition of the indigenous minorities of the North.
Keywords: indigenous minorities of the North, sustainable development, quality of life, programmepronged approach, monitoring.
The research is carried out within the frame of the researches financed by Krasnoyarsk regional fund
for supporting scientific and technical research activities and within the frame of SibFU’s thematic
plan in compliance with the instruction task of the Ministry of education and science of the Russian
Federation.
Introduction
The problems of the formation of the system
of parameters and indicators of a sustainable
development of the territories of traditional
residence of the indigenous minorities of the
North and evaluation of their life quality are
getting more urgent in the course of the recent
years. They are caused by a sharp decline in living
standards of the most part of the representatives
of the indigenous minorities of the North
*
and growing demographic, economical, and
ecological crisis processes in the areas of their
habitation.
According to the information given at the
VII congress of the indigenous minorities of the
North, Siberia and the Far East of the Russian
Federation held in Salekhard on the 28-29th of
March, 2013, the characteristic features of a crisis
condition of the indigenous minorities, listed in
the Conception of a sustainable development
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: kobalinskiy@mail.ru
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Elena A. Bryukhanova and Michael V. Kobalinskiy. The Indicators System Formation for Quality of Life Evaluation…
(The Order…, 2009) in 2009, have worsened for
the last three years.
Such situation was also stated by the
Accounts Chamber of the Russian Federation.
In their report, based on the results of the audit
of spending budgetary funds aimed to support
economical and social development of the
indigenous minorities of the North, Siberia and
the Far East of the Russian Federation, it was said:
“Realization of measures of the federal targeted
programme “Economical and social development
of the indigenous minorities of the North up to
2008”, implementation of the measures within
the frame of the Conception of a sustainable
development of the indigenous minorities of the
North, Siberia and the Far East of the Russian
Federation within the period of 2009-2010 have
not resulted in a substantial improvement of the
level of economical and social development of the
indigenous minorities of the North, Siberia and
the Far East of the Russian Federation <…>
Standards of living in the regions of
dense habitation of the indigenous minorities
of the North are lower than the average in
the corresponding subjects of the Russian
Federation; the percentage of the housing stock
equipped with plumbing and hot water supply in
the areas of dense habitation of the indigenous
minorities of the North is 2-5 times lower than
the average in the corresponding subjects of the
Russian Federation. The rate of unemployment
is 1,5-2 times higher than the average in the
Russian Federation. Infant mortality rate in the
Tyva Republic, the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic,
Krasnoyarsk Krai, Kamchatka Krai, Sakhalin
Oblast, Chukchi Autonomous Okrug and some
other regions of the North is exceeding <…>
At present federal and regional levels lack
annual monitoring of the rates of the population
size and condition of socio-economical
development of the indigenous minorities of the
North” (The Decision…, 2011).
Economical reforms of the recent years have
significantly influenced the idea of a sustainable
development and quality of life, on the whole, as
well as that of a sustainable development of the
territories of traditional nature management and
the quality of life of the indigenous minorities
of the North, in particular. At present various
systems of securing a sustainable development of
the territories of traditional nature management
and the quality of life of the indigenous minorities
of the North have been formed. They include
technologies and measures of the programmepronged approach, cooperative management,
state-and-private and municipal-and-private
partnership, and measures of estimation of their
efficiency.
A complex research of the problems of
a sustainable development of the indigenous
minorities of the North and estimation of quality
of their life is in many ways determined by the
specificity of ‘the indigenous minorities of the
North’ category itself with its peculiar features
such as relatively low (in comparison with other
categories) rates of employment, income, chronic
unprofitability of traditional types of economic
activities, extremely low entrepreneurial activity,
essential difference in the level of housing
conditions and services.
Thereby, the development of a complex
appropriate indicator system and methods of
estimation of the potential of a sustainable
development of habitation areas and quality of
life of the indigenous minorities of the North is of
a significant importance among the tasks of the
state socio-economical policy implementation.
1. Practice and problems of working out
the sustainable development programme
of the indigenous minorities
of the North
Three federal targeted programmes and
numerous regional targeted programmes and sub-
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programmes of socio-economical development
of the indigenous minorities of the North have
been designed within the period of 15 years.
They were aimed to form the conditions for the
minorities’ sustainable development on account
of consolidation of the funds of the federal
budget, the budgets of the subjects of the Russian
Federation and non-budgetary sources.
In the course of the years 2002-2008 the
financial support of the indigenous minorities
of the North was provided within the frame of
the measures of the federal targeted programme
“Economical and social development of the
indigenous minorities of the North up to 2008”
which was implemented in the territory of 26
subjects of the Russian Federation. 2,6 billion
rubles were spent on financing the measures
within the period of the Programme (1 billion
rubles were from the federal budget, 1,3 billion
rubles – from the budgets of the subjects of the
Russian Federation, 0,3 billion rubles – from nonbudgetary sources).
Within the frame of the Programme they built
and put into operation schools and kindergartens
for 5149 persons, accommodation of 15415,6
square metres of floor area, transmission lines
of 64,41 km length, 12 power stations and
diesel generators, 3 local power installations, 20
manufacturing units (fishing and fishing factory
ships, a wood processing workshop in the Tyva
Republic, a workshop for processing mushrooms
and berries in Mezhdurech’e village of KhantyMansi Autonomous Okrug, reindeer-breeding
farms), a hunter’s house in Kamchatka and a
house of the peoples of the North in Yakutsk.
They also organized 4 trading posts, bought 31
“Buran” (“Blizzard”) snowmobiles, 5 power saw
benches, 18 boat engines, 14 radio-telephones,
10 equipment sets for processing the products
of traditional sectors, equipment for fishing and
hunting trades, 5 refrigerator equipment sets,
mini-bakeries.
In May 2008 by the initiative of the
Ministry of regional development of the Russian
Federation the decision on reversal of this
practice and transition to the system of allocation
of subsidies for the solution of certain problems
of the development of the indigenous minorities
of the North to the corresponding subjects of the
Federation was taken. This took place after the
government of the Russian Federation approved
the “Economical and social development of the
indigenous minorities of the North, Siberia and
the Far East up to 2015” conception on the 21st
of November, 2007 and charged the Ministry of
Regional Development (Russia) with the task to
develop its project. The conception of the Federal
targeted programme “Economical and social
development of the indigenous minorities of
the North, Siberia and the Far East up to 2015”
contained the conclusion stating the decline of
the minorities’ living standards within the recent
10 years. None of the serious problems of the
minorities of the North was solved satisfactorily.
Starting from 2009 the appropriate measures
as well as the construction of the facilities of
social infrastructure, etc. were realized within
the frame of negotiation of special subsidies
from the federal budget to the budgets of the
subjects of the Russian Federation to support the
indigenous minorities of the North, living in this
territory. The amount of the subsidies given was
600 million rubles in 2009, 240 million rubles in
2010. As for the federal budget for 2011-2013, it
was 240 million rubles per year.
In point of fact, the situation hasn’t
crucially changed. Moreover, the inspection
of spending of budgetary funds channeled to
support economical and social development of
the indigenous minorities of the North, Siberia
and the Far East of the Russian Federation within
2009-2010, which was made by the Accounts
Chamber of the Russian Federation, revealed
financial violations and concluded the fact that
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the Ministry of Regional Development (Russia)
hadn’t properly controlled the efficient spending
of subsidies on support of socio-economic
development of the indigenous minorities of the
North, Siberia and the Far East by the subjects of
the Russian Federation. The Accounts Chamber
of the Russian Federation’s inspection revealed
financial violations at spending of budget funds
with the total amount of 211,2 million rubles
(including 64,6 million rubles from the federal
budget). 6,8 million rubles were considered to be
inefficiently spent (The Decision…, 2011).
The programme cycle of the recent 16 years
proves that none of the problems of the minorities
of the North has been solved. On the contrary,
many problems have become even more acute.
Moreover, new problems have sprung up. The
Conception of the federal targeted programme
“Economical and social development of the
indigenous minorities of the North, Siberia and
the Far East up to 2015” contains a very important
conclusion on the estimation of social situation.
It runs that these minorities’ standards of living
have lowered for the recent 10 years.
Programming crisis reflects a general crisis
of existing views on the development and solving
the problems of the indigenous minorities of the
North as well as on a respective public policy.
This crisis is the crisis of the object-oriented
approach. It integrally underlies more than 30
conceptions and 80 programmes that have been
worked out in the course of recent decades and
concern various aspects of the development of the
indigenous minorities of the North.
Content analysis of the documents
mentioned has enabled to single out the following
characteristic features of applying the objectoriented approach: – the subject of programming
as well as of numerous conceptions of these
minorities’ development are not these peoples; –
peoples of the North are viewed as a homogeneous
enlarged target object; – the main focus is given
to external sources of their development, making
material objects (building houses and schools,
equipment installation, constructing objects
of energy supply); – such approach hardly
stimulates actualization of positive scenarios of
these peoples’ development.
Efficiency of the object-oriented approach in
programming the life of the peoples of the North
is limited to a number of factors:
– heterogeneity of the group of the
indigenous peoples of the North;
– irregularity of their ethno-social
development;
– internal socio-cultural split, deviation
from a traditional way of life of a majority
of the representatives of the indigenous
peoples of the North and their orientation
towards European consumer standards;
– chronic absolute and relative underfunding
of the programmes of the development
of the indigenous minorities regarding
programming indicators and these
peoples’ growing demands.
In addition to the programmes in force it
seems to be expedient to develop and implement
the subject-oriented approach to the control of the
development of the indigenous minorities of the
North, based on taking internal life scenarios into
account.
The main aim of this approach is to create
the control mechanism of socio-cultural potential
of the indigenous minorities of the North and
consider their real problems and prospects of
development, i.e. to formulate and implement life
scenarios of these peoples’ development.
It is vital to consider that the subjectoriented approach doesn’t replace but supplement
the object-oriented approach. It’s impossible to
stop building schools, kindergartens, and other
objects of social infrastructure, to stop providing
facilities for the development of economical
structures, etc. But one cannot confine to these.
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The heart of the public policy towards the
indigenous minorities of the North is not only
to provide a fi nancial support but facilitate
creation of legal, economical, fi nancial, and
technological conditions for activation of these
peoples’ inner potential in order to turn them into
real subjects of labour, economical, political and
cultural activity. Only this approach will make
it possible for the northern ethnoses to avoid
total assimilation and prove their own historic
sustainability.
2. Problems of indigenous minorities
of the North life`s quality estimation
Researches in the sphere of estimation of
interrelation between a sustainable development
of the residential territories of the indigenous
minorities of the North and quality of their life
are extremely limited in number. There are only
fragmentary sections in these or those areas of
economical research concerning estimation of
these interrelations. But there are no complex and
full researches ensuring a methodological and
methodical basis.
Analysis of the types of sustainability makes
it possible to conclude that adaptive sustainability
is the most appropriate type for the traditional
northern rural territorial type of the development
(further referred to as the residential areas for
the indogenous minorities of the North). This
type of sustainability enjoys the most essential
compensatory mechanisms when a territorial
system tries to adjust and compensate for the
changes that arise.
Another peculiar feature of the adaptive
system of sustainability is that this type allows not
only application of one or another compensatory
mechanism but their various combinations.
In other words, adaptive mechanisms are of a
combination nature that is essentially important
for sustainability of the residential areas for the
indigenous minorities of the North).
In Russian reality absolutely different ways
of maintaining their sustainability (that can be
termed a “deferred sustainability”) are typical
for rural residential areas for the indigenous
minorities of the North to the utmost. They
display virtually nonexistent compensatory
mechanisms of lowering living standards of the
indigenous minorities of the North who escape
from their problems plunging into alcoholism,
drug addiction, and poverty. Others just withdraw
in their shell expecting changes to the better.
Moreover, a “deferred sustainability” of the
residential areas for the indigenous minorities of
the North in this context is a most “economical”
mechanism from a point of financial and
material expenses. In this respect it is viewed
as the most acceptable means of ensuring their
sustainability.
The indicators of levels of living are structural
elements of an “adaptive sustainability” of the
residential areas for the indigenous minorities of
the North.
Elaboration of the indicators of levels of
living is particularly urgent in respect to the
indigenous minorities of the North in particular
as such indicators are worked out for the
population of the states in the whole and they are
more or less effectively applied in order to both
efficiently administer the government, exercise
intergovernmental comparison and undertake
international obligations.
Specificity of the indicators of the quality
of life of the indigenous minorities of the North
is not mostly in the fact that in compliance with
the law of the Russian Federation this population
category has a special status but also in the fact
that such indicators must reflect a degree of these
peoples’ participation in taking the decisions,
infringing their interests. Moreover, the main part
of the monitoring proper, which is based on such
indicators, can be efficient only provided that the
aboriginals themselves actively participate in it.
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Such indicators should comprise a selfevaluation of living standards and other formal
factors as well as their ideas of living standards
as to what it should be on the individual and
collective (common) levels. The use of the data of
formal statistical accounts only can’t provide an
adequate view on the issue studied. It’s obvious
that designing the model of indicators of the
quality of life is impossible without application of
socio-anthropological knowledge and methods.
Taking into account smallness and special
status of the indigenous minorities of the North,
the analysis of the quality of life should result in
working out of a specialized data base about all
aboriginals, their socio-economical and sociocultural state. Otherwise, the real picture of the
indigenous minorities’ state would remain unclear
even despite the abundance of data both official
ones and those provided by the researchers and
aboriginals themselves.
Many representatives of the indigenous
minorities of the North tend to preserve a
traditional mode of life, consider following
cultural traditions to be a major factor of
their comfortable existence and a significant
condition of upbringing a younger generation.
This finds it manifestation in the priorities
determined by them and their organizations, in
the desire for obtaining rights to participate in
environmental protection, in use of replenishable
natural resources in the areas of their residence.
Accordingly, the indicators should also reflect a
specific character of needs and demands of the
indigenous minorities of the North.
Unfortunately, an adequate federal system
of the indicators of the quality of life of the
indigenous minorities of the North, proved by
the databases, as well as the system of their
monitoring haven’t been worked out up to the
present.
In compliance with the Decision of the
Board of the Accounts Chamber of the Russian
Federation № 57K (824) dated November 18,
2011 “On the results of the control measures ‘The
audit of spending budgetary funds on support
of economical and social development of the
indigenous peoples of the North, Siberia and the
Far East of the Russian Federation in 2009-2010’”
the following was concluded:
“The Ministry of Regional Development
(Russia) is prescribed by the schedule of measures
to work out and implement the system of indicators
of the quality of life of the indigenous minorities
of the North in the first quarter of 2010. On the
basis of the contract with the state authorities
№ 105 from August 3, 2009, concluded between
the Ministry of Regional Development (Russia)
and the non-profit-making organization “The
fund of the information support of the science”,
they developed the system of 14 financial, 16
budgetary, 12 economical, 26 ecological and 10
social indicators. The cost of works under the
contract mentioned was 590 thousand rubles.
The works were accepted and fully paid by the
Ministry of Regional Development (Russia).
In the list of the developed indicators there
are such indicators as income per capita in the
region, expenses of the population on cultural
and daily living needs, medical services and
medication, as well as on telecommunication
service, clothes and footwear, food, proportion
of taxes in the revenue of consolidated budget
spent on the development of social infrastructure
in the region, federal budget expenses on transfer
payments to the indigenous minorities.
The system of indicators of the quality of life
of the indigenous minorities of the North includes
wind speed and direction, sound, constitution of
earth, cycle of matter.
The indicators of absolute and relative (per
capita) output of gross product of traditional
branches of agriculture (reindeer breeding
and fishing) in physical and value terms are
recommended as an integral indicator of the
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quality of life of the indigenous minorities of the
North.
The indicators mentioned are not used to
improve the quality of life of the indigenous
minorities of the North in the subjects of the
Russian Federation; their monitoring is not
carried out; there is no official statistics on this
issue. Thus, the system of indicators was worked
out by the Ministry of Regional Development
(Russia) but it wasn’t implemented. The absence
of practical application of the indicator system,
on the development of which 590 thousand rubles
were spent from the federal budget, is indicative
of inefficient application of funds by the Ministry
of Regional Development (Russia) that does not
meet the requirements of Article 34 of the Fiscal
Code of the Russian Federation” (The Decision…,
2011).
In some Russian regions they develop the
monitoring programmes of socio-economical
situation and state of various social groups.
Sometimes special laws are adopted. Thus, in
Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug a special
database of a socio-economical state of the
indigenous minorities of the North in YamalNenets Okrug (Regulations of the Administration
of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Area..., 2011).
The following information is subject to an
obligatory inclusion in the database:
1) the number of people belonging to the
indigenous minorities of the North, permanently
residing in the territory of the autonomous
okrug;
2) the number of nomadic population of the
autonomous okrug;
3) grouping of people from among the
indigenous minorities of the North into nationality
divisions;
4) grouping of people from among the
indigenous minorities of the North, residing in
the territory of the autonomous okrug, into sex
and age divisions;
5) number of students of higher and
secondary education institutions from among the
indigenous minorities of the North, residing in
the territory of the autonomous okrug;
6) level of education of the indigenous
minorities of the North, residing in the territory
of the autonomous okrug;
7) learning native languages by people
from among the indigenous minorities of the
North, residing in the territory of the autonomous
okrug;
8) indicators of employment of people from
among the indigenous minorities of the North,
residing in the territory of the autonomous okrug,
which include: – the number of people, capable of
working, from among the indigenous minorities
of the North, residing in the territory of the
autonomous okrug, and namely:
employed;
unemployed; – the number of people from
among the indigenous minorities of the North,
residing in the territory of the autonomous okrug,
employed in sectors of national economy, and
namely:
in the industrial sphere;
in traditional sectors of management
(reindeer breeding, fishing, hunting);
in the staff of the governing bodies;
in the sphere of trade;
in the sphere of housing and communal
services;
in the sphere of medicine;
in the sphere of education;
in the sphere of culture and art;
in national enterprises, tribal communities;
in other sectors of economic activities;
9) housing of people from among the
indigenous minorities of the North;
10) number of socially significant diseases
that the indigenous minorities of the North,
residing in the territory of the autonomous okrug,
have;
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11) number of health institutions in the
territories of primary residence of the indigenous
minorities of the North, residing in the territory
of the autonomous okrug;
12) number of educational establishments
in the territories of primary residence of the
indigenous minorities of the North, residing in
the territory of the autonomous okrug, including
the number of places and students who study
there;
13) number of institutes of culture in the
territories of primary residence of the indigenous
minorities of the North, residing in the territory
of the autonomous okrug;
14) acreage of areas in use of agricultural
enterprises belonging to the indigenous minorities
of the North, residing in the territory of the
autonomous okrug;
15) areas of reindeer pastures in the territory
of the autonomous okrug;
16) head of domestic reindeer in the
autonomous okrug.
In Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug
Law № 35 “On the quality of life of the
population of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area –
Yugra” (February 28, 2006) was adopted. The
law defines the quality of life of the population
of the autonomous okrug as a scope of, first and
foremost, socio-economical criteria reflecting
the level and degree of well-being of people in
various spheres of their life as a key condition of a
civil society’s and individual’s sustainable social
development (Law 35…, 2006).
In compliance with Article 1 of the Law the
major indicators of ensuring the quality of life of
the population of the autonomous okrug are:
1) life expectancy (real and prospective);
2) gross domestic product (GDP) and gross
regional product (GRP) per capita;
3) index of social health of the autonomous
okrug both on the whole and per each citizen of
the autonomous okrug;
4) level of education and literacy of the
autonomous okrug’s population on the whole;
5) level of income of the autonomous okrug’s
population as a whole and its separate groups;
6) employment of the autonomous okrug’s
population;
7) consumption of goods, including
consumer durables;
8) percentage of government expenditures
on social activity;
9) indices of poverty and poorness of the
autonomous okrug’s population as a whole and
its separate groups;
10) nutritional sufficiency;
11) reproductive health;
12) infant mortality;
13) maternal mortality;
14) number of disabled persons, including
disabled children;
15) level of consumption of basic social
services;
16) crime rate;
17) ecological safety rate;
18) social activity;
19) other indices determining the quality of
life of the autonomous okrug’s population.
A different approach is suggested by the
Institute of Ethnology of the Russian Academy of
Science. They worked out a system of indicators
of the quality of life of the indigenous minorities
of the North, residing in Sakhalin Oblast
(Novikova et all, 2010).
The quality of life is regarded as a
combination of objective and subjective parameters
characterizing well-being of the representatives
of the indigenous minorities of Sakhalin on the
individual and collective levels (communities and
other forms of these peoples’ self-organization).
Development of such parameters concerning the
aboriginal peoples is possible as there exists a
well-developed system of state and departmental
statistical indicators with reference to them.
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To estimate the quality of life of the
indigenous minorities of Sakhalin Oblast the
authors suggest carrying out statistical service
and monitoring of the following groups of
indicators (parameters):
Indicators of well-being
1. Level of income, including the income
from traditional types of economic management
2. Living minimum wage
3. Percentage of people with the income
above and below poverty line
Demographic indicators
5. Percentage of people over 55
6. Registered infant mortality (0-12 months)
7. Alcoholism (officially registered alcoholics,
causes of death coming from alcoholism, expert
estimation of alcoholization level)
Indicators of employment
8. Percentage of people with permanent
employment
9. Official and actual unemployment
10. Participation in employment centres’
programmes
11. Percentage of people employed in
traditional sectors of economy
12. Work satisfaction (interesting, with good
income, giving status)
Indicators of housing and modern technical
(technological) means
13. Availability of a flat, house
14. Availability of trade housing
15. Level of comfort (living space, availability
of municipal services)
16. Availability of satellite communication
17. Access to the Internet
18. Availability of mechanized transport
means (cross-country vehicles, snowmobiles,
4-wheelers, etc.)
Indicators of estimation of quality of
education
19. Percentage of people with secondary
education
20. Percentage of people who have entered
the higher and specialized secondary education
institutions
21. Percentage of people with higher
education
22. Learning native language and culture
(number of students at schools with appropriate
teaching)
Indicators of health service quality
20. Availability of health-care agencies and
medical centres
21. Percentage of people who annually
undergo prophylactic medical examination
Indicators of polyethnicity
22. Percentage of aboriginals in the total
number of population
23. Relation of migrants and resident
population
24. Percentage of international marriages
Indicators of “ethnic comfort”
25. Use of ethnic languages
26. Structure of nutrition, share of ethnic
food
27. Availability of literature, mass-media,
geographical and administrative names in native
languages
28. Use of ethnic symbolism in urban
environment,
design
of
administrative
buildings
29.
Availability
of
ethno-cultural
centres, museums, folklore groups, souvenir
workshops
30. Possibility of learning native language
and culture
Indicators of traditional lifestyle
31. Securing the right on fishing, seahunting, hunting, reindeer breeding, gathering
(seafood, etc.), product processing and
distribution
32. Availability of quotas on resources
33. Securing the right on national trade
34. Securing the right on folklore
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Indicators of state-legal security
35. Level of state-legal guarantees
36. Level of vindictive damages
37. Possibility to go to local authorities,
including court and police, local authorities
Indicators of the development of communities,
tribal enterprises, other organizations of the
indigenous minorities of the North
38. The number of years the organization
works
39. The number of workers, including the
indigenous minorities of the North
40. Material and technical support
(processing surfaces, transport, fishing tackles,
and trade areas)
41. Level of income from work
42. Payments to charity
43. The level of self-organization (governing
bodies’ efficiency, interaction with state and local
government bodies)
This set of indicators presents a listing of
parameters of the quality of life of the indigenous
minorities of the North which can be used for
monitoring. However, it can be adjusted in
accordance with factual data availability.
Research of the quality of life as per the
indicators suggested is based, firstly, on the regard
of the governmental statistical data, secondly,
on ethno-sociological public survey, thirdly, on
expert interview. Aboriginals themselves can
participate in carrying out opinion polls. This
ensures a greater trust for the part of the population
under research. Moreover, the aboriginals can be
provided with a number of new working places.
References
1. Law 35 “On the quality of life of the population of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area – Yugra”,
February 28, 2006.
2. Novikova N.I., Stepanov V.V. (2010). Indikatory kachestva zhizni korennykh
malochislennykh narodov Severa Sakhalinskoi oblasti [Markers of the quality of life of the
indigenous peoples of the North]. Issledovaniya po prikladnoi i neotlozhnoi etnologii, issue 217,
46 p.
3. Regulations of the Administration of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Area № 188-А dated
24.04.2006 (revised on 06.10.2011) “On the data bank on socio-economic condition of indigenous
peoples of the North living in the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Area” (coupled with “The Regulations
on the data bank on socio-economic condition of indigenous peoples of the North living in the YamalNenets Autonomous Area” and “The Index of information subject to be included into the data bank on
socio-economic condition of indigenous peoples of the North living in the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous
Area”).
4. The Decision of the Board of the Accounts Chamber of the Russian Federation № 57K (824)
dated November 18, 2011 “On the results of the control measures ‘The audit of spending budgetary
funds on support of economical and social development of the indigenous peoples of the North, Siberia
and the Far East of the Russian Federation in 2009-2010’”.
5. The Order of the Government of the Russian Federation № 132-p dated 04.02.2009 “On the
conception of a sustainable development of indigenous peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East
of the Russian Federation”.
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Формирование системы показателей
для оценки качества жизни
как основы устойчивого
социально-экономического развития
коренных малочисленных народов Севера
Е.А. Брюханова, М.В. Кобалинский
Красноярский отдел Института экономики и организации
промышленного производства СО РАН
Россия, 660036, Красноярск, Академгородок, 50
В статье дана оценка эффективности механизмов государственной поддержки
экономического и социального развития коренных малочисленных народов Севера (КМНС);
обобщен опыт разработки программ развития КМНС и оценки качества жизни КМНС.
Предлагается использовать в качестве индикаторов социально-экономического положения
малочисленных народов Севера оценку их состояния в рамках ареалов проживания –
территорий с высоким удельным весом компактно и дисперсно расселенных северных этносов,
занимающихся, как правило, традиционной деятельностью.
Ключевые слова: коренные малочисленные народы Севера, устойчивое развитие, качество
жизни, программно-целевой подход, мониторинг.
Работа выполнена в рамках исследований, финансируемых Красноярским краевым фондом
поддержки научной и научно-технической деятельности, а также в рамках тематического
плана СФУ по заданию Министерства образования и науки Российской Федерации.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 9 (2014 7) 1521-1540
~~~
УДК 314.1 (571.511) + 314.1 (571.512)
Problems of Economic Rights
of the Indigenous Small-Numbered Peoples
in the Krasnoyarsk Territory
Semen Ya. Palchin*
Office of the Commissioner for Human Rights
in the Krasnoyarsk Territory
122 Karl Marx Str., Krasnoyarsk, 660021, Russia
Received 09.06.2014, received in revised form 11.07.2014, accepted 29.08.2014
The present paper is the second part of the material based on the Report of the Commissioner for the
Rights of the Indigenous Small-numbered Peoples in the Krasnoyarsk Territory “On the problems
of realizing the constitutional rights and liberties of the indigenous small-numbered peoples in the
Krasnoyarsk Territory in 2012”. The paper thoroughly analyzes the problem of realizing the economic
rights of the indigenous small-numbered peoples in the Krasnoyarsk Territory, in particular, the right to
protection of their original habitat, traditional lifestyle and traditional natural resource management;
the right to work and a decent life. The author not only reveals the drawbacks of the federal and
regional legislation, as well as lack of law enforcement practice, but also makes recommendations
and requests for authorized bodies of executive authorities and local governments to solve the existing
problems.
Keywords: north and arctic territories, the Krasnoyarsk Territory, legal and regulatory acts, indigenous
small-numbered peoples in the Krasnoyarsk Territory, the Commissioner for rights of the indigenous
small-numbered people, law enforcement practice.
Providing real economic rights directly
affects the well-being of both individuals and
entire ethnic groups. Realization of economic
rights of the indigenous small-numbered peoples
enables practicing the traditional economic
activities. Below there will be presented specific
experience of the Commissioner for Rights of
the Indigenous Small-numbered Peoples of the
Krasnoyarsk Territory (hereinafter referred
to as the Commissioner), law enforcement
practice of both federal and regional normative
and legal documents governing the rights of
*
indigenous small-numbered peoples of the
Krasnoyarsk Territory (Evenki, Ents people,
Nganasans, Chulyms, Dolgans, Selkups, Kets,
Nenets people). These peoples occupy quite a
small area in the Evenkiysky Municipal District,
Taimirsky Dolgano-Nenetsky Municipal District,
Turukhansky District, Severo-Yeniseysky District
of the Krasnoyarsk Territory.
Heads of eight economic entities involved in
traditional economic activities of the indigenous
small-numbered peoples of the North asked the
Commissioner to pay attention to the lack of
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: palchin@ombudsmankk.krsn.ru
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implementation of their economic rights to fishing
and hunting due to the inability to participate
on the equal terms with other competitors in
distribution of fishing and hunting lands, as
well as to facilitate the territory organization of
traditional natural resource management of the
indigenous small-numbered peoples.
The Commissioner states the existence of
systemic problems in ensuring economic rights.
To understand this issue, he uses a systematic
approach to it for identifying the major components
of this issue, impeding the implementation of
these economic rights.
The first set of problems is imperfection of
the federal legislation.
The second set – imperfection of the regional
legislation.
The third set – poor law enforcement
practices in the existing federal and regional
legislation.
The right to protection of peoples’ original
habitat, traditional lifestyle and traditional
natural resource management
Considering the first set of problems, it is
necessary to turn to competent lawyers, experts
on these issues, among which the Commissioner
reckons V.A. Kriazhkov, Professor, Doctor
of Juridical Science, and Counselor in the
Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation.
His comprehensive review of the existing
federal legislation brings to light the following
weaknesses and vulnerable points of this issue:
• lack of implementation of the indigenous
peoples’ rights to get lands for lifetime
inheritable possession and free use of
them;
• inability to obtain land spots for the
traditional hunting and fishing on noncompetitive basis;
• absence in the federal legislation of
required standard assessment of the
possible negative impact of industrial
projects on the traditional lifestyle and
natural resources management of the
indigenous peoples;
• imperfection of tax laws permitting the
RF subjects to use mineral resources
payments for social and economic
development of the indigenous peoples;
• “removal” of the right of the indigenous
peoples to higher priority in natural
resources management from the federal
legislation;
• legal uncertainty as to the ethnic identity
of people belonging to the peoples of the
North;
• declarative character of the series of
federal laws, including the Law “On
territories of traditional natural resources
management of the indigenous smallnumbered peoples of the North, Siberia
and Far East of the Russian Federation”.
The Commissioner addressed the deputies
of the Legislative Assembly of the Krasnoyarsk
Territory, referring to them as holders of a
right to introduce legislative initiative into the
Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation.
The Commissioner recommended the deputies
to prepare legislative initiatives that may deal
with the revealed shortcomings.
The second set of the problems is connected
with the imperfection of the regional normative
and legal framework. The main legislative acts of
the Krasnoyarsk Territory regulating the sphere
of economic rights of the indigenous peoples are:
• Charter of the Krasnoyarsk Territory of
05.06.2008 № 5-1777 (as amended on
20.06.2012);
• Law of the Krasnoyarsk Territory of
25.11.2010 № 11-5343 (as amended on
24.05.2012) “On protection of the original
habitat and traditional lifestyle of the
indigenous small-numbered peoples of
the Krasnoyarsk Territory”;
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• Law of the Krasnoyarsk Territory of
01.07.2003 № 7-1215 (as amended on
25.11.2010) “Fundamentals of legal
guarantees for the indigenous smallnumbered peoples in the Krasnoyarsk
Territory”;
• Law of the Krasnoyarsk Territory of
18.12.2008 № 7-2660 (as amended on
01.11.2012) “On the social support of
citizens living in the Taimirsky DolganoNenetsky Municipal District of the
Krasnoyarsk Territory”;
• Law of the Krasnoyarsk Territory of
18.12.2008 № 7-2658 (as amended on
24.05.2012) “On the social support
of citizens living in the Evenkiysky
Municipal District of the Krasnoyarsk
Territory”.
The article 12 of the Krasnoyarsk Territory’s
Charter declares protection of the rights to
traditional land use, management and crafts for
the indigenous small-numbered peoples of the
North. This law proclaims that the main way
for organizing and ensuring the protection of
the original habitat and traditional lifestyle of
the indigenous peoples is to create, protect and
use territories of traditional nature resource
management. The formation of such territories
would provide the most efficient realization of
economic rights of the indigenous peoples, but
for that it is necessary to develop and approve a
number of subordinate legislative acts, namely:
• Provision of the regional importance
territories of traditional nature resource
management of the indigenous smallnumbered peoples (item “б” of article 8);
• Procedure of creating the territories of
traditional nature resource management
of the indigenous small-numbered peoples
and list of documents that are necessary
for making a decision on the creation of
these territories (item “ж” of article 8);
• Provision of the arrangements to create
the federal importance territories of
traditional nature resource management
of the indigenous small-numbered peoples
in the Krasnoyarsk Territory (item “з” of
article 8);
• Approval procedure of established by
federal authorities in the Krasnoyarsk
Territory restrictions of non-traditional
for the indigenous small-numbered
peoples activity of organizations (all
forms of federal ownership) in places of
original habitat and traditional nature
resource management of the indigenous
small-numbered peoples (item “и” of
article 8);
• Regulation determining the list and terms
of economic activity restrictions for
organizations of all forms of ownership in
places of original habitat and traditional
nature resource management of the
indigenous small-numbered peoples in
the Krasnoyarsk Territory (item “л” of
article 8);
• Provision of ethnological expertise (item
“д” of article 8);
• Provision of procedure of granting
inventory to people exposed to the law
(item “в” of article 16);
• Provision of organization of training,
retraining and advanced training in
occupations necessary to the indigenous
small-numbered peoples’ communities
for the implementation of traditional
economic activity (item “з” of article
16).
The Commissioner appealed to the
Government of the Krasnoyarsk Territory to
accelerate the development and adoption of
these legal and regulatory acts. Otherwise,
violations of economic rights of the indigenous
small-numbered peoples will go on.
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The Commissioner promotes consistently
the issue of creating the territories of traditional
nature resource management. Thus, this issue
was raised at a meeting with the Governor of the
Krasnoyarsk Territory L. Kuznetsov in October
2011. After the meeting, certain instructions were
given to the Ministry of Natural Resources and
Forestry of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. In April
2012 the Commissioner received a letter from
the First Deputy of Minister S. Yu Vasin. This
letter revealed a decision to support offered by
the administration of the Taimirsky DolganoNenetsky Municipal District proposition to create
the local importance territories of traditional
nature resource management. The district
administration has appointed a working group
to review the preliminary proposals for creating
the territories of traditional nature resource
management of the indigenous small-numbered
peoples (hereinafter referred to as Territories) in
this municipal district. The Commissioner, his
public representatives and other public figures
suggested the creation of cluster Territories within
the rural settlements Karaul and Khatanga, as
well as within the urban settlement Dudinka,
except for the territory of the city itself. However,
these proposals were not supported by the local
administration. The proposal of the district
authorities includes creating Territories only in
places of deer farming.
Submitting
some
proposals
the
Commissioner relied on the opinion of the
indigenous population, expressed in their appeals
and personal conversations. He is not the one who
defends this plan. In October 2012, it was held
the joint meeting of the Public Council under the
chairmanship of Head of the Taimirsky DolganoNenetsky Municipal District and Coordinating
Council of the Association of Indigenous
Peoples of Taimyr (Krasnoyarsk Territory). At
this meeting the Head of the rural settlement
Khatanga A. Kuleshov publicly expressed a
request of Khatanga residents to create around
each village these Territories.
Representatives of the indigenous smallnumbered peoples’ communities, who work in the
central part of Taimyr, where hunting and fishing
are popular activities, made similar requests to
the Commissioner.
The Commissioner appealed to the local
authorities of Taimirsky Dolgano-Nenetsky
Municipal District with recommendation to
expand the geography of Territories or at least
reserve land for them in territorial planning
scheme till 2030.
Territories’ organization is topical in terms
of formation of compensatory mechanisms in
the case of industrial development of natural
resources of these Territories.
One of the most important steps in this
direction has already been made: methodology
for calculating the amount of damages inflicted
to the indigenous small-numbered peoples
living in the Krasnoyarsk Territory and to their
associations, as a result of economic and other
activities of both organizations of all forms of
ownership and individuals in places of original
habitat and traditional economic activities of
these peoples (hereinafter – Methodology) was
approved on December 11, 2012.
Adoption of Methodology indicates
consistent recognition by the authorities of the
Krasnoyarsk Territory of rights of the indigenous
small-numbered peoples and also emphasizes
the role of the Commisioner in defending these
rights, as the requirement to develop and approve
this Methodology was made in the report of the
Commissioner of 2011. Following the hearings
of the report by the Legislative Assembly of the
Krasnoyarsk Territory on June, 20, 2012, the
authorities adopted a regulation No. 2-350П, item
3.11 of which recommends the Government of
the Krasnoyarsk Territory to develop and test the
above-mentioned Methodology.
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Another argument in favour of Territories’
organizations might be the obligation of
the Russian Federation to contribute to the
International Decade of Biodiversity, as
proclaimed by the United Nations in 2011.
One of the goals of the Federal Law “On
the traditional nature resource management
territories of the indigenous small-numbered
peoples of the North, Siberia and Far East of the
Russian Federation” is preservation of biological
diversity on the traditional nature resource
management territories.
Thus, the Territories’ organization in the
Krasnoyarsk Territory and in Taimirsky DolganoNenetsky Municipal District in particular will
become a contribution of the Krasnoyarsk
Territory to the International Decade of
Biodiversity of the UN.
The Commissioner appealed to the
Government of the Krasnoyarsk Territory with
the recommendation to include in the regional
plan of preparation for and implementation
of the International Decade for Biodiversity
under the aegis of the UN necessary creating
the regional importance traditional nature
resource management territories for the
indigenous small-numbered peoples of the
North.
The Commissioner appealed to the
representatives from business sphere, who
work in places of original habitat and economic
activities of the indigenous small-numbered
peoples with the recommendation to actively
cooperate with these indigenous peoples,
to assist them in their development, and to
encourage their biodiversity conservation
programs.
Activities of industrial companies in
this way will correspond to the Guidelines on
Business and Human Rights, adopted by the
Human Rights Council of the UN, which, in turn,
are incorporated into international standards of
social responsibility. For example, the ISO 26000
standard, adopted in 2010 by the International
Organization for Standardization, has a dedicated
to human rights chapter, which establishes
corporate responsibility to respect human rights
and rights of the indigenous peoples.
These Guidelines are set in the UN Global
Compact, one of the signatories of which is the
company “Rosneft”.
The European Commission on Corporate
Responsibility last October made a statement,
in which it expressed its wish that all businesses
would take responsibility for the respect of human
rights as defined in the Guidelines. After this
statement, the European Commission initiated
development projects based on the widely used
regulations of the Guidelines for three industrial
sectors, including oil and gas industry. In
addition, the European Commission announced
its intention to issue periodic progress reports on
the implementation of the Guidelines.
Sustainable development and conservation of
biodiversity are human rights. Today, a sign of good
manners in the world is the publication of reports
of companies on Sustainable Development. And
in some countries it is a mandatory requirement
of the rules of stock exchanges.
Given the close integration between Russia
and the EU, as well as the increasing role on the
European market of large industrial companies
operating on the territory of the region,
establishing civilized relationships with the
indigenous peoples will be a strategically correct
step.
Making proposals and recommendations,
the Commissioner relies on the approved on
April 30, 2012 Fundamentals of state policy in
the field of environmental development of the
Russian Federation until 2030 (hereinafter –
Fundamentals).
The most important points of Fundamentals
are given below.
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• A strategic aim of state policy in the field
of environmental development is to solve
social and economic problems, ensuring
environmentally correct economic
growth;
• Realizing every human right to
healthy environment, strengthening the
legislation in the field of environmental
protection;
• Priority of conserving natural ecological
systems, natural landscapes and natural
systems;
• Participation of citizens, public and
other non-profit organizations in solving
problems in the field of environmental
protection and ecological safety;
• Consideration of the views of citizens
and NGOs in decision-making on
planning and implementation of
economic activity, which can have a
negative impact on the environment.
The last words of Fundamentals cover public
organizations of the indigenous small-numbered
peoples of the North. Their involvement in
discussing issues of environmental safety is a
strategic matter that affects the future of the
fragile Arctic ecosystem.
The third set of issues concerning
economic rights’ realization include insufficient
law enforcement practice of the existing federal
and regional legislation.
Unfortunately, it is one of the pet peeves.
The chairman of the Legislative Assembly
of the Krasnoyarsk Territory A.V. Uss somehow
brought these words: “Even Catherine II said:
‘If a statesman gets confused, if he thinks badly
and takes the wrong steps, the whole nation
experiences the adverse effects of this”. The
Commisioner agrees 100% with A.V. Uss.
Officials often interpret existing regional and
federal legislation on the basis of life experience
in central Russia and meager knowledge about
the indigenous small-numbered peoples. Their
decision-making is guided by stereotypes and
prejudices about them which sometimes lead to
mishaps. So according to some pseudo-experts
a term “fisheries to meet personal needs” is
perceived solely as a requirement to eat fish. It is
good, however, they do not require people to eat
fish right from the fishing nets. Any truly educated
professionals understand that personal needs
(requirements) are not limited to food. These are
complex needs including physiological, spiritual
and moral needs, as well as material needs for life
activities.
Activities to meet personal needs
(requirements) are regulated by the “National
Classification of Occupation. OK 010-93”
(adopted by Decree of the State Standard of
the Russian Federation of 30.12.1993, № 298)
(hereinafter – Classification).
In 62nd subgroup of Classification there are
skilled agricultural workers, as well as employees
of hunting and fishery, producing goods for
personal consumption. And here it is said that
skilled workers producing goods for personal
consumption, among other things, hunt wild
animals and fish for food, shelter and a minimum
cash income for themselves and family members.
To achieve these goals the workers carry out the
following duties: hunt wild animals and birds
in order to obtain meat, fur and other products;
fish and collect other species of aquatic flora and
fauna; made simple tools, as well as carry out the
sale of agricultural products on the market or
via procurement organizations.
Therefore, the sale of hunting and fishing
products to meet personal needs (requirements) is
not only possible, but absolutely legitimate.
Classification of occupations separates a
class of skilled workers, involved in agricultural
production, hunting and fishing for personal
consumption, and a class of skilled workers
doing the same activities (agricultural production,
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hunting and fishing) with a market orientation.
That means that members of the community, having
these types of economic activity, can produce and
sell products for personal consumption and in this
case, their income is not taxed in accordance with
the paragraph 16 of Article 217 of the Tax Code of
the Russian Federation:
“... revenues (excluding remuneration
for employees), received by members of duly
registered kinship and family communities of the
small-numbered peoples of the North , engaged
in traditional sectors of management, including
selling products of traditional harvesting and
hunting”. They also have the right to sell their
products as specially hired skilled workers, if
this is part of their duties. They can sell these
to procurement centres, wholesalers, sales
organizations, since they act as commodity
producers on behalf of their employers, i.e.
communities themselves.
Someone may be misled by the term “skilled
workers”. Usually it is used in relation to some
profession. Classifier in the preamble gives an
explanation along the following lines: “In contrast
to the term profession, the term occupation
means any kind of activities, including requiring
no special training, which brings any earnings
or income”. And further on: “In the classification
of occupations one takes into account that a
certain level of qualification can be achieved not
only thanks to vocational education or special
training, but often enough it is achieved in the
course of practical experience”.
And we should give the latest addition to
this part: All-Russian Classifier of occupations
corresponds to the International Standard
Classification of Occupations. Many regulatory
and legislative acts have been built on its very
basis.
According to the Commissioner, the words of
Head of Taimyr S.V. Baturin have no grounds. The
latter stated in a written response to S.S. Chuprin,
a public representative of the Commissioner as
such (verbatim): “Implementation of a tender for
the contract for the provision of fishing land to
sustain the traditional way of life and traditional
economic activities of the indigenous smallnumbered peoples will lead to a redistribution of
existing fishing lands, competition among the
indigenous peoples and social unrest”.
Following the logic of the mal-officials,
the indigenous small-numbered peoples are not
allowed to have fishing areas to ensure their
traditional way of life and exercise their economic
development. Therefore, we will continue to
“push” the indigenous peoples in commercial
fishing, expose them to deliberately unrealistic
conditions, for example, the obligatory presence
of a fish processing plant, and to refuse to
conclude contracts with them, since they do not
have these fish processing plants for some reason.
The situation is not a fictional one, it took place
in 2011, when a variety of fishing lands were
asked for by 74 households and 73 of them have
got refusal to conclude contracts because of the
lack of this very plant, this situation occurred
also even in those areas where there was no
competition.
Practice of generating different excuses is
still here.
S., the head of household, addressed the
Commissioner. She told indignantly about the
new initiative of the Taimyr authorities to require
the presence of snowmobile’s and boat motors’
inspections when fi xing quotas for aquatic
biological resources. This is an obviously
impossible condition as there are no specialized
inspection centres on the territory of Taimyr,
she said. Neither are registration bodies of
snowmobiles in the settlements of the area. This
means, people will be forced to go to Dudinka
or Norilsk, to spend tens of thousands rubles, to
live in these cities for weeks, instead of keeping
traditional economic activities.
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The Commissioner notes a manic aspiration
of some officials to create barriers to the economic
development of the indigenous peoples by using
the red tape method. People who are involved in
traditional harvesting, fishing and hunting are
forced to travel regularly to Dudinka because of
paperwork.
For example, the Rules of Fishery for the
West Siberian Fishery Basin demand to present
data of production (catch) of aquatic biological
resources according to the areas of production
(catch) and (or) fishery sites to relevant territorial
fishery organs no later than the 18th and 3rd days
of each month stating the condition for the 15th
day and the last day of the month, i.e. every two
weeks. There is a dilemma: either to catch fish,
or to be engaged in paperwork in the regional
centre.
The 19th century conspicuous statesman M.
M. Speransky in the Charter on Management
of Foreigners of 1822 introduced such a norm:
§ 254. “Opposite to that, we shall penalize the
officials for a delay of nomads or for calling them
from the far”.
Besides, according to the Rules of fishery
fishermen have to keep separate account of
production (catch) and reception by types of
aquatic biological resources taking into account
weight, dimensional ratio of fish types in a catch.
That is each fisherman has to have scales and
roulette, and therefore light. But it is a problematic
issue in tundra or taiga conditions.
The Commissioner appealed to the
Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry
of the Krasnoyarsk Territory
with a
recommendation to initiate amendments to the
Rules of Fishery for the West Siberian Fishery
Basin to simplify fishing regulations for people
engaged in fishing in order to keep traditional
way of life and traditional economic activities
of the indigenous small-numbered peoples of
the North.
Article 25 of the Federal law “On fishery
and preservation of aquatic biological resources”
entitles the indigenous people to fish without
permission and without fishing sites. However,
members of society regularly indicate that the
indigenous peoples are exposed to administrative
penalties carrying out fishery without permissions.
“No representative of the indigenous smallnumbered s peoples of the North on the territory
Taimyr was fined in 2012 , answered the territorial
body of Federal State Institution “Rosrybolovstvo”
at working conference with the senior managers
of “Yeniseyrybolovstvo” at the beginning of
December, 2012. An additional question was
asked about how to determine a nationality of
Rules of fishery violators; the answer was that
the inspectors do not keep records according to
the nationality and that their duties do not include
definition of an ethnic origin. Thus, it turns out that
the inspectors fine citizens, without determining
their nationality, and, accordingly, the indigenous
representatives fall in the category of citizens
exposed to this penalty. Furthermore, distorted,
or rather incomplete data are transferred to the
Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry of
the Krasnoyarsk Territory. So a blissful picture is
painted in such a way.
The Commissioner pleaded the heads of
Federal State Institution “Yeniseyrybvod”
to recommend inspectors supervising the
preservation of aquatic biological resources to
introduce in the protocols on administrative
violations additional records of nationality of
people who broke the Rules on fishery, with
their consent.
Analysis of existing legal and regulatory
acts suggests that Taimyr permits traditional
fishing without obtaining special permits
(documents) only within the limits established
by the Decree of Government of the Krasnoyarsk
Territory of 20.04.2009, № 210-п. At the same
time representatives of the indigenous small-
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numbered peoples have the right to carry out this
type of traditional fishing in any water basin,
even if it has been transferred for further use
to someone else. According to the order of the
Russian Federation Federal Agency for Fishery
of 04.03.2009 № 166, Decree of the Government
of the Krasnoyarsk Territory dated 07.12.2009,
№632-п, contains a provision on the need for
applications to sign up until September 1. From
the analysis of the above regulations, it follows
that this procedure, including a requirement for
admission documents until September 1, may
concern only traditional fishery, carried out
in case of the provision of a fishing site. Thus,
the systematic interpretation of the law implies
that current collection of applications for quotas
to traditional fishery is not based on any law.
In particular, the Resolution of the Taimirsky
Municipal District Administration of 27.01.2012
“On granting aquatic biological resources to use
for keeping the traditional economic activity of
the indigenous small-numbered peoples living
in the Taimirsky Dolgano-Nenetsky Municipal
District for 2012” is illegal and revocable.
Economic empowerment of the indigenous
peoples is implemented by public organizations.
Thus, on 19 March 2012, in Dudinka there was
held a round table on “Efficiency of state support
measures aimed at keeping traditional economic
activities of the indigenous small-numbered
peoples of Taimyr” due to the initiative of the
Association of the Indigenous Small-numbered
Peoples of Taimyr (the Krasnoyarsk Territory).
The roundtable participants adopted the resolution,
one of item of which condemned the position of
the district administration, having taken no part
in the round table. Also it was noted that the heads
of several business entities abused the financial
support paid them from the regional budget; they
use trust funds for reaching questionable goals.
Examples were given of agricultural production
cooperative “Iara-Tanama”, which three years
ago acquired $4 million ruble wing-in-ground
effect vehicle, but still has not put it on its balance
sheet and has not presented it to the members of
the agricultural cooperative that raises doubts
to its presence, and numerous questions arise
for a significant monetary maintenance for the
administrative and managerial staff, as subsidies
are targeted at reindeer husbandry and are
focused on breeding domestic reindeer, but not
on financing the administrative and managerial
staff.
It was also noted that the company “Piasino
Limited” (its founder is the Administration of
Taimyr) received in 2011 6.010.055 rubles by the
resolution of the Government of the Krasnoyarsk
Territory dated February 8, 2011, № 79-п, which
regulates the provision of financial support for
production from traditional economic activities
of the indigenous small-numbered peoples,
which is almost 22 % of the total allocated
funds for financial support in the district, at the
same time it was pointed out (literally), that “the
purpose of providing financial support is to solve
the problems of employment of the indigenous
small-numbered peoples, the promotion and
support of different types of traditional economic
activities of the indigenous small-numbered
peoples of the North” (paragraph 1.2. Procedure
of resolution). And if the household does not solve
these problems, it shall not receive financial
support, and, according to our data, there are no
any indigenous peoples in the company “Piasino
Limited”, and hunting and fishing carried out by
people of other nationalities do not match the
category “traditional economic activity of the
indigenous small-numbered peoples”.
General Director of the company “Piasino
Limited” does not work in this position anymore,
and the company has been sold by Taimyr’s
authorities to the businessmen from Norilsk. I
would not like to think that Taimyr’s authorities
cover their tracks in such a way, but rather I
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would like to see that law enforcement bodies
will clarify this case.
Peculiar interpretation of the Federal Law
“On hunting and the preservation of hunting’s
resources and introduction in certain legislative
acts of the Russian Federation” has given rise
to a precedent in the Evenkia. Association of
the indigenous small-numbered peoples of the
North of Evenkiysky Municipal District of
the Krasnoyarsk Territory “Arun” (“Revival”)
announced that it has some data on citizens
who do not belong to the indigenous smallnumbered peoples of the North, who have been
given the right to free taking of wildlife by
the representatives of local governments and
officials of service for the protection, control and
regulation of use of wildlife and its environment
in the Krasnoyarsk Territory (81 citizens in the
settlements of Baykit’s group only). According
to the views of leaders of this public organization,
this right has been granted illegally. The public
prosecutor’s office of the Krasnoyarsk Territory
responded by Submission of 07.09.2012, № 7/1-092012, “On elimination of violations of legislation
on hunting and preservation of hunting’s
resources” being sent to the head of service for
the protection, control and regulation of use of
wildlife and its environment. Officials of service
were brought to administrative responsibility.
However, this has not brought clarity to this
matter. Does every person who goes hunting with
a rifle to taiga or tundra should be treated as equal
to the indigenous small-numbered peoples of the
North? Does hunting serves him as the basis of
the existence? Many people do not distinguish
between hunting for sustaining the traditional way
of life from amateur, sports and even commercial
hunting.
Hunting for keeping the traditional way of
life of the indigenous small-numbered peoples
plays a saving role for the whole ethnos. Exactly
the same can be said about as the reindeer
husbandry. Only reindeer husbandry has a more
powerful ethnos-saving factor. That is due to
the traditional hunting the indigenous peoples
of tundra or taiga retain their native languages,
special culture of use of wildlife. These people
accompany their actions while hunting with rites
and rituals, according to the tradition the first
take is shared with the elderly, single mothers,
disabled and poor relatives. The purpose of profit,
as a rule, is not a key factor. Hunting products
are sold to cover costs related to the maintenance
of traditional hunting, and for the formation of
financial and material stocks for the next hunt.
Unsatisfactory law enforcement practice has
such an aspect. The Commissioner was given
the information from non-profit organization
of traditional trades and crafts subjects “Union
of the indigenous small-numbered peoples’
communities of the Krasnoyarsk Territory” about
difficulties with the registration of leases of forest
lands. As explained by the non-governmental
organization leaders, currently legal entities of
the indigenous small-numbered peoples having
long-term licenses for the use of wildlife and
leases of forest lands due to the inactivity of the
Forest Agency of the Krasnoyarsk Territory:
– can’t produce the state registration of
these contracts;
– can’t get conclusion of the state expertise
on forest development projects, which
are required to develop and submit under
lease contracts, as specified by the
aforesaid agency;
– can’t record the leased land in state
cadastral registration lists.
By the Decree of the Krasnoyarsk Territory
Arbitration Court, 29 March 2010, case number
A33-22160/2009, inactivity of the Krasnoyarsk
Territory Forest Agency was declared unlawful.
It is expressed in the non-preparation and nonpublication of any legal act which is required
for state registration of lease agreement of forest
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area, which should have been concluded between
the Krasnoyarsk Territory Forest Agency and the
community of the indigenous small-numbered
peoples.
Until now the Krasnoyarsk Territory Forest
Agency has not eliminated the revealed violations
of the rights and legitimate interests of the
community of the indigenous small-numbered
peoples and it does not even perform the decision
of the Krasnoyarsk Territory Arbitration Court.
In accordance with paragraphs 1 and 2
of Article 72 of the Forest Code of Russian
Federation from 04.12.2006 № 200- ФЗ, by lease
agreement of a forest area, which is in state or
municipal property, the landlord gives the tenant
a forest area for one or more purposes.
An object of lease can only be forest areas
owned by the state or municipality and having
state cadastral registration.
On behalf of the Ministry of Economic
Development of the Russian Federation
of 27.07.2010 № 20321- ИМ/Д23 on the
Krasnoyarsk Territory a forest area as a part
of forest lands are subject to state registration.
But cadastral information about the coordinates
of the characteristic points of the boundaries is
absent, i.e. the territories are enlisted in cadastral
registration only declaratively. Territories that
are provided for the use of the indigenous smallnumbered peoples are registered as being in the
ownership of the Russian Federation.
In addition, the Federal Law “On the Federal
Budget for 2011 and the planning period of 2012
and 2013” from 13.12.2010 № 357 – ФЗ did not
allocate funds for activities to implement state
cadastral registration. As a result, in the next two
years the executive authorities of the Krasnoyarsk
Territory won’t register forest areas as part of
forest lands in due order.
Thus, the legal entities of the indigenous
small-numbered peoples, having long-term
licenses for wildlife use and lease agreements
on forest areas, will not be able to get state
registration of lease agreement on forest areas,
whereby such contracts will be recognized
as not concluded , thus not there will not be
fulfilled obligations for long-term licenses for
wildlife use in full.
The
Commissioner
addressed
A.A. Klishas, the senator from the Krasnoyarsk
Territory, chairman of the Federation Council
Committee on Constitutional Legislation,
Judicial and Legal Affairs, Development of
Civil Society, with a request to get involved
in this problem, given that its solution is
impossible without the execution of the
financial obligations of the federal budget.
Violation of the economic rights of the
indigenous small-numbered peoples is fostered
by the reduction in staff number of employees
supervising the state of the environment.
Insufficient number of inspectors of hunting
and fishing, their inability to make regular
visits to the places where fish is caught; and
also weak interaction at the municipal level
between local governments, law enforcement
agencies, veterinary service representatives and
representatives of the territorial service for the
protection, control and regulation of the use of
wildlife and its environment of the Krasnoyarsk
Territory while organizing seasonal hunt in public
areas and in the territories where the indigenous
small-numbered peoples’ communities perform
their traditional economic activities. The
compliance with the requirements of legislation
in the sphere of nature land management is poor
too, which ends up in encouraging malevolent
citizens to start illegal hunting and illegal use of
aquatic biological resources. As a consequence,
sable and wild reindeer are wildly shot; catch of
valuable fish species is done fast and loose.
We should mention the fact that bad
performance of official duties by employees
from law enforcement agencies and territorial
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service for the protection, control and regulation
of the use of wildlife and its environment in the
Krasnoyarsk Territory regarding the elimination
of illegal acts of citizens in hunting and making
sustainable documentation on witnessing the
circumstances of the administrative offenses
in the territories, where the indigenous smallnumbered peoples perform their traditional
economic activities.
According to the information obtained
from the non-profit organization of traditional
land management, harvesting, hunting and
fishing “Union of the communities of the
indigenous small-numbered peoples of the
North of Evenkiysky Municipal District of the
Krasnoyarsk Territory”, the authorized officials
during their trip to the place of an offense in the
territory of traditional economic activities of the
community of the indigenous small-numbered
peoples “Kunnoir” (translated as “Crying out”)
for some unknown reason did not prevent the
illegal acts committed by those citizens, who
do not belong to the indigenous small-numbered
peoples. These offenders were witnessed as
illegal hunting without proper documents.
The authorities only made a protocol about
administrative offense”.
Besides that, offenders were not arrested and
were not delivered to law enforcement agencies,
they were allowed to keep their gun (traps). Even
their rifled firearms were not withdrawn despite
the absence of the licensing documents.
Illegal activities concerning hunting sable
were qualified as an administrative offense by
local authorities. One should take into account
that the protocol has not specified by some
unknown reason a number of the found harvested
sable skins.
According to the protocol the period,
within which the detected violations should
be eliminated, shall not exceed 14 days from
the moment of issuing the corresponding
regulation. Thus, citizens who were carrying out
illegal hunting were allowed to continue illegal
activities on the unknown grounds for more than
two calendar weeks, i.e., they were permitted
to complete their criminal actions (illegal
hunting). One of the so-called offenders during
2012 was twice prosecuted for offenses in the
sphere of the hunting, which are enlisted in by
Code of Administrative Offences of the Russian
Federation.
Authorized
representatives
of
the
Commissioner became aware of the mass
shooting of wild reindeer right in Khatanga rural
settlement. Hunters threw insides, blood and
guts off right into the river, and we need to note
that downstream there is the water intake of the
settlement.
Such barbaric attitude to nature has become
possible partly because in the Taimirsky DolganoNenetsky Municipal District has a reduced
structure of “Rosprirodnadzor” (Russian Federal
Service for Supervision of Natural Resource
Usage). According to the Commissioner,
the reduction of this structure at the Taimyr
Peninsula is a mistake. Dozens of large industrial
companies are already operating in the area and
conducting their activities in 26 licensed areas.
The whole territory of the region is defined as the
place of original habitat and traditional economic
activities of the indigenous small-numbered
peoples of the North. Uncontrolled activity of
industrial companies sometimes causes serious
damage to the original habitat of the indigenous
peoples.
The Commissioner was asked by the Noskov
settlement in tundra reindeer herders V. and Ia.
to react to this ecological character crime. The
herders attached to their application photos
and videos showing the large-scale soil cover
disturbance of tundra stretching for tens of
kilometers, near the river Iakovlevka. According
to them, in the summer time the whole neighboring
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region of the tundra was traveled through
by heavy crawler tractors and cross-country
vehicles serving the licensed oilfield mined by the
company “Rosneft”.
For the Commissioner, who grew up in
a family of reindeer herders, images of the
blasphemous attitude to the nature, the ruthless
destruction of reindeer moss and lichens have
become the best proof of ineffectiveness of the
authorities assigned to monitor compliance with
the constitutional rights of citizens to the safe
environment. Relevant materials were then sent
to the Public Prosecutor of the Krasnoyarsk
Territory.
The Commissioner appealed to the heads
of the territorial department of the Federal
Service for Supervision of Natural Resources
of the Krasnoyarsk Territory, with a
recommendation to recreate their department
in Taimirsky Dolgano-Nenetsky Municipal
District, taking into account the availability
of staff units in the rural settlement of Karaul
and Khatanga.
The original habitat of the indigenous
peoples as a result of the activities of industrial
companies is getting unsafe for reindeer herders,
hunters and fishermen.
In October 2012, near the village Tukhard a
tragic accident happened to citizen P. Two children
were left without a single parent, i.e. they became
orphans. The inhabitants of Tukhard stated that
a young father was a non-drinker, hardworking
man of respect among fellow countrymen. Citizen
P. was returning from fishing home on his boat by
the Bol’shaya Kheta river in the dark and came
across a taut rope, which made him thrown out
of the boat into the cold water, where he drowned
eventually. The taut rope was pulled by the
professional divers to produce necessary repairs
in the gas pipeline running along the bottom of
the river. A few days earlier the rope had almost
hit two people, returning by boat to their village,
they got safe only because it was still light. K.
citizen testified to the Commissioner for he asked
the repairers to mark the rope with light lights or
by other means and they just laughed in response.
The Prosecutor’s department of Taimirsky
Dolgano-Nenetsky Municipal District has not
seen in this death any components of the crime
and refused to start a criminal case.
The Commissioner makes here a statement
that he will seek further review of the investigation
materials, insist on beginning criminal case and
find real perpetrators, guilty in the death of
citizen P.
Right to Work and Decent Life
Right to work and decent life for the
indigenous peoples is associated with their
rights to protection of their original habitat and
to undertake entrepreneurial activity through
keeping the traditional economic activities of the
indigenous peoples. The existence of problems
in the implementation of these rights entails a
reduction of income, impairment of life standard,
an increase in injuries, sometimes fatal ones.
The materials of the Accounts Chamber of
the Krasnoyarsk Territory have witnessed a recent
years’ trend of the increased number of citizens
with incomes below the minimum subsistence
level. In Evenkia this number went up from 1,283
people in 2009 to 4,668 people in 2011. Figures
are common, they do not take into account the
national characteristic of the district inhabitants,
but there is no doubt that the number of the
indigenous peoples falling in this category is
sufficient. According to the same year materials,
the average monthly salary of the fishermen, who
are almost 100% representatives of the northern
ethnic groups, was 3,900 rubles. The average
monthly salary of hunters was 5,200 rubles. The
subsistence minimum level in the Evenk region
for able-bodied population is 14,705 rubles.
The average monthly salary of reindeer herder
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in Evenkia was higher than that of hunters and
fishermen, but, unfortunately, it also fell short of
the minimum subsistence level, it was only 8,100
rubles.
At the Taimyr Peninsula the situation is no
better, although the local authorities are trying
to sugarcoat it. Thus, the achievements there
included the situation on the labor market, namely
the reduction of unemployment: as for 01.01.2011
645 people were registered in employment
services and by 01.01.2012 this number fell to 586
people.
However, we know that the citizens, who
preserve traditional lifestyle and (or) carry
out different kinds of traditional economic
activities of the indigenous peoples, receive
compensation in the amount of 4000 rubles
a month and they are not registered in the
employment services as unemployed.
In 2009, the number of such people was
1,941, in 2010 – 1,963, in 2011 – 1,842. Revenues
of these citizens are 3-3.5 times lower than the
minimum subsistence level in the area (for the
able-bodied population it is 12,573 rubles, in the
rural settlement of Khatanga – 14 608 rubles).
These people do not registered in employment
services due to the necessity to go on the
dole once in two weeks, which is impossible
in their living conditions. In fact, it is hidden
unemployment; if we take it in consideration
with the situation on the labor market will be
fundamentally different.
According to the report of the administration
of Taimirsky Dolgano-Nenetsky Municipal
District, the average monthly wage of fisherman
(they are primarily the indigenous people) is 3,632
rubles 90 kopecks.
Average monthly wage of reindeer herders
in Khatanga is 2,570 rubles. Given the benefits
(4,000 rubles per month) the total income of
herders is 6,570 rubles, which is two and a half
times less than minimum subsistence level.
Average monthly wage of reindeer herders
living in Noskov and Tukhard, according to the
data of agricultural production cooperatives
“Iara-Tanama” and “Suzun”, also does not reach
minimum subsistence level, although households’
owners are making efforts to rectify the situation.
Unfortunately, these measures are not sufficient;
instead, the government should make more
meaningful and effective efforts to remedy the
situation.
For example, S.A. Sizonenko, the head
of reindeer herding cooperative “Suzun” has
taken all the critical remarks with positive and
constructive attitude. Thus, two years ago the
Commissioner analyzed the applications from
workers and cooperative members, in which they
asked for proper documentation of their property
shares by cooperative’s heads. S.A. Sizonenko,
being the chairman of the cooperative, eagerly
eliminated these discrepancies and, moreover,
introduced into his daily routine regular
consultations with experienced workers – former
heads of reindeer farms in the times of the Soviet
Union. The result of these measures is a steady
increase in the number of domesticated reindeer
and the highest salary in the herder industry at the
Taimyr Peninsula. Although, consider it again, it
is not equal to 12,573 rubles, which is minimum
subsistence level in the district.
Heads of deer farms offer to increase
compensation (benefits) for herders up to
6,000 rubles per month, as reindeer herding
is critical for the development of some ethnic
groups. The Commissioner agrees with them
and recommends the Government of the
Krasnoyarsk Territory to seek the possibility
of increasing the amount of compensation to a
specified amount.
This measure will reduce social tension in
the area.
It may be interesting to see the dynamics
of the number of applications for social support
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Semen Ya. Palchin. Problems of Economic Rights of the Indigenous Small-Numbered Peoples in the Krasnoyarsk Territory
received from the citizens, who are the indigenous
small-numbered peoples of Taimyr.
2009
2010
2011
2 641 (26,2 %)
3 146 (31,1 %)
3 408 (33,6 %)
Conclusions of the Accounts Chamber of the
Krasnoyarsk Territory: every third indigenous
resident of the region has the right to get social
support, while this right arises due to insufficient
funds of these people to cover their basic
expenditures.
The Commissioner repeatedly called
on the authorities to Taimyr with the
recommendation to cease violations of the
indigenous peoples’ rights to have access to
hunting and fishing lands. The indigenous
people should also a priority while using
aquatic biological resources, as well as
getting licenses on wildlife. They should
not overcome bureaucratic obstacles to
carrying out their traditional economic
activities. The authorities must create areas
of traditional use of natural resources. All
these measures will improve the socioeconomic situation.
However, local authorities prefer only to
increase the burden on the regional budget in
the case of provision of social support. The
Krasnoyarsk Territories’ authorities fulfill
their obligations, but the district authorities are
obliged to create conditions to ensure the rights
of the indigenous peoples to their economic
development, community activities for the
indigenous peoples, especially since they are
endowed with the state power by the law of the
Krasnoyarsk Territory.
Article 132 of the Constitution of the
Russian Federation in terms of control over
the implementation of delegated state powers
can become the reason for claim to the public
authorities of the Krasnoyarsk Territory, who
work ineffectively.
Violation of labor rights of the northern
ethnic groups happens partly due to the reduced
number of bodies, assigned to implement control
in the field of labor relations.
A female citizen T., the worker of municipal
housing and maintenance utilities enterprise
“Taimyr”, located in the settlement of Ust’-Avam,
referred to the Commissioner requesting for her
labor rights’ protection. T. is pregnant, she has
two minor children at the age of 3 and 6 years old.
The employer made her quit of her own accord.
The Labor Code of the Russian Federation
protects her rights and bans to dismiss pregnant
women by the will of employers.
In order to protect the female citizen T. labor
rights, letters were sent to the Prosecutor’s Office
of Taimirsky Dolgano-Nenetsky Municipal
District and to State Labor Inspection Service
in the Krasnoyarsk Territory, which is directly
responsible for Taimirsky Dolgano-Nenetsky
Municipal District. Both bodies did not determine
the infringement of rights. The Prosecutor’s
Office of the District wrote back an excuse that
the complainant is on vacation now, any evidence
of making her quit of her own accord have not
been discovered, the prosecutor’s response
measures are not planned. In the opinion of the
Commissioner, the Prosecutor’s Office exhibits
only formal control of the violation of rights.
There are some reasons for this anyway. It is an
unaffordable luxury both for the employees of
the Prosecutor’s Office and for the employees of
State Labor Inspection Service to visit a remote
Ust’-Avam settlement by a helicopter and to live
there about one-two weeks while waiting for the
next helicopter to get them back home.
Soon there was received one more employees’
complaint from the same enterprise of this remote
area. Now people blamed the heads of municipal
enterprise “Taimyr” for inappropriate conditions
of work. It turned out impossible to restore
citizen’s labor rights with the help of government
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bodies. State Labor Inspection Service honestly
replied in their letter (literally): “Bearing in mind
that municipal housing and maintenance utilities
enterprise “Taimyr”, located in the settlement of
Ust’-Avam, is to be reduced in staff and as the
routine audit of municipal enterprise “Taimyr” is
not planned in 2012, it is impossible to organize
the unscheduled inspection of the information
got”.
Some worrying news came from
Turukhansky District. Being anxious about
their probable dismissal, the employees of the
Ket language laboratory referred to Office of
the Commissioner for Human Rights in the
Krasnoyarsk Territory.
A female citizen M. informed the
Commissioner of her acquaintance with the order
of new staff list, which has no her position. The
female citizen M. raises her five years old minor
daughter alone. The situation is made worse by a
possible eviction from corporate housing in the
case of her position is reduced. In the view of M.
she would be fired because of her nationality.
The Commissioner for Human Rights in the
Krasnoyarsk Territory addressed the Ministry
of Education and Science of the Krasnoyarsk
Territory with the request to pay attention to this
case. S.I. Makovskaia, First Deputy Minister,
assured the Commissioner and M. that “at
present time a procedure of personnel and staff
reduction is not being made”. Moreover, M. was
given guarantees of compliance with the Labor
Code of the Russian Federation if the procedure
of personnel and staff reduction takes place.
Conclusions: in the Russian Federation
and one of its subjects – the Krasnoyarsk
Territory – there is an extensive normative and
legal framework, the task of which is to create
legal mechanisms to implement the rights of the
indigenous peoples prescribed by the Russian
Constitution. However, this legislation and
its enforcement practices are to be amended.
Numerous examples from the work of the
Commissioner for rights of the indigenous
small-numbered peoples in the Krasnoyarsk
Territory suggest that in the Krasnoyarsk
Territory there is a need in the Commissioner
for effective realization of the rights of the
indigenous small-numbered peoples. It is
necessary to develop further the normative and
legal framework to solve the real problems of
the indigenous small-numbered peoples of the
Krasnoyarsk Territory more quickly and with
greater soсial response.
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and techniques of art management in socio-cultural educational environment of the Krasnoyarsk
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[Methodological possibilities of anthropological school “Culture-and-Personality” for the modern
Russian socio-cultural studies. Sovremennye problem nauki i obrazovaniia (Modern problems of
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Kistova A.V., Pimenova N.N., Nevol’ko N.N. Kul’tura korennykh i malochislennykh narodov Severa
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Semen Ya. Palchin. Problems of Economic Rights of the Indigenous Small-Numbered Peoples in the Krasnoyarsk Territory
42. Zigon J. (2013). Human Rights As Moral Progress? A Critique. Cultural Anthropology, 28(4),
716-736.
Проблемы реализации экономических прав
коренных малочисленных народов
Красноярского края
С. Я. Пальчин
Аппарат Уполномоченного по правам человека
в Красноярском крае
Россия, 660021, Красноярск, ул. Карла Маркса, 122
Настоящая статья представляет собой вторую часть материала, основанного на
Докладе Уполномоченного по правам коренных малочисленных народов в Красноярском
крае «О проблемах реализации конституционных прав и свобод коренных малочисленных
народов на территории Красноярского края в 2012 году». В статье подробно анализируются
проблемы реализации экономических прав коренных малочисленных народов Красноярского
края. В частности, речь идет о следующих правах: право на защиту исконной среды
обитания, традиционного образа жизни и традиционного природопользования; право
на труд и достойную жизнь. В статье не только раскрываются проблемы федерального
и регионального законодательства, а также недостаточность правоприменительной
практики, но и формулируются рекомендации и просьбы, которые выдвигает Уполномоченный
орган исполнительной власти и местного самоуправления для решения существующих
проблемных ситуаций.
Ключевые слова: северные и арктические территории, Красноярский край, нормативноправовая база, коренные малочисленные народы Красноярского края, Уполномоченный по
правам коренных малочисленных народов, правоприменительная практика.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 9 (2014 7) 1541-1554
~~~
УДК 330.59; 338.24
Territorial Peculiarities of Settlement
of the Indigenous Minorities of the North
(by the example of Taimyr Dolgano-Nenets
and Evenk municipal regions of Krasnoyarsk Krai)
Elena A. Bryukhanova* and Aleksandr M. Matveev
Krasnoyarsk Branch of the Institute of Economics
and Industrial Engineering of SB RAS
50 Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk, 660036, Russia
Received 15.05.2014, received in revised form 12.06.2014, accepted 30.06.2014
The article considers the typology of inhabited localities of Taimyr Dolgano-Nenets and Evenk
municipal regions of Krasnoyarsk Krai according to such criteria as the percentage of the
indigenous minorities (IM) in the total population, the level of the development of traditional,
market and budgetary sectors that should be taken into account at working out the programme of
the territories’ socio-economical development. It estimates the potential and directions of socioeconomical development of the territories of the indigenous minorities’ traditional settlement and
traditional economical activity.
Keywords: indigenous minorities, territories of traditional settlement and traditional economical
activity, territories of traditional use of natural resources.
The research is carried out within the frame of the researches financed by Krasnoyarsk regional fund
for supporting scientific and technical research activities and within the frame of SibFU’s thematic
plan in compliance with the instruction task of the Ministry of education and science of the Russian
Federation.
Introduction
According to population census data 2010
the total number of 8 indigenous minorities of
the North (the Dolgans, the Evenks, the Nenets,
the Kets, the Nganasans, the Selkups, the Enets,
the Chulyms), compactly residing in the territory
of Krasnoyarsk Krai, was 16,2 thousand people
(30,1 % of the population of the indigenous
minorities of the North in Siberian Federal
Okrug) (Table 1, Fig. 1).
*
According to the RF governmental
regulation No 22 dated 11.01.1993 the following
territories were regarded as the residential
territories of the indigenous minorities of the
North in Krasnoyarsk Krai up to May 2009 (The
RF governmental regulation…, 1993)1: Taimyr,
Turukhansk and Evenk municipal regions,
Sym village of Yeniseysk municipal region and
Vel’mo village of Severo-Yeniseysky municipal
region.
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: eab@ksc.krasn.ru
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Elena A. Bryukhanova and Aleksandr M. Matveev. Territorial Peculiarities of Settlement of the Indigenous Minorities…
Table 1. Total population of the indigenous minorities of the North in Krasnoyarsk Krai as per the population
census data 2002 and 2010
Ethnos
including
urban population, people
rural population, people
Total, people
2002
2010
2002
2010
2002
2010
the Dolgans
5805
5810
1038
1452
4767
4358
the Nganasans
811
807
147
263
664
544
the Nenets
3188
3633
494
657
2694
2976
the Kets
1189
957
199
183
990
774
the Selkups
412
281
58
70
354
211
the Chulyms
159
145
11
8
148
137
the Evenks
4632
4372
1438
1345
3194
3027
the Enets
213
221
39
53
174
168
16409
16226
3424
4031
12985
12195
Total
Fig. 1. Changes in the population number of the indigenous minorities of the North in Krasnoyarsk Krai as per
the population census data (people)
In compliance with the RF governmental
regulation No 631-р dated 08.05.2009 the list of
traditional residential territories of the indigenous
minorities of the RF in Krasnoyarsk Krai was
specified and extended (The RF governmental
regulation…, 2009). It includes the whole
Severo-Yeniseysky region (not only Vel’mo
village as it was before) and the rural settlement
of Chindatsky Soviet of the settlement (sel’sovet)
of Tyukhtet municipal region (the territory of
the Chulyms’ compact residence). In 2000 the
Chulyms were included in the Unified list of
the indigenous minorities of the RF. According
to the population census data 2002 the number
of the Chulyms in Krasnoyarsk Krai (Tyukhtet
region) was 159 persons. They compactly live
in Pasechnoye village of Chindatsky Soviet of
the settlement of Tyukhtet region located 120
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Elena A. Bryukhanova and Aleksandr M. Matveev. Territorial Peculiarities of Settlement of the Indigenous Minorities…
Table 2. Territory and population of the area of traditional residence of the indigenous minorities in Krasnoyarsk
Krai
Territory,
thousand
square
kilometers
Number of resident population,
1.01.2013, people
including
total
urban
rural
Taimyr Dolgano-Nenets municipal region
879,9
34053
Evenk municipal region
767,6
Turukhansk municipal region
210,7
Severo-Yeniseysky municipal region
Rural village of Simsky Soviet of the
settlement of Yeniseysky municipal region
Rural village of Chindatsky Soviet of
the settlement of Tyukhtetsky municipal
region
Total in the area of traditional residence of
the indigenous minorities of the North in
Krasnoyarsk Krai
% of the indicators of Krasnoyarsk Krai
For reference: Krasnoyarsk Krai
Population
density, people/
square km
23006
11047
15881
-
15881
0,02
17876
6619
11257
0,08
47,3
11864
8317
3547
0,25
1,0
176
-
176
0,18
2,1
284
-
284
0,14
1908,6
80134
37942
42192
0,04
80,6
2,8
1,7
6,3
2366,8
2846475
2181591
664884
0,04
1,20
Note: The data, concerning the territory, are given in compliance with Krasnoyarsk Krai laws on establishing the borders and
institutionalization of municipal establishments. The absence of exact data about the area of Simsky Soviet of the settlement
caused its estimation. The data about the number of resident population are given in accordance with the informational sources
of Krasnoyarsk Statistics Service and Federal State Statistics Service (Estimation of the population number…, 2013; Database
of indices…).
km from the region centre, horse breeding being
their main activity.
The total area of traditional residential
territories of the indigenous minorities in
Krasnoyarsk Krai is approximately 1908,6
thousand square kilometers (80,6 % of
Krasnoyarsk Krai territory) (Table 2). According
to the data of 01.01.2013 the total population, living
in the territory, was 80,1 thousand people (2,8 %
of Krasnoyarsk Krai population), including 37,9
thousand people of urban population (47,3 % of
the population of the territory under consideration
and 1,7 % of Krasnoyarsk Krai urban population);
42,2 thousand people of rural population
(52,7 % of the population of the territory under
consideration and 6,3 % of Krasnoyarsk Krai
rural population).
With administrative and territorial regard
the area of traditional residence of the indigenous
minorities embraces 44 municipal entities in
Krasnoyarsk Krai2: 6 municipal regions (of
these 2 regions are Taimyr (Dolgano-Nenets)
and Evenk municipal regions with a special
status, Yeniseysky and Tyukhtetsky regions
as the territories of traditional residence of
the indigenous minorities) and 36 settlements
established in their territories (of these 4
settlements are urban and 32 settlements are
rural). There are 100 human settlements in
the territory under consideration. Of these 6
settlements have a status of urban ones3, the
rest 94 settlements refer to the category of rural
human settlements (Table 3).
Table 4 shows that 86,2 % (13,9 thousand
people) of the indigenous population lives in
the territory of Taimyr (Dolgano-Nenets) and
Evenk municipal regions (it should be taken
into consideration that these municipal units
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Elena A. Bryukhanova and Aleksandr M. Matveev. Territorial Peculiarities of Settlement of the Indigenous Minorities…
Table 3. Administrative and territorial division of the area of traditional residence of the indigenous minorities
in Krasnoyarsk Krai
Municipal
regions
area of traditional residence of the
indigenous minorities in Krasnoyarsk
Krai, total
Urban
regions
6
Settlements
total
Inhabited locality
urban rural
total
urban rural
36
4
32
100
6
94
4
2
2
27
2
25
23
23
5
34
2
32
12
2
10
including
Taimyr Dolgano-Nenets municipal
region
(administrative centre – Dudinka city)
Evenk municipal region (administrative
centre – Tura village)
Turukhansk municipal region
(administrative centre – Turukhansk
village)
Severo-Yeniseysky municipal region
(administrative centre – SeveroYeniseysky industrial community)
Rural village of Simsky Soviet of the
settlement of Yeniseysky municipal
region
Rural village of Chindatsky Soviet
of the settlement of Tyukhtetsky
municipal region
For reference: Krasnoyarsk Krai
1
-
1
23
1
7
2
1
23
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
3
485
1766
44
17
used to have the status of national okrugs and
later that of autonomous okrugs) and only13,8 %
(2,2 thousand people) – in the territory of other
municipal units.
Taimyr Dolgano-Nenets
municipal region
Allocation of the indigenous minorities of
the North in rural inhabited localities in Taimyr
Dolgano-Nenets municipal region is uneven,
historically formed (Table 5, Fig. 2).
Population density in the region is extremely
low. It is 30340 square kilometers per 1
settlement. The distance between Dudinka city,
the administrative centre of the municipal region,
and the villages is more than 1000 kilometers
by air (Syndassko) and more than 2,5 thousand
kilometers by water (Khatanga).
520
35
62
1704
Historically there were five main ethnic
and industrial areas within the bounds of the
municipal region, and namely those of Yeniseysk
Nenets, Avam Nganasans, Dolgans of the eastern
part of the municipal region, Khantaika Evenks
and Potapovo Enets.
The Yeniseysk Nenets historically live
in the territory of Karaul rural settlement and
the western part of Dudinka urban settlement,
naturally and economically drawn towards the
river Yenisey and the Yeniseysky Zaliv (the
Yeniseisk Bay). The Nenets’ national centre is
Nosok village.
The Evenks and Dolgans predominantly
live in the territory around Lake Khantaika in
approximately equal percentage. Khantaiskoye
ozero (Lake Khantaika) village is the Khantaika
Evenks’ national centre.
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Elena A. Bryukhanova and Aleksandr M. Matveev. Territorial Peculiarities of Settlement of the Indigenous Minorities…
Table 4. Number of the indigenous minorities in municipal units of Krasnoyarsk Krai (according to the population
census data 2010, people)
Taimyr
(Dolgano-Nenets)
municipal region
Evenk
municipal region
Turukhansk,
Severo-Yeniseysky,
Yeniseysky,
Tyukhtetsky and
other
municipal units of
the krai
Municipal units
5393
48
369
5810
the Kets
19
207
731
957
the Nganasans
747
6
54
807
the Nenets
3494
8
131
3633
the Selkups
9
1
271
281
the Chulyms
Nationality
the Dolgans
Total in Krasnoyarsk
Krai
0
0
145
145
the Evenks
266
3583
523
4372
the Enets
204
0
17
221
10132
3853
2241
16226
29,4
23,7
х
0,6
62,4
23,8
13,8
100,0
Total (the indigenous minorities
of the North)
% of the total population
% of the population of the
indigenous minorities of the
North in the krai
The central part of Taimyr Peninsula,
located in the basins of the middle and upper
courses of the river Pyasina and the upper Kheta,
is the territory of the Avam Nganasans’ historic
residence. At present it is also inhabited by the
Dolgans and the Enets. The percentage of the
former is almost the same while that of the latter
is smaller.
A vast territory in the eastern part of the
municipal region, practically all developed area
of Khatanga rural settlement make the zone of
the Dolgans’ historic residence. The system of
environmental management is drawn towards
the tributaries of the Kheta-Khatanga river and
small rivers, flowing into the southern part of the
Khatanga Bay.
The territories around Potapovo are
predominantly inhabited by the Enets, who
used to occupy a considerable area of the
Turukhan and Taz rivers, the right bank of the
river Ob but were forced out to the lower course
of the Yenisey by the Nenets and Selkups. The
Enets have been neighbouring with the Nenets,
migrants in the lower course of the Yenisey, since
the 19th century. Good neighbourly relations in
many respects favoured the assimilation of the
Enets, who are less numerous in number, as well
as their considerable rundown. Both are also
helped forward by the similarity of the Enets and
Nganasan languages and the fact that the Enets
haven’t got written language.
At present the borders of historically
developed areas diffuse and are not marked
territorially. Modern socio-economical conditions
determine the ethnoses’ large-scale integration,
development of common socio-cultural centres.
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Elena A. Bryukhanova and Aleksandr M. Matveev. Territorial Peculiarities of Settlement of the Indigenous Minorities…
Table 5. Typology of urban and rural settlements and inhabited localities in Taimyr Dolgano-Nenets municipal
region as per the percentage of the indigenous minorities of the North in total population (according to the data
from 1.01.2008 г.)
Population, people
total
including the
indigenous minorities
of the North
Percentage of the
indigenous minorities
of the North in total
population, %
Dudinka urban settlement
26560
3219
12,12
1
Dudinka city
24382
1382
5,67
2
Volochanka village
604
564
93,38
3
Levinskie pesky village
170
114
67,06
4
Potapovo village
402
236
58,71
5
Ust’-Avam village
628
589
93,79
6
Khantaiskoe ozero village
364
334
91,76
Dickson urban settlement
690
0
0,00
No
Settlements/inhabited localities
in municipal units
Karaul rural settlement
4023
3166
78,70
1
Karaul village
924
275
29,76
2
Baikalsk village
124
101
81,45
3
Vorontsovo village
354
265
74,86
4
Kazantsevo village
36
33
91,67
5
Karepanovsk village
11
0
0,00
6
Mungui village
20
20
100,00
7
Nosok village
1756
1437
81,83
8
Polikarpovsk village
29
16
55,17
9
Tukhard village
887
829
93,46
10 Ust’-Port village
374
190
50,80
Khatanga rural settlement
6495
3832
59,00
1
Khatanga village
2934
807
27,51
2
Zhdanikha village
237
232
97,89
3
Katyryk village
335
325
97,01
4
Kayak village
196
27
13,78
5
Kresty village
310
303
97,74
6
Novaya village
314
308
98,09
7
Novorybnoye village
649
627
96,61
8
Popigai village
319
311
97,49
9
Syndassko village
526
520
98,86
384
372
96,88
37768
10217
27,05
10 Kheta village
Taimyr Dolgano-Nenets municipal region
Historically the municipal region had
no inhabited localities. Its infrastructure was
formed as they managed the environment and
developed communication and transport means.
The processes of industrial settlement resulted
against the background of traditional zones
of environmental management and settlement
of the indigenous minorities of the North.
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Fig. 2. The system of distribution of the population of Taimyr Dolgano-Nenets municipal region. The source: The
draft of the scheme of territorial planning of Taimyr Dolgano-Nenets municipal region
They caused an extremely dispersible and
dotted character of the settlement. Formation
of the axes of settlement along river valleys
is connected with traditional environmental
management, and mainly with wild reindeer
hunting and fishing. Territorial compactness,
compactness of inhabited localities are also a
characteristic feature of the existing system of
settlement.
A meridional fine-dispersed system of
settlement, formed by the Yenisey and its
tributaries, is notable in the western part of the
region. 80,5 % of the region’s population live
within the bounds of the Yenisey valley.
A system forming element of settlement in
the east of the region is the Khatanga River and
its tributaries. 16,5 % of the region’s population
live here.
A system forming element of settlement
in the central part of the municipal region is
the Pyasina River and the Dudypta’s tributary.
There was a great number of shot points for wild
reindeer hunting on the Pyasina, Dudypta and
Kheta rivers in the past. They gradually turned
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into villages. In the course of recent 20 years a
considerable rundown of economical activity
in this territory resulted in a set of abandoned
inhabited localities.
The indigenous minorities living in the
municipal region’s territory have kept a traditional
nomadic and semi-nomadic mode of life. 20 % of
the total population of the indigenous minorities
of the North lead a nomadic life.
Concurrently with preserving and developing
their uniqueness and national self-identification
ethnoses assimilate. Shortage of working places
in national villages intensifies the outflow of the
population (especially of the youth) to the centers
of the settlements, to the city of Dudinka with its
present population of the indigenous minorities of
the North higher than statistically registered. The
results of these processes are not always positive.
In fact the processes of artificial urbanization
of the indigenous minorities of the North take
place: many representatives of the indigenous
minorities of the North, residing in Dudinka, are
not provided with the places of employment and
have an insufficient level of qualification to get
a job.
Non-native population mainly consists
of social migrants who spend some time in the
Arctic and then return to the places of habitual
residence. Hydrocarbon field exploitation is
carried out from Messoyakha, Pelyatka camps.
At present the federal strategy of the settling
in the Arctic zone is targeted at suppressing the
growth of resident population and development
of camp-type forms of settling. “The Strategy of
socio-economical development of Siberia up to
2020” allots the task of avoidance of the extreme
growth of residential population and appearance
of new stationary settlements, formation of
the system of settlements of high quality and
safety of life support systems, integrating
base cities and mobile camps at preserving the
zones of priority environmental management
for the indigenous minorities of the North. The
strategy provides for restoration of the number
of able-bodied citizens and rotation workers in
base settlements (Dudinka, Dickson, Khatanga
village, inhabited localities down the Khatanga
river and the Yeniseisk Bay) to be enough for safe
ensuring of the Northern Sea Rout’s functioning
and establishment of the bases of the Frigid Zone
development.
Regarding long-term outlook, the following
key directions of transformation of the system
of the population settlement in the region can be
singled out:
– development of urban inhabited localities
as home-base settlement structures with
basic concentration of the non-natives
(the city of Dudinka, and, to a lesser
extent, Dickson urban community);
– development of large national settlements
as centres of preserving and development
of traditional types of economic
management
(Khatanga,
Karaul,
Tukhard, Nosok), formation of modern
centres of inter-settlement maintenance
on their basis;
– population maintenance and development
of home-base national villages (Kheta,
Novorybnaya, Ust’-Avam, Volochanka);
– establishment of working places on the
basis of revival and development of
traditional types of nature management
with the use of modern technologies
of product processing for small
national settlements with decreasing
population;
– development of mobile local settlement
places in the zones of new development
(camp villages).
Evenk municipal region
The ethnic structure of Evenk national
region’s population is complex. The representatives
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Table 6. Typology of rural settlements in Evenk municipal region as per the percentage of the indigenous minorities
of the North in total population (according to the data as of 01.01.2011)
Population, people
No
Settlements/inhabited localities in municipal units
total
Percentage of the
the indigenous indigenous minorities
minorities
of the North, %
of the North
1
The village of Tura municipal unit
5541
1200
21,7
2
the village of Essey rural settlement
631
10
1,6
3
the village of Kislokan rural settlement
141
100
70,9
4
the village of Nidym rural settlement
239
103
43,1
5
the village of Tutonchany rural settlement
263
200
76,0
6
the village of Uchami rural settlement
126
107
84,9
7
the village of Chirinda rural settlement
211
190
90,0
8
the village of Ekonda rural settlement
291
290
99,7
9
the village of Yukta rural settlement
102
58
56,9
Total in Ilimpiisk group of settlement
7 545
2 258
29,9
1
The village of Vanavara rural settlement
3154
118
3,7
2
the village of Mutorai rural settlement
96
36
37,5
3
the village of Oskoba rural settlement
17
0
0,0
4
the village of Strelka-Chunya rural settlement
191
140
73,3
5
the village of Chemdal’sk rural settlement
41
25
61,0
Total in Tungussko-Chunskaya group of settlement
3 499
319
9,1
1
the village of Baikit rural settlement
3515
420
11,9
2
the village of Burnyi rural settlement
193
2
1,0
3
the village of Kuz’movka rural settlement
180
3
1,7
4
the village of Kuyumba rural settlement
179
120
67,0
5
the village of Miryuga rural settlement
87
24
27,6
6
the village of Osharovo rural settlement
112
41
36,6
7
the village of Poligus rural settlement
302
270
89,4
8
the village of Sulomai rural settlement
183
143
78,1
9
493
480
97,4
Total in Baikit group of settlement
the village of Surinda rural settlement
5 244
1 503
28,7
Evenk municipal region
16 233
4 080
25,1
of the indigenous natives of the North live almost
in every inhabited locality.
The percentage of the indigenous natives
of the North in the total population of Evenk
municipal region is 25,1 %. The natives, residing
within the borders of the territory considered,
are the Evenk and the Kets. At that the Kets
compactly live in one inhabited locality, Sulomai
village. Their population there is 143 people.
The territory of Evenk municipal region
displays the considerable differences in the
ethnic structure of various inhabited localities.
There can be distinguished the settlements
with
predominantly
Evenk
population,
with predominantly Slavic population, and
multinational settlements (Table 6, Fig. 3).
The Evenk, who maintain their way of life
and traditional trades, predominantly reside in
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Fig. 3. The places of settlement of the indigenous minorities of the North in Evenk municipal region. The source:
The draft of the scheme of territorial planning of Evenk municipal region
rural inhabited localities, referring to the category
of compact settlement of the indigenous natives of
the North. Thus, the maximum percentage of the
natives is observed in the villages of Chirinda,
Ekonda, Surinda, Poligus, Uchami, Tutonchany,
Strelka-Chunya, Kislokan.
A greater part of the Evenk, approximately
40 %, resides in economical centres of Evenk
municipal region: in the villages of Tura, Baikit,
Vanavara. It should be noted that their percentage
is not high and is no more than 20 %; the main
population of these centres is constituted
by predominantly Slavic population. Under
such circumstances the representatives of the
indigenous natives of the North assimilate quite
quickly and loose a visible contact with their
cultural peculiarities and way of life.
The south-eastern part of Evenk region,
Tungussko-Chunskaya group of settlements, is
characterized by a lesser number of the indigenous
natives of the North.
From an ethnic point of view the places of
the Yakuts’ and Russian Old Believers’ compact
settlements are also a matter of interest.
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Essey village, located in the very north of
Evenk region, was founded by the Yakuts who
migrated to this territory from the territory of
the present-day Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)
and kept their way of life. The Essey Yakuts,
the representatives of a single detached ethnic
community who do not refer to the category
of the indigenous minorities of the North,
predominantly reside in the village. Their
main trade is wild reindeer hunting. There are
only 10 Evenks among 631 residents of Essey
village.
Burnyi and Kuz’movka, located in the southwestern part of Evenk region, are inhabited by
the Russian Old Believers. The percentage of the
Evenks here is less than 1 %. The representatives
of this population group do not refer to the category
of the indigenous minorities of the North even in
spite of the fact that their economic way of life is
more likely to be similar to that of the minorities’
than to a modern industrial way of life. The Old
Believers live in respectively close communities
based on self-provision. They are engaged in
agriculture (including plant cultivation) even
in severe weather conditions, as well as in
fishing and hunting. Nowadays “Kuz’movka
village” municipal unit consists of two districts
already. These are Kuz’movka village itself and
Kochumdek trading station which is expected to
be a new autonomous inhabited locality in the
long term.
Regarding the potential of the socioeconomical development the rural inhabited
localities of Evenk municipal region can be
divided into 3 groups and 4 sub-groups:
1. those with the market economic sector;
2. those with the developing market
economic sector:
2.1. market and budget sectors are more
developed than a traditional sector;
2.2. a traditional sector is more developed
than market and budget sectors;
3. with undeveloped market economic
sector:
3.1. with a predominant traditional lifesupport;
3.2. the territories, economically vulnerable
to the maximum (Table 7).
The first group comprises Tura village,
Baikit and Vanavara villages, which are the
largest in the population number (more than three
thousand people), mostly economically viable,
with a developed market sector.
The main task of a prognostic development
of the settlements of this group is in strengthening
and development of a market sector of the rural
economy. The aggregate stock of the residents’
entrepreneurial energy here is maximum. That
makes the development of new types of commercial
activity in the forms of tourism, farming, smallscale business in private (everyday, trade, fastfood) services quite real.
Table 7. Typology of the settlements of Evenk municipal region
Groups
Description
Inhabited localities
The first group
Maximum economic viability
Tura, Baikit, Vanavara
The second group а
A developing market sector
Essey, Surinda, Poligus, Tutonchany
The second group b
The third group а
The third group b
A traditional sector is more developed than Ekonda, Nidym, Chirinda, Kislokan,
market and budget sectors
Strelka-Chunya
Sulomai, Kuyumba, Burnyi, Uchami,
A predominant traditional life-support
Kuz’movka, Osharovo, Yukta
Economically vulnerable to the maximum Mutorai, Miryuga, Chemdal’sk, Oskoba
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The work of social services establishments
in the settlements of the first group provides for
the necessity to ensure educational, cultural,
medical and everyday services rendered not only
to the residents of the village but also to the entire
set of neighbouring villages.
Compulsory schools, polyclinics, palaces
of culture, sports halls with full-fledged material
base, highly qualified specialists, access to the
Internet can ensure a good quality of services for
the population of the service zone.
Two subgroups are distinctly singled out in
the second group:
а) four respectively large villages (the
villages of Essey, Poligus, Tutonchany with the
population of 300 – 600 persons) where a market
sector springs up quicklier, small-scale business
can develop due to a middle size of the local
market; at that traditional life support and cultural
ethnic traditions are well- kept up;
b) five villages with a less numerous
population (the villages of Ekonda, Nidym,
Chirinda, Kislokan, Strelka-Chunya with the
population of 200 – 260 persons) where a market
sector is almost undeveloped and weaker than
a traditional sector of reindeer hunting and
crafts.
The main task of a prognostic development
of the settlements of this group is in bridging
all the sectors of rural economy – a market one
which constantly springs up here, a traditional
one in the form of reindeer hunting and
traditional crafts which does not always bring
money income to the households but tangibly
raises their real profit, an agricultural one in
the form of development of private farms, and
a budgetary one which is limited with working
places in feldsher-midwife stations, schools,
clubs, polyclinics.
In many villages of this group the
merging of educational, cultural, and medical
establishments will result in multifunctional
educational-cultural-medical centres, often
school-based. Assembly and sports halls, rooms
for hobby groups, libraries, information centres
will serve the whole population during an offstudy period.
Division into subgroups is done for the third
group of inhabited localities as well.
The third group (sub-group a) contains the
villages of Sulomai, Kuyumba, Burnyi, Uchami,
Kuz’movka, Osharovo, Yukta, small settlements
with the population of 100 – 200 persons. In
fact, there is no market sector here but a budget
sector and municipal enterprises. The traditional
life-support is developed to the maximum. The
values are non-monetary ones, such as gifts,
mutual assistance, and the sense of belonging to
local community.
The villages of Mutorai, Miryuga,
Chemdal’sk, Oskoba, very small communities
with the population less than 100 people are
included into the third group (sub-group b).
Suggesting the way of the development
of the villages of the third group, one should
be clearly aware of the fact that there will be
no viable market sector here in the foreseeable
future. What can become commercially
developed here is probably tourism. The values
of traditional life support, unity in faith and
in community of ethnic self-identification
will undoubtedly dominate here in future.
A traditional sector, which does not bring a
monetary profit but is a nucleus of the local
community’s values, will remain the basis of
the economical development.
Social services will be delivered to the
villages of the third group by small-scale forms
(ungraded clubs, feldsher-midwife stations), often
by mobile forms such as mobile medical groups,
nomadic schools, teams of cultural propagandists,
with active use of telecommunication technologies
(distant learning, telemedicine, electronic
library).
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Territories of traditional
environmental management
At present only one territory of traditional
environmental
management
of
regional
importance “Popigai” is established in the
territory of Krasnoyarsk Krai (on the basis of
the Decision of the Administration of Taimyr
(Dolgano-Nenets) Autonomous Okrug № 495
dated December 23, 2003). Within the period of
“Popigai” traditional environmental management
the Dolgans, residing and carrying out their
activity within its boundaries, have not registered
their right of the ground area and other natural
resources use.
In 2012-2013 the krai started the works on
the establishment of the traditional environmental
managements of the indigenous minorities of the
North in Taimyr on the left bank of the Yenisey
river (“Yara-Tanama” and “Suzun”) and of
Khatanga rural settlement near Syndassko village
with the reservation of the mentioned territories
in the scheme of territorial planning of the region
as the territories of limited economic use.
In compliance with Article 12 of Krasnoyarsk
Krai Law No 11-5443 dated 25.11.2010 “On
1
2
3
protection of native habitat and traditional way of
life of the indigenous minorities of Krasnoyarsk
Krai” the project of the Order of formation
of the territory of traditional environmental
management of the indigenous people was
developed and the List of documents, necessary
for making a decision on the establishment of
the mentioned territory, was made in order to
ensure the preservation of native habitat of the
indigenous minorities.
S.Ya. Pal’chin, a representative for the rights
of the indigenous minorities in Krasnoyarsk Krai,
states in his speech that the local bodies resist
the establishment of the territory of traditional
environmental management in their area. Taking
into consideration that Taimyr and Evenkiya
are on the threshold of intensive industrial
development, it is urgently necessary to establish
effective environmentally-aware mechanisms as
well as to establish the territories of traditional
environmental management not to exclude the
industrial development of mineral resources but to
minimize harmful influence of this development
both on the environment and on the indigenous
peoples’ way of life.
The document lost its force after the RF governmental regulation No 410 dated 08.05.2009 had come into effect 7 days
after its official publication (published in “Sobranie zakonodatel’stva RF” [Collection of RF legislation] on 18.05.2009).
In total there are 581 establishments in the territory of Krasnoyarsk Krai. These include 44 municipal regions, 17 Urban
districts, 35 urban settlements, 485 rural settlements.
2 cities of regional subordination (Dudinka (22339 residents) and Igarka (5648 residents)) and 4 industrial communities
(Severo-Yeniseysky (6816 residents), Teya (1501 residents), Svetlogorsk (971 residents), Dickson (667 residents))
References
1. Database of indices of municipal units of the Federal State Statistics Service, available at
http://www.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_main/rosstat/ru/statistics/databases/
2. Estimation of the population number and average annual population number in cities and
regions of Krasnoyarsk Krai as per January 1, 2013, available at http://www.krasstat.gks.ru
3. The draft of the scheme of territorial planning of Evenk municipal region, available at http://
www.evenkya.ru/power/documents/
4. The draft of the scheme of territorial planning of Taimyr Dolgano-Nenets municipal region,
available at http://www.taimyr24.ru/Documents/ter-plan/
5. The RF governmental regulation No 22 dated 11.01.1993 (revised 23.01.2000) “On the list of
regions of residence of the indigenous minorities of the North”.
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6. The RF governmental regulation No 631-p dated 08.05.2009 “On the approval of the list of
traditional residence and traditional economic activity of the indigenous minorities of the Russian
Federation and the list of types of traditional economic activity of the indigenous minorities of the
Russian Federation”.
Территориальные особенности расселения
коренных малочисленных народов
(на примере Таймырского Долгано-Ненецкого
и Эвенкийского муниципальных районов
Красноярского края)
Е.А. Брюханова, А.М. Матвеев
Красноярский отдел Института экономики и организации
промышленного производства СО РАН
Россия, 660036, Красноярск, Академгородок, 50
В статье рассмотрена типология населенных пунктов Таймырского Долгано-Ненецкого и
Эвенкийского муниципальных районов Красноярского края по доле коренных малочисленных
народов (КМН) в общей численности населения, по уровню развития традиционного, рыночного
и бюджетного секторов, которую необходимо принимать во внимание при разработке
программы социально-экономического развития территории. Дана оценка потенциала и
направлений социально-экономического развития территорий традиционного проживания и
традиционной хозяйственной деятельности коренных малочисленных народов.
Ключевые слова: коренные малочисленные народы, места традиционного проживания и
традиционной хозяйственной деятельности, территории традиционного природопользования.
Работа выполнена в рамках исследований, финансируемых Красноярским краевым фондом
поддержки научной и научно-технической деятельности, а также в рамках тематического
плана СФУ по заданию Министерства образования и науки Российской Федерации.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 9 (2014 7) 1555-1566
~~~
УДК 930.26
Decapitations in Late Bronze Age and Iron Age
sites from Sevan region (Armenia)
Anahit Yu. Khudaverdyan*
Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography
National Academy of Science
15 Charents Str., Yerevan, 0025, Republic of Armenia
Received 02.06.2014, received in revised form 21.07.2014, accepted 15.08.2014
The fact that rituals involving the sacrifice of people were present within the cultures of Late Iron
Age Armenia has long been known. The purpose of this paper is to dig further towards the sociocultural reasons behind such rituals, and to examine the evidence for how these rituals might have
played out within the context of the cultures at the time. In order to establish the nature decapitation
and function of this ritual as it pertained to the Late Bronze Age and Iron Age cultures of Armenia,
a number of avenues will be explored. Studies of human skeletal materials from the Noraduz and
Karmir, often excavated decades ago, may therefore reveal similar types of evidence. It is suggested
that such studies will contribute significantly to our understanding of Late Bronze Age and Iron Age
Armenia burial practices, and our ability to reconstruct social organization.
Detailed analysis of received traumas allowed reconstructing the circumstances of the females death.
The heads were decapitated by sharp cutting weapon. Reconstruction of the death circumstances and
archaeological context of the find suggest a ritual nature of the action. Within the culture of the time
appeasing the gods was most likely the main stated reason for conducting such sacrifices. A sacrifices
may also have been performed for the sake of something far less specific, for instance simply thanking
the gods so as to be on relatively good terms with them.
Analyzed in this paper is the presence of cut marks, and tumpline deformation and cradle deformation
on the decapitated skulls.
Keywords: Armenia, Late Bronze Age, Iron Age, decapitation, cut marks, tumpline and cradle
deformations.
Introduction
Cutmarks on human bones have been
associated with a variety of practices. Examples
include decapitation, dismemberment, ritual
sacrifices, violent death and secondary burial
(Bush, Stirland 1991, p. 207; Larsson 1984, p.
34; 1990, p. 287; McKinley 1993, p. 43; Molleson
1981, p. 25).Various explanations for the physical
act of decapitation in different groups from
*
distinct periods have been put forward (Bridges
et al. 2000, p. 47; Milner et al. 1991, p. 596; Smith
2003, p. 308; 2008, p. 592). Various researchers
have outlined and refined these parameters
which include: trophy-taking activities including
decapitation, scalping, and removal of limbs or
other body parts taken away by the attacker(s). In
their study, Boylston et al. (2000, p. 248) discuss
extensively the circumstances under which
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: akhudaverdyan@mail.ru
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decapitation may have occurred: “ (1) as a form
of corporal punishment in which an individual
is executed by severing the head from the body
through the use of an edged weapon; (2) as a
consequence of armed confrontation in which the
neck becomes a target in order to disable or kill
a foe; (3) as a trophy of armed confrontation; (4)
as a form of relic collection or veneration; (5) as a
result of bloodletting in which the head is removed
in order to collect the body’s blood supply; (6) as
a result of a mismanaged hanging; (7) as a result
of a figurative association between the head and
a quality or qualities considered to be associated
with it”. Damage to the upper cervical vertebrae
(and also C7 or T1 in some instances), mastoid
processes, occipital regions, the posterior parts of
mandibles and first ribs have been considered as
good markers (Anderson 2001, p. 402; Ardagna
et al. 2005, p. 74; Aufderheide, RodríguezMartín 1998; Buckberry, Hadley 2007, p. 311;).
Beheading-related traumas were also observed
on the odontoid peg (McKinley 1993, p. 43) and
transverse processes of vertebrae when anaxe
rather than a sword has been used (Waldron 1996,
p. 115). Even if no evidence has been left on the
bones, some aspects of the burial context can be
indicative of decapitation such as the absence of a
head (although bones can eventually be destroyed
or lost through post-depositional processes
such as intrusive burials, animal activities, and
environmental conditions) (Okumura, Eggers
2008, p. 18), the presence of a head without
other postcranial elements (Nagaoka, Abe 2007,
p. 166) or the placement of a head in a nonanatomical position (Boylston et al. 2000, p. 250).
For many cultures, the most important trophy is
the head, and its collection can be associated
with war, religion, social prestige or cannibalism.
The oldest known references to this practice of
collecting skulls is found in the Bible. The custom
of head taking was a widespread method among
many cultures because the head of a vanquished
foe represented the most unequivocal symbol
of an enemy’s defeat (Keeley 1996, p. 54). The
deposition of human skulls has been interpreted
as evidence for a headhunting cult, perhaps
relating to enemy dead, whose deposition could
provide symbolic protection (Wilson 1981, p. 163;
Khudaverdyan et al. 2013, p. 76-83). The human
skulls were believed to have also magical and
curing effects (Schmandt-Besserat 2002, p. 115).
The skull of a deceased person was believed to
provide a way to communicate with the spirit of
the dead and was used in divination (Ibid., p. 115).
The skull also secured the use of the power to
succeeding generations, perhaps this it placated
the spirit, perhaps controlled it (Kenyon 1957,
p. 45). Okumura, Siew (2013, p. 691) examine
a collection of human skulls from Borneo. The
textual evidence strongly argues that these skulls
were meant as a form of dominance over other
groups, and given the archaeological evidence for
cutmarks and trauma, they are able to support the
text and conclude that these were headhunting
trophies and not a form of ancestor veneration.
Skull removal, or at least separate burial
of crania, is known in the Iberomaurusian
(Arambourg 1934, p. 21; Hachi 1996, p. 65) and
has also been found for Late Natufian and PPNA
sites in the south-central Levant (Kuijt 1996, p.
327). For the Levant, the skulls appear to have
been removed after defleshing, since there were
no cutmarks associated with the missing skulls.
In Early: Late Natufian burials at various sites, the
area of the head of the deceased was marked with
rock cairns or individual stones (Byrd, Monahan
1995, p. 264), possibly to facilitate retrieval of
the skulls later (Kuijt 1996, p. 333). There are
societies, the ancient Greeks for example, who
held the concept of voluntary self destruction as
an integral part of the sacrificial ritual (Bremmer
2007, p. 5). This idea may have had some place
within all instances of human sacrifice, as it dates
back to the time of prehistoric hunters who would
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Anahit Yu. Khudaverdyan. Decapitations in Late Bronze Age and Iron Age sites from Sevan region (Armenia)
view the slaying of their game as a voluntary act
of self sacrifice on the part of the animal. Funerary
rights were not solely reserved for the free or the
in nocent, they may also have been performed for
condemned criminals. Ancient Armenian groups
believed in a pantheon of gods, many of whom
possessed counterparts in the mythologies of
other Indo-European groups, which would have
been the objects of worship and the acceptors of
the human sacrifices being performed. In the case
of the ritual sacrifices that took place in Armenia
during the Iron Ages it has been generally
assumed that appeasing the gods was the main
purpose of such bloody rituals (Khudaverdyan et
al. 2013, pp. 76-83).
Two females from a Armenia burials show
evidence of decapitation. The purpose of the study
the reasons for decapitation are discussed. In the
past two decades, studies of cutmarks on bones
(human) have added important new insights into
certain behavioural aspects of prehistoric peoples.
We believe that the cutmarks found on the human
skulls from 2 sites provide unique new evidence
on burial customs. In this paper we present the
results of the study of the cutmarks and, using
the various lines of evidence, we provide an
interpretive framework for the findings and
briefly discuss the implications for reconstruction
social organization.
Materials and methods
The present paper discusses human remains
from 2 archaeological sites in Armenia. The sites
is situated on a large expanse on the banks of the
Sevan Lake (Fig. 1). In total the samples used for
the present study consisted of 41 skulls (Table 1).
Skeletons from Noraduz and Karmir are a part
of collection gathered by Anna Palikyan. The
absence of a published report on these materials
at A.K. Palikyan. Unfortunately, in all cases only
the skulls were preserved. The archaeological
context, such as location of the site, and time
period of the burial were recorded. The dating of
sites rests on ceramic typology.
The material excavated of the Late Bronze
Age and Iron Age (11–6 c. BCE) sheds light on
various aspects of ancient life in this region,
testifying convincingly that a complex culture
existed all over the Sevan area. Of the materials
discovered in these tombs there are a large
number of rich ornamented ritual vessels, beads
of stone and of precious metals, and other items.
The Later Bronze Age and Iron Age saw the first
widespread use of wheeled transport, for both
agricultural and high-status/military purposes.
There will also have been a need to move herds
between grazing grounds.
Sex determination was carried out using
cranial morphological markers (glabella, mastoid
process, supra-orbital ridge, nuchal crest, parietal
eminence, orbit, palate, occipital condyle, external
occipital protuberance, styloid process, frontonasal junction, mandible, mental protuberance,
and teeth) (Alekseev, Dedec 1964, pp. 29-34;
Buikstra, Ubelaker 1994, pp. 16, 24–32). For
subadults, dental development and eruption were
used (Buikstra, Ubelaker 1994, p. 16; Moorrees
et al. 1963a, pp. 205-213; 1963b, pp. 14901502; Ubelaker 1989, pp. 60-95). The skeletons
were analysed macroscopically for evidence of
decapitation. The metric traits considered to
be of primary interest in population studies are
summarised in J.E. Buikstra, D.H. Ubelaker (1994,
pp. 85–94). Where preservation and completeness
permit, a maximum of 37 measurements are
taken from the adult skull (Alekseev, Dedec
1964, p. 49-75). Non-metric traits were recorded
as recommended by A.A. Movsesyan et al. (1975,
pp. 128-149).
Discussion
The first skull (Noraduz, burial 21) belong
to an female of approximately 40 to 45 years of
age at death. Postcranial skeleton has not been
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Fig. 1. Map of Armenia showing the location of the sites discussed in the paper
Table 1. Number of individuals from Armenian sites studied in this paper
Site
Sex
Chronology
Noraduz
female
11th –6 th c. BCE
undet.
Karmir
male
Total
11-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59
male
Middle/Late Transitional
Middle/Late Transitional 11th–8th c.
BCE
Age categories
0-10
8
1
2
2
2
1
2
3
1
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4
6
Total
3
4
17
2
1
8
1
10
1
3
female
8
4
60+
6
1
1
1
3
5
6
6
41
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Anahit Yu. Khudaverdyan. Decapitations in Late Bronze Age and Iron Age sites from Sevan region (Armenia)
found. The following measurements (mm) were
recorded from the skull: cranial length, 179;
cranial breadth 136, minimal frontal breadth,
100,5; greatest frontal breadth, 124; occipital
breadth, 118. The following traits were present:
sutura frontalis, foramina supraorbitalia, os
wormii suturae squamosum, os wormii suturae
sagittalis and os wormii suturae lambdoidea.
On the skull has with post-coronal
depression (Fig. 2), type tumpline deformation
mentioned in T. Molleson (2007, pp. 11-12) which
was positioned on both parietals and slightly
posterior to the coronal suture. Whereas, the
parietal pressure may result from activities, such
as carrying loads with a band across the parietal
bones (Fig. 3) and the load being behind the body,
but this is only likely if the activity was started in
early childhood years. A simple inspection skull
from Noraduz indicates that there is no grooving
(depression or concavity) on the temporal region
of a caused by diagonal bandaging, and also
any other kinds of grooving completely absent.
Length of horizontal grooving 86,5mm, width 25
mm.
Cranial modification is observable in some
societies which is neither intentional, when an
infant was secured on a cradle board for a long
time, whereby those portions of the head in direct
contact with the board would be flattened (Daems,
Croucher 2007, p. 7). As can be seen from the
Fig. 4, there are modifications recognizable on
the vault, a marked depression immediately
above the lambda affecting mid-sagittal contour,
resulting in an interparietal plane which covers
nearly half of the sagittal suture.
At the skull pathological lesions were found.
1. Exostosis in the ear channel. The size of these
exostoses may vary from small corrugations to
large prominences almost filling the meatus.
Exostosis formations in the ear canal are regarded
as a marker of negative influence of cold water from
diving (Kennedy 1986, p. 406; Manzi et al. 1991,
p. 256). Exposure to wind and cold water causes
the bone surrounding the ear canal to thicken and
constrict the ear canal, sometimes to the point of
complete blockage (known as “occlusion”). Other
hypothesized causes of auditory exostoses include
chronic infection or inflammation, genetics, and
mastication stress (Aufderheide, RodríguezMartín 1998, pp. 254-255).
Cribra orbitalia (2) fixed on the both
orbits: indicator of iron deficiency anemia. Iron
Fig. 2. Tumpline deformation (Noraduz, burial 21)
Fig. 3. Morphological changes of crania under the
deformation processes
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Anahit Yu. Khudaverdyan. Decapitations in Late Bronze Age and Iron Age sites from Sevan region (Armenia)
is essential for many body functions, such as
oxygen transport to the body’s tissues. When
iron is deficient, whether as a result of nutritional
deprivation, low body weight, chronic diarrhea,
parasite infection, or other factors, the body
attempts to compensate by increasing production
of red blood cells (Walker 1986, p. 348). In
infancy and childhood, iron-deficiency anemia
is associated with impaired growth and delays in
behavioral and cognitive development (Lozoff et
al. 1996, p. 387; Walter et al. 1989, p. 11; Ryan 1997,
p. 46). In adulthood, the condition is associated
with limited work capacity and physical activity
(Scrimshaw 1991, p. 48).
In 2014, we have documented the
existence of the cutmarks (3) during a detailed
Fig. 4. Cradle deformation (Noraduz, burial 21)
Fig. 5. Decapitation (Noraduz, burial 21)
examination of the skulls, while undertaking
preliminary cataloguing and measurement.
Evidence of decapitation clearly observed:
damage to the mastoidal (Fig. 5). This is the
only cutmark that could conceivably have been
causally related to death. Mechanical breaks of
a bone are received at the moment of death of
the individual. Such kind of injuries have only
one defi nition (beheading at the person who is
in vertical situation) (Manchester 1983, p. 63).
The second skull (Karmir, burial 3) belong to
an young female of approximately 20 to 25 years
of age at death. The following measurements
(mm) and observations were collected from the
skull: cranial length, 184; cranial breadth, 139;
minimum frontal breadth, 92,5; greatest frontal
breadth, 116; occipital breadth, 114. The following
traits were present: Os Incae, os wormii suturae
lambdoidea, foramina spinosum.
In female combine two types (and tumpline,
and cradle) deformation (Fig. 6), exostosis in the
ear channel and cribra orbitale are observed.
An interesting feature in the case being
analyzed in this paper is the presence of cut
marks (Fig. 7) on the decapitation skull. In
all cases marks showed edges that could be
consistent with the intentional use of cutting
instruments. The term “symbolic trephination”
was proposed by Bartucs, who described them
as “nonpenetrating damage”, affecting the upper
compact layer (substantia compacta) (cited by
Mednikova 2004, p. 119). Symbolic trephinations
could possibly simulate actual penetration into
the cavity of the skull. This type of intervention
did not necessarily involve a risk to life, as did
a penetrating craniotomy. The symbolism could
result from the localization of damage as, in the
most of cases, the location was linked to cranial
sutures or important anatomical points of the
skull, which are interpreted as having had a sacral
meaning. The object of the latter is unknown,
ritual-medical reasons are as possible as religious
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Anahit Yu. Khudaverdyan. Decapitations in Late Bronze Age and Iron Age sites from Sevan region (Armenia)
causes or higher social status. That presented
cut marks distributed across both parietal bones
(Fig. 8) which could be related to said process.
These rituals consecrated social integration,
the act of becoming a person, once the spiritual
energy had been fixed inside in the individuals
body.
In the basis of a skull of the individual
mechanical break of left occipital condyle and
damage of the left mastoidal were noted (Fig. 8).
Mechanical breaks of a bone are received at the
moment of death of the individual. We noted,
such kind of injuries have only one definition
(beheading at the person who is in vertical
situation) (Manchester 1983, p. 63). At the left
from the outer side and specific destructions
of left occipital condyle say a linear break of
an mastoidal that the blow was struck behind,
obviously, by the right-handed person. The
man had suffered an injury to the head from a
sharp object, presented also the destructions and
crevasses. Holding by hair the victim, the head of
the individual cut a sword.
The skull from Karmir had not only been
decapitation prior to death but also had blow to
the head. This example provides a good case
for the assertion that not only were individuals
such as this being ritually murdered but also that
violence and perhaps played a very important role
in such sacrifices. This indicates that symbolism
Fig. 6. Combine two types (and tumpline, and cradle)
deformations (Karmir, burial 3)
Fig. 7. Cut marks (Karmir, burial 3)
Fig. 8. Decapitation (Karmir, burial 3)
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and perhaps the whole spectacle of the execution
was essential to the ritual. Many human remains
in Bronze Age and Iron Age from Armenia
carry marks of wounds and violent deaths
(Khudaverdyan 2014, pp. 32–50).
Conclusion
A ritual is a coordinated act which an
individual or group carries out in order to fulfill
a particular social function, usually meant to
bring solidarity or enforce social roles within
the community, always characterized by having
demonstrative, exaggerative, and repetitive
qualities (Hughes 1991, pp. 1-2). In order for
the gods to be of any help, they must first
have been reimbursed for the violent energies
being expended. For Bronze Age and Iron Age
from Armenia, there are not any ethnohistoric
documents that can be used as a source of
information. The important information provided
by the osteological data concerns the process of
decapitation. Is no other published osteological
research on decapitation heads from Armenia in
Late Bronze Age and Iron Age. If the decapitation
in Armenia sites had a more ritualized form,
perhaps associated to fertility rites. The traumatic
injuries on the crania suggest that the excision
points are very close to mastoid processes,
indicating beheaded individuals were probably
motionless, having been severely injured, under
which circumstances, them managed to precisely
cut off the exact bodyparts that they wanted
(Okumura, Siew 2008, p. 18).
For a community to feel the need to make
such a highly valued offering to the gods the ritual
must have been of critical importance. Such an
enormous gift must have necessitated an equally
enormous reciprocal blessing from the gods or
even a miracle of sorts. It is quite possible that in
such cases the community may have been in great
peril or under the misery of epidemic disease,
so as to necessitate such an enormous sacrifice.
In Armenia in Bronze Age and Iron Age, practiced
human sacrifice rituals, apparently preferred
young and middle adult females as their victims.
It is generally assumed that women in pre-state
societies were engaged in domestic production
while men practiced animal husbandry, ploughed,
hunted, fought and processed metals. We can
accept with some confidence that there a women
primarily engaged in activities such as food
processing, agricultural work, pottery making
and child-rearing. Positive correlations exist
between the females and the agricultural works
for that region. Cranial modification is observable
in some societies which is neither intentional,
the parietal pressure may result from activities,
such as carrying loads with a band across the
parietal bones and the load being behind the
body. Socio-economic status of the victim also
played an important role in determining the
value of the sacrifice. The higher the status that
a person had the greater the sacrifice would be.
In Armenia, to choose a characteristic example,
the would-be leader achieves and maintains his
ambi- tions by demonstrating his abilities as a
warrior, ceremonial leader, food producer, etc.
Slaves and prisoners may have been sacrificed
more readily, and certainly more frequently, than
a well established individual but in no way were
people of the upper class off limits from being
made sacrifice to the gods. However, whether the
people of this time were conscious of it or not, the
sacrifices had other uses and motives.
Although this study is the fi rst to report
cutmarks on Late Bronze and Iron Age human
skulls from the Sevan Lake, there is evidence
for decapitation and dismemberment at other
sites. For example, Shirakavan and Lori Berd
groups (Late Iron Age) yielded many isolated
fragments of crania, mandibles, teeth, and
postcranial remains, and A. Yu. Khudaverdyan
et al. (2013, pp. 78-83) concluded that the
position of the bones and fragments indicated
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Anahit Yu. Khudaverdyan. Decapitations in Late Bronze Age and Iron Age sites from Sevan region (Armenia)
decapitation and dismemberment prior to burial.
It was concluded that the fi nds represents of a
decapitated individual. This suggests to us
that more human remains from this area, often
excavated decades ago, may show similar types
of evidence.
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Survivor. Int J Osteoarchaeol, 18: 589-599.
42. Ubelaker D. Human skeletal remains: Excavation, analysis, interpretation. Washington:
Taraxacum, 1989. 172 р
43. Waldron T. (1996). Legalized trauma. Int J Osteoarchaeol, 6: 114–118.
44. Wilson, C. E. (1981). Burials within settlements in Southern Britain during the pre-Roman
Iron Age. Bulletin of the Institute of Archaeology (University of London), 18: 127-170.
45. Walker, P. L. (1986). Porotic Hyperostosis in a Marine-Dependent California Indian Population.
Am J Phys Anthropol, 69: 345-354.
46. Walter, T., Andraca I., Chadud P. & Perales C. G. (1989). Iron deficiency anemia: adverse
effects on infant psychomotor development. Pediatrics, 84:7-17.
Am J Phys Anthropol
Int J Osteoarchaeol
JDR
Yearbk Phys Anthropol
Sci Am
American Journal of Physical Anthropology
International Journal of Osteoarchaeology
Journal of Dental Research
Yearbook of Physical Anthropology
Scientific American
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Anahit Yu. Khudaverdyan. Decapitations in Late Bronze Age and Iron Age sites from Sevan region (Armenia)
Обезглавливания в эпоху поздней бронзы
и в железном веке в группах
из Севанской области (Армения)
А.Ю. Худавердян
Институт археологии и этнографии НАН
Республика Армения, 0025, Ереван, ул. Чаренца, 15
В статье выдвигаются реконструкции жизни и смерти двух индивидов из могильников
эпох поздней бронзы и железного века с территории Севанского бассейна Армении. На
черепах наблюдались нарушения целостности костей черепа, связанные с травматическими последствиями. Факты, связанные с жертвоприношениями, уже были известны по
материалам позднего железного века. Целью данной работы является предоставление новых
данных о практике обезглавливания (по материалам могильников Норадуз и Кармир), а также
реконструкция возможных причин и мотивов, побуждающих людей к совершению подобных
ритуалов. В культуре того времени умиротворение богов требовало выполнения ритуалов
жертвоприношений. На поверхности теменных костей у индивида из Кармира обнаружены
рубцы (символические трепанации). На черепах у отмеченных индивидов наблюдались
локальные понижения поверхности теменных костей (tump-line) в области за брегмой. Их
можно интерпретировать как следствие ношения достаточно широкой повязки, скрепленной
ремнем, удерживающей груз на спине. Корзина с грузом приводит к поперечному понижению
костей черепа. Данный тип непреднамеренной деформации можно назвать социальнобытовым. Другой деформированный участок – в затылочной области на теменных костях.
Непреднамеренная затылочная деформация являет следствием длительного пребывания
ребенка в твердой колыбели («бешик»), отчего образуется уплощение части темени.
Ключевые слова: Армения, поздняя бронза, железный век, обезглавливание, срезанные знаки,
деформации – теменная и колыбельная.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 9 (2014 7) 1567-1577
~~~
УДК 78.06
Harmony of Sounds
in Boris Pasternak’s Poetry
Natalia A. Yelovskaya* and Irina F. Sidiakova
Krasnoyarsk State Academy of Music and Theatre
22 Lenin Str., Krasnoyarsk, 660049, Russia
Received 20.03.2014, received in revised form 13.05.2014, accepted 21.07.2014
The paper studies questions of sound palette in Pasternak’s poetry, abundance of the world of sounds,
that were heard in nature, music, everyday life and contribute to disclosure of a character, image and
external characteristics of an object or a phenomenon. The synthesis of “what was heard” and “what
was seen” (B. Asafiev) is one of the important features of Boris Pasternak’s poetics. It gives uniqueness
and individuality to creative style of the master, who perceived and revealed the world around in his
poetry with special sensibility and intensity.
Keywords: poetry, sounds, nature, poetic vision and hearing, confluence, character.
Literary critics have always considered
and still consider Boris Pasternak as a “visual”
poet. This fact was repeatedly emphasized in
various papers and studies of his work. Y.M.
Lotman in his deep analysis of Pasternak’s
early poems focuses on the fact that the world of
poet is observed and perceived, “... Pasternak’s
general idea is observed idea” (Lotman, 1969:
228). He also makes reference to a line from
M. Tsvetaeva’s letter, who writes about the
difference in their perception of the world: “In
poems Pasternak sees, and I hear» (Lotman,
1969: 227).
And indeed, the first thing you pay attention
to, even at cursory reading of Pasternak’s poems
is vivid “visuality” and clarity of everything that
was described. Poetic images are so prominent
and so clear that a lot of poems can be compared
with an engraving of an artist, where fidelity of
*
images is achieved by a few clear and precise
lines.
However, visuals images are not the only
ones in Pasternak’s poetry. His poems are
not only “observed” and “visible”, but also
“heard.” In his poems auditory impressions
are given not only an important but often the
main role. Here Pasternak successfully uses his
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: elovska@mail.ru
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Natalia A. Yelovskaya and Irina F. Sidiakova. Harmony of Sounds in Boris Pasternak’s Poetry
increased sensitivity and power of observation
in perception of the phenomena of life, as well
as musical experiences of his early childhood
that were so strong for the emotional character
of the poet, that he remembered them even in
his middle age, and study of music that lasted
for many years.
Music plays very important role in
Pasternak’s works. It is connected with
poetic images, principles of construction of
some poems and the whole poetic cycles,
similar to the principles of the construction
of pieces of music and sound organization of
a poem – the questions of rhyme and sound
instrumentation.
The question of sound organization and
musicality of Pasternak’s poetry still requires
deep and more complete analysis. But this is
a literary task. Our goal is different – to study
melodiousness in imagery and, on the example of
the poems, illustrate how the world of music is
implemented in Pasternak’s poetry.
The poet often provides music titles
both to the separate poems (“Improvisation”,
“Chorus”, “Paganini Violin”, etc.), and to the
whole poetic cycle (“Themes and Variations”),
uses professional musical terminology in
poetic speech, refers to the names of musical
instruments, pieces of music, the names of
composers, describes his personal feelings and
thoughts caused by music. Auditory experiences
occupy a significant place in his poetry. These
are sounds from everyday life and nature. The
poet perceives any sound phenomenon very
sensitively, and the world of sounds in his
poems is amazingly rich and varied. It is closely
connected with the general meaning and content,
with the emotional “marking”, as well as with
dramaturgical features of the poems.
In the paper by Igor Glebov (B.V. Asafiev)
“Vision of The World in the Spirit of Music
(Poetry by A. Blok)” the distinguished scholar,
who wanted to write a book about interrelation of
music and poetry (which, unfortunately, remained
unfinished), studies the sound representation
caused by poetry of Blok in detail, using such
terms as “sounding and sound images” (Glebov,
1972). Sounding images are images that “imply
a state of sounding (e.g., everything related to
the idea of ringing), and sound images – names
related to sounds, but not sounds themselves (e.g.,
music, names of the instruments)...” (Glebov,
1972:57).
We will use these terms by Asafiev, as
they most closely correspond to the goal of this
research – not only be limited by associations
with professional music in the poems of
Pasternak, but study “heard” and “sounding”
in his poetry. This extends the range of studied
phenomena, but allows to understand how
Pasternak in his poems, even in those which
were not devoted to music, “hears”, and not just
“sees”.
For Pasternak, careful listening to the world
around us was one of the ways of knowledge and
runs through many of his poems:
Прислушайся к гулу раздолий неезженых,
Прислушайся к бешеной их перебежке.
(“A Bad Dream”, p. 76)1
Я слышу мокрых кровель говорок,
Торцовых плит заглохшие эклоги.
(“To Anna Akhmatova”, p. 200)
The poet presents himself as a link, a
mediator between the sounding world of nature
and those to whom he reveals its secrets: “Я – уст
безвестных разговор …” He is the spokesman
and the singer of everything speechless – mighty
as Biblical Goliath “стоглавый бор”, helpless
because of his inability to speak and the deliverer
from the captivity of silence «певческой влаги
трав».
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deafest organ” that is comparing it with the exact
opposite of hearing – deafness. But still it is
endowed with the ability to hear:
Закрой глаза. В наиглушайшем органе
На тридцать верст забывшихся пространств
Стоят в парах и каплют храп и хорканье,
Смех, лепет, плач, беспамятство и транс.
(p. 189)
Но мхи пугливо попирая,
Разгадываю тайну чар:
Я – речь безгласного их края,
Я – их лесного слова дар.
О прослезивший туч раскаты,
Отважный отроческий ствол!
Ты – перед вечностью ходатай,
Блуждающий – я твой глагол.
О, чернолесье – Голиаф,
Уединенный воин в поле!
О певческая влага трав,
Немотствующая неволя!
Лишенный слов – стоглавый бор
То – хор, то – одинокий некто …
Я – уст безвестных разговор,
Я – стон дремучих диалектов.
(Forest, p. 494)
Vision
and
hearing
are
equally
complementary and often interpenetrating
phenomena in Pasternak’s poetry. In one of the
poems the poet does, as it would seem at first,
a paradoxical comparison, calling vision “the
Everything visible to a man is transformed
into a sound line and the world is perceived
through a sound line and sounds.
In the poems of Pasternak any phenomenon
or any object has a gift of sounding. This
concerns even those objects and phenomena
that, according to the ordinary human ideas are
“dumb” and “silent”, as the poet often animates
everything visible and feels efficient vitality in
everything.
In one of the poems from the book “The
Second Birth” ore, hiding in the Terek River
gorge, has human emotions. It sounds, and these
intense sharp sounds provide dramatic effect to
the poem, changing its peaceful narration. And
echo here is not just a repetition of what was
heard. The poet’s imagination reincarnates him
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in a highway master who indifferently cleans
everything that lies on the road:
На дне той клетки едким натром
Травится Терек, и руда
Орет пред всем амфитеатром
От боли, страха и стыда.
Он шел породой, бьющей настежь
Из преисподней на простор,
А эхо, как шоссейный мастер,
Сгребало в пропасть этот сор.
(p. 348)
Contradiction between a cry of despair and
calm and callous “attitude” towards it is truly
tragic.
Visual and sounding images in Pasternak’s
poetry complement each other, they often coexist.
They cannot be separated:
Пекло, и берег был высок.
С подплывшей лодки цепь упала
Змеей гремучею – в песок,
Гремучей ржавчиной – в купаву.
(“Imitators”, p. 120)
The image of the chain that slips and falls
down evokes association with a snake, and its
clanging brings to mind a new comparison – a
snake turns out to be a rattlesnake, i.e. not only
external features and characteristics of the object,
but also its “voice” are compared. It is the “voice”
that makes an object unique, giving it specific
features.
Sometimes the “visible” and “seen” in
Pasternak’s poetry arises from the “heard”, like
in the following poem:
Уж замка тень росла из крика
Обретших слово…
(p. 384)
In this case separate and independent
existence of the “heard” and “visible” is
impossible – one image complements the other.
Thus, we can speak of complementarity of the
sounding and visual in Pasternak’s poetry.
An example of the interpenetration of visual
and auditory impressions is the poem “Afterword”,
where creative imagination of the poet gives light
the ability of sound. The poem has only one
“sounding” image – it is a reflection of the setting
sun, shining like a jewel in a woman’s hair, and
buzzing, in the author’s imagination, like a flying
bumblebee:
Это – запад, карбункулом вам в волоса
Залетев и гудя, угасал в полчаса…
(pp. 153-154)
Extremely acute, and therefore seeming
very original, sound and visual representations
of the poet, merging into an indissoluble whole,
interpenetrating into each other, create a unique
“Pasternak’s” poetic image.
Another good example of interpenetration of
the “sounding” and “visible” are the final verses
of the poem “Lieutenant Schmidt”. As in the
previous poem, here the light “sounds” – a bright
spotlight, piercing the darkness of the hatch with
the people doomed to death. This light takes the
form of a terrible and ruthless monster that, with
a hiss, creeps up to its victim:
Вдруг по тьме мурашками пробежал
прожектор.
«Прут» зевнул, втянул тысячеперстье лап.
Свет повел ноздрями, пробираясь к жертвам.
Заскрипели петли. Упал железный трап.
Это канонерка пристала к люку угольному.
Свет всадил с шипеньем внутрь свою иглу.
Клетку ослепило. Отпрянули испуганно.
Путаясь костями в цепях, забились вглубь.
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In the last verse of the poem the
“sounding” – “heard” (screams and sobs of
the convicts) and the visible (spotlight) are
presented in a complex synthesis. The sound
here is “getting more condensed” and becomes
so dense and real, that the light is “dipped” into
the screams as in water, and it “stews” in the
sounds of sobs:
Счет пошел на миги. Крик: «Прощай, товарищи!» –
Породил содом. Прожектор побежал,
Окунаясь в вопли, по люкам, лбам и наручням,
И пропал, потушенный рыданьем каторжан.
(p. 303)
According to the poet’s ideas not only objects
and phenomena, surrounding a person, sound.
Space, open space and the whole universe sound.
But these principles were formed in Pasternak’s
poetry gradually, and it is possible to follow their
evolution on the example of his early poems and
the later periods of his creativity. For example, in
the book “My Sister – Life”, dated 1917, the poet
writes about the stars that are available only to
human vision:
Из глубин сокровенных природы
Разольется поток голосов.
Я услышу летящий под своды
Гул и плеск дискантов и басов.
(“Flash of Light”, p. 611)
Откуда это? Что за притча,
Что пепел рухнувших планет
Родит скрипичное капричьо?..
The poet doesn’t just “hear” what is
happening around, but perceives sounds so
keenly that sometimes they turn into something
material, become not only audible and visible,
but even tangible and smell. Thus, the poet writes
in his unique metaphorical language about the
singing of a nightingale, comparing the sound
with a clot of burning matter that, using all its
powers, breaks loose from a trap:
Разрывая кусты на себе, как силок,
Маргаритиных стиснутых губ лиловей,
Горячей, чем глазной Маргаритин белок,
Бился, щелкал, парил и сиял соловей.
Он как запах от трав исходил. Он как ртуть
Очумелых дождей меж черемух висел.
Он кору одурял. Задыхаясь, ко рту
Подступал. Оставался висеть на косе.
(“Margarita”, p. 158)
Блещут, дышат радостью,
Обдают сиянием,
На таком-то градусе
И меридиане.
(“Stars in summer”, p. 125)
But they can listen to “… Все, что им
нашаркали, все, что наиграли” remaining
mysteriously “dumb ” in the silent universe:
… Этим звездам к лицу б хохотать,
Ан вселенная – место глухое.
(“Definition of Poetry”, p. 127)
In the later period of his creative work (in the
50s) the motif of listening to the sound of space
and the puzzles of the universe appears:
In this poem the sound is endowed with
such qualities and characteristics as color (“губ
лиловей”), temperature (“горячей) and smell
(“Он как запах от трав исходил”).
In all these comparisons of the sound with
the material world, its material qualities act as a
set of the unique means of expression, aimed at
creation of a certain emotional state.
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In the poem, every detail conveys a strong
emotional tension: not “губ лиловей”, but
“стиснутых губ лиловей”, and not “горячий”,
but in the superlative degree – “горячей,
чем…” The sound like a heady smell of herbs
fills the entire space, it “stupefies”, makes
it difficult to breathe (“задыхаясь ко рту
подступал”). With each such an exaggeration
and grotesque of images, with each new
line, concern creeps in and deepens in the
mind. And that’s clear – after all, the poem
“Margarita”, along with the poem “Mephisto”,
is a part of “Faust Cycle” and its emotional
subtext is clear from Goethe.
These are few patches of poetry
where “voices” – the sounds of nature are
exteriorized:
Они висят во мгле
Сученой ниткой книзу,
Их шум прибит к скале,
Как канделябр к карнизу.
(p. 393)
The last two lines are unusual in terms
of common logic: the noise of the waterfall is
material, remarkable, and, as a common household
item, it is nailed to the eaves. It is a single whole
with the cliff. Visual and auditory impressions
merge together and form a specific image2.
In the poet’s perception not only sounds
of nature, but also sounds of everyday life are
material. They convey a deliberately prosaic
setting of the railway station and inn turmoil in
“Spektorsky” novel:
На станции дежурил крупный храп,
Как пласт, лежавший на листе железа.
(p. 235)
И птичьи крики мнет ручей,
Как лепят пальцами пельмени.
(p. 361)
Их четвертует трескотня вертушек,
Кроит на части звон и лязг дверей.
(p. 308)
Лес стянут по горлу петлею пернатых
Гортаней, как буйвол арканом…
(“Spring”, p. 88)
The poet describes the noise of Kivach
waterfall as mighty, great and strong, thus,
animating it:
…Террасу оглушает гомон,
Сырой картон кортомных3 чащ,
Как лапой, грохотом проломан.
(“A poem”, p. 542)
And here is description of another waterfall,
not as magnificent as Kivach waterfall:
От говора ключей,
Сочащихся из скважин,
Тускнеет блеск свечей, –
Так этот воздух влажен.
In the first example, the sound is like a dense
mass, oppressive and pressing with its weight.
The second example emphasizes its deafeningharsh character.
Pasternak in his poems is not afraid of
images that sound shrilling. Whistle, one of the
most frequent sounds is also materialized and
“objectified”:
Свисток во всю длину ущелья
Растягивается в струну.
(“While We Are Mountaineering
Caucasus …”, p. 607)
in
It is about a locomotive whistle. And that
is how figuratively the poet describes police
whistles:
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Пеной по отмели шорх-шорх
Черное море.
(“In Lower Reach”, p. 422)
…плотвой
Свисток расплескавшийся выловлен.
Милиционером зажат
В кулак, как он дергает жабрами,
И горлом, и глазом, назад,
По-рыбьи, наискось задранным!
Трепещущего серебра
Пронзительная горошина,
Как утро, бодрящее мокра,
Звездой за забор переброшена.
(“Police Whistles”, p. 124)
Pasternak compares whistle with a fish – a
glittering fish. It is trembling and gasping in the
air, struggling in hands.
In each of these examples, the materiality
of sounding images acts as powerful means of
expression that reveals the author’s intention.
The emotional marking of the poem is in direct
relation to how and what qualities of a subject the
poet gives to the sounds.
“Sounding” and “sound” images in
Pasternak’s poetry have two functions:
descriptive and expressive-emotional. It is
notably, that the first one is not so important.
Sound imitation, as such, is not the goal of
the poet. Imitation of any particular sounding
phenomena and their representation is
extremely rare, being in direct dependence
on the meaning of a poem, and resulting from
it4:
Заря, как выстрел в темноту.
Бабах! – и тухнет на лету
Пожар ружейного пыжа.
(p. 184)
Sounds can complement everyday life, they
can also become good characteristics of people.
For example, in “Spektorsky” the poet gives a
satirical portrait of a family – seemingly arrogant,
but ignorant and downtrodden in fact. Apparent
importance and pomposity of the owners of the
house where the main character gives lessons,
disappears as a mask at the first sound of their
voices. It happens because the poet emphasizes
the whining and plaintive tones of an offended
man, exposing hypocrisy of “self-confident
kholops” and “chameleons”:
Кобылкины старались корчить злюк,
Но даже голосов свирепый холод
Всегда сбивался на плаксивый звук,
Как если кто задет или уколот.
Особенно заметно у самой
Страдальчества растравленная рана
Изобличалась музыкой прямой
Богатого гаремного сопрано.
And characteristics that become obvious in
these lines through the auditory impression of the
sound of voice further become more detailed in
humiliating phrases that cause both mockery and
pity:
Но в целом мире не было людей
Забитее при всей наружной спеси
И участи забытей и лютей,
Чем в этой цитадели мракобесья.
И возникающий в форточной раме
Дух сквозняка, задувший пламя,
Свечка за свечкой явственно вслух:
Фук. Фук. Фук. Фук.
(“Waltzing with devilry”, p. 402-403)
Урчали краны порчею аорт,
Ругалась, фартук подвернув, кухарка,
И весь в рассрочку созданный комфорт
Грозил сумой и кровью харкал.
(“Spektorsky”, p. 323)
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Когда рыданье вдовье
Относит за бугор,
Я с нею всею кровью
И вижу смерть в упор.
Sounds give the poem certain emotional
tones. For example, in the poem “The Mine”,
dark and infused with the fear of death, in
which a deep and dark cave is compared with a
crypt – the “kingdom of a corpse”, where each
sound is especially distinguishable in the eerie
darkness and silence, each sound has a special
meaning:
Как на разведке чуден звук
Любой. Ночами звуки редки.
И дико вскрикивает крюк
На промелькнувшей вагонетке.
Human life here depends on correct
understands of the underground sounds, because
any accident can lead to the fatal outcome:
Слепая вещая рука
Впотьмах выщупывает стенку,
Здорово дышит ли штрека,
И нет ли хриплого оттенка.
And potential catastrophe is further
described by the sounds of the funeral bells:
Ведь так легко пропасть, застряв.
Когда, лизнув пистон патрона
Прольется, грянувши, затрав
По недрам гулко, похоронно.
(“The Mine”, p. 222)
The pessimistic poem “False alarm”,
which the author considers the approach
winter as the coming of death, is also full
sounds. And these sounds – distant sad cries
widows – make the poet think about frailty
life:
Я вижу из передней
В окно, как всякий год,
Своей поры осенней
Отсроченный приход.
(“False Alarm”, p. 398)
In Pasternak’s poems absence of any
sounds is associated with something unvital –
often with death. It is not the silence the poet
“listens attentively” and clearly identifies all
its tones (“Тишина, ты – лучшее из всего,
что слышал”), but “dumbness”, total absence
of sounds, “deafness”, i.e. absence of the signs
of life. As in the poetry of Blok, for Pasternak
“empty and silent world, the world without sounds
is terrible ...” (Glebov, 1972: 50). For example, in
the novel “Spektorsky” the poet describes a bleak
urban image of a modern city – feverish city
with its dusty pavements, with trains that graze
the buildings and trees surrounded by rails. Here
you can only see the huddle and feel the heat
and stuffiness, because it has no sounds, there
is nothing alive but only mechanical and dead
things are thriving:
Все это постигаешь у застав,
in
of
of
of
of
А днем простор осенний
Пронизывает вой
Тоскою голошенья
С погоста за рекой.
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Где с фонарями в выкаченном чреве
За зданья задевают поезда
И рельсами беременны деревья;
Где нет мотивов и перипетий,
Но аппетитно выпятив цилиндры,
Паровичок на стрелке кипятит
Туман лугов, как молоко с селитрой.
…
Затянутый все в тот же желтый жар
Горячей кожи, надушенной амброй,
Пылил и плыл заштатный тротуар,
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Не кайся, не завидуй, –
Покойся с миром, спи.
(«Безвременно умершему», с. 385)
Раздувши ставни, парные, как жабры.
(p. 320)
The city comes to life only when the
sounds are heard. But the “animal” life of the
city is so unattractive! Even fortune, barely
holding a cry of pain, is forced to remain
silent – its mouth is filled with the sand of
crimes and injustices:
Голодный город вышел из берлоги,
Мотнул хвостом, зевнул и раскатил
Тележный гул семи холмов отлогих.
“Deafness” is also personification of death:
Я в мысль глухую о себе
Ложусь, как в гипсовую маску
И это – смерть: застыть в судьбе,
В судьбе – формовщика повязке.
(p. 491)
Full-blooded and bright life bursts into the
silence of “deafness” and destroys it:
Тоска убийств, насилий и бессудств
Ударила песком по рту фортуны
И сжала крик, теснившийся из уст
Красноречивой некогда вертуньи.
Silence of a woman who uses it like an
inexpugnable wall to isolate herself from a
“hero” is cold and scary. It is a “deliberately made
obstacle” that makes it difficult to understand
each other; it becomes an insurmountable
obstacle:
Дик прием был, дик приход,
Еле ноги доволок.
Как воды надрала в рот,
Взор уперла в потолок.
Ты молчала. Ни за кем
Не рвался с такой тугой.
Если губы на замке,
Вещай с улицы другой.
(p. 139)
…Мы в ту пору б оглохли, но
Откупорили б, как бутылку,
Заплесневелое окно,
И гам ворвался б…
(p. 360)
“Sounding” images give the breath of
life. In the colorful, variegated genre painting
“The Wedding”, which as if came off from the
canvas by Kustodiev, diversity and abundance
of sounds vividly recreates the sounds of high
spirits of the festive folk festival. Only the
word “noise” is repeated 4 times in the poem,
but these repetitions seem unnoticeable, as the
sounds vary. The poet pays attention to every
detail included in the musical “description”
of the folk festival. These include accordion
playing, as well as playful chastushka and
round dance:
“Absence of sounds” and “dumbness” are
the worst: “Ужасен, как немой толмач …”
(p. 289). It is death:
А зарею, в самый сон,
Только спать и спать бы,
Вновь запел аккордеон,
Уходя со свадьбы.
И рассыпал гармонист
Снова на баяне
Немые индивиды,
И небо, как в степи:
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Плеск ладоней, блеск монист,
Шум и гам гулянья.
life, which vanishes like a dream, the song
pauses, all the “sounding” and “sound” images
disappear and a note of sadness emerges:
И опять, опять, опять
Говорок частушки
Прямо к спящим на кровать
Ворвался с пирушки.
Жизнь ведь тоже только миг,
Только растворенье
Нас самих во всех других
Как бы им в даренье.
А одна, как снег бела,
В шуме, свисте, гаме
Снова павой поплыла,
Поводя боками.
Только свадьба, вглубь окон
Рвущаяся снизу,
Только песня, только сон.
Только голубь сизый.
(«The Wedding», p. 434-435)
Помавая головой
И рукою правой,
В плясовой по мостовой,
Павой, павой, павой.
Вдруг задор и шум игры
Топот хоровода,
Провалясь в тартарары,
Канули, как в воду.
Only at the end of the poem, when the
poet thinks about the shortness of a human
1
2
3
4
Thus, it can be stated that Pasternak’s
poems are not only “seen”, but also “heard”.
Of course, in order to understand the
boundless wealth of “sounding” and “sound”
images, to perceive the meaning of sound
dynamics in the poet’s poetry it is necessary
“... not only to read them, but to hear
them with the inner ear as musicians hear
when they look at music scores” (Glebov,
1972: 48).
In this paper references to Pasternak’s poems are provided according to the following edition: Boris Pasternak. Verses and
Poems. – Moscow-Leningrad, 1965. Hereafter, all the references to this edition will be given indicating fi rst the name of
the poem, then the page.
“Кортомный” – lettable.
Read more about the symbolic meanings of images of nature in Pasternak’s works in the paper by V.Y. Balahnina [Balahnina, 2009]
Here we do not mean alliterations – very vivid and often used by Pasternak, – which may represent a lot of things. Alliteration, as a mean of sound instrumentation goes beyond the problems, featured in this paper. But we would like to give
some examples of intentional poetic method: Когда в тиши речной таможни, / В морозной тишине земли – / Сухой,
опешившей, порожней – / Лишь слышалось, как сзади шли.
Abundance of sibilants represents scuffling, rustle in silence.
Interchange of syllables «то-та-ту» represents tramp: Стуча подковой об одном гвозде / То тут, то там, то в тот
подъезд, то в этот.
Multiple “и” adds easiness, and combination of sounds “ини” repeated several times provides delicacy and melodiousness
to the following line: Синие линии пиний. Ни звука.
References
1. Balahnina V.Y. Semantika i transformatsii prirodnyh simvolov v romane B. L. Pasternaka
«Doktor Zhivago» (2009). Voprosy kulturologii, №4. S. 87-90.
2. Glebov I. (Asaf‘ev, B.V.) Videnie mira v duhe muzuki (Poeziya A. Bloka) (1972). Blok i
muzyka. L.-M.
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3. Lotman Yu. M. Stihotvoreniya rannego Pasternaka i nekotorye voprosy strukturnogo
izucheniya teksta (1969). Uchenye zapiski Tartusskogo universiteta, Vyp. 236. Trudy po znakovym
sistemam.
4. Pasternak B. Stihotvoreniya i poemy (1965). M.-L.
Гармония звуков
в поэзии Бориса Пастернака
Н.А. Еловская, И.Ф. Сидякова
Красноярская государственная академия музыки и театра
Россия, 660049, Красноярск, ул. Ленина, 22
В статье раскрываются вопросы звуковой палитры поэзии Пастернака, богатства мира
звуков, услышанных в природе, музыке, жизненных реалиях и способствующих раскрытию
характера, образа, обрисовке внешнего облика предмета, явления. Происходящий синтез
«услышанного» и «увиденного» (Б. Асафьев) представляет одну из важных особенностей
поэтики Бориса Пастернака. Он придает неповторимость и индивидуальность творческому
стилю мастера, который с особой чуткостью и глубиной воспринимает и раскрывает
окружающий мир в своих стихах.
Ключевые слова: поэзия, звуки, природа, поэтическое зрение и слух, слияние, характер.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 9 (2014 7) 1578-1590
~~~
УДК 784.1
Songs about Saint Petersburg by Sergei Slonimsky.
On the Question of Interpretation of the Poetic Text
Lydia L. Ravikovitch*
Krasnoyarsk State Academy of Music and Theatre
22 Lenin Str., Krasnoyarsk, 660049, Russia
Received 24.02.2014, received in revised form 15.03.2014, accepted 21.04.2014
This article discusses a cappella choruses by Sergei Slonimsky that clearly represent the creative
style of the contemporary master. The choruses written to lyrics of various poets (Bulat Okudzhava
and Anatoly Chepurov) are connected with each other by commonality of the image content, the
stylistic unity and the presence of a cross-cutting theme. Each of them has a St. Petersburg night
scenery imbued with bright mood and embodied by the composer very deeply, emotionally and
convincingly. Based on the analysis of these works the article covers in detail the issues of the
relationship of a word and music, interpretation of the poetic text, reveals the nature of the relation
of the composition, stanza structure and metrorhythmics of the verse with the means of musical
expression, studies the melodic, rhythmic and mode-harmonic language of the choruses, their
textural organization.
Keywords: text, composition, stanza, meter, rhythm, mode, harmony, texture.
An important role in the works of Sergei
Slonimsky is played by the image of St.
Petersburg – Leningrad that, for the composer
personally, is connected with Russia, Russian
and world culture. A multidimensional and
complex image of the city on the Neva River is
represented in a number of his works. Among
them are the cantata “The Voice from the
Chorus” to poems by Alexander Blok, romances
to poems by Anna Akhmatova and Osip
Mandelstam, “The Song about Leningrad” for
the bass, mixed chorus and symphony orchestra,
“St. Petersburg visions” for symphony orchestra
(with the epigraph from the novel of Fyodor
Dostoevsky “White Nights”). The composer’s
constant attention is attracted by the Leningrad
*
poets – his father’s contemporaries – L. Lunts,
D. Kharms, V. Rozhdestvensky, A. Prokofiev,
his contemporaries and friends – Ye. Rein,
I. Brodsky, Ya. Gordin.
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: llravikovich@list.ru
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The genre of a cappella chorus can also
include such works devoted to St. Petersburg as
the “White Night” to the lyrics of B. Okudzhava
and “Leningrad’s White Night” to the lyrics of
A. Chepurov. Addressing these poets was not
accidental for the composer. There is a lot in
common in their lyric poetry: sensitivity to
the beauty of nature, the songlike nature of
the poems, sincerity and credibility, rhythmic
and tonal variety, completeness of the artistic
form.
It is interesting that the “White Night”
chorus created in 1982, was not written to the
lyrics of a St. Petersburg poet, but to the lyrics of
the Moscow bard Bulat Okudzhava who was very
popular in the 60’s – 70’s. Nevertheless, literary
critics have come to the conclusion that Okudzhava
“had “simply poems” and “song-poems”, both
equally belonging to the professional poetry,
written literature” (Novikov, 1997: 39), and their
genre “...is not just elegiac, scenery, meditative
lyrics, but special, emotionally or, to be more
accurate, musically suggestive, where a thought,
feeling, association intricately interact with each
other giving rise to a multi-layer, “stereophonic”
experience” (Zaitsev, 1998: 4).
Bulat Shalvovich Okudzhava (1924 – 1997)
entered the history of Russian poetry as one
of the pioneers of the genre of the author song.
Many of his works written in a poetical and
musical form, as well as the songs of Yu. Vizbor,
Yu. Kim, V. Vysotsky, A. Galich, A. Rosenbaum,
exist only in the author’s performance. They
are distinguished by the openness of soul,
emotionality, sincerity and trustworthiness. The
main thing that made the songs of Okudzhava
especially attractive for the audience was quite an
organic unity of poetry, music and performance.
Joining the literature circle together with
such poets of the 60’s as Ye. Yevtushenko,
A. Voznesensky, B. Akhmadulina, Bulat
Okudzhava at the bottom of his work was a
poet of the front-line generation; his poetry
was formed in brutal environment under fire in
trenches and dugouts. The war, relationships,
feelings associated with war and tragedy of a man
at war were the motifs Okudzhava kept returning
to throughout the work. Titles of poems written
over the years tell it all: “The first day on the
front line”, “The song about the soldiers’ boots”,
“Goodbye, boys”, “The song about the infantry”,
“Do not believe the war, boy”, “From the front
diary” and others. However, an important place in
the poet’s work is taken by sentimental characters
of bygone eras (gallant men and beautiful
ladies), historical fantasies, toponymy of cities.
The constituent elements of the poetic world of
Okudzhava are childhood, the mother, the father,
love and separation, human existence in general.
One of the central images of the lyrics of
the poet is his home town of Moscow that he
mentions in many of his poems. This can be seen
by the titles of his poetical collections – “Arbat,
my Arbat” (1976), “Tea-party on Arbat Street”
(1996). To the poet Moscow is an inexhaustible
source of inspiration, a spiritual world in which
the urban scenery and the unique, old architecture,
toponymy of Moscow streets, squares and alleys
(Arbat, Volkhonka, Ordynka, Neglinnaya), and,
finally, people of this city with a rich inner world
and generosity of soul are inseparably fused,
enveloped in a single mood. Largely thanks to
the songs of Okudzhava Arbat St. began to be
perceived as a symbol of the spiritual unity of the
Moscow intelligentsia.
But, in addition to the poems about Moscow,
the poet also devoted a lot of his works to
Leningrad – the city on the Neva River, in which
Bulat Shalvovich had the fondest memories. It
was in Leningrad where the songs of the poet
gained the audience’s recognition. After the
failure of his first public performance in Moscow
in 1959 Bulat Okudzhava (at the invitation of
friends) performed in the Leningrad House of
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Film in June 1961 before a small audience and
had a resounding success, which was unexpected
to him. When in December 1961 the poet came to
Leningrad once again and performed at the Palace
of Arts, he was already famous by that time: his
songs were played on the radio, distributed in
sound recordings; he was admitted to the Union
of Writers.
It is no surprise that the poet fell in love with
this city, often visited it and dedicated a whole
series of poems to it: “The Leningrad Music”,
“Autumn in Tsarskoye Selo”, “Leningrad
Elegy”, “House on the Moika”, “Leningrad”,
“Neva Petrovna, beside you...”, etc. These also
include the poem “White Night” taken as a
basis of the similarly-named chorus of Sergei
Slonimsky. The poem created and performed
in 1964 in the fi lm “Returned Music” was not
included in any of the author’s collections of
poetry, however, it was set to music by a St.
Petersburg composer Vladimir Chistyakov
and then was published in the printed music
“Listen, Leningrad, I’ll sing to you...” (Songs
about Leningrad) in 1969.
Like many of the poet’s works, this poetic
miniature belongs to the “poem-song” type
created by Okudzhava, the historical origins
of which stem from the romance tradition.
It fascinates with its musicality. In the very
structure of the verse the sound of guitar chords,
thoughtful tones of the singing poet, lyrical
expressiveness of the old romance can be heard.
Here Okudzhava demonstrates a wonderful gift –
he can speak about the sublime in simple, clear,
unpretentious words without raising his voice.
The author conveys the atmosphere of the reverent
contemplation of the world, acceptance of life as
a precious gift from above very passionately and
at the same time naturally.
Plyvut doma, kak korabli, iz dalnikh stran,
Pod parusa vsekh sozyvaya…
Noch belaya, segodnya ya tvoi kapitan,
Tvoi rulevoy, tvoya dusha zhivaya.
[Houses are floating like ships from far away,
Calling everything under the sail...
White night, I’m your captain today,
Your steersman, your soul and faith.]
The structure of the poem that includes four
stanzas (quatrain) is a monologue combining
two perspectives: a brooding lyrical hero and
a night city seen by the poet in the romantic
and magical, fanciful and fantastic light. But
besides the monologue form the poem also has
a dialogic principle, which is very characteristic
of the lyrics of Okudzhava. It can be found in
many of his poems, even in the monologues.
The poet usually refers to an imaginary
interlocutor with whom he has a quiet, intimate
conversation. In a poetic text this is manifested
primarily in a combination of vocatives and
imperatives: “Let’s join hands, my friends”, “Do
not give up the efforts, maestro”, “Painters, dip
your brushes”, “Midnight trolley, rush along
the street”. The same poetic technique is used
in the analyzed poem: in each stanza the poet
refers to the allegorical figure (“White night”)
that represents the beauty and mystery of the
universe.
Belo vokrug – bely doma, bela reka,
Vsyo – ot Fontanki do predmestiy…
Noch belaya, ty otlozhi dela poka,
Davai poidyom, pobrodim vmeste.
[Everything is white – the houses, the river,
Everything – from the Fontanka to the
outskirts...
White night, postpone your matters for awhile
Let’s go and stroll the streets with me.]
It should be noted that the imperative mood
in Okudzhava’s poem lacks of an imperative tone.
This is not a gesture of the order, preaching or
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appeal. In the “vocative” + “imperative” couple
the first is much more important to the poet
than the second one. It is thoughts and feelings
transmitted to another character, or rather, an
internal dialogue with yourself, with your own
heart.
Ni ogonka, spyat fonari – k chemu oni?
Zachem ikh slabiy svet dorogam?
Noch belaya, ostanovis, povremeni…
Mne khorosho s toboy molchat o mnogom.
[No lights, the lantern are sleeping – what are
they for?
Why do the roads need their faint lights?
White night, stop, don’t rush...
It’s so good to keep quiet about so much with
you.]
The poem is distinguished by the unity of
a poetic thought, and, according to the general
emotional mood, it is the complete artistic whole.
This is considerably contributed to by a kind
of technique of altered repetitions typical of
Okudzhava’s poetics. So, in fact the fourth stanza
(with minor changes) repeats the first one:
Kak korabli, plyvut oni iz dalnikh stran,
Spokoinykh dum ne narushaya…
Noch belaya, segodnya ti – moi okean…
Mne po dushe tvoya dusha bolshaya.
[Like ships they sail from far away,
Without shattering the calm...
White night, today you are my ocean...
Your great soul is after my own heart.]
As we can see, the first, the third and the
fourth lines of the four-line quatrain, in fact,
are a modified repetition of similar lines of the
first stanza. In addition, they are combined by an
epiphora of the first and the fourth verses (“Like
ships from far away” – “They sail from far away”,
“Your living soul” – “Your great soul”) forming a
ring composition, which gives the poem an inner
harmony and completeness.
In terms of phonetic, syntactic and
composition aspects of the poem the verbal refrain
“White night” in the beginning of the third line of
each stanza plays a big role. This anaphora creates
a structurally meaningful core of the poem – a
leitmotif that represents a human’s search for the
most beautiful, for the “imperishable beauty”.
Thus, in this poetic miniature, as in many
other poems, Okudzhava uses musical techniques
(modified repetitions, a refrain) that carry a
maximum load of meaning without diverting the
reader’s attention to the structure, which could not
be more suited to the poet who said that “Music of
the poem is always quiet”.
What is also interesting is a rhythmic
and tonal structure of the poem that combines
conversationality and melodiousness. This is
achieved by the different syllabic length of the
lines (the odd ones have twelve syllables, the even
ones – nine or eleven) that creates unevenness in
rhythm, and by the interlaced rhyme (a b a b)
coupling lines of a poem. It also should be noted
that a certain rhythmic dialogue is formed – every
odd verse with a male clausula is colloquial, but
each even verse with a female clausula tends to
melodiousness.
In this poem Okudzhava uses the classic
metrics: a so-called “free iamb” with constantly
alternating six-, five-and four-step lines. This, as
well as the frequent intrusion of a pyrrhic and a
spondee (extra accent) creates a special internal
dynamics and tension leaving no space for
looseness and limpness. Thanks to the rhythmic
shifts, fluctuations of syllabic duration of lines, the
poet attains a natural intonation and the trusting,
intimate and sincere tone that is so characteristic
of his lyrics.
Referring to this poem, Slonimsky
introduces some changes into it generally
maintaining its structure. Thus, he rearranges
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the words in the second stanza (“White river” –
“river is white”), replaces the phrase “matters for
a while” by “your matters”. In the fourth stanza,
the first line “Like ships they sail from far away”
is omitted; instead, the composer insets the start
line “Houses are floating like ships from far
away”. These partial changes to the poetic text
highlights the high demands of Slonimsky to the
literary basis associated not only with the artistic
imagery, but also with the specifics of a word’s
sounding in singing.
The features of the content and structure
of the poetic text affected the musical form of
the chorus – ternary reprise with the middle of
the progressive type: 10 + 15 + 14. The text is
partitioned respectively: the first and the fourth
stanzas were the basis of the extreme parts,
and the second and the third part were in the
middle. General outlines, the type of ternary
form bring together the chorus of Slonimsky
with the poem of Okudzhava: a thematic arch
formed by the repetitiveness is a reflection of the
ring composition of the poem. In addition, the
reprise nature of the fourth stanza is stressed by
the composer by means of the repetition of the
starting line of the poem.
When comparing the musical phrases with
the corresponding poetic lines, the first thing
that draws attention is the flexibility of their
scale ratio. Thus, in the exposition written in the
form of a square period (4 + 4, excluding the two
measures of introduction), verse lines of different
lengths are placed into 2-measure phrases with
identical length. The middle part consisting of two
sections is more complex structurally: because
of the intrusion of the 3/2 size, as well as the
deep caesuras between episodes, the squareness
is broken (3 + 4, 2 + 3). The reprise repeats the
exposition varyingly fulfilling its purpose of a
closing part.
However, the form of the chorus is not devoid
of features of a songlike couplet-variational
structure, as indicated by a distinct division of the
musical material into stanzas, caesura between
them, as well as the “instrumental” links – small
set-in ritornello-elements.
The exposition’s theme set out in the form
of a square period is distinguished by the lyrical
softness and flexibility (m. 3 – 10). Clearly it
has the features of the romance melodies, which
is demonstrated in the smoothness of the line –
except for a few quarter steps there are only
tertian and second steps (and repetition of the
sound) in the melody. Melodiousness and softness
are combined with a wavy, rounded and balanced
melodic pattern typical of the lyrical melodies.
Like in other works of Slonimsky the chorus’s
subject contains mirror-symmetric relations.
Thus, the overall upward movement of the first
sentence covering a tenth’s range (c – es) meets
the downward movement of the second. If the
first four-measure starts with an upward tertian
intonation (c – es), the second one ends with a
downward intonation (es – c). The elements of
retrogression is observed in the structure (both
sentences have a principle of summation), rhythm
(a combination of the triple and duple pulses) and
intonation sets (trichords, arpeggios). In general,
the theme has a wide arc pattern: rising to the es
top of the second octave in the first sentence it
goes down smoothly to the accentual c sound in
the second sentence.
It is noteworthy that the initial intonation
(m. 3) that emphasizes the third of the c-moll
minor key and is a melodic grain of the theme
in the culminating point appears as a vertex (m.
5), but harmonically remade intonation (the sixth
degree sounds instead of a key-note). Further, it
sounds like in the second sentence (m. 8) on the
harmony of the second lowest degree, and then
is repeated on the key-note for the last time (m.
10), thus, completing the theme. Consequently,
by changing the harmonic coloration this tone
becomes a key value and one of the significant
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factors that combine the melody giving it features
of the inner wholeness and completeness.
The melodic line of the middle part develops
a theme previously presented. The intonation that,
this time, is set out in a major version provides a
melody of the first section of this part (m. 12 –
19) that is brighter and serene. In addition to
the tertian techniques the composer also uses
trichords, quarter skips, singing major degrees of
the mode, repetition of sounds.
The melodic line of the second section is also
very close to the theme of the exposition (m. 20 –
25). Starting with a trichord set repeating many
times in different versions it ends by a melody (m.
23 – 25), which is, essentially, a modified repetition
of the theme of the exposition – it combines the
initial two-measure of the first sentence (m. 3 – 4)
and the concluding phrase of the second sentence
(m. 10). It should be mentioned that the tertian
intonation that does not lose its key value, and by
appearing in various forms like the exposition it
frames the entire section emphasizing the most
significant words of the text.
In the reprise the theme of the exposition
is repeated in the new timbre colouring (it is
performed by a male group instead of female
voices) almost without changing its intonation
nature. The four-measure addition that imitates
the “instrumental” conclusion successfully
completes the chorus highlighting a prevailing
musical tone that is shaded by the harmony of the
minor dominant and, thus, sounds in a major at
the end surprisingly fresh and soft (m. 37 – 39).
It also should be noted that the poem itself
with its long lines mostly having unstressed
syllables (e.g., seven by two stressed syllables)
creates prerequisites for a slow, melodious,
free-flowing melody. The composer sensitively
captures the structure of the verse, listens to
the music of the poetic speech. The semantic
completeness of each stanza is emphasized by the
cadences, the persistent repetitions of the keynote
(in melody and harmony) at the end of sections,
the deep caesuras between the parts of the form.
The poetic meter (iamb with different steps)
is reflected in the iambic principles of musical
phrases, in emphasizing the stressed syllables by
accented and relatively accented syllables, large
durations (a quarter, a dotted quarter). Pyrrhic
feet, as well as the extra stress naturally fit into
an unstable duple-triple rhythm, female clausula
(weak cadences) in the even lines are highlighted
by the melodic cadences – the voice descending
by a third.
In addition, we should not forget about
the refrain “White night” that is consistently
highlighted by the rising quarter or tertian
intonation in music of the chorus (m. 6 – 7,
m. 15 – 16, m. 22 – 23, m. 31 – 32). All of this
demonstrates the composer’s great sense of all
composition and rhythm-intonation features of
the poetic original.
The modal structure of the composition
has distinct specifics. Its basis is a natural
and Dorian c-moll mostly sustained in the
extreme parts of the work. In the middle
section the composer uses a same-named major
(C-dur), and thanks to the plasticity of modal
modulations and easiness of mode changing the
keynote C easily alternates with others. A triad
of the second degree (D-dur) that contrasts
with it swings the modal stability and takes
over the role of the tonic centre (m. 15, m. 19).
At the end of the middle part there is a return to
the main tone of the c-moll (m. 23 – 25), which
prepares the beginning of the reprise. Just like
the exposition it highlights a Dorian mode
given versus a Neapolitan chord, as well as an
expressive light-and-shade play (major-minor
recolouring) favouring the naturalness of the
fi nal transition into the similarly-named major.
The harmonic sequence in a cadence (m. 36 –
39) based on the alternation of a major keynote,
minor triads of a mediant and a dominant, as well
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as a ninth chord (T – VI – T – V – VI9 – T), creates
the effect of a colourful “iridescence”. And the
final chord (C-dur) with the second and sixth
degrees tuned like overtones giving consonance
the note of aching sadness symbolizes a faint
silhouette of a summer night.
It is interesting that the poetic text of
Bulat Okudzhava prompted Slonimsky for
an unusual music solution – to use specific
“instrumental and vocal” expressive means.
With the choral sound the composer reproduces
the characteristic features of the genre of the
author song – the poet’s singing while playing
the guitar. Thus, from the fi rst measures of the
score the performing ensemble is divided into
two layers: the relief and background. A men’s
chorus imitating the typical guitar techniques of
phonation, as indicated by the author’s remarque
“quasi Guitarre” accompanies a group of female
voices assigned to deliver the author’s statement.
This principle of the texture separation into
two semantically individual layers (with the
exception of a few measures in the middle) is
maintained throughout the work.
From the very beginning the “guitar”
opening the chorus (m. 1 – 2) sets the tone for
the whole part. Dull sounding of male voices
imitates “instrumental” introduction that
prepares the main theme of the soprano and alto
concentrating the intoned text. A sonorous-phonic
task is implemented by the selected syllables
“bong, bong” that are constantly repeated in
the accompanying group of voices and, along
with a melodic and rhythmic formula, imitate
guitar strumming. Such a combination in the
simultaneity of different types of vocalizations,
in addition to the timbre colorization of the
score, creates a special image-semantic double
dimensionality of the sound. While female voices
are speaking from the author, the men’s chorus
forms a long dimension reviving intonation bends
of the melody by changing harmonic colours.
As can be seen, the composer uses a
mixed type of the texture where the female
choir performing the author’s monologue is a
“thickened” melody (heterophonic layer), and
the male group that imitates an accompanying
instrument forms the movable rhythmical
background exfoliating in two voices.
In the middle part a two-layer texture is
occasionally interspersed with the polyphonic
chords of the choral character giving the sound
the features of light pathos (m. 16 – 19). What is
also quite expressive is the effect of a melody’s
transfer from soprano to bass with sequential
overlayering of voices in the quiet dynamics that
convey the sounds of serenity, a romantic idyll
of a summer night: “No lights, the lanterns are
sleeping – what are they for?” (m. 20 – 22).
In the reprise the functions of voices are
changing: the author’s speech is assigned to the
men’s chorus and female voices play the role
of background, creating a certain shimmering
effect between shadow and light that meets with
the image instability of the work. Closure of the
chorus, as well as the introduction, is a clear
illustration of the “instrumental” conclusion,
in which subtly expressive and coloristic
interchanges of different types of performing
ensemble (female, male, mixed) are associated
with the last “breaths of the guitar”.
Interestingly, after the creation of the “White
night” chorus in 1982, the composer writes a
work on the same topic called “Leningrad white
night” to the lyrics of the St. Petersburg poet
Anatoly Chepurov. And in 1983 the composer
draws his attention to the poet’s work twice – for
the 280th anniversary of his native city he creates
the magnificent “Song about Leningrad” for bass,
mixed choir and symphony orchestra, and the
above-mentioned work for a cappella chorus.
Anatoly N. Chepurov (1922 – 1990) – a poet
of his time and generation, the generation whose
youth was spent on the battlefield, whose character
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was formed during the difficult and heroic period
of time. The main theme of his work was military
heroism, front-line partnership, international
brotherhood, defence of Leningrad. In the army
A. Chepurov worked in the newspaper titled
“Defeat the enemy”, wrote poems, notes about
war heroes, reports, essays, satirical sketches,
conducted daily propaganda literary work that
demanded not only talent, but also the courage
and dedication.
After the war, Anatoly threw himself into
literary work completely. His books of his poetry
got published, in which the poet expressed a
deeply personal experience during severe and
heroic years: “The road” (1947), “My youth”
(1956), “Life line” (1960), “Crossroad of dates”
(1962), “One land” (1970). Later, in 1975, having
taken a long trip to the Far East, Chepurov wrote a
series of poems that are soldered together not only
by a lyrical hero who is the narrator, but also by
the historical interchange of the events unfolding
in them: “Tracks”, “Pine trees”, “Waves of the
Danube”, “Bridge”, “Treasure”, etc.
In addition to the works for the wide
audience the poet also wrote many poems
pertaining to the philosophical and scenery
lyrics. It should be noted that the very nature
of Chepurov’s poetic talent is lyrical, soft and
soulful; its colours are usually unostentatious.
According to a literary critic A. Pavlovskiy, “all
his poetry can be compared with a lyrical song
extended in time and space that is organically
made up of many individual melodical verses,
almost never distracting from the main soft
register. In this respect, of course, it is very
close to the most secret element of the Russian
national melos” (Pavlovskiy, 1982: 7 – 8).
Poetry of Anatoly Chepurov is different
with stylistic clarity, smooth rhythm, watercolour
picture and terse expression. According to the
poet Vsevolod Rozhdestvensky, “the simplicity
of his lyrics is quite complex and meaningful. In
this respect, it follows the principles of Russian
classical verse able to combine the clarity and
accuracy (and therefore the subtlety) with the
significance of the content. In this case the
Russian language is connected with truthfulness
of the general tone, with the immediacy of
experience, and it always is convincing, because
it expresses the undeniable truth of feelings”
(Rozhdestvensky, 1971: 4).
These true, but outwardly unpretentious
lyrical miniatures also include a poem “In the
white night” that became the basis for a cappella
chorus of Slonimsky “The Leningrad white
night”. It was written in 1955 and has features of
the soulful, intimate tone that is so characteristic
of the scenery lyrics of Chepurov where nature is
the path to cognition of the heart, character and
worldview of the contemporary.
Ya lyublyu v leningradskuyu beluyu noch
Vdol Nevy pobrodit ne spesha.
Esli grust donyala –
Grust unositsya proch,
I po-prezhnemu zhizn khorosha.
[In the white night in Leningrad I love
To stroll along the Neva River slowly.
If sadness wearies –
Sadness fades away,
And still, life is good.]
Indeed, how simple and unshowy this lyrical
confession seems to be. The poet draws creative
attention to the feelings and experience of the
hero, but at the same time recreates the lovely
features of his native city. It appears natural and
simple, because goodness and kindness are very
peculiar to his inner world. The scenery in this
case is a way of transmitting emotions of the
lyrical hero who always has a loving attitude to
the nature.
In a brief, concise work (the poem includes
four stanzas in total) Chepurov finds those tones
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and artistic images that could convey the author’s
thoughts more fully and deeply. The poet constantly
and skilfully uses the bright vision of the colours
of nature, its breath, which is very typical of him.
Thus, in the third stanza the “freshness before
dawn” “breathed in by leafage”, “the first beam
on the river silver” is extraordinarily heartfelt
and poetic. The poet writes about it excitedly, but
not sharply, unobtrusively, which makes poetry
gain from the artistic power and convincingness.
No predutrennei svezhestyu dishit listva,
Perviy luch na rechnom serebre,
I vnezapnoy
Studencheskoy pesni slova
Uletayut navstrechu zare.
[But the leafage breathes the predawn freshness,
The first beam on the river silver,
And the words
Of a student song
Fly to meet the dawn.]
It should be emphasized that the lyrical
scenery in this case is not valuable in itself; it
is the impetus for reflection and contemplation.
The deep meaning of the poem is revealed in
the fourth stanza. The warmth of intonations
formed by love for their native city in all its
modest but spiritualized character results in a
concise, aphoristically accurate ending, which
is a symbolic statement of beauty of the human
soul, glorification of our spiritual and moral unity
with our native land.
Skolko srazu v dushe probuzhdaetsya sil
V te minuty pod nebom rodnym!
Nochi, belye nochi,
Kto vas ne lyubil,
Ne byl tot nikogda molodym!
[So many powers awaken in the soul at once
In those moments under the mother sky!
Nights, white nights,
Those who did not love you,
Were never young!]
This miniature is distinguished by the
orderliness and architectonic completeness of the
whole. Its composition clearly discovers the twopart features. The first two stanzas combined by
the anaphora “I love” embody the image of the
night city. The third and fourth stanzas recreate
a picture of the dawn arousing enthusiastic and
romantic feelings in the soul of the hero. The key
words “I love” and “white night” that first appeared
in the starting line of the verse are repeated in a
modified version in the concluding verses of the
fourth stanza (“Nights, white nights”, “those who
did not love you”), framing the entire poem and
forming the ring composition.
It is interesting that the stanzas of the poem
are five-line stanzas, in which the first line includes
twelve syllables, the second and the fifth – nine
syllables; the number of syllables in the third and
fourth lines varies: 6 + 6, 4 + 8, 7 + 5. As can be
seen, the nine-syllable verses are framed by the
short ones (third and fourth) that would constitute
a twelve-syllable line that rhymes with the first, if
the poet did not divide them in two lines.
Thus, when combining the third and fourth
lines the five-line stanza acquired the appearance
of a quatrain with the regulated alternating of
odd and even lines: 12 – 9 – 12 – 9. It should be
noted that dividing the third line into two short
verses, as well as the appearing caesura, draw
the reader’s attention to a word, syntagma that
acquire a certain vividness and expressiveness.
In addition, the word transfer to the next line
gives the poem features of a sublime, deliberate,
slow declamation. This is also contributed to by
the cross rhyme (a b a b) with the same masculine
cadence, and a trisyllabic meter – the four- and
three-meter anapaest that is usually used by
poets to create works of an anelegiac, meditative
character.
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Creatively approaching the poetic original
Slonimsky used all four stanzas in the music of
the chorus keeping them intact. Studying the
imaginative and emotional structure of Chepurov’s
poem, the composer creates a work in the genre
of choral songs that is most consistent with the
literary fundamental principle stylistically and
tonally.
The stanzaical structure of the verse
determined the choice of the form – a coupletvariation form consisting of four (according to
the number of stanzas of the poem) developments
of the theme that are freely varied (not counting
a three-measure introduction): 8 + 8 + 9 + 11.
Contours of a binary form stand out against the
background of the variational basis quite subtly.
For convenience the chorus can be divided into
two sections that correlate with each other by
the length 19 + 20. Although according to the
type of development and internal thematic
contrasts this one-theme composition does
not have a binary form, certain features of
the binary form reflect and highlight the real
image-informative binary form of the work.
While the fi rst two verses describe the beauty
of the white night with soft sincerity, the third
and fourth not only describe the image of the
dawn, but also feelings of admiration and
delight of the hero.
The poetic stanza fits into the square period
of the subsequent structure consisting of eight
measures and which, just as the verse is divided
into two couplets, is split into two four-measures,
into two musical phrases. Smoothness in the
development of the melodic line, the absence
of skips, stability of ascending and descending
tones, a small range (g – es) – all this emphasizes
simplicity and naturalness of Chepurov’s verse.
The culmination nature of the fourth and fifth
lines “Sadness fades away and, still, life is good”
is conveyed by the composer by means of the
Dorian sixth degree harmonized by the major
subdominant that is resolved into the dominant of
the key f-moll tone.
It should be noted that the singing intonation
is pivotal for the chorus melodic line. So, the first
phrase is characteristic of a permanent return
to the supporting sounds of the mode – thirds
and fifths (as – c). With a smooth ascent of the
melody from the third degree to the es top there
is a constant resistance in the form of separate
melodic steps in the opposite direction (m. 3 – 7).
The descent from the top is also accompanied
by singing and return to the fifth tone. The same
is observed in the second phrase, optionally
repeating the first (m. 8 – 11). The ascent to the
d top (Dorian sixth degree that thanks to the
major colouring sounds surprisingly lightly and
vividly) is replaced with a descent to the c fifth.
The melody singing the supporting tones of the
mode always returns to the same sounds creating
the effect of a continuous circular motion, rotation
that is associated with a measured flow of the
river, as discussed in the text.
It is noteworthy that the melodic line
of the work, as in many choral songs of
Slonimsky, is very simple. Its rhythmics,
the general contours, accents, long notes are
determined by the structure of the verse. One
of the characteristics of the relation of the text
and music is a paired combination of couplets
in a stanza together with a variant repetition
of a melodic phrase. (The boundaries of the
melody, the scale of its length are determined
by a semi-stanza resulting in an exact
coincidence of poetic and musical caesuras).
Structural completeness of each stanza is
emphasized by the cadences.
The composer retains the trisyllabic
meter tending to the full stress by using the
“barcarole” rhythm (size 6/8), thus achieving
the full metrorhythmic equivalence of the
poetic text and music. All phrases start because
of the measure, which corresponds to two-
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syllable anacrusis of anapaest; accented vowels
attributable to the strong and relatively strong
beats are perceived naturally and organically.
An important role is played by the quantitative
emphasis: stressed syllables are usually longer
than the unstressed ones, especially at the
ends of phrases that emphasize the masculine
clausulas.
The characteristic genre touches should
include the dotted rhythmic figure that appears
in almost every measure extending the stressed
syllables. In conjunction with the song theme it
gives music the features of elegance and grace.
In addition, the triple pulse of the eighths chosen
by the composer is never interrupted, and it is
this “spinning” in the rhythm, as well as in the
melodic line, as mentioned above, that is the most
expressive.
The mode-harmonic structure of the work is
also quite interesting. It is based on the AeolianDorian f-moll that contains the first verse of the
chorus. It is characterized by modulations of
minor-major triads with correlation of the natural
and Dorian subdominant. The tonal specificity
is combined with the aspiration for continuity,
fluctuation of the harmonic motion, which is
achieved by the dominant cadences of both
sentences (m. 7, m. 11).
In the second verse the pitch degree of the
theme that in the tenor and bass parts sounds
by a fifth lower from the des sound, changes.
Smooth mode modulations are very indicative
of this variation (Dorian b-moll – As-dur), as
well as the triad of the second lower degree
(Ges-dur) introduced at the end of the second
couplet, resolved into the dominant. This
periodic functioning of the side keynotes, as well
as a comparison of major triads (As-dur – Gesdur – C-dur) gives the music features of the tonal
duality and instability. It should be noted that
both couplets end on the dominant that “requires”
continuation and are strengthened by the unity of
mood and general logic of the tonal plan: f – b –
As – f.
But the third and fourth verses are perhaps
the most colourful in the harmonic view, where
attention is drawn to bright modulations in the
key of the mediant. Thus, in the third verse after
the first sentence in f-moll the second sentence
in the key of the third high A-dur sounds
surprisingly light and very expressive, which is
a clear illustration of lines of the third stanza:
“And the words of a student song fly away to
meet the dawn!” (m. 24 – 27). Furthermore, in
contrast to the first verses the third finishes with
the full perfect cadence, but not in the key of
A-dur, which is expected, but in F-dur, which is
associated with bright highlights arising in the
first rays of the sun.
In the fourth stanza having the value of
semantic musical summary of the entire work
there is a keynote-mediant tonal relation, but
this time only major tonalities are compared.
The composer actively transforms the theme that
acquires a hymn nature in a major version. Its
first sentence is in F-dur, and the second one – in
A-dur.
The idea of the contrast comparison of flat
and sharp tonalities finds clear expression in
the cadence of the chorus, where unexpected
modulation and elliptical shifts sound freshly
and expressively (m. 36 – 39). Thus, after the
A-dur keynote a sudden modulation in F-dur
is interrupted by a triad of the sixth lowest
Des-dur degree with the turn to As-dur, but
the elliptical idiom brings the listener to F-dur
once again (instead of the functionally preparing
As-dur keynote). Thanks to these contrasting
tonal comparisons the final thought “Was never
young!” lights up, sounds expressively and
enthusiastically.
Brilliance of the sound is achieved not only
by the harmonic means, but also by the timbre
and register-based combinations. Thus, in the first
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verse Slonimsky uses a mixed type of the texture,
where the theme assigned to the female chorus and
described by the parallel thirds (heterophonically),
which emphasizes and strengthens its lyrical song
nature, is accompanied by a male group (tenor,
bass). And the accompanying voices singing with
mouth closed also form the heterophonical layer
(pedals, interval parallelisms), as a result a twolayer texture forms from the first measures, where
the lower layer distinguished by the rhythmic
pattern creates a soft, moderated background for
the melodic relief (m. 1 – 11). In the second verse
the features of voices are changing: the theme
set by the parallel decimas is assigned to male
voices, and sopranos and altos sounding with
mouth closed accompany it.
Then, after two episodes with a transparent
texture the choral tutti in the third verse (m. 20 –
28) sounds very impressively. The composer
uses homophonic-harmonic kind of presentation
giving the theme to the leading voice (soprano),
with which the other parties sound in the same
rhythm, thus, harmoniously complementing it.
At the same time it should be emphasized that
the musical nature that at first glance seems to be
chorale is made up of melodic voices, sometimes
active and plastic, sometimes hardly noticeable.
Melodic beginning is particularly evident in the
middle voices that by turns double the soprano
at first in the third or sixth (altos), and then in
the decima (tenor). As a result, the traditional
(at first glance) four-part texture is very actively
penetrated by the elements of heterophony forming
an unusually melodic, naturally sounding choral
texture close to the folk song polyphony.
The same principle of presentation is
maintained in the fourth stanza, where the
texture is divided into two heterophonic layers:
in the fi rst sentence it is the women’s and men’s
group (m. 29 – 32) and in the second (m. 32 –
36) – high (soprano, tenor) and low voices (alto,
bass). Only in the fi nal measures (m. 36 – 39),
both groups in the choir are merged into the
chord tutti emphasizing the culmination of all
the work.
Thus, during the process of development
the thematic material gradually accumulates
chords: while in the fi rst two stanzas the
melody easily “floated” on the background of
sustained pedals, in the third and fourth stanzas
it sounds in a heterophonic-harmonic way that
in the fi nal measures gives way to the choral
one, so that there is a “modulation” from the
lyrical meditativeness to the solemn, hymn-like
pathos.
In conclusion, it should be noted that both
works of Slonimsky dedicated to one theme – the
beauty of the white nights in St. Petersburg are
an example of a sensitive and careful attitude
of the composer to the poetic word. Turning to
the poetic texts of various poets, the composer
creates works in the genre of the choir song, the
traditions of which go back to the past centuries –
“to the Russian choral and “a capella” culture”
(Korableva M.D., 2010: 30). The music that
flexibly follows the verse reflects all the features
of the poetic original. In these works, despite the
self-restraint in the choice of means, Slonimsky
achieved significant dynamics of development
with laconism and completeness of the form,
expressiveness of each part, as well as the balance
between words and music, which is indicative of
a high artistic taste of the composer, his talent
and skills.
References
1. Korableva M.D. (2010). Dialog kul’tur v russkom horovom iskusstve XI – XVIII vv.
[Dialogue of cultures in Russian choral art of the 11th–18th centuries]. Voprosy cul’turologii. 2010,
11, pp. 25 – 30.
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Lydia L. Ravikovitch. Songs about Saint Petersburg by Sergei Slonimsky. On the Question of Interpretation…
2. Milka A. (1976). Sergei Slonimskii: Monograficheskii ocherk [Sergei Slonimsky:
Monographical essay]. Leningrad, Soviet composer, 1976. 112 p.
3. Novikov Vl. (2002). Bulat Okudzhava [Bulat Okudzhava]. Avtorskaia pesnia [Author’s song].
Moscow, ACT, Agency KRPA Olympus, 2002, pp. 15–57.
4. Pavlovskiy A. (1982). Vernost’ vremeni [Loyalty of the time]. Chepurov A. Izbrannoe
[Chepurov A. Selected verses]. Leningrad, Belles-lettres, 1982, pp. 3–18.
5. Ravikovich L. (2010). Khory a cappella Sergeia Slonimskogo: Monografiia [Sergey
Slonimsky’s a cappella choral works: Monograph]. Krasnoyarsk, 2010, 360 p.
6. Rozhdestvenskiy Vs. (1971). Predislovie [Introduction]. Chepurov A. Stihotvoreniia i poemy
[Chepurov A. Verses and poem’s]. Leningrad, Lenizdat, 1971, pp. 3–7.
7. Rytsareva M. (1991). Kompozitor Sergei Slonimskii: Monografiia [The composer Sergey
Slonimsky: Monograph]. Leningrad, Soviet composer, 1991. 256 p.
8. Zaitsev V.A. (1998). Puti razvitiia sovremennoi russkoi liriki [Ways of development of
contemporary Russian lyrics]. Filologicheskie nauki [Philological sciences]. 1998, 4, pp. 3–12.
Песни о Петербурге Сергея Слонимского.
К вопросу интерпретации поэтического текста
Л.Л. Равикович
Красноярская академия музыки и театра
Россия, 660049, Красноярск, ул. Ленина, 22
В данной статье рассматриваются хоры a cappella Сергея Слонимского, которые ярко
репрезентируют творческий стиль современного мастера. Написанные на стихи разных
поэтов (Булата Окуджавы и Анатолия Чепурова), они, тем не менее, связаны между собой
общностью образного содержания, стилистическим единством, наличием одной сквозной
темы. В каждом из них представлен петербургский ночной пейзаж, проникнутый светлым
настроением и воплощенный композитором глубоко, эмоционально и художественно
убедительно. На основе анализа этих сочинений в работе подробно освещаются вопросы
взаимосвязи слова и музыки, трактовки поэтического текста, раскрывается характер
соотношения композиции, строфической структуры и метроритмики стиха со средствами
музыкальной выразительности, исследуется мелодико-ритмический и ладогармонический
язык хоров, их фактурная организация.
Ключевые слова: текст, композиция, строфа, метр, ритм, лад, гармония, фактура.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 9 (2014 7) 1591-1598
~~~
УДК 78.082.1+78.03+75.03
Stable and Mobile Elements
of the Author’s Style of A.K. Glazunov
(by the Example of Scherzos of the Early Symphonies)
Natalia V. Vinokurova*
Krasnoyarsk State Academy of Music and Theatre
22 Lenin Str., Krasnoyarsk, 660049, Russia
Received 29.03.2014, received in revised form 08.08.2014, accepted 21.08.2014
Thanks to A. Ossovskiy, Glazunov acquired the role of the one who ended the traditions of the “Mighty
Handful”, which is of no doubt. However, it is clear that the composer’s creative work is not limited
only by the “Procrustean bed” of the epic symphonic style. This is confirmed by a significant reevaluation of his work carried out in a number of studies in recent decades. On the material of scherzos
of the early symphonies of Glazunov this article identifies components of the author’s style that, on
the one hand, firmly linked the composer’s creative work with the traditions of the Russian symphonic
school and, on the other hand, determined the extreme mobility of the author’s style, his aspiration
for the future. The methodology of this study is based on the conjugation of scientific and analytical
apparatus of the humanities disciplines related to the musicology.
Keywords: Glazunov, symphony, scherzo, miriskusniki.
Yu. Keldysh was the one who noticed the
special significance of the symphony genre
in the creative evolution of the outstanding
composer of the turn of the 19 th-20 th centuries –
A.K. Glazunov. He noted that “Glazunov’s
eight monumental symphonies occupy a
privileged position among all <...> works:
they accumulate the most important and
characteristic aspects of his style and are a kind
of milestones or massive boulders on the way
of the composer that mark the main stages of
his artistic development” (Glazunov, 1959:116).
Indeed, for Glazunov’s symphony was for a
conceptual genre bringing into focus not only
the style, but also the ideological preferences
of the composer. According to B. Asafyev, “the
Portrait of A.K. Glazunov by V. Serov
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: nataly-pit@mail.ru
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style of Glazunov’s symphonies is the style of
Glazunov’s music” (Glazunov, 1959:115).
A number of works of the author of
this article (Vinokurova, 2011) proved a
classicism-like orientation of the creative work
of Glazunov and considered his role in the
history of Russian music as a direct ancestor
of neoclassicism. As noted by M. Lobanova,
“during the critical time in the transition
period, the style tends to non-closure”
(Lobanova, 1990:125), openness. It is such a
potential openness that marks the era of the
turn of the 19 th -20 th centuries in Russia. The
extraversion typical of Glazunov’s thinking,
which is the ability to capture and creatively
develop different stylistic phenomena in the art
of the composer’s era, predetermined distinct
originality of the author’s style of Glazunov
(for example, private observations of this kind
are presented in the works of Bochkareva,
1992; Siniavskaia, 2000). At the same time the
stylistic elements of a certain system mastered
by the composer are not so much declared as
adapted becoming almost imperceptible.
It would seem that the obvious heterogeneity
of the style (that is polysynthesism, multielementness and a plurality of diverse,
heterogeneous, different stylistic components)
should have led to the eclecticism of the author’s
style, but it did not happen thanks to the composer’s
universal creative method, namely to the method
of an artistic synthesis gravitating to a certain
syncretism. Actualization of this method is
determined by the peculiarities of the composer’s
world view, ethical and aesthetic directions of a
creative individual. It should be noted that the
early works of the composer were already marked
by the synthetism of the creative thinking. These
include the second and third symphonies of
Glazunov written at a four-year interval – in
1886 and 1890, in which the composer appears
as a quite mature and accomplished master. The
object of this article’s analysis is the scherzos of
these symphonies.
In a symphonic cycle a scherzo represents
one of the aspects of a man, namely a playing
man (Homo Ludens). The scherzo of a specific
figurative plan – a heroic prowess-play, is fixed as
standard in the play elements of an epic symphony.
The element of the epic scherzo is revealed as an
element of a generalized folk dance.
While in the epic symphony the playing
start is a creative and constructive element of
existence, in the scherzo of the lyric and dramatic
symphony the playing at times becomes a source
of the destructive, as it was in the symphonies
of Tchaikovsky. Dramatization of the scherzo
images ultimately leads to their degeneration and
fusion with a fatal element.
The scherzos of the Glazunov symphonies
are characterized by the interaction of 2 types of
the scherzo-ness.
Let us refer to the scherzo of the Glazunov’s
Second Symphony. The composer gives the
playing part of this symphony that is clearly
gravitating to the epos, a dramatic character,
which is not typical of it. In a letter to Stasov dated
January 2, 1885, Glazunov calls the Third part
of the Second Symphony a “demonic Scherzo”.
Even though later this scherzo was described as
something “Mendelssohnianly attractive” (see
letter of A. Glazunov to N.A. Rimsky-Korsakov
dated August 4, 1886), the key to understanding
the scherzo and its dramaturgic functions in the
symphony should be sought in its “program” title
given by the composer himself. The semantics
of the playing part of the cycle is significantly
reconsidered by Glazunov. This is not a play of
free forces, as it is in Borodin’s works, and not
a genre picture of national entertainment like
in Balakirev’s works. The playing start in this
context is the source of the destructive element
of existence. In this respect, the Glazunov’s
interpretation of the playing approaches to the
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interpretation of Tchaikovsky. However, while the
dramatization of scherzo images of Tchaikovsky,
starting with the First Symphony, leads ultimately
to their merger with a fatal force, the Glazunov’s
dramatic elements are localized within the
scherzo, in which it eliminates itself. Thus, the
dramatic of Glazunov is one of the essential, but
not the main component in the re-establishment
of a coherent picture of the world (being).
For Glazunov the play as an intense, but
fruitless and vectorless, sustainable motion is
something exactly opposite of contemplation.
This idea of opposition of the contemplative and
the effective is implemented both at the level of
the structure of the symphonic cycle (through the
contrast between the Andante and Scherzo) and
at the level of extreme and middle sections of the
scherzo.
The extreme dramatic parts of the form are
opposed by a lyrical middle part, where one of
the leitmotifs of the symphony can be heard.
This time, waltz becomes its genre basis (as it
is known, a genre is extremely relevant for the
symphonic style of Tchaikovsky). A typical waltz
rhythm-formula is missing here, which, however,
is compensated by other attributes of the genre
(e.g., prevalence of the rhythm-formula in the
melody emerging from a half and quarter beat,
as well as a downbeat slightly exaggerated by the
pizzicato contrabasses, etc.). The occurrence of
this bright, cheerful image in the middle of the
negative scherzo element opens a temporary,
transient nature of evil.
The atmosphere of anxiety and concern in the
extreme sections of the scherzo primarily creates
an intonation structure of the theme. It consists of
two complexes of intonation, which enter into a
roll-call dialogue. The rapid half-measure rise of
the first measure is immediately extinguished by
a downward motion of the melodic line for three
and a half measures. Moreover, the structureforming units in it are, at first, a descending
second and then a tertian and quart tones giving
the theme the nature of an agitated, feverish
tongue-twister. The creation of such an image is
significantly contributed to by a solo French horn
that is mainly meant for a cantilena, rather than to
create scherzo images.
The basis of the second intonation complex
of the scherzo’s theme – a kind of a response –
again is a descending, but tritonic (as if distorted
in a false mirror) intonation in the rhythm-formula
of two eighths and a quarter repeated three times
by staccato woodwinds in different layers of the
texture. In addition, the dynamization of the form
of the extreme sections of the scherzo is carried
out by means of long dynamic amplifications
(crescendo, textured compaction of a melodic
line, dominant pedal points and tense closing
zones). The waltz version of the leitmotif is
presented in the scherzo coda in a dramatic way. If
the intonation contour of the initial four-measure
remains, the starting point of the theme is not V,
but the III degree of the mode. A minor mode, an
ascending line of sequencing, an ostinato figure
in the bass (I – VII↑ – I) in a swing by quarters
with a slowdown and a stop in the last measures of
the scherzo give the theme a mournful character.
The emergence of such a distorted version of
a light lyrical image in the scherzo coda is not
perceived as a certain result, the outcome of
previous development, but a little differently
because of the fact that one of the functions of the
coda is a function of supplement, i.e., an epilogue
(post scriptum). Therefore dramatization of the
image is not a result of something accomplished
(especially since there was no collision, the images
in the scherzo were vividly compared), but is just
a reminder of the possibility of enhancing the
dramatic component of being (a kind of a call to
be on the watch, memento mori).
The scherzo in the Glazunov’s Third
Symphony is built like a bizarre play by the initial
intonation models that have the theme of the main
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part as a single source, and this part is subjected
to the most significant changes – perhaps, because
of the greatest potencies for the development in it.
Its energy “splashed out” in the form of multiple
chromatic “ups” “charges” and sets a soundscape
of the scherzo in motion in general. Hence is
the figurative and semantic unity of a subjectmatter and, accordingly, the emotional tone of
the scherzo.
The constant transformation of the initial
thematic complexes activates a process-dynamic
factor in the deployment of the form. Because
of this, a playing logic inherent in scherzo is
enriched by the other senses coming into contact
with different ways of shaping and aligning them
to a common constructive “denominator”.
The playing logic interacts with the
generativity (development of two sonata forms
that constitute the extreme parts of the scherzo),
the principle of contrast (a metacontrast on the
border of the extreme and middle parts and
a contrast within the parts, for example, the
emergence of a new thematic formation in the
early developments of sonata forms).
In other words, the playing logic only directs
the visible course of the form, which, at first
glance, looks mosaic and ornamental, but inside
it is tightly knit by the technique of some sort
of hidden ostinato-ness (that is the fundamental
meaning of the theme of the main part for
the intonation form of the scherzo in general)
that expresses here a certain constant, a stable
regularity of being that is always perceived only
gradually.
Indeed, behind a kaleidoscopic change of
fragments of this mosaic resembling a masquerade
or a carnival procession of masks that is a certain
theatrical act (as indicated by the fanfare sounds
of an oboe, clarinet, French horn as if imitating
an invitation to the play) hides the real life.
A theatrical curtain hanging over it slightly
opens up in the middle section of the scherzo that
has a three-part form. In the first part (c.13, m. 5)
the sound space gains stability and balance for
the first time in the scherzo. This is due to several
factors. First of all, the intonation frame of the
melodic archetype– a tetrachord in a quint – is one
of the tokens most typical of songs of the lyricoepic genre. We should also note the symmetry in
the sound material organization characteristic of
Glazunov, which also helps to create balance. In
the archetype of the melody, first, there is a quint
ambitus, and then – motion to its centre, a quint
tone. In the following version of the melody first
a tertian tone stands out, and then – a quint base
of the tetrachord.
Another way to create balance of the sound
space is a composition division into equal
syntactic units – 4-measures – keeping their
intonation variance.
The first part of the middle section of the
scherzo is also characterized by the classical
tonal and harmonic logic: in the tone plan a model
of motion from the keynote to the dominant with
the return to the keynote is implemented.
A non-stop motion – rotation dominates
in the second part of the middle section of the
scherzo, which is also based on the principle
of equivalence (four-measure development of
similar two-measure structures). A musical
equivalent of rapidly running time is an ostinato
rhythm-formula that permeates and unites the
middle part and the reprise of the middle section
of the scherzo. A new version of the melodic
archetype opening the reprise (c. 17) synthesizes
intonations of the introductory fanfare and
archaic tetrachord. An image transformation of
the theme (carnival continues) continues in the
reprise of the scherzo.
While in the exposition of the sonata form the
theme of the main part has a fantastic character, in
the reprise (in an initial development) it turns into
a duple, heavy dance, the un poco pesante section.
Making a “trampling” effect is contributed to by
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a duple meter, alternation of a textured bottom
and top, an articulation accent on each beat of the
measure and a heavy chord vertical. Although the
“dance” episode is small, its energy spreads to
subsequent sections of the form. The theme of the
main part (from c. 28) loses wide breath and its
syntactic units cut down. A secondary part is also
shortened and reduced to varying repetition of the
initial four-measure. Themes or their “fragments”
from different sections of the scherzo are passing
in a rapid pace (vivacissimo) in the coda.
A problem of an image-semantic unity of the
intonation form is solved in the scherzo in a very
peculiar way. The unifying plan is the connection
of temporary plans of the “plot”: the past acquiring
its real shape in the middle of archaic lexicon
of the middle section of the scherzo, and the
present represented by the whimsical, rhythmic
organization and the fast tempo becoming a sort
of an equivalent of rapidly running time, the
whirl of modern life. Conjunction of the past
and the present activates the category of memory
as an attribute of an epic work in general. As is
known, the category of memory or rather the
historical memory has also become central in the
creative work of the “Mir iskusstva” organization
(World of Art) – Glazunov’s contemporaries.
Most works of the miriskusniki bears the stamp
of retrospectiveness (see Sidneva, 2011:31),
meaning it is drawn to the past, which indicates
the indirect, but organic connection with the epic
tradition of culture, with the epos.
Notably, the historical memory in the
canvases of the miriskusniki is not only a means
of connecting time, providing “ontological
resistance to the power of time” (Berdiaev,
1994:289) and acquainting us with eternity
(i.e. performing the function of epic work,
but meaning certain value systems). The past
of the miriskusniki is multidimensional and
always ethically coloured. It can be a symbol of
harmony, stability and order, but it can also teach
the present a lesson if interpreted in an ironic or
grotesque manner. The high ethos of the creative
work of the miriskusniki questions the myth of
aestheticism as a fundamental and sustainable
creative set of artists of this movement.
Not only the perception of time, but also
the similarity of composition techniques brings
together Glazunov and the miriskusniki. In
particular, the composition rhythm of the scherzo
has techniques for organizing a picturesque aspect
in the works of artists of the “Mir iskusstva”. That
is a certain directorial technique – “an invitation
to the play” used by Glazunov in the scherzo of the
Third Symphony, and certainly having analogues
in the paintings of artists of this movement.
As it is known, theatricalization of the
action in the painting works may be manifested
in a deliberately exaggerated conventionality of
the composition and spatial solution. A painting
in this case acts as a kind of staging played out
by the actors. Hence are the deliberate “posing”
of characters (think of colourful portrait of
F. Shalyapin masterfully painted by B. Kustodiev),
the creation of an appropriate background, a
certain composition of the painting (for example,
an oval frame in “Rest after a walk” by K. Somov,
theatrical stage in the painting by A.N. Benua
“The Italian Comedy”).
Glazunov also uses the similar technique in
the scherzo of the Third Symphony. The playing
logic serving as a dominant in the deployment
of the intonation form of the scherzo of this
symphony, in the end, became a style-forming
foundation of the creative work of Glazunov.
The features of the miriskusniki are obvious
in the orchestration of the Glazunov symphonies.
A mixed orchestral “palette” of Glazunov can be
likened to a beautiful palette of the miriskusniki
prone to mix, combine different colours, for
example, watercolour and gouache, gouache and
coloured pencils, pastel, gouache, graphite and
charcoal, etc.
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B. Kustodiev. Portrait of F. Shalyapin
K. Somov. Rest after a walk
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A. Benua. The Italian Comedy
Thus, from the analysis of the scherzo of the
Second and Third symphonies, we can state that
the foundation of the Glazunov’s style system is
the stable elements of the symphonic style of epic
and dramatic types. Those are the typological
features of the scherzo, namely: a fast tempo,
prevalence of expositionality over generativity, a
leading role of the rhythm, predominance of large
structures, relative constancy of the thematic
material, texture, motion types and the base
ternary form. In addition, the playing logic, as
an immanent property of the scherzo, is provided
by so-called play figures. However, from the
moment of crystallization of the author’s style of
the composer to its full realization, such elements
in the works of Glazunov were subjected to
transformation and reinterpretation in a varying
degree. As a result of synthesizing orientation and
extraversion of the creative thinking of Glazunov,
the composer’s tendency to the playing logic,
his author’s style takes on the extreme mobility.
The elements of styles and stylistic trends of the
turn of the 19-20th centuries that turned out to
be in tune with the composer act as mobile. In
relation to the scherzo of the Third Symphony
such consonances were found in the works of the
miriskusniki.
To summarize it should be emphasized that
the style of Glazunov was initially focused on
the balance of all the components and internal
integrity. This led to the selectiveness in the
stylistic sphere: the music composition assimilates
to the process of “polishing”, “adjustment” of the
necessary details forced to “fit” in the originally
specified integrity. Nevertheless, the Glazunov’s
stylistic synthesis is not a sum of certain stylistic
components, but their organic alloy (let us denote
this alloy by the stylistic heterogeneity), which is
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due to the composer’s view of the world that, if
using the N. Losskiy’s definition, we defined as
an “organic view of the world” suggesting that
“the whole is more primary than the elements”.
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music. A Finnish collection. Textbook. Introduction to musicology] Petrozavodsk, pp. 17-25.
3. Glazunov A.K. Issledovaniia. Materialy. Publikatsii. Pis`ma. V dvukh tomakh. [Research.
Materials. Publications. Letters. In two volumes.] T.I. Leningrad, Muzgiz, 1959. 555 p.
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5. Sidneva T. (2011) Musyka kak metafora serebrianogo veka. Voprosy kul`turologii [Music as
a metaphor of the Silver Age. The issues of culture studies], (7), pp. 42-48.
6. Siniavskaia L. (2000) Mir ne iavleniy, no sushchnostei (psikhologicheskaia osnova musyki
A.K. Glazunova na materiale ego pisem i dokumentov). [Not the world of phenomena, but the world of
substances (psychological basis of A.K. Glazunov’s music on the material of his letters and documents.)]
Musykal`naia akademiia, (4), pp. 167-174.
7. Vinokurova N.V. Simfonicheskoe tvorchestvo A.K. Glazunova: na puti k neoklassitsismu.
[Symphonic creativity of A.K. Glazunov: on the way to neo-classicism] Krasnoyarsk, 2011. 215 p.
Стабильные и мобильные элементы
авторского стиля А.К. Глазунова
(на примере скерцо ранних симфоний)
Н.В. Винокурова
Красноярская академия музыки и театра
Россия, 660049, Красноярск, ул. Ленина ,22
С легкой руки А. Оссовского за Глазуновым закрепилась роль завершителя традиций «Могучей
кучки», что ни в коей мере не может подвергаться сомнению. Тем не менее совершенно
очевидно, что творчество композитора отнюдь не укладывается «в прокрустово ложе»
эпического симфонизма и только. Подтверждением тому является существенная переоценка
его творчества, предпринятая в ряде исследований последних десятилетий. В данной статье
на материале скерцо ранних симфоний Глазунова выявлены составляющие авторского стиля,
которые, с одной стороны, прочно связали творчество композитора с традициями русской
симфонической школы, с другой – предопределили чрезвычайную мобильность авторского
стиля, его устремленность в будущее. Методология данного исследования основывается на
сопряжении научно-аналитического аппарата смежных с музыковедением гуманитарных
дисциплин.
Ключевые слова: Глазунов, симфония, скерцо, мирискусники.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 9 (2014 7) 1599-1605
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УДК 78
Music for Wind Instruments Ensemble
in Russia at the End of XVIII
and in the 1-st Third of XIX Century
(on the Example of A. Alyabjev’s Oeuvre)
Anna E. Klimenko*
Krasnoyarsk State Academy of Music and Theatre
22 Lenin Str., Krasnoyarsk, 660049, Russia
Received 11.06.2014, received in revised form 15.07.2014, accepted 04.08.2014
In the given article, we have made an attempt to define the chronological frames of the period, when
the wind instruments ensemble music, as a sphere of Russian professional composers’ creative work,
was being formed; to reveal the facts which had influenced on its becoming, and also to characterize
the peculiarities of the wind instruments ensemble music in the oeuvre of A. Alyabjev.
Keywords: a wind instruments ensemble, harmonic music, classical wind quintet, quintet for flute,
oboe, clarinet, basson and horn C-minor by A. Alyabjev, quartet for 4 flutes by A. Alyabjev, Concert
Symphony by D. Bortnyansky.
In Russia, the ways of formation of professional
composers’ oeuvre for wind instruments
ensemble differed from similar processes, which
occurred in the Western-European music, which,
in particular, accumulated a sufficient luggage for
the period of XVII-XVIII centuries. Obviously,
at that time in the West, a steady genre system
had been already formed, typical wind casts
were also defined (harmonic music1, classical
wind quintet), and a lot of compositions had been
already written. In Russia, the situation was
totally different.
First compositions for wind instruments
ensemble, which belonged to the oeuvre of
professional Russian composures, appeared at
the end of XVIII century. Though, they were
*
rather singular. In 1790, Concert Symphony
B-dur for 2 violins, viola da gamba, violoncello,
basson, harp and piano organize2 was written by
D.S. Bortnyansky (Fig. 1).
He was also the arranger of 8 numbers of
his Opera “Falcon” for wind sextet (2 clarinets,
2 horns and 2 bassons). Creation of such kind of
an ensemble proves that the borrowed WesternEuropean composing tradition was assimilated.
Such a (paired) cast was most popular among the
Western-European composers of XVIII century
(Berezin, 1999:10-12).
And we may recollect a lot of such
compositions. For example, the famous
divertimentos by D. Paisiello (1740-1816) –
the most popular composer at the Russian
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: annaklimenko@bk.ru
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Anna E. Klimenko. Music for Wind Instruments Ensemble in Russia at the End of XVIII and in the 1-st Third…
Fig. 1 D. Bortnaynsky
Fig. 2 N. Ysupov
court, were written precisely for such a cast.3
D.S. Bortnyansky was most probably familiar
with the pieces of the Italian master, as far as after
D. Paisiello’s departure, precisely he occupied the
position of the court composer.
The next Russian composition for wind
instruments ensemble appeared only several
decades afterwards – it was written by
A. Alyabjev (Fig. 3). It was Nocturne C-dur for
string quartet with horn and fortepiano, which
was written in 1819, and, unfortunately, it was
lost for us. The quartet for 4 flutes was written
in 1827. Later, about 1830, he created the quintet
for flute, oboe, clarinet, basson and horn. A lot
of Russian composers of XIX century addressed
to the music genre sphere for wind ensemble,
following A. Alyabjev. Here, we recollect the
pieces by M. Glinka – Septet for 2 violins,
violoncello, contrabass, oboe, basson and horn
(1823), the Serenade (septet) to the motives from
the Opera “Anna Bolena” by G. Donizetti for
fortepiano, harp, alt, violoncello, contrabass,
basson and horn, «Pathetic Trio» for clarinet,
basson and fortepiano (1832); A. Rubinstein –
Octet for violin, alt, violoncello, contrabass, flute,
clarinet, horn and fortepiano (1854), Quintet for
flute, clarinet, basson, horn and fortepiano (1855);
M. Balakirjev – Octet for violin, alt, violoncello,
contrabass, flute, oboe, horn and fortepiano
(1856), S. Taneev – Andante for paired cast
of flutes, oboes, clarinets, bassons, and horns;
N. Rimsky-Korsakov – Quintet for flute, clarinet,
basson, horn and fortepiano (1876), and Nocturne
for 4 horns (1888).
Proceeding from the mentioned above, we
may come to the conclusion that the initial stage
of formation of the genre sphere of wind ensemble
music in the oeuvre of professional composers of
Russia falls on the end of XVIII and on the 1-st
third of XIX century.
In the conscious of most admirers of music,
the name of A. Alyabjev is first of all associated
with his famous romance “Nightingale”. Today
only few people are acquainted with his operas,
ballets, and vaudevilles; while the music, which
was created by A. Alyabjev for wind instruments
ensembles, is practically unknown at all. Though,
it was not at all by chance that the composer
addressed to the casts of such kind.
Since his early childhood, A. Alyabjev
had an opportunity to hear the sounds of wind
instruments. His father (like most noblemen of
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Anna E. Klimenko. Music for Wind Instruments Ensemble in Russia at the End of XVIII and in the 1-st Third…
Fig. 3 A. Alabjev
that time) had his own home orchestra, which
consisted of bond musicians4. Judging by some
of the orchestra’s musical scores, one can form
the notion of its repertoire. Mainly, we meet
adaptations of Russian folk songs. In comparison
with other contemporary composers, A. Alyabjev
not only knew well the wind instruments, but he
also studied their peculiarities and masterfully
used his knowledge in practice in his orchestra
and ensemble music pieces. Moreover, he wrote
two theoretical works, concerning the specifics
of music pieces performance on the wind
instruments. It was a table of trills, made on flute,
and also tables of diapasons for brass instruments
(Dobrokhotov 1966).
Probably, these very circumstances caused
the specifics of wind instrument use in the oeuvre
of the composer. What concerns the wood wind
instruments, A. Alyabjev used them mainly as
the carriers of melodic beginning (flute in the
overture to “Morning and evening”, clarinet in
“Fast March”, the overture to the opera “The
Fisherman and the Mermaid”, and basson solo in
the same piece). In some cases, brass instruments
could also perform a melodic function. For
example, the trombone solo (“The Fisherman and
the Mermaid” and “The Madwoman”) or the horn
solo (“The Wonderful Drum”). In Symphony
Es-dur (1850), the concertizing instruments
were 4 horns. Sometimes, A. Alyabjev used old
instruments, such as ophicleide5 and serpent6, as
a bass of the brass group. We should also remind
that these instruments were rather often used in
orchestras, until tuba replaced them (in 1840-s).
It is also important that A. Alyabjev’s wind
instruments ensembles are referred to one of the
first examples of the genre pieces in Russian
music, which did not have any applied meaning.
One can find examples of the wind music
pieces, written by E. Fomin, D. Bortnjansky,
S. Davydovа and other composers – the foregoer
of A. Alyabjev, which were intended for military
ceremonies or for the theatre purposes. As a rule,
such music accompanied drama performances
(in the intermissions or before the performances).
“They played “horns, “flutes” or “clavichord”,
then there was a performance of a violin player
with a concert or an orchestra with a symphony
(overture)” (Steinpress, 1956:33). In most cases,
harmonic music, i.e. the pieces, written for paired
casts of wind instruments, was also in addition.
A. Alyabjev became the first Russian
composer, who created a composition in the
genre of classic wind quintet. The first examples
of a wind quintet in Western-European Music
appeared at the end of 18 century. There is an
opinion that the founders of the classic wind
quintet genre are F. Danzi (1763 – 1826) and
А. Reiche (1770 – 1836). And in this respect,
the following biographical fact seems to be
rather interesting: musical critic V. Odoevsky
supplied A. Alyabjev with various musical
scores and musical-pedagogical education books,
also including the А. Reiche’s compositions
(Dobrokhotov, 1966:36). Consequently, it is
possible to suppose that the Russian composer
was familiar with the pieces of a similar genre of
his Western-European colleagues.
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The A. Alyabjev’s Quintet for flute, oboe,
clarinet and horn C-moll is referred to the
composer’s early period of creative work and
its precise creation date is unknown. It was
presumably written round about 1830, in Tobolsk.
Precisely there, A. Alyabjev got for the first time
acquainted with chromatic brass instruments,
which he began to use widely in practice (in
comparison with most other composers of
that time). For that purpose, he made a special
mark “mechanic” in his sheet music. Though,
apparently, A. Alyabjev under-studied the
possibilities of new Russian instruments and that
was why he used to make mistakes in transport
(for example, in the parts of horns in orchestra
sheet music). And probably that was why all the
parts in the Quintet (including the horns) were
written without transposition.
The author’s manuscript of the Quintet
scores is kept in the State Central Museum of
Musical Culture in Moscow. It represents draft
and very often disconnected sketches. In the
manuscript, there is only one unfinished part of
the Quintet, having been written in the form of
sonata allegro, which notation finishes at the end
of its development. On the basis of the material
of the Quintet introduction and exposition,
B. Dobrokhotov, who wrote its ending (1953),
supposed that the given Quintet was also of onepart according to the author’s plan, as far as there
were known several one-part symphonic and
chamber-instrumental compositions in the oeuvre
of A. Alyabjev.
If we compare it with multiple western
compositions of those times, then we see that this
Quintet is the most valuable example of Russian
music of the beginning of XIX century on the
poor background of chamber literature for wind
instruments ensemble. We should underline that
it is characteristic of the Russian composers of
the XVIII century on one hand – their tendency
to rely on Russian folk song traditions and,
on the other hand – the perception of musical
achievements of other European countries.
One can note that Aliabiev, a composer of the
1-st third of the XIX century, has already some
dawning features of the Russian national culture
(in the melody of the entrance themes – the city
romance and the Russian folk song (the second
theme reminds us of the intonation of the song
“That’s not the evening”). However, it is not by
chance: “Being on a higher stage of development,
the society is typical of increased attention to
self-identification and protection of cultural and
national uniqueness” (Bozhchenko, 2012:59).
We shall address to one more composition
for wind instruments ensemble belonging to the
A. Alyabjev’s early oeuvre – Quartet for 4 flutes
(1827). Flute quartet originally appeared as a
genre of applied music, but at the beginning of
XIX century it became an equal participant of the
concert life and acquired its own classic form in
the oeuvre of F. Kuhlau (Dania), L. Gianella (Italy),
A. Reiche (Czechia), E. Walkiers, and J. Cardon
(France). М. Stabinger7 and H. Soussmann8 –
famous flute players of the end of XVIII and XIX
centuries, whose creative works were related to
Russia, also made their contribution to increase
of the flute quartets’ repertoire. In Russia, the
genre of quartet has had a complicated fate.
A. Alyabjev, the creator of the first quartet for 4
flutes and of the first wind ensemble, prepared
the basis for development of this genre in Russia.
Though, “the response” to A. Alyabjev’s creation
appeared only in a century. Only in 1939, in
China, Russian composer A. Cherepnin wrote a
quartet for an analogical cast of instruments.
The manuscript of A. Alyabjev’s quartet
has been found in the archive of the Moscow
Conservatory Library. It is mainly a draft; though,
some lists of the final variant have been also
preserved. The score has only first two parts –
Allegro and Adagio. In 1950, the first part of the
quartet was corrected, finished and published by
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Anna E. Klimenko. Music for Wind Instruments Ensemble in Russia at the End of XVIII and in the 1-st Third…
the Professor of the Moscow Conservatory, flutist
N. Platonov.
It was quite an interesting fact that
A. Alyabjev also introduced the group, consisting
of 4 flutes, into the score of his ballet “The
Wonderful Drum, or the Investigation of the
Wonderful Flute”, which was also written at
the same time as the Quartet, in 1827. Why did
A. Alyabjev write a composition for such a cast
and include the flute quartet into his ballet? Let
us remind you that D. Bortnjansky also wrote
his symphony for quite an original9 cast of
instruments. In this connection, we may suppose
that the given compositions were meant for a
certain cast of more or less famous at that time
musicians-performers. We should also note that
at that time flute was a rather famous instrument
due to coming foreign musicians, who dominated
at those times at the concert stage.
In his quartet, A. Alyabjev used
expressiveness of the wind instruments in
combination with the specifics of the quartet
style, which was chosen by the composer in the
process of string quartets composition (1820,
1827). B. Dobrokhotov mentions about this fact
(Dobrokhotov 1948). Though, in comparison with
the considered flute quartet, the functions of the
string ensemble instruments are usually strictly
defined. It is related to the timbre differentiation,
which predefines interpretation of each part (it
is analogical in the classic wind quintet, which
consists of various-tessitura instruments). For
example, 1-st violin is the carrier of the melodic
beginning, 2-d violin and alto whether repeat it or
perform harmonic voices, and violoncello plays
the bass line. What concerns the wind quartet,
instruments functions of the homogeneous cast
are more variable and in the A. Alyabjev’s case,
their parts are rather finely detailed. The part of
the first flute has an expressive virtuosic character
and a lot of melodic decorations10. The function
of the bass line, which supports the harmony, is
mainly performed by the fourth flute. Moreover,
it renders the main thematic material along with
the first flute. Thus, the part of the fourth flute
is bi-functional. The second and the third flutes
chiefly play the part of accompaniment, being the
parts of the cords structure. They are not given to
perform any independent melodies: it is whether
repetition or imitation of the motives of the first
flute.
In spite of that fact, that the ensemble
consists of the similar tessitura wind instruments,
the composer has managed to achieve full and at
the same time exquisite sounding.
In general, the music of the A. Alyabjev’s
Quartet for 4 flutes has a light and cheerful
character. Let us draw your attention to an
obvious resemblance of the Quartet with
compositions of the Viennese classics. First of all,
it is seen in the composition: the Quartet for 4
flutes has been conceived as a cyclic composition
of sonata type (1-st part is made in the form of
sonata allegro). The following peculiarities of
the theme are also rather important: the theme
of the main melody of the I part consists of two
elements: the first element –“fanfare”, which is
typical for heroic intonation sphere of classicism
(wide steps by triad tones with acciaccaturas)11
(Konen 1968; Shaymukhametova 1998) ; the
second element – leading-tone trills, which add
light and jolly character to the music, and this
also has associative connections with the typical
melodic idioms of the Viennese classics.
The theme of the Quartet subsidiary part
resembles Mozart’s one (for example, the theme
of his subsidiary part from the Quartet D-dur) –
the exquisite, virtuosic, ornamented melody is
performed by the 1-st flute.
Similarity can also be observed in the
structure-forming principals of sonata Allegro,
which typical for the Viennese classical
symphony, and which have been revealed in
the book of V.D. Konen (1968), precisely in the
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Anna E. Klimenko. Music for Wind Instruments Ensemble in Russia at the End of XVIII and in the 1-st Third…
principle of structural division, which is shown
in caesuras, which divide separate, more or less
accomplished constructions.
This way, one can observe significant
influence of the Western-European musical
traditions on the music, written by A. Alyabjev
for wind instruments ensemble. It is revealed in
use of certain types of casts, in addressing to the
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Quartet and Quintet genres, and in peculiarities
of structure- and theme-forming. Thus, we may
assert with good reason that assimilating the
experience of the Western-European practice and
synthesizing it with the national peculiarities,
precisely A. Alyabjev has made the foundation
of the Russian tradition of the wind ensemble
music.
A paired cast ensemble consisted of 6 – 8 wind instruments. Traditionally, harmonic music was performed by 2-3 pairs of
wood wind instruments and 2 horns. The cast could be varied and omit some of the wood instruments – flutes, clarinets
or oboes. Though, beside horns, practically all the casts had bassons. Sometimes, ensembles of paired casts could include
tubes, timbales, serpents and trombones. Doctor of history of art V.V. Berezin writes in every detail about harmonic music
in his article, which has been published in the journal “Ancient Music” (1999). In the process of writing of this article, we
have studied sheet music material from the archives of the Russian National Library. It is the Yusupov’s musical collection
(Fig. 2)
A sort of fortepiano with organ registers.
D.S. Bortnyansky occupied the post of the court composer after D. Paisiello
In Russia and in Europe of XVIII and of the beginning of XIX century there were singled out two main spheres of the
music existence. There was amateur or home music-making and professional creative work.
Ophicleide is a bass mouthpiece instrument, which form resembles basson, made by master Alary in 1785.
Serpent is a bass mouthpiece instrument of a serpent form, which was constructed by E.Giyom in 1590.
Matthias Stabinger (approx. 1750-1815) was a German composer, conductor and a flutist, who lived several years in Moscow. He was a conductor in the Peter’s Theatre and organized concerts. In 1787, he founded a music school in Moscow.
Heinrich (Andrey Andreevich) Soussmann (Susman) (1796-1848) was a German flutist, composer, whose talent was specially noticed by M. Glinka and V. Odoevsky.
In the given case it is true not only for Russia, but for Western Europe as well.
It was a rather typical phenomenon for the music of the Western-European composers of that time, but it was rather brave
for the work of a Russian composer of the same epoch; though, it is quite possible that this peculiarity has appeared in the
result of editorial work of the professor, a famous musician – flutist N.I. Platonov.
There are a lot of examples of the usage of intonation stereotypes of fanfares given in the research work by V.D. Konen
“Theatre and Symphony”. Moscow. 1968, and in the research work by L.N. Shaymukhametova “Semantic Analysis of the
Musical Theme”. Moscow. 1998.
References
1. Berezin, V.V. Some New Facts about the Well-Forgotten Theme: anent the history of Wind
Ensemble Harmoniemusik in Russia, Ancient Music, 2 (1999), pp.10-12.
2. Bozhchenko O.A.. Factors of Historical Memory Formation, The culturology`s issues, 9
(2012), pp. 57-61.
3. Dobrokhotov B.V. A. Alyabjev’s Creative Way. Moscow: “PH Muzyka”, (1966), 319 p.
4. Dobrokhotov B.V.. A.A. Alyabjev’s Chamber-Instrumental Oeuvre. Moscow, Leningrad:
Muzgiz, (1948), 29 p.
5. Konen V.D.. Theatre and Symphony. Moscow: “Muzyka”, (1968), 376 p.
6. Shaymukhametova, L.N.. “Semantic Analysis of the Musical Theme”. Moscow: RAS n.a. the
Gnesins, (1998), 265 p.
7. Steinpress, B.S. Pages from А. A. Alyabjev’s Life. Moscow: Muzgiz, (1956), 404 p.
8. The Russian National Library (musical scores and manuscripts of 1706-1895). The Yusupov’s
Collection. P.–St. Petersburg.
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Anna E. Klimenko. Music for Wind Instruments Ensemble in Russia at the End of XVIII and in the 1-st Third…
Музыка для ансамбля духовых инструментов
в России в конце XVIII и в 1-й трети XIX века
(на примере творчества А. Алябьева)
А.Е. Клименко
Красноярская государственная академия музыки и театра
Россия, 660049, Красноярск, ул. Ленина, 22
В рамках данной статьи предпринята попытка определить хронологические границы периода,
когда происходит формирование музыки для ансамбля духовых инструментов как сферы
профессионального композиторского творчества в России, а также охарактеризовать
особенности музыки для ансамбля духовых инструментов в творчестве А. Алябьева
(A. Alyabjeva).
Ключевые слова: ансамбль духовых инструментов, гармоническая музыка, классический
духовой квинтет, Квинтет для флейты, гобоя, кларнета, фагота и валторны до минор
А. Алябьева (A. Alyabjeva), Квартет для 4-х флейт А. Алябьева (A. Alyabjeva), Концертная
симфония Д. Бортнянского (D. Bortnyanskogo).
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 9 (2014 7) 1606-1619
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УДК 7.036
Art groups in Russia After 1917
Natalya V. Pokrovskaya*
Krasnoyarsk State Institute of Art
98 Mira Av., Krasnoyarsk, 660017, Russia
Received 02.06.2014, received in revised form 12.07.2014, accepted 15.08.2014
The main purpose of the present article is to study the art groups existing in Russia after 1917,
included into the stream of world artistic culture. The present work presents the analysis of
Russian Soviet pieces of art made in XX century, an overview of general culture and art issues
together with the issues of phylosophy, aesthetics, literature, history of art, binding them to common
artistic practice. The main body of the article is a comparative analysis of such groups of artists
as “OBMOHU”, “Unovis”, “Segodnya”, “Detgiz”, “MHK”, “INHUK”, “Zorved”, “ASNOVA”,
“OSA”, “Makovets”, “AHRR”, “4 iskusstva”, “OST”, “Krug Khudozhnikov”, “NOZH”, “MAI”
carried out with historical and survey methods of research. The article introduces their main
participants, leaders, postulates, ideas, theoretical platforms, times and places of their major
exhibitions. In general, the research reproduces one edge of a very short, but intensive and lively
period of the country’s life. Its high professionalism still remains the measure and criterion for
assessing modern pieces of art. This article addresses to students of art institutes majoring in
academic and applied specialities.
Keywords: art groups, Soviet art, artistic platforms, artistic exhibitions, avant-garde and
traditional art.
Russian art after 1917 (Soviet art) is
complicated, contradictory, and ambiguous.
Moreover, it was a factor influencing many
other spheres of social life. Russian artistic
culture entered the international arena. Among
the important victories of the Soviet art were
revolutional avant-garde and officially recognized
socialist realism. Massive campaigning, art groups
of 1917-1920, social control of 1930-1950 are all
different variations of realism. Co-existence,
interaction, mutual replacement, development of
different trends are all the words to describe the
symbolism and allegorism of the artistic thinking
of those times.
*
Year 1917 was a special milestone in the
political history of Russia but had no such
significance for the history of art. The brake point
of artistic conscience is mid 1910-s, connected
with the ideas and practice of Russian avantgarde, which resulted in creating a method to
build a new reality, not even bound to the visible
world. However, after the year 1917 the aesthetic
search of the 1910-s changed its vector: the formal
experiments now play the role of the revolution’s
artistic language. The major representatives
of avant-garde had their allies and followers
(Kandinsky, Malevich, Filonov, Chagall, Tatlin),
but usually did not belong to any groups. They
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: galjuta@mail.ru
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create their own forms of art, opposing their art
to general European avant-garde.
Russian avant-garde is oppositional
towards European modernist movement. There
were several avant-garde artistic centres in
Russia which determined the cultural life of
Moscow, Vitebsk, and Leningrad: Ginhuk
(based on the experience of Zubov Institute
of History of Art, founded in Petersburg in the
year 1912), Decorative Institute in Petrograd
and its workshops for posters, theatre sceneties,
campaigning art (leaded by Iosif Shkolnik after
1918), Leningrad Porcelain Factory (scientific
and artistic laboratory of Malevich followers:
N. Suetin, I. Chashnik, A. Leporskaya). The
spirit of collectivism reigned at Public Institute
of Art in Vitebsk, in the centre of suprematism
propaganda, in “Unovis” group (Ilia Chashnik,
Vera Yermolayeva, Lazar Lissitzky, Nikolai
Suetin and Kazimir Malevich).
Representatives of new art founded People’s
Comissariate for Enlightment, “Narkompros”,
and Arts Department. The purpose of the
official art, the “Proletkult” of “Narkompros”,
was to destroy the old “nobiliary” culture and
create the new, “proletariate” one. “Proletkult”
(abbreviation for “proletariate culture”) was
a cultural, enlightment, literary and artistic
organization (1917-1932), which did not divide
art into “official” and “inofficial” (before 1932); it
did not belong to any aesthetic system or trend of
art, and was characterized with “moderateness”,
“legality”, “traditionalism”.
The first state artistic workshops (followers
of A. Lentulov, G. Yakulov, A. Rodchenko) were
formed at former Stroganov College in Moscow,
when in the year 1919 OBMOHU (abbreviation
for “young artists’ association”), consisting of 20
people, was created. The works by OBMOHU
members were displayed at four independent
exhibition at the First Russian Art Exhibition in
Berlin, at Van Diemen Gallery (1922). In the year
1919, at the last credit before the qualification exams
the graduates of the First State Art Workshops
(former Stroganov College) were greeted by
A.V. Lunacharsky. OBMOHU (12 graduates) was
supposed to carry out the propaganda tasks of Art
Department of “Narkompros”. All the works were
anonimous, considered to be done collectively
and signed as “OBMOHU”. They also produced
posters, drafts for theatre scenery and costumes
(Z. Reich theatre), graphics and decorations for
the near-front zone and decorated provincial
towns (such as Voronezh). It was a real creative
laboratory performing certain works (posters
for Extraordinary Commission of the Literacy
Project leaded by N.K. Krupskaya). The analysis
of art produced in the 1920-s reveals true value of
“laboratory searches” and experiments of certain
art groups.
Avant-garde features revealed themselves
very vividly in book art, which was caused
by extraordinary closeness of poetry and
painting (in Russia the “inventor” of futuristic
book was poet A. Kruchenykh). One of the
brightest examples of an artistic publishing
house was the way from “Segodnya” (“Today”)
team to Leningrad “Detgiz” (V. Yermolayeva,
V. Lebedev, E. Evenbakh etc.). In the years
1918-1919 a team of artists called “Segodnya”
was formed. M. Gorky and V. Mayakovsky
used to be frequent guests of the group.
Apartment of V. Yermolayeva in Petrograd
became a meeting spot for artists and writers
who united for cooperative work on publishing
books (for children), which was the beginning
of Leningrad Detgiz. Artists and writers did
everything themselves, from typing to selling
the book: they called it “rule of thumb” and
“samizdat” policy. The small pressruns (125
copies) were engraved on ordinary floor cloth
and painted by the artists themselves. The
connection of the two groups, “Segodnya” and
“Detgiz” is especially remarkable. In the year
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Fig. 2 Shvarts E. and Evenbakh E.
Fig. 1 Vvedensky A. and Evenbakh E.
1925 S. Marshak gathered a creative group at
the National Publishing House of Leningrad:
B. Zhitkov, V. Bianki, K. Chukovsky, E. Shvarts
(Fig. 2), D. Kharms, A. Vvedensky (Fig. 1),
N. Zabolotsky and others. The artistic publishing
house of “Detgiz” was headed by V. Lebedev
who also invited V. Yermolayeva, E. Evenbakh
(Fig. 1), N. Tyrsa, A. Pakhomov, N. Lapshin,
Yu. Vasnetsov, V. Kurdov, E. Charushin. In
decoration of the childrens’ books each of the
masters developed his own style based on their
ability to discover the world over and over again.
“Detgiz” formulated the creative basics of an
artist of childrens’ books. They are: ability to
sympathize and maintain the sense of “interest”,
attentiveness of observation and pureness
of vision (naïve surprise), inventiveness and
humour, compactness and accuracy of every
creative solution. The initiator of a book could
be an artist, not a writer. In Moscow the blossom
of Russian book art was boosted by the activity
of B. Favorsky and his group of artists.
On December 5, 1918 Artistic Culture
Museum was opened. The museum in Myatlev
House on the Saint Isaac Square of Petrograd
became the first museum of modern art in the
world. On April 3, 1921, the Painting Department
of the Museum was opened for visitors; later,
departments of drawing, icons and artistic industry
were opened, and their collections were granted
to Russian Museum in 1926. In 1927 Russian
Museum used them for the exhibition devoted to
the Tenth Anniversary of the Revolution. Artistic
Culture Department studied the five systems
of new art: impressionism, sesannism, cubism,
futurism, suprematism, worked on the “additive
element” theory. On the anniversary of the death
of Velimir Khlebnikov (1923) Tatlin produced
a performance on “Zangezi” , a dramatic poem
(“Architecture of Stories”, a superstory), which
was a call to unite the humankind, in the rooms
of the Artistic Culture Museum. At the same time
he worked on the “universal language”, “language
of stars” (Fig. 3). For example, producing words
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Fig. 3 «Zangezi» Khlebnikov V.
of “ch” sound (chasha (bowl), cherep (skull),
chulok (stocking), chan (tank)) one can create
the concept of one object hidden in the skin of
another. Tatlin built a peak construction, movable
scenery, pieces of boards (a colourful “deck” of
plains expressing the “starry night sky”) and
installed two projectors. The idea to create a
research centre for new problems of art arose.
Filonov came up with a suggestion to transform
the Museum into a research institute of modern
artistic culture (Museum Conference of June
9, 1923). GINHUK, opened in August 1923
(Director: Malevich, Assistant Director: Punin,
Department Executives: Tatlin, Mayushin,
Mansurov), did a research of post-cubism
phenomena of art.
One of the founders of GINHUK, Mikhail
Mayushin (1861–1934), developed ideas of
“expanded vision” in painting (watercolours of the
years 1920-30s). He was the head of department
for organic culture which returns a human being
back to nature and new spacial ideas (Fig. 5 and
Fig. 5). In his opinion, the “colour bond” (when
two colour produce the third) occurs between the
colour “environment” and the “main” colour (as
in Bach fuga). In the earlier period, artists tried
expressing sounds with the means of painting
(1913-1914, can be compared with works by
Mondriaan, Čiurlionis); later, the department
and school of Matyushin did their studies on
the interaction of colour and shape, colour and
sound. He leads us to the idea that non-objectivity
in shape formation and colour sense comes from
observations of nature.
These problemes rose in the creative
solutions of Matyushin and Elena Guro in the
years 1910–1913; the synthesis of new spacial
ideas (till non-objectivity) and new natural
senses began its formation. They still remain
the spiritual orienting point for a group of young
artists: the Ender family (Maria, Ksenia, Boris),
Nikolai Kostrov, Olga Vaulina, Evgenia Magaril,
Valida Delacroix and others. In the year 1923,
in Petrograd they united into a group called
“Zorved”, the name of which is made of two roots:
“zor” (vzor, “look”) and “ved” (vedat’, “to know”).
Composer, painter, teacher and philosopher
Mikhail Matyushin worked at “Spatial Realism
Workshop” of Art Academy, and later at Organic
Culture Department of Artistic Culture Museum
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Fig. 4 Matyushin M. Flower of Human
Fig. 5 Matyushin M. Haystack. Lakhta
and at GINHUK. He offered his followers a new
theory of space and light solving the extensive
tasks of creating a new image of nature as of a
flowing mass of interbound particles, changing
its volume, colour, dimensions, weight and
shape continuously and permanently. In order
to step beyond the regular vision, artists need
theories, methods and cognition means of the
whole and harmony. The “extensive vision”
includes individual perception depending on the
combination of psychological and physiological
states, the “individual case”.
After the end of military communism (after
1921) and beginning of NEP the system of state
control and censorship formed itself inside the
artistic culture. Artists perceived themselves as
free innovators. They renewed and replaced the
nameplates of the traditional groups (such as “Mir
Iskusstva” (World of Art), “Soyuz Molodezhi”
(Youth Union), TPHV), created several new large
artistic schools (schools of Malevich, Matyushin,
Filonov, Petrov-Vodkin, Tatlin), conflicted with
each other, behaved intolerantly towards the ideas
of other novators. The basis of all those systems
was the new understanding of space and a principle
of breaking the gravity: “rayism” of Larionov,
abstractionism of Kandinsky, suprematism of
Malevich, analitism of Filinov, planetarism of
Petrov-Vodkin (the “rocking space” or “spherical
perspective”), the spatial realism of Matyushin.
In the year 1916 Malevich organized an
association called “Supremus” which included
O. Rozanova, N. Udaltsova, L. Popova, I. Klyun,
I. Menkov, V. Pestel, A. Kruchenykh, R. Yakobson
(Alyagrov). Then, since the beginning of January
1919 he began managing the Workshop of
studying the new art of suprematism and the
Free State Artistic Workshops, I and II. The socalled “Vitebsk Renaissance” is connected with
the works of Marc Chagall, the commisar of art
(1887 – 1985) who reorganized the art school into
a Public College and invited M. Dobuzhinsky,
I. Puni, K. Boguslavskaya, L. Lissitzky and
others to teach.
From November 1919 to the year 1922 a
provincial town of Vitebsk became one of the
centres of European avant-garde, where Malevich
was the chairman of Vitebsk Public College, the
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Fig. 6 Malevich K. Red Cavalry Riding
Professor of the Painting Workshop. He published
some books (“On New Systems in Art”) and
assisted in creating UNOVIS (the name of the
association is the abbreviation for “Utverditeli
Novogo Iskusstva” (“The Establishers of New
Arts”), 1920). Along with the mentioned above,
Malevich was preparing his first personal
exhibition (began in Moscow, November 1919),
which was held only on March 25, 1920 (the
exhibition was held within the framework of
XVI exhibition of Painting Department of
“Narkompros” under the title “Kazimir Malevich:
His Way from Impressionism to Suprematism”).
Later, two similar exhibitions were held in 1927,
in Warsaw and Berlin (Fig. 6). In “Unovis”
Almanach one can find a tendency to unite all
kinds of art, printing articles on manageing
teaching activities.
The first organization of constructivists
was formed in “Inhuk” in the year 1921
(A. Rodchenko, V. Stepanova, V. and
G. Stenbergs). Their principles for architecture
were formulated in theoretical works by
A. Vesnin, M. Ginzburg. The idea of root
transformation of the surrounding medium, or
the “uniform scenic principle” was manifested
in the Association of New Architecture,
“ASNOVA” (1923 – 1932). The combination of
the novator language of architectural shapes and
solution of new social tasks were the catalizer
for forming the Association. “ASNOVA” was
founded in 1922, leaded by N. Ladovsky,
V. Krinsky and engineer A. Loleyt (1923 – 1928
Chairman). They called themselves rationalists.
The members of “ASNOVA” group worked on
new types of buildings, searching for a new
language of architecture. Their architectural
projects “…are works of art, so they are
perceived emotionally…” (Nazarova 2012:60).
In January 1922 “Constructivists” exhibition
was held “at poets’ café”. The participants of the
exhibition (the Stenberg brothers, Medunetsky)
announced their belonging to utilitarism. They
were convinced that construction is a way of
practical organization of elements which is only
possible in a socially relevant space. In the year
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1925 the creative association of constructivitsts
(“OSA”) was founded. “OSA” (abbreviation for
“modern architects’ association”) united Victor
and Alexander Vesnins, Moisei Ginzburg, Lazar
Lissitzky and others. Their functional method
was published in “Sovetskaya Arkhitektura”
magazine (issued until 1930). According to them,
the base of a building is a reinforced concrete
carcass imitating industrial shapes and methods of
the modern technological processes. Communehouses embody the idea of desurbanism.
Constructivists put the slogans of industrial art
into practice. Ideas of constructivism resonate
with the works of representatives of “Bauhaus”,
especially of L. Moholy-Nagy. Constructivism
is a trend in Russian art of the 1920s which
found its reflection in architecture, decorative
and theatre art, posters, books, literature,
artistic construction. “Insdustrials” (Lissitzky,
Rodchenko, Vesnin, Ekster, Stepanova, Popova)
identified work and art, proved the “necessity” of
an artist’s work in everyday life, declared objects
and constructions used in industry (Fig. 7 and
8). Constructivism strived to create new art for
new society. They invented a visual dictionary
based on abstract geometrical shames and used it
in painting, furniture, fashion, architecture.
Classification of artists based on their trend
ignores the individuality of every art piece.
Representatives of the 1920s groups strived to
exptress the spirit of the time, but their expression
of principles for images and plasticity was
different. “Soyuz Molodezhi” (1910) fought to
restart its work in the year 1917, when in six of
its independent exhibitions all great masters of
Russian avant-garde displayed their works. Under
the same “nameplate” the ex-members of “Soyuz
Molodezhi” took part in “the First State Free
Exhibition of Art” at Petrograd Art Palace (1919).
Later some members of “Soyuz Molodezhi”
(Lebedev, Pashnin and others) leaded by Tatlin
organized the “Association of New Trends” (1921),
opened their own exhibition at the Artistic Culture
Museum (1922) and displayed their works at the
Fig. 7 Stepanova V. Advertising for sports clothes
Fig. 8 Stepanova V. Projects
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“Exhibition of Paintings by Petrograd Artists of
All Trends For the Five-Year Period 1918-1923”
(1923, Petrograd).
The embodiment of “resurrection” in the act
of creation on the base of the idea of resurrecting
in flesh, returning all the dead generations
(“the fathers”) to life with the power of science,
can be found in the work by Nikolay Fedorov
“Philosophy of the Common Task” (1906 –
1913). In the works by a true fan and follower of
Fedorov’s ideas, Vasily Chekrygin, we can extract
the “we” as spiritual connection and the unity of
fate in the Biblical sense. V. Chekrygin is the
most significant artist of “Makovets” association,
founded in the year 1921 on the base of the union
of artists and poets “Iskusstvo – Zhizn” (Art is
Life) (1920). The name of the association which
further became the name of their magazine was
not coincidental: it was the name of the hill on
which Sergius of Radonezh founded the Trinity
Monastery. In the two issues of “Makovets”
magazine, articles by V. Chekrygin, P. Florensky,
S. Romanovich, poems by V. Khlebnikov
and B. Pasternak were published. Among the
participants of “Makovets” exhibitions there
were V. Chekrygin, N. Chernyshev, V. Pestel,
S. Romanovich, S. Gerasimov, L. Zhegin
(Shekhtel), A. Shevchenko and others (the union
consisted of over 20 people). The manifest of
1922 announced the time of light creativity when
people need inviolable values, when art revives
in permanent movement and desire to create.
Later the association split, forming groups “Put
Zhivopisi” (Way of Painting) (1927 – 1930) and “4
Iskusstva” (Four Arts) at Moscow Artists’ Society.
However, their significance and their output were
the understanding of artistic traditions (Russian
frescs and icons) and the specific “Makovets”
realism. Even though they failed to carry out their
tasks, their successes have not lost their meaning.
One of the most specific works of that time were
“The Ironing Woman” (Fig. 9, 10; 1920, canvas
and oil, 94x82,5) by Alexander Shevchenko
(1883-1948).
Fig. 9 Shevchenko A. The Ironing Woman
Fig. 10 Shevchenko A. The Ironing Woman
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“Fate” painting, “Resurrection” cycle (1922)
by Vasily Chekrygin (1897-1922) are inspired by
the ideas of philosopher N.F. Fedorov. He created
dramatic, exciting, perfect images predicting the
future fate of the humankind and its inavoidable
future flights into open space.
Art groups of the 1920s appeared
during the period of relative pluralism in the
USSR. Thematical censorship has already
formed itself, but the aesthetic one has not (forms
of art were not controlled). The co-existance of
art groups assumed different types of institutions
(from Latin “guidance” on elementary rights).
The group which had its institutional policy
anticipating the Soviet art of 1930-1980s was the
Assosication of Revolutionary Russian Painters,
AHRR. The unlucky “itinerants” reoriented their
work from commercial enterprises and private
buyers to the authorities. Katsman and his group
(AHRR) founded the Association under the
slogan of “heroic realism” (“myth creation”),
with the task to “organize the psyche of the
future generations”, appropriation (from Latin
“acquisition”, “impropriation”) of painting style
of the XIX century. They painted conversation
pieces based on the situations of modern life
(portrait of time spirit as a task of enlightment,
Fig. 11).
The portrait genre brought up a new
hero: a worker, a comissar, a deputy woman.
Genre art tells the story of new life, shows the
chronicles of events. The type of historical and
revolutionary painting is formed. Works by
AHRR members filled whole museums similar
to modern art museums, but compiled on the
thematical, not formal basis. OMAHRR, the
left wing of young AHRR painters (1926),
internationalist and “industrialist”, created
RAPH (Russian Association of Proletary
Painters) in the year 1931. Such AHRR members
as A. Arkhipov, F. Bogorodsky, A. Grigoryev,
E. Katsman, N. Kotov, S. Malyutin, S. Ryangina,
N. Terpsikhorov, B. Yakovlev, B. Baksheev,
I. Brodsky, B. Bilyanitsky-Birulya, N. Kasatkin,
K. Yuon and others took part in the themed
exhibition. It was financed by the political
administration of the army and trade unions
which existed before the Decree of the Central
Committee of Russian Communist Party dated
April 23, 1932, on unified trade unions. AHRR
included branches in thirty cities consisting of
300-80 members each, and worked in exhibition
Fig. 11 Katsman E. The Lace Makers of Kalyazin
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organization (11 themed exhibitions), publishing,
“production” activities.
“4 Iskusstva” (Four Arts) group of painters,
graphic artists, sculptors and architects included
over 70 people from Moscow and Leningrad
(1925-1932) who had different art positions:
followers of Malevich, Klyun, Lissitzky came
from “Golubaya Roza” (“The Blue Rose”) and
“Mir Iskusstva” (“The World of Art”).
The chairman of the association Pavel
Kuznetsov (1878-1968) in cooperation with
E. Bebutova wrote that it was essential to enroot
plastic arts into life, letting them take part in
common construction with use, refining and
spiritualizing people, bringing them the joy
of aesthetic perception of the world (Fig. 12,
13). The association of four plastic arts came
up with a complex program: 1) artistic quality
of works; 2) traditions of painting realism;
3) values of French school (from the declaration).
The association members were: K. PetrovVodkin (“Portrain of Anna Akhmatova”, 1922),
M. Saryan “Street. Passers by”, 1929), N. Ulyanov,
M. Akselrod, K. Istomin, graphic artists:
V. Favorsky (illustrations for “Ruth” book, 1925;
“October 1917”, 1928; “F.M. Dostoevsky”, 1929 –
all xylogrpahies), V. Bekhteev, A. Kravchenko,
P. Miturich, sculptors: A. Matveev, V. Mukhina,
I. Chaykov, architects V. Shchuko, A. Shchusev
and others.
OST association (Easel Painter Society)
mostly consisted of students of Shterenberg
and Favorsky (1925-1932), members of groups
“Obyedinenie Trekh” (The Union of Three)
(A. Goncharov, A. Deyneka, Yu. Pimenov),
“projectionists” (formed in 1922: S. Luchishkin,
S. Nikritin, K. Redko, N. Tryasky, A. Tyshler),
“concretists” (separated from “projectionists” in
1924, P. Williams, K. Vyalov, V. Lyushin, Yu.
Merkulov). OST organized four independent
exhibitions (over 30 participants). During all the
years of the association existance the chairman
function had been performed by D. Shterenberg,
even in the period of split (1931) and creation of
a new addicional association called “Izobrigada”
(1931), when a part of artists left for “October”
(organized in 1930). The Charter of OST was
registered in September 1929. In OST platform we
Fig. 12 Shterenberg D. The Old Man
Fig. 13 Aunt Sasha
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can outline the following provisions: a) avoiding
abstractiveness and “itinerantism” in the painting
plot; b) avoiding “draftism”, amateurism; c)
avoiding pseudosesannism asa style destructing
shapes, drawing and colours; c) revolutionary
modernity and clarity in chosing the plot; d)
aspiration for absolute mastership, completeness;
e) orientation on modern young people. The
main themes of OST (industrialization, sports,
urban life) required rational organization of the
painting.
“Krug Khudozhnikov” (Circle of Artists)
organized in 1926 (formed in 1925, in Leningrad)
united the followers of A. Karev, A. Savinov,
K. Petrov-Vodkin, A. Matveev, mostly the alumni
of Higher Art and Technical Institute of 1925. It
consisted of over 40 members. The association
chairman was V. Pakulin (Fig. 14). In 1929 the
group split; as a result, a part of the painters
left for AHR and “October”. The association
declaration is remarkable for the strategy
aimed for creation the “style of the epoch”,
against literariness, subjectivism, amateurism,
hackwork: A. Samokhvalov “Worker Woman”,
1928; V. Malagis “Tractorist Girl” (1932);
P. Osolodnikov “The Gas Mask”, “Workers”
(1929), D. Zagoskin “The Seamstress” (1929),
A. Pakhomov “The Reaper” (1928) and others.
“Krug Khudozhnikov” organized three
exhibitions in the rooms of Russian Museum
(1927, 1928, 1929), at Kiev Art Gallery (1930), at
Houses of Culture (Clubs). The plans of “Krug”
were ambitious: organize education courses,
open laboratories, museums, libraries, organize
gatherings, grant awards and publish their own
works.
“Krug” based its work on the realistic
method, made up a new term: “quintformation”
(quintessence) of shape, standing for maximum
thematical saturation of a shape. Vladimir
Malagis (1902-1974) comes up with a strict and
determined image of a Soviet peasant woman.
“The Reaper” painting (1926-1927) by Vyacheslav
Pakulin (1900-1951) bore the flagship character.
OMH (“Moscow Artists’ Society” founded
in 1927) consisted mostly of the members of
“Bubnovy Valet” (Jack of Diamonds), participants
of “Moskovskie Zhivopistsy” (Moscow Painters)
Fig. 14 Pakulin V. The Reaper
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(since 1924), “Bytie” (since 1921), “Makovets”.
They followed the principles of “sesannism”,
preferring landscapes and still life. The
chairman was A. Lentulov, his deputy was
S. Gerasimov, members (around 70 people) were
I. Grabar, N. Grigoryev, A. Drevin, A. Kuprin,
I. Mashkov, A. Osmerkin, V. Rozhdestvensky,
R. Falk, N. Cernyshev, N. Krymov and others.
They understood painting as a tool for active
reformation of life (Fig. 15, 16).
OMH is a larger and longer lasting association
based on subtle and temperamental painting
culture, on high professionalism, artistic ideas.
The masters of OMH perceive and reproduce the
modern time through the means of painting; they
convey the feeling of today, revealing their deep
and sincere feelings. In their works one can find
true dramaturgy, painful feelings, reflections on
the present time.
High artistic culture, primitivism traditions
and acute social irony are specific for NOZH
society (New Society of Painters, abbreviation
is literally traslated as “The Knife”), consisting
of S. Adlivankin, N. Perutsky, N. Popova,
G. Ryazhsky, A. Gluskin, A. Nyurenberg, who
were students of Tatlin, Malevich, Ekster. The
idea was the “renaissance”, aspiration to “acquire
real art through objective and realistic painting”.
One exhibition held in 1922 in the Central House
of Education Workers in Moscow has something
in common with the satirical prose of the twenties
(I. Ilf and E. Petrov).
Pavel Filonov (1883-1941) organized a group
called MAI (“Masters of Analytic Art”) (19251932, inofficially – till 1941). In different years the
members came and went, and their total amount
counted up to 70 people: T. Glebova, A. Poret,
M. Tsybasov, P. Zaltsman, E. Kibrik, B. Gurvich,
S. Zaklikovskaya, P. Kondratyev, V. SushmoSamuyllo. MAI group followed the ideology of
analytic art and the principle of “completeness”
of the image. In the House of Press they organized
an exhibition of panel paintings and sculpture
(1927), made scenery for permormance on “The
Government Inspector” by N. Gogol (1927),
created a cycle for Finnish and Karelian epos
“Kalevala” (1933). Filonov opposed himself to
cubism, cubofuturism and constructivism, but his
Fig. 15 Osmerkin A. Still Life
Fig. 16 Osmerkin A. Still Life
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Natalya V. Pokrovskaya. Art groups in Russia After 1917
Fig. 17. Adlivankin S. The Tram
primitivism and expressionism are deeply bound
to the art of the first half of the 1910s (in 19111912 he made a trip around Palestine, France,
Italy). The magic attractiveness of paintings and
drawings, suffered and created in tortures by
P. Filonov, an ascet, unmercenary, maximalist, is
stunning.
History of Russian art after 1917 (Soviet
art) is included into the general stream of
world artistic culture. Many phenomena of
world artistic practice make their impact on the
evolution of Russian art after 1917. Frequent
change of styles is a stimulus for Russian art. Its
high professionalism still remains the measure
and the criterion for pieces of art. Daring
creative campaigns (projects, experiments) of
avant-gardists become classics. Socialist realism
brings up a new paradigm (ideals and senses) of
being a human, a revolutionary and a reformer.
Socialistic reality is the main condition of life for
socialist realism. We would like to underline the
uniqueness of the studied period. 1917 – 1950 is
significant time for Russian art. For the rise of
national art of the XXI century it is especially
significant to realize the fruitfulness of interaction
between all the stages of Russian art development.
The history of Russian art of the XX century is
now “at the core” of the modern artistic stream.
Radical judgments here are not acceptable as they
can be wrong or imprudent. Russian (Soviet) art
fits in the general cultural process, obeying the
artistic coordinate system. It seems like Russian
art of this certain time will bring a lot of aesthetic
pleasure to future artists.
References
1. Avangard, ostanovlennyy na begu. Kovtun E. F., Babanazarova M. M., Gazieva E. D. [Avantgarde, stopped while running] St. Petersburg, Aurora, 1989. 288 p.
2. Kamenskii A. Romanticheskiy montazh [Romantic installation]. Moscow, Soviet artist, 1989.
336 p.
3. Kovtun E. F. Russkiy avangard 1920-kh-1930-kh godov [Russian avant-garde of the
1920s-1930s]. St. Petersburg, Aurora, 1996. 288 p.
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4. Kostin V. I. Sredi khudozhnikov [Among artists]. Moscow, Soviet artist, 1986. 173 p.
5. Lebedianskii M.S. Sovetskaia russkaia zhivopis’ pervogo oktiabr’skogo desiatiletiia [Soviet
Russian painting of first October decade]. St. Petersburg, Artist RSFSR, 1977. 244 p.
6. Nazarova M.P. (2012). Arkhitekturnye pamiatniki v structure kul’turno-istoricheskogo
naslediia [Architectural monuments in the structure of the culture-historical heritage] Voprosy
kul’turologii [The culturology`s issues], (6), 60-64.
7. Sarab’ianov A. D. Neizvestnyy Russkiy Avangard v muzeiakh i chastnykh sobraniiakh
[Unknown Russian avant-garde in museums and private collections]. Moscow, Soviet artist, 1992.
349 p.
8. Sovetskoe iskusstvo 20-30-kh godov [Soviet art of the 1920s-30s]. St. Petersburg, Art, 1988.
360 p.
9. Efros A. Mastera raznykh epokh [Masters of different ages]. Moscow, Art, 1979. 336 p.
Художественные группировки России
после 1917 года
Н.В. Покровская
Красноярский государственный художественный институт
Россия, 660017, Красноярск, пр. Мира, 98
Основная цель данной статьи – рассмотреть художественные группировки России после 1917
года, включенные в единый поток мировой художественной культуры. Работа включает анализ
художественных произведений русского советского искусства XX века, общий обзор культуры
и искусства в целом без разграничения вопросов философии, эстетики, литературы, истории
искусства, но во взаимосвязи с художественной практикой. В основной части статьи при
помощи сравнительного анализа, исторического, обзорного метода подробно изучены такие
объединения художников, как «ОБМОХУ», «Уновис», «Сегодня», «Детгиз», «МХК», «ИНХУК»,
«Зорвед», «АСНОВА», «ОСА», «Маковец», «АХРР», «4 искусства», «ОСТ», «Круг художников»,
«НОЖ», «МАИ». Даны их основные участники, председатели, постулаты, идеи, теоретические
платформы, а также названия и места проведения основных художественных выставок. В
своей совокупности исследование воссоздает одну из граней художественной жизни страны на
коротком, но очень насыщенном и бурном отрезке времени, которая оказала стимулирующее
значение на отечественное искусство. Его высокий профессионализм остается мерой и
критерием художественных произведений. Данная статья предназначена для студентов
художественного вуза академических и прикладных специальностей.
Ключевые слова: художественные группировки, советское искусство, художественные
платформы, художественные выставки, авангардное и традиционное искусство.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 9 (2014 7) 1620-1626
~~~
УДК 159.922
Unconscious Mechanisms of Social
and Psychological Adaptation
of Mentally Retarded Children
Elena A. Chereneva*
Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University
named after V.P. Astafyev
89 Ada Lebedeva Str., Krasnoyarsk, 660060, Russia
Received 01.06.2014, received in revised form 05.07.2014, accepted 20.08.2014
The paper is focused on one of actual problems of special psychology and pedagogics, which is
studying identity of people with intellectual disability. The analysis of mechanisms of psychological
protection and semantic installations as a factor of adaptation of the individual for school students
with intellectual disability is submitted. The author marks out main regularities of social and
psychological adaptation for children normal and pathological development; makes conclusions
about the general approaches for development of personal potential in case children have intellectual
disability.
Keywords: personality, children, unconscious, unconscious mechanisms, social and psychological
adaptation, intellectual disability.
1. Introduction
2. Theoretical framework
The most important task of modern
correctional psychology is to ensure the
harmonious development of the child. This
task in its turn raises the question how to
organize psycho-prophylactic work both
for separate categories of children and for
educational environment as a whole. However,
despite the fact that during recent decades
Russian educational institutions, including
special ones, have been actively developing
infrastructure to support children development,
this assistance in the harmonization of socioemotional development remains insufficient
so far.
The system of specialized care for children
with various forms of mental deficiency,
developed and created by the efforts of local
special education teachers (A.N. Graborov,
G.M. Dul’nev, L.V. Zankov, V.I. Lubovskii,
V.G. Petrov, B.I. Pinskii, I.M. Solov’ev, Zh.I. Shif
and etc.), has made a significant progress in
addressing the challenges of diagnosis and
correction of disorders in children cognitive
activities. Nevertheless, much less attention
has been paid to the study of the genesis and
very specifics of personal problems that these
children inevitably face during the socialization
process.
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: elen_korn@bk.ru
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Meanwhile, this very kind of problem,
encompassing a complex mix of organic and
social factors in the child development, lead to
a variety of phenomena of behavioral disorders,
total or partial maladjustment, often resulting in
illnesses or infringement of the law, and, in fact,
these situations may require the intervention of law
enforcement agencies, on the one hand, and child
psychiatrists, on the other hand. Effectiveness
of the intervention of the first part is actually
reduced to zero, the second part involvement
is unproductive and of short duration, since the
scope of the impact in both cases does not include
many causal factors, causing abnormalities of
personal development, but rather external and,
more often, secondary manifestations of these
abnormalities at the behavioral level.
In this regard, there is special urgency
to study the process of socio-psychological
adaptation in case of intellectual disability; the
process, which on the one hand acts as a source
of conditions and influences that determine the
process of personal growth and on the other
hand is based on social inclusion as one of
the foundations of social and psychological
mechanisms. Thus, a close relationship with such
key issues of the modern human studies as an
individual and social adaptation has either directly
or indirectly contributed to drawing attention to
the problem of socialization in its philosophical,
social, psychological and pedagogical and only
psychological aspects.
Specific features of the process of social and
psychological adaptation for intellectually disabled
children are presented at the conceptual level in
the works of well-known scientist L.S. Vygotsky.
They were researched in the form of the most
common trends in psychosocial development of
a child and up to now they have served as reliable
methodological guidelines for analysis. However,
one can hardly speak of adequate specialization
of these ideas, which should have been supported
by relevant experimental studies and modern
psychological and pedagogical practices,
suitable for solving important problems, the
most important of which is the successful social
adaptation of these children and the related
problems of deviant behavior prevention.
Despite this fact, there is evidence of
constant and careful attention to these issues
in Russia. Numerous studies include psychopedagogical (M.S. Pevzner, V.I. Lubovskii, V.Iu.
Karvialis, V.P. Voronkova, Zh.I. Namazbaeva,
I.A. Korobeinikov, L.I. Lychagina et al.) and
clinico-psychological (S.S. Mnukhin, D.Ie.
Melekhov, D.N. Isaev, Kuz’mina-Syromiatnikova,
K.S. Lebedinskaia, O.Ie. Freierov et al.) on
various aspects of social adaptation of people
with intellectual disabilities.
3. Statement of the problem
The urgency of studying the problem of
socio-psychological adaptation of children
with intellectual disabilities is caused by to the
following reasons:
1. Lack of Russian research in the theory
and practice of personal development of
children and adolescents with intellectual
disability. This situation generates the
need to study the mechanisms of social
and psychological adaptation as a factor
in the study of the personality of children
with intellectual disability.
2. A comparative study of the mechanisms
of social and psychological adaptation of
normal and abnormal children will help
to reveal additional stages of emotional
and personal progress in the course of
normal mental development.
3. A need for scientific programs to optimize
social and emotional development of
children and adolescents with intellectual
disability as an effective means of social
and psychological adaptation.
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4. Lack of research and theoretical
generalization of relation of personal
development to the parameters of the
subjective world, when applied to
children and adolescents with intellectual
disability.
5. Formation of social and psychological
adaptation of children with intellectual
disability is one of the most important
issues of social and professional
vocational guidance for children with
intellectual disability. To evaluate the
mechanisms of social and psychological
adaptation of children with intellectual
disability we will rely on the conscious
and unconscious meta-categories of
mental reflection: psychological defense
and activity set.
4. Methodology
The combination of these two meta-categories
is the main novelty of the research, as it allows to
expand an analysis of the personality of children
with intellectual disability, as well as predetermine
developmental parameters and exposes the
genesis of social and psychological adaptation of
an individual. These meta-categories of mental
reflection characterize the features of social and
emotional development of an individual. The term
“social and emotional development” outlines the
area of personal development, which is related
to the ability of a child to communicate and
feel, and that should be expanded and deepened
with the development. Distortion of social and
emotional development may lead to violations
of the process of psychological adaptation of the
child and adolescent, to improper learning and
communication activities, as well as to violations
of the state of their physical health. Social and
emotional development is an individual path of
the personal development, which is formed in
the dynamic interaction with the environment.
Substantial characteristics of social and emotional
development have a direct impact on social
and psychological adaptation. In our opinion, it
seems unfair that correctional psychologists have
not paid enough attention to these categories
as a factor causing successful socialization and
integration of an individual with intellectual
disorders.
The issue of defense mechanisms has
been fully studied in clinical psychology
(S. Freud, A. Adler, C. Rogers, E. Erickson,
F.V. Bassin, V.M. Volovik, B.D. Karvasarskii,
V.A. Tashlykov, V.A. Abramov, K.R. Aidinian,
F.B. Berezin, M.M. Kochenov, I.I. Kut’ko,
T.G. McGlynn, G.L. Metcalf, A.N. Mikhailov,
R.K. Nazyrov, I.M. Osadchii, A.M. Prikhozhan,
V.S. Rothenberg, Iu.S. Savenko, G.K. Ushakov,
Sh. Ferentsi, R.S. Lazarus, D. Hamburg, I. Adams,
R.A. Emmons, etc.). This is consistent with the
idea of L.S. Vygotsky that “the essence and
nature of the phenomena studied in psychology
are revealed in their purest form only in their
extreme, pathological expressions” (Vygotsky,
1927). To describe the specifics of defense
mechanisms of behavior we will use the definition
of F.V. Bassin: “Psychological defense is a normal,
well-detectable mechanism aimed at preventing
conduct disorders and physiological processes
not only in the conflict between consciousness
and unconsciousness, but when quite conscious,
but affectively rich sets are confronted”.
In set theory, developed by D.N. Uznadze
(2001) and his followers (A.S. Prangishvili,
1966; B.I. Khachapuridze, 1962; A.Ie. Sheroziia,
1979; I.T. Bzhalava, 1968; D.T. Amirejibi, 1986;
I.G. Grigolava, 1987; A.T. Kintsurashvili, 1971;
V.G. Norakidze, 1975; I.V. Imedadze, 1989;
N.I. Sarjveladze, 1989; Sh.N. Chkhartishvili,
1971, 1978, and others) set means a consistent
(psycho-physiological, mental) state of an
individual, a modus of personality, willingness to
work in a certain way.
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Analysis of the unconscious of mentally
retarded children from the standpoint of the
theory of activity allows, fi rstly, to identify
problems and trends, in line with which
A.G. Asmolov stated the following classes for
the studied phenomena (the problem of transfer
and assimilation of experience, the problem
of determination of activity, the problem of
voluntary regulation of higher forms of behavior
and automatization of various kinds of internal
and external activities, the problem of fi nding the
sensitivity range), and secondly, to isolate in the
flow of events four qualitatively different classes
(supraindividual supraconscious phenomena,
unconscious motives and semantic orientations
of the personality, unconscious regulation
mechanisms of modes of activity, unconscious
reserves of sensory organs) and to identify the
genesis and function of different classes of
phenomena in the subject’s activity. The need for
substantial characteristics of the unconscious as
a form of mental reflection, in which the subject
and the world are one indivisible whole and also
the need for such a classification of unconscious
phenomena are due to the frequent opposition
of all three different phenomena along with the
complete loss of their specificity, which makes
it difficult to progress on the difficult way of
studying these phenomena. Meanwhile, only the
identification of commonalities and specificities
of these “concealed” planes of consciousness,
according to L.S. Vygotsky, will help to fi nd
appropriate research methods to reveal the
function in the activity regulation, and thus
not only to complement, but also to change
the existing pattern of ideas about activities,
consciousness and personality of children with
intellectual disability.
Common parameter, which is the basis for
the formation of the protective (unconscious)
mechanisms of behavior and activity set is the
social experience of individuals, which determine
the direction of an individual, and the biological
factor (psycho-physiological characteristics,
the brain integrity) is an opportunity that
allows to generate the specificity of social and
psychological adaptation. At the same time
the level of intellectual disability affects the
production of only conscious defense mechanisms
and formation of semantic sets.
5. Discussion
On the basis of theoretical and experimental
studies of unconscious mechanisms of social
and psychological adaptation of children
with intellectual disability there can be made
conclusions that reveal the specifics of defense
mechanisms.
1. Students with intellectual disability
have common (normal) and specific
for this category of children patterns
of psychological defense mechanisms’
functioning and coping strategies of
behavior, these strategies are apperceived
in some parts only.
2. Children with intellectual disability
possess
dominantly
inefficient
mechanisms of conscious psychological
defense, while the apperceived coping
strategies in problem situations are not
well developed.
3. Common parameter, which is the basis
for the formation of the protective
(unconscious) mechanisms of behavior
is the social experience of individuals,
which determines the direction of an
individual, and the biological factor
(psycho-physiological
characteristics,
the brain integrity) is an opportunity
that allows to implement a strategy of
coping behavior and to resolve an internal
conflict.
Also for understanding the unconscious
mechanisms of social and psychological
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adjustment of children with intellectual
disability, we will rely on the characterization
of the unconscious motivators of activity that
have always been the central subject of study in
traditional psychoanalysis. They participate in the
regulation of activities, acting as semantic sets.
In the study of semantic sets of children with
intellectual disability the next important features
should be marked out:
1. The main of many regularities is that the
development follows the same laws as
that of the normally developing children.
2. Unconscious and fixed sets in the case
of mentally retarded children are formed
in the active interaction with the social
environment and managed by the leading
individual needs.
3. The main criterion for the formation
of semantic sets in the case of children
with intellectual disability is individual
emotional and personal experience gained
during the preschool years.
Characterizing semantic sets of mentally
retarded children, we can distinguish their specific
features that appear in an unstable straightforward
activity, conservatism of sets, which determine
the rigidity of behavior. Weakness of semantic
set’s stability complicates the decision making
process and arbitrary control of the activity in
standard situations.
Unconscious motives also determine both
the content and dynamics of the set. It is known
that the motives of children with intellectual
disability are unstable, socially important
motives are difficult to form. These features, as
pointed out by many researchers (M.S. Pevzner,
V.G. Petrova, S.Ia. Rubinshtein, E.A. Chereneva,
etc.) are caused by the intellectual deficiency.
But as shown by some of the facts of our
research, for children with mental retardation
and intellectual disability the leading role in
the formation of socially important motives
is played by the social factor. But it should be
noted that we should not be optimistic to think
that with proper organization of the process of
child rearing we will be able to generate high
levels of need-motivational sphere, yet the
intellect “sets the bar” (in the content sense),
and dynamics is determined by society. But
we defend the idea that the behavioral (even
mechanically formed) program enables a child
with intellectual disability to have behavioral
patterns at an unconscious level; these patterns
under appropriate conditions of favorable social
and psychological support can become the basic
conscious component of behavior.
References
1. Asmolov A.G. Po tu storonu soznaniia: metodologicheskie problemy neklassicheskoi
psikhologii [On the other side of consciousness: methodological problems of nonclassical psychology].
M., Smysl, 2002, 480p.
2. Bassin F.V. (1969). O “sile ia” i “psikhologicheskoi zashchite” [On “power of the Self” and
“psychological defense”]. Voprosy philosophii (Issues of Philosophy), 2, pp. 118-125.
3. Bozhovich L.I. Lichnost’ i ee formirovanie v detskom vozraste [Personality and its formation
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4. Chereneva E.A. (2012). Neosoznavaemye motivy i smyslovye ustanovki lichnosti u detei
s narushennym intellektom [Unconscious motives and semantic sets of the personality of children
with intellectual disability]. Sibirskii vestnik spetsial’nogo obrazovaniia (Siberian Herald of Special
Education), (3), Krasnoyarsk, Krasnoyarsk State Ped. Univ. named after V.P. Astafyev, available at:
http: //sibsedu.kspu.ru
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5. Chereneva E.A. Proizvol’noe povedenie uchashchikhsia s intellektual’noi nedostatochnost’iu
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1978, pp. 351-389.
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House of Moscow University, 1988, 79 p.
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Elena A. Chereneva. Unconscious Mechanisms of Social and Psychological Adaptation of Mentally Retarded Children
Бессознательные механизмы
социально-психологической адаптации детей
с нарушениями интеллектуального развития
Е.А. Черенева
Красноярский государственный педагогический университет
им. В.П. Астафьева
Россия, 660060, Красноярск, ул. Ады Лебедевой, 89
В статье затрагивается одна из актуальных проблем специальной психологии и
педагогики – это изучение личности лиц с интеллектуальными нарушениями. Представлен
анализ механизмов психологической защиты и смысловых установок у школьников с
интеллектуальной недостаточностью как фактор адаптации индивида. Автор выделяет
основные закономерности социально-психологической адаптации детей при нормальном и
патологическом развитии, формулирует выводы об общих подходах развития личностного
потенциала у детей с нарушениями интеллектуального развития.
Ключевые слова: личность, дети, нарушения интеллекта, бессознательное, бессознательные
механизмы, социально-психологическая адаптация.
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журнал, университета, 236, науки, гуманитарные, сер, сибирской, 2014, федеральное
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