236.Журнал Сибирского федерального университета. Сер. Гуманитарные науки №9 2014код для вставкиСкачать
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Æóðíàë Ñèáèðñêîãî ôåäåðàëüíîãî óíèâåðñèòåòà 2014 Journal of Siberian Federal University 7 (9) Ãóìàíèòàðíûå íàóêè Humanities & Social Sciences Редакционный совет: академик РАН Е.А. Ваганов академик РАН И.И. Гительзон академик РАН А.Г. Дегерменджи академик РАН В.Ф. Шабанов чл.-корр. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук В.Л. Миронов чл.-корр. РАН, д-р техн. наук Г.Л. Пашков чл.-корр. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук В.В. Шайдуров чл.-корр. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук В.В. Зуев CONTENTS / ÑÎÄÅÐÆÀÍÈÅ Valeriy A. Kryukov and Anatoly N. Tokarev Problems of Forming Relationships between the Indigenous Peoples and Resource Corporations: from Asserting the Rights to Joint Participation in Projects – 1436 – Nikolai G. Shishatsky Indigenous Minorities of the North as a Factor of Preservation and Sustainable Development of the Northern Territories – 1449 – Editorial Advisory Board Chairman Eugene A. Vaganov Members: Josef J. Gitelzon Vasily F. Shabanov Andrey G. Degermendzhy Valery L. Mironov Gennady L. Pashkov Vladimir V. Shaidurov Vladimir V. Zuev Editorial Board: Editor-in-Chief Mikhail I. Gladyshev Evgeniya I. Mikhailova, Alla V. Lapteva and Valery S. Efimov Scenario of the Future of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. Foresight Research – 1457 – Mariya I. Ilbeykina Indigenous Peoples Anthropology as a Research Space of Visual – 1471 – Founding Editor Vladimir I. Kolmakov Managing Editor Olga F. Alexandrova Executive Editor for Humanities & Social Sciences Natalia P. Koptseva Vladimir S. Luzan Cultural Policy in Northern Territories: Specifics, Problems and Prospects – 1494 – Компьютерная верстка Е.В. Гревцовой Подписано в печать 26.09.2014 г. Формат 84x108/16. Усл. печ. л. 15,8. Уч.-изд. л. 15,3. Бумага тип. Печать офсетная. Тираж 1000 экз. Заказ 2437. Отпечатано в ПЦ БИК. 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 82а. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Consulting Editors for Humanities & Social Sciences: David Anderson – Professor, The University of Aberdeen, Scotland Gershons Breslavs – International Institute of Applied Psychology, Latvia Milan Damohorsky – Professor, Charles University in Prague Hans-Georg Dederer – Professor, Passau University, Germany Sergey Devyatkin – Associate Professor, Novgorod State University Sergey Drobyshevsky – Professor, Siberian Federal University Oleg Gotlib – Associate Professor, Irkutsk State Linguistic University Tapdyg Kerimov – Professor, Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, Ekaterinburg Boris Khasan – Professor, Siberian Federal University Galina Kopnina – Professor, Siberian Federal University Natalia Kovtoun – Professor, Siberian Federal University Alexander Kronik – Ph.D., LifeLook.Net, LLC, Bethesda, Maryland, USA Liudmila Kulikova – Professor, Siberian Federal University Suneel Kumar – Assistant Professor, Department of Strategic and Regional Studies, University of Jammu Liudmila Mayorova – Ph.D. Associate Professor, Siberian Federal University Pavel Mandryka – Associate Professor, Siberian Federal University Boris Markov – Professor, Saint-Petersburg State University Valentin Nemirovsky – Professor, Siberian Federal University Nicolay Pak – Professor, Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University named after V.P. Astafev Nicolay Parfentyev – Professor, Corresponding Member of the Peter the Great Academy of Sciences and Arts, Honoured Scientist of the Russian Federation, South Ural State University Natalia Parfentyeva – Professor, Member of the Composers of Russia, Corresponding Member of the Peter the Great Academy of Sciences and Arts, Honoured Arts Worker of the Russian Federation, South Ural State University Nicolai Petro – Professor, Rhode Island University, USA Daniel Pivovarov – Professor, Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, Ekaterinburg Elena A. Bryukhanova and Michael V. Kobalinskiy The Indicators System Formation for Quality of Life Evaluation as the Basis for Sustainable Socio-Economic Development of Indigenous Minorities of the North – 1510 – Semen Ya. Palchin Problems of Economic Rights of the Indigenous Small-Numbered Peoples in the Krasnoyarsk Territory – 1521 – Elena A. Bryukhanova and Aleksandr M. Matveev Territorial Peculiarities of Settlement of the Indigenous Minorities of the North (by the example of Taimyr Dolgano-Nenets and Evenk municipal regions of Krasnoyarsk Krai) – 1541 – Anahit Yu. Khudaverdyan Decapitations in Late Bronze Age and Iron Age sites from Sevan region (Armenia) – 1555 – Natalia A. Yelovskaya and Irina F. Sidiakova Harmony of Sounds in Boris Pasternak’s Poetry – 1567 – Lydia L. Ravikovitch Songs about Saint Petersburg by Sergei Slonimsky. On the Question of Interpretation of the Poetic Text – 1578 – Natalia V. Vinokurova Stable and Mobile Elements of the Author’s Style of A.K. Glazunov(by the Example of Scherzos of the Early Symphonies) – 1591 – Anna E. Klimenko Music for Wind Instruments Ensemble in Russia at the End of XVIII and in the 1-st Third of XIX Century (on the Example of A. Alyabjev’s Oeuvre) – 1599 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Igor Pyzhov – Associate Professor , Siberian Federal University Oyvind Ravna – Professor, University of Tromso – The Arctic University of Norway Irina Rubert – Professor, Saint-Petersburg State University of Economics Andrey Smirnov – Corresponding Member, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Philosophy RAS, Moscow Olga Smolyaninova – Professor, Siberian Federal University Vladimir Suprun – Professor, Institute of Philosophy and Law of SB RAS Viktor Suslov – Corresponding Member RAS, Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering of SB RAS Roman Svetlov – Professor, Saint-Petersburg State University Elena Tareva – Professor, Moscow City Pedagogical University Kristine Uzule – Ph.D. Baltic International Academy, Riga, Latvia Eugeniya Zunder – Professor, Siberian Federal University Свидетельство о регистрации СМИ ПИ № ФС77-28-723 от 29.06.2007 г. Серия включена в «Перечень ведущих рецензируемых научных журналов и изданий, в которых должны быть опубликованы основные научные результаты диссертации на соискание ученой степени доктора и кандидата наук» (редакция 2010 г.) Natalya V. Pokrovskaya Art groups in Russia After 1917 – 1606 – Elena A. Chereneva Unconscious Mechanisms of Social and Psychological Adaptation of Mentally Retarded Children – 1620 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 9 (2014 7) 1436-1448 ~~~ УДК 330.59; 338.24 Problems of Forming Relationships between the Indigenous Peoples and Resource Corporations: from Asserting the Rights to Joint Participation in Projects Valeriy A. Kryukov* and Anatoly N. Tokarev Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering of SB RAS 17 Lavrentiev Av., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia Received 15.06.2014, received in revised form 24.07.2014, accepted 16.08.2014 The authors show the necessity of co-participation of the indigenous peoples in development projects aimed at development of mineral resources extracting subsurface natural resources; there has been developed an approach to the assessment of institutional transformations in the relationships between the indigenous peoples and the resources’ extractors. The paper offers promising forms of interaction between mining companies and the indigenous peoples of the North, which are expected to improve the social and economic benefits of the indigenous population in course of the development of natural resources in locations of their traditional residence. Keywords: indigenous peoples of the North, territories of traditional land management, use of subsurface natural resources, participation, institutional changes. Today, the search of approaches to solving one of the major problems of economic development of the northern areas, i.e. proper combining of modern industry and maintaining traditional lifestyle and forms of traditional economic activities of the indigenous peoples, is becoming increasingly important. People are getting more and more aware of the fact this does not involve merely connection of modern science and technology and traditional lifestyle and forms of economic activities of the indigenous peoples. Neither does it mean conservation or stagnation in prevailing prehistoric “technological” ways of life. There is necessity to revaluate the principles of interaction of the indigenous peoples and modern * state, the indigenous peoples and subsurface resources’ extractors. Technocratic solutions do not play a major role here, more important task is to create a new institutional environment along the changing understanding of interaction between parties [Uchet interesov…]. Mining industry (subsurface resources’ extracting) affects the traditional economy in two major ways: – via changing the environmental situation in the region (extraction of raw materials often harms the ecological bases of traditional land management) [Rekommendatsii…]; – via changing the social and economic environment, which modifies social organization © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org # 1436 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valeriy A. Kryukov and Anatoly N. Tokarev. Problems of Forming Relationships between the Indigenous Peoples and… and priorities of those keeping the traditional way of life [Istomin]. Environmental component of subsurface extractors’ influence, on reindeer husbandry as an example, is expressed primarily in the destruction of ecosystems of reindeer pastures through their pollution with products of extraction, through harming the soil surface layer with the technique employed during the development and extraction of mineral raw materials. Moreover, burning of associated petroleum gas has a great impact on the environment in the places of residence of the indigenous peoples of the North [Kak potushit’…]. Another common example of environmental impact is laying of pipelines and roads, which are an obstacle to the migration of reindeer herds. They can make certain areas of pasture, even environmentally clean ones, inaccessible for reindeer herders. Social and economic influence of mining industry on traditional land management (including reindeer herding) is connected with: – the general change in economic condition of the regional population, its social structure and purchasing power; – the appearance of a new group of people – the personnel of mining companies and settlements (often in the previously unpopulated areas) [Kalugin]. These factors have an ambiguous impact on the traditional lifestyle of the indigenous peoples. On the one hand, the emergence of generally well secured groups may provide the indigenous peoples with new markets for their products and thus stimulate their traditional economic activities. On the other hand, the relationships between the indigenous peoples and subsurface resources’ extractors may take conflicting nature, for example, as a result of shooting reindeer, belonging to herders, or as a consequence of unequal exchange. 1. Approaches how to take into account the indigenous peoples’ interests The modern world practice has accumulated a considerable variety of different forms of conflict resolution between the need in development of natural resources of the North and sving the forms of traditional economic activities of the indigenous peoples [Ot paternalizma…]. The following main approaches may be distinguished. Paternalistic approach: – participation of companies which extract resources in addressing the economic problems of the indigenous peoples, usually in the form of assistance in solving social and economic problems at no cost; – the indigenous peoples (more precisely, the economic structures acting on their behalf) are given the due place in solving a series of problems which extractors face and which may positively affect solving the problems of the indigenous peoples. Approach based on participation: – formation of rules and procedures which will enable the indigenous peoples to exercise their traditional economic activities in the long run; – formation of procedures to make up for damage to traditional economic activities caused by mining companies. Participation of the indigenous peoples in the development of mineral resources should not imply performing all the works in the development and production of subsurface products or in the construction of pipelines, but certain more narrow and specialized activities: – involvement of the indigenous peoples in the processes of eco-monitoring and control during mining; – employment of the indigenous peoples in the development of mineral resources’ # 1437 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valeriy A. Kryukov and Anatoly N. Tokarev. Problems of Forming Relationships between the Indigenous Peoples and… projects (after the indigenous peoples have passed appropriate training and retraining programs); – providing the indigenous peoples with consumer services (including selling traditional products), and in the long term – performance of works in rotational camps and participation in building programs. These directions can be effective only after the implementation of special training programs for the indigenous peoples, after the formation of appropriate organizational structures (e.g., corporations of the indigenous peoples). Approach based on the recognition of the exclusive rights of the indigenous peoples: – the indigenous peoples are assigned the property rights to land and natural complexes located in places of their residence and economic activity; – creation of economic structures and entities representing the economic interests of the indigenous people and carrying out activities in the areas of their residence and traditional economy; – the indigenous peoples shall receive a portion of revenues from business activities in the field of exploration and mining. One of the most important tasks for the indigenous peoples of Russia is a movement from upholding the exclusive rights to the land to participation in the processes of preparation and implementation of development and mining projects [Maksimov]. The main problems in this sphere concern: – poor identification and improper structuring of forms of participation of the indigenous peoples in discussions and negotiations about the implementation of projects; – lack of proper institutions and structures, authorized to represent the interests of the indigenous peoples; – scope of issues and direction of activities of the indigenous peoples which come out during preparation of the projects and their implementation in places where they live; – acute lack of experts and expertise among the indigenous peoples – the emphasis in education over the years has been on the training of specialists in the field of culture, secondary education, medicine. In Russia in this sphere – as well as in many other areas of management and regulation of economic processes – there happens unification of conditions of land and subsurface management. Unfortunately, in this situation, economic and social problems of the indigenous peoples lose their connection to the land and the projects implemented in the territory of their residence, and get increasingly dominated by paternalistic approach. Several Russian special laws declare the rights of the indigenous peoples regarding the use of renewable natural resources and the form of compensation for damages. Also an access to certain types of resources for traditional economic activities of the indigenous peoples is stated as certain. But these rights, declared by the Russian legislation, are not fully implemented in practice – due to the institutional reasons noted above, as well as due to the weakness of the Russian legislation in terms of the postulated procedures for conflict resolution. Analysis of foreign experience and its comparison with the Russian experience leads to the conclusion that Russia has not yet managed to solve the problem of the indigenous peoples during resources’ extracting in accordance with the international best practices # 1438 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valeriy A. Kryukov and Anatoly N. Tokarev. Problems of Forming Relationships between the Indigenous Peoples and… In foreign practice, problems of legal regulation of the use and protection of lands by the aboriginal people are solved in collaboration. In foreign legislation the rights of the indigenous peoples to land are not only recognized. The scope and content of these rights are defined in detail. The indigenous peoples’ rights to land in the Russian laws and regulations are declared only, excluding, and sometimes neglecting the requirements of the land and forest legislation. If foreign legislation on land rights of the indigenous peoples fits adequately the overall system of law, the Russian legislation can not be attested as such [Pavlov]. Russian law scarcely touches upon the land sector problem in differences between the indigenous peoples and people of other nationalities and does not consider it necessary to include the interests of society and state in the law on the indigenous peoples’ problems. This is one of the major conceptual distinctions of the Russian legislation from foreign one. Given the positive and negative experience of the legal regulation of relations in the field of land use and protection (as regards the indigenous peoples) in foreign countries, one can not only create their own legal model of problem solving in accordance with global trends, but also avoid many mistakes. 2. Stages of field development and socio-economic effects on the indigenous peoples Implementation of development projects in certain deposits of minerals in lands of traditional land management often has a decisive influence on the socio-economic development of specific groups of population, including representatives of the indigenous peoples. Dynamics of the development of oil and gas fields is important in terms of consideration of the interests of the indigenous peoples because of the following reasons and considerations: – general policy of the relationship between the indigenous peoples and oil and gas sector should be formed at the earliest stages of development of deposits and provinces. At the same time the most appropriate and effective common is the one which involves environmental impact and ethnological expertise, development of integrated adaptation programs of the indigenous peoples; – dynamic nature of the deposits’ development determines the choice for the different stages of the most appropriate and effective forms of the indigenous peoples’ participation in development of subsurface mineral resources; – levels of rent income of oil companies, some of which may be allocated to finance socio-economic development programs and the adaptation of the indigenous peoples, vary considerably at different stages of oil and gas deposits’ development; – at different stages of deposits’ development there are different levels of impacts of industrial development on the environment and traditional nature management; – the indigenous peoples have to enter into relationships with different types of companies, including socio-economic agreements. For example, for a specific period of development there may dominate large integrated or, conversely, small companies. These types of companies differ in the level of financial capacity, in their goals and objectives in relation to this area at a certain stage of development. Potential benefits and costs of the development of subsurface mineral resources for # 1439 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valeriy A. Kryukov and Anatoly N. Tokarev. Problems of Forming Relationships between the Indigenous Peoples and… the indigenous peoples in the lands of traditional land management are largely dependent on the stages of deposits’ development. At each stage the rational policy of the indigenous peoples should take into account the state of mineral and raw resources’ base, the level of income of oil companies and modify accordingly. The main factors, conditions and features of accounting the indigenous peoples’ interests at different stages of hydrocarbon deposits’ development are presented in Table 1. In the process of oil and gas development major environmental costs are connected with the stage of investment and maximum production Table 1. Features of taking into account the interests of the indigenous peoples at various stages of oil and gas development Benefits, costs and opportunities for coparticipation of the indigenous peoples Main influence of the extractors on the ecology Stage Search and exploration Exploration, formation of the infrastructure elements Relatively low Early mining Development of Burning of mineral resources, associated gas burning of associated gas High High Environmental and social costs Demand for production of Low Increasing the indigenous peoples (investment) Potential opportunities for the indigenous peoples: Falling mining Mature Liquidation works, recultivation of lands Decreasing High Low – co-participation in extracting mineral resources – provision of consumer services – employment Increasing High High Weak Low High High Decreasing Low High Decreasing Low Potential benefits for the indigenous peoples Policy of local authorities Low Growth High Decreasing Participation in programs of adaptation and development Priorities in the indigenous Negotiatins, peoples’ policy environmental monitoring, services for extractors Forming partnership: Environmental monitoring, training of the indigenous peoples Monitoring the implementation of agreements, participation in projects Environmental monitoring and control Environmental monitoring and control Claims for a part of rental income, services for the companies Environmental monitoring, services for the companies – the indigenous peoples and government Environmental monitoring, training programs of the indigenous peoples Production services Environmental monitoring Environmental monitoring Production services Consumer services – the indigenous peoples and extractors Environmental monitoring, programs of adaptation and development Consumer services, economic agreements # 1440 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valeriy A. Kryukov and Anatoly N. Tokarev. Problems of Forming Relationships between the Indigenous Peoples and… (maturity). As production in the fields decline the environmental costs are reduced. But the risks associated with inadequate measures of subsurface extractors during liquidation works increase significantly. Potential benefits and opportunities for coparticipation of the indigenous peoples in the realization of the projects also change significantly during the development of mineral resources. At step of search and exploration opportunities to benefit are notably limited, relatively low are the environmental risks. As production increases, potential benefits for the indigenous peoples associated with co-participation in the implementation of projects increase too. And simultaneously environmental pressures on areas of traditional nature management grow. Rational approach is connected with the formation of conditions for the indigenous peoples benefiting from the development of subsurface resources in the lands of traditional management (at least commensurate with the environmental costs). The key to achievements in this direction is the active participation of all organizations and representatives of the indigenous peoples in development of subsurface mineral resources. 3. Ways of increasing benefits from socio-economic effects of the development of mineral resources for the indigenous peoples One of the main tasks of transformation in relationships between the indigenous peoples and extractors is to minimize the social and economic costs that arise during the development of subsurface mineral resources, and to maximize the potential benefits that these activities can bring. Analysis of Russian and foreign experience shows that an increase in socio-economic benefits from the development of mineral resources for the indigenous peoples is linked with a number of directions. These directions can be considered as a basis for by-step changes, aimed at a more complete account of the interests of the indigenous peoples. 1. Development and expansion of activities within the economic agreements. This trend reflects the presence of special rights of the indigenous peoples on wildlife resources. Additional costs borne by extractors are related to compensation for the restriction of traditionally nature management and can be prescribed by economic agreements between businessmen and the indigenous peoples. One of the parties in such agreements may be local authorities. Under current conditions in Russia the economic agreements with the extractors are focused on ensuring a minimum acceptable standard of living for the indigenous peoples. In world practice, a considerable portion of the potential benefits to the indigenous peoples are connected with the conclusion and implementation of agreements on the delivery of social and economic benefits and advantages [Obzor zakonov…]. These agreements are complex and multilateral in their character (unlike, for example, narrow economic agreements implemented in Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug in the territories of tribal lands), covering issues of participation of the indigenous peoples in the project, including the provision of consumer and production services, which is reflected in the following directions. 2. Provision of consumer services. The term “consumer services” means, first of all, sales of products of the traditional economy, including to the employees of companies that operate in the territories of traditional nature management. 3. Provision of type 1 production services. These services include the organization and provision of hotel services, room cleaning, preparation and delivery of food for the workers of mining companies (especially in remote areas and rotational camps). Such an experience # 1441 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valeriy A. Kryukov and Anatoly N. Tokarev. Problems of Forming Relationships between the Indigenous Peoples and… Impact on benefits from development Reducing mining costs Considering indigenous peoples Impact on oil and gas sector Co-participation in development Additional benefits Production services Socio-economic benefits Part of taxes and rental income Economic agreements Environmental monitoring Enivironmental costs Efficiency of the deposit’s development Additional costs Fig. 1. Potential benefits and costs of the main actors in the subsurface mining in the lands of traditional land management occurs during the development of subsurface resources in Alaska and the Canadian province of Alberta. 4. Provision of type 2 production services. These services include the participation of the indigenous peoples’ organizational structures in the implementation of construction programs in the field facilities. It should be noted that the provision of consumer and production services requires training of relevant personnel and formation of the indigenous peoples’ corporations. 5. Taxes and rental income shall be directed partly to fulfill the needs of the indigenous peoples. Russian and foreign experience shows that this trend may realize in various forms: in part of the property tax connected with the production assets of mining companies operating in the lands of traditional land management; in part of the rental income from regional budgets; introduction of additional royalty or tax on production. From the standpoint of the most significant negative effects for the indigenous peoples environmental costs prevail. Implementation of projects in the sphere of subsurface mining often leads to environmental pollution, disturbance of natural systems, which are the basis of life of the indigenous population. Decline in the number of deer, decreasing hunting and fisheries result in a drop in revenues and an increase in unemployment among the indigenous peoples in the areas of traditional nature management. In the course of mining projects there is a complex of technological solutions and measures, which helps to minimize the negative environmental impact of these projects on the environment. These activities involve striking capital and operating costs. If subsurface extractors (usually within a weak system of state regulation) # 1442 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valeriy A. Kryukov and Anatoly N. Tokarev. Problems of Forming Relationships between the Indigenous Peoples and… significantly reduce the cost of environmental measures, the population of the territory, including representatives of the indigenous peoples, suffers from serious environmental damage. At the same time the demand to meet stringent environmental regulations requires higher costs connected with monitoring and control of environmental conditions and the technologies used. Place and role of the considered areas in relation to their impact on overall benefits to the society and on the efficiency of field development from the standpoint of subsurface extractors are shown in Fig. 1. 4. Assessment of institutional changes scenarios concerning relationships between the indigenous peoples and subsurface extractors A number of scenarios are based on the enlisted ways of increasing socio-economic benefits of mineral resources development in the lands of traditional land management (where the indigenous peoples live) considering changing environmental costs. In summary, the basic conditions of scenarios in relation to the change in certain rights of the indigenous peoples are presented in Table 2. Scenario 1. Development and expansion of economic activities within the agreements. Low expenditure of subsurface extractors on the environment. Additional costs within the economic agreements aimed at compensating the limitations of traditional land management enjoys no significant effect on performance of oil and gas development from the standpoint of subsurface extractors. Since these costs for subsurface extractors are relatively stable, their impact is inversely proportional to the volume of the reserves extracted from the developed deposits. In this scenario, the total amount of benefits for the indigenous peoples from the project is negative for the entire period of operation, which is due to a high level of environmental costs (subsurface extractors spend little money on environmental measures). Also the indigenous peoples do not benefit greatly from the narrow economic agreements. This scenario fully characterizes the current situation in the development of subsurface deposits in the areas of traditional land management: there are high environmental costs and risks for the indigenous peoples and the environment, on the one hand, and on the other, there is a relatively small level of compensation provided by businessmen to the indigenous peoples (Fig. 2). Scenario 2. Provision of consumer services for subsurface extractors. Rising expenditure on environmental measures. Under this scenario, the amount of consumer services provided by the indigenous peoples rises rapidly: the indigenous peoples sell more of their products to employees of the companies involved in the project. In the case of the provision of these services the part of the oil extractors’ income spent on buying consumer goods produced by the indigenous peoples is seen as a benefit for the latter. According to this scenario there will be an increase (compared to the scenario 1) in expenditure of subsurface extractors on environmental protection. These costs of the companies are more consistent with the objectives of minimizing the environmental impact on the areas of traditional land management, but they still do not meet the required level. Increased costs of environmental measures should be coupled with an increase in expenses connected with monitoring and control processes during the development of subsurface resources. At the same time co-participation of the indigenous representatives in the monitoring and control of the environment seems rather effective (from the standpoint of social and economic benefits for the # 1443 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valeriy A. Kryukov and Anatoly N. Tokarev. Problems of Forming Relationships between the Indigenous Peoples and… Table 2. Structure of benefits from oil project for the indigenous people: scenarios’ features Powers and benefits for the indigenous peoples Scenarios 1 2 3 4 5 – natural resources A H H H H – resources on the surface (land) L A H H H – subsurface resources L L L L A Disposition rights to : 1 Co-participation in environmental monitoring L A A H H Powers2 specified by benefits agreements I-1 I-2 I-2 I-2 I-3 Environmental costs of subsurface extracting low average average Economic agreements Consumer services provided by the indigenous peoples to subsurface extractors yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes Benefits and costs for the indigenous peoples Production services - type 1 Production services - type 2 Part of tax revenues is at the indigenous peoples’ disposal normative normative yes Benefits for indigenous peoples, $/t Note 1. Degree of implementation of the main powers within the framework of property rights (low - L, average A, high - H). 2. Powers of the indigenous peoples: I-1 - right to enter the narrow economic agreements; I-2 - right to conclude a comprehensive agreement on obtaining social and economic benefits and advantages; I-3 – right to a part of the rental income. 8 6 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 1 2 3 Scenarios Environmental costs Consumer services Production services - 2 Total 4 5 Economic agreements Production services - 1 Taxes for indigenous peoples Fig. 2. Structure of benefits for the indigenous peoples for the entire project period whole society), especially in the areas of oil and gas projects. It is important to analyze the effectiveness for subsurface extractors along with the assessment of projects in terms of community benefits (bearing in mind federal budget, social and economic benefits for the regions and the indigenous peoples). If a project is rejected by potential investors for financial and economic reasons, society will not receive the potential benefits and will not incur potential social and environmental expenses. Extent of liabilities of oil and gas companies within the framework of the narrow economic agreements is not critical # 1444 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valeriy A. Kryukov and Anatoly N. Tokarev. Problems of Forming Relationships between the Indigenous Peoples and… for subsurface extractors in terms of overall efficiency of the project. The situation with the cost of environmental protection measures during implementation of the projects can have a tremendous impact on investment decisions. The increased costs on the environment can lead to the fact that some projects will be ineffective from the standpoint of subsurface extractors and will not be realized. Due to the framework of the weak regulatory system as a whole (characterized, for example, by soft rules and regulations in the field of ecology) Russia has seen realized extracting projects that would not be considered effective and, therefore, implemented in a rigid system of monitoring and controlling of the development of mineral resources from the state. The most important factor in the formation of an adequate system for monitoring and controlling the state of the environment in the areas of subsurface development projects should be proactive participation of the indigenous peoples in this process. Provision of consumer services for mining companies can substantially increase the benefits from the projects for the indigenous peoples. But these benefits can not fully compensate for the high environmental costs (Fig. 2). In addition, within the case of the cumulative impact on the environment by oil and gas companies the possibility of the indigenous peoples to provide these services is reduced, as natural productivity in the areas of influence of industrial projects drops. Scenario 3. Provision of type 1 production services. Under this scenario, in addition to providing consumer services the indigenous peoples may render production services for oil and gas companies and their contractors. The indigenous peoples’ participation in the provision of specified production services (service in camps, cooking meals) is a balanced way of getting common positive consequence for the indigenous peoples from these projects: in this case, the benefits of another region’s residents are not reduced. In this scenario, growth of benefits for the indigenous peoples from the project realization may become possible (Fig. 2). Providing services of type 1 can be effective from the standpoint of companies, as it results in total (though relatively small) reduction of costs caused by the implementation of the project with the appropriate organization of granting these services. Scenario 4. Provision of type 2 production services. Rising expenditure on environmental measures. In this scenario, production services of type 2 emerge to prominence: participation of the indigenous peoples in the construction programs at the stage of deposit’s development and building facilities there. It should be noted that the provision of consumer and production services requires the relevant training of employees and formation of adequate organizational structures. Under this scenario, the costs of environmental protection measures are borne at the required level, which minimizes the impact of development of natural resources on the environment in the areas of traditional land management. This scenario is one of the most favorable from the point of view of the indigenous peoples: the benefits from the project increase, while environmental costs minimize. Moreover, this scenario has its own internal logic: the higher the degree of participation the indigenous peoples in projects (up to implementation of the construction programs at the first stages), the lower the environmental costs. Co-participation of the indigenous peoples in the development of subsurface riches allows: – to monitor the process of deposits’ development; # 1445 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valeriy A. Kryukov and Anatoly N. Tokarev. Problems of Forming Relationships between the Indigenous Peoples and… – to control the compliance with environmental requirements; – to contribute to the construction of facilities (in accordance with the development project), which sets the level of impact on the environment. Participation of the indigenous peoples in the development of subsurface resources complies with the interests of the state as an owner of these resources. Adequate monitoring and control of processes of mineral resources development are aimed at full realization of the rights of ownership. Therefore, the common interests of the state and indigenous peoples should be a basis for the formation of partnerships, including the management of the processes of subsurface resources development, which are focused on improving the social and economic benefits for the whole society. A reasonable part of the potential benefits for the indigenous peoples (especially their participation in the projects) is not associated with additional costs of oil and gas companies and their contractors. Provision of consumer and production services by the indigenous peoples (in remote areas with poor infrastructure) will reduce the total cost of the projects. Thus, the indigenous peoples’ participation in the provision of services (including environmental monitoring and control) will lead to an increase in community benefits. This fact is an important argument in favor of practical implementation in Russia of the described scenarios, which take into account the interests of the indigenous peoples and their participation in the processes of mineral resources development, in monitoring and control of the ecological state during the development of mineral deposits. Scenario 5. A part of tax revenues from the extraction of subsurface resources comes directly to the indigenous peoples. This scenario can evolve in various forms. – A part of the property tax (derived from the production assets in the considered deposit) is used for the needs of the indigenous peoples. Practical implementation of this approach is in the purview of local authorities: the property tax in modern Russian conditions has regional status. This approach is impractical for some individual projects to develop mineral resources. In the case of positive results this experience can become more widespread and common for the projects on the mineral resources development in the areas of traditional land management. – A part of rental income comes from regional budgets. In this case, the overall level of benefits for the indigenous peoples increases due to the fact they begin to share the regional income from extraction of raw materials. This direction can bring ample benefits to the indigenous peoples, if a substantial portion of rental income from the extraction of mineral resources goes to the regional level budgets. – The above-mentioned approach may not always be welcomed by the population living in this region of the Russian Federation, as it reduces the benefits (though slightly) for the whole population. Therefore one had better prefer an approach used in the Canadian province of Alberta, although it is difficult to realize in practice. There, if mining occurs in the areas where Aboriginal Identity Peoples live, additional royalties are charged, increasing overall tax burden on oil and gas companies. Subsurface extractors pay an additional royalty to Aborigines, without lowering the level of tax revenues, which come to budget. Under this scenario, the indigenous peoples do not have only special rights to the ground, but also certain powers to the subsurface area (if property rights are meant as a set of powers), because the indigenous peoples directly receive # 1446 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valeriy A. Kryukov and Anatoly N. Tokarev. Problems of Forming Relationships between the Indigenous Peoples and… rental income from the development of this deposit. In the considered scenarios federal tax revenues remain virtually unchanged, if there are relevant institutional changes. In this situation there occurs a major growth of social and economic benefits for oil and gas regions, primarily due to lower environmental costs. However, efficiency of projects for oil and gas companies in a number of directions is reduced. But within the framework of the adopted hypotheses IRR remains at an acceptable level, so mining companies are interested in investing in projects with the simultaneous implementation of measures under consideration, taking into account the interests of the indigenous peoples during the development of subsurface resources. Based on the above analysis, the following conclusions are provided. One of the foundations for the transition from paternalism to partnership is co-participation of the indigenous peoples in the development of subsurface resources in the projects, including the provision of consumer and production services for mining companies and their contractors. As a consequence, there must be an active position of the indigenous peoples organizations in matters of protection of their interests, which is a prerequisite for the transformation of the special rights of the indigenous people in the territories of traditional land management into real social and economic benefits through the development of various forms of participation in the implementation of development projects. The scenarios, as described above, show the trend and the possible dynamics of the transition to a more complete consideration for the indigenous peoples in projects in the sphere of subsurface extracting in the territories of their traditional economic activities: from narrow economic agreements to partnership in the implementation of projects. This truly dynamic wave must be combined with the formation of specific organizational structures, including corporations of the indigenous peoples. References 1. Istomin, K. (2002). Olenevody respubliki Komi i neftedobycha: tochki vzaimodeistiia i konflikta [Komi reindeer herders and oil production: in terms of interaction and conflict]. Mir korennykh narodov. Zhivaia Arktika (World of the indigenous peoples. Living Arctic), 11–12, pp. 100–106. 2. Kalugin, Z.I., Soboleva, S.V., Tapilina, V.S. (2006). Malochislennye narody Sibiri: izgoi XXI veka? [ peoples of Siberia: excluded people of the 21st century?] Region: ekonomika i sotsiologiia (Region: economics and sociology), 2, pp. 200–216. 3. Kriukov, V.A, Tokarev, A.N. (2005). Uchet interesov korennykh malochislennykh narodov pri priniatii reshenii v sfere nedropol’zovaniia [Consideration of the interests of the indigenous peoples in decision-making in the sphere of subsurface mining]. Seriia: biblioteka korennykh narodov severa (Series: library of the indigenous Peoples of the North). Moscow, 10, 172 p. 4. Kriukov, V.A., Silkin, V.Iu., Tokarev, A.N., Shmat, V.V. Kak potushit’ fakely na rossiiskikh neftepromyslakh: institutsional’nyi analiz uslovii kompleksnogo ispol’zovaniia uglevodorodov (na primere poputnogo neftianogo gaza) [How to extinguish the torches in Russian oil industry: an institutional analysis of the conditions of complex hydrocarbons’ usage (on the basis of associated oil gas) – Ed. by V.V. Kuleshov, IEIE SB RAS, Novosibirsk, 2008, 340 p. 5. Maksimov, A.A. (2005). Prava korennykh narodov Severa na zemliu i sovmestnoe upravlenie [Rights of the indigenous peoples to land and natural resources: efficient use and joint management]. # 1447 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valeriy A. Kryukov and Anatoly N. Tokarev. Problems of Forming Relationships between the Indigenous Peoples and… Seriia: biblioteka korennykh narodov severa (Series: library of the indigenous Peoples of the North). Moscow, 3, 89 p. 6. Obzor zakonov i normativnykh aktov Arkticheskikh stran po zashchite prav korennykh narodov. Soglasheniia i rezoliutsii [Overview of the laws and regulations of the Arctic countries to protect the rights of the indigenous peoples. Agreements and resolutions] Comp. by R.V. Suliandziga. Seriia: biblioteka korennykh narodov severa (Series: library of the indigenous Peoples of the North). Moscow, 2005, 8, 155 p. 7. Pavlov, P. (2002). Prava korennykh narodov Severa na zemli: rossiiskaia retrospektiva i mezhdunarodnaia perspektiva [Rights of the indigenous peoples to land: Russian retrospective and international perspective]. Mir korennykh narodov. Zhivaia Arktika (World of the indigenous peoples. Living Arctic), 11–12, pp. 35–53. 8. Piliasov, A.N. (ed.) Ot paternalizma k partnerstvu (stroitel’stvo novykh otnoshenii narodov Severa i gosudarstva) [From paternalism to partnership (construction of new relations between the peoples of the North and the state)]. Magadan, Northeastern Interdisciplinary Research Institute (named after N.A. Shilo). Far Eastern Branch RAS, 1998, 198 p. 9. Rekommendatsii VII s’ezda korennykh malochislennykh narodov Severa, Sibiri I dal’nego Vostoka Rossiiskoi Federatsii [Recommendations of VII Congress of the Indigenous Peoples of the North, Siberia and Far East of the Russian Federation]. Salekhard, 28-29 March 2013. Mir korennykh narodov (World of the indigenous peoples), 2013, 30, pp. 9–20. Проблемы формирования отношений коренных народов и ресурсных корпораций: от отстаивания прав к соучастию в реализации проектов В.А. Крюков, А.Н. Токарев Институт экономики и организации промышленного производства СО РАН Россия, 630090, Новосибирск, пр. Акад. Лаврентьева, 17 В статье показана необходимость соучастия коренных народов в реализации проектов освоения недр; разработан подход к оценке институциональных трансформаций во взаимоотношениях коренных народов и недропользователей. Предложены перспективные формы взаимодействия между компаниями-недропользователями и КМНС, направленные на повышение социально-экономических выгод коренного населения в процессе освоения недр на территории их традиционного проживания. Ключевые слова: коренные малочисленные народы Севера, территории традиционного природопользования, недропользование, соучастие, институциональные изменения. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 9 (2014 7) 1449-1456 ~~~ УДК 330.59+338.24 Indigenous Minorities of the North as a Factor of Preservation and Sustainable Development of the Northern Territories Nikolai G. Shishatsky* Institute of Economics and Industial Engineering of SB RAS 50 Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk, 660036, Russa Received 07.06.2014, received in revised form 07.07.2014, accepted 30.08.2014 The article presents generalized problems and trends of indigenous minorities of the North (IMN) adaptation to new condition of social-economic development of Russia and analyses some particularities of their political and juridical status. The modern evolution of indigenous minorities of the North is based on the composition of innovativeness and conventionality elements. It causes the necessity to apply an institutional- evolution approach for the investigation of problems of IMN sustainable development. The given approach allows identification of the role of informal rules in IMN life activity and helps to show peculiarities of informal rules formation. Numerous legislative acts of the federal and regional level adopted at present (formal regulations), having direct or indirect relation to IMN, are mainly declarative due to the absence of effective tools for their implementation. The development of such tools is an urgent theoretical and practical task which resolution should take into consideration the evolution of ownership forms of traditional economies and reasons of happened naturalization of traditional IMN lifestyle. Keywords: indigenous minorities of the North, sustainable development, legal status, joint management of resources, areas of traditional nature management. The work is accomplished in the frames of investigations financed by Krasnoyarsk Regional Fund of support of scientific and scientific-technical activity and under the thematic plan of SibFU, developed on the instructions of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation. Social-economic reforms of the recent years have significantly influenced the idea of sustainable development and the quality of life in general, as well as sustainable development of areas of traditional nature management and particularly- the quality of life of indigenous minorities of North (IMN). * Protecting their interests, IMN are at the forefront of the struggle of the humanity for their survival under the conditions of ecological crisis. The culture of indigenous peoples is based on the awareness of the oneness and continuous connection of a man and nature. It includes © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com # 1449 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nikolai G. Shishatsky. Indigenous Minorities of the North as a Factor of Preservation and Sustainable Development… principles of rational use of resources and due respect of environment, i.e. basic principles of sustainable development`s concept. Conventional nature management is based on an exceptional knowledge of nature peculiarities, gained from the centuries-old experience of indigenous peoples. It includes the principle of inexhaustible use of renewable biological resources, which is also among the basic principles of the society sustainable development concept. It is obviously that the loss of experience and mentality, which were developed by indigenous peoples within centuries, can become an irreplaceable loss of humanity at present. They are to be preserved and passed to the representatives of other nationalities for the purpose of collaborative activity with indigenous peoples towards the protection of the nature of our planet and searching new ways for sustainable development of civilization. The Russian Federation, fully supporting the declared goals and principles of UN and ILO international documents in respect of tribal peoples and peoples of roving life, and actively participating in various UN events, such as International decades of indigenous peoples and etc., still remains one of the countries, which hasn’t yet ratify ILO Convention №169 “On Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in Independent Countries” (1989) and the only country that has not yet signed the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (2007). ILO Convention №169 approves a wide range of indigenous people’s rights, including rights for recourses and homeland areas, and other authorities which are considered to be important for them. Joining the Russian Federation to the ILO Convention №169 and its ratification was initiated by the 1st Congress of Indigenous Minorities of the North in 1990. The Congress considered the participation in this Convention to be a kind of guarantee for keeping political rights and initial basis for the development of Russian legislation on IMN rights. Nearly all summarizing documents of Parliament meetings and scientific conferences hold by Chambers of Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation and subjects of the Russian Federation on socio-economic and cultural development of IMN, recommended to ratify the Convention №169 An expert`s Report which was presented at one of the meetings dated May 17, 1993, was ended by the words: “The ratification of the Convention seems appropriate only upon providing conditions ensuring their fulfillment by Russia. Otherwise it can cause contradictions between domestic legislation and international obligations of the Russian Federation. Considering the strict control of ILO over the implementation of its Conventions, such situation can cause international implications undesirable for Russia” . Apparently this “confidence” does not exist so far, therefore the ratification issue has been practically removed from the agenda. The following circumstances supported the restrained position in this issue are essentially important: 1. Areas of IMN residence in Russia possess the unique combination of industrial development, settlement pattern and ethnic structure. For example, the population size of Greenland comprises to 55 thousand people, and 86 % of them are indigenous peoples. There are only 79 settlements with relatively low number of dwellers, 13 thousand people live in the capital of the island Nuuk. The population of the Northwest Territories of Canada, before the separation of Nunavut area was practically the same as in Greenland, wherein these lands accounted for approximately one third of the entire country territory. More than a half of dwellers are aborigines. Less than 20 thousand # 1450 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nikolai G. Shishatsky. Indigenous Minorities of the North as a Factor of Preservation and Sustainable Development… people live in the capital of the territory Yellowknife . (Innu of in the Eastern Arctic make up about 85 % of the population). The North of Canada is more industrially developed than Greenland, but far less than the North of Russia. Regions of the Russian Federation which are considered to be the territories of traditional residence of IMN, make almost the half of the country`s territory. According to the census of 2010, 247.6 thousand people IMN lived here (about 95 % of the total IMN population of the country). The specific weight of IMN in the total population size of this territory was only 6,3 %. They do not form the majority of the population even in their autonomous regions. Under these conditions it is more complicated than for example in Canada, to solve the problem of expansion of collective rights of indigenous peoples without infringement of rights of the rest of population living in this area. 2. Almost nowhere in the world there are so many permanent non aborigine people living in traditional IMN areas as it is in Russia. A significant proportion of the population is Russian old residents- descendants of those who moved in this region several centuries ago and who helped aborigines to survive in difficult climatic conditions. The major of old residents has the same style of life as peoples of the North. Introduction of new rights and privileges for indigenous people can cause the aggravation of international relations and worsen the existing complicated social situation of the North. 3. Receipt of land rights by indigenous peoples can cause formation of a group of businessmen from the peoples of the North, but it would not guarantee the preserving traditional nature management and traditional culture as well as keeping peoples themselves as independent and distinctive ethnic groups. Attention should be paid to three important aspects. Firstly, an obtaining clearly documented contractual rights to certain territories will mean the loss of any rights of the North peoples to the remaining significantly larger part of the territory. Such is the Canadian-American pattern of indigenous peoples development, where one of the most interested stakeholders of the Agreement on land use signed by Inuvialuits of Western Arctic of Canada were oil companies, which got easy access to the oil-rich areas as a result. Under these conditions, the required bases for keeping traditional culture and appropriate life-supporting system are being narrowed down simultaneously. Secondly, if valuable mineral resources will be explored on the territories designated for the populations of the North, the significant part of lands will not at all be used for traditional nature management. Besides, as the Russian experience shows, even the major of these territories will be controlled by large business and the population of the North will be satisfied with a little as it is usually happen when oil companies sign agreements with the owners of tribal lands. Thirdly, we should not eliminate the risk that the owners of such lands, after receipt of gratifications from oil-and- gas and other raw material companies will become idle rentiers without kith or kin forgotten their traditional economic activities. 4. Political elite of the North peoples actively supports the Convention ratification. Their interest is quite understandable and clear. But the population itself is more passive because additional rights assume not only specific privileges but also the increased responsibility. In most cases the population is not ready for this mission due to different reasons. For example, many regions do not have any local initiators, which would take all troubles on solving problems, stipulated by the last RF laws which # 1451 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nikolai G. Shishatsky. Indigenous Minorities of the North as a Factor of Preservation and Sustainable Development… directly relate to the life activity of indigenous minorities of the North. 5. There are no clear criteria for ethnic identification. After ratification of a Convention a lot of problems will arise on determination of those who will fall within it. However, this problem is now posed as one of the most important when practical implementation of the adopted federal laws on indigenous peoples of the North is discussed. At present it is common for Russia to consider ethnic self-consciousness to be the main characteristic of being attributed to IMN and this indicator is very uncertain. Any additional rights and particularly benefits for certain populations become an object of interest of many, including those who are not related to these peoples originally ( recently, after granting certain privileges to peoples of the North, their number noticeably increased, as virtually all children of mixed marriages were recorded as representatives of these peoples) For example, it is known that in the KhantyMansi Autonomous Okrug after assignment of inherited ownership of tribal lands possessing deposits of oil to Khanty and Mansi, mass marriages of Azerbaijanis with local girls became very popular. All children from these mixed marriages are considered to be representatives of indigenous people. Thus, over the certain period of time the descendants of not even the northern, but the southern nations may become the owners of tribal lands in this Okrug (particularly those which are rich in oil). Such problems exist in the other states. It is not coincidentally that the most countries of the Arctic ring having much more favorable conditions for the ratification of the discussed Convention have not done it still. The greatest progress in the development of indigenous people of the North is observed at present in the North America and Scandinavia. Even a few decades ago, until the middle of the XX century high rates of aborigine`s ill being were natural for these countries and were referred to physiological and social peculiarities of aborigine, the processes of assimilation and dissolution of aborigines in a society were interpreted as legitimate and positive phenomenon. The crisis took place in 60-70s of the XX century, when the period of restoration of justice for indigenous peoples started. It was stimulated by a threat of total destruction of indigenous people as the result of implementation of largescale resources and hydro-energetic projects on their territories. As the result of continuous and complicated public discussion a new paradigm on the legal status of indigenous peoples of the North was formed during the elaboration and implementation of social-economic development trends on territories of their traditional residence and economic activity. This paradigm has its own peculiarities in different countries, but is characterized by common fundamental points, connected with significant increase of a legal status of indigenous peoples in taking and implementation of managerial decisions in the sphere of life-support and economic development on the areas of traditional nature management of IMN. A key role is played by: – the ownership rights of IMN to land and nature resources; – questions connected with the involving IMN in the process of nature resources management; – granting social and economical privileges to IMN for development of nature resources; – political rights of IMN, connected with the self-government Agreements of the Inuit of Nunavut settlement area and the Tribal Union of gvichey # 1452 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nikolai G. Shishatsky. Indigenous Minorities of the North as a Factor of Preservation and Sustainable Development… with Her Majesty the Queen of England (i.e. the Government of Canada) can be given as examples of parity approach to address a problem of sustainable development of IMN residential territories. These agreements which were elaborated in detail by both Parties, stipulate specific areas under their jurisdiction, describe rights of aborigines living on the territories of non-indigenous population, owned by municipal, regional and federal government for land and mineral resources, ways for nature management as well as parity management and monitoring tools. The process of meeting territorial requirements of indigenous peoples of Alaska and Northern Canada has caused the problem of joint (cooperative) management of resources . Joint management of resources is a component of the state policy which is based on comprehensive agreements on territorial demands of indigenous peoples and includes indigenous peoples’ participation in making decisions on quotas for fishing and hunting, questions of subsoil and forest management, protection and monitoring of the environment in areas defined by land agreements. The purpose of joint management is to share responsibility for specific resources, where a substantial overlap of interests exists and to share social and economic benefits from the use of these resources. Specialized Councils having the right to elaborate non-regulative proposals for public offices become the subjects of joint management. Principles of joint management are widely used in nature parks and reserves and suppose collaboration of administration of specially protected natural territory and communities traditionally exploit its resources. Joint management operations include recognition of the important role that indigenous communities play in preservation of resources. Joint management was introduced in Northern Canada and Alaska in the middle of 1970-s due to danger of undermining the populations of fish and game. The USA Federal Law on conservation areas of Alaska which are of the national interest has provided advisory role of indigenous communities in regulation of fisheries and management of wildlife resources within these areas. It is common for the North of Canada that joint management operations are stipulated by agreements on land requirements of indigenous peoples, for example, in agreements with the native population of Yukon. If land law does not provide joint management operations within a specific area, the initiative of its introduction goes from the below level rural communities; the availability of a strong local leader, aimed at addressing traditional life support problems as well as development of traditional economy and resources protection become a key factor. The principle of supporting indigenous population, according to which locals should fully benefit from the development of area resources in order to be protected from the possible damages and to receive compensation for caused damages, was recognized at the same time as indigenous rights to land and resources were assumed. This principle was implemented in agreements on providing social-economic benefits and privileges to locals (SOPV). SOPV for indigenous people of the North means the following: environment protection, employment and economical development, respect for traditional culture and values. SOPV for the state implies: the possibility of making decisions without an expensive and labor-intensive assessment of the environmental impact. An experience of Canada and other northern countries on creating prerequisites for sustainable development of IMN places of residence, based on the principle of parity, is extremely useful for Russia at present. # 1453 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nikolai G. Shishatsky. Indigenous Minorities of the North as a Factor of Preservation and Sustainable Development… The following statements and principles of sustainable development of IMN and their living areas in the North can be defined on the basis of the positive achievements of this experience: 1. Indigenous peoples of the North, Siberia and Far East of Russia should get prepared for creation of a stable, harmonious system of relations with the state and nonindigenous population, which would be aimed at preservation of their originality, culture and traditional economic activity, economic independence and nature environment. The most promising is the way of parity and reasonable compromise with the state. This way is possible only provided both Parties are tend to the shared goal – to ensure a sustainable development of the region, where indigenous peoples live. 2. The main problems of the economics of the North and life activity of its people, preservation of ecological potential and saving the last in the world reserve of free territories should be solved from positions of national strategy of Russia. Much will depend on the success of macroeconomic policy, which stimulate the demand for the products of leading branches of northern economy and for exploration, transport loading, capital construction. The most important is reduction credits costs and regulation of transport tariffs for the purpose to support sustainable economic relations with hinterlands. 3. In perspective, industrial development of the North should be based on the recognition of indigenous people by their partners during the development, supported by implementation of extensive rights of indigenous people to lands, resources and self-government. The basis of a partnership is a formation of clear rights of IMN to the land, resources and self-government. Elaboration of agreements with the peoples of the North is a tool for reinstatement of true relations, reduction of information uncertainty over ownership and management of land and resources. Integrated policy is required, which would initiate an economic activity of indigenous people, their aspiration for changes and desire to work for the sake of changes. Fundamentals of such policy are usually expressed in a concept of partner relations of the state, business and non-indigenous majority of population with the peoples of the North. 4. To turn to the rule the principles of civilized relations, partnership and provision of citizen`s rights in protection of original environment and traditional way of life of small ethnic indigenous communities and local people, federal regulation in this field is required. Federal laws should clearly describe the obligations of business and state against indigenous minorities, especially when resources are developed and energetic facilities constructed in the areas of traditional residence and nature management of these people. Federal legislation should also describe the mechanism of providing rights to ethnic minorities to protect their native place of residence and traditional way of life according to the Constitution of the Russian Federation. This mechanism must include the following: – scientific investigation of basic characteristics of traditional way of life and native place of residence of smaller peoples and ethnic communities, located in the area of existing or projected economic activity; – Determination of possible negative effects of such impact; – Development of measures to reduce and prevent negative effects; – Assessment of impact during the project implementation and elaboration of correcting measures to prevent negative influence of this activity on traditional way of life and original environment of indigenous and local population. # 1454 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nikolai G. Shishatsky. Indigenous Minorities of the North as a Factor of Preservation and Sustainable Development… 5. Creation of territories of traditional nature management (hereinafter, TTNM) under the conditions of expanding intensive exploit of North resources is the only possible way to protect IMN. The main idea of TTNM includes : – Creation of optimal conditions for life activity and sustainable ethnic and demographical development of indigenous ethnic minorities; – Protection of socio-economic and legal interests of indigenous peoples; – Restoration of traditional economic activity of IMN; – Protection of the of natural resource potential of IMN living areas; – The elimination of existing and prevention of possible conflicts. Existing legal problems on the implementation of TTNM concept require development and adoption of «Regulations on establishment and application of TTNM”, which would include criteria for determining optimal sizes and principles of identifying functional areas and their economic activity; the procedure for non-traditional activities, management pattern, protection and control of applying TTNM. In order to achieve the specific results in this field it is necessary to address the following tasks : – to elaborate clear criteria for determination of the required size of the projected territory and its location; – to develop economic concept and program for development of traditional industries, based on the development of existing economic units within the particular territory and reconstruction of its lost components. The main goal of the program is to create due conditions for maximal employment of indigenous people, ecological safety, and sustainable social and economic development; – to develop particular concepts and programs for sustainable ethnodemographic, cultural and environmental development of autochthonic ethnic groups, aimed at the reconstruction of the existing system of marriage ties, provision of medical care; restoration of culture and spiritual traditions and language; – to develop ecological concept and program of utilization resources of the given territory, to provide their relations with the existing environmental and legislation system; – to develop a legislation basis supporting the status and regulating character of using the given territories References 1. Materials of the Conference on ratification RFILO Convention N 169 as of May 27, 1993 (1993) [Materialy soveshchania po ratifikatzii RF Konventsii MOT N 169 ot 27 maya 1993] // http:// www.businesspravo.ru/docum/documshow_documid_38024.html 2. Joint Management in the Arctic: examples of Canada, Alyaska and Scandinavia (2008) [Sovmestnoye upravleniie v Arktike: primery Kanady,Alyaski i Skandinavskikh stran]. Мoscow. 3. Shishatsky N.G., Kirko V.I , Keush A.V. (2012). Social-economic problems of creating territories of traditional nature management//Arctic and the North [Socialno-economicheskie problemy sozdaniya territorii traditsionnogo prirodopolsovanya//Artika i Sever]. № 7. Pp. 178-185. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nikolai G. Shishatsky. Indigenous Minorities of the North as a Factor of Preservation and Sustainable Development… Коренные малочисленные народы Севера как фактор сохранения и устойчивого развития северных территорий Н.Г. Шишацкий Институт экономики и организации промышленного производства СО РАН Россия, 660036, Красноярск, Академгородок, 50 В статье в обобщенном виде представлены основные проблемы и тенденции адаптации коренных малочисленных народов Севера (КМНС) к новым условиям социально-экономического развития России, проанализированы особенности их политико-правового положения. Современная эволюция коренных малочисленных народов Севера основывается на сочетании элементов традиционности и инновационности. Это обусловливает необходимость использования институционально-эволюционного подхода при исследовании проблем устойчивого развития КМНС. Данный подход позволяет выявить место неформальных правил в жизнедеятельности КМНС и показать особенности становления формальных правил. Принятые в настоящее время многочисленные законодательные акты (формальные правила) федерального и регионального уровня, имеющие прямое или косвенное отношение к КМНС, носят во многом декларативный характер из-за отсутствия действенных механизмов их реализации. Разработка таких механизмов является настоятельной теоретической и практической задачей, решение которой должно учитывать эволюцию форм собственности отраслей традиционного хозяйствования и причины натурализации традиционного уклада КМНС. Ключевые слова: коренные малочисленные народы Севера, устойчивое развитие, правовой статус, соуправление ресурсами, территории традиционного природопользования. Работа выполнена в рамках исследований, финансируемых Красноярским краевым фондом поддержки научной и научно-технической деятельности, а также в рамках тематического плана СФУ по заданию Министерства образования и науки Российской Федерации. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 9 (2014 7) 1457-1470 ~~~ УДК 316.4:316.7 Scenario of the Future of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. Foresight Research Evgeniya I. Mikhailovaa, Alla V. Laptevab and Valery S. Efimovb* a North-Eastern Federal University in Yakutsk 58 Belinskogo Str., Yakutsk, 677027, Russia b Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia Received 03.06.2014, received in revised form 21.07.2014, accepted 28.08.2014 The results of Foresight research, and namely presenting scenarios of the future of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic, its indigenous peoples, are introduced. Both envisaging further development and realistic images of the republic’s future, suggested by the experts, are discussed. A field of scenarios of the future of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic till 2050 is presented, scenario conditions and factors being viewed. A baseline scenario of the formation of multi-structure economies and society, blending traditional, developed industrial and post-industrial (cognitive) structures, is described. Within the frame of a baseline scenario reproduction of the republic’s indigenous peoples’ identity, culture and languages will be provided by special cultural policy, cultural and educational practices. Scenarios which are alternative to a baseline one are elaborated. These are “corporate colonization”, “demographic and cultural dissipation”, “temptation of a consumption society”, “cultural break-through”. The opportunities of “discovering the North” (analogous to the “discovery of the east” in the XX century) for the whole mankind are discussed. The conditions for this might be the following ones: accumulation of the indigenous peoples’ cultural heritage on the basis of use of modern informational technologies; consolidation of northern peoples and shifting their culture from the level of local ethnic cultures to the level of “northern civilization” of a special type. The North-Eastern Federal University should play its special role of a strategic subject, organizing the development and implementation of new cultural, educational, medical practices, necessary cultural policy. Keywords: research of the future, foresight, the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic, scenarios of the future, preservation of the indigenous peoples’ identity, languages and cultures. Introduction The article presents the results of Foresight research of the future of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic, a joint project of the specialists of North-Eastern and Siberian federal universities1. It discusses a field of scenarios, or variants of the republic’s future till 2050. * Foresight was realized in 2010-2013. It comprised a complex of economical, demographic, socio-anthropological research, a large-scale sociological survey of Sakha representatives (the Yakuts) and the republic’s indigenous minorities, and a Delphi survey of the experts on the variants of the republic’s and © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org # 1457 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Evgeniya I. Mikhailovaa, Alla V. Lapteva… Scenario of the Future of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. Foresight Research its peoples’ future. The project’s conception is introduced in Efi mov and Lapteva’s article (2012). Some results of a sociological survey and the forecast for the reproduction of the indigenous peoples’ (those being the Yakuts and the indigenous minorities of the North) languages and culture are presented in Efi mov and Lapteva’s publications (2014а; 2014b). Some results of a Delphi survey of the experts are presented in the articles by Borisova et al. (2013а; 2013b). The present article dwells upon a field of scenarios of the future and a baseline scenario (Re. to: UNIDO Technology Foresight Manual (2005а; 2005b) about the methods of elaborating scenarios within a Foresight frame). Unlike classical elaboration of a scenario its Foresight elaboration regards a baseline scenario to be a scenario of “the desired future” but not of a “middle” variant of a scenario object (Pereslegin 2009, 64-80). At that other (alternative) scenarios are viewed as risks of a baseline scenario. Scenarios of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic’s future were elaborated the following way. The specialists carried out a survey of analytical reports on the most significant tendencies in economical development, demographic and socio-cultural processes on a global scale (40 for the Next 40; Mapping the Global Future 2004; Foresight 2020 Economic, industry and corporate trends 2006; Global Trends 2025: A Transformed World 2008; World Development Report 2009; World Development Report 2010; The World in 2050: The Accelerating Shift of Global Economic Power: Challenges and Opportunities 2011; Global Trends 2030: Alternative Worlds 2012; Manyika J. et al. 2013; etc.), singled out “mega-trends” which set an external context and boundaries of possible future of the regions of Russia’s north-east. The forecasts and programme documents of the Russian Federation, concerning the future of the country’s north-eastern regions were also studied (The forecast for a long-term socio-economical development of the Russian Federation up to 2030; The state programme of the development of the Far East and Baikal region up to 2025, 2013; etc.); scientific literature about ethnosocial processes and prospects of cultural policy were analyzed (Popkov 2012; Lashov 2013; etc.). The variants of the republic’s development with reference to megatrends and internal processes were discussed with the experts in the course of interviews and seminars. The experts suggested hypothetic scenario variants of the future both taken in general and in certain spheres (economy, demography, the indigenous peoples’ culture and languages), the variants being included into the list of a Delphi-survey. Then they carried out a survey, getting 1800 experts (scientists, representatives of government authorities, educational, cultural and medical establishments, public organizations, local communities) involved. The experts assessed probability (or realness), advisability (or prospectivity) of various variants of the future, their possible influence on the fortunes of the republic’s indigenous minorities. The analysis of the survey data made it possible to distinguish the most important scenarios, estimated as medium- and highly probabilistic and potentially significant regarding the indigenous minorities’ future. The images of the future were elaborated and a field of possible scenarios of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic’s future was formed on the basis of these results. Images of the future Analysis of processes and various subject’s intentions (desires, plans) made it possible to outline four variants of the Sakha (Yakutia) # 1458 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Evgeniya I. Mikhailovaa, Alla V. Lapteva… Scenario of the Future of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. Foresight Research Republic’s long-term future. Each image of the future is presented in its metaphoric nomination, key statements (what will be happening) and “musts” (what must be done to achieve such a future). As the most fundamental changes in the indigenous peoples’ life are closely connected with the change of their life and activity, it is a certain socio-economical way of life (which should be either preserved or re-cultivated) that lies in the basis of each image of the future. Yakutia is a virgin land The indigenous peoples’ harmonious, selfvalued life based on traditional economy and use of modern technical means (means of transport, communication, manufacture and private life). The Yakuts and indigenous minorities of the North must re-establish traditional economy and mode of life on the whole; minimize other cultures’ influence. The number of rural population must grow. Industrial, service, cognitive sectors must develop like sectors of employment of the representatives of other, nonindigenous peoples. Industry development must be localized territorially by means of norms and bans, limiting the activity of extracting companies and their influence on surrounding territories; labour migration to the areas of the indigenous peoples’ residence should be limited. Industry development is allowed only to the extent which is necessary as a source of revenue to the republic’s budget. A flow of rent payments (due to taxation, structure of the republic’s budget, etc.) from industrial, service, and cognitive sectors should be secured to finance the indigenous peoples’ social support. Industrial Yakutia: development of the indigenous peoples on the path of an industrial way of life The Yakuts and indigenous peoples of the North must become familiar with an industrial way of life (in which the main mass of surplus value is created), and namely to work at factories and plants, live in cities and urban settlements. The representatives of the indigenous peoples must be trained to become engineers, qualified workers, and specialists for an industrial sector. The companies must be given quotas of working places for the representatives of the indigenous peoples at all levels: from workers to executive staff and top-managers. Active investment policy (involvement of Russian and foreign investors for infrastructure and industry development; development of the system of legal norms, ensuring industrial development in compliance with ecological demands and goals to preserve the indigenous peoples’ residential territories and economy) is necessary. Post-industrial Yakutia in its service way of life: development of the indigenous peoples on the path of a service way of life The Yakuts and indigenous peoples of the North must become familiar with life and activity in service way of life, and namely to concentrate in Yakutsk, a capital city, and large cities, be engaged in service sphere, education and public health service, mass media, state and municipal administration. It is necessary to expand service sector and improve the quality on account of use of modern technologies, develop international cultural and extreme tourism, economical and cultural cooperation with Asian peoples and circumpolar territories. Involvement of the representatives of the indigenous peoples in industrial structures should be avoided as it is destructive for their way of life, social structures, and mentality. The republic’s industry should develop on the basis of use of non-indigenous peoples’ labour resources. # 1459 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Evgeniya I. Mikhailovaa, Alla V. Lapteva… Scenario of the Future of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. Foresight Research Post-industrial Yakutia in its cognitive way of life (economy of knowledge): development of the indigenous peoples on the path of a cognitive way of life The Yakuts and indigenous peoples of the North must adjust their life and activity to a cognitive mode of life, and namely to concentrate in Yakutsk, a northern megalopolis, be engaged in education and science, innovation business, sector of finance, administration, creative industries, etc. A cluster of innovative-and-technological and cultural types of activity must be developed by the North-Eastern Federal University. The university must integrate into international research networks, initiate projects significant at the global level for developing arctic territories, preservation and development of the indigenous peoples of the North. The republic must become one of political, economical and cultural leaders of circumpolar civilization, an active international player in the sphere of legal control of economical development of the Arctic. Expert estimation of the variants of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic’s future A Delphi-survey made it possible to assess prospectivity and realness of the suggested images of the future. The variants “Post-industrial Yakutia in its cognitive way of life” and “Yakutia is a virgin land” were defined by the experts as the most promising ones in the long-term future. At that “Yakutia is a virgin land” variant is regarded as the least realistic of all suggested. As for “Post-industrial Yakutia in its cognitive way of life” variant, it was viewed as rather realistic. “Industrial Yakutia” is considered as having prospects and realistic to a moderate extent. “Post-industrial Yakutia in its service way of life” is regarded as realistic but least promising of all taken into consideration. Thus, “Post-industrial Yakutia in its cognitive way of life” is considered to be a variant of the future till 2050, combining prospectivity and realness. Different age groups of experts differently assess the variants of the future. Young experts (at the age up to 29) evidently prefer “Postindustrial Yakutia in its cognitive way of life” future. Experts at the age between 30-49 consider “Industrial Yakutia” and “Yakutia is a virgin land” variants to be rather prospective. From the point of view of the experts over 50, “Yakutia is a virgin land” is viewed as the most promising variant. However, it is assessed as low-realistic. Thus, there are two groups in Yakut society that direct their attention towards different variants of the future: some of them see the perspective in introducing Yakutia to post-industrial, cognitive society; others – in restoration and preservation of traditional manufacture and way of life. The conclusion that might be drawn is that Yakutia’s future will be determined by two key vectors of development. These are “Industrial Yakutia” and “Post-industrial Yakutia in its cognitive way of life”. However, there are social groups in Yakutia that consider the idea of “a virgin land” to be important. The strategy of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic’s development must take its citizens’ system of values into consideration and combine industrial and post-industrial (cognitive) development with the search for various forms of “being virgin” for their local realization. 3. A scenario field of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic’s future Variability of the future of Yakutia and people, residing here, is a result of superimposition of external factors and external subjects’ actions, on the one hand, and internal processes and internal subjects’ activity, on the other hand. Global factors, or key constants, which are determined by objectively specified global trends, can be singled out. Corresponding changes will take place with greater probability # 1460 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Evgeniya I. Mikhailovaa, Alla V. Lapteva… Scenario of the Future of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. Foresight Research SCENARIO FIELD AND MAIN FACTORS Global factors as key constants Variable factors as conditions for development World economy growth Diversification and growth of Russian economy New federalism, strengthening the regions Raising the subjectness of the Sakha Republic Scenario “CULTURAL Demand for natural resources BREAKTHROUGH” Baseline scenario Urbanization (growth of cities and population number) “Yakutia is forever” Scenario “TEMPTATION OF A CONSUMPTION SOCIETY” Scenario “CORPORATE COLONIZATION” Informatization of life and activity World economy stagnation Russian economy stagnation Unitary or corporate state Scenario “DEMOGRAPHIC AND CULTURAL DISSIPATION” Loss of the Sakha Republic’s subjectness Variable factors as conditions for degradation Fig. 1. A field of scenarios of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic’s future: key factors, basic and alternative scenarios at practically any combinations of external and internal factors, which are regarded as specified scenario conditions. There is also a variable part of scenario conditions, which is determined by peculiar features of the world economy development, economical and political situation in Russia, activity and inactivity of cultural and political elite of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. These factors can acquire different, even opposite meanings. They can create conditions for Yakutia’s development or conditions under which the development processes will be blocked and degradation processes will be possible. Global factors as key constants • Demand for natural resources in the world markets. The constant is availability of the demand. At that different dynamics is possible. These are increase or decrease. However, drastic collapsing demand for oil, gas, coal, metals, wood, fertilizers, etc. is almost impossible in prospect of the nearest decades. Demand for natural resources from the Asian-Pacific region countries will be a powerful driver for Yakutia’s socio-economical development. • Urbanization, growth of cities and number of townspeople. There will be an intensive growth of cities in the countries of Asia and Africa with predominantly rural population. At that styles of life, consumption formats, migration dynamics will change. This will become a powerful driver for global changes. The growth of number of townspeople will also be in progress. Almost 70% of the representatives of the indigenous peoples, born in 2021-2030, will be townspeople (Efimov, Lapteva, 2014a). • Informatization of life and activity. Within the period till 2050 all the regions of the world will be fully provided with cellular communications and Internet. Billions of people # 1461 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Evgeniya I. Mikhailovaa, Alla V. Lapteva… Scenario of the Future of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. Foresight Research will join a global informational flow. This will be accompanied by unification and standardization of cultural codes and communicating languages. Global informational field will cause threats and challenges for the existence of culture and languages of the indigenous peoples of the North. Even at present in the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic there are 132 sim-cards for 100 persons; 99,8% of the residents watch TV programmes; 34% of flats and houses have Internet providers (Re. to: Sviaz’ v Rossii – 2010). Within the period till 2050 involvement into informational flows will be almost complete. Variable factors as conditions for development or degradation. World economy dynamics (limiting variants): • either continuation of world economy growth and globalization, and namely expansion of globally distributed production systems, markets of commodity and services, capitals and labour; involvement of new territories in worldwide production and consumption processes; • or world economy stagnation; economical and political regionalization and fragmentation; protection of the countries’ capital and labour markets; “freeze” on processes of new territories’ development. This dynamics will depend on many factors, including tempos and success of development of production of the sixth technological structure; degree of successfulness of efforts on “reorganization” of the world financial system, lowering of international tension. The size and quality of the Russian economy growth (limiting variants): • either deep structural and technological modernization, formation of diversified structure of economy (including extracting sectors, deep processing, high-technology productions, centres of economy of knowledge); active creation of productions of the 5-6th technological structures; settlement of infrastructural and institutional deficits; high growth rates; • or “sticking” of Russian economy in the situation of “a raw materials donor” for other countries; low growth rates (or sequence of rates of growth and decline) at freeze on the sectoral structure, transformation of infrastructural, institutional and budgetary deficits into chronic ones. Development / closing up of federalism in Russia (limiting variants): • either development of federalism, expansion of the sphere of powers of federation subjects; conversion to a new model of inter-budgetary relations and redistribution of financial resources in favour of regions and municipalities; higher transparency and accountability of power at all levels, lowering of corruptive costs; formation of civil society institutes, implementation of policy of subsidiarity and citizens’ participation in development processes; • or transition from a federal state to actually a unitary one, that is reduction of sphere of federal subjects’ powers, strengthening of powers of federal authorities and intermediate structures (federal districts, for example); redistribution of profits in favour of a federal centre; • or actual transition to a corporate state, transfer of a wide range of powers and resources, concerning the development of Russian regions, corporate establishments, and namely natural monopolies, federal state corporations, # 1462 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Evgeniya I. Mikhailovaa, Alla V. Lapteva… Scenario of the Future of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. Foresight Research Russian and international consortiums, etc.; reduction of powers and resources of both regional and federal authorities. At the level of statements Russia will be called a federal state, but the main control levers and resources will be under the corporate institutes’ control. but not the ethnos for economy”). A cognitive perspective frame presupposes a certain way of the development of industrial types of activity, as well as ecological and cultural ones, providing for the preservation of “virgin” natural and ethnocultural territories. Long-term target goals of a basic scenario 3. “YAKUTIA IS FOREVER” baseline scenario A baseline scenario is a form of integration of acceptable images of the future and the most probable and desirable particular scenarios; their “desirability” means they reflect interests and designated aims of various economical, social and cultural groups in the republic. Elaboration of a baseline scenario presupposes the processes, which are important for realization of business and social activity of various population groups with different values and vital preferences. A limiting frame for a baseline scenario is a frame of a multi-structure society, considering such issues as preservation of the indigenous peoples’ traditional forms of life and activity, development of a full-fledged industrial sector, formation of a significant sector of post-industrial economy, ensuring integration into the world processes of development, and a new quality of life and employment to be important. A baseline scenario “fits” in a global (embracing many countries and regions, including Yakutia) process of “cognitivization” of systems of work and life organization, social institutes and communicative interactions, political institutes and management systems. This process opens a “cognitive perspective” (Efimov, Lapteva, 2013) of human civilization development: formation of post-industrial structure with a focus on its cognitive components and transition to “a clever society” with its characteristic “economy of welfare” paradigm (“economy for the ethnos In medium-term perspective (till 2030) a guiding line is considered to be an “industrial Yakutia” image of the future. It implies a faster development of an industrial sector of economy, transport and energy infrastructure, expansion of extracting industry sector. A service sector of economy must develop. Education and medical modernization is necessary. At the same time the problems of preservation, ecological protection and provision of the necessary facilities on the indigenous peoples’ residential territories within the frames of a traditional way of life and traditional types of management. The image of the future in long-term perspective (till 2050) is “multi-structure Yakytia”. It comprises 1) territories of the indigenous peoples’ residence with necessary facilities within the frames of a traditional way of life and management; 2) a sector of industrial economy, including production, deep processing of natural resources and enterprises of a service type for resource-producing production; 3) a developed sector of post-industrial economy. On the whole reality of the republic’s indigenous peoples must become multi-structure, including a traditional way of life and elements of industrial and post-industrial (cognitive) ways of life, which should be adopted. Target goals of a baseline scenario for longterm perspective (till 2050) are the following ones: • the Yakuts and indigenous peoples of the North must adjust the life and activity # 1463 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Evgeniya I. Mikhailovaa, Alla V. Lapteva… Scenario of the Future of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. Foresight Research to a cognitive mode of life, and namely to concentrate in Yakutsk, a northern megalopolis, be engaged in education and science, innovation business, sector of finance, administration, creative industries, etc.; • a cluster of innovative-and-technological and cultural types of activity must be developed by the North-Eastern Federal University within the frames of a strategic partnership with large companies, bodies of power and foreign partners. The university must integrate into international research networks, initiate projects significant at the global level for developing arctic territories, preservation and development of the indigenous peoples of the North; • the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic must become one of political, economical and cultural leaders of circumpolar civilization, an active international player in the sphere of legal control of economical development of the Arctic; • certain residential territories of the indigenous peoples of the North must be kept in a “virgin” state – industrial economic activities should be limited there; this will make it possible for the groups, focusing on “Yakutia is a virgin land” image of the future, to realize their life values and ideals; it will be an extra “supporting point” for preservation of the indigenous peoples’ culture and languages. Components of a baseline scenario, referring to different spheres (development of economy and infrastructures, demographic and migration processes, population’s health, reproduction of the indigenous peoples’ identity, culture and languages), are shown schematically (Fig. 2). Reproduction of the indigenous peoples’ identity, culture and languages within the frames of a basic scenario A baseline scenario implies the possibility to stop the processes of “blurring” the indigenous peoples’ identity, culture and languages due to a special cultural policy, cultural and educational practices (decline in the number of people who know the indigenous peoples’ native languages, reduction of the interest to a native language and national culture among the youth, identity transformation). At the same time positive tendencies contributing to culture preservation and development should be supported. These are regeneration of culture in its spiritual, psychological and “material” manifestations, strengthening of national identity and selfconsciousness, establishment of new institutes and instruments of cultural policy, use of modern informational environments and technologies for reproduction of identity, cultures and languages. It’s important to take into account that, according to the experts’ assessment, there is a short period (till 2020) for the possibilities to develop new cultural and educational practices. If positive tendencies are not taken up within this period, an existing “wave” of regeneration of national culture will “abate” in medium- and especially long-term perspective. Important elements of a baseline scenario: • initiation of interuniversity research cooperation on the basis of the NorthEastern Federal University which will make it possible to determine a “cultural and value” nucleus of the Yakut people, form a concept of a new anthropotype of “the Man of the North”; the results must become the basis for the development of cultural policy, new cultural and # 1464 # Support of traditional economy Popularization The youth’s of family healthy way of values life DEMOGRAPHIC POLICY x Development of extracting productions – scale development x Formation of service sector business for support of “raw materials projects” x Attracting the indigenous population to new working places Support of sectors of the economy of knowledge NEFU is an R&D centre for new technical, educational and cultural practices CULTURAL POLICY x The indigenous peoples’ demographic welfare – long life-time, low mortality at the working age x Formation of multicultural identity – the Yakuts and the indigenous minorities of the North know three languages (native, Russian, foreign), have a complicated identity – ethnical, civil, civilizational Formation of regional and international social alliances Maintenance of multicultural environment Fig. 2. Components of a baseline scenario of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic’s development x Integration of cultures – formation of multicultural environment, including the indigenous peoples’ languages and culture, the Russian language and culture, the English language and the world culture Introduction to the system of international legal norms. Development of the system of these norms Culture of the peoples of the North in cyberspace Establishment and support of new institutes – educational, media, social ones Components of policy Processes as scenario components 2050 x Development of high-technology productions with high extra costs x Formation of sectors of the economy of knowledge – development, engineering services for geological prospecting, extraction, construction in conditions of the North, etc. x Keeping the educated Yakut youth – attractive working places, accommodation, developed social and cultural infrastructure x Attraction of labour migrants and providing them with necessary facilities x Creation of new instruments of cultural policy x Use of ICT, virtual settings for preserving the indigenous peoples’ languages and culture x Wide use of the indigenous peoples’ languages in educational and cultural practices x Creation and maintenance of conservation ethnocultural territories THE INDIGENOUS PEOPLES’ CULTURE AND LANGUAGES Cluster policy 2030 NEW POSITIONING AND GROWTH ON NEW BASES: x Development of processing and manufacturing productions x Manufacture of products, goods from unique local raw materials x “Production of beauty items” (lapidary, jewelry industries) x Development of cultural and intellectual services Industrial policy – creation of diversified industry ECONOMIC POLICY Practices of support Support of families of the adults’ health with children. Payment of maternal labour x Transition to an urban pattern of family – families having few / no children, decline of birth Improvement of child x Preservation of the indigenous population number due to a special demographic policy mortality x Demographic growth of the indigenous peoples due to high birthrate DEMOGRAPHY, MIGRATIONS 2020 Policy of diversification of the “pool” of partners (Russian and foreign) x Development of extracting productions – point wise (camps, imported working force) x Attraction of investments x Transport and energy infrastructure formation x Expansion of a services sector for population x Modernization of a budgetary sector (public health, education) x Rise in traditional economy’s profitability Private-state partnership. Investment policy “Rules of the game” for cooperation ECONOMY Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Evgeniya I. Mikhailovaa, Alla V. Lapteva… Scenario of the Future of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. Foresight Research • • • • • educational practices, establishment of new institutes ensuring reproduction of identity, culture and languages of the indigenous peoples of Yakutia; establishment of new institutes and creation of new instruments of cultural policy (educational, cultural, media, social), focused on the reproduction of identity, culture and languages of the indigenous peoples of Yakutia; active use of modern information-andcommunication technologies, virtual settings; growth of accessibility and popularity of the indigenous peoples’ cultural heritage and languages on the Internet; formation and preservation of virgin ethno-cultural territories, the places of settlement of the indigenous peoples of the North, where industrial production activity should be limited, high living standards should be provided, conditions to support the most authentic forms of traditional economic activities and way of life in general should be created; formation of multicultural identity when the Yakuts and the representatives of the indigenous minorities of the North know three languages (native, Russian, foreign) and have a complicated identity (ethnic, civil (Russian), civilizational (common to mankind); formation of a sustainable multicultural environment in which the indigenous peoples’ culture and languages are preserved and occupy their special place; the Russian language and culture as a communicating language of the Russian peoples and culture of professionals; the English language as a language of intercultural communication. 4. Alternative scenarios Alternative scenarios are variants of the future which can be realized partially or fully under certain external and internal factors. Alternative scenarios are less probable, but consequences of their realization can be very significant. These scenarios are realized in the situation when a baseline scenario is “blocked”. Alternative scenarios are regarded as risks in respect of a baseline scenario. In the course of expert discussions the four alternative scenarios, described below, are distinguished. “Corporate colonization” alternative scenario Within the frames of this scenario large corporations, having the largest investment resources and a high potential of lobbying the decisions, which are necessary for them, in state and international structures, are key economical and political subjects in the world and in Russia. These corporations become new subjects of colonial policy and can extract natural resources on the northern territories without taking the indigenous peoples’ interests into consideration. In Russia the variant of corporate colonization can be strengthened by merging of state and corporate structures, limitation of the regions’ rights and possibilities, pursuing independent socio-economical and cultural policy. Actions of corporate structures – new colonizers – are focused on a faster development (extraction, transportation, sales) of natural resources. At that minimization of tax payments to the republic’s budget and saving of expenses on the development of infrastructures are achieved. “Withdrawal of natural rent” results in the decrease in the resources volume, which the republic has for pursuing effective demographic and cultural policy; development of education and medical care; solution of the tasks of the protection of the indigenous peoples. # 1466 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Evgeniya I. Mikhailovaa, Alla V. Lapteva… Scenario of the Future of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. Foresight Research Realization of such a scenario can lead to worsening of ecological problems, complication of interethnic relations, resulting from labour migrants’ attraction without their necessary adaptation and forming-up migration policy; rapid demographic and socio-cultural degradation of the indigenous peoples. “Demographic and cultural dissipation” alternative scenario In this scenario existing negative tendencies, which will lead to the Yakut ethnos’ decline in long-term perspective, gradually become stronger. Without developing strong demographic and cultural policy, realized through new cultural, educational practices, transformation of health system and social support, the following will take place in mediumand long-term perspective: • decline in the indigenous peoples’ number, resulting from 1) a transition to a model of an urban family with a few children, 2) high mortality rate of people at the working age, caused by external (social) reasons, 3) growing migration flow of young people to the regions and countries with higher standards of life; • “dissipation” of languages – from generation to generation fewer and fewer representatives of the indigenous peoples will know native languages, use them as means of communication; • “dissipation” of national culture – loss of the young people’s interest to the national culture, substitution of national culture by mass unified culture; • deformation of identity – entering a foreign environment from childhood will lead to “failures” in the formation of ethno-cultural identity; it will be displaced by other identifications – civil, professional, sub-cultural ones. “Temptation of a consumption society” alternative scenario This scenario implies that Yakutia successfully integrates into global economy in the roles of natural resources and processed production supplier; GDP and the republic’s budgetary income grow, transport and social infrastructure develop; standards and quality of life, the population’s income grow. Free access to global information space via telecommunication, high mobility (visits to other regions and countries in order to tour them, get education, job, etc.) result in assimilation of other cultural values, pictures of the world, behaviour patterns by the Yakuts and the indigenous minorities of the North. This scenario is quite comfortable and promising for a consuming person but it leads to the loss of identity, native languages and cultures as well as to the assimilation of the representatives of the indigenous peoples into a global “consuming society”. Within the period till 2030 the indigenous people’s cultures are placed to the periphery of social and cultural life. They will not be lost only in rural territories, their mediums being people of older generations. Within the period after 2030 the indigenous peoples’ culture and languages will be displaced from their everyday life: only small majority of the representatives of the indigenous peoples will keep their identity, speak and think their native language, turn to their cultural traditions. Cultures of the republic’s indigenous peoples as archaisms are preserved only in museums, libraries and scientific establishments “Cultural break-through” alternative scenario A distinctive feature of this scenario is a faster formation of the system of practices and institutes (educational, cultural, political), necessary for the reproduction of identity, languages and cultures # 1467 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Evgeniya I. Mikhailovaa, Alla V. Lapteva… Scenario of the Future of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. Foresight Research of the Sakha people and the indigenous minorities of the North in the republic. The work, necessary for the formation of cultural and value nucleus of the indigenous peoples who are trying to understand its meaning and forms of existence in modern world, will be completed in a short period of time (one-two decades). Forms and ways of a full-fledged transfer of culture and languages in the riches of their content and their realization in people’s life from generation to generation will be worked out. The forms and ways of “presenting” the culture of the indigenous peoples of Yakutia to the world and other peoples will be found. “Discovery of the North” for the whole mankind will take place. It is analogous to “discovery of the East” in the XX century and the time when the elements of the cultures of peoples of southern and eastern Asia (India, Japan and China in the first place) became popular worldwide (they spread to both the level of pop-culture with its simplified representations of “the east” and the level of real translation of deep civilizational codes). 1 The probable conditions of realization of this scenario are: • the North-Eastern Federal University’s activity aimed at the activization of the republic’s artistic elite, formation and “promotion” of the northern peoples’ culture; • formation of the northern peoples’ international cooperation in order to protect their interests and consolidate their efforts, aimed at accumulation and “crystallization” of cultural heritage – at transfer of the northern peoples’ culture from the level of local ethnic cultures to the level of a special type of northern civilization, circumpolar civilization; • faster realization of a “cognitive” phase transfer by leading countries – to post-industrial / cognitive phase of the development; growth of demand for specific resources for the activities, which are characteristic to a cognitive phase, the resources being sign-symbolic systems, ontologies and types of world-views, lifestyles and ways of being a human, which are kept by various ethnic cultures. The authors express gratitude to the sociologists of the North-Eastern Federal University under the direction of U.S. Borisova, who carried out a field part of the research within the frame of the Delfi-survey of the experts. References 1. Borisova U.S., Popova L.N., Efimov V.S. (2013а). Kriticheskie situatsii budushchego Respubliki Sakha (Iakutiia): rezul’taty Delfi-oprosa [The critical situation of the future of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia): results of a Delphi-survey]. Economic science and humanities, 9 (260), 40-50. 2. Borisova U.S., Popova L.N., Efimov V.S. (2013b). Stsenarnye varianty budushchego Respubliki Sakha (Iakutiia) v sfere ekonomiki: po rezul’tatam Delfi-oprosa [Scenarios for the future of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) in the economy: results of the Delphi-survey]. Sociosphere, 4, 14-23. 3. Efimov V.S., Lapteva A.V. (2012). Forsait Respubliki Sakha (Iakutiia): kontseptsiia i bazovye modeli proekta [Foresight of Sakha republic (Yakutia): concept and basic models of the project]. Vestnik NSUEM, 1, 105-123. 4. Efimov V.S., Lapteva A.V. (2013). Forsait vysshei shkoly Rossii – 2030: bazovyi stsenarii – “konversiia” vysshei shkoly [Russian higher school foresight – 2030: the baseline scenario – higher school “conversion”]. University Management: Practice and Analysis, 3(85), 6-21. 5. Efimov V.S., Lapteva A.V. Budushchee tsirkumpoliarnykh territorii: problemy vosproizvodstva severnykh etnosov [Future of circumpolar territories: reproduction northern ethnoses] (2014а) Macroregion Siberia: problems and prospects, 48-102. doi: 10.12737/1205.3 # 1468 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Evgeniya I. Mikhailovaa, Alla V. Lapteva… Scenario of the Future of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. Foresight Research 6. Efimov V.S., Lapteva A.V. Budushchee korennykh narodov Respubliki Sakha (Iakutiia) (po materialam forsait-issledovaniia) [The future of the indigenous peoples of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutiya) (following a foresight research)]. 55 i vyshe: Mezhdunarodnyi etno-antropologicheskii congress [55 and up: International ethno-anthropological congress]. Novosibirsk, 2014b, pp. 198-224. 7. Foresight 2020 Economic, industry and corporate trends. The Economist Intelligence Unit (2006). 96 p. Available at: http://business.twoday.net/static/foehrenbergkreis/files/20060411_ eiuForesight2020WP.pdf (accessed 15 May 2014) 8. 40 for the Next 40: a sampling of the drivers of change that will shape our world between now and 2050. Toffler Associates. Available at: http://www.toffler.com/docs/40%20for%20the%20Next% 2040%20101011%20FINAL.pdf (accessed 15 May 2014) 9. Global Trends 2025: A Transformed World. National Intelligence Council (2008). 99 p. Available at: http://globaltrends2030.files.wordpress.com/2012/08/global-trends_2025-report.pdf (accessed 15 May 2014) 10. Global Trends 2030: Alternative Worlds: a publication of the National Intelligence Council (2012). 140 p. Available at: http://globaltrends2030.files.wordpress.com/2012/11/global-trends-2030november2012.pdf (accessed 15 May 2014) 11. Lashov B. V. (2013). Northern Ethnic Groups and Traditional Economy. Regional Research of Russia, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 482–485. doi: 10.1134/S2079970513040072 12. Mapping the Global Future. Report of the National Intelligence Council’s 2020 Project National Intelligence Council (2004). Available at: http://www.intelros.ru/pdf/global_trends_ mapping_the_global_future_2020_project.pdf (accessed 15 May 2014) 13. Manyika J., Chui M., Bughin J., Dobbs R., Bisson P., Marrs A. Disruptive technologies: Advances that will transform life, business, and the global economy. McKinsey Global Institute, 2013. 163 p. 14. Pereslegin S.B. Novye karty budushchego, ili Anti-Rend [New maps of the future, or AntiRand]. Moscow, AST MOSKVA; St.-Petersburg, Terra Fantastica, 2009. 701 p. 15. Popkov Iu.V. (2012). Etnosotsial’nye protsessy i etnonatsional’naia politika [Ethnosocial processes and ethnonational policy]. Herald of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 8 (12), 1067-1074. 16. Sviaz’ v Rossii – 2010. Statisticheskii sbornik, Federal’naia Sluzhba Gosudarstvennoi Statistiki (Rosstat) [Communication in Russia – 2010. Statistical collection, Federal State Statistics Service (Rosstat)]. Moscow, Rosstat, 2010. 17. The forecast for a long-term socio-economical development of the Russian Federation up to 2030. Moscow, 2013. 354 p. Available at: http://www.economy.gov.ru/minec/activity/ sections/macro/ prognoz/doc20130325_06 (accessed 15 May 2014) 18. The state programme of the development of the Far East and Baikal region up to 2025, approved by the order of the Russian Federation government No 466-p dated 29.03.2013. Available at: http://base.garant.ru/70351168/ (accessed 15 May 2014) 19. The World in 2050: The accelerating shift of global economic power: challenges and opportunities. PricewaterhouseCoopersLLP, 2011. 25 p. Available at: http://www.pwc.com/en_GX/gx/ world-2050/assets/pwc-world-in-2050-report-january-2013.pdf (accessed 15 May 2014) 20. UNIDO Technology Foresight Manual. Vol. 1. Organization and Methods. Vienna, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, 2005a. 246 p. # 1469 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Evgeniya I. Mikhailovaa, Alla V. Lapteva… Scenario of the Future of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. Foresight Research 21. UNIDO Technology Foresight Manual. Vol. 2. Technology Foresight in Action. Vienna, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, 2005b. 274 p. 22. World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography. Washington: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development; The World Bank, 2009. 383 p. Available at: http://wdronline.worldbank.org/worldbank/a/c.html/world_development_report_2009/abstract/ WB.978-0-8213-7607-2.abstract (accessed 15 May 2014) 23. World Development Report 2010: Development and Climate Change. Washington: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development; The World Bank, 2010. 417 p. Available at: http://wdronline.worldbank.org/worldbank/a/c.html/world_development_report_2010/abstract/ WB.978-0-8213-7987-5.abstract (accessed 15 May 2014). Сценарии будущего Республики Саха (Якутия). Форсайт-исследование Е.И. Михайловаа, А.В. Лаптеваб, В.С. Ефимовб а Северо-Восточный федеральный университет Россия, 677027, Якутск, ул. Белинского, 58 б Сибирский федеральный университет Россия, 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79 Представлены результаты форсайт-исследования – сценирования будущего Республики Саха (Якутия), ее коренных народов. Обсуждаются выделенные экспертами как перспективные и реалистичные образы будущего республики. Представлено поле сценариев будущего Республики Саха (Якутия) в горизонте времени до 2050 г., обсуждаются сценарные условия и факторы. Описан базовый сценарий формирования многоукладных экономики и общества, сочетающих традиционный уклад, развитый индустриальный и постиндустриальный (когнитивный). В рамках базового сценария воспроизводство идентичности, культуры и языков коренных народов республики будет обеспечиваться специальной культурной политикой, культурными и образовательными практиками. Обозначены сценарии, альтернативные базовому: «корпоративная колонизация», «демографическая и культурная диссипация», «соблазн общества потребления», «культурный прорыв». Обсуждаются возможности «открытия Севера» для всего человечества, аналогично тому как в ХХ столетии происходило «открытие Востока». Условиями этого могут стать аккумуляция культурного наследия северных народов на основе использования современных информационных технологий; консолидация северных народов и перевод их культуры с уровня локальных этнических культур на уровень особого рода «северной цивилизации». Особой должна стать роль Северо-Восточного федерального университета как стратегического субъекта, организующего разработку и реализацию новых культурных, образовательных, здравоохранительных практик, необходимой культурной политики. Ключевые слова: исследование будущего, форсайт, Республика Саха (Якутия), сценарии будущего, сохранение идентичности языков и культур коренных народов. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 9 (2014 7) 1471-1493 ~~~ УДК 304.2 Indigenous Peoples as a Research Space of Visual Anthropology Mariya I. Ilbeykina* Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia Received 14.05.2014, received in revised form 04.07.2014, accepted 30.08.2014 The article reviews visual anthropological projects that study culture of indigenous peoples both in foreign and domestic practices. Development of visual anthropology as a separate area of the humanities, from the moment of appearance of the first visual anthropological experiments to the topical research, is considered, the main lines of its development in the context of the indigenous peoples’ visual systems study are specified, i.e. such an ethno-cultural group, which development is not indicated in the finished form, but continues in the process of interaction with a multicultural community. Keywords: visual anthropology, indigenous peoples, visual sociology, “camera-intermediary”, visual systems, contemporary museum practices. Visual anthropology is a method of describing and analyzing the phenomena of culture, founded on photos, video and audio records. Visual anthropology works not only with cultural, but also with social problematics . Visual anthropology that appeared within the frames of cultural anthropology and was actively developed in the West since the 60s of the 20th century and in Russia since the 90s of the 20th century is widely used as a tool for applied research of “the little-known aspects of culture” . Nowadays study of “the little-known aspects of culture” refers to the most accurate, reliable presentation of everyday life not only of the ethnic communities members, but also representatives of regional, age, creative, confessional, professional, marginal and other communities. * S.A. Smirnov writes in detail about the fate of anthropology and its role for the social philosophy of the 20th century, in modern anthropology he simultaneously sees powerful philosophical basis and defi nite application of humanitarian practices designed to create and implement “the projects of man”. Other researchers defi ne anthropology as an instrument of culture transmission from generation to generation, as a communicative network within a particular community (L.S. Klein), as a tool of reduction to a common denominator the dynamic and adaptive approaches (S. Lurie), as well as reflection through the knowledge of other cultures (High Anthropological School, Chisinau). Visual anthropology becomes a mean of immersing into a studied culture and its representation’s research tool in visual © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com # 1471 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Mariya I. Ilbeykina. Indigenous Peoples as a Research Space of Visual Anthropology systems: in the early 20 th century the tendency to the dialogue of visual anthropological communication was supported by M. Mead and G. Bateson, R. Berdvistel, K. Levine and E. Hall. Referring to the experience of visual anthropology research practices related to indigenous peoples, it is necessary to mention A.Baliksi who carries out comparative analysis of video filming, conducted by representatives of indigenous peoples in different countries; V.M. Magidov who acted as a historian-analyst of the domestic projects and worked with such video archives as “Kinoatlas of the USSR”; A.V. Golovnev who emphasized the moment of identity detection in “anthropological cinema” (“Anthropological cinema are films about the peoples and cultures, about religions and rituals, about the owns and the others, about the national character and cultural heritage”), and the moment of self-identification (“This is a cinema research of a man in his self-identity and the sense of self”) ; it is important to note the collective monograph “Culture of Indigenous and SmallNumbered Peoples in the Context of Global Transformations” : the monograph contains extensive material concerning methodology of cultural studies, works with the concept of “ethnicity” and gives many examples of practical researches of indigenous and small peoples’ culture, including work with visuality (visual arts, decorative and applied arts, correlation of verbal and visual concepts). A working definition of “indigenous peoples” that we use was presented by N.P. Koptseva  in the collective monograph “Culture of Indigenous and Small-Numbered Peoples in the Context of Global Transformations” , and reads as follows: “indigenous peoples” means people who “have always been here”, that their roots go far in the past and there is no evidence of any peoples who previously lived here, whose descendants still present in the population. The main feature of the indigenous peoples is their long-term residence in the territories that were forcibly included into the large nation state, their remaining land was often reduced in size, that also reduced their ability to sustain their existence, and they eventually started to be treated as another “minority group” within the large pluralistic society” [57, P.14]. There is another definition that works with the concept of “authenticity”: “... the population is known as “indigenous” (aboriginal) peoples who have some specific rights, as well as national and international protection mechanisms. In Russia, this category of population is defined by law as “indigenous small-numbered peoples”. Their number is about quarter of a million, but it grows as well as the number of applicants to get into this list approved by the government” [92, P.7]. However, in the first mentioned definition it was clearly indicated that specificity of the term “indigenous” is that it has a scientific status (as opposed to “aboriginal peoples”), cultural-anthropological value, it reflects not rigid condition of an ethno-cultural group, but the process of an ethno-cultural group interaction with the so-called “Large (pluralistic) society” [57, ibid.]. This approach is important to us primarily due to the fact that, unlike other existing definitions (, , , ), here the emphasis is laid on the fact of interaction of the multicultural community and local culture. Hence, the subject of interest for this article are projects that are not confined solely on working with the peoples who lived in Siberia before the Russians arrived – Nenets, Selkups, Khanty, Mansi, Siberian Tatars, Chulyms, Kazakhs, but projects working with the phenomenon of community authenticity in general. We are going to consider projects that involve visual component not as an illustration to the basic material, but that, interpreting visual component as varied, fundamentally different from verbal, language of communication (in # 1472 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Mariya I. Ilbeykina. Indigenous Peoples as a Research Space of Visual Anthropology particular, theoretical developments of this ideas belong to M. McLuhan  and D. McDougall , V. Benjamin  and R. Barth ). Visual-anthropological practices of the first half of the 20th century: “indigenous” as the objective of research Visual anthropology appeared over half a century ago within the frames of American cultural anthropology and now it is developing as a scientific discipline, which is an integral part of the cycle of cultural and socio-anthropological sciences. In Russia the phrase “visual anthropology” appeared only in 1987 (Parnu, the International Festival of Visual Anthropology). In the late 80s in Khanty-Mansi Autonomous District a seminar on visual anthropology, led by professor of Anthropology from University of Montreal Asen Balikci, took place and in 1991 in Moscow professors Evgeny Aleksandrov and Leonid Filimonov created the first in Russia Center for Visual Anthropology. Visual anthropology is a modern interdisciplinary field of knowledge that appeared on the basis of socio-philosophical and culturalanthropological studies, it synthesizes visual arts, social cognition and information technologies . In this article we define visual anthropology as a systemized method of research of different cultures’ visuality. Initially, the objectives of visual anthropology include: – conservation of little-known and endangered cultures images, – revealing their diversity and universal essence, – implementation of a dialogue between representatives of the separate worlds (the dialogue of “I am” – “ the Other” level). Since the moment of its origin visual anthropology solved the problems it faced one way or another. Originally, experience of referring to the visual materials was used in anthropology as illustrations to the collected information, where the principle of spectacularity and exoticism of “the other” culture comes to the fore (photographic survey of Torres Strait aborigines by A. Heddon in 1898, photographic fixation in the studies by E.Sh. Curtis, video of Australian Aborigines’ dance by W.B. Spencer in 1901) – Eurocentrism provoked vision of an unknown community’s culture as “wild” and “uncivilized”. The next step was use of visual material as a result of field research, where the principle was accumulation of the received material uninterpretable in the process of fixation (even a researcher might not always understand it). This includes research work experiences with the primitive and indigenous cultures by E.B. Tylor, L.H. Morgan, Ch. Letourneau. In 1922 there was “the quiet revolution” in visual anthropology: American film director and documentary filmmaker Robert Flaherty created a film “Nanook of the North” (Fig.12), thereby opening the perspective of using film-making techniques in science. “Nanook of the North” established the following methods and principles about the culture of “the other” in films: the principle of respect for the hero, awareness and articulation of an unexplored culture dignity that, in comparison with the usual culture, creates new layers of self-analysis of “a Western man”. From a tool of fixation camera becomes an “intermediary” (animism of mechanical means), allowing to turn to cocreation of the film director and the film hero. It is noteworthy that at the same time “Argonauts of the Western Pacific” by B. Malinowski and “The Andaman Islanders” by A.R. RadcliffeBrown, as well as researches by E.E. EvansPritchard that are also based on the principle of immersion into the culture under study and its representation through people’s behavior in real # 1473 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Mariya I. Ilbeykina. Indigenous Peoples as a Research Space of Visual Anthropology Fig. 1. Nanook of the North directed by R_Flaherty 1922 behavior appeared. Naturally, to the full extent, Flaherty’s film cannot be called precisely visualanthropologic, it still has the features of a feature film (casting, scenery creation, neglecting veracity of some ethnographic moments for the sake of entertainment), but thanks to “Nanook of the North” cinema became a research tool. In 193642 M. Mead and G. Bateson used photography as a mean to analyze communication in everyday life on the island of Bali. Margaret Mead established the tradition of analytical ethnographic film, where human behavior is studied on the background of a particular historical setting, taking into account everyday environment with all the accompanying factors (music, rituals, ecology, etc.), i.e. without introducing any artistry. Gradually, due to collaboration with Gregory Bateson, a technical tool – a camera, becomes a tool for establishing connection with representative(s) of another culture, or a partner that decides that to shoot, and this is continuation of the tradition established by R. Flaherty (it is referred to the photoproject by Mead “Balinese Character”, 1942). Mead’s anthropology sets objective to abandon verbality as the only way to deliver information, and in cooperation with G. Bateson she created a film that synchronized sound and action: all the techniques to create greater authenticity of the reconstructed in realtime traditional rite that visualize collective # 1474 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Mariya I. Ilbeykina. Indigenous Peoples as a Research Space of Visual Anthropology Fig. 2. Nanook of the North directed by R_Flaherty 1922 knowledge of the initiation rite that allows to abandon the script (“Trance and Dance in Bali”, shot in 1937, released in 1952 (Fig. 3, 4)) and to continue R. Flaherty’ tradition of a “slightly planned story” are used. Visual representation of the studied material becomes a compulsory part of cultural analysis (rhythm, composition of an event and communication within a community are important), which subsequently gave rise to other sciences (proxemics and kinesics by E. Hall). In Russian ethnography the object of cultural anthropology are peasant societies as well as representatives of different nationalities that inhabited both the Russian Empire and the USSR (here “Collection of the Russian Empire Attractions”, 1903-16 by S.M. Prokudin-Gorsky (Fig. 5), “Geographical Cinema Atlas” (“Cinema Atlas of the USSR”) by D.I. Shcherbakov and “The Sixth Part of the World” by D. Vertov coexist equally). Objective of a created product is displaying of the most important, characteristic and typical, reflecting the image of a region and the true picture of its inhabitants’ life. On the other hand, Russian ethnographic films of the 1900-1950s represented life of indigenous peoples (representatives of various regions of the country) from the position of their backwardness (and a component of the popular scientific ethnographic film – the explanatory inscription – was a direct proof of that); archaic way of life was represented from the certain ideological positions. Starting from the 30s of the 20th century, representatives of cultural anthropology moved from studies of primitive and peasant societies to the study of modern industrial societies (works by D. Vertov “Kino-eye” and “The Man with a Movie Camera”, “The Shanghai Document” by Ya. Blyokh, etc.). A brief overview of visual-anthropological practices of the first half of the 20th century, focused on work with “the other” in relation to a researcher, makes it possible to draw the following conclusions: – since its origin, visual anthropology is understood as an independent scientific discipline and, at the same time, as a special area of humanitarian practice. The benchmark # 1475 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Fig. 3. Trance and Dance in Bali M_ Mead 1952 Fig. 4. Trance and Dance in Bali M_ Mead 1952 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Mariya I. Ilbeykina. Indigenous Peoples as a Research Space of Visual Anthropology Fig. 5. Alim-Khan S. Prokudin-Gorsky 1911 is the idea of creating a product as a result of study: a film is not a goal in itself; it is a mean of further analysis of a phenomenon of interest. An example of this are the early works in the field of visual anthropology by A. Haddon, B. Spencer, R. Flaherty, M. Mead use film footage for the analysis of human behavior. The problem of reality description, perceived as an objective reality and the problem of creation a visual document of confirmation are solved. Indigenous peoples are studied as representatives of a special, another community which exclusiveness determines their special world view. – in creation of any visual anthropological product there is a principle that is, in relation to films, named “observational” films, or an attempt of deep penetration into a different culture and a sympathetic attitude to it. This “outward glance” was developed in the early 20th century by Robert Flaherty who prioritized the principle of responsible attitude towards representatives of the communities that were within the camera coverage. – by the end of the first half of the 20th century the emphasis from the study of “the other” within a state was shifted toward the study of “the other” within a city, within a city dweller and within oneself. Visual-Anthropological Practice of the Second Half of 20th Century: “Indigenous” as a View Aspect So-called “Harvard movement” (the 60s of the 20th century), which originated at the Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology at Harvard University changed attitude to visual anthropology. This school’s approach is characterized by a tendency to abandon the principles of fictional films (with their staging, plot selectiveness and casting), immerse into the atmosphere of a culture under study and show it from the inside (directors-anthropologists John # 1477 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Mariya I. Ilbeykina. Indigenous Peoples as a Research Space of Visual Anthropology Marshall, Robert Gardner, Timothy Ash became the brightest representatives). Visual anthropology is not just the culture of “the other”, it introduces the context of what is happening and provokes a viewer to move to the level of a researcher. An example of this is a work by Timothy Ash and Napoleon Chagnon “The Ax Fight”, 1975 (Fig. 6), where in addition to watching the film it is offered to study a sufficient amount of additional material in the form of text and graphic disclosures made in the format of an electronic presentation. Their approach considerably influenced formation of the French anthropological school: Jean Rouch who started using light portable camera (fulllength films “Chronicle of a Summer”, 1961 and “I, a Negro”, 1958) became one of the ideologists of “verite” (“a new wave”) in cinema, making it possible to shoot real events in a live dialogue of a person who shoots and a person who is being shot. The principle of “a slightly planned plot” is maintained but, the boundaries between a researcher and a researched are erased – a genre of documentary interview allows to synchronize what is happening on the screen and what is happening in the inner world of a man. Categories of real time, real space and reality of an action happening are brought to the foreground. In the mid-80s in the U.S.A. Society of Visual Anthropology is organized (SVA) , its objectives are conducting and curatorial custody of scientific researches in the field of anthropology (photography, cinema, non-camera sources of the culture of dance, gestures, symbolics (verbal, visual, audio, etc.) of different nations of the world). Henceforth the sources for visual-anthropological research are all evidence of culture fixation in the audiovisual form: it is not only gramophone records, but also architecture, religious buildings, rock painting, etc. Jay Ruby , an American anthropologist, professor of Temple University, USA, defines visual anthropology as a subdiscipline of cultural anthropology that aims to study human culture using video and photo shooting in the process of research. Such studies are more focused on the social contexts of images creation and less on a photo as a text. The result of researches exists in the format of ethnographic photography and ethnographic Fig. 6. The Ax Fight Ash_Chagnon 1975 # 1478 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Mariya I. Ilbeykina. Indigenous Peoples as a Research Space of Visual Anthropology films (according to J. Ruby, ethnographic film is a film produced by an anthropologist or someone in collaboration with an anthropologist). In the basis of the reason for visual anthropology existence J. Ruby sees the idea that culture can be directly manifested through the observed forms of its existence, in particular, through the symbols embodied in specific human activities (dances, rituals, a system of gestures formation, etc.). Culture is the sum of “scenarios” in which people are involved, where scenarios imply meanings or texts, i.e. complete and coherent sequence of symbols used by man. Moreover, the source of information about the culture of an object under study can also tell about a researcher (Ruby notes that “over the past decade a social approach to the history of photography started developing, at that, photos [...] tell us something both about the depicted culture and the culture of people who make photos”. Another discovery of visual anthropology of the second half of the 20th century is ability to analyze material embodiment of visual culture of a society under study: this trend was named joint (contact) anthropology and “biodocumentary” films. John Adair’s and Sol Worth’s experiment with Navajo Indians “Through Navajo Eyes” (“Navajos Film Themselves Series”, 1960s (Fig.79)) can be first of all referred to such projects: Navajo Indians got video cameras and recorded exactly what they felt important and deserving attention. An image that has more amplitude than a concept reveals importance of the role of visual perception in the certain communities’ life, that is, within the culture where it was generated and where it functions. Visual anthropology was created for the dialogue of cultures, but it is important to reconsider the position of Eurocentrism. Asen Balikci, professor of anthropology at anthropology department of University of Montreal, focuses his projects on the opportunity to see the culture of the little-known peoples through their eyes (“The Netsilik Eskimo Today”, 1972, “Siberia through Siberians Eyes”, 1992). The aim is to see through the eyes of “the other”, to introduce and explicate another layer of reality perception – imaginative, worthy of existence along with the verbal differences (differences in language, grammar and syntax structures, etc.) The situation of a coup occurs: a look at everyday day of an unknown ”other” happens in in a mode of self-presentation and self-selection of what is important; selection of such momentous events and points is carried out not by a director in cooperation with a representative of another culture, but authentically. Process should follow the path of formation of the necessary points Fig. 7. Through Navajo Eyes Worth_Adair 1966 # 1479 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Mariya I. Ilbeykina. Indigenous Peoples as a Research Space of Visual Anthropology Fig. 8. Through Navajo Eyes Worth_Adair 1966 Fig. 9. Through Navajo Eyes Worth_Adair 1966 of contact of an addressant and an addressee, but not direct reference of one to another. In modern Western science researcher D. Schwartz supports the approach: she carried out photo research work in North American Waukoma farming community. The obtained results are not “objective visual documents” or “photographic truth”, they represent a point of view. D. Schwartz applied the interview method: the old photos of Waukoma physical environment, as well as research images made by her in the modern times were used. The aim of the study was to reveal the range of values carried by the fixed images for different members of society, among which there were representatives of the indigenous population of a region. Visual anthropology has little in common with verbal constructs of the world awareness and a place in it. This idea is supported by an anthropologist and a filmmaker David # 1480 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Mariya I. Ilbeykina. Indigenous Peoples as a Research Space of Visual Anthropology MacDougall  (“there are as many anthropologists as anthropologies”): knowledge of the world through words and through images are two fundamentally different methods. According to McDougall, “written” and “visual” do not speak differently but say different things” (and once again it confi rmed the relevance of S. Worth’s research). Not a text itself and its “objectivity”, but “subjectivity” of a researcher who decrypts this text, comes to the forefront. Visuality allows us to perceive other people’s experiences by involving affective and emotional knowledge. It comes from the field experience and directly embodied in it, reflecting both personal experiences of a field anthropologist and his/her contact with carriers of another culture. By offering to test and experience the relationship and connections between objects, their objective application, subject’s intentions and emotional intensity of what is happening in another culture, visuality expands the boundaries of our comprehension. If at the time of ethnographic films’ origin the basic principle was camera invisibility and “absence” of a person who shoots in what is being shot, since the mid-1960s an author openly positions him/herself in a film. In the case when an author him/herself presents in a shot, he/she has an equal position with the others as a person who acts and reflects in the same environment as the heroes who are being shot (“Chronicle of a Summer” by Jean Rouch, 1961). In the United States in the 90s of the 20th century the issues of author’s reflection were raised. Regardless of shooting methods (observation, participation, reconstruction, induction, etc.), an author tries to uncover and reveal necessity and validity of the method he/she chose/invented for the study. In the 80s there was a tendency to shift interest from an author to a viewer: at that moment meaning was formed not by a party that presented information, but a party that decoded it. Stuart Hall, one of the founders of the Birmingham Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies notes that information, particularly television, is decoded by a viewer according to the two schemes. The first one is “dominant reading” where a text leads a viewer, and everything transmitted by it is not questioned, but quite the opposite, approved and legitimized. For example in the UK TV functions as the primary means of production and distribution of documentary films. In general, in the UK, visual anthropology originated in this way – it was a film “Disappearing World”, shown in 1971 on TV. The film was made by Brian Moser, a geologist from Cambridge, whose experience of work and travel in Latin America became a reason to pay special attention to the situation of indigenous peoples. Under the auspices of Denis Forman – the director of independent Granada Television, “Disappearing World” was released in the series format and caused a massive public outcry. There was an act of representation, which, according to S. Hall generates the common knowledge that constitutes the core of culture. In addition, according to the article by Jay Ruby , visual mass media are increasingly recognized as being important for almost everyone. This area is the most promising in the development of interactive digital ethnography. Digital technologies has radically changed the way it is possible to conduct a research and interact with people – such a communication scale was impossible a decade ago . Films on DVD mediums are more accessible than rare video tapes with ethnographic films; the role of photography is important: the future belongs to of these mediums, it is much more attractive for an ordinary viewer to see the results of a new research using video or photo film, find the website with the possibility of “free surf” of the material. Combination of ethnography, cultural anthropology and art is another popular cultural practice of understanding image of # 1481 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Mariya I. Ilbeykina. Indigenous Peoples as a Research Space of Visual Anthropology the world through art : all kinds of photo exhibitions, ethnographic film festivals, etc. are referred to it. Next, it is necessary to introduce museum component into the context of indigenous visualanthropological projects. A vector “society in a man” determined by visual anthropology makes it possible to work with unusual sources of information (a transition from ethnographic films to the analysis of Internet resources took place), including relevant cultural practices. Relevant cultural practices manifest themselves more intensively in museum activities that become an active space of social communications. Working with mental-historical aspects of social life, a museum, one way or another denotes the boundaries of communication of “I am” – “The Other”. Apart from recording the features of “The Other” social subject’s worldview, visual anthropology records the features of perception of the world of “I am” and allows to manifest various social stereotypes, fix and overcome them, and this fact changes stable social communications where leveling of social values and creation of conditions for a renewed and escalated perception of a value content in a new form could happen . Visual anthropology operates by visual images. An image defines specific character of social communication that is determined by the special qualities of the space where such communication takes place (in this context the social space of museum is considered). The main purpose of museum social space is organization of special cultural practices that help to understand that the values which it collects and stores live and act at the present time. A museum acts as an “accumulator” both of tangible (things-values, museum services) and intangible, symbolic benefits (images, values, myths and symbols). These tangible and intangible benefits make up the content of social values. Historical reconstructions and historical simulations belong to such museum’s practices, assuming knowledge of the past through its modeling in the present time. Ethnic villages also belong to such practices. “Paleo village” (Primorsky Krai) is one of such projects – especially designed space where reconstructed houses are located. Everyday life of ancient tribes from different historical periods is reconstructed. In “Paleo village” there is reconstruction of craft technologies of the ancient tribes of Primorye, as well as educational and interactive theatrical excursion programs for children and youth audiences . A lot of work connected with implementation of innovative outlook at ethnographic material was done by the Krasnoyarsk Museum Centre  and Krasnoyarsk Museum Biennale: for several years museum’s projects that in different ways conceptualize the theme of the cultural heritage of indigenous population in different territories, won Grand Prix (Fig. 10). It is worth to pay attention to Anadyr, the administrative center of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug. In 2005, the city was acknowledged as the most comfortable in Russia, and if we look at the photos , we will see that it is connected not only with exclusive decisions in the field of housing and public utilities. We appeal to urban branch of anthropology : residential architecture of Anadyr (Fig. 11-12) is painted in different bright colours, banners with stylized elements of Chukchi life (shaman’s drum, the polar bear, the reindeer, salmon caviar) are placed on the houses’ walls. The project is named “Chukot Artics”; apart from the visual image, the banner also bears verbal information – names of the images in the indigenous language. Such connection of urban space and anthropological time (synchronous existence of indigenous and non-indigenous population) is considered to be the most successful: there is no harsh and deliberately accentuated demonstration of a certain group (indigenous population), on the # 1482 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Mariya I. Ilbeykina. Indigenous Peoples as a Research Space of Visual Anthropology Fig. 10. Odin’s steel, State Art Museum, Surgut contrary, the fusion of cultural patterns is carried out in the language of different cultures (both verbal and visual, national and global, unique and everyday). A brief overview of visual-anthropological projects devoted to indigenous makes it possible to make the following conclusions: – projects, which are characterized by syncretism, fusion of visual anthropology and other methods for studying the human nature are the most productive nowadays. Media resources (photos, videos and electronic media) are more often used in ethnography as cultural texts and as means of the ethnographic knowledge representation; as well as the contexts of cultural production, social interaction and individual experience, which all by themselves represent the fields of ethnographic fieldwork. Visuals images and technologies today form the areas, methods and media of ethnographic research and representation. Images should not necessarily replace words as the dominant method of research or representation, they should rather be considered as an equally important element of the ethnographic world. Visual images should and can be included into the research when they are needed and contribute to clarifying the research topic. Images should not necessarily be a leading research method, but due to their connections with other sensual, material and discursive elements of the research, brand new, previously ignored aspects may appear; – ethnographic film, the most commonly used format of visual anthropologists’ work with the topic of indigenous, is, on the one hand, a new form of the world representation (since its origin), and on the other – practical product which documents the material that undergoes the most difficult verbal description of fixation (emotions, gestures, dances, etc.); # 1483 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Mariya I. Ilbeykina. Indigenous Peoples as a Research Space of Visual Anthropology Fig. 11. Anadyr, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug Fig. 12. Anadyr, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug – the area that studies the role of visual phenomena in a community’s life as well as every “little-known aspects of culture”, not only from the perspective of visual images presentation, but also from the perspective of studying the specific characteristics of choice of the visualization method, is considered to be prospective. It appears that in anthropological practices sociocultural construction of visual images that form social time and social space are put in the first place; – visual anthropology was initially focused on the topic of meeting the traditional communities and the modern world, civilizational collisions. Today we can say that “indigenous as the goal” changes into the format of “indigenous as a tool”: the culture of “the other” is studied within the culture, through the eyes of a culture bearer. In other words, we are talking about transition of interaction of “a separate cultural group – an industrial society” to interaction of “a particular group – a bearer of another vision – a # 1484 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Mariya I. Ilbeykina. Indigenous Peoples as a Research Space of Visual Anthropology multicultural society”, i.e. in the process of work with the visual systems of the two parties engaged in a dialogue, a “content-context” correlation steps in: a statement which mechanism of action exists under the general laws of communication is formed: addressant – message – addressee, what is reported (represented visually), by whom and to whom. References 1. Aleksandrov E.V. Visual’naia antropologiia – puteshestvie na “mashine vremeni” po chuzhim miram [Visual Anthropology – a Travel to Different Worlds by the “Time Machine”] / E.V. 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Bloomington; London: Indiana University Press, 1988. – Available at: http://www. google.com/url?q=http://isc.temple.edu/TNE/introduction.htm&sa=U&ei=kLZhU5-QEoTqswai6YDg Cg&ved=0CCoQFjAC&sig2=nw53cLtJYPvGA9yXX7v5jg&usg=AFQjCNEFXAHxnJ7WwU1qwX hk_6h2BIlqDA Индигенные народы как исследовательское пространство визуальной антропологии М.И. Ильбейкина Сибирский федеральный университет Россия, 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79 Статья посвящена обзору визуально-антропологических проектов, исследующих культуру индигенных народов как в зарубежных, так и в отечественных практиках. Рассматривается развитие визуальной антропологии как отдельной области гуманитарного знания – с момента появления первых визуально-антропологических опытов до актуальных исследований, обозначаются основные линии ее развития в контексте изучения визуальных систем индигенных народов, т.е. такой этнокультурной группы, чье развитие не обозначается в законченном качестве, а продолжается в процессе взаимодействия с мультикультурным сообществом. Ключевые слова: визуальная антропология, индигенные народы, визуальная социология, «камера-посредник», визуальные системы, современные музейные практики. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 9 (2014 7) 1494-1509 ~~~ УДК 323.2 (=47+57–81) Cultural Policy in Northern Territories: Specifics, Problems and Prospects Vladimir S. Luzan* Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia Received 18.06.2014, received in revised form 07.07.2014, accepted 14.08.2014 This paper attempts to uncover relevant methodological and practical approaches to the implementation of state cultural policy in the Russian Federation, bearing in mind its regional context and a task of preserving original habitat and sustainable socio-cultural development of the indigenous peoples of the North, Siberia and Far East. The author notes that the analysis of contemporary studies in cultural policy and existing practice reveals insufficient attention of scientists to ethno-cultural aspects, characterized by internal contradictions: on the one hand, there is integration into regional and global socio-cultural space, on the other, there is a desire to preserve ethnic and cultural unique identity. In conclusion, the author indicates promising directions of development of regional cultural policy in the northern territories, the implementation of which will help preserve the original habitat of the indigenous peoples and develop their self-identification. Keywords: сulture; indigenous small-numbered peoples; regional cultural policy; self-identification; culture development; culture processes. Introduction Russian society is gradually coming to understanding that the further development of the Russian Federation as one of the leading states and equal member of the world community is possible only provided that one of the priorities of national development is not just saving fundamental Russian culture, but also keeping the cultural diversity of peoples inhabiting Russia, including the indigenous small-numbered peoples of the North, Siberia and Far East. This understanding is due to the fact that culture in its semiotic and symbolic forms preserves, multiplies and translates the * entire collective human experience, created in various fields. In addition, the culture reflects the specifics of a mixture of socio-cultural groups. If people understand this specific feature, this will facilitate greatly the comprehension of state building of a society able to respond to current challenges. In this regard, scientists have to conduct study of state cultural policy in its regional context, since further social and cultural development of the indigenous peoples largely depends on this very kind of domestic policy. However, the internal problems of Russian modernization are exacerbated by the fact that global processes make changes to all the traditional © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org # 1494 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Luzan. Cultural Policy in Northern Territories: Specifics, Problems and Prospects ways of social and individual existence of the indigenous peoples. No other era has not been characterized by such a high social dynamics as the present one. At the same time, the indigenous peoples are in constant interaction with various social groups, classes, and with each other. The indigenous peoples move within geographic space, their migration and assimilation increase. As a result of constant change, both at the global and local levels, there has appeared a particularly acute problem of the preservation of national identity and self-identification of indigenous peoples. Their future depends on success of the process of preserving original habitat of the indigenous peoples. Meanwhile, the indigenous peoples can not lock themselves up into geo-cultural space and are trying to overcome their isolation via engaging in cross-cultural interaction, not only with neighboring Russian regions, but also with foreign states. In this regard, there is a need to create such regional cultural policy that would satisfy the most ethno-cultural needs, and not only of the individual but also of the ethnic group. This policy shall take into account the fact that Russia throughout its history has always been a poly-ethnic state. It is worth emphasizing that in the context of this paper the terms “regional cultural policy” and “cultural policy in the northern territories” are used as synonyms. Conceptual research base. Interdisciplinary study of the problem of cultural policy in the traditional territories of the indigenous peoples’ dwelling causes appeal to scientific papers in several scientific and theoretical directions. In particular, contemporary research practice effectively covers issues of creating cultural policy at the state level. Among the authors there are P.S. Gurevich, V.K. Iegorov, V.J. Kelle, L.N. Kogan, D.S. Likhachev, V.M. Mezhuev, A.K. Uledov, etc. Wide range of issues relating to culture functioning in modern society is illuminated by the authors, who are forming the modern idea of culture as a factor in social and cultural regulation of social life. Some of researchers are M.B. Gnedovskii, N.G. Denisov, B.S. Ierasov, L.G. Ionin, M.S. Kagan, V.A. Kurennyi, B.K. Markov, E.A. Orlova, M. Pakhter, A.J. Flier, N.A. Khrenov, I.G. Iakovenko, etc. The European experience of formation and implementation of culture policies and importance of culture in the regional context are revealed in the works of foreign authors, such as M. Bassan, F. Bianchini, E. Grosjean, M. Dragicevic-Sheshich, M. Pike, J. Tommani, as well as in materials of various state institutions and publications of local authors – S.E. Zuev, O.V. Khlopina, P.G. Shchedrovitskii, etc. At the same time, the analysis of cultural policy research unravels insufficient attention of authors to ethno-cultural aspects, characterized by internal contradictions. On the one hand, these aspects imply integration into the regional and global socio-cultural space, on the other – the desire to preserve ethnic and cultural identity. The study of the problems identified is of importance especially during implementation of state cultural policy in its regional context, as conceptual development of federal cultural policy has virtually ignored spatial factor in culture. This fact creates serious problems for conservation of local ethnic cultures. There is a particularly interesting culture studies’ examination of state cultural policy in Russia, the author of which – S.S. Zagrebin notes that “culture study’s defi nition of cultural policy is somewhat ideal model based on the principle of deep abstraction from the topical historical realities” [Zagrebin, 2008: 54-58]. Applied aspect is limited to “only departmental understanding of culture, when cultural policy # 1495 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Luzan. Cultural Policy in Northern Territories: Specifics, Problems and Prospects is treated as activities of regional culture offices in relation to cultural and art institutions” [Zagrebin, 2008: 56]. Traditionally, the empirical concept of culture in Russia has been associated with the practice of enlightenment (including artistic and artistic-educational activities), as well as with “gathering” and study of historical and cultural materials of folklore and ethnographic character. This, in particular, was described by Iu.V. Osokin, who wrote that such empirical understanding of culture “was reflected in the profile orientation of a number of specialized research, training and cultural institutions. The first developed methodology concerning primarily activities in clubs and libraries, as well as amateur art; the second engaged in training of specialists in the field of cultural, educational and entertaining activities – mainly in librarians and clubs)” [Osokin, 2007: 1072]. Thus, it is possible to fix a gap between the empirical understanding of culture in industrial way and theoretical understanding of culture as the most important sphere of human activity, which aims at creation, transmission and preservation of the ideals having dual economic and spiritual nature. This gap has its own form at the level of real cultural policy when created concepts, strategies , targeted programs, statesupported projects affect only the content that is associated with amateur performances, folklore and ethnographic movements, historical and cultural monuments, artistic and educational events and so on and so forth. As Ie.V. Vinokurova, another researcher of cultural policy making in the northern territories, rightly pointed out, culture studies’ isolation from real cultural processes occur for two main reasons: lack of scientific validity of state cultural policy, objectives of which are formulated very declaratively, and lack of regional application of culture studies in the field of cultural policy, lack of studies able to enrich theoretical science [Vinokurova, 2011: 206]. However, despite the gaps, the relevance of understanding the specifics of state cultural policy is confirmed by the fact that in recent years this subject was described in numerous doctoral research papers. The authors include A.S. Balakshin, P.L. Volk, L.Ie. Vostriakov, Iu.Ie. Ziiatdinov, M.I. Krivosheev, Ie.V. Kuznetsov, N.N. Kurnaia, O.P. Ponomarenko, G.A. Smirnov and others. Stating the problem. One of the fundamental conceptual foundations of state cultural policy in Russia at the present stage, including its regional aspect, is decentralization, which on the one hand makes it possible to implement regional cultural policy in the local context, on the other hand it significantly complicates the formation process of a common cultural space within a particular region and the country as a whole. Absence of ideological constraints have opened up possibilities for increasing the role of the Russian Federation’s regions in the development of the world cultural diversity. Experience of longterm coexistence, conservation and development of the cultural identity of many peoples in Russia has become popular with the world community because of the need of saving cultural diversity. Incidentally, the new content of state cultural policy actualized scientific justification of, on the one hand, the preservation of ethnic and cultural identity of the Russian peoples under influence of globalization processes, on the other hand, the axiological approach to the contribution of ethnic cultures in the global cultural space. In circumstances, where threat of breaking a single cultural space of the Russian Federation is visibly growing, when discrepancy between federal and national-regional aspects of the implementation of state cultural policy arises, it is the regional and local level which is in charge of practical solution of problems of reforming # 1496 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Luzan. Cultural Policy in Northern Territories: Specifics, Problems and Prospects the social sphere and provision of existing social standards. Any region, as a subject of the Russian Federation, is a multipart socio-economic complex, a political formation in which there is a certain coherence and interdependence between production, commercial, social and cultural spheres, between the structures of regional and local authorities. These connections promote the fullest use of natural and productive resources, scientific and cultural potential, and satisfaction of diverse needs. Regional culture is a multi-valued concept. It has a special world and is characterized by solitude, insularity, fixation on everyday life, the desire to preserve a certain degree of immunity to innovation. It is sometimes poorly receptive of innovation, other values, tends to a peculiar refraction of an idea in value system. On the other hand, this is an open culture, reaching outwards to dialogue with other cultures, to a constant increment of value wealth. A look at the possibility of updating Russian culture through values of regional cultures may be accompanied by the fear that for many years the exclusive approach to the regional culture has deprived it of many inherent values. We must not forget that the region can serve as a cultural reservoir of the country, but among other things it can adversely affect the culture. As the G.M. Kazakova says, “regional culture incorporates both ethnic and national dimension. But compared to the “ethnic”, the regional culture has, first, a higher degree of abstraction, since a regional community sometimes represents a mix of ethnic groups. Within the region, as it was already noted, the ethnic groups live in direct contact with each other, acquiring in the process of joint sociocultural adaptation and common economic activities some similarities and symptoms, which often differ notably from those traditionally attributed to them. Culture of ethnic groups is always “supplemented” by such features, which are caused by the specific circumstances of their existence. Regional culture becomes an indicator of ethnically heterogeneous elements, providing within the local area the opportunity of intercultural and interethnic cooperation and also implementing the model of multicultural unity in practice. Secondly, regional culture is different from ethnic in more mobile configuration of cultural properties and characteristics of a particular region. Regional culture changes with every change in conditions of its existence” [Kazakova, 2009: 12]. Structurally, regional culture is complex and polybasic. According to G.M. Kazakova, the fundamental bases of regional culture and, as a consequence, regional cultural policy, are the following [Kazakova, 2009: 12-15]: – generic structure levels (material, spiritual, artistic, folk, professional, traditional, innovative culture, etc.); – subcultures with different criteria (social class, professional, ethnic, national, religious and other); – utilitarian practice sphere; – set of institutional and non-institutional forms of creation, storage and dissemination of cultural values (the first forms include institutions that were designed to implement the spiritual production, spiritual consumption, as well as to manage cultural process, the second forms refer to the consumer behavioral culture of the inhabitants in the region); – levels of culture consumption and art perception. Functionally, regional culture is intended to encode, store and transfer local human experience in all areas of activity done by the population of the regional community. This culture is meant to ensure the reproduction of the cultural life of the region, continuity of the regional cultural process, as well as # 1497 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Luzan. Cultural Policy in Northern Territories: Specifics, Problems and Prospects the completeness of individual experience. Regional culture is polyfunctional. A list of functions includes adaptation, socializing, transformative, educational, informational and communicative, creative, regulatory, artistic, aesthetic, axiological, symbolic and other activities. In the light of regional cultural policy the outlined above specific features are often overlooked, not only due to a lack of conceptual understanding of the culture managers, but also due to the existing legal conditions under which the main purpose of government is to ensure people’s access to cultural institutions of all types. As an example, one may consider the experience of cultural design for original habitat of the indigenous peoples in culture “sector” in Taimyrsky (Dolgano-Nenets), Evenkiysky and Turukhansky Municipal Districts of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. In the structure of the executive power, the majority of the Russian Federation’s regions have special structure divisions for the indigenous peoples’ problems. These divisions coordinate relevant regional programs and issues of socio-economic development of these peoples. However, even if such divisions exist, usually the main authority on culture projects is assigned to specialized bodies in the field of culture. For example, in the Krasnoyarsk Territory such authority is given to the Ministry of Culture of the Krasnoyarsk Territory (hereinafter – the Ministry of Culture). As part of efforts to design and implement culture projects and introduce ethnic cultural indicators of quality of life by the Ministry of Culture has developed Program on realization of main strategies of cultural policy in the Krasnoyarsk Territory for 20092020 (hereinafter referred to as the Program). The Program has been specified for each municipality. During making the Program its creators applied program-target method, aimed at addressing the priorities of culture sector development. These priorities were set by the decree of the Government of Krasnoyarsk Territory of 20.01.2009 № 24-p “On approval of main cultural policy strategy in the Krasnoyarsk Territory for 2009-2020” [Reference legal system “ConsultantPlus”]. The program identified the structuring development blocks of the cultural space of the Krasnoyarsk Territory in the unity of its historical, cultural and socio-economic characteristics elicited by the main strategies for the cultural policy of the Krasnoyarsk Territory for 2009-2020. Implementation of the Program focuses on the following tasks, which are extremely important for designing cultural original habitat of the indigenous peoples [Official Site of the Krasnoyarsk Territory]: • development and introduction of systematic actions positioning the region in Russia and abroad as the region with a high cultural potential; • modernization of material and technical equipment of state regional and municipal culture institutions; • creation of new culture infrastructure objects; • preservation of tangible and intangible cultural heritage and its integration into social and economic development of the region; • development of human resources industry; • increasing accessibility for residents of the region of cultural activities and cultural values; • modernization of providing services in the field of culture, introduction of information technologies into this sphere; • introduction of incentive mechanisms in local government and nonprofit # 1498 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Luzan. Cultural Policy in Northern Territories: Specifics, Problems and Prospects organizations to implement projects in various cultural activities; • development and introduction of a system to identify and support the leaders of the cultural process in the region; • formation of a system of unique recognizable events in the Krasnoyarsk Territory. To understand how to create state mechanisms of cultural design in the original habitat of the indigenous peoples the most appropriate way is to focus on specific program activities on the example of Taimyrsky (DolganoNenets), Evenkiysky, Turukhansky Municipal Districts. The program of implementation in Taimyrsky (Dolgano-Nenets) Municipal District of main cultural policy strategies in the Krasnoyarsk Territory for 2009-2020 was designed to meet the following criteria [Official Site of the Krasnoyarsk Territory]: – Permanent population is 34.1 thousand people as of 01.01.2013. – Number of settlements is 27, including four settlements with a population of less than 70 people. – Network of culture and education institutions in the field of culture and art in Taimyrsky (Dolgano-Nenets) Municipal District includes 26 libraries; 22 Houses of Culture; 4 institutions of additional education of children in the sphere of culture and art; 3 centers of folk art; local culture institution “Cinema and leisure center Arctic”; local culture institution “Cultural and recreation center” in Dikson; vocal and dance ensemble “Chokurkan” in culture department administration in the rural settlement of Khatanga; information centre “Khatanga” in culture department administration in Khatanga. Besides municipal cultural institutions there are the following state regional budgetary culture institutions: “Taimyr House of Folklore” and “Taimyr Regional Museum”. The cultural and educational services in institutions in the field of culture and art, which the regional residents have access to, do not fully conform to the standards recommended by the Federal Government decree of 03.07.1996 № 1063p. In this area there are no intra-settlement cultural institutions. In the district center of Dudinka there is no showroom, in Kayak settlement there is no library. Number of seats in the House of Culture in Tukhard settlement is 53.3 %, in the House of Culture in Nosok settlement is 30.8 % and in the Municipal House of Culture in Dudinka – only 25.4 % of the corresponding standard. Calculation of the financing measures aimed at ensuring the regulatory requirements of the Taimyrsky (Dolgano-Nenets) Municipal District in cultural and art objects shows that by 2020 the total amount of funds raised for the implementation of all planned activities should be 1,146,007.0 thousand rubles. By the way, from the government standpoint it is intended to achieve the following ethnic and cultural indicators of life quality of the indigenous small-numbered peoples: 1) Construction of 6 cultural and leisure institutions in Dudinka, Nosok, Novaia, Potapovo, Tukhard, Khatanga; 2) Construction of a district showroom in Dudinka; 3) Major repairs and reconstruction of 19 cultural and educational institutions; 4) Educating 93 people various specialties in the field of culture for free; 5) As a part of the organization of events contributing to the creation of a unique image of the territory to hold the International Cultural Forum of the indigenous small-numbered peoples every two years. # 1499 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Luzan. Cultural Policy in Northern Territories: Specifics, Problems and Prospects Analysis of existing funding in culture sector in Taimyrsky (Dolgano-Nenets) Municipal District shows that the share of expenditure in culture sector in the budget of the municipality was 334,688.93 thousand rubles in 2011, and in 2012 – 386,653.62 thousand rubles (116% growth) [Culture of the Krasnoyarsk Territory in figures for 2011-2012, 2013]. Actual expenditures in “culture” industry for 2012 exceeded 11,000.0 rubles per 1 inhabitant. The program of implementation in Turukhansky Municipal District of main cultural policy strategies in the Krasnoyarsk Territory for 2009-2020 was designed to meet the following criteria [Official Site of the Krasnoyarsk Territory]: – Permanent population is 17.9 thousand people as of 01.01.2013. – Number of settlements is 34, including 11 settlements with a population of less than 70 people, 4 settlements are not currently inhabited. – Network of culture and education institutions in the field of culture and art include 26 libraries; 20 culture and leisure institutions; 2 museums; 3 institutions of additional education in the field of culture, including 2 children music schools and children art school. The cultural and educational services in institutions in the field of culture and art, which the regional residents have access to, do not fully conform to the standards recommended by the Federal Government decree of 03.07.1996 № 1063p. The area has no organized film showing process. There is no any culture and leisure institution in the village of Staroturukhansk. A building of club in Sovetskaia Rechka settlement does not meet fire safety requirements. Number of seats in the rural House of Culture in Farkovo is 58.6 %, and in the House of Culture and Leisure in Igarka is 0 % of the corresponding standard. Calculation of the financing measures aimed at ensuring the regulatory requirements of the Turukhansky Municipal District in cultural and art objects shows that by 2020 the total amount of funds raised for the implementation of all planned activities should be 563,953.0 thousand rubles. By the way, from the government standpoint it is intended to achieve the following ethnic and cultural indicators of life quality of the indigenous small-numbered peoples: 1) Building culture and leisure 3 institutions in Igarka, Sovetskaia Rechka, Farkovo; 2) Construction of an exhibition hall for Turukhansky Regional Museum; 3) Building a branch of Centralized Information Library System number 11 in Sovetskaia Rechka; 4) Construction of an art school in Igarka; 5) Major repairs and reconstruction of 39 cultural and educational institutions; 6) Educating 40 people various specialties in the field of culture for free; 7) As a part of the organization of events contributing to the creation of a unique image of the territory to hold the ethnographic festival “Astygan kiarenii” (the Kets celebrate) every two years and annual holidays Reindeer Herders Day, River Day, Fisherman Day. Analysis of existing funding in culture sector in Turukhansky Municipal District shows that the share of expenditure in culture sector in the budget of the municipality was 165,786.40 thousand rubles in 2011, and in 2012 –193,096.18 thousand rubles (11 6% growth) [Culture of the Krasnoyarsk Territory in figures for 20112012, 2013]. Actual expenditures in “culture” industry for 2012 exceeded 10,000.0 rubles per 1 inhabitant. The program of implementation in Evenkiysky Municipal District of main cultural policy strategies in the Krasnoyarsk Territory for 2009-2020 was designed to meet the following # 1500 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Luzan. Cultural Policy in Northern Territories: Specifics, Problems and Prospects criteria [Official Site of the Krasnoyarsk Territory]: – Permanent population is 15.9 thousand people as of 01.01.2013. – Number of settlements is 23, including 2 villages with a population of less than 70 people. – Network of institutions of culture and education in the field of culture and arts includes 25 libraries; 20 culture and leisure institutions; 3 children art schools; Evenkiysky Regional Museum with two branches. The cultural and educational services in institutions in the field of culture and art, which the regional residents have access to, do not fully conform to the standards recommended by the Federal Government decree of 03.07.1996 № 1063-p. In this area there are no intra-settlement cultural institutions. In Kuz’movka settlement there is no library, in Oskoba – House of Culture. In the village of Tura, administrative center of Evenkia, there is a regional ethnopedagogical centre of retraining, the purpose of which is to preserve the language and culture of the indigenous population. The center publishes books on the Evenki language, folklore, flora and fauna, sewing beads, traditional musical instruments and other occupations. The main cultural institution engaged in activities to preserve and promote the culture, traditions, crafts and fine arts of the indigenous peoples of the North, their folklore and national holidays is the Centre of Folk Art. But because of the remoteness of the territory the performers face the problem how to organize concerts and tour activities both in the municipality and out of it. Calculation of the financing measures aimed at ensuring the regulatory requirements of the Evenkiysky Municipal District in cultural and art objects shows that by 2020 the total amount of funds raised for the implementation of all planned activities should be 489,063.0 thousand rubles. By the way, from the government standpoint it is intended to achieve the following ethnic and cultural indicators of life quality of the indigenous small-numbered peoples: 1) Construction of 4 culture and leisure institutions in the townships of Kuz’movka, Essey, Kuiumba, Mutorai; 2) Construction of Evenkiysky Regional Museum in Tura; 3) Construction of a rural library in Tutonchany township; 4) Major repairs and reconstruction of 21 cultural and educational institutions; 5) Educating 40 people various specialties in the field of culture for free; 6) As a part of the organization of events contributing to the creation of a unique image of the territory to hold the annual International Forum “Tunguska phenomenon”. Analysis of existing funding in culture sector in Evenkiysky Municipal District shows that the share of expenditure in culture sector in the budget of the municipality was 160,424.60 thousand rubles in 2011, and in 2012 –213,976.64 thousand rubles (133% growth) [Culture of the Krasnoyarsk Territory in figures for 20112012, 2013]. Actual expenditures in “culture” industry for 2012 exceeded 13,000.0 rubles per 1 inhabitant. In general, the total amount of financing required to achieve all stated ethno-cultural indicators of the life quality in the Taimyrsky (Dolgano-Nenets), Evenkiysky and Turukhansky Municipal Districts in the Krasnoyarsk Territory by 2020 is more than 2.2 billion rubles, excluding funding for the ongoing activities of existing culture and education institutions in the field of culture. Conclusion. In the current situation there are such state mechanisms concerning # 1501 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Luzan. Cultural Policy in Northern Territories: Specifics, Problems and Prospects cultural design of the original habitat of the indigenous small-numbered peoples, which are less attuned to the specifics of national culture preservation, but aimed at achieving average for Russia availability in a number of formal attributes (for example, in presence of cultural centers, libraries, seats in the rooms, etc.). Moreover, 100% achievement of these indicators in the case of the indigenous smallnumbered peoples may not always mean their actual cultural development. We can also admit a lack of ethno-cultural indicators of the life quality of the indigenous small-numbered peoples in the legal framework, while there is a large quantity of different economic, social indicators, achievement of which is estimated as the efficiency of public administration. In this respect, we can identify the following areas of regional cultural policy, without which the full development of the indigenous small-numbered peoples can significantly slow down: А) Introduction of a system of ethnological expertise and applied research in the field of cultural design for the original habitat of the indigenous small-numbered peoples; B) Development of special programs to improve self-identification of the indigenous small-numbered peoples via PR-actions, creating a sense of national pride, as well as helping to form an idea of ethnic involvement in multinational space of Russia and the world, perceiving the ethnos as a unique and equal entity; C) Approval by the executive bodies of the Russian Federation of a list of the most necessary cultural and entertaining events, promoting the development of ethnic and cultural indicators of the life quality for the indigenous small-numbered peoples; D) Development of regional programs for the preservation of national indigenous peoples’ languages. It is indispensable to create conditions for the possibility of the national languages’ usage not only in everyday life, but also in public sphere, at conferences, symposia, seminars, etc.; E) Adoption of regional laws relating to the protection and preservation of epic heritage of the indigenous small-numbered peoples; F) Development of a set of regional programs in support of traditional types and forms of artistic creativity for the indigenous small-numbered peoples, namely creation of workshops, art classes, art schools, art studios with special areas and subjects; G) Multilateral agreements between the indigenous small-numbered peoples and already existing scientific innovative centers – universities, laboratories, small businesses in all major development directions, which enlist economy, business, education, science, medicine, art, etc. References 1. Abramova, N.T., Voronin, A.A., Mikhailov, F.T. Samosoznanie i kul’tura [Self-consciousness and culture]. Moscow. Nauka, 2009, 208p. 2. Aleksander, D., Smith, F. (2010). Sil’naia programma v kul’tursotsiologii [Strong program in cultural sociology]. Sotsiologicheskoe obozrenie (Sociological review). Vol. 9, 2, pp. 11-30. 3. Amosov, A.Ie., Koptseva, N.P., Libakova, N.M., Reznikova, K.V., Sertakova, K.V., Pimenova, N.N., Kistova, A.V. et al. Korennye malochislennye narody Severa i Sibiri v usloviiakh global’nykh transformatsii (na primere Krasnoiarskogo Kraia). Chast’ 1. Kontseptual’nye i metologicheskie bazy issledovaniia. Etnokul’turnaia dinamika korennykh malochislennykh nardov Krasnoiarskogo Kraia [The indigenous small-numbered peoples of the North and Siberia under the global transformations (on the basis of the Krasnoyarsk Territory). Part 1. Conceptual and methodological bases of research. # 1502 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Luzan. 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Fundamental’nye problem kul’turologii (Fundamental problems of cultural studies). Vol. 4. M.: Aleteia. Pp. 54-58. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Luzan. Cultural Policy in Northern Territories: Specifics, Problems and Prospects Культурная политика в северных территориях: специфика, проблемы, перспективы В.С. Лузан Сибирский федеральный университет Россия, 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79 В статье предпринята попытка раскрыть актуальные методологические и практические подходы к реализации государственной культурной политики Российской Федерации в ее региональном аспекте в контексте сохранения исконной среды обитания и устойчивого социально-культурного развития коренных малочисленных народов Севера, Сибири и Дальнего Востока. В статье отмечается, что анализ современных исследований культурной политики и существующей практики выявляет недостаточное внимание авторов к ее этнокультурным аспектам, характеризующихся внутренней противоречивостью: с одной стороны, интеграцией в региональное и мировое социально-культурное пространство, с другой – стремлением сохранить этнокультурную самобытность. В заключение автором сформированы перспективные направления развития региональной культурной политики в северных территориях, реализация которых будет способствовать сохранению исконной среды обитания коренных малочисленных народов и развитию их самоидентификации. Ключевые слова: культура, коренные малочисленные народы, региональная культурная политика, самоидентификация, культурное развитие, культурные процессы. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 9 (2014 7) 1510-1520 ~~~ УДК 330.59; 338.24 The Indicators System Formation for Quality of Life Evaluation as the Basis for Sustainable Socio-Economic Development of Indigenous Minorities of the North Elena A. Bryukhanova and Michael V. Kobalinskiy* Krasnoyarsk Branch of the Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering of SB RAS 50 Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk, 660036, Russia Received 04.07.2014, received in revised form 20.07.2014, accepted 08.08.2014 The article provides with the evaluation of the efficiency of the mechanisms of the state support of economical and social development of the indigenous minorities of the North. It summarizes the practice of working out the programmes of these minorities’ development and evaluation of quality of their life. The authors suggest taking into consideration the evaluation of the conditions of the indigenous minorities of the North, living in their area, and namely in the territories with a high relative density of the peoples of the North, compactly and dispersibly settled and doing their traditional activities, as indicators of socio-economical condition of the indigenous minorities of the North. Keywords: indigenous minorities of the North, sustainable development, quality of life, programmepronged approach, monitoring. The research is carried out within the frame of the researches financed by Krasnoyarsk regional fund for supporting scientific and technical research activities and within the frame of SibFU’s thematic plan in compliance with the instruction task of the Ministry of education and science of the Russian Federation. Introduction The problems of the formation of the system of parameters and indicators of a sustainable development of the territories of traditional residence of the indigenous minorities of the North and evaluation of their life quality are getting more urgent in the course of the recent years. They are caused by a sharp decline in living standards of the most part of the representatives of the indigenous minorities of the North * and growing demographic, economical, and ecological crisis processes in the areas of their habitation. According to the information given at the VII congress of the indigenous minorities of the North, Siberia and the Far East of the Russian Federation held in Salekhard on the 28-29th of March, 2013, the characteristic features of a crisis condition of the indigenous minorities, listed in the Conception of a sustainable development © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com # 1510 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Bryukhanova and Michael V. Kobalinskiy. The Indicators System Formation for Quality of Life Evaluation… (The Order…, 2009) in 2009, have worsened for the last three years. Such situation was also stated by the Accounts Chamber of the Russian Federation. In their report, based on the results of the audit of spending budgetary funds aimed to support economical and social development of the indigenous minorities of the North, Siberia and the Far East of the Russian Federation, it was said: “Realization of measures of the federal targeted programme “Economical and social development of the indigenous minorities of the North up to 2008”, implementation of the measures within the frame of the Conception of a sustainable development of the indigenous minorities of the North, Siberia and the Far East of the Russian Federation within the period of 2009-2010 have not resulted in a substantial improvement of the level of economical and social development of the indigenous minorities of the North, Siberia and the Far East of the Russian Federation <…> Standards of living in the regions of dense habitation of the indigenous minorities of the North are lower than the average in the corresponding subjects of the Russian Federation; the percentage of the housing stock equipped with plumbing and hot water supply in the areas of dense habitation of the indigenous minorities of the North is 2-5 times lower than the average in the corresponding subjects of the Russian Federation. The rate of unemployment is 1,5-2 times higher than the average in the Russian Federation. Infant mortality rate in the Tyva Republic, the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Kamchatka Krai, Sakhalin Oblast, Chukchi Autonomous Okrug and some other regions of the North is exceeding <…> At present federal and regional levels lack annual monitoring of the rates of the population size and condition of socio-economical development of the indigenous minorities of the North” (The Decision…, 2011). Economical reforms of the recent years have significantly influenced the idea of a sustainable development and quality of life, on the whole, as well as that of a sustainable development of the territories of traditional nature management and the quality of life of the indigenous minorities of the North, in particular. At present various systems of securing a sustainable development of the territories of traditional nature management and the quality of life of the indigenous minorities of the North have been formed. They include technologies and measures of the programmepronged approach, cooperative management, state-and-private and municipal-and-private partnership, and measures of estimation of their efficiency. A complex research of the problems of a sustainable development of the indigenous minorities of the North and estimation of quality of their life is in many ways determined by the specificity of ‘the indigenous minorities of the North’ category itself with its peculiar features such as relatively low (in comparison with other categories) rates of employment, income, chronic unprofitability of traditional types of economic activities, extremely low entrepreneurial activity, essential difference in the level of housing conditions and services. Thereby, the development of a complex appropriate indicator system and methods of estimation of the potential of a sustainable development of habitation areas and quality of life of the indigenous minorities of the North is of a significant importance among the tasks of the state socio-economical policy implementation. 1. Practice and problems of working out the sustainable development programme of the indigenous minorities of the North Three federal targeted programmes and numerous regional targeted programmes and sub- # 1511 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Bryukhanova and Michael V. Kobalinskiy. The Indicators System Formation for Quality of Life Evaluation… programmes of socio-economical development of the indigenous minorities of the North have been designed within the period of 15 years. They were aimed to form the conditions for the minorities’ sustainable development on account of consolidation of the funds of the federal budget, the budgets of the subjects of the Russian Federation and non-budgetary sources. In the course of the years 2002-2008 the financial support of the indigenous minorities of the North was provided within the frame of the measures of the federal targeted programme “Economical and social development of the indigenous minorities of the North up to 2008” which was implemented in the territory of 26 subjects of the Russian Federation. 2,6 billion rubles were spent on financing the measures within the period of the Programme (1 billion rubles were from the federal budget, 1,3 billion rubles – from the budgets of the subjects of the Russian Federation, 0,3 billion rubles – from nonbudgetary sources). Within the frame of the Programme they built and put into operation schools and kindergartens for 5149 persons, accommodation of 15415,6 square metres of floor area, transmission lines of 64,41 km length, 12 power stations and diesel generators, 3 local power installations, 20 manufacturing units (fishing and fishing factory ships, a wood processing workshop in the Tyva Republic, a workshop for processing mushrooms and berries in Mezhdurech’e village of KhantyMansi Autonomous Okrug, reindeer-breeding farms), a hunter’s house in Kamchatka and a house of the peoples of the North in Yakutsk. They also organized 4 trading posts, bought 31 “Buran” (“Blizzard”) snowmobiles, 5 power saw benches, 18 boat engines, 14 radio-telephones, 10 equipment sets for processing the products of traditional sectors, equipment for fishing and hunting trades, 5 refrigerator equipment sets, mini-bakeries. In May 2008 by the initiative of the Ministry of regional development of the Russian Federation the decision on reversal of this practice and transition to the system of allocation of subsidies for the solution of certain problems of the development of the indigenous minorities of the North to the corresponding subjects of the Federation was taken. This took place after the government of the Russian Federation approved the “Economical and social development of the indigenous minorities of the North, Siberia and the Far East up to 2015” conception on the 21st of November, 2007 and charged the Ministry of Regional Development (Russia) with the task to develop its project. The conception of the Federal targeted programme “Economical and social development of the indigenous minorities of the North, Siberia and the Far East up to 2015” contained the conclusion stating the decline of the minorities’ living standards within the recent 10 years. None of the serious problems of the minorities of the North was solved satisfactorily. Starting from 2009 the appropriate measures as well as the construction of the facilities of social infrastructure, etc. were realized within the frame of negotiation of special subsidies from the federal budget to the budgets of the subjects of the Russian Federation to support the indigenous minorities of the North, living in this territory. The amount of the subsidies given was 600 million rubles in 2009, 240 million rubles in 2010. As for the federal budget for 2011-2013, it was 240 million rubles per year. In point of fact, the situation hasn’t crucially changed. Moreover, the inspection of spending of budgetary funds channeled to support economical and social development of the indigenous minorities of the North, Siberia and the Far East of the Russian Federation within 2009-2010, which was made by the Accounts Chamber of the Russian Federation, revealed financial violations and concluded the fact that # 1512 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Bryukhanova and Michael V. Kobalinskiy. The Indicators System Formation for Quality of Life Evaluation… the Ministry of Regional Development (Russia) hadn’t properly controlled the efficient spending of subsidies on support of socio-economic development of the indigenous minorities of the North, Siberia and the Far East by the subjects of the Russian Federation. The Accounts Chamber of the Russian Federation’s inspection revealed financial violations at spending of budget funds with the total amount of 211,2 million rubles (including 64,6 million rubles from the federal budget). 6,8 million rubles were considered to be inefficiently spent (The Decision…, 2011). The programme cycle of the recent 16 years proves that none of the problems of the minorities of the North has been solved. On the contrary, many problems have become even more acute. Moreover, new problems have sprung up. The Conception of the federal targeted programme “Economical and social development of the indigenous minorities of the North, Siberia and the Far East up to 2015” contains a very important conclusion on the estimation of social situation. It runs that these minorities’ standards of living have lowered for the recent 10 years. Programming crisis reflects a general crisis of existing views on the development and solving the problems of the indigenous minorities of the North as well as on a respective public policy. This crisis is the crisis of the object-oriented approach. It integrally underlies more than 30 conceptions and 80 programmes that have been worked out in the course of recent decades and concern various aspects of the development of the indigenous minorities of the North. Content analysis of the documents mentioned has enabled to single out the following characteristic features of applying the objectoriented approach: – the subject of programming as well as of numerous conceptions of these minorities’ development are not these peoples; – peoples of the North are viewed as a homogeneous enlarged target object; – the main focus is given to external sources of their development, making material objects (building houses and schools, equipment installation, constructing objects of energy supply); – such approach hardly stimulates actualization of positive scenarios of these peoples’ development. Efficiency of the object-oriented approach in programming the life of the peoples of the North is limited to a number of factors: – heterogeneity of the group of the indigenous peoples of the North; – irregularity of their ethno-social development; – internal socio-cultural split, deviation from a traditional way of life of a majority of the representatives of the indigenous peoples of the North and their orientation towards European consumer standards; – chronic absolute and relative underfunding of the programmes of the development of the indigenous minorities regarding programming indicators and these peoples’ growing demands. In addition to the programmes in force it seems to be expedient to develop and implement the subject-oriented approach to the control of the development of the indigenous minorities of the North, based on taking internal life scenarios into account. The main aim of this approach is to create the control mechanism of socio-cultural potential of the indigenous minorities of the North and consider their real problems and prospects of development, i.e. to formulate and implement life scenarios of these peoples’ development. It is vital to consider that the subjectoriented approach doesn’t replace but supplement the object-oriented approach. It’s impossible to stop building schools, kindergartens, and other objects of social infrastructure, to stop providing facilities for the development of economical structures, etc. But one cannot confine to these. # 1513 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Bryukhanova and Michael V. Kobalinskiy. The Indicators System Formation for Quality of Life Evaluation… The heart of the public policy towards the indigenous minorities of the North is not only to provide a fi nancial support but facilitate creation of legal, economical, fi nancial, and technological conditions for activation of these peoples’ inner potential in order to turn them into real subjects of labour, economical, political and cultural activity. Only this approach will make it possible for the northern ethnoses to avoid total assimilation and prove their own historic sustainability. 2. Problems of indigenous minorities of the North life`s quality estimation Researches in the sphere of estimation of interrelation between a sustainable development of the residential territories of the indigenous minorities of the North and quality of their life are extremely limited in number. There are only fragmentary sections in these or those areas of economical research concerning estimation of these interrelations. But there are no complex and full researches ensuring a methodological and methodical basis. Analysis of the types of sustainability makes it possible to conclude that adaptive sustainability is the most appropriate type for the traditional northern rural territorial type of the development (further referred to as the residential areas for the indogenous minorities of the North). This type of sustainability enjoys the most essential compensatory mechanisms when a territorial system tries to adjust and compensate for the changes that arise. Another peculiar feature of the adaptive system of sustainability is that this type allows not only application of one or another compensatory mechanism but their various combinations. In other words, adaptive mechanisms are of a combination nature that is essentially important for sustainability of the residential areas for the indigenous minorities of the North). In Russian reality absolutely different ways of maintaining their sustainability (that can be termed a “deferred sustainability”) are typical for rural residential areas for the indigenous minorities of the North to the utmost. They display virtually nonexistent compensatory mechanisms of lowering living standards of the indigenous minorities of the North who escape from their problems plunging into alcoholism, drug addiction, and poverty. Others just withdraw in their shell expecting changes to the better. Moreover, a “deferred sustainability” of the residential areas for the indigenous minorities of the North in this context is a most “economical” mechanism from a point of financial and material expenses. In this respect it is viewed as the most acceptable means of ensuring their sustainability. The indicators of levels of living are structural elements of an “adaptive sustainability” of the residential areas for the indigenous minorities of the North. Elaboration of the indicators of levels of living is particularly urgent in respect to the indigenous minorities of the North in particular as such indicators are worked out for the population of the states in the whole and they are more or less effectively applied in order to both efficiently administer the government, exercise intergovernmental comparison and undertake international obligations. Specificity of the indicators of the quality of life of the indigenous minorities of the North is not mostly in the fact that in compliance with the law of the Russian Federation this population category has a special status but also in the fact that such indicators must reflect a degree of these peoples’ participation in taking the decisions, infringing their interests. Moreover, the main part of the monitoring proper, which is based on such indicators, can be efficient only provided that the aboriginals themselves actively participate in it. # 1514 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Bryukhanova and Michael V. Kobalinskiy. The Indicators System Formation for Quality of Life Evaluation… Such indicators should comprise a selfevaluation of living standards and other formal factors as well as their ideas of living standards as to what it should be on the individual and collective (common) levels. The use of the data of formal statistical accounts only can’t provide an adequate view on the issue studied. It’s obvious that designing the model of indicators of the quality of life is impossible without application of socio-anthropological knowledge and methods. Taking into account smallness and special status of the indigenous minorities of the North, the analysis of the quality of life should result in working out of a specialized data base about all aboriginals, their socio-economical and sociocultural state. Otherwise, the real picture of the indigenous minorities’ state would remain unclear even despite the abundance of data both official ones and those provided by the researchers and aboriginals themselves. Many representatives of the indigenous minorities of the North tend to preserve a traditional mode of life, consider following cultural traditions to be a major factor of their comfortable existence and a significant condition of upbringing a younger generation. This finds it manifestation in the priorities determined by them and their organizations, in the desire for obtaining rights to participate in environmental protection, in use of replenishable natural resources in the areas of their residence. Accordingly, the indicators should also reflect a specific character of needs and demands of the indigenous minorities of the North. Unfortunately, an adequate federal system of the indicators of the quality of life of the indigenous minorities of the North, proved by the databases, as well as the system of their monitoring haven’t been worked out up to the present. In compliance with the Decision of the Board of the Accounts Chamber of the Russian Federation № 57K (824) dated November 18, 2011 “On the results of the control measures ‘The audit of spending budgetary funds on support of economical and social development of the indigenous peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East of the Russian Federation in 2009-2010’” the following was concluded: “The Ministry of Regional Development (Russia) is prescribed by the schedule of measures to work out and implement the system of indicators of the quality of life of the indigenous minorities of the North in the first quarter of 2010. On the basis of the contract with the state authorities № 105 from August 3, 2009, concluded between the Ministry of Regional Development (Russia) and the non-profit-making organization “The fund of the information support of the science”, they developed the system of 14 financial, 16 budgetary, 12 economical, 26 ecological and 10 social indicators. The cost of works under the contract mentioned was 590 thousand rubles. The works were accepted and fully paid by the Ministry of Regional Development (Russia). In the list of the developed indicators there are such indicators as income per capita in the region, expenses of the population on cultural and daily living needs, medical services and medication, as well as on telecommunication service, clothes and footwear, food, proportion of taxes in the revenue of consolidated budget spent on the development of social infrastructure in the region, federal budget expenses on transfer payments to the indigenous minorities. The system of indicators of the quality of life of the indigenous minorities of the North includes wind speed and direction, sound, constitution of earth, cycle of matter. The indicators of absolute and relative (per capita) output of gross product of traditional branches of agriculture (reindeer breeding and fishing) in physical and value terms are recommended as an integral indicator of the # 1515 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Bryukhanova and Michael V. Kobalinskiy. The Indicators System Formation for Quality of Life Evaluation… quality of life of the indigenous minorities of the North. The indicators mentioned are not used to improve the quality of life of the indigenous minorities of the North in the subjects of the Russian Federation; their monitoring is not carried out; there is no official statistics on this issue. Thus, the system of indicators was worked out by the Ministry of Regional Development (Russia) but it wasn’t implemented. The absence of practical application of the indicator system, on the development of which 590 thousand rubles were spent from the federal budget, is indicative of inefficient application of funds by the Ministry of Regional Development (Russia) that does not meet the requirements of Article 34 of the Fiscal Code of the Russian Federation” (The Decision…, 2011). In some Russian regions they develop the monitoring programmes of socio-economical situation and state of various social groups. Sometimes special laws are adopted. Thus, in Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug a special database of a socio-economical state of the indigenous minorities of the North in YamalNenets Okrug (Regulations of the Administration of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Area..., 2011). The following information is subject to an obligatory inclusion in the database: 1) the number of people belonging to the indigenous minorities of the North, permanently residing in the territory of the autonomous okrug; 2) the number of nomadic population of the autonomous okrug; 3) grouping of people from among the indigenous minorities of the North into nationality divisions; 4) grouping of people from among the indigenous minorities of the North, residing in the territory of the autonomous okrug, into sex and age divisions; 5) number of students of higher and secondary education institutions from among the indigenous minorities of the North, residing in the territory of the autonomous okrug; 6) level of education of the indigenous minorities of the North, residing in the territory of the autonomous okrug; 7) learning native languages by people from among the indigenous minorities of the North, residing in the territory of the autonomous okrug; 8) indicators of employment of people from among the indigenous minorities of the North, residing in the territory of the autonomous okrug, which include: – the number of people, capable of working, from among the indigenous minorities of the North, residing in the territory of the autonomous okrug, and namely: employed; unemployed; – the number of people from among the indigenous minorities of the North, residing in the territory of the autonomous okrug, employed in sectors of national economy, and namely: in the industrial sphere; in traditional sectors of management (reindeer breeding, fishing, hunting); in the staff of the governing bodies; in the sphere of trade; in the sphere of housing and communal services; in the sphere of medicine; in the sphere of education; in the sphere of culture and art; in national enterprises, tribal communities; in other sectors of economic activities; 9) housing of people from among the indigenous minorities of the North; 10) number of socially significant diseases that the indigenous minorities of the North, residing in the territory of the autonomous okrug, have; # 1516 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Bryukhanova and Michael V. Kobalinskiy. The Indicators System Formation for Quality of Life Evaluation… 11) number of health institutions in the territories of primary residence of the indigenous minorities of the North, residing in the territory of the autonomous okrug; 12) number of educational establishments in the territories of primary residence of the indigenous minorities of the North, residing in the territory of the autonomous okrug, including the number of places and students who study there; 13) number of institutes of culture in the territories of primary residence of the indigenous minorities of the North, residing in the territory of the autonomous okrug; 14) acreage of areas in use of agricultural enterprises belonging to the indigenous minorities of the North, residing in the territory of the autonomous okrug; 15) areas of reindeer pastures in the territory of the autonomous okrug; 16) head of domestic reindeer in the autonomous okrug. In Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug Law № 35 “On the quality of life of the population of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area – Yugra” (February 28, 2006) was adopted. The law defines the quality of life of the population of the autonomous okrug as a scope of, first and foremost, socio-economical criteria reflecting the level and degree of well-being of people in various spheres of their life as a key condition of a civil society’s and individual’s sustainable social development (Law 35…, 2006). In compliance with Article 1 of the Law the major indicators of ensuring the quality of life of the population of the autonomous okrug are: 1) life expectancy (real and prospective); 2) gross domestic product (GDP) and gross regional product (GRP) per capita; 3) index of social health of the autonomous okrug both on the whole and per each citizen of the autonomous okrug; 4) level of education and literacy of the autonomous okrug’s population on the whole; 5) level of income of the autonomous okrug’s population as a whole and its separate groups; 6) employment of the autonomous okrug’s population; 7) consumption of goods, including consumer durables; 8) percentage of government expenditures on social activity; 9) indices of poverty and poorness of the autonomous okrug’s population as a whole and its separate groups; 10) nutritional sufficiency; 11) reproductive health; 12) infant mortality; 13) maternal mortality; 14) number of disabled persons, including disabled children; 15) level of consumption of basic social services; 16) crime rate; 17) ecological safety rate; 18) social activity; 19) other indices determining the quality of life of the autonomous okrug’s population. A different approach is suggested by the Institute of Ethnology of the Russian Academy of Science. They worked out a system of indicators of the quality of life of the indigenous minorities of the North, residing in Sakhalin Oblast (Novikova et all, 2010). The quality of life is regarded as a combination of objective and subjective parameters characterizing well-being of the representatives of the indigenous minorities of Sakhalin on the individual and collective levels (communities and other forms of these peoples’ self-organization). Development of such parameters concerning the aboriginal peoples is possible as there exists a well-developed system of state and departmental statistical indicators with reference to them. # 1517 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Bryukhanova and Michael V. Kobalinskiy. The Indicators System Formation for Quality of Life Evaluation… To estimate the quality of life of the indigenous minorities of Sakhalin Oblast the authors suggest carrying out statistical service and monitoring of the following groups of indicators (parameters): Indicators of well-being 1. Level of income, including the income from traditional types of economic management 2. Living minimum wage 3. Percentage of people with the income above and below poverty line Demographic indicators 5. Percentage of people over 55 6. Registered infant mortality (0-12 months) 7. Alcoholism (officially registered alcoholics, causes of death coming from alcoholism, expert estimation of alcoholization level) Indicators of employment 8. Percentage of people with permanent employment 9. Official and actual unemployment 10. Participation in employment centres’ programmes 11. Percentage of people employed in traditional sectors of economy 12. Work satisfaction (interesting, with good income, giving status) Indicators of housing and modern technical (technological) means 13. Availability of a flat, house 14. Availability of trade housing 15. Level of comfort (living space, availability of municipal services) 16. Availability of satellite communication 17. Access to the Internet 18. Availability of mechanized transport means (cross-country vehicles, snowmobiles, 4-wheelers, etc.) Indicators of estimation of quality of education 19. Percentage of people with secondary education 20. Percentage of people who have entered the higher and specialized secondary education institutions 21. Percentage of people with higher education 22. Learning native language and culture (number of students at schools with appropriate teaching) Indicators of health service quality 20. Availability of health-care agencies and medical centres 21. Percentage of people who annually undergo prophylactic medical examination Indicators of polyethnicity 22. Percentage of aboriginals in the total number of population 23. Relation of migrants and resident population 24. Percentage of international marriages Indicators of “ethnic comfort” 25. Use of ethnic languages 26. Structure of nutrition, share of ethnic food 27. Availability of literature, mass-media, geographical and administrative names in native languages 28. Use of ethnic symbolism in urban environment, design of administrative buildings 29. Availability of ethno-cultural centres, museums, folklore groups, souvenir workshops 30. Possibility of learning native language and culture Indicators of traditional lifestyle 31. Securing the right on fishing, seahunting, hunting, reindeer breeding, gathering (seafood, etc.), product processing and distribution 32. Availability of quotas on resources 33. Securing the right on national trade 34. Securing the right on folklore # 1518 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Bryukhanova and Michael V. Kobalinskiy. The Indicators System Formation for Quality of Life Evaluation… Indicators of state-legal security 35. Level of state-legal guarantees 36. Level of vindictive damages 37. Possibility to go to local authorities, including court and police, local authorities Indicators of the development of communities, tribal enterprises, other organizations of the indigenous minorities of the North 38. The number of years the organization works 39. The number of workers, including the indigenous minorities of the North 40. Material and technical support (processing surfaces, transport, fishing tackles, and trade areas) 41. Level of income from work 42. Payments to charity 43. The level of self-organization (governing bodies’ efficiency, interaction with state and local government bodies) This set of indicators presents a listing of parameters of the quality of life of the indigenous minorities of the North which can be used for monitoring. However, it can be adjusted in accordance with factual data availability. Research of the quality of life as per the indicators suggested is based, firstly, on the regard of the governmental statistical data, secondly, on ethno-sociological public survey, thirdly, on expert interview. Aboriginals themselves can participate in carrying out opinion polls. This ensures a greater trust for the part of the population under research. Moreover, the aboriginals can be provided with a number of new working places. References 1. Law 35 “On the quality of life of the population of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area – Yugra”, February 28, 2006. 2. Novikova N.I., Stepanov V.V. (2010). Indikatory kachestva zhizni korennykh malochislennykh narodov Severa Sakhalinskoi oblasti [Markers of the quality of life of the indigenous peoples of the North]. Issledovaniya po prikladnoi i neotlozhnoi etnologii, issue 217, 46 p. 3. Regulations of the Administration of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Area № 188-А dated 24.04.2006 (revised on 06.10.2011) “On the data bank on socio-economic condition of indigenous peoples of the North living in the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Area” (coupled with “The Regulations on the data bank on socio-economic condition of indigenous peoples of the North living in the YamalNenets Autonomous Area” and “The Index of information subject to be included into the data bank on socio-economic condition of indigenous peoples of the North living in the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Area”). 4. The Decision of the Board of the Accounts Chamber of the Russian Federation № 57K (824) dated November 18, 2011 “On the results of the control measures ‘The audit of spending budgetary funds on support of economical and social development of the indigenous peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East of the Russian Federation in 2009-2010’”. 5. The Order of the Government of the Russian Federation № 132-p dated 04.02.2009 “On the conception of a sustainable development of indigenous peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East of the Russian Federation”. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Bryukhanova and Michael V. Kobalinskiy. The Indicators System Formation for Quality of Life Evaluation… Формирование системы показателей для оценки качества жизни как основы устойчивого социально-экономического развития коренных малочисленных народов Севера Е.А. Брюханова, М.В. Кобалинский Красноярский отдел Института экономики и организации промышленного производства СО РАН Россия, 660036, Красноярск, Академгородок, 50 В статье дана оценка эффективности механизмов государственной поддержки экономического и социального развития коренных малочисленных народов Севера (КМНС); обобщен опыт разработки программ развития КМНС и оценки качества жизни КМНС. Предлагается использовать в качестве индикаторов социально-экономического положения малочисленных народов Севера оценку их состояния в рамках ареалов проживания – территорий с высоким удельным весом компактно и дисперсно расселенных северных этносов, занимающихся, как правило, традиционной деятельностью. Ключевые слова: коренные малочисленные народы Севера, устойчивое развитие, качество жизни, программно-целевой подход, мониторинг. Работа выполнена в рамках исследований, финансируемых Красноярским краевым фондом поддержки научной и научно-технической деятельности, а также в рамках тематического плана СФУ по заданию Министерства образования и науки Российской Федерации. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 9 (2014 7) 1521-1540 ~~~ УДК 314.1 (571.511) + 314.1 (571.512) Problems of Economic Rights of the Indigenous Small-Numbered Peoples in the Krasnoyarsk Territory Semen Ya. Palchin* Office of the Commissioner for Human Rights in the Krasnoyarsk Territory 122 Karl Marx Str., Krasnoyarsk, 660021, Russia Received 09.06.2014, received in revised form 11.07.2014, accepted 29.08.2014 The present paper is the second part of the material based on the Report of the Commissioner for the Rights of the Indigenous Small-numbered Peoples in the Krasnoyarsk Territory “On the problems of realizing the constitutional rights and liberties of the indigenous small-numbered peoples in the Krasnoyarsk Territory in 2012”. The paper thoroughly analyzes the problem of realizing the economic rights of the indigenous small-numbered peoples in the Krasnoyarsk Territory, in particular, the right to protection of their original habitat, traditional lifestyle and traditional natural resource management; the right to work and a decent life. The author not only reveals the drawbacks of the federal and regional legislation, as well as lack of law enforcement practice, but also makes recommendations and requests for authorized bodies of executive authorities and local governments to solve the existing problems. Keywords: north and arctic territories, the Krasnoyarsk Territory, legal and regulatory acts, indigenous small-numbered peoples in the Krasnoyarsk Territory, the Commissioner for rights of the indigenous small-numbered people, law enforcement practice. Providing real economic rights directly affects the well-being of both individuals and entire ethnic groups. Realization of economic rights of the indigenous small-numbered peoples enables practicing the traditional economic activities. Below there will be presented specific experience of the Commissioner for Rights of the Indigenous Small-numbered Peoples of the Krasnoyarsk Territory (hereinafter referred to as the Commissioner), law enforcement practice of both federal and regional normative and legal documents governing the rights of * indigenous small-numbered peoples of the Krasnoyarsk Territory (Evenki, Ents people, Nganasans, Chulyms, Dolgans, Selkups, Kets, Nenets people). These peoples occupy quite a small area in the Evenkiysky Municipal District, Taimirsky Dolgano-Nenetsky Municipal District, Turukhansky District, Severo-Yeniseysky District of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. Heads of eight economic entities involved in traditional economic activities of the indigenous small-numbered peoples of the North asked the Commissioner to pay attention to the lack of © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org # 1521 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Semen Ya. Palchin. Problems of Economic Rights of the Indigenous Small-Numbered Peoples in the Krasnoyarsk Territory implementation of their economic rights to fishing and hunting due to the inability to participate on the equal terms with other competitors in distribution of fishing and hunting lands, as well as to facilitate the territory organization of traditional natural resource management of the indigenous small-numbered peoples. The Commissioner states the existence of systemic problems in ensuring economic rights. To understand this issue, he uses a systematic approach to it for identifying the major components of this issue, impeding the implementation of these economic rights. The first set of problems is imperfection of the federal legislation. The second set – imperfection of the regional legislation. The third set – poor law enforcement practices in the existing federal and regional legislation. The right to protection of peoples’ original habitat, traditional lifestyle and traditional natural resource management Considering the first set of problems, it is necessary to turn to competent lawyers, experts on these issues, among which the Commissioner reckons V.A. Kriazhkov, Professor, Doctor of Juridical Science, and Counselor in the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation. His comprehensive review of the existing federal legislation brings to light the following weaknesses and vulnerable points of this issue: • lack of implementation of the indigenous peoples’ rights to get lands for lifetime inheritable possession and free use of them; • inability to obtain land spots for the traditional hunting and fishing on noncompetitive basis; • absence in the federal legislation of required standard assessment of the possible negative impact of industrial projects on the traditional lifestyle and natural resources management of the indigenous peoples; • imperfection of tax laws permitting the RF subjects to use mineral resources payments for social and economic development of the indigenous peoples; • “removal” of the right of the indigenous peoples to higher priority in natural resources management from the federal legislation; • legal uncertainty as to the ethnic identity of people belonging to the peoples of the North; • declarative character of the series of federal laws, including the Law “On territories of traditional natural resources management of the indigenous smallnumbered peoples of the North, Siberia and Far East of the Russian Federation”. The Commissioner addressed the deputies of the Legislative Assembly of the Krasnoyarsk Territory, referring to them as holders of a right to introduce legislative initiative into the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation. The Commissioner recommended the deputies to prepare legislative initiatives that may deal with the revealed shortcomings. The second set of the problems is connected with the imperfection of the regional normative and legal framework. The main legislative acts of the Krasnoyarsk Territory regulating the sphere of economic rights of the indigenous peoples are: • Charter of the Krasnoyarsk Territory of 05.06.2008 № 5-1777 (as amended on 20.06.2012); • Law of the Krasnoyarsk Territory of 25.11.2010 № 11-5343 (as amended on 24.05.2012) “On protection of the original habitat and traditional lifestyle of the indigenous small-numbered peoples of the Krasnoyarsk Territory”; # 1522 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Semen Ya. Palchin. Problems of Economic Rights of the Indigenous Small-Numbered Peoples in the Krasnoyarsk Territory • Law of the Krasnoyarsk Territory of 01.07.2003 № 7-1215 (as amended on 25.11.2010) “Fundamentals of legal guarantees for the indigenous smallnumbered peoples in the Krasnoyarsk Territory”; • Law of the Krasnoyarsk Territory of 18.12.2008 № 7-2660 (as amended on 01.11.2012) “On the social support of citizens living in the Taimirsky DolganoNenetsky Municipal District of the Krasnoyarsk Territory”; • Law of the Krasnoyarsk Territory of 18.12.2008 № 7-2658 (as amended on 24.05.2012) “On the social support of citizens living in the Evenkiysky Municipal District of the Krasnoyarsk Territory”. The article 12 of the Krasnoyarsk Territory’s Charter declares protection of the rights to traditional land use, management and crafts for the indigenous small-numbered peoples of the North. This law proclaims that the main way for organizing and ensuring the protection of the original habitat and traditional lifestyle of the indigenous peoples is to create, protect and use territories of traditional nature resource management. The formation of such territories would provide the most efficient realization of economic rights of the indigenous peoples, but for that it is necessary to develop and approve a number of subordinate legislative acts, namely: • Provision of the regional importance territories of traditional nature resource management of the indigenous smallnumbered peoples (item “б” of article 8); • Procedure of creating the territories of traditional nature resource management of the indigenous small-numbered peoples and list of documents that are necessary for making a decision on the creation of these territories (item “ж” of article 8); • Provision of the arrangements to create the federal importance territories of traditional nature resource management of the indigenous small-numbered peoples in the Krasnoyarsk Territory (item “з” of article 8); • Approval procedure of established by federal authorities in the Krasnoyarsk Territory restrictions of non-traditional for the indigenous small-numbered peoples activity of organizations (all forms of federal ownership) in places of original habitat and traditional nature resource management of the indigenous small-numbered peoples (item “и” of article 8); • Regulation determining the list and terms of economic activity restrictions for organizations of all forms of ownership in places of original habitat and traditional nature resource management of the indigenous small-numbered peoples in the Krasnoyarsk Territory (item “л” of article 8); • Provision of ethnological expertise (item “д” of article 8); • Provision of procedure of granting inventory to people exposed to the law (item “в” of article 16); • Provision of organization of training, retraining and advanced training in occupations necessary to the indigenous small-numbered peoples’ communities for the implementation of traditional economic activity (item “з” of article 16). The Commissioner appealed to the Government of the Krasnoyarsk Territory to accelerate the development and adoption of these legal and regulatory acts. Otherwise, violations of economic rights of the indigenous small-numbered peoples will go on. # 1523 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Semen Ya. Palchin. Problems of Economic Rights of the Indigenous Small-Numbered Peoples in the Krasnoyarsk Territory The Commissioner promotes consistently the issue of creating the territories of traditional nature resource management. Thus, this issue was raised at a meeting with the Governor of the Krasnoyarsk Territory L. Kuznetsov in October 2011. After the meeting, certain instructions were given to the Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. In April 2012 the Commissioner received a letter from the First Deputy of Minister S. Yu Vasin. This letter revealed a decision to support offered by the administration of the Taimirsky DolganoNenetsky Municipal District proposition to create the local importance territories of traditional nature resource management. The district administration has appointed a working group to review the preliminary proposals for creating the territories of traditional nature resource management of the indigenous small-numbered peoples (hereinafter referred to as Territories) in this municipal district. The Commissioner, his public representatives and other public figures suggested the creation of cluster Territories within the rural settlements Karaul and Khatanga, as well as within the urban settlement Dudinka, except for the territory of the city itself. However, these proposals were not supported by the local administration. The proposal of the district authorities includes creating Territories only in places of deer farming. Submitting some proposals the Commissioner relied on the opinion of the indigenous population, expressed in their appeals and personal conversations. He is not the one who defends this plan. In October 2012, it was held the joint meeting of the Public Council under the chairmanship of Head of the Taimirsky DolganoNenetsky Municipal District and Coordinating Council of the Association of Indigenous Peoples of Taimyr (Krasnoyarsk Territory). At this meeting the Head of the rural settlement Khatanga A. Kuleshov publicly expressed a request of Khatanga residents to create around each village these Territories. Representatives of the indigenous smallnumbered peoples’ communities, who work in the central part of Taimyr, where hunting and fishing are popular activities, made similar requests to the Commissioner. The Commissioner appealed to the local authorities of Taimirsky Dolgano-Nenetsky Municipal District with recommendation to expand the geography of Territories or at least reserve land for them in territorial planning scheme till 2030. Territories’ organization is topical in terms of formation of compensatory mechanisms in the case of industrial development of natural resources of these Territories. One of the most important steps in this direction has already been made: methodology for calculating the amount of damages inflicted to the indigenous small-numbered peoples living in the Krasnoyarsk Territory and to their associations, as a result of economic and other activities of both organizations of all forms of ownership and individuals in places of original habitat and traditional economic activities of these peoples (hereinafter – Methodology) was approved on December 11, 2012. Adoption of Methodology indicates consistent recognition by the authorities of the Krasnoyarsk Territory of rights of the indigenous small-numbered peoples and also emphasizes the role of the Commisioner in defending these rights, as the requirement to develop and approve this Methodology was made in the report of the Commissioner of 2011. Following the hearings of the report by the Legislative Assembly of the Krasnoyarsk Territory on June, 20, 2012, the authorities adopted a regulation No. 2-350П, item 3.11 of which recommends the Government of the Krasnoyarsk Territory to develop and test the above-mentioned Methodology. # 1524 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Semen Ya. Palchin. Problems of Economic Rights of the Indigenous Small-Numbered Peoples in the Krasnoyarsk Territory Another argument in favour of Territories’ organizations might be the obligation of the Russian Federation to contribute to the International Decade of Biodiversity, as proclaimed by the United Nations in 2011. One of the goals of the Federal Law “On the traditional nature resource management territories of the indigenous small-numbered peoples of the North, Siberia and Far East of the Russian Federation” is preservation of biological diversity on the traditional nature resource management territories. Thus, the Territories’ organization in the Krasnoyarsk Territory and in Taimirsky DolganoNenetsky Municipal District in particular will become a contribution of the Krasnoyarsk Territory to the International Decade of Biodiversity of the UN. The Commissioner appealed to the Government of the Krasnoyarsk Territory with the recommendation to include in the regional plan of preparation for and implementation of the International Decade for Biodiversity under the aegis of the UN necessary creating the regional importance traditional nature resource management territories for the indigenous small-numbered peoples of the North. The Commissioner appealed to the representatives from business sphere, who work in places of original habitat and economic activities of the indigenous small-numbered peoples with the recommendation to actively cooperate with these indigenous peoples, to assist them in their development, and to encourage their biodiversity conservation programs. Activities of industrial companies in this way will correspond to the Guidelines on Business and Human Rights, adopted by the Human Rights Council of the UN, which, in turn, are incorporated into international standards of social responsibility. For example, the ISO 26000 standard, adopted in 2010 by the International Organization for Standardization, has a dedicated to human rights chapter, which establishes corporate responsibility to respect human rights and rights of the indigenous peoples. These Guidelines are set in the UN Global Compact, one of the signatories of which is the company “Rosneft”. The European Commission on Corporate Responsibility last October made a statement, in which it expressed its wish that all businesses would take responsibility for the respect of human rights as defined in the Guidelines. After this statement, the European Commission initiated development projects based on the widely used regulations of the Guidelines for three industrial sectors, including oil and gas industry. In addition, the European Commission announced its intention to issue periodic progress reports on the implementation of the Guidelines. Sustainable development and conservation of biodiversity are human rights. Today, a sign of good manners in the world is the publication of reports of companies on Sustainable Development. And in some countries it is a mandatory requirement of the rules of stock exchanges. Given the close integration between Russia and the EU, as well as the increasing role on the European market of large industrial companies operating on the territory of the region, establishing civilized relationships with the indigenous peoples will be a strategically correct step. Making proposals and recommendations, the Commissioner relies on the approved on April 30, 2012 Fundamentals of state policy in the field of environmental development of the Russian Federation until 2030 (hereinafter – Fundamentals). The most important points of Fundamentals are given below. # 1525 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Semen Ya. Palchin. Problems of Economic Rights of the Indigenous Small-Numbered Peoples in the Krasnoyarsk Territory • A strategic aim of state policy in the field of environmental development is to solve social and economic problems, ensuring environmentally correct economic growth; • Realizing every human right to healthy environment, strengthening the legislation in the field of environmental protection; • Priority of conserving natural ecological systems, natural landscapes and natural systems; • Participation of citizens, public and other non-profit organizations in solving problems in the field of environmental protection and ecological safety; • Consideration of the views of citizens and NGOs in decision-making on planning and implementation of economic activity, which can have a negative impact on the environment. The last words of Fundamentals cover public organizations of the indigenous small-numbered peoples of the North. Their involvement in discussing issues of environmental safety is a strategic matter that affects the future of the fragile Arctic ecosystem. The third set of issues concerning economic rights’ realization include insufficient law enforcement practice of the existing federal and regional legislation. Unfortunately, it is one of the pet peeves. The chairman of the Legislative Assembly of the Krasnoyarsk Territory A.V. Uss somehow brought these words: “Even Catherine II said: ‘If a statesman gets confused, if he thinks badly and takes the wrong steps, the whole nation experiences the adverse effects of this”. The Commisioner agrees 100% with A.V. Uss. Officials often interpret existing regional and federal legislation on the basis of life experience in central Russia and meager knowledge about the indigenous small-numbered peoples. Their decision-making is guided by stereotypes and prejudices about them which sometimes lead to mishaps. So according to some pseudo-experts a term “fisheries to meet personal needs” is perceived solely as a requirement to eat fish. It is good, however, they do not require people to eat fish right from the fishing nets. Any truly educated professionals understand that personal needs (requirements) are not limited to food. These are complex needs including physiological, spiritual and moral needs, as well as material needs for life activities. Activities to meet personal needs (requirements) are regulated by the “National Classification of Occupation. OK 010-93” (adopted by Decree of the State Standard of the Russian Federation of 30.12.1993, № 298) (hereinafter – Classification). In 62nd subgroup of Classification there are skilled agricultural workers, as well as employees of hunting and fishery, producing goods for personal consumption. And here it is said that skilled workers producing goods for personal consumption, among other things, hunt wild animals and fish for food, shelter and a minimum cash income for themselves and family members. To achieve these goals the workers carry out the following duties: hunt wild animals and birds in order to obtain meat, fur and other products; fish and collect other species of aquatic flora and fauna; made simple tools, as well as carry out the sale of agricultural products on the market or via procurement organizations. Therefore, the sale of hunting and fishing products to meet personal needs (requirements) is not only possible, but absolutely legitimate. Classification of occupations separates a class of skilled workers, involved in agricultural production, hunting and fishing for personal consumption, and a class of skilled workers doing the same activities (agricultural production, # 1526 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Semen Ya. Palchin. Problems of Economic Rights of the Indigenous Small-Numbered Peoples in the Krasnoyarsk Territory hunting and fishing) with a market orientation. That means that members of the community, having these types of economic activity, can produce and sell products for personal consumption and in this case, their income is not taxed in accordance with the paragraph 16 of Article 217 of the Tax Code of the Russian Federation: “... revenues (excluding remuneration for employees), received by members of duly registered kinship and family communities of the small-numbered peoples of the North , engaged in traditional sectors of management, including selling products of traditional harvesting and hunting”. They also have the right to sell their products as specially hired skilled workers, if this is part of their duties. They can sell these to procurement centres, wholesalers, sales organizations, since they act as commodity producers on behalf of their employers, i.e. communities themselves. Someone may be misled by the term “skilled workers”. Usually it is used in relation to some profession. Classifier in the preamble gives an explanation along the following lines: “In contrast to the term profession, the term occupation means any kind of activities, including requiring no special training, which brings any earnings or income”. And further on: “In the classification of occupations one takes into account that a certain level of qualification can be achieved not only thanks to vocational education or special training, but often enough it is achieved in the course of practical experience”. And we should give the latest addition to this part: All-Russian Classifier of occupations corresponds to the International Standard Classification of Occupations. Many regulatory and legislative acts have been built on its very basis. According to the Commissioner, the words of Head of Taimyr S.V. Baturin have no grounds. The latter stated in a written response to S.S. Chuprin, a public representative of the Commissioner as such (verbatim): “Implementation of a tender for the contract for the provision of fishing land to sustain the traditional way of life and traditional economic activities of the indigenous smallnumbered peoples will lead to a redistribution of existing fishing lands, competition among the indigenous peoples and social unrest”. Following the logic of the mal-officials, the indigenous small-numbered peoples are not allowed to have fishing areas to ensure their traditional way of life and exercise their economic development. Therefore, we will continue to “push” the indigenous peoples in commercial fishing, expose them to deliberately unrealistic conditions, for example, the obligatory presence of a fish processing plant, and to refuse to conclude contracts with them, since they do not have these fish processing plants for some reason. The situation is not a fictional one, it took place in 2011, when a variety of fishing lands were asked for by 74 households and 73 of them have got refusal to conclude contracts because of the lack of this very plant, this situation occurred also even in those areas where there was no competition. Practice of generating different excuses is still here. S., the head of household, addressed the Commissioner. She told indignantly about the new initiative of the Taimyr authorities to require the presence of snowmobile’s and boat motors’ inspections when fi xing quotas for aquatic biological resources. This is an obviously impossible condition as there are no specialized inspection centres on the territory of Taimyr, she said. Neither are registration bodies of snowmobiles in the settlements of the area. This means, people will be forced to go to Dudinka or Norilsk, to spend tens of thousands rubles, to live in these cities for weeks, instead of keeping traditional economic activities. # 1527 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Semen Ya. Palchin. Problems of Economic Rights of the Indigenous Small-Numbered Peoples in the Krasnoyarsk Territory The Commissioner notes a manic aspiration of some officials to create barriers to the economic development of the indigenous peoples by using the red tape method. People who are involved in traditional harvesting, fishing and hunting are forced to travel regularly to Dudinka because of paperwork. For example, the Rules of Fishery for the West Siberian Fishery Basin demand to present data of production (catch) of aquatic biological resources according to the areas of production (catch) and (or) fishery sites to relevant territorial fishery organs no later than the 18th and 3rd days of each month stating the condition for the 15th day and the last day of the month, i.e. every two weeks. There is a dilemma: either to catch fish, or to be engaged in paperwork in the regional centre. The 19th century conspicuous statesman M. M. Speransky in the Charter on Management of Foreigners of 1822 introduced such a norm: § 254. “Opposite to that, we shall penalize the officials for a delay of nomads or for calling them from the far”. Besides, according to the Rules of fishery fishermen have to keep separate account of production (catch) and reception by types of aquatic biological resources taking into account weight, dimensional ratio of fish types in a catch. That is each fisherman has to have scales and roulette, and therefore light. But it is a problematic issue in tundra or taiga conditions. The Commissioner appealed to the Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry of the Krasnoyarsk Territory with a recommendation to initiate amendments to the Rules of Fishery for the West Siberian Fishery Basin to simplify fishing regulations for people engaged in fishing in order to keep traditional way of life and traditional economic activities of the indigenous small-numbered peoples of the North. Article 25 of the Federal law “On fishery and preservation of aquatic biological resources” entitles the indigenous people to fish without permission and without fishing sites. However, members of society regularly indicate that the indigenous peoples are exposed to administrative penalties carrying out fishery without permissions. “No representative of the indigenous smallnumbered s peoples of the North on the territory Taimyr was fined in 2012 , answered the territorial body of Federal State Institution “Rosrybolovstvo” at working conference with the senior managers of “Yeniseyrybolovstvo” at the beginning of December, 2012. An additional question was asked about how to determine a nationality of Rules of fishery violators; the answer was that the inspectors do not keep records according to the nationality and that their duties do not include definition of an ethnic origin. Thus, it turns out that the inspectors fine citizens, without determining their nationality, and, accordingly, the indigenous representatives fall in the category of citizens exposed to this penalty. Furthermore, distorted, or rather incomplete data are transferred to the Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. So a blissful picture is painted in such a way. The Commissioner pleaded the heads of Federal State Institution “Yeniseyrybvod” to recommend inspectors supervising the preservation of aquatic biological resources to introduce in the protocols on administrative violations additional records of nationality of people who broke the Rules on fishery, with their consent. Analysis of existing legal and regulatory acts suggests that Taimyr permits traditional fishing without obtaining special permits (documents) only within the limits established by the Decree of Government of the Krasnoyarsk Territory of 20.04.2009, № 210-п. At the same time representatives of the indigenous small- # 1528 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Semen Ya. Palchin. Problems of Economic Rights of the Indigenous Small-Numbered Peoples in the Krasnoyarsk Territory numbered peoples have the right to carry out this type of traditional fishing in any water basin, even if it has been transferred for further use to someone else. According to the order of the Russian Federation Federal Agency for Fishery of 04.03.2009 № 166, Decree of the Government of the Krasnoyarsk Territory dated 07.12.2009, №632-п, contains a provision on the need for applications to sign up until September 1. From the analysis of the above regulations, it follows that this procedure, including a requirement for admission documents until September 1, may concern only traditional fishery, carried out in case of the provision of a fishing site. Thus, the systematic interpretation of the law implies that current collection of applications for quotas to traditional fishery is not based on any law. In particular, the Resolution of the Taimirsky Municipal District Administration of 27.01.2012 “On granting aquatic biological resources to use for keeping the traditional economic activity of the indigenous small-numbered peoples living in the Taimirsky Dolgano-Nenetsky Municipal District for 2012” is illegal and revocable. Economic empowerment of the indigenous peoples is implemented by public organizations. Thus, on 19 March 2012, in Dudinka there was held a round table on “Efficiency of state support measures aimed at keeping traditional economic activities of the indigenous small-numbered peoples of Taimyr” due to the initiative of the Association of the Indigenous Small-numbered Peoples of Taimyr (the Krasnoyarsk Territory). The roundtable participants adopted the resolution, one of item of which condemned the position of the district administration, having taken no part in the round table. Also it was noted that the heads of several business entities abused the financial support paid them from the regional budget; they use trust funds for reaching questionable goals. Examples were given of agricultural production cooperative “Iara-Tanama”, which three years ago acquired $4 million ruble wing-in-ground effect vehicle, but still has not put it on its balance sheet and has not presented it to the members of the agricultural cooperative that raises doubts to its presence, and numerous questions arise for a significant monetary maintenance for the administrative and managerial staff, as subsidies are targeted at reindeer husbandry and are focused on breeding domestic reindeer, but not on financing the administrative and managerial staff. It was also noted that the company “Piasino Limited” (its founder is the Administration of Taimyr) received in 2011 6.010.055 rubles by the resolution of the Government of the Krasnoyarsk Territory dated February 8, 2011, № 79-п, which regulates the provision of financial support for production from traditional economic activities of the indigenous small-numbered peoples, which is almost 22 % of the total allocated funds for financial support in the district, at the same time it was pointed out (literally), that “the purpose of providing financial support is to solve the problems of employment of the indigenous small-numbered peoples, the promotion and support of different types of traditional economic activities of the indigenous small-numbered peoples of the North” (paragraph 1.2. Procedure of resolution). And if the household does not solve these problems, it shall not receive financial support, and, according to our data, there are no any indigenous peoples in the company “Piasino Limited”, and hunting and fishing carried out by people of other nationalities do not match the category “traditional economic activity of the indigenous small-numbered peoples”. General Director of the company “Piasino Limited” does not work in this position anymore, and the company has been sold by Taimyr’s authorities to the businessmen from Norilsk. I would not like to think that Taimyr’s authorities cover their tracks in such a way, but rather I # 1529 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Semen Ya. Palchin. Problems of Economic Rights of the Indigenous Small-Numbered Peoples in the Krasnoyarsk Territory would like to see that law enforcement bodies will clarify this case. Peculiar interpretation of the Federal Law “On hunting and the preservation of hunting’s resources and introduction in certain legislative acts of the Russian Federation” has given rise to a precedent in the Evenkia. Association of the indigenous small-numbered peoples of the North of Evenkiysky Municipal District of the Krasnoyarsk Territory “Arun” (“Revival”) announced that it has some data on citizens who do not belong to the indigenous smallnumbered peoples of the North, who have been given the right to free taking of wildlife by the representatives of local governments and officials of service for the protection, control and regulation of use of wildlife and its environment in the Krasnoyarsk Territory (81 citizens in the settlements of Baykit’s group only). According to the views of leaders of this public organization, this right has been granted illegally. The public prosecutor’s office of the Krasnoyarsk Territory responded by Submission of 07.09.2012, № 7/1-092012, “On elimination of violations of legislation on hunting and preservation of hunting’s resources” being sent to the head of service for the protection, control and regulation of use of wildlife and its environment. Officials of service were brought to administrative responsibility. However, this has not brought clarity to this matter. Does every person who goes hunting with a rifle to taiga or tundra should be treated as equal to the indigenous small-numbered peoples of the North? Does hunting serves him as the basis of the existence? Many people do not distinguish between hunting for sustaining the traditional way of life from amateur, sports and even commercial hunting. Hunting for keeping the traditional way of life of the indigenous small-numbered peoples plays a saving role for the whole ethnos. Exactly the same can be said about as the reindeer husbandry. Only reindeer husbandry has a more powerful ethnos-saving factor. That is due to the traditional hunting the indigenous peoples of tundra or taiga retain their native languages, special culture of use of wildlife. These people accompany their actions while hunting with rites and rituals, according to the tradition the first take is shared with the elderly, single mothers, disabled and poor relatives. The purpose of profit, as a rule, is not a key factor. Hunting products are sold to cover costs related to the maintenance of traditional hunting, and for the formation of financial and material stocks for the next hunt. Unsatisfactory law enforcement practice has such an aspect. The Commissioner was given the information from non-profit organization of traditional trades and crafts subjects “Union of the indigenous small-numbered peoples’ communities of the Krasnoyarsk Territory” about difficulties with the registration of leases of forest lands. As explained by the non-governmental organization leaders, currently legal entities of the indigenous small-numbered peoples having long-term licenses for the use of wildlife and leases of forest lands due to the inactivity of the Forest Agency of the Krasnoyarsk Territory: – can’t produce the state registration of these contracts; – can’t get conclusion of the state expertise on forest development projects, which are required to develop and submit under lease contracts, as specified by the aforesaid agency; – can’t record the leased land in state cadastral registration lists. By the Decree of the Krasnoyarsk Territory Arbitration Court, 29 March 2010, case number A33-22160/2009, inactivity of the Krasnoyarsk Territory Forest Agency was declared unlawful. It is expressed in the non-preparation and nonpublication of any legal act which is required for state registration of lease agreement of forest # 1530 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Semen Ya. Palchin. Problems of Economic Rights of the Indigenous Small-Numbered Peoples in the Krasnoyarsk Territory area, which should have been concluded between the Krasnoyarsk Territory Forest Agency and the community of the indigenous small-numbered peoples. Until now the Krasnoyarsk Territory Forest Agency has not eliminated the revealed violations of the rights and legitimate interests of the community of the indigenous small-numbered peoples and it does not even perform the decision of the Krasnoyarsk Territory Arbitration Court. In accordance with paragraphs 1 and 2 of Article 72 of the Forest Code of Russian Federation from 04.12.2006 № 200- ФЗ, by lease agreement of a forest area, which is in state or municipal property, the landlord gives the tenant a forest area for one or more purposes. An object of lease can only be forest areas owned by the state or municipality and having state cadastral registration. On behalf of the Ministry of Economic Development of the Russian Federation of 27.07.2010 № 20321- ИМ/Д23 on the Krasnoyarsk Territory a forest area as a part of forest lands are subject to state registration. But cadastral information about the coordinates of the characteristic points of the boundaries is absent, i.e. the territories are enlisted in cadastral registration only declaratively. Territories that are provided for the use of the indigenous smallnumbered peoples are registered as being in the ownership of the Russian Federation. In addition, the Federal Law “On the Federal Budget for 2011 and the planning period of 2012 and 2013” from 13.12.2010 № 357 – ФЗ did not allocate funds for activities to implement state cadastral registration. As a result, in the next two years the executive authorities of the Krasnoyarsk Territory won’t register forest areas as part of forest lands in due order. Thus, the legal entities of the indigenous small-numbered peoples, having long-term licenses for wildlife use and lease agreements on forest areas, will not be able to get state registration of lease agreement on forest areas, whereby such contracts will be recognized as not concluded , thus not there will not be fulfilled obligations for long-term licenses for wildlife use in full. The Commissioner addressed A.A. Klishas, the senator from the Krasnoyarsk Territory, chairman of the Federation Council Committee on Constitutional Legislation, Judicial and Legal Affairs, Development of Civil Society, with a request to get involved in this problem, given that its solution is impossible without the execution of the financial obligations of the federal budget. Violation of the economic rights of the indigenous small-numbered peoples is fostered by the reduction in staff number of employees supervising the state of the environment. Insufficient number of inspectors of hunting and fishing, their inability to make regular visits to the places where fish is caught; and also weak interaction at the municipal level between local governments, law enforcement agencies, veterinary service representatives and representatives of the territorial service for the protection, control and regulation of the use of wildlife and its environment of the Krasnoyarsk Territory while organizing seasonal hunt in public areas and in the territories where the indigenous small-numbered peoples’ communities perform their traditional economic activities. The compliance with the requirements of legislation in the sphere of nature land management is poor too, which ends up in encouraging malevolent citizens to start illegal hunting and illegal use of aquatic biological resources. As a consequence, sable and wild reindeer are wildly shot; catch of valuable fish species is done fast and loose. We should mention the fact that bad performance of official duties by employees from law enforcement agencies and territorial # 1531 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Semen Ya. Palchin. Problems of Economic Rights of the Indigenous Small-Numbered Peoples in the Krasnoyarsk Territory service for the protection, control and regulation of the use of wildlife and its environment in the Krasnoyarsk Territory regarding the elimination of illegal acts of citizens in hunting and making sustainable documentation on witnessing the circumstances of the administrative offenses in the territories, where the indigenous smallnumbered peoples perform their traditional economic activities. According to the information obtained from the non-profit organization of traditional land management, harvesting, hunting and fishing “Union of the communities of the indigenous small-numbered peoples of the North of Evenkiysky Municipal District of the Krasnoyarsk Territory”, the authorized officials during their trip to the place of an offense in the territory of traditional economic activities of the community of the indigenous small-numbered peoples “Kunnoir” (translated as “Crying out”) for some unknown reason did not prevent the illegal acts committed by those citizens, who do not belong to the indigenous small-numbered peoples. These offenders were witnessed as illegal hunting without proper documents. The authorities only made a protocol about administrative offense”. Besides that, offenders were not arrested and were not delivered to law enforcement agencies, they were allowed to keep their gun (traps). Even their rifled firearms were not withdrawn despite the absence of the licensing documents. Illegal activities concerning hunting sable were qualified as an administrative offense by local authorities. One should take into account that the protocol has not specified by some unknown reason a number of the found harvested sable skins. According to the protocol the period, within which the detected violations should be eliminated, shall not exceed 14 days from the moment of issuing the corresponding regulation. Thus, citizens who were carrying out illegal hunting were allowed to continue illegal activities on the unknown grounds for more than two calendar weeks, i.e., they were permitted to complete their criminal actions (illegal hunting). One of the so-called offenders during 2012 was twice prosecuted for offenses in the sphere of the hunting, which are enlisted in by Code of Administrative Offences of the Russian Federation. Authorized representatives of the Commissioner became aware of the mass shooting of wild reindeer right in Khatanga rural settlement. Hunters threw insides, blood and guts off right into the river, and we need to note that downstream there is the water intake of the settlement. Such barbaric attitude to nature has become possible partly because in the Taimirsky DolganoNenetsky Municipal District has a reduced structure of “Rosprirodnadzor” (Russian Federal Service for Supervision of Natural Resource Usage). According to the Commissioner, the reduction of this structure at the Taimyr Peninsula is a mistake. Dozens of large industrial companies are already operating in the area and conducting their activities in 26 licensed areas. The whole territory of the region is defined as the place of original habitat and traditional economic activities of the indigenous small-numbered peoples of the North. Uncontrolled activity of industrial companies sometimes causes serious damage to the original habitat of the indigenous peoples. The Commissioner was asked by the Noskov settlement in tundra reindeer herders V. and Ia. to react to this ecological character crime. The herders attached to their application photos and videos showing the large-scale soil cover disturbance of tundra stretching for tens of kilometers, near the river Iakovlevka. According to them, in the summer time the whole neighboring # 1532 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Semen Ya. Palchin. Problems of Economic Rights of the Indigenous Small-Numbered Peoples in the Krasnoyarsk Territory region of the tundra was traveled through by heavy crawler tractors and cross-country vehicles serving the licensed oilfield mined by the company “Rosneft”. For the Commissioner, who grew up in a family of reindeer herders, images of the blasphemous attitude to the nature, the ruthless destruction of reindeer moss and lichens have become the best proof of ineffectiveness of the authorities assigned to monitor compliance with the constitutional rights of citizens to the safe environment. Relevant materials were then sent to the Public Prosecutor of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. The Commissioner appealed to the heads of the territorial department of the Federal Service for Supervision of Natural Resources of the Krasnoyarsk Territory, with a recommendation to recreate their department in Taimirsky Dolgano-Nenetsky Municipal District, taking into account the availability of staff units in the rural settlement of Karaul and Khatanga. The original habitat of the indigenous peoples as a result of the activities of industrial companies is getting unsafe for reindeer herders, hunters and fishermen. In October 2012, near the village Tukhard a tragic accident happened to citizen P. Two children were left without a single parent, i.e. they became orphans. The inhabitants of Tukhard stated that a young father was a non-drinker, hardworking man of respect among fellow countrymen. Citizen P. was returning from fishing home on his boat by the Bol’shaya Kheta river in the dark and came across a taut rope, which made him thrown out of the boat into the cold water, where he drowned eventually. The taut rope was pulled by the professional divers to produce necessary repairs in the gas pipeline running along the bottom of the river. A few days earlier the rope had almost hit two people, returning by boat to their village, they got safe only because it was still light. K. citizen testified to the Commissioner for he asked the repairers to mark the rope with light lights or by other means and they just laughed in response. The Prosecutor’s department of Taimirsky Dolgano-Nenetsky Municipal District has not seen in this death any components of the crime and refused to start a criminal case. The Commissioner makes here a statement that he will seek further review of the investigation materials, insist on beginning criminal case and find real perpetrators, guilty in the death of citizen P. Right to Work and Decent Life Right to work and decent life for the indigenous peoples is associated with their rights to protection of their original habitat and to undertake entrepreneurial activity through keeping the traditional economic activities of the indigenous peoples. The existence of problems in the implementation of these rights entails a reduction of income, impairment of life standard, an increase in injuries, sometimes fatal ones. The materials of the Accounts Chamber of the Krasnoyarsk Territory have witnessed a recent years’ trend of the increased number of citizens with incomes below the minimum subsistence level. In Evenkia this number went up from 1,283 people in 2009 to 4,668 people in 2011. Figures are common, they do not take into account the national characteristic of the district inhabitants, but there is no doubt that the number of the indigenous peoples falling in this category is sufficient. According to the same year materials, the average monthly salary of the fishermen, who are almost 100% representatives of the northern ethnic groups, was 3,900 rubles. The average monthly salary of hunters was 5,200 rubles. The subsistence minimum level in the Evenk region for able-bodied population is 14,705 rubles. The average monthly salary of reindeer herder # 1533 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Semen Ya. Palchin. Problems of Economic Rights of the Indigenous Small-Numbered Peoples in the Krasnoyarsk Territory in Evenkia was higher than that of hunters and fishermen, but, unfortunately, it also fell short of the minimum subsistence level, it was only 8,100 rubles. At the Taimyr Peninsula the situation is no better, although the local authorities are trying to sugarcoat it. Thus, the achievements there included the situation on the labor market, namely the reduction of unemployment: as for 01.01.2011 645 people were registered in employment services and by 01.01.2012 this number fell to 586 people. However, we know that the citizens, who preserve traditional lifestyle and (or) carry out different kinds of traditional economic activities of the indigenous peoples, receive compensation in the amount of 4000 rubles a month and they are not registered in the employment services as unemployed. In 2009, the number of such people was 1,941, in 2010 – 1,963, in 2011 – 1,842. Revenues of these citizens are 3-3.5 times lower than the minimum subsistence level in the area (for the able-bodied population it is 12,573 rubles, in the rural settlement of Khatanga – 14 608 rubles). These people do not registered in employment services due to the necessity to go on the dole once in two weeks, which is impossible in their living conditions. In fact, it is hidden unemployment; if we take it in consideration with the situation on the labor market will be fundamentally different. According to the report of the administration of Taimirsky Dolgano-Nenetsky Municipal District, the average monthly wage of fisherman (they are primarily the indigenous people) is 3,632 rubles 90 kopecks. Average monthly wage of reindeer herders in Khatanga is 2,570 rubles. Given the benefits (4,000 rubles per month) the total income of herders is 6,570 rubles, which is two and a half times less than minimum subsistence level. Average monthly wage of reindeer herders living in Noskov and Tukhard, according to the data of agricultural production cooperatives “Iara-Tanama” and “Suzun”, also does not reach minimum subsistence level, although households’ owners are making efforts to rectify the situation. Unfortunately, these measures are not sufficient; instead, the government should make more meaningful and effective efforts to remedy the situation. For example, S.A. Sizonenko, the head of reindeer herding cooperative “Suzun” has taken all the critical remarks with positive and constructive attitude. Thus, two years ago the Commissioner analyzed the applications from workers and cooperative members, in which they asked for proper documentation of their property shares by cooperative’s heads. S.A. Sizonenko, being the chairman of the cooperative, eagerly eliminated these discrepancies and, moreover, introduced into his daily routine regular consultations with experienced workers – former heads of reindeer farms in the times of the Soviet Union. The result of these measures is a steady increase in the number of domesticated reindeer and the highest salary in the herder industry at the Taimyr Peninsula. Although, consider it again, it is not equal to 12,573 rubles, which is minimum subsistence level in the district. Heads of deer farms offer to increase compensation (benefits) for herders up to 6,000 rubles per month, as reindeer herding is critical for the development of some ethnic groups. The Commissioner agrees with them and recommends the Government of the Krasnoyarsk Territory to seek the possibility of increasing the amount of compensation to a specified amount. This measure will reduce social tension in the area. It may be interesting to see the dynamics of the number of applications for social support # 1534 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Semen Ya. Palchin. Problems of Economic Rights of the Indigenous Small-Numbered Peoples in the Krasnoyarsk Territory received from the citizens, who are the indigenous small-numbered peoples of Taimyr. 2009 2010 2011 2 641 (26,2 %) 3 146 (31,1 %) 3 408 (33,6 %) Conclusions of the Accounts Chamber of the Krasnoyarsk Territory: every third indigenous resident of the region has the right to get social support, while this right arises due to insufficient funds of these people to cover their basic expenditures. The Commissioner repeatedly called on the authorities to Taimyr with the recommendation to cease violations of the indigenous peoples’ rights to have access to hunting and fishing lands. The indigenous people should also a priority while using aquatic biological resources, as well as getting licenses on wildlife. They should not overcome bureaucratic obstacles to carrying out their traditional economic activities. The authorities must create areas of traditional use of natural resources. All these measures will improve the socioeconomic situation. However, local authorities prefer only to increase the burden on the regional budget in the case of provision of social support. The Krasnoyarsk Territories’ authorities fulfill their obligations, but the district authorities are obliged to create conditions to ensure the rights of the indigenous peoples to their economic development, community activities for the indigenous peoples, especially since they are endowed with the state power by the law of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. Article 132 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation in terms of control over the implementation of delegated state powers can become the reason for claim to the public authorities of the Krasnoyarsk Territory, who work ineffectively. Violation of labor rights of the northern ethnic groups happens partly due to the reduced number of bodies, assigned to implement control in the field of labor relations. A female citizen T., the worker of municipal housing and maintenance utilities enterprise “Taimyr”, located in the settlement of Ust’-Avam, referred to the Commissioner requesting for her labor rights’ protection. T. is pregnant, she has two minor children at the age of 3 and 6 years old. The employer made her quit of her own accord. The Labor Code of the Russian Federation protects her rights and bans to dismiss pregnant women by the will of employers. In order to protect the female citizen T. labor rights, letters were sent to the Prosecutor’s Office of Taimirsky Dolgano-Nenetsky Municipal District and to State Labor Inspection Service in the Krasnoyarsk Territory, which is directly responsible for Taimirsky Dolgano-Nenetsky Municipal District. Both bodies did not determine the infringement of rights. The Prosecutor’s Office of the District wrote back an excuse that the complainant is on vacation now, any evidence of making her quit of her own accord have not been discovered, the prosecutor’s response measures are not planned. In the opinion of the Commissioner, the Prosecutor’s Office exhibits only formal control of the violation of rights. There are some reasons for this anyway. It is an unaffordable luxury both for the employees of the Prosecutor’s Office and for the employees of State Labor Inspection Service to visit a remote Ust’-Avam settlement by a helicopter and to live there about one-two weeks while waiting for the next helicopter to get them back home. Soon there was received one more employees’ complaint from the same enterprise of this remote area. Now people blamed the heads of municipal enterprise “Taimyr” for inappropriate conditions of work. It turned out impossible to restore citizen’s labor rights with the help of government # 1535 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Semen Ya. Palchin. Problems of Economic Rights of the Indigenous Small-Numbered Peoples in the Krasnoyarsk Territory bodies. State Labor Inspection Service honestly replied in their letter (literally): “Bearing in mind that municipal housing and maintenance utilities enterprise “Taimyr”, located in the settlement of Ust’-Avam, is to be reduced in staff and as the routine audit of municipal enterprise “Taimyr” is not planned in 2012, it is impossible to organize the unscheduled inspection of the information got”. Some worrying news came from Turukhansky District. Being anxious about their probable dismissal, the employees of the Ket language laboratory referred to Office of the Commissioner for Human Rights in the Krasnoyarsk Territory. A female citizen M. informed the Commissioner of her acquaintance with the order of new staff list, which has no her position. The female citizen M. raises her five years old minor daughter alone. The situation is made worse by a possible eviction from corporate housing in the case of her position is reduced. In the view of M. she would be fired because of her nationality. The Commissioner for Human Rights in the Krasnoyarsk Territory addressed the Ministry of Education and Science of the Krasnoyarsk Territory with the request to pay attention to this case. S.I. Makovskaia, First Deputy Minister, assured the Commissioner and M. that “at present time a procedure of personnel and staff reduction is not being made”. Moreover, M. was given guarantees of compliance with the Labor Code of the Russian Federation if the procedure of personnel and staff reduction takes place. Conclusions: in the Russian Federation and one of its subjects – the Krasnoyarsk Territory – there is an extensive normative and legal framework, the task of which is to create legal mechanisms to implement the rights of the indigenous peoples prescribed by the Russian Constitution. However, this legislation and its enforcement practices are to be amended. Numerous examples from the work of the Commissioner for rights of the indigenous small-numbered peoples in the Krasnoyarsk Territory suggest that in the Krasnoyarsk Territory there is a need in the Commissioner for effective realization of the rights of the indigenous small-numbered peoples. It is necessary to develop further the normative and legal framework to solve the real problems of the indigenous small-numbered peoples of the Krasnoyarsk Territory more quickly and with greater soсial response. References 1. Dove M.R. (2006). Indigenous People and Environmental Politics. Annual Review of Anthropology, 35, 191-208. 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Sliozkin Iu. Arkticheskie zerkala: Rossiia i malochislennye korennye narody Severa [Arctic mirrors: Russia and the indigenous small-numbered peoples of the North]. Moscow, 2008. 512 p. 39. Snodgrass J. J. (2013). Health of Indigenous Circumpolar Populations. Annual Review of Anthropology, 42, 69-87. DOI: 10.1146/annurev-anthro-092412-155517 40. Stefanenko T.G. Etnopsikhologiia [Ethnopsychology]. Moscow, Aspect-Press, 2007. 320p. 41. Vasilevich G.M. (1969). Evenki: istoriko-etnograficheskie ocherki [Evenki: historical and ethnographic essays (18 – early 20th centuries)]. Leningrad, 30 p. # 1539 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Semen Ya. Palchin. Problems of Economic Rights of the Indigenous Small-Numbered Peoples in the Krasnoyarsk Territory 42. Zigon J. (2013). Human Rights As Moral Progress? A Critique. Cultural Anthropology, 28(4), 716-736. Проблемы реализации экономических прав коренных малочисленных народов Красноярского края С. Я. Пальчин Аппарат Уполномоченного по правам человека в Красноярском крае Россия, 660021, Красноярск, ул. Карла Маркса, 122 Настоящая статья представляет собой вторую часть материала, основанного на Докладе Уполномоченного по правам коренных малочисленных народов в Красноярском крае «О проблемах реализации конституционных прав и свобод коренных малочисленных народов на территории Красноярского края в 2012 году». В статье подробно анализируются проблемы реализации экономических прав коренных малочисленных народов Красноярского края. В частности, речь идет о следующих правах: право на защиту исконной среды обитания, традиционного образа жизни и традиционного природопользования; право на труд и достойную жизнь. В статье не только раскрываются проблемы федерального и регионального законодательства, а также недостаточность правоприменительной практики, но и формулируются рекомендации и просьбы, которые выдвигает Уполномоченный орган исполнительной власти и местного самоуправления для решения существующих проблемных ситуаций. Ключевые слова: северные и арктические территории, Красноярский край, нормативноправовая база, коренные малочисленные народы Красноярского края, Уполномоченный по правам коренных малочисленных народов, правоприменительная практика. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 9 (2014 7) 1541-1554 ~~~ УДК 330.59; 338.24 Territorial Peculiarities of Settlement of the Indigenous Minorities of the North (by the example of Taimyr Dolgano-Nenets and Evenk municipal regions of Krasnoyarsk Krai) Elena A. Bryukhanova* and Aleksandr M. Matveev Krasnoyarsk Branch of the Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering of SB RAS 50 Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk, 660036, Russia Received 15.05.2014, received in revised form 12.06.2014, accepted 30.06.2014 The article considers the typology of inhabited localities of Taimyr Dolgano-Nenets and Evenk municipal regions of Krasnoyarsk Krai according to such criteria as the percentage of the indigenous minorities (IM) in the total population, the level of the development of traditional, market and budgetary sectors that should be taken into account at working out the programme of the territories’ socio-economical development. It estimates the potential and directions of socioeconomical development of the territories of the indigenous minorities’ traditional settlement and traditional economical activity. Keywords: indigenous minorities, territories of traditional settlement and traditional economical activity, territories of traditional use of natural resources. The research is carried out within the frame of the researches financed by Krasnoyarsk regional fund for supporting scientific and technical research activities and within the frame of SibFU’s thematic plan in compliance with the instruction task of the Ministry of education and science of the Russian Federation. Introduction According to population census data 2010 the total number of 8 indigenous minorities of the North (the Dolgans, the Evenks, the Nenets, the Kets, the Nganasans, the Selkups, the Enets, the Chulyms), compactly residing in the territory of Krasnoyarsk Krai, was 16,2 thousand people (30,1 % of the population of the indigenous minorities of the North in Siberian Federal Okrug) (Table 1, Fig. 1). * According to the RF governmental regulation No 22 dated 11.01.1993 the following territories were regarded as the residential territories of the indigenous minorities of the North in Krasnoyarsk Krai up to May 2009 (The RF governmental regulation…, 1993)1: Taimyr, Turukhansk and Evenk municipal regions, Sym village of Yeniseysk municipal region and Vel’mo village of Severo-Yeniseysky municipal region. © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com # 1541 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Bryukhanova and Aleksandr M. Matveev. Territorial Peculiarities of Settlement of the Indigenous Minorities… Table 1. Total population of the indigenous minorities of the North in Krasnoyarsk Krai as per the population census data 2002 and 2010 Ethnos including urban population, people rural population, people Total, people 2002 2010 2002 2010 2002 2010 the Dolgans 5805 5810 1038 1452 4767 4358 the Nganasans 811 807 147 263 664 544 the Nenets 3188 3633 494 657 2694 2976 the Kets 1189 957 199 183 990 774 the Selkups 412 281 58 70 354 211 the Chulyms 159 145 11 8 148 137 the Evenks 4632 4372 1438 1345 3194 3027 the Enets 213 221 39 53 174 168 16409 16226 3424 4031 12985 12195 Total Fig. 1. Changes in the population number of the indigenous minorities of the North in Krasnoyarsk Krai as per the population census data (people) In compliance with the RF governmental regulation No 631-р dated 08.05.2009 the list of traditional residential territories of the indigenous minorities of the RF in Krasnoyarsk Krai was specified and extended (The RF governmental regulation…, 2009). It includes the whole Severo-Yeniseysky region (not only Vel’mo village as it was before) and the rural settlement of Chindatsky Soviet of the settlement (sel’sovet) of Tyukhtet municipal region (the territory of the Chulyms’ compact residence). In 2000 the Chulyms were included in the Unified list of the indigenous minorities of the RF. According to the population census data 2002 the number of the Chulyms in Krasnoyarsk Krai (Tyukhtet region) was 159 persons. They compactly live in Pasechnoye village of Chindatsky Soviet of the settlement of Tyukhtet region located 120 # 1542 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Bryukhanova and Aleksandr M. Matveev. Territorial Peculiarities of Settlement of the Indigenous Minorities… Table 2. Territory and population of the area of traditional residence of the indigenous minorities in Krasnoyarsk Krai Territory, thousand square kilometers Number of resident population, 1.01.2013, people including total urban rural Taimyr Dolgano-Nenets municipal region 879,9 34053 Evenk municipal region 767,6 Turukhansk municipal region 210,7 Severo-Yeniseysky municipal region Rural village of Simsky Soviet of the settlement of Yeniseysky municipal region Rural village of Chindatsky Soviet of the settlement of Tyukhtetsky municipal region Total in the area of traditional residence of the indigenous minorities of the North in Krasnoyarsk Krai % of the indicators of Krasnoyarsk Krai For reference: Krasnoyarsk Krai Population density, people/ square km 23006 11047 15881 - 15881 0,02 17876 6619 11257 0,08 47,3 11864 8317 3547 0,25 1,0 176 - 176 0,18 2,1 284 - 284 0,14 1908,6 80134 37942 42192 0,04 80,6 2,8 1,7 6,3 2366,8 2846475 2181591 664884 0,04 1,20 Note: The data, concerning the territory, are given in compliance with Krasnoyarsk Krai laws on establishing the borders and institutionalization of municipal establishments. The absence of exact data about the area of Simsky Soviet of the settlement caused its estimation. The data about the number of resident population are given in accordance with the informational sources of Krasnoyarsk Statistics Service and Federal State Statistics Service (Estimation of the population number…, 2013; Database of indices…). km from the region centre, horse breeding being their main activity. The total area of traditional residential territories of the indigenous minorities in Krasnoyarsk Krai is approximately 1908,6 thousand square kilometers (80,6 % of Krasnoyarsk Krai territory) (Table 2). According to the data of 01.01.2013 the total population, living in the territory, was 80,1 thousand people (2,8 % of Krasnoyarsk Krai population), including 37,9 thousand people of urban population (47,3 % of the population of the territory under consideration and 1,7 % of Krasnoyarsk Krai urban population); 42,2 thousand people of rural population (52,7 % of the population of the territory under consideration and 6,3 % of Krasnoyarsk Krai rural population). With administrative and territorial regard the area of traditional residence of the indigenous minorities embraces 44 municipal entities in Krasnoyarsk Krai2: 6 municipal regions (of these 2 regions are Taimyr (Dolgano-Nenets) and Evenk municipal regions with a special status, Yeniseysky and Tyukhtetsky regions as the territories of traditional residence of the indigenous minorities) and 36 settlements established in their territories (of these 4 settlements are urban and 32 settlements are rural). There are 100 human settlements in the territory under consideration. Of these 6 settlements have a status of urban ones3, the rest 94 settlements refer to the category of rural human settlements (Table 3). Table 4 shows that 86,2 % (13,9 thousand people) of the indigenous population lives in the territory of Taimyr (Dolgano-Nenets) and Evenk municipal regions (it should be taken into consideration that these municipal units # 1543 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Bryukhanova and Aleksandr M. Matveev. Territorial Peculiarities of Settlement of the Indigenous Minorities… Table 3. Administrative and territorial division of the area of traditional residence of the indigenous minorities in Krasnoyarsk Krai Municipal regions area of traditional residence of the indigenous minorities in Krasnoyarsk Krai, total Urban regions 6 Settlements total Inhabited locality urban rural total urban rural 36 4 32 100 6 94 4 2 2 27 2 25 23 23 5 34 2 32 12 2 10 including Taimyr Dolgano-Nenets municipal region (administrative centre – Dudinka city) Evenk municipal region (administrative centre – Tura village) Turukhansk municipal region (administrative centre – Turukhansk village) Severo-Yeniseysky municipal region (administrative centre – SeveroYeniseysky industrial community) Rural village of Simsky Soviet of the settlement of Yeniseysky municipal region Rural village of Chindatsky Soviet of the settlement of Tyukhtetsky municipal region For reference: Krasnoyarsk Krai 1 - 1 23 1 7 2 1 23 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 485 1766 44 17 used to have the status of national okrugs and later that of autonomous okrugs) and only13,8 % (2,2 thousand people) – in the territory of other municipal units. Taimyr Dolgano-Nenets municipal region Allocation of the indigenous minorities of the North in rural inhabited localities in Taimyr Dolgano-Nenets municipal region is uneven, historically formed (Table 5, Fig. 2). Population density in the region is extremely low. It is 30340 square kilometers per 1 settlement. The distance between Dudinka city, the administrative centre of the municipal region, and the villages is more than 1000 kilometers by air (Syndassko) and more than 2,5 thousand kilometers by water (Khatanga). 520 35 62 1704 Historically there were five main ethnic and industrial areas within the bounds of the municipal region, and namely those of Yeniseysk Nenets, Avam Nganasans, Dolgans of the eastern part of the municipal region, Khantaika Evenks and Potapovo Enets. The Yeniseysk Nenets historically live in the territory of Karaul rural settlement and the western part of Dudinka urban settlement, naturally and economically drawn towards the river Yenisey and the Yeniseysky Zaliv (the Yeniseisk Bay). The Nenets’ national centre is Nosok village. The Evenks and Dolgans predominantly live in the territory around Lake Khantaika in approximately equal percentage. Khantaiskoye ozero (Lake Khantaika) village is the Khantaika Evenks’ national centre. # 1544 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Bryukhanova and Aleksandr M. Matveev. Territorial Peculiarities of Settlement of the Indigenous Minorities… Table 4. Number of the indigenous minorities in municipal units of Krasnoyarsk Krai (according to the population census data 2010, people) Taimyr (Dolgano-Nenets) municipal region Evenk municipal region Turukhansk, Severo-Yeniseysky, Yeniseysky, Tyukhtetsky and other municipal units of the krai Municipal units 5393 48 369 5810 the Kets 19 207 731 957 the Nganasans 747 6 54 807 the Nenets 3494 8 131 3633 the Selkups 9 1 271 281 the Chulyms Nationality the Dolgans Total in Krasnoyarsk Krai 0 0 145 145 the Evenks 266 3583 523 4372 the Enets 204 0 17 221 10132 3853 2241 16226 29,4 23,7 х 0,6 62,4 23,8 13,8 100,0 Total (the indigenous minorities of the North) % of the total population % of the population of the indigenous minorities of the North in the krai The central part of Taimyr Peninsula, located in the basins of the middle and upper courses of the river Pyasina and the upper Kheta, is the territory of the Avam Nganasans’ historic residence. At present it is also inhabited by the Dolgans and the Enets. The percentage of the former is almost the same while that of the latter is smaller. A vast territory in the eastern part of the municipal region, practically all developed area of Khatanga rural settlement make the zone of the Dolgans’ historic residence. The system of environmental management is drawn towards the tributaries of the Kheta-Khatanga river and small rivers, flowing into the southern part of the Khatanga Bay. The territories around Potapovo are predominantly inhabited by the Enets, who used to occupy a considerable area of the Turukhan and Taz rivers, the right bank of the river Ob but were forced out to the lower course of the Yenisey by the Nenets and Selkups. The Enets have been neighbouring with the Nenets, migrants in the lower course of the Yenisey, since the 19th century. Good neighbourly relations in many respects favoured the assimilation of the Enets, who are less numerous in number, as well as their considerable rundown. Both are also helped forward by the similarity of the Enets and Nganasan languages and the fact that the Enets haven’t got written language. At present the borders of historically developed areas diffuse and are not marked territorially. Modern socio-economical conditions determine the ethnoses’ large-scale integration, development of common socio-cultural centres. # 1545 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Bryukhanova and Aleksandr M. Matveev. Territorial Peculiarities of Settlement of the Indigenous Minorities… Table 5. Typology of urban and rural settlements and inhabited localities in Taimyr Dolgano-Nenets municipal region as per the percentage of the indigenous minorities of the North in total population (according to the data from 1.01.2008 г.) Population, people total including the indigenous minorities of the North Percentage of the indigenous minorities of the North in total population, % Dudinka urban settlement 26560 3219 12,12 1 Dudinka city 24382 1382 5,67 2 Volochanka village 604 564 93,38 3 Levinskie pesky village 170 114 67,06 4 Potapovo village 402 236 58,71 5 Ust’-Avam village 628 589 93,79 6 Khantaiskoe ozero village 364 334 91,76 Dickson urban settlement 690 0 0,00 No Settlements/inhabited localities in municipal units Karaul rural settlement 4023 3166 78,70 1 Karaul village 924 275 29,76 2 Baikalsk village 124 101 81,45 3 Vorontsovo village 354 265 74,86 4 Kazantsevo village 36 33 91,67 5 Karepanovsk village 11 0 0,00 6 Mungui village 20 20 100,00 7 Nosok village 1756 1437 81,83 8 Polikarpovsk village 29 16 55,17 9 Tukhard village 887 829 93,46 10 Ust’-Port village 374 190 50,80 Khatanga rural settlement 6495 3832 59,00 1 Khatanga village 2934 807 27,51 2 Zhdanikha village 237 232 97,89 3 Katyryk village 335 325 97,01 4 Kayak village 196 27 13,78 5 Kresty village 310 303 97,74 6 Novaya village 314 308 98,09 7 Novorybnoye village 649 627 96,61 8 Popigai village 319 311 97,49 9 Syndassko village 526 520 98,86 384 372 96,88 37768 10217 27,05 10 Kheta village Taimyr Dolgano-Nenets municipal region Historically the municipal region had no inhabited localities. Its infrastructure was formed as they managed the environment and developed communication and transport means. The processes of industrial settlement resulted against the background of traditional zones of environmental management and settlement of the indigenous minorities of the North. # 1546 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Bryukhanova and Aleksandr M. Matveev. Territorial Peculiarities of Settlement of the Indigenous Minorities… Fig. 2. The system of distribution of the population of Taimyr Dolgano-Nenets municipal region. The source: The draft of the scheme of territorial planning of Taimyr Dolgano-Nenets municipal region They caused an extremely dispersible and dotted character of the settlement. Formation of the axes of settlement along river valleys is connected with traditional environmental management, and mainly with wild reindeer hunting and fishing. Territorial compactness, compactness of inhabited localities are also a characteristic feature of the existing system of settlement. A meridional fine-dispersed system of settlement, formed by the Yenisey and its tributaries, is notable in the western part of the region. 80,5 % of the region’s population live within the bounds of the Yenisey valley. A system forming element of settlement in the east of the region is the Khatanga River and its tributaries. 16,5 % of the region’s population live here. A system forming element of settlement in the central part of the municipal region is the Pyasina River and the Dudypta’s tributary. There was a great number of shot points for wild reindeer hunting on the Pyasina, Dudypta and Kheta rivers in the past. They gradually turned # 1547 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Bryukhanova and Aleksandr M. Matveev. Territorial Peculiarities of Settlement of the Indigenous Minorities… into villages. In the course of recent 20 years a considerable rundown of economical activity in this territory resulted in a set of abandoned inhabited localities. The indigenous minorities living in the municipal region’s territory have kept a traditional nomadic and semi-nomadic mode of life. 20 % of the total population of the indigenous minorities of the North lead a nomadic life. Concurrently with preserving and developing their uniqueness and national self-identification ethnoses assimilate. Shortage of working places in national villages intensifies the outflow of the population (especially of the youth) to the centers of the settlements, to the city of Dudinka with its present population of the indigenous minorities of the North higher than statistically registered. The results of these processes are not always positive. In fact the processes of artificial urbanization of the indigenous minorities of the North take place: many representatives of the indigenous minorities of the North, residing in Dudinka, are not provided with the places of employment and have an insufficient level of qualification to get a job. Non-native population mainly consists of social migrants who spend some time in the Arctic and then return to the places of habitual residence. Hydrocarbon field exploitation is carried out from Messoyakha, Pelyatka camps. At present the federal strategy of the settling in the Arctic zone is targeted at suppressing the growth of resident population and development of camp-type forms of settling. “The Strategy of socio-economical development of Siberia up to 2020” allots the task of avoidance of the extreme growth of residential population and appearance of new stationary settlements, formation of the system of settlements of high quality and safety of life support systems, integrating base cities and mobile camps at preserving the zones of priority environmental management for the indigenous minorities of the North. The strategy provides for restoration of the number of able-bodied citizens and rotation workers in base settlements (Dudinka, Dickson, Khatanga village, inhabited localities down the Khatanga river and the Yeniseisk Bay) to be enough for safe ensuring of the Northern Sea Rout’s functioning and establishment of the bases of the Frigid Zone development. Regarding long-term outlook, the following key directions of transformation of the system of the population settlement in the region can be singled out: – development of urban inhabited localities as home-base settlement structures with basic concentration of the non-natives (the city of Dudinka, and, to a lesser extent, Dickson urban community); – development of large national settlements as centres of preserving and development of traditional types of economic management (Khatanga, Karaul, Tukhard, Nosok), formation of modern centres of inter-settlement maintenance on their basis; – population maintenance and development of home-base national villages (Kheta, Novorybnaya, Ust’-Avam, Volochanka); – establishment of working places on the basis of revival and development of traditional types of nature management with the use of modern technologies of product processing for small national settlements with decreasing population; – development of mobile local settlement places in the zones of new development (camp villages). Evenk municipal region The ethnic structure of Evenk national region’s population is complex. The representatives # 1548 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Bryukhanova and Aleksandr M. Matveev. Territorial Peculiarities of Settlement of the Indigenous Minorities… Table 6. Typology of rural settlements in Evenk municipal region as per the percentage of the indigenous minorities of the North in total population (according to the data as of 01.01.2011) Population, people No Settlements/inhabited localities in municipal units total Percentage of the the indigenous indigenous minorities minorities of the North, % of the North 1 The village of Tura municipal unit 5541 1200 21,7 2 the village of Essey rural settlement 631 10 1,6 3 the village of Kislokan rural settlement 141 100 70,9 4 the village of Nidym rural settlement 239 103 43,1 5 the village of Tutonchany rural settlement 263 200 76,0 6 the village of Uchami rural settlement 126 107 84,9 7 the village of Chirinda rural settlement 211 190 90,0 8 the village of Ekonda rural settlement 291 290 99,7 9 the village of Yukta rural settlement 102 58 56,9 Total in Ilimpiisk group of settlement 7 545 2 258 29,9 1 The village of Vanavara rural settlement 3154 118 3,7 2 the village of Mutorai rural settlement 96 36 37,5 3 the village of Oskoba rural settlement 17 0 0,0 4 the village of Strelka-Chunya rural settlement 191 140 73,3 5 the village of Chemdal’sk rural settlement 41 25 61,0 Total in Tungussko-Chunskaya group of settlement 3 499 319 9,1 1 the village of Baikit rural settlement 3515 420 11,9 2 the village of Burnyi rural settlement 193 2 1,0 3 the village of Kuz’movka rural settlement 180 3 1,7 4 the village of Kuyumba rural settlement 179 120 67,0 5 the village of Miryuga rural settlement 87 24 27,6 6 the village of Osharovo rural settlement 112 41 36,6 7 the village of Poligus rural settlement 302 270 89,4 8 the village of Sulomai rural settlement 183 143 78,1 9 493 480 97,4 Total in Baikit group of settlement the village of Surinda rural settlement 5 244 1 503 28,7 Evenk municipal region 16 233 4 080 25,1 of the indigenous natives of the North live almost in every inhabited locality. The percentage of the indigenous natives of the North in the total population of Evenk municipal region is 25,1 %. The natives, residing within the borders of the territory considered, are the Evenk and the Kets. At that the Kets compactly live in one inhabited locality, Sulomai village. Their population there is 143 people. The territory of Evenk municipal region displays the considerable differences in the ethnic structure of various inhabited localities. There can be distinguished the settlements with predominantly Evenk population, with predominantly Slavic population, and multinational settlements (Table 6, Fig. 3). The Evenk, who maintain their way of life and traditional trades, predominantly reside in # 1549 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Bryukhanova and Aleksandr M. Matveev. Territorial Peculiarities of Settlement of the Indigenous Minorities… Fig. 3. The places of settlement of the indigenous minorities of the North in Evenk municipal region. The source: The draft of the scheme of territorial planning of Evenk municipal region rural inhabited localities, referring to the category of compact settlement of the indigenous natives of the North. Thus, the maximum percentage of the natives is observed in the villages of Chirinda, Ekonda, Surinda, Poligus, Uchami, Tutonchany, Strelka-Chunya, Kislokan. A greater part of the Evenk, approximately 40 %, resides in economical centres of Evenk municipal region: in the villages of Tura, Baikit, Vanavara. It should be noted that their percentage is not high and is no more than 20 %; the main population of these centres is constituted by predominantly Slavic population. Under such circumstances the representatives of the indigenous natives of the North assimilate quite quickly and loose a visible contact with their cultural peculiarities and way of life. The south-eastern part of Evenk region, Tungussko-Chunskaya group of settlements, is characterized by a lesser number of the indigenous natives of the North. From an ethnic point of view the places of the Yakuts’ and Russian Old Believers’ compact settlements are also a matter of interest. # 1550 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Bryukhanova and Aleksandr M. Matveev. Territorial Peculiarities of Settlement of the Indigenous Minorities… Essey village, located in the very north of Evenk region, was founded by the Yakuts who migrated to this territory from the territory of the present-day Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) and kept their way of life. The Essey Yakuts, the representatives of a single detached ethnic community who do not refer to the category of the indigenous minorities of the North, predominantly reside in the village. Their main trade is wild reindeer hunting. There are only 10 Evenks among 631 residents of Essey village. Burnyi and Kuz’movka, located in the southwestern part of Evenk region, are inhabited by the Russian Old Believers. The percentage of the Evenks here is less than 1 %. The representatives of this population group do not refer to the category of the indigenous minorities of the North even in spite of the fact that their economic way of life is more likely to be similar to that of the minorities’ than to a modern industrial way of life. The Old Believers live in respectively close communities based on self-provision. They are engaged in agriculture (including plant cultivation) even in severe weather conditions, as well as in fishing and hunting. Nowadays “Kuz’movka village” municipal unit consists of two districts already. These are Kuz’movka village itself and Kochumdek trading station which is expected to be a new autonomous inhabited locality in the long term. Regarding the potential of the socioeconomical development the rural inhabited localities of Evenk municipal region can be divided into 3 groups and 4 sub-groups: 1. those with the market economic sector; 2. those with the developing market economic sector: 2.1. market and budget sectors are more developed than a traditional sector; 2.2. a traditional sector is more developed than market and budget sectors; 3. with undeveloped market economic sector: 3.1. with a predominant traditional lifesupport; 3.2. the territories, economically vulnerable to the maximum (Table 7). The first group comprises Tura village, Baikit and Vanavara villages, which are the largest in the population number (more than three thousand people), mostly economically viable, with a developed market sector. The main task of a prognostic development of the settlements of this group is in strengthening and development of a market sector of the rural economy. The aggregate stock of the residents’ entrepreneurial energy here is maximum. That makes the development of new types of commercial activity in the forms of tourism, farming, smallscale business in private (everyday, trade, fastfood) services quite real. Table 7. Typology of the settlements of Evenk municipal region Groups Description Inhabited localities The first group Maximum economic viability Tura, Baikit, Vanavara The second group а A developing market sector Essey, Surinda, Poligus, Tutonchany The second group b The third group а The third group b A traditional sector is more developed than Ekonda, Nidym, Chirinda, Kislokan, market and budget sectors Strelka-Chunya Sulomai, Kuyumba, Burnyi, Uchami, A predominant traditional life-support Kuz’movka, Osharovo, Yukta Economically vulnerable to the maximum Mutorai, Miryuga, Chemdal’sk, Oskoba # 1551 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Bryukhanova and Aleksandr M. Matveev. Territorial Peculiarities of Settlement of the Indigenous Minorities… The work of social services establishments in the settlements of the first group provides for the necessity to ensure educational, cultural, medical and everyday services rendered not only to the residents of the village but also to the entire set of neighbouring villages. Compulsory schools, polyclinics, palaces of culture, sports halls with full-fledged material base, highly qualified specialists, access to the Internet can ensure a good quality of services for the population of the service zone. Two subgroups are distinctly singled out in the second group: а) four respectively large villages (the villages of Essey, Poligus, Tutonchany with the population of 300 – 600 persons) where a market sector springs up quicklier, small-scale business can develop due to a middle size of the local market; at that traditional life support and cultural ethnic traditions are well- kept up; b) five villages with a less numerous population (the villages of Ekonda, Nidym, Chirinda, Kislokan, Strelka-Chunya with the population of 200 – 260 persons) where a market sector is almost undeveloped and weaker than a traditional sector of reindeer hunting and crafts. The main task of a prognostic development of the settlements of this group is in bridging all the sectors of rural economy – a market one which constantly springs up here, a traditional one in the form of reindeer hunting and traditional crafts which does not always bring money income to the households but tangibly raises their real profit, an agricultural one in the form of development of private farms, and a budgetary one which is limited with working places in feldsher-midwife stations, schools, clubs, polyclinics. In many villages of this group the merging of educational, cultural, and medical establishments will result in multifunctional educational-cultural-medical centres, often school-based. Assembly and sports halls, rooms for hobby groups, libraries, information centres will serve the whole population during an offstudy period. Division into subgroups is done for the third group of inhabited localities as well. The third group (sub-group a) contains the villages of Sulomai, Kuyumba, Burnyi, Uchami, Kuz’movka, Osharovo, Yukta, small settlements with the population of 100 – 200 persons. In fact, there is no market sector here but a budget sector and municipal enterprises. The traditional life-support is developed to the maximum. The values are non-monetary ones, such as gifts, mutual assistance, and the sense of belonging to local community. The villages of Mutorai, Miryuga, Chemdal’sk, Oskoba, very small communities with the population less than 100 people are included into the third group (sub-group b). Suggesting the way of the development of the villages of the third group, one should be clearly aware of the fact that there will be no viable market sector here in the foreseeable future. What can become commercially developed here is probably tourism. The values of traditional life support, unity in faith and in community of ethnic self-identification will undoubtedly dominate here in future. A traditional sector, which does not bring a monetary profit but is a nucleus of the local community’s values, will remain the basis of the economical development. Social services will be delivered to the villages of the third group by small-scale forms (ungraded clubs, feldsher-midwife stations), often by mobile forms such as mobile medical groups, nomadic schools, teams of cultural propagandists, with active use of telecommunication technologies (distant learning, telemedicine, electronic library). # 1552 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Bryukhanova and Aleksandr M. Matveev. Territorial Peculiarities of Settlement of the Indigenous Minorities… Territories of traditional environmental management At present only one territory of traditional environmental management of regional importance “Popigai” is established in the territory of Krasnoyarsk Krai (on the basis of the Decision of the Administration of Taimyr (Dolgano-Nenets) Autonomous Okrug № 495 dated December 23, 2003). Within the period of “Popigai” traditional environmental management the Dolgans, residing and carrying out their activity within its boundaries, have not registered their right of the ground area and other natural resources use. In 2012-2013 the krai started the works on the establishment of the traditional environmental managements of the indigenous minorities of the North in Taimyr on the left bank of the Yenisey river (“Yara-Tanama” and “Suzun”) and of Khatanga rural settlement near Syndassko village with the reservation of the mentioned territories in the scheme of territorial planning of the region as the territories of limited economic use. In compliance with Article 12 of Krasnoyarsk Krai Law No 11-5443 dated 25.11.2010 “On 1 2 3 protection of native habitat and traditional way of life of the indigenous minorities of Krasnoyarsk Krai” the project of the Order of formation of the territory of traditional environmental management of the indigenous people was developed and the List of documents, necessary for making a decision on the establishment of the mentioned territory, was made in order to ensure the preservation of native habitat of the indigenous minorities. S.Ya. Pal’chin, a representative for the rights of the indigenous minorities in Krasnoyarsk Krai, states in his speech that the local bodies resist the establishment of the territory of traditional environmental management in their area. Taking into consideration that Taimyr and Evenkiya are on the threshold of intensive industrial development, it is urgently necessary to establish effective environmentally-aware mechanisms as well as to establish the territories of traditional environmental management not to exclude the industrial development of mineral resources but to minimize harmful influence of this development both on the environment and on the indigenous peoples’ way of life. The document lost its force after the RF governmental regulation No 410 dated 08.05.2009 had come into effect 7 days after its official publication (published in “Sobranie zakonodatel’stva RF” [Collection of RF legislation] on 18.05.2009). In total there are 581 establishments in the territory of Krasnoyarsk Krai. These include 44 municipal regions, 17 Urban districts, 35 urban settlements, 485 rural settlements. 2 cities of regional subordination (Dudinka (22339 residents) and Igarka (5648 residents)) and 4 industrial communities (Severo-Yeniseysky (6816 residents), Teya (1501 residents), Svetlogorsk (971 residents), Dickson (667 residents)) References 1. Database of indices of municipal units of the Federal State Statistics Service, available at http://www.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_main/rosstat/ru/statistics/databases/ 2. Estimation of the population number and average annual population number in cities and regions of Krasnoyarsk Krai as per January 1, 2013, available at http://www.krasstat.gks.ru 3. The draft of the scheme of territorial planning of Evenk municipal region, available at http:// www.evenkya.ru/power/documents/ 4. The draft of the scheme of territorial planning of Taimyr Dolgano-Nenets municipal region, available at http://www.taimyr24.ru/Documents/ter-plan/ 5. The RF governmental regulation No 22 dated 11.01.1993 (revised 23.01.2000) “On the list of regions of residence of the indigenous minorities of the North”. # 1553 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Bryukhanova and Aleksandr M. Matveev. Territorial Peculiarities of Settlement of the Indigenous Minorities… 6. The RF governmental regulation No 631-p dated 08.05.2009 “On the approval of the list of traditional residence and traditional economic activity of the indigenous minorities of the Russian Federation and the list of types of traditional economic activity of the indigenous minorities of the Russian Federation”. Территориальные особенности расселения коренных малочисленных народов (на примере Таймырского Долгано-Ненецкого и Эвенкийского муниципальных районов Красноярского края) Е.А. Брюханова, А.М. Матвеев Красноярский отдел Института экономики и организации промышленного производства СО РАН Россия, 660036, Красноярск, Академгородок, 50 В статье рассмотрена типология населенных пунктов Таймырского Долгано-Ненецкого и Эвенкийского муниципальных районов Красноярского края по доле коренных малочисленных народов (КМН) в общей численности населения, по уровню развития традиционного, рыночного и бюджетного секторов, которую необходимо принимать во внимание при разработке программы социально-экономического развития территории. Дана оценка потенциала и направлений социально-экономического развития территорий традиционного проживания и традиционной хозяйственной деятельности коренных малочисленных народов. Ключевые слова: коренные малочисленные народы, места традиционного проживания и традиционной хозяйственной деятельности, территории традиционного природопользования. Работа выполнена в рамках исследований, финансируемых Красноярским краевым фондом поддержки научной и научно-технической деятельности, а также в рамках тематического плана СФУ по заданию Министерства образования и науки Российской Федерации. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 9 (2014 7) 1555-1566 ~~~ УДК 930.26 Decapitations in Late Bronze Age and Iron Age sites from Sevan region (Armenia) Anahit Yu. Khudaverdyan* Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography National Academy of Science 15 Charents Str., Yerevan, 0025, Republic of Armenia Received 02.06.2014, received in revised form 21.07.2014, accepted 15.08.2014 The fact that rituals involving the sacrifice of people were present within the cultures of Late Iron Age Armenia has long been known. The purpose of this paper is to dig further towards the sociocultural reasons behind such rituals, and to examine the evidence for how these rituals might have played out within the context of the cultures at the time. In order to establish the nature decapitation and function of this ritual as it pertained to the Late Bronze Age and Iron Age cultures of Armenia, a number of avenues will be explored. Studies of human skeletal materials from the Noraduz and Karmir, often excavated decades ago, may therefore reveal similar types of evidence. It is suggested that such studies will contribute significantly to our understanding of Late Bronze Age and Iron Age Armenia burial practices, and our ability to reconstruct social organization. Detailed analysis of received traumas allowed reconstructing the circumstances of the females death. The heads were decapitated by sharp cutting weapon. Reconstruction of the death circumstances and archaeological context of the find suggest a ritual nature of the action. Within the culture of the time appeasing the gods was most likely the main stated reason for conducting such sacrifices. A sacrifices may also have been performed for the sake of something far less specific, for instance simply thanking the gods so as to be on relatively good terms with them. Analyzed in this paper is the presence of cut marks, and tumpline deformation and cradle deformation on the decapitated skulls. Keywords: Armenia, Late Bronze Age, Iron Age, decapitation, cut marks, tumpline and cradle deformations. Introduction Cutmarks on human bones have been associated with a variety of practices. Examples include decapitation, dismemberment, ritual sacrifices, violent death and secondary burial (Bush, Stirland 1991, p. 207; Larsson 1984, p. 34; 1990, p. 287; McKinley 1993, p. 43; Molleson 1981, p. 25).Various explanations for the physical act of decapitation in different groups from * distinct periods have been put forward (Bridges et al. 2000, p. 47; Milner et al. 1991, p. 596; Smith 2003, p. 308; 2008, p. 592). Various researchers have outlined and refined these parameters which include: trophy-taking activities including decapitation, scalping, and removal of limbs or other body parts taken away by the attacker(s). In their study, Boylston et al. (2000, p. 248) discuss extensively the circumstances under which © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org # 1555 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anahit Yu. Khudaverdyan. Decapitations in Late Bronze Age and Iron Age sites from Sevan region (Armenia) decapitation may have occurred: “ (1) as a form of corporal punishment in which an individual is executed by severing the head from the body through the use of an edged weapon; (2) as a consequence of armed confrontation in which the neck becomes a target in order to disable or kill a foe; (3) as a trophy of armed confrontation; (4) as a form of relic collection or veneration; (5) as a result of bloodletting in which the head is removed in order to collect the body’s blood supply; (6) as a result of a mismanaged hanging; (7) as a result of a figurative association between the head and a quality or qualities considered to be associated with it”. Damage to the upper cervical vertebrae (and also C7 or T1 in some instances), mastoid processes, occipital regions, the posterior parts of mandibles and first ribs have been considered as good markers (Anderson 2001, p. 402; Ardagna et al. 2005, p. 74; Aufderheide, RodríguezMartín 1998; Buckberry, Hadley 2007, p. 311;). Beheading-related traumas were also observed on the odontoid peg (McKinley 1993, p. 43) and transverse processes of vertebrae when anaxe rather than a sword has been used (Waldron 1996, p. 115). Even if no evidence has been left on the bones, some aspects of the burial context can be indicative of decapitation such as the absence of a head (although bones can eventually be destroyed or lost through post-depositional processes such as intrusive burials, animal activities, and environmental conditions) (Okumura, Eggers 2008, p. 18), the presence of a head without other postcranial elements (Nagaoka, Abe 2007, p. 166) or the placement of a head in a nonanatomical position (Boylston et al. 2000, p. 250). For many cultures, the most important trophy is the head, and its collection can be associated with war, religion, social prestige or cannibalism. The oldest known references to this practice of collecting skulls is found in the Bible. The custom of head taking was a widespread method among many cultures because the head of a vanquished foe represented the most unequivocal symbol of an enemy’s defeat (Keeley 1996, p. 54). The deposition of human skulls has been interpreted as evidence for a headhunting cult, perhaps relating to enemy dead, whose deposition could provide symbolic protection (Wilson 1981, p. 163; Khudaverdyan et al. 2013, p. 76-83). The human skulls were believed to have also magical and curing effects (Schmandt-Besserat 2002, p. 115). The skull of a deceased person was believed to provide a way to communicate with the spirit of the dead and was used in divination (Ibid., p. 115). The skull also secured the use of the power to succeeding generations, perhaps this it placated the spirit, perhaps controlled it (Kenyon 1957, p. 45). Okumura, Siew (2013, p. 691) examine a collection of human skulls from Borneo. The textual evidence strongly argues that these skulls were meant as a form of dominance over other groups, and given the archaeological evidence for cutmarks and trauma, they are able to support the text and conclude that these were headhunting trophies and not a form of ancestor veneration. Skull removal, or at least separate burial of crania, is known in the Iberomaurusian (Arambourg 1934, p. 21; Hachi 1996, p. 65) and has also been found for Late Natufian and PPNA sites in the south-central Levant (Kuijt 1996, p. 327). For the Levant, the skulls appear to have been removed after defleshing, since there were no cutmarks associated with the missing skulls. In Early: Late Natufian burials at various sites, the area of the head of the deceased was marked with rock cairns or individual stones (Byrd, Monahan 1995, p. 264), possibly to facilitate retrieval of the skulls later (Kuijt 1996, p. 333). There are societies, the ancient Greeks for example, who held the concept of voluntary self destruction as an integral part of the sacrificial ritual (Bremmer 2007, p. 5). This idea may have had some place within all instances of human sacrifice, as it dates back to the time of prehistoric hunters who would # 1556 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anahit Yu. Khudaverdyan. Decapitations in Late Bronze Age and Iron Age sites from Sevan region (Armenia) view the slaying of their game as a voluntary act of self sacrifice on the part of the animal. Funerary rights were not solely reserved for the free or the in nocent, they may also have been performed for condemned criminals. Ancient Armenian groups believed in a pantheon of gods, many of whom possessed counterparts in the mythologies of other Indo-European groups, which would have been the objects of worship and the acceptors of the human sacrifices being performed. In the case of the ritual sacrifices that took place in Armenia during the Iron Ages it has been generally assumed that appeasing the gods was the main purpose of such bloody rituals (Khudaverdyan et al. 2013, pp. 76-83). Two females from a Armenia burials show evidence of decapitation. The purpose of the study the reasons for decapitation are discussed. In the past two decades, studies of cutmarks on bones (human) have added important new insights into certain behavioural aspects of prehistoric peoples. We believe that the cutmarks found on the human skulls from 2 sites provide unique new evidence on burial customs. In this paper we present the results of the study of the cutmarks and, using the various lines of evidence, we provide an interpretive framework for the findings and briefly discuss the implications for reconstruction social organization. Materials and methods The present paper discusses human remains from 2 archaeological sites in Armenia. The sites is situated on a large expanse on the banks of the Sevan Lake (Fig. 1). In total the samples used for the present study consisted of 41 skulls (Table 1). Skeletons from Noraduz and Karmir are a part of collection gathered by Anna Palikyan. The absence of a published report on these materials at A.K. Palikyan. Unfortunately, in all cases only the skulls were preserved. The archaeological context, such as location of the site, and time period of the burial were recorded. The dating of sites rests on ceramic typology. The material excavated of the Late Bronze Age and Iron Age (11–6 c. BCE) sheds light on various aspects of ancient life in this region, testifying convincingly that a complex culture existed all over the Sevan area. Of the materials discovered in these tombs there are a large number of rich ornamented ritual vessels, beads of stone and of precious metals, and other items. The Later Bronze Age and Iron Age saw the first widespread use of wheeled transport, for both agricultural and high-status/military purposes. There will also have been a need to move herds between grazing grounds. Sex determination was carried out using cranial morphological markers (glabella, mastoid process, supra-orbital ridge, nuchal crest, parietal eminence, orbit, palate, occipital condyle, external occipital protuberance, styloid process, frontonasal junction, mandible, mental protuberance, and teeth) (Alekseev, Dedec 1964, pp. 29-34; Buikstra, Ubelaker 1994, pp. 16, 24–32). For subadults, dental development and eruption were used (Buikstra, Ubelaker 1994, p. 16; Moorrees et al. 1963a, pp. 205-213; 1963b, pp. 14901502; Ubelaker 1989, pp. 60-95). The skeletons were analysed macroscopically for evidence of decapitation. The metric traits considered to be of primary interest in population studies are summarised in J.E. Buikstra, D.H. Ubelaker (1994, pp. 85–94). Where preservation and completeness permit, a maximum of 37 measurements are taken from the adult skull (Alekseev, Dedec 1964, p. 49-75). Non-metric traits were recorded as recommended by A.A. Movsesyan et al. (1975, pp. 128-149). Discussion The first skull (Noraduz, burial 21) belong to an female of approximately 40 to 45 years of age at death. Postcranial skeleton has not been # 1557 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anahit Yu. Khudaverdyan. Decapitations in Late Bronze Age and Iron Age sites from Sevan region (Armenia) Fig. 1. Map of Armenia showing the location of the sites discussed in the paper Table 1. Number of individuals from Armenian sites studied in this paper Site Sex Chronology Noraduz female 11th –6 th c. BCE undet. Karmir male Total 11-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 male Middle/Late Transitional Middle/Late Transitional 11th–8th c. BCE Age categories 0-10 8 1 2 2 2 1 2 3 1 # 1558 # 4 6 Total 3 4 17 2 1 8 1 10 1 3 female 8 4 60+ 6 1 1 1 3 5 6 6 41 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anahit Yu. Khudaverdyan. Decapitations in Late Bronze Age and Iron Age sites from Sevan region (Armenia) found. The following measurements (mm) were recorded from the skull: cranial length, 179; cranial breadth 136, minimal frontal breadth, 100,5; greatest frontal breadth, 124; occipital breadth, 118. The following traits were present: sutura frontalis, foramina supraorbitalia, os wormii suturae squamosum, os wormii suturae sagittalis and os wormii suturae lambdoidea. On the skull has with post-coronal depression (Fig. 2), type tumpline deformation mentioned in T. Molleson (2007, pp. 11-12) which was positioned on both parietals and slightly posterior to the coronal suture. Whereas, the parietal pressure may result from activities, such as carrying loads with a band across the parietal bones (Fig. 3) and the load being behind the body, but this is only likely if the activity was started in early childhood years. A simple inspection skull from Noraduz indicates that there is no grooving (depression or concavity) on the temporal region of a caused by diagonal bandaging, and also any other kinds of grooving completely absent. Length of horizontal grooving 86,5mm, width 25 mm. Cranial modification is observable in some societies which is neither intentional, when an infant was secured on a cradle board for a long time, whereby those portions of the head in direct contact with the board would be flattened (Daems, Croucher 2007, p. 7). As can be seen from the Fig. 4, there are modifications recognizable on the vault, a marked depression immediately above the lambda affecting mid-sagittal contour, resulting in an interparietal plane which covers nearly half of the sagittal suture. At the skull pathological lesions were found. 1. Exostosis in the ear channel. The size of these exostoses may vary from small corrugations to large prominences almost filling the meatus. Exostosis formations in the ear canal are regarded as a marker of negative influence of cold water from diving (Kennedy 1986, p. 406; Manzi et al. 1991, p. 256). Exposure to wind and cold water causes the bone surrounding the ear canal to thicken and constrict the ear canal, sometimes to the point of complete blockage (known as “occlusion”). Other hypothesized causes of auditory exostoses include chronic infection or inflammation, genetics, and mastication stress (Aufderheide, RodríguezMartín 1998, pp. 254-255). Cribra orbitalia (2) fixed on the both orbits: indicator of iron deficiency anemia. Iron Fig. 2. Tumpline deformation (Noraduz, burial 21) Fig. 3. Morphological changes of crania under the deformation processes # 1559 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anahit Yu. Khudaverdyan. Decapitations in Late Bronze Age and Iron Age sites from Sevan region (Armenia) is essential for many body functions, such as oxygen transport to the body’s tissues. When iron is deficient, whether as a result of nutritional deprivation, low body weight, chronic diarrhea, parasite infection, or other factors, the body attempts to compensate by increasing production of red blood cells (Walker 1986, p. 348). In infancy and childhood, iron-deficiency anemia is associated with impaired growth and delays in behavioral and cognitive development (Lozoff et al. 1996, p. 387; Walter et al. 1989, p. 11; Ryan 1997, p. 46). In adulthood, the condition is associated with limited work capacity and physical activity (Scrimshaw 1991, p. 48). In 2014, we have documented the existence of the cutmarks (3) during a detailed Fig. 4. Cradle deformation (Noraduz, burial 21) Fig. 5. Decapitation (Noraduz, burial 21) examination of the skulls, while undertaking preliminary cataloguing and measurement. Evidence of decapitation clearly observed: damage to the mastoidal (Fig. 5). This is the only cutmark that could conceivably have been causally related to death. Mechanical breaks of a bone are received at the moment of death of the individual. Such kind of injuries have only one defi nition (beheading at the person who is in vertical situation) (Manchester 1983, p. 63). The second skull (Karmir, burial 3) belong to an young female of approximately 20 to 25 years of age at death. The following measurements (mm) and observations were collected from the skull: cranial length, 184; cranial breadth, 139; minimum frontal breadth, 92,5; greatest frontal breadth, 116; occipital breadth, 114. The following traits were present: Os Incae, os wormii suturae lambdoidea, foramina spinosum. In female combine two types (and tumpline, and cradle) deformation (Fig. 6), exostosis in the ear channel and cribra orbitale are observed. An interesting feature in the case being analyzed in this paper is the presence of cut marks (Fig. 7) on the decapitation skull. In all cases marks showed edges that could be consistent with the intentional use of cutting instruments. The term “symbolic trephination” was proposed by Bartucs, who described them as “nonpenetrating damage”, affecting the upper compact layer (substantia compacta) (cited by Mednikova 2004, p. 119). Symbolic trephinations could possibly simulate actual penetration into the cavity of the skull. This type of intervention did not necessarily involve a risk to life, as did a penetrating craniotomy. The symbolism could result from the localization of damage as, in the most of cases, the location was linked to cranial sutures or important anatomical points of the skull, which are interpreted as having had a sacral meaning. The object of the latter is unknown, ritual-medical reasons are as possible as religious # 1560 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anahit Yu. Khudaverdyan. Decapitations in Late Bronze Age and Iron Age sites from Sevan region (Armenia) causes or higher social status. That presented cut marks distributed across both parietal bones (Fig. 8) which could be related to said process. These rituals consecrated social integration, the act of becoming a person, once the spiritual energy had been fixed inside in the individuals body. In the basis of a skull of the individual mechanical break of left occipital condyle and damage of the left mastoidal were noted (Fig. 8). Mechanical breaks of a bone are received at the moment of death of the individual. We noted, such kind of injuries have only one definition (beheading at the person who is in vertical situation) (Manchester 1983, p. 63). At the left from the outer side and specific destructions of left occipital condyle say a linear break of an mastoidal that the blow was struck behind, obviously, by the right-handed person. The man had suffered an injury to the head from a sharp object, presented also the destructions and crevasses. Holding by hair the victim, the head of the individual cut a sword. The skull from Karmir had not only been decapitation prior to death but also had blow to the head. This example provides a good case for the assertion that not only were individuals such as this being ritually murdered but also that violence and perhaps played a very important role in such sacrifices. This indicates that symbolism Fig. 6. Combine two types (and tumpline, and cradle) deformations (Karmir, burial 3) Fig. 7. Cut marks (Karmir, burial 3) Fig. 8. Decapitation (Karmir, burial 3) # 1561 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anahit Yu. Khudaverdyan. Decapitations in Late Bronze Age and Iron Age sites from Sevan region (Armenia) and perhaps the whole spectacle of the execution was essential to the ritual. Many human remains in Bronze Age and Iron Age from Armenia carry marks of wounds and violent deaths (Khudaverdyan 2014, pp. 32–50). Conclusion A ritual is a coordinated act which an individual or group carries out in order to fulfill a particular social function, usually meant to bring solidarity or enforce social roles within the community, always characterized by having demonstrative, exaggerative, and repetitive qualities (Hughes 1991, pp. 1-2). In order for the gods to be of any help, they must first have been reimbursed for the violent energies being expended. For Bronze Age and Iron Age from Armenia, there are not any ethnohistoric documents that can be used as a source of information. The important information provided by the osteological data concerns the process of decapitation. Is no other published osteological research on decapitation heads from Armenia in Late Bronze Age and Iron Age. If the decapitation in Armenia sites had a more ritualized form, perhaps associated to fertility rites. The traumatic injuries on the crania suggest that the excision points are very close to mastoid processes, indicating beheaded individuals were probably motionless, having been severely injured, under which circumstances, them managed to precisely cut off the exact bodyparts that they wanted (Okumura, Siew 2008, p. 18). For a community to feel the need to make such a highly valued offering to the gods the ritual must have been of critical importance. Such an enormous gift must have necessitated an equally enormous reciprocal blessing from the gods or even a miracle of sorts. It is quite possible that in such cases the community may have been in great peril or under the misery of epidemic disease, so as to necessitate such an enormous sacrifice. In Armenia in Bronze Age and Iron Age, practiced human sacrifice rituals, apparently preferred young and middle adult females as their victims. It is generally assumed that women in pre-state societies were engaged in domestic production while men practiced animal husbandry, ploughed, hunted, fought and processed metals. We can accept with some confidence that there a women primarily engaged in activities such as food processing, agricultural work, pottery making and child-rearing. Positive correlations exist between the females and the agricultural works for that region. Cranial modification is observable in some societies which is neither intentional, the parietal pressure may result from activities, such as carrying loads with a band across the parietal bones and the load being behind the body. Socio-economic status of the victim also played an important role in determining the value of the sacrifice. The higher the status that a person had the greater the sacrifice would be. In Armenia, to choose a characteristic example, the would-be leader achieves and maintains his ambi- tions by demonstrating his abilities as a warrior, ceremonial leader, food producer, etc. Slaves and prisoners may have been sacrificed more readily, and certainly more frequently, than a well established individual but in no way were people of the upper class off limits from being made sacrifice to the gods. However, whether the people of this time were conscious of it or not, the sacrifices had other uses and motives. Although this study is the fi rst to report cutmarks on Late Bronze and Iron Age human skulls from the Sevan Lake, there is evidence for decapitation and dismemberment at other sites. For example, Shirakavan and Lori Berd groups (Late Iron Age) yielded many isolated fragments of crania, mandibles, teeth, and postcranial remains, and A. Yu. Khudaverdyan et al. (2013, pp. 78-83) concluded that the position of the bones and fragments indicated # 1562 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anahit Yu. Khudaverdyan. Decapitations in Late Bronze Age and Iron Age sites from Sevan region (Armenia) decapitation and dismemberment prior to burial. It was concluded that the fi nds represents of a decapitated individual. This suggests to us that more human remains from this area, often excavated decades ago, may show similar types of evidence. References 1. Alekseev V. P., Dedec G. F. Kraniometria (metodika antropologicheskikh issledovanii) [Craniometry (methodology of anthropological research)]. Moscow: Nauka, 1964. 128 p. 2. Anderson, T. (2001). Two decapitations from Roman Towcester. Int J Osteoarchaeol, 11, 400405. 3. Arambourg, C. (1934). Géologie, paléontologie, archéologie. Les Grottes Paléolithiques des Beni Segoual (Algérie), Arambourg, C., Boule, M., Vallois, H. & Verneau, R. (eds.). 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Manzi, G., Sperduti, A., Passarello, P. (1991). Behavior-Induced Auditory Exostoses in Imperial Roman Sodety: Evidence from Coeval Urban and Rural Communities Near Rome. Am J Phys Anthropol, 85, 253-260. 26. McKinley, J. I. (1993). A decapitation from the Romano-British cemetery at Baldock, Hertfordshire. Int J Osteoarchaeol, 3, 41–44. 27. Mednikova M. B. Trepanatsii v drevnem mire i kul‘t golovy [Trepanation in the ancient world and the cult of the head]. Moscow: Aleteia, 2004. 208 p. 28. Milner, G. R., Anderson, E. & Smith, V. G. (1991). Warfare in late prehistoric west-central Illinois. American Antiquity, 56, 581–603. 29. Molleson, T. (1981). The archaeology and anthropology of death: what the bones tell us. Mortality and Immortality - The Anthropology and Archaeology of Death, Humphreys, S. C., King, H. (eds.). London, Academic Press Inc., pp. 15–32. 30. Molleson, T. (2007). A method for the study of activity related skeletal morphologies. 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New York, Novascience, pp. 1-39. # 1564 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anahit Yu. Khudaverdyan. Decapitations in Late Bronze Age and Iron Age sites from Sevan region (Armenia) 36. Okumura, M., Siew, Y. Y. (2013). An Osteological Study of Trophy Heads: Unveiling the Headhunting Practice in Borneo. Int J Osteoarchaeol, 23, 685-697 37. Ryan, A. S. (1997). Iron-deficiency anemia in infant development: implications for growth, cognitive development, resistance to infection, and iron supplementation. Yearbk Phys Anthropol, 40, 25-62. 38. Schmandt-Besserat, D. (2002). From Behind the Mask: Plastered Skulls from Ain Ghazal. Origini, 24, 95-140. 39. Scrimshaw, N. (1991). Iron deficiency. Sci Am 265(4) (October):46-52. 40. Smith, M. O. (2003). Beyond Palisades: The Nature and Frequency of Late Prehistoric Deliberate Violent Trauma in the Chickamauga Reservoir of East Tennessee. Am J Phys Anthropol, 121: 303-318. 41. Smith, M. O. (2008). Adding Insult to Injury: Opportunistic Treponemal Disease in a Scalping Survivor. Int J Osteoarchaeol, 18: 589-599. 42. Ubelaker D. Human skeletal remains: Excavation, analysis, interpretation. Washington: Taraxacum, 1989. 172 р 43. Waldron T. (1996). Legalized trauma. Int J Osteoarchaeol, 6: 114–118. 44. Wilson, C. E. (1981). Burials within settlements in Southern Britain during the pre-Roman Iron Age. Bulletin of the Institute of Archaeology (University of London), 18: 127-170. 45. Walker, P. L. (1986). Porotic Hyperostosis in a Marine-Dependent California Indian Population. Am J Phys Anthropol, 69: 345-354. 46. Walter, T., Andraca I., Chadud P. & Perales C. G. (1989). Iron deficiency anemia: adverse effects on infant psychomotor development. Pediatrics, 84:7-17. Am J Phys Anthropol Int J Osteoarchaeol JDR Yearbk Phys Anthropol Sci Am American Journal of Physical Anthropology International Journal of Osteoarchaeology Journal of Dental Research Yearbook of Physical Anthropology Scientific American Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anahit Yu. Khudaverdyan. Decapitations in Late Bronze Age and Iron Age sites from Sevan region (Armenia) Обезглавливания в эпоху поздней бронзы и в железном веке в группах из Севанской области (Армения) А.Ю. Худавердян Институт археологии и этнографии НАН Республика Армения, 0025, Ереван, ул. Чаренца, 15 В статье выдвигаются реконструкции жизни и смерти двух индивидов из могильников эпох поздней бронзы и железного века с территории Севанского бассейна Армении. На черепах наблюдались нарушения целостности костей черепа, связанные с травматическими последствиями. Факты, связанные с жертвоприношениями, уже были известны по материалам позднего железного века. Целью данной работы является предоставление новых данных о практике обезглавливания (по материалам могильников Норадуз и Кармир), а также реконструкция возможных причин и мотивов, побуждающих людей к совершению подобных ритуалов. В культуре того времени умиротворение богов требовало выполнения ритуалов жертвоприношений. На поверхности теменных костей у индивида из Кармира обнаружены рубцы (символические трепанации). На черепах у отмеченных индивидов наблюдались локальные понижения поверхности теменных костей (tump-line) в области за брегмой. Их можно интерпретировать как следствие ношения достаточно широкой повязки, скрепленной ремнем, удерживающей груз на спине. Корзина с грузом приводит к поперечному понижению костей черепа. Данный тип непреднамеренной деформации можно назвать социальнобытовым. Другой деформированный участок – в затылочной области на теменных костях. Непреднамеренная затылочная деформация являет следствием длительного пребывания ребенка в твердой колыбели («бешик»), отчего образуется уплощение части темени. Ключевые слова: Армения, поздняя бронза, железный век, обезглавливание, срезанные знаки, деформации – теменная и колыбельная. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 9 (2014 7) 1567-1577 ~~~ УДК 78.06 Harmony of Sounds in Boris Pasternak’s Poetry Natalia A. Yelovskaya* and Irina F. Sidiakova Krasnoyarsk State Academy of Music and Theatre 22 Lenin Str., Krasnoyarsk, 660049, Russia Received 20.03.2014, received in revised form 13.05.2014, accepted 21.07.2014 The paper studies questions of sound palette in Pasternak’s poetry, abundance of the world of sounds, that were heard in nature, music, everyday life and contribute to disclosure of a character, image and external characteristics of an object or a phenomenon. The synthesis of “what was heard” and “what was seen” (B. Asafiev) is one of the important features of Boris Pasternak’s poetics. It gives uniqueness and individuality to creative style of the master, who perceived and revealed the world around in his poetry with special sensibility and intensity. Keywords: poetry, sounds, nature, poetic vision and hearing, confluence, character. Literary critics have always considered and still consider Boris Pasternak as a “visual” poet. This fact was repeatedly emphasized in various papers and studies of his work. Y.M. Lotman in his deep analysis of Pasternak’s early poems focuses on the fact that the world of poet is observed and perceived, “... Pasternak’s general idea is observed idea” (Lotman, 1969: 228). He also makes reference to a line from M. Tsvetaeva’s letter, who writes about the difference in their perception of the world: “In poems Pasternak sees, and I hear» (Lotman, 1969: 227). And indeed, the first thing you pay attention to, even at cursory reading of Pasternak’s poems is vivid “visuality” and clarity of everything that was described. Poetic images are so prominent and so clear that a lot of poems can be compared with an engraving of an artist, where fidelity of * images is achieved by a few clear and precise lines. However, visuals images are not the only ones in Pasternak’s poetry. His poems are not only “observed” and “visible”, but also “heard.” In his poems auditory impressions are given not only an important but often the main role. Here Pasternak successfully uses his © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com # 1567 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia A. Yelovskaya and Irina F. Sidiakova. Harmony of Sounds in Boris Pasternak’s Poetry increased sensitivity and power of observation in perception of the phenomena of life, as well as musical experiences of his early childhood that were so strong for the emotional character of the poet, that he remembered them even in his middle age, and study of music that lasted for many years. Music plays very important role in Pasternak’s works. It is connected with poetic images, principles of construction of some poems and the whole poetic cycles, similar to the principles of the construction of pieces of music and sound organization of a poem – the questions of rhyme and sound instrumentation. The question of sound organization and musicality of Pasternak’s poetry still requires deep and more complete analysis. But this is a literary task. Our goal is different – to study melodiousness in imagery and, on the example of the poems, illustrate how the world of music is implemented in Pasternak’s poetry. The poet often provides music titles both to the separate poems (“Improvisation”, “Chorus”, “Paganini Violin”, etc.), and to the whole poetic cycle (“Themes and Variations”), uses professional musical terminology in poetic speech, refers to the names of musical instruments, pieces of music, the names of composers, describes his personal feelings and thoughts caused by music. Auditory experiences occupy a significant place in his poetry. These are sounds from everyday life and nature. The poet perceives any sound phenomenon very sensitively, and the world of sounds in his poems is amazingly rich and varied. It is closely connected with the general meaning and content, with the emotional “marking”, as well as with dramaturgical features of the poems. In the paper by Igor Glebov (B.V. Asafiev) “Vision of The World in the Spirit of Music (Poetry by A. Blok)” the distinguished scholar, who wanted to write a book about interrelation of music and poetry (which, unfortunately, remained unfinished), studies the sound representation caused by poetry of Blok in detail, using such terms as “sounding and sound images” (Glebov, 1972). Sounding images are images that “imply a state of sounding (e.g., everything related to the idea of ringing), and sound images – names related to sounds, but not sounds themselves (e.g., music, names of the instruments)...” (Glebov, 1972:57). We will use these terms by Asafiev, as they most closely correspond to the goal of this research – not only be limited by associations with professional music in the poems of Pasternak, but study “heard” and “sounding” in his poetry. This extends the range of studied phenomena, but allows to understand how Pasternak in his poems, even in those which were not devoted to music, “hears”, and not just “sees”. For Pasternak, careful listening to the world around us was one of the ways of knowledge and runs through many of his poems: Прислушайся к гулу раздолий неезженых, Прислушайся к бешеной их перебежке. (“A Bad Dream”, p. 76)1 Я слышу мокрых кровель говорок, Торцовых плит заглохшие эклоги. (“To Anna Akhmatova”, p. 200) The poet presents himself as a link, a mediator between the sounding world of nature and those to whom he reveals its secrets: “Я – уст безвестных разговор …” He is the spokesman and the singer of everything speechless – mighty as Biblical Goliath “стоглавый бор”, helpless because of his inability to speak and the deliverer from the captivity of silence «певческой влаги трав». # 1568 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia A. Yelovskaya and Irina F. Sidiakova. Harmony of Sounds in Boris Pasternak’s Poetry deafest organ” that is comparing it with the exact opposite of hearing – deafness. But still it is endowed with the ability to hear: Закрой глаза. В наиглушайшем органе На тридцать верст забывшихся пространств Стоят в парах и каплют храп и хорканье, Смех, лепет, плач, беспамятство и транс. (p. 189) Но мхи пугливо попирая, Разгадываю тайну чар: Я – речь безгласного их края, Я – их лесного слова дар. О прослезивший туч раскаты, Отважный отроческий ствол! Ты – перед вечностью ходатай, Блуждающий – я твой глагол. О, чернолесье – Голиаф, Уединенный воин в поле! О певческая влага трав, Немотствующая неволя! Лишенный слов – стоглавый бор То – хор, то – одинокий некто … Я – уст безвестных разговор, Я – стон дремучих диалектов. (Forest, p. 494) Vision and hearing are equally complementary and often interpenetrating phenomena in Pasternak’s poetry. In one of the poems the poet does, as it would seem at first, a paradoxical comparison, calling vision “the Everything visible to a man is transformed into a sound line and the world is perceived through a sound line and sounds. In the poems of Pasternak any phenomenon or any object has a gift of sounding. This concerns even those objects and phenomena that, according to the ordinary human ideas are “dumb” and “silent”, as the poet often animates everything visible and feels efficient vitality in everything. In one of the poems from the book “The Second Birth” ore, hiding in the Terek River gorge, has human emotions. It sounds, and these intense sharp sounds provide dramatic effect to the poem, changing its peaceful narration. And echo here is not just a repetition of what was heard. The poet’s imagination reincarnates him # 1569 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia A. Yelovskaya and Irina F. Sidiakova. Harmony of Sounds in Boris Pasternak’s Poetry in a highway master who indifferently cleans everything that lies on the road: На дне той клетки едким натром Травится Терек, и руда Орет пред всем амфитеатром От боли, страха и стыда. Он шел породой, бьющей настежь Из преисподней на простор, А эхо, как шоссейный мастер, Сгребало в пропасть этот сор. (p. 348) Contradiction between a cry of despair and calm and callous “attitude” towards it is truly tragic. Visual and sounding images in Pasternak’s poetry complement each other, they often coexist. They cannot be separated: Пекло, и берег был высок. С подплывшей лодки цепь упала Змеей гремучею – в песок, Гремучей ржавчиной – в купаву. (“Imitators”, p. 120) The image of the chain that slips and falls down evokes association with a snake, and its clanging brings to mind a new comparison – a snake turns out to be a rattlesnake, i.e. not only external features and characteristics of the object, but also its “voice” are compared. It is the “voice” that makes an object unique, giving it specific features. Sometimes the “visible” and “seen” in Pasternak’s poetry arises from the “heard”, like in the following poem: Уж замка тень росла из крика Обретших слово… (p. 384) In this case separate and independent existence of the “heard” and “visible” is impossible – one image complements the other. Thus, we can speak of complementarity of the sounding and visual in Pasternak’s poetry. An example of the interpenetration of visual and auditory impressions is the poem “Afterword”, where creative imagination of the poet gives light the ability of sound. The poem has only one “sounding” image – it is a reflection of the setting sun, shining like a jewel in a woman’s hair, and buzzing, in the author’s imagination, like a flying bumblebee: Это – запад, карбункулом вам в волоса Залетев и гудя, угасал в полчаса… (pp. 153-154) Extremely acute, and therefore seeming very original, sound and visual representations of the poet, merging into an indissoluble whole, interpenetrating into each other, create a unique “Pasternak’s” poetic image. Another good example of interpenetration of the “sounding” and “visible” are the final verses of the poem “Lieutenant Schmidt”. As in the previous poem, here the light “sounds” – a bright spotlight, piercing the darkness of the hatch with the people doomed to death. This light takes the form of a terrible and ruthless monster that, with a hiss, creeps up to its victim: Вдруг по тьме мурашками пробежал прожектор. «Прут» зевнул, втянул тысячеперстье лап. Свет повел ноздрями, пробираясь к жертвам. Заскрипели петли. Упал железный трап. Это канонерка пристала к люку угольному. Свет всадил с шипеньем внутрь свою иглу. Клетку ослепило. Отпрянули испуганно. Путаясь костями в цепях, забились вглубь. # 1570 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia A. Yelovskaya and Irina F. Sidiakova. Harmony of Sounds in Boris Pasternak’s Poetry In the last verse of the poem the “sounding” – “heard” (screams and sobs of the convicts) and the visible (spotlight) are presented in a complex synthesis. The sound here is “getting more condensed” and becomes so dense and real, that the light is “dipped” into the screams as in water, and it “stews” in the sounds of sobs: Счет пошел на миги. Крик: «Прощай, товарищи!» – Породил содом. Прожектор побежал, Окунаясь в вопли, по люкам, лбам и наручням, И пропал, потушенный рыданьем каторжан. (p. 303) According to the poet’s ideas not only objects and phenomena, surrounding a person, sound. Space, open space and the whole universe sound. But these principles were formed in Pasternak’s poetry gradually, and it is possible to follow their evolution on the example of his early poems and the later periods of his creativity. For example, in the book “My Sister – Life”, dated 1917, the poet writes about the stars that are available only to human vision: Из глубин сокровенных природы Разольется поток голосов. Я услышу летящий под своды Гул и плеск дискантов и басов. (“Flash of Light”, p. 611) Откуда это? Что за притча, Что пепел рухнувших планет Родит скрипичное капричьо?.. The poet doesn’t just “hear” what is happening around, but perceives sounds so keenly that sometimes they turn into something material, become not only audible and visible, but even tangible and smell. Thus, the poet writes in his unique metaphorical language about the singing of a nightingale, comparing the sound with a clot of burning matter that, using all its powers, breaks loose from a trap: Разрывая кусты на себе, как силок, Маргаритиных стиснутых губ лиловей, Горячей, чем глазной Маргаритин белок, Бился, щелкал, парил и сиял соловей. Он как запах от трав исходил. Он как ртуть Очумелых дождей меж черемух висел. Он кору одурял. Задыхаясь, ко рту Подступал. Оставался висеть на косе. (“Margarita”, p. 158) Блещут, дышат радостью, Обдают сиянием, На таком-то градусе И меридиане. (“Stars in summer”, p. 125) But they can listen to “… Все, что им нашаркали, все, что наиграли” remaining mysteriously “dumb ” in the silent universe: … Этим звездам к лицу б хохотать, Ан вселенная – место глухое. (“Definition of Poetry”, p. 127) In the later period of his creative work (in the 50s) the motif of listening to the sound of space and the puzzles of the universe appears: In this poem the sound is endowed with such qualities and characteristics as color (“губ лиловей”), temperature (“горячей) and smell (“Он как запах от трав исходил”). In all these comparisons of the sound with the material world, its material qualities act as a set of the unique means of expression, aimed at creation of a certain emotional state. # 1571 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia A. Yelovskaya and Irina F. Sidiakova. Harmony of Sounds in Boris Pasternak’s Poetry In the poem, every detail conveys a strong emotional tension: not “губ лиловей”, but “стиснутых губ лиловей”, and not “горячий”, but in the superlative degree – “горячей, чем…” The sound like a heady smell of herbs fills the entire space, it “stupefies”, makes it difficult to breathe (“задыхаясь ко рту подступал”). With each such an exaggeration and grotesque of images, with each new line, concern creeps in and deepens in the mind. And that’s clear – after all, the poem “Margarita”, along with the poem “Mephisto”, is a part of “Faust Cycle” and its emotional subtext is clear from Goethe. These are few patches of poetry where “voices” – the sounds of nature are exteriorized: Они висят во мгле Сученой ниткой книзу, Их шум прибит к скале, Как канделябр к карнизу. (p. 393) The last two lines are unusual in terms of common logic: the noise of the waterfall is material, remarkable, and, as a common household item, it is nailed to the eaves. It is a single whole with the cliff. Visual and auditory impressions merge together and form a specific image2. In the poet’s perception not only sounds of nature, but also sounds of everyday life are material. They convey a deliberately prosaic setting of the railway station and inn turmoil in “Spektorsky” novel: На станции дежурил крупный храп, Как пласт, лежавший на листе железа. (p. 235) И птичьи крики мнет ручей, Как лепят пальцами пельмени. (p. 361) Их четвертует трескотня вертушек, Кроит на части звон и лязг дверей. (p. 308) Лес стянут по горлу петлею пернатых Гортаней, как буйвол арканом… (“Spring”, p. 88) The poet describes the noise of Kivach waterfall as mighty, great and strong, thus, animating it: …Террасу оглушает гомон, Сырой картон кортомных3 чащ, Как лапой, грохотом проломан. (“A poem”, p. 542) And here is description of another waterfall, not as magnificent as Kivach waterfall: От говора ключей, Сочащихся из скважин, Тускнеет блеск свечей, – Так этот воздух влажен. In the first example, the sound is like a dense mass, oppressive and pressing with its weight. The second example emphasizes its deafeningharsh character. Pasternak in his poems is not afraid of images that sound shrilling. Whistle, one of the most frequent sounds is also materialized and “objectified”: Свисток во всю длину ущелья Растягивается в струну. (“While We Are Mountaineering Caucasus …”, p. 607) in It is about a locomotive whistle. And that is how figuratively the poet describes police whistles: # 1572 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia A. Yelovskaya and Irina F. Sidiakova. Harmony of Sounds in Boris Pasternak’s Poetry Пеной по отмели шорх-шорх Черное море. (“In Lower Reach”, p. 422) …плотвой Свисток расплескавшийся выловлен. Милиционером зажат В кулак, как он дергает жабрами, И горлом, и глазом, назад, По-рыбьи, наискось задранным! Трепещущего серебра Пронзительная горошина, Как утро, бодрящее мокра, Звездой за забор переброшена. (“Police Whistles”, p. 124) Pasternak compares whistle with a fish – a glittering fish. It is trembling and gasping in the air, struggling in hands. In each of these examples, the materiality of sounding images acts as powerful means of expression that reveals the author’s intention. The emotional marking of the poem is in direct relation to how and what qualities of a subject the poet gives to the sounds. “Sounding” and “sound” images in Pasternak’s poetry have two functions: descriptive and expressive-emotional. It is notably, that the first one is not so important. Sound imitation, as such, is not the goal of the poet. Imitation of any particular sounding phenomena and their representation is extremely rare, being in direct dependence on the meaning of a poem, and resulting from it4: Заря, как выстрел в темноту. Бабах! – и тухнет на лету Пожар ружейного пыжа. (p. 184) Sounds can complement everyday life, they can also become good characteristics of people. For example, in “Spektorsky” the poet gives a satirical portrait of a family – seemingly arrogant, but ignorant and downtrodden in fact. Apparent importance and pomposity of the owners of the house where the main character gives lessons, disappears as a mask at the first sound of their voices. It happens because the poet emphasizes the whining and plaintive tones of an offended man, exposing hypocrisy of “self-confident kholops” and “chameleons”: Кобылкины старались корчить злюк, Но даже голосов свирепый холод Всегда сбивался на плаксивый звук, Как если кто задет или уколот. Особенно заметно у самой Страдальчества растравленная рана Изобличалась музыкой прямой Богатого гаремного сопрано. And characteristics that become obvious in these lines through the auditory impression of the sound of voice further become more detailed in humiliating phrases that cause both mockery and pity: Но в целом мире не было людей Забитее при всей наружной спеси И участи забытей и лютей, Чем в этой цитадели мракобесья. И возникающий в форточной раме Дух сквозняка, задувший пламя, Свечка за свечкой явственно вслух: Фук. Фук. Фук. Фук. (“Waltzing with devilry”, p. 402-403) Урчали краны порчею аорт, Ругалась, фартук подвернув, кухарка, И весь в рассрочку созданный комфорт Грозил сумой и кровью харкал. (“Spektorsky”, p. 323) # 1573 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia A. Yelovskaya and Irina F. Sidiakova. Harmony of Sounds in Boris Pasternak’s Poetry Когда рыданье вдовье Относит за бугор, Я с нею всею кровью И вижу смерть в упор. Sounds give the poem certain emotional tones. For example, in the poem “The Mine”, dark and infused with the fear of death, in which a deep and dark cave is compared with a crypt – the “kingdom of a corpse”, where each sound is especially distinguishable in the eerie darkness and silence, each sound has a special meaning: Как на разведке чуден звук Любой. Ночами звуки редки. И дико вскрикивает крюк На промелькнувшей вагонетке. Human life here depends on correct understands of the underground sounds, because any accident can lead to the fatal outcome: Слепая вещая рука Впотьмах выщупывает стенку, Здорово дышит ли штрека, И нет ли хриплого оттенка. And potential catastrophe is further described by the sounds of the funeral bells: Ведь так легко пропасть, застряв. Когда, лизнув пистон патрона Прольется, грянувши, затрав По недрам гулко, похоронно. (“The Mine”, p. 222) The pessimistic poem “False alarm”, which the author considers the approach winter as the coming of death, is also full sounds. And these sounds – distant sad cries widows – make the poet think about frailty life: Я вижу из передней В окно, как всякий год, Своей поры осенней Отсроченный приход. (“False Alarm”, p. 398) In Pasternak’s poems absence of any sounds is associated with something unvital – often with death. It is not the silence the poet “listens attentively” and clearly identifies all its tones (“Тишина, ты – лучшее из всего, что слышал”), but “dumbness”, total absence of sounds, “deafness”, i.e. absence of the signs of life. As in the poetry of Blok, for Pasternak “empty and silent world, the world without sounds is terrible ...” (Glebov, 1972: 50). For example, in the novel “Spektorsky” the poet describes a bleak urban image of a modern city – feverish city with its dusty pavements, with trains that graze the buildings and trees surrounded by rails. Here you can only see the huddle and feel the heat and stuffiness, because it has no sounds, there is nothing alive but only mechanical and dead things are thriving: Все это постигаешь у застав, in of of of of А днем простор осенний Пронизывает вой Тоскою голошенья С погоста за рекой. # 1574 # Где с фонарями в выкаченном чреве За зданья задевают поезда И рельсами беременны деревья; Где нет мотивов и перипетий, Но аппетитно выпятив цилиндры, Паровичок на стрелке кипятит Туман лугов, как молоко с селитрой. … Затянутый все в тот же желтый жар Горячей кожи, надушенной амброй, Пылил и плыл заштатный тротуар, Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia A. Yelovskaya and Irina F. Sidiakova. Harmony of Sounds in Boris Pasternak’s Poetry Не кайся, не завидуй, – Покойся с миром, спи. («Безвременно умершему», с. 385) Раздувши ставни, парные, как жабры. (p. 320) The city comes to life only when the sounds are heard. But the “animal” life of the city is so unattractive! Even fortune, barely holding a cry of pain, is forced to remain silent – its mouth is filled with the sand of crimes and injustices: Голодный город вышел из берлоги, Мотнул хвостом, зевнул и раскатил Тележный гул семи холмов отлогих. “Deafness” is also personification of death: Я в мысль глухую о себе Ложусь, как в гипсовую маску И это – смерть: застыть в судьбе, В судьбе – формовщика повязке. (p. 491) Full-blooded and bright life bursts into the silence of “deafness” and destroys it: Тоска убийств, насилий и бессудств Ударила песком по рту фортуны И сжала крик, теснившийся из уст Красноречивой некогда вертуньи. Silence of a woman who uses it like an inexpugnable wall to isolate herself from a “hero” is cold and scary. It is a “deliberately made obstacle” that makes it difficult to understand each other; it becomes an insurmountable obstacle: Дик прием был, дик приход, Еле ноги доволок. Как воды надрала в рот, Взор уперла в потолок. Ты молчала. Ни за кем Не рвался с такой тугой. Если губы на замке, Вещай с улицы другой. (p. 139) …Мы в ту пору б оглохли, но Откупорили б, как бутылку, Заплесневелое окно, И гам ворвался б… (p. 360) “Sounding” images give the breath of life. In the colorful, variegated genre painting “The Wedding”, which as if came off from the canvas by Kustodiev, diversity and abundance of sounds vividly recreates the sounds of high spirits of the festive folk festival. Only the word “noise” is repeated 4 times in the poem, but these repetitions seem unnoticeable, as the sounds vary. The poet pays attention to every detail included in the musical “description” of the folk festival. These include accordion playing, as well as playful chastushka and round dance: “Absence of sounds” and “dumbness” are the worst: “Ужасен, как немой толмач …” (p. 289). It is death: А зарею, в самый сон, Только спать и спать бы, Вновь запел аккордеон, Уходя со свадьбы. И рассыпал гармонист Снова на баяне Немые индивиды, И небо, как в степи: # 1575 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia A. Yelovskaya and Irina F. Sidiakova. Harmony of Sounds in Boris Pasternak’s Poetry Плеск ладоней, блеск монист, Шум и гам гулянья. life, which vanishes like a dream, the song pauses, all the “sounding” and “sound” images disappear and a note of sadness emerges: И опять, опять, опять Говорок частушки Прямо к спящим на кровать Ворвался с пирушки. Жизнь ведь тоже только миг, Только растворенье Нас самих во всех других Как бы им в даренье. А одна, как снег бела, В шуме, свисте, гаме Снова павой поплыла, Поводя боками. Только свадьба, вглубь окон Рвущаяся снизу, Только песня, только сон. Только голубь сизый. («The Wedding», p. 434-435) Помавая головой И рукою правой, В плясовой по мостовой, Павой, павой, павой. Вдруг задор и шум игры Топот хоровода, Провалясь в тартарары, Канули, как в воду. Only at the end of the poem, when the poet thinks about the shortness of a human 1 2 3 4 Thus, it can be stated that Pasternak’s poems are not only “seen”, but also “heard”. Of course, in order to understand the boundless wealth of “sounding” and “sound” images, to perceive the meaning of sound dynamics in the poet’s poetry it is necessary “... not only to read them, but to hear them with the inner ear as musicians hear when they look at music scores” (Glebov, 1972: 48). In this paper references to Pasternak’s poems are provided according to the following edition: Boris Pasternak. Verses and Poems. – Moscow-Leningrad, 1965. Hereafter, all the references to this edition will be given indicating fi rst the name of the poem, then the page. “Кортомный” – lettable. Read more about the symbolic meanings of images of nature in Pasternak’s works in the paper by V.Y. Balahnina [Balahnina, 2009] Here we do not mean alliterations – very vivid and often used by Pasternak, – which may represent a lot of things. Alliteration, as a mean of sound instrumentation goes beyond the problems, featured in this paper. But we would like to give some examples of intentional poetic method: Когда в тиши речной таможни, / В морозной тишине земли – / Сухой, опешившей, порожней – / Лишь слышалось, как сзади шли. Abundance of sibilants represents scuffling, rustle in silence. Interchange of syllables «то-та-ту» represents tramp: Стуча подковой об одном гвозде / То тут, то там, то в тот подъезд, то в этот. Multiple “и” adds easiness, and combination of sounds “ини” repeated several times provides delicacy and melodiousness to the following line: Синие линии пиний. Ни звука. References 1. Balahnina V.Y. Semantika i transformatsii prirodnyh simvolov v romane B. L. Pasternaka «Doktor Zhivago» (2009). Voprosy kulturologii, №4. S. 87-90. 2. Glebov I. (Asaf‘ev, B.V.) Videnie mira v duhe muzuki (Poeziya A. Bloka) (1972). Blok i muzyka. L.-M. # 1576 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia A. Yelovskaya and Irina F. Sidiakova. Harmony of Sounds in Boris Pasternak’s Poetry 3. Lotman Yu. M. Stihotvoreniya rannego Pasternaka i nekotorye voprosy strukturnogo izucheniya teksta (1969). Uchenye zapiski Tartusskogo universiteta, Vyp. 236. Trudy po znakovym sistemam. 4. Pasternak B. Stihotvoreniya i poemy (1965). M.-L. Гармония звуков в поэзии Бориса Пастернака Н.А. Еловская, И.Ф. Сидякова Красноярская государственная академия музыки и театра Россия, 660049, Красноярск, ул. Ленина, 22 В статье раскрываются вопросы звуковой палитры поэзии Пастернака, богатства мира звуков, услышанных в природе, музыке, жизненных реалиях и способствующих раскрытию характера, образа, обрисовке внешнего облика предмета, явления. Происходящий синтез «услышанного» и «увиденного» (Б. Асафьев) представляет одну из важных особенностей поэтики Бориса Пастернака. Он придает неповторимость и индивидуальность творческому стилю мастера, который с особой чуткостью и глубиной воспринимает и раскрывает окружающий мир в своих стихах. Ключевые слова: поэзия, звуки, природа, поэтическое зрение и слух, слияние, характер. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 9 (2014 7) 1578-1590 ~~~ УДК 784.1 Songs about Saint Petersburg by Sergei Slonimsky. On the Question of Interpretation of the Poetic Text Lydia L. Ravikovitch* Krasnoyarsk State Academy of Music and Theatre 22 Lenin Str., Krasnoyarsk, 660049, Russia Received 24.02.2014, received in revised form 15.03.2014, accepted 21.04.2014 This article discusses a cappella choruses by Sergei Slonimsky that clearly represent the creative style of the contemporary master. The choruses written to lyrics of various poets (Bulat Okudzhava and Anatoly Chepurov) are connected with each other by commonality of the image content, the stylistic unity and the presence of a cross-cutting theme. Each of them has a St. Petersburg night scenery imbued with bright mood and embodied by the composer very deeply, emotionally and convincingly. Based on the analysis of these works the article covers in detail the issues of the relationship of a word and music, interpretation of the poetic text, reveals the nature of the relation of the composition, stanza structure and metrorhythmics of the verse with the means of musical expression, studies the melodic, rhythmic and mode-harmonic language of the choruses, their textural organization. Keywords: text, composition, stanza, meter, rhythm, mode, harmony, texture. An important role in the works of Sergei Slonimsky is played by the image of St. Petersburg – Leningrad that, for the composer personally, is connected with Russia, Russian and world culture. A multidimensional and complex image of the city on the Neva River is represented in a number of his works. Among them are the cantata “The Voice from the Chorus” to poems by Alexander Blok, romances to poems by Anna Akhmatova and Osip Mandelstam, “The Song about Leningrad” for the bass, mixed chorus and symphony orchestra, “St. Petersburg visions” for symphony orchestra (with the epigraph from the novel of Fyodor Dostoevsky “White Nights”). The composer’s constant attention is attracted by the Leningrad * poets – his father’s contemporaries – L. Lunts, D. Kharms, V. Rozhdestvensky, A. Prokofiev, his contemporaries and friends – Ye. Rein, I. Brodsky, Ya. Gordin. © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org # 1578 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Lydia L. Ravikovitch. Songs about Saint Petersburg by Sergei Slonimsky. On the Question of Interpretation… The genre of a cappella chorus can also include such works devoted to St. Petersburg as the “White Night” to the lyrics of B. Okudzhava and “Leningrad’s White Night” to the lyrics of A. Chepurov. Addressing these poets was not accidental for the composer. There is a lot in common in their lyric poetry: sensitivity to the beauty of nature, the songlike nature of the poems, sincerity and credibility, rhythmic and tonal variety, completeness of the artistic form. It is interesting that the “White Night” chorus created in 1982, was not written to the lyrics of a St. Petersburg poet, but to the lyrics of the Moscow bard Bulat Okudzhava who was very popular in the 60’s – 70’s. Nevertheless, literary critics have come to the conclusion that Okudzhava “had “simply poems” and “song-poems”, both equally belonging to the professional poetry, written literature” (Novikov, 1997: 39), and their genre “...is not just elegiac, scenery, meditative lyrics, but special, emotionally or, to be more accurate, musically suggestive, where a thought, feeling, association intricately interact with each other giving rise to a multi-layer, “stereophonic” experience” (Zaitsev, 1998: 4). Bulat Shalvovich Okudzhava (1924 – 1997) entered the history of Russian poetry as one of the pioneers of the genre of the author song. Many of his works written in a poetical and musical form, as well as the songs of Yu. Vizbor, Yu. Kim, V. Vysotsky, A. Galich, A. Rosenbaum, exist only in the author’s performance. They are distinguished by the openness of soul, emotionality, sincerity and trustworthiness. The main thing that made the songs of Okudzhava especially attractive for the audience was quite an organic unity of poetry, music and performance. Joining the literature circle together with such poets of the 60’s as Ye. Yevtushenko, A. Voznesensky, B. Akhmadulina, Bulat Okudzhava at the bottom of his work was a poet of the front-line generation; his poetry was formed in brutal environment under fire in trenches and dugouts. The war, relationships, feelings associated with war and tragedy of a man at war were the motifs Okudzhava kept returning to throughout the work. Titles of poems written over the years tell it all: “The first day on the front line”, “The song about the soldiers’ boots”, “Goodbye, boys”, “The song about the infantry”, “Do not believe the war, boy”, “From the front diary” and others. However, an important place in the poet’s work is taken by sentimental characters of bygone eras (gallant men and beautiful ladies), historical fantasies, toponymy of cities. The constituent elements of the poetic world of Okudzhava are childhood, the mother, the father, love and separation, human existence in general. One of the central images of the lyrics of the poet is his home town of Moscow that he mentions in many of his poems. This can be seen by the titles of his poetical collections – “Arbat, my Arbat” (1976), “Tea-party on Arbat Street” (1996). To the poet Moscow is an inexhaustible source of inspiration, a spiritual world in which the urban scenery and the unique, old architecture, toponymy of Moscow streets, squares and alleys (Arbat, Volkhonka, Ordynka, Neglinnaya), and, finally, people of this city with a rich inner world and generosity of soul are inseparably fused, enveloped in a single mood. Largely thanks to the songs of Okudzhava Arbat St. began to be perceived as a symbol of the spiritual unity of the Moscow intelligentsia. But, in addition to the poems about Moscow, the poet also devoted a lot of his works to Leningrad – the city on the Neva River, in which Bulat Shalvovich had the fondest memories. It was in Leningrad where the songs of the poet gained the audience’s recognition. After the failure of his first public performance in Moscow in 1959 Bulat Okudzhava (at the invitation of friends) performed in the Leningrad House of # 1579 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Lydia L. Ravikovitch. Songs about Saint Petersburg by Sergei Slonimsky. On the Question of Interpretation… Film in June 1961 before a small audience and had a resounding success, which was unexpected to him. When in December 1961 the poet came to Leningrad once again and performed at the Palace of Arts, he was already famous by that time: his songs were played on the radio, distributed in sound recordings; he was admitted to the Union of Writers. It is no surprise that the poet fell in love with this city, often visited it and dedicated a whole series of poems to it: “The Leningrad Music”, “Autumn in Tsarskoye Selo”, “Leningrad Elegy”, “House on the Moika”, “Leningrad”, “Neva Petrovna, beside you...”, etc. These also include the poem “White Night” taken as a basis of the similarly-named chorus of Sergei Slonimsky. The poem created and performed in 1964 in the fi lm “Returned Music” was not included in any of the author’s collections of poetry, however, it was set to music by a St. Petersburg composer Vladimir Chistyakov and then was published in the printed music “Listen, Leningrad, I’ll sing to you...” (Songs about Leningrad) in 1969. Like many of the poet’s works, this poetic miniature belongs to the “poem-song” type created by Okudzhava, the historical origins of which stem from the romance tradition. It fascinates with its musicality. In the very structure of the verse the sound of guitar chords, thoughtful tones of the singing poet, lyrical expressiveness of the old romance can be heard. Here Okudzhava demonstrates a wonderful gift – he can speak about the sublime in simple, clear, unpretentious words without raising his voice. The author conveys the atmosphere of the reverent contemplation of the world, acceptance of life as a precious gift from above very passionately and at the same time naturally. Plyvut doma, kak korabli, iz dalnikh stran, Pod parusa vsekh sozyvaya… Noch belaya, segodnya ya tvoi kapitan, Tvoi rulevoy, tvoya dusha zhivaya. [Houses are floating like ships from far away, Calling everything under the sail... White night, I’m your captain today, Your steersman, your soul and faith.] The structure of the poem that includes four stanzas (quatrain) is a monologue combining two perspectives: a brooding lyrical hero and a night city seen by the poet in the romantic and magical, fanciful and fantastic light. But besides the monologue form the poem also has a dialogic principle, which is very characteristic of the lyrics of Okudzhava. It can be found in many of his poems, even in the monologues. The poet usually refers to an imaginary interlocutor with whom he has a quiet, intimate conversation. In a poetic text this is manifested primarily in a combination of vocatives and imperatives: “Let’s join hands, my friends”, “Do not give up the efforts, maestro”, “Painters, dip your brushes”, “Midnight trolley, rush along the street”. The same poetic technique is used in the analyzed poem: in each stanza the poet refers to the allegorical figure (“White night”) that represents the beauty and mystery of the universe. Belo vokrug – bely doma, bela reka, Vsyo – ot Fontanki do predmestiy… Noch belaya, ty otlozhi dela poka, Davai poidyom, pobrodim vmeste. [Everything is white – the houses, the river, Everything – from the Fontanka to the outskirts... White night, postpone your matters for awhile Let’s go and stroll the streets with me.] It should be noted that the imperative mood in Okudzhava’s poem lacks of an imperative tone. This is not a gesture of the order, preaching or # 1580 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Lydia L. Ravikovitch. Songs about Saint Petersburg by Sergei Slonimsky. On the Question of Interpretation… appeal. In the “vocative” + “imperative” couple the first is much more important to the poet than the second one. It is thoughts and feelings transmitted to another character, or rather, an internal dialogue with yourself, with your own heart. Ni ogonka, spyat fonari – k chemu oni? Zachem ikh slabiy svet dorogam? Noch belaya, ostanovis, povremeni… Mne khorosho s toboy molchat o mnogom. [No lights, the lantern are sleeping – what are they for? Why do the roads need their faint lights? White night, stop, don’t rush... It’s so good to keep quiet about so much with you.] The poem is distinguished by the unity of a poetic thought, and, according to the general emotional mood, it is the complete artistic whole. This is considerably contributed to by a kind of technique of altered repetitions typical of Okudzhava’s poetics. So, in fact the fourth stanza (with minor changes) repeats the first one: Kak korabli, plyvut oni iz dalnikh stran, Spokoinykh dum ne narushaya… Noch belaya, segodnya ti – moi okean… Mne po dushe tvoya dusha bolshaya. [Like ships they sail from far away, Without shattering the calm... White night, today you are my ocean... Your great soul is after my own heart.] As we can see, the first, the third and the fourth lines of the four-line quatrain, in fact, are a modified repetition of similar lines of the first stanza. In addition, they are combined by an epiphora of the first and the fourth verses (“Like ships from far away” – “They sail from far away”, “Your living soul” – “Your great soul”) forming a ring composition, which gives the poem an inner harmony and completeness. In terms of phonetic, syntactic and composition aspects of the poem the verbal refrain “White night” in the beginning of the third line of each stanza plays a big role. This anaphora creates a structurally meaningful core of the poem – a leitmotif that represents a human’s search for the most beautiful, for the “imperishable beauty”. Thus, in this poetic miniature, as in many other poems, Okudzhava uses musical techniques (modified repetitions, a refrain) that carry a maximum load of meaning without diverting the reader’s attention to the structure, which could not be more suited to the poet who said that “Music of the poem is always quiet”. What is also interesting is a rhythmic and tonal structure of the poem that combines conversationality and melodiousness. This is achieved by the different syllabic length of the lines (the odd ones have twelve syllables, the even ones – nine or eleven) that creates unevenness in rhythm, and by the interlaced rhyme (a b a b) coupling lines of a poem. It also should be noted that a certain rhythmic dialogue is formed – every odd verse with a male clausula is colloquial, but each even verse with a female clausula tends to melodiousness. In this poem Okudzhava uses the classic metrics: a so-called “free iamb” with constantly alternating six-, five-and four-step lines. This, as well as the frequent intrusion of a pyrrhic and a spondee (extra accent) creates a special internal dynamics and tension leaving no space for looseness and limpness. Thanks to the rhythmic shifts, fluctuations of syllabic duration of lines, the poet attains a natural intonation and the trusting, intimate and sincere tone that is so characteristic of his lyrics. Referring to this poem, Slonimsky introduces some changes into it generally maintaining its structure. Thus, he rearranges # 1581 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Lydia L. Ravikovitch. Songs about Saint Petersburg by Sergei Slonimsky. On the Question of Interpretation… the words in the second stanza (“White river” – “river is white”), replaces the phrase “matters for a while” by “your matters”. In the fourth stanza, the first line “Like ships they sail from far away” is omitted; instead, the composer insets the start line “Houses are floating like ships from far away”. These partial changes to the poetic text highlights the high demands of Slonimsky to the literary basis associated not only with the artistic imagery, but also with the specifics of a word’s sounding in singing. The features of the content and structure of the poetic text affected the musical form of the chorus – ternary reprise with the middle of the progressive type: 10 + 15 + 14. The text is partitioned respectively: the first and the fourth stanzas were the basis of the extreme parts, and the second and the third part were in the middle. General outlines, the type of ternary form bring together the chorus of Slonimsky with the poem of Okudzhava: a thematic arch formed by the repetitiveness is a reflection of the ring composition of the poem. In addition, the reprise nature of the fourth stanza is stressed by the composer by means of the repetition of the starting line of the poem. When comparing the musical phrases with the corresponding poetic lines, the first thing that draws attention is the flexibility of their scale ratio. Thus, in the exposition written in the form of a square period (4 + 4, excluding the two measures of introduction), verse lines of different lengths are placed into 2-measure phrases with identical length. The middle part consisting of two sections is more complex structurally: because of the intrusion of the 3/2 size, as well as the deep caesuras between episodes, the squareness is broken (3 + 4, 2 + 3). The reprise repeats the exposition varyingly fulfilling its purpose of a closing part. However, the form of the chorus is not devoid of features of a songlike couplet-variational structure, as indicated by a distinct division of the musical material into stanzas, caesura between them, as well as the “instrumental” links – small set-in ritornello-elements. The exposition’s theme set out in the form of a square period is distinguished by the lyrical softness and flexibility (m. 3 – 10). Clearly it has the features of the romance melodies, which is demonstrated in the smoothness of the line – except for a few quarter steps there are only tertian and second steps (and repetition of the sound) in the melody. Melodiousness and softness are combined with a wavy, rounded and balanced melodic pattern typical of the lyrical melodies. Like in other works of Slonimsky the chorus’s subject contains mirror-symmetric relations. Thus, the overall upward movement of the first sentence covering a tenth’s range (c – es) meets the downward movement of the second. If the first four-measure starts with an upward tertian intonation (c – es), the second one ends with a downward intonation (es – c). The elements of retrogression is observed in the structure (both sentences have a principle of summation), rhythm (a combination of the triple and duple pulses) and intonation sets (trichords, arpeggios). In general, the theme has a wide arc pattern: rising to the es top of the second octave in the first sentence it goes down smoothly to the accentual c sound in the second sentence. It is noteworthy that the initial intonation (m. 3) that emphasizes the third of the c-moll minor key and is a melodic grain of the theme in the culminating point appears as a vertex (m. 5), but harmonically remade intonation (the sixth degree sounds instead of a key-note). Further, it sounds like in the second sentence (m. 8) on the harmony of the second lowest degree, and then is repeated on the key-note for the last time (m. 10), thus, completing the theme. Consequently, by changing the harmonic coloration this tone becomes a key value and one of the significant # 1582 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Lydia L. Ravikovitch. Songs about Saint Petersburg by Sergei Slonimsky. On the Question of Interpretation… factors that combine the melody giving it features of the inner wholeness and completeness. The melodic line of the middle part develops a theme previously presented. The intonation that, this time, is set out in a major version provides a melody of the first section of this part (m. 12 – 19) that is brighter and serene. In addition to the tertian techniques the composer also uses trichords, quarter skips, singing major degrees of the mode, repetition of sounds. The melodic line of the second section is also very close to the theme of the exposition (m. 20 – 25). Starting with a trichord set repeating many times in different versions it ends by a melody (m. 23 – 25), which is, essentially, a modified repetition of the theme of the exposition – it combines the initial two-measure of the first sentence (m. 3 – 4) and the concluding phrase of the second sentence (m. 10). It should be mentioned that the tertian intonation that does not lose its key value, and by appearing in various forms like the exposition it frames the entire section emphasizing the most significant words of the text. In the reprise the theme of the exposition is repeated in the new timbre colouring (it is performed by a male group instead of female voices) almost without changing its intonation nature. The four-measure addition that imitates the “instrumental” conclusion successfully completes the chorus highlighting a prevailing musical tone that is shaded by the harmony of the minor dominant and, thus, sounds in a major at the end surprisingly fresh and soft (m. 37 – 39). It also should be noted that the poem itself with its long lines mostly having unstressed syllables (e.g., seven by two stressed syllables) creates prerequisites for a slow, melodious, free-flowing melody. The composer sensitively captures the structure of the verse, listens to the music of the poetic speech. The semantic completeness of each stanza is emphasized by the cadences, the persistent repetitions of the keynote (in melody and harmony) at the end of sections, the deep caesuras between the parts of the form. The poetic meter (iamb with different steps) is reflected in the iambic principles of musical phrases, in emphasizing the stressed syllables by accented and relatively accented syllables, large durations (a quarter, a dotted quarter). Pyrrhic feet, as well as the extra stress naturally fit into an unstable duple-triple rhythm, female clausula (weak cadences) in the even lines are highlighted by the melodic cadences – the voice descending by a third. In addition, we should not forget about the refrain “White night” that is consistently highlighted by the rising quarter or tertian intonation in music of the chorus (m. 6 – 7, m. 15 – 16, m. 22 – 23, m. 31 – 32). All of this demonstrates the composer’s great sense of all composition and rhythm-intonation features of the poetic original. The modal structure of the composition has distinct specifics. Its basis is a natural and Dorian c-moll mostly sustained in the extreme parts of the work. In the middle section the composer uses a same-named major (C-dur), and thanks to the plasticity of modal modulations and easiness of mode changing the keynote C easily alternates with others. A triad of the second degree (D-dur) that contrasts with it swings the modal stability and takes over the role of the tonic centre (m. 15, m. 19). At the end of the middle part there is a return to the main tone of the c-moll (m. 23 – 25), which prepares the beginning of the reprise. Just like the exposition it highlights a Dorian mode given versus a Neapolitan chord, as well as an expressive light-and-shade play (major-minor recolouring) favouring the naturalness of the fi nal transition into the similarly-named major. The harmonic sequence in a cadence (m. 36 – 39) based on the alternation of a major keynote, minor triads of a mediant and a dominant, as well # 1583 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Lydia L. Ravikovitch. Songs about Saint Petersburg by Sergei Slonimsky. On the Question of Interpretation… as a ninth chord (T – VI – T – V – VI9 – T), creates the effect of a colourful “iridescence”. And the final chord (C-dur) with the second and sixth degrees tuned like overtones giving consonance the note of aching sadness symbolizes a faint silhouette of a summer night. It is interesting that the poetic text of Bulat Okudzhava prompted Slonimsky for an unusual music solution – to use specific “instrumental and vocal” expressive means. With the choral sound the composer reproduces the characteristic features of the genre of the author song – the poet’s singing while playing the guitar. Thus, from the fi rst measures of the score the performing ensemble is divided into two layers: the relief and background. A men’s chorus imitating the typical guitar techniques of phonation, as indicated by the author’s remarque “quasi Guitarre” accompanies a group of female voices assigned to deliver the author’s statement. This principle of the texture separation into two semantically individual layers (with the exception of a few measures in the middle) is maintained throughout the work. From the very beginning the “guitar” opening the chorus (m. 1 – 2) sets the tone for the whole part. Dull sounding of male voices imitates “instrumental” introduction that prepares the main theme of the soprano and alto concentrating the intoned text. A sonorous-phonic task is implemented by the selected syllables “bong, bong” that are constantly repeated in the accompanying group of voices and, along with a melodic and rhythmic formula, imitate guitar strumming. Such a combination in the simultaneity of different types of vocalizations, in addition to the timbre colorization of the score, creates a special image-semantic double dimensionality of the sound. While female voices are speaking from the author, the men’s chorus forms a long dimension reviving intonation bends of the melody by changing harmonic colours. As can be seen, the composer uses a mixed type of the texture where the female choir performing the author’s monologue is a “thickened” melody (heterophonic layer), and the male group that imitates an accompanying instrument forms the movable rhythmical background exfoliating in two voices. In the middle part a two-layer texture is occasionally interspersed with the polyphonic chords of the choral character giving the sound the features of light pathos (m. 16 – 19). What is also quite expressive is the effect of a melody’s transfer from soprano to bass with sequential overlayering of voices in the quiet dynamics that convey the sounds of serenity, a romantic idyll of a summer night: “No lights, the lanterns are sleeping – what are they for?” (m. 20 – 22). In the reprise the functions of voices are changing: the author’s speech is assigned to the men’s chorus and female voices play the role of background, creating a certain shimmering effect between shadow and light that meets with the image instability of the work. Closure of the chorus, as well as the introduction, is a clear illustration of the “instrumental” conclusion, in which subtly expressive and coloristic interchanges of different types of performing ensemble (female, male, mixed) are associated with the last “breaths of the guitar”. Interestingly, after the creation of the “White night” chorus in 1982, the composer writes a work on the same topic called “Leningrad white night” to the lyrics of the St. Petersburg poet Anatoly Chepurov. And in 1983 the composer draws his attention to the poet’s work twice – for the 280th anniversary of his native city he creates the magnificent “Song about Leningrad” for bass, mixed choir and symphony orchestra, and the above-mentioned work for a cappella chorus. Anatoly N. Chepurov (1922 – 1990) – a poet of his time and generation, the generation whose youth was spent on the battlefield, whose character # 1584 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Lydia L. Ravikovitch. Songs about Saint Petersburg by Sergei Slonimsky. On the Question of Interpretation… was formed during the difficult and heroic period of time. The main theme of his work was military heroism, front-line partnership, international brotherhood, defence of Leningrad. In the army A. Chepurov worked in the newspaper titled “Defeat the enemy”, wrote poems, notes about war heroes, reports, essays, satirical sketches, conducted daily propaganda literary work that demanded not only talent, but also the courage and dedication. After the war, Anatoly threw himself into literary work completely. His books of his poetry got published, in which the poet expressed a deeply personal experience during severe and heroic years: “The road” (1947), “My youth” (1956), “Life line” (1960), “Crossroad of dates” (1962), “One land” (1970). Later, in 1975, having taken a long trip to the Far East, Chepurov wrote a series of poems that are soldered together not only by a lyrical hero who is the narrator, but also by the historical interchange of the events unfolding in them: “Tracks”, “Pine trees”, “Waves of the Danube”, “Bridge”, “Treasure”, etc. In addition to the works for the wide audience the poet also wrote many poems pertaining to the philosophical and scenery lyrics. It should be noted that the very nature of Chepurov’s poetic talent is lyrical, soft and soulful; its colours are usually unostentatious. According to a literary critic A. Pavlovskiy, “all his poetry can be compared with a lyrical song extended in time and space that is organically made up of many individual melodical verses, almost never distracting from the main soft register. In this respect, of course, it is very close to the most secret element of the Russian national melos” (Pavlovskiy, 1982: 7 – 8). Poetry of Anatoly Chepurov is different with stylistic clarity, smooth rhythm, watercolour picture and terse expression. According to the poet Vsevolod Rozhdestvensky, “the simplicity of his lyrics is quite complex and meaningful. In this respect, it follows the principles of Russian classical verse able to combine the clarity and accuracy (and therefore the subtlety) with the significance of the content. In this case the Russian language is connected with truthfulness of the general tone, with the immediacy of experience, and it always is convincing, because it expresses the undeniable truth of feelings” (Rozhdestvensky, 1971: 4). These true, but outwardly unpretentious lyrical miniatures also include a poem “In the white night” that became the basis for a cappella chorus of Slonimsky “The Leningrad white night”. It was written in 1955 and has features of the soulful, intimate tone that is so characteristic of the scenery lyrics of Chepurov where nature is the path to cognition of the heart, character and worldview of the contemporary. Ya lyublyu v leningradskuyu beluyu noch Vdol Nevy pobrodit ne spesha. Esli grust donyala – Grust unositsya proch, I po-prezhnemu zhizn khorosha. [In the white night in Leningrad I love To stroll along the Neva River slowly. If sadness wearies – Sadness fades away, And still, life is good.] Indeed, how simple and unshowy this lyrical confession seems to be. The poet draws creative attention to the feelings and experience of the hero, but at the same time recreates the lovely features of his native city. It appears natural and simple, because goodness and kindness are very peculiar to his inner world. The scenery in this case is a way of transmitting emotions of the lyrical hero who always has a loving attitude to the nature. In a brief, concise work (the poem includes four stanzas in total) Chepurov finds those tones # 1585 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Lydia L. Ravikovitch. Songs about Saint Petersburg by Sergei Slonimsky. On the Question of Interpretation… and artistic images that could convey the author’s thoughts more fully and deeply. The poet constantly and skilfully uses the bright vision of the colours of nature, its breath, which is very typical of him. Thus, in the third stanza the “freshness before dawn” “breathed in by leafage”, “the first beam on the river silver” is extraordinarily heartfelt and poetic. The poet writes about it excitedly, but not sharply, unobtrusively, which makes poetry gain from the artistic power and convincingness. No predutrennei svezhestyu dishit listva, Perviy luch na rechnom serebre, I vnezapnoy Studencheskoy pesni slova Uletayut navstrechu zare. [But the leafage breathes the predawn freshness, The first beam on the river silver, And the words Of a student song Fly to meet the dawn.] It should be emphasized that the lyrical scenery in this case is not valuable in itself; it is the impetus for reflection and contemplation. The deep meaning of the poem is revealed in the fourth stanza. The warmth of intonations formed by love for their native city in all its modest but spiritualized character results in a concise, aphoristically accurate ending, which is a symbolic statement of beauty of the human soul, glorification of our spiritual and moral unity with our native land. Skolko srazu v dushe probuzhdaetsya sil V te minuty pod nebom rodnym! Nochi, belye nochi, Kto vas ne lyubil, Ne byl tot nikogda molodym! [So many powers awaken in the soul at once In those moments under the mother sky! Nights, white nights, Those who did not love you, Were never young!] This miniature is distinguished by the orderliness and architectonic completeness of the whole. Its composition clearly discovers the twopart features. The first two stanzas combined by the anaphora “I love” embody the image of the night city. The third and fourth stanzas recreate a picture of the dawn arousing enthusiastic and romantic feelings in the soul of the hero. The key words “I love” and “white night” that first appeared in the starting line of the verse are repeated in a modified version in the concluding verses of the fourth stanza (“Nights, white nights”, “those who did not love you”), framing the entire poem and forming the ring composition. It is interesting that the stanzas of the poem are five-line stanzas, in which the first line includes twelve syllables, the second and the fifth – nine syllables; the number of syllables in the third and fourth lines varies: 6 + 6, 4 + 8, 7 + 5. As can be seen, the nine-syllable verses are framed by the short ones (third and fourth) that would constitute a twelve-syllable line that rhymes with the first, if the poet did not divide them in two lines. Thus, when combining the third and fourth lines the five-line stanza acquired the appearance of a quatrain with the regulated alternating of odd and even lines: 12 – 9 – 12 – 9. It should be noted that dividing the third line into two short verses, as well as the appearing caesura, draw the reader’s attention to a word, syntagma that acquire a certain vividness and expressiveness. In addition, the word transfer to the next line gives the poem features of a sublime, deliberate, slow declamation. This is also contributed to by the cross rhyme (a b a b) with the same masculine cadence, and a trisyllabic meter – the four- and three-meter anapaest that is usually used by poets to create works of an anelegiac, meditative character. # 1586 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Lydia L. Ravikovitch. Songs about Saint Petersburg by Sergei Slonimsky. On the Question of Interpretation… Creatively approaching the poetic original Slonimsky used all four stanzas in the music of the chorus keeping them intact. Studying the imaginative and emotional structure of Chepurov’s poem, the composer creates a work in the genre of choral songs that is most consistent with the literary fundamental principle stylistically and tonally. The stanzaical structure of the verse determined the choice of the form – a coupletvariation form consisting of four (according to the number of stanzas of the poem) developments of the theme that are freely varied (not counting a three-measure introduction): 8 + 8 + 9 + 11. Contours of a binary form stand out against the background of the variational basis quite subtly. For convenience the chorus can be divided into two sections that correlate with each other by the length 19 + 20. Although according to the type of development and internal thematic contrasts this one-theme composition does not have a binary form, certain features of the binary form reflect and highlight the real image-informative binary form of the work. While the fi rst two verses describe the beauty of the white night with soft sincerity, the third and fourth not only describe the image of the dawn, but also feelings of admiration and delight of the hero. The poetic stanza fits into the square period of the subsequent structure consisting of eight measures and which, just as the verse is divided into two couplets, is split into two four-measures, into two musical phrases. Smoothness in the development of the melodic line, the absence of skips, stability of ascending and descending tones, a small range (g – es) – all this emphasizes simplicity and naturalness of Chepurov’s verse. The culmination nature of the fourth and fifth lines “Sadness fades away and, still, life is good” is conveyed by the composer by means of the Dorian sixth degree harmonized by the major subdominant that is resolved into the dominant of the key f-moll tone. It should be noted that the singing intonation is pivotal for the chorus melodic line. So, the first phrase is characteristic of a permanent return to the supporting sounds of the mode – thirds and fifths (as – c). With a smooth ascent of the melody from the third degree to the es top there is a constant resistance in the form of separate melodic steps in the opposite direction (m. 3 – 7). The descent from the top is also accompanied by singing and return to the fifth tone. The same is observed in the second phrase, optionally repeating the first (m. 8 – 11). The ascent to the d top (Dorian sixth degree that thanks to the major colouring sounds surprisingly lightly and vividly) is replaced with a descent to the c fifth. The melody singing the supporting tones of the mode always returns to the same sounds creating the effect of a continuous circular motion, rotation that is associated with a measured flow of the river, as discussed in the text. It is noteworthy that the melodic line of the work, as in many choral songs of Slonimsky, is very simple. Its rhythmics, the general contours, accents, long notes are determined by the structure of the verse. One of the characteristics of the relation of the text and music is a paired combination of couplets in a stanza together with a variant repetition of a melodic phrase. (The boundaries of the melody, the scale of its length are determined by a semi-stanza resulting in an exact coincidence of poetic and musical caesuras). Structural completeness of each stanza is emphasized by the cadences. The composer retains the trisyllabic meter tending to the full stress by using the “barcarole” rhythm (size 6/8), thus achieving the full metrorhythmic equivalence of the poetic text and music. All phrases start because of the measure, which corresponds to two- # 1587 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Lydia L. Ravikovitch. Songs about Saint Petersburg by Sergei Slonimsky. On the Question of Interpretation… syllable anacrusis of anapaest; accented vowels attributable to the strong and relatively strong beats are perceived naturally and organically. An important role is played by the quantitative emphasis: stressed syllables are usually longer than the unstressed ones, especially at the ends of phrases that emphasize the masculine clausulas. The characteristic genre touches should include the dotted rhythmic figure that appears in almost every measure extending the stressed syllables. In conjunction with the song theme it gives music the features of elegance and grace. In addition, the triple pulse of the eighths chosen by the composer is never interrupted, and it is this “spinning” in the rhythm, as well as in the melodic line, as mentioned above, that is the most expressive. The mode-harmonic structure of the work is also quite interesting. It is based on the AeolianDorian f-moll that contains the first verse of the chorus. It is characterized by modulations of minor-major triads with correlation of the natural and Dorian subdominant. The tonal specificity is combined with the aspiration for continuity, fluctuation of the harmonic motion, which is achieved by the dominant cadences of both sentences (m. 7, m. 11). In the second verse the pitch degree of the theme that in the tenor and bass parts sounds by a fifth lower from the des sound, changes. Smooth mode modulations are very indicative of this variation (Dorian b-moll – As-dur), as well as the triad of the second lower degree (Ges-dur) introduced at the end of the second couplet, resolved into the dominant. This periodic functioning of the side keynotes, as well as a comparison of major triads (As-dur – Gesdur – C-dur) gives the music features of the tonal duality and instability. It should be noted that both couplets end on the dominant that “requires” continuation and are strengthened by the unity of mood and general logic of the tonal plan: f – b – As – f. But the third and fourth verses are perhaps the most colourful in the harmonic view, where attention is drawn to bright modulations in the key of the mediant. Thus, in the third verse after the first sentence in f-moll the second sentence in the key of the third high A-dur sounds surprisingly light and very expressive, which is a clear illustration of lines of the third stanza: “And the words of a student song fly away to meet the dawn!” (m. 24 – 27). Furthermore, in contrast to the first verses the third finishes with the full perfect cadence, but not in the key of A-dur, which is expected, but in F-dur, which is associated with bright highlights arising in the first rays of the sun. In the fourth stanza having the value of semantic musical summary of the entire work there is a keynote-mediant tonal relation, but this time only major tonalities are compared. The composer actively transforms the theme that acquires a hymn nature in a major version. Its first sentence is in F-dur, and the second one – in A-dur. The idea of the contrast comparison of flat and sharp tonalities finds clear expression in the cadence of the chorus, where unexpected modulation and elliptical shifts sound freshly and expressively (m. 36 – 39). Thus, after the A-dur keynote a sudden modulation in F-dur is interrupted by a triad of the sixth lowest Des-dur degree with the turn to As-dur, but the elliptical idiom brings the listener to F-dur once again (instead of the functionally preparing As-dur keynote). Thanks to these contrasting tonal comparisons the final thought “Was never young!” lights up, sounds expressively and enthusiastically. Brilliance of the sound is achieved not only by the harmonic means, but also by the timbre and register-based combinations. Thus, in the first # 1588 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Lydia L. Ravikovitch. Songs about Saint Petersburg by Sergei Slonimsky. On the Question of Interpretation… verse Slonimsky uses a mixed type of the texture, where the theme assigned to the female chorus and described by the parallel thirds (heterophonically), which emphasizes and strengthens its lyrical song nature, is accompanied by a male group (tenor, bass). And the accompanying voices singing with mouth closed also form the heterophonical layer (pedals, interval parallelisms), as a result a twolayer texture forms from the first measures, where the lower layer distinguished by the rhythmic pattern creates a soft, moderated background for the melodic relief (m. 1 – 11). In the second verse the features of voices are changing: the theme set by the parallel decimas is assigned to male voices, and sopranos and altos sounding with mouth closed accompany it. Then, after two episodes with a transparent texture the choral tutti in the third verse (m. 20 – 28) sounds very impressively. The composer uses homophonic-harmonic kind of presentation giving the theme to the leading voice (soprano), with which the other parties sound in the same rhythm, thus, harmoniously complementing it. At the same time it should be emphasized that the musical nature that at first glance seems to be chorale is made up of melodic voices, sometimes active and plastic, sometimes hardly noticeable. Melodic beginning is particularly evident in the middle voices that by turns double the soprano at first in the third or sixth (altos), and then in the decima (tenor). As a result, the traditional (at first glance) four-part texture is very actively penetrated by the elements of heterophony forming an unusually melodic, naturally sounding choral texture close to the folk song polyphony. The same principle of presentation is maintained in the fourth stanza, where the texture is divided into two heterophonic layers: in the fi rst sentence it is the women’s and men’s group (m. 29 – 32) and in the second (m. 32 – 36) – high (soprano, tenor) and low voices (alto, bass). Only in the fi nal measures (m. 36 – 39), both groups in the choir are merged into the chord tutti emphasizing the culmination of all the work. Thus, during the process of development the thematic material gradually accumulates chords: while in the fi rst two stanzas the melody easily “floated” on the background of sustained pedals, in the third and fourth stanzas it sounds in a heterophonic-harmonic way that in the fi nal measures gives way to the choral one, so that there is a “modulation” from the lyrical meditativeness to the solemn, hymn-like pathos. In conclusion, it should be noted that both works of Slonimsky dedicated to one theme – the beauty of the white nights in St. Petersburg are an example of a sensitive and careful attitude of the composer to the poetic word. Turning to the poetic texts of various poets, the composer creates works in the genre of the choir song, the traditions of which go back to the past centuries – “to the Russian choral and “a capella” culture” (Korableva M.D., 2010: 30). The music that flexibly follows the verse reflects all the features of the poetic original. In these works, despite the self-restraint in the choice of means, Slonimsky achieved significant dynamics of development with laconism and completeness of the form, expressiveness of each part, as well as the balance between words and music, which is indicative of a high artistic taste of the composer, his talent and skills. References 1. Korableva M.D. (2010). Dialog kul’tur v russkom horovom iskusstve XI – XVIII vv. [Dialogue of cultures in Russian choral art of the 11th–18th centuries]. Voprosy cul’turologii. 2010, 11, pp. 25 – 30. # 1589 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Lydia L. Ravikovitch. Songs about Saint Petersburg by Sergei Slonimsky. On the Question of Interpretation… 2. Milka A. (1976). Sergei Slonimskii: Monograficheskii ocherk [Sergei Slonimsky: Monographical essay]. Leningrad, Soviet composer, 1976. 112 p. 3. Novikov Vl. (2002). Bulat Okudzhava [Bulat Okudzhava]. Avtorskaia pesnia [Author’s song]. Moscow, ACT, Agency KRPA Olympus, 2002, pp. 15–57. 4. Pavlovskiy A. (1982). Vernost’ vremeni [Loyalty of the time]. Chepurov A. Izbrannoe [Chepurov A. Selected verses]. Leningrad, Belles-lettres, 1982, pp. 3–18. 5. Ravikovich L. (2010). Khory a cappella Sergeia Slonimskogo: Monografiia [Sergey Slonimsky’s a cappella choral works: Monograph]. Krasnoyarsk, 2010, 360 p. 6. Rozhdestvenskiy Vs. (1971). Predislovie [Introduction]. Chepurov A. Stihotvoreniia i poemy [Chepurov A. Verses and poem’s]. Leningrad, Lenizdat, 1971, pp. 3–7. 7. Rytsareva M. (1991). Kompozitor Sergei Slonimskii: Monografiia [The composer Sergey Slonimsky: Monograph]. Leningrad, Soviet composer, 1991. 256 p. 8. Zaitsev V.A. (1998). Puti razvitiia sovremennoi russkoi liriki [Ways of development of contemporary Russian lyrics]. Filologicheskie nauki [Philological sciences]. 1998, 4, pp. 3–12. Песни о Петербурге Сергея Слонимского. К вопросу интерпретации поэтического текста Л.Л. Равикович Красноярская академия музыки и театра Россия, 660049, Красноярск, ул. Ленина, 22 В данной статье рассматриваются хоры a cappella Сергея Слонимского, которые ярко репрезентируют творческий стиль современного мастера. Написанные на стихи разных поэтов (Булата Окуджавы и Анатолия Чепурова), они, тем не менее, связаны между собой общностью образного содержания, стилистическим единством, наличием одной сквозной темы. В каждом из них представлен петербургский ночной пейзаж, проникнутый светлым настроением и воплощенный композитором глубоко, эмоционально и художественно убедительно. На основе анализа этих сочинений в работе подробно освещаются вопросы взаимосвязи слова и музыки, трактовки поэтического текста, раскрывается характер соотношения композиции, строфической структуры и метроритмики стиха со средствами музыкальной выразительности, исследуется мелодико-ритмический и ладогармонический язык хоров, их фактурная организация. Ключевые слова: текст, композиция, строфа, метр, ритм, лад, гармония, фактура. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 9 (2014 7) 1591-1598 ~~~ УДК 78.082.1+78.03+75.03 Stable and Mobile Elements of the Author’s Style of A.K. Glazunov (by the Example of Scherzos of the Early Symphonies) Natalia V. Vinokurova* Krasnoyarsk State Academy of Music and Theatre 22 Lenin Str., Krasnoyarsk, 660049, Russia Received 29.03.2014, received in revised form 08.08.2014, accepted 21.08.2014 Thanks to A. Ossovskiy, Glazunov acquired the role of the one who ended the traditions of the “Mighty Handful”, which is of no doubt. However, it is clear that the composer’s creative work is not limited only by the “Procrustean bed” of the epic symphonic style. This is confirmed by a significant reevaluation of his work carried out in a number of studies in recent decades. On the material of scherzos of the early symphonies of Glazunov this article identifies components of the author’s style that, on the one hand, firmly linked the composer’s creative work with the traditions of the Russian symphonic school and, on the other hand, determined the extreme mobility of the author’s style, his aspiration for the future. The methodology of this study is based on the conjugation of scientific and analytical apparatus of the humanities disciplines related to the musicology. Keywords: Glazunov, symphony, scherzo, miriskusniki. Yu. Keldysh was the one who noticed the special significance of the symphony genre in the creative evolution of the outstanding composer of the turn of the 19 th-20 th centuries – A.K. Glazunov. He noted that “Glazunov’s eight monumental symphonies occupy a privileged position among all <...> works: they accumulate the most important and characteristic aspects of his style and are a kind of milestones or massive boulders on the way of the composer that mark the main stages of his artistic development” (Glazunov, 1959:116). Indeed, for Glazunov’s symphony was for a conceptual genre bringing into focus not only the style, but also the ideological preferences of the composer. According to B. Asafyev, “the Portrait of A.K. Glazunov by V. Serov * © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com # 1591 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia V. Vinokurova. Stable and Mobile Elements of the Author’s Style of A.K. Glazunov style of Glazunov’s symphonies is the style of Glazunov’s music” (Glazunov, 1959:115). A number of works of the author of this article (Vinokurova, 2011) proved a classicism-like orientation of the creative work of Glazunov and considered his role in the history of Russian music as a direct ancestor of neoclassicism. As noted by M. Lobanova, “during the critical time in the transition period, the style tends to non-closure” (Lobanova, 1990:125), openness. It is such a potential openness that marks the era of the turn of the 19 th -20 th centuries in Russia. The extraversion typical of Glazunov’s thinking, which is the ability to capture and creatively develop different stylistic phenomena in the art of the composer’s era, predetermined distinct originality of the author’s style of Glazunov (for example, private observations of this kind are presented in the works of Bochkareva, 1992; Siniavskaia, 2000). At the same time the stylistic elements of a certain system mastered by the composer are not so much declared as adapted becoming almost imperceptible. It would seem that the obvious heterogeneity of the style (that is polysynthesism, multielementness and a plurality of diverse, heterogeneous, different stylistic components) should have led to the eclecticism of the author’s style, but it did not happen thanks to the composer’s universal creative method, namely to the method of an artistic synthesis gravitating to a certain syncretism. Actualization of this method is determined by the peculiarities of the composer’s world view, ethical and aesthetic directions of a creative individual. It should be noted that the early works of the composer were already marked by the synthetism of the creative thinking. These include the second and third symphonies of Glazunov written at a four-year interval – in 1886 and 1890, in which the composer appears as a quite mature and accomplished master. The object of this article’s analysis is the scherzos of these symphonies. In a symphonic cycle a scherzo represents one of the aspects of a man, namely a playing man (Homo Ludens). The scherzo of a specific figurative plan – a heroic prowess-play, is fixed as standard in the play elements of an epic symphony. The element of the epic scherzo is revealed as an element of a generalized folk dance. While in the epic symphony the playing start is a creative and constructive element of existence, in the scherzo of the lyric and dramatic symphony the playing at times becomes a source of the destructive, as it was in the symphonies of Tchaikovsky. Dramatization of the scherzo images ultimately leads to their degeneration and fusion with a fatal element. The scherzos of the Glazunov symphonies are characterized by the interaction of 2 types of the scherzo-ness. Let us refer to the scherzo of the Glazunov’s Second Symphony. The composer gives the playing part of this symphony that is clearly gravitating to the epos, a dramatic character, which is not typical of it. In a letter to Stasov dated January 2, 1885, Glazunov calls the Third part of the Second Symphony a “demonic Scherzo”. Even though later this scherzo was described as something “Mendelssohnianly attractive” (see letter of A. Glazunov to N.A. Rimsky-Korsakov dated August 4, 1886), the key to understanding the scherzo and its dramaturgic functions in the symphony should be sought in its “program” title given by the composer himself. The semantics of the playing part of the cycle is significantly reconsidered by Glazunov. This is not a play of free forces, as it is in Borodin’s works, and not a genre picture of national entertainment like in Balakirev’s works. The playing start in this context is the source of the destructive element of existence. In this respect, the Glazunov’s interpretation of the playing approaches to the # 1592 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia V. Vinokurova. Stable and Mobile Elements of the Author’s Style of A.K. Glazunov interpretation of Tchaikovsky. However, while the dramatization of scherzo images of Tchaikovsky, starting with the First Symphony, leads ultimately to their merger with a fatal force, the Glazunov’s dramatic elements are localized within the scherzo, in which it eliminates itself. Thus, the dramatic of Glazunov is one of the essential, but not the main component in the re-establishment of a coherent picture of the world (being). For Glazunov the play as an intense, but fruitless and vectorless, sustainable motion is something exactly opposite of contemplation. This idea of opposition of the contemplative and the effective is implemented both at the level of the structure of the symphonic cycle (through the contrast between the Andante and Scherzo) and at the level of extreme and middle sections of the scherzo. The extreme dramatic parts of the form are opposed by a lyrical middle part, where one of the leitmotifs of the symphony can be heard. This time, waltz becomes its genre basis (as it is known, a genre is extremely relevant for the symphonic style of Tchaikovsky). A typical waltz rhythm-formula is missing here, which, however, is compensated by other attributes of the genre (e.g., prevalence of the rhythm-formula in the melody emerging from a half and quarter beat, as well as a downbeat slightly exaggerated by the pizzicato contrabasses, etc.). The occurrence of this bright, cheerful image in the middle of the negative scherzo element opens a temporary, transient nature of evil. The atmosphere of anxiety and concern in the extreme sections of the scherzo primarily creates an intonation structure of the theme. It consists of two complexes of intonation, which enter into a roll-call dialogue. The rapid half-measure rise of the first measure is immediately extinguished by a downward motion of the melodic line for three and a half measures. Moreover, the structureforming units in it are, at first, a descending second and then a tertian and quart tones giving the theme the nature of an agitated, feverish tongue-twister. The creation of such an image is significantly contributed to by a solo French horn that is mainly meant for a cantilena, rather than to create scherzo images. The basis of the second intonation complex of the scherzo’s theme – a kind of a response – again is a descending, but tritonic (as if distorted in a false mirror) intonation in the rhythm-formula of two eighths and a quarter repeated three times by staccato woodwinds in different layers of the texture. In addition, the dynamization of the form of the extreme sections of the scherzo is carried out by means of long dynamic amplifications (crescendo, textured compaction of a melodic line, dominant pedal points and tense closing zones). The waltz version of the leitmotif is presented in the scherzo coda in a dramatic way. If the intonation contour of the initial four-measure remains, the starting point of the theme is not V, but the III degree of the mode. A minor mode, an ascending line of sequencing, an ostinato figure in the bass (I – VII↑ – I) in a swing by quarters with a slowdown and a stop in the last measures of the scherzo give the theme a mournful character. The emergence of such a distorted version of a light lyrical image in the scherzo coda is not perceived as a certain result, the outcome of previous development, but a little differently because of the fact that one of the functions of the coda is a function of supplement, i.e., an epilogue (post scriptum). Therefore dramatization of the image is not a result of something accomplished (especially since there was no collision, the images in the scherzo were vividly compared), but is just a reminder of the possibility of enhancing the dramatic component of being (a kind of a call to be on the watch, memento mori). The scherzo in the Glazunov’s Third Symphony is built like a bizarre play by the initial intonation models that have the theme of the main # 1593 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia V. Vinokurova. Stable and Mobile Elements of the Author’s Style of A.K. Glazunov part as a single source, and this part is subjected to the most significant changes – perhaps, because of the greatest potencies for the development in it. Its energy “splashed out” in the form of multiple chromatic “ups” “charges” and sets a soundscape of the scherzo in motion in general. Hence is the figurative and semantic unity of a subjectmatter and, accordingly, the emotional tone of the scherzo. The constant transformation of the initial thematic complexes activates a process-dynamic factor in the deployment of the form. Because of this, a playing logic inherent in scherzo is enriched by the other senses coming into contact with different ways of shaping and aligning them to a common constructive “denominator”. The playing logic interacts with the generativity (development of two sonata forms that constitute the extreme parts of the scherzo), the principle of contrast (a metacontrast on the border of the extreme and middle parts and a contrast within the parts, for example, the emergence of a new thematic formation in the early developments of sonata forms). In other words, the playing logic only directs the visible course of the form, which, at first glance, looks mosaic and ornamental, but inside it is tightly knit by the technique of some sort of hidden ostinato-ness (that is the fundamental meaning of the theme of the main part for the intonation form of the scherzo in general) that expresses here a certain constant, a stable regularity of being that is always perceived only gradually. Indeed, behind a kaleidoscopic change of fragments of this mosaic resembling a masquerade or a carnival procession of masks that is a certain theatrical act (as indicated by the fanfare sounds of an oboe, clarinet, French horn as if imitating an invitation to the play) hides the real life. A theatrical curtain hanging over it slightly opens up in the middle section of the scherzo that has a three-part form. In the first part (c.13, m. 5) the sound space gains stability and balance for the first time in the scherzo. This is due to several factors. First of all, the intonation frame of the melodic archetype– a tetrachord in a quint – is one of the tokens most typical of songs of the lyricoepic genre. We should also note the symmetry in the sound material organization characteristic of Glazunov, which also helps to create balance. In the archetype of the melody, first, there is a quint ambitus, and then – motion to its centre, a quint tone. In the following version of the melody first a tertian tone stands out, and then – a quint base of the tetrachord. Another way to create balance of the sound space is a composition division into equal syntactic units – 4-measures – keeping their intonation variance. The first part of the middle section of the scherzo is also characterized by the classical tonal and harmonic logic: in the tone plan a model of motion from the keynote to the dominant with the return to the keynote is implemented. A non-stop motion – rotation dominates in the second part of the middle section of the scherzo, which is also based on the principle of equivalence (four-measure development of similar two-measure structures). A musical equivalent of rapidly running time is an ostinato rhythm-formula that permeates and unites the middle part and the reprise of the middle section of the scherzo. A new version of the melodic archetype opening the reprise (c. 17) synthesizes intonations of the introductory fanfare and archaic tetrachord. An image transformation of the theme (carnival continues) continues in the reprise of the scherzo. While in the exposition of the sonata form the theme of the main part has a fantastic character, in the reprise (in an initial development) it turns into a duple, heavy dance, the un poco pesante section. Making a “trampling” effect is contributed to by # 1594 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia V. Vinokurova. Stable and Mobile Elements of the Author’s Style of A.K. Glazunov a duple meter, alternation of a textured bottom and top, an articulation accent on each beat of the measure and a heavy chord vertical. Although the “dance” episode is small, its energy spreads to subsequent sections of the form. The theme of the main part (from c. 28) loses wide breath and its syntactic units cut down. A secondary part is also shortened and reduced to varying repetition of the initial four-measure. Themes or their “fragments” from different sections of the scherzo are passing in a rapid pace (vivacissimo) in the coda. A problem of an image-semantic unity of the intonation form is solved in the scherzo in a very peculiar way. The unifying plan is the connection of temporary plans of the “plot”: the past acquiring its real shape in the middle of archaic lexicon of the middle section of the scherzo, and the present represented by the whimsical, rhythmic organization and the fast tempo becoming a sort of an equivalent of rapidly running time, the whirl of modern life. Conjunction of the past and the present activates the category of memory as an attribute of an epic work in general. As is known, the category of memory or rather the historical memory has also become central in the creative work of the “Mir iskusstva” organization (World of Art) – Glazunov’s contemporaries. Most works of the miriskusniki bears the stamp of retrospectiveness (see Sidneva, 2011:31), meaning it is drawn to the past, which indicates the indirect, but organic connection with the epic tradition of culture, with the epos. Notably, the historical memory in the canvases of the miriskusniki is not only a means of connecting time, providing “ontological resistance to the power of time” (Berdiaev, 1994:289) and acquainting us with eternity (i.e. performing the function of epic work, but meaning certain value systems). The past of the miriskusniki is multidimensional and always ethically coloured. It can be a symbol of harmony, stability and order, but it can also teach the present a lesson if interpreted in an ironic or grotesque manner. The high ethos of the creative work of the miriskusniki questions the myth of aestheticism as a fundamental and sustainable creative set of artists of this movement. Not only the perception of time, but also the similarity of composition techniques brings together Glazunov and the miriskusniki. In particular, the composition rhythm of the scherzo has techniques for organizing a picturesque aspect in the works of artists of the “Mir iskusstva”. That is a certain directorial technique – “an invitation to the play” used by Glazunov in the scherzo of the Third Symphony, and certainly having analogues in the paintings of artists of this movement. As it is known, theatricalization of the action in the painting works may be manifested in a deliberately exaggerated conventionality of the composition and spatial solution. A painting in this case acts as a kind of staging played out by the actors. Hence are the deliberate “posing” of characters (think of colourful portrait of F. Shalyapin masterfully painted by B. Kustodiev), the creation of an appropriate background, a certain composition of the painting (for example, an oval frame in “Rest after a walk” by K. Somov, theatrical stage in the painting by A.N. Benua “The Italian Comedy”). Glazunov also uses the similar technique in the scherzo of the Third Symphony. The playing logic serving as a dominant in the deployment of the intonation form of the scherzo of this symphony, in the end, became a style-forming foundation of the creative work of Glazunov. The features of the miriskusniki are obvious in the orchestration of the Glazunov symphonies. A mixed orchestral “palette” of Glazunov can be likened to a beautiful palette of the miriskusniki prone to mix, combine different colours, for example, watercolour and gouache, gouache and coloured pencils, pastel, gouache, graphite and charcoal, etc. # 1595 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» B. Kustodiev. Portrait of F. Shalyapin K. Somov. Rest after a walk Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia V. Vinokurova. Stable and Mobile Elements of the Author’s Style of A.K. Glazunov A. Benua. The Italian Comedy Thus, from the analysis of the scherzo of the Second and Third symphonies, we can state that the foundation of the Glazunov’s style system is the stable elements of the symphonic style of epic and dramatic types. Those are the typological features of the scherzo, namely: a fast tempo, prevalence of expositionality over generativity, a leading role of the rhythm, predominance of large structures, relative constancy of the thematic material, texture, motion types and the base ternary form. In addition, the playing logic, as an immanent property of the scherzo, is provided by so-called play figures. However, from the moment of crystallization of the author’s style of the composer to its full realization, such elements in the works of Glazunov were subjected to transformation and reinterpretation in a varying degree. As a result of synthesizing orientation and extraversion of the creative thinking of Glazunov, the composer’s tendency to the playing logic, his author’s style takes on the extreme mobility. The elements of styles and stylistic trends of the turn of the 19-20th centuries that turned out to be in tune with the composer act as mobile. In relation to the scherzo of the Third Symphony such consonances were found in the works of the miriskusniki. To summarize it should be emphasized that the style of Glazunov was initially focused on the balance of all the components and internal integrity. This led to the selectiveness in the stylistic sphere: the music composition assimilates to the process of “polishing”, “adjustment” of the necessary details forced to “fit” in the originally specified integrity. Nevertheless, the Glazunov’s stylistic synthesis is not a sum of certain stylistic components, but their organic alloy (let us denote this alloy by the stylistic heterogeneity), which is # 1597 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia V. Vinokurova. Stable and Mobile Elements of the Author’s Style of A.K. Glazunov due to the composer’s view of the world that, if using the N. Losskiy’s definition, we defined as an “organic view of the world” suggesting that “the whole is more primary than the elements”. References 1. Berdiaev N.A. Filosofiia svobodnogo dukha. [Philosophy of a free spirit] Moscow, 1994. 2. Вochkareva O.A., Sibelius I., Glasunov A.K.: K probleme stilistriki moderna v musyke. Finskii sbornik. Posobie po kursu. VVedenie v musykosnanie (2). [On a problem of stylistics of the modern in music. A Finnish collection. Textbook. Introduction to musicology] Petrozavodsk, pp. 17-25. 3. Glazunov A.K. Issledovaniia. Materialy. Publikatsii. Pis`ma. V dvukh tomakh. [Research. Materials. Publications. Letters. In two volumes.] T.I. Leningrad, Muzgiz, 1959. 555 p. 4. Lobanova M. Musykal`nyi stil I zhanr. Istoriia I sovremennost`. Moscow, 1990. p. 125. 5. Sidneva T. (2011) Musyka kak metafora serebrianogo veka. Voprosy kul`turologii [Music as a metaphor of the Silver Age. The issues of culture studies], (7), pp. 42-48. 6. Siniavskaia L. (2000) Mir ne iavleniy, no sushchnostei (psikhologicheskaia osnova musyki A.K. Glazunova na materiale ego pisem i dokumentov). [Not the world of phenomena, but the world of substances (psychological basis of A.K. Glazunov’s music on the material of his letters and documents.)] Musykal`naia akademiia, (4), pp. 167-174. 7. Vinokurova N.V. Simfonicheskoe tvorchestvo A.K. Glazunova: na puti k neoklassitsismu. [Symphonic creativity of A.K. Glazunov: on the way to neo-classicism] Krasnoyarsk, 2011. 215 p. Стабильные и мобильные элементы авторского стиля А.К. Глазунова (на примере скерцо ранних симфоний) Н.В. Винокурова Красноярская академия музыки и театра Россия, 660049, Красноярск, ул. Ленина ,22 С легкой руки А. Оссовского за Глазуновым закрепилась роль завершителя традиций «Могучей кучки», что ни в коей мере не может подвергаться сомнению. Тем не менее совершенно очевидно, что творчество композитора отнюдь не укладывается «в прокрустово ложе» эпического симфонизма и только. Подтверждением тому является существенная переоценка его творчества, предпринятая в ряде исследований последних десятилетий. В данной статье на материале скерцо ранних симфоний Глазунова выявлены составляющие авторского стиля, которые, с одной стороны, прочно связали творчество композитора с традициями русской симфонической школы, с другой – предопределили чрезвычайную мобильность авторского стиля, его устремленность в будущее. Методология данного исследования основывается на сопряжении научно-аналитического аппарата смежных с музыковедением гуманитарных дисциплин. Ключевые слова: Глазунов, симфония, скерцо, мирискусники. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 9 (2014 7) 1599-1605 ~~~ УДК 78 Music for Wind Instruments Ensemble in Russia at the End of XVIII and in the 1-st Third of XIX Century (on the Example of A. Alyabjev’s Oeuvre) Anna E. Klimenko* Krasnoyarsk State Academy of Music and Theatre 22 Lenin Str., Krasnoyarsk, 660049, Russia Received 11.06.2014, received in revised form 15.07.2014, accepted 04.08.2014 In the given article, we have made an attempt to define the chronological frames of the period, when the wind instruments ensemble music, as a sphere of Russian professional composers’ creative work, was being formed; to reveal the facts which had influenced on its becoming, and also to characterize the peculiarities of the wind instruments ensemble music in the oeuvre of A. Alyabjev. Keywords: a wind instruments ensemble, harmonic music, classical wind quintet, quintet for flute, oboe, clarinet, basson and horn C-minor by A. Alyabjev, quartet for 4 flutes by A. Alyabjev, Concert Symphony by D. Bortnyansky. In Russia, the ways of formation of professional composers’ oeuvre for wind instruments ensemble differed from similar processes, which occurred in the Western-European music, which, in particular, accumulated a sufficient luggage for the period of XVII-XVIII centuries. Obviously, at that time in the West, a steady genre system had been already formed, typical wind casts were also defined (harmonic music1, classical wind quintet), and a lot of compositions had been already written. In Russia, the situation was totally different. First compositions for wind instruments ensemble, which belonged to the oeuvre of professional Russian composures, appeared at the end of XVIII century. Though, they were * rather singular. In 1790, Concert Symphony B-dur for 2 violins, viola da gamba, violoncello, basson, harp and piano organize2 was written by D.S. Bortnyansky (Fig. 1). He was also the arranger of 8 numbers of his Opera “Falcon” for wind sextet (2 clarinets, 2 horns and 2 bassons). Creation of such kind of an ensemble proves that the borrowed WesternEuropean composing tradition was assimilated. Such a (paired) cast was most popular among the Western-European composers of XVIII century (Berezin, 1999:10-12). And we may recollect a lot of such compositions. For example, the famous divertimentos by D. Paisiello (1740-1816) – the most popular composer at the Russian © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org # 1599 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anna E. Klimenko. Music for Wind Instruments Ensemble in Russia at the End of XVIII and in the 1-st Third… Fig. 1 D. Bortnaynsky Fig. 2 N. Ysupov court, were written precisely for such a cast.3 D.S. Bortnyansky was most probably familiar with the pieces of the Italian master, as far as after D. Paisiello’s departure, precisely he occupied the position of the court composer. The next Russian composition for wind instruments ensemble appeared only several decades afterwards – it was written by A. Alyabjev (Fig. 3). It was Nocturne C-dur for string quartet with horn and fortepiano, which was written in 1819, and, unfortunately, it was lost for us. The quartet for 4 flutes was written in 1827. Later, about 1830, he created the quintet for flute, oboe, clarinet, basson and horn. A lot of Russian composers of XIX century addressed to the music genre sphere for wind ensemble, following A. Alyabjev. Here, we recollect the pieces by M. Glinka – Septet for 2 violins, violoncello, contrabass, oboe, basson and horn (1823), the Serenade (septet) to the motives from the Opera “Anna Bolena” by G. Donizetti for fortepiano, harp, alt, violoncello, contrabass, basson and horn, «Pathetic Trio» for clarinet, basson and fortepiano (1832); A. Rubinstein – Octet for violin, alt, violoncello, contrabass, flute, clarinet, horn and fortepiano (1854), Quintet for flute, clarinet, basson, horn and fortepiano (1855); M. Balakirjev – Octet for violin, alt, violoncello, contrabass, flute, oboe, horn and fortepiano (1856), S. Taneev – Andante for paired cast of flutes, oboes, clarinets, bassons, and horns; N. Rimsky-Korsakov – Quintet for flute, clarinet, basson, horn and fortepiano (1876), and Nocturne for 4 horns (1888). Proceeding from the mentioned above, we may come to the conclusion that the initial stage of formation of the genre sphere of wind ensemble music in the oeuvre of professional composers of Russia falls on the end of XVIII and on the 1-st third of XIX century. In the conscious of most admirers of music, the name of A. Alyabjev is first of all associated with his famous romance “Nightingale”. Today only few people are acquainted with his operas, ballets, and vaudevilles; while the music, which was created by A. Alyabjev for wind instruments ensembles, is practically unknown at all. Though, it was not at all by chance that the composer addressed to the casts of such kind. Since his early childhood, A. Alyabjev had an opportunity to hear the sounds of wind instruments. His father (like most noblemen of # 1600 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anna E. Klimenko. Music for Wind Instruments Ensemble in Russia at the End of XVIII and in the 1-st Third… Fig. 3 A. Alabjev that time) had his own home orchestra, which consisted of bond musicians4. Judging by some of the orchestra’s musical scores, one can form the notion of its repertoire. Mainly, we meet adaptations of Russian folk songs. In comparison with other contemporary composers, A. Alyabjev not only knew well the wind instruments, but he also studied their peculiarities and masterfully used his knowledge in practice in his orchestra and ensemble music pieces. Moreover, he wrote two theoretical works, concerning the specifics of music pieces performance on the wind instruments. It was a table of trills, made on flute, and also tables of diapasons for brass instruments (Dobrokhotov 1966). Probably, these very circumstances caused the specifics of wind instrument use in the oeuvre of the composer. What concerns the wood wind instruments, A. Alyabjev used them mainly as the carriers of melodic beginning (flute in the overture to “Morning and evening”, clarinet in “Fast March”, the overture to the opera “The Fisherman and the Mermaid”, and basson solo in the same piece). In some cases, brass instruments could also perform a melodic function. For example, the trombone solo (“The Fisherman and the Mermaid” and “The Madwoman”) or the horn solo (“The Wonderful Drum”). In Symphony Es-dur (1850), the concertizing instruments were 4 horns. Sometimes, A. Alyabjev used old instruments, such as ophicleide5 and serpent6, as a bass of the brass group. We should also remind that these instruments were rather often used in orchestras, until tuba replaced them (in 1840-s). It is also important that A. Alyabjev’s wind instruments ensembles are referred to one of the first examples of the genre pieces in Russian music, which did not have any applied meaning. One can find examples of the wind music pieces, written by E. Fomin, D. Bortnjansky, S. Davydovа and other composers – the foregoer of A. Alyabjev, which were intended for military ceremonies or for the theatre purposes. As a rule, such music accompanied drama performances (in the intermissions or before the performances). “They played “horns, “flutes” or “clavichord”, then there was a performance of a violin player with a concert or an orchestra with a symphony (overture)” (Steinpress, 1956:33). In most cases, harmonic music, i.e. the pieces, written for paired casts of wind instruments, was also in addition. A. Alyabjev became the first Russian composer, who created a composition in the genre of classic wind quintet. The first examples of a wind quintet in Western-European Music appeared at the end of 18 century. There is an opinion that the founders of the classic wind quintet genre are F. Danzi (1763 – 1826) and А. Reiche (1770 – 1836). And in this respect, the following biographical fact seems to be rather interesting: musical critic V. Odoevsky supplied A. Alyabjev with various musical scores and musical-pedagogical education books, also including the А. Reiche’s compositions (Dobrokhotov, 1966:36). Consequently, it is possible to suppose that the Russian composer was familiar with the pieces of a similar genre of his Western-European colleagues. # 1601 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anna E. Klimenko. Music for Wind Instruments Ensemble in Russia at the End of XVIII and in the 1-st Third… The A. Alyabjev’s Quintet for flute, oboe, clarinet and horn C-moll is referred to the composer’s early period of creative work and its precise creation date is unknown. It was presumably written round about 1830, in Tobolsk. Precisely there, A. Alyabjev got for the first time acquainted with chromatic brass instruments, which he began to use widely in practice (in comparison with most other composers of that time). For that purpose, he made a special mark “mechanic” in his sheet music. Though, apparently, A. Alyabjev under-studied the possibilities of new Russian instruments and that was why he used to make mistakes in transport (for example, in the parts of horns in orchestra sheet music). And probably that was why all the parts in the Quintet (including the horns) were written without transposition. The author’s manuscript of the Quintet scores is kept in the State Central Museum of Musical Culture in Moscow. It represents draft and very often disconnected sketches. In the manuscript, there is only one unfinished part of the Quintet, having been written in the form of sonata allegro, which notation finishes at the end of its development. On the basis of the material of the Quintet introduction and exposition, B. Dobrokhotov, who wrote its ending (1953), supposed that the given Quintet was also of onepart according to the author’s plan, as far as there were known several one-part symphonic and chamber-instrumental compositions in the oeuvre of A. Alyabjev. If we compare it with multiple western compositions of those times, then we see that this Quintet is the most valuable example of Russian music of the beginning of XIX century on the poor background of chamber literature for wind instruments ensemble. We should underline that it is characteristic of the Russian composers of the XVIII century on one hand – their tendency to rely on Russian folk song traditions and, on the other hand – the perception of musical achievements of other European countries. One can note that Aliabiev, a composer of the 1-st third of the XIX century, has already some dawning features of the Russian national culture (in the melody of the entrance themes – the city romance and the Russian folk song (the second theme reminds us of the intonation of the song “That’s not the evening”). However, it is not by chance: “Being on a higher stage of development, the society is typical of increased attention to self-identification and protection of cultural and national uniqueness” (Bozhchenko, 2012:59). We shall address to one more composition for wind instruments ensemble belonging to the A. Alyabjev’s early oeuvre – Quartet for 4 flutes (1827). Flute quartet originally appeared as a genre of applied music, but at the beginning of XIX century it became an equal participant of the concert life and acquired its own classic form in the oeuvre of F. Kuhlau (Dania), L. Gianella (Italy), A. Reiche (Czechia), E. Walkiers, and J. Cardon (France). М. Stabinger7 and H. Soussmann8 – famous flute players of the end of XVIII and XIX centuries, whose creative works were related to Russia, also made their contribution to increase of the flute quartets’ repertoire. In Russia, the genre of quartet has had a complicated fate. A. Alyabjev, the creator of the first quartet for 4 flutes and of the first wind ensemble, prepared the basis for development of this genre in Russia. Though, “the response” to A. Alyabjev’s creation appeared only in a century. Only in 1939, in China, Russian composer A. Cherepnin wrote a quartet for an analogical cast of instruments. The manuscript of A. Alyabjev’s quartet has been found in the archive of the Moscow Conservatory Library. It is mainly a draft; though, some lists of the final variant have been also preserved. The score has only first two parts – Allegro and Adagio. In 1950, the first part of the quartet was corrected, finished and published by # 1602 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anna E. Klimenko. Music for Wind Instruments Ensemble in Russia at the End of XVIII and in the 1-st Third… the Professor of the Moscow Conservatory, flutist N. Platonov. It was quite an interesting fact that A. Alyabjev also introduced the group, consisting of 4 flutes, into the score of his ballet “The Wonderful Drum, or the Investigation of the Wonderful Flute”, which was also written at the same time as the Quartet, in 1827. Why did A. Alyabjev write a composition for such a cast and include the flute quartet into his ballet? Let us remind you that D. Bortnjansky also wrote his symphony for quite an original9 cast of instruments. In this connection, we may suppose that the given compositions were meant for a certain cast of more or less famous at that time musicians-performers. We should also note that at that time flute was a rather famous instrument due to coming foreign musicians, who dominated at those times at the concert stage. In his quartet, A. Alyabjev used expressiveness of the wind instruments in combination with the specifics of the quartet style, which was chosen by the composer in the process of string quartets composition (1820, 1827). B. Dobrokhotov mentions about this fact (Dobrokhotov 1948). Though, in comparison with the considered flute quartet, the functions of the string ensemble instruments are usually strictly defined. It is related to the timbre differentiation, which predefines interpretation of each part (it is analogical in the classic wind quintet, which consists of various-tessitura instruments). For example, 1-st violin is the carrier of the melodic beginning, 2-d violin and alto whether repeat it or perform harmonic voices, and violoncello plays the bass line. What concerns the wind quartet, instruments functions of the homogeneous cast are more variable and in the A. Alyabjev’s case, their parts are rather finely detailed. The part of the first flute has an expressive virtuosic character and a lot of melodic decorations10. The function of the bass line, which supports the harmony, is mainly performed by the fourth flute. Moreover, it renders the main thematic material along with the first flute. Thus, the part of the fourth flute is bi-functional. The second and the third flutes chiefly play the part of accompaniment, being the parts of the cords structure. They are not given to perform any independent melodies: it is whether repetition or imitation of the motives of the first flute. In spite of that fact, that the ensemble consists of the similar tessitura wind instruments, the composer has managed to achieve full and at the same time exquisite sounding. In general, the music of the A. Alyabjev’s Quartet for 4 flutes has a light and cheerful character. Let us draw your attention to an obvious resemblance of the Quartet with compositions of the Viennese classics. First of all, it is seen in the composition: the Quartet for 4 flutes has been conceived as a cyclic composition of sonata type (1-st part is made in the form of sonata allegro). The following peculiarities of the theme are also rather important: the theme of the main melody of the I part consists of two elements: the first element –“fanfare”, which is typical for heroic intonation sphere of classicism (wide steps by triad tones with acciaccaturas)11 (Konen 1968; Shaymukhametova 1998) ; the second element – leading-tone trills, which add light and jolly character to the music, and this also has associative connections with the typical melodic idioms of the Viennese classics. The theme of the Quartet subsidiary part resembles Mozart’s one (for example, the theme of his subsidiary part from the Quartet D-dur) – the exquisite, virtuosic, ornamented melody is performed by the 1-st flute. Similarity can also be observed in the structure-forming principals of sonata Allegro, which typical for the Viennese classical symphony, and which have been revealed in the book of V.D. Konen (1968), precisely in the # 1603 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anna E. Klimenko. Music for Wind Instruments Ensemble in Russia at the End of XVIII and in the 1-st Third… principle of structural division, which is shown in caesuras, which divide separate, more or less accomplished constructions. This way, one can observe significant influence of the Western-European musical traditions on the music, written by A. Alyabjev for wind instruments ensemble. It is revealed in use of certain types of casts, in addressing to the 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Quartet and Quintet genres, and in peculiarities of structure- and theme-forming. Thus, we may assert with good reason that assimilating the experience of the Western-European practice and synthesizing it with the national peculiarities, precisely A. Alyabjev has made the foundation of the Russian tradition of the wind ensemble music. A paired cast ensemble consisted of 6 – 8 wind instruments. Traditionally, harmonic music was performed by 2-3 pairs of wood wind instruments and 2 horns. The cast could be varied and omit some of the wood instruments – flutes, clarinets or oboes. Though, beside horns, practically all the casts had bassons. Sometimes, ensembles of paired casts could include tubes, timbales, serpents and trombones. Doctor of history of art V.V. Berezin writes in every detail about harmonic music in his article, which has been published in the journal “Ancient Music” (1999). In the process of writing of this article, we have studied sheet music material from the archives of the Russian National Library. It is the Yusupov’s musical collection (Fig. 2) A sort of fortepiano with organ registers. D.S. Bortnyansky occupied the post of the court composer after D. Paisiello In Russia and in Europe of XVIII and of the beginning of XIX century there were singled out two main spheres of the music existence. There was amateur or home music-making and professional creative work. Ophicleide is a bass mouthpiece instrument, which form resembles basson, made by master Alary in 1785. Serpent is a bass mouthpiece instrument of a serpent form, which was constructed by E.Giyom in 1590. Matthias Stabinger (approx. 1750-1815) was a German composer, conductor and a flutist, who lived several years in Moscow. He was a conductor in the Peter’s Theatre and organized concerts. In 1787, he founded a music school in Moscow. Heinrich (Andrey Andreevich) Soussmann (Susman) (1796-1848) was a German flutist, composer, whose talent was specially noticed by M. Glinka and V. Odoevsky. In the given case it is true not only for Russia, but for Western Europe as well. It was a rather typical phenomenon for the music of the Western-European composers of that time, but it was rather brave for the work of a Russian composer of the same epoch; though, it is quite possible that this peculiarity has appeared in the result of editorial work of the professor, a famous musician – flutist N.I. Platonov. There are a lot of examples of the usage of intonation stereotypes of fanfares given in the research work by V.D. Konen “Theatre and Symphony”. Moscow. 1968, and in the research work by L.N. Shaymukhametova “Semantic Analysis of the Musical Theme”. Moscow. 1998. References 1. Berezin, V.V. Some New Facts about the Well-Forgotten Theme: anent the history of Wind Ensemble Harmoniemusik in Russia, Ancient Music, 2 (1999), pp.10-12. 2. Bozhchenko O.A.. Factors of Historical Memory Formation, The culturology`s issues, 9 (2012), pp. 57-61. 3. Dobrokhotov B.V. A. Alyabjev’s Creative Way. Moscow: “PH Muzyka”, (1966), 319 p. 4. Dobrokhotov B.V.. A.A. Alyabjev’s Chamber-Instrumental Oeuvre. Moscow, Leningrad: Muzgiz, (1948), 29 p. 5. Konen V.D.. Theatre and Symphony. Moscow: “Muzyka”, (1968), 376 p. 6. Shaymukhametova, L.N.. “Semantic Analysis of the Musical Theme”. Moscow: RAS n.a. the Gnesins, (1998), 265 p. 7. Steinpress, B.S. Pages from А. A. Alyabjev’s Life. Moscow: Muzgiz, (1956), 404 p. 8. The Russian National Library (musical scores and manuscripts of 1706-1895). The Yusupov’s Collection. P.–St. Petersburg. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anna E. Klimenko. Music for Wind Instruments Ensemble in Russia at the End of XVIII and in the 1-st Third… Музыка для ансамбля духовых инструментов в России в конце XVIII и в 1-й трети XIX века (на примере творчества А. Алябьева) А.Е. Клименко Красноярская государственная академия музыки и театра Россия, 660049, Красноярск, ул. Ленина, 22 В рамках данной статьи предпринята попытка определить хронологические границы периода, когда происходит формирование музыки для ансамбля духовых инструментов как сферы профессионального композиторского творчества в России, а также охарактеризовать особенности музыки для ансамбля духовых инструментов в творчестве А. Алябьева (A. Alyabjeva). Ключевые слова: ансамбль духовых инструментов, гармоническая музыка, классический духовой квинтет, Квинтет для флейты, гобоя, кларнета, фагота и валторны до минор А. Алябьева (A. Alyabjeva), Квартет для 4-х флейт А. Алябьева (A. Alyabjeva), Концертная симфония Д. Бортнянского (D. Bortnyanskogo). Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 9 (2014 7) 1606-1619 ~~~ УДК 7.036 Art groups in Russia After 1917 Natalya V. Pokrovskaya* Krasnoyarsk State Institute of Art 98 Mira Av., Krasnoyarsk, 660017, Russia Received 02.06.2014, received in revised form 12.07.2014, accepted 15.08.2014 The main purpose of the present article is to study the art groups existing in Russia after 1917, included into the stream of world artistic culture. The present work presents the analysis of Russian Soviet pieces of art made in XX century, an overview of general culture and art issues together with the issues of phylosophy, aesthetics, literature, history of art, binding them to common artistic practice. The main body of the article is a comparative analysis of such groups of artists as “OBMOHU”, “Unovis”, “Segodnya”, “Detgiz”, “MHK”, “INHUK”, “Zorved”, “ASNOVA”, “OSA”, “Makovets”, “AHRR”, “4 iskusstva”, “OST”, “Krug Khudozhnikov”, “NOZH”, “MAI” carried out with historical and survey methods of research. The article introduces their main participants, leaders, postulates, ideas, theoretical platforms, times and places of their major exhibitions. In general, the research reproduces one edge of a very short, but intensive and lively period of the country’s life. Its high professionalism still remains the measure and criterion for assessing modern pieces of art. This article addresses to students of art institutes majoring in academic and applied specialities. Keywords: art groups, Soviet art, artistic platforms, artistic exhibitions, avant-garde and traditional art. Russian art after 1917 (Soviet art) is complicated, contradictory, and ambiguous. Moreover, it was a factor influencing many other spheres of social life. Russian artistic culture entered the international arena. Among the important victories of the Soviet art were revolutional avant-garde and officially recognized socialist realism. Massive campaigning, art groups of 1917-1920, social control of 1930-1950 are all different variations of realism. Co-existence, interaction, mutual replacement, development of different trends are all the words to describe the symbolism and allegorism of the artistic thinking of those times. * Year 1917 was a special milestone in the political history of Russia but had no such significance for the history of art. The brake point of artistic conscience is mid 1910-s, connected with the ideas and practice of Russian avantgarde, which resulted in creating a method to build a new reality, not even bound to the visible world. However, after the year 1917 the aesthetic search of the 1910-s changed its vector: the formal experiments now play the role of the revolution’s artistic language. The major representatives of avant-garde had their allies and followers (Kandinsky, Malevich, Filonov, Chagall, Tatlin), but usually did not belong to any groups. They © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com # 1606 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya V. Pokrovskaya. Art groups in Russia After 1917 create their own forms of art, opposing their art to general European avant-garde. Russian avant-garde is oppositional towards European modernist movement. There were several avant-garde artistic centres in Russia which determined the cultural life of Moscow, Vitebsk, and Leningrad: Ginhuk (based on the experience of Zubov Institute of History of Art, founded in Petersburg in the year 1912), Decorative Institute in Petrograd and its workshops for posters, theatre sceneties, campaigning art (leaded by Iosif Shkolnik after 1918), Leningrad Porcelain Factory (scientific and artistic laboratory of Malevich followers: N. Suetin, I. Chashnik, A. Leporskaya). The spirit of collectivism reigned at Public Institute of Art in Vitebsk, in the centre of suprematism propaganda, in “Unovis” group (Ilia Chashnik, Vera Yermolayeva, Lazar Lissitzky, Nikolai Suetin and Kazimir Malevich). Representatives of new art founded People’s Comissariate for Enlightment, “Narkompros”, and Arts Department. The purpose of the official art, the “Proletkult” of “Narkompros”, was to destroy the old “nobiliary” culture and create the new, “proletariate” one. “Proletkult” (abbreviation for “proletariate culture”) was a cultural, enlightment, literary and artistic organization (1917-1932), which did not divide art into “official” and “inofficial” (before 1932); it did not belong to any aesthetic system or trend of art, and was characterized with “moderateness”, “legality”, “traditionalism”. The first state artistic workshops (followers of A. Lentulov, G. Yakulov, A. Rodchenko) were formed at former Stroganov College in Moscow, when in the year 1919 OBMOHU (abbreviation for “young artists’ association”), consisting of 20 people, was created. The works by OBMOHU members were displayed at four independent exhibition at the First Russian Art Exhibition in Berlin, at Van Diemen Gallery (1922). In the year 1919, at the last credit before the qualification exams the graduates of the First State Art Workshops (former Stroganov College) were greeted by A.V. Lunacharsky. OBMOHU (12 graduates) was supposed to carry out the propaganda tasks of Art Department of “Narkompros”. All the works were anonimous, considered to be done collectively and signed as “OBMOHU”. They also produced posters, drafts for theatre scenery and costumes (Z. Reich theatre), graphics and decorations for the near-front zone and decorated provincial towns (such as Voronezh). It was a real creative laboratory performing certain works (posters for Extraordinary Commission of the Literacy Project leaded by N.K. Krupskaya). The analysis of art produced in the 1920-s reveals true value of “laboratory searches” and experiments of certain art groups. Avant-garde features revealed themselves very vividly in book art, which was caused by extraordinary closeness of poetry and painting (in Russia the “inventor” of futuristic book was poet A. Kruchenykh). One of the brightest examples of an artistic publishing house was the way from “Segodnya” (“Today”) team to Leningrad “Detgiz” (V. Yermolayeva, V. Lebedev, E. Evenbakh etc.). In the years 1918-1919 a team of artists called “Segodnya” was formed. M. Gorky and V. Mayakovsky used to be frequent guests of the group. Apartment of V. Yermolayeva in Petrograd became a meeting spot for artists and writers who united for cooperative work on publishing books (for children), which was the beginning of Leningrad Detgiz. Artists and writers did everything themselves, from typing to selling the book: they called it “rule of thumb” and “samizdat” policy. The small pressruns (125 copies) were engraved on ordinary floor cloth and painted by the artists themselves. The connection of the two groups, “Segodnya” and “Detgiz” is especially remarkable. In the year # 1607 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya V. Pokrovskaya. Art groups in Russia After 1917 Fig. 2 Shvarts E. and Evenbakh E. Fig. 1 Vvedensky A. and Evenbakh E. 1925 S. Marshak gathered a creative group at the National Publishing House of Leningrad: B. Zhitkov, V. Bianki, K. Chukovsky, E. Shvarts (Fig. 2), D. Kharms, A. Vvedensky (Fig. 1), N. Zabolotsky and others. The artistic publishing house of “Detgiz” was headed by V. Lebedev who also invited V. Yermolayeva, E. Evenbakh (Fig. 1), N. Tyrsa, A. Pakhomov, N. Lapshin, Yu. Vasnetsov, V. Kurdov, E. Charushin. In decoration of the childrens’ books each of the masters developed his own style based on their ability to discover the world over and over again. “Detgiz” formulated the creative basics of an artist of childrens’ books. They are: ability to sympathize and maintain the sense of “interest”, attentiveness of observation and pureness of vision (naïve surprise), inventiveness and humour, compactness and accuracy of every creative solution. The initiator of a book could be an artist, not a writer. In Moscow the blossom of Russian book art was boosted by the activity of B. Favorsky and his group of artists. On December 5, 1918 Artistic Culture Museum was opened. The museum in Myatlev House on the Saint Isaac Square of Petrograd became the first museum of modern art in the world. On April 3, 1921, the Painting Department of the Museum was opened for visitors; later, departments of drawing, icons and artistic industry were opened, and their collections were granted to Russian Museum in 1926. In 1927 Russian Museum used them for the exhibition devoted to the Tenth Anniversary of the Revolution. Artistic Culture Department studied the five systems of new art: impressionism, sesannism, cubism, futurism, suprematism, worked on the “additive element” theory. On the anniversary of the death of Velimir Khlebnikov (1923) Tatlin produced a performance on “Zangezi” , a dramatic poem (“Architecture of Stories”, a superstory), which was a call to unite the humankind, in the rooms of the Artistic Culture Museum. At the same time he worked on the “universal language”, “language of stars” (Fig. 3). For example, producing words # 1608 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya V. Pokrovskaya. Art groups in Russia After 1917 Fig. 3 «Zangezi» Khlebnikov V. of “ch” sound (chasha (bowl), cherep (skull), chulok (stocking), chan (tank)) one can create the concept of one object hidden in the skin of another. Tatlin built a peak construction, movable scenery, pieces of boards (a colourful “deck” of plains expressing the “starry night sky”) and installed two projectors. The idea to create a research centre for new problems of art arose. Filonov came up with a suggestion to transform the Museum into a research institute of modern artistic culture (Museum Conference of June 9, 1923). GINHUK, opened in August 1923 (Director: Malevich, Assistant Director: Punin, Department Executives: Tatlin, Mayushin, Mansurov), did a research of post-cubism phenomena of art. One of the founders of GINHUK, Mikhail Mayushin (1861–1934), developed ideas of “expanded vision” in painting (watercolours of the years 1920-30s). He was the head of department for organic culture which returns a human being back to nature and new spacial ideas (Fig. 5 and Fig. 5). In his opinion, the “colour bond” (when two colour produce the third) occurs between the colour “environment” and the “main” colour (as in Bach fuga). In the earlier period, artists tried expressing sounds with the means of painting (1913-1914, can be compared with works by Mondriaan, Čiurlionis); later, the department and school of Matyushin did their studies on the interaction of colour and shape, colour and sound. He leads us to the idea that non-objectivity in shape formation and colour sense comes from observations of nature. These problemes rose in the creative solutions of Matyushin and Elena Guro in the years 1910–1913; the synthesis of new spacial ideas (till non-objectivity) and new natural senses began its formation. They still remain the spiritual orienting point for a group of young artists: the Ender family (Maria, Ksenia, Boris), Nikolai Kostrov, Olga Vaulina, Evgenia Magaril, Valida Delacroix and others. In the year 1923, in Petrograd they united into a group called “Zorved”, the name of which is made of two roots: “zor” (vzor, “look”) and “ved” (vedat’, “to know”). Composer, painter, teacher and philosopher Mikhail Matyushin worked at “Spatial Realism Workshop” of Art Academy, and later at Organic Culture Department of Artistic Culture Museum # 1609 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya V. Pokrovskaya. Art groups in Russia After 1917 Fig. 4 Matyushin M. Flower of Human Fig. 5 Matyushin M. Haystack. Lakhta and at GINHUK. He offered his followers a new theory of space and light solving the extensive tasks of creating a new image of nature as of a flowing mass of interbound particles, changing its volume, colour, dimensions, weight and shape continuously and permanently. In order to step beyond the regular vision, artists need theories, methods and cognition means of the whole and harmony. The “extensive vision” includes individual perception depending on the combination of psychological and physiological states, the “individual case”. After the end of military communism (after 1921) and beginning of NEP the system of state control and censorship formed itself inside the artistic culture. Artists perceived themselves as free innovators. They renewed and replaced the nameplates of the traditional groups (such as “Mir Iskusstva” (World of Art), “Soyuz Molodezhi” (Youth Union), TPHV), created several new large artistic schools (schools of Malevich, Matyushin, Filonov, Petrov-Vodkin, Tatlin), conflicted with each other, behaved intolerantly towards the ideas of other novators. The basis of all those systems was the new understanding of space and a principle of breaking the gravity: “rayism” of Larionov, abstractionism of Kandinsky, suprematism of Malevich, analitism of Filinov, planetarism of Petrov-Vodkin (the “rocking space” or “spherical perspective”), the spatial realism of Matyushin. In the year 1916 Malevich organized an association called “Supremus” which included O. Rozanova, N. Udaltsova, L. Popova, I. Klyun, I. Menkov, V. Pestel, A. Kruchenykh, R. Yakobson (Alyagrov). Then, since the beginning of January 1919 he began managing the Workshop of studying the new art of suprematism and the Free State Artistic Workshops, I and II. The socalled “Vitebsk Renaissance” is connected with the works of Marc Chagall, the commisar of art (1887 – 1985) who reorganized the art school into a Public College and invited M. Dobuzhinsky, I. Puni, K. Boguslavskaya, L. Lissitzky and others to teach. From November 1919 to the year 1922 a provincial town of Vitebsk became one of the centres of European avant-garde, where Malevich was the chairman of Vitebsk Public College, the # 1610 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya V. Pokrovskaya. Art groups in Russia After 1917 Fig. 6 Malevich K. Red Cavalry Riding Professor of the Painting Workshop. He published some books (“On New Systems in Art”) and assisted in creating UNOVIS (the name of the association is the abbreviation for “Utverditeli Novogo Iskusstva” (“The Establishers of New Arts”), 1920). Along with the mentioned above, Malevich was preparing his first personal exhibition (began in Moscow, November 1919), which was held only on March 25, 1920 (the exhibition was held within the framework of XVI exhibition of Painting Department of “Narkompros” under the title “Kazimir Malevich: His Way from Impressionism to Suprematism”). Later, two similar exhibitions were held in 1927, in Warsaw and Berlin (Fig. 6). In “Unovis” Almanach one can find a tendency to unite all kinds of art, printing articles on manageing teaching activities. The first organization of constructivists was formed in “Inhuk” in the year 1921 (A. Rodchenko, V. Stepanova, V. and G. Stenbergs). Their principles for architecture were formulated in theoretical works by A. Vesnin, M. Ginzburg. The idea of root transformation of the surrounding medium, or the “uniform scenic principle” was manifested in the Association of New Architecture, “ASNOVA” (1923 – 1932). The combination of the novator language of architectural shapes and solution of new social tasks were the catalizer for forming the Association. “ASNOVA” was founded in 1922, leaded by N. Ladovsky, V. Krinsky and engineer A. Loleyt (1923 – 1928 Chairman). They called themselves rationalists. The members of “ASNOVA” group worked on new types of buildings, searching for a new language of architecture. Their architectural projects “…are works of art, so they are perceived emotionally…” (Nazarova 2012:60). In January 1922 “Constructivists” exhibition was held “at poets’ café”. The participants of the exhibition (the Stenberg brothers, Medunetsky) announced their belonging to utilitarism. They were convinced that construction is a way of practical organization of elements which is only possible in a socially relevant space. In the year # 1611 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya V. Pokrovskaya. Art groups in Russia After 1917 1925 the creative association of constructivitsts (“OSA”) was founded. “OSA” (abbreviation for “modern architects’ association”) united Victor and Alexander Vesnins, Moisei Ginzburg, Lazar Lissitzky and others. Their functional method was published in “Sovetskaya Arkhitektura” magazine (issued until 1930). According to them, the base of a building is a reinforced concrete carcass imitating industrial shapes and methods of the modern technological processes. Communehouses embody the idea of desurbanism. Constructivists put the slogans of industrial art into practice. Ideas of constructivism resonate with the works of representatives of “Bauhaus”, especially of L. Moholy-Nagy. Constructivism is a trend in Russian art of the 1920s which found its reflection in architecture, decorative and theatre art, posters, books, literature, artistic construction. “Insdustrials” (Lissitzky, Rodchenko, Vesnin, Ekster, Stepanova, Popova) identified work and art, proved the “necessity” of an artist’s work in everyday life, declared objects and constructions used in industry (Fig. 7 and 8). Constructivism strived to create new art for new society. They invented a visual dictionary based on abstract geometrical shames and used it in painting, furniture, fashion, architecture. Classification of artists based on their trend ignores the individuality of every art piece. Representatives of the 1920s groups strived to exptress the spirit of the time, but their expression of principles for images and plasticity was different. “Soyuz Molodezhi” (1910) fought to restart its work in the year 1917, when in six of its independent exhibitions all great masters of Russian avant-garde displayed their works. Under the same “nameplate” the ex-members of “Soyuz Molodezhi” took part in “the First State Free Exhibition of Art” at Petrograd Art Palace (1919). Later some members of “Soyuz Molodezhi” (Lebedev, Pashnin and others) leaded by Tatlin organized the “Association of New Trends” (1921), opened their own exhibition at the Artistic Culture Museum (1922) and displayed their works at the Fig. 7 Stepanova V. Advertising for sports clothes Fig. 8 Stepanova V. Projects # 1612 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya V. Pokrovskaya. Art groups in Russia After 1917 “Exhibition of Paintings by Petrograd Artists of All Trends For the Five-Year Period 1918-1923” (1923, Petrograd). The embodiment of “resurrection” in the act of creation on the base of the idea of resurrecting in flesh, returning all the dead generations (“the fathers”) to life with the power of science, can be found in the work by Nikolay Fedorov “Philosophy of the Common Task” (1906 – 1913). In the works by a true fan and follower of Fedorov’s ideas, Vasily Chekrygin, we can extract the “we” as spiritual connection and the unity of fate in the Biblical sense. V. Chekrygin is the most significant artist of “Makovets” association, founded in the year 1921 on the base of the union of artists and poets “Iskusstvo – Zhizn” (Art is Life) (1920). The name of the association which further became the name of their magazine was not coincidental: it was the name of the hill on which Sergius of Radonezh founded the Trinity Monastery. In the two issues of “Makovets” magazine, articles by V. Chekrygin, P. Florensky, S. Romanovich, poems by V. Khlebnikov and B. Pasternak were published. Among the participants of “Makovets” exhibitions there were V. Chekrygin, N. Chernyshev, V. Pestel, S. Romanovich, S. Gerasimov, L. Zhegin (Shekhtel), A. Shevchenko and others (the union consisted of over 20 people). The manifest of 1922 announced the time of light creativity when people need inviolable values, when art revives in permanent movement and desire to create. Later the association split, forming groups “Put Zhivopisi” (Way of Painting) (1927 – 1930) and “4 Iskusstva” (Four Arts) at Moscow Artists’ Society. However, their significance and their output were the understanding of artistic traditions (Russian frescs and icons) and the specific “Makovets” realism. Even though they failed to carry out their tasks, their successes have not lost their meaning. One of the most specific works of that time were “The Ironing Woman” (Fig. 9, 10; 1920, canvas and oil, 94x82,5) by Alexander Shevchenko (1883-1948). Fig. 9 Shevchenko A. The Ironing Woman Fig. 10 Shevchenko A. The Ironing Woman # 1613 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya V. Pokrovskaya. Art groups in Russia After 1917 “Fate” painting, “Resurrection” cycle (1922) by Vasily Chekrygin (1897-1922) are inspired by the ideas of philosopher N.F. Fedorov. He created dramatic, exciting, perfect images predicting the future fate of the humankind and its inavoidable future flights into open space. Art groups of the 1920s appeared during the period of relative pluralism in the USSR. Thematical censorship has already formed itself, but the aesthetic one has not (forms of art were not controlled). The co-existance of art groups assumed different types of institutions (from Latin “guidance” on elementary rights). The group which had its institutional policy anticipating the Soviet art of 1930-1980s was the Assosication of Revolutionary Russian Painters, AHRR. The unlucky “itinerants” reoriented their work from commercial enterprises and private buyers to the authorities. Katsman and his group (AHRR) founded the Association under the slogan of “heroic realism” (“myth creation”), with the task to “organize the psyche of the future generations”, appropriation (from Latin “acquisition”, “impropriation”) of painting style of the XIX century. They painted conversation pieces based on the situations of modern life (portrait of time spirit as a task of enlightment, Fig. 11). The portrait genre brought up a new hero: a worker, a comissar, a deputy woman. Genre art tells the story of new life, shows the chronicles of events. The type of historical and revolutionary painting is formed. Works by AHRR members filled whole museums similar to modern art museums, but compiled on the thematical, not formal basis. OMAHRR, the left wing of young AHRR painters (1926), internationalist and “industrialist”, created RAPH (Russian Association of Proletary Painters) in the year 1931. Such AHRR members as A. Arkhipov, F. Bogorodsky, A. Grigoryev, E. Katsman, N. Kotov, S. Malyutin, S. Ryangina, N. Terpsikhorov, B. Yakovlev, B. Baksheev, I. Brodsky, B. Bilyanitsky-Birulya, N. Kasatkin, K. Yuon and others took part in the themed exhibition. It was financed by the political administration of the army and trade unions which existed before the Decree of the Central Committee of Russian Communist Party dated April 23, 1932, on unified trade unions. AHRR included branches in thirty cities consisting of 300-80 members each, and worked in exhibition Fig. 11 Katsman E. The Lace Makers of Kalyazin # 1614 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya V. Pokrovskaya. Art groups in Russia After 1917 organization (11 themed exhibitions), publishing, “production” activities. “4 Iskusstva” (Four Arts) group of painters, graphic artists, sculptors and architects included over 70 people from Moscow and Leningrad (1925-1932) who had different art positions: followers of Malevich, Klyun, Lissitzky came from “Golubaya Roza” (“The Blue Rose”) and “Mir Iskusstva” (“The World of Art”). The chairman of the association Pavel Kuznetsov (1878-1968) in cooperation with E. Bebutova wrote that it was essential to enroot plastic arts into life, letting them take part in common construction with use, refining and spiritualizing people, bringing them the joy of aesthetic perception of the world (Fig. 12, 13). The association of four plastic arts came up with a complex program: 1) artistic quality of works; 2) traditions of painting realism; 3) values of French school (from the declaration). The association members were: K. PetrovVodkin (“Portrain of Anna Akhmatova”, 1922), M. Saryan “Street. Passers by”, 1929), N. Ulyanov, M. Akselrod, K. Istomin, graphic artists: V. Favorsky (illustrations for “Ruth” book, 1925; “October 1917”, 1928; “F.M. Dostoevsky”, 1929 – all xylogrpahies), V. Bekhteev, A. Kravchenko, P. Miturich, sculptors: A. Matveev, V. Mukhina, I. Chaykov, architects V. Shchuko, A. Shchusev and others. OST association (Easel Painter Society) mostly consisted of students of Shterenberg and Favorsky (1925-1932), members of groups “Obyedinenie Trekh” (The Union of Three) (A. Goncharov, A. Deyneka, Yu. Pimenov), “projectionists” (formed in 1922: S. Luchishkin, S. Nikritin, K. Redko, N. Tryasky, A. Tyshler), “concretists” (separated from “projectionists” in 1924, P. Williams, K. Vyalov, V. Lyushin, Yu. Merkulov). OST organized four independent exhibitions (over 30 participants). During all the years of the association existance the chairman function had been performed by D. Shterenberg, even in the period of split (1931) and creation of a new addicional association called “Izobrigada” (1931), when a part of artists left for “October” (organized in 1930). The Charter of OST was registered in September 1929. In OST platform we Fig. 12 Shterenberg D. The Old Man Fig. 13 Aunt Sasha # 1615 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya V. Pokrovskaya. Art groups in Russia After 1917 can outline the following provisions: a) avoiding abstractiveness and “itinerantism” in the painting plot; b) avoiding “draftism”, amateurism; c) avoiding pseudosesannism asa style destructing shapes, drawing and colours; c) revolutionary modernity and clarity in chosing the plot; d) aspiration for absolute mastership, completeness; e) orientation on modern young people. The main themes of OST (industrialization, sports, urban life) required rational organization of the painting. “Krug Khudozhnikov” (Circle of Artists) organized in 1926 (formed in 1925, in Leningrad) united the followers of A. Karev, A. Savinov, K. Petrov-Vodkin, A. Matveev, mostly the alumni of Higher Art and Technical Institute of 1925. It consisted of over 40 members. The association chairman was V. Pakulin (Fig. 14). In 1929 the group split; as a result, a part of the painters left for AHR and “October”. The association declaration is remarkable for the strategy aimed for creation the “style of the epoch”, against literariness, subjectivism, amateurism, hackwork: A. Samokhvalov “Worker Woman”, 1928; V. Malagis “Tractorist Girl” (1932); P. Osolodnikov “The Gas Mask”, “Workers” (1929), D. Zagoskin “The Seamstress” (1929), A. Pakhomov “The Reaper” (1928) and others. “Krug Khudozhnikov” organized three exhibitions in the rooms of Russian Museum (1927, 1928, 1929), at Kiev Art Gallery (1930), at Houses of Culture (Clubs). The plans of “Krug” were ambitious: organize education courses, open laboratories, museums, libraries, organize gatherings, grant awards and publish their own works. “Krug” based its work on the realistic method, made up a new term: “quintformation” (quintessence) of shape, standing for maximum thematical saturation of a shape. Vladimir Malagis (1902-1974) comes up with a strict and determined image of a Soviet peasant woman. “The Reaper” painting (1926-1927) by Vyacheslav Pakulin (1900-1951) bore the flagship character. OMH (“Moscow Artists’ Society” founded in 1927) consisted mostly of the members of “Bubnovy Valet” (Jack of Diamonds), participants of “Moskovskie Zhivopistsy” (Moscow Painters) Fig. 14 Pakulin V. The Reaper # 1616 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya V. Pokrovskaya. Art groups in Russia After 1917 (since 1924), “Bytie” (since 1921), “Makovets”. They followed the principles of “sesannism”, preferring landscapes and still life. The chairman was A. Lentulov, his deputy was S. Gerasimov, members (around 70 people) were I. Grabar, N. Grigoryev, A. Drevin, A. Kuprin, I. Mashkov, A. Osmerkin, V. Rozhdestvensky, R. Falk, N. Cernyshev, N. Krymov and others. They understood painting as a tool for active reformation of life (Fig. 15, 16). OMH is a larger and longer lasting association based on subtle and temperamental painting culture, on high professionalism, artistic ideas. The masters of OMH perceive and reproduce the modern time through the means of painting; they convey the feeling of today, revealing their deep and sincere feelings. In their works one can find true dramaturgy, painful feelings, reflections on the present time. High artistic culture, primitivism traditions and acute social irony are specific for NOZH society (New Society of Painters, abbreviation is literally traslated as “The Knife”), consisting of S. Adlivankin, N. Perutsky, N. Popova, G. Ryazhsky, A. Gluskin, A. Nyurenberg, who were students of Tatlin, Malevich, Ekster. The idea was the “renaissance”, aspiration to “acquire real art through objective and realistic painting”. One exhibition held in 1922 in the Central House of Education Workers in Moscow has something in common with the satirical prose of the twenties (I. Ilf and E. Petrov). Pavel Filonov (1883-1941) organized a group called MAI (“Masters of Analytic Art”) (19251932, inofficially – till 1941). In different years the members came and went, and their total amount counted up to 70 people: T. Glebova, A. Poret, M. Tsybasov, P. Zaltsman, E. Kibrik, B. Gurvich, S. Zaklikovskaya, P. Kondratyev, V. SushmoSamuyllo. MAI group followed the ideology of analytic art and the principle of “completeness” of the image. In the House of Press they organized an exhibition of panel paintings and sculpture (1927), made scenery for permormance on “The Government Inspector” by N. Gogol (1927), created a cycle for Finnish and Karelian epos “Kalevala” (1933). Filonov opposed himself to cubism, cubofuturism and constructivism, but his Fig. 15 Osmerkin A. Still Life Fig. 16 Osmerkin A. Still Life # 1617 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya V. Pokrovskaya. Art groups in Russia After 1917 Fig. 17. Adlivankin S. The Tram primitivism and expressionism are deeply bound to the art of the first half of the 1910s (in 19111912 he made a trip around Palestine, France, Italy). The magic attractiveness of paintings and drawings, suffered and created in tortures by P. Filonov, an ascet, unmercenary, maximalist, is stunning. History of Russian art after 1917 (Soviet art) is included into the general stream of world artistic culture. Many phenomena of world artistic practice make their impact on the evolution of Russian art after 1917. Frequent change of styles is a stimulus for Russian art. Its high professionalism still remains the measure and the criterion for pieces of art. Daring creative campaigns (projects, experiments) of avant-gardists become classics. Socialist realism brings up a new paradigm (ideals and senses) of being a human, a revolutionary and a reformer. Socialistic reality is the main condition of life for socialist realism. We would like to underline the uniqueness of the studied period. 1917 – 1950 is significant time for Russian art. For the rise of national art of the XXI century it is especially significant to realize the fruitfulness of interaction between all the stages of Russian art development. The history of Russian art of the XX century is now “at the core” of the modern artistic stream. Radical judgments here are not acceptable as they can be wrong or imprudent. Russian (Soviet) art fits in the general cultural process, obeying the artistic coordinate system. It seems like Russian art of this certain time will bring a lot of aesthetic pleasure to future artists. References 1. Avangard, ostanovlennyy na begu. Kovtun E. F., Babanazarova M. M., Gazieva E. D. [Avantgarde, stopped while running] St. Petersburg, Aurora, 1989. 288 p. 2. Kamenskii A. Romanticheskiy montazh [Romantic installation]. Moscow, Soviet artist, 1989. 336 p. 3. Kovtun E. F. Russkiy avangard 1920-kh-1930-kh godov [Russian avant-garde of the 1920s-1930s]. St. Petersburg, Aurora, 1996. 288 p. # 1618 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya V. Pokrovskaya. Art groups in Russia After 1917 4. Kostin V. I. Sredi khudozhnikov [Among artists]. Moscow, Soviet artist, 1986. 173 p. 5. Lebedianskii M.S. Sovetskaia russkaia zhivopis’ pervogo oktiabr’skogo desiatiletiia [Soviet Russian painting of first October decade]. St. Petersburg, Artist RSFSR, 1977. 244 p. 6. Nazarova M.P. (2012). Arkhitekturnye pamiatniki v structure kul’turno-istoricheskogo naslediia [Architectural monuments in the structure of the culture-historical heritage] Voprosy kul’turologii [The culturology`s issues], (6), 60-64. 7. Sarab’ianov A. D. Neizvestnyy Russkiy Avangard v muzeiakh i chastnykh sobraniiakh [Unknown Russian avant-garde in museums and private collections]. Moscow, Soviet artist, 1992. 349 p. 8. Sovetskoe iskusstvo 20-30-kh godov [Soviet art of the 1920s-30s]. St. Petersburg, Art, 1988. 360 p. 9. Efros A. Mastera raznykh epokh [Masters of different ages]. Moscow, Art, 1979. 336 p. Художественные группировки России после 1917 года Н.В. Покровская Красноярский государственный художественный институт Россия, 660017, Красноярск, пр. Мира, 98 Основная цель данной статьи – рассмотреть художественные группировки России после 1917 года, включенные в единый поток мировой художественной культуры. Работа включает анализ художественных произведений русского советского искусства XX века, общий обзор культуры и искусства в целом без разграничения вопросов философии, эстетики, литературы, истории искусства, но во взаимосвязи с художественной практикой. В основной части статьи при помощи сравнительного анализа, исторического, обзорного метода подробно изучены такие объединения художников, как «ОБМОХУ», «Уновис», «Сегодня», «Детгиз», «МХК», «ИНХУК», «Зорвед», «АСНОВА», «ОСА», «Маковец», «АХРР», «4 искусства», «ОСТ», «Круг художников», «НОЖ», «МАИ». Даны их основные участники, председатели, постулаты, идеи, теоретические платформы, а также названия и места проведения основных художественных выставок. В своей совокупности исследование воссоздает одну из граней художественной жизни страны на коротком, но очень насыщенном и бурном отрезке времени, которая оказала стимулирующее значение на отечественное искусство. Его высокий профессионализм остается мерой и критерием художественных произведений. Данная статья предназначена для студентов художественного вуза академических и прикладных специальностей. Ключевые слова: художественные группировки, советское искусство, художественные платформы, художественные выставки, авангардное и традиционное искусство. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 9 (2014 7) 1620-1626 ~~~ УДК 159.922 Unconscious Mechanisms of Social and Psychological Adaptation of Mentally Retarded Children Elena A. Chereneva* Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University named after V.P. Astafyev 89 Ada Lebedeva Str., Krasnoyarsk, 660060, Russia Received 01.06.2014, received in revised form 05.07.2014, accepted 20.08.2014 The paper is focused on one of actual problems of special psychology and pedagogics, which is studying identity of people with intellectual disability. The analysis of mechanisms of psychological protection and semantic installations as a factor of adaptation of the individual for school students with intellectual disability is submitted. The author marks out main regularities of social and psychological adaptation for children normal and pathological development; makes conclusions about the general approaches for development of personal potential in case children have intellectual disability. Keywords: personality, children, unconscious, unconscious mechanisms, social and psychological adaptation, intellectual disability. 1. Introduction 2. Theoretical framework The most important task of modern correctional psychology is to ensure the harmonious development of the child. This task in its turn raises the question how to organize psycho-prophylactic work both for separate categories of children and for educational environment as a whole. However, despite the fact that during recent decades Russian educational institutions, including special ones, have been actively developing infrastructure to support children development, this assistance in the harmonization of socioemotional development remains insufficient so far. The system of specialized care for children with various forms of mental deficiency, developed and created by the efforts of local special education teachers (A.N. Graborov, G.M. Dul’nev, L.V. Zankov, V.I. Lubovskii, V.G. Petrov, B.I. Pinskii, I.M. Solov’ev, Zh.I. Shif and etc.), has made a significant progress in addressing the challenges of diagnosis and correction of disorders in children cognitive activities. Nevertheless, much less attention has been paid to the study of the genesis and very specifics of personal problems that these children inevitably face during the socialization process. * © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org # 1620 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Chereneva. Unconscious Mechanisms of Social and Psychological Adaptation of Mentally Retarded Children Meanwhile, this very kind of problem, encompassing a complex mix of organic and social factors in the child development, lead to a variety of phenomena of behavioral disorders, total or partial maladjustment, often resulting in illnesses or infringement of the law, and, in fact, these situations may require the intervention of law enforcement agencies, on the one hand, and child psychiatrists, on the other hand. Effectiveness of the intervention of the first part is actually reduced to zero, the second part involvement is unproductive and of short duration, since the scope of the impact in both cases does not include many causal factors, causing abnormalities of personal development, but rather external and, more often, secondary manifestations of these abnormalities at the behavioral level. In this regard, there is special urgency to study the process of socio-psychological adaptation in case of intellectual disability; the process, which on the one hand acts as a source of conditions and influences that determine the process of personal growth and on the other hand is based on social inclusion as one of the foundations of social and psychological mechanisms. Thus, a close relationship with such key issues of the modern human studies as an individual and social adaptation has either directly or indirectly contributed to drawing attention to the problem of socialization in its philosophical, social, psychological and pedagogical and only psychological aspects. Specific features of the process of social and psychological adaptation for intellectually disabled children are presented at the conceptual level in the works of well-known scientist L.S. Vygotsky. They were researched in the form of the most common trends in psychosocial development of a child and up to now they have served as reliable methodological guidelines for analysis. However, one can hardly speak of adequate specialization of these ideas, which should have been supported by relevant experimental studies and modern psychological and pedagogical practices, suitable for solving important problems, the most important of which is the successful social adaptation of these children and the related problems of deviant behavior prevention. Despite this fact, there is evidence of constant and careful attention to these issues in Russia. Numerous studies include psychopedagogical (M.S. Pevzner, V.I. Lubovskii, V.Iu. Karvialis, V.P. Voronkova, Zh.I. Namazbaeva, I.A. Korobeinikov, L.I. Lychagina et al.) and clinico-psychological (S.S. Mnukhin, D.Ie. Melekhov, D.N. Isaev, Kuz’mina-Syromiatnikova, K.S. Lebedinskaia, O.Ie. Freierov et al.) on various aspects of social adaptation of people with intellectual disabilities. 3. Statement of the problem The urgency of studying the problem of socio-psychological adaptation of children with intellectual disabilities is caused by to the following reasons: 1. Lack of Russian research in the theory and practice of personal development of children and adolescents with intellectual disability. This situation generates the need to study the mechanisms of social and psychological adaptation as a factor in the study of the personality of children with intellectual disability. 2. A comparative study of the mechanisms of social and psychological adaptation of normal and abnormal children will help to reveal additional stages of emotional and personal progress in the course of normal mental development. 3. A need for scientific programs to optimize social and emotional development of children and adolescents with intellectual disability as an effective means of social and psychological adaptation. # 1621 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Chereneva. Unconscious Mechanisms of Social and Psychological Adaptation of Mentally Retarded Children 4. Lack of research and theoretical generalization of relation of personal development to the parameters of the subjective world, when applied to children and adolescents with intellectual disability. 5. Formation of social and psychological adaptation of children with intellectual disability is one of the most important issues of social and professional vocational guidance for children with intellectual disability. To evaluate the mechanisms of social and psychological adaptation of children with intellectual disability we will rely on the conscious and unconscious meta-categories of mental reflection: psychological defense and activity set. 4. Methodology The combination of these two meta-categories is the main novelty of the research, as it allows to expand an analysis of the personality of children with intellectual disability, as well as predetermine developmental parameters and exposes the genesis of social and psychological adaptation of an individual. These meta-categories of mental reflection characterize the features of social and emotional development of an individual. The term “social and emotional development” outlines the area of personal development, which is related to the ability of a child to communicate and feel, and that should be expanded and deepened with the development. Distortion of social and emotional development may lead to violations of the process of psychological adaptation of the child and adolescent, to improper learning and communication activities, as well as to violations of the state of their physical health. Social and emotional development is an individual path of the personal development, which is formed in the dynamic interaction with the environment. Substantial characteristics of social and emotional development have a direct impact on social and psychological adaptation. In our opinion, it seems unfair that correctional psychologists have not paid enough attention to these categories as a factor causing successful socialization and integration of an individual with intellectual disorders. The issue of defense mechanisms has been fully studied in clinical psychology (S. Freud, A. Adler, C. Rogers, E. Erickson, F.V. Bassin, V.M. Volovik, B.D. Karvasarskii, V.A. Tashlykov, V.A. Abramov, K.R. Aidinian, F.B. Berezin, M.M. Kochenov, I.I. Kut’ko, T.G. McGlynn, G.L. Metcalf, A.N. Mikhailov, R.K. Nazyrov, I.M. Osadchii, A.M. Prikhozhan, V.S. Rothenberg, Iu.S. Savenko, G.K. Ushakov, Sh. Ferentsi, R.S. Lazarus, D. Hamburg, I. Adams, R.A. Emmons, etc.). This is consistent with the idea of L.S. Vygotsky that “the essence and nature of the phenomena studied in psychology are revealed in their purest form only in their extreme, pathological expressions” (Vygotsky, 1927). To describe the specifics of defense mechanisms of behavior we will use the definition of F.V. Bassin: “Psychological defense is a normal, well-detectable mechanism aimed at preventing conduct disorders and physiological processes not only in the conflict between consciousness and unconsciousness, but when quite conscious, but affectively rich sets are confronted”. In set theory, developed by D.N. Uznadze (2001) and his followers (A.S. Prangishvili, 1966; B.I. Khachapuridze, 1962; A.Ie. Sheroziia, 1979; I.T. Bzhalava, 1968; D.T. Amirejibi, 1986; I.G. Grigolava, 1987; A.T. Kintsurashvili, 1971; V.G. Norakidze, 1975; I.V. Imedadze, 1989; N.I. Sarjveladze, 1989; Sh.N. Chkhartishvili, 1971, 1978, and others) set means a consistent (psycho-physiological, mental) state of an individual, a modus of personality, willingness to work in a certain way. # 1622 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Chereneva. Unconscious Mechanisms of Social and Psychological Adaptation of Mentally Retarded Children Analysis of the unconscious of mentally retarded children from the standpoint of the theory of activity allows, fi rstly, to identify problems and trends, in line with which A.G. Asmolov stated the following classes for the studied phenomena (the problem of transfer and assimilation of experience, the problem of determination of activity, the problem of voluntary regulation of higher forms of behavior and automatization of various kinds of internal and external activities, the problem of fi nding the sensitivity range), and secondly, to isolate in the flow of events four qualitatively different classes (supraindividual supraconscious phenomena, unconscious motives and semantic orientations of the personality, unconscious regulation mechanisms of modes of activity, unconscious reserves of sensory organs) and to identify the genesis and function of different classes of phenomena in the subject’s activity. The need for substantial characteristics of the unconscious as a form of mental reflection, in which the subject and the world are one indivisible whole and also the need for such a classification of unconscious phenomena are due to the frequent opposition of all three different phenomena along with the complete loss of their specificity, which makes it difficult to progress on the difficult way of studying these phenomena. Meanwhile, only the identification of commonalities and specificities of these “concealed” planes of consciousness, according to L.S. Vygotsky, will help to fi nd appropriate research methods to reveal the function in the activity regulation, and thus not only to complement, but also to change the existing pattern of ideas about activities, consciousness and personality of children with intellectual disability. Common parameter, which is the basis for the formation of the protective (unconscious) mechanisms of behavior and activity set is the social experience of individuals, which determine the direction of an individual, and the biological factor (psycho-physiological characteristics, the brain integrity) is an opportunity that allows to generate the specificity of social and psychological adaptation. At the same time the level of intellectual disability affects the production of only conscious defense mechanisms and formation of semantic sets. 5. Discussion On the basis of theoretical and experimental studies of unconscious mechanisms of social and psychological adaptation of children with intellectual disability there can be made conclusions that reveal the specifics of defense mechanisms. 1. Students with intellectual disability have common (normal) and specific for this category of children patterns of psychological defense mechanisms’ functioning and coping strategies of behavior, these strategies are apperceived in some parts only. 2. Children with intellectual disability possess dominantly inefficient mechanisms of conscious psychological defense, while the apperceived coping strategies in problem situations are not well developed. 3. Common parameter, which is the basis for the formation of the protective (unconscious) mechanisms of behavior is the social experience of individuals, which determines the direction of an individual, and the biological factor (psycho-physiological characteristics, the brain integrity) is an opportunity that allows to implement a strategy of coping behavior and to resolve an internal conflict. Also for understanding the unconscious mechanisms of social and psychological # 1623 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Chereneva. Unconscious Mechanisms of Social and Psychological Adaptation of Mentally Retarded Children adjustment of children with intellectual disability, we will rely on the characterization of the unconscious motivators of activity that have always been the central subject of study in traditional psychoanalysis. They participate in the regulation of activities, acting as semantic sets. In the study of semantic sets of children with intellectual disability the next important features should be marked out: 1. The main of many regularities is that the development follows the same laws as that of the normally developing children. 2. Unconscious and fixed sets in the case of mentally retarded children are formed in the active interaction with the social environment and managed by the leading individual needs. 3. The main criterion for the formation of semantic sets in the case of children with intellectual disability is individual emotional and personal experience gained during the preschool years. Characterizing semantic sets of mentally retarded children, we can distinguish their specific features that appear in an unstable straightforward activity, conservatism of sets, which determine the rigidity of behavior. Weakness of semantic set’s stability complicates the decision making process and arbitrary control of the activity in standard situations. Unconscious motives also determine both the content and dynamics of the set. It is known that the motives of children with intellectual disability are unstable, socially important motives are difficult to form. These features, as pointed out by many researchers (M.S. Pevzner, V.G. Petrova, S.Ia. Rubinshtein, E.A. Chereneva, etc.) are caused by the intellectual deficiency. But as shown by some of the facts of our research, for children with mental retardation and intellectual disability the leading role in the formation of socially important motives is played by the social factor. But it should be noted that we should not be optimistic to think that with proper organization of the process of child rearing we will be able to generate high levels of need-motivational sphere, yet the intellect “sets the bar” (in the content sense), and dynamics is determined by society. But we defend the idea that the behavioral (even mechanically formed) program enables a child with intellectual disability to have behavioral patterns at an unconscious level; these patterns under appropriate conditions of favorable social and psychological support can become the basic conscious component of behavior. References 1. Asmolov A.G. Po tu storonu soznaniia: metodologicheskie problemy neklassicheskoi psikhologii [On the other side of consciousness: methodological problems of nonclassical psychology]. M., Smysl, 2002, 480p. 2. Bassin F.V. (1969). O “sile ia” i “psikhologicheskoi zashchite” [On “power of the Self” and “psychological defense”]. Voprosy philosophii (Issues of Philosophy), 2, pp. 118-125. 3. Bozhovich L.I. Lichnost’ i ee formirovanie v detskom vozraste [Personality and its formation in childhood]. М., 1968, 64p. 4. Chereneva E.A. (2012). Neosoznavaemye motivy i smyslovye ustanovki lichnosti u detei s narushennym intellektom [Unconscious motives and semantic sets of the personality of children with intellectual disability]. Sibirskii vestnik spetsial’nogo obrazovaniia (Siberian Herald of Special Education), (3), Krasnoyarsk, Krasnoyarsk State Ped. Univ. named after V.P. Astafyev, available at: http: //sibsedu.kspu.ru # 1624 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Chereneva. Unconscious Mechanisms of Social and Psychological Adaptation of Mentally Retarded Children 5. Chereneva E.A. Proizvol’noe povedenie uchashchikhsia s intellektual’noi nedostatochnost’iu [Arbitrary behavior of students with intellectual deficiency]. Krasnoyarsk, 2011, 140p. 6. Chereneva E.A. Samoreguliatsiia uchebnoi i vneuchebnoi deiatel’nosti uchashchikhsia 5-6 klassov spetsial’nykh (korrektsionnykh) shkol VIII vida [Self-regulation of academic and extracurricular activities of pupils of 5-6 grades of special (correctional) schools of VIII type]. Krasnoyarsk, Krasnoyarsk State Ped. Univ. named after V.P. Astafyev,2008, 280p. 7. Freud A. The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense. M.: Eksmo, 2003, 256p. 8. Freud S. Psychology of the Unconscious. St. Petersburg: Peter, 390p. 9. Gersamia Ie.A. Fiksirovannaia ustanovka detei-oligofrenov i nekotorye osobennosti struktury ikh psikhiki [Fixed sets in the case of oligophrenic children and some features of the structure of their psyche]. Tbilisi, 1968, 173p. 10. Khachapuridze B.I. Problemy i zakonomernosti deistviia fiksirovannoi ustsnovki [Problems and regularities of the fixed set]. Tbilisi,1962. 11. Nadirashvili Sh.A. Poniatie ustanovki v obchshei i sotsial’noi psikhologii [The concept of set in general and social psychology]. Tbilisi,1974. 12. Prangishvili A.S. Issledovaniia po psikhologii ustanovki [Studies in the psychology of set]. Tbilisi, 1967. 13. Prangishvili A.S., Sheroziia A.Ie., Bassin F.V. (eds.). Bessoznatel’noe: priroda, funktsii, metody issledovaniia [Unconscious: nature, functions, methods of research]. In 4 Vols. Vol. 3. Tbilisi, 1978, pp. 351-389. 14. Sheroziia A.Ie. K problem soznaniia i bessoznatel’nogo psikhicheskogo. Opyt issledovaniia na osnove dannykh psikhologii ustanovki [On the problem of consciousness and unconscious mental. Experience of research based on the psychology of set]. Vol. I. Tbilisi, 1969, 234 p. 15. Uznadze D.N. Teoriia ustanovki [Theory of set]. Moscow-Voronezh, 1997, 448 p. 16. Vasiliuk F.Ie. Psikhologiia perezhivaniia [Psychology of experiences]. Moscow: Publishing House of Moscow University, 1988, 79 p. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Chereneva. Unconscious Mechanisms of Social and Psychological Adaptation of Mentally Retarded Children Бессознательные механизмы социально-психологической адаптации детей с нарушениями интеллектуального развития Е.А. Черенева Красноярский государственный педагогический университет им. В.П. Астафьева Россия, 660060, Красноярск, ул. Ады Лебедевой, 89 В статье затрагивается одна из актуальных проблем специальной психологии и педагогики – это изучение личности лиц с интеллектуальными нарушениями. Представлен анализ механизмов психологической защиты и смысловых установок у школьников с интеллектуальной недостаточностью как фактор адаптации индивида. Автор выделяет основные закономерности социально-психологической адаптации детей при нормальном и патологическом развитии, формулирует выводы об общих подходах развития личностного потенциала у детей с нарушениями интеллектуального развития. Ключевые слова: личность, дети, нарушения интеллекта, бессознательное, бессознательные механизмы, социально-психологическая адаптация.