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259.Журнал Сибирского федерального университета. Сер. Техника и технологии №3 2014

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Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Журнал Сибирского федерального университета
2014
Journal of Siberian Federal University
7 (3)
Техника и технологии
Engineering & Technologies
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??.-????. ???, ?-? ???.-???. ????
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??.-????. ???, ?-? ????. ????
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??.-????. ???, ?-? ???.-???. ????
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Editorial Advisory Board
Chairman:
Eugene A. Vaganov
Members:
Josef J. Gitelzon
Vasily F. Shabanov
Andrey G. Degermendzhy
Valery L. Mironov
Gennady L. Pashkov
Vladimir V. Shaidurov
Vladimir V. Zuev
Editorial Board:
Editor-in-Chief:
Mikhail I. Gladyshev
Founding Editor:
Vladimir I. Kolmakov
Managing Editor:
Olga F. Alexandrova
Executive Editor for Engineering &
Technologies:
Vladimir A. Kulagin
CONTENTS / СОДЕРЖАНИЕ
И.К. Клиш, Р.Г. Геворкян
d,?=?,???*= ?%???? -%!?,!%"=?,
c=!?=
?=??=2,???*,. C%!%?
? 251 ?
В.Е. Кисляков, Т.А. Веретенова, А.А. Гузеев
`?=?,? !??,?= ?!3?2%"/. "%? C!, !=?!=K%2*? %K"%?????/.
???2%!%????,L C%????/. ,?*%C=??/.
? 263 ?
Ю.И. Гордеев, А.К. Абкарян,
А.С. Бинчуров, В.Б. Ясинский, И.В. Карпов,
А.А. Лепешев, О.Л. Хасанов, Э.С. Двилис
p=?!=K%2*= .--?*2,"?/. C32?L 3C!="???, ?2!3*23!%L ,
?"%L?2"=?, 2"?!?%?C?="?/. *%?C%?,2%", ?%?,-,?,!%"=??/.
?=?%?=?2,?=?,
? 270 ?
А.А. Шершнев, В.Е. Кисляков
p=?2?*=?,? C=?2%%K!=??/. ."%?2%" %K%?=2,2????%?% C?!????=
? 290 ?
Е.П. Волков, С.А. Вохмин,
А.Н. Анушенков, А.И. Голованов
p=?!=K%2*= !???C23! , ??.=?,??= =*2,"=?,, ?=*?=?%??/.
?????L ?? C%?????%L !=?!=K%2*, C%????/. ,?*%C=??/. ?
,?C%???%"=?,?? ."%?2%" %K%?=???,
? 295 ?
А.А. Ковалева, В.И. Аникина, Н.Н. Загиров
`?=?,? -%!?,!%"=?, ?2!3*23!?/. ?%? " ?2!3?*%"%?
?=2?!,=?? ,? ?C?="= AD31, C%?3????%?% %K!=K%2*%L
?="???,??
? 304 ?
???????? ?.?. ?????? ????????? ?.?. ???????
???????????? ??????? ?.?. ?????????
????????? ? ?????? 27.05.2014 ?. ?????? 84x108/16. ???. ???. ?. 11,3.
??.-???. ?. 10,8. ?????? ???. ?????? ????????. ????? 1000 ???. ????? 1260.
?????????? ? ?? ??? ???. 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 82a.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Editorial board for Engineering & Technologies:
Vladimir Kulagin ? Series Editor, Siberian Federal
University, Russia
Yury Alashkevich ? Siberian State Technological
University, Russia
Sereeter Batmцnkh ? Institute of Heat Engineering
and Industrial Ecology Mongolian Academy of
Sciences, Mongolia
Yuri Biba ? Dresser-Rand Company, USA
Carsten Drebenstedt ? Technische University
Bergakademie Freiberg, Germany
Yury Galerkin ? Saint Petersburg State Polytechnic
University, Russia
Gennady Gritsko ? Institute of Petroleum Geology and
Geophysics Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian
Branch, Russia
Georg Guggenberger ? Institute of Soil Science Leibniz
University Hannover, Germany
Lev Endzhievsky ? Siberian Federal University, Russia
Feng-Chen Li ? School of Energy Science and
Engineering Harbin Institute of Technology, China
Vladimir Makarov ? Siberian Federal University, Russia
Aleksandr Mineev ? Siberian Federal University, Russia
Vladimir Moskvichev ? Special Designing and
Technological Bureau ?Nauka? Krasnoyarsk
Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of
Sciences, Siberian Branch, Russia
Bernard Nacke ? Institute of Electrotechnology Leibniz
University of Hannover, Germany
Oleksandr Nemchin ? CEO of the State Research
Institute of Innovative Technologies in Power
Energy and Energy Efficiency of the Fuel and
Energy Ministry of Ukraine, Ukraine
Valeriy Nikulin ? Kamsk Institute of Humanitarian and
Engineering Technologies, Russia
Oleg Ostrovski ? University of New South Wales,
Australia
Harald Oye ? Norwegian University of Science and
Technology, Norway
Vasili Panteleev ? Siberian Federal University, Russia
Petr Polyakov ? Siberian Federal University, Russia
Victor Timofeev ? Siberian Federal University, Russia
Ibragim Khisameev ? Kazan State Technological
University, Russia
Anatoly Shvidenko ? International Institute for Applied
Systems Analysis, Austria
Galina Chiganova ? Siberian Federal University, Russia
????????????? ? ??????????? ???
?? ? ??77-28-722 ?? 29.06.2007 ?.
????? ???????? ? «???????? ???????
????????????? ??????? ???????? ? ???????,
? ??????? ?????? ???? ????????????
???????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ??
????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ? ?????????
????» (???????? 2010 ?.)
Г.И. Рааб,
Э.И. Фахретдинова, Р.З. Валиев
p=?!=K%2*= , ,?????%"=?,? ??2%?= qkhoohod ?? C%?3???, =???,?,?"/. C%?3-=K!,*=2%"
"/?%*%?% *=???2"=
? 309 ?
Ю.Н. Логинов, Р.К. Мысик
m?C!?!/"?/? ??2%?/ ?,2?
" C!%,?"%??2"? *%?2=*2?%?%
??????%?%!%??%?% 2!=??C%!2=
, C!%*=2*,
C!%"%?= ??
? 316 ?
А.М. Барышников, М.Л. Гафт
o!,?????,? ?=??!?%?% =?=?,?=2%!= ?? ?%!2,!%"*,
?,??!=???%?% ?/!? , ?2=K,?,?=?,, ?/!??"/.
?????L " !??,?? !?=???%?% "!????, " C!%,?"%??2"?
?"?2?/. ??2=??%"
? 327 ?
В.А. Попков,
Н.А. Науменко, Т.А. Кулагина
p=???2 2?C?%?=??%%K???= C!, ?%??%"!?????%?
.!=???,, !=?,%=*2,"?/. %2.%?%"
? 340 ?
А.А. Пьяных
`?=?,? C!,?????, *%?K,?,!%"=??/. ?%????L C!,
*!=2*%?!%??%? C!%??%?,!%"=?,, "!?????/. ! ?%"
? 359 ?
А.Г. Корчунов, Д.К. Долгий
g=",?,?%?2?
!??=*?=?,%??%L
?2%L*%?2,
"/?%*%C!%??%L ?2=K,?,?,!%"=??%L =!?=23!/ %2
?,*!%?2!3*23!/ ?2=?, C%??? ??.=?%2?!?,???*%L
%K!=K%2*,
? 364 ?
Alexander G. Solovyev,
Michael V. Shitov and Dmitry O. Drobny
Prospects of Medium Thickness Slabs Application in
Technological Complex ?Continuous Slab Casting $
Hot Rolling MillB
? 372 ?
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 3 (2014 7) 251-262
~~~
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Received 22.05.2013, received in revised form 27.02.2014, accepted 14.03.2014
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??????????????? ???????, ??????????? ????????????? ???????????. ??????? ????
(Oberharz): ????????? ????????? ???????? ?????, ?????? ?????, ?????????? ???? ?????????,
?????????? ???? ???????? ?????, ?????? ????, ???? ?????-????????. ??????? ???? (Mittelharz):
?????? ?????, ?????????? ???? ????????????, ???????? ????????????, ????????? ?????????
????? ?????. ?????? ???? (Unterharz): ?????? ?????? ?????, ?????? ??????, ?????????? ????
??????????, ??????????????? ???? ??????. ?? ????????? ?????????? ? ????? ???????????:
?????? ???????, ?????? ?????? ? ????????? ???????? ???????? ? ??????????????? ?????
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????????????? ? ?????? ??????????????? ?????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ???????
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???????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ??????? ????????????.
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?????????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ????? ? ???-??????? ?? ??????-????? ?
????????????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ??
???? ???????????????? ???????????, ?????????????? ????????? ? ????????????. ????????
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*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: rgev@ysu.am
# 251 #
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?.?. ????, ?.?. ????????. ???????????? ?????? ???????????? ????????????? ????? ?????
????????
???????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????-????????????? ?????? ???????? ? ???????? ? ????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ????? ? ??????-?????? ?? ???-?????? ?
???????????????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ????
???????????????? ???????????, ?????????????? ????????? ? ????????????. ???????? ?????
???? ?????????, ??????????, ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ???? ?????????? (???. 1) [1].
?????? ?????? ???? ????????????? ? ???????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ? ????????
????????????? ??????? ????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ? ?????? ????????-???????.
? ???????????????? ????????? ???? ????????? ? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ????????,
??????-??????? ? ???????? (???. 1).
? ?????????????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ???? ???????????? ????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ? ??????. ???
???????? ????????? ? ????? ??? ??????? ? ????? ? ??????-???????, ??? ???????????? ?? 250 ?
??????? ????????????? ????????? ? ???????????, ??????????? ?. ?????? (1142 ?).
?????? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ???????????????????????
?????????????????? ????????, ? ??????? ??????????????? ??????? ????????? ? ??????????????? ???????????. ? ????????????? ???????? ????? ????????? ??? ??????? ??????????????? ???????, ??????????? ????????????? ???????????.
??????? ???? (Oberharz): ????????? ????????? ???????? ?????, ?????? ?????, ??????????
???? ?????????, ?????????? ???? ???????? ?????, ?????? ????, ???? ?????-????????.
??????? ???? (Mittelharz): ?????? ?????, ?????????? ???? ????????????, ???????? ????????????, ????????? ????????? ????? ?????.
?????? ???? (Unterharz): ?????? ?????? ?????, ?????? ??????, ?????????? ???? ??????????, ??????????????? ???? ??????.
?? ????????? ?????????? ? ????? ???????????: ?????? ???????, ?????? ?????? ? ????????? ???????? ???????? ? ??????????????? ????? ??????? ?????, ?????? ????.
???. 1. ????? ?????????????? ??????? ????? [2]
# 252 #
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?.?. ????, ?.?. ????????. ???????????? ?????? ???????????? ????????????? ????? ?????
????????? ????????
? ???????? ????? ? ????????? ????? ???????? 14 ??????????????? ? ????????????? ????????? ???. ?? ??????????? ????????? ?????????????? ? ??????? ???? ???????? ??? ??
?????? ??????? ????????? ? ???? ????????????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? (???. 2). ??????
?? ??? ????????? ???????, ? ???????? ??, ?? ?????? ?????????? ??????????????, ?????????
? ????????? ??????? ?????? [2, 3].
?????????. ????????????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ??????????????? ??????? ?? ??? ??????? ??????: ?? ???-??????? (??) ??????????
??????????????-????????? ????, ?? ??????-?????? (??) ? ?????????????? ????. ? ??????????
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???? ???????? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ???. ???????? ??????? ??????????????? ????? ?????????? ?? ?? ??????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????? («?????????
????»), ??? ?????? ??????????????, ? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????, ?. ?. ???????????? ?????????,
?????????????? ? ???? ???????? ?????, ? ??????? ??????????? «??????????? ????» (Westfal?
Stefan).
??? ???????????? ????????? ???????? «????????????» ????? ???????????????, ? ?? ????? ??? ????????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ???????? ?????. ??????????? ????????????? ????? ????? ????????????? ????? ??? ???????????? ????? ???????
??????????????? ???????? ? ????????? ? ???? ???????????? ?????. ? ????? ???????? ? ?????
????????? ???????-????????????? ????????????, ??? ??????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?
?????????? ???????, ? ????? ?????? ???????? ???????????. ???????? ?? ?? ??????? ????????????? ???????????? «????????? ????».
??????? ??? ????? ? ???????????? ????????????, ? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??????????
? ????????? ?????????. ????? ????????? ???????????? ? ??????? ??????? ? ?????? ?????
(????) ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????. ? ???? ??????? ????????????? ????????? ??????????,
?? ???????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????. ??? ???? ? ?????? ?????
?????????? ??? ???????????: ????? ??????????? (??????????) ? ???? ??????????? (??????????). ???????????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ? ???????? ??????? ? ???????????
????????? ? ??????????? ???????????. ???????????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ???????????
????????? ?? ?????????-??????????????? ????????. ???????? ??????????? ???? ????????
??? ? ?????? ??????????? ????? (?????? ???????), ??? ? ? o???? (????????). ? ????????? ??????
??????? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????????? ????. ?????????? ?? ???????????
???????????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ??????. ?????? ?????????????
?????????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????.
?????? ????????????? ???????? ??? ????? ???????????? ??? ?????????? ????????. ????
????????????? ???????? [4] ? ????????-?????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????. ? ??? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ???? ??????? ????, ? ?? ????? ??? ??????? ? ?????? ????????
?? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? (??? «????? ??????? ?????» ? «?????-???????»),
? ?? ???????? ????? ????????????? ? ?????? ???? ??????. ??? ???? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ? ???? ????? ??????????????? ??? «????????????? ????» ???????? ????????????
?????????????. ?????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ? ????? ???????
???????? ??? ???? 50?60 ??.
# 253 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????, ?.?. ????????. ???????????? ?????? ???????????? ????????????? ????? ?????
?? ?????? ????? ???????? ???? ?????????????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ? ?????????? ????????????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ??????????
?????????. ? ???????? ????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ? ?? ??????????? ????? ???????. ????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????, ?????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ?? ????????? ?????, ?????? ????? ??????????? ?????? ????
????????????? ?????????, ???????????? ????????????? ???????. ? ??? ????????? ???????
????????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ? ??????????.
?????????????, ??? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ????? ? ??????? ? ????????.
???????? ???????????????? ????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ???? ?
?????????? ??????????. ?? ??????????? ??????????????, ?????????? ? ?? ????? ??????????,
??????? ??????? ????? ????????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????? ????????? ????. ??????
????? ?????????? ???? ?????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ????????. ???????
????????? ?? ? ???, «????????????? ??», ? «????? ???????» ????????? ??????????? ????????
? ??????????? ????????????? ?????? ???????? ???? ? ???????????????????.
?????????????????? ????????. ?????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ???????? [4] ????????????????? ????????? ?????????????? ?? ????, ?????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????????,
????????? ? ????????????? ???????? ????????????. ???? ???? ? ????? ?????????????, ???????????????? ? ???????????????. ??? ???? ???????????? ? ??????? ?????? ? ???-??????
?? ??????-?????? («???????????? ????????????» ???????????). ??? ????????????? ? ???????
????????? ???? ??? ????????????? ? ???????????????? ? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????. ?????????????? ???? ???????????? ????? ????? ?????????
????????. ?? ?????????????? ?????? ? ??????, ??????, ?????? [4], ? ????????????? ??????
?????????? ??????? ????????. ??????? ? ?????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ? ??? ??????????????? ????????????? ?? ?????????????? ????????????????. ?????? ???????????????
????? ???? ??????? ?? ?????? ???????, ?? ????????-?????????-???????????? ?????????
????? ? ? ?????? ?????. ? ??????? ??????-??????? ? ???? ???? ????????? ????? ????? ?????
? ??? ??????????? ?? ?????? ????? ?. ?????????, ?????????? ? ????????????. ??? ?????, ?
??????? ?????? (~385?375 ??? ???), ???????? ????????????? ????????? ????? ??????. ?????????? ????????? ????? ?????????????? ????????? ????, ??? ?????????? ?????????????????
??? ???????????????? ??????????????? ????. ??????????????? ?????? ? ????????? ????
??????????, ????????, ? ???????? ????? ??????????? ???? (???????? ??????????) ? ? ???????????, ? ????? ???? ????????? ????? ?. ????? ? ????????????. ? ??????? ?????? (~370?355
??? ???) ??????????????? ????? ? ???????????????? ??????????????? ???? ???????????, ???
???? ????????? ???? ?????????? ? ???? ??????. ????? ????? ????????? ?????? ?, ????? ???????,
?????? ???????? ?????? ? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ????????? ????????, ??????? ? ???? ????? ???????????? ?????????????? ???????????. ?????? ??????????????
???? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ??????????????? ? ???????? ????????? ????? ? ? ?????.
????????, ?? ??? ????? ???????????????? ??????????????? ????? ? ?????????????? ????? ????????? ?????????????????? ? ?????? ??????? ??????-??????-???? ?????. ???????
????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? (????? ? ??. [4]). ???????????????? ??????????????? ???? ??????????? ?? ????? ???? ?????????????? ????? ? ???????????? ????????????
# 254 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????, ?.?. ????????. ???????????? ?????? ???????????? ????????????? ????? ?????
?????? (???????) ? ???????? ????????? ????. ?? ??????? ???????-???????? ??????? (~320
??? ???) ? ??? ????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ???????????????, ???????
????? ???? ????????????? ? ????????? ???? ?? ??????. ? ?????????????? ???? ?????????
??????????? ?????????? ?? ???-?????? ? ??????-?????, ??????? ??????? ? ?????????? ????
? ???????????? ???????????? ?? ????? ????????, ???????? ? ?????. ??? ????? ???????? ???????? ? ?????.
?????????. ??????? ??????? ?????????????? ????? ???????? ????? ????? ???? ???????????????? ?? ?????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?????, ?? ? ?
??????? ?????????? ???????-?????????????? ????????????? ??????? (???. 2).
1. ??????????-????????? ????????. ?????? ???? ????? ? ????? ???????????? ????????
??? ?????? ????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ????? ???? ???????????? ? ?????? ? ????????? ? ?????????????????? ????????????-????????? ?????? ??????-??????????? ????. ????????? ???????? ????? ?????: ?? ???????? ?????? ????? ??????? ? ?? ?????????? ????????
?????? ?? ????????? ????????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ? ??????-???????? ????? ??????? ??????? [1].
?? ?????? ????????????????? ????????, ????? ??????????? ??????????????? ? ?????????????? ???????, ???????? ????? ???????? ????????? ?????????????? ? ???????? ???????
???????. ?????? ? ???????????????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ????? ???????????? ???????, ??????????? ? ??????? ???????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????. ??? ???????? ??? ????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ? ?????????????? ??? ? ???????
(?????-????????), ??? ? ? ?????? ?????. ??? ?????? ????????? ????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ????? ?????? ????????-????????????? ??????. ????? ??? ????????? ???????????? ? ???????????????? ????????, ????????? ? ???????????? ???? ????.
???. 2. ???????? ????? ?????????? ????? ?????????????? ??????? [2]: 1 ? ?????????? ?????? ???????
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?? ??????????? ??????????? ??? ???????? ???????????, ??? ? ??????, ??????????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?? I ?? II ???? ?????????? [1].
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V ???? (???. 4) ? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ????? ????? ?????????
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(?? IV ? II ???? ?? ??????????? [6]).
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3), ????????, ????????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????? ??????? ? ????? (????????) ???????????. ? ????? ? ???????????? ???????? ? ???? (??????????) ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????????? ?????
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[1] ???????? ?.?., ???? ?. ????????????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ????????????? ????? ????? (????????) ? ??????-?????????? ??????? (???????) ??.: ???? ?????, 2009. 307 ?.
[2] Mohr K. Geologie des Harzes. E.Schweizerbart?sche Verlagsbuchhandlung (Nдgele u. Obermiller) Stuttgart, 1993. S. 496.
[3] Bachmann G.H., Ehling B.-C., Eichner R. und Schwab M.: Geologie von Sachsen-Anhalt.
Stuttgart: E. Schweizerbart?sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 2008. S. 217.
[4] Mцbus G. Abriss der Geologie des Harzes. B. G. Teubner Verlagsgesellschaft Leipzig, 1966.
S. 219.
[5] Fuchs W. // Untersuchungen zur Geologie und Petrographie des Okerplutons im Harz. Clausth.
Tekt. H. 9, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, 1969. S. 111?185.
[6] ?????????? ?.?. ??????-?????????? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????. ???.
?? ????, 1957. 82 ?.
[7] ???? ?., ???????? ?.?. // ????????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ????????????????? ???????????, ?????????? ? ???????? (????? ? 2011). ?.: ????? ???, 2011. ?. 33?38.
[8] ???????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ???????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????. ?.: ?????, 1974. 223 ?.
The Dynamic Model of the Formation
of Igneous Rocks of the Harz Mountains
Irina K. Klisch and Rudolf G. Gevorkyan
Yerevan State University
1 Alek Manukyan, Yerevan 025, Armenia
The present paper describes a petrological-geochemical model of migration in the Harz mountains.
The tolaidic magmatic core changed direction from southeast to northwest which led to stepwise
alteration of the melting. Reasons for chemical alteration are progressing palingenesis, magmatic
displacement and metasomatosis.
Keywords: model, Harz mountains, granitoids, palingenesis, metasomatosis, tectonic stresses,
variscan slip zone.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 3 (2014 7) 263-269
~~~
??? 622.5; 622.58
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????????? ??????????? ???????????
??????, 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
Received 24.09.2013, received in revised form 21.12.2013, accepted 24.02.2014
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????????? ????? ? ??????? ????? ???????. ?? ?????????, ?????????????? ? ?????????
????????????? ?????? ??????? (International Energy Outlook), ??????? ?????????????????
? 2020 ?. ????????? ?? 40?45 %, ??? ??????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????? ???? ?????
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??????? ?????????? ????????? («???????????????????, ????????????????, ??????? ??????????»).
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*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: temich88@mail.ru
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40 %. ?????????? ????????, ??? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????
?????????? ?????? ? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????.
????????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ????????????? ???? ?? 2020 ?. ??????????????? ????? ???????? ??????????-???????? ???? ?? ???? ?????????? ? ????????? ????
??????? ????????????? ??????? ?? ?????-????????????? ? ?????????????????? ????????.
?? ??????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ??????????, ???????????? ???????, ?????????????? ????? ? ??????????? ???????. ??? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ???? ? ???????????? ??????????????? ????????????.
??? ????????????????, ? ????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????, ??????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ??????????, ???????????? ????? ???????????? ??????
????? ? ?????? ??????????????????? ?????? ????????? ???. ??? ???????? ?????????????
??????????????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ??????????
??? ?????? ?????????????????? ????? ????????? ??? ?? ????????? ?????????????? ? ??????? ????.
?? ??????, ?????????? ? ???? ?????????? ?? ??????? ????????? ??? ? ??????? ????
?? ??????? «?????????», ?? ???????????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ??????????????, ?
????? ?? ??????, ??????????? ?.?. ???????????? [1], ???? ????????? ??????? ?????????
??????????? (???. 1?3).
??? ????? ?? ???. 1?3, ?????? ? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????????????? ??????????? ????????????. ????? ???????, ??? ???????????? ?????? ????? ? ?????? ?????? ????????? ???
?????????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ? ?????? ???????????? ???????????, ? ?????? ??????
???????????? ? ?????? ????????????? ???????????. ??? ???????? ??????? ?????????????????
?? ???? ?????????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ?????????. ????? ????, ??? ???????????????
30
250,0
25
200,0
20
150,0
15
100,0
10
50,0
5
0,0
0
????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ?????????,
?3/?
300,0
????????? 2005
????????? 2006
????? ??????????? ?? ?.?. ????????????? ,
?3/?
??????????? ? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????.
???????????? ?.?. [1]
???. 1. ?????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ??? ? ??????? ???? ?? ??????? «?????????» ? ??
?????? ?.?. ?????????????
# 264 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ??????????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ??? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????????
????? ???????????, ?3/?
3,5
3,0
2,5
2,0
1,5
1,0
???????????? 2007
???????????? 2008
???. 2. ?????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ??? ? ??????? ???? ?? ???????????? ?????????????
350
300
????? ???????????, ?3/?
250
200
150
100
50
0
1997
1998
1999
2000
???. 3. ?????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ??? ? ??????? ???? ?? ???????????? ????????????
????????????? ?? 8 ???
? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????????, ?? ?????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?
??????.
?? ???. 3 ?????, ??? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ? ??? ??
??????? ? ?????????? ?? 17,5 ?? 316,5 ?3/?. ????????????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ??? ????? ? ???????? ?? 40 ?? 98 ?3/?. ?????????? ??????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ? ??????
? ?????? ?? ?????? ? ?? 5,3 ?? 83,6 ?3/?. ????? ???????, ?????????? ??????? ????????? ??? ?
??????? ???? ???????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ? 3?6 ???.
? ????. 1 ???????????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????? ????????? ??? ? 1997 ??
2004 ??., ? ?? ???. 4 ? ??????????? ????? ?????????????.
?? ??????????? ?????, ??? ????? 50 % ??????????? ????????? ? ???????? ???????????
????????.
# 265 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ??????????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ??? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????????
??????? 1. ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ???
????
??????????, ?3/?
?????
???????????, %
23
219
52,6
4
65
15,6
3
57
13,7
4
36
8,7
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
5-40
32
32
30
26
32
24
20
40-74
3
15
13
13
1
11
5
74-109
11
3
5
9
6
8
12
109-143
2
2
2
2
8
9
7
143-178
2
0
2
1
3
0
2
5
15
3,6
178-212
1
0
0
1
1
0
2
7
12
2,9
212-247
0
0
0
0
1
0
4
4
9
2,2
247-281
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
2
0,5
281-317
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
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???????????
?, ?3/?
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281-317
7
???. 4. ??????????? ???????????
??? ??????????????? ???????? ??????????? ? ?????? ???? ????????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ??? ? ??????? ???? ?? 8 ???:
Q
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°
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°
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??? Q ? ????? ????????? ???, ?/?; t ? ?????????? ????? ?????? ? ????.
# 266 #
(1)
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ??????????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ??? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????????
? ????. 2 ???????????? ?????????????? ??????????, ??????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????-??????? ????????????? (1) ??? ?????? ?????????? 0,05. ? ??????????????
????????????? ????????, ??? ??????? ?????????? 0,05 ???????????? ????????, ???????????
??? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????. ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ????, ??? ?????????? ?????????????? ? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ??????????
??????????. ????? ???????, ??????? (1) ????????? ?????????????? ?????? ????????????
????????? ??? ? ??????????? ???????????? 0,95.
?? ???. 5 ??????????? ?????? ?????? (1).
??????????? ???????????? ??????????, ??? ? ?????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ????
???????????? ?????????? ?? ??????????????? ???????????, ??? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ????? ? ?????????? ?????? [4].
?????????? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ??? ????? ???????????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ?????? ????? ?? ???????????? ????????????
?????????????.
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????? ???????
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# 267 #
50
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ??????????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ??? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????????
??? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ?? ????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ?????????????
????????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????? 320 ?3/?, ?? ??????? ??? ?????????????? ???????
???? ???????? ????????? ????180-340.
? ?????? ?? ????? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ??? ???????? ????????, ? ? ?????????
??? ? ????. ?? ??????? ????????????????? ?????????? 4 150 440 ????? ? ???. ??? ?????? ??
?????????????? 0,1828 ???/????? ??????? ????? 758 700 ???/???.
????????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ??? 184 ???, ? ??? ??????????? ???????????? (181-182 ??? ? ????) ?????????? ????????? ??? ?? ????????? 83,6 ?3/? (???????? ???. 3),
???????????? ?????????? ?????? ???? 105-343 ? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ? ????
????? ?? 560/300 ? ?????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????? ???.
????? ????????????????? ???????? 2 885 664 ????? ? ???. ??????? ?? ?????????????? ?
527 499,4 ???/???. ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ? ?????? ??????? ??????
????????? ??? ???????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?? ?????????????? ? ????? ????????????????? ?? 30 %.
? ???? ????? ????? ??????? ?????, ??? ???????????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ???, ??? ???????? ??????? ????????????????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ???? ???????? ?? ??? ????????, ? ? ????????? ??????? ??? ??????????
?????????? ???????? ???? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ???? ????????? ? ???
?????????.
?????? ??????????
[1] ????????????, ?.?. ?????? ?????????????: ???????. 2-? ???., ???????. ? ???. ?.: ????? ???, 2007. 448 ?.
[2] ????????, ?.?. ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ??? ?????????? ????????. ??????????: ???-?? ???, 1988.
[3] ???????????? ???????. ????????????? [??????????? ???????]. ? ????? ???????: http://
enc-dic.com/colier/Gidrologija-2256.html.
[4] ??????????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ?????????? ?.?. ?????????????? ?????? ?????????
??????? ????? ? ?????????? ??????. ?.: ???-?? ???, 1998.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ??????????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ??? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????????
Analysis of the Groundwater Conditions
in the Development
of Waterlogged Mineral Deposits
Victor ?. Kislyakov,
Tatiana ?. Veretenova and Artem ?. Guzeev
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
The paper studies conditions of the groundwater inflow throughout the year, and suggests to carry
out the mine planning on the basis of these conditions. A prediction model of the groundwater inflow
dynamics in open cast mining was created on the example of the Natalkinskoye gold deposit.
Keywords: flow rate, water-logged mineral deposits, groundwater conditions, mine drainage, pumping
stations, power saving.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 3 (2014 7) 270-289
~~~
??? 621.762
?????????? ??????????? ????? ??????????
?????????? ? ??????????
?????????????? ??????????,
???????????????? ?????????????
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ????????,
?.?. ????????*?, ?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ???????,
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ????????, ?.?. ???????
?
????????? ??????????? ???????????
??????, 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
?
????????? ???????????????
??????????????? ???????????
??????, 660014, ??????????,
??. ????? ?????? «???????????? ???????», 31
?
??????? ??????????????? ???????????
??????, 634050, ?????, ??. ??????, 30
Received 30.09.2013, received in revised form 05.11.2013, accepted 27.02.2014
????????? ????? ?????? ? ??????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ???????
??????? WC-Co. ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ? ?????????????? ????????????
??????? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ? ????????? ? ???????????????????,
??????????-????????????????? ???????? ? ??????????????? ???????? ?????????
?????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ????? ????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????
? ??????? ???????? ????????, ??????????? ?????????????? ? ?????????? ???????
???????. ???????????, ????????? ? ?????? ???????? ??????, ???????????? ??????????
??????? ????????????? ?????????, ?, ??? ?????????, ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????
?????????? ? ??????????????? ????????? ? ?????. ?????????? ?????????? ????????
???????? ??????? ????? ????????? ???? (?????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ??
???????? ????????????????). ?????????? ????????? ??????????, ??? ???????????????
????????????? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ??????-???????????? ???????
??????? ???????: ?????????, ????????????????, ????????? ?? ?????, ?????? ?????????,
???????????????.
???????? ?????: ???????????, ?????????????? ?????????, ???????????????? ?????????,
??????????? ??????, ????????? ?? ?????, ????????????????? ????????, ???????????????
??????, ?????? ?????, ?????? ?????????.
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: mexanixs@mail.ru
# 270 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ???????????
????????
?????? ????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ????????????????????? ?????????? ??????????, ??? ????? ?? ????????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?
??????? ?? ?? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????? ? ??????? ??????? ????????? ???? ???????? 300?400 ??. ?????????? ????- ? ??????????????????????? ???????? ?
????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ????? ??? ???????????????????
???????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????? ?? ???????????????? ?????????? ?????????, ?????????, ???????????????? ? ???????? ?? ????????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ???????????.
???????? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????, ??????????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ? ??????????????, ????????????????, ???????? ??????????? ? ???????? ? ???????? ??????????????, ???????????????
???????, ????????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ???????? ???????? ? ?.?. ??????????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????
???????????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ??????????????????? ?????????? ?? ?? ??????, ???????????? ????? ????????????? ??????? ? ???????????????, ??????????????? ??
??????-???????????? ? ???????????????? ???????, ????????????? ????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ? ????????. ?????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ????? ???? ?????????? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ???????????????????? [1, 2] ????? ????????????? ????????????? ???????? ??????? ????????? [3-5] ???? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ????????
???????, ?????, ??????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ???????, ????????, ??????? ?????? ????
??????????? ????? ????? ???????? ???? WC ??? ???????? [6-8]. ????????????? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ?? ???? ????????????? ????????? ????
?????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ??????? ????? ? ??????? [9, 10]. ?????????? ???????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????? ?? ????? ???????????? ??? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????-??????????? ??????????, ??? ??? ??? ????? ????????????
???????????? ????????? ??????-???????????? ??????? ? ???????????????? ?????????????
??? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ?????????, ??? ?????????? ????????????
??????? (???????????) ?????????? ? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?? ????????????
? ????????. ?? ??????? ?????? ???? ?????? ?????????? ????????????, ?????????? ???????
????????? ? ????????? ??????.
???????? ?????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ???????, ???????? ? ????????, ???????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????????
??????????, ????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ? ????????? ???????? ???????? ??????, ?????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?? ?? ?????? ? ?????????????? ?????????????.
??????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ???? ???????????? ??????? ? ????????
??????? ????? ????????? ??????-???????????? ? ???????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ??????????????????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ??? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ????????, ???????? ????????, ???????? ???????? ??????-????????? ??????? [11], ?????????????, ? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ????????
[12, 13], ????????????????? ??????? ??????? ??????????????? ???????????.
# 271 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ???????????
?????? ? ?????????? ????????????
??? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????, ???????? (? ??? ????? ?????????
???????? ??????? ????????? ? ????????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ?
???????? ???????? ????????) ???????????? ???????????? ???? MettlerToledoAB204-S/FACT ?
????????? ????????? ?? 0,1 ??. ?????????????? ????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ????????
??? ?????????? ????????? ?? ????? (ISO/CD 3327), ???????? Ш10x10 ?? ??? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ? ??????-???????????? ?????????????. ?????????????? ? ?????? ?????
(??-????????????????) ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ?????? ????????
????????? ? ????????? ??????? ????????? ? ???????? ? ?????? ??????? ????????????,
?????????? ? ??????? ???????, ?????????? ???????? ? ????????? ????? ??? ??????????????? ? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?? ????????? SPS 515S SYNTEX. ?? ???????? ?????????????
?????????? ????????????? ????????? ??????-???????????? ??????????????: ? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ??????????? DIL402; ?? ????????? ???????? ? ????????? ???????????????? ??????? ?? ISO 3369; ????????? ?? ???????? ? ??????????? ????????????????
(K1?) ?? ?????? ?????????? ?? ??????????????? ??-7?-1 ????? ????????? ????? ???????,
?????????????????? ?? ???? ????????? ????????? ???????? (?????????? ??? ????????? 100,
200, ? 300 ?) ?? ISO/DIS 28079; ??????????????? ???????? ????????? ASTMB611-85; ??????????
? ?????????? ??????? ?? ISO 4505; ???????????? ???? ?? ??????? «???????» ? ????????????
? ISO 3326. ?????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? HITACHI TM 1000 ? ????????? ??????????? ???????????
JEOL JSM-7001F, JEOL JSM-7500F? ? ??????????????????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ? ?????????? ???????????????; ??????????????????? ? ??????????????? ?????? ???????????? ??
????????????? D8 ADVANCE. ???????? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????? ??????????
?????????? (? ??? ????? ?????????????) ? ?????????????? ??????????????????? ??????????
?? ?????? WC ??????????? ??????? ????????????? ?????????????? ? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ShimadzuXRD-7000. ??????????????? ???????? ???????? ? ????????
?????????? ??????????? ??????? ??? ? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ? ??????? ????????? 0,1?2000 ?2/?. ?? ????????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ? ??????????? ? ?? ???????? ?????????, ?.?. ?? ??????
???????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ???. ???????? ????????????? ? ?????????????????? ????????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ???????????? ? ?????????????? ????????????????????? ????????????? ???? ShimadzuDUH-211S.
????? ????????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ?????????, ???????? ?????? ??????????
?????????, ????????????? ???? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ???????????.
????????????? ?????? ?? ???????? ???????? ? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ?? ??????? SALD-7101 Shimadzu ? ???.
?????????? ????????????????? ????????????.
?????? ???????????? ???????? ? ???????
???????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? (???. 1) ??? ??????? ???????? ???????? ZrC, TiC, W? ??? ?????????? ? ?????????, ???????????? ??????? ??? ?????????, ????
# 272 #
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???. 1. ?????????? ??????????????? ???????????????
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0,875
???????? ? ?????? [14]. ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ????????????, ???????????? ??? ????????? ??????? ??????? ????????????? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ?????????????? ????????????? (????. 1) ? ????????????? ?????????????
???????. ??? ??????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ????????????????: ??? ??????? 500 ?, ????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???? ?? ???????????
??????, ???????????? ???????????? ????????, 80 ??????. ? ???????? ?????? ??? ??????????
???????? ?????, ????????, ???????? ??????????? ???????. ??? ????????????? ???????????????? ??????? ? ?????? ????? ??????????????? ??????? ?? ???????? 1 ??? ????????? ??????? ????? 30 % ??????????? + 70 % Ar.
???????????, ??? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????? ???????? ????????,
????????? ?? ????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? (+226,8 ???/
????), ????????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ?????, ?? ???? ??????? ??????? ? ??????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ? ??????? ????????? ?
???????.
# 273 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ???????????
??? ??????? ???????? ? ??????? ?????? ??????? ????? (?????) ?????????, ????????, ??
????? 5 % ?2 + 95 % Ar ??? ??????????????. ?????????????? ?????????? ? ????????????????
?????? ???????: ??????? ??????????? ???????? ???????, ???????????? ????????, ?????????
???? ? ????????, ???????? ??????? ????? ? ??.
????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ? ???????????????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ???????????????? ??????, ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ? ????????
?????? ?? 10 ?? 100 ?? [15].
????? ????????????????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?? ???? ??????????? ?????????????
?????????????????? ?????????? (????), ????????????? ? ??????? ??????????????? ???????????? (???. 2). ???????? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ? ?????? ??????? ????????
?????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????????? ? ???????? ??????? ? ??????? ??????????????????.
??? ?????? ???? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ?
????? ??? ? ??????-???????, ??????????? ???????? ????????? ??????????. ? ???????? ??????
????????? ? ?????????? ????? ?????????????? ???????????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????
?? ???????? ?????????, ?????????????? ????????????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????, ??????? ????? ?????? ? ??????????? ????????? ????????
???????? ? ??????? ? ??????????, ??????? ??? ??????. ????????? ? ???????????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????????, ??????????????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????.
?????????? ???????????? ????????, ??? ????????? ?????? ????????????????? ???????
? ??????????? ?????????????? ???? ??????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ? ??????????
???????? ????????? ????? ? ?? ??????? ?????????????? ?? ????????, ?????? ?? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ???????????????? ??????? ?? ?????????
?????????? (WC). ??? ????????? ????????????? (?? ?????????? WC, ?????????? ??????????
????????) ??????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ? ??? ??????. ?????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?? ??????????? ???????
????????????????? ???????, ? ????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????????-
?
?
???. 2. ?????, ?????????? ? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????????????? ?????????: ? ? ???????? ?????????; ? ? ?????? ??????????: 1 ? ??????????? ????????; 2 ? ????????-?????; 3 ? ????????
???????????? ?????????; 4 ? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????; 5 ? ???????? (5'- ??????????
???????, 5»- ????????, 5'» ? ?????????? ??????); 6 ? ????????; 7 ? ??????; 8 ? ????????; 9 ? ??????????
????????? ????????????? ??????? (9' ? ?????????? ????-Z????, 9» ? ???????? ?????????? ?????????)
# 274 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ???????????
??????? 2. ?????????????? ??????????? ????????, ???????????????? ??????? ????????????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ? ???????
???????????? ?????????
??.
???.
?????????? ? ?????????
???????????
????????
??????????
??????????
??????????
????????
???????? ??????????? ?????? WC
?2/?
?1
± 0,03
2-10
????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? WC
???
? 0,2
+0,05
0,12
????????? ??????????????????? ???????
?????? WC ???????????? ???????? ????????
??????? ??????
%
?±30
±30
-15
+28
????????? ?????????? ?????????
%
? 0,4
±0.01
0,2
????????? ?????????? ????????
%
?±0,1
±0,01
0,08
?
?
???. 3. ??????? ????????????????? ? ??????????? ?????? ????????????? ?? ???????? ????????????
???????? (?) ? ??????? ????????Al2O3 (?)
??? ?? ??????????????????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????
???????? ?????? ? ?????????????? ? ???????? ????????? ????? ??? ??????? ????? ????????
??????? ????????? ? ???????? ????????? ???????? ? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ????? (Al2O3 ??? ZrO2).
?????? ? ?????????????? ????????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????????????? ??????? ???? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?????????,
???????? ?????????????? ??????? ???????????? ? ????. 2.
???????????????, ?????????????????? ? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ?? ?????????????????? ????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???, ??? ?????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?
????????? ???????????, ???????????????????? ???????. ?????????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ? ?????? [13] ? ?? ???. 3. ?????? ??????? ????????????? ?????? ?? ???????? ????????? ???????? ????? ??????? ??????????. ?????????? ???? ???????? ??????
????????????? ????? ?????, ??????? ? ?????????????? ??????????, ? ???????????? ?????? ??????????-???????????????? ?????????: ???????? ???????? ?????? ?? 0,06 ?? 0,4 ???
# 275 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ???????????
???. 4. ?????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ? ?????? ????????
??????? 3. ?????????????? ????????, ?????????? ??????-???????? ????????
???
??????? ??????
??????? ?????? ??????, ???
?1203
?
0,067
?1203
?
0,006
Zr02(Y203)
????., ???.
0,030
Zr02 ? t
????.
0,6
Zr02 ? m
???????????
0,008
? ?????????? ????????????? 0,12 ???. ????? ?????????????? ????????????????? ???????
????????? ????????? ??????? ????? ???????? ????????? ?? ???????????????? ??????????
???????????? ???????? ?????? ???????. ?????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????????? ??????? ???????? ? ?? ????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??? ???????????????, ???
??????????????????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ds ??????????? ????????? ?? ??????????, ??????????? ????????????? (d?) ? ?? ??????????? ??????????. ???????? ???????????
?????????? ? ????????? ?? 2 ?? 10 ?2/? (??? ????????? ??????? ??????? ? ??????????? ???????
????????).
? ???????? ?????????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????, ?????????? ???????
??????-????????? ??????? ???? ??????? ?????????????, ?????????? ???????? ????????? ??
???. 4, ??????? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ?? 0,008 ??? ??? ZrO2 ?? 0,1 ??? ??? ?1203. ??????????? ?????????????? ???????? ????????? ? ????. 3. ?????? ????????????? ????????????
??????? ?? ???????? ????? ??????????? ???????? (???. 3?).
????? ???????????? ??? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ????? ????????????
??????? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????????????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ? ???????????
?? ?????????? ? ????????? ??????? (??? ?????????-??????????? ???????, ?????????? ?????
????? ????????? ???? ? ??????? ??????, ????????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ????????? ??????????????? ? ?.?.).
# 276 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ???????????
???????, ?????????? ????????????,
????????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????,
???????????????? ?????????????
????????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ???????
???????????, ?????? ?????, ?????????? ?? ??????????? ??????????. ???????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ????????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ????? ?????????? ???????, ??????????? ????????? ? ???????????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????. ??? ????????? ??????????????
??????????? ????? ??????? ???????, ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????? ???????????, ?????????? ???????? ????? ????? ????????? ????. ????????? ??????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ? ?????? ???
?????????? ????????????, ???????? ??? ???????????????? ???????, ?, ????? ????, ????????
????????? ?? ???? ??????????????? ???????????, ?????????? ????????? ???????????. ??????????? ???????? ? ?????????? 0,05-0,2 % ?? ????? ????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ?????????, ?? ? ???????? ? ????? (???????? ???????????????? ?? 50 %, ????????? ??
????? ?? 25 %), ????????? ? ????????????? ????????????, ??????? ??????????? ???????????
? ?????????????? ??????????, ? 1,5 ???? ????????? ?????????? ?????. ??????????? ??????
??????, ??????? ??? ????????? ? ?????????? ??? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ??????????, ???????????????? ????????????? ? ???????? ??? ? ???? ?????????????? ?????? ??????? ???????, ???????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ?????
???????? ???? WC, TiC. ??? ????? ????????? ????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????????
????? ??????????? ??????, ??? ?????????? ???????? ???????????????? ? ????? ????????? ?????.
????? ?? ??????? ??????????????? ???????, ??????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????????, ???????? ?????????? ?????????????, ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ?????????
? ????????? ? ?????.
? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????????, ?? ??????????????? ??? ????????? ?????????????
??????????????? ?????????????? ??????????, ??????????? ?????????????? ????????????
?????????????, ???????????? ????????????????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ???????????
??????, ?????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??? ????????. ??? ?????????? ????? ????????????? ??????? ??????? ???????? (????????) ???????????? ?????????????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ? ?????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ?????????.
????? ????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ??????? ????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ??????? 20 ? ?? ????????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????????. ??? ???? ?? ????
???????????? ????????? ? ??????? ? ???????? ???????????????? ??????? ??????????????
?????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ???? ?? ??????????. ??????????
????? ????????????? ????????? ? ????????????? ????????????, ????? ?????????? ????? ?
??????????? ???????????. ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????????, ???????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????, ????????? ?? ???????????????? ????? ??? ????????????? ????????.
# 277 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ???????????
? ????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ????????? ???????????????
????????? ? ???? ??????????? ???????????? ???? ?? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ?? ???????? ??????? ????????? (???. 5?). ??? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????????, ??????????? ????? ??????? ????????? (???. 5?, ????. 4).
???????? ???????????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ????????? ? ?????????????? ????????????? ??????? ??????????????? ?
??????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?? ????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????
(???????? ?????????, ???????? ? ?????????????? ??????? ??????????) ?? ?????? (???. 6).
?????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????????? ??????? ??-6 ? ?????????????? (1, 2
? 3 %) ??????????? ???????? ????????, ?????????????????? ? ?????????????? ???????????
????????? ?????? ??????, ???????? ?? ???? ?????????? ????????? -??????????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? 2SL ? ?????????? «?????» ??????????????? ?????????????? ????????? ???????? [16]. ????????????? ?????? ?? ???????? ???????? ? ????????? ????????
???????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ?? ??????? SALD-7101 Shimadzu ? ???. ?? ??????
???????? ?????????, ???????? D50 ??? ????????????????? ??????? ??-6 ????????? 0,12 ???.
? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ???????
???????? ?????? ?? 80 ??.
?
?
???. 5. ??????????-???????????????? ??????????? ????????????????????? ??????? ???????,
???????????????? ?????????????: ? ? ?????????, ? ? ??????????? ????????? ??? ????????
??????? 4. ?????????? ?????? ???????? ? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ?15?6-???? Al2O3, ?10000
Spectrum
Instats.
C
Al
Ti
Co
W
Total
Spectrum 1
Yes
11.72
26.28
5.92
34.18
21.90
100.00
Spectrum 2
Yes
15.15
46.27
7.52
4.24
26.82
100.00
Spectrum 3
Yes
5.83
10.16
2.54
81.47
100.00
??????????: ????. 4 ????????? ??? ???. 5?.
# 278 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ???????????
?
?
???. 6. ??????????-???????????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ?????? (?) ? ???????????????? ?????? ????????????? Al, Co, W, ?, ? (?)
?????????? ???????????????? ??????? ????????, ??? ????????????? ??????? ??????????????? ?????????, ????????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ? ?????????? 1 %,
????? ??????? ?????? ???????????? (???) ??????? ????????? ????? 150 ?? (???. 7?). ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ? 1 ?? 3 % ???????????? ????????? ? ??????????
???????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ??? ????????? ? ??????? ??????????
? ??-????????? (???. 7?).
?????????? ???????????????? ??????? ????????????????? ???????? ????????, ??? ????????????? ??????? SPS ?????????????? ????????, ???????????? ????????????? ????????
???????? ? ?????????? 1 %, ????? ??????? ?????? ???????????? (???) ??????? ????????? 244
?? (???. 8?). ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ?? 3 % ???????? ? ?????????????
??????????? ????????? ????? ???????? ?????: ??????? ?????? ??? ??? ???? ???????? ???????? ???????? ? ????????? ?? 151 ?? 163 ?? (????. 8?). ??????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ???????, ?? ?????? ???, ?? ????????? 22 ??.
??????? ????????, ??? ???????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ????????? ZrO2 ???? ??????? ??????? ????????? W2C ????? SPS-???????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ????????? WC (???. 8). ??????????? ????????? ???
? ?????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ???????? ????? ?? ??????????.
????????????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ???? ??????????? ?????????, ??? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ?
????????????? ???? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ???????, ???? ?????? ??????? ????????
????? ??????? ????????? (???. 9?). SPS-??????????, ????????, ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? (?? 100 ??) ? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ???? ????? ???????
??????? ??????? ?????????, ???????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ? ??????? (???. 9?). ?????????? ????, ??????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ????????, ?????
???? ????????? ???????????????? ???????? ???????????? (?????????? ???????? ????????????).
# 279 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ???????????
?
?
???. 7. ?????????????? ??????? ??????????????? ?????????, ?????????????? ?????????????? ???????? ??????????????? ? ?????????? ?? ????????????? ??????? ??-6, ????????????? ?????????????
???????? ???????? ? ?????????? 1 % (?) ? 3 % (?)
????????? ????????????? ? ????????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ??????
??????????????? ????????? ???? ?????????? EDS-???????????? (???. 10, 11).
????? ??????????? ??????????, ??? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ?? ????????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ??????? ? ????? ?????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ?????? (? ?????????) ???????????????
????????? ? ??????????? ?? ????????????? ??????? ?? ???????? ???????????????? ????????? ?????.
# 280 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ???????????
?
?
???. 8. ?????????????? ?????????, ?????????????? ??????? SPS ?? ????????????? ??????? ??-6, ????????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ? ?????????? 1 % (?) ? 3 % (?)
???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????
????????? ????? ? ???????????????? ???????, ??? ????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????
?????????????????? ????? ??????????? ???? ??-?? ??????????? ? ??? ???????????? ???????
?????????? ????????.
?????????? ????????? ??????? ?????, ?????????????? ? ??????????? ?????, ????????
????????????, ??? ?? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ?????? WC-6 % Co, WC-8 % Co, WC15 % Co ????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ????? (???. 12)
# 281 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?
?
?
???. 9. ???-??????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????????? ??????????, ?????????
?????? ???????????? ???????? (?) ? ??????? SPS (?)
???. 10. ?????????? EDS-???????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ?????????, ?????????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ? ????????? ?????? ????????
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
???. 11. EDS-????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ???????????????
?????????, ?????????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ? ????????? ?????? ????????
?????? ?????, ???
?????? ?????, ???
?
?????? ?????, ???
?
???. 12. ??????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ??????? ??6 (?), ??8 (?) ? ??15
(?): 1 ? ??????????? ?????, 2 ? ????? ? ????????? Al2O3f ? ????, (d1 ? ?????????? ?????????? ????? WC)
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ???????????
??? ???????? ?????????? ???????? (Al 2O3), ????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?? ???????? ???????.
?????????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ?1203 ??
????????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ? ???????, ??????????? ???
??????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??8 (???. 13, ?????? 3), ???????????????? ?????????????. ???????
??????? ? ????????? ????????? ????????? ?? ????? ? ???? ????? ??????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?1203 (????????????? ? ?????? ?? ? ????? ?????????? ? ??8).
???????? ?????????????? ????????? ????????? ????????????????? ???????? ?????? ??8
????????, ??????, ??? ????, ??? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ?2=0,4 ???. % ?? ???????????? ?
????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????, ??????????? ????????, ??? ??????? ?????
?????????? ????? ???????????? ????????? ?1203-?1203, ? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ????????????????, ?????????? ??????????? ??????????
??????????? ??? ??????????, ??? ? ??????????? ???????? ? ?????. ????? ?????????? ??????
??????????? ? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????????-???????????? ?????????.
??? ??????????? ?????????????? ? ??? ????????????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????
????????????? ?????????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ???????????. ? ???????? ?????????????? ?? ????? «??????????-???????????» ?????????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?? ????????.
??????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????, ? ????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ???
?????? ???????? ??????????????? ???????? ? ???????? ?????????????? (???. 14), ????????
?????? (???. 15), ???????????? ?????????, ????????????? ???? ?????? ??????? ??????????.
?????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????, ??? ???????????? ??? ???????
?????????????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????. ? ?????????, ??????????
???????????? (????????????) ????????? ???????????? ?????? ????????, ????????????? ????-
???. 13. ????????? ????????? ?? ????? (??) ? ??????? ?????????? ????? (d) ? ??????????? ?? ???????????? ??????????? (?): 1 ? ??6 ? ????AI2O3; 2 ? ??15 ? ????AI2O3; 3 ? ????????? ??????? ????? WC ? ??????????? ?? ???????????? ?120? ? ????
# 284 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ???????????
?
?
???. 14. ?????? ???????????? ????????? ??? ?????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????
?????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ZrO2 (?) ? ?????? ???????? (?)
?
?
???. 15. ???????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ??? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?
??????????? ????????? ?????????? ZrO2 (?) ? ?????? ???????? (?)
??? SPS-???????? ?? ???????????????? ? ??-?????????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? (???. 14?), ??????? ???????? ?????????? ???????, SPS-??????????????? ?? ???????????? ???????? ??-6 ? ??-6?? (????? ??????). ????? ???? ?????? SPS-???????????????
???????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????????? ? ????????????
????????????? ZrO2. ?????? ????????? ????????? ??? ?????????, ????????????? 3 % ?????????? ???????? ????????.
???????????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?????????
???????? ??????? ??-8 ? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ????? ????????????
????????? ? ????????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? (???. 14?).
# 285 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ???????????
???????????
?????????
Cit, %
???? ???????
??????
??????????
nit, %
??????????????
Hv, ???
??????
????????? ???
???????????
Eit, ???
??????????
??????????
???????, % ???
??????? 5. ?????????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ??????????, ?????????? ???????
??????????????????????? ??? ???????? ?????????????? 2000 ??
??-6 ????????????
0
305
1,4
38,3
17,54
??-6?? ????????????
0
240
1,1
47,1
19,95
0
300
1,4
42,0
19,50
2
330
1,4
41,2
20,36
3
295
1,4
45,1
22,01
????????
??-6 ????. ?????. ZrO2
??-8 ????????????, ?????. Al2O3
0,1
187
1,6
41,5
14,87
0,2
166
1,4
45,2
15,51
0,3
213
1,5
41,2
16,04
0,4
171
1,6
42,9
15,17
???????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????, ??? ? ?????????, ????????? ???????? ?
0,3 % ?????????? ???????. ??? ???? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????
?? 0,4 % ???????? ? ???????? ???????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?????????.
???????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ???? ??????? ????????? ???????
?????? ????????? ??? ??????????????. ??????????? ????????? ??? SPS-??????????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ?? ?? ?????????? ? ????, ??????
???????????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ? ????????? ? ???????? ZrO2.
??????? ????????, ??? ???????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????????? ???
??????? ????????? ? ????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? SPS??????????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ?????????? ZrO2.
?????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????????????? ????????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????????????????? ??????????????? ??????????, ? ??? ????? ? ???????????
?????????, ???????????? ? ????. 5.
???????? ?????????????? ????????, ????????????? ? ???????????? ? ??????????????
??????????? ? ?????????? ?????????, ???????? ? ????. 6.
??????
1. ??????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ???? ???????????? ??????? ? ???????? ??????? ????? ????????? ??????-???????????? ? ???????????????? ?????????????
??????? ??????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ??????????????????? ???????????? ? ??????????
??? ??????? ???????????? ? ???????????? ?? ?? ?????? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????????, ???????????? ????? ????????????? ??????? ? ???????????????, ??????????????? ??
??????-???????????? ? ???????????????? ???????, ?????????? ?? ????????? ?? ???? ???????
???????????????? ????? ????????????.
# 286 #
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?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ???????????
??????? 6. ???????? ?????????????? ????????????????? ???????? ??????????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ZrO2
????????????
?????????
????????? ??
????????
??????????
??????? (ZrO2), %
0
2
2
3
?????? ?????????
??? ??????
???
? 19
20,36
22,01
9,3
???·
?1/2
? 9,0
???
2000
9,1
8,7
2031
0
2
??????????
????????
??????????
???????
19,49
3
0
????????????????
??. ???.
??????????
? ?????????
???????????
????????
3
2100
2166
2. ????????????? ???????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????? ??
????? ???????????? ??? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????, ??? ??? ??? ????? ????????????
???????????? ????????? ??????-???????????? ??????? ? ???????????????? ?????????????
??? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ?????????, ??? ?????????? ????????????
??????? (???????????) ?????????? ? ??? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ? ????????.
3. ??????????? ????? ?????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ? ????????? ???????????? ???? ?? ??????? WC, ????????? ?????? ?? ???? ??????? SPS????????. ??????????? ?????????????? ????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ? ??????????
?????????????? ??????????.
4. ??????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ????? ????? ???????? ????????? ????, ?? ? ????????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????, ??????????? ??????? ????? ?????????, ??????????????? ???????? ?? ???? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????? (WC,
Co, ???????????).
5. ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ZrO2 ? 1 ?? 3 % ????????????
????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ??? ?????????????? ????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ? ??-?????????.
6. ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ? ???, ??? ? ???? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ? ???????????????? ??????? «?????? ?
????????? ? ????????». ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ??????? ???????, ?????????? ??
???????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????, ??????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????, ???????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ?, ??? ?????????, ??????????
?????????? ?????????? ? ??????????????? ????????? ? ?????; ?????????? (?? ????????? ??
???????????? ???????????) ????????? ?? ????? ?? 25?30 %; ???????????????? ?? 50 %; ??????????????? (????????? ? ?????????) ? 2?2,5-????. ?? ???? ??????? ? ????????? ????????
# 287 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ???????????
?????? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ? 1,3 ?
1,8 ???? ?? ????????? ? ???????? ???????.
?????? ????????? ??? ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ????? ??, ??????????????? ???????? ? 14.513.11.0039 ?? 20.03.2013?., ?????????? «?????».
?????? ??????????
[1] ??????????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. // ???, 2009. C. 337-358.
[2] Ordanyan S. Rumyantsev V. // 2008 E-MRS Fall Meeting and Exhibit, Warsaw University of
Technology, Warsaw, Poland, September 15-19, 2008.
[3] ??????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. // ??????. ?????????? ??????????????. 2006. ?. 1. ? 12.
C. 71-81.
[4] ?????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ?????????????? ?.?. ? ??. // ???. 2011. ?. 439. ? 2.
?. 215-220.
[5] ??????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ? ??. // IV ????????????? ??????????? ?? ??????????????: ??????? ??????????. ?.: ???? ???, 2011. ?. 71.
[6] ?????????? ?.?., ?????????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ? ??. // ???. ??????????? ??????.
2011. ?. 436. ? 5. ?. 623-626.
[7] Gordeev Y., Bucaemsky?., Seher G., Teremov S. // Powder metallurgy world congress and
exhibition. 1998. V. 4. P. 140-146.
[8] ????????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ??????????? ?.?. ? ??. // ??????? ????????????????.
2008. ? 2 (54). ?. 100-105.
[9] ????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ??????????? ?.?. ?????????? ? ???????? ????????? ???????
??????? ? ??????? ?? ???. ?.: ?????, 2004. 486 ?.
[10] ??????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ???? ?.?. // ????????????? ?????????. 2012. ? 5.
?. 76-88.
[11]. ????????? ?.?., ?????????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. // ?????? ??????? ? ??????.
1993. ?. 29. ? 6. ?. 111-112.
[12] ???. 2468989 ?????????? ?????????, ??? B82B 3/00, B22F 9/14. ?????? ????????? ?????????? / ?????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ? ??. // ?????. 10.12.12, ???. ? 34. 6 ?.: ??.
[13] ?????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. // ??????, ??????????????, ????????????. 2012.
? 9. ?. 41-45.
[14] ??????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. ???????????????? ?????? ???????? ? ?????????? ??????????????. ??????????: ???. ?????. ??-?, 2012. 328 ?.
[15] ??????? ?.?. ????????????? ???????? ? ????????: ??????????. ?????????: ???????????, 1988. 320 ?.
[16] Khasanov O., Kachaev A., Dvilis E., Khasanov A. // 11th International Conference and
Exhibition of the European Ceramic Society. Krakow, 21-25 June 2009. Abstracts. 2009. P. 146.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ???????????
Developing Effective ways Formed
of Structure and Properties
of Hard Metal Composites Modified
by Nanoparticles
Yuri I. Gordeeva, Artur K. Abkaryana,
Aleksandr S. Binchurova, Vitaly B. Jasinskia,
Igor V. Karpovb, Anatoliy A. Lepeshevb,
Oleg L. Khasanovc and Edgar S. Dvilisc
a
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
b
Siberian State Aerospace University
31 «Krasnoyarskiy Rabochiy» prosp.,
Krasnoyarsk, 660014, Russia
c
National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University
30 Lenin, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
New data about influence of ceramic nanoparticles additives on the hard metals WC-Co properties
are received. Complex investigation of hard metal using suggested conventional mechanic testing
methods combined with metallography, electron microscopy and x-ray phase analysis enabled to
establish stable correlating links between volume content of nanoparticles whith average sizes of
carbide and micro structure parameters and strength of hard metals. Nanoparticles introduced
into a binder size decrease of the metal interlayer and therefore increase the strength of binder
and composite as a whole. The reduction of the carbide grain average size was found out as well
(owing to nanoparticles blocking influence on recrystallization). The test results display that the
modification thought nanoparticles enables to improve the main final physical and mechanical
properties of hard metals properties: hardness, fracture toughness, transverse rupture toughness,
elastic modulus, wear resistance.
Keywords: nano-particles, hard metal composites, microstructure parameters, transverse rupture
toughness, spark plasma sintering, x-ray phase analysis, grain size, elastic modulus.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 3 (2014 7) 290-294
~~~
??? 622-17:66.065.8/.004.4
?????????? ????????????? ???????
??????????????? ????????
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ????????*
????????? ??????????? ???????????
??????, 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
Received 08.10.2013, received in revised form 27.02.2014, accepted 18.04.2014
? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????
???????????? ????????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????, ??????? ???????? ??????????
????????? ????????????? ????????????? ??????? ? ?????? ???????.
???????? ?????: ???????????????, ???????? ????????, ?????????????, ??????????????
?????????.
????? ??????? ??????????????? ????????????, ??????????????? ? ???????? ????????????
?????? ?????????????, ????????? ????? ????????? ??????????. ??????? ??????????? ???
?????? ?????? ????? ????????? ????? ????????. ??? ????? ??????? ????????????? ??????????????? ? ??? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ? ????? ????????. ????? ????,
??????????????? ??????? ???? ?????????? ?????. ? ?????? ??????? ???? ???? ? ???????????
????????????? ? ????????? ???, ? ????? ????????? ????? ? ?????. ?????????? ???? ???????????
??????????? ? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ??????. ??-?? ???????????? ?????? ?? ?????????,
??????????????, ????????????? ? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????? ??????? ??????????
???????????????????? ??? ??????????. ??????? ????????????? ????????? ??? ????????? ???????? ??????? ????? ??????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????
? ????? ????????? ?????, ???????? ????????????? ??????????????. ?????? ?????????????
?????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ????, ???????? ? ??????? ? ??????????????? ?? ????????.
?? ???? ????????? ????????? ????? ??????? (?????, ???????, ???????????) ????????????? ?????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ??????????, ??????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ? ?????????????? ??????.
??? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????????? ??????? ? ?????? ???????
???? ????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ?? ??????????.
??? ??????? ????????????? ??????? ???? ?????????????? ?????, ??????? (h) 4 ??, ?????????????? ???????? (S) 9,6 ??2 ? ?????? (m) 70 ?.
? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ? ??????? ? ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????????: 80:20; 75:25; 70:30 (???. 1). ?????? ???? ????????????? ??????? ??*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: vkislyakov@sfu-kras.ru
# 290 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ????????. ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ??????????????? ????????
??????? ????????????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? (???) ? ????????????? 0,1,
0,5 ? 1,0 %. ??????? ????????? ? ????????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ?? ?????? -0,074 ??
???????? ????.
?? ???? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????? ???? ????????? ???????????, ???????????? ?? ???. 2?6.
??? ????? ?? ?????????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? (???. 1?3), ????????????? ????? ????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????? ???????. ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ?? ???????????? ???????? ??? ? ????????? ?:? ????????.
?????????????? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????
?? ??????? ??????? ? ??????????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ??? ????? ????? ????????? ???:
???. 1. ??????? ????????????? ??????? ? ???????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ?:?=70:30 ??? ????????????
??? 1,0 %
???. 2. ????????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ? ????????
??????? ??? ????????? ?:?=80:20
# 291 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ????????. ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ??????????????? ????????
???. 3. ????????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ? ????????
??????? ??? ????????? ?:?=75:25
???. 4. ????????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ? ????????
??????? ??? ????????? ?:?=70:30
? ??? ?:?=80:20:
m/S
[(0,14q ??? 0,1) � (lg t ) 2 (1,32 0,43q ??? ) � lg t 0,29q ??? 5,87] � 10 2 , ? / ? 2 ,
(1)
[(0,55 0,44q ??? ) � (lg t ) 2 (1,79 0,83q ??? ) � lg t 1,27q ??? 4,94] � 10 2 , ? / ? 2 ,
(2)
[(1,05 0,03q ??? ) � (lg t ) 2 (2,69 0,57 q ??? ) � lg t 0,87 q ??? 3,55] � 10 2 , ? / ? 2 ,
(3)
? ??? ?:?=75:25:
m/S
? ??? ?:?=70:30:
m/S
# 292 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ????????. ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ??????????????? ????????
???. 5. ???????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????? ?? ???????????? ???????? ???
???. 6. ???????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ??????????
??? q??? ? ???????????? ???????? ??? ? ?????? ????, %; t ? ????? ?????????? ?????????????
???????, ???.
????????? ????????????? ?????????? ????? ????? ???
m/S
[((0,04 � G 3,5) � q ??? 0,1 � G 7,69) � (lg t ) 2 ((0,01 � G 1,66) � q ??? 0,14 � G 12,21) � lg t (4)
(5,16 0,06 � G ) � q ??? 0,23 � G 12,61] � 10 2 , ? / ? 2 .
??????????? ?????? ????????????? ? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? 75 ? t ? 30 ??? (? ?????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ????????????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????) ? ??? ?????????? ?????? ????, ?????? 4 ??.
# 293 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ????????. ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ??????????????? ????????
??? ?????????? ?????? ???? ????????????? ??????? ? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????? ?????? (?):
K = 0,05h + 0,8,
(5)
??? h ? ?????? ???? ????????????? ???????, ?.
????? ???????, ?????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????
???????????? ????????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????
????????????? ????????????? ??????? ? ?????? ???????.
Spreadability of Paste Tailings
after Concentrating Repartition
Andrei A. Shershnev and Victor E. Kislykov
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
The article focuses on the model of multiple correlation distribution of the paste tailings mass
concentration per unit area. This model substantiates warehousing parameters of paste tailings into
waste pile.
Keywords: tailing dump, paste thickening, polyacrylamide, statistical treatment.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 3 (2014 7) 295-303
~~~
??? 622.272
?????????? ???????? ? ????????? ?????????
??????????? ?????? ??? ????????? ??????????
???????? ??????????
? ?????????????? ??????? ??????????
?.?. ??????*, ?.?. ??????,
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ?????????
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
??????, 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
Received 06.11.2013, received in revised form 19.01.2014, accepted 27.02.2014
???????? ????????, ??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ???????
????????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ????????????? ?????-?????????????
? ?????-??????????? ????????, ???????? ????????????? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ? ?????????
????????????? ????????????. ?? ???? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ? ?????????
?????????? ????????????? ????????? ??? ????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????.
? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ?
????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????
? ?????????????? ??????? ??????????. ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ???????
?????????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ? ?????????
?????????????.
???????? ?????: ?????? ??????????, ??????????? ???????, ???????? ?????????.
???????? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????????, ??? ???????? ????????????? ????????????
???????????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ?? ?????? ????????????? ?????? ???, ?? ? ????
???????? ? ???????????? ?????????????.
??? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ??????, ???????????? ??????? ??????????. ?? ????????????? ? ??????????????
?????? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ? ?????????, ??????????? ?? ???????? ?????????.
? ?? ?? ????? ?? ?????-???????????????? ???????????? ? ??????? ?????? ??????????
????? ??????? ????????? ???????????, ?????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ???.
????????????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ????? ?? ???????? ????????????
???????????, ? ??? ????? ? ??????????? ???????, ????? ?????? ?????????????, ?????????*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: volkoff2@yandex.ru
# 295 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ??????? ?????????? ???????? ? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ??????????
???? ? ??????????????? ???????????. ??????????? ????? ? ?????????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ??????, ??????, ???, ????????? ? ?????? ???????.
????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????, ?????????? ??????????? ???????
???????? ??????, ?????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ? ?????????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????.
??? ???????????????? ??????? ??????????? ????? ? ?? (?????? + ??????) ???????????
??????? ?? ????????????? ? ?????????????? ????????? ? ??????? ????????. ??? ???? ?????????? ???????????????? ????????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ???????????
?????? ? ???????? ???? ????????????????? ?? ????????????? ?? ?????-?????? ????????????. ?? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ????? ????
????????????? ?????? ?300 ? ???????? ?????? ???.
?????????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ????????? ? 9 ?? ??????? «?????????????».
?????? ????????? ?? ???? ????????? ??????? ???????? ????? ??????? ???????? ? ?????.
??? ??????????? ??????????????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ??? ????
????? ??? ????? (????. 1).
????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ???? ????????? ???????????? ?? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???? ? ???????? ????? ???????, ?????????? ?? ????, ??? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????. ?????????? ?????????? ????? ??? ??????????? ???????
???????????? ?????????? ???? ??? ?????????? ????????.
??? ????? ???? ???????? ????? ???????, ?????????? ?? ????? ? ?????????. ????? ?? ?????
???? ???????? ???? ???????????? ? ?????????? ????? ?? ??????????? ????? (???????? ????????? 0,1 ?), ????? ? ????????? ????? ???????. ????????? ????? ??????? ????????? 1,82 ?/??3.
????? ? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ????. ? ?????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????, ????? ????? ? ?? ???, ?????????? ????????? ?????? ???????. ??
??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ???? ? ???????,
???????????? ? ?????????? ?????, ? ??????????? ?? ?? ????????? (???. 1).
??????????? ???????? ????????? 1,82 ?/??3 ????? ??????? ????????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ????? ?? ??????? ?????????????. ??????????? ?????????? ????
??????? 1. ?????????????????? ?????? ???????? ???????
??????
?????????, ??
?????
????? ? 1
?
????? ? 2
%
?
%
+ 0,250
12,6
2,52
36,4
7,28
+ 0,170
126,1
25,22
315,8
63,16
+ 0,080
31,6
6,32
20,0
4,00
+ 0,074
77,7
15,54
62,7
12,54
+ 0,063
50,2
10,04
23,2
4,64
+ 0,045
110,9
22,18
27,4
5,48
- 0,045
90,9
18,18
14,5
2,90
?????
500
100,0
500
100,0
# 296 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ??????? ?????????? ???????? ? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ??????????
???. 1. ??????????? ?????????? ???? ? ????? ??????? ??? ?? ?? ?????????
???????? ? ?????????? ??? ?????????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??? ?????????????
?????????? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ?????????? ??????????? ??????. ??? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????. ????????? ????????????? ?? ????????????? ????????,
??????? ????????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????. ?? ?????? ????????????
????????????, ????????? ??? ???? ?????????? 2,28 ?/??3.
????? ??? ????????? ????, ??????????? ????? ????????? ????????? ?????, ?????????
??????????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????. ?????? ???????? ?? ?????????
??????? 1,2 ?/??3, ??????? ????????????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????, ??????????? ? ??? ??????.
?? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????? ???? ? ?????
????? ??????? (???. 2) ? ??????????? ?????????? ???? ??? ???????????? ??????? ???????????
?????. ?????? ??????????? ???????? ??? ???????? ??????? (????????? ???????, ??????????
?? ???????????? ??????????? ??????, ?????? ???? ?? ????? 1,2 ?/??3).
????????, ??? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????????? (???????) ??????? ??
?????????? ???? ? 1 ? ?????? ????? ????????????? ????????, ? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????.
??????????? ?????????? ???? ? 1 ? ???????, ??3 ? (?) ?? ????????? ??????????????? ??????? (?) ????? ?????????? ?? ???????
? = ? 629,4 + 1646.
(1)
?????? ??????? ????????? ? ????????? 2,28 ?/??3 > ? > 1,2 ?/??3.
?????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ???? ? 045 ?
2004 (?. 7.6).
# 297 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ??????? ?????????? ???????? ? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ??????????
???. 2. ??????????? ?????????? ???? ? 1 ? ??????? ??? ?? ?? ?????????
?????? ?????????? ?? 1 ?3 ??????????? ????? ??? ???????? ?? ???????????? ?? ?????????
?
??
?
?
??
? ? ? ?,
(2)
??? ?, ? ? ? ? ?????????? ???????, ???????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ? ????, ?/?3; ??,
??, ? ???????? ??? ??????? ? ???????, ?/?3.
??? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ?? (?????? + ?????? + ????) ?????????????
???? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ???? ??? ??????????. ?????? ????? ??????????? ????????????, ?????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ??????? «?????????????», ?
????????, ?????????? ? ???? ? 045 ? 2004, ?????????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???? ?? 1 ?3 ??????????? ????? ? ?????? 500 ? ?? ???? ???????????
????????. ?????????? ???????????? ????????, ??? ???????? ???????? ?? ???????? ???? ??
????? 180 ??, ??? ????????????? ??????????? ??? ????????????????? ?????.
???????? ?????????? ??????? ? ???????? ??, ??????????? ????? ????????????? ? ?????????, ???????: 140; 170; 200; 240; 280; 320; 360 ? 400 ??/?3, ??? ????????????? ??????? ????????: 170; 240; 320 ? 400 ??/?3.
???????? ?????????? ???? ? 1 ? ??????? ?????????? ?? ??????? 1.
??????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ???? ???????? ???????????? ?? ??????? 2.
??? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ???? ???????????
10 ????????????? ????????????? ????, ??????????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ??? ??????? «?????????????», ? 10 ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ???? ?? 15 ?????.
# 298 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ??????? ?????????? ???????? ? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ??????????
????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ?? ???? ??????:
? ? ?????????????? ?????????;
? ? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????? ? ??????? ????????.
??? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ?? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ???? ??????? 50 ?.
????? ?????????? ?? ???? ????????????? ??????? 10 ???. ????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????? ?? ???????? ? ???????? ?? ?????????.
?????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?? ??? ???????? ??????? ??????? 280 ??/?3 ????? ????????? ???????????:
??? = 0,6928 · ln(t) ? 0,5145, ???.
(3)
?????? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ????????? (????. 2).
???????? ????????? ???????? ?? ? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ???. 3.
??????????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ???????????
?????? ?????????: 7, 28, 90 ???? ????????? ?? ???. 4.
????????? ?????????? ????? ? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????? ?? 3, 7, 28 ?
90-? ????? ???????????? ? ????. 3.
??? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ?? ???? ???????????? ????? ??????? ????????.
??? ?????? ? ???????? ????????? ????????, ?????? ????? 120 ?. ?? ????? ????????? ?? ??????? 1/3 ?? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ?????. ??? ??????????? 25 ? ?????
??? ????????? ???????? 39 ??.
?????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?? ? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ??? ????????
??????? ??????? 240 ??/?3 ????? ????????? ???????????:
??? = 0,5006 · ln(t) ? 0,3098, ???.
(4)
?????? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ???????
???????? (????. 4).
??????? 2. ??????? (??) ? ??????????? ?? ????????? ? ??????????? ?????????
????? ???????
?????? ??????????, ??/?3
???????????
?????? ???
??????
????, ?
1
1274
140
500
??? = 0,1774 · ln(t) ? 0,1783
2
1246
170
500
??? = 0,3682 · ln(t) ? 0,4153
3
1079
200
550
??? = 0,471 · ln(t) ? 0,5017
4
1183
240
500
??? = 0,5532 · ln(t) ? 0,3978
5
1147
280
500
??? = 0,6928 · ln(t) ? 0,5145
6
1112
320
500
??? = 0,7833 · ln(t) ? 0,561
7
1075
360
500
??? = 0,8877 · ln(t) ? 0,5305
8
1039
400
500
??? = 0,9728 · ln(t) ? 0,3155
# 299 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
??????? 3. ??????? ?? ?????? ??????? ? ??????? (??) ? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????? ?
??????????? ?????????
??????????? ?????????????? ?????????, ???, ???
????? ???????
? ??. ?????, ?/?3
3
7
28
90
1
1,91
-
0,15
0,45
0,6
2
1,92
-
0,3
0,8
1,25
3
1,83
-
0,4
1,1
1,6
4
1,92
0,3
0,55
1,5
2,1
5
1,93
0,35
0,7
1,8
2,65
6
1,93
0,45
0,85
2,0
3,05
7
1,94
0,6
1,05
2,4
3,5
8
1,94
0,75
1,35
3,1
4,0
???. 3. ???????? ????????? ???????? ?? ? ??????????? ?????????
??????? 4. ??????? (??) ? ??????????? ?? ????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ????????
????? ???????
?????? ??????????, ??/?3
?????? ???
??????
????, ?
???????????
1
1246
170
500
??? = 0,4604 · ln(t) ? 0,5421
2
1183
240
500
??? = 0,5006 · ln(t) ? 0,3098
3
1111
320
500
??? = 0,803 · ln(t) ? 0,3531
4
1039
400
500
??? = 0,931 · ln(t) ? 0,3971
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ??????? ?????????? ???????? ? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ??????????
???. 4. ??????????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ?? ????????? ??????? ??????? ??
??????????? ?????? ?????????
??????? 5. ??????? ?? ?????? ??????? ? ??????? (??) ? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????? ?
??????????? ??????? ????????
????? ???????
? ??. ?????, ?/?3
1
2
??????????? ?????????????? ?????????, ???, ???
3
7
28
90
1,92
-
0,35
0,95
1,5
1,92
0,3
0,55
1,25
2,0
3
1,93
0,6
1,2
2,25
3,3
4
1,94
1,5
2,25
3,3
4,7
????????? ?????????? ????? ? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????? ?? 3, 7, 28 ?
90-? ????? ???????????? ? ????. 5.
???????? ????????? ???????? ?? ? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ??
???. 5.
??????????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ???????????
?????? ?????????: 7, 28, 90 ???? ????????? ?? ???. 6.
????? ???????, ? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????:
? ??????????? ?????????? ???? ?? ????????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ???;
? ?????????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ?????? (???) ??
?????? ??????? ?????????? ???-2 ??????????? ?????????;
? ???????? ?????????????? ????????? ??????? ??? ?? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ???2 ? ????????? ????????????? (??????).
?????? ??????????? ???????????? ? ??????-???????????? ???????????? ??????????,
??? ? ??????????? ????? ????????? ????????? ????????, ?????????? ? ????????? ????????
(???????????? ???????????? ? ??????-???????????? ?????????), ??????????? ??????????.
????????? ?????????, ???????????? ?????? ? ???? ?? ??????????? ???????? ? ??????? ??
?????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ????????, ??????????? ????? ??????.
# 301 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ??????? ?????????? ???????? ? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ??????????
???. 5. ???????? ????????? ???????? ?? ? ??????????? ??????? ????????
???. 6. ??????????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ?? ????????? ??????? ??????? ??
??????????? ?????? ?????????
??-??????, ??? ????????????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ????????? ? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ?? ????????? ????? ???????????????? ??????? ? ????????? ??????????? ? ????????, ????????? ?? ??????? ????? ????????? ??? ? ??????
????????, ??? ? ??????????? ? ??????????? ?? ?????? ?? ??????????? ? ?????, ? ???????
???? ??????????? ? ?? ????????????? (?????????) ? ????????, ???????????? ?? ???????
???????????.
# 302 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ??????? ?????????? ???????? ? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ??????????
????????, ??? ???????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ??????? ?
???????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ??????????, ??? ? ??????????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????????, ????? ????????????? ???????????,
????????????? ? ????????????? ???????? ????? ???????????????.
?????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ? ? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ??????? «?????????????» ? ????? ?????????.
????? ???????, ???????? ??????????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ???????????
????? ?? ?????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ? ???????? ????????????? ? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ? ????????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????. ??????????? ?? ???? ????????????? ??????????????? ????????? ???????
? ????????????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ??? ?? ?????????, ?? ????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ?????????.
Development of Formulations
and the Mechanism of Activation of Mixtures
for Underground Mining
with use of Mill Tailings
Evgeniy P. Volkov, Sergey A. Vokhmin,
Alexander N. Anushenkov and Alexey I. Golovanov
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
The basic solution, allowing to provide safety and sufficiently high efficiency of underground mining of
fields in becoming complicated mining-and-geological and mining conditions, use at production of ores
of filling method. From all systems of development existing today filling method, the greatest efficiency
reach when using hardening concrete mixes. Results of laboratory researches on development of
compoundings and the mechanism of activation of hardening concrete mixes are given in article for
underground mining of minerals with use of mill tailings. The conducted researches allowed to reveal
regularities of increase of reactionary properties of filling method with the chosen activator.
Keywords: mill tailings, filling mass, kinetics of maturing.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 3 (2014 7) 304-308
~~~
??? 621.771: 621.777
?????? ???????????? ??????????? ???
? ?????????? ????????? ?? ?????? AD31,
??????????? ?????????? ?????????
?.?. ????????*,
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????
????????? ??????????? ???????????
??????, 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
Received 22.03.2012, received in revised form 07.11.2013, accepted 22.02.2014
? ?????? ???????????? ????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??31 ??????? ???????????
???????? ? ??????????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ?????-??????? ?? ???????? ?????????.
??????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ?? ????? ?????-???????.
???????? ?????: ?????????? ????????, ??????????? ????.
???????????? ?????????????? ? ??????? ?? ?????? ??31 ??????? ? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ? ???? ???????.
???????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ?????. ?????? ???? ????? ????? ???????????? ??????????. ?????? ????????? ???????
??????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ?????????. ??????? ???????? ??????????? ???????
???????? ? ??????????? ????? ? ????????? ???????????? ? ??? ?????????? ???????????.
????????-??????????? ???????? (???) ?? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????
?????, ???? ? ?????? ????????, ??? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ???????.
?????????????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ????????????? ???????, ?????
?? ?????????? ???????. ??? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ??????? (? ????? ?? ??????????????? ???????????) ? ??????? ? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????? ?? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ??? ????? ????????, ? ????? ???????? ?????
?????????????? ????????, ?????????? ????????????, ? ????????? ??????? ??????????,
?????????? ???????, ????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ????????? ??????????? ????????? [1].
??????????? ????????????, ??? ???????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ???????, ? ????? ?? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ??????? ????, ??????? ?????? ?? ????????? ??? ?????????? ?????
?????????? ??????????? ???????. ???????? ??? ????????? ? ?????????? ? ?????? ????????
???????? ????????????.
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: angeli-kovaleva@yandex.ru
# 304 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ???????? ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ??? ? ?????????? ????????? ?? ?????? AD31?
?? ???????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????????? ????? ???????????, ???????????? ? ??????????????? ? ???????????
?????????? ????????? ?? ??????? ???????.
???? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ?????????????? ?? ????????? ????????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ?? ????? ???????.
????? ??????? ????? ?????? 130, 150 ? 180 ?. ?????????? ????????????? ????????????
?? ???. 1. ?? ??????, ?????????? ????????????????? ?????, ?????, ??? ??? ???????????
????????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????, ?????? 60?70 %, ?????????? ???????? ??
??????? ??????????? ?? ???? 40 ???.
?????????-??????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ???????????????? ???????
??? ???????? 100 ???. ????? ??????? ?????????? 150 ?, ??????? ??????? 15Ч23Ч200 ??, ????????????? ????????? 80 %.
??????? ??????????? ????????-??????????? (???) ???????????? ?? ?????????, ?????????????? ?? ???? ?????????? ????? ??? 200. ??????? ????? ???????????? ????? ??? ????????
??????? ????????? ????, ??????????? ????? ????? ???????? ??????? ? ?????????????? ??
????? ????????? ? ??????????, ???????? ???????, ?????????? ? ??????????? ??????. ? ???????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???, ?? ??????? ???????? ?????,
?????????? ???????? ??????, ? ???????? ??? ??????? ???????? ????????.
??????? ????? ?????????-???????????? ????????? ?? ??????????? 500±20 °?. ??????????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ??? ?? ??????????? 80-100 °?.
?????? ???????? ? ???????? ??????, ???????????? ???????, ???????????? ???????????????, ???????? ? ?????????? ?? ???????? ???? ????? ?? ???????????? ? ???? ??????????.
??? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ????? ???????????? ?????? ????? ????????? ? ???????? ???
????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????.
????? ?????? ? ????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ????? ?? ???????, ?????? ?????? ?????????, ? ?????????? ???? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ???????, ??? ????????
???????? ?? ???. 2.
?? ??? ????? ??????????????? ??????? ? ???? ?????????? ???? ??????????? ????????:
? ??????? ??????? ??????? ? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????????????? ????? ???????, ??? ????????? ????????????? ?????? ????????;
?
?
???. 1. ? ? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ?? ???????? ?????????????? ??? ????????? ????????? ?????
???????; ? ? ??????????? ??????? ????????????? ????????? ???????? ?? ???????? ??????????????
# 305 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ???????? ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ??? ? ?????????? ????????? ?? ?????? AD31?
?????????? ???????
?????????? ???????
?
?
?
?
?
???. 2. ???????????? ????????? ? ???? «????????»
? ???????????? ??????? ? ????????????? ????? ???????:
? ???????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ????????? ???????, ????????????? ?? ?????? ??
???????.
????? ????? ???????, ???????????? 7?8 ??, ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ??????
???????? ?? ????????????? ????????? 85?90 %. ?????????????, ? ???? ???????????? ?????????
??? ??????????? ??????, ??? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ? ??????????
??????????? ??????? ? ????? ????????????.
?????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ??????????????? ??-?? ???????? ??????????
?????? ??????? ???????, ??????????? ????? ??????????? ??????? ???????.
?????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ???? ???????? ????????-???????????, ???
??? ? ???? ??????????? ? ???? ???????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ??? ????????? ???????????.
# 306 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ???????? ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ??? ? ?????????? ????????? ?? ?????? AD31?
?????? ???????? ????????, ?????????? ?? ????????? ???? ????????, ??????????????? ??
???. 2, ??????????????? ? ???, ??? ?? ???? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ????? ??????????
????????? ? ????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ????? ??????? ???????.
????? ??????????? ?????????, ??????? ????????????? ???????, ????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ? ???? ????????????, ? ??????? ???????????
??????? ?????????? ??? ? ??????????? ????????? ?? ???????, ??? ? ? ??????? ??????????
??????? ??????? ?? ??????.
????????? ???????????????? ????? ? ???? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ????????, ??? ??????
??????. ?????? ??????? ????????????? ????? ? ???????? ????????????? ??????, ??????????
?????? ?????????? ? ????????? ????????????? ??????????, ??????? ? ????????? ????????
???? ???????????? ????????? ????? ??????????.
? ??????????? ?????, ??????????????? ????? ??? ???????????, ?????????? ??????
??????????? ? ??????? ????, ??? ????? ???????????, ??? ?????????? ????????? ????????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ?? ? ??????????? ????????? ?? ??????? (???. 2). ?????? ? ??? ??
??????????????? ?? ???????????, ??? ??????????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????
?????????.
? ???????, ????????????? ??????????????? ????? ???????? (???. 2?), ?????????? ???????????? ????? ??????????, ????????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ???????????. ? ???????? ??????????? (???????) ??????? ?????????? ??????? ???? ???????, ??????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ???????, ? ???? ??????????? ??????????, ?? ?????
???????????? ?????, ??????????????? ???????????????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????????.
????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?? ?????????????? ???????, ??????????? ?
?????????? ???????????, ??? ????? ????? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ??????????????? ???? ??????? (???????????), ???????????? ??-?? ??????????
????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????. ??? ???? ?
???? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ?? ????????? ??????? ? ??????, ???
???????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ??????? ???? ????????? ?? ????????? ???????,
??????????? ? ?????????? ???????????.
?????????? ???????? ???????????? ????? ?? ??????????? ? ???????????, ????????????
??? ???????????, ???????? ? ?????????????? ???????????? ????????? ? ??????? ?????? ??
???? ??????? (???. 2?). ? ??? ????? ??????? ????????? ?????????, ? ?????? ??????? ????? ????????????? ? ???????????? ???????????.
????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ??????????, ??? ??? ????????? ???? ?????-??????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ?????????? (?????? ??? ??????????) ?????????? ???????? ??????,
??????? ????????????? ?? ?????????? ????? ? ????????????. ????? ???????, ?????????? ?
??????????? ???????, ?????????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ????????? ??????, ????????????? ?? ?????????? ????? ? ????????????.
?????????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ? ??????????? (??????????? ??????). ???????? ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ???????????
? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ???????. ?????????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????????? ??????? ??????????????? (??????)
# 307 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ???????? ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ??? ? ?????????? ????????? ?? ?????? AD31?
? ???? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ????? ???????????, ???
????????? ???????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????-??????? ? ?????????? ? ??????????
???????????? (???. 2?).
??????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ????????? ?? ????????????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????, ??????????? ???????????? ??????????, ?? ???????
????? ????????? ?????????????, ??????? ????? ???? ??????????? ? ???????? ??????????????.
?????? ??????????
[1] ?????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ? ??. ????????? ???????????? ??????????
?????????? ??????? ???????. ???????????: ????????, 2011. 130 ?.
Analysis of the Formation of Structural Zones
in the Alloy AD31 Swarf Material Prodused
by Pressure Treatment
Angelina A. Kovalyova,
Valentina I. Anikina and Nikolay N. Zagirov
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
In this work the scheme of processing swarf from AD31 alloy by the method of combined rolling ?
pressing followed by drawing a press-product to the size of the wire is presented. The formation of the
structure of the material by the length of the press-product has been investigated.
Keywords: structural formation, swarf, alloy, pressure treatment.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 3 (2014 7) 309-315
~~~
??? 621.777
?????????? ? ???????????? ?????? ?????-???
??? ????????? ??????????? ??????????????
???????? ????????
?.?. ????*,
?.?. ????????????, ?.?. ??????
???????? ???????????????
??????????? ??????????? ???????????
??????, 450000, ???, ?. ??????, 12
Received 14.11.2013, received in revised form 19.01.2014, accepted 22.02.2014
? ?????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????-??? ? ?????????????? ???????????????
????????????? ? ??????????? ????????? DEFORM-3D. ????????, ??? ?????? ????? ?????
????????????? ??????????? ??? ????????? ???????? ????????? ?? ???? ???????????? ?????
?????????? ??????????? ?????????, ? ??? ????? ? ? ???????????????????? ????????? ??
???? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????????.
???????? ?????: ??????????? ????? ? ????????-???????????, ??????????? ????????????
??????????, ????????, ?????????? ??????, ???????????????????? ????????.
????????
????? ?? ????????? ????????? ???????? ???????????????? ??????? ??? ????????????
??????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ?????, ????????? ???????? ?????????
? ??????????? ?????????, ??? ???????? ? ???????? ????? ?????????, ?????????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????. ????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????????? ????? ?? ???? ?????????? ?? ???????????????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ?
???????????????????? ????????, ????????? ???????????????? ??????? ? ???????????????
?????????, ???????????? ???????, ???????????? ??? ?????????????? ? ?????????? ???????
?????????, ?? ??????????? ?????? ????????? [1]. ????? ?? ???????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ? ????????-??????????? (?????) (???. 1?). ? ???? ????????
? ???????? ?????????????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ???????????. ??? ???? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ????? ? ???????????? ??????? ? ????????, ? ????????? ??????????? ??????????????????????? ?????????, ?? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ? ????????????, ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ??????? ?????????
?????????????. ??? ???????? ????? ???? ?? ??????????? ???????? ?? ???? ???????????? ?
????? ?????????????? ???????????????????? (???) ?????????. ??????? ????? ???????????*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: giraab@mail.ru
# 309 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????, ?.?. ????????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ?????? ?????-??? ??? ????????? ????????????
?
?
???. 1. ???????????? ????? ????? (?) ? ????? ?????-??? (?)
??? ?????? ???? ???????? ? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ????? ? ?????????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????.
???????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? (???. 1?) ???????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????? ???? ? ???????????? ???????, ??????????? ? ????????????? ????????? ?????
?????????? ?? ????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ? ????????? ????????? ????? [2]. ???????
?? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????, ??? ???????????? ????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ?=2?3, ? ????? ??????????? ????????
?????????? ??????? ?=4?5. ??? ??????, ????? ?????????????? ??????????? ????? ????? ?
????????????? ?????? (T<100 °C), ????? ??????????? ???????, ?????????? ? ????????????
??? ??????????? ????????? ? ???????? ???????? ??? ????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????. ??? ?????? ? ????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? (T~300 °C) ????? ??? ?????????
???????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ?? ???? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ????????? ??????? [3].
?????????? ?????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ?????????????? ??????? ?? ????????????
?????? (???. 1?). ????????????? ?????? 2 ???????? ? ????-?????? 1, ??? ???? ?????????? ???
?????????????? ?? ???????????? ?????? 3 ? 4. ????? ????????????????????? ?????? ??????????? ????? 3 ? 4, ???????????, ??????????????? ? ??????????? ? ?????? ??????? 6 ??
?????? ???????????????? ??????????? ?????. ?? ?????? ????? ???????????? ?????? ??????# 310 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????, ?.?. ????????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ?????? ?????-??? ??? ????????? ????????????
????? ? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ??1,6. ?? ?????? ? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ???????
???????????, ??? ????????, ??? ???????, ? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ???????. ?
?? ????????? ????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ????? ??????? ??????????? ????? 10 ?????? 7 ??????? 6.
???????? ????????????
?????? ???????????? ????? ?????-??? ?? ?????? ????? ???????????? ??? ????????
? ?????????????? ??????????????? ????????????? ? ??????????? ????????? DEFORM-3D.
???????? ???????? ????????? ? ???????? (Al-1100), ??????? ???????? ????????? 30?40?100
??, ??????? ???????? ????????? ? «???????» ? 10 ??.
??????? ? ?????????, ???????? ??? ????????????? ? ??????????? ????????? DEFORM-3D:
? ???????? ????????? ? ???????? ????????? (?? ??????????) ???????? ?????????? ? ?
??? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ??????????;
? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? 400 °?, ?????????????? ??????????
?
?
?
?
????????? ????????????;
?????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????; ?????????????? ????? ??????????? ?
3D ?????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ?????? 3D 11V ? ????????? ? ???????????
stl;
???????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????;
????????, ???????? ??? ?????????????, ? ?L 1100, ?????? ?????????? ???? ????? ??
?????????? DeForm-3D;
??????????? ?????? (shear) ????? ??????? ? ?????????? ??????? ?????? 0,5, ?????
???????? ? ?????????? ? 0,5 (????????????? ? ?????????????);
? ?????????? ????? ????????????? ? 620?1030, ? ????? ? 1 ?;
? ???????? ???????? ?????? 40 ??/???.
?????????? ????????????
? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ???????????
??????? ????????? ? ????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????-???.
??????????-??????????????? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ?? ???. 2.
?????????? ?????????? ??????????, ??? ? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????, ? ???????? ??????? ? ????????????? ? ????????? ?? ?????????????? ??????
???????? ? ?????, ??????????? ??? ???????? ???? (???. 2?). ??????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? (max 137 ???), ??? ??? ?????????? ? ??????? ??????????????? ????????????? ??
???????? ?????????. ???????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? 6 ?????? (???. 2?),
?? ??????? ????? 2,5 ?????????, ??? ????? ????? ??? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ???-????????.
???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????, ???
???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ????? ? ??????? ?? ~500 ???, ??? ?????????? ?? ????? 30 % ?? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ???????????? ?
?????? ????????? ??? ???????????????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? (???. 3) [4].
# 311 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????, ?.?. ????????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ?????? ?????-??? ??? ????????? ????????????
?
?
???. 2. ??? ???????? ?????-???: ? ? ????????????? ??????? ??????????; ? ? ?????????????
??????????? ??????????
???. 3. ????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????-???
????????, ??? ????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ????????????? ??????????? ????????
????????? [5], ???? ????????? ????????????, ??????????? ????????????? ????? ? ?????
??????????. ? ???????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ??????????? ????-?????, ??????????? ?
??????? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ????? ?????????? [6]. ??? ??????? ???? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ????-????? ?? ??????? (1)
P
2�
V2 V3
1 ,
V1 V 3
(1)
??? ?1, ?2, ?3 ? ??????? ??????????, ???.
??????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ????? ????? ? ?????-???, ??? ???? ???
????????????? ?????? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ????-????? ??? ???? ?????????????# 312 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????, ?.?. ????????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ?????? ?????-??? ??? ????????? ????????????
?
?
???. 4. ??????? ??????? ????????? ? ??????? ????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ????????????
??? ??????? ???????????? ????-????? ????????? ????? (?) ? ?????-??? (?)
??? ?????? ????????? ??????????. ????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ??
???. 4.
?????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ???. 5, ?????? ?????, ??? ? ???????????? ????? ?????
??????????? ????? ??????????, ? ? ???????????? ???????? ? ????? ??????, ??????? ????? ???????????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ????? [5].
????? ???????, ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????? ?????-??? ? ???????????? ? ??????? ??? ????????????? ??????????? ??
???? ?????????? ????????????????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????.
??????
??????????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ?????? ???????? ???????, ??? ??? ??? ????????????? ????? ???????????? ????? ??????? ???????????
?????????? ?? ???? ???? ????????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ? ????????? ?=5,25?6,
??? ????????? ???????? ??????????????? ?????? ? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????,
?????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ?? 2,25.
???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????, ???
???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ????? ? ??????? ?? ~500 ???, ??? ?????????? ?? ????? 30 % ?? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ?????????
?????????? ? ????????? ??????? ???????????????? ???????? ? ???????? ????????? ????????????.
?? ???????????? ??????? ??????????? ???? ?????????? ? ???????? ????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ????? ????????, ??? ??? ??????? ??????? ????? ??????????? ?????# 313 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????, ?.?. ????????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ?????? ?????-??? ??? ????????? ????????????
?
?
???. 5. ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ????-????? ??? ???????? ????? (?) ? ?????-??? (?)
????? ? ???????? ?????-??? ?? ???????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ???
??????????, ???, ?????? ?? ????????? ?????????????, ????? ???????????? ??????????? ??
???????????? ???-????????? ? ???????????? ??????? ? ???????? ??????????????.
?????? ??????????
[1] ??????????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ??????????????? ? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ? ???????. ?.: ???? ?????, 2005. 344 ?.
[2] ???. ?? 2000115099/02 / ???? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ??????????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. ??
09.06.2000. // ?????. 20.04.2002.
[3] ????? ?. ?., ???????? ?. ?., ??????? ?. ?. ? ??. ???????? ????????????? ???????????????????? ????????. ?????: ????? ? ???????, 1994. 232 ?.
[4] ???????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ?????? ?????????????? ??????????????
??????????? : ??????? ??????? ??? ????? ?.: ????. ?????, 1984. 95 ?.
[5] ?????? ?.?., ??????????? ?.?. ???????? ??????????????? ????????????? ?????????.
?.: ???????????, 2007. 397 ?.
[6] ?????????? ?.?. ???????? ????????? ???????? ?????????. ?.: ???????????, 1986.
687 ?.
# 314 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????, ?.?. ????????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ?????? ?????-??? ??? ????????? ????????????
Development and Research
of Method CCRE-SPD
for Obtaining Aluminum Semi-Finished Products
of High Quality
Georgy I. Raab,
Elvira I. Fakhretdinova and Ruslan Z. Valiev
Ufa State Aviation Technical University
12 K. Marx Str., Ufa, 450000, Russia
This work represents studies of CCRE-SPD method with using mathematic modeling in program
complex DEFORM-3D. It is shown that this method has the potential to improve product quality
through the formation of a more homogeneous structure states, including in the ultrafinegrained range
due to the high level of accumulated shear deformation during processing.
Keywords: combined casting and rolling-extrusion, severe plastic deformation, aluminum, shear
strain, ultrafine-grained material.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 3 (2014 7) 316-326
~~~
??? 621.74
??????????? ?????? ????? ? ????????
? ???????????? ??????????? ???????
??? ???????????????? ??????????
?.?. ???????*, ?.?. ?????
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
??????, 620002, ????????????, ??. ????, 19
Received 14.11.2013, received in revised form 23.01.2014, accepted 21.02.2014
????????? ?????????? ????????-????????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ?
???????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ??? ???????????????? ??????????. ? ???
????? ???????????????? ???????? ?????????????, ???????????????, ?????????? ????? ?
??????????? ????????. ??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ??
?????? ???????, ??????????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ???????. ???????? ??????
????????? ???????????????? ???????, ? ??? ????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????
???? ? ???????? ?? ?????????.
???????? ?????: ????, ?????? ????, ?????????? ??????, ??????????? ?????-????????,
????????? ???????? ?????????.
???????????? ????????
?????????? ?????? ?????? ??? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????
???????? ????? ? ???????????????????? ?????????????? ??????????. ??? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ??????????????? ?? ?????????? ? ??????? ???????????????????, ? ??? ????????? ???? ? ????????. ???????? ?????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ??? ???????? ??????????????, ?? ??? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ????????????,
??????? ??????? ?????? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ???? ? ?? ??????.
????????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????, ??? ??? ???????????
?????????? ???????? ??? ????????????? ??????????????????? ???????? ????? ???????????
?????? ????????, ?? ??? ???? ???????? ?????????? ??????????????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ?? ?????. ????? ????? ????????? ???? ????? ??????????????? ?????? ??? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ????, ??? ????????????? ?? ????? ???????
?? ?????????? ?????? ??????, ??????? ??????.
??????????? [1, 2] ?? ?????????? ??????? ?? ???? ? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ????? ? ??????? ?????????? ???????, ? ??????????
?????? ???????. ???????? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ????*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: unl@mtf.ustu.ru
# 316 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ?????. ??????????? ?????? ????? ? ???????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ????????
???? ????????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ?????, ??? ???????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ????? 1500 ??. ???????????? ???????? ????????
??????? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ????? ???????? ??????, ???????? ??
???????????? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ?????????. ??????? ???????? ????????
?????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ? ???????????.
? ???????? ?????? ? ?? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ????? ????? ???????? ??? ?????????
????????:
? ????????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ????????????? ?? ????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????? ????????;
? ????????? ????? ???????????, ????????, ??? ???????? ?????????????? ??????? ?????? ? ???????? ???????;
? ??????? ???????????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ????????.
????????? ?????? ???????????? ????????????? ????? ??????? ????? ????????? ?????????? (?? ????????? ? ?????) ??-?? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????, ????????????
? ?????????? ????????, ? ????? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????? ??????, ?.?. ?????????
??????????? ????????????? ? ???????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ????????????. ????????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????? [3, 4].
????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ? ???????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ? ?????????????? ???????, ???????? ? [5]. ????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ? ???????????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ???????.
???????????? ????? ??????? ???????
? ??????????? ?????? ? ??????? ??????????
????????? ????????????? ???????????????? ????? ?? ????????????? ??????? ?? ????????? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ?? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ????? 3?4 ? ???
???????? ??????? 100?300 ??. ??????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ????? ???????? 1,5 ?
?????????????? ??????????.
?????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ????????? 100 ?? ?? ??????? ??????? 10 ?? ????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????, ????????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????? ?
????????????? ??????? 100. ??????? ?????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ???????
???????? ???????? ??? ???????????, ??????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ????
?? ????????? ???????? ????????, ???? ?? ???? ??? ??????. ?????? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ?????????? ? ????? ????? ????????? 100 ??.
??? ??????????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ???? ??????: ????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????????, ??????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????????. ????????????? ????? ????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????.
??? ???????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ???????????? ??????? ????????
?????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????????????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ??????
[6, 7].
# 317 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ?????. ??????????? ?????? ????? ? ???????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ????????
????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????, ??????????? ? ??????????? ??????. ??? ???????? ? ????????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ???????
???????????????, ???????? ?? ?????????? ???????????? [8, 9].
??????????? ???????? ????? ??????? ?????????
? ??????? ???????? ????????
?????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ??????? ????????? ? ???????? ???????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ?? «?????-??????», ??????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ???????? ???????? METALLURGIE HOBOKEN-OVERPELT (MHO) ??????? ???????????? ????? ? ???????? «Contirod». ??? ??????????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ? ???????
???? «ASARCO» (???), ????? ??????????? ????????? ?? ????????????? ???????? ??????
«HAZELETT» (???) ? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ? ?????? ??????? ?? 14-?????????
????????? ????? «MANNESMANN DEMAG SACK» (????????). ????? ?????????? ????????????? ?? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ????? 50 ??2, ?? ??????????? ??????? ?
??????? [10-13].
?????? ? ??? ???????? ??????????????? ? ????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ???????
????? ??85 ? ??100, ?.?. ????????????? ? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????????? 85
? 100 ??2. ????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ????? ???? ?????????? ??? ??????? ???????? ????? ????????? ???????? ?? ????? 200 ??2, ??????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ????????????
????? ????????? ??????????.
??? «????????» ??????? ? 1995 ?. ?? ?????????? ??? ???????????????? ?????????? ?
???????????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????. ???????????? ???????? ????????
?? «??????????? ???????? ??????», ??? ????? «?????????-?????», ?? «???????? ??????».
??????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ?
???????? ?? ???????????? ????? «SOUTHWIRE» (???), ? ????? ??????? ? ?????????????
??????????? ??????? ??? ??????????????????? ???????? ????? ? ?????????????? ?????????????????. ?????????? ??????, ??????????? ??? «????????», ??????????????? ?? ?????????? ????? ? ???????? ????????.
?? ?????????? ????? «SOUTHWIRE» ????????? ?????? ??????? ??? «?????» ?
1991 ?., ????? ???? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? «?????????» c ??????
«NOKIA» (?????????). ??????? ????????, ??? ??? ??????????? ?? ???????? ??????????
?????????, ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????
???????.
??????????? ????? ??????????? ?????????
?? ???????? ? ??????????? ???????? ???????????
????????? ????????? 8 ?? ???????? ??????? ????????????? ??????????? ?? ?????
US36K-10 ??????? ????? «OUTOKUMPU CASTFORM» ??????????????????? 10 000 ? ? ???.
????????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ????????????? ? ???????????? ???? ??????????
????. ??????? ???????? ? ??????????? ????, ??? ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ???????. ???????????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ????????? ??????
? ???????????? ? ?????.
# 318 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ?????. ??????????? ?????? ????? ? ???????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ????????
????????? ?????????? ?? ???????????? «????? ???????» ???????? ??????? ????? 50 ??2,
??? ????? ???????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ???????.
????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????, ? ????? ???????, ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ? ????? ??????? ? ???????????? ?????????
?????????. ? ?????? ???????, ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ? ????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ????????? ?????, ??? ??????? ????????? ??? ????????? ????????? ????????
[14, 15].
?????????????? ????? ????????? ???????? ???????
? ??????????? ???????? ???????????
???????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ??? «?????», ???????????
? 1997 ?. ? ?????. ????????? ???????????? ????? ???????????? ???? ? ????????? ????????
? ????????? ????????????, ?????????? ???????????? ????????. ????????? ??????? ?????? ????? ????????? ?? ???? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????????? ?????, ???
???? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? (????? 200 ??2) ????????? ?????????
?????? ????????? ??? ????????????? ??????? ??????????. ??? ????????? ?? ???????????
??????????? ?????????????? ?????????. ????? ?? ???????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ????? ?? ?????????? ??????????????? ????? ??? «???????-????????? ?????
???» [16].
??????? ??????????
? ???????????? ??????????? ???????
????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????????? ? ???????????????, ??? ???? ??????????? ??????? ????? ??????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ? ????????? ????????, ? ?????? ????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ????????. ??????????
??? ???????? ??????????????? ???????? ????????????. ?????? ?? ??? ??????????? ? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??????? ???????? [17]. ?????? ?????????? ???, ???
???????? ????? ??? ??????? ????????? ???????? ???????, ? ???????? ??????? ????????
???????????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ????????? [18-21]. ? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ????? ??????? ?????? ?????? [22] ? ??????????????
??????????? ???????, ????????, ??????? ???????????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? [23, 24] ??? ???????? ?????????? ?????? [25, 26]. ??????? ????????, ??? ??????????????
???????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ?? ???? ?????????? ?? ??????????????? ??????????
???????? ??????????? [27, 28].
??????? ?????????????????
? ???????????? ??????????? ???????
? ????????? ????? ? ?????? ??????? ????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ?? ??????
????. ????????? ??????????? ????? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ??? ???????? ????? ??? ??????? ??????? ???????????????? ???????. ?????? ?????? ??????? ???????
????????? ?? ???????? ?????????, ???????? ?????, ?? ????????? ??????? ?????????, ??????????????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ???????, ????????? ?????, ? ????? ???????? ????????.
# 319 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ?????. ??????????? ?????? ????? ? ???????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ????????
??????? ?????? ???????? ?? ????????? ? ??????? ???????????????????, ? ?????? ?? ???? ???
????????. ???????? ?????????????? ??-?? ??????? ??????? ???????, ?? ?? ????? ??????
?????????????? ??????????????????, ??????- ? ??????????????. ???? ????? ?????? ??????????????, ?? ???????? ????? ??????? ??????????. ???????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????
???????????? ?????? ???? ???????? ???? ??????????? ? ?? ??? ??? ??????????????? ? ????. ??
????? ????????????? ????? ???????????? ???????????, ?????????? ???????????????? ?????????, ??????????, ??? ?? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????,
? ??? ????????? ??????? ???????? ????? ? ?????.
? ????? ? ???? ?????????? ?????? ?????????: ???????? ?????????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????, ????? ?? ????????? ? ?? ??????????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????.
??? ????? ????? ????????? ?????? ????? ?????????????? ?????????, ??????????? ?? ??????
??? ???? ????, ? ?????????????? ??????????????????, ??????????? ? ????? ??? ???? ????.
????????? ????? ???????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ???????, ?? ????? ?????? ??????? ???
????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ??????????????? ??????. ? ??????? ?????? ????? ????? ??
???????? ?????????????? ????????? ??????? ?? ????, ?? ? ????????? ??????????? ????????
?? ??????? [29].
??? ? 1984 ?. ???????? ????????? ?????????????? ????????? ? ?????? ???? ?????? ????????????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? [30]. ??????
??????????? ????? ????????? ?? ????????? ????????, ??????????? ???????? ? ?????????.
??? ????? ? ??????? (??????????) ???? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ??????-???????????,
??????????? ?????? ????? ? ?????? ????????????.
????????????? ???????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ???????? ????? ??????? ???? 2584
? ???????? ??????? ?? ????, ??????: ????0,25, ????1,0, ??????0,15-0,15, ????0,5 ? ????????????????? ?????? ????: ????0,05, ????0,05, ????0,04. ??????????? ???? ??????? ????????
?????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ?? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ? ??????????
? ????????????? ?????????????? [31-33].
? ??????? [34] ?????? BICC PLC ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ????????? ??????, ???????, ???????, ?????.
?????????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ? ???????? ???????. ??? ???????
?????????? 94,94 % ?????????? ?????????????????? ?? ?????? 75 % IACS (International Annealed Copper Standard ? ?????????????????? ???? ? ?????????? ?????????).
?????? PHELPS DODGE INDUSTRIES INC [35] ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????????????? ????????????: Ag, Cd, Te, Ti, Mg,
Mn, Cr, Sn. ??? ?????????? ???????? ? ?????? ?????? ? ?????? ?????????????? ??????????:
?? 0,1 % ?? ?????. ??? ????? ??????????? ????? ?????????????? ?????? ??????????????????
???????. ?????????? ???????? ????? ???????? ?????? ????????? 22-32 ??, ??????? ?????????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ?? 19-32 ?? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????
?? ?????? ?=40 %, ???????? ??????????. ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????
???????? IACS ????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ?????? 100 %, ? ????? ???????? ?????????? ??
?????? 99 %. ????? ??? ?? ????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????, ??????? ? ????
???????? [36]. ? ???? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ?? 0,035 ?? ?????
??????? ?????????? ??????? IACS 97 %.
# 320 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ?????. ??????????? ?????? ????? ? ???????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ????????
???????? ????? MITSUBISHI MATERIALS CORPORATION ????????? ? ????????????????? ???????????? RAILWAY TECHNICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE [37] ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????? ? ????????? ?????, ???????? ? ?????? ?? ?????????
?? ????? ??????? ? ?????? ? ?????????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????, ??????? ? ????????.
?????? ??????? ??? ?????? ? ??????? ?????????????????? ???? ? ??????????? ????????? ??
????? 10 ppm. ??? ????? ??????? ????????????? ?? ?????????, ??? ????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ?????? ??????? ? ??????? ????????? ? ?????????: ??????, ????????, ???????, ????.
??????????????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ????????? 250 ?? ? ?????? 3 ?, ??????? ???????
??????? ???????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ?????????. ?????
MITSUBISHI MATERIALS CORPORATION [38] ??????????? ????? ?????????? ????????????
??????????? ??????? ??? ???????????????? ???????????. ??????????? ????????????????
????? ?? ?????? ????, ???????????? ??????, ?????????, ????????, ????????. ??????????
?????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ? ?????? [39].
???????????? ?????? OLIN CORPORATION ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????? ???????, ??????????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ??? ?????????????
???????? [40]. ? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ????????? ???? ?????, ??????????
0,6 % ?????, 0,16 % ????????, 0,18 % ??????, ? ????????? ? ?????? ? ????? ????????? ????.
?????????? ????? «?????» [41] ?????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ???????
?????? ? ????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ? ????????. ??????????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????? ????????? ????? ??? ???????, ?? ????????????
??????? ??????????? ? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ????? ???????????. ????????
?????? ???????????? ?????????-??????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ? ????????
c ???????? ?? ?????? ????? [42].
?.?. ???????? [43] ?????? ?????? ???????????? ???????????? ????? ? ???????? ???? ? ??
???????. ????????? ??? ????????? ????????????? ????????????? ??????? ?? ???????, ????????????? ???????, ??????????????? ????????? ???? ? ????????? ??????? 1,55 ?, ??????????
?????. ??????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????. ???? ?? ????????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ?? ?????? ???? [44]. ?????? ??????????? ? ????????? ?????? ???? ? ??????? ??? ???? ? ??????, ??????? ??? ????????. ??????????
???????? IACS 85-95 %. ????? ????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ? ?????????????? ?? ?????????
????????????????????? ? ?????????? ?????????.
?????? FURUKAWA ELECTRIC COMPANY LTD ??????????? ?????????? [45, 46] ???????????? ??????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ???????, ??????????? ??????? ????????, ??????,
?????, ???????, ??????. ??? ???? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ?????, ???????,
???????, ??????? ? ????. ??? ???????????????? ??????????? ???? ?? ?????? ???????????
?????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ? ??????? ??????????? ????? (?? 30 %). ?????
??????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ????????????? ? ??? ???????????? ??????? ??????????????????, ??????? ???? ????, ??-????????, ?? ???????? ???????????? ??????????.
???????? ?????? SUMITOMO ELECTRIC INDUSTRIES LTD [47, 48] ??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?????? ? ????????? ????? ? ?????. ??????
??????? ? ????????? ????? ??? 1250 ??, ???????????????, ???????? ??????? ????? ? ?????# 321 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ?????. ??????????? ?????? ????? ? ???????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ????????
???????? ????????. ?????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????
120 ??, ??????? ? ???????? ??????????. ?????? ?? ????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ???????
? ?????? ??????? ?????? ????? ???????? ????? HITACHI CABLE [49], ?????? ?????????????????? ???????? ??????????? ?? ????? ??????? ? ?? ?????? 60 % IACS.
???????? ????? FUJIKURA LTD [50] ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ???? ? ????????? 0,4?0,7 % ?????. ????????? ???????? ? 1250816
[51] ?????????? ????????? ?????? ????? ??? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ??????? Cu ?
??????; Cr ? 0,02?0,08 %; Zr ? 0,06?0,28 %; B ? 0,02?0,15 %; Nb ? 0,02?0,08 %; ??? (Ce) ?
0,02?0,08 %. ???? ?? ??????????, ??????, ????????????? ?? ??????, ?????????????? ??? ??????????? 620 ??, ??? ???????? ????? ??????? ???????????.
? ?????? [52] ? ??????? [53] ?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??????????????. ????????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?? ???????????, ?? ? ????????????? ??????????. ????????? ????? ?u-0,08Mg, ??? ?????????????? ?????????? 250 ??,
??? ????, ??? ? ????, ?? ???????????? ?? ????????? ? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ??
620 ??. ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ????????.
??? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ???????? ? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ??????, ???????????? 5-10 % ???????. ????? ?????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ????? ???????? ???????? ? ???????? ? ??????? [54]. ? ?????? [55] ????????? ??????????
???????????? ?????????????? ????????????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ?????????????
?????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ?????, ? ????? ??????????? ??????? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ??????????????????? ? ???????????????????? ???????, ?????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ?????????.
???????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ???????,
??????????? ? ????????????
???????? ?????????????? ????????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????
??????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????:
1. ???????????? ??????? ?? ????????????????? ??????? ????, ??????? ?????? ? ???????,
??? ???????? ? ?????????? ?????? ?????????????????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????. ??? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ??????. ?????????? ? ????????????? ????????? ???????????? ? ???????????? ???????, ??????????? ????????? ???????.
??????????? ??????, ????????? ?? ??????????? ??? «????????» (?????? ???? 0,04 ? ????
0,15), ????????? ?????? ??? ????????, ?? ???? ?????? ?? ??????????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????.
2. ???????????? ??????? ?? ????????????????? ??????? ???? ? ???????? ? ??????? ???????????????? ?????????. ??? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ????? ??????.
????????????? ??????? ????? ??????? ??????, ??? ??? ?????????? ??????, ?? ? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????, ?????????? ??????????? ??????. ?????
????, ?????? ???? ? ???????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ????????????, ??? ?? ????????? ?????
?? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ? ??????????? ?????? ??? ????????????. ???????? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ????? LAMIFIL, ????????????
?????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????? Cu-Ag, Cu-Mg ? ? ????????? ??????? Cu-Cd.
# 322 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ?????. ??????????? ?????? ????? ? ???????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ????????
3. ???????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ???? ? ????????? ? ??????, ??? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????. ???? ???? ???????? ??????
??? ??????????????, ????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ???????? ? ????????????????? ?????????, ??????? ????????? ?????????, ??????? ? ????????.
???? ?? ????????? ??????????, ???????? ??????????? THE SAKAI PLANT ?????????? MITSUBISHI MATERIALS CORPORATION ????????????? ?? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????? Cu ? 0,3Cr ? 0,02Zr ? ?u ? 0,3Cr ? 0,1Zr ? 0,03Si. ???????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ?? ????????? ????????
????????? ?????????????? ? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ? ???????? ????????????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?????, ??? ??????? ? ???????????
??????????? ???????.
??????? ???? ???????????, ????? ??????? ????????? ??????:
? ? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ???? ? ?? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ??????: ???????? ?????? ?????????, ??????????????? ???????? ???????
??????? ?? ?????? ??????? ????????? ????? 600 ??? ?????? ??????? 400 ???, ?????????????? ?? 600 ?? ?????? ??????? ???????? 200 ?? ??? ??????????? ???????
???????? ??????????????????.
? ??? ?????? ?????????? ?? ???? ?????????? ????????? ???????, ???????????? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ? ???????? ????? ?????????, ???????? ? ???????? ??????? ??? ????????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????
?? ?????? ????.
?????? ??????????
[1] ???? 2584-86. ??????? ?????????? ?? ???? ? ?? ???????. ?.: ???????????? ??????????,
1986. 12?.
[2] EN 50149. Railway applications - Fixed installations - Electric traction - Copper and copper
grooved contact wires. Brusel. Cenelec, 2001. 29 p.
[3] Gershman I.S., Mironos N.V. Requirements to contact wires for high-speed railway transport.
??????? ??????-?????????????????? ????????? ???????????????? ??????????. 2011. ? 3. ?. 13.
[4] ???????? ?. ????????? ? ???????? ???????? ????????????????. ???????? ?????? ????,
2002. ?6. ?.20.
[5] ????????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ???????-????????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ???????,
?????? ? ???? ?? ??????? ????????. ??????? ??????????????, 2007. ? 5. ?. 20.
[6] ????????? ?.?., ????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ? ??. ?????? ????????? ??????? ??????????
??????????? ??? ??????????? ????? ?????????. ?.?. ???? ?1194894. ?????. 30.11.1985.
[7] ??????? ?.?., ????? ?.?. ??????????????? ? ??????????? ????? ???? ? ?? ???????
??? ???????????? ??????????? ???????. ???????? ??????, 2005, ?1. ?.34.
[8] ?????? ?.?. ????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ????????. ?.: ??????????????????, 2003. 336?.
[9] ??????????? ?.?. ????????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ?
??????????????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ? ???????. ???????? ?????. ???????
???????????. 2005. ?3. ?. 45.
# 323 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ?????. ??????????? ?????? ????? ? ???????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ????????
[10] ??????? ?.?., ???? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ?????? ???????? ????????
??????????????????? ???? ? ?????? ?????????????? ????????????? ??????????. ???????
???????. 2012. ? 7. ?. 77.
[11] ??????? ?.?., ?????????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ????? ?.?., ???? ?.?.
?????????????? ????????? ??????????????? ????. ???????? ??????. 2011. ? 11. ?. 28
[12] Loginov Y.N., Demakov S.L., Illarionov A.G., Popov A.A. Effect of the strain rate on the properties of electrical copper. Russian metallurgy (Metally). 2011. V. 3. P. 194.
[13] ??????? ?.?., ???? ?.?. ?????????????? ? ????????????? ?????????? ????????????
??????????-????? ????. ??????????????? ???????????? ? ??????????????. 2011.
? 1. ?. 32.
[14] ??????? ?.?., ????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ???????????? ??????????????
??????????????? ?????????????????? ????. ???????? ??????. 2008. ? 3. ?. 25.
[15] ??????? ?., ???????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ???????????? ????????
??????????????? ?????? ??????? ??????????????????? ??????????. ??????? ???????. 2002.
? 4. ?. 73
[16] ????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ???????????
??????? ? ??? «???????-????????? ????? ?? ????????? ??????? ????????» ?????????????
???????? ?? ?????????????????? ????. ???????????? ???????. 2010. ? 8. ?. 29.
[17] ?????? ?.?. ??????? ???????? ??? ???????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ???????.
?????? ?? ? 2163173. ?????. 20.02.2001.
[18] ????????? ?.?.; ??????? ?.?.; ???????? ?.?. ??????? ???????? ??? ???????? ????????
????????? ??????????? ???????. ?????? ?? ? 2178348. ?????. 20.01.2002.
[19] ???????? ?.?. ?????????? ?????????? ????? ??? ???????? ???????? ?????????
??????????? ???????. ?????? ?? ? 2048934. ?????. 27.11.1995.
[20] ?????? ?.?. ??????? ???????? ??? ???????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ???????.
?????? ?? ? 2174053. ?????. 27.09.2001.
[21] ???? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ??????? ???????? ??? ???????? ???????? ?????????
??????????? ???????. ?????? ?? ? 2230617. ?????. 20.06.2004.
[22] ?? ?. ?., ?????????? ?. ?., ????????? ?. ?., ??????? ?. ?. ????????? ?????????????
? ?????????? ??????????? ???????. ?????????????. 2003. ? 12. ?. 32.
[23] ?????????? ?.?. ?????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ?????? ?????????????? ???????????
??????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ????. ?????? ?? ? 2109591. ?????. 27.04.1998.
[24] ?????????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. ?????????????? ??????? ???????????
??????? ???????? ?????????????????????????????????. ??????????????? ???????????? ?
??????????????. 2007. ? 2. ?. 34.
[25] ??????? ?.?. ?????? ????????? ????????? ?? ??????? ? ???????????? ???????
??????????? ???????. ?????? ?? ? 2173590. ?????. 20.09.2001.
[26] ??????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ?????? ????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?
???????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????. ?????? ?? ? 2173588. ?????. 20.09.2001.
[27] ?????? ?.?., ??????????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. ?????
??????????? ??????? ? ??????? ??? ??????????? ????????-???????????. ?????? ??????????
???????????? ????????????. ????? «??????? ? ??????????». 2010. ?. 3, ? 4. ?. 411.
# 324 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ?????. ??????????? ?????? ????? ? ???????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ????????
[28] ??????????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ????????????? ????????????
???????? ???????????? ????? ? ????????-??????????? ??????? ???????? ? ???????. ????????
?????. ??????? ???????????. 2004. ?5. ?.34.
[29] ????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?, ??????????? ?.?. ?????????? ??????. ?????? ?? ? 2261185.
?????. 01.10.2003.
[30] ?????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ???? ?.?. ? ??. ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????.
?.?. ???? ? 1101323. ?????. 10.01.1983.
[31] ??????? ?.?. ???? ? ????????????? ?????? ??????. ????????????: ????. 2006. 136 ?.
[32] ??????? ?.?., ????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ??????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ????????
? ????? ?????? ???????/ ??????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????
????????. ????????????: ??? ???, 2006. ?.103.
[33] ????? ?. ?., ??????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ??????? ??????? ? ???????? ??
?????????????????? ???????? ???????????????? ??????? ????. ???????? ??????. 2006. ?4.
P. 33.
[34] Buchan C. Patent GB ? 2123032. Copper-base alloys. Publ. 02.10.1985.
[35] Chandler T., Corrado J. Patent US ?6077364. Copper trolley wire and method of manufacturing copper trolley wire. Publ. 20.06.2000.
[36]. Chandler T., Corrado J. Patent US ?6258187. Copper trolley wire and method of manufacturing copper trolley wire. Publ. 10.07.2001.
[37] Goto M., Kawakita S., Mae Y. and other. Patent US ?5391243. Method for producing wire
for electric railways. Publ. 21.02.1995.
[38] Nagasawa H., Aoki S., Kawakita S. and other. Patent JP ?6154838. Production Production
of copper alloy trolley wire and hanging stringing. Publ. 03.06.1994.
[39] Qiang Liu, Xiang Zhang, Yan Ge, Jing Wang, Jian-Zhong Cui. Effect of processing and heat
treatment on behavior of Cu-Cr-Zr alloys to railway contact wire. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A. 2006. V. 37. P. 3233.
[40] Watson W., Breedis J. Patent US ?4047980. Processing chromium-containing precipitation
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[41] ?????? ?.?. ?????? ?? ?2163855. ?????? ???????????? ???????????? ????? ?
???????? ?????? ???????. ?????. 10.03.2001.
[42] ?????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ?????? ????????? ?????? ?? ????????????-???????????
?????????????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ? ?????? ???????????? ?? ???? ????????????????.
?????? ?? ?2378403. ?????. 10.01.2010.
[43] ?????? ?.?. ?.?. ???? ?2089334. ?????? ???????????? ???????????? ????? ?
???????? ???? ? ?? ???????. ?????. 10.09.1977.
[44] ?????? ?.?. ?????? ?? ?2162764. ?????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ???????
?? ?????? ????. Publ. 10.02.2001.
[45] Asai M., Shinozaki S., Sato K. and other. Patent JP ?3072042. Copper alloy for trolley wire.
Publ. 27.03.1991.
[46] Ymazaki A. Patent JP ?9279269. Copper alloy trolley wire. Publ. 28.10.1997.
[47] Sawada K., Kitanishi M. Patent JP ?54079120. Copper alloy for trolley wire. Publ.
23.06.1979.
# 325 #
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?.?. ???????, ?.?. ?????. ??????????? ?????? ????? ? ???????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ????????
[48] Kubo N., Nanjo K., Sano T. and other. Patent JP ?4171907. Trolley wire and manufacturing
method. Publ. 29.10.2008.
[49] Kuroda H., Hiruta H., Aoyama M. Patent JP ?5147040. Copper alloy material, copper alloy conductor and its production method, trolley wire for overhead contact wire, and cable. Publ.
20.02.2013.
[50] Takayama T., Inoue T., Kusama T. Patent JP ?6240426. Production of high strength copper
alloy trolley wire. Publ. 30.08.1994.
[51] Chen P. Patent CN ?1250816. Copper-base alloy and its technology. Publ. 12.04.2006.
[52] ?????? ?.?. ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????. ???????? ?????? ????. 2002.
? 4. ?. 46.
[53] ?????? ?.?., ?????????? ?.?. ?????? ?? ?2201311. ?????? ???????????? ??????????
???????? ?? ???? ? ?? ???????. ?????. 27.03.2003.
[54] ?????? ?.?. ?????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ???????. ??????
?? ?2188095. ?????. 27.08.2002.
[55] ?????? ?.?. ????????????????? ???????? ?????????? ????. ??????? ???????????????????????? ????????? ???????????????? ??????????. 2012. ? 3. ?. 40-45.
Continuous Casting and Rolling Methods
in the Manufacture of Contact
wire for Railway Transport
Yuri N. Loginov and Raisa K. Mysik
Ural Federal University
19 Mira, Yekaterinburg, 620002, Russia
Results of the patent and literary review of continuous methods of casting and rolling are given in
production of a contact wire for railway transport. Including options of vertical, horizontal, inclined
casting and a fusion pulling are analyzed. Calibrations of tools for deformation of preparations from
the copper alloys intended for production of a contact wire are considered. Methods of increase of
operational properties, including creations of thermally strengthened alloys of copper and ways of
their processing are revealed.
Keywords: copper, copper alloys, the contact wire, the combined casting-rolling, processing of metals
by pressure.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 3 (2014 7) 327-339
~~~
??? 669.2.02
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?
IconSteel
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?
???????? ????????????? ?????????????
???????, 49514, ????? ?????, ???? ???, 9
Received 07.03.2014, received in revised form 02.04.2014, accepted 21.04.2014
???????? ??????????? MAYA ??????? ??????????? ? ?????????????? ??? ??????? ?????
?????????? ????????? ???? ? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ? ??????????? ?
???????????? ??????????? ??????????. ????????? ??? ??????? ????????, ????? ??? Cu, Mo,
Zn, Pb, Sn, Ti, Be, Sr ? Ba, ??????????????? ? ???, ??? ? ?????? ??????? ???????? ???????????
????? ???? ????????? ?? ????? ?????? ??????? ???????????????? ????????: ?????? ?????,
?????????? ???????? ?????, ???????? ???????????? ???????, ??????????? ???????? ????????
??????? ?????????.
???????? ?????: ?????, ??????????????, ????????, ???????????.
????????
? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ?? ??????. ???????
? ??????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?? ??????, ??????????? ???????????? ????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????, ??????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????????, ???????????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ??????????, ?????????, ???????? ???????, ??
??????????? ????????? ?????? ????? ?? ????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ????????????????? ???????, ??????????? ??? ????? ????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ??? ?????, ??? ? ?????
????????. ??? ??????? ???????????? ??????????????? ????????? ??????????, ???????????,
???????? ???????? ??????? ?????????, ??? ? ????? ??????? ????????????? ????????????.
??????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????????? ???????? ????? ??? ?????????? ??????????
?????????? ????????? ????????? ? ??????? ????????? ????????????? ????????????.
?????? ??? ???????? ????? ? ??????? ?????????? ????? ?? ??????, ??????? ?????????
?????? ?????????, ?? ????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ????????????? ? ????????????
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: alex@iconsteel.net
# 327 #
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?????????????? ?????????? ??? ???????????, ???????????? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ?
?????????? ??????? ?????. ????? ????????????? ????? ??????????? ?? ???? ?????? ???????????? ? ?? ???????? ???????? ??????????, ?? ?????? ? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ????????
?????? ????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ??????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????????.
? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ?????, ??????????? ? ???????, ????????????? ?? ??????????, ???????? ?????? ? ?? ???????????, ?????????? ????????? ??????????, ??????????? ?????????? ??????, ???????????? ??????????????
???????, ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????, ???? ?????? ????????? ????? ?????
?????? ????. ??? ?????????????? ???????????? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????,
??? ?? ????????? ???????????? ?? ??? ????? ?????????? ????? ??????????. ????? ????, ????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ???????? ????????? ??-?? ?????????
??????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ????, ? ????? ???????? ?????????? ???? ? ???????????? ????????.
????????? ??????? ????????? ? ????? XX ?. ??????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ???? ???????? ?????????? ????????????. ?? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ???????
????? ? ?????? ????????? ??????? ??????????????? ?? ?????????? ??? ? ?????? ??? ??????
???? ? ???? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????????????? ??????????, ???????? ??????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ????????????? ????? [1-4].
?????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ?? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ? ??????????????, ??????????? ??? ?????, ? ??? ???????? ???????????? ???
????????? ? ?????????? ?????. ????? ????, ?? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????
????????? ??????????????? ??????? ????????????? ????????, ???????? ?????????? ???????
?????????????? ? ?????????, ??? ???????? ???????????? ?? ??????????.
??? ??????? ??? ?? ????? ???????????? ??????? ???, ?????? ?????? ? ???????? ???????
????????? ? ?????? ????????? ??????? (??? ???? ????????? ?????????? ????????) ??????????? ????? Laser Distance Spectrometry (LDS) ??????????? ???????? ??????-??????????? ?????????? ?????????? MAYA.
??????? ???????? ??????????? MAYA ??????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????-???????????
????????????? (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectrometry, LIBS), ??? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????? Nd:YAG ?????. ????? ?????? ? ???????? ?? 1 ?? 20 ??? ? 1 ? ???????????? ?? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????, ??? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????? 30 000 є? ? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????
? ????????? ??????. ?????? ???????????? ????? ??????????? ??????????????????, ?? ??????
?????????????? ???, ?????????? ????????, ????? ? ???? ?????????? ?????????, ???????????? ? ?????????, ? ????? ????????? ?????????. ? ?????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ??????, ???????????????? ???????????
???????, ? ?????????? «????????» ??????. ???? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????
?????? ?? ?????? ????????????? ??????? ????, ? ????????????? ???????? ??????? ? ?????
?????? ? ????????????? ??????? ???????? ? ????????????? ????????? (???. 1). ????? ???????,
?????????? ??????? ???????? ???????????????? ?????????????? ?????????, ??????? ??????,
??? «??????????? ???????» [5-7].
# 328 #
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?.M. ??????????, ?.?. ????. ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ??????
???. 1. ???????? ?????? ??????????, ?????????? ? ??????? MAYA
???. 2. ?????????????? ????? ?????? ????????? ??????????? MAYA
?????????? ????????? ?????? ? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?? 190 ?? 1000 ?? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????????, ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ??????? ??????? ? ????????? ??????????? (???. 2).
? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????? ???????, ???????????
????????? ??? ??????? ??? ?????? (?????? ?? 20 ? ?? ?????????? ?????), ??????????? ???????????? ?????????, ???????????? ????????????? ???????? [8].
# 329 #
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?.M. ??????????, ?.?. ????. ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ??????
????????? ?????????????? ?????? ???????? ??????-??????????? ????????????? ?????
??????? ?????????????? ????????, ???????????? ??? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ? ?????? ????????? ???????, ????????:
? ??????? ????????????????, ?????? ??????? ??????????? ? ??????? ???????? ?????????
?????? ???????????? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ? ????????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????????;
? ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ???? ??????????? ?????????, ? ??? ????? ??????
(C, Si, Mg, Al);
? ?????????? ????? ????? ????????????? ????????? (??????????, ????? ? ??????????????), ?????????? ???????????? ??? ?????????, ?????????? ????????????? ? ??????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????? ???????? ????????;
? ????????????? ??????????? ???????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ?????????, ??????? ?????? ? ?????? ???? ????????? ?? ?????????;
? ???????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ???????;
? ???????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ? ???????????? ???????????.
????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ? ?????????????
? ???????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ? ??????, ? ?? ?????? ?? ???????????.
??????? ????????????? ????????? ???? ????? ????, ?, ?????????????, ????????????? ??????
??????????? ?????????, ??????????? ?? ?????????, ????? ??? ?????????? ????? ?????? ?????
??????. ????? ????, ????????????? ?????? ????? ????? ???????????. ??????? ???? ????? ????? ????????, ??? ? ???????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ?? ????? ????????? ?????????????
???????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ?????????????? ?????? ? ???????, ??????? ????? ??????????????? ????? ????? ??????. ?????????? ????, ??? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????????? ??? ??????? ???????????, ??????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????. ? ???????????? ???????? ??? ???????? ???????????????? ???????? ???????????
?????? ????? ? ?????????? ?? 30 ? ?? 5 ??? (???????? ?? 60 ?? 600 ? ??????? ?????????).
??? ????? ??????? ???? ?????????, ??? ???????, ??????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????????????, ????????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ?? ???????? ????? ???????? ????? ? ?????????, ??????? ???????? ?? ????? ???????. ????????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????
??????????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????, ??????? ? ???? ?????
????? ? ?????????, ? ????? ????? ?????? ????????? ?????????????. ???????? ?????? ????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ????? ? ????????? ???????: ???????? ???????? ?? ???????? ????? ?????????????? ??????; ?????????? ?????????? ?????
???????????? ?????????; ???????? ???????????? ?? ????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????
???????????? ???????.
??????? ????????????? ??????????
??? ? ??? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? online-???????, ?????????? ?????????
??????????? MAYA ? ??????, ?????????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ????? ????? ???? ??????? ?? ??? ???????? ?????? ? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ????
(???. 3) ? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????? (???. 4) ? ????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ??????.
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???. 3. ?????????????? ????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????? ???? ?? ????????? ?????? ? ??
?????????? ???????, ??????????? ? ?????? ????????? ???????
???. 4. ?????????????? ????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ????? ?? ?????????
?????????? ? ?? ?????????? ???????, ??????????? ? ?????? ????????? ???????
??? ?????????? ????????? ???? ??????? ?? 150 ?? ?????????? MAYA ???????????,
????????, ?? ?????????-?????????????? ??????? ????????? «????????» [9] (???. 5). ? ??????????? ?? ?????????? CaO ? SiO2 ? ?????? ?????????, ?????????? ?? ????????? ?? 60 ?,
SCADA-???????, ??????????? ?????????????? ???????, ?? ????????? ??????? ?????????
? ??????, ?????????? ?? MAYA, ??????????, ? ????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ??????
?????????.
? ???????? ? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ??? ????, ???, ????????, ??? ??????????? ? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ???????
1,45 % (??? ??????? ??? ???????????? ??? ?????? ????????? ????? 50,6 % ??? ?????????????
# 331 #
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???. 5. ?????????? MAYA ?? ?????????-?????????????? ??????? ????????? «????????»
???. 6. ????????????? ?????? ??????????? ? ??????????? MAYA ?? SiO2
???????? 2,9 % ???????? ??????? ??? ????????? ?? ?????????? ? ????????? ????? ??????) ?
?????? ???????????? ????? ????????, ? ???????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ??????? ??????? 0-150 ?? ? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?????
3 %. ????? ???????, ????????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ?? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ????? 5 % (???. 6), ??? ?? ???? ????????????????? ???????????? ????????. ?
?????????? ????????? MAYA ????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?? ?????? ?????????????
?????? ????????? ???????? ? ?????????????????? ??????????? (?? 10-15 %), ? ????? ???????
?? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ????? ?????????????? ????? ???????????????????
????? (10-30 %). ????????? ???? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ?? ????? ???? ?? ??? ?????
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??????? ? ???????????? ??? ?? ???? ????????? ????? ??????? ?????????????????? ?????????
??? ?????? ??? ???????????? ???????? ?????????, ??? ? ?? ???? ????????????? ????????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????, ????????????? ?? ??????????? ????????? ????????????
? ??? ???????? ????????????.
???? ???????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ? ???, ??? ??? ????? ????? ???? ???????????? ? ??????? ?????????-????????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ??????????, ? ????? ??? ???????????????? ????????????
???????? ???????? ??????? ?????????.
??? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ????? ?????????? MAYA ???????????, ????????, ??
??? «???????????? ???????????????? ????????» [10-11] (??. ???. 4).
?????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????????, ??????????? ? ??????????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????????, ??????????? ? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ????? ?????????,
??? Fe, Ca, Si, Mg. ?????????? CaO ? SiO2 ? ???????????? ????? ????? ???????? ?????????,
????????? ? ?????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ? ???????. ???????????? ??????? ?? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ??????? ? ????? ??????????
?????. ??? ???????? ????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?? ???? ????????? ??????????, ???????????
??? ?? ?????????? Fe, ??? ? ?? ?????????? ?????????? (CaO/SiO2). ??? ???? ????????, ???
?? ????????????? ?????? ???????? ????? ????? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????
(?????????? ? ????????). ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ??? ?????????? ???????? ????? ?? ?????? ??????????????? ????????, ??? ???????????????, ???????? ? ???????
?????????. ???????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ????? ????? ??
????? ?????? ? ??????? ?????? ????? ? ???????? ?????.
?????????? MAYA ??? ?????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????????, ??????????? ??
?????????? ? 1 ????? ?????? ??????????? ??????. ??????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? Fe, CaO ? SiO2 ? ???????????? ????? ? ??????????? MAYA ? ??????????
?????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ???????????, ??? ????? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? (???. 7-8). ? ??????? 2011 ?. ???????? ?????????? MAYA, ????????????? ?? ?????????? ? 1 ????, ??????? ?????????????
??? ??????? ? ??????? ???????? ??????? ????????????, ???????? ? ? ????????? ?????????? ??
????? 10 ?? 40 °?.
?????? ??? ????? ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ???? ????????? ???????? ???????
?????????? (???????????? ??? ?????????), ????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ???? ??????. ????????? ?????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? Fe ? ?aO ? ???????????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ?? ???. 9. ????? ?????????????? ??????
???????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ? ???????????
?????????? ????, ????????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ?? ???????????????? ???????? (????, ????????, ???????? ?????????? ? ?????????) ? ???? ???????????
??????.
? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ???? ??????????, ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ???????? ????? ???????? ????? ??? ?? 0,05, ????? ????? ??? ????? ? ? 8-10 ??
3-4 %, ???????? ????? ? ???????? ???? ??????????? ????? ??? ?? 0,6-0,8 ?? ?? ????? ??????,
?????? ???????? ????? ??? ?? 6 ???????.
# 333 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.M. ??????????, ?.?. ????. ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ??????
???. 7. ????????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?????? ? ??????????????? ?????
CaO tracking lines
8
Lab CaO %
M2010
7
6
CaO %
5
4
3
2
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Sample number
???. 8. ????????????? ?????? ??????????? ? MAYA
?????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ???????? Cu ? Ni
???????? ??????????????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ??? ????, ??? ???????, ??????? ??????? Cu, S, Ca ? Si. ????????? ?? ???????????? ??????? ???????????, ???????
????????? ?????????????, ?? ??????????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ?????????, ???????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ? ????????????? ??????? ??? ???? ???? ?????????
(???. 10).
?????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??. ???? ????????, ??? ??????? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ???? ??? ?? ?????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ? ?????????# 334 #
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?.M. ??????????, ?.?. ????. ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ??????
???. 9. ????????? ?????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ?? ?????????? Fe ? CaO
???. 10. ?????????? ????? ???????? ???????????? ? ????????????? ????????????? ??????? ??
Cu (a), CaO (b), SiO2 (c) and S (d) ??? ?????? ???
???? ???????, ?????????? ??? Cu, Mo and Fe, ?????? ????????????????? (???. 11), ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ????????.
??????? ?????????? ???? ???????? ?? ???? ? ?????? (???. 12), ?? ????????? Fe/Ni ? ??
?????????? Mg (???. 13). ?? ???? ???? ??????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????????????
?????????????.
??????? ?????????? ???? ????? ???????? ??? ??? Zn, Pb, Sn, T-, Be, Sr ? Ba.
# 335 #
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???. 11. ?????????? ????? ???????? ???????????? ? ????????????? ????????????? ??????? ??
Cu (a), Mo (b), and Fe (c) ??? ?????? ???
???. 12. ?????????? ????? ???????? ???????????? ? ????????????? ????????????? ??????? ??
Cu (a, b) ? Ni (c, d) ??? ????????? ????? ????????? ???
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.M. ??????????, ?.?. ????. ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ??????
???. 13. ?????????? ????? ???????? ???????????? ? ????????????? ????????????? ???????
?? ????????? Fe/Ni (a) ? MgO (b) Cu (a, b) ? Ni (c, d) ??? ????????? ????
????????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ? ????????
?? ???? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ?
????? ????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ??? ????? ?????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??????????. ???????? ???????? ????????? ???????? Cr, Ti, Ni and V, ???????????? ? ?????, ? Fe,
Si, Ga, Zn, ??????????? ? ????? ????????. ??? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ?????????
Al ???????? ????????. ??????? ?????????????? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????
???????? ???????????? ????????? ? ?????? ????????? ??????? ? ??????? ???????????????
????.
???????????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ? ?????????? ???????
?? 10 ?, ??????????????, ??????????? Al2O3 50 % ??????? ? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ??????? ? ????????? ?? 3 ?? 6
[12]. ?????? «??????» ???????????? ??? ????????? ?????? ?????? ? ???????? ? ?????????,
??????, ??????????? ? ????????????? ??????. ????? ???????, ???????? ?????????? ????????
???????????? ?????????? ????? ? ?????? ??????????? Al ? ??????? ??? ?? ????????????
???????????????? ????????. ??? ????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ????,
?????????? ????.
???????????? ????????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ??????? ????????????? ????????????? ???? ???????? ??????????? [13]. ???? ????????, ??? ?? ????????
-100+50 ? -50+25 ?? ????????????? ????????? ????? ????? ??????? ?????????, ?????????
????????????? ????? Ca ? Fe. ? ?????????? ?????????? CO2 ???? ???????? ? 18,0 ?? 14,1, ?
?????????? ?????? ??????? ?? 10,2 ?? 14,1 %. ? ?????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????
# 337 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.M. ??????????, ?.?. ????. ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ??????
?????? ???? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ????????????? ???????-?????????? ???????. ???
????? ???? ???????????? ????? ????????? ????????? ? ??????? ??????????? Fe ? Si, ??????? ??????? ????????, ? ?????????????? ??????????????????? ?????????? Fe. ????? ?????
?????????? ?????? ????? ??????? ?? 1,6.
?????? ?????????? ????????????? ????? ???????? ??????? Na3K(AlSiO4)4 ? ??????
KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6. ????? ?????????? Al2O3 ??????????? ????, ??? ? ?????????? ?????, ? ???
???? ????? ?????????? 1 ? Al, ?????? ?????????? 3-4 ? ????????, ????? ??? ?????????? 7-8 t
???????? ? ???????. ??? ?? ????? ??????????? ???? ? ????? ??????-???????????, ????????????????? ? ????????? ?????????????. ??? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ??????, ??? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??? ???????????? ????????, ? ?????????? ? ??? ???????????? ????????? [14]. ???? ????????, ??? ??????? ????????????? ????????????? 10-40 % ??
??????????? ???? ????? ???? ????????????? ? ??????, ????? ??? ?????????? ????? ????????
??? ??????????? ??????????????? ???????????. ????? ?????????? ??????????????? ? ???, ???
?????? ???? ????? ?????????? ? ???????????????? ??????? ????? ???? ????? ???????????.
????? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ? ????????????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ??? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????, ????? ??? Al ? Si.
?????? ??????????
[1] ????????? ?., ?????? ?. ???????????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ???. ?.: ?????, 1979. 192 c.
[2] Salter J., Wyatt N. // Minerals Engineering. 1991. V. 4. N 7-11. P. 779.
[3] Cutmore N., Eberhard M. www.min-eng.com/protected/me02ex.
[4] Gaft M., Reisfeld R., Panczer G. Modern luminescence spectroscopy of minerals and materials.
Springer-Verlag Berlin, 2005. 356 p.
[5] Cremers D., Radziemski L. Handbook of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy. WILEY,
2006. 283 p.
[6] Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy. Fundamentals and Applications. Edited by Miziolek
A., Palleschi V, Schechter I. CAMBRIDGE, 2006. 628 p.
[7] Gaft M., Nagli L., Groisman Y., Barishnikov A. Applied Spectroscopy. 2014 (In press).
[8] Gaft M., Nagli L. US Patent 6,753,957 B1, 2004.
[9] ????????? ?., ?????? ?., ????? ?., ? ??. // ????? ?????????. 2012. ? 11.
[10] ??????? ?., ????????? ?., ?????????? ?. ? ??. // ?????????. 2013. ? 2.
[11] Barishnikov A., Gaft M., Isaenko G., Mansurova N., Tikhonov D.at al // ICSTI ? 6th
International Congress of the Science and Technology of Ironmaking, Brazil, 2012.
[12] http://www.mining-media.ru/ru/article/ekonomic/519-sostoyanie-syrevoj-bazy-alyuminievoj
-promyshlennosti-rossii
[13] http://technoros-kras.ru/index.php?&block=14&page=list.
[14] http://library.krasu.ru/ft/ft/b72/0227142/pdf/16/101.pdf
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.M. ??????????, ?.?. ????. ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ??????
The ?pplication of Laser Element Online Analyzer MAYA
for Extraction of Mineral Raw Materials
and for Stabilization of Raw Mixtures
in Nonferrous Metal Production
Alexander M. Barishnikova and Michael L. Gaftb
a
IconSteel
11 Wolokolamskoe shosse, Moscow, 125310, Russia
b
Laser Distance Spectrometry
9 Mota Gur Str., Petch-Tikva, 49514, Israel
The laser analyzers MAYA are successfully applied in industry in order to solve the tasks of crushed ore
sorting and stabilization of the composition if raw material mixtures in metallurgy and in production of
fireproof materials. The tests of non-ferrous ores such as Cu, Mo, Zn, Pb, Sn, Ti, Be, Sr and Ba confirm
that the laser analyzers could be applied in this branch at different stages of the technological process:
extraction of raw material, preparation of raw material mixture, check of technical composition,
operative check of the finished products? quality.
Keywords: laser, analyzer, industry, minerals, metals.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 3 (2014 7) 340-358
~~~
??? 621.039.73
?????? ????????????????
??? ?????????????? ????????
????????????? ???????
?.?. ???????,
?.?. ???????? , ?.?. ?????????*
?
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??????, 662972, ????????????, ???????????? ????, ??. ??????, 53
?
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??????, 123182, ??????, ??. ????????? ?????????, 1
?
????????? ??????????? ???????????
??????, 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
?
Received 12.02.2014, received in revised form 27.03.2014, accepted 07.04.2014
???????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????????? ???? ?
??????????? 200-???????? ????? ??? ???? ????????? ?????????: ?????????? ???? ? ??????????
?????????, ????????? ????? ?????????????? ??????? ????????????? ? ????????? ?????????,
????????? ?????????? ?????????. ? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ???? ????????,
??? ??? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ????? ??????????? ?? 90 °? ? ?????,
? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????? 2530 ????????.
?? ????????? ????????? ??? ????????????????? ????????? ?????????????? ???? ? ????? ?
?? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ???????????????
????????????? ????? ? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????. ??????????? ???????????
??????????? ??????????? ??? ???? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ???????? ?????? 9,86
??/?2·K, ??? ????? ? ??? ???? ??????, ??? ????????, ??????????? ? ??????? ?????????????
????????????? ?????????. ????????????? ?????????????? ? ???????? ????????? ??????????
????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ???????????? ????????? (?/?) ?/? < 0,5.
????????, ??? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ????????
????????? ????????? ???????? ????????, ???????????? ??? ????????? ??????????
????????? ? ????? ??? ?/? ? 0,5.
???????? ?????: ???????? ??????, ????????????? ????, ??????????????, ??????
????????????? ??????, ??????, ????????? ????????.
????????
?????????? ??????? ??? «???????????» ?????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????????????? [1], ??? ??? ? ???? ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????????? ??????????????? ???????: ???????????, ??????????, ??????? ???????, ??????????? ???????? ?? ???????
???????, ???????? ? ??????? ? ?? ??????????? ?????????????? ? ????????? ??????????. ?
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: tak.sfu@gmail.com
# 340 #
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????????? ? ??????????? ????? ? ? ???????? ????? ?? ???????? ?????? [2]. ??????? ??? ?????????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ???????????????
???????????? [3] ? ???????.
????????????? ?????? ???????????????? ??????? ????????? ? ??? ????????????? ? ??????????? ????????????????? ?????? ????????????? ??????? (???) ?????? ??????????????.
?????????????? ???????????? ????? ??????? ????????????? ??? ? ????????? ??????? ?
?????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? (?????????? ?????????), ????????????? ????? ??
?????????? ?????????? ???????? [4, 5]. ??????? ?????????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ? ????? ? ???????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ? ????????????
???????? ????????.
? ????????? ????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ???? ???????????: ???????????? ???????? ????????? ???-150-1,5 [6] ? ??????????? 200-???????? ????????????? ????? [7]. ? ? ???, ? ? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ? ???????? ??? ?????????.
? ?????? ??? ??????????? 200-???????? ????????????? ????? ????????? ?????????????
???????? ???????, ? ?????? ??????? ????? ??????? ?????? ???????????????? ??? ?????????
???????? ?????? ? ????????? ??????? ? ????????? ????????????????? ????????????, ??????????? ??????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????????.
1. ????????????? ???????? ??????
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???? ? ????? ? ????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ??? ????????? ? ???????????? ????????,
?.?. ????????? ??????? ????????? ???????????????? ??? ??????? ???????, ??????? ?????
?????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ???????????.
??-??????, ??????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ? ????? ? ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ? ????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ??????????????, ??? ???
????????????? ???? ? ??? ?????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ??-?? ?????????????? ??? ??????? ????????? ???????. ??-??????, ??????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ?????? ????? ?????????????? ??-?? ???????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????. ?-???????,
??????? ??????????? ????? ? ?????????? ?????? ? ???? ??????????? ???????? ????? ? ????????? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ??-?? ????????? ????? ??? ????????????? ???????
???????????? ? ????????? ????????? ?????????????.
? ????????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ??? ????
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??????? ? ???????? ??? ?????????? [8, ?. 261] ? ???????????????? ??????? ???????? ????????
????, ??????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ? ???? ?????.
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?? ??????????? ????????????.
??? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????, ??????????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ????????? [9]
Nu = 0,135(Gr * Pr)0.33,
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????? ? ????? ? ???? ??? ????????? ????????, ?????????? ????? ? ??????.
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????? 6 ?? ?/?=0,6
r=0,3 ?/?=0,45
????? 3 ?? ?/?=0,45
r=0,3 ?/?=0,6
????? 3 ?? ?/?=0,6
???????????, ??
80
60
40
20
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
??????? ?????, ????
???. 16. ????????? ????????? ? ???????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ?????????????
?????????? ????????? ? ???????? ??????? ????? ?????? ????? ??3, ? ???????????? ????? ??6 ? ??
??????? ??????????? ????? ? ????? ??3 ??? ?????? ????????? ???????????? ???????????
???????? ??????? ???????????? ? ????????? ????????? ?????????????, ????? ???????????
??? ????????? qv = 1000 ??/?3 ? ?????.
???????? ?????? ?????????? ??? ??????????????? ???????? ??? ??? ?????????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????, ??????????? ?? ????????-????????, ????? ???? ???????? ??
???????????? ????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ? ????? ??? ?/? ? 0,5.
?????? ??????????
[1] ???? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ??????????????. ?.: ??????????, 1974. 328 ?.
[2] ???? 24316-80. ??????. ????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??? ?????????.
[3] ???? 310.5-88 ??????. ????? ??????????? ??????????????
[4] ?????? ?.?., ????? ?.?., ??????????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. ??????? ??????????. ?.:
?????????, 1979. 536 ?.
[5] ???? ? 51883-2002. ?????? ????????????? ???????????????. ????? ???????????
??????????.
[6] ???? ? 51824-2001. ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ??? ????????????? ???????
?? ??????????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ??????.
[7] ???? 30765-2001 ???? ???????????? ?????????????. ????? ??????????? ???????.
[8] ????? ?.?. ?????? ????????????????. ?.: ?????? ?????, 1967. 525 ?.
[9] ?????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. ??????? ? ?????? ?? ????? ????????? ? ????????? ?????????? ??????????. ?.: ?????, 1987. 576 ?.
# 357 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ????????? ?????? ???????????????? ??? ?????????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????
[10] ??????????? ?.?., ??????????? ?.?. ?????????? ?? ?????????????. ?.-?.: ???, 1958.
418 ?.
[11] ???? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????. ?.: ?????? ?????, 1973. 242 ?.
[12] ????????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ? ??. // ???????????? ? ???????????
?????????????. 2006. ? 8. ?. 20-22.
Calculation of Evaporation
term Storage of Radioactive Waste
Vladislav A. Popkova,
Nikolay A. Naumenko and Tatiana A. Kulaginac
a
FGUP «Mining and Chemical Combine»
53 Lenin Str., Zheleznogorsk, 662972, Russia
b
OAO «Engineering Center of Nuclear containers»
14 pl. Academician Kurchatov, Moscow, 123182, Russia
c
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
b
The results of theoretical calculation of the temperature of the thermal field in the standard 200 ?
liter barrel for three different processes: cooling water and the cement compound, heat release of
radioactive decay of radionuclides in the cement ? rated compounds, hardening the cement compound.
With the help of the numerical model has been shown that in the hardening cement compound internal
volume Boch matches heated to 90 °C or more, and with respect to the central regions of overheating
the peripheral is 25 to 30 degrees. Created on installation for direct measurement of the temperature
field in the barrel and on the surface of its heat exchange with the environment assessed thermophysical
characteristics of the barrel and the curing process of the cement compound. Calculated the average
heat transfer coefficient for the entire cooling surface was equal to 9.86 barrels vatt/m2·K, which is
almost two times higher than the value calculated by conventional criteria equations. The intensity
of heat in the process of hardening of the cement compound significantly increases with a decrease
in J/Q < 0.5. It is shown that the proposed numerical model with sufficient accuracy for engineering
calculations describes thermal processes raw occurring in the hardening cement compound in a
barrel at the J/Q ? 0.5.
Keywords: thermal calculations, temperature field, cementing, liquid radioactive waste, pulp, cement
compounds.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 3 (2014 7) 359-363
~~~
??? 519.6
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????????? ?????
?.?. ??????*
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
??????, 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
Received 30.12.2013, received in revised form 15.03.2014, accepted 25.04.2014
???????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???????, ??? ???????? ???????????????
?????????? ??? ??????? ????? ?????????????? ????, ? ????? ??? ?????????? ????????
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???????????? ????????, ??? ???????? ??????????????? ????????????? ? ???????????
?????????? ?????????????? ???????.
???????? ?????: ????????? ???, ???????????????, ?????????? ??????.
????????
????????? ????, ??? ???????, ????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????.
??? ????? ???? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ??????, ??? ? ?????????, ??????????, ????????????? ? ??.
??????????????? ? ?????? ????????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ? ?????
??????????. ???, ????????, ????? ??????????????? ????????? ??????????????: ???? ??????????? ??????????????, ????? ???????????? ??????????????, ????? ??????????? ??????????????, ?????? ????????????? ?????, ????????????? ?????? ??????????????, ??????????????????? ? ??????? ??????????????, ??????????????????? ????????????? ???????,
???????? ??????? (??????? ????, ??????? ???, ??????????), ????, ????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????????, ????? ?????????? ??????????????, ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ? ??. ??.
????????? ???? ? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ??? ????????????? ?????????? ??????. ? ?? ??????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????, ????????, ?????? ??
?????? ???????????? ??????? ???, ????????, ?????????. ????????? ???? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????????? ??????????????, ????????, ?? ??????? ????? ????? ???????
???????? ? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????????.
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: t.pyanykh@gmail.com
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?????? ??????????????? ?????????? ???? ??????????? ? ?????????. ????? ????? ????????? ???: X = {xt : t ? T, xt ? R}, T = {1,2,?N}. ?????????? ????? ????????????? ????????
??????? xt+?|t ?????????? ????, ?>0, ?? ?????????? ??????????? {x1,x2,?xt}, ??? ???????? ?
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?????????. ????? ???????????? ??????? (1) ???????????? ??????? ??, ??????? ???? ????????? ????????????. ? ??????? ????????? ????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ????? ???????????? (???????????????), ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????????????????
??????. ????? ???????, ??????? (1) ?????? ???? ???????? ?????????? ??????????????
?????????:
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Di 1
f �
(2)
????????? ?????????????? ???????
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???????????? ??? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ????????. ?? ????????? ???? ????????? ??????????? [1]. ????? ???????, ??????? ?? ? ????? ???????????? ????????? ???????:
j
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? ??????? ?????? ??? ??????? j
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? ?????? ??????? t ?? ? ?????. ????? ?????? ? ?????? ??????? t ???????????? ????????? ???????:
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~
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????? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? [1].
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??????????, ????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????, ??????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????, ?????????? ?? ???????? ? ??? ???????????.
???? ????????? ?t,j ???????????? ????? ???????????:
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~G 1 .
K ~
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j
(8)
1
? ??????? ?? ??????, ????????????? ?????, ????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????????? ? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????.
??????????, ?????????? ?????????? ????????, ????? ???????? ???????????? ? ?????????
???????? ? ?????????????? ?????? ??????? ????????, ??? ????? ???????? ? ?????????? ??
??????? ????????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ??????. ?????????? ????? ????? ?????????
??????, ??????? ????? ??????? ????????????? ?????????????? ??????? [1]. ??? ??????????
~
?????? ??????? ???? ???????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? G ??? ?????????? ??????? ????????????? ?? ??????? (7).
????????????????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???????
? ???????????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????????????, ??? ??????? ??????????
???????? ????????? ????????? ????? ? ???????? ?? 0 ?? 1. ? ?????? [2] ????????, ??? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????.
????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ????? ?????? ?????????????? ???? (?????????? ?????? ????, ???????????? ??? ???????? ?? ??????? ?????????
????) ? ????????? ?????????. ?????? ???????????? ????????????????? ??????????? ?????
????????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ???? ???????? ????? ?????????????? ????. ?????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ?????????? ????: ??? ????? ? ???????
?????????? ?????? ?? ????? ????????? ??????? ????????, ? ??? ????? ? ???????? ??????????
?????? ? ???????.
????????? ??????
??? ??????????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????? ????????, ??????? ? ??????? ????????, ?????? ????????????????? ?????, ? ????? ?????? ?????? [1, 3]. ???????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ???? ????????? ?? ????? ??????? ??? [4] (? 11.01.2012
?? 25.05.2013) ? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ????? ?????????????? ????. ????????
??????? ??????????????? ????????? ?? ????????? ???????????????????? ?????? ?????????.
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???????, ?? ????? ?????????????? ????
?? ???. 1 ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????????????? ?????? ?? ?????
?????????????? ???? ? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???????, ? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ?? 0 ?? 3. ??? ?????, ??? ????? ??????????????
????, ?????? 14, ?????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ????????.
? ????. 1 ??????? ?????????? ?????????, ?????????? ?????????? ????????. ????????,
??? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????????????? ?????? ????????? (0,16 ???.). ? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????.
??????????? ?????????? ??????????
??????????? ??????????? ???? ??????????? ?? ????? Java ? ?????????????? ????? ??????????? ???????????????? Eclipse Indigo ? ????????????? ? ???????????? ??????? ?? ????????? Windows XP/Vista/7/8. ??????????? ????????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????? Swing, ????????????? ????????? Sun Microsystems.
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[1] ??????? ?.?. ?????????? ?????? ?????????????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????: ????. ???????. ?.: ??????? ? ??????????, 2003. 416 ?.
[2] ?????????? ?.?. // ???????? ?????-?????????????? ???????????????? ????????????
????????? ? ????????. 2002. ? 3. ?. 94-107.
[3] Wang S. PhD dissertation. Georgia Institute of Technology, Georgia, 2006.
[4] [??????????? ??????]. ? ????? ???????: http://www.cbr.ru
Analysis of Application of the Combined Models
at Short-Term Forecasting of Time Series
Artem ?. Pyanykh
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
It is proved on an example of model of Brown of a zero-order, that accuracy of forecasting increases at
selection of length of an adaptable window, and also increase limits of admissible values of adaptation
parameter. On the basis of results of computing experiment it is shown, that accuracy of forecasting
raises with application of algorithms of a combination of models.
Keywords: time series, forecasting, adaptive model.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 3 (2014 7) 364-371
~~~
??? [621.78.01:669.14.018.291.3-426]:620.18
??????????? ?????????????? ?????????
????????????? ????????????????? ????????
?? ?????????????? ?????
????? ????????????????? ?????????
?.?. ????????*, ?.?. ??????
?????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
??????????? ??. ?.?. ??????
??????, 455000, ????????????, ??. ??????, 38
Received 14.11.2013, received in revised form 27.12.2013, accepted 03.03.2014
?????? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????????? ????? ?????
80? ? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????????? ????????? ????? ??????????
????????????????? ?????????. ???????? ????????? ???????? ??????????-????????????????
? ??????????????????? ???? ???????????? ????? ????? 80?, ? ????? ?????????? ????????? ??
?????????? ??????????. ? ???? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????
?? ???????????? ????????? ?????????, ?????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????????????
????????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ? ??????? ?????????.
???????? ?????: ????????????? ????????, ????????????, ??????????????, ??????????
??????????, ????????????????? ?????????, ?????????????? ?????????, ????????????
??????.
????????
? ????????? ????? ??????????? ??????????? ??? ????? ??????? ?????????? ? ?????????
????????????? ????????. ?????? ? ???????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????????
??????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????, ????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????. ?????????????? ????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ?????????
?????????????? ?????????? ??????????. ??? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????
????????????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ????????
??? ????? ??????????. ? ???????? ??????? ? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ????????????
????????? ?????????? ?????????, ? ???????????? ??????. ??????? ???????? ??????????????
????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????????? ? ?????? ? ???????? ?????????? ??????
??? ???????????? ??????????? ????????. ????? ?? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????
??????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ? ???????? ?????????? ??????????????
????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????? ? ????*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: agkorchunov@mail.ru
# 364 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ??????. ??????????? ?????????????? ????????? ????????????? ????????????????? ???????? ?
???? ?????????????? ???????? ????????????????? ????????? (???). ??????? ??? ???????????? ????? ?????????? ???? ???????? ? ??????? ? ?????????. ???? ?? ????????????????
???????????? ??????, ?????? ????????? ?????????????? ? ????????, ???????????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ???????. ?????? ?????????????? ?? ?????????? ??????? (250?420 °C). ??? ???????, ??? ??????? ???????????? ????????????
????, ??????????? ? ???????? ????? ???????????? ??? ? ?????????? ???????? ??????????
(50?70 ?/???) [1-2].
??????? ??? ????? ??????? ???????? «????????????» ?? ???? ??????? ?????????????
?????? ?????????? ??????????, ??????????? ? ???? ??????????????? ?????????????? ????????? (????????? ? ??????????????), ? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?????????, ??? ???????? ????????? ??????? ?? ????????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????????. ????????????? ?????? ????????? ???????????? ???????
??????? ?? ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ??????? ? ?????? ?????????.
????? ???????, ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ????????????? ????????: ??????? ???????????
???????????? ????????????? (????????? ????????????? ??????? ? ?? ????? 1600 ?/?? 2,
?????? ????????? ? ?? ????? 1450 ?/?? 2, ???????????? ????????? ? ?? ????? 6 %) ? ?????????????? ????????? (?????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ????????? 4 % ?? 1000 ?). ???
??????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ????????????, ? ????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????
?????????, ???????????? ??? ???????????? ???, ????????? ??????? ?? ???????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????. ? ???? ????? ???? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ?? ????????? ????????? ????? ? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ?, ??? ?????????, ?? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????
?????????.
???????? ? ???????? ????????????
? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????????????? ????? ????? 80?, ???????????? ??? ???????????? ????????????? ???????? ????????? 9,6 ?? ? ???????? ???
«???-?????». ??????? ???? ??????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????
???: ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ????????? ?? 320 ?? 400 °C, ?????? ????????? ? ???????? ?? 19 600 ?? 58 800 ?, ???????? ????????? 50 ?/???. ??????????????? ????????? ????????
?????????????? ? ????????? ? ????????? ???????? ?????????? 58 %. ??? ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ????????? ????? ????? 80? ??? ???????? ??? ????
????????? ??????????????????? ? ??????????-???????????????? ????????????. ?? ??????????? ???????????????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ? ????????? ?????? ??????? ????? 200
???????, ??????????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????????? ? ???????? ????????????? ????????, ? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????, ?????????? ??????? ??????????????
??????????????? ??????? ???????.
??? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ?? ????? ????? 80? ????????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ? ??????? 120 ? 1000 ? ? ????????? ???????? 70 % ?? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? [3]. ????????? ?? ??????????
?????????? ???????????? ?? ???????? ??C? 28334 «????????? ? ?????? ???????? ??? ??# 365 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ??????. ??????????? ?????????????? ????????? ????????????? ????????????????? ???????? ?
????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ???????????. ????? ????????? ??
?????????? ??? ?????????? ??????????».
?????????? ??????????-?????????????????
? ???????????????????? ????????????
???????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ? ???????? ????????????? ????????, ????????????
?? ???????? ?????? ??????? ????? (200) ???????, ????????? ? ????. 1. ?? ?????? ???????
?????, ??? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ???? ???????? ????, ??? ? ???????? ??????? ?
??????????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ? ??????????, ?? ???????????? ???, ??? ???????? ?? = 1540 ?/??2. ??? ??????????????? ? ???, ??? ??? ? ????? ???????????? ??????????
??????????, ????????? ? ???????? ????????? ?????????.
??? ????? ?? ????. 1, ???????? ???????? ?? ? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ?? + 760
?? ? 250 ?/??2. ????? ???????, ????????????? ??? ? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????
???????? ???????????.
???????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??? ????????? ???????????, ??? ? ?????????? ?????????. ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ?? ???? 360 °?. ???????? ????????????? ?????? ????????? ? ???????? ????? 34 300
? 46 600 ?. ?????? 19 600 ? ???????????? ??? ???????????? ?????? ??????????, ????????
?? = 760 ?/??2. ?????? 58 800 ? ????????? ? ??????? ?????????????? ??????? ??????????,
???????? ?? >0.
??????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?? ???? ?????? ??????????
? ????????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????. ??????? ? ???????????? ??????? ? ?????? ??????????????? ? ???????? ??????? ????? ?????? ?? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????,
??????? ???????????? ??????? ??????????????.
????????? ?????? ????? 200 ??????? ???????????? ? ????. 2.
??????? 1. ???????? ?????????? ??????????????? ? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ????? ???
? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????, ??, ?/??2
???????????, °?
????????????? ????, ?
19600
34300
46600
58800
-
-
510
-
360
760
510
510
-250
400
760
-
0
-250
320
??????? 2. ?????? ????? ??????? ?200 ? ????? ????? 80?, ????. ????? ??? ? ?????????? ??????????
?????????? ?????????? ?????????
???????????, °?
????????????? ????, ?
19600
34300
46600
58800
320
-
-
0,332
-
360
0,279
0,279
0,288
0,330
400
0,271
-
0,283
0,355
# 366 #
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?.?. ????????, ?.?. ??????. ??????????? ?????????????? ????????? ????????????? ????????????????? ???????? ?
????? ????????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ?200 = 0,337 ????. ??? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????????. ???????? ???????? ???????????
???????? ???????????. ??? ????????? ??????????? ? 320 ?? 400 °? (??? ?????? ?????????
46 600 ?) ? ???????? ?????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????? ????? ?
0,332 ?? 0,283 ????. ?????????? ?????????, ????????, ???????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????????? ?, ??? ?????????, ???????? ?????. ???????? ?200 ?????????? ? 0,279 ????. ?? ????????? (????? ?????????) ????????? ? ?? 0,330 ????. ??? ????????? ?????? ????????? ? 19 600
?? 58 800 ? (??? ??????????? ??????? 360 °?).
?????????? ??????????-????????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ????, ??? ???????????? ????????? ? ????????? ???????? ????? ??? ? ??????? ????????? 19 600 ? ???
???????????? 360 ? 400 °? ?? ????????? ? ???????? (???????????????) ?????????? ?? ?????????? (???. 1). ? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ????????????????? ??????????. ? ????????? ???? ??????????? ????????????, ??? 400 °? ??????????? ????????? ??????
?????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????. ? ???????? ????????????????? ????????? ? ??????? ????????? 34 300 ? ? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????.
???????????? ???????? ????? ??? ? ??????? ????????? 46 600 ? ? ???????????? ??????? 320, 360 400 °? (???. 2) ????????, ??? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ?
????????? ???????????? ???????. ?? ???? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ????????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????: ???????????????? ????????????????? ????????? ?????????? (320 °?), ?????????????? ? ??????????? ????? ?????????? (360
°?), ????????? ????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????? ? ????????? ????????? ???????
(400 °?). ??????? ???????????? ????????? ????, ??????????? ??? ??????????? ??? 320 °?,
??? ???????????? 360 ? 400 °? ??????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ??????????
????????????? ?????????.
??????????? ???????????? ????????? ?? ???????? ????? ??? ? ??????? ?????????
58 800 ? ? ???????????? 360, 400 °? (???. 3). ????????????? ??????????? ??? ? ???????
?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ?????-
???. 1. ????????? ????? ????? 80? ????? ??? 360 °C/19 600 ? (????????????? ???????????, ??????????
37 000)
# 367 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ??????. ??????????? ?????????????? ????????? ????????????? ????????????????? ???????? ?
???. 2. ????????? ????? ????? 80? ????? ??? 360 °C/46 600 ? (????????????? ???????????, ??????????
20 000)
???. 3. ????????? ????? ????? 80? ? ??? ????? ??? 400 °C/58 800 ? (????????????? ???????????,
?????????? 50 000)
?????????? ???????? ???????, ???????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ? ???????????
? ???????????? ?????????? ????????. ???????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?
????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ? ??????? ????????? 46 600 ?. ??????? ??????????? ? ???, ??? ??? 400 °? ??????? ??????????? ? ?????????????? ???????????
???????? ? ???????? ? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ? ????????? ????????, ?????????
?? ??????????.
????? ???????, ? ???? ??????????? ???????????? ???? ??????? ??????? ???????????
??????? ? ?????? ????????? ??? ?? ????????? ????????? ????? ????? 80?, ???????? ?????? ???????????????. ???????????, ??? ? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ???????? ? ?????
????? 80? ?????????????? ????????????????? ??????????, ???????? ?? ????????? ? ???????????? ? ?????? ?????. ????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????????
? ????????? ????????, ????????? ?? ??????????. ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????
# 368 #
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?.?. ????????, ?.?. ??????. ??????????? ?????????????? ????????? ????????????? ????????????????? ???????? ?
?????- ? ??????????????? ? ????????? ? ????????? ?????????????? ? ??????????? ?? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????.
??? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????-????????????????? ? ????????????????????
???????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ????? ??? ?? ?????????? ??????????????
????????? ???????? ????? ??? ? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ????
????????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ??????????.
?????????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ??????????
??? ?????????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ???????? ??????? ????????????? ???????? ?? ????? ????? 80? ????? ??? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????
????????: ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?? 320 ?? 380 °C, ?????? ????????? ?
???????? ?? 19 600 ?? 58 800 ?. ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ?? ???. 4.
?? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ????? ?????? ? ??????? ?????????? ????????
??? ?? ?????????????? ????????? ?????????. ????? ???????, ?????? ????????? ??????
????????????? ? ???????????? ??????????-????????????????? ? ???????????????????? ????????????. ??????? ????????????? ???????? ????? ??? ? ??????????? ???????????
??????? (320 °C) ? ??????? ????????? (19 600, 34 300 ?) ?? ?????????, ??????????????
???? ?????????????? ?? ??????????? ??????????-????????????????? ? ???????????????????? ????????????, ????? ???????????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????
(?????????? ?????????? ????????? 4 %). ??????? ????????????? ???????? ????? ??? ?
???????????? ??????? 360 ? 380 °C ? ??????? ????????? ? ????????? ?? 44 100 ?? 58 800 ?
????????? ????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?? ?????????????? ?????????.
??????????
? ???? ??????????? ???????????? ???? ???????????, ??? ??????? ?????????? ????????
??????? ? ????????? (???) ???????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ?????
????? ?????????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ??????, ????????????
???. 4. ?????????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ?? ????? ????? 80? ????? ??? ? ??????????
?????????? ?????????? ????????
# 369 #
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?.?. ????????, ?.?. ??????. ??????????? ?????????????? ????????? ????????????? ????????????????? ???????? ?
? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ?????????. ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ??? ????????????. ??? ??????? ?? ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ???????????
??????? ? ?????? ?????????. ???????????, ??? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ??? ????????? ???? 360 °C, ? ?????? ????????? ????????????? ? ???????? ?? 34 300 ? ?? 46 600 ?.
?????? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ????? 80? ?????? ????????????? ? ???????????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ??????????. ??????? ????????????? ????????, ????????????
??? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ????????, ??????????? ? ????????????? ??????????, ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????. ????? ??????? ????? ? ???, ???
?????????????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ? ??? ???
????, ??? ? ??????? ??????? ????? ????????????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ????????.
?????? ????????? ? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????????? ???????? ???????????? ?? 2012 ? 2016 ??. (?????????? ????????? ?????????????? ?? ???????? ??????????????? ???????? ??? ???), ? ????? ??? ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ?????
?????????? ?????????, ?????????? ? 14.?37.21.0068 «?????????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ????????? ???????????????????? ???????????????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ????????».
?????? ??????????
[1] ?????????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ???????????? ????????
????????????????? ????????? ???????? ?? ?????????????????? ?????? // ?????. 2012. ? 2.
?. 89-92.
[2] ?????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ?????????? ?.?. ????????????? ???????? ????????????
????????????? ?????????????????????? ???????? // ??????? ???? ?? ?.?. ??????. 2012.
? 2. ?. 43-45.
[3] ???????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. ???????????? ??????? ????????????????? ????????? ??
?????????????? ????????? ????????????? ????????. ????????? ???????? ? ???????? ??????????: ??????. ??. ????. ??. ??? ???. ????. ?.?. ??????. ????????????: ???-?? ????????????.
???. ????. ??-?? ?? ?.?. ??????, 2012. ???. 38. ?. 107-112.
[4] ???????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ???????????? ??????? ?????????????????
????????? ?????????????????????? ?????????? ????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?? ???????
?????????? ?????????? // ????? ????????? ? ?????????? ? ???-2012: ????????? ????????????? ??????-??????????? ???????????. ?.: ????, 2012. ?. 11-12.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ??????. ??????????? ?????????????? ????????? ????????????? ????????????????? ???????? ?
The Dependence of the Relaxation Resistance
of High-Strength Stabilized Armature
from Microstructure of Steel
after Thermomechanical Processing
Aleksei G. Korchunov and Dmitriy K. Dolgiy
Magnitogorsk State Technical University
named after G.I. Nosov
38 Lenin, Magnitogorsk, 455000, Russia
The article investigates the impact of changes in the microstructure of steel 80R and the level of residual
stress on relaxation resistance after thermomechanical processing. The test procedure consisted of
electron microscopic and X-ray studies of steel 80R, as well as the testing of the stress relaxation.
During the work obtained dependences of the relaxation resistance of the structural stability of the
material obtained after thermomechanical processing with different heating temperature and tension
force.
Keywords: high-strength armature, stabilization, microstructure, residual stresses, thermomechanical
processing, relaxation resistance, induction heating.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 3 (2014 7) 372-378
~~~
??? 621.746.5.047 ? 412:621.771.237.016.2
Prospects of Medium Thickness Slabs Application
in Technological Complex
?Continuous Slab Casting ? Hot Rolling Mill?
Alexander G. Solovyev,
Michael V. Shitov* and Dmitry O. Drobny
Magnitogorsk State Technical University
named after G.I. Nosov
38 Avenue Lenin, Magnitogorsk, 455000, Russia
Received 14.11.2013, received in revised form 05.02.2014, accepted 10.03.2014
The consideration was given to a transition to medium thickness slabs for complexes CCM-Plate Mill
and CCM-Hot Rolling Mill. We used two examples, considering their technical characteristics, to
show possible advantages and disadvantages. From the point of view of energy efficiency, we proposed
a number of measures for a perspective application of this transition.
Keywords: continuous casting machine, wide-strip hot rolling mill, plate mill, thick slabs, medium
thickness slabs, efficiency, energy resources, technological complex, product mix, production cycle of
finished products.
The processes of slab continuous casting and subsequent hot rolling of plates and strips are
among the most energy-intensive in the steel industry. These processes, technical and technological
solutions implementing them, fi rst of all affect the consumer properties of fi nished products and
at the same time, to a large extent, determine the technical and economic performances of a steel
plant operation as a whole. All of this determines the relevance and importance of issues aimed at
improving the efficiency of technological complex ?continuous casting ? hot plate rolling?. The
problem of efficiency includes a number of important objectives: saving of energy, metals and
auxiliary materials, performance increase of individual machines, sites, links, streams, improving
the quality of strips from the point of view of physical and mechanical properties, surface condition,
shape and profile, automation and process control. The acute problem of efficiency mostly has to do
with conventional technological complexes with thick slabs CCM and wide-strip hot rolling mill
or plate mill. Further discussion of the efficiency issue will be developed in the context of these
complexes.
The introduction and development of continuous casting technology and thin slabs rolling at the
turn of XX and XXI centuries significantly reduced the energy consumption for the production of one
tone of finished product (Fig. 1.). Cost reduction is provided primarily by minimizing the number of
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: mihailschitov@mail.ru
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Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Alexander G. Solovyev, Michael V. Shitov? Prospects of Medium Thickness Slabs Application in Technological Complex?
Fig. 1. Yield energy consumption on different lines: 1 ? fuel gas; 2 ? electric power
process steps. The leading machinery works rapidly develop and introduce new technologies. However,
the major production of flat products is still provided by plate mills and hot rolling mills. Besides, one
cannot say of replacing the abovementioned machines with Compact Strip Production in the coming
years.
Obviously, there is always a question of production efficiency. But the most critical question is
the question of ?borderline product mix? production. Meaning the fi nished product mix which can
be produced on different lines: hot rolling mills, plate mills, Steckel mills, thin slab compact strip
mills [1]. For plate rolling these are plates of thickness 6-25, width up to 2500 mm and thickness
20-50 mm., width up to 2000 mm. For coils these are strips of thickness up to 12.5 mm and width
up to 1850 mm.
A significant amount of production of the above mentioned products in the post-Soviet space is
concentrated in old plants with old plate mills. For example, OJSC ?AMZ? mill 2850, OJSC «Ural Steel»
mill 2800, OJSC «MMK» mill 2350, «Red October» mill 2000 and others. After the commissioning
of cut-to-length line 6-25 x 1000-2350 at OJSC «MMK» with the capacity of 1.0 million tons per year
and two mills 5000 the general situation in the market for such plate mills deteriorated.
In this situation the experience of «Asha Metallurgical Plant? is interesting. In consequence of
the comprehensive modernization of steelmaking facility, the liquid steel is produced in the up-todated 100 ton electric arc furnace with scrap preheating, and slabs are casted in one strand caster.
The machine design provides a slab with thickness of 180 and 240 mm, width up to 1600 mm. The
modern equipment of the new EAF shop: electric arc furnace (EAF), ladle furnace, the caster provides
production up to 1 million tons per year of continuously casted thick slabs. However, the production
of rolled products is still provided by the old mill 2850. Furthermore, as a result of modernization of
steelmaking facility only, the quantity of faulty production decreased, consumption index decreased,
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Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Alexander G. Solovyev, Michael V. Shitov? Prospects of Medium Thickness Slabs Application in Technological Complex?
the quality of finished products increased. For further improvement of technical-economic indicators
the decision of complex revamping of mill 2850 was adopted.
The combination of cost cutting for all kinds of energy with the reduction of production cycle and
shipment of finished products are virtually the only way to further improvement of operation efficiency
of technological complex Caster ? Plate mill.
The company analyzed the existing and prospective order portfolio, the technological capabilities
of the existing equipment and rolling modes being applied. To minimize the inventory, increase the
share and temperature of hot charging, reduce orders execution time the company developed and
implemented a technology of total product mix production from slabs of single cross-section 240 x
1600 mm. The new technology made it possible to get sheets of any required size mix from one heat.
Practically, the plant started to operate as a scrap metal company or steel service center.
From the viewpoint of slabs continuous casting, currently for the production of plates in the
thickness range up to 50 mm, thick 200-400 mm and medium 130-200 mm slabs are used. In the
past two decades the technology and equipment for continuous casting of thin and medium slabs
have been intensively developed. At present, medium and thin slab casters can cast virtually
any grades of steel. Besides, the slabs after thin slab casters meet the requirements claimed to
rolled plate products from the point of view of all parameters [2]. Further production of plates
with thickness up to 50 mm from medium slabs is successfully implemented in a number of
metallurgical enterprises [3].
The bulk production is sheets 12-25 mm thickness. The company analyzed the capabilities of
plate production from medium and thick slabs under the technology of one cross-section casting for
the entire finished product mix. The results can be summarized as follows:
? instead of thick slab 240 x 1600 mm it makes sense to use a medium slab 180 x 2000 mm. For
transition to a new section of slab it is necessary to revamp the caster. According to the analysis
of the machine design, such width increase can be realized with little or no reconstruction of
the foundations.
? the application of medium thickness 150 x 2800 mm slabs ensures the production of rolls not
more than 25 m long under the technology of one width slab casting. In the case of application
of slabs in several sizes, it is possible to reduce the consumption index due to production of
rolls up to 48 m long.
? the reduction of slab thickness will have a positive impact on the mill?s productivity and
electrical power and gas flow rate for rolling.
The main production of coils with thickness up to 12.5 mm in the Russian Federation is provided
by three rolling mills 2000 and one rolling mill 2500. In addition, OJSC ?Amur metal? produce the
coiled stock on combination mills 2800/1700, 2300/1700, Steckel mill, and OJSC ?VMZ? produce it
on Compact Strip Production machine. All the companies, except for OJSC ?VMZ?, use slabs with
thickness 200-250 mm. It should be noted that, historically, the first hot rolling mills used medium
thickness slabs coming from slabbing mills as semifinished rolled stock. In practice of modern hot
rolling mills operation the continuously casted medium slabs are widely coming into use [3].
In the technological complex CCM ? hot rolling mill slabs take place on three areas: 1 ? continuous
casting area; storage and transfer to the reheating furnaces; 2 reheating furnaces area; 3 ? roughing
mill. CCM and hot rolling mill are one the most expensive metallurgical units. Each of the units is
# 374 #
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Alexander G. Solovyev, Michael V. Shitov? Prospects of Medium Thickness Slabs Application in Technological Complex?
Fig. 2. The influence of slab thicknes on productivity of CCM, furnace and yield fuel flow rate for heating
operated for decades and each of them is subject to numerous upgrades and revampings for their lifecycle. Construction of new facilities takes place in exceptional cases. There was a consideration of an
option to use medium thickness slabs applying to the technological system of slab continuous casting
in oxygen converter shop ? hot rolling mill 2000 OJSC ?MMK?.
The transition to medium thickness slabs uniquely affects each production area. For example,
when casting thinner slabs, the caster?s performance decreases. The analysis of continuous casting area
was made in accordance with the procedure presented in study [4]. The summarized results are shown
in Fig. 2. The following results were achieved for the most popular slab with width of 1300 mm in the
thickness range of 150 ? 350 mm with two-strand casting process. With the transition from slab 250
mm to slab 200 mm the losses are 3.2 %, to slab 150 mm ? 6.4 %, considering the working time fund
of 300 days, the losses can be 30 ? 60 and 70 ? 130 th. tones for the relevant slab thickness. There are
five CCM operating in oxygen convertor shop. Two four strands machines with capacity of 3 million
tons per year, two combined two or four strands machines depending on the width of casted slabs with
capacity of 2 million tons per year and one single strand machine with capacity of 1.8 million tons per
year. To meet the needs of mill 2000 for medium width slabs production, it is necessary to reconstruct
two or three machines. Each of the machines has a working time fund surplus which is sufficient to
cover the loss of productivity in the case of medium thickness slabs casting. A positive factor is the
reduction of scrap, which can reach 13 ? 18 % for a slab of 200 mm and 24 ? 38 % for a slab of 150
mm.
The next link, which is influenced by slab thickness, is furnaces. The transition to thinner slabs
is beneficial to both fuel consumption and capacity of the unit (Fig. 2). If we evaluate the heating
time ratio, which affects the productivity of a furnace, for slab 250 to slab 200 and 150, as the ratio
of squares of their thicknesses [5], it turns out that productivity increases in a parabolic relationship
with decreasing of slab thickness. Yield fuel consumption was calculated by drawing the heat balance
for slabs of different thickness [6], taking into account the technical characteristics of the existing
furnace of hot rolling mill 2000. Yield consumption for slabs 200 and 150 mm differs from slab 250
mm by 0.6 % and 1.9 % respectively. The metal losses in scale, despite the increasing surface area,
# 375 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Alexander G. Solovyev, Michael V. Shitov? Prospects of Medium Thickness Slabs Application in Technological Complex?
can be evaluated, according to operation [5], as equal or even lower. The negative factor is that during
transition to thinner slabs, to ensure a preset weight of coils some part of slabs, according to the
technical characteristics, cannot be charged into a furnace due to the extension of maximum allowable
length. The production program of mill 2000 is provided by four reheating furnaces. Three of them
have been operated since the commissioning of the mill. In case of transition to thinner slabs, it will
be necessary to reconstruct the furnaces to increase their width, to keep the previous product mix.
According to the preliminary research, the civil constructions of the shop building make it possible to
install new furnaces at the position of the old ones to reheat slabs of maximum length up to 14-15 m.
The last link ? roughing mill ? reduces a slab to the preset dimensions in both horizontal and
vertical direction. To analyze the influence of slab thickness change, we used ?The program of indicators
calculation for the analysis of structural and layout solutions of hot rolling mills? (Certificate of state
registration for a computer # 2010615121 dd. 10.08.2010). The thicker a slab, the greater specific energy
consumption, but at the same time, the performance of roughing mill increases (Fig. 3, a). Energy
saving for slabs 200 and 150 compared with slab 250 is 18 and 38 %. Roughing mill is not a bottleneck,
if a roughing mill and finishing mill are charged in a rational way, therefore the transition to thinner
slabs will not affect the mill performance as a whole.
On the other hand the roughing mill reduces a slab across the width, which plays an important
role in the formation of rolling campaigns. And when the productivity of continuous casting is not
sufficient, that reducing enables to unload CCM or at least find a compromising solution for complex
CCM ? hot rolling mill working with a preset product mix. The transition to thinner slabs may prevent
an effective change in width. A significant change in the width takes place during the first 2-3 vertical
passages, especially when the first vertical stand is equipped with grooved rolls, further reduction
across the width only removes a natural broadening, subsequent passages are limited with transverse
stability. For slabs 150 ? 199 mm 4 stands or 4 reverse passages are used, for slabs 200 ч 249 ? 5, 250
ч 299 ? 6, 300 ч 350 ? 7. However, if the transition from the slab 250 to 200 affects the reducing ability
slightly 5 ? 15 mm, the losses for slab 150 are 45 ? 55 mm (Fig. 3 b). To maintain the reducing ability,
it is necessary to change the rolling technology, i.e. reduce more across the width with planishing
Fig. 3 ? The dependence of total specific energy consumption and roughing mill performance on slab thickness (a) and effective change of slab width and sustainable reduction of the strip on slab thickness (b) from slab
1500x150-350x7000 mm in strip plate 1365-1420x32 mm for steel grade ??. 3 ??.
# 376 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Alexander G. Solovyev, Michael V. Shitov? Prospects of Medium Thickness Slabs Application in Technological Complex?
passages, which are blank passages for horizontal stands. The design of roughing mill of mill 2000
OJSC ?MMK? ensures the implementation of such technology.
Hence, proceeding from features of complexes, it is possible to draw conclusions.
The application of medium thickness slabs in complex CCM ? Plate mill generally improves the
competitiveness of the products. Especially it is promising to use medium slabs on old plate mills, by
reducing the consumption index and gas flow rate for heating.
The transition to thinner slabs in complex CCM ? Plate mill, from a technological point of
view, requires to take into account a certain number of factors that contradictorily influence both the
productivity and the economic indicators of the complex. In study [7], economicwise, the optimum
slab thickness is 307 mm, in spite of the fact that in study [5], basing on the same mill, they say that it
is more effective to use thinner slabs. Consequently, the transition to slabs of one or another thickness
should be analyzed from different points of view and the decision should consider all the pros and cons,
including a possible reconstruction.
References
[1] Solovyev A.G, Shytov M.V, Drobny D.O. Prospects for development of the technological system
?continuous slab casting ? hot rolling mill? from the point of view of energy efficiency / simulation
of metal forming processes: scientific work under the editorship of Salganik V.M. Magnitogorsk:
Magnitogorsk State University, 2011. P. 31-36.
[2] Konovalov Y.V. Millman?s desk book. Reference edition in 2 books. Book 1. Production of
hot-rolled sheets and strip. M.: Teplotechnik, 2008. 640 s.
[3] Best of both worlds. Medium-thick-slab casting and rolling offers a host of benefits for
producers. Metals & Mining. 2009 . ? 2 . P. 48-49.
[4] Niskovskih V.M., Karlinsky S.E., Baranov A.D. Continuous casting machines. M.: Metallurgy,
1991. 272 p.
[5] Hloponin V.N. Possible energy-efficient and metal saving operation of complex CCM ? Plate
Mill // Metallurgist. 2010. ? 12. P. 47-53.
[6] Calculation of reheating and heat treatment furnaces. / ref. ed. S.B. Vasilkov, M.M Genkina,
V.L Gusovsky and other. M: Metallurgy, 1983. 480 p.
[7] Zaitsev V.S Optimization of continuously casted slab thickness under the criterion of minimum
total cost in the steelmaking ? rolling complex // Production of rolled products. 2011. ? 6. P. 2-9.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Alexander G. Solovyev, Michael V. Shitov? Prospects of Medium Thickness Slabs Application in Technological Complex?
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© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: t.pyanykh@gmail.com
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[1] ??????? ?.?. ?????????? ?????? ?????????????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????: ????. ???????. ?.: ??????? ? ??????????, 2003. 416 ?.
[2] ?????????? ?.?. // ???????? ?????-?????????????? ???????????????? ????????????
????????? ? ????????. 2002. ? 3. ?. 94-107.
[3] Wang S. PhD dissertation. Georgia Institute of Technology, Georgia, 2006.
[4] [??????????? ??????]. ? ????? ???????: http://www.cbr.ru
Analysis of Application of the Combined Models
at Short-Term Forecasting of Time Series
Artem ?. Pyanykh
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
It is proved on an example of model of Brown of a zero-order, that accuracy of forecasting increases at
selection of length of an adaptable window, and also increase limits of admissible values of adaptation
parameter. On the basis of results of computing experiment it is shown, that accuracy of forecasting
raises with application of algorithms of a combination of models.
Keywords: time series, forecasting, adaptive model.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 3 (2014 7) 364-371
~~~
??? [621.78.01:669.14.018.291.3-426]:620.18
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Received 14.11.2013, received in revised form 27.12.2013, accepted 03.03.2014
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80? ? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????????? ????????? ????? ??????????
????????????????? ?????????. ???????? ????????? ???????? ??????????-????????????????
? ??????????????????? ???? ???????????? ????? ????? 80?, ? ????? ?????????? ????????? ??
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?? ???????????? ????????? ?????????, ?????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????????????
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?????????????? ?????????? ??????????. ??? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????
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????????? ?????????? ?????????, ? ???????????? ??????. ??????? ???????? ??????????????
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??? ???????????? ??????????? ????????. ????? ?? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????
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© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: agkorchunov@mail.ru
# 364 #
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???? ?????????????? ???????? ????????????????? ????????? (???). ??????? ??? ???????????? ????? ?????????? ???? ???????? ? ??????? ? ?????????. ???? ?? ????????????????
???????????? ??????, ?????? ????????? ?????????????? ? ????????, ???????????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ???????. ?????? ?????????????? ?? ?????????? ??????? (250?420 °C). ??? ???????, ??? ??????? ???????????? ????????????
????, ??????????? ? ???????? ????? ???????????? ??? ? ?????????? ???????? ??????????
(50?70 ?/???) [1-2].
??????? ??? ????? ??????? ???????? «????????????» ?? ???? ??????? ?????????????
?????? ?????????? ??????????, ??????????? ? ???? ??????????????? ?????????????? ????????? (????????? ? ??????????????), ? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?????????, ??? ???????? ????????? ??????? ?? ????????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????????. ????????????? ?????? ????????? ???????????? ???????
??????? ?? ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ??????? ? ?????? ?????????.
????? ???????, ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ????????????? ????????: ??????? ???????????
???????????? ????????????? (????????? ????????????? ??????? ? ?? ????? 1600 ?/?? 2,
?????? ????????? ? ?? ????? 1450 ?/?? 2, ???????????? ????????? ? ?? ????? 6 %) ? ?????????????? ????????? (?????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ????????? 4 % ?? 1000 ?). ???
??????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ????????????, ? ????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????
?????????, ???????????? ??? ???????????? ???, ????????? ??????? ?? ???????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????. ? ???? ????? ???? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ?? ????????? ????????? ????? ? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ?, ??? ?????????, ?? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????
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«???-?????». ??????? ???? ??????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????
???: ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ????????? ?? 320 ?? 400 °C, ?????? ????????? ? ???????? ?? 19 600 ?? 58 800 ?, ???????? ????????? 50 ?/???. ??????????????? ????????? ????????
?????????????? ? ????????? ? ????????? ???????? ?????????? 58 %. ??? ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ????????? ????? ????? 80? ??? ???????? ??? ????
????????? ??????????????????? ? ??????????-???????????????? ????????????. ?? ??????????? ???????????????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ? ????????? ?????? ??????? ????? 200
???????, ??????????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????????? ? ???????? ????????????? ????????, ? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????, ?????????? ??????? ??????????????
??????????????? ??????? ???????.
??? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ?? ????? ????? 80? ????????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ? ??????? 120 ? 1000 ? ? ????????? ???????? 70 % ?? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? [3]. ????????? ?? ??????????
?????????? ???????????? ?? ???????? ??C? 28334 «????????? ? ?????? ???????? ??? ??# 365 #
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?? ???????? ?????? ??????? ????? (200) ???????, ????????? ? ????. 1. ?? ?????? ???????
?????, ??? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ???? ???????? ????, ??? ? ???????? ??????? ?
??????????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ? ??????????, ?? ???????????? ???, ??? ???????? ?? = 1540 ?/??2. ??? ??????????????? ? ???, ??? ??? ? ????? ???????????? ??????????
??????????, ????????? ? ???????? ????????? ?????????.
??? ????? ?? ????. 1, ???????? ???????? ?? ? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ?? + 760
?? ? 250 ?/??2. ????? ???????, ????????????? ??? ? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????
???????? ???????????.
???????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??? ????????? ???????????, ??? ? ?????????? ?????????. ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ?? ???? 360 °?. ???????? ????????????? ?????? ????????? ? ???????? ????? 34 300
? 46 600 ?. ?????? 19 600 ? ???????????? ??? ???????????? ?????? ??????????, ????????
?? = 760 ?/??2. ?????? 58 800 ? ????????? ? ??????? ?????????????? ??????? ??????????,
???????? ?? >0.
??????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?? ???? ?????? ??????????
? ????????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????. ??????? ? ???????????? ??????? ? ?????? ??????????????? ? ???????? ??????? ????? ?????? ?? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????,
??????? ???????????? ??????? ??????????????.
????????? ?????? ????? 200 ??????? ???????????? ? ????. 2.
??????? 1. ???????? ?????????? ??????????????? ? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ????? ???
? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????, ??, ?/??2
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???????? ???????????. ??? ????????? ??????????? ? 320 ?? 400 °? (??? ?????? ?????????
46 600 ?) ? ???????? ?????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????? ????? ?
0,332 ?? 0,283 ????. ?????????? ?????????, ????????, ???????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????????? ?, ??? ?????????, ???????? ?????. ???????? ?200 ?????????? ? 0,279 ????. ?? ????????? (????? ?????????) ????????? ? ?? 0,330 ????. ??? ????????? ?????? ????????? ? 19 600
?? 58 800 ? (??? ??????????? ??????? 360 °?).
?????????? ??????????-????????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ????, ??? ???????????? ????????? ? ????????? ???????? ????? ??? ? ??????? ????????? 19 600 ? ???
???????????? 360 ? 400 °? ?? ????????? ? ???????? (???????????????) ?????????? ?? ?????????? (???. 1). ? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ????????????????? ??????????. ? ????????? ???? ??????????? ????????????, ??? 400 °? ??????????? ????????? ??????
?????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????. ? ???????? ????????????????? ????????? ? ??????? ????????? 34 300 ? ? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????.
???????????? ???????? ????? ??? ? ??????? ????????? 46 600 ? ? ???????????? ??????? 320, 360 400 °? (???. 2) ????????, ??? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ?
????????? ???????????? ???????. ?? ???? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ????????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????: ???????????????? ????????????????? ????????? ?????????? (320 °?), ?????????????? ? ??????????? ????? ?????????? (360
°?), ????????? ????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????? ? ????????? ????????? ???????
(400 °?). ??????? ???????????? ????????? ????, ??????????? ??? ??????????? ??? 320 °?,
??? ???????????? 360 ? 400 °? ??????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ??????????
????????????? ?????????.
??????????? ???????????? ????????? ?? ???????? ????? ??? ? ??????? ?????????
58 800 ? ? ???????????? 360, 400 °? (???. 3). ????????????? ??????????? ??? ? ???????
?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ?????-
???. 1. ????????? ????? ????? 80? ????? ??? 360 °C/19 600 ? (????????????? ???????????, ??????????
37 000)
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?.?. ????????, ?.?. ??????. ??????????? ?????????????? ????????? ????????????? ????????????????? ???????? ?
???. 2. ????????? ????? ????? 80? ????? ??? 360 °C/46 600 ? (????????????? ???????????, ??????????
20 000)
???. 3. ????????? ????? ????? 80? ? ??? ????? ??? 400 °C/58 800 ? (????????????? ???????????,
?????????? 50 000)
?????????? ???????? ???????, ???????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ? ???????????
? ???????????? ?????????? ????????. ???????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?
????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ? ??????? ????????? 46 600 ?. ??????? ??????????? ? ???, ??? ??? 400 °? ??????? ??????????? ? ?????????????? ???????????
???????? ? ???????? ? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ? ????????? ????????, ?????????
?? ??????????.
????? ???????, ? ???? ??????????? ???????????? ???? ??????? ??????? ???????????
??????? ? ?????? ????????? ??? ?? ????????? ????????? ????? ????? 80?, ???????? ?????? ???????????????. ???????????, ??? ? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ???????? ? ?????
????? 80? ?????????????? ????????????????? ??????????, ???????? ?? ????????? ? ???????????? ? ?????? ?????. ????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????????
? ????????? ????????, ????????? ?? ??????????. ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????
# 368 #
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?.?. ????????, ?.?. ??????. ??????????? ?????????????? ????????? ????????????? ????????????????? ???????? ?
?????- ? ??????????????? ? ????????? ? ????????? ?????????????? ? ??????????? ?? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????.
??? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????-????????????????? ? ????????????????????
???????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ????? ??? ?? ?????????? ??????????????
????????? ???????? ????? ??? ? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ????
????????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ??????????.
?????????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ??????????
??? ?????????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ???????? ??????? ????????????? ???????? ?? ????? ????? 80? ????? ??? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????
????????: ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?? 320 ?? 380 °C, ?????? ????????? ?
???????? ?? 19 600 ?? 58 800 ?. ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ?? ???. 4.
?? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ????? ?????? ? ??????? ?????????? ????????
??? ?? ?????????????? ????????? ?????????. ????? ???????, ?????? ????????? ??????
????????????? ? ???????????? ??????????-????????????????? ? ???????????????????? ????????????. ??????? ????????????? ???????? ????? ??? ? ??????????? ???????????
??????? (320 °C) ? ??????? ????????? (19 600, 34 300 ?) ?? ?????????, ??????????????
???? ?????????????? ?? ??????????? ??????????-????????????????? ? ???????????????????? ????????????, ????? ???????????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????
(?????????? ?????????? ????????? 4 %). ??????? ????????????? ???????? ????? ??? ?
???????????? ??????? 360 ? 380 °C ? ??????? ????????? ? ????????? ?? 44 100 ?? 58 800 ?
????????? ????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?? ?????????????? ?????????.
??????????
? ???? ??????????? ???????????? ???? ???????????, ??? ??????? ?????????? ????????
??????? ? ????????? (???) ???????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ?????
????? ?????????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ??????, ????????????
???. 4. ?????????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ?? ????? ????? 80? ????? ??? ? ??????????
?????????? ?????????? ????????
# 369 #
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?.?. ????????, ?.?. ??????. ??????????? ?????????????? ????????? ????????????? ????????????????? ???????? ?
? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ?????????. ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ??? ????????????. ??? ??????? ?? ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ???????????
??????? ? ?????? ?????????. ???????????, ??? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ??? ????????? ???? 360 °C, ? ?????? ????????? ????????????? ? ???????? ?? 34 300 ? ?? 46 600 ?.
?????? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ????? 80? ?????? ????????????? ? ???????????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ??????????. ??????? ????????????? ????????, ????????????
??? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ????????, ??????????? ? ????????????? ??????????, ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????. ????? ??????? ????? ? ???, ???
?????????????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ? ??? ???
????, ??? ? ??????? ??????? ????? ????????????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ????????.
?????? ????????? ? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????????? ???????? ???????????? ?? 2012 ? 2016 ??. (?????????? ????????? ?????????????? ?? ???????? ??????????????? ???????? ??? ???), ? ????? ??? ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ?????
?????????? ?????????, ?????????? ? 14.?37.21.0068 «?????????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ????????? ???????????????????? ???????????????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ????????».
?????? ??????????
[1] ?????????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ???????????? ????????
????????????????? ????????? ???????? ?? ?????????????????? ?????? // ?????. 2012. ? 2.
?. 89-92.
[2] ?????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ?????????? ?.?. ????????????? ???????? ????????????
????????????? ?????????????????????? ???????? // ??????? ???? ?? ?.?. ??????. 2012.
? 2. ?. 43-45.
[3] ???????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. ???????????? ??????? ????????????????? ????????? ??
?????????????? ????????? ????????????? ????????. ????????? ???????? ? ???????? ??????????: ??????. ??. ????. ??. ??? ???. ????. ?.?. ??????. ????????????: ???-?? ????????????.
???. ????. ??-?? ?? ?.?. ??????, 2012. ???. 38. ?. 107-112.
[4] ???????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ???????????? ??????? ?????????????????
????????? ?????????????????????? ?????????? ????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?? ???????
?????????? ?????????? // ????? ????????? ? ?????????? ? ???-2012: ????????? ????????????? ??????-??????????? ???????????. ?.: ????, 2012. ?. 11-12.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ??????. ??????????? ?????????????? ????????? ????????????? ????????????????? ???????? ?
The Dependence of the Relaxation Resistance
of High-Strength Stabilized Armature
from Microstructure of Steel
after Thermomechanical Processing
Aleksei G. Korchunov and Dmitriy K. Dolgiy
Magnitogorsk State Technical University
named after G.I. Nosov
38 Lenin, Magnitogorsk, 455000, Russia
The article investigates the impact of changes in the microstructure of steel 80R and the level of residual
stress on relaxation resistance after thermomechanical processing. The test procedure consisted of
electron microscopic and X-ray studies of steel 80R, as well as the testing of the stress relaxation.
During the work obtained dependences of the relaxation resistance of the structural stability of the
material obtained after thermomechanical processing with different heating temperature and tension
force.
Keywords: high-strength armature, stabilization, microstructure, residual stresses, thermomechanical
processing, relaxation resistance, induction heating.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 3 (2014 7) 372-378
~~~
??? 621.746.5.047 ? 412:621.771.237.016.2
Prospects of Medium Thickness Slabs Application
in Technological Complex
?Continuous Slab Casting ? Hot Rolling Mill?
Alexander G. Solovyev,
Michael V. Shitov* and Dmitry O. Drobny
Magnitogorsk State Technical University
named after G.I. Nosov
38 Avenue Lenin, Magnitogorsk, 455000, Russia
Received 14.11.2013, received in revised form 05.02.2014, accepted 10.03.2014
The consideration was given to a transition to medium thickness slabs for complexes CCM-Plate Mill
and CCM-Hot Rolling Mill. We used two examples, considering their technical characteristics, to
show possible advantages and disadvantages. From the point of view of energy efficiency, we proposed
a number of measures for a perspective application of this transition.
Keywords: continuous casting machine, wide-strip hot rolling mill, plate mill, thick slabs, medium
thickness slabs, efficiency, energy resources, technological complex, product mix, production cycle of
finished products.
The processes of slab continuous casting and subsequent hot rolling of plates and strips are
among the most energy-intensive in the steel industry. These processes, technical and technological
solutions implementing them, fi rst of all affect the consumer properties of fi nished products and
at the same time, to a large extent, determine the technical and economic performances of a steel
plant operation as a whole. All of this determines the relevance and importance of issues aimed at
improving the efficiency of technological complex ?continuous casting ? hot plate rolling?. The
problem of efficiency includes a number of important objectives: saving of energy, metals and
auxiliary materials, performance increase of individual machines, sites, links, streams, improving
the quality of strips from the point of view of physical and mechanical properties, surface condition,
shape and profile, automation and process control. The acute problem of efficiency mostly has to do
with conventional technological complexes with thick slabs CCM and wide-strip hot rolling mill
or plate mill. Further discussion of the efficiency issue will be developed in the context of these
complexes.
The introduction and development of continuous casting technology and thin slabs rolling at the
turn of XX and XXI centuries significantly reduced the energy consumption for the production of one
tone of finished product (Fig. 1.). Cost reduction is provided primarily by minimizing the number of
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: mihailschitov@mail.ru
# 372 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Alexander G. Solovyev, Michael V. Shitov? Prospects of Medium Thickness Slabs Application in Technological Complex?
Fig. 1. Yield energy consumption on different lines: 1 ? fuel gas; 2 ? electric power
process steps. The leading machinery works rapidly develop and introduce new technologies. However,
the major production of flat products is still provided by plate mills and hot rolling mills. Besides, one
cannot say of replacing the abovementioned machines with Compact Strip Production in the coming
years.
Obviously, there is always a question of production efficiency. But the most critical question is
the question of ?borderline product mix? production. Meaning the fi nished product mix which can
be produced on different lines: hot rolling mills, plate mills, Steckel mills, thin slab compact strip
mills [1]. For plate rolling these are plates of thickness 6-25, width up to 2500 mm and thickness
20-50 mm., width up to 2000 mm. For coils these are strips of thickness up to 12.5 mm and width
up to 1850 mm.
A significant amount of production of the above mentioned products in the post-Soviet space is
concentrated in old plants with old plate mills. For example, OJSC ?AMZ? mill 2850, OJSC «Ural Steel»
mill 2800, OJSC «MMK» mill 2350, «Red October» mill 2000 and others. After the commissioning
of cut-to-length line 6-25 x 1000-2350 at OJSC «MMK» with the capacity of 1.0 million tons per year
and two mills 5000 the general situation in the market for such plate mills deteriorated.
In this situation the experience of «Asha Metallurgical Plant? is interesting. In consequence of
the comprehensive modernization of steelmaking facility, the liquid steel is produced in the up-todated 100 ton electric arc furnace with scrap preheating, and slabs are casted in one strand caster.
The machine design provides a slab with thickness of 180 and 240 mm, width up to 1600 mm. The
modern equipment of the new EAF shop: electric arc furnace (EAF), ladle furnace, the caster provides
production up to 1 million tons per year of continuously casted thick slabs. However, the production
of rolled products is still provided by the old mill 2850. Furthermore, as a result of modernization of
steelmaking facility only, the quantity of faulty production decreased, consumption index decreased,
# 373 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Alexander G. Solovyev, Michael V. Shitov? Prospects of Medium Thickness Slabs Application in Technological Complex?
the quality of finished products increased. For further improvement of technical-economic indicators
the decision of complex revamping of mill 2850 was adopted.
The combination of cost cutting for all kinds of energy with the reduction of production cycle and
shipment of finished products are virtually the only way to further improvement of operation efficiency
of technological complex Caster ? Plate mill.
The company analyzed the existing and prospective order portfolio, the technological capabilities
of the existing equipment and rolling modes being applied. To minimize the inventory, increase the
share and temperature of hot charging, reduce orders execution time the company developed and
implemented a technology of total product mix production from slabs of single cross-section 240 x
1600 mm. The new technology made it possible to get sheets of any required size mix from one heat.
Practically, the plant started to operate as a scrap metal company or steel service center.
From the viewpoint of slabs continuous casting, currently for the production of plates in the
thickness range up to 50 mm, thick 200-400 mm and medium 130-200 mm slabs are used. In the
past two decades the technology and equipment for continuous casting of thin and medium slabs
have been intensively developed. At present, medium and thin slab casters can cast virtually
any grades of steel. Besides, the slabs after thin slab casters meet the requirements claimed to
rolled plate products from the point of view of all parameters [2]. Further production of plates
with thickness up to 50 mm from medium slabs is successfully implemented in a number of
metallurgical enterprises [3].
The bulk production is sheets 12-25 mm thickness. The company analyzed the capabilities of
plate production from medium and thick slabs under the technology of one cross-section casting for
the entire finished product mix. The results can be summarized as follows:
? instead of thick slab 240 x 1600 mm it makes sense to use a medium slab 180 x 2000 mm. For
transition to a new section of slab it is necessary to revamp the caster. According to the analysis
of the machine design, such width increase can be realized with little or no reconstruction of
the foundations.
? the application of medium thickness 150 x 2800 mm slabs ensures the production of rolls not
more than 25 m long under the technology of one width slab casting. In the case of application
of slabs in several sizes, it is possible to reduce the consumption index due to production of
rolls up to 48 m long.
? the reduction of slab thickness will have a positive impact on the mill?s productivity and
electrical power and gas flow rate for rolling.
The main production of coils with thickness up to 12.5 mm in the Russian Federation is provided
by three rolling mills 2000 and one rolling mill 2500. In addition, OJSC ?Amur metal? produce the
coiled stock on combination mills 2800/1700, 2300/1700, Steckel mill, and OJSC ?VMZ? produce it
on Compact Strip Production machine. All the companies, except for OJSC ?VMZ?, use slabs with
thickness 200-250 mm. It should be noted that, historically, the first hot rolling mills used medium
thickness slabs coming from slabbing mills as semifinished rolled stock. In practice of modern hot
rolling mills operation the continuously casted medium slabs are widely coming into use [3].
In the technological complex CCM ? hot rolling mill slabs take place on three areas: 1 ? continuous
casting area; storage and transfer to the reheating furnaces; 2 reheating furnaces area; 3 ? roughing
mill. CCM and hot rolling mill are one the most expensive metallurgical units. Each of the units is
# 374 #
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Alexander G. Solovyev, Michael V. Shitov? Prospects of Medium Thickness Slabs Application in Technological Complex?
Fig. 2. The influence of slab thicknes on productivity of CCM, furnace and yield fuel flow rate for heating
operated for decades and each of them is subject to numerous upgrades and revampings for their lifecycle. Construction of new facilities takes place in exceptional cases. There was a consideration of an
option to use medium thickness slabs applying to the technological system of slab continuous casting
in oxygen converter shop ? hot rolling mill 2000 OJSC ?MMK?.
The transition to medium thickness slabs uniquely affects each production area. For example,
when casting thinner slabs, the caster?s performance decreases. The analysis of continuous casting area
was made in accordance with the procedure presented in study [4]. T
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