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246.Журнал Сибирского федерального университета. Сер. Техника и технологии №3 2011

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Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Журнал Сибирского федерального университета
2011
Journal of Siberian Federal University
4 (3)
Техника и технологии
Engineering & Technologies
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?.?. ????
Editorial Advisory Board
Chairman:
Eugene A. Vaganov
Members:
Josef J. Gitelzon
Vasily F. Shabanov
Andrey G. Degermendzhy
Valery L. Mironov
Gennady L. Pashkov
Vladimir V. Shaidurov
Vladimir V. Zuev
Editorial Board:
Editor-in-Chief:
Mikhail I. Gladyshev
Founding Editor:
Vladimir I. Kolmakov
Managing Editor:
Olga F. Alexandrova
Executive Editor for Engineering &
Technologies:
Vitaly S. Biront
CONTENTS / СОДЕРЖАНИЕ
Р.А. Цыкин
c?%?%?,
!%??/C?L
!=L%?=
q?"?!%-e?,??L?*%?%
?%?%2%!3??%?%
? 243 ?
В.В. Онуфриенок, А.М. Сазонов
h?%2?!?,???*%? %K!=?%"=?,? ?=?%???%*,2= ,? ??2=?2=K,???%?%
?,?2?2,???*%?% C,!!%2,?=
? 263 ?
О.А. Корзун, В.Е. Кисляков
p=???2 C=!=??2!%" 3*?=?*, 2?C?%,?%?,!3????% ?=2?!,=?=,
,?C%???3??%?% C!, ?=L?%%K!=?%"=?,,
? 275 ?
Н.К. Алгебраистова, А.В. Макшанин
`??%??!=?,%??= -?%*3? ?, *=* ?C%?%K ,?"?????, ?%?%2=
,? 2?.?%????/. ???2%!%????,L
? 283 ?
Viktor M. Denisov, Natalia V. Belousova,
Lyubov T. Denisova, Oksana V. Kuchumova
and Galina M. Zeer
Interaction of PbO-based Oxide Melts with Crucible Materials
? 296 ?
Riza B. Abylkalykova
Ludmila I. Kveglis and Khamza R. Kazdaev
Regularities of Formation of the Ordered Structures in Refractory
Metals at Ion Implantation
? 303 ?
???????? ?.?. ?????? ????????? ?.?. ??????????
???????????? ??????? ?.?. ?????????
????????? ? ?????? 17.06.2011 ?. ?????? 84x108/16. ???. ???. ?. 9,3.
??.-???. ?. 8,8. ?????? ???. ?????? ????????. ????? 1000 ???. ????? 3864.
?????????? ? ?? ??? ???. 660041 ??????????, ??. ?????????, 82a.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Editorial board for Engineering &
Technologies:
Yury D. Alashkevich
Viktor G. Anopchenko
Sergey M. Geraschenko
Gennadiy I. Gritsko
Lev V. Endjievsky
Sergey V. Kaverzin
Vladimir A. Kulagin
Sergey A. Mikhaylenko
Vladimir V. Moskvichev
Anatoli M. Sazonov
Vasiliy I. Panteleev
Sergey P. Pan?ko
Peter V. Polyakov
Viktor N. Timofeev
Galina A. Chiganova
Oleg Ostrovski
Harald Oye
Liudmila V. Kashkina, Vladimir A. Kulagin,
Olesya P. Stebeleva, Dmitry S. Likhachev
and Eleonora A. Petrakovskaya
Synergy Nanostructuring Carbon Materials Based on Cavitation
Technologies
? 310 ?
Igor M. Danilin and Eugene M. Medvedev
Technology for Monitoring and Inventory of Forest Resources
Based on Laser Location, Digital Aerial Photography and
Satellite Geopositioning
? 326 ?
В.Н. Николаева
}*?C?!,???2=???%-2?%!?2,???*,? ,?????%"=?,
?%?2% ?, C!,K%!?%?% %2??*= -%2%!=?"???,*=
2?C?%"%?%
? 337 ?
????????????? ? ??????????? ???
?? ? ??77-28-722 ?? 29.06.2007 ?.
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???? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ??
????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?
????????? ????» (???????? 2010 ?.)
Olesya V. Raeva and Ivan Ya. Shestakov
Electrochemical Method of Discharged Waters Cleaning with of
Alternating Current
? 348 ?
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 3 (2011 4) 243-262
~~~
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?????? 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79 1
Received 3.06.2011, received in revised form 10.06.2011, accepted 17.06.2011
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???????). ????? ????????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????, ???????????? ?.?. ?? ?
????????????, ?????????? 1297,2 ??, ? ??? ????? ??????? (????? 700 ??/??) ? ???????
(700-200 ??/??) ?? ???????? ?????????????? 414,5 ??, ?????? (????? 200 ??/??) 882,7 ??.
?? ??? ? ?????? ???????????? ? 1839 ?. ?? 1997 ?. ?????? ????? 650 ? ??????, ? ??? ?????
?? ????? ??????-??????????? ????????????? ?????? 400 ?. ????? ???? ?????? ???????
???????? ? ??????????????? ??????, ????? ?????????????? ? ????? ?? ?????????????? ??????? ?????, ????????????? ? ???????????. ? ????????? ??????????? ????? ?.?.
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??? ?????, ???? ?? ??????? ???????? ? ?????? ??????-???????????, ? ?????? ? ??????????????? (???. 1).
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?? ??? ????????? ??????? (??. ???. 1).
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: RTsykin@sfu-kras.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 243 #
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??????? ????? ?????? ? ???, ?????? ??????, ?????????????, ??????????? ? ??.) [2]. ???????????,
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????????? ????????? ?????? ??????? 43 ??????? ??? ?? ????????? ?????????, ??? ? ?????
????? (??????, ?????? ? ??.). ? 1841 ?. ?????? ???????? ???????? ?? ?. ???????. ???????
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???????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ?. ??????? [4], ?.?. ??????? [5], ?.?. ????????? [15]
? ??. ?????? ???????????? ???????? ? ???????.
????? ????????? ????????, ?????????? ? ?????????? 1917 ?. ? ??????????? ??????, ?
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?????, ?? ??????? ? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ? XIX ?. ????????? ????? ?????? ?
??????????????, ??? ?? ????????? ?????? ? ?????? ???? ???????? ????????? ???????
?????, ??????????????? ??? ??????? ?????????, ??????? (?????? ???????, ???????,
???????? ???? ? ??.). ???? ??????????????? ????????? ?????? ? ?????? ????? ? ??? ???????
# 245 #
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???????????? ??? ? ?????? ????? ???? ?????????? ? ? ???????? ?????????? ??? ? XIX ?.
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???????????? ?.?. ?????????? ?? ?????? ? ?????? ? 1969 ?. [3]. ????? ????? ?????????????
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# 248 #
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????? ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ???????????, ????????????, ??????? ??????????? ? ??????? ?????, ???????? ?????????????
??????-?????????, ???-?????????, ????????? ? ?????? ???????????. ???????? ? ????? ??????
?????????? ???????? ????????????? ? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ??????????????????? ??????????? ????. ?????????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ?? ???-???????
600-650 ? ? ????????? ?? 580-538 ? ?? ??????. ? ???????? ????? ????????? ?????????????
??????-????????? ?????? ???????? ????????-??????????????? ??????. ? ?????-??????????
??????????? ????? ????????? ??????? ? ??????? ??????? ??????? ???????.
??????? ????????? ? ????????? ???????????????? ?????? ? ????? ? ??? ?????????????
(?????-??????????? ????, ?????????? ? ???????????? ?????? ? ??.), ??? ? ?????????????
(??????-??????????, ?????????????-??????????? ?????). ???????? ????? ???????? ??????? ? ?????????? ??? ? ??????, ????????????? ? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ?????, ???????????????? ???????????, ??????????? ? ????????????? ?????????? ???????????, ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????. ????? ??????????? ??????????????? ??????, ??????
? ????????? ????? ? ??????? ??????????, ??? ????? ? ???? ??????????????? ??????????? ?
?????? ??????????? ?????.
???? ? ??????? ????????
? ?????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????, ????? ????????? ??????????????? ? ???????????. ?????????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ??????????? ???????. ? ????????? ????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ???????
???????, ??? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????????? ???, ??????? ?? ??????? ?????????
??????????? ???????? ????????????????. ?????????? ? ????????? ?????? ????????? ?????
???????? ???????, ???????, ?????????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ???????????.
???????????? ???????????? ????? ?? ???????-?????????????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ? ?????????, ?????????? ? ???????????????, ? ????? ??????????????
(???????? ??????? ?????????) ???????. ??????????? ? ????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ? ??????????? ???????? ? ????? ???????? ??? ??????? (????????), ? ?????? ????? ? ?? ???????????.
?????????? ????????, ??? ???????? ??????? ????? ??????????? ???????. ? ??????????
?? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????. ?????? ?????? ????????????? ? ?????? ?????????? ???????????????? ????????, ? ????? ? ??? ??? ??????????? ?
???????????????? ???????, ???????????? ? ?????? ????? ??? ???????????? ?????????????,
??????? ???????????-???????????????? ???????????, ?????????? ????????: ??? ???? ?
??? ???????. ?????????? ? ??????????????? ??????? ??????? ?????? (?? 70 ? ??? ???????)
# 250 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????. ???????? ???????? ??????-??????????? ????????????? ??????
????????????? ? ??????????????, ? ??? ??????? ????????? ???????-????????? ???????. ???,
?? ?????? ?.?. ?????????, ??? ??????-???????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? 65 ? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??????????????. ???????????? ???????? ?????? (?? 140 ? ??? ???????)
????????????? ? ????????????? ? ??????? ????????. ??? ??????? ????? ???????? ????????
????????? ??????????? (??????) ?????? ??????? ? ????????.
??????? ??????????????? ??????? ? ?????? ????????. ?? ?????? ? ??????????? ???????? ????? ???????? ??? ????????? ? ?????????. ????? ? ????????, ?????? ? ???? (???????
?????), ? ??????? ???. ??????? (?????? ?????? ???????), ???. ??????? ? ?????? ???????? (????? ??????? ???????). ???????????????? ??????????? ???????? (????????-?????), ??
?????? ?.?. ?????????, ???????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?.
??????. ?? ???? ?????? ? ?????????, ????????? ??????? ???????, ??????? ?????????????
?????? ??????????? ? ??????????, ??????????-??????????, ??????? ????? ? ??????? ??????,
??????? ? ??????????? ?????. ??????? ??????? ??????????.
????????? ????????? ????????????????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ?????????
?????????? ????????? (?????? ????????? ??????, ?? [14]). ?? ???? ??????? ????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ? ?????? ???????? ???????? ????????? (??????? ???. ???????). ??? ??? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????, ???????? ???? ? ?????? ????. ??????? ???????? ???????
????????? ??????? ??? ? ????????.
???????? ? ????????? ???????
???????? ???????????? ????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ???????. ??? ??????? V ??????? ?????? 90 ??. ??????? ???? 430 ?, ??????????? ???????????? 1,35. ?????? ???? ? ???????
??????? 0,010-0,005. ???????? ?????? ? ??????? ????? ????????????. ???? ????? ???????
?? ???. ??????????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ?????
??????. ???? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ? ????? ?????????? ?????????, ?? ??????? ?????? ????? ???????????, ?????? ????? ????????????. ???????? ?? ????? ????????? ???
???? ??????? ????????? ??????.
???? ??? ? ??????? ???????, ?? ????? ?????? ???????, ???. ???????????? ???????? ??????,
?????? ??????? ?????????? ?? 250 ?? 400 ? ? ???????????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?. ?????? ?
???. ???????????? ?? 1000 ?. ???????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? 4-11 ? (???. 3). ??
???????????? ?????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????? ??????. ????????? ??????????? ??????????????, ???? ????????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????.
??????? ????? ? ????? ?????????????? ?? ???? ?????????? ???? (??. ????.). ?????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ?? ??????? ?? ????? ?. ?????? ?? ??????? ??????? ???? ?????
???????????????.
???????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?. ??????, ??????????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ?????? 27,5 ??. ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?
???. ??????????. ??? ??????????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ????? ? ??????? ??????????????????? ???????? ? ???. ??????? ????????-???????? ??????? ???? ?????????.
??????? ???? ?????????? ?? ???? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?? ????? ??????
?? ????? ??????????, ??? ??? ??? ??????????? ? ???????? ????????-??????????????? ??????????????? ??????.
# 251 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
???. 3. ????????????? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ????? 60-90-? ????? ?? ?. (?, ? ? ??????
??????? ???? ????? ??????, ? ? ?????? ??????? ???? ????? ????????, ? ? ?????? ?????, ? ? ??????
????). 1 ? ???????, ?????????? ??????????? ????????; 2 ? ???????????? ?????; 3 ? ?????? ??????? ?
???????-????????????? ?????; 4 ? ?????? ???????????; 5 ? ?????? ?????????
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????. ???????? ???????? ??????-??????????? ????????????? ??????
???????? ??????? ?. ??????? ?????????? ? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ??????????
???????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ???????. ????????? ??????? ????????????????? ????????? ??????????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????????? ? ?????? ????? ???????. ? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????? ?? 0,5-1,2 ?.
???????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ? ??? ??????????? ? ??????? ???????, ?? ????? ??????
??????? ????? ? ????? ?? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????????? 75 ??. ???? ?????
??????? ?????? ????? VI ???????. ???? ????? ????? ????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ?
???????? ??????, ?? ??????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????? (I-II ????????????), ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? (????????????).
???????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ?. ????? ?? ?????????? 12 ??, ??????? ??????? ??????? ? ????? ???. ?? ????? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ?????????? 15 ?? ???????????? ???????
???????, ????????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ????????????? ????????? ? ??????, ????????,
???????. ???????? ??????? ?????????? 4-10 ?, ???????????? ?????? ????????????? ? ?????
? ????????? ????????? ?????????.
??????, ? ??????? ?? ?????? ??? V ???????, ????? ??????? (0,8-1,2 ??) ????????????
?????, ??? ???????? ????????? ????????? ??????. ?????????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ?
??????????? ??? ?? ??????????? ?????? ???? (30 ??). ?????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ??
????? ?????? ? ??????????? ????? (22 ??) ? ????????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????? (???. ???,
??????? ? ??.).
????????, ?????? ?????? ????, ????????? ?? ??????-???????? ????????? ???????????
????????????? ?????, ???? ????????? ?????? ??????? ???? ??? ??????-????????, ? ???????? ?????????, ??? ? ??????-?????????, ? ???????? ????, ???, ?? ??????? ?????? ?????? ???? ???,
?????? ?? ???????? ??????? ?????? ? ??. ???????? ????? ????????????? ?????? ?????????????? ???????????? ? ????? ??????? ????? ???????. ????? ???????????? ??????, ????????? ????????? ??????, ???????? ??????? 2-6 ?. ?????? ??????? ???? ?? ??????? ?????? ??
?????????? 17 ?? ? ?? ????? ???????? ? ?? ???????? ??????.
??????, ????? ?????? ???????, ????? ?????? ?? ????????? ????????????? ?????. ????
????? ???. ???????, ???????????? ????????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ?????? ???????
???????, ?????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????. ??????? ??????? ?? ?????????? 21 ??.
???? ????????? ?????????, ? ? ???????? ????? ????? ??????. ????? ????? ???????? ? ????????? ???????? ??????? 50 ??. ? ??????? ????????? ????????? ?? 8 ? ????????? (??????):
?) ????? ????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ? ?????????? ??????? ? 0,2-1,2 ?; ?) ?????? ??????
? ???????-??????????? ?????????? ? 1-3 ?; ?) ?????? ??????? ???????????????? ?? 3,8 ?);
?) ?????? ? ????????? ??????????? ????? ? 4,2-4,6 ?.
???????, ?????? ?????? ???????? ????, ????? ?????? ?? ??????? ????? ??????? ????
???????????? ?????? (1125 ?). ???? ?????????? ???????????? ???? ????? ????? ? ????? ??
??????? ??????? ????? ??? (IV ???????). ??????? ???????, ????????????? ?? ????? ???????
(12 ??), ????? ??????? ??????? 10 ?? ? ????? ?? ????? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ???????
(11 ??). ?????? ??????????? ? ????????? ?????????, ? ???????? ? ?????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ? ??????? 251 ??/?3 ?? ????? 3,6 ?. ???????? ??????? ??????? ? ???? ???????????????
??????. ????????????? ?? ???????? ???????? ???? ????????? ??????????????? ????? ??????? ??????? (????? ????????, ??????????, ??????).
# 253 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????. ???????? ???????? ??????-??????????? ????????????? ??????
??????? ? ??????? ???????? ? ???????? ????????????? ????? ???? ??????? ???????? ????.
?????? ??????? ?????????? ? ????? ???????, ?? ???? ?? ????? ???????? ? ?? 1 ???????. ??????????? ???????? XIX ?. ?????? 4822 ?? ??????, ????????? ? ?????? ? ????????? ??????.
???????? ??????, ???????, ??? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ? ??????? I-V ????????, ?
????????? ??????????? ????????? III-V, ???????????? VI ???????? (???????, ??????? ???).
? ????? ?????? ? ????? ?????? ????????????????? ??????? ? ?????????, ??????? ? ? ???????? ??? ?? ????? ????????. ? ????????? ??? IV-V ???????? ?????? ???????? ??????????
????????????? ???? ???????: ??????????? ??????????????? ?????? (???????, ?????) ???
??????????????? ????? (????????, ???????) ???????. ??????? ??????? ????? IV-V ????????
??????? ??????????????? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ? ????????? ?????? ?????? ????????. ???
?????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ? ????????????. ??????????? ???????????? ??????????
? ????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????????, ??????, ??????? ???????, ????????????
??????? ???????. ???????? ? ?????? ???????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ????? ??????????,
????, ????? ? ??????????? ????? ?????? ???. ???????????? ???? III-V ???????? ????????
???????? ????????? ?????????? ? V-????????? ???????????? ?????????????? (????, ?????????, ???????? ???????) ? ? ?????????????? ????????????? (???????, ??????? ???????),
?????? ??????????????? (??????? ????? ???????) ? ???????? ??????????????? (??????,
????????? ????? ??????? ? ???). ? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ????????????, ????? ?
????? ?????????????. ?????? ????? ????????? ? ???????? 0,001-0,03, ????????? ? ???????
?????? ??????????? ???????????, ????? ??????? ??????? (?????????, ???????? ???????, ??????????? ? ??.).
???????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ?????????? ?? 2 ?? 10-11 ?,
??? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ???????????? ???? ?? ?.?. ???????. ????????????? ??????
? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ????????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ????? ??????? ?
?????????????? ? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ?? 1,5 ?.
? ????? ? ???, ??? ??????????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ? ?IX ? ?????? ?? ?., ?
????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????. ?????????? ??????? (??. ???. 3)
???? ????????????? ? ???????? ????????. ? ?? ???????? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ????-??????? ???????, ?????? ?? ???????? ??????? ??? ???? ?????? ?????? ???????, ? ??????????? ? ??
?????? ????????. ??? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ? ? ??????????? ??????? ???????????
??????????? ??????? ?????? ????? (??????????? ??????? ? ?????? ??????? ??????????????
???????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????).
?????????, ?????????, ?????????? ?????? ?????? ? ?????? ???????? ????? ????????????? ???????????, ????????????? ????? ????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ???????????????
???????. ??????? ?????? ? ?????????? ??????????? (?? 2000 ?) ?????????? ??? ??? ? ??????
????, ??????, ???????? ??????? ??????? (?????? ? ??????????????), ????????? ???????, ???????????, ??????, ??????, ???. ??????????????? (???? ?? ??????? ???????).
????????? (???????? ??????????????) ???????? ? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ?
????? ??????? ????????. ???????? ??? ???????? ?? ????? ????????????? ???????????? ????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?????????. ????? ???????? ???? ??????? ???????? ????? ???????, ???????, ??????, ????, ???????, ?????, ???????????, ????????, ???.
????????????. ? ??????? III-V ????????, ?? ?????? ?.?. ?????????, ???????? ??????????
# 254 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????. ???????? ???????? ??????-??????????? ????????????? ??????
????????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ??????? ? ????? ????????? ?????????? ? ????.
???? ?? ??????? ??????? ?????? ???????, ?????????? ???????????????. ???????? ???????
???????, ??????????? ????????????? ??????, ????? ???????? ??????? ??????????????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ???????.
??????? ?????? ? ?????????????
? ??????? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ??? ?????????????? ???????? ???? ???????
??????? ?????? (I, ??????? II ????????????). ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? (???????? ?????????? ???????) ??? ????????? ???????. ? ?????????
?????? ??????? ? ???????? ???????? ??? ???????? ? ???????????-???????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ? ????????? ???????-????????? ???????.
? ??????? ??????? ? ??? ? ??????? ? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????? 9-11 ??????
(?????? ?.?. ????????? ? ?.?. ???????), ???? ?.?. ????????? ????????? 9 ?????? ??????????? ????? ? 5 ?????? ??????? ????????? [13].
? ?????? ??????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? (??????? ? ????????????????? ????????) ? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ?????? (?????????????????? ????????). ??????? ??????? ?????????????? ????? ?? ????????, ??????????? ?? ????? ?????
????????? ? ???? ????? ?????? ??????? (??????????). ???? ? ???????? ???? ???. ??????????????? ??? ?????? ???????????? ??????? VIII ??????? ?????? 140 ? ??? ??????. ?? ??????????? ?????-?????? ??????????? ????????? 3-6 ?, ?????????????? ??????? ?????? 50 ?.
?????? ??????? ???????, ????????? ????? 40 % ????????? ????????.
? ???????? ?. ????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ???????? ?? ??????????????? ???????.
??? ???????? ????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????? 10 ?? ?? ?????? ????? ?????? ????,
????????? ??????? ????? ??. ???????????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ???????? ????????
????????? 12- 18 ?.
? ???????? ????? ?. ??????, ??????????????? ? ????? ?????? ??????, ?????? ????????
1 ??????? ? ?????? ????????????. ?? ??????????????? ??????? ????? ????????????? 4 ????????????. ?? ?????-???????????? ? 3.
?????????? ? ??????????????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ??
?????? ?????? ?? ???. ??????????????? (???? ????? ??????) ?? ???????? ? ???. ????? ? ?????? ?????????? 12 ????? ????????. ?? ?????? ?.?. ?????????, ?? ??? ?????? 13 % ?????
????? ?????? ?? ????????.
?? ???????????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ? ????????????? ?? VI
???????????? (??????? ????????????, ??????????, ?????????, ?????????). ????? ???????? ????????????? ????? 1500 ?, ?????? 20-160 ?, ???????? ?????? 1,0-1,8 ?, ????? ????????
??????? (1937 ? 1942 ?.?.) 188 ??.
? ?????? ??????? ???? ??????? 1 ??????? ? ???? ?????? (????-??????????, ?????????????, ?????? ? ??.). ????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ?? 20 ?, ?????
?????? ?????? ?????????? 870 ????????? 93 ??.
? ?????? ????? ??????? ??? ??????? ? ???????? ?????? ? ?????? ???????????? ????
??????? ??????? ?????? ? ?????????? 885 (?????, ?????????, ????????????, ????????, ??????,
?????????????), ?? ??????? ???????? 314 ??. ??????.
# 255 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????. ???????? ???????? ??????-??????????? ????????????? ??????
?? ??????? ??????????, ?? ?????? ??????, 3-4 ?????????? ??????, ???????????? ????????? 1 ???????, ???????? ? ?????? ?????? ?? ??? ???????????.
??????????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ? ???????????
??? ??? ??????????, ?????????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ?????? ?? ?????????? ????????????????. ??????????????, ??????? ??????? ????????????? ? ????????????
????????? ????????. ???, ? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?????, ?????????????? ?????????? ???????????, ????????????? ?? 20 ? ??? ?????? ?. ?????. ????? ????????? ?????? ???. ???????????. ? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ?? ??????? ??????????????
??????? ? ????????? ?????? ? ????????? ?????? ?? 5-6 ? ?? 9-10 ?, ??????? ?? 15 ?. ??????? ?????, ???????? ??? ???????????? ?????? ??????-?????????? ??????????? ?? ??????????
180 ? ???? ?? ?????. ? ??? ?? ??????? ????????? ?????? 2,65 ? ??????. ??????? ??????????? ????????????, ? ??????? ??????? ???????????, ?????????? 475-485 ?. ? ??????? ????? ??
???????? ???? ????????????? ???? ????????: ?) ????? ???????? ? ?????? ?????? ?????????
(1-2 ?); ?) ??????? ?????? ????? ? ?????????? ????????? ???????, ?????????? ? ????? ??????
(1,5-2,5 ?); ?) ?????????? ???????????? ????????-????????? ????? ? ??????? ? ??????????????
????????? ??????? ? ?????????? (???????????? ????? ????????? 2,1 ?); ?) ????? ??????????
???????????? ?????? (??????).
? ??????????? ????? ?????????????? [7,11] ???????? ??????? ?????? ???? ??????????????? ?????????????, ?????????????? ? ??????? ?. ???????. ??????????? ??????????? ???? ??? ? ?????????????, ????????????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????,
???????, ???????? ? ?????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????. ????????? ????????: ?????????? (???????????), ?????????????? ? ??????? ????????. ?????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ??????????. ?.?. ?????? [9]
???????? ?????????, ??? ????????? ???? ????????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????????? (???????????). ? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ?????? ????????????? ????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ????? ????????? (?? ??????? ????, ??? ? ????????? ?????), ?? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ? ???????????
??????????????? ? ?????? ?? ???????????? ?????????????. ?? ?????????, ??? ??????????????? ????????? (????????? ?????????????) ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?
???????????? ???? ?????????? ???. ????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ??? ? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ? ????? ???????? ?????????? ????????
???????? ?????????????.
??? ??????? ??? ????????????? ?????? ??????????????, ???????????? ? ????????? ??
????????. ?? ???? ??????? ? ??????? ???. ??????????????? ???? ????? ???????? ?????? ?
????????? ?????????? [2].
?.?. ?????? [11] ??????????? ??????? ???????? ???? ???????????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????. ? ?????????, ??? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?? ???????????????
??????? ? ??????????? ????? ????. ??? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ? ????????
?????? ????????? ???????, ??? ????????? ???????????? ?? ??????????? ?? ?????????????? ??????????. ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ? ??????? ???. ???????????? ? ?????????
?????????.
# 256 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????. ???????? ???????? ??????-??????????? ????????????? ??????
????????? ???????
????????????? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ???????????
??????? (?? ????? ?. ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ??????? ???. ???????????????, ????? 15 ??) ???????? ??????? ???????? ? ???????? ??????? ????????, ????????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ?
????????? ?????. ????? ????? ?? ?????? ? ?? ????? ? ????? ?????? ?????? ????????? (???. 4)
??????? ???????? ???????????????, ????????????, ??????? ??????, ???????????? ??? (??????????? ?. ????), ????? ???????, ????? ????????????? ? ????? ??????????. ???????? ????????????? ???? ??????? ???????????, ??????? ??????, ???????????? ??? ? ????? ???????
[12]. ?? ??????? ???????????? ????? ?? ?????? 40-55 ? ??? ????? ???? ? ????? ????????
??????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????, ??????????? ????????? ? ???????????
?????? ? ???????, ??????? ? ??????. ?????????? ?????? ?? ???? ????????? ?????? 5,1 ?/?3.
?????? ?? ???????? ???????? ? ???????? ?? ??????? ?? 1,25 ?. ? ????? ????????? ?????
???????? ????? ????????? ????? ? ???????? ????????? ? ??????, ? ????? ? ??? ?? ??????? ?
«???????? ???????» ??????? ???????? ????? 100?50 ?.
?? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ??????????????? ?????????, ???????????
? ????? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ????? 130 ? ??? ?????. ?? ????????? ???????? ????? 100 ??
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?????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ???. ?? ?????? ?.?. ?????????, ? 1884 ?. ?? ??? ?? ??? ?????? ???????? ????? 10 ? ??????. ????????? ???? ???????????
??-?? ???????? ??????????? ???? ? ?????????. ???????? ?????? ?? ??????? 21 ?, ???????? ?????? 14 ?, ?????? ?????? 120 ?, ????????????? ????? 800 ?, ?????????? ??????
4 ?/?3. ????? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ??????????? ?????,
??????? ? ???????? ???????? ? ??????????, ????? ??????? ??????. ?????? ??????? ??????
???????, ?????????, ? ??????????? ????? ?? 2000 ?, ???? ???????????? ? ?????? ???????????? ??????????.
??????? ????? ??????? ??????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? 3000 ?? 160-300 ?.
???????? ?????????????? ????????? ?? ???????? ?????? 8-15 ?, ? ?????? ?? 20 ?, ? ????????? ????? ?? 60 ?. ??????????? ?????? ?????????, ?? ?????? ?.?. ???????, ?????????
(??????): ?) ???????? ? ?????? ????? ?? ?????-????? ? ??????? ?????, ??????????? ????? ?
0,3-0,5 ?; ?) ?????, ????-?????, ?????-????? ??????????? ????? ? ??????????? ????????????????? ? ??????????-????? ????, ?????? ??????????, ??????, ?????????, ??????? «??????»
??????? ? 0,5-14 ?; ?) ???????????? ??????-?????????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ? ???????
?????-?????, ??????????-????? ?????????. ????????? ???????? ??????????? ? ????? ????????? ??????? ??????, ??????, ????????, ??????????, ?????????????, ???????, ????????, ???????? ???????, ?????? ???????. ?????????? ???????? ??????????? (???????????-?????????????
???????????). ?????? ?? ???????? ?? ???????, ???? ??????? (-1 + 0,25 ?? 80,3 %) ? 1-4 ?; ?) ??????? ??????????? ????? ? ????????? ????? ??????-?????, ??????, ???????????, ???????????, ????????? ? ??????? ? ?????? ??????, ??????? ? ??????? ???????. ?????????? ??????
?????????, ? ???????? ?????? ? 5-7 ?; ?) ????????? ????? ? ??????? ??????, ????????, ????
??????????-?????? ?????, ?? ?????????? ?????? ? 0-20 ?; ?) ??????? ???????, ????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ? 3-6 ?.
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???. 4. ????????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ???????: 1 ? ???????????? ??????? ???; 2 ? ???????????????
?????????? ????????? (R 3sv ? ???????????, R 3?v ? ??????????? ?????); 3 ? ??????????? ???????????
?????????? ????? ???????? ?????; 4 ? ?????? ??????????? ????? (R 2kd ? ??????????, R 2gr ?????????????,
R 2ud ? ?????????? ?????); 5 ? ??????????; 6 ? ????????? ?????????; 7 ? ???????????? ?????????
?????????
?? ?????? ???????????, ???? ? ???????? ???????-????????? ?????? ??????? ??????????????. ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ?.?. ?????? ???????????????? ??????????
??? ??????? ? ????????????, ? ???????????? ? ??? ???????? ? ?????, ??????????? ? ??????? ??? ? ????????. ? ???????? ???????? ????????? ????? ??????? ??????? ??????????,
??????????-?????, ??????????? ????? ? ??????? ????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ? ??????, ????????? ?? 10 ?. ?????? ? ??? ?? ??????????. ?? ?????????, ???
??? ???????????? ?????????.
??????? ???. ????????????? ??????? ? 1884 ?. ? ?????????? ????????? ????????. ???????? ????????? ????????? 34 ?, ? ??? ????? 14 ? ??????. ????? ????????? ? ??????? 3,5 ?/?3,
?????? 600 ?? ??????.
? ???????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????????? ???.
????????????? (?????? ??????? ?????), ?? ???????? ???????? 140 ?? ??????. ? 1885-1895 ??.
????????? ??????? ????????????? ?? ???. ???????????? (??????? ??????? ?????????), ????? ? ????? 110 ?? ???????.
# 258 #
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?? ?. ???????, ??????? ??????? ?????, ???? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ???, ?????? ????? 1500 ?? ??????.
??? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ???????, ?? ??????? ???????? ?????? ? ??????? ?????????? ?????? (4-5 ?/?3). ??? ????????????? ??? ? ????????? ????? ?????????, ??? ? ? ??????? ????? ?? ?????? ???????. ? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????
????????, ???????? ???? ????????? ?????????. ????????????? ?? ???????? ?????? ????
???????????? ???????????. ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? (???????????????). ? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ? ?????????????, ???????????? ?
?????????.
?? ?????? ??????, ????????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ????????? ??????, ??? ????????
????????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????????????? ?????????????. ? ??? ???????, ????? ? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????
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? ????? ???????????? ????????
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? ???????????? ?????????????. ???????? ???? ???????? ????? ???????? ????????? ???????,
???, ??????? ? ?????? ? ??????-????????? ?????????. ???, ??? ???????? ? ???-??????? ??
??????-????? ??????????? ?????????????????? ?????? ?????? I-II ? ??? III-IV ????????, ?
????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????? ?????? ????????: 1) ????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ? ???????????, ?????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ? ????????????); 2) ??????????????????? ????????? ???????? ? ???????? ?????? ?????? ? ????? ??????????? ? ??????-??????
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? ???????? ? ??????; 4) ???????? ?????? ????????? ? ?????? ????? ?????? ????. ???????
????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ???; 5) ??????????? ??????????? ? ?????? ???????, ??? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????????
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?????????? ? ????? ??????? ? ?????? ?????????; 7) ????????? ???? ? ?????????????? ??????
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????????? ???????? ????????? ??????-????????? ???????? ????? ???????? ? ????????? ??????? ? ?? ?????????. ? ?????????, ?? ????????-??????????????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ? ????????? ??? ?????? ? ???????? ?????????? ? ???-??????? ?? ??????-?????. ?
???????? ???????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????? ??????????????? ?????? ? ?????
?????????????. ? ????????????????? ????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????? ? ????? ?
???? ????? ??????? ? ????????????? ??????.
??????? ??????-?????????? ???????? ?.?. ???????? ? ?????? ????????????? ?? ??????? ??????????????????. ????? ????? ???? ????????? ??? ????????, ??? ??? ???. ????# 259 #
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??????? ?????????? ???????. ??-????????, ?????????? ??? ?????? ????????? ? ???????
????? ???? ???????????, ??????? ??????????? ???????.
?????????????? ? ??????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????. ????????????? ???????????? ????????, ??? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????.
?? ????????????????? ??? ???????????? ????????? ??? ????????. ????????? ??????????????????? ???? ??????? ???????? ????????? ??????, ??????? ? ???????? ????? ?????????
? ??????.
???????????? ???????????? ???? ??? ????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????. ??????? ??? ??? ?? ????????. ??? ???????????? ?????? ??????????????, ?????????
?? ?????? ? ? ?????? ?????????, ??? ??????????? ???????. ?????????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????????? ? ???????? ???????? ?????????.
? ??????? ??? IV-V ???????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ??????, ??????????? ?? ?????? ??????????. ???? ??????????????? ????? ????????? ????????? ??????????
?????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ? ????????? ??????.
? ???????????? ???????? ? ????? ??? ????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??? ????????
?????. ??????, ???-????????????, ??????????????? ???????????? ????????????? ? ????????????????. ? ???? ????????????, ?? ?????? ?.?. ?????????, ??????????? ?????????? ??????
??????, ?? ???????? ? ?????? ???? ???????????? ??????? ??? ????????? ???? ???????. ????????????? ??????? ????????????????? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ?? ???????????, ? ????? ? ???
??????? ??????????? ?? ?????????????.
??????, ????????-???????????? ???? ????????? ???????????? ???????-???????? ?????????????? ?????, ??????????? ?????? ????, ?????????? ??????????? ???????, ???? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ??? ??????? ? ?????????? ? ???????. ??
?????????? ????? ????? ???? ????????. ? ?????????, ? ????????? ? ??????? ????? ???????? ???? ??????? ? ?????????? ? ?????, ? ????? ? ??? ??????????? ????????, ??????????????? ? ??????? ??? V-VI ????????. ???????? ??????? ????????????? ??????????????? ?
???????? ????????????? ?? ???? ??????? ???? ????????????. ?? ?????? ????????, ? ???????? ? ????????????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ????????, ??? ??????????????
???????????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ??????? 90-140 ? ? ????????? ?????????. ???????
???????????? ????????? ?????????, ??????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?
??????????? ??????.
?????? ???????, ???????????? ?????????????, ??? ???????? ??? ???????????? ???????? ??????. ?? ???? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????
???, ??????????? ????????? ???? ????????????????? ??????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ? ???????. ? ????? ?????????????? ???????? ??????? ????? ? ?????????
?????? ??????. ???????, ????????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ?????????????? ? ???????. ???
???????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????, ?????????? ???? ?????????? ????? ?????????????? ? ???????? ????????? ??????, ????????????? ?????????????. ?????????
????????? ??????????? ?????????. ?????-????????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ??????,
?????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ? ???????????-??????????????? ?????????,
# 260 #
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?.?. ?????. ???????? ???????? ??????-??????????? ????????????? ??????
???????? ??????? ????????? 12-18 ?. ?? ?????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????????.
?? ???? ????? ????? ?? ??????? 1,5-2,5 ? ? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????.
????????? ????????????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ???????????. ?? 170 ??? ?????????,
??????? ??????????, ????? ???????? ?????????????? ? ? ????? XIX ?. ? ???????? ???????
???????? ??????????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ????? ????????????? ? ???????????, ??????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ????? ? ???????? ?????? ? ?????
? ?????. ? ??????? ????? ????????????? ???, ??????, ???????. ?? ????? ????????? ???????
???? ? ??????????? ???????, ?????????? ????????. ? ???????? ???????? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ? ??????? ?? ???????????? ??????. ? ?????????, ? ??????? ??????? ?????
???? ????? ???????, ?? ??????? ????? ??????? ???????? ??????, ?????????? ??? ???????.
?????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ???? ??????? ? ????????? ??????, ??????????? ? ???????? ????? ? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ? ??????. ??? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????????
??????? ?????????? ?? 20-40 %, ?????? ??????? ?????? ????? ???????? ?????????????????
???????????, ??????? ??????? ???????????????? ???-??? ???? ? ? ??????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ? ????????????? ???????????. ?????? ????? ????? ??????????? ? ????
???????????, ?? ??????? ??????? ????????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ????? («?????? ???????» ? ???????? ??????????? [1]). ? ?????, ???????? ?????? ? ?????? ????? ????????????,
????????, ? ??????????.
?????? ??????????
1. ?????????, ?.?. ??????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? /?.?. ?????????. ?.:
??????? ????, 1998. ? 239 ?.
2. ??????????, ?.?. ????? ?? ??????????-?????????????? ? ???????????? ????????????
???????????????????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ?????? / ?.?. ??????????. ???, 1905. ?
454 ?.
3. ?????????????????? ????? ??????????? ?????. ??????? 1:500 000 ???. ?.?. ??????????.
?????????????? ???????. ?.: ??????, 1969 ?. ? 40 ?.
4. ??????, ?. ? ??????? ???????? ????????? ?????? / ?. ?????? // ?????? ??????, ?. IV,
N 11, 1844.
5. ??????, ?.?. ????? ???????? ? ????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ?
???????? ????????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? / ?.?. ??????. ???. 1869.
6. ??, ?.?. ??????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ? ??????????
????? / ?.?. ?? // ??????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ????? ????????????? ????.
??????????, ?. 71-77.
7. ??, ?.?. ?????????? ???????????? ????? ? ?????????? ???? ???????? ?????? ? ??????? ?????? / ?.?. ??, ?.?. ???????, ?.?. ?????? // ??. ?????????, 1974, ???. 144. ? ?. 7-19.
8. ?????, ?.?. ? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ???????? /?.?. ?????, ?.?. ??????? // ???????? ? ???? ????????????? ????. ??????????: ???. ?? ???, 1999. ?
?. 26-32.
9. ??????, ?.?. ? ??????????????? ??????? ????????? «??????? ????????» ?????? /?.?. ?????? // ?????????? ???????? ???????????. ?.: ?????, 1990. ? ?. 82-83.
# 261 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????. ???????? ???????? ??????-??????????? ????????????? ??????
10. ???????, ?.?. ???????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????: ???????-???????????
???????, ??????????? ???? ?????? ????? / ?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????, ?.?. ?????? ? ??. //
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engin &Technol. ? 2010. ? ?.3. ? ? 4. ? 371 ?.
11. ??????, ?.?. ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????: ????????, ??????????? ?
??????????? ???????? / ?.?. ??????. ??????????: ??? ????????, 2004. ? 480 ?.
12. ????????, ?.?. ???????????????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ? ???????????
?????? ????????? ????????? / ?.?. ???????? // ?????????????? ???????? ??????? ????????
????. ???????????: ?????, 1982. ? ?. 115-121.
13. ?????????, ?.?. ????????? ???? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ? ?????? ?? ??????????????? (?? ??????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ????? /?.?.?????????, ?.?. ???????? // ???????? ?????. ???????? ? ????????, 1976, ? 3. ? ?. 81-88.
14. ?????, ?.?. ??????? ? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ????? ? ??? ??????????? / ?.?.
????? // ???????? ? ?????????, 1988, N 5. ? ?. 33-42.
15. ????????, ?.?. ???????? ?????????? ?????? ????? / ?.?. ???????? // ?????? ??????,
?. II, ??. 6, 1984.
Geology of Placers
of the North-Enisey Gold-Bearing Area
Rostislav A. Tsykin
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
After the short historical essay the geological and geomorfological specials of area give. The types of
gold placers, their connections with radical sources, age, stage of formation of the North Enisey area
of Krasnoyarsk region consider.
Keywords: gold, placer, geology, geomorphology, neotectonic, morphological structure, genetic type,
age, radical source, productivity.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 3 (2011 4) 263-274
~~~
??? 548.6:549.322.21:549.521.5
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?? ??????????????? ?????????????? ?????????
?.?. ??????????*, ?.?. ???????
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
?????? 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79 1
Received 3.06.2011, received in revised form 10.06.2011, accepted 17.06.2011
???????? ???????????????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????????? ????????? ? ???????
?????? ??????????????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ?? ? ????????? ????? ? ??????? 29 ???
??? ??????????? ~20 є?. ??????? ????????? ???????????, ??????? ???????????? ? ????????
????????. ?????? ????????????????? ?????? ????????? ????????????, ??? ???????????
??????????? ?? ?????????, ???????????? ? ?????????????? ??????? ?????????. ????????
?????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ??????????
?????????, ? ????? ?? ??????????? ???? ? ?????? ? ????????. ????????? ?????????
???????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ????????. ?????????? ????????????? ?????? ????????
???????? ????????? ? ???????????. ? ?????????? ????????-???????????? ?????????? ????????
??????? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ?
???????? ? ?????????????????. ???????, ?????????????? ? ???????????? ?????? ??????????
???????????, ?????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ?????????, ???????????? ? ?????? ??????
????????????? ????.
???????? ?????: ????????, ???????????, ??????????????? ?????????, ??????????????
?????????, ??????? ??????.
????????
?????????? ???? ??????? ??????????? ? ??????????????????? ??????????? ????? ????
??????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????????? ?????????. ????????, ????????? ???????? ????? ???????????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ?? ????, ?????? ?? ????????? ????,
???????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? [1-3]. ? ??????????? ?? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????, ?????????? ????? ???????, ??????????? ????
[4]. ??????????? ??????????????? ?? ??????????? ? ??????????????????? ???????????????
????? ??? ?????????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????????????, ?? ??????? ?????????
???????? ? ??????????????? ????????? [4, 5]. ??? ??????? ? ????????? ??????????????? ??????????????????? ??????????????? ????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????? ? ?????
?? ???????????? ? ????????? [4-8]. ???????? ????? ????? ???????? ??????-?????????? ???????? ??????????, ??????? ???????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ??? ???????? ????????? ????????, ? ????? ? ? ???????? ???????? ??????????????? ?? ?????????????.
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: VOnufriynok@.sfu-kras.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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??????????? [9]. ? ????????? ????? ?????? ??????? ? ?????????, ?????????? ? ?????????
????????????? ?????? (OH). ????????? ????? ????????? ????? ??????? ????? {FeO(HO)},
????????? {Fe(SO4)2(OH)52H2O}, ??????????? {Fe(SO4)(H2O)}, ???????????? {Fe(SO4)(OH)2H2O}
? ?.?. ??????????? ???? ????????? ? ????????? ????? ??????? ?????????????????? ??????????????? ?????????. ????? ???????? ????????? ? ???????????????? ???? ?????, ????????
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???????? ????????? ????????? ? ????? ????? ????????? ?? ???? ??????? ?????????????????? ?????, ??????? ? ??????? ? ???????? ????????????????? ????????. ???????? ? ???? ??
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??????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? [3-9]. ????????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ? ?????????. ?????????????, ??????? ? ?????????? ?????????
????? ???????????? ???????? ? ??????? ?? ??????? [ 2-5]. ??????? ????????? (? ????? ??????
?????????) ? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ???????, ??? ?????????? ????????????????? ???????? ???? ??????????????. ????????????? ?????????????
?? ???????? ????? ????????? ?? ?????? ???????. ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????
?????????? ?? ??????? ????????????, ? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ?????????????? ??????????? ????????.
???? ??????
?? ??????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ?? ???????? (????????? ???????? ???) ? ????????? ????????; ???????? ???????????
????????????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ????????? ? ?????, ???????, ???????????, ????????????, ? ????????? ??????? ?????? ???? ??? ?????? (??); ?????????? ??????????? ???????
??????????? ? ??????????? ?????, ???????????????? ?? ????????? ?????? ??? ?? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ????????? ???????????.
???????
??????? ?????? ??????? ? ??????? ??? ??????????? 1000 °? ???????? ??????? ? ????????? ???????????? ???? ? ?????? S/Fe (?). ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ?????????
1.0< ?< 2.0. ??????? ??????????????? ? 1979 ?. [2] ? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ??. ?.?.
?????????? (?. ??????????, ??????). ?????????? ????? ??????? ??????? ??????????????? ??
????????????? ????-3 ? ?????????????? ?????????????? ????????? ??(??). ???????? ??????
????????????? ????????? 1 °???? ? ??????????? ?????? ? 0,001 °? ? ? ?????????? ??????. ???
?????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????? ?-????????? ?? ??????.
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?.?. ??????????, ?.?. ???????. ?????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?? ??????????????? ???????????????
?????? ??????????? ????????????
????????? ????????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????????? (??????????????? ?????
???????) ???????? ? ??????????? ?? ??????????? S/Fe (x) ???????, ??? ?? ?=0.00 ?? ? = 1.00 (????????????? ?? 100 ?? 50 % ?????? ?????? ? ???????? ????????) ?????????? ??????????????
?????? (? ? Fe) ? ?????????????????? ???? ?1 (FeS ? ??????? ). ? ????? ??????? ?=1.00 (50 %
?????? ??????) ?????????? ???? ?????????????????? ???? ?1 . ? ????????? 1.00 < ? < 1.03
(????????????? ?? 50 ?? 49,3 % ?????? ?????? ? ???????? ????????) ?????????? ??? ?????????????????? ???? ? ?1 ? ?2 (Fe0.972S , S/Fe = 1.03), ???????????? ??????????? ????????????
??????. ? ?????????, ???? ?1 ? ?2 ?? ??? « ? » ?????????? ? ??? ???? ? 2? ? 1? ??????????????.
???????????, ??? ?????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???? ??? ?
??????????? ?? ?????????? ???? ? ???????? ????????. ??? S/Fe = 1.03 ???? ?1 ???????? ? ???????? ?????? ?2 (Fe0.972S).
?? ???? ?????????? ?????????? ???? (?? 49,3 ?? 47,6 % ?????? ?????? ? ???????? ????????) ???????? ?????? ???? ???? ???? ?2 , ?????? ????????? ???????????? ?????? ????? ????
?????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ? ???. ??? ????????????? ????????? 1.03 < ? < 1.10 ? ???????? Fe0.972S ? Fe0.909S . ??????????? ????????????
?????????????, ?????????? ??????????????? ????? ??????? ????????, ??????? ??????????
???????????????? ?????????. ???????????????? ????????? ?? ??????????????? ?????????? ?????, ????? ????????? ?????????? ???? ??????????? ????????? ??????????????? ???????
? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????. ? ???? ?????? ????? ?????????? ?????, ????????????? ?? ???????? ???????, ???????????? ??????, ? ??????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ?????????????? ?? ???????????????????? ????. ? ??????? ?????
????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ???????, ??? ????????? ?? ??????????? ???????????????? ???? ? ????????. ????? ????????????, ??? ????? ???????? ????? ?? ????? ???????
?? ?????? ?????????????? ?? ???????????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????, ????????????
??? ??????????? ????????? ??? ????????????? ?????????.
??? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???? (?? 47,6 ?? 47,3 % ?????? ?????? ? ????????
????????) ??????? ???????? ???????????, ?????? ?????????? ????? ?????????????? ???? ?4,
??????? ?????????? ?? ?1 ? ?2 ???, ??? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ??
??????????? ???????. ??????????????? ???? ???????? ?????????? ?? 0,5 ?? 16 ?? ??3 /?. ???
????????????? ????????? 1.10< S/Fe < 1.11 ? ??????????? Fe0.909S ? Fe0.901S .
???????, ??? ???? ?1 ? ?2 ??????????????? ???, ??? ????? ????????????? ????????? ???????? ? ??????????????? ????????? ????? ????????? ????????.
?? ???? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???? (?? 47,3 ?? 45,9 % ?????? ?????? ? ???????? ????????) ?????? ? ????? ?4 ????????? ???? ?5 , ?????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ??????????, ? ??????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ? ?????? ????????
??????????. ??????????????? ??? ???? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ?????
20 ?? ??3 /?. ??? ????????????? ??????? Fe0.877S (x = 1.14). ??????? ????????, ??? ? ???? ?????
??????? ??????????????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ??????????, ???? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ?? ????? ???????? ??? ????. ???? ?1, ?2, ?3, ?4 ???????? ?????????????? ??????????, ?????? ????????? ???????????? ?????? ?2, ?3,?4 ??????? ?? ???????????
???????. ?????????, ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????, ???????? ??# 265 #
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?.?. ??????????, ?.?. ???????. ?????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?? ??????????????? ???????????????
?????? Fe0.847S (x = 1.18). ?? ???? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???? (?? 45,9 % ??????
?????? ? ???????? ????????) ????????? ????? ???? ?, ?????????? ?????????? ??????????????????? ??????????????? ??????????. ??? ????? ?????? FeS2 (?????). ?????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???? ??? ? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ???? ?
???????? ????????.
???????, ??? ?????????? ???????, ?????????? ?????? ?????, ???????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ???????. ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ???????? ?? ?????????
70 %.
??? ????????, ?????????? ????? 50 ??. % ???? ? ???????? ????????, ????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ? ????????? ?????????, ?????? ??? ?????? ???? ???? ? ???????? ????????, ??? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ???????.
??? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ? ??????? 29 ??? ? ????? ????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????????????? ???????. ??????? ???????????????? ?? XRD-7000S ????????????? ????? Shimadzu
(??????). ???????? ?????? ?????????? 0,5 °/???. ??????? ??????????? ? ???????? ??????????
???????, ????????? ? ?????? [11]. ????????????? ????????? ? ?????? ?????? ??????????????
Cu (K?), ??????? ???????? ? ??????????? ????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ???? ????????? ?
?? ????????? ? ????????? ?????????.
? ?????? ????????, ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ? ?????????????? ?????????,
??????? ??????????, ? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????? (??). ??? ???????????? {Fe(SO4)(OH)2H2O}, ????? {FeO(HO)}, ???????????{Fe(SO4)(H2O)}, ?????????
{Fe(SO4)2(OH)52H2O}, ??????? {Fe(SO4)4(H2O)}, ??????????? {FeH(SO4)24(H2O)}. ?????? ?????
????????? ???? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ??? ? ????????????? ???????. ??? ??????? FeS, Fe7S8, Fe19S20, Fe10S11 . ? ?????????? ??????? ????????????? ????? ?????????, ??? ??
????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ?????????. ? ???????????????,
??? ?????????? ?????????????????? ?????? ??????, ?? ?????????, ?? ?????? ??????? ??????
?????????? ?? ????. ?? ???. 1 ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ????????, ?????????? ???????????.
?????????????? ????????????? ???????????? ? ????????? ? ????????????? ???????? ?
????????? ???????????? ???? ? ??????, ??????????????? ?? ????????????? ?????????, ???????? ???????? ???????????????? ??????????? (???. 2). ??????????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????????? ? ????????? ? ???????? (???. 3) ????????????? ?????????
y= 56.12exp(-0.058x), ??? ? ? y , ??? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ????????????
? ????????? ??????????????.
???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ? S/Fe=1,48 (56,13 %).
?????????? ?????????? ???? ???? ? ???????? ??????????? ??? ? ??????????? ?????????
S/Fe, ??? ? ? ??? ???????????. ????????, ??? ????????? S/Fe = 1,66 ?????????? ???????????? ? ???????? ?????????? 11,65 %, ? ??? S/Fe =1,158 ? 6,19 %. ?????? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ???????????? ? ??????? ? ??????? ??????????? ???? (S/Fe =1,73) ??????????? ????
???????? Fe(SO4)4(H2O).
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?.?. ??????????, ?.?. ???????. ?????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?? ??????????????? ???????????????
???. 3. ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? (Y) ?? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????
(X) ? ????????
????? ????????? ??????????, ? ???????? ??????????, ? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????. ? ????????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????
(Fe?, Fe(S?4 ), Fe2?3, Fe3?4), ? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??? ????????.
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?????? ????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ?????? ? ????????? ????????? ?????? p ??????????????? ???????, ?????? ??? ?????????? ???? ??????????? ??????????????? ???????????:
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????????? ????????????????. ????????????? ????????????? ????????????? ??????? ??????
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?.?. ??????????, ?.?. ???????. ?????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?? ??????????????? ???????????????
?????????? ???????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ? ???????????? (??.
???. 3) ????????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ? ?????????????????? ????????????.
?? ?????? ?????????????? ????????????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ???????
????????? ??? ??????????? ???????????? ? ?????????????? ????? ????????? ? ????????????.
??????? ?? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ??? ??????????, ??? ???? ?
????????? ?????? ????????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????? ????????????, ?? ??????? ????????? ????????? ?? ???????? 0,104 ??. ????????? ????????, ?????????? ? ?????????? ????????????????? ????????????, ?????????????? ????, ??????????? ? ???????????? ???????????
????????? ?????????. ?? ??????????? ???????? ???????, ??? ??????????? ????? ????? ?????
???????????? ?? ?????????. ??????? ?????????????? ????? ???????? ? ??????????? ?? ?????????????? ?????? ????? 1.8·10 -4 ??. ???????????? ????? ???????? ??????? ??????????????
????? ????????? ???, ??? ??????????????? ????????? ???????????? ????? ???????????? ??????? ?? ????????? ?????????. ?????????????? ????? ????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????, ??? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????.
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???????? ??????, ? ????? ????????? ??. ? ?????????? ??????? ? ???? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ????? ? ??????? ??????. ??????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ???????? ? ????????
? ??????? ????????? ??????, ?? ??????? ?????????? ??????. ????? ??????, ??? ??????????
????????, ???????? ? ???? (430 ?), ? ?????? ????? ?????? ????????? ???????, ??? ?????????
??????????? (300 ?). ??? ???????????? ???? ????, ?????????? ? ???????? ????? ??????????,
???????? ? ???????? ????? ?????? ? ???????????????? ?? ?л ???????. ? ?????????? ????????
????? (?????????) ??????????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ???????. ???????????? ?????????????? 3 ?. ???????, ?????????? ??? ????? ???????????, ???????? ?? ?????????? ????????
????? 100 ?.
??????????? ???????????? ???????, ???????????????? ??? 430 ? ??????? ????????
?-????????? (???), ???????? (???. 4), ??? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ? ?????????????????? ?????????.
?????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ?=300 ? ???????? ????????? ????????????? (???. 4?). ???
????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ? ??? ??????? ??? ??????????? ????????????? ????? ???????????? (?????????? ? ????? ????? ? ??????? ??? ? ????????????? ?????????????????? ?????????, ?????? ? ??? ????? ? ??????? ??? ? ????????????? ?????????????
?????????), ??????????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ????????. ?? ???. 4 ? ??????????? ?????? ???????, ?????????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ????? (?=77 ?). ??? ????????? ??????????? ??????? (???. 5) ? ??????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ????? ????????????, ??????????????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ? ????????
(???. 5?).
????????????? ???????????? ????????, ??? ?????????? ??? ??????????? 490 ? ???????
???????? ???????????. ?? ??????? ??? ???????, ???????????????? ??? ?=490 є? (???. 5?),
# 270 #
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?.?. ??????????, ?.?. ???????. ?????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?? ??????????????? ???????????????
???. 4. ??????????????? ??????? ??? ?=300 ? (?) ? ??? ?=77 ? (?) ???????, ???????????????? ???
430 ?
???. 5. ??????????????? ??????? ??? ?=300 ? ????????? ??????, ??????????????? ??? 450 ? (?) ? ???
490 ? (?)
?????????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ????? ??????????? ? ?????? ????? ???????????? ?????????????? ???????. ? ?????????? ??????? ????????????? ? ???????????????
???????? ????? ?????????, ??? ? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????????????
???????? ? ???????? ? ?????????????????? ?????????. ??????? ????????? ???? ? ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ??????, ??????????????? ? ?????? ?????, ?? ??????????.
????? ???????, ????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ???????
???? ????? ?????? ???????. ??? ????, ??? ??? ??????? ???????????? ????????, ????????????
??????? ?????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ??? ??????? ? ??????????????? ????????. ????? ??# 271 #
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?.?. ??????????, ?.?. ???????. ?????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?? ??????????????? ???????????????
???. 6. ?????? ???????????? ??????????????? ????????? ???????? ???? ?? ?????????
???. 7. ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ???? ? ?????? ? ????????
???????, ??? ???????? ???????? ? ??????????? ?????????? FeSO4·H2O ???????? ??????? ?
?????????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ?? ? ??????????? ?????????. ???????????
????????? ??????? ????? ?? ????????? ????????? ????????, ? ???? ??????? ? ?????????
????????? ????????, ???????? ? ??????????? FeSO4 · 2H2O.
????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ???????? ???????????:
??????? ???????? ???????? ???? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ? ??????????????? ?????????, «?????????» ? ????????, ??? ?????????? ????? ?????, ????????????? ???????? ? ????? (???. 6).
? ????? ? ???????? ????? ????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ?? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ???????????? ?? ??????????? ???? ? ?????? ?
???????? (???. 7).
# 272 #
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?.?. ??????????, ?.?. ???????. ?????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?? ??????????????? ???????????????
??????
1. ????????? ????????????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ????????? ? ???? ???????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ? ??????????? ? ?????????
?????. ?????????? ?????? ????? ????????, ? ?????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????
?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????????? ?????? (??) ?? ?????????.
2. ?? ?????? ?????????? ???????????????????? ? ???????????????? ??????????????????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ?? ????????
???????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ? ???????????? ????? ?????????, ?????????? ? ??????????????? ????????? ???? ? ????????? ?????????. ???????????????? ????????, ??? ???? ?? ????? ?????????? ? ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ???? ??? ??? ??????????????? ?????????????????? ???????. ????????, ??? ?
?????? ???????? ???????? ???? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ????????
? ????????? ?????????.
3. ???????????????? ????????, ??? ??????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ??????????????? ???????? ????????? ? ??????????? ? ??????????? ????????. ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ?? ??????????? ???? ? ?????? ? ????????. ??????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????
? ???????????? ? ????????.
4. ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ?????? ? ??????????????? ????????? ?????????. ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ???? ? ?????? ? ????????.
5. ??????????? ????????????? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ? ???????? ????? ??????????? ???????? ? ????????? ?????. ???? ?????????????
??????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ????????? ? ???????????. ??????????
????????-???????????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ? ???????????. ? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????????????.
?????? ??????????
1. ??????-?????????????, ?. ?. ??????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????????/ ?. ?.
??????-????????????? // ??????? ??????????? ????????????????? ????????. 2002, ?. 131, ? 6,
?.111-112
2. Onufrienok, V.V. Metastable iron sulfides./ V.V. Onufrienok // News of the Russian Academy
of Science of Sulfurs. J. Inorganic materials. 2005, v.41 ( 6), p. 744-746.
3. Koto, K., Morimoto, N., Guybu, A. The superstructure of the intermediate pyrrhotite./ K.
Koto, N. Morimoto, A. Guybu //Acta Cryst. 1975, v. ? 31, p. 2759-2763
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?.?. ??????????, ?.?. ???????. ?????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?? ??????????????? ???????????????
6. ???????, ?.?. ??????? ??????-????????????? ???????????? ? ???????????????????
????????/ ?.?. ??????? // ?????? ?????????? ????, 1996 ,?.166, ?1, ?.33-62
7. Rickard, D. Chemistry of Iron Sulfides./ D. Rickard, G. Luther // Chem. Rev., 2007,107, 514 ?
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10. ??????, ?.?. ??????????? ????????? ???????????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ???????
??????-??????-???????/ ?.?.??????, ?. ?.????????, ?. ?.?????? ? ??. // ?????? ??????????
???????????? ????????????. ??????? ? ??????????. 2009. ? 2. ?.139-150.
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N. Zaloga // Z. Kristallogr. (2009) Suppl. 30 209-214
?????? ???????????? ? ??????????? ??? ????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????
???????????? ????????????.
Isothermal Crystallization of Szomolnokit
from Metastable Synthetic Pyrrhotites
Viktor V. Onufrienok and Anatoly M. Sazonov
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
The crystal structure and the phase composition of synthesized pyrrhotites after their endurance in
the atmosphere of the Earth for 29 years at the temperature about 20є? have been studied using the
methods of X-ray structural analysis. Samples contain szomolnokit which was absent in initial samples.
The analysis of experimental facts allows assuming that szomolnokit was formed from pyrrhotites in a
metastable phase. The regularity of szomolnokit formation depending on the percentage of pyrrhotites
and also on the sulfur to iron ratio in samples has been investigated. The diagram of pyrrhotites ?
szomolnokit phase ratio has been built. The theoretical model of phase pyrrhotite transition into
szomolnokit is offered. As the result of quantum-mechanical calculations good conformity of the
calculated diagram of pyrrhotite ? szomolnokit phase ratio curve with the experimental one has been
obtained. The calculations performed in the offered model of secondary quantization cohere well with
similar calculations done within the model of a molecular field.
Keywords: pyrrhotite, szomolnokit, crystal structure, phase composition, synthesis, model of secondary
quantization.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 3 (2011 4) 275-282
~~~
??? 622. 362. 3
?????? ?????????? ???????
????????????????? ?????????, ?????????????
??? ????????????????
?.?. ??????*, ?.?. ????????
????????? ??????????? ???????????
?????? 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79 1
Received 3.06.2011, received in revised form 10.06.2011, accepted 17.06.2011
? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????????????
?????????, ??????????????? ? ???? ???????????? ?????????? ?????. ??????????????? ???
???? ??????? ????????????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ? ????????????. ??? ??????????
??????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? 9,3 %, ? ??? ???????????? ?
12,46 %.
???????? ?????: ?????, ?????? ??????, ???????????????? ????????, ?????????, ?????.
????????
? ????????? ????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?? ?????? ? ? ??????????? ???? ?????? ????? ???????? ???????? ??-?? ???? ??????????, ??????????? ??? ???????
????????????????????? ????? ? ?????? ??????. ???????? ????????, ??????????????
??????? ???????? ?????? ????? ? ?????? ??????, ?????? ???. ?????????? ?????????
??????? ?????????? ????, ??????? ???? ??????????? ? ?????????? [1-4]. ????????? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ???? ???????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ??????? ????????????. ??????? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ???????, ???????
????? ?? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????????????? ??????????? ???? ?????? ?? ?
????????.
???????????? ?????? ???????????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ????? ? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????, ?????????????? ???????????? ??????? ????????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????, ??? ????????????? ??????????????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ? ????????? ??????????? ? ?????? ???????? ????????????? [5].
??? ?????????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ??????, ??????? ? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??? ????? ????? ?????????? ??? ???? ???????:
???????????? (???. 1) ??? ?????????? (???. 2).
??? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ???????????, ? ????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ?? ?? ????????.
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: korzun_aaa@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 275 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ????????. ?????? ?????????? ??????? ????????????????? ?????????, ??????????????
???. 1. ???????????? ???????
???. 2. ?????????? ???????
?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????
??????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ??? ???????? ??????? ? ???? ???????????? ???????
? ???????????? ???? (?????) ????? ?????????? ?? ???????
S ??
N � S � r 2 , ?2,
??? N ? ?????????? ????? ? ???????????? ????, ??.; r ? ?????? ????, ?.
????? ??????? ????? (??????? ???????? ?????????? ?????), ???????? ??????, ????????
S??
4 � ?02 � r 2 , ?2,
??? n0 ? ?????????? ????? ? ????? ????, ??.
?????????? ????? ?? 1 ?2 ????? ???????????? ?? ???????
?1
1
.
4�r 2
# 276 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ????????. ?????? ?????????? ??????? ????????????????? ?????????, ??????????????
???. 3. ??????????? ?????????? ????? ?? ???????? ??? ???????????? ???????
?????????? ????? ? 1 ?2 ??????? ????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ??????????????? ???????? ?? ???????? (???. 3).
??????? ????????? ?????? ??????????? (?? ?????????? ??????) ? ???????????? ????
S?
S ?? S ??
0,8585 � N � r 2 , ?2.
????? ???????, ????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ?? 1 ?2 ?????
(???????? ??????? ??????):
r2
0,2146 ?2,
4� r2
?.?. ???????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ? ?????????? 21,46 %.
S ?/
0,8585 �
?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????
??? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ? ???? ?????????? ??????? (???. 2) ??????? ???????????
??????? ????? ? ???????????? ???? ???????????? ????? ???????:
S ??
N � S � r 2 , ?2.
????? ???? ????? ? ??????? (???. 2)
L
2 � r (n ? 1) � h , ?,
??? n? ? ????? ????? ?????, ??; h ? ?????? ??????????????? ???????????? (???. 4), ???????
???????? ?????? ???????? ????? (?????????? ????? ???????? ?????), ?.
?????? ???? ? ???????
B
n ? � 2r , ?,
??? n? ? ?????????? ????? ? ?????????????? ????, ??.
??? ????? ???? ?????, ?????? 1 ?, ????? ????? ????? ???????????? ?? ??????? (???. 4)
# 277 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ????????. ?????? ?????????? ??????? ????????????????? ?????????, ??????????????
???. 4. ?????????? ????? ???????? ????? ? ?????????? ?????
1- 2 � r h
, ??.
h
?????????? ????? ???????? ????? ?????????????? ?? ???????
n?
h
tg 60 � r | 1,73205 � r , ?.
???????? ?????????? ?????
?
2 � r - h , ?.
?????????? ????? ? ?????????????? ???? ?? 1 ? ????? ?????
1
, ??.
2�r
????????? ????? ????? ??? ?????????? ???????
n?
n ? h ? , ??.,
n ??
??? h? ? ?????? ?????????, ???????????? ?????? ?D (???. 5), ?.
????? ??????? ????????????????? ????????? ? ???? ????? ? ???????????? ???? ????????????
n ??? � S � r 2 S ??? , ?2,
S ??
??? n??? ? ?????? ????? ?????, ??.; S??? ? ??????? ?????????, ?2 (???. 5).
??????? ????????:
S??? = n? · S/???
S/??? = S??? ? S ' ;
E
r - hc
;
r
r - hc
? = 2·arccos (
);
r
cos(
2
S??? =
S'
)=
360
r - h c � ?
2
§ r - hc ·
ё
© r №;
S � r 2 � 2 � arccosЁ
S � r2 � E
360
;
# 278 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ????????. ?????? ?????????? ??????? ????????????????? ?????????, ??????????????
???. 5. ????? ? ??????????? ??????? ?????????, ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ???? ?????:
hc ? ?????? ?????????, ????????? ????? ???????????, ?; S/??? ? ??????? ?????? ????????, ??????????
????? ???????????; S??? ? ??????? ??????? ACD; ? ? ?????????? BD; ?D ? ?????, ?????????? ?????
??????????? ?????; S? ? ??????? ???????????? ACD; ? ? ???? ????? ????????? AC ? CD
x = tan(
E
2
)·(r ? hc);
E
(r - h c ) 2 � tan( )
2 ;
S' =
2
§ r - hc ·
§E ·
2
ё r - h c � tanЁ ё
© r №©2№.
360
2
S � r 2 � 2 � arccosЁ
S??? =
?????? ???????? ??? ????? ???? ??????????? 1 ?:
hc =1- l? + ?;
l? = 2· n?· r ;
hc = 1- n?·2r + ?,
??? l? ? ????? ???? ??? ????????? ? ???? ??????????? ????? ?????.
? ???????? ????? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ? ???????????? ???? ??? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ?? ???????
S?? = n???·?·r2 + n?· S/???.
??? ??????? ??????? ?????, ??????????? ??????, ??????? ??????? ??????? ?? ??????
???? ???????? ????? ????? ???? ??? ? ??????? ??? ???????? ???????????????. ???? ?????????
????? ?????????? ??????????????, ?? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ????? (???. 6).
??????? ????????? ??????????????
S?? = 4r2tg 600 = 4 r2 3 .
# 279 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ????????. ?????? ?????????? ??????? ????????????????? ?????????, ??????????????
???. 6. ????? ? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????????
???. 7. ????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ??????
??????? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ???????????? ?????? ??????????????
(???. 7) ???:
S � r2
S·
§
r2Ё 3 ё .
?????r2 3 ? 3·
6
2№
©
??????????? ??????, ???????????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ???????????
? ????? ??????? ??????????? (??????? ?????):
K??? =
/
4 � S ???
S ??
S·
§
4� r2Ё 3 ё
2№
©
= 0,093.
2
4�r � 3
????? ???????, ??????? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ????? ?????? ?
???? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ? ?????????? 9,3 %.
???????? ??????????? ?????? (????????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ???????????? ?????? ? ?? ??????? ? ???????? ??????????????):
K/? =
/
4 � S???
/
S??
;
S·
§
4� r2Ё 3 ё
2№
©
K? =
;
2S � r 2
/
# 280 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ????????. ?????? ?????????? ??????? ????????????????? ?????????, ??????????????
S·
§
2Ё 3 ё
2№
©
K? =
=0,103,
/
S
??? S ?? ? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ? ???????? ?????????????? (???. 7).
??????? ???????, ?? ???? ??? ? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????? 10,3 % ?????????
?????? ???????????.
/
??????????
? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????, ??? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ???? ?
???????? ??????????, ?? ??????? ?? ???????? ????? ??? ???????? ??????? ? ?????????? ???
???????????? ??????? ????? 21,46 % ?? ??????? ?????, ? ??? ?????????? ??????? ????? ?
9,3 %.
????????, ??? ???????? ??????? ?????? ? ???? ???????????? ??????? ??? ?????????? 350-50? (??????????? ??????? ????? 2000 ? 2) ??????? ????????? ?????? ???????????
?????????? 429,2 ? 2, ? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ? 1570,8 ? 2; ? ???? ??????????
??????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ??????????? 186 ? 2, ? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ????? 1814 ? 2.
?????? ??????????
1. ???. ?.?. ? 88368 ?????????? ??? ????????? ???????????????? ??????????
[?????] / ?.?. ????????, ?.?. ??????, ?.?. ????? ?????? ? 2009118893; ?????. 19.05.2009;
?????.10.11.2009.
2. ????????, ?.?. ?????????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????, ?????????? ? ?????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ???? [?????] / ?.?. ????????, ?.?. ?????? // ???????????? ? ????????????????. ? 2009. ? ?1(39). ? C.24-26.
3. ???????????????? ??? ?????? ???? ? ??????????? [??????????? ??????] / ?.?. ????????, ?.?. ??????, ?.?. ?????? // ???????: ???-?? ?????, 2009 ? 1CD-ROM ? ?????????
??????. ????. ? ?????????? ??????? ????? ??? ???????? «????????????? ???????? ????????????????????? ???????».
4. ????????, ?.?. ???????????????? ?? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? [?????] / ?.?. ????????, ?.?. ??????, ?.?. ??????
// ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????: ??. ?????????? 8-? ????????????? ????.-????. ????.- ??????????: ??? ???, 2010. ? ?.163-166.
5. ???. ?.?. ?2414561 ?????? ??????????? ????? ? ?????? ?????? [?????] / ?.?. ????????, ?.?. ??????, ?.?.???????, ?.?. ?????? ?????? ? 2009141748/03; ?????. 11.11.2009;
?????.20.03.2011 ???. ?8
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ????????. ?????? ?????????? ??????? ????????????????? ?????????, ??????????????
Calculation of Parameters Insulating Material
Used in Formation of Ice Cracks
Olga A. Korzun and Viktor E. Kislyakov
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
The article gives a method of calculating the basic parameters of the heat insulating material presented
in the form of a separate spherical shape. Two types of stacking insulating material ? a stable and
unstable considers. Under stable stacking area of the free water surface is 9,3 %, while unstable ?
12,46 %.
Keywords: formation of ice cracks, the winter period, heat insulating material, drag.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 3 (2011 4) 283-295
~~~
??? 622.7
??????????????? ?????????? ??? ??????
?????????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ?????????????
?.?. ?????????????, ?.?. ????????*
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
?????? 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79 1
Received 3.06.2011, received in revised form 10.06.2011, accepted 17.06.2011
?????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ??
??????????? ?????????????, ?????????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ?? ????????????????????
???????? (???). ???????????? ????????? ?? ???? ?????? ??????? ???, ?????????? ??
?????????????-????????????????????? ? ?????????????-???????????? ???????????. ? ????
?????? ??????? ????????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????????, ???????????? ?????? ???????
?????????????? ? ??????????? ???. ????????, ??? ???????????? ???????? ????????????
?????????? ?????? ?? ???? ?? 74,8 ? 81,4 % ??? ???????? ???????????? ??????? 27 ? 10
??????????????.
???????? ?????: ??????????????? ??????????, ??????, ???, ??????????? ?????????????.
????????
???????????? ?????? ???????????? ???, ??? ??????????-???????? ???? ?????? ??????????, ? ? ??????? ??????? ???????????????????? ?????? (???) ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????. ??????????????? ???????? ???????? ???????, ?????????
?????? ?? ????????????? ????????? ???????. ?????????????? ??????? ???????? ???????????????? ?????????????, ? ??? ?????? ????????? ?????? ??-?? ?????????? ????. ?? ????? ?????
?? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ?????????????
?????? ? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ? 2 ? 5 ?/?, ??? ??????? ???????????? ???????, ??????????? ????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ? ???????????????? ???????? ?? ???????????
??????????? [1]. ????? ???????, ?????? ????? ?? ?????? ??????-????????????, ?? ? ??????????, ????????????? ????????.
?????????????? ??????? ? ????????? ????? ???????? ?? ?????????????????????????????????? ??????????, ?????????????? ???? ? ??????????? ? ??? ??????? ?????????? ~ 2 ?/?. ?????????? ?????? ? ?????? ???????? ??????????????? ?????????? ?? 0,2 ??
3?/?. ?? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ??? ???? ???????????? ???? ?????? ??? ???????? ??????? ? ??????????? ? ??? ?????? ?? 0,3 ?? 5?/?. ? ????????? ????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ??-?? ?????????? ????.
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: maction@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 283 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????????, ?.?. ????????. ??????????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ???????
??????????????? ?????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ???. ?? ???
????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????. ??? ??????????? ??????? ?? ?????????
????????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ??????????????. ?? ?????????? ? ????????????? ???????? ??????????, ??? ???????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ????????????? ???????? ??????????????. ??????????? ? ????????? ??????????? ????? 40 ? 60 % ???????.
? ????? ? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ???????????
????????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????.
??????? ??????????????? ??????????
? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????? ????? ????????? ?????????????,
??????????????? ?? ???????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ?
???????? ???????? ? ?????? ?????. ???????????? ??? ???? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ???
?????-???? ?? ??????????? ?????-????? ???????? ? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ???????,
?.?. ? ??????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????.
??? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ???????????????? ????????? ????????????
????????????? ? ???????????? ??????????????. ? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????
????? ???? ?????????? ???????? «?????», ??????? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ? ?????, ??????????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ???, ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ? ???????????? ????????????? ??????? ????????? (???????????).
?????? ??????????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????
????? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? (???). ??? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ??????? ????? ??????? ??????? ??????????.
??????? ???????-???????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ? ???????????? ? ?????? 80-? ??. ?? ?.
????????? «?????? ?????????». ???? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????. ????? ????????? ??? ????????, ??????????? ????? ? ??????? ???????.
??????????? ???????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????
?????????? ?????? ? ?????? ????????????. ?????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ? ???? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????? ????, ?????????????, ?????? ????? ????? ??????? ??????????? ???
?????????? ??????? ?????? [2].
???????? Carbod Pty Ltd ??? ????????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ????? ? ????????????, ? ???????? British oil minerals ???????-????????
?????????? (???) ?????????? ??????? ? ?????? ??? ???????-??????????. ??????, ???????????
? ???, ????? ????? ????? ???? ????????? ??? ???????? [3].
??? ????????????????? ???????? ??????????????? ?????????? ????? ??????????????
???????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????, ??????? ????????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ???????? ????????, ???????????? ?????????? ? ??????
???????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? [4-7]. ???????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ?
???????????????? ? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????????? [8].
???????? ????????????? ???????
?????????????? ???. ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ?????????????? ???
?????????????-?????????????????????. ? ???? ?????? ??????? ? ???????, ????????? ? ??????# 284 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????????, ?.?. ????????. ??????????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ???????
??? ?????????, ??????? (????? 0,01 ?? ? ????? 65 %), ?????????????? ???? ????????? ? ??????? ? ????????????????. ?????????? ??????, ?????????? ? ??????????, ?????????? ?? 0,5 ??
2,3 %, ??????????? ??? ? ????????? ????? ?? ????? 5 %.
????????? ???????????? ???????????? ? ????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?
????????. ?????????? ?????? ? ????? ??????? 0,3 ?/?.
?? ??????, ?????????????? ? ????. 1, ?????, ??? ????? ?????? -0,074 ?? ? ????? ?????
48 %, ? ???? ???????? ????????? ????? 77 % ???????. ????????? ???????? ????? +0,25 ??, ??
????? ??? ????????????, ?????? ? ??? ?????????? ????? 5,5 %.
??????????? ?????????? ? ???????????????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? «????????» ???????? ? ????. 2 ? 3.
??????????? ???. ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ????????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ????????????????? ? ???????????? ????????????? ?? ?????????????? ???????,
??????????????? ????? ??????? ?????????????-????????????.
????????? ?????? ????? ??????? ???????, ??? ?????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ?????????? 2,3 ?/?.
?????????? ???????? ??????? ????? ??????????? ??? ? ????????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ? ????. 4.
??? ????? ?? ????. 4, ????? ?????? +0,2 ?? ???????????? ? ?????????? ~ 46 %; ??????????
?????? -0,074 ?? ? ????? 31,8 %. ???? ??????, ??? ??? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????? ?????? 65-70 % ?????? ? 0,074 ??, ??????? ????????????, ??? ? ???????? ???-
??????? 1. ??????????? ?????? ? ?????????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ????????? ? ??????? ??????????????
???
?????? ?????????, ??
????? , %
?????????? Au, ?/?
????????????? ?u, %
+0,25
1,2
1,38
5,5
-0,25+0,15
30,1
0,09
9,1
-0,15+0,074
20,2
0,12
8,1
-0,074+0
48,5
0,48
77,3
100,00
0,3
100
?????
??????? 2. ???????????????? ?????? ??????? ??????????????? ???????
?
?/?
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
???????? ? ??????
?????
????????? (???????, ???????)
???????????? ???????? (??????? ???????, ?????????, ??????, ??????)
??????? ?????, ????????-???????? ????????, ???????, ??????
???????? ????????
??????? (??????, ??????)
???????? (?????, ????????, ???????????, ???????????)
????????
??????, ?/?
# 285 #
???????? ????, %
10,5
5,9
7,4
69,9
0,6
??. ????
14,0
0,3
0,3-0,35
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
??????? 3. ?????????? ?????? ??????? ??????????????? ???????
????????,%
SiO2
Al2O3
Fe
Fe2O3
CaO
MgO
???????? ????, %
51,6
13,96
11,32
0,86
4,82
3,99
0,5
0,66
0,66
????????,%
As
Sb
Cu
Zn
Pb
S
SO2
Au,?/?
Ag,?/?
0,05
0,013
0,024
0,016
0,007
0,79
0,014
???????? ????, %
TiO3
K 2O
C
0,3-0,35 0,2-0,25
??????? 4. ??????????? ?????? ? ?????????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ????????? ? ??????? ???????????
???
?????? ?????????, ??
?????, %
?????????? Au, ?/?
?????????? Au, %
+0,2
46,57
1,7
34,63
-0,2+0,16
14,85
1,9
12,32
-0,16+0,074
6,78
1,9
5,62
-0,074+0,05
22,53
2,6
25,58
-0,05+0
9,27
5,4
21,85
?????
100,00
2,29
100,00
??????? 5. ?????????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????????? ???
??????????
Au, ?/?
Ag, ?/?
Cu
As
Na2O
K 2O
CO2
???
Sb
??????????, %
??????????
??????????, %
2,3
1,5
0,15
0,01
1,44
0,69
8,91
17,84
?? ??????????
SiO2
TiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
FeO
MnO
CaO
MgO
P2O5
35,2
0,27
5,85
24,2
13,07
0,075
8,51
4,79
0,15
??????? 6. ???????????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????????? ???
??????????, 10 -3 %
Pb
Cu
Zn
Co
V
Cr
Ni
Ti
Mn
Ga
Mo
Ba
Zr
1,5
150
15
15
1,5
1,5
1
60
60
0,5
0,3
40
6
??????????, 10 -3 %
??????????, %
Bi
W
As
Y
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Fe
Al
Si
1,5
0,6
10
1
<1
0,8
2
4
10
3
10
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????????, ?.?. ????????. ??????????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ???????
????? ???????? «????????????????». ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ????? 0,074 ??. ??
?????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ?????????????? ??????????????? ???????. ??????? ?????? ???????, ??? ?????? ? ????? ???????????? ?? 14,5 % ?????????? (???????????????) ?????,
? ?????????? ????????????? 76,8 % ???????, ? ?????????? 8,7 %.
?????????? ? ???????????? ??????? (????. 5 ? 6) ???????????????, ??? ????????? ???????????? ???????????? ? ????? ???????? SiO2, Fe2O3, FeO, CaO ? ?????????? 35,2, 24,2,
13,07 ? 8,51 %, ??????????????. ?????????? ??????? ? ????? 1,5 ?/?, ??????? 0,01 %, ??????
? ????? ?? ??????????. ? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????, ????, ???????,
?????? (0,001-0,04 %).
???????????????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ??????, ??? ?? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ?????, ?????????????? ??????? ?????????, ???????????? ?????, ?????
??????????? ????????????? ??????, ??-?? ???? ??????????? ????????? ????. ??? ??????????? ? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????????? ??????. ??????????? ????????? ?????? ? ??????????, ???????. ? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ????????
??????. ??????? ????? ????????? ? ???????? 0,05 ? 0,2 ?? ? ???????????, ??????????? ?????
???????? 0,1-0,2 ??.
?? ??????? ????????????? ??????? ???? ???? ??????? ???????, ??? ??? ????????????????
?????, ? ??????? ?? ??? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ?????????????? ?????????.
??????????????? ????????????
?????????????? ???. ???????????? ???????? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????
?????????????? ??? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????????. ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ???????????????? ???????????? ??????????, ?? ?
????????? ???????.
??????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ??????????:
- ?????? ??????????????? q?.?. (2,5 ??/? ? 15 ??/?);
- ???????????, t?? (-20? ? +650?);
- ????? ?????????????, t, ??? (15 ? 180 ???);
- ?????? ?????????? (???????????? 50 ?/? ? 150 ?/? ? ?????????????? (???) 0 ?/? ? 400 ?/?)
q?? , q???;
- ???????? ???? ????????, %?? (45 ? 62,5 %.);
????? ????????????? ???????? ?? ???. 1.
??? ?????????? ????????????? ? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????????. ???????? [8] , ?????? ???????? ????? ????????? ????????????:
- ????? ??????????? ??????????????? ????????;
- ??????????? ????????????? ????????????? ? ????????.
?????? ??? ??????????? ?? 2,5 ?? 15 ??/? ? ????? 2,5 ??/?. ?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ?? ???. 2.
???????????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ????????????? ??????? ??????????????? 10 ??/?.
??? ???? ????????? ???????? ??????? 20,53 %. ?????????? ??????? ???????? ????? 10 ??/?
???????? ? ??????? ???????? ???? ??????????????? ??????????? ??????????. ??????? ??? ?
?????? ??????? ? ???, ??? ?? ??????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????. ??????# 287 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
???. 1. ????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????????
???. 2. ??????? ??????? ??????????????? ?? ???????? ???????? ???????
???. 3. ??????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ??????
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????????, ?.?. ????????. ??????????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ???????
???. 4. ??????? ??????? ????????????? ?? ???????? ???????
???????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ????? ????????? ?????, ? ?? ??????????? ????????
??????? ??? ??????????.
????????????, ??? ??????????? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ????????? ?????????, ? ?????????, ?? ???????? ????????? ?????. ? ????? ? ???? ???? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ??
??????? ?????????? ? ????????? ?? ????? 2 ?? 65 0?. ????????? ? ??????? ????, ????????????? ? ???????? ?? «??????? ????». ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ?? ???. 3.
?? ???. 3 ?????, ??? ? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????. ???? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ?? 45 ?? 65 0? ? ?????????? ????? 2% (? 33,6 ?? 35,6), ? ????????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????. ?????
????, ??? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ????? ???????. ??????? ???? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ??? ??????????? 45 0?.
??? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????????? [2-11], ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? 30 ???
?? ?????????? ?????. ??? ????? ????????????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ?? 15 ?? 180 ???.
?????????? ?????? ???????? ?? ???. 4.
??? ?????, ??????????? ???????? ??????? ????????????? ? ???????? ???????????????
?????????? ?????????? 90 ???. ??? ???? ???????? ??????? ???????? 52,45 %, ?????????? ??????? ? ??????? ? 60,56 %, ? ???????? ???? ??????? ? 2,4 ?/?.
???????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ??????? ???????? ????? ?????????
???, ??? ?????????? ?????????? ??????, ????????? ??????? ????????? ? ???????????? ???????.
??? ??????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ???? ???????????. ? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ???????. ??? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????? ???????????, ? ????? ????????? ???????????: ?????????????? (???)
? ?????????? ????????????.
????????? ??????????? ????? ? ???????????? ???????-?????????? ??? ????????? ? ??????. ????????????? ??? ????????? ? ???????? ?????????-?????????? ????????? ? ???????????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????, ? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ???
???????? ???????????????? ??? [12,13].
# 289 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????????, ?.?. ????????. ??????????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ???????
???. 5. ??????????? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????????
???????? ????? ?????????????? ? ????? ??????????????? ????????????, ??????????,
????????? ? ?????????? ??????.
? ??????? ???????? ??? ? ???? 0,5 % ???????? ? ???????? ????????. ??????? ????????????, ??? ? ??????? ??????? ????????? 25 ??/?3, ? ??????? ????? 1 ??/?.
?????? ???????????? ???????? ?? 50 ?/? ?? 150 ?/?, ? ??? ?? 0 ?? 400 ?/?. ?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ?? ???. 5.
??? ??????? ???????????? ? 100 ?/? ???? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? 60,83 %, ???????? ??????? ?????????????? 47,07 %.
?????? ????????? ??? ?????????????? ??????????????? ??????? ??? ??????? 300 ?/?,
??? ???? ?????????? ?????? ? ??????? ?????????? 82,26 %, ? ?????????? ?????? ? ????????
1,47 ?/?.
??????? ??????????????? ?????????? ????????????? [10] ????????? ??? 40 % ????????.
? ????????? ????????????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ? ???????? ?? 45 ?? 62,5 %. ??????????
?????????? ?? ???. 6.
??? ????? ?? ???. 6, ??? ???????? ????????????? 1300 ??/??? ?????? ????????? ???
??????? ??? ???????, ????? ???????? ???? ???????? ? ???????? ????????? 50 %. ??????????
?????????? ??????? ? ??????? 74,7 %, ? ???????? ??????? ???????? 71,86 %. ??? ????????????? ?? ????????? 1900 ??/??? (??????????? ???????? ???? ???????? ? ???????? ????? 50 %)
?????????? ??????? ? ??????? ?????????? 53,99 %, ? ?????????? ?????? ? ??? ? 6,99 ?/?. ??? ??????????? ???? ???????????, ?????????? ??? ??????? ???????? ????????????? (1300 ??/???),
??? ???????????? ????? ????????? ????? ? ?????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ???????.
??? ??????? ?? ??????????? ????????????, ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ????????? ????????:
- ???????? ???? ???????? 50 %;
- ????? ????????????? 90 ???;
- ??????????? ???????? 45 °?;
# 290 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????????, ?.?. ????????. ??????????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ???????
???. 6. ??????? ???????? ???? ???????? ?? ???????? ???????? ???????
- ???????? ????????????? 1300 ??/???;
- ???????: ??????????????? 10 ??/?; ?????????????? 300 ?/?;
CuSO4 ? 200 ?/?; ???????? ????? ? 1464 ?/?.
??????????? ???. ???????????? ???????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ????????? ?? ???????, ??????????????? [5].
??? ????????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????? ????????? ? ????:
?????: ???????????????? ????? 5:1:0,4; ??? ????????????? ?????? ? ????????? ? ????: ?????
? ????? 92,5:7,5.
??????? ???????? ????? ????????????? ???????????????? ????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????, ? ?????? ???????? 1150 ? 1 ??? (???????? ???????? 3 ?/?).
????????????? ????? ??????? ? ????????????? ? ????????? ???????????? ????? ????????. ? ?????????? ?????? ????????????? ?? ???? ???????? ?????????, ?????????? ? [5]. ? ????? ? ???? ??? ????? ????????? ? ?????? ??????????? ? ??????? ???????? ??? ??????????
????????????. ?????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ????. 7.
??? ????????? ???????? ??????????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ? ????. 7 ?????????
??????????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????, ??????? ??????????? ? ???? ???????? ? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ???????????? ?-80 ??? ???????? 150 ? 100 ?/? ??????????????.
????????? ?????????? ??????????? (????. 7) ??????????, ??? ??? ?????????? ????????
??????????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ????, ?? ?????????? ??????? ??????. ? ????? ? ???? ?????????? ???????????? ????
?????????? ?? ????????? ???????? ??????? ????????.
??? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????.
??? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ? ???????????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ????????????? (???) ? ????????? ?????????????????????.
# 291 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????????, ?.?. ????????. ??????????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ???????
??????? 7. ??????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ??????????????? ?????????? ?
??????????? ? ???????? ?????????
???????????? ?????????
?????, %
?????????? Au, ?/?
?????????? Au, %
???????-???????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ?????????
??????????
??????
????????
17,6
82,4
100,0
??????????
??????
????????
6,8
93,2
100,0
9,8
0,7
2,3
74,9
25,1
100,0
????????
15,4
1,4
2,3
45,4
54,6
100,0
???. 7. ????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ? ????????? ?????? ? ???????
?????? ?????????? ??? -5 ?/? ??? ?????? ? ???????????? ? ?????????????? [6], ? ??????????????? (???????????? ??????????) ? ????????? ??????????? ? 150 ?/?. ????????? ?????????
??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ??? (????? ?????????????) ??????????
??? ?? ??????????? 1:1.
??? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ? ????????
???????? ??????????? ???????.
????? ?????? ???????????? ?? ???. 7, ?????????? ? ? ????. 8.
??? ????? ?? ????. 8, ??? ?????????? ??????????????? ???? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ? ??? ???????????? ???????. ??? ????? ????????? ???, ??? ? ???????? ????? ???????????
?????? ???????????? ? ?? ????????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ???????????.
????????? ???????? ??????????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????-??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ???????????? ???
# 292 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????????, ?.?. ????????. ??????????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ???????
??????? 8. ?????????? ???????????? ???????-???????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ?????????
????????
??????????
?????? 1+2
????????
??????????
?????? 1
?????? 2
????????
??????????
?????? 1
?????? 2
????????
??????????
?????? 1
?????? 2
????????
??????????
?????? 1
?????? 2
????????
?????, % ?????????? Au, ?/? ?????????? Au, %
4,7
95,3
100,0
16,7
41,1
42,2
100,0
10,4
43,7
45,9
100,0
11,7
42,6
45,7
100,0
8,8
40,6
50,6
100,0
4,8
2,2
2,3
10,6
0,5
0,8
2,3
18,0
0,4
0,6
2,3
15,5
0,5
0,6
2,3
21,3
0,4
0,5
2,3
9,9
90,1
100,0
77,2
8,9
13,9
100,0
81,4
6,6
12,0
100,0
78,8
9,3
11,9
100,0
81,4
7,6
11,0
100,0
??????????
98 % ?????? -0,074 ??
??? ???????????????
80 % ?????? -0,074 ??,
??????????? ?????????
80 % ?????? -0,074 ??,
??????????? ????????? ?
????????? ? ???
? ??????????? 1:1
98 % ?????? -0,074 ??,
??????????? ?????????
98 % ?????? -0,074 ??,
??????????? ?????????
? ????????? ? ??? ?
??????????? 1:1
??? ????? ?? ??????? 150 ?/?, ??? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? 98 % ?????? ?????
0,074 ??. ?????????? ??????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????? ?? 48-16-6-75 ??? ???????????????? ?????????.
??????????
????????????, ??????????? ?? ???? ?????? ??????? ???, ?????????? ?? ?????????????????????????????????? (?????????????? ??????) ? ?????????????-???????????? ??????????? (??????????? ???????), ????????, ??? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????????????? ??????????
?????????? ??? ?????????? ??????.
??????????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????? ? ??????????????????
????????? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ?????? ? ???????? 8,19 ?/? ??? ?????????? 74,7 %.
??? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ???? ???????? ???
????????????? ???????????? ??????: ???????? ???? ??????? ? ??????????? 21,3 ?/? ??? ?????????? 81,4 %. ?????????? ??????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????? ?? 48-16-6-75 ???
???????????????? ?????????.
?????? ??????????? ??? ????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????????, ?.?. ????????. ??????????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ???????
?????? ??????????
1. ???????, ?.?. ???????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????: ???????-??????????? ???????, ??????????? ???? ?????? ????? / ??????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ?????? ?
??. //Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 4 2010. #3 p.371-395.
2. Bellamy, S.R. Gold Forum Technol. And Pract. «World Gold-89» /Bellamy S.R., House
C.I., Veal C.J. // Proc. 1st Joint Int. Meet. Between SME and Aus IMM, Reno, New., nov.5-8, 1989.
P.347-352.
3. House, C. Coal gold agglomeration / House C., Townsend I., Veal C.// Int. Minig. 1988.-5, ?9.
P.17-19.
4. ???.589291 ?????????, ? 03? 5/02. ?????? ?????????? ??????.
5. «World Gold-89», ? Litterton, Colorado, USA // Int. Minig, 1989.
6. ???.2047381 ??????, ???6 ? 03 ? 7//00. ?????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ??? ? ????????.
7. ???.2051750 ??????, ???6 ? 03 ? 7//00, ? 03 D1/016, 1/02. ?????? ?????????? ?????? ??
???.
8. ???. ? 1736043 ????????? ?? 3 ?????? 1989. ???. ??????? ? 4755907 ?? 15 ????? 1991.
?????? ?????????? ??????????????????? ???. ????????????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?.
9. ???????, ?.?. ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ???? ? ?????????????????. ???????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????? / ??????? ?.?.,
???????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ? ?.: ?????, 1985.
10. ???????, ?.?. ?????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ??? ??????? ???????? / ???????
?.?. -?.: ????, 2005.
11. Bellamy, S.R. Gold Forum Technol. And Pract. «World Gold-89»/ Bellamy S.R., House
C.I., Veal C.J.// Proc. 1st Joint Int. Meet. Between SME and Aus IMM, Reno, New., nov.5-8, 1989.
P.375-379.
12. ?????????????, ?.?. ???????? ?????? ???????? ??? ???????? ????????-????????
??? ? ??????????? ??????????????/ ?.?.?????????????, ?.?.?????, ??????? ?.?. // ?????????? ???. 1979. ?4.
13. ????????????? ?.?. ????? ?????????? ? ???????????????? ?????????????? / ????????????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?.,????? ?.?.// ???????????????????? ??????-96: ??. ????????
??????-????????????? ????????. ???????????, 1996.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????????, ?.?. ????????. ??????????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ???????
Agglomeration Flocculation
as a Gold Extraction Method
from Anthropogenic Deposits
Natalya K. Algebraistova and Andrey V. Makshanin
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
There have been offered the processes based on the agglomeration flocculation to be used for gold
extraction from anthropogenic deposits, which were formed during ore dressing at the concentration
plants(GEF ?factories). The research was done on the basis of two test samples taken from GEFfactories tales. The GEF-factories use gravitational- metallurgical and gravitational-flotation
technologies. In the course of the research the gold distribution according to size grade and material
constitution of tales from Kommunarovskaya and Artyomovskaya GEF-factories were studied. As a
result the offered processes provide gold extraction from test samples at the level of 74.8 and 81.4 %,
when metal concentration degrees are 27 and 10.
Keywords: agglomeration flocculation, tales, GEF-factories, anthropogenic deposit.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 3 (2011 4) 296-302
~~~
??? 532.614+546.873
Interaction of PbO-based Oxide Melts
with Crucible Materials
Viktor M. Denisov*,
Natalia V. Belousova, Lyubov T. Denisova,
Oksana V. Kuchumova and Galina M. Zeer
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 3.06.2011, received in revised form 10.06.2011, accepted 17.06.2011
Contact interaction of PbO-GeO2 melts with crucible materials (Au, Ag, Al2O3, BeO) was investigated
by sessile drop method. It was found that the contamination of PbO-GeO2 oxides by the components of
these crucibles depended on the initial composition of melts.
Keywords: melt, oxides of lead and germanium, crucible, gold, silver, contact interaction.
Introduction
Lead germanates of variable composition are widely used for different technological
applications due to their physical and chemical properties [1-4]. Functional properties of
these materials depend on conditions of their synthesis and production [5]. Moreover, crucible
materials have also a substantial effect, particularly if oxides are in the liquid state. For example,
the color of the glasses based on heavy metal oxides depends on the crucible type used for
their obtaining [6]. The authors of the last-named work noted that the glasses based on heavy
metal oxides were more corrosive in the liquid state by comparison with other glasses. Hence
a problem of the choice of crucible material arises, as most of these materials are corroded
by liquid glass. As a consequence, the latter is stained resulting in a deterioration of optical
quality and an increase of the scattering losses. According to [6], crucibles of Pt and Au are the
most corrosion-resistant though there are reasons to assume that crucibles of SnO2 can show
the better resistance [7].
Because of this, the study of contact interaction of PbO-GeO2 melts with crucible materials (Au,
Ag, Al2O3, BeO) is of scientific and practical interest.
Results and discussion
?Melt-substrate? contact interaction was investigated by sessile drop method. All experiments
were conducted in air at the separate heating of the sample and the substrate. Photographs of the drops
obtained with a Canon EOC 400 Digital were processed using a computer. Analyses of the solidified
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: antluba@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 296 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
25
T, grad
40
15
20
10
10
5
0
12
200
400
0
600 W, c
c
b
20
30
0
T, grad
a
50
T, grad
T, grad
Viktor M. Denisov, Natalia V. Belousova? Interaction of PbO-based Oxide Melts with Crucible Materials
0
1000
2000
3000 W, c
d
40
9
30
6
20
3
0
0
60
120 180
2000
3000 W, c
10
0
1000
2000
3000 W, c
Fig. 1. Contact interaction of PbO ? GeO2 melts with gold. CPbO, at.%: ? ? 25; b ? 30; c ? 60; d ? 80
drops were carried out using a JEOL JSM 7001F scanning electron microscope and an INCA Energy
PentaFETx3 energy dispersive spectrometer.
The study of interaction of solid gold with PbO-GeO2 melts containing 25; 30; 32,5; 40; 45; 50;
60; 62,5; 66,8; 75; 80; 85; 90 and 100 mol. % of PbO was conducted depending on the time of their
contact. The values of transition temperatures of PbO-GeO2 oxides into the liquid state whereby ?meltsubstrate? contact interaction was investigated were taken from [8-10] but sometimes they were refined
experimentally with the use of a STA 449 C Jupiter differential scanning calorimeter.
Preliminary results showed that PbO-GeO2 melts react readily with crucible of Al2O3. At a high
concentration of PbO in melts, the content of Al2O3 in the solidified samples reaches 3,5 % after the
contact of PbO-GeO2 melts with Al2O3 within 30 min. PbO-GeO2 glasses obtained only in crucibles
of BeO have a rather good quality. Taking it into account, in all subsequent experiments the given
materials were synthesized in these crucibles.
It was found that all PbO-GeO2 melts didn?t form equilibrium angles on the solid gold and a strong
?melt-substrate? adhesion work was observed. As an example, some results on the interaction of PbOGeO2 melts with gold are presented in Fig. 1. The similar data were obtained also for other melts.
The color of all PbO-GeO2 drops regardless of the initial composition is noticed to change after
experiments and to take on greenish tint. It can be a confirmation of the presence of chemical reactions
in the ?melt-substrate? system.
As indicated above, crucible materials can influence the color of resulting glasses of heavy metal
oxides (PbO-GeO2, PbO-TeO2, PbO-Bi2O3-Ga2O3 and so on [6]). Such effect was observed as Bi2O3-SiO2,
Bi2O3-PbO-Ga2O3, Bi2O3-PbO-Ga2O3-GeO2, Bi2O3-GeO2-Li2O were obtained in the crucibles of Pt and
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Fig. 2. Fragment of a solidified drop of 75 mol. % GeO2 ? 25 mol. % PbO alloy after the interaction with gold and
the characteristic spectra of oxygen, germanium, lead and gold
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Fig. 3. Fragment of a solidified drop of 33,2 mol. % GeO2 ? 66,8 mol. % PbO alloy after the interaction with gold
and the characteristic spectra of oxygen, germanium, lead and gold
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?Au, at. %
Viktor M. Denisov, Natalia V. Belousova? Interaction of PbO-based Oxide Melts with Crucible Materials
2,0
1,5
1,0
0,5
0,0
20
30
40
50
60
70 ?PbO, at. %
Fig. 4. The content of gold in PbO ? GeO2 alloys after the contact interaction of melts with the solid substrate
(? = 3600 c)
Au [11]. At the same time Sanz O. et al. [11] emphasize that the color of obtained Bi2O3-based glasses
can be determined by not only the crucible type but also Bi2O3 concentration, melting temperature and
oxygen pressure. They distinguish two different coloration mechanisms of the glasses that can take
place simultaneously: (i) due to the dissolution of Au and Pt nanoparticles from the crucibles, (ii) due to
the segregation of Bi nanoparticles formed by a thermoreduction of Bi2O3. The amount of incorporated
metal increases with the heavy metal oxide content as well as with the temperature in the case of
glasses containing Bi2O3, whereas it decreases with the temperature if PbO is present.
The glasses containing metal nanoparticles of silver and gold were observed to be red in the
transmitted light and green-gray in the reflected one [12].
Characteristic X-ray spectra of fragments of some solidified drops after the contact with gold
were obtained with the use of energy dispersive microanalysis. They correspond to the energy spectra
of gold (Fig. 2 and 3). It can be seen that gold is distributed practically uniformly in the PbO-GeO2
drops. The amount of gold in these drops depends on the melt composition (Fig. 4).
Gold almost doesn?t oxidize and the solubility of oxygen in it is near zero [13]. The authors of [14]
noticed the difficulty of the generation of oxygen forms on the massive gold owing to the high energy
barrier of oxygen adsorption. This allows assuming a physical dissolution of Au in the PbO ? GeO2
melts.
Furthermore, the contact interaction of the PbO ? GeO2 melts (45; 55; 80; 85; 90 and 100 mol. % of
PbO) with solid silver was investigated. At a high concentration of PbO, very fast spread of the drops
over the silver surface is found to take place. The solidified drops of PbO ? GeO2 change color from
translucent (45-55 mol. % of PbO) to deep-brown (80-100 mol. % of PbO).
Conclusions
The contact interaction of the PbO ? GeO2 melts with Au, Ag, Al2O3 and BeO was studied
using sessile drop method. Strong adhesion of these melts to the metal substrates was ascertained.
The (PbO-GeO2)-Al 2O3 interaction is accompanied by the dissolution of solid alumina in the molten
glasses.
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Viktor M. Denisov, Natalia V. Belousova? Interaction of PbO-based Oxide Melts with Crucible Materials
References
1. Bush, A.A. Monocrystals with ferroelectric and related properties in the PbO-GeO2 system
and fields of their possible application / A.A. Bush, Yu.N. Venevtsev. ? ?.: NIITECHIM, 1981. ? 70 p.
(in Russian).
2. Bush, A.A. Heat capacity of ferroelectric crystals of Pb5(Ge1-xSix)3O11 systems / A.A. Bush,
E.A. Popova // F??. ? 2004. ? V. 46. ? ? 5. ? P. 875-880. (in Russian).
3. Rez, I.S. Dielectrics. Primary properties and applications in electronics / I.S. Rez,
Yu.M. Poplavko. ? ?.: Radio i cvyaz?, 1989. ? 288 p. (in Russian).
4. Mikhnevich, V.V. Microstructure and pyroelectric properties of textured glass ceramics of
lead germanate / V.V. Mikhnevich, V.N. Shut // Inorg. mater. (Neorgan. materialy). ? 1992. ? V. ? 28. ?
? 3. ? P. 563-566. (in Russian).
5. Didkovskaya, O.S. Synthesis and investigation of PbGeO3 / O.S. Didkovskaya, V.V. Klimov
// Proc. Acad. Sc. USSR. Inorg. mat. (Izv. AN SSSR. Neorgan. materialy). ? 1980. ? V. -16. ? ? 11. ?
P. 2071-2072. (in Russian).
6. Lezal, D. Heavy metal oxide glasses: preparation and physical properties / D. Lezal,
J. Pedlikova, P. Kostka, J. Bludska, M. Poulain, J. Zavadil // J. Non-Cryst. Solids // 2001. ? V. 294. ?
P. 288-295.
7. Cerri, J.A. Characteristics of PbO-BiO1,5-GaO1,5 glasses melted in SnO2 crucibles / J.A. Cerri,
I.M.G. Santos, E. Longo, E.R. Leite, R.M. Lebullenger, A.C. Hernandes, J.A. Varela // J. Am. Ceram.
Soc. ? 1998. V. 81. ? P. 705-708.
8. Phase diagrams of refractory oxide systems. Reference book. Issue 5. Binary systems. Part 1.
/ Ed. by F.P. Galakhov. ? L.: Nauka, 1985. ? 284 p. (in Russian).
9. Zhereb, V.P. Phase relations at metastable equilibrium in the PbO-GeO2 system / V.P. Zhereb,
V.I. Kirko, L.S. Tarasova, S.M. Markosyan, A.M. Zhizhaev, M.S. El?berg, S.V. Suprunets // J. Inorg.
Chem. ? 2008.-V. 53. ? ? 2. ? P. 356-361 (in Russian).
10. Hasegawa, H. Phase relations and crystallization of glass in the system PbO-GeO2 /
H. Hasegawa, M. Shimada, M. Koizumi // J. Mater. Sci. ? 1973. ? V. 8. ? P. 1725-1730.
11. Sanz, O. Influence of the melting conditions of heavy metal oxide glasses containing bismuth
oxide on their optical absorption / O. Sanz, E. Haro-Poniatowski, J. Gonzalo, J.M. Fernбndes Navarro
// J. Non-Cryst. Solids. ? 2006. ? V. 352. ? P. 761-768.
12. Krutyakov, Yu. A. Synthesis and properties of silver nanoparticles: achievements and
perspectives / Yu. A. Krutyakov, A.A. Kudrinskiy A.Yu. Olenin, G.V. Lisichkin // Progress of chemistry
(Uspekhi khimii). ? 2008. ? V. 77. ? ? 3. ? P. 242-269 (in Russian).
13. Deryabin, A.A. Features of electrocapillary curves in oxide melts / A.A. Deryabin, O.A. Esin,
S.I. Popel? // J. Phys. Chem. ? 1965. ? V. 39. ? ? 4. ? P. 966-972. (in Russian)
14. Stadnichenko, A.I. Oxidation of massive gold surface and investigation of oxygen state in
the composition of oxide layers by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy method / A.I. Stadnichenko,
S.V. Koscheev, A.I. Boronin // Bull. Moscow Univ. (Vest. Mosk. Universiteta). S. 2. Chemistry. ?
2007. ? V. 48. ? ? 6. ? P. 418-426. (in Russian).
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Viktor M. Denisov, Natalia V. Belousova? Interaction of PbO-based Oxide Melts with Crucible Materials
?????????????? ???????? ?????????
?? ?????? PbO ? ?????????? ???????????
?.?. ???????,
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ????????,
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ????
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
?????? 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
??????? ??????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????? PbO-GeO2
? ?????????? ??????????? (Au, Ag, Al2O3, BeO). ???????????, ??? ??????????? ???????
PbO-GeO2 ??????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????????? ??????? ?????????.
???????? ?????: ???????, ?????? ?????? ? ????????, ??????, ??????, ???????, ??????????
??????????????.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 3 (2011 4) 303-309
~~~
??? 539.21:539
Regularities of Formation
of the Ordered Structures
in Refractory Metals at Ion Implantation
Riza B. Abylkalykova
Ludmila I. Kveglis* and Khamza R. Kazdaev
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 3.06.2011, received in revised form 10.06.2011, accepted 17.06.2011
Is shown, that the character of structural ? phase transformations in tungsten and tantalum at ion
implantation by the elements of the interstitial phase is defined, in the main, by the size factor, i.e. by
the ratio of the atomic sizes of implanted elements and atoms of metal. The researches are carried out
on tungsten and tantalum monocrystals at implantation by ions of , N, O, P.
Keywords: Ion implantation, structural ? phase transformations, refractory metals, the size factor, the
Hagg?s rule, close-packed structures, Subsequent annealing, concentration profiles.
The purpose of the research is to study the mechanisms of structural and phase transformations
in superficial layers of transitive metals at ion implantation and further heat treatment. As base
methods of the structure research of irradiated and non-irradiated materials have been used the
approved methods of X-ray-structure analysis with the use of narrow sliding monochromatic
CuK ? -radiation and method of Rutherford backscattering (RBS). The experimental results allow
to make the following conclusions: the basic laws of structural and phase transformations in the
transitive metals (tungsten and tantalum) are established at their implantation by the ions of the
elements which form introduction phases (nitrogen, oxygen and phosphorus); it is revealed that the
mechanism of structural and phase transformations is determined, generally by the dimensional
factor and slightly depends on physical and chemical properties and kinetic parameters of
bombarding elements; it is revealed that the implantation of tungsten and tantalum by oxygen ions
results in formation of highly packed structures which have been identified in the work as W2O
and TaO oxides.
Introduction
Theoretical and experimental researches on ion-beam alloying metals show the great possibilities
of the method of irradiation treatment in modification of the surface properties of materials [1]. Of
particular interest are coatings on refractory metals, obtained by ion implantation. For example,
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: kveglis@list.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Riza B. Abylkalykova and Ludmila I. Kveglis? Regularities of Formation of the Ordered Structures in Refractory Metals?
refractory metals and their alloys, having the greatest resistance to erosion, are among the promising
materials for structural components of fusion reactor (diverter plates, first wall, etc.) [2].
Tungsten has a minimum coefficient of dispersion and has the greatest strength in a wide range
of temperatures. From this it follows that the materials and alloys, modified by method of implant
metallurgy, may be among the first structural materials capable of working in extreme conditions.
Experimental data on ion implantation are rather contradictory. Since the method of ion implantation
is thermodynamically non-equilibrium, synthesized structures can be metastable, as observed in the
experiment. In other methods metastable phases are produced by quenching. Tempering is one of the
ways obtaining metastable state due to rapid cooling of high-temperature phases. Ion synthesis leads
to the emergence along the track of an introduced particle or at its end high-temperature regions,
solidifying at high speed. As a result, can be formed metallic glasses ? metastable phases with a
sTable structural condition. Introduced ions carry with them a high energy, leading to restructuring in
localized areas [3].
For ion synthesis of compounds with certain defined stoichiometry the following conditions
should be satisfied. First, it is getting respective concentrations in the ion-implanted layers, which is
impeded by the processes of sputtering and swelling of the surface layers, which in this case may be
limiting the method used. Secondly, this is accounting of diffusion processes, which in most cases are
beyond the control and you can not save the achieved values of concentration in process of heating to
temperatures of phase transformations.
Many works were carried out only on thin films, whose thickness is comparable with the depth
of alloying impurities. The results obtained on films, may differ from similar data on bulk samples
[4]. In this connection a natural question arises about the possibilities of ion implantation in terms of
synthesis of compounds with a given stoichiometric composition and structure in the surface layers of
materials.
The purpose of work is the study of solid state reactions in the surface layers of bulk samples of
refractory metals by ion implantation and subsequent heat treatment.
Samples and Research Methods
For research on ion doping have been used single-crystal samples of polycrystalline tungsten
and tantalum purity 99.96 %. Tungsten samples were cut on a plane (110) in the form of rectangular
dimensions of 8 Ч 1, 5 Ч 1 mm3, samples of tantalum ? with dimensions of 8 Ч 1, 5 Ч 0,5 mm3. In
order to remove the deformed layers of samples after mechanical treatment they were subjected
to electrochemical polishing. Ion implantation of nitrogen and oxygen with energies of 70 and
80 keV, respectively, was conducted in a vacuum ~ 1,3 Ч 10 -3 Pa at current densities not exceeding
1 mc?Чcm-2. Implantation doses were chosen as follows: 1,87 Ч 1017, 3,74 Ч 1017 and 5,6 Ч 1017
ion/cm 2. The energies of ions were chosen in such a way as to ensure approximately the same
calculated profiles of distribution without spraying. To bring into equilibrium the samples were
thermally annealed in vacuum (6,6 Ч 10 -3 Pa) through the 100 0C in temperature range 500-11000C
with exposure for 1 hour. To study the structure of irradiated and unirradiated materials methods
of X-ray analysis with a narrow beam of monochromatized CuK?-radiation were used. For the
spatial distribution of the implanted impurity the method of Rutherford backscattering was used.
This method is based on the ability to record the difference in energy of particles scattered from
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Riza B. Abylkalykova and Ludmila I. Kveglis? Regularities of Formation of the Ordered Structures in Refractory Metals?
the atoms, which are on the surface and at a certain depth. Experiments were carried out at RBS
protons with energies of 500 keV on the accelerator UKP-2-1, on which the method of Rutherford
backscattering of heavy elements was applied [5].
Experiment
Implantation of nitrogen ions in tungsten led to the emergence of a distinct set of tungsten
X-ray reflections from textured (with traces of polycrystalline) phase of tungsten nitride W2N
with a close-packed FCC lattice. In textured state, it appears already at doses of 1.87 Ч 1017 cm-2
and 3.7 Ч 1017 cm-2 and, with increasing dose up to 5.6 Ч 1017 cm-2 passes in the polycrystalline
state. According to the literature [6], among the known nitride single phase, having a closepacked structure is W2N. Implantation of nitrogen leads to the formation of a phase W2N with
an FCC lattice, although use a set of large doses would be expected appearance WN phases with
higher nitrogen content. Annealing after implantation of tungsten spacemen by oxygen, does not
introduce specific changes in the observed pattern until 900 0C. When this temperature is reached
in the diffraction patterns an additional set of lines from the polycrystalline phase of WO3 with a
hexagonal lattice arises. Subsequent annealing at 1000 0C leads to the decay of WO3 phase and the
appearance instead of it polycrystalline tungsten carbide ?-W2C with a hexagonal lattice. There
is every reason to believe that new phase, formed in process of implantation of oxygen ions, is
a tungsten oxide W2O by analogy with the structure W2N. The lattice parameter of this phase,
as calculated by the weak lines of polycrystalline component amounted to 4.155 ?. According
to the literature [6] WO system is characterized by the presence of a number of oxides WO2 ,
W18O 49 W20 O58, WO3 and etc, among which the structure we found is not present. Annealing at
1100 0C leads to the disappearance of x-ray reflections from the observed phases (see Table 1).
Phase structure W2N, having a face-centred cubic lattice that appears at implantation, during
annealing continues. In process of oxygen implantation phase appears only in the textured state
and remains in that form during annealing. Table 1 shows the main results on the structural-phase
transformations, obtained using X-ray analysis.
Spectra RBS from surface samples of the tungsten implanted by ions of nitrogen and oxygen
(Fig. 1 and 2, accordingly) showed, that concentration of nitrogen and oxygen in investigated layers
reaches certain level. The spectrums of RBS for three samples: initial state, after implantation with a
dose 1.87Ч1017cm-2 and 3.74Ч1017 cm-2 are represented on Fig. 1a. Maximum of a curve of distribution
at Fig. 1 shows that the introduced ions are located (in 2.6 times) more deeply in comparison with
Table 1. Phase transformations in ion-implanted tungsten (r x/rW ? the ratio of atomic size of the implant to the
atomic radius of tungsten)
Ion
?,
keV
N
70
O
80
Phase
Structure
W2N
WO3
W2O
WO3
?- W2C
fcc.
monoclinic
fcc.
hcp.
hcp.
# 305 #
temperature, 0?
formation
decay
at implantation
>1100
900
>1100
at implantation
>1100
900
1000
1000
>1100
r x/rW
0,50
0,43
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Riza B. Abylkalykova and Ludmila I. Kveglis? Regularities of Formation of the Ordered Structures in Refractory Metals?
?)
? Initial state ?
?)
?? 1.87Ч1017 cm-2;
?? 3.74Ч1017 cm-2.
Fig. 1. ?) ? Spectra of a dispersion of backscattering protons from surface W, introduced by ions N+; (b) ? Distribution of the depth of nitrogen in tungsten with a dose 1.87 x 1017cm-2
? Initial state ?
?? 1.87Ч1017 cm-2;
?? 5.6Ч1017 cm-2.
Fig. 2. ?) ? Spectra of a dispersion of backscattering protons from surface W, introduced by ions O+; (b) ? Distribution of the depth of oxygen in tungsten with a dose 3.74Ч1017cm-2
projective value. From character of spectra RBS it is possible to make the conclusion that the reactionary
diffusion occurred as a result of ionic implantation in the areas located in an interval between a surface
zone and a zone, considerably removed from a surface of the sample.
After implantation of nitrogen ions in the diffraction patterns of tantalum appears polycrystalline
phase ? tantalum nitride TaN with a close-packed FCC lattice. Along with this phase the set of weak
lines from carbide of tantalum ??? with a FCC-lattice (?=4.4547 Е) is registered, arising from the
implantation of carbon from the atmosphere of the residual gas of the accelerator.
Annealing at 10000C leads to the formation of a phase Ta2C (a = 3.1046 Е, a = 4.9444 Е), which
arises as a result of partial carbonization of sample surface in an atmosphere of residual gas furnace.
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Riza B. Abylkalykova and Ludmila I. Kveglis? Regularities of Formation of the Ordered Structures in Refractory Metals?
The ratio of atomic size of nitrogen to the atomic radius of tantalum r x/rTa = 0.48. This is consistent
with the Hagg?s rule, according to which, if the ratio of non-metal atomic radius (r nm) to the radius
of the metal (r m) is less than the critical size (~ 0.59), then there are simple structures that constitute
the implementation phase in the lattice of metal atoms [7]. In process of implantation of nitrogen
in samples of tantalum a simple connection with TaN packed with face-centred cubic lattice was
obtained, although at low doses at first appearance Ta2N phase with lower nitrogen content would be
expected. Among the known nitride single phase, having a close-packed structure is the phase TaN.
The maximum distribution of nitrogen in tantalum has a depth of about 190-195 nm, which is 2.7 times
deeper than the calculated data. Thus, the implantation of nitrogen ions in bulk samples of tantalum
has led to the synthesis of polycrystalline phases of TaN and TaC, and in addition to the formation of
polycrystalline phase Ta2C appearing as a result of tantalum surfaces carbidization in an atmosphere
of residual gas furnace.
With the introduction of oxygen ions already at a dose of ?1 = 1.87 Ч 1017cm-2 on X-ray diffraction
picture arise reflexions from a polycrystalline phase with a FCC-lattice (a = 4.24 Е). The quantity of
this phase increases with increase in a dose of implantation. In addition, registered tantalum carbide
TaC with the FCC lattice, are due to recoil implantation method of carbon from the atmosphere of
the residual gas of the accelerator. Subsequent annealing at 8000? led to the formation of phase
?-Ta2S, which is not falling apart in the process of annealing. The ratio of atomic radius of oxygen
to the atomic radius of tantalum r 0/r?? = 0.41. In this case, the intrusion phase is formed with a closepacked FCC lattice, similar in structure and parameters to TaN. In the case of nitrogen the formation
of tantalum carbide in the fi rst case occurs when 1000 0C, whereas in the samples implanted with
oxygen, this process begins at 800 0C. There is every reason to suppose that the phase arising at
implantation of tantalum by ions of oxygen is a tantalum oxide TaO with FCC lattice that is an
analogue of phase TaN, in which the nitrogen atoms are replaced by oxygen atoms. According to
published data system tantalum ? oxygen is characterized by the presence of a number of oxides
(Ta2O5, TaO, TaO2, Ta0,83O2, TaO, Ta0.97O2 and TaOx), among which the structure discovered by us is
not present.
Dose dependence of Rutherford backscattering spectra for samples of tantalum implanted by
nitrogen ions show that the nitrogen concentration in the implanted layers reaches a certain level,
above which there is the process of ousting it in a neighbouring region with a lower concentration.
Concentration profiles of the distribution of oxygen in tantalum are similar to the curves of distribution
of nitrogen in tantalum. Thus, the previously unknown phase obtained by implantation of tantalum
by oxygen ions in certain settings, exposure, identified as tantalum oxide TaO, which is an analogue
of tantalum nitride TaN. Comparison of results on the formation of oxides in this section with the
experimental results of other authors leads to conclusion that the observed phase TaO is synthesized
for the first time by us. Primarily attention is drawn to the fact that the nature of the formation of
compounds with the implantation of different elements depends on the type of ion being implanted. In
the case of nitrogen and oxygen phases occur directly in the process of implantation. This gives rise to
compounds with close-packed structures and represent a high-temperature phase, which under certain
annealing temperatures disintegrate (see Table 2). The introduction of ions is usually accompanied by
the formation of carbides with close-packed structures; nature of proceeding with the implantation
process depends primarily on nuclear size introduced elements. In process of their increase we observe
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Riza B. Abylkalykova and Ludmila I. Kveglis? Regularities of Formation of the Ordered Structures in Refractory Metals?
Table 2. Phase transformations in ion-implanted tantalum (r x / rTa ? the ratio of atomic size of the implant to the
atomic radius of tantalum)
?,
keV
Ion
N
70
O
80
Phase
TaN
???
?-??2?
???
???
?-??2?
Structure
fcc.
fcc.
hcp.
fcc.
fcc.
hcp.
temperature, 0?
formation
decay
at implantation
>1100
at implantation
>1100
1000
>1100
at implantation
>1100
at implantation
>1100
800
>1100
r x/r??
0,48
0,41
either formation of interstitial phases directly during implantation (nitrogen, oxygen), or disordered
investigated layers with subsequent synthesis of the compound only when the temperature exceeds a
certain threshold.
Identified patterns correlate well with the Hagg?s rule, comparing the distinctive features
of the formation of interstitial phases with identified in this study the regularities of structural
and phase transformations during ion implantation may be noted that a decisive role in the
investigated processes during the implantation process is size factor. Indeed, the implantation
of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen in tungsten (??/W=0.55; ?N/W=0.50; ? O/W=0.43) and tantalum
(??/??=0.52; ?N/??=0.48; ? O/??=0.41), simple close-packed structures are formed. In a case of
phosphorus (? ?/W=0.77; ? ?/??=0.74), conforming phosphides are formed only after additional
annealing [7].
Conclusion
If the radius of the atoms of introduced non-metals satisfies the Hagg?s rule, solid solutions or
compounds of implantation, having simple close-packed structures are formed. Particular type
of received phases in terms of stoichiometric composition will be determined largely by reached
concentrations of implanted atoms and the presence of compounds in the relevant phase diagrams.
However, because of the broad areas of homogeneity, the formation of these compounds should be
observed in a relatively large range of doses.
1. With increasing ratio of atomic sizes of implanted elements and the matrix elements are
consistently observed: the formation of superstructures, polymorphic transformation with the
emergence of simple close-packed structures and, finally, the disordering of the lattice of the matrix up
to the amorphization of implanted layers.
2. First synthesized phase W2O and TaO with the FCC lattice. It means, that method of ion
implantation can create a denser structure, and therefore more durable and resistant to damage of
different nature.
3. Ion implantation in tungsten and tantalum is accompanied by the formation of carbides of
tungsten and tantalum with close-packed structures which occur at the expense of implanting carbon
residual gas accelerator.
4. The possibility of forecasting the properties of the irradiated surface due to purposeful
management of solid-phase reaction.
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Riza B. Abylkalykova and Ludmila I. Kveglis? Regularities of Formation of the Ordered Structures in Refractory Metals?
References
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V.A.Gluhih, I.V. Gorynin, B.G.Karasev // ??scow. ? 1983. ? ?. 32-40.
3. Langer, J.S., Lemaitre, A. Dynamic model of super-Arrhenius relaxation rates in glassy
materials, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 (17) (2005) 175701.
4. Kazdaev, Kh. R. Synthesis of connections in the molybdenum implanted by ions of silicon,
phosphorus and sulphur / Kh. R.Kazdaev, ?.?. ?khulakov, ?.?.Bayadilov // Poverhnost: FHM. ?
?8. ? 1990. ? ?. 117.
5. Komarov, F.F. Nondestructive analysis of surfaces of firm bodies ionic bunches / F.F.Komarov,
?.?.Kumahov, I.S.??shlykov // ?insk: The Belarus university. ? 1987. ? ?. 256.
6. JCPDS-International Centre for Diffraction Data. PDF-2 Data Base (Sets 1-51 plus 70-89).
7. Hagg, G. // Z. phys. Chem., 1930, B 6, ?. 221.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 3 (2011 4) 310-325
~~~
??? 533.528+621.74+539.2
Synergy Nanostructuring Carbon Materials Based
on Cavitation Technologies
Liudmila V. Kashkina,
Vladimir A. Kulagin*, Olesya P. Stebeleva,
Dmitry S. Likhachev and Eleonora A. Petrakovskaya
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 3.06.2011, received in revised form 10.06.2011, accepted 17.06.2011
The purpose of the present paper is to obtain new physical properties and to expand a range of
operational properties of various carbon-blacks by using hydrodynamic and thermophysic effects of
cavitation. After the cavitation experiment the wood carbon-black has in part gained some properties
of nanocomposites among which there are fullereniferous and diamond-bearing carbon-blacks. In
this case cavitationally processed wood carbon-blacks can be as an efficient modifying additive in
lubricants, etc
Keywords: cavitation nanotechnology, wood carbon-black, activated carbonaceos materials,
nanocomposites, modifying additives, lubricants.
Introduction
Nanotechnology principles in tribology were realized in the middle of the past century in the
manufacturing of engine oils additives. New opportunities have arisen from obtaining a new carbon
allotropic form?fullerenes. The first foreign publications, and also patents of Japan and the USA
granted in the early 90-s, have proven the fullerenes to be promising as antifrictional coatings, solid
lubricants and lubricating oils additives [1].
Fullerene is a hollow spherical molecule reminding a football and consisting of sixty and more
atoms of carbon. The molecule surface consists of alternating hexagons and pentagons which nodes
have carbon atoms. The molecule diameter is 0.7 nanometers.
Molecules are retained in a crystal by Van der Waals forces considerably determining the
macroscopic properties of solid C60. The fullerene molecules are strong oxidizers because they have
high electro negativity and are capable to bond to themselves up to six unbound electrons. Upon
bonding to themselves the radicals of various chemical nature, the fullerenes are capable to form a
wide class of chemical compounds having various physical and chemical properties [2].
Besides the fullerenes there still are nanotubes ? hollow cylindrical formations from
hexagons having as a rule an end spherical cover including pentagons [3]. The nanotubes result
from extended graphite fragments. The tube diameter is 10-30 ?, and their length is about
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: v.a.kulagin@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Ludmila V. Kashkina, Vladimir A. Kulagin? Synergy Nanostructuring Carbon Materials Based on Cavitation?
Fig. 1. Carbon nanotubes
hundreds of angstroms. The tubes can be multilayer. Vertexes of real tubes are as a rule far from
ideal hemispheres.
The multilayer nanotubes can be ?Russian doll? type and is a collection of single-layered nanotubes
coaxially embedded into each other. Another variety is coaxial prisms coaxially embedded into each
other. A third variety is a roll-type structure [3]. Embodiment of a particular nanotube structure is
determined by its synthesis conditions. The presence of defects in a nanotube result in corrugating its
layers. If some pentagons and heptagons are implanted into a tube surface, then this makes the tube
protuberant and concave bends respectively. The tubes become bent and spiral, Fig. 1.
Fullereniferous carbon-black is obtained by pulverizing the carbon anode in arc plasma in the
atmosphere of inert gas (Hafman-Krechmer method). The pulverization products settle on chilled
walls of the chamber and primarily on the cathode surface. The fullerene percentage in the carbonblack is approximately up to 10-12 %.
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Ludmila V. Kashkina, Vladimir A. Kulagin? Synergy Nanostructuring Carbon Materials Based on Cavitation?
Fig. 2. The structure of most widely known fulleriods: 1 ? ?60 fullerene, 2 ? ?70 fullerene, 3 ? single-shell nanotube, 4 ? multi-shell nanotube, 5 ? multilayer polyhedral nanoparticle ? astralene
The fullerenes in fullereniferous carbon-black can be both as fullerite and in disordered state.
The investigations of the fullerenes and fullereniferous carbon-black by the method of small-angle and
wide-angle X-ray patterns point to the presence of both the ?60 crystallites of size ~20-25 nanometers
and graphite crystallites of size 2-3 nanometers in an amorphous matrix. Besides the ?60 crystallites
conglomerates, there are also present conglomerates of ?60 two molecules (dimers) [4].
The cathode precipitate is a composite agglomerate which central friable part has up to 10 % of
nanotube mass, but which more consistent crust has mostly fully-variable polyhedral carbon multilayer
nanostructures of fulleroid type which are called astralenes [5]. Fig. 2 gives the view of astralenes.
The multistage process of formation of fullerenes and fullereniferous carbon-black can be
described as follows [6]. In the discharge active zone where the electric current flows, the plasma
temperature is so high that there are only carbon atoms and ions in this zone. In the motion process
from the discharge axis to the chamber wall the plasma temperature decreases and there initially starts
transformation of ?2 molecules, chains, rings and multiple-ring systems (Fig. 3). Then there are formed
fullerene and carbon-black particles.
In the following stage there occurs integrating of fullerenes and carbon compounds of small size
into associates ? zones with increased density of fullerenes.
The associates start to be shaped into nanoclusters as the move away from the fan-like plasma
jet zone. Their aggregates and macroparticles of carbon-black are further generated. Probably, the
formation of black wood is similar to the process of formation of fullerene-containing soot. Formation
of soot globules up to 200 nm, which are then combined into associates, Fig. 4.
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Ludmila V. Kashkina, Vladimir A. Kulagin? Synergy Nanostructuring Carbon Materials Based on Cavitation?
Fig. 3. Diagram of fullereniferous carbon-black formation
In B. M. Ginzburg?s et al. works, there was investigated some effect of small additives of ?60
fullerene and fullereniferous carbon-black on tribological properties of various lubricants. In doing so,
it was shown that considerably lower-cost fullerene carbon- black takes practically the same effect as
pure fullerene. So [7] displayed decreasing wear of steel and copper surface friction in the presence
of fullerenes in the lubricant. The value of the parameter describing the surface optimization lessens,
in case of copper, and gets near the reference standard value describing a minimal wear. In units with
dry friction of steel on steel, the expediency of employing fullerenes as additives to lubrications is
recognized by the [8] authors only in case of low pressures.
A number of works [9, 11] is devoted to the effect of fullerene carbon-black additives in polymers.
And the presence of fullerene additives imparts nanocomposite properties to the samples under study.
In [11] they studied the effect of fullerenes on fluoroplastics wear out of pressure and found 30 %
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Ludmila V. Kashkina, Vladimir A. Kulagin? Synergy Nanostructuring Carbon Materials Based on Cavitation?
Fig. 4. The original wood soot. Electron microscope JEOL JEM-X 2100.Uvelichenie x30000
?)
b)
c)
Fig. 5. Diagram of the crack extension across a polymer matrix modified with ?60 molecules. ? ? initial stage,
b ? covalent bonds formation and partial retraction of a ?60 molecule into the microcrack, c ? complete retraction
of the ?60 molecule into the microcrack
increase of load-bearing at introducing 1 % of fullereniferous carbon-black. Thus it is shown that
considerably lower-cost fullerene carbon-black takes practically the same effect as pure fullerene.
There has been made the following conclusion: the role of fullerene comes to the initiation of processes
of tribopolymerization of hydrocarbons which are in mineral oils and the formation of a protective
polymer film on friction surface.
In work [11] they suggested a hypothetical mechanism of hardening effect of fullerene
carbon-black at friction. The electron shells of fulleroids are characterized by the presence of a
great quantity of delocalized ?-conjugate electrons. A mechanical destruction of polymer chains
is effected under mechanical destruction of the polymers in the mouth of generated microcracks.
Apparently an analogous process takes place in the mouths of numerous microcracks resulting in
wear particles formation. Fig. 5 gives a diagram of the crack extension reaching the ?60 molecule
(or small conglomerate). Free polymeric radicals concentrate on the microcrack surface (Fig. 5 ?).
Some of them having reached the fullerene surface, forms with fullerene. On further increasing the
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Ludmila V. Kashkina, Vladimir A. Kulagin? Synergy Nanostructuring Carbon Materials Based on Cavitation?
forces that open the crack, these bonds split and there occurs retracting a ?60 molecule (or aggregate
of molecules) into the microcrack (Fig. 5 b), going with generation of a greater number of new
covalent bonds of polymeric radicals with fullerene that fi nally results in «healing» the microcrack
(Fig. 5 c).
There has been made the following conclusion: the role of fullerene comes to the initiation of
processes of tribopolymerization of naphthene and paraffin oligomers which are in mineral oils and the
formation of a protective polymer film on friction surface (a molecular bearing).
In the recent years there are made attempts of creating so-called friction geomodifiers ? additives
created on the basis of natural materials or nanoparticles, or both, which take effect both on tribological
properties of a lubricant and on the structure and properties of the solid surfaces participating in
friction In [12] there are effects of using new dry-lubricant mixture including silicate minerals of layer
structure and surface-active nanoparticles present in initial carbon-black obtained in an electric arc of
electrolysis electrodes. It has made for reducing the friction coefficient and increasing wear resistance
of friction units, cutting power costs and improving vibronoise features of support structures of
mechanisms and machines. It is known that some minerals of layer structure (such as mica, kaoline
clay, graphite, etc.) are widely used as thickening and wear-proof additives [13]. Their positive effect is
caused by ability of these minerals to form thin films on friction surfaces consisting of flake particles
oriented parallel to fiction surface.
At introducing ultradisperse powders of diamond-graphite into greases, the friction coefficient
decreases by 14-40 % and in some cases up to 60 % depending on the basic grease. Properties and the
role of such powders in a grease are still under studying [10].
The purpose of the present paper is to obtain new physical properties and to expand a range of
operational properties of various carbon-blacks by using hydrodynamic and thermophysic effects of
cavitation. The technique of hydrodynamic effect is given in detail in [14-16].
Research methodologies
Conducted short-term treatment of cavitation water suspensions with a concentration of blacks
from 10 -3 to 10 -2 wt. %. Experiments were performed with cuneiform cavitator (the vertex angle of
the wedge was 60є) at room temperature. The magnitude of rotor revolutions varied from 5000 up to
20000 rpm. Processing time was up to 2 min.
After the experiment, slurry was poured into a Petri dish and defended at room temperature until
complete evaporation of water. Dried sediments were studied. In the process of cavitation, an increase
in temperature of the water suspension (at 10-50 °C) depending on the speed and time of rotation of
the rotor.
The principal problem in the cavitation motion pattern is determining the impact pressure in
fluid at the moment of the vapor bubble collapse. The Rayleigh equation and its solution for collapsing
spherical cavity in perfect liquid is as follows:
T
1 3 U1
§5 1·
a0 B Ё , ё ,
3 2 'p
©6 2№
(1)
where ? ? is the time of collapsing the spherical cavity, ?1 is fluid density, ?p ? is non-equilibrium
pressure differential, ?0 ? is the initial radius of sphere, ? (?, ?) ? is beta function.
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After the collapse of a bubbler the kinetic energy also becomes equal to null, however, under the
energy conservation law it does not disappear completely but is conversed to elastic energy of some
fluid macrovolume as a result of a hydraulic impact. Calculations show, e.g., that for a bubbler with an
initial radius ? = 1 mm in collapsing there is a hydraulic impact ? = 3.12·108 P? = 3120 atm.
The non-equilibrium structure that has emerged as a result of a hydraulic impact, generates a
shock wave which front pressure diminishes under the law:
P?? r Pmax
a*2
.
r2
where ?* ? is the initial radius of a bubble.
Already within 10 ?* distances from the centre of a collapsed bubble the pressure at the front
sharply drops down to 3 atm and becomes safe from the point of view of cavitation erosion. Thus the
bubbles collapsed near the cavitating surface, have the greatest destroying effect. At the first stage of
bubble collapse all other forces ? viscous friction, surface-tension and pressure ? are less powerful
than inertial forces and are continuously increasing due to magnification of velocity and the decreasing
of the bubble radius. At the second stage the viscous friction force which is proportional to interphase
boundary velocity, starts increasing as well as the surface tension force does to a lesser degree. Perhaps
because of energy dissipation, there occurs the heating of fluid surface layer that causes intensive water
evaporation in a bubble and hydraulic impact lessening at the last stage of the bubble collapse. The
vicinity around the bubble after «collapse» can be considered as plasma. Indeed, when the collapses in
a local volume, then there are formed fields of high pressure (up to 2000 MPa) near and inside it. The
interphase boundary velocity at the cavitation microbubble collapse can attain 500 m/s and depends on
its radius. The collapse of the bubble adiabatically occurs within submicroseconds and the temperature
therewith rises up to 103-104 K.
The mechanism of cavitation processing effect is caused by spatial pictures of relief-compression
waves as a result of cavitation bubbles collapse. As this takes place, there emerge rapidly changing
fields of high pressures and temperatures and also some turbulent microstreams causing the medium
micromixing [14, 15].
In the manufacture of composite materials the cavitation effect (the erosive destruction mechanism
and intensive turbulent micromixing) makes for obtaining high-dispersion substrata and mixtures.
Studying the performance of carbon systems including various carbon-blacks under the external
effects such as cavitation, electrohydraulic discharge, etc., is rather urgent on account of their wide
industrial application.
The experiment has been performed on the following types of carbon-blacks:
? fullereniferous carbon-black obtained by a plasma-arc process of graphite rods evaporation
in discharged helium atmosphere (manufactured by the Open Joint-Stock Corporation «New
Tech Product», St. Petersburg). Two samples have been studied. The ?60 fullerene content was
wt. 11 % and wt. 0.1 %;
? diamond-bearing carbon-black;
? wood carbon-black.
Cavitation processing was carried out on carbon-black water suspensions (5 mg of carbonblack per 100 ml of water; 58.5 mg of carbon-black per 100 ml of water). The rotor rotation
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Ludmila V. Kashkina, Vladimir A. Kulagin? Synergy Nanostructuring Carbon Materials Based on Cavitation?
speed in the cavitation mixer was from 5000 up to 20000 rpm, the time of processing was 1-2
minutes. In the cavitation process there was water suspension temperature rise (by 10-50°?)
depending on speed and time of the rotor rotation. The time of suspensions sedimentation was
long enough.
Interpretation and discussion of research results
After the experiment a part of the suspension was poured out into a Petri dish and settled until
complete evaporation of water at room temperature. The samples elemental source composition was
determined by the Bruker X-ray fluorescent spectrometer S-4 Pioneer which accuracy is not worse
than 0.001 % depending on the element. The samples composition of fullereniferous carbon-black is
presented in the Table 1.
The major portion of fullereniferous carbon-black samples is carbon (99.92 %). Nevertheless, there
are also small amounts of paramagnetic impurities (nickel, iron, zinc, copper, cobalt). Composition of
samples of wood soot are shown in Table 2, which shows that the sample of 94.58 % consists of carbon,
and the remaining 5 % are impurities.
The X-ray phase analysis spectra have shown (Figs. 6-8) that in the initial carbon-blacks there is a
considerable amount of impurities (iron oxides, copper oxides, various aluminum silicates). The shape
of the X-ray phase analysis spectrum changes after the cavitation effect (Fig. 9)
The wide shape of a spectrum indicates that there has occurred additional dispersion in the sample
in spite of the fact that it already had nanostructures as diamond nanoparticles.
Table 1
The fullerene
concentration
0.1 wt. %
99.92
0.0059
0.0024
0.0012
0.018
0.003
0.015
0.018
?
Na
Mg
Al
Si
P
S
Cl
The fullerene
concentration
11 wt. %
99.92
0.0071
0.0016
0.0041
0.019
0.0015
0.013
0.022
The fullerene
concentration
0.1 wt. %
The fullerene
concentration
11 wt. %
0.0033
Ca
Cr
Fe
Co
Ni
Cu
Zn
0.0012
0.0033
0.0006
0.002
0.0036
0.003
0.0028
0.0018
0.0039
0.0028
Table 2
Wood carbon-black, wt. %
?
Na
Mg
Al
Ca
94.58
0.1
0.18
0.382
0.1
Wood carbon-black, wt. %
Cr
Fe
Co
Ni
Cu
Zn
0.356
0.11
0.373
0.639
3.001
0.0759
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Fig. 6. X-ray phase analysis spectrum of diamondbearing carbon-black
h
l i
Fig. 7. X-ray phase analysis spectrum of wood carbonblack
f f ll
if
b
Fig. 8. X-ray phase analysis spectrum of fullereniferous carbon-black with 11 wt. % fullerene content
Fig. 9. X-ray phase analysis spectrum of diamond-bearing carbon-black after cavitation
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Ludmila V. Kashkina, Vladimir A. Kulagin? Synergy Nanostructuring Carbon Materials Based on Cavitation?
?
Fig. 10. A carbon-black particle. 1400?
microscope magnification
Fig. 11.
particle
A
fullereniferous
carbon-black
Characteristic optical images of sediments for all types of investigated carbon-blacks are
presented in Figs. 10-13. The shape of a sediment is compared to that of the nanotubes described in
the literature [3].
At low magnification fullerene soot is qualitatively similar to conventional carbon black
(Figs.10-11).
Sediments of all carbon-blacks after cavitation, in addition show evidence of generated
macroparticles and molecular aggregates in the shape of various straight and bent tubular structures
intertwined and bent bundles (Figs. 11-14). There are also aggregates in the shape of chains which
thickness uniformly changes their full length. The molecular aggregates that are observable in the
experiment and the nanotubes described in the literature, are similar in their shape but differ by 3-4
orders lengthwise, by 2 orders in diameter. The bending angle of molecular formations is 180? as
it is seen in the presented Figures. This property is inherent in the nanotubes which are not only
considerably durable but also flexible.
Nanotubes images
(reference data)
Optical macroimages of the carbon-black
sediment after cavitation
b)
?)
Fig. 12. ?) Mace-like nanotubes with a periodic movement of the wall thickness; b) Tubular molecule aggregates.
100? microscope magnification
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Nanotubes images
(reference data)
Optical macroimages of the carbon-black
sediment after cavitation
?)
b)
Fig. 13. ?) Nanotubes covered with a layer of amorphous carbon (reference data); b) Tubular molecule aggregates.
100? microscope magnification
Nanotubes images
(reference data)
Optical macroimages of the carbon-black
sediment after cavitation
?)
b)
Fig. 14. ?) Nanotubes covered with graphite flakes; b) Tubular molecule aggregates. 100 microscope
magnification
?
?)
b)
Fig. 15. Tubular molecule aggregates in fullereniferous carbon-black (11 wt. % ?60) after cavitation 15000 rpm.
Microscope magnification ?) 2800?, b) 1400?
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Ludmila V. Kashkina, Vladimir A. Kulagin? Synergy Nanostructuring Carbon Materials Based on Cavitation?
Molecular aggregation of carbon-black particles after cavitation in the shape near to that
of nanotubes, is seen in the sediments of all carbon-blacks. At the same time and under the same
parameters of the cavitation experiment (cavitator rotation speed, duration of rotation), the chain
molecular aggregates in the sediments of wood carbon-black are detected in smaller quantities than in
the sediments of fullereniferous and diamond-bearing carbon-blacks (Fig. 15).
The electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) was carried out on the EPR spectrometer S?/X2544. The resonance was observed on a frequency of ? = 9 GHz (wave length ? = 3 cm). The spectrum
shape of the EPR fullereniferous carbon-black (11 wt. % ?60) is given in Fig. 16.
The EPR spectra shape changed after the cavitation processing. Fig. 17 gives a spectrum of the
EPR fullereniferous carbon-black (11 wt. % ?60) after processing in the cavitation mixer at the angular
speed of rotor rotation 20000 rpm. during 50 sec.
At 293 K the spectrum of EPR consists of a central narrow line and a wide line. The wide line
is caused by the presence of iron oxide and as it is supported by the fact that at 77 K we can see
this line diminish its intensity and its broadening occurs. It can be connected with the presence of
superparamagnetic particles in the sample. As a result of the cavitation effect, large paramagnetic
particles of iron implement superparamagnetic transition. It is indicative of not only changing the
shape of the EPR line but also of reducing the g-factor from 3 up to 2.26.
Fig. 18 illustrates a spectrum of the EPR of the same sample after simple rotation in a mixer
(without a cavitator) at an angular speed of rotation 20000 rpm. The EPR spectra presented in Figs. 17
and 18 are of different shape which is indicative of an important change of fullereniferous carbon-black
structure under the cavitation effect.
The analysis of the EPR of the spectrum of initial diamond-bearing carbon-black presented in Fig.
19 has shown that at cooling a sample down to the temperature of liquid nitrogen (77 ?) the line of a
radical broadens which is typical for nanostructural formations, among them, diamond nanoparticles.
After the cavitation effect the line of the radical vanishes (Fig. 20). The vanishment of the line of the
radical in the EPR spectrum can follow the initial structure destruction and shaping a new structure.
Fig. 16. Spectrum of the EPR initial carbon-black with 11 % ?60 content
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Ludmila V. Kashkina, Vladimir A. Kulagin? Synergy Nanostructuring Carbon Materials Based on Cavitation?
Fig. 17. Spectrum of the EPR carbon-black (11 wt. % ?60). Rotor rotation speed 20000 rpm. Mixing with the
cavitator
Fig. 18. Spectrum of the EPR carbon-black (11 wt. % ?60). Rotor rotation speed 20000 rpm. Mixing without the
cavitator
This assumption is supported by the X-ray phase analysis and optical microscopy data above, i.e. after
cavitation there has occurred additional dispesion of powder already containing nanostructures.
Fig. 21 and 22 shows the EPR spectra of wood soot. The shape of the EPR spectra at kavitatsiolnnoy
treatment varies similarly diamond soot. There is a broadening of the line, changing the g-factor.
Summary and Conclusions
As mentioned above, the cavitation experiment was carried out with two types of carbon-blacks: those
that showed themselves very well in solving tribological problems (fullereniferous and diamond-bearing)
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Fig. 19. The EPR spectrum of diamond-bearing carbon-black
Fig. 20. The EPR spectrum of diamond-bearing carbon-black after cavitation processing
Fig. 21. The EPR spectrum of wood carbon-black
Fig. 22. The EPR spectrum of wood carbon-black after
cavitation processing
[1, 7-10, 13] and the carbon-black that was not studied yet (wood carbon-black). As a result of the there have been
obtained suspensions of all the carbon-blacks with long sedimentation time that points to their
significant dispersion [16]. A molecular aggregation of carbon-black particles which is identical in the
shape to nanotubes was observed in the dried sediments of all the carbon-blacks.
There is intense cavitation effect on the electronic structure of the samples. Time of sedimentation
of suspensions treated with soot dramatically increased. So for cavitation-treated fullerene soot
sedimentation time was about 6 months, for wood soot ? more than 2 months. These values are much
higher since the initial sedimentation of carbon black suspensions.
It may be concluded that after the cavitation experiment the wood carbon-black has in
part gained some properties of nanocomposites among which there are fullereniferous and
diamond-bearing carbon-blacks. Hence, an opportunity has appeared to use it for solving various
tribological problems instead of expensive fullereniferous and diamond-bearing carbon-blacks. In
this case cavitationally processed wood carbon-blacks can be as an efficient modifying additive
in lubricants, etc.
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References
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11. Ginzburg, B. M. On mechanisms of wear strength magnification of composites on the base
of polytetrafluoroethylene doped with fullerene carbon-black / B. M. Ginzburg, D. G. Tochilnikov,
A. A. Shepelevsky, et al. // Letters to the Journal of Theoretical Physics. 2007. ? V. 33. ? ? 20. ? P. 88-94.
12. Yakhyev, N. Ya. Lubricating composition for improving tribologic features of a lubricant /
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G. V. Logvinovich. ? Krasnoyarsk: KGU Publishing House, 1990. ? 200 p.
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Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 1 (2008) 76 ? 85.
# 324 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Ludmila V. Kashkina, Vladimir A. Kulagin? Synergy Nanostructuring Carbon Materials Based on Cavitation?
16. Kashkina, L. V. Study the Effects of Cavitation Dispersion of Doping Solid Materials /
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The article is published with the support of the Program of Development of the Siberian Federal
University.
The electron-microscopy investigations were carried out in the Joint Center of Siberian Federal
University.
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????????? ??????????? ???????????,
?????? 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????,79
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?????????- ? ???????????????? ???.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 3 (2011 4) 326-336
~~~
??? 629.78; 630.52:587/588
Technology for Monitoring and Inventory
of Forest Resources Based on Laser Location,
Digital Aerial Photography
and Satellite Geopositioning
Igor M. Danilina* and Eugene M. Medvedevb
a
V.N. Sukachev Institute of Forest,
Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch,
50/28 Academgorodok, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russia
b
Altex Geomatica,
2/1 Ugreshskaya st., Moscow, 115088 Russia 1
Received 3.06.2011, received in revised form 10.06.2011, accepted 17.06.2011
The use of the newest methods and technologies of airborne laser location, high resolution digital
photography and the global positioning satellite systems, provides principally new opportunities
for remote sensing monitoring and inventory of forest resources. High efficiency of laser location
(more than 200 thousand pulses/measurements per second) in combination with centimeter spatial
resolution of digital aerial photography, high (about 10-15 cm) accuracy for coordinate definition
of trees? and tree stands? morphostructural parameters by satellite geopositioning systems, as
well as three-dimensional visualization of the remote sensing data at geoinformation systems,
allows to developing effective algorithms for research of forest resources? structure and dynamics,
guaranteeing a real time automatic extraction of forest inventory parameters. Development and
application of such high-end technologies to aerospace forest monitoring is critical and essential
for boreal zone and, in particular, for regions of Siberia, where traditional approaches of forest
inventory to be used today are not effective, do not provide required accuracy and are highly timeand funds consuming.
Keywords: laser location, digital aerial photography, satellite geopositioning, monitoring and
inventory of forest resources.
Introduction
Securing reliable and efficient information about status and dynamics of forest lands at the
contemporary practice of forest use and monitoring, is an urgent problem, considering natural resources
as well as environmental and nature protection points of view.
In solving this problem in many countries of the world as well as in Russia at present time more
actively is in use laser location, digital aerial photography and satellite geopositioning, which are
major constituting part of geomatics ? the newest integral direction for development of remote sensing
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: danilin@ksc.krasn.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 326 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Igor M. Danilin and Eugene M. Medvedev. Technology for Monitoring and Inventory of Forest Resources Based?
methods of the Earth (aerial- and space survey), geoinformation technologies, digital photogrammetry,
cartography and telecommunications.
Those advanced and highly effective methods today find wide application in many branches of
economy, in fact being information basis for ecological monitoring, systems of gathering, processing
and data analysis systems, land- and forest planning, cadastre of natural resources and by accuracy and
economical efficiency exceeds the other methods of studying and measuring parameters of the earth
cover and natural systems [4-20, 22-24].
Intensively developing laser scanning of forest resources in Scandinavian countries shows high
efficiency of laser technology for national inventory, accurate prediction of the basic forest statistics,
identifying species of individual trees with generating 3D surface and vegetation models [12, 13, 16,
17, 23].
Several experimental works had been successfully implemented in North America confirming
great challenges for estimating tree height via LiDAR in closed-canopy forests, regional boreal
forest canopy and landscape attribute estimation, land use change and biomass characterization in
combination with the use of satellite imagery [10, 19, 20, 24].
An applicable lidar-based approach integrated with aerial photos to estimate the stem volume of
alpine forest stands in Austria and Germany has been recently completed, conforming near on ground
instrumental accuracy on getting basic forest biometrics [11, 22].
The recent findings on airborne lidar and digital photo data processing and information extraction
using mathematic filtering and morphological methods shows optimistic prospects for automatization
of the data processing and laser scenes? thematic interpretation and mapping [1-3, 8, 9, 14].
Methods and technologies
The high-end aviation laser location, digital photographic and satellite geopositioning systems
and technologies intensively develops and as of today have a laser scanning frequency more than 200
thousand pulses (measurements) per second (Fig. 1).
The highest density for laser scanning pulses makes up 1 pulse per 5?7 cm on the surface, with
accuracy for measuring geometric parameters of the ground objects and vegetation morphostructural
elements at plan and profile projections at about ±5?10 ?m. Accuracy for satellite positioning of lines
and forest compartment edges, sample plots, separate trees and morphostructural elements of their
stems and crowns, including under crown space, practically is not limited and depends on technical
parameters of the GPS/GLONASS instruments [1, 14, 15] (Fig. 2, 3).
Tools for spatial and detailed displaying contours and relief of the terrain, vegetation and base for
preliminary tracing routs for laser and digital aerial photography, satellite scenes gotten by modern
optical-electronic systems as: Landsat, Resurs-DK, Ikonos, OrbView-3, WorldView-2, GeoEye-1 or
other systems of high- and ultrahigh resolution, interpreted by main parameters of vegetation cover
might be in use [4-6, 14, 20, 24].
And with it, structure, volumetric tree- and tree stand indices, phytomass more reliably
and precisely are determined by laser-location data («laser portraits»), integrated with digital
geotransformed aerial photographs, based on digital terrain models (DTM) and forest canopy field
patterns, which are generated from the initial laser location data by filtering (separating) laser pulses,
reflected from the ground surface and vegetation, by means of the ground pulses? interpolation with
# 327 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Igor M. Danilin and Eugene M. Medvedev. Technology for Monitoring and Inventory of Forest Resources Based?
a
b
c
Fig. 1. Technical devices and components for technology of forest monitoring based on laser location and digital aerial photography: (a) universal aerial surveying laser topographic system Optech ALTM 3100 ? supplies
laser-location data. Purpose: Digital Terrain Models, contour?s allocation, data interpretation; (b) large-format
digital photogrammetric aerial camera Vexcel UltraCamXp ? supplies digital aerial photographs with ultrahigh
(centimetre) resolution. Purpose: traditional; (c) system for direct geopositioning and orientation of aerial photography sensors Applanix POSAV ? supplies elements for external orientation of digital aerial photographs and
laser-location data. Purpose: direct geopositioning (geoaffixment)
Fig. 2. The principle of laser location, digital aerial photography and satellite geopositioning
the following triangulation of pulses reflected from vegetation in systems of differential satellite
positioning GPS, GLONASS [1, 14]. With processing and analyzing laser-location data and digital
aerial photographs mathematic morphology methods and concept of set- and fuzzy set theory are in
use [2-4, 14, 21].
Digital (laser-location) terrain and vegetation model allows to getting detailed coordinates and
morphostructural characteristics of the relief and tree stands by means of three-dimensional computer
graphics and visualization with the use of Altexis 2.0, ArcView Spatial & 3D Analyst software [1, 2,
4, 14] (Fig. 4, 5).
# 328 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Fig. 3. Layout drawing for onboard placement laser location, digital photography and GPS devices and instruments.
a
b
Fig. 4. Three-dimensional visualization of forest vegetation (a) and relief of the terrain under tree canopy (b) by
laser-location data
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Igor M. Danilin and Eugene M. Medvedev. Technology for Monitoring and Inventory of Forest Resources Based?
Fig. 5. Digital polygonal model of larch stand, generated by laser-location data
Results and discussion
In some works implemented earlier in Russia and in the other countries [4-14, 16-20, 22-24],
it had been shown that accuracy of timber stock and forest biomass estimation, as well as by aerial
survey methods, is possible to increase up to 5?7 % with the use of morphological classification and
allometric correlation between tree biometrics.
Our research, completed at Krasnoyarsk territory, shows that more adequately and effectively
structure of ground surface and vegetation cover with the use of DTM, generated by laser location
and digital aerial photography, are identifying by characteristics of a tree distribution lines of the
main morphometric indices ? diameter and height, vertical and horizontal crown extent, which by
turn are closely intercorrelated. And with it, volumetric and weight tree- and tree stand parameters
are approximated with high accuracy by allometric functions through their morphometric indices
(Fig. 6-8, Table 1).
It?s generally known, that construction of a tree distribution lines by their morphometric indices
traditionally supposes completing time- and labor-consuming ground biometric procedures, measuring
operations and tree recalculations (continuous or selective), which one requires substantial financial
expenditures. At the same time, laser location method combined with digital aerial photography,
satellite geopositioning and integrated to geoinformation systems (Fig. 9, 10) allows to performing
pixel instrumental-measuring forest inventory based on precision satellite geodesy and detailed
topographic survey, to study forest cover dynamics, horizontal and vertical structure of a tree stands,
to reconstruct tree line distributions by any morphometric indicators, and to calculate required forest
inventory parameters and forest biomass automatically, with high accuracy at large areas (up to 500?
700 square km per one working day).
Assessment of timber stock and forest phytomass by laser location and digital aerial photography
data at every case study brings to identification of base regulations for the forest compartments and
to determination of correlations between tree stem volumes, tree- and crown height and diameter,
# 330 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Fig. 6. Digital reconstruction of larch stand?s morphological structure, implemented by laser location data
30
60
20
40
20
N (items)
30
N (items)
N (items)
40
10
20
10
0
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
D 1.3 (cm )
H (m )
0
1
2
3
4
3
4
D cr. (m )
0,025
40
30
0,020
20
10
30
G (m 2)
N (items)
N (items)
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
20
10
1
2
3
4
5
L cr. (m )
6
7
8
0,010
0,005
0,000
0
0
0,015
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
2
Scr. (m )
0
1
2
D cr. (m )
Fig. 7. Distribution of larch trees by morphometric indices of stems and crowns (?), approximated by Weibull
function (?): N ? number of trees; D1.3 ? tree stem diameter 1.3 m above its base; H ? tree height; Dcr. ? tree crown
diameter; Lcr. ? tree crown length; Scr. ? tree crown area; G ? tree stem cross sectional area 1.3 m above its base
(G f (Dcr.))
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
D1. 3
H
Dcr.
Lcr.
S cr.
Fig. 8. Overlap matrix for distribution histogram and correlated scattering of the main morphometric indices of
larch tree stand
Table. Regression coefficients for morphometric indices and phytomass of larch trees
Model of approximation:
Parameters for the equation:
P = aD21.3 H
P = aD2cr. H
a
S
R
0.029
0.0203
0.017
0.004
0.008
0.003
0.002
0.0001
0.003
0.001
0.505
0.055
0.037
0.008
0.258
0.068
0.021
0.000
0.089
0.002
0.996
0.999
0.999
0.996
0.976
0.940
0.969
0.873
0.917
0.987
2
a
S
R2
0.266
0.187
0.153
0.034
0.079
0.024
0.020
0.0001
0.024
0.009
2.122
1.750
1.452
0.307
0.427
0.217
0.272
0.005
0.074
0.110
0.964
0.951
0.950
0.951
0.983
0.959
0.892
0.966
0.995
0.918
Dependent variable:
Above ground part of a tree
Stem
Timber
Bark
Crown
Branches Ш > 1 cm
Branches Ш < 1 cm
Shoots of current year
Needle
Dead branches
where, P ? phytomass at absolutely dry condition, kg; D1.3 ? tree stem diameter 1.3 m above its base, cm; H ? tree
height, m; Dcr. ? crown diameter, m; a ? constant for the equation; S ? standard error for the equation; R2 ? index
of determination.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Fig. 9. Combined visualization and processing of laser location and aerial digital photograpy data at Altexis 2.0
working window
Fig. 10. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional GIS-mapping of the surveyed terrain by laser location and
digital aerial photography
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Igor M. Danilin and Eugene M. Medvedev. Technology for Monitoring and Inventory of Forest Resources Based?
and phytomass, which one constitutes 87?99 % variability for different phytomass fractions ? stems,
crown skeleton and needle [4, 14].
Conclusion
Results of the practical approbation of aviation laser location technology combined with digital
aerial photography and satellite geopositioning, integrated to geoinformation systems, give us an
evidence for its high availability for the purpose of forest cover and disturbance analysis and simulation,
an inventory, on-line ecological monitoring, information securing cadastre of forest lands and forest
use control. This high-tech effective method provides remote sensing evaluation of forest resources,
their status and dynamics, minimizing field works and significant saving time and financial funds. Cost
efficiency of the technology is ensured by principal increasing accuracy of the measurement results
and a possibility of their repetition (verification), significant lowering of the job implementation labourintensiveness and complexity (as for a filed one, as well as for laboratory interpretation), at the expense
of high level of automation getting and processing laser location and digital aerial photography data.
Amount of a field works is minimized with it and needs only calibration of laser location results and
maintenance of aerial photography data interactive interpretation.
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Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Igor M. Danilin and Eugene M. Medvedev. Technology for Monitoring and Inventory of Forest Resources Based?
?????????? ??????????? ? ??????????????
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?????? ????????. ??????? ????????????? ???????? ??????? (????? 200 ????? ?????????/
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 3 (2011 4) 337-347
~~~
??? 629.7.042.2.001.24:622.998
????????????????-????????????? ????????????
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?.?. ????????*
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?????? 630051, ???????????, ??. ?????????, 21 1
Received 3.06.2011, received in revised form 10.06.2011, accepted 17.06.2011
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????????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????. ?????????????? ?????? ??????????
???????????? ??????????????????? ?????? ? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ??????
?????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????????????? ??????? ? ????????????
???????????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????,
????????? ????????????, ??????? ? ???????? ????????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ?????????
??????.
??? ??????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ???
?????????????????? ??????? ???????????????? ?? ???????????????? ?????????? ??
?????? ?????????, ????????????? ???????-???????? ?????. ??????? ???????? ??????,
?? ???? ?????????? ????????????? ??????, ???????? ? ??????????? ??????????
????? ????????? ??????? ????? ????????? ?? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ?
???????????????? ??????????, ??????????? ? ???? ???????? ?? ?????????? ??????.
??? ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ??????,
?????????????????? ?????? ????????-????????-??????????-????? ? ??????
???????.
????????????? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????
????????? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ?????????????? ???????
?????? ?????? ??????? ????????????? ??????.
??????????????? ????????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ? ?????? ????????????
??????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????? ? ??????
????? ?????. ??? ???? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ????????? ???? ??????? ?
??????? ?????? ?????? ??????????????.
??? ????????????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ??????? ?????? ?
????????? ????? ?? ??????, ? ????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ?? ??????
??????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ??????????. ???????? ????????,
??? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: nikvla50@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 337 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????. ????????????????-????????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????
????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????????????????? ??????
??????????????.
???????? ?????: ?????????????? ??????, ?????? ??????, ???????? ??????, ????????
?????????, ???????? ????????????, ??????? ??????????? ????????? ??????, ?????????
?????.
????????
?? ???????????, ????????????? ? ?????? ???????? ? ???????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ???? ??????? ???? ??? ????????? ??????? ?????? ? ?????????
??????????????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ?? ????????? ????????? ? ????????????????? ??????????? ????? ? ???????? ??????????? ???????. ????????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ???? ?????????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ? ????????? ????????? ????? ?? ?????? ????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????. ??????? ?????????? ?????? ? ?????????
????????? ????????? ????????????, ?????????????? ? ??????????? ??????????????????
?????? ????????, ??????? ??????????????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????
??????.
????????? ????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????? ??????????????????? ????? ? ?????????????????? ????????, ??????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ??????.
???????? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ?????????. ? ???????
???????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ? ???????? ? ???????????????? ???????????? ??????, ???????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????
?? ??????, ????? ? ?????? ????????????. ?????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ? ????????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ??????.
????? ?????? ? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ? ?????????
??????? ? ?????????????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ? ??????????????
??????? ????????????? ????????? ? ?????? [1]. ??? ???? ??????????? ????????? ?????????:
1. ????? ???????????????? ???????? ??????, ??????????? ? ???????? (???????). ??????????? ??????? ????? ???????????????? ???????-??????? ????????????. ????? ? ????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? (????????).
2. ??????????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ????? ? ??????? ??????????
? ????? ???? ?????.
3. ??? ???????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????????, ??????,
????????-???????????, ? ???????????? ????? ????????? ? ?????????? ?????????????? ??
?????? ???????????.
4. ???????? ????? ????? ???? ????????? ?????? ???????????? ??? ?? ????????? ? ???????????? ? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ??????.
?????? ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ???????, ?????????? ???????? ? ????????? ? ??????? ???????? ?????? ???????-???????,
??????? ???????????????? ????? ? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ???????-?????????. ???
?????????, ??????????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ????? ?? ???# 338 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????. ????????????????-????????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????
????????, ????????, ???????, ?????????? ????????? ???????. ??????? ????? ?????? ? ?????
???? ?? ?????????????? ?????????. ??????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ? ?????????
???????? ??????. ????? ?? ???????? ???????????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????????? ???????????????? ?????????.
?????????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????
???????????? ??????????????????? ?????????? ??????
?????????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????????????? ?????? ? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ???????????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????
??????????? ????????????? ???????, ????????? ????????????, ??????? ? ???????? ?????????
?? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ??????.
?????????? ?????????????????? ??????? ????? ????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ??? ???????? ????? ????????????????? ?? ???????.
????????? ??????????? ?????????????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ???? ??????????
????????? ????????????????, ??????????? ??????? ???????? ????? ? ???????????? ???????????:
(Ocv ( x, Tcv )Tcv, x ) x , 0 x l ;
Ccv ( x)Tcv,t
Ocv ( x, Tcv ) Fcv Tcv, x
(1)
D cv,out (t ) Fcv (Te (t ) Tcv (t , x)) Qcv,out c0 H cv ,out Fcv ,out Tcv4 (t ),
x
0;
Ocv (x,Tcv ) Fcv Tcv, x Dcv,in (t) Fcv (Tair (t) Tcv (t, x)) ¦g j,cvTj4 / Tms4 c0 H cv,in Fcv,in Tcv4 (t) Qcv,in ;
x l;
(2)
(3)
j
Tcv (0, x) T0 ( x), 0 x l ,
(4)
??? ?cv ( x) Ci , Ocv ( x, Tcv ) Oi ,0 Oi ,1Tcv ??? li 1 d x li , (i 1,, k 1),
?cv ( x) C k , Ocv ( x, Tcv ) Ok , 0 Ok ,1Tcv ??? l k 1 d x d l k , ?? ???? Ccv, ?cv ??????? ?? ????, ? ?????
???? ??????????????? ??????? ?????.
??? ???? 0 l 0 l1 l k l.
? ?????????? (1)?(4) ???????????? ????????? ???????????: Tcv(x,t) ? ??????????? ???????????? ???????????; Tcv,t ? ?????? ??????????? Tcv ?? t; Tcv,x ? ?????? ??????????? Tcv ?? x;
Tcv,x,x ? ?????? ??????????? Tcv ?? x; Ccv(x) ? ???????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? (???????????? ???????? ???????????? ?? ?????????); ?cv(l, T) ? ???????????????? ???????????? ???????????; ? cv,out ? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????; ? cv,in ? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????;
Fcv ? ??????? ??????????? ??? ???????? ? ?????????? ???????????; Qcv,out ? ???????? ??????? ??????? ??????????; Qcv,in ? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????; c0 ? ??????????
???????-?????????; ?cv,in ? ??????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????????
???????????; g j,cv ? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????? «j-? ??????? ?????? ?
???????????? ???????????»; Te ? ??????????? ??????????????; t ? ?????; Tair ? ???????????
# 339 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????. ????????????????-????????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????
????????? ????? ? ?????? ??? ? ????? ??????; Tj ? ??????????? j-?? ???????? ??????; l ? ??????? ???????????? ???????????.
????????? ???????????, ???????????? ???????????? ??????????? ? cv,out ? ? cv,in ??? ??????????????? ???????, ????? ???? ??????? ???? ??? ????????? ??????? ?????? ? ?????????
??????????????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ?? ????????? ????????? ? ?????????????????
??????????? ????? ? ???????? ??????????? ???????. ??????? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ????????????? ???????????? ? ???????? ?????? ????????? ???? ??
?????????????? ????????? [2]. ?? ???????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????
-1,out J out
(t );
D cv, out
(5)
2 , out
-1,in J in- (t ),
D cv,in
(6)
2 ,in
??? Jout, Jin ? ?????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ????? ?? ?????? ? ? ?????? ??????????????;
-1, out , -2, out , -1,in , -2,in ? ??????????? ???????????? ??????.
????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ???? ?????????????
????????????????? ?????????, ???????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?
???????????-???????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?????????????:
Tm ,t
D air ,m (t ) Fair ,m / C m (Tair (t ) Tm ) ¦ g j ,m /
m
/ C mTJ4 (t ) / Tm4 c0 H m Fm / C mTm4 Qm / C m ,
(7)
??? Tm ? ??????????? m-?? ????????? ????????????; Tm,t ? ?????? ??????????? Tm ?? t; ? air,m ?
??????????? ??????????? m-?? ????????? ????????????; Fair,m ? ??????? m-?? ????????? ???????????? ??? ???????????? ???????????; Cm ? ???????????? m -?? ????????? ????????????;
g j,m ? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????? «j-? ??????? ?????? ? m-? ???? ????????? ????????????»; ?m ? ??????? ??????? ????????? m-?? ?????; Qm ? ??????? ??????????????
??? ??????????????? m-? ???????? ????????????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ? ??????????????? ?? ????????????? ???????.
??????????? ??????????? ? air,i ??? ??????????????? ??????? ???? ????? ?? ?????????????? ????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ????????????. ??????? ?? ???????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????
-1,i J - (t ) ,
D air ,i
(8)
2 ,i
??? -1,i , -2,i ? ??????????? ???????????? ??????.
????????? ??????????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ? ???? ????????????? ????????????????? ?????????, ???????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????
????????????? ???????, ????????? ?????? ? ??????? ????????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ? ??????:
D cv,in (t ) Fcv / C air ,k [Tcv (t , x) Tair ,k ] Tair ,k ,t
¦ D air , j Fair , j / C air ,k ( T j Tair ,k ) c p J air ,k Fk /
j
/ C air ,k (Tair ,k 1 Tair ,k );
# 340 #
x
l;
(9)
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????. ????????????????-????????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????
??? Tair,k-1, Tair,k ? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????????? ? (k?1)-? ? k -? ?????? ??????;
Jair,k ? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ? k-? ????? ??????; Fk ? ????????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ? k-? ????? ??????; cp ? ???????? ???????????? ???????; Cair,k ? ????????????
??????? ? k-? ????? ??????.
Tair,k ? ????????? (9) ? ???????? t ???????? ?? ????????????????? ?? ??????? t.
???????????? ? ????????? (9) ??????? ?? j-?? ????????, ????????? ? k-? ????? ??????.
???????????? ??????? Cair,k ???????????? ?? ?????????
C air ,k
? p U air ,k (Wair ,ent Fair ,ent 't Vair ,k ),
(10)
??? ?air,k ? ????????? ??????? ? k-? ????? ??????; Wair,ent ? ???????? ??????? ?? ????? ? ?????;
Fair,ent ? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?? ????? ? ?????? ????? ??????; ?t ? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????? ???????????????? ?????????; Vair,k ? ????? ??????? ? k-?
????? ??????.
??????????? ????????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? (3), (7) ???????????? ???????
?????-????? [3].
?????? ??????? ?????? ? ???????? ?????
????????? ????????? ??????
??? ??????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? (1)?(4) ???
?????????????????? ??????? ???????????????? ?? ???????????????? ?????????? ?? ??????
?????????, ????????????? ???????-???????? ?????. ? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ??????
??????? ????????? (1)?(4) ???????? ? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????????? ?????????, ???????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ? ????? ???????? ????? ?? ??????? [0, l]. ?????????? ????? ??????? ???????????? ????????????????
????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????? (1)?(4), ????????? ??? ????????? ???????????? (7)
? ????????? ????? (9) ?????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????????? ?????????, ???????
? ????? ???? ????? ???????? ????????? ???????:
Yt
Yt
F (Y (t , 4)), t Џ (0, t t );
Y4 , F , Y Џ R S ; 4 Џ R r ,
(11)
??? Y=[T1, T2, Ti, T?, ?]T ? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ??????; Yt ? ?????? ??????
T
??????????? Y ?? t; 4 [-1,out , -2 ,out , -1,in , -2 ,in , -1,i , -2 ,i ] ? ?????? ????????????? ??????; T ?
??????? ??????, ???????????? ???????? ????????????????.
??? ??????? ????????? (11) ???????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ?????
???? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ????????????? ??? ???????????? ?????? [4]:
&
&
Yn 1 Yn aK1 (1 a ) K 2 ;
(12)
K1
& &
&
& &
&
h ( I a h <Y (Yn , t n , 4)) 1 < (Yn , t n a h, 4);
K2
& &
&
& &
&
h ( I a h <Y (Yn , t n , 4)) 1 < (Yn , t n a K1 , t n 2a h, 4);
a 1 1/ 2,
# 341 #
(13)
(14)
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????. ????????????????-????????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????
& &
???, Yn , Yn 1 ? ??????? ???????, ?????????? ?? n-? ? (n + 1)-? ????????? ??????????????;
&
&
< ? ?????? ????? ???????; <Y ? ??????? ?????; I ? ????????? ???????; h ? ??? ??????????????.
??????? ???????? ??????, ?? ???? ?????????? ????????????? ? ??????, ???????? ?
??????????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ??????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ?????? Y=[T1, T2 , Ti , T?, ?]T, ??????????? ? ?????? ???????????? Z*, ?
???????????????? ?????????? Z(Y(t, ?)), ??????????? ? ???? ???????? ?? ??????????
??????
) ( 4)
N
S
¦ ¦*
k ,i
( Z k*,i Z i (Y (t k , 4))) 2 ,
(15)
k 1 i 1
??? ?k,i ? ??????? ????????????; tk ? ??????? ??????? ??? k = 1,?, N.
??? ???? ???????? ? ?????? [2], ??? ??????????? ??????? (15) ????????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ??????, ?????????????????? ?????? ????????-??????????????????-????? ? ?????? ??????? [5].
????????????? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ???? (8) ????? ???? ?????????? ? ??????? ??????????????
??????? P(?) ?????? ?????? ? ??????? ????????????? ?????? (????????? ?????????????
?????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????? ?? ?????????????? ????????). ??? ???? ???????????? ????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ?????? ?? ????????????
??? ???????????? ????????????? [6].
?????????? ????????????? ??????
????????? ????????? ?????? ??????????????
?????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?? ???. 1. ??? ???? ??????,
?????????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ??????, ?????????? ?? ????????? ????? ??????
? ???????.
??????? ??????? I ? V ?????? ?????? lI-V = 2·10 -3 ?, VI ? VIII ?????? ? lVI-VII = 4·10 -3 ?. ??????? ????????????? ??????? lins = 2·10 -2 ?.
??????????? ???????????????? ??????? I ? V ?????? ?????? ?I-V = 2,11·102 ??/(?·?), ? VI ?
VIII ?????? ?VI-VII = 1,63·10 -1 ??/(?·?). ??????????? ???????????????? ????????????? ???????
???????????? ?? ???????
?ins = - 3,6·10 -2 + 2,8·10 -4 Tins.
(16)
??????????????? ????????????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ? ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ????? ? 16 ? ?????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????? ? ?????? ????? ? 16.
??? ???? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ????????? ???? ??????? ? ???????
?????? ?????? ?????????????? (???. 2) ? ?????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?? ???????
?t = 10-300 c. ?????? ???????, ?????????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ??????, ??? ?????? Gins = 1 ??/?, ??????????? Tins = 288 ?.
&?
?????? 4 ????????????? -1,out , -2,out , -1,in , -2,in , -1,i , -2,i (5), (6), (8) ?????? ? ??????????&
??? ????????? I4 ????????????? ??? ????????????? ??????????? ? =0,95 ????? ?????????
????????:
# 342 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????. ????????????????-????????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????
???. 1. ?????????? ???????????????????? ???????????? ??????????????????? ??????: I ? VIII ? ?????
??????; 1-22 ? ????? ????????? ????????????; 23-31 ? ????? ???????; x, y, z ? ??????????; ?V ? ?????????
????????? ????? ?? ??????; Vair,out ? ????????? ???????? ??????; Tair,out ? ??????????? ????????? ?????
?? ??????; Tstm ? ??????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ??????; Gstm ? ??????
??????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ??????
???. 2. ????????? ?????? ?????? ? ????????? ????? ?? ?????? ?????????????? ??? ????????? ????
???????: Pair,out ? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????; Tair,out ? ??????????? ??????? ?? ??????; Vair,out ? ?????????
???????? ??????
&?
4 = [0,3674 0,4238 0,0180 0,9872 0,6998 0,6102]T ;
&
I4 = [0,0390 0,0622 0,0017 0,1124 0,0633 0,5317]T .
????????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ? ??????
? ??????????? ????????? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ????????? 3 ? ??? ????????????? ???????????
? = 0,95, ? ???????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ? ?????? ?????? ? 3 %.
??? ????????????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ??????? ?????? ?
????????? ????? ?? ??????, ? ????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ?? ??????
??????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ??????????.
# 343 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????. ????????????????-????????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????
???. 3. ?????????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ???????????? ? ?????? ?????????????? ??? ?????????
???? ???????: Teq,6 ? ?????????? ? T?eq,6 ? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ? 6; Teq,16 ?
?????????? ? T?eq,16 ? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ? 16; Tins,IV ? ?????????? ???????????
?????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????? ? ????? ?????? IV ? ?????? ????? ? 16
???. 4. ????????? ?????? ?????? ? ????????? ????? ?? ?????? ?????????????? ??? ??????? ???? ???????: Pair,out ? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????; Tair,out ? ??????????? ??????? ?? ??????; Vair,out ? ?????????
???????? ??????
?????????? Teq ? ???????????? ?? ?????? T?eq ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ??? ????????? ???? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????? ? ????????? ????? ?? ??????, ?????????????? ??
???. 2, ??? ?????? ? 16 ? ? 6 ????????? ?? ???. 3; ??? ????????? ???? ??????? ??? ??????
?????? ? ????????? ????? ?? ??????, ?????????????? ?? ???. 4, ???? ?? ???. 5. ???????? ?????
?????????????????? ? ????????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ???? ???????
?????? 3 ?. ??? ???????? ?? ????????? ?????????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????
???????????.
# 344 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????. ????????????????-????????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????
???. 5. ?????????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ???????????? ? ?????? ?????????????? ??? ??????? ????
???????: Teq,6 ? ?????????? ? T?eq,6 ? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ? 6; Teq,16 ? ??????????
? T?eq,16 ? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ? 16; Tins,IV ? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????
??????????? ????????????? ??????? ? ????? ?????? IV ? ?????? ????? ? 16
?????? ???????? ?? ???????? ???????????? [7] ???????, ??? ?? ????? ??????? ??????????, ? ?????? ??????? ????????????? ???????? ?? ???????? ???????? ???????????-???????? ?
??? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ????????????? ???????????? ? = 0,32?0,57.
?????????????, ??????????? ?????????????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????????????????? ?????? ??????????????.
??????????
??? ?????????? ?????? ? ????????? ????????? ????????? ????????????, ?????????????? ? ??????????? ?????????????????? ?????? ??????????????, ????????? ????????????????????????????? ?????, ?????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????
?????????? ??????, ??????????????? ????????????? ??????, ??????????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????? ? ???????? ???????????? ??????.
?????????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????????????? ?????? ? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ? ???? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ???????????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????, ????????? ????????????, ??????? ? ????????
????????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ??????.
? ???????? ?????? ??????????????? ????????????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ??????
???????????? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ??????, ?????????????????? ?????? ????????????????-??????????-????? ? ?????? ???????. ??? ??????? ?????? ??????, ?? ???? ???????
??????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????????? ?????????, ? ??????? ????? ??????????
??????? ???????.
# 345 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????. ????????????????-????????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????
????????????? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????
????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ? ??????? ?????????????? ??????? ?????? ??????
??????? ????????????? ??????.
??????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????? ? ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????????????????? ?????? ??????????????.
?????? ??????????
1. ?????, ?. ?. ???????? ? ????????? ??????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????. ???? ?????????? /?. ?. ?????, ?. ?. ????????// ???????? ?????? ??????? ?
????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????: ????????? ??????-???????????? ????????,
1982 / ??????????? ?/? ?-8759. 1982. ?. 22 ? 30.
2. ?????????, ?. ?. ???????? ????? ??????????? ????????? / ?. ?. ?????????. ?.: ??????????????, 1980. 232 ?.
3. ????????, ?. ?., ?????????????? ?????? ???????????-????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????? / ?. ?. ????????,
?. ?. ?????, ?. ?. ????????// ?????? ?? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????. ????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????: ??????-??????????? ???????. ???????????: ??????,
1996. ???. 1. ?. 98-108.
4. ????????, ?. ?. ??????????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?????????: ???????? / ?. ?. ????????, ?. ?. ???????, ?. ?. ???????// ?? ?? ?? ????,
? 74. ???????????, 1980. 13 ?.
5. Gill, P. Quasi-Newton methods for unconstrained optimization / P. Gill, E. Murray// Journal of the
institute of mathematics and its applications. 1971. V. 9, ? 1. P. 91-108.
6. ????????, ?. ?. ????????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????????? ?????????????
????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? / ?. ?. ????????, ?. ?. ??????????//
?????? ? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????. ???????????: ??????, 1991. ???. 2. ?. 11-15.
7. ???????????, ?. ?????? ????????? ??????????????? ????????: ???. ? ????. /
?. ?. ???????????: ???, 1973. 957 ?.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????. ????????????????-????????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????
Theoretical and Experimental Investigation
of the Photographic Reconnaissance
Plane Instrument bay Thermal State
Vladimir N. Nikolaev
S.A. Chaplygin Siberian Aeronautical Research Institute
21 Polzunov st., Novosibirsk, 630051 Russia
The mathematical model of the venting heat-insulated instrument bay of the photographic
reconnaissance plane thermal state is developed. The direct and inverse problems of heat exchange
are solved, the confidence intervals of estimated parameters are determined.
Mathematical modeling of the instrument compartment thermal state is needed for the conducting of
flight and bench tests of airborne equipment located in the venting heat-insulated compartment of the
aircraft.
Mathematical model of the venting heat-insulated instrument compartment with the thermal conditions
supporting system is represented by the system of one-dimensional equations of heat-insulated skin
and ordinary differential heat transfer equations of the inner surface of thermal insulation of skin,
onboard equipment, air and enthalpy transport from the thermal conditions supporting system.
In order to solve the direct problem of the compartment thermal state, one-dimensional equations for
heat-insulated skin are discretized with respect to the space variable by the Galerkin method that uses
a piecewise-linear basis.
Solving of the inverse problem, i.e. estimation of the coefficients of the model equation is reduced to the
minimization of the weighted sum of quadratic residuals between the values specified by the adopted
criteria and the corresponding values obtained during the calculations by the equations of the model.
A combination of steepest descent method, quasi-Newton method of Broyden ? Fletcher ?Goldfarb ?
Shenno and the Newton?s method was used to minimize a function.
It is reasonable to define confidence intervals of estimated coefficients of the nonlinear mathematical
model of the compartment thermal state by the covariance matrix of estimation errors of the desired
coefficients of the model equation.
Parametrical identification was carried out by the measured in the compartment surface temperatures
of one of the blocks and the inner surface of the heat insulation sheathing around the block. In this
case, the measurement results for a cold climate in a typical flight mode of a photoreconnaissance
plane were used.
For the purpose of experimental verification of the proposed model in different flight modes and air
overboard, as well as on elements of the instrument compartment, temperatures of the compartment
elements calculated by the model were compared with measured values.
The verification showed that the constructed mathematical model of the instrument compartment
thermal state is adequate to the real thermal state of unpressurized venting heat-insulated compartment
of the photoreconnaissance plane.
Keywords: mathematical model, direct problem, inverse problem, thermal state, airborne equipment,
thermal conditions supporting system, instrument bay.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 3 (2011 4) 348-355
~~~
??? 628.16.087
Electrochemical Method of Discharged Waters Cleaning
with of Alternating Current
Olesya V. Raevaa* and Ivan Ya. Shestakovb
a
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
b
Siberian State Aerospace University
named after academician M.F.Reshetnyov
31 Krasnoyarsky Rabochy Av., Krasnoyarsk, 660014 Russia 1
Received 3.06.2011, received in revised form 10.06.2011, accepted 17.06.2011
High power consumption, equipment unhandiness, and need for consumable materials prevent wide
introduction of electrochemical methods of water and water solutions cleaning. This article presents
the results of tests of industrial discharged water cleaning applying electrochemical method and shows
the mechanism of this process.
Keywords: discharged water, electrochemical method, mechanism of the process, alternating
current.
Introduction
Insufficient knowledge of the processes related to water resources, misuse of water and inefficient
management methods in various regions of the world make problems of water resources, which are
necessary to maintain sustainable welfare of a human society and functioning of ecological systems,
very complicated [1].
Problems of clean water resources are universal. Rivers and lakes, underground sources are
polluted (in particular across Russia: over 70 % of rivers and lakes, and 30 % of underground sources
are polluted and cannot be used for drinking). To a great extent the reason for that are the discharged
waters of galvanic production lines containing a variety of metal ions harmful for human health and
environment. Attempts to create installations for neutralization of discharged waters of galvanic
production do not give positive results because the mixed flows of discharged waters containing a
whole «bouquet» of particularly harmful heavy metals are sent for neutralization. As the level of
pollution in natural water sources is high the traditionally applied technologies of water cleaning are
not sufficiently effective [1-3].
Electrochemical methods of water cleaning in general and electrochemical methods of water
cleaning using alternating current of industrial frequency in particular belong to the most advanced
directions of water cleaning process development. However, studies carried out in this area are still far
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: O.V.Raeva@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Olesya V. Raeva and Ivan Ya. Shestakov. Electrochemical Method of Discharged Waters Cleaning?
from being completed, and available data about the processes occurring in water under the influence
of alternating electric current are limited and insufficient to be used in proved scientific reports. The
mechanism of alternating electric field effect on metal ions in water requires further development and
more accurate definition. New data establishing qualitative and quantitative correlations between the
cleaning process parameters are needed.
Among other things the solution of this scientific problem is urgent because industrial enterprises
need installations to neutralize discharged waters. Therefore, this study devoted to the development of
an effective electrochemical method of water cleaning from metal ions using quasistationary electric
field on alternating current of industrial frequency, is rather actual.
Therefore the target of the performed study is to increase the efficiency of an electrochemical
method of water cleaning from metal ions using quasistationary electric field on alternating current of
industrial frequency.
Offered mechanism of cleaning process
At present the processes applying alternating current are not well studied. Thus, it is necessary to
investigate the mechanism and give scientific explanation to the electrochemical processes applying
alternating current, which as a consequence improves the efficiency of the cleaning process.
In order to obtain preliminary data the experimental research of electrochemical method of
cleaning discharged waters from some enterprises was carried out.
After the results of the experiments were processed, a characteristic dependence of current change
on time was observed (Fig. 1).
During anode semi-cycle the major amount of current is consumed for metal dissolution, and the
rest (due to the electrochemical properties of metals) is used for formation of immunizing oxide film. As
titanium is electrochemically active metal, mainly the latter process takes place. The immunizing film
formation in a certain period of time t after voltage is switched on (Fig. 1) causes an abrupt drop in the
operating current value. It can be explained by titanium catalytic activity against hydrogen, determined
by the fact that titanium has a significant affinity with hydrogen, so hydrogen is consumed by titanium
and dissolved in the surface layer. At titanium cathode polarization the release of hydrogen occurs
slightly before than that from hydrogen inert materials, such as mercury or lead. The generated hydrogen
is adsorbed by the titanium surface layer and desorbed during the «forced pause» period. The hydrogen
on titanium is in active state, and it plays a significant role in ion electroreduction mechanism [4].
After the abrupt current drop the period of the «forced pause» tFP begins (Fig. 1). The «forced
pause» (FP) is the time constant for the electrode-electrolyte system, determined by nature of the
electrode material and the electrolyte composition. During the «forced pause» period concentration
of metal cations is fully or partially equalized due to their movement in the solution volume. The
electrode-electrolyte system potential decreases slowly, which is typical for the processes when an
electrode has high capacity and small partial exchange current, consequently large quantities of
electropositive component precipitate (metal hydroxides formation).
In the process of soluble metal complexes transition into insoluble complexes the following
fundamental points can be highlighted:
1. Electrons and protons play a specific role in electrical and chemical reactions. Chemical
properties of hydrated proton and free proton do not have much in common. The same is characteristic
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Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Olesya V. Raeva and Ivan Ya. Shestakov. Electrochemical Method of Discharged Waters Cleaning?
Fig. 1. Oscillogram of current-time curve 1 ? actual current
for electrons. Partially hydrated electrons are available on the metal surface. As the degree of hydration,
concentration of the hydrated ions and their mobility on various metals differs, and this is one of the
reasons of electrode material influence on the electrochemical reactions.
Valence electrons participate in elementary reaction acts. In metals they are partly localized near
atoms, and partly found in the form of Fermi electron gas (or Fermi electron liquid), that is, these are
localized and collective electrons.
Concentration values of the collective electrons expressed as a function of metal atomic numbers,
show periodicity, bearing some resemblance to periodic dependence of material electroreduction
potentials.
In the course of cleaning process the most negative potentials were reached on s-p metals. When
potentials shift in negative direction, emission of the hydrated electrons from the electrode increases,
as well as emission of hydrogen atoms and their forming due to interaction of hydrated electrons and
water molecules.
A cloud of such hydrated electrons near the electrode surface can affect structure of the double
layer formed by alternating current. Participation of the hydrated electrons in oxidizing and reducing
reactions in solutions is following: during the anode semi-cycle these electrons can easily participate
in electrode reaction, and during the cathode semi-cycle ions reduction will occur. Finally, the reaction
will result in the material recovery process [4].
It can be assumed that hydroxyl groups present in ion pairs near electrode and adsorbed hydrogen
are donors for electrons.
At the same time, rapid change in current direction makes it difficult for hydroxyl ions OH* (active
unstable radicals) to discharge and favors their participation in reactions resulting in appearance of
metal intermediate compounds with lower valence (their role is rather significant) [5].
One or more adsorbed hydrogen atoms contribute to transfer of electrons. Recombination of the
hydrogen atoms slows down, and this favors the processes occurring on the titanium electrode in which
the adsorbed atoms participate.
2. Hydrated electrons play an important role in the cleaning process. They interact with soluble
metal complexes (associates) during the «forced pause» [4]. This interaction results in reduction of
metal ions to lower valences, and finally, as a consequence metal hydroxides are formed. It should be
noted:
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Olesya V. Raeva and Ivan Ya. Shestakov. Electrochemical Method of Discharged Waters Cleaning?
- electrode material defines hydrated electrons activity and their concentration;
- alternating electric field increases the role of the hydrated electrons in the cleaning process.
3. Presumably different ions present in the solution provide for forming associates not uniform in
their structure. Non-uniformity appears because water molecules are electrically neutral, and they can
be present both in inner and outer spheres of the associate. Their quantity is determined by the central
ion. Also, water molecules can attach to the outer-sphere ion. The key feature is that water molecules
can be attracted to each other, thus, water molecules probably attract associates with different central
ions to each other (published sources confirm the existence of associates consisting of more than two
ions and having a common shell). By deforming an associate hydrated shell the alternating electric field
favors separation of the solvent molecules [4]. Probably, associate nonuniformity means that instead
of affecting the associate along the entire outer hydrated «shell», the alternating electric field affects it
only along the part which has water molecules in its outer sphere. Different ion concentrations in the
solution provide for different associate structural nonuniformity, therefore purification efficiency will
differ, and this is proved by the experiments.
4. The cleaning process starts in the upper portion of the solution due to boundary layer, so
called, surface or boundary phase that can be separated on the boundary between two phases (air
and solution). It has some excess of free energy as compared to each of the neighboring phases. This
energy-to-area ratio is related to surface tension force. The content of components in the surface phase
can considerably differ from that in the volume of phases.
It is well known that simple metal ion complexes are better hydrolyzed than more complicated
ones. It is assumed that simple metal ion complexes (the hydrates containing minimum of water
molecules in both outer and inner spheres) are in the upper portion of the solution, and that different
kinds of complexes are present in other zones of the solution volume. The above mentioned makes
us assume that the environment ? the ambient air ? has a significant influence on the cleaning
process.
Let us assume (similarly to the influence of electrical conduction distribution in the interelectrode
gap on dissolution velocity in the source [6]) that in the upper layers the process increases rapidly, and
then it goes out slowly (decelerates for a long time); in the bottom layers the process increases slowly
but it runs more efficiently than in the upper zone.
This mechanism is proposed based on different structures of metal ion complexes.
5. The following figures illustrate the assumed mechanism.
Fig. 2 shows the initial moment of time. Heavy metal ions (HMI) are present in the form of
complexes having hydrated shell and solvent molecules.
In the course of the process deformation of hydrated shell and detachment of solvent molecules
occur caused by asymmetrical alternating electric field (Fig. 3).
During the «forced pause» equalizing of the metal ion associates concentration (complexes)
occurs, and the hydrated electrons interact with associates (Fig. 4).
Fig. 5 presents the mechanism of hydroxide formation (specifically, the ferric hydroxide Fe(OH)2).
Influenced by the alternating electric field, the hydrated electrons interact with the associate. This
process comprises many stages; Fig. 5 shows stage 1 and the result.
The process of hydrated electrons interaction with soluble metal complexes can be explained
in the following way. It is known that hydroxyl and hydrogen ions have much higher mobility in
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Olesya V. Raeva and Ivan Ya. Shestakov. Electrochemical Method of Discharged Waters Cleaning?
Fig. 2. Cleaning process layout at the initial moment (1 ? titanium electrode, 2 ? steel electrode)
Fig. 3. Influence of alternating electric field on metal ion complexes
Fig. 4. Cleaning process scheme during the «forced pause»
water solutions than other ions. This phenomenon is explained through the relay-race or Grotthuss
mechanism of hydrogen and hydroxyl ions motion.
A hydrated electron is formed by interaction between hydrogen atom (?2(ads)) adsorbed on titanium
and water molecule:
Ѕ ?2(ads) + ?20??30+ + ?
A hydroxyl ion is formed at interaction between hydrated electron and active unstable radical:
? + ??* ? ??Ї
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Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Olesya V. Raeva and Ivan Ya. Shestakov. Electrochemical Method of Discharged Waters Cleaning?
Fig. 5. Result of the hydrated electrons influence on the associate
As well as in the unified J. Lowell?s model of charge transfer in polymers from one place of a
chain segment to a «trap» of another chain with further tunneling, the metal ion hydroxide formation
undergoes several stages, depending on valence of the complex-forming-ion (the number of stages
equals to charge of the complex-forming-cation):
(??n+|?-O-?) + ?? - ?
? (??(n-1)+??|?-O-?) + ?-0-?
Initially a hydroxyl ion and water molecule in the inner sphere of the complex-forming-cation
attract each other electrostatically. After they approach each other the process of proton jump from the
water molecule to the hydroxyl ion occurs in compliance with the above presented scheme (probability
of tunneling transfer strongly depends on distance). Then another hydroxyl ion approaches associate
and similar interaction takes place. As a result hydroxyl cation is formed, and water molecules remained
in the inner sphere are pushed out in the water solution.
Based on the statements of theoretical electrochemistry, chemistry of complex compounds and
obtained current-time oscillogram (Fig.1), the transition mechanism of soluble complexes of metal ions
into insoluble complexes (hydroxides) under the influence of alternating electric field is offered.
Experiment technique
In the Siberian State Aerospace University the method of water and water solutions cleaning
from anions and cations by electrochemical process applying insoluble electrodes and alternating
current was developed, besides an installation not requiring high operating and maintenance costs was
designed [7-9].
In order to obtain some preliminary data the electrochemical method of discharged waters cleaning
from some enterprises was tested.
A laboratory installation, which includes an electrolytic cell containing cells from plexiglass with
alternating plates, was designed and manufactured for cleaning [9]. The volume of filled in liquid was
1 ? 1.5 l.
Electrodes were 1 mm thick plates made from stainless steel 12?18?10? and titanium alloy
??4-0. The plates were installed alternately, the total number of plates varied from two to seven.
The distance between plates was 10-12 mm. Electrodes were connected in parallel to a source of
alternating current with frequency 50 Hz. The water temperature was 20-25 0?. Voltage was alternating
of industrial frequency. After cleaning during 2-6 hours residue as metal hydroxide precipitated, then
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Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Olesya V. Raeva and Ivan Ya. Shestakov. Electrochemical Method of Discharged Waters Cleaning?
atomic adsorption analysis of ions contained in water solutions was performed on spectrometer Thermo
Scientific Solar M5 using the standard techniques.
These tests were performed using power supply source that permitted to receive alternating
current voltage in the range from 1.6 to 120 V stepwise. To register the process parameters standard
devices were used ? voltmeters and amperemeters, to measure temperature ? mercury thermometers
and thermocouples (??).
This method was applied to clean discharged waters of Federal State Unitary Enterprise Central
Construction Department «Geophysics» and Ufa motor-building production association. The results of
cleaning are presented in Table 1 and published in article [10].
Conclusions:
- experimental data prove the offered mechanism of soluble complexes of metal ions transition
into insoluble complexes under the influence of alternating electric field;
- reactor for cleaning should be designed on the electrode pair 12?18?10?/??4-0 because the
oxide film on the titanium electrode has partially semiconductor properties and adds to the
process required quasistationary state.
- current pulsing nature increases the role of hydrated electrons in the cleaning process which is
a favourable condition for metal ions reduction.
References
1. Klochkov, B.Ya. Environmental problems of electrolytic metallurgy / B.Ya. Klochkov. ?
Mashinostroitel, ?6, 1997. ? P. 33-35.
2. Aksenov, V. I., Water equipment of the industrial enterprises: Reference edition: In 2 volumes.
Volume 1/ Edit. by V.I.Aksenov /V. I. Aksenov, M. G. Ladygichev, I.I. Nichkova, V. A. Nikulin,
S.E. Klyain, E.V. Aksenov. ? ?: Teplotekhnik, 2005. ? 640 p.
3. Yakovlev, S.V. Water removal and discharged waters cleaning / S.V. Yakovlev, Yu.V. Voronov. ?
M: ASV, 2004. ? 704 p.
4. Shulgin, L.P. Electrochemical processes applying alternating current / L.P. Shulgin. ? L,
«Nauka», Leningrad branch, 1974. ? 450 p.
5. Kostin, N.A. Kinetics and electrode processes in water environments / N.A. Kostin. ? Kiev:
Naukova dumka, 1983. ? 128 p.
6. Korchinsky, G.A. Influence of convective diffusion on electrochemical rectification /
G.A. Korchinsky/ Journal of physical chemistry, V. 55, ?10, 1981. ? P. 2650-2653.
7. Stryuk, A.I. Method of water and water solutions cleaning from anions and cations. / A.I. Stryuk,
I.Ya. Shestakov, A.A. Fadeev, et al. // Patent of the Russian Federation ?2213701, C 02 F 1/46 C 02 F
103:16. Published in B.I. ?28, 10.10.2003.
8. Shestakov, I.Ya. Method of electrochemical water and water solutions cleaning from heavy
metals ions. / I.Ya. Shestakov, V.G. Vdovenko // Author?s certificate ?1724591, C 02 F 1/46. Published
in B.I. ? 13 07.04.1992.
9. Stryuk, A.I. Installation for water and water solutions cleaning from anions and cations. /
A.I. Stryuk, I.Ya. Shestakov, A.A. Fadeev, O.V. Feiler, A.A. Sursyakov, A.A. Kushnir // Author?s
certificate ?18532, C 02 F 1/46. Published in B.I. ?18, 27.06.2001.
# 354 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Olesya V. Raeva and Ivan Ya. Shestakov. Electrochemical Method of Discharged Waters Cleaning?
10. Shestakov, I.Ya. Research of electrochemical methods of water and water solutions cleaning
from heavy metals ions. / I.Ya. Shestakov, L.A. Gerasimova L.A. // Advanced materials, technologies,
construction: Proceedings / Edit. by prof. V.V. Statsura. ? Issue 2. ? Krasnoyarsk: SAA, 1996. ? P. 32-35.
????????????????? ?????
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?
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
?????? 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????,79
?
????????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
??. ????????? ?. ?. ?????????,
?????? 660014, ??????????, ??. ???????????? ???????, 31
???????? ????????? ????????????????? ??????? ????????? ???? ? ?????? ?????????
???????????? ?????????????, ???????????? ???????????? ? ????????????? ?????????
??????????. ? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????????????? ???????
??????? ??????? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ????? ????????.
???????? ?????: ??????? ????, ????????????????? ??????, ???????? ????????, ??????????
???.
?????????????
? ??????????? ?????????????????? ?????? ????????, ??????? ???????????????
????????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????. ?????????????? ?????? ??????????
???????????? ??????????????????? ?????? ? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ??????
?????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????????????? ??????? ? ????????????
???????????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????,
????????? ????????????, ??????? ? ???????? ????????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ?????????
??????.
??? ??????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ???
?????????????????? ??????? ???????????????? ?? ???????????????? ?????????? ??
?????? ?????????, ????????????? ???????-???????? ?????. ??????? ???????? ??????,
?? ???? ?????????? ????????????? ??????, ???????? ? ??????????? ??????????
????? ????????? ??????? ????? ????????? ?? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ?
???????????????? ??????????, ??????????? ? ???? ???????? ?? ?????????? ??????.
??? ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ??????,
?????????????????? ?????? ????????-????????-??????????-????? ? ??????
???????.
????????????? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????
????????? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ?????????????? ???????
?????? ?????? ??????? ????????????? ??????.
??????????????? ????????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ? ?????? ????????????
??????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????? ? ??????
????? ?????. ??? ???? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ????????? ???? ??????? ?
??????? ?????? ?????? ??????????????.
??? ????????????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ??????? ?????? ?
????????? ????? ?? ??????, ? ????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ?? ??????
??????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ??????????. ???????? ????????,
??? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: nikvla50@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 337 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????. ????????????????-????????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????
????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????????????????? ??????
??????????????.
???????? ?????: ?????????????? ??????, ?????? ??????, ???????? ??????, ????????
?????????, ???????? ????????????, ??????? ??????????? ????????? ??????, ?????????
?????.
????????
?? ???????????, ????????????? ? ?????? ???????? ? ???????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ???? ??????? ???? ??? ????????? ??????? ?????? ? ?????????
??????????????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ?? ????????? ????????? ? ????????????????? ??????????? ????? ? ???????? ??????????? ???????. ????????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ???? ?????????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ? ????????? ????????? ????? ?? ?????? ????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????. ??????? ?????????? ?????? ? ?????????
????????? ????????? ????????????, ?????????????? ? ??????????? ??????????????????
?????? ????????, ??????? ??????????????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????
??????.
????????? ????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????? ??????????????????? ????? ? ?????????????????? ????????, ??????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ??????.
???????? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ?????????. ? ???????
???????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ? ???????? ? ???????????????? ???????????? ??????, ???????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????
?? ??????, ????? ? ?????? ????????????. ?????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ? ????????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ??????.
????? ?????? ? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ? ?????????
??????? ? ?????????????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ? ??????????????
??????? ????????????? ????????? ? ?????? [1]. ??? ???? ??????????? ????????? ?????????:
1. ????? ???????????????? ???????? ??????, ??????????? ? ???????? (???????). ??????????? ??????? ????? ???????????????? ???????-??????? ????????????. ????? ? ????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? (????????).
2. ??????????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ????? ? ??????? ??????????
? ????? ???? ?????.
3. ??? ???????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????????, ??????,
????????-???????????, ? ???????????? ????? ????????? ? ?????????? ?????????????? ??
?????? ???????????.
4. ???????? ????? ????? ???? ????????? ?????? ???????????? ??? ?? ????????? ? ???????????? ? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ??????.
?????? ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ???????, ?????????? ???????? ? ????????? ? ??????? ???????? ?????? ???????-???????,
??????? ???????????????? ????? ? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ???????-?????????. ???
?????????, ??????????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ????? ?? ???# 338 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????. ????????????????-????????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????
????????, ????????, ???????, ?????????? ????????? ???????. ??????? ????? ?????? ? ?????
???? ?? ?????????????? ?????????. ??????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ? ?????????
???????? ??????. ????? ?? ???????? ???????????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????????? ???????????????? ?????????.
?????????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????
???????????? ??????????????????? ?????????? ??????
?????????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????????????? ?????? ? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ???????????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????
??????????? ????????????? ???????, ????????? ????????????, ??????? ? ???????? ?????????
?? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ??????.
?????????? ?????????????????? ??????? ????? ????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ??? ???????? ????? ????????????????? ?? ???????.
????????? ??????????? ?????????????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ???? ??????????
????????? ????????????????, ??????????? ??????? ???????? ????? ? ???????????? ???????????:
(Ocv ( x, Tcv )Tcv, x ) x , 0 x l ;
Ccv ( x)Tcv,t
Ocv ( x, Tcv ) Fcv Tcv, x
(1)
D cv,out (t ) Fcv (Te (t ) Tcv (t , x)) Qcv,out c0 H cv ,out Fcv ,out Tcv4 (t ),
x
0;
Ocv (x,Tcv ) Fcv Tcv, x Dcv,in (t) Fcv (Tair (t) Tcv (t, x)) ¦g j,cvTj4 / Tms4 c0 H cv,in Fcv,in Tcv4 (t) Qcv,in ;
x l;
(2)
(3)
j
Tcv (0, x) T0 ( x), 0 x l ,
(4)
??? ?cv ( x) Ci , Ocv ( x, Tcv ) Oi ,0 Oi ,1Tcv ??? li 1 d x li , (i 1,, k 1),
?cv ( x) C k , Ocv ( x, Tcv ) Ok , 0 Ok ,1Tcv ??? l k 1 d x d l k , ?? ???? Ccv, ?cv ??????? ?? ????, ? ?????
???? ??????????????? ??????? ?????.
??? ???? 0 l 0 l1 l k l.
? ?????????? (1)?(4) ???????????? ????????? ???????????: Tcv(x,t) ? ??????????? ???????????? ???????????; Tcv,t ? ?????? ??????????? Tcv ?? t; Tcv,x ? ?????? ??????????? Tcv ?? x;
Tcv,x,x ? ?????? ??????????? Tcv ?? x; Ccv(x) ? ???????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? (???????????? ???????? ???????????? ?? ?????????); ?cv(l, T) ? ???????????????? ???????????? ???????????; ? cv,out ? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????; ? cv,in ? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????;
Fcv ? ??????? ??????????? ??? ???????? ? ?????????? ???????????; Qcv,out ? ???????? ??????? ??????? ??????????; Qcv,in ? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????; c0 ? ??????????
???????-?????????; ?cv,in ? ??????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????????
???????????; g j,cv ? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????? «j-? ??????? ?????? ?
???????????? ???????????»; Te ? ??????????? ??????????????; t ? ?????; Tair ? ???????????
# 339 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????. ????????????????-????????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????
????????? ????? ? ?????? ??? ? ????? ??????; Tj ? ??????????? j-?? ???????? ??????; l ? ??????? ???????????? ???????????.
????????? ???????????, ???????????? ???????????? ??????????? ? cv,out ? ? cv,in ??? ??????????????? ???????, ????? ???? ??????? ???? ??? ????????? ??????? ?????? ? ?????????
??????????????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ?? ????????? ????????? ? ?????????????????
??????????? ????? ? ???????? ??????????? ???????. ??????? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ????????????? ???????????? ? ???????? ?????? ????????? ???? ??
?????????????? ????????? [2]. ?? ???????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????
-1,out J out
(t );
D cv, out
(5)
2 , out
-1,in J in- (t ),
D cv,in
(6)
2 ,in
??? Jout, Jin ? ?????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ????? ?? ?????? ? ? ?????? ??????????????;
-1, out , -2, out , -1,in , -2,in ? ??????????? ???????????? ??????.
????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ???? ?????????????
????????????????? ?????????, ???????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?
???????????-???????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?????????????:
Tm ,t
D air ,m (t ) Fair ,m / C m (Tair (t ) Tm ) ¦ g j ,m /
m
/ C mTJ4 (t ) / Tm4 c0 H m Fm / C mTm4 Qm / C m ,
(7)
??? Tm ? ??????????? m-?? ????????? ????????????; Tm,t ? ?????? ??????????? Tm ?? t; ? air,m ?
??????????? ??????????? m-?? ????????? ????????????; Fair,m ? ??????? m-?? ????????? ???????????? ??? ???????????? ???????????; Cm ? ???????????? m -?? ????????? ????????????;
g j,m ? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????? «j-? ??????? ?????? ? m-? ???? ????????? ????????????»; ?m ? ??????? ??????? ????????? m-?? ?????; Qm ? ??????? ??????????????
??? ??????????????? m-? ???????? ????????????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ? ??????????????? ?? ????????????? ???????.
??????????? ??????????? ? air,i ??? ??????????????? ??????? ???? ????? ?? ?????????????? ????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ????????????. ??????? ?? ???????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????
-1,i J - (t ) ,
D air ,i
(8)
2 ,i
??? -1,i , -2,i ? ??????????? ???????????? ??????.
????????? ??????????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ? ???? ????????????? ????????????????? ?????????, ???????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????
????????????? ???????, ????????? ?????? ? ??????? ????????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ? ??????:
D cv,in (t ) Fcv / C air ,k [Tcv (t , x) Tair ,k ] Tair ,k ,t
¦ D air , j Fair , j / C air ,k ( T j Tair ,k ) c p J air ,k Fk /
j
/ C air ,k (Tair ,k 1 Tair ,k );
# 340 #
x
l;
(9)
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????. ????????????????-????????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????
??? Tair,k-1, Tair,k ? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????????? ? (k?1)-? ? k -? ?????? ??????;
Jair,k ? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ? k-? ????? ??????; Fk ? ????????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ? k-? ????? ??????; cp ? ???????? ???????????? ???????; Cair,k ? ????????????
??????? ? k-? ????? ??????.
Tair,k ? ????????? (9) ? ???????? t ???????? ?? ????????????????? ?? ??????? t.
???????????? ? ????????? (9) ??????? ?? j-?? ????????, ????????? ? k-? ????? ??????.
???????????? ??????? Cair,k ???????????? ?? ?????????
C air ,k
? p U air ,k (Wair ,ent Fair ,ent 't Vair ,k ),
(10)
??? ?air,k ? ????????? ??????? ? k-? ????? ??????; Wair,ent ? ???????? ??????? ?? ????? ? ?????;
Fair,ent ? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?? ????? ? ?????? ????? ??????; ?t ? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????? ???????????????? ?????????; Vair,k ? ????? ??????? ? k-?
????? ??????.
??????????? ????????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? (3), (7) ???????????? ???????
?????-????? [3].
?????? ??????? ?????? ? ???????? ?????
????????? ????????? ??????
??? ??????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? (1)?(4) ???
?????????????????? ??????? ???????????????? ?? ???????????????? ?????????? ?? ??????
?????????, ????????????? ???????-???????? ?????. ? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ??????
??????? ????????? (1)?(4) ???????? ? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????????? ?????????, ???????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ? ????? ???????? ????? ?? ??????? [0, l]. ?????????? ????? ??????? ???????????? ????????????????
????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????? (1)?(4), ????????? ??? ????????? ???????????? (7)
? ????????? ????? (9) ?????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????????? ?????????, ???????
? ????? ???? ????? ???????? ????????? ???????:
Yt
Yt
F (Y (t , 4)), t Џ (0, t t );
Y4 , F , Y Џ R S ; 4 Џ R r ,
(11)
??? Y=[T1, T2, Ti, T?, ?]T ? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ??????; Yt ? ?????? ??????
T
??????????? Y ?? t; 4 [-1,out , -2 ,out , -1,in , -2 ,in , -1,i , -2 ,i ] ? ?????? ????????????? ??????; T ?
??????? ??????, ???????????? ???????? ????????????????.
??? ??????? ????????? (11) ???????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ?????
???? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ????????????? ??? ???????????? ?????? [4]:
&
&
Yn 1 Yn aK1 (1 a ) K 2 ;
(12)
K1
& &
&
& &
&
h ( I a h <Y (Yn , t n , 4)) 1 < (Yn , t n a h, 4);
K2
& &
&
& &
&
h ( I a h <Y (Yn , t n , 4)) 1 < (Yn , t n a K1 , t n 2a h, 4);
a 1 1/ 2,
# 341 #
(13)
(14)
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????. ????????????????-????????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????
& &
???, Yn , Yn 1 ? ??????? ???????, ?????????? ?? n-? ? (n + 1)-? ????????? ??????????????;
&
&
< ? ?????? ????? ???????; <Y ? ??????? ?????; I ? ????????? ???????; h ? ??? ??????????????.
??????? ???????? ??????, ?? ???? ?????????? ????????????? ? ??????, ???????? ?
??????????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ??????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ?????? Y=[T1, T2 , Ti , T?, ?]T, ??????????? ? ?????? ???????????? Z*, ?
???????????????? ?????????? Z(Y(t, ?)), ??????????? ? ???? ???????? ?? ??????????
??????
) ( 4)
N
S
¦ ¦*
k ,i
( Z k*,i Z i (Y (t k , 4))) 2 ,
(15)
k 1 i 1
??? ?k,i ? ??????? ????????????; tk ? ??????? ??????? ??? k = 1,?, N.
??? ???? ???????? ? ?????? [2], ??? ??????????? ??????? (15) ????????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ??????, ?????????????????? ?????? ????????-??????????????????-????? ? ?????? ??????? [5].
????????????? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ???? (8) ????? ???? ?????????? ? ??????? ??????????????
??????? P(?) ?????? ?????? ? ??????? ????????????? ?????? (????????? ?????????????
?????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????? ?? ?????????????? ????????). ??? ???? ???????????? ????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ?????? ?? ????????????
??? ???????????? ????????????? [6].
?????????? ????????????? ??????
????????? ????????? ?????? ??????????????
?????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?? ???. 1. ??? ???? ??????,
?????????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ??????, ?????????? ?? ????????? ????? ??????
? ???????.
??????? ??????? I ? V ?????? ?????? lI-V = 2·10 -3 ?, VI ? VIII ?????? ? lVI-VII = 4·10 -3 ?. ??????? ????????????? ??????? lins = 2·10 -2 ?.
??????????? ???????????????? ??????? I ? V ?????? ?????? ?I-V = 2,11·102 ??/(?·?), ? VI ?
VIII ?????? ?VI-VII = 1,63·10 -1 ??/(?·?). ??????????? ???????????????? ????????????? ???????
???????????? ?? ???????
?ins = - 3,6·10 -2 + 2,8·10 -4 Tins.
(16)
??????????????? ????????????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ? ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ????? ? 16 ? ?????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????? ? ?????? ????? ? 16.
??? ?
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