328.Журнал Сибирского федерального университета. Сер. Гуманитарные науки №1 2009код для вставкиСкачать
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Журнал Сибирского федерального университета Journal of Siberian Federal University 2009 2 (1) Гуманитарные науки Humanities & Social Sciences Редакционный совет академик РАН Е.А.Ваганов академик РАН К.С.Александров академик РАН И.И.Гительзон академик РАН В.Ф.Шабанов чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат.наук А.Г.Дегерменджи чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук В.Л.Миронов чл.-к. РАН, д-р техн. наук Г.Л.Пашков чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук В.В.Шайдуров академик РАО, д-р физ.-мат. наук В.С. Соколов Editorial Advisory Board Chairman: Eugene A. Vaganov Members: Kirill S. Alexandrov Josef J. Gitelzon Vasily F. Shabanov Andrey G. Degermendzhy Valery L. Mironov Gennady L. Pashkov Vladimir V. Shaidurov Veniamin S. Sokolov Editorial Board: Editor-in-Chief: Mikhail I. Gladyshev Founding Editor: Vladimir I. Kolmakov Managing Editor: Olga F. Alexandrova Contents / СОДЕРЖАНИЕ Snezhana Kovrigina Everyday Life of Children and Teenagers in the Angara Region in 1945-1953 –3– Daniil V. Pivovarov Problem of Synthesis of the Main Definitions of Culture – 17 – Tatiana M. Lomanova Nikolaj Rybakov: «… Between the Abyss and the Heaven» – 23 – Alexandra A. Semenova and Natalia P. Koptzeva Truth as a Form of Modelling of Integrity at Social Being Level – 31 – Nina V. Malchukova Nature of Belief and Role of Belief in Statements Producing Process – 56 – Natalia M. Libakova and Natalia P. Koptzeva Native Culture of the 19th – 20th Centuries in Search After Truth. Truth of Real Human Being in Vladimir Solovyov’s Philosophy of the Universal Unity and Works of Art in the Russian Painting – 67 – Elena N. Viktoruk, Efim V. Chebotarev Ethical Education Innovations: Ethic-Project Work in the Sphere of Commercial Business-Education – 84 – Executive Editor for Humanities & Social Sciences: Natalia P. Koptseva Компьютерная верстка Е.В. 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Ferova Problems of Creation and Usage of Specific Capital Fund (Endowment) – 113 – Мaya G. Smolina Maieutic Means of Criticism – 120 – Свидетельство о регистрации СМИ ПИ № ФС77-28-723 от 29.06.2007 г. Серия включена в «Перечень ведущих рецензируемых научных журналов и изданий, в которых должны быть опубликованы основные научные результаты диссертации на соискание ученой степени доктора и кандидата наук», по экономике; по истории; по философии, социологии и культурологии Maria V. Tarasova The Rules of Art Communication Between a Viewer and an Art-Work – 131 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2009 2) 3-16 ~~~ УДК 94(571) Everyday Life of Children and Teenagers in the Angara Region in 1945-1953 Snezhana Kovrigina* Bratsk State University, 40 Makarenko st., Bratsk, 665709 Russia 1 Received 24.02.2009, received in revised form 03.03.2009, accepted 10.03.2009 Our publication is based on the expeditionary materials of the Research Laboratory of Humanitarian Research of the Bratsk State University. The author’s scientific interest is aimed at the research of the labour practices in the children’s everyday life in the villages of the Angara Region in 1945-1953. As for oral historical sources, which were used, the children labour in kolkhozes, the work at the plot of land were the only way of surviving for many families of the Angara Region in the hard post-war years. The author is examining the process of transferring the social experience (including the culture of life with its regional peculiarity; family’s relationships; using of the ties, which connected adults and children) through the labour activity of teenagers. Keywords: everyday life; oral history; labour practices; children labour; peasantry; Siberia; villages of the Angara Region; post-war years; preschoolers; daycare centres; pioneers camps; pioneers; school education. Point The research of the different sections of the population’s everyday life is one of the most relevant trends of the modern historical science. Researchers more often appeal to such questions as family, marriage, relationships between parents and children which form the cultural traditions of society. The history of family, in the context of which the history of childhood was examined, has begun its life since 60s in Russia like in other countries. Initially the trend, mentioned above, was a subject of ethnographical research. Family parentage was under the authority of genealogy. The history of family of the newest time became the research subject matter of domestic sociologists. * 1 In the modern historical science the history of family and clan, in Thomas Sokoll’s opinion, “presented in different discourses – from the genealogical scheme to the research of it in the microhistorical frames, – is assuming ever greater popularity at present” [1, p.25]. In domestic historiography the family matter trends to subdivide into works concerning to rural family or urban one. In recent years the oral evidences and the methods of their interpretation have become to use more widely in the historical research. Our publication is based on the expeditionary materials of the Research Laboratory of Humanitarian Research of the Bratsk State University. It should be emphasized that many Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved –3– Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Snezhana Kovrigina. Everyday Life of Children and Teenagers in the Angara Region in 1945-1953 villages of the Middle Angara Region have not already existed. They got into submerged area of the Bratsk Hydro-Power Plant and the Ust-Ilimsk Hydro-Power Plant. At this moment the migration of the rural people of the Lower Angara Region, getting into the submerged area of the Boguchany Hydro-Power Plant, is going on. There is no doubt that the economic development of the region, the process of migration and natural population loss influenced on the state of the informational environment. The most amount of the people being interviewed were born in the 1930s, the older generation is represented in extremely small amount. The respondents from the Lower Angara Region mostly live in cities and towns now where their cultural traditions are rather needed. The author’s scientific interest is directed at the research of the practices of the children’s everyday life in the post-war period. The author is examining the process of transferring the social experience through the labour activity of teenagers. Examples The problems of the hard war times, the hard peasant labour and the extremely low level of the rural families’ material security had great influence on the children’s lives of the Angara Region. It should be mentioned that “children’s” question in the 1940s – 1950s was not out of the state attention. Nevertheless, children were the least secured age group from the hard post-war times. The ramified state network of the objects of the childhood, which was intended to occupy all the periods and spheres of the children’s life, began to form in 1920s. However, in the period under consideration the most children of the preschool age in the rural area of the Angara Region proved to be excluded from the sphere of the state projects. As the rural women did not have the post-childbirth leave, so the problem of caring of the preschoolers was extremely sharp. By that reason women were 91 % of the 10532 kolkhoz members not fulfilled the minimum of the workdays in Irkutskaya oblast’ in 1947 [2, p.139]. Many female inhabitants of the Angara Region said that the absence of the preschool childcare institutions in the villages was the reason of not going to work. As A.V. Moskovskih, who worked at the kolkhoz farm in the post-war period, remembered nobody had made any allowances for infants, “The foreman came to my place in three days after I’d given birth to my firstborn and said that I had to come to milk cows” [3, p.4]. It should be noted that such situations were rather typical. Organizing of the seasonal daycare centres became a way out of that difficult situation and was entrusted to the heads of the regional health departments and the heads of the medical sections. Such preschool institutions were recommended to organize during the intensive farm work for providing the most complete able-bodied female kolkhozniks’ participation in the production process. The task of improving bringing up and medical care of the rural children was given. The sub-regional committees offered to appoint the “experienced older female kolkhozniks” as kindergarten teachers. Thus, there were 129 kindergartens instead of 134, which were planned, in summer period in Irkutskaya oblast’ in 1946 [4, p.71]. At the beginning of the research period preschool education in Bratsk sub-region (the Middle Angara Region) was presented by three seasonal daycare centres in kolkhozes [5, L.1]. Not only those, who did not have any suitable education, were allowed to take care of children in the kindergartens, but also disabled people: old, sick kolkhozniks or teenagers. Such situation with the stuff of kindergartens led to very unfortunate results. Here is the description of the local kindergarten in Panovo village (the Lower Angara Region), which was done by N.N. –4– Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Snezhana Kovrigina. Everyday Life of Children and Teenagers in the Angara Region in 1945-1953 Kachina, “In summer the kindergarten worked in the ordinary izba, there wasn’t any care of children, there was a matron and girls – teenagers for helping. The girls themselves wanted to play much and they seated my younger sister on the windowsill, so that she didn’t cry. They ran away, and my sister fell off that windowsill. She broke her spinal column, became invalid for the rest of her life, she wasn’t even taken to school. How she stayed alive!” [6, p.9]. The first steps in the development of the preschool education in rural area of the Angara Region were done in the sub-regional centres in the first place. However, the shortage of financing had an overall impact there. There were not enough books, toys and furnishing. Kindergartens placed in the peasant izbas, which were not suitable for taking care of the little children. It was emphasized that “there is no entertainment for the children in the kindergartens, there are no books to read, no toys to play, the kindergarten teachers did not pay any attention to the children. Sanitary state of the preschool childcare institutions is also very bad. Children sleep on the dinner tables and in their outerwear at that. Food is cooked very badly without any medical inspection” [7, p.2]. Creating of the preschool childcare institutions in the rural area was propagandized actively. There were bright examples for imitation of such creating in the region. As the local newspaper, Udereysky Rabochy, reported in the daycare centre of sovkhoz Reshajushy “the children are wearing the identical dresses. They look merry and lively. The room for the rest is tidied well. Every bed is tidily done and has a sign of the child’s name. Youngsters have delicious food for dinner. Every group has different menu” [8, p.2]. But such experience did not get enough spread because of the financial difficulties of the most agricultural artels. The absence of the means of subsistence in kolkhozes and consequently poor financing of the preschool childcare institutions led to the great scarcity of them. If kolkhozes in Irkutskaya oblast’ allocated 75 % cash funds of the level of 1940 for organizing the daycare centres and the playgrounds in 1946, in 1950 this number made up only 29 %. In Krasnoyarsky Kray it was 49.5 % and 31 % in proportion [9, p.244]. This problem was solved in the sub-regional centres only due to the public funds given by the state. For example, there were only three kindergartens and one daycare centre in the sub-regional centre Nizhne-Ilymsk village in 1950 [10, L.8], so when giving a place in the preschool childcare institutions the single mothers’ children and the children from large families had a privilege [11, p.2]. It should be mentioned that the process of educating was not the main feature in the preschool childcare institutions because the system of education itself was only a part of the sub-regional department of public health. The absence of the qualified stuff, even in the subregional centres, caused serious difficulties in the process of educating. For example, the local newspaper, Ilymsky Partizan, reported, “F. does not bring up and educate children but only does them harm, therefore crying, shouting and even fighting can be heard in the group, which is entrusted to her. F. is often walking along the village while the children are leaving to their own resources” [12, p.2]. It should be emphasized, though that those children, who visited daycare centres and kindergartens, had sometimes better care, medical service and meals than they had at home. However, in whole region the problem of the preschool childcare institutions in rural areas became unsolved. In the mentioned period only childcare institutions of the sub-regional centres and towns had showings of growth to a very slight degree. So, for example, the attendance of the kindergartens in Irkutskaya oblast’ were 26.7 % up in 1950 than in 1941 [2, p.151]. –5– Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Snezhana Kovrigina. Everyday Life of Children and Teenagers in the Angara Region in 1945-1953 There were too little kindergartens in the Angara Region for embracing all the children under seven years. So, the traditional lifestyle of caring of the children by their grandmothers and older sisters were still rather actual over the whole research period. The female inhabitant from Prokopievo village of Nizhne-Ilymsk subregion remembered that she and her sister had cared of their newborn brother at the age of four, and their parents had locked the house in order that “babysitters” had not run away [13, p.11]. In spite of much attention, paid to primary and secondary education by state and local authorities, there were many problems. Firstly, it was shortage of school financing. The majority of school building did not satisfy to elementary specification of sanitation. Primary schools, located in some villages, were situated in the adapted quarters. Those quarters that were built specially for schooling had primitive design. All rural school had stove heating and no plumbing. Sometimes the state of such quarters was no good at all. So, the situation with the school of Ancherikovo village was submitted to the general public in 1947. The letter of the instructor of the Sub-regional Party Committee was published in the local newspaper of Bratsk sub-region, The Flag of Communism, where following facts were reported: “outward and inward appearance of the building where children study is awful. Doors are broken and there is paper in windows instead of glass. The wind is constantly blowing there as in the open air. There is no illumination as in the vault. The stove is in a very bad condition” [14, p.2]. In connection with it, that is extremely significant, “none of the school buildings was replaced” from the submerged area of the Ust-Ilymsk Hydro Power Plant in 1970s “because of the bad technical condition and non-suitability of the buildings to modern specifications” [15, p.159]. However, in spite of the hardest financing in kolkhozes, rural workmen built 133 school building with their own means for the post-war five-year period [9, p.167]. Often there were not any studies in the rural school in cold winter days. Teaching stuffs tried to find ways out of the crisis by their own. They stocked firewood, asked parents for help [16, L.93]. There was acute shortage of qualified teaching stuff in rural areas. So, in Kezhemsky sub-region 35 teachers from 109 ones did not have any pedagogical education, 30 teachers, working in 5th-10th grades, did not have any suitable education [17, L.62]. Because of the lack of professionalism teaching consisted of simple facts telling. Many teachers prepared to lessons badly [18, L.6]. There was great percent of pupils who repeated a year in schools. The progress of schoolchildren in studies reached 74 % only in Irkutskaya oblast’ [4, p.71]. In spite of great difficulties, all rural children got primary education. Much attention was paid by state and party authorities to the problem of keeping the contingent of students – the law of universal schooling was strictly controlled. However, over the all period being studied schools could not stop dropping out the students. One of the main reasons was the low level of living in the families which were able neither to feed nor to provide their children with clothes. In Irkutskaya oblast’ 6821 children did not go to school in 194647 academic year, it being known that 61 % of students did not go to school because of the lack of clothes and footwear [4, p.71]. It was overall noted that the law of universal schooling was not observed “just only by the reason of low level of living: lack of footwear, clothes, and foodstuff” [19, L.13]. During the academic year the amount of students who gave up school because of this reason was steadily rising. So, for example, in Udereysky sub-region (the Lower Angara Region) according to the data on the beginning of the academic year 1951 the amount of students –6– Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Snezhana Kovrigina. Everyday Life of Children and Teenagers in the Angara Region in 1945-1953 (age of 7-15) not attending schools was 83 people, according to the data on the 1st of December 1951 the account of those who did not go to school rose up to 212 people [20, L.42]. It was noted that in Kezhemsky sub-region 300 students were left at the secondary school where 700 people had studied as there was a great dropping out because of the lack of bread. [21, L.4] V.N. Polyakova (out of large family without father) remembers failing to get even primary education, “I cried, wanted to go to school, but I did not have even panties” [22, p.8]. The similar state of things was kept over the all period being studied, especially in small “poorly performing” collective farms. Without any doubt, the government, including, school and collective farm administration, was trying to find the solution to this problem [23, L.59]. For example, in Kezhemsky sub-region in 1950 the fund for material help to schoolchildren was created at the initiative of secondary school and party-and-soviet activists for observing the law of universal schooling. The fund gathered 15,700 rubles of money, 6 centners of grain, 12 centners of potato and 58 pairs of footwear. From the beginning of the academic year the material help was given to 187 students: 45 pairs of footwear, 12 sets of underwear and outerwear; 125 students were also provided with foodstuffs and money [24, L.46]. Rural councils took decisions on allocation of foodstuffs for hot breakfasts of lowincome students. For example, in the village of Bedoba of Boguchansky sub-region there were allocated 15 centners of grain, 25 kilos of butter, 150 kilos of cottage cheese, 300 liters of milk, 6 centners of potato out of collective farm’s funds [25, p.2]. Even though the situation with the primary education was gradually improving, not many rural children continued their further education in seven-year school. For example, in Irkutskaya oblast’ in 1946 98,3 % of children attended primary school, 83 % got seven-year education, and only 64,2 % got ten-year education [4, p.71] as further education required additional material costs, besides there were some difficulties with school attendance. Most children of the postwar period walked to school several kilometers, “holding linen self-made bags, wearing quilted jackets and felt boots in winter”. Schoolchildren wasted much time to get to school, it was especially difficult in slush autumn and in cold winter. To get warm children played football with “horse apples” (droppings) on the slippery snowed road, it was lucky to get to school with a coachman in passing sleigh” [27, p.152] – says the residents of the Angara Region. In Irkutskaya oblast’ about half of all types of schools were situated in the southern part crossed by Eastern Siberian Railway where there were 16 densely populated areas. The situation was more difficult in the remote areas of the Lower and the Middle Angara Region where there was insignificant amount of seven year and secondary schools [4, p.74-75]. So, in Eniseysky sub-region (the Lower Angara Region) in 1951 one of the reasons for reducing the number of students was a great sparseness of settlements. For example, in Makovsky rural councils there were “32 settlements scattered from the schools at a far distance – 100-150 km. There were no school boarding houses in these schools for the exception for one which had school boarding house for 20 people” [28, L.42]. One of the ways out was to open the school boarding houses for children from remote areas. It is necessary to mention that in spite of annual increase of the amount of school boarding houses they could not provide the required dwelling” [4, p.75]. So in Irkutskaya oblast’ in 1950 there was 3 sq. km. of bedroom space for a child while the standard was 3.5 sq. km. Besides large congestion in school boarding houses it was also noted insufficient attention of –7– Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Snezhana Kovrigina. Everyday Life of Children and Teenagers in the Angara Region in 1945-1953 school administration to the conditions of life. The subject discussed by the Nizhne-Ilymsky Sub-regional Committee of all-USSR Communist Party in 1950 was insanitation in the sub-regional center boarding house, particularly, it was that “there is much mud, mess in the boarding school house, so it is a shame when the parents come to visit their children” [29, L.3]. However, even by the end of the period being studied the problems connected with the life of rural children in school boarding houses had not been solved. Most respondents tell that they had to live that not all children started their independent life successfully. As an example we can take the claim of party organizer of sovkhoz, Shirokoje, in Udereysky sub- region, “Our children have been studying for 5 years, we sent them to Bryanka, then to Krasnoyarsk. While studying in Bryanka my son got completely spoilt, he had bad marks and he was repeating a year in the 5th grade. I found a flat for my daughter in Krasnoyarsk, she studied in 8th grade, and this year she also had had problems with studies. What should I do? We, communists, could not teach our children with their relatives and friends and in some cases with unknown people in other villages. According to the words of Z.V. Ivanova, there was only primary school in village Moskovskaya, so she went to the fifth grade in the village Burnino, “We lived in the flats of unknown people, slept on the floor, we came home for the weekends, took foodstuffs, loaded on the boat and went in single file, came back dirty, in wet footwear” [30, p.4]. T.E. Mikhaleva reminds (village Guruk, Kujtunsky sub-region), “We would live there for a week. You would come on Sunday, would take bags with all stuffs: potatoes, then we were given bread, so we would take bread, a bottle of milk. It was sharp frost; we used to put on our quilted jackets, put the bottle in our bosoms, and went back. Sometimes the bottle got frozen and burst. But it didn’t matter – we went home. On Saturday when we ran from school we had to wash the floor in our host’s flat. Having washed the floor and tidied up the flat we ran 12 kilometers home” [31, p.12]. The same lifestyle was typical in the distant villages of the Lower and the Middle Angara Region. To continue their education children had to part with their families and live with unfamiliar people in unknown surrounding being engaged with many other matters including taking care of themselves. It should be noticed properly. I had to take my children from school for a year since it was useless to teach children without parents’ control” [32, L.55]. Having the same difficulties with teaching their children many families made decisions to take their children home out of school. It was also necessary to have a definite family welfare to continue education: “those who were richer can study in Bratsk – there was 10-year school there”; besides the payment for dwelling (often payment was made by foodstuffs), the family lost workforce (men as workers were more appreciated than women). From the personal diary of I.M. Moskovskih we got known that in the village Moskovskaya there were 44 male teenagers born in 1933-1943 (i.e. all male children born in these years lived in the village) went to work to sovkhoz after finishing primary school [33, p.6]. That is why, perhaps, most respondents with higher level of education are women. As the result of all factors mentioned above the level of education was still low during post-war period. So, in 1950 in Komsomol organization of Nizhne-Ilymsky sub-region 72 % of Komsomol members had primary education, 4 % – secondary education and only 0.03 % – higher education [34, L.16]. It should be mentioned that young rural people had opportunities to continue their education. In most sub-regional centers there –8– Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Snezhana Kovrigina. Everyday Life of Children and Teenagers in the Angara Region in 1945-1953 were schools for rural young people, however, the contingent of students was hardly half of what had been planned, [4, p.71] and in some sub-regional schools were closed in the second half year in connection with large dropping out of students. In spite of great financial difficulties, by the academic year 1950-51 in Irkutskaya oblast’ the number of comprehensive schools had grown by 20 % in rural area, in Krasnoyarsky Kray this rate was lower and accounted for 10 % in comparison with academic year 1940-41. However, even by the end of the period being studied the number of the World”, “Setting up Communism”… [36, L.25] The curriculums of some seven year and secondary schools included special classes where the students had discussions on political, scientific and educational topics. Every week the political information was enlightened; in senior classes the students presented the information themselves. They organized reader’s conferences with reading newspapers, magazines, fiction for children [37, L.19]. Besides, children gathered money to help orphans, families of war veterans and disabled. Pioneers revived young volunteers’ students was still comparatively lower than it was before war. The growth of contingent by 23 % was only noted in the secondary schools in rural area of Irkutskaya oblast’, while being observed the reduction of contingent on the territory of Krasnoyarsky Kray [9, p.253]. The history of children’s everyday life, without doubt, cannot be full without paying attention to the role of upbringing in the education which performed the function of children social adaptation. During post-war period pioneers’ organizations at school played special part. The model of soviet “happy childhood” of Stalin’s epoch represented wellregulated state mechanism of upbringing soviet citizens. Region party committees and all-Union Lenin’s Communist Union of Youths paid great attention to this sphere of life. They regularly listened to the reports, controlled and checked the work of pioneers’ organization. With the help of pioneers’ organization, the soviet state and society cultivated social and cultural norms and values of behavior among children. The concept of “soviet person” was becoming clearer: strong, patient, determined, loyal to their country and party citizens [35, p.14]. Thematic and subject meetings were widely spread. For example, there were meetings in Bratsk’s schools, “I.V. Stalin: father, teacher and friend of soviet children”, “S.M. Kirov”, “Our Motherland”, “Peace to movements, with enthusiasm gathered scrap metal [38, p.145]. They organized circles at schools: mathematic, of drama, choir, “do-it-yourself”, literature, physical education, young naturalist etc., but it should be noted that “the activity of circles had informal character and often was connected with celebrations and holidays (for example the activity of drama, choir and literature circles” [39, L.19., L.58]. Physical education of students was improving. In winter pioneers of seven years and secondary schools took part in ski competitions for a prize of the newspaper Pionerskaya Pravda, various war and sports games were held [40, p.107]. Sports sections were organized everywhere, pioneers and students enthusiastically passed the tests on physical abilities “Ready for Labour and Defense”, at the same time the role of ideological upbringing was quite high, particularly, it was noted that all the events being held “combined military and physical training with the work of political campaigns, so that they presented some kind of mass cultural events” [41, L.48]. In spite of activization of physical education program in seven year and secondary schools it was noted that there were no simplest sport playgrounds in the majority of collective farms. There were no stadiums in many sub-regional centers of the Angara Region [42, L.22]. –9– Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Snezhana Kovrigina. Everyday Life of Children and Teenagers in the Angara Region in 1945-1953 Pioneers’ squads in sub-regional centers reported to Irkutskaya oblast’ committee of allUnion Lenin’s Communist Union of Youths that in their schools “pioneers struggle for organized lesson, under the control of teachers and tutors help poor students, fight against facts of unconscientious, attitude to studies” [43, L.26]. Sub-regional committees of Party and Komsomol gave money for rewarding the most conscientious students with valuable prizes. The students remembered such events all their life. They were proud of good students either at home or at school [44, p.145]. So, for example, N.V. Dubrovin remembers, “Then school-leaving party was not a party, but something like a holiday: they congratulated us and awarded us prizes, small ones – I got a belt. But it was the best reward – it was better to have a belt rather than a rope for trousers” [45, p.7]. It should be mentioned that the respondents do not tell much about their pioneer’s childhood, “I was a pioneer. Nobody asked us if you wanted or not. Put a tie on, enroll, and you’re a pioneer. The teacher enrolled us to pioneers” [46, p.13]; “ We sang chastushkas and declared verses at the club on holidays – on the 7th of November, 1st of May, the teacher prepared us” [36, p.2]; “Not all were pioneers, some boy didn’t want to, they liked bullying. The teased us, girls, fought. The duty of a pioneer was to study well [47, p.17]. During the post-war period pioneers’ camps played important role in the upbringing system. The children from families with low income and families of war veterans mainly got vouchers [48, p.2]. By the beginning of 1950s there were pioneers camps in each sub-region of the Angara Region, though there were great difficulties with their organization. Preparation for summer opening was badly organized. For example, the following was noted in Udereysky sub-region in summer of 1952, “The location of camps has not been defined yet. Pioneers’ camps have been organized in various places for several years. The absence of equipped pioneers” camp prevents us from upbringing work” [49, p.2]. They had difficulties with taking the children to the place of rest, uncomfortable living conditions. In 1950s in some sub-regions of the Angara Region stationary pioneers’ camps were built only for summer rest of children. The number of schoolchildren spending summer at pioneers’ camps was increasing. So, it was reported that in Zayarsk in summer of 1953 there would be 540 pioneers resting at pioneers’ camps [50, L.20]. The forms of spending leisure at pioneers’ camps were various. The children read the books: The story of a Real Man, Young Guard etc., took part in drama, dance and sports activities, passed the tests on physical abilities “Be Ready for Labour and Defense”. Rural children had the opportunities to go on excursion tours. “You can’t imagine the impressions children had during their first trips to Irkutsk. They had been telling about them for a month. Nowadays we can compare such events only with a trip abroad», – wrote famous historian Yu. A. Petrushin [51, p.146]. However, pioneers’ camps could not embrace a large number of schoolchildren, that’s why other forms of summer rest for children were organized at schools, for example the newspaper, Kolkhoznik, of Kezhemsky sub-region reported, “Children playground has been organized in the village Prospikhino. There will be organized squad at Kezhemsky primary and secondary schools, and there will be brigades working at all seven year schools of our sub-region and primary school of village Bolturino” [52, p.2]. Hard post-war times forced many children and teenagers to start working since the early age. From one hand, the state considered the easy children labour as the integral part of preparing the labour resources for national economy. From the other hand, the children labour was not only the means of the Soviet socialization in the 1940s. – 10 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Snezhana Kovrigina. Everyday Life of Children and Teenagers in the Angara Region in 1945-1953 It often used forcibly in agriculture because of the constant shortage of labour resources. Here are some facts: “the students of the 6th-10th forms had begun to study since 1st-20th October in the majority of schools because they had been working at kolkhozes and sovkhozes” [53, L.14]. I.M. Moskovskih, the native of Moskovskaya village, remembered, “We had begun to study since 15th October. You had to come and register in August and not to forget the references from kolkhoz if you wanted to be accepted to school. The school year finished in May and we were immediately sent to fields” [54, p.9]. Rural children helped on kolkhozes’ fields and farms [55, L.66], worked at the school plots [56, L.18] and took part at the voluntary Sunday work” on the potatoes crowns cutting” [57, L.9]. It is fixed in the reports of a sub-regional committee of the all-Union Leninist Young Communist League and publications of the local newspapers. In the post-war Soviet villages the children labour was not only the means of upbringing but more often the means of surviving. It is rather interesting to look at “The Statistic Report. Family Members and Usage of kolkhozniks labour in January and July 1952”. It was created in Irkutskaya oblast’ and it is based on the official rate of the children labour. We compared the data received from the report with the oral sources. According to the report there were three groups of children and teenagers who worked at kolkhozes: men – 1415 years old, women – 14-15 years old, children (without any sex division) – 12-13 years old. In winter one teenager was working at the kolkhoz, 50 people from 140 registered families were working there during the July’s vacation. It makes up 34 % of the boys (in winter it is 17.4 % and in summer it is 74.5 %) and 2.6 % of the girls in winter and 50 % of the girls in summer [58, L.6, 42]. However, the public inquiries, held during the expedition in the villages of the Lower and the Middle Angara Region, showed that the majority of the 8-9 years old children were working at kolkhozes in summer. Z.V. Ivanova from Moskovskaya village reminds, “We’d been working at kolkhoz since 9 years old. Our foreman knocked at the window in the morning and told where to go. We were weeding fields in summer, storing up the firewood and sawing trees in March during the spring vacation. Every child had to work at kolkhoz, it was obligatory” [36, p.7]. M.I. Kulakova from Yarkino village (the Lower Angara Region) told that she, like the majority of rural teenagers, had been working at sheaves tying since 11 years old [59, p.5]. One of the inhabitants of Ufimtsevo village (NizhneIlymsk sub-region) remembered, “We, girls, were sent to the hardest work and there was nobody to protect us in front of the foreman. We hadn’t got fathers” [60, p.3]. 12-13 year-old boys were sent to plough without any assistance. I.I. Rukosujev from Yarkino village remembered that he was seated on a horse when he was five and fastened that he could not fall while the adults were operating the wooden plough. Being teenagers, he and his friend were sent to plough a remote field. It was a warm May day. The work was going fast and well. They decided to have a rest after dinner and fell asleep. The foreman arrived the next day only and woke the children up, “We caught it hot, the field wasn’t ploughed” [61, p.4]. The respondents noticed that nobody made allowance for the age or sex in the time of they were working at kolkhozes. The same situation was in many sub-regional centres. It was pointed out on a meeting of Zayarsk sub-regional committee of the all-ULYCL that “teenagers and young workers in the age of 13, 14 and 15 have already been working at workshops, storehouses and garages for eight or even ten working hours in day-shifts and night-shifts. Forty-three teenagers in the age of 13, 14, 15 work for eight hours at the Yakuttrans Trust. The labour protection of teenagers is absent. Some of them work in night shifts or at the detrimental to health workshops. – 11 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Snezhana Kovrigina. Everyday Life of Children and Teenagers in the Angara Region in 1945-1953 The law about six hours’ working day for teenagers younger than sixteen is not executed. The same situation is at the other enterprises” [62, L.7-8]. Children and teenagers became familiar with labour both in family and at school. Having got a job some of them found themselves in the hard working and living conditions. They were faced with misunderstanding and inertness of people at the top. Having worked hard, children came into adult world too fast. At the same time in the middle of the 1950s the practice of using the children labour parents because children could not see them very often. Teenagers entered into different relationships through taking part in general work of kolkhoz. They were getting the experience of traditional labour culture of an ordinary Siberian village. Working at kolkhoz did not solve the problem of life supporting, that is why fishing, hunting, picking up mushrooms and berries were of great importance in an ordinary Angara village. It should be mentioned that adults did not almost do any gathering because of being busy a lot. It was in kolkhozes and enterprises was over. Because of the high intensification of the adult labour, caring for supporting housekeeping (keeping the house cleaned, responsibility for harvest in the garden, caring of the cattle etc.) was children’s duty, especially in summer. N.P. Panova noticed, “My brother Vanya and I dug up the whole garden and our grandmother promised to boil an egg for both of us, then” [63, p.9]. M.P. Afonina remembered, “I’ve been weeding and watering since 9 years old in the garden. Mom planted a lot” [64, p.7]. N.V. Bruhanova said, “I used to be running and not to sweep the house, mom punished me… We helped with harvesting. I was 8 and already milked cows” [54, p.3]. There is no doubt that the role of labour in socialization of children was very high in the villages of the post-war Angara Region. T.E. Mikhaleva remembered, “Before leaving for work my mother leavened dough for bread and asked me to knead it when it rose. She put the dough into the stove and ordered, “As soon as the bread turns brown, take it out.” Now I’m able to cook the magnificent bread because I saw it by my own eyes and learnt. I can milk cows and feed pigs since my childhood. It was going on of itself and imperceptibly. We were taught and forced to learn and didn’t refuse” [37, p.14]. Upbringing of children was built on the personal examples of adults. It was not always the examples of their a part of children’s and old people’s duties. M.I. Porfirova, whose childhood was at Kezhma village, told us that their grandmothers had often taken them to pick up berries. They had gone with the downstream of the Angara for picking up berries and children had towed boats back along the bank, “We were trying with all our strength and were tired enormously. After a while we’re allowed to have a rest by our grandmothers. It meant that we might sit in the boats and rowed” [65, p.5]. Z.V. Ivanova remembers that the majority of the boys in Moskovskaya village were busy hunting. They laid snares for catching hares and caught squirrels [36, p.9]. Thus, 60 young hunters of Krasnoyarsky Kray took an active part in the competition for the best young hunter and went its conditions over in 1946. M. Pashin from the Partizansky sub-region gave 2500 rubles worth of furs, thereby going over the quota 500 % up. M. Zhirnov from the Eniseysky sub-region gave 2400 rubles worth of furs. Young hunters from the Boguchansky sub-region gave 7000 rubles worth of furs [66, p.2]. S.M. Kosolapov, who lived in the Nizhne-Ilymsk sub-region, told that his grandfather had taken him for hunting since the early childhood and, being 12 year-old boy, he had shot at squirrels much better than his grandfather. He had been allowed to go to the Taiga on his own since that time [67, p.7]. I.M. Moskovskih explained, “The old men shot better – 12 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Snezhana Kovrigina. Everyday Life of Children and Teenagers in the Angara Region in 1945-1953 than the youth. And, by the way, they shot not from the buttstock but from the hand. My father trained me to shoot with a rifle. We shot at sparrows. And he also trained me to shoot on-therun while swinging. I was swinging and hitting the aim. I had to be able to do it because it would be more comfortable to shoot in such a way while you were riding a horse [63, p.4]. It should be noticed that many young Angara girls helped adults (more often their mothers) even in fishing. The overwhelming majority of the girls from family relationships, such as division of labour, style of family communication etc. the Lower and the Middle Angara Region were busy needleworking, embroidering and knitting. Traditionally peasant women were busy sewing, weaving, mending clothes and their daughters were always side-by-side. “Mom didn’t teach me how to needlework. I took the crochet hook and began to try knitting. I asked my friends about patterns,” Z.V. Ivanova explained [36, p.11]. A.V. Moskovskih said that mothers did not have enough time to teach their daughters, “I was taught by my older sister and I showed my friends how to do” [3, p.9]. As concerns cooking, those respondents, who live in the villages of the Middle Angara Region, report that they learnt how to cook their traditional everyday dishes watching the adults. It should be mentioned that it was not the boys’ duty. There was a custom in Yarkino village of the Lower Angara Region: girls were not being taught how to cook intentionally, that is why not to break cooking traditions of their future husbands’ families. It had to be done by their mothers-in-law [68, p.3]. Taking part in the housework children could assimilate the culture of life, acquire the social skills they needed in the childhood of peasants in the post-war years. The last one depended on the zigzags of the state policy and traditional peasant way of living. Formation of the stable inner village traditions was happening in a natural way because of the special mechanism of bringing person in the culture of the society where he was born, but it would be in prospect to become a person of full value in that society. Child acquired the behavior that had been cultivated by his natives for centuries, while they were adapting to the local conditions, and imprinted in the culture of this society. Besides that the constant communication with natives in the network of the specific activity and special psychological atmosphere formed the appropriate set of moral valuable and habits of a person. Having gone to school, child did not have so much family influence because parents were busy by providing family and children with a source of permanent income in the post-war years. Comprehensive school and junior social and political organizations became the main socializing institutions having undertaken the duty to teach child the formal models, norms and roles of behaviour in the post-war years. Resume Thus, there was “ordinary”, “normal” children’s experience in the Angara Region. It was such experience of socialization, which was typical for many peasants. It did not contradict the official doctrine of the Soviet childhood but it was modified by everyday realities. There was a great difference between the culture of the childhood in the half-urbanized sub-regions and References 1. “Family, house and kinship in History”, ed. by T. Sokoll, O. Kosheleva, Jü. Schlumbohm; translated from English and German by K. Levinson, translated from French by L. Pimenova (St. Petersburg: 2004), “Modern Trends in the Historical Science: the series of translations”, Vol. 2. – 13 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Snezhana Kovrigina. Everyday Life of Children and Teenagers in the Angara Region in 1945-1953 2. A.V. Shalakh. Population’s Social Problems of Eastern Siberia: (1940s-1950s): scientific issue – Irkutsk: ISEA, 2000. 3. Archives of the Research Laboratory of Humanitarian Research of the Bratsk State University. Fund (F.) 2. Inventory (Inv.) 1. Document (D.) 2. Interview with A.V. Moskovskih. 4. Cultural Building in Irkutskaya oblast’ (1917-1967): collection of documents/ edited by A.P. 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D. 259. 25. Angarsky Kolkhoznik, the local newspaper – 7th November, 1945. 26. Yu. A. Petrushin. The Land of Kunduy. Historical Sketch. – Irkutsk: Ottisk Press. 2006. 27. Archive Agency of Administration of Krasnoyarsky Kray F. R-1300. Inv. 2. D. 2182. Kolkhoznik, the local newspaper – 6th April, 1951. 28. State Archives of the Newest History of Irkutskaya oblast’ F. 185. Inv. 9. D. 202. 29. Archives of the Research Laboratory of Humanitarian Research of the Bratsk State University F. 2. Inv. 1. D. 2. Interview with Z.V. Ivanova. 30. Archives of the Research Laboratory of Humanitarian Research of the Bratsk State University F. 10. Inv. 1. D. 1. Interview with T.E. Mikhaleva. 31. Archive Agency of Administration of Krasnoyarsky Kray F. p-19. Inv. 1. D. 405. – 14 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Snezhana Kovrigina. Everyday Life of Children and Teenagers in the Angara Region in 1945-1953 32. Archives of the Research Laboratory of Humanitarian Research of the Bratsk State University F. 2. Inv. 1. D. 3. 33. State Archives of the Newest History of Irkutskaya oblast’ F. 185. Inv. 9. D. 199. 34. L.E. Vasiljeva. Woman’s role in the socio-economic and political spheres of life of the soviet society 1945-1965: dissertation of the Candidate of History. – Saratov, 2004. 35. State Archives of the Newest History of Irkutskaya oblast’ F. 185. Inv. 9. D. 549. 36. State Archives of the Newest History of Irkutskaya oblast’ F. 1108. Inv. 3. D. 51. 37. Yu. A. Petrushin. The Land of Kunduy. Historical Sketch. – Irkutsk: Ottisk Press. 2006. 38. State Archives of the Newest History of Irkutskaya oblast’ F. 1108. Inv. 3. D. 51. L. 19.; F. 127. Inv. 30. D. 62. 39. S.K. Plushenkov. Where it is, comes from, the Taiga Land of Chuna. – Irkutsk: V.M. Posohin Irkutsk Regional Publishing House № 1, 2003. p. 107.; State Archives of the Newest History of Irkutskaya oblast’ F. 185. Inv. 9. D. 549. 40. 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Inv. 3.D. 51. 50. Yu. A. Petrushin. The Land of Kunduy. Historical Sketch. – Irkutsk: Ottisk Press. 2006. 51. Kolkhoznik, the local newspaper – 18th May, 1951. 52. State Archives of the Russian Federation (SARF) F. A-2306. Inv. 71. D. 927. L. 14. 53. Archives of the Research Laboratory of Humanitarian Research of the Bratsk State University. F.2. Inv.1. D.2. Interview with I.M. Moskovskih. 54. State Archives of the Newest History of Irkutskaya oblast’ F. 185. Inv. 9. D. 549. L. 26, 29. F. 185. L. 9. D. 289. 55. State Archives of the Newest History of Irkutskaya oblast’ F. 1108. Inv. 3. D. 51. 56. State Archives of the Newest History of Irkutskaya oblast' F. 185. Inv. 1. D. 382. 57. State Archives of Irkutskaya oblast' F. R-2679. Inv. 14. D. 1а. 58. Archives of the Research Laboratory of Humanitarian Research of the Bratsk State University. F. 1. Inv. 2. D. 1. Interview with M.I. Kulakova. 59. Archives of the Research Laboratory of Humanitarian Research of the Bratsk State University. F. 3. Inv. 2. D. 1. Interview with S.P. Kosolapov. 60. Archives of the Research Laboratory of Humanitarian Research of the Bratsk State University. F.1. Inv.2. D.1. Interview with I.I. Rukosujev. – 15 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Snezhana Kovrigina. Everyday Life of Children and Teenagers in the Angara Region in 1945-1953 61. State Archives of the Newest History of Irkutskaya oblast’ F. 185. Inv. 1. D. 381. 62. Archives of the Research Laboratory of Humanitarian Research of the Bratsk State F. 1. Inv. 9. D. 1. Interview with N.P. Panova. 63. Archives of the Research Laboratory of Humanitarian Research of the Bratsk State F. 1. Inv. 11. D. 1. Interview with M.P. Afonina. 64. Archives of the Research Laboratory of Humanitarian Research of the Bratsk State F. 1 Inv. 11. D. 1. Interview with N.V. Bruhanova. 65. Archives of the Research Laboratory of Humanitarian Research of the Bratsk State F. 10. Inv. 1. D. 1. Interview with T.E. Mihaleva. 66. Archives of the Research Laboratory of Humanitarian Research of the Bratsk State F. 1. Inv. 11. D. 1. Interview with M.I. Porfirova. 67. Krasnoyarsky Rabochy, the local newspaper – 30th January 1946. 68. Archives of the Research Laboratory of Humanitarian Research of the Bratsk State F. 1. Inv. 11. D. 1. Interview with S.M. Kosolapov. University. University. University. University. University. University. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2009 2) 17-22 ~~~ УДК 7.01 Problem of Synthesis of the Main Definitions of Culture Daniil V. Pivovarov* Urals State University, 51 Lenin st., Ekaterinburg, 620083 Russia 1 Received 24.02.2009, received in revised form 03.03.2009, accepted 10.03.2009 Axiological, operational and semiotical definitions of culture are exposed to the critical analysis. Stages of evolution of concept of culture and basic changes of its sense are discussed. The author formulates his synthetic definition: the culture is such a side of a human life which deals with creation of ideals. The three-level structure of cultural science is offered. Keywords: culture, cultivation, cult, ideal, process of manufacture of ideals, sacral basic ideals. There are three main sights at the nature of culture in modern philosophy – axiological, operational and semiotical. In general sense distinction between these three sights is based on identification of culture whether with a special thing (useful subjects, values), whether with specific property (actions and operations), whether with a version of the attitude (reflection, information). The axiological a p p r o a c h is developed in two variants: 1) there is a uniform culture of mankind, and it can be imagined in the form of a pyramid of universal values (Peirce, Windelband, etc.); 2) there is no universal culture, and there is a set of the incommensurable cultural-historical systems representing original, closed in and equal in rights systems of values (Dilthey, Toynbee, Weber, etc.). Supporters of the o p e r a t i o n a l a p p r o a c h consider any culture as sociohistorical ensemble of schemes of activity, operations (school of L.S. Vygotskii, E.V. Il’enkov, etc.) – as «a system of * 1 nonbiologically developed mechanisms owing to which activity of people in a society is stimulated, programmed and realized» (E. Markaryan). But when the notion of culture is “evaporated” up to such general concepts, as technological invariant of acts or scheme of activity, then culture theoretically forfeits its spiritual-vital properties. According to the s e m i o t i c a l a p p r o a c h culture is understood as system of information codes (signs and symbols together with their values and senses) – in these codes human experience is packed; codes broadcast programmes of behaviour, dialogue and activity; with their help the behaviour of present and future generations is programmed and adjusted (Y.A. Lotman, etc.). The specified approaches, undoubtedly, are lawful. Each of them in own way describes this or that feature of the basis of a real culture. And still the reduction of the basis of culture or only to “thing”, or exclusively to “property”, or to only one “attitude” is excessive simplification and contradicts requirements of philosophical Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved – 17 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Daniil V. Pivovarov. Problem of Synthesis of the Main Definitions of Culture dialectics. The gene of culture, as well as any fragment of social life, should be understood comprehensively, namely as unity of a thing, its properties and attitudes. On the other hand, in each of the named unilateral approaches the logic mistake of «too wide definition» is accomplished: the culture is erected or to the sum: 1) everyone, but not a special sort of values; 2) any, but not certain sort of actions and operations; 3) any, but not unique information codes. All these three named above approaches are forged by convincing examples of existence of “uncivilized” values, “uncivilized” schemes of action and “uncivilized” information codes. Here I, say, have looked at my personal computer and have immediately thought up three “denying” examples: 1) intuitively do not carry to values of culture axiological installation of the “serial” hacker starting in our personal computers viruses-murderers; 2) it is possible to hammer in nails with a help of the system block of the personal computer, but we shall confidently rank such perverted scheme of action as “anticulture”; 3) at failures of the software of the personal computer it is capable to make weight of the crazy information codes which are not having for the user absolutely any «cultural sense». Hence, the logic demands to limit logic volumes of concepts of value, operation and a code when them apply at definition of a phenomenon of culture. In the domestic literature the definition of culture as «measure of realization of intrinsic forces of the person» (L.N. Kogan) uses demand also. It is easy to notice, that it is exclusively abstract and is not specific. Under it every approach that is opposite to a nature: “artificial”, “activity”, “technics”, “a way of manufacture”, “civilization” and so on. This definition does not consider item the fact of ethnic polyalternativeness and opposition of cultures (really at modern Germans and the Frenchmen so different «measures of realization of intrinsic forces of the person», so far as speak about striking differences of German culture from French?), neither their sacral beginning, nor their is emotional-sensual fabric. About all “artificial” (metanatural) to speak, that it is culture – means to reduce the term to absurdity and to deprive with its function to be the effective tool of the philosophical-distinguishing analysis. Whether generalizing synthesis of the main modern concepts of culture in which the culture is possible, first, was defined as unity of three aspects of being (in unity of axiological, operational and semiotical components) and, secondly, was understood as unity not everyones, but only the special values, specific schemes of actions and some versions of information codes? The variant of such synthesis has been offered by the author of given article in 1990th (more in detail about attempt of synthesis of three concepts of Ideele and Ideale [these terms are written here in German] – D.I. Dubrovsky, E.V. Il’enkov and M.A. Lifshits’s models – see: Pivovarov D.V. Problem of the carrier of an ideal image. Sverdlovsk: Urals University Press, 1986). The synthetic concept of interrelation of Culture and Ideale was later concretized by the author (see: Pivovarov D.V. Philosophy of religion. Мoscow: The Academic Project, 2006, section II). The concept of culture, in my opinion, more precisely and more «realistic» to define as a s i d e of hu ma n life refered to creat ion of i d e a l s . This definition is much more narrow, than definitions of culture mentioned above. Such specific value appears in it, as Ideale; manufacture of ideals and worship is interfaced by it to special forms of activity; at last, Ideale, being one of versions of symbols, extremely capaciously packs in itself information codes of comprehensible behaviour. The culture differs from a nature (“not-culture”) that the carrier of culture by all means corresponds with any object (alive or inert, natural or artificial) only via an Ideale. I shall explain the hypothesis. – 18 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Daniil V. Pivovarov. Problem of Synthesis of the Main Definitions of Culture As is known, in ethymological sense the latin term cultura (a participle of future time from a verb colere – to cultivate, esteem) is translated into Russian by words: cultivation, leaving, development, education, formation, reverence. At ancient Greeks and Romans under a cult (latin. cultus) set of ceremonies of reverence of any state, the god or the person with the purpose of reception from them the help was understood. The basic stages of evolution of concept of culture, in my opinion, answer logic of the law of denying of denying – to a principle of a helicoid ascention of the initial thesis A to the antithesis Not-A, and then to dialectic synthesis of A and Not-A. 1. The INITIAL THESIS. Originally, during an epoch of the Middle Ages, culture was meant not as a cult in sense of worship the God or the person, but as a cultivation by a farmer of a field. In those days the term culture designated a special and extremely valuable kind of material activity, namely an agricultural practice. Cultivating ground and throwing grain in it, the grain-grower, similarly to biblical Cain, extracted excessive physical work to a daily bread. All he was attracted to an arable land: tended to ground, with love worshipped to the fertile ground, idolized “ground-mother” feeding him. But sometimes the ground ceased to give birth because of a drought, an exhaustion of the cultivated layer or for other material reasons. Then the worker tore off the look from mothermatter, pointed it into the sky and begged the absolute spiritual forces to help him. The help came sooner or later, and people trusted, that exactly the Sky cured misfortunes of agriculture. The spiritual sense, invisibly and quantitatively, collected in concept of culture as a special kind of physical work. 2. The ANTITHESIS. This opposite – spiritual – sense became obvious. In the maintenance of concept of culture there was a quantum leap – the reference value of the term culture has undergone to dialectic denying, rotation and to removal that was promoted much by Christian church. Reminding people a parable about malicious farmer Cain and kind shepherd Abel, Christian pastors demanded to worship not to matter, but to spirit. In XVIII–XIX centuries in a number of the European countries (it is probable, first of all in Catholic France and Protestant Germany) extends essentially new perusal of the discussed term. So, more habitual began to understand culture as a special kind of spiritual activity, namely as worship the God, as spiritual increase of soul, as formation of mind. Cultural – means, brought up, formed, the aristocrat. Persons of physical work, as a rule, not had decent formation, began to carry to the category of uncivilized people. Agricultural perusal of this term (in sense of an agriculture as «damned work») is has left on a background. The concept of culture has come to Russia from the West already in value of education, and it was associated with finding knowledge-as-light, with reverence of spiritual light. That is why, in opinion of many Russian religious thinkers (S. Bulgakov, P. Florensky, etc.), concept of culture must interface not with initial colere, but with сultus to which the subject of this cult – fire or light – is added (cult + uro more correctly; latin. uro – to burn down with fire). And a peasant in orthodox Russia refers to “christianin”. «Any culture – from a cult », – religious educators like to repeat. Nikolay Roerich has specified communication latin uro with a word ur (ur on a Sanskrit means light, a ray of light, and at Egyptians Rа – the god of the Sun and the Sun). And really, unless not the same root ur in words the city Ur (Abraham is supposed to have lived at Ur), Urartu, Urals Mountains? Roerich suggested to leave from ethymology colere and to translate a word culture in more modern sense – as the sum of words cult and ur, i. е. as worship light. – 19 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Daniil V. Pivovarov. Problem of Synthesis of the Main Definitions of Culture However, very few scientists from domestic experts pay attention to a word ur, adhering to initial and very wide sense of culture as of cultivation (then one of these two words superfluous, and would be in Russian admissible without special losses to replace the term “culturology” with a word “delovedenie”), or being limited to understanding of culture as anonymous cult (“cultology”, “pocklonoslovie”). But if the culture is all the same a cult, a cult of that or whom? On this account our philosophers and culturologists keep mum is more often, recollecting well-known Wittgenstein’s maxima («about what you can not tell, about that store silence»). 3. SYNTHESIS. On a background of secularization and atheistic aversion of a theme of spirit and soul there is a radical revision of concept of culture in a science of XX century. In set of the put forward concepts of culture the general tendency to unite is looked through and considerably to generalize the last representations about culture as, on the one hand, special spiritual activity, and with another – as specific material activity. As a result to the most influential today became extremely abstract treatment of culture as all sum of forms of human activity in general. From here, we see allocation of independent kinds of cultures – spiritual cultures and material cultures. The first is defined as the sum of any intellectual operations upon any sort of conceivable objects. The second is treated as set of any schemes of practical actions with any material things. The technocratic abstraction which has eliminated former sights at culture as on special kinds of activity, described above, has won. It is not necessary to consider the specified abstraction as the casual misunderstanding occuring from malicious intention of certain influential culturologists, borrowed an antichristian position. I consider, that it has arisen as the natural tendency of synthesis of strong and mutually exclusive alternatives. In this plan it is not a subject to the indignant condemnation, and it is necessary to understand without emotions the objective reasons of its intellectual victory in XX–XXI centuries However it is necessary to go further, considering two circumstances. First, the known principle says, that any radical action sooner or later will undergo to adequate counteraction; the suppressed qualities anyhow are restored and, in turn, remove developed “state of affairs”. Secondly, in connection with vigorous differentiation of modern culturologic knowledge (in conditions of postmodernist boom) the need for its integration objectively amplifies. Clearly, that speech goes first of all about necessity to rethink essentially the limiting bases of culturology and about a problem of synthesis of the basic modern definitions of culture. Clearly also, that those experts who do not consider or simply do not understand dialectics of differentiation and integration, will declare by all means, that the problem designated by the author is not so actual and it is not necessary to be engaged in it. Well, let them also not to be engaged in it and to remain at the settled opinion. It is their legitimate right. But let us return to a theme of a parity among Ur and Ideale. Ur and an ideal, certainly, are not the same, but there is much the general between them. German language seizes distinction between a way of existence of any idea (Ideelle) and a character of existence of an ideal – as especially valuable idea, light-carrier factor and representative of sorts (groups) of things (Ideale). Gegel understood under Ideelle: a) any virtual existence, stay of subjects inside of hidden essence in the form of opportunities; b) insertion and representation of other-being inside of selfbeing; c) acknowledgement of supersensual properties with which the consciousness allocates – 20 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Daniil V. Pivovarov. Problem of Synthesis of the Main Definitions of Culture some reality. Under Ideale the German thinker meant the perfect display of non-material essence in some material phenomenon seldom meeting in an external world having character of an aesthetic subject (the visible essence, heard essence, the sensual manifestation of idea). On Gegel, Ideale is a concentration of a highlighted essence and a transparent window in the thin world usually hidden from a direct look. People master classes of things and processes through ideals, and Ideale carries out a role of the luminary of a special sort. Somewhat Ideale is a version of ur (light). Then, specifying in language of secular philosophy a definition of concept of culture (as «cult of light»), it is possible to define culture as i d e a l - c r e a t i n g p a r t o f l i f e . The concept “creation of ideals” has many sides. Spiritual, sincere, intellectual and material-practical components are also included into it. This concept assumes the correspondence between faith, emotions and technology in the creed of a person. It focuses the philosopher on vision not so much a culture in general, how on many sets of separate cultures in their historical and actual opposition. As any sign or a symbol, Ideale has a corporal cover and supersensual meaning. Therefore the culture as ideal-creating side of a human life is wrongful for dividing on certain ostensibly separately existing «material culture» and «spiritual culture». Unlike a usual sign, Ideale is valuable not only due to its intellectual meaning, but also to its corporal embodiment. Owing to such duality the culture dialectically is and not a sensual reality; that is why it is eternally mysterious for the extraneous observer. To comprehend and go through it more or less its carrier must be able to switch from admiration of a corporal covers of ideals to its supersensual spiritual value. To a foreign person who is getting acquainted his mother’s culture, he sees strange culture in fallen asleep material forms – more often as certain symbolical bodies, system of idols. As the distinctive attribute of any culture, ideal-creative process is a process of : a) preservation and change of samples of reproduction of a specific public life esteemed for ideals in its all measurements; b) painful parting with the ideals ceasing life-givingly to influence a gain of culture. Ideals are invented not only in global societies and civilizations, but are made also by separate people, social groups and individuals. Therefore it is lawful to speak not only about culture of a society or people, but also about unique culture of a person, individual man. Sacralized system of base ideals forms a kernel of religion and economy, and system of culture (almost as in I. Lakatos’s model of scientific-research programme) consists from this «firm kernel» and «a protective belt». The scheme of culture can be drawn also in the form of a pyramid: the basis consists of religious and economic ideals, between which there occur mutual reflections and contradictions; the top gets married such ideals, as the standard of meter, masterpieces of culinary art, norm of recalculation of a rate of exchange of money and so on. The whole culture, from this point of view, does not happen neither cleanly religious, nor cleanly secular, but to some extent contains religious and secular components inside of itself. The concept of creation of ideals as a complex and long process means the dramatic conflict of culture and anticulture, the contradiction between tendencies of creation of alternative ideals. Knowledge of properties and laws, related to creation of ideals, I hope, will allow to explain more deeply a birth, blossoming and destruction of individual, national and world cultures, to understand the reasons of an attraction and pushing away of coexisting cultures, to trace interaction of sacral basis and a secular – 21 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Daniil V. Pivovarov. Problem of Synthesis of the Main Definitions of Culture superstructure in system of culture. In a view of the offered approach philosophical representation about «the general education of the person» is important for coordinating to concept «native culture»: the general education is immersing the person in base ideals of native culture and mastering of these ideals by it. By way of addition to the above-stated I shall state a reason about improvement of structure of the academic cultural science. I suggest to allocate (proceeding from logic «the general – especial – separate») three basic levels of culturology as a culture – as the ideological kernel of culturonomy – consists from ontology of culture, epistemology of culture and axiology (or praxiology) of culture. The periphery is formed with the major general scientific and specially-scientific methods of research of a phenomenon of culture. The second section – culturometria (in Russian – культурометрия). Various measurements of culture (ethnologic, religious, economic, technical, political, psychological and so forth) are compared in it The third level of cultural science – scientific and a subject matter. It is logical to name the first, methodological, section culturonomy (in Russian – культурономия; the Greek term nomos means law). Philosophy of culturography (in Russian – культурография). It represents, first, a statement of history of concrete cultures, secondly, the description of modern cultures in their interactions and contradictions. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2009 2) 23-30 ~~~ УДК 75 Nikolaj Rybakov: «… Between the Abyss and the Heaven» Tatiana M. Lomanova* Siberian Federal University, 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 24.02.2009, received in revised form 03.03.2009, accepted 10.03.2009 The article is devoted to the work of Nikolaj Rybakov, one of the most well-known painters of presentday Siberia. A brief outline of his life and work is given; the main stages of his creative development are observed; the main themes of his oeuvre and specificities of his creative method are considered. Keywords: Nikolaj Rybakov, Siberia, Siberian painting. Nikolaj Rybakov takes the leading position in the modern art of Siberia; his works embellish museums and private collections in many countries of the world, his canvases never fail to impress by their inwardness. Being dissimilar in his creative work to most of his brothers of the brush, Rybakov has found his own picturesque, his own self-expression from his youth, but still staying integral, ambiguous, not being read up to the end, and that is why exciting, making gaze into his mysterious world again and again. At first, his graphic series, and then, canvases appeared for the first time at the exhibitions in the end of 1970-s – in the beginning of 1980-s, and they immediately became the subject of temperamental disputes, of passionate acknowledgment or explicit antagonism. But the time was passing by and inner depth of Rybakov’s images reveled itself in an every new cycle of canvases; some incomprehensibility of his depictive language, his strong conviction in the correctness of the chosen way, his vivid artistic talent fascinated more and more. * 1 For a long time, the main personage of his creative work has been an archaic Asia. From his youth, Rybakov has found his own world of modern inhabitants of the steppe South, he has seen the connection of the settled scheme of their life with ancient Siberian camping-grounds, he has revealed for himself an unknown pagan Siberia through the meeting with this world. The master’s works of 1970-s-1980-s are actually threaded by the themes of ancient campinggrounds, images of Nomads. Whatever plotassociative compositions, landscapes, still-life paintings, themes, genres, and kinds of art the painter has addressed, Asia has been included into all the oeuvre of the artist. There is no simply ancientry in the works of Nikolaj Rybakov, but there is exactly Siberian ancientry with its epic millenarian history, full of dramas. The artist has seen, heard, felt with all his heart tabernacles of Huns, and herds of Scythian horses, and the clanking of chains of protopope Avvakum, rushed by Siberian roads and the painter has sloped over all these onto his expressive canvases. Landscape Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved – 23 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» N. Rybakov The Meeting. 2007 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» N. Rybakov The Orange Beam. 2007 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatiana M. Lomanova. Nikolaj Rybakov: «… Between the Abyss and the Heaven» paintings of Rybakov are also ingrained by this rich content. The landscape painting of a concrete place is not important for the artist, but associations, having been caused by this place, are of big value. The painter says, that he «constructs the landscape as if a still-life», i.e. as if some temporary phenomenon, reflecting his imaginary authorial world. In the course of time the boarders of his interests have been broadening and he has included into his canvases not only Siberian immeasurable vastitude, but also Tibet and central Asia. If ethnography and antiquity took some place in his cycles in the beginning of his creative work, though there were never documentary facts, but since 1990-s his Asian cycles have been already filled by more generalized symbols out of space and time. The author does not narrate about some concrete events. Factual events are just an original basis for the painter; they are causing vivid generalized images. Basing on a concrete episode, sometimes quite insignificant, the painter passes over to panhuman considerations. In his oeuvre reminiscences of his childhood and intuitive context-rich historicity have successfully merged together in one whole, when a small impulse is enough in order the creative thought gives birth to magnificent, spiritual, multitudinary canvases. In painter’s metaphoric works, full of dramatics and expression, the author contemplates over the ways of mankind, over indissolubility of spiritual connection with one’s ancestors, fulfilling his creative work with content-rich symbols and ascending over the commonness. His magnificent and tragic personages live in their own world, not seeing us and being plunged into far worlds of may be past or may be future … The grandeur and generality of the theme requires a special depictive language, and the author has found it in the convention of images. The plots of his works are quite mysterious, possessing that very degree of uncertainty, that makes the spectators find associations, empathize, think. There is always a cover of secrecy in all the works of Nikolaj Rybakov. One can read deeply hidden sadness even in the most clear and full-of-life works, such as, for example, the canvases from the cycle «The blossoming», or polychromic, wonderfully picturesque still-life paintings, having been made particularly a lot by the artist in recent years. It is not the universal sadness about the destinies of humankind, but that very melancholy, which is being disclosed along the cognition of the world order and oneself. «Great is the sadness of mine about the land of my reminiscences», – Nikolaj Rybakov considers these lines from Halil Dzhibran’s poem to be the epigraph to all his oeuvre. The author is always on the verge: of reality and the world of unreal, of the past and the present, of exaltation and sorrow, of the light and shadows. And he has dedicated his new jubilee exhibition to dualistic indissolubility of the light and the dark. Generally, all the creative works of Nikolaj Rybakov are threaded by philosophic thinking, there is always hankering for contemplations. What is man’s assignment on the Earth? Is it, as it was written by Nikolaj Gumilev, in order «to draw one’s spirals between the time and the abysm»? Or does the mankind have a different destination? Or may be the striving to cognate one’s past is the striving to see one’s future? In the oeuvre of Rybakov, pictorial art and graphics intermingle and are almost inseparable from each other. His graphic works are saturated with colour. Alongside with pictorial pieces, he creates a great number of works performed by mixed technique, which, possessing wonderful colour-bearing, and made on the material (paper, cartoon), still belong to graphics. Practically, the approach itself to the representation can be called pictorial art on paper, when the painter is thinking with a help of colour. Precisely the colour, but – 26 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatiana M. Lomanova. Nikolaj Rybakov: «… Between the Abyss and the Heaven» not a stain or a line becomes the main means of expression. His palette is excessively rich. Every so often, his canvases are made on the contrast of a deep «wraparound» background (usually, it is a warm gamma of green, olivaceous, ochre, and brown colours) and clear dynamic sheaves of vivid cold or hot blazing overtones, stains of foreground. The colours are clear, open; possessing amazing working capacity, the painter has created hundreds of canvases and graphic works in the course of his life, but, remaining for ever one, he has never repeated compositional and colorful treatments of his works. The author vividly proves his high professionalism in monochrome graphic pieces as well: magnificent glow of his picturesque canvases has transmitted to his black and white graphic works, which prepossess by their abundance, variety of tonal treatment, glimmering and silveriness, refinement of lines. Striving for maximal image disclosure, Rybakov does not draw a line at the dilemma – pictorial art or graphics, he invents his own authorial technique, whether it is monochromic presentment on the canvas or pictorial painting on the paper. In November, 2007 a jubilee exhibition of pictorial art and graphics of Nikolaj Rybakov, dedicated to 60-th anniversary of the painter, was open in the exhibition halls of the Centre of Artists. The exhibition reflected the searchers of the painter during last years. The exhibition leitmotiv was the artist’s considerations about indissolubility and struggle of two primacies: worldly and celestial, the light and the dark. Many works, being presented to the spectators, were dedicated to this theme: the cycle of canvases «Worldly – celestial», «Black star», «Conservation», «Yellow-brown substance», having been written in the last years. And one more motive, having been attracting the painter over the period of many years, sounded in the exhibition – the motive of chalice. The chalice is an ancient sacral symbol. It is both the vessel of existence, and the chalice of sorrows, and the uniting cup of piece, and there are a lot of other readings of this object, perfect in its natural simplicity, having been created during centuries of mankind existence. Every artist has his own vision of the chalice. Nikolaj Rybakov, admiring its circular flowing shape, has filled the image of the chalice with an inimitable multiformity in his every canvas: now, the chalice, pierced by a burning beam, becomes a torch in the dark, then, it is filled with light from inside, and then, having become almost insensuous, it dissolves in space. The complicated imaginative world, represented in graphic compositions of the jubilee exhibition, never fails to attract attention. Nikolaj Rybakov is wonderfully gifted with a great talent and a grandeur working capacity, but as any talented person, Rybakov is marked by other talents as well, – whatever he touches upon, everywhere there is a stamp of deepness of his knowledge and of his creative ability. His absorption in semantics of ancient petroglyphic drawings in the last decade has brought Nikolaj Rybakov to new creative horizons, it has overgrown his just artistic vision and the process of scientific cognition has captured his attention. Over the period of many years Nikolaj Rybakov has been closely connected to Khakassia, to the Ijussk steppe, where he spends several months annually. These places are called by the painter his «natural-landscape scientificresearch laboratory». The beauty of this land, its gray antiquity, mysterious language of ancient petroglyphic drawings have been giving the artist all these years not only a creative impulse, but have brought to that fact, that Rybakov has been seriously interested in the researchers of Siberian ancient history. He has been extremely excited by the ancient monuments, connected, to his mind, to the traces of Manichaeanism on the territory of the – 27 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» N. Rybakov The Nature. 2003 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» N. Rybakov The Spring. 2007 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatiana M. Lomanova. Nikolaj Rybakov: «… Between the Abyss and the Heaven» South Siberia. This ancient religion, being dead for us, left, as Rybakov considers, some interesting evidence of its being in Khakass-Minusinsk basin. The interest to this almost unstudied theme has captured his attention so much, that Nikolaj Iosifovich has been studying this material deeply and absorbedly: he has been spending hours in the libraries, searching (and finding!) new monuments, and writing articles. He has published 12 articles related to Manichaeanism in Siberia in scientific digests. He is plunging deeper and deeper into scientific work, becoming a true researcher of ancient Siberia. Nikolaj Rybakov is also seriously interested in artistic photography. Not that one photography, which can be observed in abundance at various exhibitions in the result of high-technologies’ widespread. His black and white artistic photography is a continuation of his artistic creativity. There is no any concrete plot here as well, as in his pictorial works and graphics, the same search for the utmost visualization, the striving to capture the imperceptible. He does for everything: creation, scientific researches, publications, tours, and expeditions – the fantastic working capacity of Nikolaj Rybakov is simply amazing. He has organized dozens of personal exhibitions all over the country and abroad, has been done a whole row of publication projects. One more quality of Rybakov is also recognized – his constant will to help, to support, give a hand to somebody. It is of special value in our aggressive time. So, thus, Nikolaj Iosifovich Rybakov, a corresponding member of the Petrovsk Academy of Arts and Sciences, a brilliant painter, an absorbed researcher, being thoughtful and full of most various conceptions, celebrates his 60-th anniversary. The consummate play with a flat surface of the list, with a stain, flaming auroras of silvery glimmering of lines, deep gaps of black bring into the list something harassing, exciting, making come back again and again. We suppose that, it is for the first time, when Nikolaj Rybakov has presented a significant series of his works of minor size, performed by wax paints over watercolors. In these works the painter addresses the same panhuman themes, threading all over his oeuvre. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2009 2) 31-55 ~~~ УДК 008 Truth as a Form of Modelling of Integrity at Social Being Level Alexandra A. Semenova and Natalia P. Koptzeva* Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 24.02.2009, received in revised form 03.03.2009, accepted 10.03.2009 This article is about the problem of formation and existence of the social integrity. There is to be named the factors of the formation of social integrity. The ideological basis of the social integrity is underlined like the main factor for this formation. There is the review and analytic research of the historical forms of religious and philosophic models of integrity at social being level. Historical period of 15th and 16th of Old Russia is researched more detailed like the example of socio-centrism model in historical development. Keywords: cultural science; social cultural science; society; socio-centrism; socio-centrical religiousness; social integrity; factors of formation of social integrity; religious models of social integrity; philosophic models of social integrity; the old russia in 15th and 16th centuries; the moscow russian in 15th and 16th centuries; national self-identification; the heretical ideas of the 15th and the 16th centuries of Old Russia; the heresy of the Judaizers; Iosif Volotzkyi; the concept of the absolute monarchy; autocracy; tsar Ivan the Terrible. POINT Specificities of modelling of integrity at social being level First of all, it is necessary to mention that the contraposition of individual and social being is rather relative. An individual is directly and organically included in society as integrity of a larger scale. Individual self-being out of that inclusion is not absolute and complete. An individual and society supplement each other, and, as the parts of each other, they give the meaning of existence. At the same time, both of these integrities, society and an individual, are to be theoretically and practically considered as some independent formations with their own specificity * 1 and special laws of modelling of integrity. The main question is how some creatures as atoms turn into society, what the base, the content and, perhaps, the aim of that integrity are. As is well known, there are two main points of view at the conditions of social integrity. According to the first point of view, society is an arena of incessant conflicts of the social groups separated according to their economic, political and ideological interests. The supporters of that conception maintain the idea that the social unity is fictitiously ephemeral, and theoretically to substantiate that unity as something real means hypocrisy, which conceals the purport of screening the dictatorial attitudes of one social Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved – 31 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexandra A. Semenova and Natalia P. Koptzeva. Truth as a Form of Modelling of Integrity at Social Being Level group to the others. But they also believe that the social unity and integrity is a perspective object of its being, which, after all, is to be achieved by the efforts of some concrete social groups, the interests of which coincide with the interests of society as a whole. The other conception is based on the fact that the bright contrasts and contradictions in society do not prevent from consideration of society as a real, but not a nominal integrity with its objectively common interests, and that it is possible to take some stabilizing steps with the appropriate technologies, which are to bring to the compromise between the opposite forces, permanently and dynamically re-producing society as a complete whole. The conception is also based on the systematic approach suggesting the consideration of society as integrity, which consists of the parts connected with each other, and, as the result, some integral qualities appear that characterize the integrity, but not its parts. First and foremost, we are interested in the reflective and spiritual processes, inside which the social unity is formed as a way to the Absolute, the forms of which society seeks and finds inside itself. According to the conception of D.V. Pivovarov, where it is mentioned of the socialcentric religions, which the searcher defines as «… the search of the humankind or some part of society for the omni-unity of all its essential forces and realization of the searched spiritual unity in a selected sacred object… The archetype of counciliarity (sobornost), essential for the life of society, gradually fades away. So the main aim of the social-centric religions is to restore the lost social unity» (Contemporary philosophic dictionary, 1998). Let us consider the situation of the lost social unity. It appears quite objectively as the real society exists only owing to real empirically separated individuals with different interests, aims and purports of their actions, as it’s been already mentioned. In that sense, social life really seems to be a sum of different wills, separated “Ego” to whom every other individual seems to be “Non-Ego”. Then the process of interrelation of separated individuals is casual collisions when the sides comes to some agreement, which, nevertheless, doesn’t have any constant significance and is not essential for the both of the sides. Secondly, objective necessity makes individuals consciously seek for consolidation in order to survive, and the whole is formed by the way of external submission to the leading common will. It is the question of phenomena of power and law not only in the state, but also in any other social community, including family and other kinds of union between people. In that case, the principle of mutual restriction is in force: the leading common will of the whole restricts spontaneous displaying of wills of separated individuals, who, in their turn, seek to realize their individual rights by restriction of the will of the whole. It’s quite obviously that forced or mechanical synthesis of separated individuals in some integrity cannot last long. There is a necessity for the inner striving of every separated creature for the unity with those ones similar to him, it is necessary to understand that the sought unity with other individuals is an indispensable condition for achievement of its individual integrity. So it is also necessary that those separated individuals might want to act in such a way their actions could bring to their integrity. It requires some special force, energy and infectiousness that could make up the intuition or consciousness of solidarity of individuals with each other. Of course, that energy eventually turns into some other forms and gradually expires, and that leads to society’s suffering from rupture between its different parts, including separated individuals. The word “suffering” hasn’t been used by accident: to our mind, if the integrity can be restored, that means – 32 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexandra A. Semenova and Natalia P. Koptzeva. Truth as a Form of Modelling of Integrity at Social Being Level it hasn’t been completely destroyed. Moreover, there is a fundamental base of human being that makes the unity of all separated individuals be possible. The contradictions as essential moments of society’s development are of importance only because they always have a common field of their appearance and conflicting interrelations. In our opinion, the conception of threespheres of social organism going back to Rudolf Steiner’s (Steiner, 1992) (Fig. 1) theory is especially fruitful for elaboration of this research question. Let us formulate its principal propositions. In every society as integrity it is possible to distinguish three basic elements of its structure which form the system of social unity. First and foremost, it’s an economic sphere connected with everything concerning industry, consumption and exchange of goods. In Russian research literature that sphere of society’s life has been analyzed completely and comprehensively in a number of social sciences and humanities, including social philosophy, economics, politics, etc. The second sphere of social life is politics and law, including political life, legal and public relations. If economics deals with everything people need, with the products of nature and industry they consume, and also with goods, commodity circulation and consumption, the second sphere is connected with human relations coming merely from the bases of human nature. To our mind, it is extremely important to emphasize a relative independence of these two spheres or, at least, fix the necessity of this independence for the normal functions of a civil state. To be sure, all people dealing with economy have feeling for law and order at the same time. But a civil state must have its own administrative and legislative institutions based on some other principles than those ones, which come from economic life of society. Just owing to the functional division of the both of these spheres of activities, each of Fig. 1. Rudolf Steiner - austrien philosopher-mystic (1861 - 1925) them gets chance to have a necessary influence on the activities of each other. In those cases when a civil state becomes an economic organization, it loses its capacity of regulation of people’s legal life. In such a case its measures and institutions become means of satisfaction of commodity-consumption interests and thus drive off the impulses directed to the legal life. That is not the question of exchange of commodities. It is a necessary moment of the modern social organism based on the division of labour, but the question is that the exchange of a right for commodity makes a right to be commodity, for a right appears inside economic life here. That transformation of a right into commodity is possible to be prevented only in the case of creating of two kinds of institution in the society: on the one hand, those are the institutions with the aim of expedient organization of commodity circulation, and, on the other – 33 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexandra A. Semenova and Natalia P. Koptzeva. Truth as a Form of Modelling of Integrity at Social Being Level hand, the institutions regulating the rights of the participants of turnover, producers, dealers, and consumers. The division of economic and legal organization of society is one of the main problems of the contemporary society’s condition. But that interesting problem is out of our analysis here. Most of all we are interested in the third sphere of the social organism. The third sphere has the same relative independence like the other two ones mentioned above. The third sphere includes everything concerned with the spiritual life. To be more precise, it suggests everything based on individual abilities and everything that is to be included in the social organism exactly on that basis coming from an individual. Everything happening in the economic and legal spheres of the society is under the forces of the third source – individual personal talents of some individuals. That sphere covers all people deeds serving for the social unity from the highest spiritual achievements to the simplest kinds of manual work done according to some concrete physical abilities of an individual. Everything happening in this sphere is included in the social organism by the perfect way of organization different from the ways of organization of commodity-economic and state-legal relations. If some kind of human activity coming from the individual abilities of a person is under unnatural influence of economic life or state organization, that kind of activity considerably loses its true base of existence. Only the power originating from the spiritual activity can be the base. For the strong development of spiritual life also variously connected with the development of all the other individual human abilities (economic and political and legal), it is necessary that the spiritual life in its creative work should be left to its own impulses and, in its turn, could find co-authorship of those people who are able to comprehend it. Normal existence of society is possible only in the case of inclusion of an individual in the social organism following the impulses coming from the spiritual life. In its turn, it is necessary the spiritual life to be distinguished as a special reality with its own autonomous content beyond the material life. Everything is brought together in the sphere of spiritual life: art, science, religion, world outlook, and all the things connected with it. Nevertheless, it is possible to descry the main stem able to organize not only the spiritual life of society but also give energy to the whole society in all its three spheres. The question is of the desire for the lost unity, which is fixed in the idea «aspiration for the Absolute», where the Absolute takes the shape of the united and cemented society and where «Ego» of an individual derives its strength from social «We». That’s quite obvious, the problem of the society’s unity takes place when that unity is lost or when the radical need of its restoration is realized. When that urgent objective necessity of restoration of the lost unity springs up, the function of that restoration is undertaken by different social subjects who are to create a new content of infectiousness and energy supplying individuals’ inner aspiration for the social integrity. Separate individuals, social groups, special organizations, etc., can be such subjects. This analysis reveals importance not in a type of social object, which takes upon itself the aim of restoration of the social unity, but in the happening spiritual processes. First and foremost, it is the question of the religious and philosophical models of those processes with which society creates or reproduces itself as the integral whole. Specificities of the religious way of modelling of integrity at social being level On the one hand, there are various religious models of social integrity arising inside some religious theory: Christian socialism, idea of the society of «great unity» in Confucianism, etc. – 34 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexandra A. Semenova and Natalia P. Koptzeva. Truth as a Form of Modelling of Integrity at Social Being Level On the other hand, we can speak about religious experience as modelling of social integrity. First and foremost, the second line is to be considered in the research where religion takes a special form of socio-centric religion (D.V. Pivivorov’s concept). Firstly, that allows to broaden the conception of essence of religion including all those religious forms, which up to now has not been usual to be considered from the point of view of their religious characteristics (cult of personality, cult of state, and cult of nation) and, secondly, that also allows to comprehend these religious forms not as something negative destroying society but, on the contrary, as something necessary, which unites society in its wholeness giving impulses for the existence of all its spheres in their unity and independence at the same time. We choose a way of spiritual modelling of social integrity by selecting religion and philosophy as the models of social unity. According to D.V. Pivovarov’s conception, society’s spiritual unity is compulsory embodied in a certain sacred object. A personality of a ruler, nation, state, and political system can become that object. To be sure, the question is of the society’s static condition while its dynamics requires a special analysis beside this research work. Let us try to consider the way of choosing of a sacred object uniting society in its integral whole. Can that integrity be personified by the territory, which a certain society occupies? No, it cannot, as the frontiers of a territory always change and serve as an object of international disagreements. The unity of society consisting of living individuals requires obviously personified unity with strong-willed and spiritual traits like the best representatives of that society; it means that it is more natural that society is often personified by an individual, a living subject. It is connected with the spiritual object’s necessity of sensitively concrete living form, shape and image embodied in a living person. Personification of society’s unity by a living individual undoubtedly has religious nature when state power is taken as something sacred giving its personificator the supreme rank of social hierarchy. Religious perception of individual power of a ruler is to be observed in the history of the mankind and in very different cultures for thousands of years. A ruler, personifying the unity of society, is a mediator between a society and the Absolute and a bearer bringing multitude to unity and also bringing society in the world of the Absolute with the unity as its indispensable attribute. Personification of society’s unity by an individual ruler is based on the confidence in a special link between a ruler and the Absolute, which a common man does not have. That connection makes a ruler to be a bearer of the absolute source and demands him to be an actual personification of the absoluteness in the real society’s life. That’s why in the early ages of the mankind’s history a ruler was to be worshiped not only as personification of the state power but also as the embodied Absolute. Being connected with the Absolute with a very special link, he was the first and supreme celebrant, the only mediator between people and the Absolute. An ancient ruler of the East was always worshiped as God. The Ancient Rome also had the evolution of deification of a ruler. Even having adopted Christianity, Emperor Constantine didn’t decline the title of the supreme sacrificer of the Roman Empire for the sacrificer symbolically was present at each religious ceremony held in the territory of the State and, as a consequence, his presence was spread everywhere. Byzantine Christianity founds a special doctrine of holiness of the emperor’s power based on the emperor’s Chrismation, the ritual held only for the emperor, not for any of his subjects. The kings of the West always had sacerdotal rights and traced their origin to gods. God the Father – 35 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexandra A. Semenova and Natalia P. Koptzeva. Truth as a Form of Modelling of Integrity at Social Being Level was pictured as an emperor in German and as a king in France and England from the 14th century. The idea of tsar’s greatness has the prototype of greatness of God in Joseph Volotzkyi’s philosophy. The examples can be given without end. In any case, one of the forms of cementation of the social integrity can be named the cult of a ruler’s personality as a sacred person connected with the Absolute and thus taking on his own shoulders some special responsibility for that society, videlicet for making special wholeness living according to the Absolute’s laws and connected of the Orthodox conciliar source. Conciliarity is closely connected with the conception of the universal unity brought by Vladimir Solovyov in the Russian philosophy. But the cult of nation as a sacred object centralizing society’s integrity does not appear in the Russian religious philosophy of the 19th and the 20th centuries for the first time. That is one of the most ancient models of re-construction of society’s integrity. We can find it in the ideology of contraposition of the Hellenes and the barbarians in the ancient mind, and the personification of this with the Absolute through the mediation of a ruler’s personality. The second form of a sacred object favouring society’s cementation is the cult of the nation which also has religious content. For example, quoting of Feodor Tyutchev’s quatrain is a commonplace in many public speeches: Russia is baffling to the mind, Not subject to the common measure Her ways – of a peculiar kind… One only can have faith in Russia. (Translated by Avril Pyman) But the first line of the poem is more often and rather ironically accentuated while the analysis of literary form of the poem shows that the main idea the author tried to express is in the end: “One only can have faith in Russia”. Identification of a nation with the sacred object that personifies social integrity is one of the main forms of socio-centric religion. The religious cult of a nation is bound up with the fact that national specificities of the society’s way to the unity with the Absolute are associated with the universal ways, for all this the archetype of the way to the Absolute is a national model, not a universal one. In this connection, the conception of conciliarity (sobornost) is worked out in the Russian philosophy, and the Russian people are to be considered as bearers model is Plato’s “Ideal State”. In the European spiritual culture the developed form of this sociocentric religion can be found in Hegel’s philosophy of history, in his conception of historical and nonhistorical nations, where one or another nation is considered as a bearer of the concrete spirit, the Absolute revealing in time. As Hegel supposes, the Spirit in itself is a meaningless idea and it finds its reality in temporal forms, its substantial nature is history through which freedom of actual being is carried out. A temporal form of the Spirit is a spirit of a united nation: “Individuals belong to it; each individual is a son of his time, and as his state develops, no one is left behind or less he takes the lead over the state. This spiritual essence is the essence of an individual; he is its representative contained in it and coming from it” (Hegel, 1993). The cult of nation as a form of socio-centric religion helps to overcome the gravest crises possible to take place in one or another state. Thus, overcoming the Time of Troubles of the Russian State started approximately in 1611 and it was described by historian V.O. Kluchevskyi as follows: “Moscow State was a sight of complete destruction by the end of 1611… The state was turning into some formless and restless federation. But by the end of 1611, when the political forces had been broken down, RELIGIOUS AND NATIONAL POWERS BEGAN TO BE WOKEN UP, WHICH WERE TO RESCUE THE – 36 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexandra A. Semenova and Natalia P. Koptzeva. Truth as a Form of Modelling of Integrity at Social Being Level DYING COUNTRY” (Novgorodcev, 1991). The expressions “the political forces had been broken down” and “religious and national powers began to be woken up” deserve special consideration in this historical general conclusion. Political forces are different political groups with their own interests while the national interest is able to unite those separate forces in order to save the State and nation. The other impressive historical example is France overcoming the civil war caused by the Revolution of the 18th century. The slogan united the French State by Napoleon Bonaparte was the following: “There is to be no any fractions – the nation is first of all”. As a rule, a civil war, especially prolonged one in the history of the mankind could be got over with the help of centripetal forces, creation of some new sacred objects containing a way of connection of a nation with God, gods and other forms of the Absolute, renovation of that connection in the historical past, and conviction that the connection is the historical mission of that nation. And as a rule, a national form of socio-centric religion is connected with contraposition of a nation and other nations, and that contraposition can have both positive and negative forms. In order the cult of some nation is not to be turned into striving for total destruction of the integrity of other nations, socio-centric religions very often join each other and change for the level of cosmocentric religions, where that nation finds its integrity not only inside itself but also outside in the Universe, the Absolute and Cosmos to which all the other nations and each individual belong. That very combination of the national form of socio-centric and cosmo-centric kinds of religion is seen in the concept “conciliarity”, which was formed and fixed in the Russian philosophy of the 19th and the first third of the 20th centuries. Philosopher L.S. Frank writes proving the substantial quality of the Russian national spirit: Fig. 2 Semen Ludvigovich Frank – Russian philosopher (1877 - 1950) “The Russian spirit is distinct for its aspiration for wholeness, universal and concrete completeness, the last and supreme value and base; because of this aspiration, the Russian mind and spiritual life are religious not only in their essence (for we can assert that any creative work is like that), but religious feeling also penetrates into all external spheres of spiritual life. The Russian spirit, so to say, is religious to the core” (Frank, 1992) (Fig. 2). In this connection, these thinkers consider conciliarity as “the inner harmony of living individual soul and super individual unity” (Frank, 1992). While the national substance of the idea “conciliarity” becomes a universal one in S.L. Frank’s philosophy, philosophers S.N. Bulgakov and P.A. Florenskyi, on the contrary, insist on its special Russian Orthodox religious meaning. Though fascism and racism phenomena of the 20th century locked the positive qualities of a concrete nation’s cult for researchers for a long time, nevertheless on the grounds of the mankind’s history we can see that the national form of socio-centric religion very often has objectively positive meaning by uniting the nation in the periods of civil wars and crises. – 37 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexandra A. Semenova and Natalia P. Koptzeva. Truth as a Form of Modelling of Integrity at Social Being Level Every kind of social life includes religious aspect. That was realized by both the founders of the ancient polis and the Roman Empire and the English thinkers created the theory of the contemporary State. If a society is consciously modeled on the religious base by its individuals, then an individual, having given his best abilities to the society, receives more energy from that society, as he is to be answered by the whole spirituality of the society. As K. Manheim remarked, “the advantage of spiritually rich social model is in the fact that an individual cannot sink below a certain level” (Manheim, 1994). At the same time, there is a danger for an individual in the society, steadily organized according to a certain religious model, to assimilate that model as a habit and custom by refusing from his own will and making empty conventions of some social activities. Then there appears a peculiar “degeneracy” of that form of social integrity, some kind of “tiredness” of the society, which demands concrete efforts for renovation of the principles of integrity. If such efforts are not made by social subjects, the society’s integrity becomes unstable and exposed to destruction. As it’s been mentioned above, society can and sometimes has to turn to one or another form of cosmo-centric religions in order to make or restore social integrity. The example of conscious turning to such form is the adoption of Christianity by Prince Vladimir and so-called “the Baptism of Rus”. The same situation can be observed in the periods of appearance of Islam in the Arabian world or adoption of Buddhism as the State religion in medieval Japan. Therefore, after consideration of the way of modelling of social integrity in some forms of socio-centric religions (all forms are still far from being discovered), it is necessary to explore another aspect of this problem, that is the way of modelling of society’s integrity in cosmo-centric religions. The difference of the models of social integrity based on cosmo-centric religions is connected with different forms of religious experience. 1. Religious experience as personal contact with the Absolute. The question is of mystical experience gained by its adherents, who find the firm belief that there is nothing more true and important for their existence than personal contact with the Absolute. The significance of society for those people is that they serve as transmitters of spiritual and religious experience to the following generations without dependence on any concrete and present conditions. Besides, such bearers of religious experience reveal the sense of secluded existence to society in contrast to the public openness preventing from the deep spiritual life. 2. Religious experience as spiritual communication of people inside one or another community or group. The cementing value of society lies in aspiration of the people with such experience for mutual aid, true comradeship, and group unity based on the spiritual base. Those people believe that such relations has absolute character (there is God in them or they are sanctified by the gods-protectors of various unions), and their activities are quite contrary than those ones of mystics keeping off any forms of the “mundane” contact. 3. Religious experience as conservation of traditional conventions such as dedication of churches, carrying out of certain rites, participation in one or another kind of religious ceremonies. The significance of this kind of religious experience for the integrity of society is in the fact that sometimes conservation of ritual religiosity is much more important than adoption of subtlest ideas and complicated religious doctrines for in such a case a religious impulse can be received in a certain form from outside, the meaning of which can be envisaged and planned. – 38 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexandra A. Semenova and Natalia P. Koptzeva. Truth as a Form of Modelling of Integrity at Social Being Level Most probably, the social integrity does not need in one or another form of religious experience, but its totality is important, which at different moments displays itself either in personal, either in communal or in traditionally ritual forms. Therefore, one of the most important problems of the contemporary social organization is the reflection over what is necessary for the modelling of integrity of this society and which concrete actions are to be undertaken by the social subjects, who are at the sources of conscious modelling of social unity. Specificities of the philosophical way of modelling of integrity at social being level Having defined the content of “truth” concept as modelling of integrity at different levels of human being, i. e. individual, social, and universal ones, we have considered a few forms of that kind of modelling. While approaching to the end of the analysis of the problem of truth in its present forms, it is necessary to consider the philosophical models of reflection over social integrity as one of the ontological forms of truth. The question is of the models of thinking based on the social (collective) foundation. Philosophical formulation of the problem of social integrity takes such a form: “Is truth available to a human personal cognition, and if it is, then is his cognition always personal in itself?” (Trubetzkoy, 1994) (Fig. 3). We have tried to answer to the first part of the question in our previous research-work. As for the second part of the question, since the Reformation period, the European philosophy has been accepting the principle of personal thinking without any proves and independently of its trends. Mysticism of the Modern History foresaw the base of personal thinking in the revelation, rationalism did in the process of logical and rational thinking, and empiricism did in experience. But still there was another line connected with the Ancient Fig. 3 Eugenyi Nikolaevich Trubetzkoy – Russian philosopher (1863 - 1920) philosophy where the individual thinking was associated with the world elements. Thus, Heraclites thought that a man receives the rational source by inhaling the world fire as Logos-fire. Those, who were far from the fire-Logos, became insane and plunged into the world of unconscious. Socrates saw the source of personal mind in the universal mind as well, and Aristotle defined the rational source as universal and catholic. Scholastics and theologians of the Middle Ages proceeded from the imperfection of personal consciousness and gave priority to the conciliar consciousness of Church but they didn’t give meaning to the philosophical comprehension of conciliar nature of consciousness in full measure. The Philosophy of the Modern History based on protestant subjectivism and priority of personal will proclaimed the absolute autonomy of thinking “Ego” as a separate personality but by the middle of the 19th and especially in the 20th centuries the European philosophy including the Russian philosophy more often turns to consideration of trans-subjective forms of consciousness and – 39 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexandra A. Semenova and Natalia P. Koptzeva. Truth as a Form of Modelling of Integrity at Social Being Level way of thinking resting upon the principle of stipulation of the personal consciousness by the living collective consciousness of the mankind. That principle is fixed in different philosophical conceptions from the mentioned concept of inter-subjectivity in E. Gusserl’s philosophy, the conception of conciliar consciousness in the Russian religious philosophy and including the concept of noosphere elaborated in the philosophy of Teyar de Chardin and V.I. Vernandskyi. In any case, all of the arguments of the supporters of priority of the collective history in the history of philosophy. There is no doubt that the serious start of its formulation and argument was made by K. Marx, but his conception of social conditionality of thinking has negative character in many respects as it is based on criticism and disclosure of ideology of certain strata and classes of society. The next stage was F. Nietzhe’s philosophy of life who deduces gnosiology from so-called instincts of the mankind and, in this connection, he uses categories of «aristocratic» and «democratic» cultures understood as a certain model of thinking consciousness of the mankind regarding personal one can be deduced to the following: “…only through acknowledgement of such organic conciliarity of human consciousness we are able to comprehend how it can generally and necessarily cognize reality; it is only then that we can apprehend how people psychologically and logically understand each other and all the things, agree with each other in rational and positive cognition of the objective universal truth independently of any personal consciousness. Just then we can understand possible impeccability of every individual mind through cognition of some universal and indispensable truths at experience and mathematics (and at metaphysics in some other cases)” (Trubetzkoy, 1994). In this connection, we shall use the concept «model of thinking» and consider such models of thinking, which presuppose the possibility of realization of positive unity of society as the most harmonious way of individual and social existence. In this context, the concept «model of thinking» is contently defined as the model by which an individual is implicitly guided in every moment while approaching to comprehension and discovering of one or another object (including himself). There are such models of thinking which can’t be adequately perceived without exposure of their social basis. That principle has its own depending on society. Nietzhe’s philosophy is closely connected with Z. Freud’s explorations, where again human thinking is considered as concealed form of instincts. The most serious researches of social conditionality of models of thinking were carried out by L. Lukach following K. Marx’s strategy and connecting his own theory with criticism of ideology on the whole. Then it should be distinguished M. Scheller’s conception, where man’s essential characteristics were deduced from the «Realm of the Universal Man» and the most necessary aim of the present time is seen in «smoothing» of different (class, cultural, and national) social logics by which the representatives of different social groups are guided. As for the philosophy of our country of the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th centuries, as it’s been mentioned in the analysis of V.S. Solovyov’s philosophy, it is primarily based on the principle of universal unity: that principle means priority of social Sophia (divine wisdom) as an ideal prototype of human creative work for thinking processes including thinking regarding individual thinking. The most important step in the exploration of the social bases of thinking was taken by the founder of the contemporary sociology of knowledge German philosopher K. Manheim (Manheim, 1994). Through guiding by the – 40 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexandra A. Semenova and Natalia P. Koptzeva. Truth as a Form of Modelling of Integrity at Social Being Level basic conclusions of K. Manheim’s sociology of knowledge, there can be asserted that, on the one hand, there is no such metaphysical essence, group spirit cognizing by sublimation over separate individuals whose ideas an individual just reproduces, but, on the other hand, an individual himself just relatively makes the model of thinking that comes from him. Individual thinking can be conceived only in its concrete connection with historical and social situations, that is not people and separate individuals who think. An individual takes part in a certain process of thinking, which existence of intellectual act nor some number of actions taken by the whole society or a social group, moreover the actions is organized in such a way that they bring to achievement of the set aim, and each action has its own special purpose in that process. The actions that might be characterized as phenomena of social rationalism are usually to be calculated and, consequently, can be controlled and organized and also planned. Those types of society with prevalence of inclination for social rationalism are mainly constructed as distinct social hierarchy for social rationalism demands a appeared long before that individual. He “…finds himself in an inherited situation, in a possession of the models of thinking appropriate for the given situation and tries to work out the inherited models of answers or to replace them by the others in order to react to some new challenges as consequences of the transformation of the given situation” (Manheim, 1994). Individuals act together in variously organized groups inside society. Those groups either seek to change the surrounding reality or to preserve it in the present form. Such strivings bring to appearance of thinking of certain groups of people with their own specificities. These models of thinking are to be considered in order to comprehend the fundamental processes bringing to formation of society’s integrity. In order to keep philosophical implication at the research of the models of thinking, let us turn to the following gradation of concepts – «social rationalism» and «social irrationalism». Let us discern the influence of the models of thinking on formation of social integrity after consideration of the contents of these concepts. If rationalism as a style of individual thinking can be defined as existence of a certain intellectual act by which an individual seeks to conceive objectively existing things and events and one way or another achieves his aim, then the concept «social rationalism» means neither special kind of social personality as permanently reflecting individual capable of abstractly thinking and rational adaptation to the most various life phenomena. Such individuals «refusing» simple following the elements of life are very few. Those are the organizers holding the summit of social hierarchy of the society, and if the number of social situations requiring purposeful regulation increases, then the number of elite organizers able to regulate, on the contrary, reduces for much keener intellectual and organization abilities are demanded from them. Hence, reliance on «natural and historical processes» is not enough for cementation of society’s integrity. There is an increase of specialization of social traits and denial of ability to judge of a common member of society and transfer of that ability to elite organizers. In this connection, social integrity is always in danger and demands some special efforts, that’s why it is necessary that one or another brightly expressed form of socio-centric religion is to appear, the specificity of which depends on the nature of cultural time and space of the society’s existence. The content of the idea «social irrationalism» also differs from the concept «individual irrationalism». First of all, it is necessary to remark that social irrationalism is a direct consequence of social rationalism. The society cultivating social rationalism sooner or later organizes itself as a – 41 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexandra A. Semenova and Natalia P. Koptzeva. Truth as a Form of Modelling of Integrity at Social Being Level conglomeration of various social groups taking their definite places in the social hierarchy. A separate individual falls under uncontrolled influence of his unconscious inclinations inside a big social group much easier than an individual isolated from the mass or included in a small stable and traditional group (in a family, for example). Besides, social rationalism brings to the fact that it purposefully organizing social events furthers the supplantation and suppression of a whole range of unconscious processes. Therefore, as a rule, social rationalism and social irrationalism exist together in the society raising antinomies and crises destroying its wholeness. But if the organizing source of social rationalism is evidently and purposefully aimed at social unity, then cementing role of social irrationalism is not so obvious as that one in the age of the Roman Empire when great efforts were made to organize mass activities, through which the unity of society was strengthened on the unconscious level. The necessity of special creation of new forms of socio-centric religions influencing on the collective unconscious in the situations when released irrationality threatens the unity of society is obvious today as never. The society correctly organized organically forms its desires directing them to creation of cultural values or to the simple and pure «joy of life» not destroying its wholeness in disorder. Those are the functions of «sports», «national celebrations», concerts at stadia, etc. Thus, social irrationality is a danger not in itself but in its quality when it takes the leading part in the social activities, which are to be extremely rationalized. First and foremost, the question is of the sphere of political rights and the sphere of government of society. Though, the situation is always extremely contradictory here. If the sphere of government of society outwardly and inwardly represents a correctly organized mechanism, then, on the contrary, there might be expected with fear that sooner or later the supplanted irrational and unconscious source would display itself to the even greater degree of violence and blood the more correctly and organized it is represented at the moment. It is impossible not to remember the mechanistic accuracy of mass violence in German of the 1930s and also other historical facts confirming that theoretical supposition. There appears a necessity to understand if it is possible to preserve social unity just for some time at least or society is always doomed to calamities and ruptures, which sooner or later will destroy both society’s wholeness and that one of the individuals as society’s members. This research is purely theoretical and so it is possible to advance hypotheses about planning of stable and integral society on condition that those stability and integrity are to be constructed not from outside, but from inside, i.e. with a certain style of thinking implicit for the majority of individuals as members of some concrete society. Moreover, it is necessary to broaden the content of «thinking» concept by including visual, audile, sensory and other kinds of thinking (Zhukovskyi et al., 1991). If it is enough to make up a theoretical model on the theoretical stage of elaboration of this problem, then that is not sufficient for social practice and there appears the need in some kinds of social actions carried out consciously and, perhaps, systematically. The problem is not only the government of a state and economy but also special and conscious formation of some social style of thinking at society’s level. Conscious statement of one or another style of thinking consists of planning of vision, audition, sense of touch, sense of smell, taste and their synthesis in integral images producing the expected impulses both from a concrete individual and from social groups and society on the whole. Creative but not destroying character of these impulses producing a certain style of thinking is determined by the – 42 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexandra A. Semenova and Natalia P. Koptzeva. Truth as a Form of Modelling of Integrity at Social Being Level central stem around which they get together, videlicet by the aim for the sake of which both individual and social actions are carried out. The essential nature of that aim is aspiration for something absolute and universal, videlicet aspiration for the unity, which has different individual and social characteristics, i.e. the form of ego-centric and socio-centric religions. Having defined the ontological content of truth as wholeness of being and the content of true being as modelling of that wholeness in individual or social activity by an individual or society, we have given the religious base of various concrete forms of truth and true being through the concept of religion as aspiration of an individual or society for the Absolute and the unity. EXAMPLE The cultural and logical model of socio-centrism of the old Russian state of the 15th and the 16th centuries The stages of development of the ideas of the Old Russian socio-centrism: economic, political and legal, and ideological factors In the first instance, it is necessary to explain why it is possible to consider the selected period of the Russian State of the 15th and the 16th centuries as an example of modelling of integrity at social being level. Let us turn to some historical facts in the history of the Old Russian State. The historical facts emphasize that the process of centralization of the Old Russian State and formation of socio-centrism in Old Russia (Rus) are long processes complicated with the constant inner contradictions at State system level – that is struggle of secular with church powers, and at the Old Russian religiosity level – that is search for the stronghold of the Old Russian State in monasticism or nationality, support of heretical doctrines (as a matter of fact that is support of a certain aspect of the Christian doctrine) or the Orthodox Church, and in the choice of a social model of the State system. Let us retrace the evolution of formation of the centralized Old Russian State from the historical point of view. The process of centralization of the Old Russian State connected with the development of Moscow started in the 16th century. It can be considered that the starting point of development of the centralized Old Russian State is the 16th century when economic and political and legal bases of socio-centric unity were formed. In the 16th century the main political figures in forming of the centralized state are prince Ivan Danilovich Kalita (1325 – 1340), who starts enlarging of the territory of Moscow princedom by purchase of the lands around Moscow and who also gets the right to Vladimir’s Grand Princedom from the Golden Horde’s khans in 1339, and metropolitan Peter (? – 1326), who decides to transfer the metropolitan’s throne to Moscow in 1326. Moreover, the condition of metropolitan’s transfer was building of the Dormition Cathedral in the Kremlin, which metropolitan Peter chose as his burial vault. Henceforth Moscow is selected as the place of repose of the Old Russian metropolitans: «If you listen to me, my son, and raise the temple of the Most Pure Mother of God in this town, you will be glorified more than other princes and so will be your sons, grandsons, and all of your generations, and this town will be celebrated among the other Russian towns. Its enemies will be disgraced and God will be glorified in it; the sainted hierarchs will live, and my bones will also be laid in it» (Metropolitan Peter’s hagiography, bishop Prohor, 1326) (Fig. 4). The military-political and religious struggle for independence of the Tatars and the Golden Horde is of no less importance. Just the 14th century is marked by the significant victory won by the Russian army over the Tatars in 1380. Firstly, Moscow Prince’s victory over – 43 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexandra A. Semenova and Natalia P. Koptzeva. Truth as a Form of Modelling of Integrity at Social Being Level Fig. 4. Icon. Mitropolitan Peter with hagiography. Dionisyi. XVI century the Tatars fortifies the position of Moscow as a centre uniting Russian people. Secondly, it is interesting to note the fact that relatively peaceful coexistence of the Old Russian princes and khans of the Golden Horde (contractual relations) turned into victorious struggle of the Russian princes in that period when the Golden Horde was planning to adopt Islam as the basic religion, what demonstrates that the antagonism between the Russians and the Tatars had not only political and economic base, but also religious opposition. The Byzantine Empire’s fall in 1453 was the main event of the development of the centralized Old Russian State in the 15th century, and after that Old Russia became the only big orthodox state in the world. Byzantium was the legislator of religious «modus vivendi» for Old Russia from the moment of adoption of Christianity by Old Russia: Byzantium appointed the Russian metropolitans and gave the archetypes of iconpainting and icon-painters. Thus, the search for a national peculiarity is combined with disappearance of the centre in the 15th century, – 44 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexandra A. Semenova and Natalia P. Koptzeva. Truth as a Form of Modelling of Integrity at Social Being Level by which Old Russia was guided in its religious search. In many respects, that event became a starting-point of formation of social integrity at ideological level. The philosophical ideas and religious search of the 15th and the 16th centuries allow to consider exactly this period of the history of the Old Russian State as a period of ideological and religious unity of the Russian people. Within the framework of this research, it will be interesting to turn to a study of such philosophic ideas of the Old Russian thinkers as Joseph Volotzkyi’s absolute monarchy conception and «Moscow is the Third Rome» conception formulated in its well-known form by the monk Philorey from Elizarov monastery near Pskov in «The Epistle to the Astrologers» for the first time (1523 or 1524). On the whole, the period of the 15th and the 16th centuries can be comprehended as the process of active search for a religious way and as the process of formation of the ideological element of the centralized state for the Russian people. In that period different heretical movements were developing actively (the NonPossessors and the Judaizers) and little by little different religious tendencies began to give such ideas that presented harmonious unity of the Russian people with God, and Josephism suggested the basis of the very socio-centric religious unity. The Old Russia’s development of the 15th century demonstrates crystallization of the ideology of the Old Russian socio-centrism into standard models. The Tsar of the all Russian lands Ivan the Terrible IV (1530 – 1584) was crowned in 1547 presenting himself as an individual personification of socio-centric religiosity and, thus, possessing sacred power as the God-chosen tsar. The second model crystallizing the principles of the centralized Old Russian State is the Church of the Intercession of the Holy Virgin on the Red Square (1555 – 1561). Thus, the evolutional formation of sociocentrism in the Old Russian State in the period examined passes the following stages: 1. Political and legal and economic bases are developed in the course of centralization of the Old Russian State around Moscow and Moscow prince, and there is an economic and political preparation for socio-centrism of Old Russia in the 14th and the first half of the 15th centuries. 2. The ideological, spiritual and religious program and the basis of social unity of Old Russia are elaborated in the second half of the 15th and at the beginning of the 16th centuries: the ideas of God-choiceness of the absolute monarch are developed, and Old Russia becomes the centre of the Orthodox world. 3. In the 15th century the gained ideological unity and socio-centrism find their embodiment in the exemplary image of the Tsar of all Old Russia Ivan the Terrible and in the images accentuating the national peculiarity of Old Russia with the Old Russian tent-shape type architecture – in particular, the main temple of the Old Russian State of the 16th century – the Church of the Intercession of the Holy Virgin. And so, within the frameworks of this research, let us dwell on the specificity of formation of the spiritual component of the Old Russian State’s socio-centrism, which took its place mainly in the 15th and the 16th centuries. Specificities of the religious modelling of the Old Russian State’s integrity in 15th and the 16th centuries This part of the research is devoted to the answer to the question how the religious ideas of Old Russia in the 15th and the 16th centuries favoured the formation of the Russian religiosity in its socio-centric aspect. The religious situation of those centuries was much influenced by the fact of the Byzantine Empire’s downfall and comprehension of the idea – 45 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexandra A. Semenova and Natalia P. Koptzeva. Truth as a Form of Modelling of Integrity at Social Being Level Fig. 5. The Church of the Intercession of the Holy Virgin on the Red Square. Moscow. 1555 - 1561 «Moscow is the Third Rome» verbally formulated by the monk Philorey: «Two Romes have already fallen, but the third stands up, and the fourth is not to be» (quote with book Malinin, 1901). Thus, the idea of God-choiceness of the Old Russian State for the sake of the Orthodoxy gets its form. It calls for a fixation of the idea of Moscow as the third Rome, i.e. the country, which, on the one hand, inherits the Orthodoxy and, on the other hand, distinguishes its own (third) peculiarity of the orthodox religiosity’s existence. Hence, an intensive search for a national peculiarity of the Old Russian religiosity takes place in those centuries, which is characterized by the following phenomena of the religious life: development of the heretical doctrines, search for the Orthodoxy’s national peculiarities, and appearance of the peculiar Old Russian tent-shape templar form instead of the Byzantine cross-vaulting temple. The process of search for the national religious peculiarity takes its place simultaneously with the eschatological pendency and preparations of the Russian people for the Doomsday and the Judgment Day. So, let us consider the main ideas of Old Russia’s religious life in the 15th and the 16th centuries. This period is marked by coexistence of a large number of heretical doctrines, the branches of the Orthodoxy, and that is indicative of the intensive search for an appropriate model of religiosity for the Russian people within the frameworks of the Christian religion (providing harmonious relations of a person and God). And it is necessary to remark that the heretical movements had existed in Old Russia since the 12th century, and only at the – 46 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexandra A. Semenova and Natalia P. Koptzeva. Truth as a Form of Modelling of Integrity at Social Being Level beginning of the 14th century they «came into the world» and started to be preached by their adherents. The development of the heretical doctrines of this period indicates the fact of the intensive search for the «true» religiosity, which allows to gain harmonious unity of a person and God, and the ideal of harmony with God is obtaining Eden in the Christian religion. A believer traditionally seeks to obtain Eden in his own soul, but the aspirations for achievement of righteousness became intensified owing to the eschatological and it existed without realization of the national religious peculiarity up to the 15th century. But some specific peculiarities of the Russian religiosity had already appeared in the pre-Mongolian period: for instance, the religious feast of the Veil of the Mother of God established by Andrew Bogolubskyi (≈ Theophilantropist) in the 12th century hadn’t been known in Byzantium but it became wide-spread in Old Russia. The feast’s origin is connected with a special actuality of the ideas of God’s patronal attitude towards the Russian land and its people, ideas in those centuries. Indeed, 1492 was expected to be the year of the «Second Advent», this year was supposed to be 7000 since the creation of the world, and the date was calculated on the basis of studying of the texts of the New Testament. The apocalyptic expectations firstly brought to the process of purification of the religious principles and, secondly, intensified the need of the national unity before the Doomsday. So, let us consider the existence of religious contradictions before formation of socio-centric religiosity. and there is also a connection between the feast and Russia’s nature finding materialization of the idea of the Veil of the Mother of God in snow. The feast of the Veil of the Mother of God kept its significant importance for Moscow state, which is testified by the building of the main Moscow temple on the Red Square dedicated to the feast of the Veil of the Mother of God in the 16th century. The feast’s actuality is explained by the fact that, as stated above, it’s the primal Orthodox Russian feast, which accentuates the national peculiarity of Old Russia, and that the Veil of the Mother of God is an evidence of the future Holy Virgin’s intercession for the Russian people in the face of Christ on the Doomsday, and that is also an evidence of her permanent patronage. Besides, the Russian religiosity’s specificity in the period of Vladimir-and-Suzdal princedom’s dominance over the others became the relations of a person and God according to the model of «devotion of a person to God in fear and trepidation», which is connected with the actuality of King David’s Psalter where «fear and trepidation» in front of God is an inalienable trait of a Christian. The development of the Old Russia’s religion of the posterior periods always had this aspect of fear in relations of a person and God and was realized in the relation of the Russian people and their tsar. The heretical ideas of the 15th and the 16th centuries as the models of alternative development of the Old Russian socio-centrism Old Russia’s religious life of the 15th and the 16th centuries in its contradictoriness to a certain extent can be compared with the religious searches of the first ecumenical councils when only the Christian conciliar view could determine which conception of the Christian religion was the only true one. And just the conciliar faith of the participants of the first ecumenical councils favoured adoption of the dogma of the Godhead’s Trinity, acknowledgement of Christ’s divine nature, establishment of the monastic life’s rules, etc. Such a kind of the Orthodox religion had existed in Byzantium, was adopted by Old Russia, – 47 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexandra A. Semenova and Natalia P. Koptzeva. Truth as a Form of Modelling of Integrity at Social Being Level The ideas of obtainment of the national religious peculiarity became especially actual in the 15th century. How was the process of search for the national peculiarity proceeding? In the first instance, the Old Russian heretical doctrines of the 15th century had a possibility of revealing themselves and suggesting their own conception of comprehension of the Orthodoxy. On the whole, the heretical doctrines of the 15th century can be considered not merely as deviations from the Orthodox religion breaking the Divine commandments but also as some special ways who looked for the rational comprehension of religious phenomena, and where the doctrine of the «Strigolniks» had been developed with its main aim – direct communication with God out of church and religious rites and under the open sky. The Judaizers also sought after the rational comprehension of the Divine law, and the New Testament full of symbols and demanding sensible perception of divinity didn’t satisfy the requirement, but the rational scheme of contact of a person with God was suggested in the Old Testament (human sin is a punishment from God, of the Russian people’s comprehension of the Orthodox religiosity. The heresy of the Judaizers became widespread at the end of the 15th century. The heretical doctrine originated in the circle of Novgorod merchants preached the following to Mosaic laws, i.e. the Old Testament, by rejection of the laws of the New Testament for the following reasons: the heretics refuted the doctrine of the Trinity and Jesus Christ’s divine nature. Besides, the Judaizers repudiated monasticism as an organ of Christian religious society for the Bible says nothing of monastic practice and monasticism had been established by the church fathers, i.e. by men. It is quite interesting to consider the heresy of Novgorod merchants from the positive point of view in the context of the ideas that the doctrines intentionally repudiated by the official culture were those vital forces which mainly formed the epoch’s world outlook. Let us remark that the information on the heretical outlook is rather scanty and can be practically gathered only according to the officially maintained refutations, for instance, Joseph Volotzkyi’s legend «Enlightener», and that does not allow to understand those people who shared the Judaizers’ ideas in full measure. We can draw the following conclusions taking into account the fact that the heresy of the Judaizers was formed in the circle of freedom-loving Novgorod people, a person’s good deed is a praise and reward from God, etc.). Besides, the Old Testament suggested direct contact of a person with God: there are God, a man, and Moses prophet to whom God declares His law. Thus, the heretical doctrine of the Judaizers supposed discovery of the rational base and clear and simple directions the following which would completely correspond to God’s demands from a human being and allow to see a clear religious model of contact of God with a person in the Christian religion. The heresy of the Judaizers was so strong at the time that in a certain moment there was a possibility of its official spreading for Moscow metropolitan Zosima was a representative of the Judaizers, and the heresy was also supported by the members of the princely family. That process was mainly prevented by the anti-heretical struggle of Joseph Volotzkyi whose efforts promoted the passage of the decree of heretics’ capital punishment at Moscow council in 1504 (Fig. 6). Apart from Joseph Volotzkyi’s struggle against the Judaizers, it is to be remarked that this branch of the Christian religion would never be officially supported. It would be rather strange if the Orthodox state, the Orthodox religion’s stronghold and the «Third Rome» adopted Mosaic laws as a base – it would bring to repudiation of the ideas of the Third Empire and violation of the traditional development of the Old Russian – 48 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexandra A. Semenova and Natalia P. Koptzeva. Truth as a Form of Modelling of Integrity at Social Being Level Fig. 6. The Icon Crucifixion. Dionisyi. 1500. The episode with expatriation of Judaizers by ortodox church religiosity. It is interesting to remark that the early Christianity’s decree of acknowledgement of Arianism (that also denied Jesus Christ’s divine nature) as a heresy was also adopted in the decree of the council, which points to the process of formation of a new religion in its own way in the 15th and the 16th centuries. The Judaizers didn’t recognize churchdom, hierarchy, seizure of lands by the church, and «bribes». We can tell that the religious ideas of the epoch are characterized with negation of religious status of monastery and monasticism as a whole. If monasticism was the stronghold of the Old Russian religiosity up to the 15th century (only monks provided people with spiritual defence through their prayers while cloisters as fortresses were physical defence of towns against attacks), then by the 15th and the 16th centuries – 49 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexandra A. Semenova and Natalia P. Koptzeva. Truth as a Form of Modelling of Integrity at Social Being Level monastery lost its defensive power and ceded its care of people’s physical and spiritual welfare to the God-chosen sovereign, which will be spoken of later. The problem of religious unity of the nation in the light of apocalyptical ideas should be considered in detail. The «Revelation» text of Saint John the Divine tells about nations’ presence before Christ on the Doomsday, not of an individual: «Who shall not fear Thee, O Lord, and glorify Thy name? for Thou only art holy: for all nations shall come and worship before that the monks should pray and defend people, and it gave birth to anticlerical attitudes of the contra-cultural tendencies. We can assume that in spite of the fact that the expected «end of history» didn’t happen, the God-chosen head of the state took upon him the right of «divine» judgement on earth. For instance, «Judgment-book» edited in 1497 can be considered as the most important legal document of the time of Ivan III, and during the ruling of Ivan the Terrible IV the ideas of God’s punishment’s embodiment in the earthly existence found their realization in the events of Thee; for Thy judgments are made manifest» (the Revelation of Saint John the Divine – 5:4). Thus, in the 15th and the 16th centuries there appears the necessity of national unity for presence before God on the Doomsday. It should be also noted that while Old Russia turned to be the last Orthodox state, the Russian people realized themselves as God’s nation chosen by God not only to save the true Orthodoxy, but, perhaps, also to become God’s righteous people who are to be in Eden. The idea of God-choiceness of the Russian people is affirmed with the fact that the Orthodox feast of the Holy Trinity was established in the Old Russian State only in the 15th century when Sergey Radonezhskyi was alive, but not at the time of the Baptism of Rus. That can be explained by the event of Epiphany of the Holy Trinity to Abraham and Sarah in the Old Testament that revealed them that the chosen people of Israel would descend from them. The epoch’s eschatological feelings directly influenced on the process of development of the Old Russian religiosity in its socio-centric aspect. Until 1492 the Old Russian people had been waiting for God’s punishment for their sins and they were really frightened of the future justice. The mood of the Judaizers and the Non-Possessors came to light because of the eschatological feelings of the people who on the threshold of the Doomsday gave their lands and property to monasteries so the oprichnina’s period. Thus, the main specificity of the Old Russian State’s religious life in the 15th and the 16th centuries is an aspiration for finding of the national religious peculiarity: the territorial unity with Moscow as a centre had already been formed but it wasn’t enough for the national identification. The epoch’s religious life has an effect on the process of formation of the Russian character and to understand so called Russian national mentality means to turn back to this period. Such aspects of the Orthodox religion are actualized at that time: A) the idea of God’s patronage to the Russian people; B) in spite of God’s patronage to the Russian people, permanent realization of one’s own sins became the most important thing and, as a consequence, permanent expectation of God’s punishment. In those centuries it could be explained by the approaching end of the world and attitude to the mundane existence as something fatally sinful. Thus, there is to be formed an idea of great culpability of a human being who is always waiting for the punishment for his sins in fear; C) as a result, the trial presence of a person and nation as a whole in the face of God can be conceived as the exemplary model of relations of God and a person. – 50 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexandra A. Semenova and Natalia P. Koptzeva. Truth as a Form of Modelling of Integrity at Social Being Level Joseph Volotzkyi’s religious and philosophical conception of the absolute monarchy Two religious and philosophical doctrines were formed in Old Russia in the 15th and the 16th centuries. The first one is Josephism suggested by Joseph Volotzkyi (1440 – 1505) and the other – the Non-Possessors’ movement formulated by Nilus of Sora (1433 – 1508). The Non-Possessors’ movement of Nilus of Sora developed Byzantine doctrine of hesychasm that supposed separation of the church from the state and leaving the mundane affairs, for Church was understood as an institute primarily established not for the possession of physical power but for the care of the spiritual side of a human life. But this tendency wasn’t widespread in those centuries. It is explained by the fact that the Hesychastic conception developed by Nilus of Sora supposes an individual contact of a person with God and a choice of an individual religious way while the conciliar (soboral) way of religious communication of a human being with God worked out by Joseph Volotzkyi was more actual for Old Russia of those centuries. Joseph Volotzkyi’s (Fig. 7) conception was developed from the idea of tsar’s limited power over people in their mundane existence: «The tsars must be served with fear and trepidation as men having taken power from God and who are able to torture and be benefactors to people with their bodies, but not with their souls, and give them tsar’s honours, but not those ones of God» (quote with book Zamalyaev, 1987). As for the idea of the absolute tsar’s power, it is to take care of souls and bodies of its subjects. According to Volotzkyi, the physical care of the subjects means physical defence against foreign enemies and injustice, and the spiritual care includes deliverance from heretical discords inside the Orthodox doctrine. Monk Volotzkyi is one of the first Old Russian thinkers who developed the idea of the absolute tsar’s power given by God. God- choiceness of the Old Russian tsar is a traditional idea of the Orthodox Christianity: firstly, the Byzantine Empire had been ruled by the Godchosen emperors whose one of the main aims was intercession and sacrificial presence before Christ for all their people; secondly, there was formed an idea of Russian princes’ resemblance to the Bible kings in the period of domination of Vladimir Princedom – for example, Andrew Bogolubskyi’s ruling was compared with King David’s reign. Joseph’s Volotzkyi’s book «The Enlightener» became a handbook of tsar Ivan IV the Terrible (1530 – 1584) who was the exemplary personification of unification of secular (mundane) and church (divine) powers. Tsar Ivan the Terrible (Fig. 8) took the part of the absolute centre to provide social unity for the Old Russian State. Socio-centric religiosity of the Old Russian State of the 15th and the 16th centuries The ideological centralization of the Old Russian people took place in the situation of solution of the most difficult contradictions. The processes of centralization of the Old Russian State, national identification of the Russian people, search for an independent religious way as the «Third Rome», and national unity before the «end of the world» predetermined the formation of the Old Russian religiosity as socio-centric and national unity. The process of the most difficult choice of the form of existence of the Old Russian socio-centrism was proceeding in the 15th and the 16th centuries. The contradictions of the religious situation were reflected in a choice of one of the ways of future development of the Orthodoxy in the Russian state. On the one hand, the heretical points of view suggested the direct unity of God and the God-chosen nation, which proceeded with keeping to the commandments given to Moses’ people by God. On the other hand, there – 51 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexandra A. Semenova and Natalia P. Koptzeva. Truth as a Form of Modelling of Integrity at Social Being Level Fig. 7. Icon. Saint Iosif Volotzkyi (1439 - 1515) was formulated the theory of mediatory unity of the nation and God where the God-chosen tsar was the main mediator and representative of the Russian people in the face of God. Monasticism and church lost the possibility of realization of their mediation between people and God at that period as in reality they stopped keeping the Orthodox religiosity in its purity. There was a reason for necessity of toughening of the monastic regulations and keeping the church away from interfering in the mundane affairs as that participation hardly showed the connection of the clergy with religious spiritual life. The decree of Moscow council of 1504 supporting the ideas of Josephism and passing the resolution of capital punishment of the heretics determined the choice of the Old Russian socio-centric religiosity – that was the choice of a model of relations of the nation and God through the mediation of the tsar’s personage. The Russian tsar took upon himself personal responsibility for the Russian people’s Orthodox purity in the face of God. The choice of that model was carried out not only in the way of peaceful conciliar adoption of a common decision of what kind of the Orthodoxy would exist in the Old Russian land but that was also a way of – 52 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexandra A. Semenova and Natalia P. Koptzeva. Truth as a Form of Modelling of Integrity at Social Being Level savage reprisal with the heterodox people – the heretics’ executions and annihilation of the whole dissenting and disobedient towns (for example, the bloody reprisal with Novgorod people among whom the heretical doctrines had appeared). We can suppose that the State’s bloody cruelty didn’t bring to active opposition and hatred of the people not only because of fear in the face of violence but as the result of the expectation of bloody executions before the «end of the world» in 1492, and, as a consequence, were received as the mankind’s just punishment. The social unity of the Old Russian State of the 15th and the 16th centuries consisted of the process of national unity demanded by the image of God contemporary to the epoch. The image of God is a judge asking for the answer to the nation’s deeds, not those ones of a single person on the Doomsday in order they could enter the Eden and the Jerusalem of Above; that is also the image of God Who demands resigned corporal and spiritual service of many people to the only God. The national unity was forming in the process of search for the God’s defence and patronage in the spiritual and mundane affairs and in the process of renewal of the ideas of the Orthodox religiosity. Moreover, the Old Russian socio-centric model presupposed the God-chosen tsar as the absolute mediator between people and God who could bring to his people the Divine Law and Word in his orders (those are the laws of the Holy Scripture which were the orientation of Ivan the Terrible in legislation and all domestic affairs and meditations) and who could pass people’s expectations to God, defended them and satisfied all their needs. The architecture of the Church of the Intercession of the Holy Virgin on the Red Square can be considered as the exemplary image visually fixed that model of socio-centric relations. Thus, the situation of the 15th and the 16th centuries was a real process of modelling Fig. 8. Parsuna. Tsar Ioann Vasilievich the Terrible. XVII century of socio-centric religious system in the Old Russian State. There was a quite natural process of the Russian people’s self-identification and realization of their own peculiarity comparing with the other nations (in particular, the Tatars and Mongols, the Greeks) and peculiarity of their home Orthodoxy in its difference wth the Byzantine Orthodox, and, thus, the Russian people find their whole idea of themselves. At the same time, the process of sacrification of the tsar’s personage takes place when the tsar obtains a function of a mediator between his people and God. The process of sacrification of the Old Russian tsar’s personage is a heavy and more unnatural process. There can be given the following arguments as the proof of that unnatural process of the tsar’s sacrification: -- it contradicts the conciliar nature of the Orthodoxy; -- it is at variance with the communal way of life in Old Russia; -- it contradicts the Slav sources for the Slavs had lived the communal way of life long before the conquerors arrived; -- it also contradicts the Bible where the tsar is not acceptable in the sight of God (God hardly agrees to give the Israelites their king in the Old Testament). – 53 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexandra A. Semenova and Natalia P. Koptzeva. Truth as a Form of Modelling of Integrity at Social Being Level Consequently, the tsar was always demanded to give proves of his God-choiceness, affirmation of his rights and mediation between his people and God, and that gave the character of cruelty and bloodiness while formation of the sociocentrism in Old Russia in the 15th and the 16th centuries. In that way the specificities of the modeling of the harmonious relationship between human and Absolute at social being level are consisted in processes. On the one hand it is the repression by orthodox Russian church of the religious opposition – the heresies Judaizers and NonPossessor’s – “alive” religious ideas. On the other hand it is the creation of the official religious doctrine with the central idea of the absolutely monarchy – Josephism. 6) In the result it is possible to choose the following factors as the components of the social integrity of the Old Russia state. The first factor is the process of national self-identification of Russian nationality as the unique orthodox nation the following theses: 1) The social integrity is allowed to reach harmonious relationship between a person and Absolute for every person of society provided the observance the law of this society by human. 2) The social integrity is formed on conditions of integrity of three factors: economical common weal, political and legal basis of social integrity and ideological basis for it. 3) The ideological basis of social integrity could be modelling in religious and philosophic doctrines. 4) The historical example of the modelling of social integrity could be found in the history of the 15th and 16th centuries in the Old Russia. The process of social integrity’s modelling in this period is characterized by the territorial centralization the Russian lands around Moscow, by the growing of economical common weal, by making of unified political and lawful basis («Judgment-book» edited in 1497), by the formation of ideological basis for integrity of the Old Russia state. 5) The ideological basis of social integrity of the Old Russia state is formed by two main in the world after the end of the Byzantine Empire. The second factor is the fact of the sacrification of Russian ruler. The Byzantium example of the sacrification of the ruler was adopted by Russia in this period. And it was not an evolution way of development for Russia, because before the Russian ruler has the role of invitee person for the protection of Russian land. The third factor is the concept of the absolutely monarchy, which is cultivated in the period of the end of 15th century. The concept of absolutely monarchy means that the ruler, the tsar has the power not only over the physical human existence, but also over the spiritual human existence. 7) The socio-centrism of Moscow Russia in such way is based on the necessity of the strict obedience of every person of the society to the power of the tsar. And the tsar in his turn is responsible for righteous of every person of the society to the God. The punishment for the sins in such situation is included in the tsar’s power. And the result of it is the specific of the Old Russian’s socio-centrism based on the cruelty and severity of the tsar’s power, where the tsar is the mediator between a person and the God. Resume References 1. A. Kazharov, “The role of socio-political Byzantium doctrines in the development of state’s conceptions of Moscow Russia”, in the thesis of candidate’s of political science, (Moscow, 2006), in Russian. – 54 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexandra A. Semenova and Natalia P. Koptzeva. Truth as a Form of Modelling of Integrity at Social Being Level 2. D. Krapchunov, “The Russian heresies as the phenomena of cultural breaking on the border of XV-XVI ages”, in the author’s abstract of candidate’s philosophic science thesis, (Novgorod, 2004), in Russian. 3. D. Pivovarov, “Religion”, in Contemporary philosophic dictionary, ed. by V.E. Kemerov (London, Frankfurt on Main, Paris, Luxembourg, Moscow, Minsk: Panprint, 1998), 195, in Russian. 4. E. Suvorina, “The idea of statehood in Russian classical culture”, in candidate’s of science thesis of philosophic science, (Tambov, 2004), in Russian. 5. Filorey, “The epistle to the Astrologers”, in “Old monk Filorey of Eleazarov cloister and his epistles”, ed. by A.N. Malinin (Kiev, 1901), 383, in Russian. 6. G.V.F. Hegel, “The lectures on philosophy of history”, (Sank-Petersburg.: Science, 1993), 102, in Russian. 7. I. Volotzkyi, “The Enlightener”, (http://www.wco.ru/biblio/books/iosifv1/Main.htm), in Russian. 8. I. Volotzkyi, “The word with blame of heretics”, in “Monuments of Ancient Russian literature (the end of the 15th – the beginning of 16th centuries)”, (Moscow: Fiction, 1984), in Russian. 9. I. Volotzkyi, in “Philosophic ideas in mediaeval Russia”, A.F.Zamaliaev, (Leningrad: Science, 1987), in Russian. 10. K. Manheim, “The diagnosis of our time”, (Moscow: Lawer, 1994), 9. 528, in Russian. 11. P. Novgorodcev, “About social ideal”, (Moscow: Pressa, 1991), 572, in Russian. 12. Prokhor bishop, “Metropolitan Peter’s hagiography”, (http://people.pwf.cam.ac.uk/jrh11/ petrmetpar.doc), in Russian. 13. Psalm-book, (Moscow: Gift, 2006), in Russian. 14. R. Aslanov, “Formation of the authority’s vertical in Russia: historical-lawful analysis”, in the thesis of candidate’s law science, (Moscow, 2005), in Russian. 15. R. Steiner, “The substance of social problem of vital necessities in present and future”, (Caluga: Spiritual perception, 1992), in Russian. 16. Revelation of Saint Joann the Divine, “New Testament”, (http://apokalipcic.ru/index.php?id_ menu=29), chapter 15, in Russian. 17. S. Trubetzkoy, “Writings”, (Moscow, Thought, 1994), 492, 495, in Russian. 18. U. Bulichev, “The problem of cultural-historical uniqueness of Russia as the subject of philosophical research”, in doctor’s thesis of philosophic science, (Sank-Petersburg, 2005), in Russian. 19. V. Kalashnikov, “The subjective factors and objective conditions of stable society’s development: on the sources of Byzantium and the Ancient Russia”, in the thesis of doctor’s philosophic science, (Krasnoyarsk, 2003), in Russian. 20. V. Zhukovskyi, “The Ancient Russian art”, (Krasnoyarsk, 2007), in Russian. 21. V. Zhukovskyi, “Visual substance”, Zhukovskyi V.I., Pivovarov D.V., (Sverdlovsk, 1991), in Russian. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2009 2) 56-66 ~~~ УДК 130.3 Nature of Belief and Role of Belief in Statements Producing Process Nina V. Malchukova Irkutsk State University, 1 Karl Marx st., Irkutsk, 664003 Russia 1 Received 24.02.2009, received in revised form 03.03.2009, accepted 10.03.2009 Belief is considered as a complex phenomenon of super subject-realization nature. This consideration is based on the combination of philosophical-anthropological approach and semiotic approach. Differences between personal belief and religious, confessional belief are revealed. Functions of belief in statements producing process are determined. Keywords: belief, subject-realization, personal belief, religious, confessional belief, statements producing process. Introduction Beginning from the 1970’s in philosophy of language influential concepts emphasizing essential meaning of belief in linguistic activity of the subject started to appear (Fodor, 1983; Searle, 1975, 1983). These concepts are subjected to the thorough criticism (Petrov, 1987, 1990; Lectorskiy, 2006) which fairly reproduces their important defects, ambiguities and basic insufficiency in the interpretation of statements producing process within the frames of a natural language (For example, in Searle’s theory of intentionality statements producing process is explained as initiated by a condition of conviction, desirability and sensation. But to speak about desires, sensations and furthermore, about belief and intentions with reference to the person considering them as something essentially extralanguage it is inadmissible. And if it’s so then in Searle’s case the language behavior is * 1 explained as caused by conscious-language factors and conditions. But then in order to avoid the tautology additional analysis of the linguistic status of these conditions and mechanisms of their interrelation with concrete speech acts is necessary). At the same time knowledge of essence of belief positive functions in language realization of the subject still remains incomplete. Thus in this article problems of the nature and the influence of phenomenon of belief (Analyzing phenomenon of belief it’s necessary to give its preliminary definition: belief is understood here as a mental act, condition or habit of placing trust or confidence in a person, idea or thing. Such definition implies both belief which rest to some extent on proof or material evidence (though they cannot be rigorous or immediately given) and belief which doesn’t rest on them at least distinctly. In the latter case belief can reveal itself as a religious belief (belief in God), that is faith, Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved – 56 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nina V. Malchukova. Nature of Belief and Role of Belief in Statements Producing Process which is particular belief state. Such approach to definition of belief gives an opportunity to understand that non-religious belief and religious belief with all the differences between them have the same nature) on linguistic activity of the subject are considered. Belief represents an original and besides a syncretic component of a subjective reality, because it incorporates elements of different gnoseological and psychological nature: rationalconceptual structures, emotionally-sensual and strong-willed states. Moreover, belief which is paradoxical enough is some special knowledge, namely the knowledge that substitutes ignorance and accepted as necessary transition or synthesis to that knowledge which should be intersubjective, i.e. to that knowledge which should be presented in demonstrative, obligatory forms. The knowledge in the latter case appears as actual knowledge, i.e. as a result of informative display of real events and processes, a result presented in the form of the cause-and-effect statements (laws) empirically checked up and confirmed. In contradistinction to it, belief knowledge as a belief component has other content – presumable and not-realizable. However, in its form belief knowledge is still the knowledge, which is represented as a connection of abstract concepts. Here there is a true possibility to oppose knowledge and belief to each other, though, of course, this opposition cannot be absolute. After all the presumable knowledge can be confirmed subsequently, and on the other hand the system of the proved knowledge usually contains fictions and conventions (see, in particular, Dubrovskiy, 2002, p. 84-310). At the same time it is clear that belief and knowledge cannot be identified. Belief as it was already mentioned is a complex mental condition of a subject (individual or collective one) since in this condition emotionally-sensual, intuitive, unconscious and rational components of a subjective reality are specially synthesized and in this synthesis the first three components seriously overweight the rational one1. Thus, despite certain rational “insufficiency” in its structure, belief acts as utmost (not as some private) spiritual metaattitude “entitling” the person in all of his/her activity. In this case ontological and gnoseological analyses of belief appear to be insufficient and they are fairly supplemented by praxeological and axiological analyses of belief (see Dubrovskiy, 2002). From positions of the philosophical-anthropological approach synthesizing these four kinds of the analysis of belief, in its unity with the semiotic approach we’ll try to explain genesis of belief, to reproduce some important belief characteristics and also to determine functions of belief in statements producing process. Genesis of belief and essential characteristics of belief According to psychological, philosophical and linguistic data, the transition from merely sensory ways of the information processing by living systems to primitive languages of rational reproduction of the reality was connected with appearance of a verb, and consequently with comprehension of an agent (subject) (Meillet, 2002) who, on conditions of practice, was the human being himself. As a result a specific linguistic and intellectual attitude of basic subject-realization appeared. In the field of intellectuality, subject-realization revealed itself in understanding that a subject is the one who produces an action. And in the field of language, subject-realization revealed itself in appearance of precisely expressed subject and predicate in 1 – 57 – Thus knowledge as a component of belief is a so-called tacit knowledge (see Polanyi, 1985). And in the case of religious belief tacit knowledge has phantomlike, mystical character. So if in the frame of non-religious belief tacit knowledge can turn to explicit, proved knowledge in the process of cognition, then in the frame of religious belief such turning at least by means of ordinary logic as it will be shown further looks in principle impossible. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nina V. Malchukova. Nature of Belief and Role of Belief in Statements Producing Process initially united words-sentences. This grammar and logic separation was the evidence of new form of calculus mechanisms 2 that are in the base of evolutionary improvement of language. It proves, first, that ancestors of the modern human being had already a variety of language means of information reception and processing (sensory language and verbal language), and, second, that a specific linguistic-intellectual attitude of super subject-realization had been formed. Namely translanguage character of connections (relationships) between these language systems has caused the appearance of super subjectrealization that is the appearance of specific mental metaattitude. It means that there is intellectual and sensual state of the subject and this state somehow “is built on” above his/her states and actions as a certain independent carrier of an action or an idea. At first super subjectrealization reveals itself in passive constructions and also in designing an illusory subject. All this finally has entailed the formation of mythological and religious sign-symbolical systems and languages. According to K. Uhlenbek, North American Indian considers himself/herself not as an independent producer of an action, but as 2 Calculus mechanisms here are understood as such way of the reality representation when to its objects and phenomena material configurations/signs (neural connections, sounds, letters, words, figures, etc.) are put in conformity; and then according to accepted in system (in the central nervous system, in system of verbal language etc.) rules (conclusion rules) the operations which are necessary for the decision of a concrete tasks are made with them. It is obvious that for living systems including human being maximally generalized immediate task is the task of survival which in the evolution process of the person and a human society gets the certain specification. As to the conclusion rules which are the important characteristic of calculus mechanisms it is necessary to notice that they are not limited in this case to rules of formal logic. Thus calculus mechanisms appear to be plurality of logic principles and their supplementation. Concept of calculation if to treat it widely, i.e. not to identify it exclusively with numerical and formal-logic operations can be considered as a synonym of calculus mechanisms and at the same time can designate concrete cases of their display (including numerical and formallogic operations). an executor of it, as the one who causes it. The Indian’s way of speech should reflect this his/her outlook (Meshchaninov, 1975). Taking it into account, it is necessary to specify the status of such illusory “agent”, i.e. of subject. In the Homer’s poems one can find an expression “Zeus is raining” instead of “it’s raining” (Meillet, 2002). On this occasion N. Marr wrote that all so-called impersonal verbs – Russian “меня лихорадит”, French “il pleut”, German “es regnat” – in fact are personal because the subject here should be understood as a totem (Marr, 1933-1937, p. 91-92)3. Illusory (irreal) subject in the form of mythological personification or in the forms of impersonal verbs, despite of its archaism, can be considered as an evidence of significant cogitative reorganizations, namely both mystic-mythological and “impersonal” perception of the subject of action meant a movement of consciousness on a way of the increasing generalization and abstraction. In this case the subject is understood not simply as a concrete person, whose borders and space are quite definite (which usual (personal) verbs characterized by), but as “a universal subject” – the carrier of unlimited forces and an arbitrariness. Such understanding of the subject, undoubtedly, occurred with the participation of sensory-emotional states of an ancient human being which meant an interaction of rational and sensual code structures, and the result of that was the initial formation of super subject-realization. Subsequently these archaic forms of super subject-realization disappeared or were replaced. However the mechanism of their generation turned out to be effective and productive and led, in particular, to the appearance of such complex form of super subject-realization as belief. 3 – 58 – The fact that there is a semantic subject in so-called impersonal sentences is proved also by contemporary linguistic investigations (Zolotova, 1982; Pavlov, 1992; Tarlanov, 1998). Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nina V. Malchukova. Nature of Belief and Role of Belief in Statements Producing Process Before turning strictly to the belief characteristics analysis it’s necessary to emphasize that super subject-realization cannot be understood as a certain intellectual-linguistic phenomenon which is placed out of individual subject. Super subject-realization is an intrasubject property, though it has social origin and socially articulated functioning. Certainly, there are rather distinct philosophical traditions (for example transcendentalism of German classical philosophy, psychoanalysis etc.), which consider super subject-realization to be independent from the subject. But some of them mystify super subject-realization (transcendentalism); others emphasize suppressing influence of external depersonalized super subject-realization on the person (psychoanalysis). It’s true that these traditions, each one in its own way, confirm the linguistic-intellectual nature of super subjectrealization formation, but understanding of super subject-realization proved in this article is more universal and natural. This understanding definitely confirms that every normally developed subject has an ability to be a carrier of super subject-realization and this last one is his/her linguistic-intellectual property and a condition which along with other mental components carries out an active function in generation of statements, especially significant statements. These significant statements are those which express constructive-reconstructive, i.e. creative possibilities of the subject. Super subject-realization is carried out by the subject both in a mode of intellectual-strong-willed management, and in a mode of “autonomous” work of his/her central nervous system, when a subject is relaxing but at the same time he/she is in the state of an intellectual problem solution. But in both cases super subject-realization represents the utmost level of linguistic-intellectual freedom of the subject, and it’s remarkable that in the latter “not strong-willed” case super subject-realization can be perceived as an «unexpected finding». At the same time situations of such freedom testify information management and self-management in the sphere of intellectual activity of the subject. In “an autonomous” mode – situations of insight, intuitions, inspiration – super subjectrealization can provide the maximum creative effect, though, it’s clear that such effect does not always necessarily take place. Belief has a super subject-realization status because an agent in it starts to be realized as a certain subject who transforms the real subject – the carrier of even not thorough developed abstract thinking – into the object of his will and reason. Such result in its very beginning was caused by a new form of calculus mechanisms, the basis of which was an interaction of languages of different types. In the state of developed abstract thinking a subject has even more rich typology of languages and developed code organization of brain work which corresponds to them. All this is the basis of formation of belief as the syncretic spiritual metaformation defining all kinds of realized mental activity and real acts of a subject. In this connection it is necessary to specify the well-known statement of M. Polanyi according to which one should acknowledge again, that the belief is a source of knowledge (Polanyi, 1985, p. 277). The fact is that this statement puts at once such question as what the source of belief is. One should answer this question the following way: initially belief as a specific component of a subjective reality is a result of development of cognitive structures and functions of the highest nervous activity of a human being, that is a result of dissipation of the language-symbolical means, of formation of new calculus opportunities within the frames of these means, and then it is a result of their additional complication and enrichment. Thus source of belief attitude are those information invariants which are presented by code interactions (calculations) of the highest – 59 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nina V. Malchukova. Nature of Belief and Role of Belief in Statements Producing Process nervous activity. It means that phylogenetically cognitive processes are the base, the source of belief attitude. So it is possible to assume that at the initial stages of its formation in phylogenesis of a person belief attitude revealed itself as “the silent statement”, “silent consent”, “silent belief”. There are two reasons that make such assumption possible, first, animals with developed mentality already have such form of belief, and, second, such form of belief is a deep basis of realized forms of belief which are only homo sapiens has. “Silent belief”, operating not obviously, but intuitively or retrospectively, acts at the level of highly developed animals and the human being as the fundamental factor of biological selforganization providing a survival of a living being (Dubrovskiy, 2002, p. 303-304). Ontogenetically belief attitude arises in the process of overcoming of problematical character and insufficiency of available knowledge. Belief in this case acts as some sort of gangway from available knowledge to possible new knowledge. On the one hand such gangway is available in “stock”, and on the other, it’s completed whenever it’s necessary, and the completion material is again some “cognitive content” having “obvious or not obvious propositional structure”. In this respect D. Dubrovskiy referring to J. Margolis (Margolis, 1986) fairly considers that propositional structure can exist irrespectively of whether it’s expressed in language or not, and the researcher reasonably adds that most likely it is fair with respect to those subjective states of “not verbal ideas (thinking)” which are peculiar to the person possessing the developed language competence (Dubrovskiy, 2002, p. 290). Thus belief being understood here as “an act of acceptance of defined cognitive content” (Dubrovskiy, 2002, p. 294), is based on some knowledge, is expressed in many respects as a knowledge, and only then belief can serve as a factor of knowledge augment. Belief reveals itself as a high level of a coordination of spiritually-mental structures of the subject, which help the subject to take an effective decision in a difficult situation (it represents his original existential basis). And this coordination, being not completely realizable for the subject (and in this sense being “ignorant knowledge”), is formed and continued by behavioral successes, when some sort of cause and effect connection appeared, and in this connection a causal part remains out of full explanation. These characteristics of belief show its significance as a value, because in a productive part of its evolution belief carries out the interconnected functions of an element of personal management and selfmanagement, of a stimulator of steady initiative and creative behavior and also of internal spiritual mediator of person integrity. In the further realizations (for different reasons) belief can undergo various transformations. First, it can be a monotonously-obligatory state. Though in this case belief will continue to carry out integrating function, it will do so basically in inertial-conservative mode that means a crisis of belief and an appearance of doubt. Second, for this reason (disability of belief to keep and develop initiative-creative potential of a person) serious change of belief can take place. Thus, if belief assumes knowledge and knowledge contains belief components, so noted discredit of available belief assumes the ascertainment of a role of doubt in the process of belief discredit. We will concern here neither the importance of historical-philosophical tradition in the analysis of a category of doubt, nor the detailed reproduction of positive modern results of such analysis. Suffice it to be guided by some characteristics summarizing both lines of the analysis of doubt. It is clear that the doubt is essentially important both for cognitive process and for states of belief. Thus the greater degree of doubt – 60 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nina V. Malchukova. Nature of Belief and Role of Belief in Statements Producing Process in knowledge and belief a subject possesses, the smaller becomes a degree of strength of his/her knowledge and belief. However as it is impossible to imagine that a level of belief and knowledge is equal to zero, so, obviously, (this again can be perceived as a paradox) a level of doubt never happens to be equal to zero. Liquidation of distrust factuality, as well as liquidation of intellectual significance of doubt, means liquidation of belief and knowledge. In the process of affirmation of successful knowledge everything that contradicts to it is eliminated by means of doubt and, besides, by means of doubt the vulnerable moments in a positive part of knowledge are withdrawn. The same things happen with usual (personal, civil) belief. And in the case of doubt removal both knowledge and belief pass into a dogmatism and blindness zone. However the maximum, total measure of doubt completely disarms the person in cognition and behavior, depriving him/her of any positive reference points. At the same time belief directions, that are reliable enough, can not only positively focus behavior of the person, but also define his/her unacceptance of humanistic harmful elements of possible own behavior and behavior of associates. Belief can have both special character (for example, in case of I. Kepler’s confidence that the way of planetary orbits organization conforms to mathematical laws), and universal character, assuming interosculation of the most general ideas about the universe and about positions of a human being in it. So, it is possible to believe, for example, in orderliness and harmony of the world, in probability of events in it. And it is possible to believe also in all these things together and in addition to this to believe in special orderliness in this world – in being of the person. I. Kant’s well-known statements, given in the conclusion to his «Critique of practical reason», are perfectly express it (we will afford volume citing): «Two things fill the mind with ever new and increasing admiration and awe, the more often and the more steadily we reflect on them, they are: the starry heavens above and the moral law within. I have not to search for them and conjecture them as though they were veiled in darkness or were in the transcendent region beyond my horizon; I see them before me and connect them directly with the consciousness of my existence. The former begins from the place I occupy in the external world of sense, and enlarges my connection therein to an unbounded extent with worlds upon worlds and systems of systems, and moreover into limitless times of their periodic motion, its beginning and continuance. The second begins from my invisible self, my personality, and exhibits me in a world which has true infinity, but which is traceable only by the understanding, and with which I discern that I am not in a merely contingent but in a universal and necessary connection, as I am also thereby with all those visible worlds» (Kant, 1965, p. 499-500; WWW). It’s necessary to add only that Kant substantiating a unity of the utmost purpose of the nature and the moral law carrier of which is person recognized a morallyteleological substantiation of God’s life. For us, however, though it’s clear that there is no need in divine definition of moral establishments of a person, but still essentially important remains a unity of the world of the nature and the world of a person in all of vital activities of the last one. Thus, cited statements illustrate very well the properties of fully represented belief: it unites the ideas about the bases of the nature with knowledge of them, with general ethical requirements, and also with aesthetic representations. «The starry sky over me» is not only briefly expressed mechanics of space in unity with a person, but also it is briefly expressed aesthetic representation. In connection with this at least two more important properties of belief are found out: 1) belief exists and is expressed in the person in «large-block» without a detailed articulation which is carried out – 61 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nina V. Malchukova. Nature of Belief and Role of Belief in Statements Producing Process only in concrete behavior of the person; 2) belief has philosophical character – it’s synthesis of the principles, full articulation of which grows in philosophy where person is proved as the purpose of herself/himself. Religious, confessional belief (that is faith), having as its object supernatural and in all senses absolute, is a specific kind of belief. In this case not only the object of belief gets transcendental characteristics, but also belief attitude itself is understood as having transcendental character, i.e. as caused by the connection of a person with of the interpretation of these plots and this interpretation not only destroys an opportunity of individual perusal of theological documents, but also really deforms (distorts) them. It’s not a coincidence, that outstanding freedom-loving Russian philosopher – N. Berdyaev wrote: “I have a real disgust for theological-dogmatic conflicts. I feel pain reading history of ecumenical councils”; “…historical revelation was secondary for me, in comparison with spiritual revelation”; “Revelation assumes activity of not only Revealing, but also of the one who perceives revelation. Revelation the Absolute. Thus object, mystery-topic and ceremonial components of belief are perceived as the unconditional (absolute, indisputable) true at a level of regularly operating positive religiousness, that is they are perceived as coinciding with present and predicted constructive forms of day-to-day life. Standard organized confessions aspire to separate from mysticism as they see in it a germ of high degree of individualization of the religiousness leading to infringement of integrity of the doctrine and to appearance of heresies (Mechkovskaya, 1998). Nevertheless primary mystic of the Creed develops in practice into collective supermysticism. Archetypical-mystical in this case can reveal itself especially persistently both at the individual and collective levels and gravitates towards serious strengthening, which in some cases can lead to mass psychoses and antihuman orientation (the religious fanaticism, extremism and terrorism). Religious, confessional belief, besides, has strongly pronounced canonical-dogmatic character: the object of belief and the ways of attitude to it are canonized in two ways – initially historical and situational-historical. The first means absolutely canonical set and character of the plots directed on disclosing of an object essence of belief and the ways of attitude to it, and also the form of their verbal expression; the second means historically pragmatic admissible transformation is binomial” (Berdyaev, 1991, p. 354, 210, 204). The statements of N. Berdyaev show religious, confessional belief can get sometimes personal character4. Usually it happens when a believer has a variety of linguistic-intellectual means. Only having these means a person is capable to enter into a wide context of the reality which includes achievements and problems of science and art. In this respect not only N. Berdyaev’s position, but also V. Solovyev’s position is rather significant. Though they are considered (which is fair enough) as religious thinkers, undoubtedly, they are not only and not simply religious. Religiousness of these thinkers not only dissatisfies the requirements of orthodox religiousness, but in some cases turns into anti-religiousness, for example: V. Solovyev (Solovyev, 1995) separates ethics and religion5, N. Berdyaev distinctly proclaims individuality of interpretation of ���������������������������������������������������������� Unlike traditional confessional belief personal belief assumes high degree revelation of individual-personal element in its organization and freedom from dogmatism. Examples of personal belief it’s necessary to search in civil (secular) form of belief realization though as it was already mentioned separate cases of individual-personal transformation of confessional belief also can be perceived as examples of personal belief. 5 Solovyev writes in particular, that: «The moral philosophy does not depend entirely on positive religion … At existence of many religions and creeds disputes between them assume the general moral ground… and, hence, ethical standards to which the arguing sides equally refer, cannot depend on their religious and creed distinctions» (Solovyev, 1996, p. 7). 4 – 62 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nina V. Malchukova. Nature of Belief and Role of Belief in Statements Producing Process Revelation, perceiving with bewilderment and despondency (depression) conflicts of orthodoxy. Explaining this one should take into account that they are gifted persons whose gift is conditioned by and reveals itself in a variety of semioticlinguistic means designing their general spiritual potential. Each of them is a magnificent expert on history, art culture, philosophy; each of them is an expert both in the field of poetry and in the field of philosophical essayistic and at the same time each of them is the recognized original author in philosophical creativity. Probably, as a special case of “reconciliation” and “consent” of personal and confessional belief can be considered P. A. Florenskiy’s reasoning on the status of actual infinity and on the Scriptures contradictions. Being an expert on problems of mathematics, a logician and partly semiotician orthodox ordained believer P.A. Florenskiy, arguing on actual infinity in connection with Cantor’s formulation of this problem, proves such infinity to be an absolute maximum (no more subjected to increase) in a sense of maximum identity to God as it is treated traditionally by theologicians. Other kinds of actual infinity are, first, “in concreto, in the dependent world, in a creature in natura naturata” and, second, “in abstracto, in a spirit, because it has a possibility to learn Transfinitum in the nature and, to a certain extent, Absolutum in God” (Phlorenskiy, 1990, p. 498-499). But in these cases we deal only with symbols of infinite, whereas real instance of infinite is God. Similarly to it, fairly marking that formallogic law of the contradiction inadmissibility is not absolute and agreeing with presence of contradictions in the Scriptures, the religious thinker concludes: “… there is no need to assure rationalist that there are no contradictions: they are available; yes, they also are doubtless. But rationalist should believe mystic that these contradictions appear to be the highest unity in the light of Never-Setting Sun and then exactly these contradictions show that the Scriptures and dogmas are above flesh reasoning and hence they could not be thought up by the person, i.e. they are divine” (Phlorenskiy, 1990, p. 505). Comments, as the saying goes, are unnecessary here. It is possible only to emphasize that putting noted problems in “bosom” of divine clarity is a method which doesn’t guarantee advancement in their solution. Functions of belief in statements producing process Belief in any of its forms (whether personal or confessional) is a semioticpragmatic spiritual formation that has super subject-realization nature. This formation carries out functions of self-determination and self-substantiation of a person when the person correlates accepted general regulations with general plans of actions, with cardinal acts, with significant speech self-expression. As for the ability of belief to generate statements it’s necessary to emphasize here that belief itself is a phenomenon generated by propositions (even not obviously), but at the same time it certainly participates in generation of statements (propositions) and texts. Participating in the statements generation process belief carries out the following functions: – Initiating and stimulating function. In this case belief not only in some ways turns on, starts the mechanism of generation of statements of certain semantic loading, but also supports, stimulates it; – Controlling and authorizing function. Carrying out this function, belief, on the one hand, authorizes selection of the language means working both towards the solution of an intellectual problem, and towards accepted belief directions, strengthening this belief directions, answering it (here rather significant is the use of – 63 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nina V. Malchukova. Nature of Belief and Role of Belief in Statements Producing Process the figurative, metaphorical, emotionally loaded constructions); and on the other hand, supervises, does not allow the use of the language means that level it; – Extrapolating function. In this case there is a distribution of propositions of belief – the statements establishing an object of belief – on the majority of other statements which directly haven’t been connected with this object. In other words, these or those belief directions accepted by the subject, belief attitude realized by the subject can define speech behavior of the subject on the whole. So, for example, belief of a person in herself or himself, in her/his abilities and calling, let’s say calling of teacher, is capable to set the general tone (syntactic and semantic) to each particular case of person’s speech realization out of a school or high school audience; – Synthesizing function. Carrying out this function, belief affects the composite organization of texts both written, and oral. So performance of this function by belief, for example in frameworks of confessional belief, promotes the formation of such initial genres of religious communication as Revelation, sermon and prayer. Also taking into account this function it’s necessary to show how confessional belief can influence both religious and secular communication strategies. For example in the Scriptures religions, in particular in Christianity and Islam, fideistic and non-conventional relation to a word appears to be connected closely with a principle ipse dixit6 in the former case and with a category of isnad7 in the latter case. Noted principle and category can be taken as an evidence of the same communicative aim: 6 7 Ipsi dixit (in Latin) means somebody main one — teacher, leader, master— has told (see Mechkovskaya, 1998, p. 140). Isnad is a chain of reference to narrators in collections of legends about Prophet Muhammad and in other Muslim treatises (see Mechkovskaya, 1998, p.170). to keep most important information. And though secular contexts of the XIX century in relation to a principle ipse dixit already are basically ironic, this principle even without former seriousness and indisputability still remains a reference point in modern communication space. As to isnad, then first, in Islamic bookishness isnad even in a greater degree, than the principle ipse dixit in the European culture, brought up Muslim theologician and lawyer in a constant orientation on authorities, and, secondly, isnad’s manifestations and a consequence of them represent one of the powerful factors of traditionalism in Islamic culture (Mechkovskaya, 1998, p. 171). In the cultures based on doctrines and religious practice of Buddhism and Daoism in their diverse variations (Lamaism, dzenBuddhism, late daoists), a question Who has told it?, which is in the base of a principle ipse dixit and of a category of isnad, has no fundamental value in communications management. Fideistic and non-conventional relation to the word isn’t peculiar to Buddhism and Daoism, on the contrary basic mistrust to the letter, to a frozen form, to a canon, to ability of language to help intuition are peculiar to them. It’s well-known that dzen-Buddhist monks prefer language of images to language of words, and one dzen comparison says: to put truth into words it is not easier than to fish by a narrow-necked pumpkin (Konrad, 1980, p. 119-120, 122). On the whole, carrying out noted functions, belief can be perceived as some sort of statements catalyst because it is capable to strengthen and accelerate statements influence on interlocutor. If we consider that the vector of fully represented belief can have a different orientation both humanistic, and antihumanistic, then it’s obvious that belief catalization of statements can have both positive, and negative value. – 64 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nina V. Malchukova. Nature of Belief and Role of Belief in Statements Producing Process Conclusion To sum up it’s necessary to emphasize that belief is always some knowledge existing in synthesis with ethic-aesthetic components, which is accompanied and supplemented with emotionally-strong-willed experiences; belief possesses mutually supplementing properties – to be a steady spiritual complex and, at the same time, to have certain dynamics: belief complex differs personally and besides it can change in the evolution of a person. The semiotic approach to the analysis of belief shows the certain analytical opportunities in revealing the spiritual status and specificity of this phenomenon. Due to this approach that allocates three aspects (attitude) of any sign system – semantic, pragmatic and syntactic – it appears possible to fix independence of belief as a pragmatic formation of super subjectrealization nature. And genesis of this formation has strong connections with the development of general fundamental linguistic-semiotic and gnoseological procedures, such as generalization, abstraction and metaphor-making. Moreover, the given approach allows revealing a predominating role of the general spirituality of a person, constituted by languages of science, art, philosophy in relation to belief. Personal belief, being the certain “organizing” part of spirituality, does not assume a constant and strict conscious regulation of any behavioral step. A variety of linguistic-semiotic means which a person has, person’s solution of different sort of specific targets, mediating the main directions of activity, weakens, and even completely removes a constancy of belief dictatorship. It makes clear, that belief carries out infrastructural functions in language realization. Personal belief, leaning on fundamental “blocks” of the general spirituality of a person more freely than confessional belief, promotes expansion of borders of the general personal freedom and is capable of providing overcoming of person’s excessive mental isolation. Besides (for noted reasons) personal belief is more inclined to transformations, reconstruction and change. References N. Berdyaev, Self-cognition (experience of the philosophical biography) (Moscow: YMCA-Press, 1989), in Russian. D. Dubrovskiy, Problem of ideal. A subjective reality (Moscow: Canon+, 2002), in Russian. J. Fodor, The language of thought (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1975). J. Fodor, The modularity of mind (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1983). I. Kant, Critique of practical reason (Moscow: “Thought”, 1965, volume 4, part 1), in Russian. I. Kant, Critique of practical reason (http://philosophy.eserver.org/kant/critique-of-practicalreason.txt). I. Konrad, Study of history of culture of medieval Japan of VII-XVI centuries (Moscow: Progress, 1980), in Russian. V. Lectorskiy, “Philosophy, artificial intellect and cognitive science”, in Artificial intellect: the Interdisciplinary approach, ed. by D. Dubrovskiy, V. Lektorskiy (Moscow: IInteLL, 2006), 12-21, in Russian. N. Marr, “Language and thinking”, in Selected works (Moscow;Leningrad, 1933-1937, volume 3), in Russian. J. Margolis, Persons and minds (Moscow: Progress, 1986), in Russian. N. Mechkovskaya, Language and religion (Moscow: Agency “FAIR”, 1998), in Russian. – 65 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nina V. Malchukova. Nature of Belief and Role of Belief in Statements Producing Process A. Meillet, Introduction to comparative study of Indo-European languages (Moscow: Editorial URSS, 2002), in Russian. I. Meshchaninov, Problems of language development (Leningrad: Science, 1975), in Russian. V. Pavlov, “Subject in impersonal sentences”, in Theory of functional grammar (Saint-Petersburg: Science, 1992), 71-100, in Russian. V. Petrov, “From philosophy of language to philosophy of mind (New tendencies and their sources)”, in Philosophy. Logic. Language., ed. by D. Gorskiy, V. Petrov (Moscow: Progress, 1987), 3-18, in Russian. V. Petrov, “Jerry Fodor: Cognitive measurement of thinking”, in Conceptualization and sense (Novosibirsk: Science. Siberian Branch, 1990), 227-232, in Russian. P. A. Phlorenskiy, Pillar and affirmation of truth (Moscow: “Truth”, 1990, volume 1 (II)), in Russian. М. Polanyi, Personal knowledge: Towards a Post-Critical Philosophy (Moscow: Progress, 1985), in Russian. J. Searle, “The Nature of Intentional States”, in Intentionality (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983), 1-29. V. Solovyev, Justification of good: Moral philosophy (Moscow: Republic, 1996), in Russian. Z. Tarlanov, “Russian impersonal sentence in the context of ethnic world-perception, Philological sciences, 5-6 (1998), 65-75, in Russian. G. Zolotova, Communicative aspects of Russian syntax (Moscow: Science, 1982), in Russian. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2009 2) 67-83 ~~~ УДК 7.01 Native Culture of the 19th – 20th Centuries in Search After Truth. Truth of Real Human Being in Vladimir Solovyov’s Philosophy of the Universal Unity and Works of Art in the Russian Painting Natalia M. Libakova and Natalia P. Koptzeva* Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 24.02.2009, received in revised form 03.03.2009, accepted 10.03.2009 The specificities of the Russian culture of the 19th – 20th centuries are considered in the article. The authors think that the main philosophical problem of all times and nations is trustworthiness of truth for a man in all the levels of his being. The specificity of the native culture of the period is that truth, including the absolute truth, is a stem of a man’s simple and real being. Vladimir Solovyov’s philosophy of the Universal unity (Vseedinstvo) and works of art of the great Russian painters – «The Merchant’s Wife at Tea» painted by B.M. Kustodiev, «The Great Taking the Veil» painted by M.V. Nesterov, «Phantoms» painted by V.E. Borisov-Musatov, and «The Whirlwind» painted by F.A. Malyavin – can be offered as metaphysical base of the conception. The authors consider works of fine arts to be visual philosophical texts where the painters set out their conceptions in keeping with the great philosophical discoveries characteristic of the epoch, which allows to comprehend the present reality with the means of painting. Keywords: native philosophy, philosophy of the Universal unity (Vseedinstvo), V.S. Solovyov’s conception, Russian painting, «The Merchant’s Wife at Tea», «The Great Taking the Veil», «Phantoms», and «The Whirlwind» paintings Point of view The philosophical conception of the great Russian thinker Vladimir Sergeevich Solovyov (Fig. 1) was constructed by its author in opposition to the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzche, the most popular German philosopher in Russia of the end of the 19th century. Solovyov’s main work «Justification of Good» is aimed against the force destroying morals, which Vladimir Solovyov apprehended in the author of the treatise «Beyond Good and Evil». But that work summing up all the searches of the thinker was preceded by a large * 1 number of other works with the outlined general features of Solovyov’s philosophical conception; the basic concepts were worked out. The base of the constructive moral source, which Solovyov supposed that it was the ontological basis of human existence, is a natural result of the «development» (Losev, 1991). «Development» concept comes to his conception from natural sciences, to be precise, from biology he thoroughly had studied when he had been a first-year student at Moscow University. Development characterizes any Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved – 67 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia M. Libakova and Natalia P. Koptzeva. Native Culture of the 19th – 20th Centuries in Search After Truth… Fig. 1. Solovyov Vladimir Sergeevich (1853 – 1900) real existence and, first of all, man’s real existence, which is far from being perfect and seeks to be more perfect, «happier». Vladimir Solovyov constructs all the following logical system of the philosophy of the Universal unity (Vseedinstvo) proceeding from that simplest aspiration for happiness. To strive for an aim means permanent motion, and development for constant immobility excludes any aim. «To be in the process of development» means: 1) being something concrete at any moment of development; 2) each level of development brings to a new quality which hasn’t been before. But all the levels of development are to be present in developing being in an unbroken state from the very beginning. The mentioned signs of development turn the development into a synonym of «life», and being of every developing existent becomes being of an organism or essence. Thus, the Neoplatonic concept «the World soul», comprehended in some new biological realities of the contemporary science, comes to Vladimir Solovyov’s philosophy of the Universal unity (Vseedinstvo). Vladimir Solovyov repeatedly emphasized that his inner problem was justification of «the fathers’ faith» at a «new level of rational consciousness», i.e. a combination of scientific and rational «spirit of the times» with the religious tradition. Every being as a constant development is a living organism’s being. The being is universal and whole, but that wholeness is not reduced to naturalness of physics, chemistry and biology. The extremes of naturalism ignore development of spirit and spiritual wholeness. The extremes of idealism, studying only development of the Spirit, turns philosophy into a dried-up rational scheme and a system of purely logical categories, which is also powerless to cover the whole peculiarity of integral being. In order to get over the extremes of these two types of cognition, Vladimir Solovyov brings in «mystic philosophy» concept, which he defines as follows: «The mystic philosophy’s object is neither the world of phenomena reduced to our perceptions nor the world of ideas reduced to our thoughts, but and the LIVING REALITY of the existent in their INNER VITAL RELATIONS; that kind of philosophy doesn’t deal with the external order of phenomena, but it deals with the inner order of essences and their lives, which is determined by their attitude towards the primary essence» (quotation from Losev, 1991, p. 72 ). Thus, the term «mysticism» conceals the aspiration for the integral inclusion of all the aspects of being, which can be comprehended neither with the empirical method (perceptions) nor with the method of rational philosophy. As Aleksey Fyodorovich Losev justly remarks, Solovyov’s mysticism is a system of categories of classical idealism constructed on the distinction between «existent» and «being» concepts (Losev, 1991, p.74). The «existent» concept fixes the sign of unity. The existent is superior to any multitude. It reveals the sense of the principle «the whole is greater than the sum of its parts». If we see only the existent or the super-existent, the things – 68 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia M. Libakova and Natalia P. Koptzeva. Native Culture of the 19th – 20th Centuries in Search After Truth… will cease differing from each other, and our real world will turn into incognizable zero, the absolute Nihility. Therefore, besides the One Existent, it is necessary to assume an equivalent existence of multitude of things, events, and processes, i.e. distinctive and clear multitude far from being zero. For another thing, different things are gathered into relative unities and structures accessible to our comprehension. Solovyov gives a term «being» to those relative unities and real multitude. The intersection of «existent» and «being» concepts engenders the concept «essence». The second line of the philosophical discourse is constructed from «the Absolute» concept, which takes the central place in Vladimir Solovyov’s religious philosophy. The Absolute combines material and ideal realities. Logos is a display of the Absolute in the material and ideal worlds. The minimum unit of display of the Absolute as Logos is an idea. The intersection of the two lines of concepts: 1) existent – being – essence; 2) the Absolute – Logos – idea – gives the system of categories at Vladimir Sergeevich Solovyov’s philosophy of the Universal unity (Vseedinstvo). Existent Essence Being the Absolute the Spirit the Good Will Logos Mind Truth Idea Idea Soul Beauty Sense Thus, the Good is a synthesis of Spirit and Will and it is the Absolute’s essence at the same time (God the Father in the religious tradition); Truth is a synthesis of Mind and Idea and simultaneously it is the essence of Logos (God the Son in the religious tradition); Beauty is a synthesis of Soul and Sense and it is the essence of Idea at the same time (God the Holy Spirit in the religious tradition). Thus, the idea of truth in Solovyov’s philosophy takes the second place, not the first one. Truth is a second stage of the Good’s emanation. Truth is not the Absolute’s display in the Being, but its reflection in Mind and Idea. Vladimir Solovyov makes theoretical philosophy as expression of truth dependent on practical (moral) philosophy in accordance with that conceptual line (Solovyov, 1988, Vol. 2., p. 321). There is a need of theoretical philosophy until the Good in the social reality comes true. The theoretical philosophy is also needed because the social reality does not present the WHOLE reality and it does not include the reality of due («the things that SHOULD be») and the reality of future. Solovyov defines truth explicitly and categorically clear: «the Existent, the One and all or the Universal Unity (Vseedinstvo) as Existing». «With the Existent predicate taken away, truth turns into an idle subjective idea, which doesn’t correspond with anything real; if truth is not the existent, then it becomes fiction and, thus, ceases to be truth. With the predicate «the one» taken away, truth loses its identity and it is destroyed by disintegrating in its inner contradiction. And if we finally take the «all» predicate away, we’ll deprive truth of its real content: like the only One deprived of everything, truth will be such a poor principle, from which nothing can be deduced and explained, while the concept of truth has a demand that everything should be deduced from truth and explained, for truth is the truth of everything, and if it had everything outside itself, it would be nihility» (ibidem, p. 693). Vladimir Solovyov finds shades of meaning of the difference between the «existent» and «being» concepts in connection with the search after the absolute truth. At first, he defines «being» as the basic element of philosophy: what the real truth is in contrast to the illusory or ephemeral one. It is found out that «being» conception is not of one meaning. «In fact, «being» has two quite different senses, and if one is distracted from that – 69 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia M. Libakova and Natalia P. Koptzeva. Native Culture of the 19th – 20th Centuries in Search After Truth… difference, then every definite sense is lost, the only word is left» (ibidem, p. 698). The first sense of «being» concept appears when one says «I am», «this essence exists», i.e. when one speaks of essence’s being, the being is comprehended as a predicate of some subject. In the second case it is said «This is red», «that is such-and-such a thought», and «there is such a feeling». Here the mentioned thing is a predicate only of the feeling and thinking subject and, consequently, it is not a being as an irrelative predicate. The statements of the second kind in their unconditioned form are false: «One cannot say in a simple or unconditional way: will exists, idea exists, and being exists, for will, idea and being exist only because there is a willing and thinking subject» (ibidem, p. 699-700). Consequently, a real subject of philosophy and any other knowledge is the existent in its predicates, but not those predicates abstractly taken. The object of philosophy is something to which the being belongs, something expressed in that being, and that subject to which those predicates have a relation. If philosophy has true KNOWLEDGE as its object, but not BEING IN GENERAL, then its true object is «something to which the being always belongs, i.e. the absoluteexistent, the existent as the absolute source of any being» (ibidem, p. 700). The absolute-existent is an absolute primary source bearing positive power of any being. That’s why it can be called «super-existent». It is to be cognized through all of its displays, but, while being everything, it is not identical with that everything differing from it as its base and originative source. The absolute primary source acts through Love. Only love has both self-denial and selfaffirmation at the same time. Due to love, the absolute source exists in itself and in accordance with the relative source, without which it also couldn’t be. «Thus, when we say that the absolute primary source in its nature is a unity of itself and its denial, we repeat the great apostle’s word, but in a more abstract form: God is Love» (ibidem, p. 705). Love is a source of plurality while the Absolute source is the Absolute unity. The absolute source in its eternity is divided by Love into two poles, two centres. The first centre is a centre of unity, the absolute unity, and freedom from any forms, from any being. The second centre is creative energy of being and multitude of forms. According to the classical tradition, that second centre of the Absolute is called PRIMARY SUBSTANCE as the Absolute’s essence and spontaneous potency of being by Vladimir Solovyov. The substance is a concept of philosophy, but not that one of chemistry or physics. The primary substance is not connected with material and any quantitative or qualitative relation. It has an inner and subjective nature of desire and aspiration for being. The language demonstrates it: «substantial incentives», «substantial mind», «substantial inclinations», etc. The two centres of the Absolute cannot exist without each other. A MAN is an identity of the two dialectic sources of the Absolute. If West European philosophy comes to philosophical anthropology through philosophical reflection on the acts of thinking self-position and constructs anthropology by solution of the problem of true human being, then Vladimir Solovyov’s way is quite different. At first, he comes from truth as an object of philosophy to the true being (God) as the base of truth and then to the being of a human as a bearer of the true being. And a human being as the «SECOND ABSOLUTE» and a necessary form of the World soul always and indispensably has true being. For another thing, the human reality is a dialectical identity of the reality, which has happened («Sophia», divine wisdom), and the reality happening now («a human being in his concrete history»). – 70 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia M. Libakova and Natalia P. Koptzeva. Native Culture of the 19th – 20th Centuries in Search After Truth… The doctrine of human being as the second Absolute brings Vladimir Solovyov out of the bounds of Neo-Platonism. The Neoplatonic base of his philosophy is well-known and, on the whole, it is on the surface: it is a modification of Plotin’s famous triad «the One – the Spirit – the Soul», which takes the form of the triads «Existent – Being – Essence», «the Absolute – Logos – Idea» and others in Vladimir Solovyov’s philosophy. But Neo-Platonism couldn’t have the doctrine of a human being as the second Absolute and the Godmankind, which became a cornerstone in Vladimir Solovyov’s philosophy (especially in the work «Readings of the Godmankind»). Thus, a human being is a dialectic identity of the two sources in Vladimir Solovyov’s conception: «if the first source IS the Universal unity, then the second source BECOMES the universal unity; and if the first source always possesses the universal unity, then the second source progressively takes it and, thus, merges with the first source» (Solovyov, 1988, Vol. 1, p. 711). «The second Absolute» is defined as an indispensable base for the modifying and mobile world: «That essence, by which many things, particularity and untruth can really exist, where the existing divinity has a real object distinct from it and, as a result, can be something permanently real in its absoluteness, – that essence, which thus lays down a mutual condition both for the reality of the world of the divine universal unity and the world of material plurality, that essence is in ourselves» (ibidem, p. 712-713). Solovyov distinguishes three basic elements, three sources in a human being as the second Absolute, the duality of which becomes apparent in each of them. The first source of the human being is connected with the fact that a man is an existing and absolute subject of ALL his actions and states. The second source consists of the fact that it is a qualitatively definite existent, it has characteristics or a quality, with which THAT CONCRETE subject is distinguished from the others. The second source is an idea of human being, and a man only through this idea, combined with the others, is represented as the Universal unity, for the idea of him is positively made up with the all others, and it is a form of the absolute content. Though that very idea gives a possibility of its affirmation outside of everything as everything is outside, «and then its special quality makes it absolutely impenetrable for all the others and makes it an unconditional bound of everything, and as every creature has its own idea or peculiarity, everything is the same border for all things in that external relation, everything is absolutely impenetrable and, thus, instead of the inner positive unity, the interrelations of all things represent the external negative identity» (ibidem, p. 716). That mentioned source of a human being is empirical reality or a natural material source of his being. That reality only little by little becomes the one, and a man returns to the Universal unity from his «normal» (non-absolute) state and becomes the absolute out of himself freely and consciously. Three sources of being determine the two kinds of human being: 1) THE ABSOLUTE – what that subject becomes; 2) NON-ABSOLUTE – what he comes from. Hence two relatively contrary kinds of order of human being follow: 1) metaphysical and logical order where the absolute takes the first place; 2) genetic or phenomenal order, according to the nature of which the NON-ABSOLUTE, untrue, plural and particular are primary things. The primacy of one order is the last thing for the other. For all that, the genetic order, where the Absolute is only formed, presupposes the metaphysical order where the Absolute exists. The necessity of the absolutely true being as the base of human being reveals itself in the cognitive process. The problem of truth as a – 71 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia M. Libakova and Natalia P. Koptzeva. Native Culture of the 19th – 20th Centuries in Search After Truth… problem of criterion of our knowledge appears only in the human reality, which is complete neither from the temporal point of view (it doesn’t include future) nor from the point of view of completeness of the content (it doesn’t contain the perfect good). There is no point of speaking of truth from the point of view of the Absolute, for Will, Idea, Sense, Soul, the Spirit, Mind, Truth, Beauty, and the Good coincide in the Absolute. What is the form of the human reality where the primary truth is realized? That form is a concrete image of ARTIST, and not that one of God, but quite different. The content of Sophia is to be a border between the positive Nihility of the Absolute’s world and the concrete plurality of the world of human reality. Sophia is a total creative energy, which combines a real creative work (including the artificial creative work) and the aim embodied in the real creative work. Solovyov solves the poignant problem of theodicy in religious philosophy by bringing in the image of Sophia – justification of God for the Sophia (Fig. 2. 3. 4), the great image-and-symbol of Vladimir Solovyov and the whole Russian culture of the first third of the 20th century. The very use of the aesthetic image-and-symbol discovers the character of Vladimir Solovyov’s philosophy. Sophia is not a rational concept, but a mythological one. The origin of this mythological concept is also clear – it’s the Old Testament Biblical text «The Book of Proverbs». The mythological concept’s content is wisdom. Sophia tells about herself in the Bible: «The Lord possessed me in the beginning of his way, before his works of old… I was set up from everlasting, from the beginning of his way, or ever the earth was… When he prepared the heavens, I was there: when he set a compass upon the face of the depth: When he established the clouds above: when he strengthened the fountains of the deep: When he gave to the sea his decree, that the waters should not pass his commandment: when he appointed the foundations of the earth: Then I was by him, as one brought up with him…» (in the Russian translation: «… then I was an ARTIST by Him») (Chapter 8: 22-23; 27-30). The existence of the world as a permanent creation of a work of art was reflected more than once by Plato, Plotin, Dionysus Areopagite, and much later by F.W.J. Schelling and F. Nietzche in history of philosophy. Vladimir Solovyov’s innovation consists of the fact that he brings in existence of the evil in the world. Sophia is not the only creative energy and the aim of creative work, but it is also an ideal world, what it should be according to its supreme purport, the world of God’s conception. The human creative work gets its energy by joining to the world of Sophia, which is destined for giving it away. Sophia gets its energy from God and gives it to the created world, therefore the other mythological concept of Vladimir Solovyov’s philosophy, which has fundamental importance for the Russian Silver Age, is the Eternal Femality, having given that century multivarious impulses for the cultural development. In this context, truth is a coincidence of human creative work with Sophia and realization of aspiration for the perfect Good in all its displays – logical, ethical and artificial ones in human creative work. A cognizing subject is in his inner connections with the world owing to the being rooted state in the Absolute as the Universal unity. The comprehension of philosophy as WHOLE KNOWLEDGE, as a matter of life and not that one of school becomes stronger in the Russian tradition starting with Vladimir Solovyov. Abstract knowledge is necessary as for any man so for the whole mankind – it is impossible to achieve logical lucidity and systematic character of thinking. But – 72 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Fig. 2. Sophia Fig. 3. Sophia Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia M. Libakova and Natalia P. Koptzeva. Native Culture of the 19th – 20th Centuries in Search After Truth… Fig. 4. Sophia its transformation into some principle and absolutization brings philosophy to a deadlock. That’s why Vladimir Solovyov criticizes G.W.F. Hegel’s philosophical system as the end of New-European idealism. Solovyov says that, in Hegel’s view, all the philosophical concepts are self-development of the Absolute Nihility. While to the great Russian thinker a philosophical idea is a form of whole truth given in the intellectual contemplation identical with the artistic content of an artist. «Undoubtedly, the ideal intuition’s existence is always proved by the fact of artistic creative work… Those, who have any idea of the process of creative work, know very well that artistic ideas and images are not complex products of observation and reflection, but they come to the inner eye in their inner wholeness all at once, and an artist’s work is reduced to their development and embodiment into material details» (quotation: Davydov, 1988, p. 53). Undoubtedly, we have another tradition coming from F.W.J. Schelling’s philosophy of identity of intellectual intuition and creative work. But, in contrast to the philosophy of I. Kant and F.W.J. Schelling, Vladimir Solovyov’s philosophy states that the very creativity is not a product of ability for imagination, but a product of inspiration combining three different abilities: ability for imagination supposing subject’s certain activity, and at the same time it doesn’t reach that level of reality as the object of mind (practical mind in the first place); intellectual intuition as the supreme form of mind revealing the eternal truths or ideas; the ability for breakthrough in the transcendental world, which can be achieved neither by imagination nor even by mind. Thus, truth in Vladimir Solovyov’s philosophy is a form of whole knowledge dialectically taking off the contrasts of naturalism and rationalism in itself. – 74 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia M. Libakova and Natalia P. Koptzeva. Native Culture of the 19th – 20th Centuries in Search After Truth… This conception had a considerable influence on the Russian art of the 19th – 20th centuries. It is reflected in a large number of aesthetic Utopias characteristic of the Russian culture of that time and proceeding from the principle of the world’s change by the way of aesthetic transformation. The creators of that epoch conceive a work of art as the only true form of embodiment of whole knowledge of the artist and, therefore, able to transform the world external to the artist and the human Universe according to God’s conception of it. Thus, Vladimir Solovyov’s philosophical point of view is divided into many examples characteristic of history of the native artistic culture, which follows after his lifetime (like Friedrich Nietzche, Vladimir Solovyov died in 1900). Those examples are to be considered in the next part of this article. Example Dichotomies in interpretation of the image of woman in Russian culture in the end of the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th centuries The variety of woman’s images represented in the pieces of painting in the end of the 19th and at the beginning of the 20 th centuries discovers the whole plentitude of Sophia’s many-sidedness. The divine artist appears to be a border between the plurality embodied in the diversity of the World and the Absolute’s Positive Nihility. Representation of different measures of correlation between carnal and spiritual sources of female characters of the Russian painting conveys the frontier nature of Sophia’s position, combination of maximal spirituality and utmost embodiment, and displaying of one source through the other. «The Merchant’s Wife at Tea» (1918, canvas, oil. 120cm x 120cm) painted by B.M. Kustodiev (Fig. 5) is an example of visualization of correlation of carnal and spiritual sources where the former prevails over the latter. The painting represents a fleshy woman, a portly merchant’s wife on the balcony at tea-time against a background of a town. There are some signs pointing out the spiritual and carnal sources. These are the signs revealing the spiritual source in the painting: the space of the sky and churches. The signs pointing at the carnal source: the fleshy and portly Merchant’s Wife, a table lavishly set, a caracoling horse under the balcony. The disposition of painted signs in the painting allows to observe the construction of consecutive movement from the heart of pictorial space towards a spectator: from the sky to the churches, then to the space of the balcony, and to the well-dressed, richly-dressed Merchant’s Wife, and to the richly-laid table. Thus, an emanation is represented, the layers’ movement is from the depth to the surface, from inside to outside. The given representation can be characterized with the following notions: abundance, solidity, wealth, good quality, and prosperity. The painting visualizes the earthly wealth given to a human being by God. And the Merchant’s Wife is in the centre of that wealth and she appears to be endowed with God’s mercy. The portrayal of the Merchant’s Wife has something in common with the saucer in her hand: the outline of the saucer is correlated with the contour of her low-necked dress. Therefore, the very Merchant’s Wife is represented as some cup or vessel receiving its filling. What can that filling be? Two ways determining the essence of filling of the Merchant’s Wife as «vessel» can be represented in the painting. In the first place, the blueness of the sky and roofs of the churches correlates with the colour of the head-dress and eyes of the Merchant’s Wife, and with the colour of the saucer’s inner side. – 75 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia M. Libakova and Natalia P. Koptzeva. Native Culture of the 19th – 20th Centuries in Search After Truth… Fig. 5. Kustodiev Boris Michaylovich «The Merchant’s Wife at Tea» (1918, canvas, oil, 120x120) The eyes as a reflection of a soul reveal the inner filling of the Merchant’s Wife and her connection with the blueness of the sky. Thus, the Merchant’s Wife is presented to be filled with celestial, divine and spiritual source. In the second place, the Merchant’s Wife is represented at her tea-time; there are apples, grapes, a water-melon, jam, honey, and buns in front of her on the table. That is all the nature gives to a man for his satiety and life. In that case, the dishes on the table appear to be the gifts of Nature and God to a man. Thus, the Merchant’s Wife accepts the divine source by partaking of those gifts. Except for the plentiful supply of food on the table, a casket covered with a diaper cloth is presented in front of the Merchant’s Wife. The very casket as a separate sign-and-index points at some treasures, wealth, and gifts. There is a sum of signs: the casket and the diaper cloth – the covered casket – a sign of concealment, reticence, some sacrament. It turns out to be the following after synthesizing the casket’s meaning with the meanings of the other things of the sill life: there is a representation of the sacrament of accepting of God’s gifts presented as fruits, bread and grapes in particular – the Sacrament’s symbols. Therefore, the tea-drinking process as taking food transfigures into the Sacrament – accepting the divine source. Such a specific feature of the work of art should be noted: the Merchant’s Wife is represented sitting at the table at tea-time, but her gaze is turned to the spectator’s space, out of the painting’s frames. There is also the table coming to the spectator’s space and an apple rolling out to a spectator and suggesting that he should join to the tea-party, take the Sacrament, accept the divine gifts and be filled with spirituality through them. – 76 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia M. Libakova and Natalia P. Koptzeva. Native Culture of the 19th – 20th Centuries in Search After Truth… It is possible that we should draw the following general conclusion: the work of art «The Merchant’s Wife at Tea» represents a Merchant’s Wife divitem (Lat.), who has a healthy body and splendid flesh. In that case, «dives» (Lat.) is to be conceived as endowed by Divinity, and the abundance is God’s gift. Hence it follows that there is a representation of wealth (divitiārum) – the magnificent and solid house, the smart dress, the table lavishly set (and the very body of the Merchant’s Wife) conceived as God’s gift – that representation reveals itself as a form taken by and spiritual sources of quite another character in the painting «The Great Taking the Veil». A solemn procession of women of different ages is represented in the work of art «The Great Taking the Veil»: young girls going to the ceremony of taking the veil and nuns of elder age accompanying them are depicted. Taking the Veil is a rite of taking the monastic vows expressed in cutting off hair on the top of the head crosswise as a sign of devotion oneself to Christ and conversion into a servant of God. That rite’s essence is denial of one’s self-affirmation, the eternal Absolute source in the process of emanation. The representation of the earthly and carnal source appears to be an expression of the divine and spiritual source. Actually, the represented tea-drinking is a process of satiation of flesh, but conceived as acceptance of the divine gifts endowed by God, transfigures into the Sacrament – acceptance of the divine source, filling of flesh with spirituality. Thus, flesh is represented as a sign of the spiritual source. The Merchant’s Wife is one of those separate plural and various forms, into which the One Absolute is emanated. The image of the Merchant’s Wife visualizes such a correlation of carnal and spiritual sources, where the carnal source prevails, but it is an expression of the spiritual source at the same time. The piece of art «The Merchant’s Wife at Tea» painted by B.M. Kustodiev represents embodiment of the spiritual source visualizing one of the contradictions harmoniously combined in Sophia. Like B.M. Kustodiev’s «The Merchant’s Wife at Tea», the work of art «The Great Taking the Veil» (1898, canvas, oil. 178 x 195) painted by M.V. Nesterov (Fig. 6) is an example of representation of predominance of the carnal source over the spiritual one. But there is a visualization of correlation between the carnal earthly weaknesses, all the mundane affairs, and devotion oneself to God. A mundane man transfigures into a monk striving for subjection of his flesh to the Spirit and his Spirit to Christ. Taking the Veil is a rite of consecration, which is carried out for those, who are completely ready to devote themselves to God and refuse the mundane life for ascetic deeds in order the spiritual source would prevail over the carnal source. The main motif of the painting «The Great Taking the Veil»is a theme of procession, motion, departure, and a way. According to the plot, the scene is presented as a ceremonial appearance and procession of the women accompanying the young girls to the Taking the Veil rite. The represented theme as a fixation of some model of relation of finite and infinite visualizes the Absolute’s motion, coming out and emanation. It is developed by the signs of the work of art. There is a blooming pussy-willow branch in the foreground. According to the Russian Orthodox tradition, pussy-willow is a symbol of the palm branches laid under Christ’s feet when he was entering Jerusalem. Christ came to Jerusalem though he knew that people sought for his death there, for the death of his body. Jesus Christ is an example and ideal of harmonious combination of the divine and human, carnal and spiritual – 77 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia M. Libakova and Natalia P. Koptzeva. Native Culture of the 19th – 20th Centuries in Search After Truth… Fig. 6. Nesterov Mikhail Vasilyevich «The Great Taking the Veil» (1898, canvas, oil, 178x195) sources. Although while his entering Jerusalem, he has the spiritual source prevailing – he went to meet his death of his own free will; and that was the death of flesh for the sake of the Spirit’s victory. That is also a moment of revelation of submission to God’s will, acceptance and precise following to the dictate directions. The girl going to the rite of taking the veil, listening to the dictate directions of the Absolute source and carrying them out is ready to renounce the earthly blessing, all the mundane and carnal things. As a matter of fact, she «goes to meet her death» of her own will for the sake of spirituality’s victory. Hence a specificity of correlation between the carnal and spiritual sources visualized in the painting «The Great Taking the Veil» is displayed by drawing a parallel with Christ’s entrance to Jerusalem. The represented moment shows prevalence of the spiritual source over the carnal one in the depicted women’s characters and, in the first place, in those ones of the girls going to the rite of taking the veil. The represented girls can be compared with the thin and slim young birches. There is also a possibility to draw an analogy with the women and the wood as many elderly trees. Thus, there is a following correlation: the girls and the women, the young birches and the wood. As a matter of fact, the young saplings mean the process of wood’s renewal, continuation of its life and preservation. The young girls are the same continuation and form of preservation of the women of elder age: the monastic traditions are given to the girls and, thus, they are saved. That’s why taking the veil is a «great» rite, for there is a great importance of that event for conservation of the tradition and continuity of monasticism. – 78 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia M. Libakova and Natalia P. Koptzeva. Native Culture of the 19th – 20th Centuries in Search After Truth… Monasticism in the Orthodox tradition is comprehended as something that brings divine light to the world and to all people living on earth. The wax candles in the girls’ hands are a sign of that divine light, which comes to the world through them. The girls also seem to be like candles, all their lives are to be consecrated to giving the light to others and bringing God’s grace to the world. The girls’ inner light of spirituality is visualized in the flame of the candles in their hands. The girls as receptacles of the divine light appear to be Church – «the house of God on Earth», the place of meeting and connection of the divine and human sources. Like birches, the girls unite the earth and divine worlds: their roots are in the earth and the branches extend themselves to the sky. Descending motion from the sky down the slopes of the mountains and roofs of the churches and cells to the hermitage’s dwellers and further through them to the whole earth is visualized in the work of art. M.V. Nesterov’s painting «The Great Taking the Veil» reveals Sophia’s nature as a mediator bringing the divine energy to the World through the correlation of the carnal and spiritual sources represented in the women’s characters. On the one hand, the very women’s characters represented in the painting appears to be mediators bringing the divine light to the world, i.e. they make their way to the finite world. But on the other hand, they are maximally turned to the Absolute, and they approximate to the Absolute as much as possible for a human being. There is a representation of women and girls in their flesh and blood but they are maximally filled with spirituality, and their flesh is subjected to the spiritual source. The women’s characters of «The Great Taking the Veil» demonstrate a correlation of the carnal and spiritual sources, where spirituality predominates over flesh. The work of art visualizes the Absolute’s appearance and aspiration of the infinite source for its embodiment in the world of the finite source, for finding its bounds, and incarnation of the spiritual source in flesh. But, at the same time, there is a prevalence of the spiritual source over the carnal source, and it is conveyed in such a way: there is a representation of maximum display of the Absolute in the work of art. The finite form is filled with spirituality so much that its own boundaries and frames become small. The Absolute source has received its maximum display in the finite form, and the carnal nature is maximally filled with spirituality. Thus, M.V. Nesterov’s painting «The Great Taking the Veil» «de-picts» an emanative motion – display of the Divine nature in the variety of forms of the earthly world, having approached its limit, the bifurcation point – turning of the emanative motion into its contrast, immanative motion, into interrelation of the carnal and spiritual sources and a necessity of one of them for another as the determinative condition of their own existence. «Phantoms» (1903, canvas, tempera. 117x144,5) painted by V.E. Borisov-Musatov (Fig. 7) is an example of visualization of the spiritual source’s prevalence over the carnal source. The painting represents a young girl strolling not far from the estate in the autumn park. The distribution of light and dark colours relatively allows to divide the picture in two spaces: the space of the earth and that one of the heaven; the earth is represented as something darker, and the heaven, accordingly, is something much lighter. The staircase leading from the park to the house is a connecting link with the frontier space. The image of staircase combines the signs of earth and heaven – light and dark colours: dark stairs and light railings. The ascending wave of railings smoothly turns into the representation of – 79 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia M. Libakova and Natalia P. Koptzeva. Native Culture of the 19th – 20th Centuries in Search After Truth… Fig. 7. Borisov-Musatov Victor Elpidiphorovich «Phantoms» (1903, canvas, tempera, 117x144,5) the building’s columns ascending further to the dome with a spire melting in the sky. The tree painted in the left part of the picture is also a link connecting the spaces of earth and sky. The tree’s roots are in the earth, but its branches are painted as though stretching to the sky. The massive curved tree’s trunk transforms into its branches gradually getting thinner, and, consequently, there is a visualization of dissolution of mass, form and bodies as there is ascension and approach to the heavens – the sign of divinity. The main heroine is represented in such a way that a greater part of her is in the space of earth, but this personage shows her craving for penetrating into the space of heavens: aspiration for moving upwards is disclosed in the girl’s S-shaped posture, the manner she holds her hands hidden under the clothes, which is possible to compare with the folded wings that are about to unfold and make a flight. The clothes and space of the sky are correlates with each other in colours – the girl is like a cloud, and she doesn’t stroll, but she glides and smoothly rises up to the sky. The conditional character of the image of the girl, her figure, features of her face, hair-do – her body as a whole is an evidence of unimportance of all these things. And as the carnal source is of minimal importance, consequently, the other component, spirituality, is accentuated in the girl’s image. The fragment of cloth in the left part of the picture can be interpreted as a sigh of external appearance, form, and body disappearing, melting and fading away, from which the girl’s soul frees itself filled with spirituality and directed to the Absolute Spirit. So the main heroine’s image is a sign of only the spiritual nature of the girl becoming free from flesh and losing distinctness and definiteness of the form stipulated by the frames of flesh. On the whole, the girl’s image can be characterized with such notions as ephemeral being, illusiveness, lightness, mystique, and unreality. The synthesis of meanings of these – 80 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia M. Libakova and Natalia P. Koptzeva. Native Culture of the 19th – 20th Centuries in Search After Truth… notions and consideration of the girl’s image in the sum with the fragment of cloth represented in the left part of the painting’s space allow to conclude – there is a representation of the girl’s soul in the painting. As far as the soul is a new quality formed in the relation of the Spirit and flesh, then, as a consequence, it has features of the both «parents». Hence, the soul’s image takes the form of flesh in the painting. The work of art is named «Phantoms». A phantom is a notion pointing at display of something unrevealed, unreal, ephemeral, and illusive; a phantom is often a display of some event of the past, it’s a restless soul. A phantom is a sign of past, some memory. And there appears a question: what memory is represented in «Phantoms» of V.E. BorisovMusatov? What makes the soul be uneasy? And what makes impossible to find its peace? If the girl’s image is to be interpreted as a sign of soul, then the following answer to the raised questions is formed. Like flesh, a soul is a framing of the Spirit. On the one hand, a soul is connected with some concrete flesh and displays itself or becomes existent only being joint with flesh. On the other hand, a soul doesn’t lose its connection with the Spirit. Only soul of a finite human being keeps its memory of the original harmonious state before incarnation and being in the infinite. Having a memory of its belonging to the Eternity, a soul seeks to restore its relation with the Absolute Spirit. Hence, a soul seeks to be reunited with the Spirit. But it’s possible only in the case of rupture between a soul and flesh, and achievement of the spiritual sphere is possible by dissolution of flesh. As a result, V.E. Borisov-Musatov’s piece of art «Phantoms» represents a ghost looking for its peace – it’s a soul of a girl becoming free from flesh and making its way to the Spirit as its source and origin. In that case, a phantom is a soul, which almost left its body, and it seeks to find peace in unity with the Absolute Spirit. The depicted woman’s personage represents such a correlation of the carnal and spiritual sources, where the spiritual sphere predominates. In that case, the woman’s image as a visualization of the eternal femality reveals Sophia’s mediatory function. Sophia, as a guide of a finite human being to the sphere of infinite, shows the way making the enthusiastic aspiration of finite being be realized, get rid from its limited nature and achieve the unity with the infinite. F.A. Malyavin’s piece of art «The Whirlwind» (1906, canvas, oil, 223x410) (Fig. 8) also visualizes prevalence of the spiritual source over the carnal one, but the women’s images of this painting suggest entirely contrary way directing a finite human being to the divine energy. Peasant girls seized by motion of a rapid dance are represented in the piece of art «The Whirlwind». The representation of the girls brightly displays the carnal source; the warm of flesh and its vital power are expressed by volume, vividness and richness of colours. There is a representation of the personages full of health, sunburnt, rosy, merry, and active. Bright and variegated dresses with fluffy skirts, splendid shawls and beads are the attributes showing the national features in the girls’ images and emphasizing not everyday and ordinary, but festival character of the represented scene. The girls are painted in complicated foreshortenings with expressive gestures of their hands visualizing an active motion; the fluttering dresses accentuate rapidity of that motion. Pulsation of colours fixes a certain rhythm of the motion. The red colour spread on the whole painting is to intensify the expression of action, activity, passion, and unrestraint. – 81 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia M. Libakova and Natalia P. Koptzeva. Native Culture of the 19th – 20th Centuries in Search After Truth… Fig. 8. Malyavin Philip Andreyevich «The Whirlwind» (1906, canvas, oil, 223x410) As a result, the rapid and active motion represented in the piece of art can be defined with such a notion as dance. A dance is a system of some regulated actions, which are to express something. In the folk Russian tradition preserving the features of heathenism as indigenous Russian religiosity, a dance is a rite, and its carrying out is directed to realization of a human being’s aspiration for restoration of the relation with the Absolute source. On the one hand, the whirlwind expressed through the wild character of colours and complication of foreshortenings and gestures can be comprehended as an instant rush of the wind, which flapped the heroines’ skirts and inflated the sleeves of their dresses. The «whirlwind» can also be considered as something more generalized – as the eternal element, powerful energy of nature. A whirlwind is a storm and dynamic rapid and unrestrained dance as display of elemental force in a man; the girls are in ecstatic rush bringing them out of the everyday life and breaking them away from the profane state. Thus, the dance visualized in the painting «The Whirlwind» reveals the enthusiastic aspiration of the finite source for breaking out the limits of its own finiteness in order to achieve the unity with the infinite. The rapid rhythm of the dance entirely seizes the girls and, like a whirlwind, raises them out of the limits of definiteness and finiteness. The personages’ big figures, formed by the wild motion of bright colours overflowing the whole surface of the canvas, break out the frames of the painting and limited space, too narrow for them in their rushing motion. Like bacchantes seek to reach the limits in unrestrained ritual actions of Dionysian mysteries, the dancing girls seek to the brink of the carnal source in order to overcome it and break out to the space of the Spirit, to tear and overwhelm flesh for the sake of the Spirit’s victory. Thus, F.A. Malyavin’s piece of art «The Whirlwind» represents women’s characters expressing the wild nature of the element and wild display of the carnal source reaching ecstasy. At the same time, the aim of such «whirlwind of flesh» is transformation into its contrast – that is the victory of spirituality. The piece of art visualizes the enthusiastic aspiration for reaching the limit of the carnal and finite source and break out to the space of the infinite Spirit. – 82 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia M. Libakova and Natalia P. Koptzeva. Native Culture of the 19th – 20th Centuries in Search After Truth… Conclusion The image of femality in the Russian painting of the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries has a large variety of its aspects – starting with the images maximally expressing the victory of flesh and the earthly nature of the Eternal femality, and to the images maximally expressing the aspiration for freedom from flesh for the sake of the victory of the Spirit, Sophia’s unity with Divinity. The women’s images in the paintings reveal the dichotomy of Sophia as Divine artist – that On the one hand, the spiritual source has a possibility to display itself only through the carnal source while the carnal source is subjected by the spiritual source. On the other hand, the carnal source is able to exist only in the aspiration for spirituality, and, at the same time, the carnal source seeks to dominate over the spiritual source. These contradictions and mutual craving of the spiritual and carnal sources for each other predetermine Sophia’s being as being of the Eternal femality in dialectic interrelation of the is embodiment of the Spirit and spiritualizing of flesh. On the one hand, the women’s personages are depicted as expression of the way of the Spirit’s motion to flesh when the maximum display of spirituality brings to the Spirit’s embodiment in the end and turns to be a prevalence of the carnal source and victory of flesh. On the other hand, the women’s images are represented as expression of the contrary way of motion of flesh to the Spirit when the maximum display of the carnal source brings to rupture with flesh and turns into a predominance of the Spirit and victory of the Spirit. The mutual necessity of the contrary notions, excluding each other, is a necessity of the carnal and spiritual sources as the determinative condition of their existence. carnal and spiritual sources. The variety of the image of woman is represented in all its magnificence in the painting of the end of the 19 th and the beginning of the 20 th centuries. The whole contradictoriness of the image of woman, combination of uncombined things – the Mother of God and fatal woman, a close earthly and f leshy beauty and a distant mysterious stranger, the Soul of the World, – are expressed in the pieces of painting. All that splendid variety of the women depicted in the paintings maximally expresses Sophia’s contradictoriness and suggests a human being the only comfortable way eliminating the experience of tragedies and breaking of hopes, the way which brings to comprehension of Truth. References 1. Koptzeva, N.P. Introduction to aletology (monograph) – Krasnoyarsk: Krasnoyarsk State University, 2002. – P. 123-137. 2. Losev, A.F. Vladimir Solovyov and his time. – Moscow: Thought Edition, 1991. 3. Critics of Neo-Marxist conceptions of dialectics of the 20th century / Ed. J.N. Davydov. – Moscow: Moscow State University, 1988. 4. Solovyov, V.S. Collected works in 2 volumes. – Moscow: Thought Edition, 1988. 5. Solovyov, V.S. Collected works in 2 volumes. – Moscow: Truth Edition, 1989. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2009 2) 84-93 ~~~ УДК 378.034 Ethical Education Innovations: Ethic-Project Work in the Sphere of Commercial Business-Education Elena N. Viktoruka* and Efim V. Chebotarevb a Siberian State Technological University, 82 Mira, Krasnoyask, 660049 Russia b System Development Holding, 1-201 Televisornaja st., Krasnoyarsk, 660032 Russia 1 Received 24.02.2009, received in revised form 03.03.2009, accepted 10.03.2009 In the given article we consider the conditions and perspectives of development of ethical types of «know-how» (and first of all, ethic-project works), basing on the many years’ working experience of LLC SDH, the «Training Hall» project (Krasnoyarsk). Ethical education innovations are analyzed with a due consideration of global change of the education paradigm, of today’s moral peculiarities of «high modern» and specifics of the Russian society’s moral, where traditional, re-traditional, rational and post-rational types of moral interrelate with each other in a complex way. Authors describe one of the least researched segments of «the ethic-educative services market» – additional corporative commercial education. They reveal certain difficulties in new values formation (including the moral ones), and, as an example, we present our ethic-educative «product» «The Management of Involvement». Keywords: Ethical types of «know-how», ethical education, ethical innovations, corporative commercial education, ethic projecting. Introduction Today, ethic education undergoes significant changing as in Russia, so in the whole world, and it is caused by a whole number of factors. Firstly, it is the transfer of education into a post-industrial phase, which has the following peculiarities, as massovization, commercialization, flexibility, internationalization, appearance of new forms of education (additional, corporative, businesseducation) and new educational technologies. Appeals and trends of the post-industrial paradigm are revealed in the ethical education to their full extent: «the acquaintance» of the * 1 lection-seminar model is substituted by «the mastering of activity patterns», where exercises and trainings of all types dominate, and also by the model of «production». The following forms as project session, project workshop, analytical session, organizing-activity play, and brainstorming and so on are typical for the level of «production». New educational technologies development and implementation quite seriously expand the sphere of ethics, going beyond the borders of a standard humanitarian discipline, taken from the curriculums of state higher education institutions. Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved – 84 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena N. Viktoruk and Efim V. Chebotarev. Ethical Education Innovations: Ethic-Project Work in the Sphere… Secondly, ethical education innovations are caused by transformation of the moral as a social sub-system: the moral of «high modern» (R.G.Apresjan) or of «early globalization society» (V.I. Bakshtanovsky) is characterized by chaos, by the mixing of moral values and principles, and it speaks of «post-rational moral» formation. As specialists justly notice, the moral crisis, we observe, instability of morals, chaos in the world of values – all these mean a prolonged and manysided complicated process of the given civilization’s values-and-standards system renewal, of accumulation of positive tendencies, generated by it in the moral life, which are connected with hopeful prospects (V.I. Bakshtanovsky, Yu.V.Sogomonov). Commercial ethical education is defined b y the social and professional «order» for reflexive mastering, development and formation of corporative and professional values. Thirdly, the image of modern ethic education is to a large extent completed by the theory and practice of applied types of ethics and an increasing «through» involvement of ethic knowledge, skills and experience into professional knowledge. The demand in development of TECHNOLOGIES of ethic knowledge appliance for some concrete corporative and organizational problems salvation is obvious in commercial ethic education, as well as in applied types of ethics on the whole. V.I. Bakshtanovsky, the director of the Applied Ethics Research Institute (Tyumen State Oil and Gas University), calls the development of such technologies to be «ethic know-how». Phronestic technologies are referred to a qualitatively new form of knowledge. «Phronesis» is a peculiar kind of knowledge, being opposed as to the theoretical one (epistema), so to the skills and knowledge of the craftsman (techno); it is a merge of skills and knowledge, being different from the useless and the utmost general, because it is a pragmatic kind of knowledge (praxis) about the peculiar and the private (Bakshtanovsky, Yu.V.Sogomonov, 2, p.148). It is impossible to extract this knowledge deductively from the system of scientific principles, from the universals of any level; it cannot be known beforehand and is revealed only in appliance to a concrete case. The processes of innovative changes in the ethic education are the subject of scientific reflections and wide discussions as in Russia, so abroad (1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). Thanks to mass media heavy coverage, one can get acquainted to a whole row of ethic-educative projects, being realized in Moscow, St. Petersburg, Tyumen and other Russian towns. The authors and coordinators of these projects underline the importance of the modern stage of ethic education, as far as it is connected not only with new programs creation, but also with an implementation of new educational forms and modern educational technologies: management influence on the moral and up-bringing activity, consulting, case-studies, ethic workshops, ethicbusiness plays, ethic simulations, ethic projecting. These technologies bring ethics far beyond the borders of traditional higher-education-institution programs and demonstrate the social order for practical morals as an instrument of formation of effective professional and life strategies and corresponding them norms, principals and ideals. The subject of the given article is the least studied segment of ethic education – a commercial business education, on the materials of the System Development Holding «SDH» in Krasnoyarsk. Opinion So, in Russia the segment of commercial corporative ethic education is poorly studied, but it is precisely the sphere of rapid development of phronestic technologies, development of ethic kinds of know-how. Ethic projecting is a complicated research field for a whole number of reasons: • It is a continuous work (from several weeks to several years); – 85 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena N. Viktoruk and Efim V. Chebotarev. Ethical Education Innovations: Ethic-Project Work in the Sphere… • It is a work, generating an original (or even a unique) product, which is impossible to predict beforehand, that is why it is described sooner by its results; • This work is based on «masterhood», which analysis and transfer are encumbered, because the masterconsultant’s «unrevealed» knowledge prevails; • Being a commercial corporative «order», such a work is often a «confidential» product, and here, the non-disclosure of performed analytical and projecting work data is warranted beforehand. Nevertheless, it is maybe necessary to single out the main ideas and principals of this work. The main idea of ethic projecting is development of corporative culture elements (institutes or infrastructure elements) upon the proximate co-authorship of company’s employees. Here, the main task is not to be carried away by the temptation to do it by ourselves and not to create the target document, instead of the participants. «The counter motion» from ethic-applied speculations to the demands of the real moral practice is an obligatory condition of the ethic-project activity, which cannot be reduced to the formula: «order – development – implementation» (Bakshtanovsky, Yu.V.Sogomonov, 2, p.204). One of the main conditions of the ethicproject work is creation of a document, being adequate to the real condition of society and professional community. It is the specialists’ competence to define the kind (type) of final document, where the social moral will be detailed. In the example below, we present such a document, which is the formalization and regulation of ideology of one of the corporations of the Krasnoyarsk region. Ethic projecting is always a multi-level process, which stages are the following: pre-project work (interviews with the owners, top-managers and key specialists, questioning / testing of the personnel, observation of the employees in their real professional situation); different approaches to the model constructing; technology of discussion and perfection, final version; analysis of the project «lessons». Its «super-task» is being accentuated on every of these stages: not simply to help the subject (organizations, associations) in its striving to activate the process of self-regulation, but to try to influence on the MOTIVES of such an actualization. It is important to raise a problem in the subject’s conscious, concerning the phenomenon of actual domineering of selfregulation utilitarian motives, and to increase the motive of self-criticism of a concrete moral situation in the organization, the situation the subject is involved in at present moment (Bakshtanovsky, Yu.V.Sogomonov, 2, p.204). The work on a project contains the following blocks: problematic situation – tasks – motivational complex – self-definition, concerning the corporative mission – employee, as a subject of moral choice – behavior requirements – expertconsultative commission – comments. In the course of transfer of Russian education in to the post-industrial paradigm, one of the most important questions in the process of new educative technologies assimilation is: shall we borrow the techniques, having been developed in the West or to create our own ones? Of course, there is no one single answer here, but what concerns ethic-project works with Russian (in particular with Krasnoyarsk) organizations, we may surely say that there is nothing to be borrowed. In some corporations there are elements and even blocks of axiological management (and education), but, first of all, this kind of experience is still mainly segmentary, and secondly, it has not frequently any system (it does not embrace all the sphere of corporative culture and may omit a regular company training). That is why we are to invent much by – 86 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena N. Viktoruk and Efim V. Chebotarev. Ethical Education Innovations: Ethic-Project Work in the Sphere… ourselves. In particular, in the course of this year we are planning to bring to life a new consulting product «Management of Involvement» together with Novosibirsk consultants, and this product will be just exactly oriented to implementation of axiological management in companies, including the means and process of training. The longstanding practice of LLC SDH, the «Training Hall» project (Krasnoyarsk) allows singling out the following peculiarities of nonacademic ethic business-education: а) in commercial business-education, formation of ethic skills, knowledge and experience is associated to the organization’s «order» for formation of a certain corporative SYSTEM OF VALUES. Values, as a phenomenon, are not at all reduced to the moral ones. But, the dominating ones are dignity, duty, and corporative responsibility, along with such values, as result orientation, economical feasibility and market leadership; b) Concrete company’s ethic has a concrete meaning, making references to the panhuman morals be inappropriate and so on. For example, the following question requires very often a separate discussion in companies: how should the colleagues help each other – after the «needing» colleague asks for help or upon the proposal of the one «who can help». And very often they come to a conclusion that even if an employee needs some help, and it is obvious to his colleagues, they should not offer their help to him. Otherwise, the responsibility for the task, being performed by the help needing colleague, disappears (as far as, answering to the excuse: «nobody could help me and so on…», the following question should appear: «and whom did you ask for a help?!»). Though, from the point of view of the majority – it is inhumane and even somehow amoral; c) Company’s ethic has not so much an abstract character (describing general rules), as an applied one, in its pure form. That is why (in case of a full-rate realization of company’s axiological management) it goes through all the vital elements of the business-organism: strategic elections, business-processes, goals/results, – and all this interrelation is being demonstrated in the process of corporative training, is made more visible and «implemented» into the employee’s behavior models, what can be observed in the example given in the of the section «Policies»; d) Ethic business-education is resultoriented, and that is defined in еру achievement of these or those key figures, which reflect the loyalty to the organization’s ideology. For example, the value of «customer focus» is connected with such concrete values, as the number of complaints from the buyers’ part; the share of clients, being satisfied by the quality of service; the number of justified claims from the part of inner clients (representatives of other departments), with whose help one can estimate correspondence of the personnel’s behavior to the company’s ethic and «correct» the employee’s behavior (both by carrot and sticks). Formalization of the organization’s ethic is a complex product, which combines different procedures, and there is not only training work, but also project work, and «production» on an adequate level. It is predominantly the management team, which is engaged in production. In the course of the project and with a help of consultants, it forms the organization’s mission (ideology), a short code of most reclaimed norms, and organization’s values. The next stage is the order to consultants for development and maintenance of the project, what means implementation of these values in the organization and also includes the usage of training technologies. As a result, the Company-client gets not only the system of company’s ideology implementation, but also the mechanisms of control, which allows permanent – 87 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena N. Viktoruk and Efim V. Chebotarev. Ethical Education Innovations: Ethic-Project Work in the Sphere… tracing of its realization level. The system of KPI (Key Performance Indicators) can serve as the main technology of ideological plans realization control, which allows considering the level of ideological correspondence objectively and with the help of figures. To these very indicators is «attached» the system of motivation, which supports precisely the required and «ideologically correct» behavior of employees. Coordination of values, development of the system of values realization, mechanisms of control and motivation – all these present a continuous process in the process of the Company’s activity: 1. First of all, the Company foresees the fact of ethic mismatch, using the axiological filter in the process of staff recruitment. For that very reason, they create blocks of procedures in the structure of staff recruitment, which are appealed to show the candidate’s competence in the sphere of the Company’s ideology. For example, value: «customer focus» – competence: «customer orientation» – skills: «active hearing» and «hierarchy flexibility» are revealed in the course of an interview and assessment procedures. 2. Moreover, in the course of probation period, they consider the indicators by the adaptation card, where the new-comer’s ideological correspondence is reflected. For example, value: «customer focus» – KPI «the number of justified claims from the consumers’ part concerning the quality of service» 3. When the employee is hired for a permanent job, in the motivation system they reflect a plan, concerning the indicators, and which do not allow stepping aside from the ethic priorities of the Company. For example, value: «customer focus» – KPI: «the number of justified claims from the consumers’ part concerning the quality of service» – planned value: «not more than two claims» – monthly bonus, if the plan is achieved «**** rubles» Only in case of such a systematic work, there appears a possibility to create the environment for full-rate realization of the Company’s values and ideological orienteering points (ref. «Is axiological management valuable?», «Social Partnership» journal №3 (5) 2008». In Russian business education, ethic projecting has its own peculiarities: the order for formation of corporative values of «western», «bourgeois» type is performed on the basis of the native moral, where the trend for traditional «natural» moral is rather strong, and which is characterized by: the limited choice, authoritarianism, the weak social dynamism, the limited capability to mobilization of inner development resources. «A stagnation sub-type of this kind of moral has been developed in this country for various reasons: the person accepts his fate as an inevitable play of chance of his own birth fact, which does not need any consideration, while the boarders of his life activity are clearly defined, and he knows, who he is, what he should do, and what his life is. It means that there is no any project of one own “I”, and if wishes and cultural images are balanced, the diapason of choice is very limited» (Bakshtanovsky, Yu.V.Sogomonov, 2, p.204). The notions of freedom and social justice, entrepreneurship and ethic norms, success and decency are not compatible with this kind of «immature», «re-traditional» moral. In the given situation, «the original material» can turn out to be one of the curbstones, which cannot resist all the powers of the ideological machine, and is not able to perform the axiological transformation independently. So, for example, in the course of last decades, «ethoses» of the soviet sphere of service and soviet trade with their unwritten codes formed the situation, when growing like mushrooms cafes, restaurants, boutiques and so on could hire only young people, who had not yet assimilated the values of the ethos of – 88 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena N. Viktoruk and Efim V. Chebotarev. Ethical Education Innovations: Ethic-Project Work in the Sphere… the soviet public service and trade, where the instrumental value of «the skill to be useful» (the modern «customer focus») was taken as «groveling». And the instrumental values of amiability, the skill of compromising, accuracy, helpfulness, and correct speech – the values of the western «bourgeois» business ethics – are implemented into the Russian conscious with a big difficulty, as far as in this country rational and post-rational moral appears only in separate professional highly-competitive centers: trading companies; companies, providing professional services; innovative industrial companies. Example A Company’s order for formation of the given concrete organization’s ethics presents by itself a complex of training and consulting procedures, which are usually set in the following succession: 1. The Company’s self-definition. Its expected result is a formalized Company’s ideology a. Definition of the organization’s vision, mission and its values b. Definition of «the hedgehog concept» of the organization (the key point of efforts exertion) c. Analysis of the organization’s resources and concept realization possibilities d. Definition of the key factors of success and strategic competences 2. Creation of development strategy in correspondence with the Company’s ideology a. Creation of the field of strategies according to the Company’s perspectives on the basis of the key factors of success and taking into consideration the analysis of the Company’s environments: its Finances; Clients; Inner processes; and Personnel b. Strategies decomposition up to the goals, tasks and business events c. Scheduling of a timetable of the strategy realization. In the result we get a strategic plan 3. Description of the Company’s operational activity a. Description of the main processes with due consideration of the Company’s ideology (for example, if we take «efficiency» as a value, then the processes can be simplified, then we get some additional points of control and etc.). As a result, we get described flows of Company’s values formation b. Separation of the job-positions responsibility zones according to the processes and products of the Company. In the result we get the main regulations and procedures c. Development of the system of indicators, which allows performing a balanced (and it turns out to be ideological as well (if we continue the example, these will be the additional control points of deadlines/ efficiency)) control of processes realization according to the job-positions. In the result we get the regulation according to the departments and job-positions 4. Creation of the motivation system, which supports the ideological choice of the Company. Here, everything is rather simple: the system must be able to meet the competition (must attract and keep the personnel); the system must support the necessary indicators, having been achieved; the system must support the achievement of forthcoming (and not only of behindhand) indicators. As a rule, it includes the following: a. The system of labor remuneration i. Its constant component (rewards for job content performance) ii. Its variable component (rewards for efficiency) – 89 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena N. Viktoruk and Efim V. Chebotarev. Ethical Education Innovations: Ethic-Project Work in the Sphere… iii.Benefits (the system of rewards and compensations for the personnel keeping and its loyalty increase) b. The system of non-material motivation Formation of the organization’s system of values starts from the self-identification. In particular, it becomes obvious that the following questions should be separated in their discussion in the course of the project work for ideology formulation: 1. Who are we 2. What are we for OUR CREDO: WE CREATE. ALWAYS For us: working in the Company is a MODEL of life of a business person, which allows to combine the process of earning money and the feeling of deep professional and personal satisfaction It is development of oneself as a BUSINESSMAN, i.e. «a person, who creates his own part of the SYSTEM» upon minimized efforts and comfortable conditions and getting the financial and hormonal results 3. Where are we going to 4. What is important for us in the process of achievement 5. How shall we achieve it Thereat, the answers to these questions presuppose not so much specific content, which will reflect the chosen segment of the market, where the given Company is presented, as they formulate the attitude of the key competent persons of the Company towards themselves and their surrounding reality. Here, we shall give an example of ethic-project work with one of the Krasnoyarsk organizations; the following document has been created in the course of this work: «Ideology of the Group of Companies…». Formation of this document has taken two oneday sessions and about eight hours of independent work of our consultants. The given document allows detailing the process of realization of the mentioned above positions. Who we are: «We, the employees of the Group of Companies «SYSTEM», are the team of professionals, who create and realize new entrepreneurial possibilities, what demands the highest level of competency and longsightedness. It allows us working successfully on the venture markets and feeling deep professional satisfaction, while meeting the demands of the market and corporative ambitions. It is a UNITITY of vision and of understanding of the forces, which drive us and our business And that is why we are ready not only to declare all these ideological orienteering positions, but also to prove them by our real BUSINESS ACHIEVEMENTS Then, it really brings joy. Much joy. And, first of all, it brings joy to us. WHAT WE ARE FOR: «OUR MISSION WE DO THE FOLLOWING PROFESSIONALLY ○○ buy perspective assets ○○ hold control, increasing the cost ○○ trade efficiently, DEEPENING THE CONFIDENCE OF OUR PARTNERS PS: it makes us happy. Very happy. Everybody’s happy» WHERE WE ARE GOING TO: OUR VISION OF THE COMPANY IN 10 YEARS: • INSURANCE: safety of our key assets • STAFF: ххх thousands employees in transnational teams • CAPITALIZATION: ххх euro assets of our own • CONFIDENCE of our partners: ххх euro assets in control – 90 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena N. Viktoruk and Efim V. Chebotarev. Ethical Education Innovations: Ethic-Project Work in the Sphere… • SCALE of our business activity: three continents’ markets coverage WHAT IS IMPORTANT FOR US: OUR VALUES: 1. SAFETY. We are a strategically controlled corporation. That is why the most important condition for realization of our longterm corporative ambitions and plans is safety of our key resources: ○○ Of the Owner ○○ Of the Company ○○ Of the Employees team have a possibility to become partners of our Company and can realize their ambitions by means of ○○ Their professionalism – their corres pondence to the qualification require ments ○○ Their interest – their involvement into the working process and the life of our Company ○○ Their loyalty – adherence to the goals of their team and our Company HOW WE SHALL ACHIEVE OUR 2. ETHICS OF BUSINESS RELATIONS. For us – adherence to the agreements is an obligatory requirement to the professional suitability of our team’s members. If agreements have been made – then, it is obligatory to fulfill them, if they are out of date – then, it is possible to discuss them and to reconsider, in case the new changes have been accepted – they are again inviolable and are the key criterion of possibility of further interaction as with the outer, so with the inner environment. Precisely, that is why the following ethic results are so important for us: ○○ Satisfied partner ○○ Harmony of our interests 3. LEADERSHIP. Our ambitions are preeminently fascinating, they are really high. Thereat, we possess the resources, which full-rate usage let us to achieve really desirable results. That is why nothing can prevail us from realizing of the following ○○ High standards of our activity ○○ Dynamic development of our technologies and systems ○○ High profitableness of the main kinds of our activities ○○ Our Company’s prestige image 4. A SUCCESSFUL EMPLOYEE. Staff is everything for us. That is why we are ready to combine our corporative goals and the interests of our employees – the key members of our GOALS: OUR PRINCIPLES: 1. We are «System», as far as independently from the hierarchy, every member of the Company is a part of the huge mechanism, brining him money and satisfaction, that is why 2. We receive in our team only those people, with whom we feel personal sympathy, as far as we understand that our work demands to be always ready to collaborate and also to trust, and in connection with all these 3. We use the information, having been obtained within the Company, out of its bounds only after it has been reconciled with our topmanager, and it is possible because 4. We do not include in to our team those people, whose personal and professional interests are in a direct conflict, and that is why 5. We stick to the point, that the main requirement to everybody’s work is «Grow or Go Away», and in case it is not satisfied 6. We are ready to change a member of our team, if he is obviously inefficient. A new member of our team must prove his efficiency in the course of his probation period, which is estimated according to his key indicators, and moreover 7. We are ready to express and accept criticism and praise in accordance with the operating results of every member of our team. – 91 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena N. Viktoruk and Efim V. Chebotarev. Ethical Education Innovations: Ethic-Project Work in the Sphere… Thereat, we criticize only in face to face or in the presence of a very «close» circle, avoiding spectators in the face of subordinate employees or Company’s partners. It makes our relations open-hearted and transparent, and it brings to the following 8. We realize the principle «all for one, one for all», cementing the relations of friendship and trust within the team and shortening the communication gap, and that is why 9. We address each other «on a first-name basis» and all these speaks about the following 10. We know: «SYSTEM» MAKES HAPPY. VERY HAPPY. EVERYBODY IS HAPPY! The structure and content of the presented document let us also demonstrate one important technological principle of the ethic-project work: a qualitative ethic project presupposes a certain balance between the sections, which characterize SENSE-MAKING, and the sections, which formulate STANDARDS. On one hand, such a project allows avoiding dangerous extremes in administrative regulations of the organization’s moral life and, on the other hand, avoiding moral anarchy and refusal from pan-human moral influence on the individual professional-ethic decisions. Upon the fact of realization of the given project, the ideological tree of the company has been discussed and agreed and it has allowed the participants of the project group (top-managers and key employees) to agree also the requirements of realization of the operative line of management. The participants develop a certain understanding of the following condition, that obligations, being formed by the professional community of the Company, can become effective only inasmuch, as they become the result of the common AGREEMENT. The project work result is «instrumentalization» of the moral values, norms and principles. In the given document, it is open through the choice of a recommended concrete decision, mean, or action, which involves directly or implicitly some moral value. This is precisely the way, the effect of the ethic projecting is revealed: to invent a method to combine the world-outlook and the normative block of life of the Company, being set in a document, provision, and regulation. Conclusions 1. Today, development of innovative ethiceducative technologies takes place in commercial corporative and business-education. And here, correlation of traditional and «advanced» educative technologies, being in demand by the post-industrial society, is obviously to the benefit of the models of «mastering» (training and imitations) and «production» (sessions, organizing-activity plays and so on.). 2. Practice of the SDH Company (System Development Holding) proves that in this very sector, ethic projecting is closely connected to the «order» for formation of systems of corporative professional values of concrete organizations. 3. In the modern conditions, relevance of ethic business-education is an «emerging» demand: being «deeply» realized, it is YET rarely formulated in the form of a concrete order, with concrete financing. In the given direction, the work perspectives are connected with already a ready suggested product «The Management of Involvement». Such a «wrapping» underlines an obvious use for the client. 4. The sector of ethic business-education is not large, but it is obviously important: here, the selection of new ethic values, «a quiet revolution» take place in fact, not in word, and along with the instrumental values (custom focus, responsibility, independence, ability to self-control and others), it also forms universal values (values of business and life success, professionalism, rationalism, individualism, freedom of choice and responsibility). – 92 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena N. Viktoruk and Efim V. Chebotarev. Ethical Education Innovations: Ethic-Project Work in the Sphere… References 1. Bakshtanovskiy V.I. Sogomonov Y.V. Ethics of profession: mission, code, deed. - Tyumen: NII off applied ethics TyumSOGU 2005 2. Bakshtanovskiy V.I. Sogomonov Y.V. Introduction in applied ethics/Momograph /Tyumen: NII off applied ethics TyumSOGU 2006. 392 3. Brown M.T. Corporate integrity. Organizational Ethics and Leadership. Cambrige, 2005 4. Business university in innovation economy Edited by Y.B. Rubin. – M.: Market DS Corporation, 2005. – 402. P 5. Dauten D. Today’s Work Ethic Just no Longer Works//The Boston Globe,2007, March 25 6. Ethics of education Semestiral Papers, Issue 26 Edited by Bakshtanovskiy V.I. and N.Karaukhov/ Tyumen 2005 7. Ethics’s conference, Issue 29 – Tyumen: NII off applied ethics TyumSOGU 2006 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2009 2) 94-103 ~~~ УДК 001.89:378.33 Russian and Foreign Experience of Distributive Relations in the Sphere of Science and Education Integration Viktoria G. Akulich* Krasnoyarsk branch of the Moskow State Univesity of Economics, Statistics and Informations 123 Semaphornaya st., Krasnoyarsk, 660012 Russia 1 Received 24.02.2009, received in revised form 03.03.2009, accepted 10.03.2009 In the given article we consider peculiarities of distributive relations in the sphere of science and higher education in developed foreign countries. We raise the problems of development of distributive relations, which appear in the process of becoming of scientific and educational components integration in the sphere of the Russian higher education. Keywords: integration, distributive relations, higher education, science, researches, financing sources, state budget, institution of higher education (IHE). Introduction In the conditions of modern market, a steady development of the economical system greatly depends on technological innovations creation and expansion, innovations which being a result of scientific researches, carried out by different universities. Development of market relations radically changes economical conditions of the higher education sphere functioning, which, being a source of new knowledge, transforms the knowledge into a competitive product. Thereat, innovative pattern of the country economy development changes the role of the higher school, and now it consists in the native industry innovative way of development, i.e. in active participation of IHEs in innovative projects realization in the science-technical sphere. Market economy demands to move the institutions of higher education out into the * 1 rank of the main organizations of knowledgeintensive production development, which take part in scientific knowledge transformation into a source of economical growth; and in the result of this process, innovations and their practical appliance become a source of profit in the scientific-educational cognition in the modern world. Thus, training of specialists, being able to meet the requirements of the innovative economy, becomes the main target of the higher education sphere in the world scientific-educational process, i.e. they must be not only its active participants, but innovation subjects in all the spheres of the social life. Being based on scientific knowledge, education becomes a vitally important condition, which contributes to the salaried employee’s competitive ability, becomes a personal demand and a significant factor of the market competition. Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved – 94 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Viktoria G. Akulich. Russian and foreign experience of distributive relations in the sphere of science… And, in present time, only an educated specialist, being able to apply the newest research and development implementations in practice, can count for him being demanded in the labour market, feels reassured concerning his material support and well adapts to the conditions of the modern informative society. Naturally, training of such specialists is done in higher professional institutions, which fulfill the following main functions: reproduction and growth of the intellectual, scientific-technical, and cultural potential of the nation (Gendler and others. 2005, P.64) for all the branches of the national economy. Innovative form of the market economy development determines the necessity to involve the higher education sphere into the market relations and to form its innovative sources of financing in dependence on scientific-educational services demand and supply. Consequently, distributive relations in the sphere of science and higher education integration must acquire a qualitatively new form, which brings these two components development to an adequate level. That is why salvation of the problem of influence of distributive relations mechanism on the science-and-higher-education integration is very important for development of any country economy. Opinion 1: Foreign institutions of higher education pay special attention to fundamental researches and developments. Fundamental sciences development requires forming a common creative environment for students, aspirants, tutors in the so-called scientific-educational centers, precisely the kind the institution of higher education becomes under the conditions of innovative market economy. It is possible to organize IHEs’ scientific activity only if there is a developed university infrastructure. Both educational and scientific components of the IHE require significant investments. In western countries, IHEs’ scientific research financing is done at the expense of universities’ budgets, grants, subsidies, and donations. Abroad, freedom in creation and usage of innovations greatly contributes to the development of innovative activity. State support of universities is concluded in creation of funds, centers, innovation development agencies; in other words, the state fulfills the functions of an investor. The main source of education sphere financing is the state budget. The share of country’s budget, distributed for IHEs’ scientificeducational activity, has a tendency to cutting in most European countries. It is connected with the fact, that now a huge mass of people has a possibility of higher education and for the state financing it has become simply back-breaking to provide it on an adequate level. Cutting of the budget financing has not at all any negative influence on the IHEs’ science development and educational process of universities in foreign countries. Besides budget funds, governments of developed countries also include means of biggest branches of industrial construction, agriculture, service industry, big, middle and small businesses in to the system of distributive relations, and thus they have created maximally profitable conditions for IHE and business collaboration. They have worked out a policy, setting priorities of collaboration of universities and industry, as one of the most important conditions of innovative economy and social development. This policy realization support has been performed by means of creation of real financial mechanisms (for example, venture capital funds). They have improved the current legislation in order to give universities more possibilities and fillips in their activity of scientific research results commercialization. And in the result of that, the sphere of higher education has begun to receive means from – 95 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Viktoria G. Akulich. Russian and foreign experience of distributive relations in the sphere of science… non-governmental sources – industry, private companies and so on. But, at the same time, governments of developed world powers do not permit any risk of IHEs’ scientific research activity suspension in case of financial crises at the subsidizing enterprises, and that is why the main share of expenses for IHEs’ fundamental researches still lies on the state budget. Opinion 2: Having considered the main peculiarities of distributive relations in the sphere of higher education of developed world countries, let us address the experience of scientific and educational processes integration in the institutions of higher education in Russia. The modern Russian pattern of distributive relations in the sphere of higher education and science was formed at the beginning of 90-s of the previous century and since that time it has not been practically changed at all. Up till now, there prevails a residual principle of financing of these kinds of activity from the state budget means. Transition of the Russian economy to the new management conditions was hazardous for higher education by big problems, i.e. in terms of IHE science development. Sharp cutting of the budget financing brought to research activity recession in the educational institutions. Most institutions did not have enough means for realization of educational process at least on an average level, and most of IHEs had to forget about science research activity at all. One of the reasons of such attention to the question of integration of higher education and science is concluded in the following condition of the Russian economy, when for the present moment, the national economy is not the main consumer of the intellectual product. The matter is that in structural development of the Russian economy there prevails oil-gas and metallurgical export tendency, while manufacturing industry, including those branches, producing means of subsistence, give up their positions in favour of the branches of raw materials. In Russia «since market transformations have begun, production in the sphere of light industry has declined by 90 %, in food industry declined almost by a half, and import of these branches continues to grow. The Russian market is full of imported TVsets, refrigerators, washing machines, vacuumcleaners and other major appliances, bringing its native production to the very minimum or to zero» (Medvedev, 2008, P.6-7). As it goes without saying, the necessity of means distribution among higher education institutions for the purpose of scientific researches carriage disappears for these branches by itself. If there is no industry, then it means there is no demand for scientific researches in this sphere. And those branches of industry, which have been the main consumers and orderers of the university scientific researches in electronics, electrotechnics, instrument engineering, machine-tool building, mechanical engineering and others, are collapsing. The government has made a stake at the raw resources, which export to the world market does not demand any science-intensive component. In the result of such actions, predominantly educative activity, being fully or partially rend from scientific work, becomes the main goal of most Russian higher education institutions. IHEs go in for extensive outreach of the educative activity, obtaining licenses for specialists’ training in the spheres of jurisprudence and economics, in order to get some kind of possibility of survival. As it was mentioned earlier, in Russia the principle of means distribution into the sphere of higher education and science is used to be called residual. From all directions one can hear complains of Russian economists concerning revenues, distributed to this economical sector. «Long lasting education under-financing and unwillingness of the state to change radically the given situation is a distinct symptom of its irresponsible attitude towards this most important – 96 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Viktoria G. Akulich. Russian and foreign experience of distributive relations in the sphere of science… and strategically significant sphere. In 2003 in Russia, budget system education expenditures made up 3.5 % GDP, while in developed European countries it amounted to 5-7 % (here, we should also take into consideration the difference between GDP absolute values)» (Avdeeva and others, 2005, P.71). According to the RF Fiscal Code, financing of educational institutions is carried out from the corresponding state (federal, regional, municipal) budgets. And what concerns the higher school, so then here «most part of the state higher professional education institutions are under the jurisdiction of federal organs of power. That is why their financing is done mainly by means of the federal budget (in 2004, 93.3 % of all the budget expenditures for higher professional education.) (Abankina and others,2006, P.50). Example 1: the first place in scientific researches financing belongs to the United States of America and it is of no wonder, as far as this country economy is oriented for implementation of innovations. In the United States of America organization of fundamental scientific researches is mainly carried out in scientific-research centers and laboratories of higher education institutions. Results of these researches are included into educational programs, and thus, they attract most talented students to scientific work. «Universities’ engineering centers are created on the base of largest universities of USA with financial support from the side of the government in order to stimulate the development of new technologies. They perform two main functions. The first function is aimed for researching of fundamental objective laws, lying at the root of design engineering of principally new systems. Such researches do not provide industry with a product or technology, being ready for implementation, but with a theory within the frames of engineering sphere, which later can be applied for salvation of production problems. The other function is directed to training of a new generation of engineers, possessing a necessary level of qualification and a wide scientifictechnical range of vision» (Titova and others, 2007, P.46). In the United States of America, the biggest share of scientific-research and designexperimental development (R&D) belongs to the military-defense complex. But, while creating a powerful military-defense potential of the USA, the Department of Defense does not leave without attention the sphere of education and supports university scientific programs, for example, in the sphere of mathematics and engineering. The second branch of R&D in USA is considered to be the public health service. Paying much attention to public health, V.S. Public Health Service finances universitarian researches in the sphere of fundamental and applied medicine. Let us consider the sources of financing of educative and scientific activities of the USA universities. The first one is a study-for-fee form of students’ education. «About 30-40 % of financial receipts belong to this form of education in the private higher education institutions, and about one forth – in state institutions (Zamulin and others, 2004, P.27). The second source is means of the federal budget – it is presented in two forms of direct money payments: in the form of grants for scientific-research works on a competitive basis and means for fundamental scientific researches, making up «about a quarter of all the receipts in the universitarian treasury» (Zamulin and others, 2004, P.27). The third source is financing from the part of large enterprises and various businessstructures, and also private persons, the share of such receipts is «about a quarter» (Zamulin and others, 2004, P.27) of all the budget of the USA universities. Being directed to the real economy sector development, Governmental policy of the United States of America, brings considerable results, – 97 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Viktoria G. Akulich. Russian and foreign experience of distributive relations in the sphere of science… for example, «the share of American industry accounts for 36 % of the market of scienceintensive production» (Neshitoj, 2008, P.17), keeping the leading positions of the country in the world rating. Literally till the end of 80-s of the previous century the People's Republic of China applied imported technologies for high-technology production. Using the experience of developed countries, the Chinese considered such a method of production to be the least expensive and hazardous. But, having quickly understood, that borrowed technologies would not make the country be one of the leading world powers, the government took the course for development of native innovations in science and engineering. At present time, the largest share of scientific researches is carried out in the universities of the country, and they create technology parks and business-incubators on their basis. For example, in 2006 13.3 billion dollars were invested into the university science (Hochberg and others, 2008, P.115), what accounted for 35 % (Hochberg and others, 2008, P.115) of all the expenditures for scientific-research works in CPR. As far as such forms (technology parks and techno-centers) of integration of science and higher education are one of the leading in developed countries, we shall consider them closer. We shall analyze such forms of innovative activity as scientific and technology parks on the federal level. «Scientific Park is a form of collaboration of industrial enterprises with universities. Its main idea is: industrial companies create their scientific-research organizations and enterprises near universities and involve the employees of the universities for working with these organizations orders. In their turn, scientific workers have a possibility to apply the results of their research works in practice» (Titova and others, 2007, P.47). Such peculiar form of interrelation of science and industry takes place in some European countries, for example, « the Manchester city council, the city university and 4 of the local companies have formed a scientific park. There are involved 12 firms, 5 of them have collaborative research programs with the university. And for their realization they use the scientific personnel of the university. It gives the firms consultations concerning not only scientific problems, but also the questions of marketing and management» (Titova and others, 2007, P.47). Technology Park is a form of functioning of «new technologies engineers with the firms, undertaking the risks. The model of a scientificindustrial center, created on the basis of the Stanford University in California, is taken as a pattern of Technology Park in many countries. This Technology Park consists of about 3 thousand small and medium-size electronic firms with a common number of 190-200 thousand people, working for it. » (Titova and others, 2007, P.47). Scientific infrastructure development demands considerable financial resources, and for solving of this problem some institutions of higher education have begun to unite into consortiums, in order to merge financial means for collaborative scientific work. Two Flemish intercollegiate centers have consolidated their financial funds in order to perform scientific researches: Micro-Electronic Center (IMEC) and Biotechnological Center (VIB), where scientific infrastructure meets the highest international demands. The following features are typical for education and science of the Federal Republic of Germany. The first one is concluded in the fact, that one of the main goals of the FRG federal government is the enhancement of cooperation of IHEs with research centers and industrial enterprises in the form of joint researches and fieldworks of firms’ employees at the institutions. The second peculiarity is characterized by the international directionality of science and – 98 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Viktoria G. Akulich. Russian and foreign experience of distributive relations in the sphere of science… education integration in terms of exchanging of students and scientists. In Germany, they involve most talented students for studies and scientificresearch activity. In Germany, financing of the higher professional education sphere is characterized by the following: the main part of financial expenditures for IHEs’ scientific-educative activity falls on Lands’ budgets. At the same time, in FRG they allot «16.5 % of national expenditures for science» for the share of university science financing. (Hochberg and others, 2008, P.115). Example 2: in Russia, in the course of transfer to the market relations the share of GDP expenditures for science was sharply reduced. In 2001, the internal expenditures for research and development amounted to 1.16 % of GDP, while in USA, Japan, Korea, and Germany – from 2.5 to 3 % (Gvozdeva and others, 2005, P.99). Thereat, government subsidies for science were also quickly reduced: their share in GDP fell by half: from 0.99 to 0.47 % for the period from 1992 to 2000 (Gvozdeva and others, 2005, P.99). «In Russia, the volume of science budget financing is much behind its scales in the majority of the countries of «the Group of Seven»: if in our country it is approximately worth 5.1 billion dollars, then in Italy, Great Britain, France and Japan it is within the frames of 10-20 million dollars. In the USA federal budget for 2002, they allotted 87.2 billion dollars for science.» (Gvozdeva and others, 2005, P.99). Let us consider table 1. The data from table 1 show, that the number of IHEs, carrying out research works, have declined by 36 points for the period of 16 years. And from 1990 to 2000 sixty three higher education institutions ceased to be engaged in scientific activities. We pay our readers’ attention to the fact, that in Russia the main part of scientificresearch works are performed by scientificresearch organizations, and in 2006 their share was more that 56 % , while the scientific activity of IHEs was only 11.5 %. For comparison, let us have a look at the following figures. If «in 1990 more than a half of the personnel, engaged in research and development, was concentrated in independent research institutes and engineering bureaus, then in 2006 it was more than 83 %. The unit weight of science expenditures is also significant – it is approximately 83 % (Hochberg and others, 2008, P.114). Thereat, we should not forget that both IHE and academy science carry out scientific researches for separate economical sectors, but not for the whole national economy, as it is in the developed countries of the world. And what concerns the question of distributive relations influence on the integration of science and higher education, so here we are to underline that science development does not get its adequate Table 1. Organizations, Carrying out Scientific Research and Development in Russia (Hochberg and others, 2008, P.114) Periods 1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 Total 4646 4059 4099 3566 3622 Scientific-research organizations 1762 2284 2686 2115 2049 Developing agencies 937 548 318 489 482 Projecting and planning-and-surveying organizations 593 207 85 61 59 Experimental plants 28 23 33 30 49 Higher education institutions 453 395 390 406 417 Industrial enterprises 449 325 284 231 255 Other organizations 424 277 303 234 312 – 99 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Viktoria G. Akulich. Russian and foreign experience of distributive relations in the sphere of science… level within the frames of that one residual means distribution into the sphere of higher professional education from the state budget. «According to the volume of expenditures from all the sources for scientific research and development, Russian IHE science (in 2006 – 1.1 billion dollars at parity of purchasing ability) is approximately on the level of Finland, Norway, Denmark and Israel (1.1- 1.3 billion dollars), noticeably yielding not only to the major powers – the leaders of the world economy, but to such developing countries, as Turkey (2.5 billion dollars), Taiwan (1.7 billion dollars) on the level of qualification and training of the employees of all the sectors of the national economy, and also on the scales of science and technology prior branches development. The modern economical model of developed market economy is distinguished by the domineering of branches, which are directly engaged in the subsistence means production. But at the same time, development of means is impossible without the sphere, serving the social reproduction, i.e. the sphere of service. Services of educative and scientific character are vitally important for the and Mexico (1.6 billion dollars)». (Hochberg and others, 2008, P.115). So, the state turns out to be not at all interested in the development of the IHE sector of science. And development of applied technologies for manufacturing regional industries, within which structure there are branches, producing means of subsistence, is impossible without development of fundamental researches, which largest part is carried out in the higher education institutions. Conclusion 1: the world experience of science and higher education integration has shown that science and higher education have a real value in developed countries of the world. Higher education institution becomes an integrator of scientific and educative activities. As a result, on the basis of scientific activity in IHE, there is a process of generation of new knowledge, the beginning of its transformation into innovations and transfer of knowledge in the course of educative process. Carrying out scientific researches for all the spheres of economy, higher school acquires some features of entrepreneurial structure, which is oriented for profit-making. Creating special conditions for efficient IHE scientific-educative activity, foreign countries understand quite well that the rates of subsistence means production, providing a high level of the nation’s welfare and the rates of economical growth of the country on the whole, depend whole country economy functioning. That is why developed countries of the world have concentrated their centers of fundamental science development in the institutions of higher education and, thereat, we can observe a close connection of scientific and educative activities of universities, to which the system of financing, performed from various sources, has been adjusted. Collaboration of the state, business and education in the sphere of scientific research can be explained by the fact that higher school is harmoniously inscribed into the market relations in some foreign countries, and, thereat, distributive relations play the role of a sort of a motivator of science development on the basis of IHE. Thus, in order to attract means for IHE science development, governments of developed countries have created conditions for mutuallyprofitable collaboration of developed universities and the major production, and also minor and middle businesses. In these countries they have worked out a policy, which sets the priority of universities and industry collaboration, as one of the most important conditions of innovative economy and social development. Conclusion 2: as far as in Russia the main part of the higher education financing is done from the state budget, then there quite reasonably appears a question – why not to solve the problem of increase of means for this sphere development – 100 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Viktoria G. Akulich. Russian and foreign experience of distributive relations in the sphere of science… with the help of a simple increase of this very share, as far as its volume is much bigger in foreign countries, than in Russia? But, at present moment it is impossible. And the reason is again in the problem of development of branches, producing means of subsistence. The matter is, that the most important cost item for the sphere of higher education and science is the expenditure of labor» (Medvedev, 2008). So, functioning of all these activity spheres fully depends on the rate of this component of gross value added. In other words, possibilities of development of these the base of scientific-research institutes. While fundamental researches mainly accrue to IHEs, as far as they are predefined by the university sectorial specificity and are the basis for further applied development. In order to take a steady and noble position on the world arena, Russia needs to develop the manufacturing sector of industry, and also to realize its scientific potential. And for these purposes the country needs significant investments, which inflow is possible only in the result of taxation and investment climate improvement in the country, and also due to activity spheres depend on the society’s revenue position, which presents a mass of consumer goods, produced in the country, per one working person or capita» (Medvedev, 2008, P.8-9). So, it becomes clear that, in order to increase the share of budget means for higher education and science, they need to increase the state budget itself, but on the account of growth of such of its component as a revenue in the form of wages. In its turn, the size of the wages fund and GDP total value «are mainly defined by the production of substance means» (Medvedev, 2008, P.8). That is why «whatever distributive mechanism would be in the country, however we would re-distribute the revenues among various branches of national economy and different funds (budget and extra-budget funds), being spent for social needs, the upper limit of all the distributed sums is defined by the frames of that fund of substance means value, which has been created in the country and is subjected to final distribution and consumption» (Medvedev, 2005, P.21). That is why the first direction of making science and education closer must become the increase of financing of IHE fundamental researches – for preferential development of manufacturing industries, including the branches, producing the means of substance. As far as the largest share of scientific researches for space, aviation and military industries are carried out on more proportional means distribution among the branches of economy (at present moment up to 50 % of all the investments in Russia are spent for raw materials sectors). The next problem of IHE sector science development is a formal separation of science and education in the question of financing. The system of separate financing of science and education in Russia is still working, though, at present time, the current RF legislation «Anent the Higher and Post-Graduate Professional Education» provides scientific-research activity carriage in educational institutions. So, there appears a question: where to get the means for scientific researches? In 2001, they adopted a resolution, concerning the federal special-purpose program «Integration of Science and Higher Education in Russia for the Period of 2002-2006». It provided financing and conclusion of agreements with the winners of competitive selection for performance of highly qualified personnel training and scientific works carriage. How can one perform a competition, if one knows a winner beforehand? It is clear, that in their number there will be leading and famous universities of Russia (most part of them are situated in Moscow) with a well-developed scientific-educative and material base. Other IHEs (for example, small ones and situated in far regions of Russia) just have no material possibilities for innovative developments of educative and – 101 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Viktoria G. Akulich. Russian and foreign experience of distributive relations in the sphere of science… scientific components. Such competitions can be performed only in case they provide a more or less corresponding material background for carriage of scientific researches and development to all the higher education institutions of Russia. On that score, the point of view of I.B. Fedorov seems to us to be very just: «All the amount of the budget scientific order is supposed to be distributed on the competitive basis and it is hard to argue against it. But, nevertheless, some comparatively small, but steady component (in some form) is advisable to be left for some IHEs – proceeding from the fact, that if we are speaking about the integration of science and education, then every (even enlarged) direction of students’ training needs to be science supported, but it can be absent in case the competition is lost. This steady component (basic financing) can be defined as some normative financing of scientific researches, being carried out in the given direction in IHE» (Fedorov, 2005,P. 11). Thus, IHE has to spend some part of means in the form of basic financing for scientific researches, and the other part should be appropriated according the work results, for example in the form of grants, and on the competitive basis. Besides, the Russian Academy of Science and other state academies have basic financing and, moreover, they take part in competitive programs, projects and grants. The matter is that ideally grant is given as to a scientific-research institute, so to an IHE for realization of some scientific researches. But, in the first case grant is a financial addition to the basic activity, while in the second case it is practically the only possibility to carry out research and development. That is why it is necessary to hand over the main part of fundamental researches to IHEs and to form their corresponding financing in the sphere of scientific researches. In other words, in higher education institutions there must be financing of the integral educative-scientific process and, as it has been numerously underlined, it will bring not only to development of fundamental scientific researches, but also to a possibility of involvement of the Higher School graduates to scientific, research and practical activities, and in its turn, it will help them to better adjust to their professional surroundings. Russia has yet to solve a mass of problems, connected to the process of integration of scientific and educative activities in the higher education institutions. And suggested in the given article measures for manufacturing industry branches and science development in order to develop and apply innovations; and also for elimination of the gap between science and higher school from the point of view of their joint financing can become the top-priority directions of these spheres gradual integration. References 1. A.S. Avdeeva, S. Batchikov, «Fatal Genes (About Governmental «Preferential Directions of Educative Systems Development in the Russian Federation») », Russian Economical Journal, 1 (2005), 71. 2. A. Neshitoj, «The Necessity of Growth on Development Basis», The Economist, 2 (2008), 17. 3. V.A. Titova, O.A. Latuha, «Modern Aspects of Innovative Activity Management in a Higher Education Institution», Management in Russia and Abroad, 6 (2007), 46-47. 4. V.A. Medvedev, «Gross Value Added and Commonwealth», Collection of Scientific Works, Editor: V.A. Medvedev, (Krasnoyarsk: The Krasnoyarsk State University, 2005), 21. 5. V.A. Medvedev, «Structural Priorities of the Russian Economy Development», The Tomsk State University Vestnik, 1 (2008), 6-9. – 102 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Viktoria G. Akulich. Russian and foreign experience of distributive relations in the sphere of science… 6. G.H. Gendler, N.I. Vedernikova, «Remuneration of Labour of the Higher School Employees», Accountant’s Adviser in the Sphere of Science and Education, 1 (2005), 64 -65. 7. E. Gvozdeva, E. Vysockij, «Is there any Inducement to Work for Russian Science», Higher Education in Russia, 1 (2005), 99. 8. I.V. Abankina, E.V. Savickaja, «Budget Financing of Education Institutions: its Structure and Sources of Monetary Funds. », The Questions of Statistics, 7 (2006), 50. 9. I.B. Fedorov, «Integration of Education and Science: Key Aspects», Higher Education of Today, 6 (2005), 11. 10. L. Hochberg, G. Kitova, T. Kuznecova, «Strategy of Innovative Processes in the Sphere of Science and Education», The Questions of Economics, 7 (2008), 114- 115. 11. O.A. Zamulin, B.G. Kapustin, D.L. Konstantinovskij, N.E. Pokrovskij, Ju.M. Pochta, V.V. Radaev, «Transformation of Universities: Russian Problems and American Experience of Financing and Competition in the Higher School», Higher Education of Today, 10 (2004), 27. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2009 2) 104-112 ~~~ УДК 316.3 Integrated Sociology: Synthesis of Classical, Non-Classical and Post-Nonclassical Approaches in Cognizing the Society Larisa P. Kuksa* Novosibirsk State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, 113 Leningradskaya st., Novosibirsk, 630008 Russia 1 Received 24.02.2009, received in revised form 03.03.2009, accepted 10.03.2009 The problem of sociological approaches for resolving the situation of the contemporary crisis of the man and society is considered in the article. The aspects discovered in classical, non-classical, and post-nonclassical approaches form the author’s position based on the principle of synthesis of classical, non-classical and post-nonclassical models of cognition of society, which allows to work out some new philosophical and methodological platform of social sciences. Sufficient attention is paid to survey of the evolution of knowledge of the society, the process of phylogenesis and its importance for the society and formation of a new and general sociological theory. Keywords: Integrated sociology, phylogenesis, social-stratification factors, classical cognition, nonclassical cognition, post-nonclassical cognition. I The most important feature of the present is a concern of the thinking part of the humanity about an increasing crisis in all its displays – ecological, social, and the crisis of the man. Sociologists are searching the ways of resolving this crisis by means of another epochal sociological theory which would become a response to challenges of the present. However, the approaches seen by some European sociologists to solve accumulated problems not so much lead to a really epochal theory as increase breakup of existing social knowledge, its withdrawal from life and practice. This doesn’t encourage a wider vision of problems of social science and of the world . * 1 Taking into consideration this point of view, one can hardly agree with G. Ioas’s conclusion that it’s not society to be had as an object before eyes, but social actions and “multiple moderns” based on those actions and at the same time to carry attention from macrosociology to microsociology, which is to give understanding of wars, violence and totalitarianism during modernization. Searches of ‘essential rationality’ on which I. Wallerstein trusts won’t give suitable results. It’s “essential rationality” which causes his conclusion that “the world is in a state of chaotic transition to an alternative world-system or alternative worldsystems” , as “the essence of rationality” is in reduction of the whole to constituents and their state of chaos, as the whole vanishes because many of its constituents are lost. Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved – 104 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Larisa P. Kuksa. Integrated Sociology: Synthesis of Classical, Non-Classical and Post-Nonclassical Approaches… The world has always been global, so long as globality is conditioned not only by the amount of population and ties of its separate formations, but also by the planetary factor – the existence of the mankind as the genus which rushes into its evolution. It follows that the process of globalization does not cause the epochal sociological theory, as S.L. Arzhamand asserts . It is caused by a qualitatively new aspect called forth by phylogenesis of the humanity . Mechanism of phylogenesis is inherent in the organic world, nature in whole and, consequently, in the mankind. It is also inherent in society’s life style. Everything moves in it according to the principle of disintegration of the initial whole into two and more affiliated formations up to the contemporary “variety of moderns” by means of natural selection, progressive development with a rise of vital activity level or getting into evolutionary lockups. Phylogenesis includes periods of smooth development or spasmodic transitions into a new quality. Specific character of action of phylogenesis in human collectives, societies and the world community in general is conditioned by the quality of ideal cogitative constructs which influence on the trends of development and conformation. These ideal cogitative constructs of people also obey the action of phylogenesis laws. And knowledge about the society is not an exception. Moreover, it has its own specific role – in all historic epochs this knowledge performs the role of the factor restraining public disintegration within the limits which phylogenesis permits and also it provides an access to a new phase of social development. That is why the application of the principle of historicism as a condition of overcoming the crisis by means of sociology can not be restricted by the history of European sociology though brought to the present . It suggests application of dialectics of integrity and system in connection with the analysis of corresponding cogitative constructs of the world community. Reasonableness as an ability to synthesize will be opposed only in terms of such an approach. A tendency lying in the basis of the history of formation of knowledge about the society, consequently, in sociology itself will be discovered, its sources, formation stages will be understood. Things happening in the community of sociologists, related disciplines and in practice will be also understood. Finally, it will be understood that accumulation of knowledge about the society began with the description of despotic monarchies of the East. This description is represented by Europeans in numerous books written by missionaries, travelers, merchants, orientalists . After that it was continued by the description of alternation of structural modifications (ancient, feudal, capitalist) carried out by Europeans beginning from the Middle Ages up to the nineteenth century. In the nineteenth century there was a turnabout from simple and empirical description of these structures to their theoretical perception. An infinite variety of empirical sociological theories tangled in their objects and subjects and lost the essence appear as a result. It’s the way of organizing different social establishments attracting everlasting attention which was lost. Though K. Marx’s sociology combines these social structures with their world history, the period of formation of empirical theory in sociology separated these two notions (structures and world history). That period also reduced the social organization to properties of a variety of special cases, and “the problematic organization field” was reduced to problems of client organization . Completion of formation of the phylogenetic lockup is determined by the fact mentioned above. The main tendency which is connected with concessive accumulation and comprehension of the role and significance of the social organization – 105 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Larisa P. Kuksa. Integrated Sociology: Synthesis of Classical, Non-Classical and Post-Nonclassical Approaches… as the worldwide historical phenomenon stipulating the unity of the mankind, its world systems, its order and, consequently, progress is lost. Reference to it is the logical completion of searches of knowledge about the society and its integrating factor – the world social organization. It is in accordance with the general phylogenetic trend of the world organization development. This is where the great sense of phylogenesis is found. Phylogenesis led people to necessity to harmonize their mental condition with the complexity of the social organization by means of the epochal theory – the general theory of social management and self-administration. Sociology is to become that theory. As any other science this kind of sociology must have its own structure, the object and the subject, the major idea, the paradigm and a corresponding technological aspect providing its connection with practice. The object of this theory is the society as the whole world; the subject is the world social organization in its universal meaning. The main idea is conditioned by the subject. The essence of the main idea is that it is high time to find out the difference between the meanings “management” and “governing” , to connect it with the action of natural laws in the social organization of the world and to define the role of sociology in the society. The role of sociology in the society is aimed at tracing natural processes of the world social organization. States and civil societies, politicians and ordinary people will have to coordinate their interests with them. This will become a basis for overcoming the so called anthropological chaos , as the measure of complete irrelevance of the subjective factor of the degree of complexity of that social organization will be gradually realized. The active agent of the social organization is people. This approach won’t just encourage the synthesis of accumulated sociological knowledge, but it will also modify the training of specialists in this field and identify their role in the society . It will also raise a question about sociological general compulsory education. As a result there will be an understanding of the fact that reference to universal meanings of the social organization is the basis for synthesizing sociological knowledge, creating the so called epochal theory as a scientific support of all levels of organizational activity in the society. That is why a serious problem should be raised and solved. This problem is connected with dialectics of cognitive process and a discussion about significance and priority of classical, nonclassical and post-nonclassical approaches in this process . II The discussion was caused in the end of the twentieth century by a deep contradiction in cognition and gnosiological behavior connected with it. The essence of the latter during the classical period, that is the period of domination of the mechanical picture of the world, is traditionally made up of the subject-subject and subject-object interaction. On the one hand, cognitive activity of the man is put on to the first place within the framework of this interaction, on the other hand, realizing the process of cognition in interaction of people with each other. The object, cognizable objective reality that is, is secondary with respect to the subject. It does not seem to be active in this case. The subjects of cognitive process are separated from each other by the results of cognition. Some of them are added to an amount of scientific knowledge which is rather contradictory; others are added to “extra” and parascience. A great number of “ideal” and “material” points of objective reality don’t coordinate with one another according to the laws of this reality. They coordinate with one another only according to the laws of the human intellect. Technologies appear – 106 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Larisa P. Kuksa. Integrated Sociology: Synthesis of Classical, Non-Classical and Post-Nonclassical Approaches… on this basis, among them social technologies, which lead to the ecosocial crisis. Inner individual characteristics of the cognizing subject and their objective natural conditionality don’t show themselves. There are social-stratification factors and influence of purely material dominants in the foreground. This is the factor which restricts the classical period of cognition. It is connected with the formation and now with intellect which has already become rationality as a quality of consciousness which preceded reasonableness. Intellect divides and differentiates by means of developed mind. Reason synthesizes and differentiates by means of Wisdom “knowledge of truth contained in the matter” . Yearning for truth contained in the matter is the process of simultaneous progress of cognition from specific to abstract-general and from the latter to specific. This progress is the essence of non-classical cognition. Nevertheless, classical cognition is present in the structure of non-classical cognition. The nature of unity of these two sides of process of cognition can be comprehended by means of dialectics of the whole and the part. The whole is non-classical, the essence of the mechanism of evolutional cognitive process. Classical is occurrence of this essence in a special form during a definite stage of development and formation of the man and the mankind as Homo Sapience. So there is a period when process in its progress from abstract to specific comes to an end in differentiation of abstract and a long period of interaction of the “parts” with each other. These are the characteristics of the result of contemporary cognitive process being the content and the outcome of the last 300 years which concluded progress from abstract-general, defined as “Cosmos”  by Pythagoras, to specific. Specific is defined as a number of “material” and “ideal” points of the contemporary result of cognition. The points have concealed knowledge of the truth contained in the matter. Disappearance of universal meanings of the social organization from sociologists’ sight is connected with this process. The so called post-nonclassical period reveals here as a reaction to the completion of the classical period connected with the appearance and cognition of different “parts” by means of intellect armed with an atomic bomb. According to the post-nonclassical approach, a new integrating abstract-general concept is needed, that is going through the next stage of ascending from specific to abstract. It is necessary to find out the essence and to overcome gnosiological contradiction to do this. Analysis reveals that the object-subject relation was concealed from the sight of gnosiology and orientation to practice as the criterion of the truth removed contemplation during the period of development of cognition during the so called classical period. That is why it is necessary to add the formulas subject and object of cognition on the basis of reflection and practical activity by the formula object and subject of cognition and contemplation, the latter two should take the first foreground at that. Return to idealism criticized by Marx, because “the subject, reality, is considered only as an object or contemplation but not as human sensible activity, practice, it is not considered subjectively” , is not spoken about here. It is spoken about overcoming narrowmindedness of orientation only to practice and reflection. This corresponds with the classical period and acknowledgement of importance of contemplation as a way of comprehending the results of this practical activity and their influence on the objective world by means of Plato’s unsensory cognition of ideas (intuition). The way of comprehending the results makes up the basis of cognition “according to the truth” on the one hand, and trust to logically substantiated thinking about the object, that is about the – 107 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Larisa P. Kuksa. Integrated Sociology: Synthesis of Classical, Non-Classical and Post-Nonclassical Approaches… cognizable world as “the single integral object” including transcendention on the other hand. According to Kant, the latter should undergo a categorical revision and the process of revision should become an act of development from classical to non-classical or rational, cognizing the general. He, who has understood the general, can consider the particular well. “As the existing things are not unified, homogeneous and simple, they are represented in different and numerous kinds. They can be conceptual and immaterial kinds named the matter and they can be outward and accessible to perception, which take part in the matter proper” . Solution of this problem is connected with the post-nonclassical approach today, that is with the new formulation of cognitive problems and, first of all with overcoming scientific snobbery, that is distrust to any knowledge acquired a priori, beyond a purposeful scientific experiment. This knowledge is acquired by means of philosophizing, religious and mystical experience, trans-cendent experience, artistic and creative comprehension of the world as subject-object relations are always interwoven with the system of the subject-subject relations. Admission of the fact that gnosiological relation is carried out not only on the practical basis but also on the spiritual and intuitive constituent of every human being, makes it possible to conclude that it’s necessary to note not only routine but also collective insight in the so called ordinary consciousness. It is precisely here appears the fact that the subject-object and the subject-subject relations are included into the object-subject relation of cognizing process. It means that this inclusion shows the active side of the cognizable world, the objective reality given us not only in perception but also beyond it. It is that which is beyond perception shows the essential part of the object-subject interrelation as visible and perceptible is only a part of really existing and it is accessible only to the collective subject. This statement is true in connection with discovery of the microworld and the removal of the concept of “vacuum” in physics . The object-subject interaction within the structure of gnosiological relation specifies not only individual and collective subjectivity of the human being but also qualitative changes to the extent of development of consciousness – from the first signs of intellect to self-consciousness of Homo Sapiens. It is precisely in this process people develop from subconscious but integral inclusion into the objective reality to utilitarian and practical interrelation with it. The so called classical period of cognition and practice is conditioned by this. And, finally, the removal of the latter on principle of the present being nonclassical, that is cognition within which cognition of the general , objective as the whole becomes a condition for cognizing the parts, synthesizing a variety of “material” and “ideal” points singled out in cognizing process. Also it is a condition for returning to the non-classical period as real cognition. III In this connection the structure of scientific research should be expanded. The problems connected with constant attention to movement of world outlook should be included in it with necessity. Especially it concerns interpretation of the world. More profound interpretation of the universe should be achieved on the basis of correlation of results of scientific researches in natural sciences, technology, anthropology, sociology on the one hand, and mythological doctrines, modern philosophical and religious teachings, manifestation of an of ordinary consciousness and folk psychology on the other hand. Exceptional importance of this synthesis is confirmed by divergence in scientific paradigms, persistent inclusion of the paranormal phenomena – 108 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Larisa P. Kuksa. Integrated Sociology: Synthesis of Classical, Non-Classical and Post-Nonclassical Approaches… in so-called abnormal knowledge , destruction of integrity, unity and expediency of an image of the world in different professions1, loss of meaning of the life and depreciation of the standard of morals among the people. The danger of developed situation consists in increasing adherence only to concrete scientific paradigms, a validity recognition only what is based on experiment, experience, and pejorative relation to the humanities, logic thinking. The more these tendencies develop the more complicated and ambiguous forming image of the universe. This image of the world finds its expression in a reality of human interrelations and practice that get more and more destructive. In cognition the contradiction between the classical, the non-classical and the postnonclassical always exists and the problem consists in the way of its solving. The solution requires understanding intimate and firm connection between practical and spiritual activity, acceptance of distinctions of individuals and expediency of various inbred cognitive abilities. But the most important thing consists in admitting close relationship of movement of cognition from the concrete to the abstract and from the latter to the concrete. This 1 For example, the Earth (as a planet) is conceived of by the people of different professions as the cultivated areas or as the place where bees since olden days live, or it is mentioned in connection with idea of its usage by the person as a source of energy. The near-earth orbit is mentioned in connection with the idea that it would be nice to invent the lift for transportation of people and cargoes there and back. Outer space is mentioned as a place where microbiological researches of inhabited spaces and т are conducted. «Activity of the man» (people in general) is estimated as «one of the most powerful factors influencing the nature». «Many countries of the world», «other countries», “abroad areas “ are places, where post workers certainly deliver the mail or telephone communications exist. References to concrete outstanding “places”, “areas” or certain people are used to describe global and the most general characteristics of the mankind. There are comparatively few examples to discussed global categories (mankind, the world). One can call «cultural values of other nations», «business relations between countries», «international contacts» (18). close relationship makes itself felt at the moment of end of social development cycle when the cognition plays the decisive role. The conscious attitude to this situations will allow to keep an eye always on all completeness of structure of the gnoseological relations and, first of all, object-subject interaction. The constant attention to it will allow not only hoping for integrity, orderliness and complexity of reality of the world, participation of people in its order, but also will cause a measure and degree of comprehension of this participation during each concrete historical period. Such approach can underlie in the socalled evolutionary theory of knowledge about which necessity V.I.Vernadsky argued. The measure and degree of comprehension of human participation in a cognizable objective reality in conditions of modern epistemological turn can be designated by finding the most abstract category which must reflect movement of cognition from modern ensemble of «ideal» and «material» points perceived chaotically, and must show their connection, unity, interaction. Probably, search of such abstraction can show the beginning of the way out from modern epistemological crisis. And such concept exists in philosophy. This is «all-unity». All-unity denotes a principle of complete unity of multiplicity characterized by interpenetration of all its elements and at the same complete autonomy of all its elements. As well as Pythagorean «Cosmos» that denotes the next cycle of climbing from the abstract to the concrete set of «ideal» and «material» points in which Cosmos presents in consciousness and practice of modern mankind in chaos of mutually exclusive concepts, notions and actions, «all-unity» is called to synthesize this «chaos». It is time to bring this concept to the bosom of a natural space order, on the basis of dialectics of integrity, philosophical comprehension of achievements of natural sciences, finding – 109 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Larisa P. Kuksa. Integrated Sociology: Synthesis of Classical, Non-Classical and Post-Nonclassical Approaches… historical and logical connections of all stages and the results of cognition, overcoming of limitation of the basic question of philosophy and the application of dialectics as a major tool of cognition. All this will promote in turn to development of the Scientific man (Homo Academicus), suggesting new criteria of his thinking and activity. He can be a scientist who has acquired all riches of knowledge accumulated by mankind on the principle of integrative removal of its “irreconcilable” contradictions for this with an external world and social relations between people, that determine so-called social technology, but first of all one should see natural technology. This technology influences greatly the general social organization which throughout all human history finds expression in the sequence of the set of the target organizations developing within the limits of a certain cycle. In turn, these target organizations determine infinite variety of a way of life of the people. Such change of methodological orientation will have crucial importance for sociology. irreconcilable is only a necessary moment in constant formation and development of both objective reality, and cognitive abilities of people. The conscious estimation of this situation will inevitably lead to considering all knowledge gained by mankind not by the principle of validity, norms and anomie, but by degree of approaching to the Truth. And then it will be found out, that only in the aggregate of all forms of cognitive process – ordinary and scientific contemplation, reflection, modelling individual, mankind steadily ascends to the summit, comprehending and developing even when the cognition vector, seemed to be directed back, as it was during the so-called classical period. (This period was based on uniformity (linearity) of the gnoseological relation and aspiration for the Truth through cognition of its parts mostly by criterion of practice.) Orientation towards all-unity will not only restore logic of cognitive process, but will have a very positive effect on what is called as the social knowledge the product of which is also sociology. This science is to correct its concepts with cosmos, all-unity and world history. It is necessary to notice in the history of the world not only will and actions of people, mechanism of development of production of material wealth, social type of laws of interaction It should become a natural science and the integrative factor of modern process of transition from the classical to the postclassical. This transition must remove limitations of the classical paradigms, and return to the non-classical as the synthesis of classical and postclassical heritage. IV Thereby this synthesis means, that the nonclassical from a position of the gnoseological relation presents a combination of the objectivesubject relation in such a manner that the subject in all of its aspects stands in the centre of the objects. Here one can find out the essence of evolutionary knowledge. It consists in constant movement of cognitive process in frameworks of “hermeneutical circle” that means a phase of movement from the general, united (nonclassical approach) – to the particular, individual (classical approach), and then a return phase from the particular to the general by means of the postnonclassical. The content aspect of movement of the cognition within “hermeneutical circle” includes not only integrity of forms of knowledge historically replacing each other, but also sequence of transition from empirical cognition and corresponding empirical theories to possibilities of abstract thinking and abstract, logic forms of cognition. Among the last forms one can call – 110 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Larisa P. Kuksa. Integrated Sociology: Synthesis of Classical, Non-Classical and Post-Nonclassical Approaches… not only and not so much “the hypothetical” (J. Bruner), “the advancing” (P.K. Anokhin), “the probabilistic” (Y.N. Sokolov, D. Aron) perception of the situation in the conditions of concrete experience in coordination with all previous experience of the perceiver, as comprehension, understanding inclusiveness of the situation in the general picture of the world by means of all-unity, a principle of the historical and logical analysis, dialectics of the whole and its parts and at the same time, by means of intuition, sensual cognition as displays of inbred holistic world appeared, however, not as a condition of survival for it would characterize evolutionary lockup, but as a condition of overcoming admissible by phylogenesis limits of differentiation of the organization of the world – systems. This organization is disintegrating within the bounds of the cycle which has exhausted itself. From the position of such approach «universality» of the organization of the society can be comprehended. This universality consists in the presence of spiritual, conscious (or spiritless, unconscious) centre (by principle of an atom) round pictures. The potential of such approach has been evident for many Russian thinkers. One can remember ethnology of L.N. Gumilyov, V.I. Vernadsky’s evolutionary theory of cognition, the concept of man as a cosmos-planetary phenomenon (V.P.Kaznacheev E.A.Slirina), universe sociology of V.G. Nemirovsky, the theory of vital forces (S. I. Grigoriev) and А.I. Subetto's sociogenetics. Integrated sociology also has a place in synthesis of the mentioned forms and the methods of cognition and transition to its abstract-logic forms. In this sense Integrated sociology is called to become «connecting lens» at first in the science, transforming different branches of knowledge into one science about man, mankind and society as way of its life. Then it should become the factor of «compelling logic» of natural historical process, which caused at first differentiation of the human race to many nations and ethnic groups, and accordingly, the organization of their societies as societal formations. In the course of interaction of the latter modern requirement of association has which all processes are organized manifesting simultaneously administrative hierarchy and selforganizing system , in case of spirituality and consciousness or governing and an arbitrariness in case of spiritual impoverishment. Comprehension of this situation as a paramount question of overcoming of the modern crisis will require replacement of governing to management. The first practical step in this respect can be creating the organization, along with the U.N.O., aimed at institualization of theoretical sociology in its new quality as the sociological tool for general compulsory education, vocational training for management, the diagnosis and the forecast of current social time. Presence of such structure has to provide steady increase spirituality and consciousness in all kinds of organizational activity through monitoring natural factor which influences the society through the social organization, determining each time in a new way its administrative hierarchy and self-organizing by that realizing the main function of sociology as general theory of social management. References 1. 2. 3. 4. Romanovskiy N.V. Three approaches to the future of sociologists/ Sotsis, 2005, pp. 3-12. Ibid. Ibid. Encyclopaedia on Philosophy. – M., Soviet Encyclopaedia, 1983, p. 725. – 111 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Larisa P. Kuksa. Integrated Sociology: Synthesis of Classical, Non-Classical and Post-Nonclassical Approaches… 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. Romanovskiy N.V. Three approaches to the future of sociologists/ Sotsis, 2005, pp. 3-12. The History of the East in two volumes. Vol.1, Vyshaya Shkola, 1994, p.20. Sociology: Foundation of General Theory. Nauka, M, 2002, pp. 428-463. Kuksa L.P. Conceptual Fundamentals of Steady Development/ Collection “Social, Economic and Cultural of Steady Development of Modern Russia”, Novosibirsk, p.I, pp. 85-91. Kuksa L.P. Integral Sociology, books 1, 2, Novosibirsk, “Mysl”, pp. 675-716. Kuksa L.P. Russia’s Key Problem: Ideological and Organizational Crisis and Ways of Overcoming It on Basis of Integral Sociology/ Collection “Perspective Ways of Development of Theoretical Sociology in Russia at the Turn of XX – XXI Centuries”, Barnaul – Moscow, 2003, pp. 206-224. Non-classical Sociology in Modern Russia: Accumulation of Methodological Potential and Technological Possibilities, Moscow – Barnaul, 2003, p.288. Yamvlikh. Pythagoras’s Life. – M., Aleytaida, 2002, p.100. Ibid., 101 Marx K., Engels F., Vol. 42, p.264. Yamvlikh. About Pifagorovoy of life, p.101 Kapra F. Tao of Physics, “Oris”, St. Petersburg, 1984, pp. 198-200. Dynich V.I. and others. Non-scientific Knowledge and Modern Crisis of Scientific World-View// Questions of Philosophy, 1994, N12, pp. 122-125. Klimov Y.A. The World’s Image in Different-Type Professions. – M.: MGU, 1995, pp. 126-131. Nemirovskiy V.G. The Universal Paradigm in Russian Sociology// Collection Sociology at the Turn of XXI Century, M, 1999, p.99. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2009 2) 113-119 ~~~ УДК 334.7 Problems of Creation and Usage of Specific Capital Fund (Endowment) Pavel M. Vcherashnij, Vladislav Ju. Panchenko, Irina S. Ferova and Ekaterina N. Ferova * Siberian Federal University, 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyask, 660041 Russia 1 Received 24.02.2009, received in revised form 03.03.2009, accepted 10.03.2009 The article is devoted to the problems of development and usage of the so-called endowment or (in Russian interpretation) a specific capital fund. Importance of these problems is connected with the necessity of multichannel financing of social institutions. So, as a rule, endowment fund is always created to become one of the sources of financing. At the same time, endowment is one of the types of charity, and, as a result, it’s a social responsibility of business. In this article, we study economic and organizational problems, which are related to endowment management and establishment. And we pay particular attention to the questions of creation and functioning of the asset-management consulting firms. Among all the economic aspects, the emphasis is put on the sphere of taxation. And, consequently, here are given variants of assets and different schemes of taxation usage. Keywords: multichannel financing of social institutions, endowment, management and establishment, different schemes of taxation usage, social responsibility of business, charity funds. In the course of Russian market economy development, innovative projects have become one of the most important measures of financial stability and development, particularly in the sphere of education. Most European countries have a considerable experience in creation of such projects. For example, the Government of Great Britain encourages the development and invigoration of the scientific base. Such a policy is the main source of economical growth. In this country, innovations have been put into practice mainly in the sphere of education since 80-s. For today, the model of multichannel financing of social institutions has become the dominating one. Financial support of education is based on the * 1 combination of budgetary and extra-budgetary sources. Precisely such a combination allows taking efficient measures and using them for solving topical social-economical problems. One of such financial instruments, ensuring stability, is an endowment or a specific capital . Specific capital is an endowment (from English «endowment»), a specific fund, meant for being used for the non-commercial purposes, as a rule, for financing institutions of education, medicine, culture, and also it is a transfer of money as such or of some other property as a free gift to these institutions, to a person or a group of persons for them to use it as a source of income. Corresponding author E-mail address: Ferova@lan.krasu.ru © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved – 113 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel M. Vcherashnij, Vladislav Ju. Panchenko… Problems of Creation and Usage of Specific Capital Fund (Endowment) At present time, the questions of endowment creation are extremely important. To our mind, creation and replenishment of such a kind of funds can be referred to a sort of charitable activity. We should note that day by day charity becomes a more powerful instrument of realization of the Russian social policy, which acquires more comprehensive shapes during the last years. Moreover, from the point of view of business society, the most important thing is that charity being one of the forms of social responsibility of business. Finally, we have come to a civilized understanding of this phenomenon and in the course of active discussions we have agreed that by social responsibility of business we mean three considerable formations. The first formation, from the point of view of the state form of government, is business liabilities before the society in the form of punctual and full size payroll and tax payments, creation of new working places by means of new investments. The second formation is corporative social programs – investments into the stuff, development of educational, medical and other programs. And, finally, the third formation, we are speaking about, and which being less traditional for new Russia – is a charity activity. Thus, fulfilling all these three functions of social responsibility, business is also involved into the realization of state social policy. Correspondingly, the state must understand and respect all these and stimulate the development of the given functions. Of course, charity is a superimposed, but nevertheless, an important part of social responsibility of business. Now, charity is considered by powers not as a simple concussion of business to transferring of some sums for realization of social projects, which are adopted by regional, local, and federal powers, but as a mechanism of partnership of business, state and civil society. And this fact is an indicator of a new stage in the development of private and state partnerships. Let us consider the main organizational, legislative and economical problems, which we face while forming endowment funds . If we take the sphere of education, then at present time there are two main directions concerning the usage of charity funds, being received by universities, technical schools, and schools, – it is a salvation of social problems, including scholarships, and financing of construction. But, such spheres as investments in human capital assets are not covered by charity, i.e. engagement of new professors, increase of professors’ and scientific workers’ wages; professional improvement and reeducation; equipment purchase. And it amounts up to 60-70 percents of the charity fund usage directions in universities and colleges in developed countries. Thus, in Russia charity activity practically reproduces a bad structure of budgetary financing of this sphere. As the budget finances the routine reproduction, so the benefactors do the same, following the budget. Thus, on the whole, the situation is rather irrational. The second problem, which we think to be rather significant, is economic harassments to the endowment formation. Along with the legislative ones, economic harassments are defined and clear. In Russia, the spheres, which get support, are used to be next door to starving, and that is why charity help is immediately consumed, thus fulfilling the lacunes, having been left by the underfunding of universities, schools, and other objects, which are being supported. Such a situation requires forming an efficient system of endowment management. – 114 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel M. Vcherashnij, Vladislav Ju. Panchenko… Problems of Creation and Usage of Specific Capital Fund (Endowment) The third problem is the organization of charity business in our country. In Russia, charity business is organized in the form of funds and practically does not exist in the form of management companies. So, we observe an obvious misbalance towards money spending, and practically complete absence of efficient management of these means. That is why, in parallel with funds, we are to form management companies, which must be organized on commercial basis, as far as only such kind of basis can provide their efficient functioning. For today, Russian charity funds reproduce mainly inefficient schemes of fund management in their activity, because these funds activity is limited by the transferring of means to different institutions without any further control over the money. Thus, we are to create an effective chain of charity funds management, starting from the benefactor up to the consumer. And this question is the key one. An efficient size of endowment is also a question of great importance. The Highest School of Economy has carried out corresponding researchers and comparisons with the international practice. In order to develop a university, being out of the leading hundred, one needs to provide its current additional revenue in the amount from 50 to 250 million rubles annually. And this figure is minimal, which will allow the endowments at least somehow influencing the quality of our higher education, i.e. putting in the revenues from the resource capital investments into the intellectual capital of universities, into the teaching staff, into the formation of young specialists’ salaries and bonuses, into the equipment purchasing. And all these lay down certain demands to the initial amount of the university endowment, which must start from 1,5 billion rubles, i.e. from 50 million dollars, and concerning small university – from 30 million dollars . Now, we shall consider the problems of economical character. Most of them are connected with questions of taxation. Current Russian Legislation forms various taxation regimes in case of endowment of one-time donations and in case of appearance of a regular financing source for noncommercial organizations (NCO). The problem, being connected with the taxation load of the means, being received by NCO in order to form such a regular financing source, is in the following. If monetary means are given to NCO by its founding shareholders, then these means are not subjected to the profit tax as a part of income of the given NCO, but are recorded as special financing. But in case the person, willing to replenish the capital of NCO, is not its shareholder, then such contributions are included into the composition of extraordinary incomes, which are subjected to taxation. In order to exclude these means out of the composition of extraordinary incomes, one may make contributions in the form of special financing (grant), but it is far not always possible by the following reason. The Tax Code provides the requirement that a grant must be directed to support some concrete programs and concrete researchers. Thereat, resource capital is formed not only to spend money for NCO activity financing, but also in order to get certain income due to the management of the resource capital means, and this presupposes that in most cases it will be impossible to contribute to the resource capital formation in the form of special financing. Moreover, such revenues (as well as the proper resource capital) are liable for profit taxes according to the standard procedure alongside with other entrepreneurial incomes of NCO. All these bring to impossibility to form steady and transparent sources of funds receipt for non-commercial organizations. It is necessary to make some changes in the legislation, imposing preferential tax environment – 115 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel M. Vcherashnij, Vladislav Ju. Panchenko… Problems of Creation and Usage of Specific Capital Fund (Endowment) for non-commercial organizations, which form resource capital and use the revenues from its investments for financing the main charter activity . The given conditions presuppose to relief NCO from the profits tax payments as for the revenues, received from the donators for the resource capital forming (replenishment), so for the revenues from the resource capital investments. Thereat, the kinds of NCO activity, revenues, and also other characteristics should meet the given conditions. Hardness of the given conditions depends upon the scheme of the resource capital formation and its usage: Variant 1: NCO is simultaneously both the resource capital owner and the recipient of income from the resource capital investments (beneficiary). Such NCOs have chance to get profits tax exemption (for resource capital formation and for its management revenues) in case the following conditions are satisfied: a) They limit the forms of agreements, concluded by NCO in order to make revenues, and the sources of profit receipt; b) They limit authorized kinds of NCO activity. The given NCOs conduct their business exclusively using the funds of the resource capital formation and investments and carry the main charter activity (for example, IHLs provide exclusively educational services, hospitals render medical aid and so on.), i.e. the NCO data have a restricted list of revenues from goods, jobs and services realization, and the list of permitted types of activities, which will actually define the types of the main charter activity in various directions, will be fixed by the RF Government. Fixation of so hard conditions of tax exemption eligibility for NCOs, which are simultaneously both the resource capital owners and the recipients of income from the resource capital investments, is hazardous, because these NCO schemes data can be used in order to avoid the taxation. Though, such limitations will create uncomfortable business conditions for the NCOs, willing to use their resource capital, but unwilling to refuse from rendering of paid services, having not been included into the list of permitted types of activities (for example, leasing of some parts of offices and buildings). And in this connection, we consider variant 2. Variant 2: The owner of the resource capital is a specially created NCO «The Resource Capital Management Fund». The recipients of income from the resource capital investments (beneficiaries) are some other NCOs. The resource capital management fund is created especially for administering of the resource capital, being formed as the fund property (its replenishment, selection of a management company, which will invest capital funds in financial assets, distribution of resource capital management incomes among other NCOs – beneficiaries and so on.). In other words, the only object of such a Fund activity is possession of the resource capital and its investments income distribution in the favor of other NCOs. Profits tax exemption of the Fund is performed in the same order as in variant concerning NCO-owner. I.e. monetary means and other property, obtained for the resource capital creation (replenishment), and also revenues from the resource capital investments will be referred to the Fund special-purpose receipts, being not accounted while defining incomes for profits taxation. NCOs (beneficiaries) are the recipients of income from the resource capital management and they are not limited in their activities and gained revenues (for example, an IHL, being the recipient of income from the resource capital investments, has a right to lease some parts of offices and buildings, in comparison with an IHL, being – 116 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel M. Vcherashnij, Vladislav Ju. Panchenko… Problems of Creation and Usage of Specific Capital Fund (Endowment) the resource capital owner) and NCO taxation is performed within the frames of the given activity and according to the current procedure. Such NCOs get the right for tax concession only in the part of resource capital management revenues, distributed by the Resource Capital Management Fund among the given NCOs. In order to control the activity of the NCO-the resource capital owner, they create a board of guardians, consisting of benefactor representatives, NCO beneficiaries, publicity and other people. If the benefactor is the organ of state power (organs of local self-government), then participation of the state power organs representatives (representatives of the local selfgovernment organs) in the board of guardians is obligatory. The functions of the board of guardians are the follows: selection of a management company, distribution of the resource capital management incomes between NCOs – beneficiaries, determination of volume of NCO executive expenses and other questions, connected to the resource capital administering. The group of people, who has a right to take part in the resource capital formation, consists of: individuals and juridical persons, independently from their organizational-legal forms, and also state power organs (organs of local selfgovernment). The composition of assets, forming the resource capital (admissible assets), includes the following: -- State securities and other obligations of Russian emitters (which include mortgage-backed securities); -- Units (stocks, shares) of index investment funds, allocating means in obligations and stocks of other foreign emitters; -- Monetary means on the accounts of credit organizations; -- Credit organizations ruble deposits. The NCO (the resource capital owner) and the benefactor (the donator) make an agreement about the resource capital usage, and within the frames of this agreement they define the following: -- The goals, for which achievement the resource capital revenues will be spent. (Thereat, the agreement can cover both the concrete goals for resource capital usage and the NCO right to define by itself the directions of expenditures of the resource capital management incomes). -- The type and the cost of property, being rendered to the resource capital amount within the frames of set limitations (admissible assets). -- The recipients (beneficiaries) of incomes from the resource capital management. Thereat, the agreement can define as concrete NCO-beneficiaries (address resource capital), so, for example, the procedure of NCO-beneficiaries selection. -- Variants of the resource capital expenditures. The agreement can cover the following cases: -- NCO has a right to spend all the revenues, gained from the resource capital management; -- NCO has a right to spend some part of the revenues, gained from the resource capital management, capitalizing the rest of them; -- NCO has a right to spend as the revenues, gained from the resource capital management, so some part of the resource capital itself. -- The period of the resource capital validity (The agreement can contain the following variants of the resource capital validity periods: – 117 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel M. Vcherashnij, Vladislav Ju. Panchenko… Problems of Creation and Usage of Specific Capital Fund (Endowment) а) for a certain period, b) up to the moment of spending of the whole amount of the resource capital itself, c) up to the moment of achievement of the goals, for which purposes the resource capital has been created, d) unlimited resource capital). -- The resource capital liquidation order. (The agreement may define the following cases of the resource capital liquidation: а) upon the completion of its usage, b) upon the achievement of the goals, for which purposes the resource capital has been created, c) in case of funds has appeared in the United States of America. Today, it also exists in Canada, Japan, and countries of the European Union. For the last two decades, one can observe an obvious and accelerating development of the USA endowment institution, what is directly connected with the role elevation of the scientificeducational sector in innovation development and its competitive growth, i.e. from the point of view of strategic perspectives of the country development. There are certain bases to think that precisely a huge scale of the American inappropriate expenditures of incomes, obtained from the resource capital management, d) in case of covenants violation in the resource capital usage agreement). -- NCO resource capital income use accountancy and NCO activity checking procedure. -- NCO costs assessment procedure of administrative expenditures and so on. The NCO (the resource capital owner) and the management company make an agreement about the resource capital usage, and within the frames of this agreement they define the following: -- Management company responsibility before the trustor; -- Procedure and periods for revenues transfer from the resource capital to the NCO (the resource capital owner); -- The type and the cost of property, being rendered to the property trust; -- Management company accountancy to the trustor and so on. Thus, creation of endowments is a rather difficult task. The institution of endowment endowment (in comparison with other countries) is a direct and significant factor of the USA world leadership in development of fundamental sciences and higher education, and indirectly – in innovation and economical leadership of the country. The Russian Federation Endowment Institution is regulated by Federal Law №275-ФЗ «Procedure of Non-Commercial Organizations Special Capital Formation and Usage» dated 22.12.2006 (further is the law). In Russia, at present time they actively form university endowments (The Moscow State University of Foreign Affairs, The European University, The State University – Higher School Of Economics, The Moscow School Of Management «Skolkovo», The Special Capital Fund «Education and Science of the Southern Federal Region» and others.), and the means of some of the funds has been already placed into trusts. Salvation of the above mentioned problems will advance the creation of endowments in other spheres and will considerably raise their effectiveness. References 1. Federal Law № 156-ФЗ «Investment Funds» 2. V.A. Balakirev. Evaluation of the Corporative Social Programs Influence in Russia: Situation and Problematics. // Organization. – 2005. – № 3-4 (20/21). – 118 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel M. Vcherashnij, Vladislav Ju. Panchenko… Problems of Creation and Usage of Specific Capital Fund (Endowment) 3. Je.Ju. Vahrameev. Real Estate Unit Investment Funds in the RF: Dynamics of Development and Objectives of Investments.// Innovations. – 2006. – № 4 (94). 4. Criteria of Assets Management Quality Estimation. Analytical Notes. // Economical Analysis Centre « Interfax-CEA». – 2006. – July. 5. Special Social Capital.// Eurasia Economical Community Interregional Assembly. Typical Project of Legislative Act. – 2007. – October. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2009 2) 120-130 ~~~ УДК 7.01 Maieutic Means of Criticism Мaya G. Smolina* Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyask, 660041 Russia 1 Received 24.02.2009, received in revised form 03.03.2009, accepted 10.03.2009 The work is dedicated to the consideration of Maieutic tools of creation of the text of art criticism. There is a sample of applying Maieutic methods to the critical text about Mark Chagall’s creativity in the article. The research is intended for experts in the field of art and art criticism, and also for those who is interested in questions and problems of studying of the art. Keywords. The Art criticism, Maieutic, the text of criticism, a work of art, an artistic image. Introduction The main task of the research has been consideration of a problem of tools for creation of the art criticism text. In art criticism there is a special area – Maieutics. This area is connected with actualization of the relationship between a spectator and an art-work. One of the major problems of art-criticism Maieutics is the creation of the interesting, attractive and substantial text of art criticism. It is absolutely necessary to create a special technique for making the text of art. The technique obviously depends on the person of the text’s addressee, but the scientific problem is to come closest to understanding of the universal Maieutic principles that involve the person into the world of art. The purpose of the art critic’s work should be creating an opportunity for the dialogue space between an art-work and the spectator. The leading role in this dialogue should belong not to the subject of perception, but to a work of art. Though the academic analysis of an art-work is an obligatory * 1 condition for creating of the art criticism text based on the same art-work, nevertheless it is not the sufficient basis for evoking interest to the given text in different audiences of readers. An opportunity of construction of a harmonious relationship between the text appeal and its idea is a very important professional problem for a critic. The solution of this problem determines further destiny not only of art-criicism speciality, but also the development of human culture. Methods and Instruments According to the theory of V. Zhukovsky, maieutics is considered to be one of three aspects of professional model of an art-historian (Zhukovsky, 2004). This aspect correlates to the main target of the critical text – to help during the process of artistic image generation, as a result of relation between the spectator and the work of art. The maieutics of criticism appeals, to some extend, to the methods of the Socrates’ maieutics, being used in the rhetoric practice. In Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved – 120 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Мaya G. Smolina. Maieutic Means of Criticism this context, maieutics is a skill to help to give a birth to something new, something more flexible, it is knowledge about oneself and the world, having been got by means of gradual making a person to refuse from his initial convictions and to pass over to this knowledge stereo rupture, to the famous revelation of Socrates «At least, I know – I know nothing». The ironic provocation of the marking-down of human arrogance and self-assurance is the knowledge refinement from the seeming and illusory by means of raising of paradoxical and contradictory questions. Indication to these contradictions and, thus, organization of a cognitive problem, of a conflict is a methodical target of criticism. In the result of such probation – the bringing to zero knowledge, to a clear foundation – there must be born an artistic image, which is, in any case, more flexible and more thought-over, during the interaction of the spectator and the work of art. Sophistical negative relativism and its only possible conclusion – «I know – I know nothing» – is an intermediate product of the cognitive procedure. Finally, it must be objectified into a statement of a more general definition, making the man closer to the essence of things. In this connection there appear inviting, challenging, initiative, provoking motives and intonations in the text, thus, forming logical lacunes of understatement, of under-unveilingment. Maieutic critical text excites the feelings and the intellect of the reader through disclosure of the very possibility to experience or through the promise to give an answer to the question, having been raised by the critical article. The basis of such a criticism is a game, inter-reversing the «ego» of the author of the article and the «ego» of its reader, temporally merging them into one whole, and then advisably separating them. Such a criticism never directly answers the question, what the idea of the artistic work is; it does not give any clear schemes of its perception, though playfully suggests the reader to try some aspects of relationship between the abstract spectator and the work of art. The critic becomes a secret intermediate, now acting as the piece itself, imitating its «voice» (fragments of a literature work are quoted in literature criticism, in pictorial criticism there are used «lively» descriptions of the work’s fragments), then acting on behalf of the potential spectator, giving him unrestrictedness and free rein to independent communication alone with the work of art. Results WALKS WITH MARC CHAGALL’S PARACHUTE In March, 2005 it was 20th anniversary from the date of death of great Marc Chagall – a Russian painter, who died in France. Beginning from XVIII century there was a special attitude towards France in Russia. It was the time, when the French language played as big role, as today the English language pretends to have in XXI century. The mythologeme “Paris is the cultural centre of the entire world” blended for a long time in the Russian conscious with the mythologeme “the Russian and the French people are mentally alike”. The myths about similarity of the Russian and the French people, saturated with a high-society speech of the heroes of «War and Peace», with adventure novels of Dumas, with Voltairian and Cartesian tractates and sensual rocaille plots, haunted our conscious in waves, interchanging with outbreaks of national self-conscious. Nowadays, both in France, where the museum of Marc Chagall functions in Nice, and in Russia, where the same role is played by the Vitebsk museum, Chagall’s oeuvre is actively discussed, which exactly national culture’s property it is more likely to be. But the picturesque works of Chagall can themselves answer the question about such an aspect of this painter’s creation. – 121 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Мaya G. Smolina. Maieutic Means of Criticism – Have a look, here it is, Russia!- I told to my companion, having come on to the platform of the Vilnensk railway station. And I hardly managed to stop the porter, who had almost edged away with my baggage. M.Z. Chagall. 2000. P. 243 The artist’s (who has given us the walks and the flights over cities and towns in such a talented way) surname Chagall, being imposing in European and «speaking» in Russian, has not been always so. Marc Chagall appeared somewhat later, than Moysha Segal had come into the world. Moysha (equal to Moses) was born in the Vitebsk town, not far from the Lithuanian State Border. It was in 1887. The name Marc – Moses in the mode of France – appeared in 1910, when Chagall visited Paris for the first time. Oh, what if to saddle up the stone chimera of Notre-Dame, to brace it with hands and legs and to start flying! Paris is under me! My second Vitebsk! (Chagall, 2000: 240) The trip to Paris on a small grant from an art patron was not a careless walk, the painter lived in misery, «reading the menu as a poem» in cafes, but in all other respects, Paris was his lucky ticket for the provincial from a poor Jewry of the Russian town, Paris for him was Louver, first of all, and his radiant light of French culture. Such a huge distance, separating my native town from Paris, kept me from running away home immediately in a week or in a month. I would have cooked with pleasure some extraordinary event in order to have an excuse to return. Louver put an end to these hesitations (Chagall, 2000. P. 214). One more representative of the Russian upcountry was different from others probably by that fact, that he remembered about it and, more over, that he understood it quite well, that the only way to prove it was to study the world tradition, having overcome the peak of modern European art. Thus, the meeting of the world of Paris and the world of Jewry happened. Thus, happened the first genius «remake» of the eternal into the mode of France. One wonderful day (there are no other kinds of days in the world), when mother was putting the bread on a long-handled peel into the oven, I came up to her, touched her floured elbow and said: – Mummy... I want to be a painter. I will be neither a salesclerk, nor an accountant. I have had enough! It has been not for a waste that I have felt all the time: something special is going to happen. Consider yourself: am I the same as others? What am I good for? I want to become a painter. Save me, dear mama. Let’s go with me, please, let’s go! There is such an institution in our town, if I enter it, finish the course, then I will become a real painter. And I will be so happy! -What? A painter? You’ve gone mad. Leggo, don’t hinder me to put the bread into the oven (Chagall, 2000:139). Chagall experienced the situation of loosing of his native land, of his previous name Moysha, feeling himself, in some sense, even a traitor in regard to his own roots. There, in Vitebsk, his father, having never approved his studying painting, did not even extend his hand for a farewell handshake. His beloved mother and father, brother and sisters, town fences, his girl-friend Bella –all these was left far away. But Chagall had to move further, he reconsidered his trip to France, giving this fact the meaning of his own high significance. Yes, one day he had been born in a small country room in Vitebsk, and people and cows had been curiously peeping into the windows. Chagall created a lot of paintings on the topic of birth, wherein the same motives were present: – 122 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Мaya G. Smolina. Maieutic Means of Criticism a cow, a lamp, a dark room, a figure of a father, a birthing mother and a baby. Narrating about all these, Chagall described with great tender the domestic details, growing up to the level of symbols: for example, a washtub was the first thing, which he saw, when he was born. His birth was wonderful, and there was no exaggeration in it. A washtub was the first thing, which was captured by my eyes. A common washtub: deep, with well-rounded sides. Such ones are sold in the market. I was fully in it. I don’t remember who, most likely, my mother told that, when I was born – the fire broke out in a small house at the road, behind the prison in the suburb of Vitebsk. The fire captured the entire town, including the poor Jewry. My mother and the baby by her feet, together with the bed, were taken to a safety place, to other end of the town. But what was above all, I was born dead. I wouldn’t live. Imagine, such a small pale lump, who did not want to live. As if he had seen an eyeful of Chagall’s paintings (Chagall, 2000: 49). In 1911 Chagall created the last «Birth» (Fig. 1), wherein he directly announced the idea of advent of a prophet-painter with the help of the painting’s solemn vertical format and its strictly symbolical composition, where the main role belongs to a ray of light, descending into the mother’s womb: the coupling of the divine ray of light and the mother principle – this is the explanation of the special foreordination of the baby. Reconsideration of his birth in his Paris work was connected with the motif of christening (the washtub is a symbol of christening laver), i.e. here, the idea of secondary birth, of birth in France under a new name is refracted. That is why he called Vinaver (his friend-art-patron) his art father, and Paris – his second Vitebsk. In Paris «Birth» there appeares strictness of compositions, and even structure, which is not typical to his previous life-describing paintings, made on this topic. And that again reminds us about the fact that Chagall, being in Paris, the centre of modern art, was in search of his own, unique technique of pictorial works’ creation, in search of a new, god-inspired method of expression. In this respect, Chagall remains to be a Moses in pictorial art. Once, the wife of one of my familiar doctors, whom I visited sometimes in order to get encouraged, retorted to my complaints, that I was picked at even here, in Saloon: – and what? You are to blame yourself; do not produce such pictures (Chagall, 2000: 218). In 1911 Chagall created the painting «Russia, Donkeys and Others» (Fig. 2). Cultural elite of Paris met it with enthusiasm. Everything, what was depicted in the painting: on the roof of a house – a red cow, green calves, a woman with a vedro and with a torn head, hovering about in black cosmic space – seemed to be a surrealistic portrait of Russia. Under the woman there was an image of church. «Sur-nature! » – pronounced Guillaume Apollinaire for the first time. So, it comes out to be Russia, does not it? On the whole, I have hardly known it. And almost have not seen it. Novgorod, Rostov, and Kiev – where are they and what do they look like? But, really, where? I have seen only Petrograd, Moscow, the Liozno place and Vitebsk. But Vitebsk is a special place – poor, godforsaken little town. There are dozens, hundreds of synagogues, butcher shops, passers-by (Chagall, 2000: 245). In 1913 «Self-Portrait with Seven Fingers» appeared (Fig. 3). Marc Chagall wrote a lot of self-portraits, but this one is unique. «SelfPortrait with Seven Fingers» is full of riddles. Firstly, seven fingers. Secondly, Chagall presented himself with his works – real and unreal. For example, the highly-appreciated painting «Russia, donkeys and others» is depicted on the easel – 123 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Fig.1. M.Chagall. Child’s Birth.1911 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Fig.2.M.Chagall. Russia, Donkeys and Others. 1911 Fig.3. M.Chagall.Self-Portrait with Seven Fingers. 1911-1912 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Мaya G. Smolina. Maieutic Means of Criticism Fig.4.M.Chagall. The View of Paris from the Window. 1913 before the artist. The view from the workroom window is overlooking the Eiffel Tower – it is as if a quotation of his own painting of 1913 «The view of Paris from the window» (Fig. 4). In the right corner there is a sight of the Vitebsk town in the aureola of floating clouds, a constant motif of Chagall’s oeuvre. My motherland is in my soul. Have you got? I enter it without visa. When I am lonely, – it ever knows, Get me to bed; wrap me like mother (Chagall, 2000: 5). Thirdly, the artist presentes his pseudocubic self-portrait, because, here all the depicted space is broken by surfaces, squares and angles. It is known about the attitude of the master towards cubism: Chagall paid tribute to it, but he wondered why it was necessary to make so much effort, in order to depict an object in its physical essence. Sandrar assured me, that I could get on even with the most arrogant cubists, for whom I was a waste of space. Their ideas did not in the least disturb me. I thought – «let them eat to their health their square pears on their triangle tables». Probably, my manner of that time seemed to the French to be slightly wildish, while I was looking at them in awe. It was tormentingly. On the other hand, I was thinking that, my art did not contemplate, it was a melted plumbum, an azure of my soul, pouring out on to the canvas. Down with naturalism, impressionism and cuborealism! They were dull and abominable for me (Chagall, 2000: 220). Fourthly, in most of his self-portraits Chagall draws himself in some relative clothing (something is blue, something is of gray colour), with some attributive elements (a white collar, a glove, a hat). His suit of clothes in «Self-Portrait with Seven Fingers» is a significant part of the – 126 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Мaya G. Smolina. Maieutic Means of Criticism composition. It would be fare to notice, that the three-piece is presented in the manner of cubists, and the suit itself is elegantly-official and serves a symbol of festivity. Precisely that time, bow-tie came firstly into fashion (after the first setting of the opera «Chio-Chio-San, or madam Butterfly»). Thus, we see the artist depicted in the process of creation, having put on himself a fashionable suit. Chagall presentes himself in the aspect of «a fashionable» painter, who has shot extremely actual tendencies of his time. Without doubts, it is a self-irony. The spectator’s eye is capable to painting «The View of Paris from the Window» the parachutist has dotted eyes that make him gazing in surprise. In this regard, Chagall appears to be a descent both for European art and for Russian as well. Having returned back home in some period of time, he started enthusiastically providing an artistic education in Vitebsk already as a representative of world art, air-dropping the European art heritage on to the Russian land. Sixthly, the method of artistic space organization resembles the principles of the Russian icon. Still being in Petersburg, Chagall build some formal parallels and with their help the author slightly hints to the ambiguity of the fashionable author’s position: the curves of the painter’s hair are similar to the form of the clouds on the right, wherein the image of his native town is enclosed. Triangular forms of the Eiffel towel and diagonal rays of light behind the workroom window repeat the coat lapels, signaling that, there is a connection between the coat – a symbol of external prosperity, and France. The triangles of the Eiffel towel and of the collar, motley Paris life, presented on the garden background, and the colourful and psychedelic design of the artist’s shirt are uniting. Consequently, having put on the clothing (the form, the language) of Paris art, Chagall has remained in his thoughts in his motherland, and hence the content, but not the form of his creative work, is associated. Fifthly, we see a parachutist behind the window near the Eiffel towel. Just the same as in the painting «The View of Paris from the Window». Though, it is difficult to surprise an experienced spectator of Chagall’s paintings, but nevertheless: the size of the parachutist is too big in comparison with the Eiffel towel, but it is enough to be well-seen, and to notice that his parachute is a triangle, its top being upwards. Is it a symbol of geometrism tendency in art? A symbol of spiritual beginning of creation? In the stood for a long time in the museum of Alexander III (now – the Russian museum), silently talking to icons. For Chagall, the Russian icon is a pattern of mystic pictorial art; it is an absolutely special world, it is built in reverse perspective, its background is nominal, the figure is right before the spectator, the central presentment is often surrounded by stamps in the corners, depicting sacred symbolic spaces: mountains, trees, temples. Such stamps are signed. «The stamps» – with the presentment of Paris on one side, and with the presentment of Vitebsk on the other, – are signed by Chagall with yellow colour on the red background of the wall near the upper boarder of the painting: «Paris» and «Vitebsk», but it is done with the help of Jewish letters, in the Yiddish language. In this case, the icon’s artificiality is squared: it is not an icon; it is a «quasi» icon, more over, it is a social work, a selfportrait. It is surprising that, this «quasi» Jewish icon is aimed for reading by that very people, who has never had any icons at all because of the prohibition on anthropomorphic presentments in Hebrew art. The discovered Yiddish inscriptions at the work’s upper boarder are also a sign, which unexpectedly transforms the portrait genre of the piece and makes us look at it from a different point of view. The seventh point is also a riddle, but not the last. The riddle of seven fingers is a provocative – 127 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Мaya G. Smolina. Maieutic Means of Criticism outrageous element, awakening the spectator’s interest, and on the other hand, it is an indication to creation of a miracle. If we pay attention to the artist’s hand, then we see one and the same right hand on the left and on the right side. (Chagall wrote with his right hand, what is testified by the photos). We may suppose that, there are depicted two phases of creation. The hand with five fingers, holding the easel and the brushes is a thingish phase, material side of his creative working. The hand with seven fingers, touching the painting, is a mysterious moment of creation. «Seven fingers» idiomatically in Yiddish means «very quickly», i.e. creation for Chagall is a process without making any mental efforts, creation in the stream of consciousness. Formal, material side of the artist’s creative work is fragile for his will of transfiguration. Why five fingers is not enough for the author? Pentadactylism may serve as a sign of humane capabilities, which are not enough for the «prophet’s» super-task. Messiah’s responsibility is expressed with an actual wish to embrace the native land, being physically so far, to include it into one’s own paintings as more as possible, to place it into the world order, and thus to save it from perishing, from being forgot by god, from cultural isolation, to prove its existential worthiness before the whole world. A humane hand is not at all enough for such an aim; here at least the hand of the Creator, of the Maker is needed. Otherwise, it seems that, one could have depicted simply more than five (six, eight or eternal number) of fingers, but exactly the number «seven» possesses the root of miracle-creation, the continuity from the apocalyptical tradition. Real, mathematically correct «five fingers» transform into miraculous «seven», which create a symbolic space and resurrect seven days of the Creation (in this case, the author is God), seven rainbow colours (here, he is an artist) and seven-branched candlestick – a sacral ritual of Judaism (he is Jew). A walk with parachute is difficult to describe adequately, as far as it should be experienced by oneself. The same concerns all the eternal creational riddles of our compatriot – Marc Zakharovich Chagall. Discussion The system of maieutic moves is encoded in an every text of criticism. The essence of the critical text is much predefined by the fact, that the visual-imaginary and the research (analytical) primacies are merged together. More over, the outspread of the visual-imaginary beginning is considered as the artistic method’s prevailing, while the author’s underlining of the objectmatter’s analysis and its interrelations’ revealing appear as a domination of the research, theoretical method. In this article we give, for example, a pattern of an artistic critical text, dedicated to the pictorial art of Marc Chagall. The artistic critical text, mentioned below, is full of factual material. The text problematic is set by the question about the national identity of the artist’s oeuvre. There is a classical «literature» conflict in it: the relationship between the man and his motherland, the problem of willing or unwilling emigration, of Jewish cosmopolitanism, a contagious eternal problem of self-comprehension of a modern provincial, being abroad, an outbreak of one myth-world and a painful formation of the other myth, the process of changing of the world’s notion. This is a crucial moment of growing older, which every person overcomes a lot of times during his entire life. The structure of the text is not monotonous, there is created an effect of a «springing» text with a help of a chequerwork of the critical author’s words and Marc Chagall’s citations from his poems and memoirs, which are phenomenally contagious by themselves. It gives a possibility to the works of art to acquire «a voice» of their own. – 128 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Мaya G. Smolina. Maieutic Means of Criticism The presented author’s critical text purposefully begins from an offbeat fact (about that, that Marc Chagall took this name for himself in France); this maieutic-teller’s move is counted for gradual outspreading of the question, why it was so important for the painter. The means of maieutics are presented in expression: the text strives to be unfinished; it is open for discussion, it does not purposefully draw the line in the interpretation of the idea of the piece. At the same time, there are elements of communication of an abstract spectator and the work of art, wherein the author of the article tries not to impose his point of view, but suggests the reader a game returning into the spectator’s guise, wherein the spectator is offered «a pig in a poke»: at the moment of the article reading he is supplied all the necessary expert information and investigational ideas. In a certain moment, the reader extrapolates the history of Chagall to his own life experience, according to the design of the artistic maieutic critic: the history of a provincial, the history of conquest and overcoming, and the history of celebration of personal myth over social stereotype. The main maieutic target of the article is an adaptation, preparing of the reader to the interaction with Chagall’s pieces. Thus, the addressee is a man, who is striving to be elected. As it was said by Vas. Rosanov, every man has his own Passion Week in his life. Conclusion Maieutic means of art criticism promote a birth of an integral artistic image by means of gradual destruction of the person-reader’s primary beliefs and stereotypes of knowledge. As a result the reader gets a new, more flexible, knowledge of the world and of oneself. In each text of art criticism there should be a system of maieutic operations. In many respects the essence of the art criticism text is predetermined by the certain form of relationship between eye-minded and investigative (analytical) principles. While the development of the eyeminded principle is considered to be predominated by an art method, the author’s stress put on the analysis of a picture subject which reveals its interrelations should be understood as dominated of the investigative theoretical method. According to a plane of the art critic as a maieutic, the reader of the article «Walks with Mark Chagall’s parachute» at the certain moment extrapolates Chagall’s story upon his own life experience: the story of the provincial, the story of conquest and overcoming, the story of celebration of a personal myth above public stereotypes. The main maieutic idea of the article is to open up the artistic image but still to keep a part of a secret about Chagall’s creativity. The text of art-criticism shouldn’t act as a substitute for a real relationship between the viewer and the art-work; it should only motivate the reader. Acknowledgements Work has been supported by the grant of Federal agency of Education of the Russian Federation in 2004 (A04-I/7-41). The work has also been financially supported by the grant for the innovative projects by young researchers of the Siberian Federal University in 2007 and in 2008. I express my gratitude to the supervisor of studies, Doctor of Philosophy V.I.Zhukovskyi, and also to the professor, Doctor of Philosophy N.P.Koptseva. References N.P. Koptseva, A.P. Chekhov as a Philosopher: «Game» Phenomenon and «Existence in the Face of Death» in his Dramas, Journal of Siberian Federal University “Humanities and social sciences”, 1(2008), 22-38. – (in Russian). – 129 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Мaya G. Smolina. Maieutic Means of Criticism N.P. Koptseva, V.I. Zhukovsky, The Artistic Image as a Process and Result of Game Relations between a Work of Visual Art as an Object and its Spectator I N.P. Koptseva // Journal of Siberian Federal University “Humanities and social sciences”, 2(2008), 226-244.- (in Russian). D.V. Pivovarov, Objective and Subjective Religiousness, Journal of Siberian Federal University “Humanities and social sciences”, 2 (2008), 250-252 – (in Russian). V.I. Zhukovsky, D.V. Pivovarov, The Nature of Visual Thinking, Journal of Siberian Federal University “Humanities and social sciences”, 1(2008), 149-158- (in Russian). V.I. Zhukovsky, The Visual Content in Representative Paintings of Andrei Pozdeev // Journal of Siberian Federal University “Humanities and social sciences”, 1(2008), 124-148. – (in Russian). V.I. Zhukovsky, Theory of Pictorial Art. Texts of Lectures. Part 1 (Krasnoyarsk, 2004). – (in Russian). I. Karasik, «Before» and «Now» of Michael Roginsky, The New World of Art, 3 (2004). – (in Russian). M. Chagall, My Life (St. Petersburg, 2000). – (in Russian). Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2009 2) 131-149 ~~~ УДК 7.01 The Rules of Art Communication Between a Viewer and an Art-Work Maria V. Tarasova* Siberian Federal University, 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia1 Received 24.02.2009, received in revised form 03.03.2009, accepted 10.03.2009 The communication between the viewer and the art-work is considered to be organized by certain rules which regulate speaking operations of partners in the art dialogue-relationship. Each element of the art-work is a sign addressing its meaning to the viewer who discovers it and fills it with his own personal sense. Rules of changes in both the communicant and the communication product are analyzed by means of investigation certain works of art and principles of viewer’s communication with them. Communication with the art-work helps to transfer to another communicational level – between the human being and the completeness of the Universe. Keywords: art-communication, visual concept, index, iconic, symbolic signs, speaking operations, dialogue-relationship. Introduction The investigation of the meaning and ways of communication in the culture sphere is one of the main tasks for the modern art theory and modern philosophy of culture. Art is a key element in the global mechanism of culture. Culture is responsible for realization of the leading human communication need – a human desire to unite with Absolute, for a man is a part of the whole Being. To get the desired unity is a way to find harmony for a human being. Culture is the only sphere where a person is able to build relationship between his own finiteness and Absolute infinity. The basis of the communication mechanism realized by culture is formed by the rules of ideal-creating process. In art the space and inner * 1 mechanisms for ideal-creating are provided by the relationship between a viewer and an art-work who are mediums in the dialogue of finiteness and infinity. The main aim of this work is to define rules of the dialogue between a viewer and an art-work. These rules are not investigated and systemized for they are considered to be completely individual and dependent on the certain viewer and his position as a recipient of an art-work. Methods The definition of art-communication rules may be realized on the following methodological basis: -- the principles of the reflection theory by George W.F. Hegel ; Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved – 131 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria V. Tarasova. The Rules of Art Communication Between a Viewer and an Art-Work -- the main concepts of the synthetic theory of ideal by Daniil V. Pivovarov ; -- the ideas of the visual thinking conception by Vladimir I. Zhukovsky ; -- the principles of the visual essence of religion theory by V.I.Zhukovsky, N.P.Koptseva, D.Pivovarov ; -- the fundamental concepts of fine art theory by Vladimir I. Zhukovsky ; -- the method of philosophical art-critical analysis of the art-work. The named theories form the methodological ground for the research of communication acts between viewers and art-works. Results and Discussion Several tasks have been solved for reaching the aim of analyzing the rules of the communication between an art-work and a viewer. The first one has been to define the subjects of the art communication process. Their specific characteristics influence the rules of art communication. The subjects of art communication are a viewer and an art-work. The art-work plays the role of an ideal in terms of the ideal-creating process. According to the rules of ideal-creating, an ideal contains an ideal scheme of action with itself. Thus the art-work as an ideal contains the ideal scheme of a viewer’s action with the art-work. For this reason the artwork may be defined as a subject which is more active and which starts art-communication. The viewer and the art-work turn into communication subjects only when they are participating in the art dialogue-relationship. The second task has been to define the product of the relationship between artcommunication subjects. It also influences the communication rules. The product is constantly in the coming-to-be state and it is determined by ideal inter-reflection of both the subjects of art-communication. Interaction of art- communication subjects may be defined by the notion “dialogue-relationship”. It denotes both the tendency of subjects to self-opening to the partner and the birth they give to the new being as a result of communication. This new being is an embodiment of inter-dependence, mutual necessity of art-communication partners in each other. This new being may be determined as a visual concept. A visual concept is essence in a visible and perceptible form. The third task has been to analyze changes of art-communication product and specific character of a viewer and an art-work dialogue-relationship development. In the process of dialoguerelationship the visual concept is coming-to-be in a successive row of statuses: material, index, iconic, symbolic. The visual concept statuses are steps of approaching the dialogue-form revelation of the existence truth and steps to realization of the major communication need. The change of art-communication product status marks the change of subjects’ communication capacities. It also marks the change of transition to another level of idealcreating communication process. While dissolving in each other during communication, a viewer and an art-work turn from addresser and addressee to speaking partners and then to coauthors of an art-text. A viewer and an art-work co-authorship leads the dialogue-relationship to the level of finiteness and infiniteness coexistence. The phase of the dialogue-relationship with an art-work turns into a phase of the dialoguerelationship between finiteness and infinity by means of an art-work as a medium. What is more important, the relationship of finiteness and infinity becomes possible only during the process of communication with an art-work. During the dialogue-relationship subjects of art-communication – a viewer and an art-work – act as systems of speaking operations. Both the communicants and their encounter come to – 132 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria V. Tarasova. The Rules of Art Communication Between a Viewer and an Art-Work existence only in the language sphere. The general scheme of a dialogue-relationship in the language turns into a dialogue encounter of communicants only when the language turns from potential state into actual state of certain speaking acts. The art-communication language exists only in the process of speaking self-realization and it is always coming into being. Any speaking act is coming-to-be as a result of inter-reflection of object-language and subjectlanguage. This inter-reflection results in the formation of objective meanings and subjective personal sense. Object-language is more important in the process of speaking act production because it is a source of language unity which is a necessary condition for the first phase of visual concept successful self-development. Objectlanguage is a general communication scheme according to which the dialogue-relationship starts its development. Subject-language of an artwork and of a viewer is individual development of a general communication model. According to the type of communication direction there are two categories of objectlanguages in fine art. Language systems organized by the predominated communicative energy of infinity that searches for finite, visual, crystallized forms for its own display make up the first category, called object-language of Area-Classicism style space. Language systems organized by the predominated energy of finiteness that breaks its own limits and searches for dissolving in the infinity belong to the second category called object-language of Area-Romanticism style space. None of objectlanguages can dominate completely in the space of certain speaking encounter because both communicative tendencies must be present in the art speaking act. Their equal participation demonstrates mutual presence of the higher level communication subjects, i.e. finiteness and infinity. The art-works which are style specimens of the first or the second style space conduct communication in only one predominant direction though they also not devoid of the opposite communicative models. The object-language of a masterpiece is formed by means of co-existence of both communication tendencies: movements of finiteness and infinity towards each other are equal in their power and they tend to harmonize each other. The subject-language of the art-work is a unique sign form to realize the medium function – an ability to be the “bridge” of dialoguerelationship for the certain viewer. The subjectlanguage of the viewer is a unique ability to answer the communicative action of an art-work, individual ability “to go along” this “bridge” that is provided by an art-work; the ability that helps to pass from the level of mediated relationship to the level of direct relationship. The viewer’s and an art-work’s speaking operations in a dialogue-relationship contain both object-language and subject-language signs merged in a dialectical unity. Dialectical relations of subject-language and object-language make the potential language model come to action: the certain art-work becomes a medium in the relationship of finiteness and infinity for the certain viewer. It is impossible to investigate the artcommunication mechanism in a form of abstract discussion. It is necessary to divide the integral art-communication act into several phases in order to analyze all the changes in art-communicants statuses and to describe each status of selfdeveloping visual concept. The investigation is only possible in the process of modelling the dialogue-relationship of a viewer with certain art-works. The model of each communication stage is considered to be best analyzed when it is based on usage of different art-works. “The Circus” by G.Seurat, “Rinaldo and Armida” by N.Poussin and “Scream” by E. Munch have been – 133 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria V. Tarasova. The Rules of Art Communication Between a Viewer and an Art-Work chosen for the analysis. The model of viewer’s art-communication with each of these art-works demonstrates all specific features of an artcommunication certain stage. The rules of ideal speaking scheme proposed to a viewer by the art-work. Material and index statuses of a visual concept The art-work “The Circus” (Fig.1) by the French neoimpressionist George Seurat was taken to model the first phase of a viewer and art-work dialogue-relationship. The phase is resulted in the formation of material and then index statuses of a visual concept. The pointillism (another name – divisionism) method was created by G.Seurat and it scientifically generalized all the achievements that had been made in painting in previous epochs. The method is the visualization of the painting itself. G.Seurat’s method focuses attention mostly on the painting surface. It helps to realize the primacy of an art-work move in the dialogue-relationship. The art-work deliberately makes a viewer pause and reflect on that art-communication stage which is usually easily overcome. This is the way for any pointillism art-work to inform that the meanings of art-work signs are not the result of abstract generalization but that they are inevitably connected with the painted surface. The signs are unities of material and immaterial nature and they get their meanings only in certain use. The opportunity to model creation process makes the viewer co-creator. Thus organized dialogue with the art-work in general maintains the dialogue world-outlook. The pointillism technique puts special emphasis on the dialogue type of the process in which the visual concept is coming-to-be. Although this effect is typical for an art-communication with any painting art-work of any style and any technique the pointillism makes the effect more visible and obvious. Any painting canvas is covered with separated strokes which integrate into the whole only with a help of a viewer. The dialogue-relationship with the art-work “The Circus” reveals the laws of the first artcommunication phase. According to the main rule of an art-relationship, art-work starts the dialogue. Material status of a visual concept, forming on the first phase of art-communication, is a product of meeting intersection of an art-work’s and a viewer’s speaking operations. The art-work “The Circus” speaking operations providing formation of the visual concept material status 1. The first message sent by the art-work “The Circus” to the viewer is determined by the painting technique. Pointing manner of pointillism represents the canvas space as a whole, non-divided into separate forms and constructed by combination of great number of points. The combination is well-regulated, the points are all equal to each other in their size and form. The elements are like atoms. At the same time the whole is rather unstable because number of elements it is divided into is endless. 2. The colour scheme sends two main messages to viewers. The first one is determined by the fact that every point is of local colour. Local colours are placed next to each other according to the rules of “optic mixture” and principle of “simultaneous contrast of supplementary colours”. When put alongside local colours represent mutual opposites. The colour scheme of the art-work “The Circus” is based on the contrast of the yellow and the blue, the orange and the violet colours. 3. The colour scheme second message is the predominance of the yellow and orange colours which construct the general tone of every composition elements. – 134 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Fig. 1. George Seurat Circus. 1891. Oil on canvas. 186х151,4 cm. D’Orsay Museum, Paris Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria V. Tarasova. The Rules of Art Communication Between a Viewer and an Art-Work 4. The diagonal dominance of the composition directs it both from the left bottom corner to the right upper corner and back – from the right upper to the left bottom corner. Diagonals organize the compositional structure of the art-work. 5. Large format of the art-work (186x151.4 cm) is also a specific sign for the art-work to start the relationship with the viewer. The viewer of the art-work “The Circus” speaking operations providing formation of the visual concept material status 5. The viewer tends to open himself up to the art-work because its large size shows similarity between two art-communicants. The viewer tends to see the place for dialogue-relationship as comfortable for communication. The viewer is tempted to enter the space of dialogue-relationship that opens for him. The description of the visual concept material status The first phase of art-communication between a viewer and an art-work (modelled Each of the art-work “The Circus” message is addressed to the ideal viewer and is expected to be responded in the certain ideal way. 1. The viewer assembles separated point elements into the whole while reflecting on his role in the process of creating the new being nonexisted before and without his assistance and participation. The forms and the separation of forms from the background are not just comingto-be during the corporal action of both the viewer and an art-work surface. On creating the whole constructed of separated elements the viewer realizes the ideal programme of global synthesis. 2. The viewer forms new colour combinations in the process of optic mixture of opposite supplementary colours. The viewer executes the proposed ideal programme of constructing the new being by means of uniting the opposites. 3. Being influenced by the colour dominance of the art-work “The Circus”, the viewer develops the programme of active, excited, enthusiastic and joyful participation. 4. The viewer defines the predominant compositional diagonal as an “entrance” mode (from the upper right to the bottom left corner) that provokes viewer’s enthusiasm to “meet” the entering. At the same defining the other diagonal as a mode of “victory” (from the bottom left to the upper right corner) provokes an enthusiastic and joyful moving up along the way of victory. on the dialogue-relationship with the artwork “The Circus” by G.Seurat) results in a visual concept with the following major characteristics. The visual concept in the beginning of its self-development is being formed on condition of art-work speaking operations predominance. At this stage the main purpose of art-work messages is to cause a viewer’s back reaction. The viewer fulfills the ideal speaking operation implied and programmed by the art-work. The viewer’s participation is not accidental but regulated. The art-work doesn’t need any viewer but the viewer of this very art-work; the viewer who is able to participate in the dialogue-relationship and who is ready for further operations leading to visual concept self-development. The message coming from the art-work is addressed to the ideal addressee. The certain viewer may correspond to the ideal answering scheme only to some extent. Feeling a need for an ideal collocutor the art-work strives to transform the certain viewer. The art-work challenges the viewer for developing a speaking ability close to ideal. The general status of ideal actions makes them embody in certain viewer’s actions rather adequately and naturally. No matter what the viewer’s individual characteristics may be, the viewer of the art-work “The Circus” fulfills the – 136 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria V. Tarasova. The Rules of Art Communication Between a Viewer and an Art-Work general programme of combining the separated points into the whole. These operations may be called “universal” because they activate the potential for participation in each viewer who opens himself up, who sees the art-work speaking exactly to him. The pointillism technique is the reason why the viewer is “caught” by the dialogue-relationship with “The Circus” and is tempted to go on the art-communication for the further development of a visual concept to the highest level of communication. The visual concept of the material status more detailed form. But the definitions found on the first material level of the visual concept are complete. The model of index status of the visual concept development may be constructed on the basis of the further analysis of art-communication between the viewer and the art-work “The Circus” by George Seurat. is specified by the formation of the total sign space, still not divided into separate signs. The total sign space is the regulation source of both the art-work and the viewer’s speaking activity. The presence of the material status in the visual concept development designates the sign potential of the art-work material nature. The painted canvas surface is an origin of the visual concept formation. Moreover all the further phases of the visual concept self-development are concentrated here. Later the visual concept reveals its sign nature more evidently but it is already present in its completeness at the first phase. The highest communication result – when a Human Being becomes a dialogue partner for Absolute that is eternally resolving into atoms, that is coming to be in its eternal conflict of opposites brought to unity with a help of human participation – this result is originated from the material status of “The Circus” visual concept. Material status demonstrates and visualizes the result of art-communication though it is not recognized at this stage. The visual concept in its material status, formed in the dialogue-relationship between the viewer and the art-work “The Circus” may be defined as “complicity”, “dynamic coming-tobe”, “aspiration”, “meeting of entering”. These definitions will be developed and specified in a Index status of the visual concept is specified by differentiation of the sign whole formed on the first phase of the material status into separate signs. 1. The size and disposition of the character represented in the foreground send the message of “accordance” to the size and disposition of the viewer in front of the picture. 2. The actions of the character transfer joyful and attentive observation to the viewer. They also transfer simultaneous opening and closing of something hidden. 3. The character’s attributes are the mask, the clown’s costume and the curtain in his hand. A clown’s role in a circus is one of the medium between arena and spectators. This function of mediation is extrapolated on the viewer. Also the viewer’s speaking programme is introduced to operations of standing on the border between the game and reality, on the border of entering the dialogue space. 4. The clown in the foreground is alike the clowns at the arena. The likeness initiates interrelation of separate signs into the whole and provokes viewer’s immersion into the dialoguerelationship with the art-work. 5. The diagonal of the curtain in the foreground is alike the diagonals of the curtain in the background. It is also the means of attraction to the dialogue-relationship sphere. The art-work “The Circus” speaking operations providing formation of the visual concept index status – 137 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria V. Tarasova. The Rules of Art Communication Between a Viewer and an Art-Work The art-work “The Circus” viewer’s speaking operations, providing formation of the visual concept index status 1. The figure of the character in the foreground creates “the viewer’s niche”: the viewer’s head, neck and shoulders happen to be at the place of the clown’s head, neck and shoulders. This figure is an index for a viewer to find his role and place in the dialogue. 2. The clown’s role is a source of certain behaviour. The nature of the behavior becomes ideal for the viewer who identifies himself with the character. The clown’s actions automatically become viewer’s actions. That means the viewer looks the same direction as the clown does – up – at the performance. The character is laughing that strengthens the atmosphere of joyful observation that has already been perceived on the first level of communication – with a help of warm orange colour tone predomination. The presence of simultaneous opening and closing the curtain makes the viewer consider himself as an important and active side of the dialogue. It makes the viewer the curtain’s owner. The viewer’s position is the only one that is responsible for the completeness of the event. The curtain and freedom of operation with it point at the existence of minimum two spaces – in front of the curtain and behind it. “The Circus” viewer is at the similar position – he is simultaneously inside of the art-communication space and outside of it – in the exhibition hall. 3. Having identified himself with the character in the foreground the viewer “puts on” the mask that marks the significance of existence in two spaces. The clown’s mask and costume dress the viewer like the participant in the performance. The role of the participant is always to stand between the spectators and actors in the process of creation. 4. Seeing similar clowns on arena makes the viewer “step inside” the dialogue-relationship. Speculatively the viewer moves himself into the centre of the arena. 5. The correlation of curtains in the foreground and in the background reveals the mirror principle of dialogue area construction. The rows of spectators standing in the entrance space in the background may be seen as a reflection for those viewers who are standing in front of the picture. The area of the game is getting closed within itself and prevents leaving the tempting and attractive circle of dialogue-relationship space. This is an extra sign-medium that is seducing the viewer to enter the dialogue-relationship not as a detached observer but as a partner who is enjoying equal rights who is speaking language of interrelation. The description of the visual concept index status While revealing index status of the visual concept the viewer is guided by the art-work; he fulfills the ideal scheme of art-communication transferred to him by the art-work. At the same time the viewer tends to show his own capacity for speaking acts. At the last stage of index status formation the viewer turns to the communication activity of a speaking partner. The index status demonstrates the sign whole falling into single separate signs. The signs are formed only in the process of the relationship between the viewer and the art-work. The sign meaning is determined by its dynamic realization, its functioning in the dialogue area. The sign meaning is mutual programme of communicants behaviour towards each other resulting in the new being formation. Index signs tend to synthesize with each other. But visual concept index status is specified by definite independency of signs’ meanings which is followed by their integrity in the iconic status of the visual concept. – 138 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria V. Tarasova. The Rules of Art Communication Between a Viewer and an Art-Work The rules of object-language dialogue between a viewer and an art-work. Iconic status of the visual concept The beginning stage of an art-communication introduces partners into the dialogue-relationship, and the art-work initiates the viewer’s back reaction. The next stage of art-communication may be specified as action of speaking partners equal in their speaking power. Equality is caused by the common object-language communication system for both a viewer and an art-work. The tempting mechanism of the artcommunication first stage was represented on the model of dialogue-relationship with the art-work “The Circus” made in pointillism style. This artwork clearly visualized the sign potential of the material surface of any art-work. Further artcommunication modelling demands a different art-work. The object-language aspect of artcommunication can be best revealed with a help of such an art-work which unique language mostly corresponds to one of two general objectlanguage schemes. The art-work “Rinaldo and Armida” (Fig. 2) by Nicolas Poussin was taken as a model for the object-language dialogue-relationship with the viewer. The classicism style is mostly appropriate to the Area-Classicism object-language. All the art-works by N.Poussin can be called style specimens of this object-language system. For both art-communication partners to speak the object-language of Area-Classicism style is a condition for further visual concept self-development. It must be noted that Nicolas Poussin himself described the necessity for the viewer and the art-work to speak one and the same language in the communication process. The unity of the programme of creating artworks and the programme of discussing and understanding art-works is provided by unity of the object-language scheme both the viewer and the art-work can speak. The object-language competence of the art-work “Rinaldo and Armida” includes the capacity for a speaking actualization of such signs as “clarity”, “flatness”, “linearity”, “closure”, “plurality”. These signs are basic for thematic, plot, genre and other signs and they realize the communication mode of infinity crystallized in the finite forms. The object-language competence of the “Rinaldo and Armida” viewer consists of the ability to speak the language formed by the composition signs of Area-Classicism style. Other necessary abilities are the capacity for rational reflection, the knowledge of ancient mythology and of the poem “Liberated Jerusalem” by T. Tasso. There are several main stages of the visual concept iconic status formation. On the first stage separate index signs gradually sum up into the integral icon. The meaning of every sign in the icon is determined by the syntactic rules of signs interrelation. Integration of index signs is regulated by the action scheme suggested at the material level of the visual concept formation. Material status development has already settled the general principle of composition, as well as principles of colour and linear conception. Icon, as an integral, is formed by means of the art-communicants speaking operations encounter. Every time the first speaking move is done by the art-work it provokes the viewer for the answer in their speaking partnership. Several iconic levels of the integral meaning are revealed on the second stage of artcommunication between the art-work and the viewer in the situation of their partnership. The third stage is the gradual filling the iconic meanings with deep personal sense for the viewer. Creation of these personal meanings is already a signal that the visual concept selfdevelopment next phase began. – 139 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria V. Tarasova. The Rules of Art Communication Between a Viewer and an Art-Work Fig. 2. Nicolas Poussin. Rinaldo and Armida. 1630. Oil on canvas. 95х133 cm. The Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, Moscow In the icon level such index signs as “chariot”, “coachwomen”, “horses”, “clouds”, “trees”, “column”, “lying man”, “woman”, “children”, “old man”, “vessel with water” are integrated into the signing whole. The art-work “Rinaldo and Armida” speaking operations, providing formation of the visual concept iconic status 1. The primary level of index signs integration represents signs summary with rather independent position of each sign. The general principle of co-existence and interrelation of heaven and earth is represented in the picture. 2. The iconic integrity of the art-work “Rinaldo and Armida” signs is determined by ancient mythology. According to the ancient mythology the integrate meaning of the group in the background, formed by such signs as “sky horses”, “golden chariot” and round outline of coachwomen figures may be understood as the “Sun road”, the “time road”, the “life road” guided by divine forces. The background group initiates descending along the diagonals formed by the coachwomen’s glances and poses. The ways the earth and heaven space are related here are revealed with the help of the following major signs of Area-Classicism object-language system. -- “Flatness”: there is the movement from the depth of the background to the foreground surface formed by means of the lying human figure. The predominance of “effusion” is supported by the group depicted in the foreground right corner where the pouring water out of the old man’s vessel and out of the boy’s mouth follows the direction of sun rays pouring. -- “Clarity”: while approaching the foreground, the cloudy mist is clearing – 140 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria V. Tarasova. The Rules of Art Communication Between a Viewer and an Art-Work up: the earthly world is illuminated by divine sun rays. -- “Closure”: descending diagonals are balanced by the trees and the column verticals as well as by the horizontal line of the foreground formed by the clothes, human figures and arms. The stable triangle composition is a sign of the divine force visualized in the forms chosen for its embodiment and personification. -- “Linearity” and “plurality”: the figures contours illumination in the dark recognition intellectual effort made by the viewer is directed by the represented physical effort made by the coachwomen who are holding back divine horses that are trying to go on their run. The stopped divine chariot represents the pause on the Sun, time and life road. This iconic message when transferred to the viewer is met with the viewer’s back message of pausing and reflecting on the meaning of divine influence on human life. The cycle of the Sun road determines the Universe development, and human life is an inseparable part of this development. The background marks individual significance of each element in the whole. Each element is represented equally illuminated and therefore filled in with the power of the Sun. -- The integrity of all composition signs makes the scene represent the gradual effusion of the divine energy from all-seeing god of Sun Helios to the earthly human world. The Divine appears in gradual illumination of Itself, and It moves to the surface of the foreground that represents human earthly world. The divine nature defines itself in the found limits of well-outlined separate elements witch act as embodiments of divine forces. movement of light from the misty cloudy depth to the foreground surface – to the enlightenment of human earthly life – is responded by the viewer’s back communication move – the viewer gets enlightened. The “Rinaldo and Armida” viewer makes a step to revealing the iconic status of the visual concept: human life is in the power of Divine forces and it is illuminated by Divine light. And Divine makes the first communication step towards the area of human and earthly world. 2. The next iconic level of the visual concept is integrated with the help of “Liberated Jerusalem” plot knowledge. This poem written by T. Tasso was used by Nicolas Poussin for this art-work. The poem plot determines the kind of respond of the human being in the power of divine forces. The main conflict of the moment chosen from the poem by Nicolas Poussin is the conflict of male and female, of rational and irrational, of passive and active sides. Literature plot also stresses the religious implication of the conflict – between true Christianity, personified by the crusader Rinaldo and temptations of the enchantress and unbeliever Armida who leads the warrior of Christ off conversion. 3. The dynamic composition of the middle ground, uprising along the diagonal of “victory” provokes active conflict resolution. -- The method to overcome the conflict situation is given by the plot of the poem. The art-work “Rinaldo and Armida” viewer’s speaking operations, providing formation of the visual concept iconic status 1. As a speaking partner of the art-work “Rinaldo and Armida”, the viewer realizes the type of the relationship between divine and human worlds. Ancient myth indicates the basic principle of the ancient religion to see god power as penetrating all forms of earthly nature. According to the ancient religious system every nature part is God’s embodiment and human life is a subject of total God regulations. The – 141 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria V. Tarasova. The Rules of Art Communication Between a Viewer and an Art-Work According to the literature text, Rinaldo is to break the imprisonment of passion, to rejoin his army and to fulfill his Christian duty to liberate Jerusalem. -- The future uprising of the hero onto the right path is designated here by the analogy between the inactive figure of the warrior and empty stopped chariot. The chariot is destined for Rinaldo, it is a sign of his future way. The struggle between feeling and duty has stopped human life for a moment but divine determinism had already destined the ascension way to the truth for the hero. The truth lies in harmony between human and divine. -- What’s more, active figure of the River God who is the personification of Divine law plays the part of the positional reflection for Rinaldo. It signifies the potential force that lives inside the sleeping hero who still has the power for rational, moral and religious awakening. -- The represented Rinado’s helmet with its meaning of the potential vessel for divine waters also points at the relation of these two characters and signifies the knight’s openness to his future divine destination. 4. The image of the old River God is placed in a distance from the main scene. His distant and detached position plays the part of necessary reflection on eternal laws of existence. The character is the stoic wise man who demonstrates ideal estrangement from all life conflicts and ideal understanding the power of divine law. This character is devoid of any temporary and vain feature. He is represented naked, concentrated and meditative. The character helps the viewer make the final step in the development of Rinaldo and Armida theme. Waters from the stoic wise man’s vessel are depicted descending the opposite way in comparison with the direction of Amur’s invisible arrow. It signifies the transient quality of sensual, irrational victory over duty because everything in this life is as transient and temporary as the water flow. But the tension between passion and ratio is basic for the character, as well as it is basic for any human being. It is visualized in opposition of the tree and the column – two vertical borders which are parallel to the canvas borders. They make the balance of two confronting diagonals in human life inner development. The struggle against temptations of flesh is necessary for Spirit’s victory, and this is the way Rinaldo’s helmet is again filled with divine energy while Rinaldo is again ready for struggling and winning. It is important to add that Rinaldo cannot fulfill the operation scheme of ideal warrior of Christ at the given moment – Rinaldo is represented in the position of not realized potential. The only one who is placed into the position of realizing this potential is the viewer of “Rinaldo and Armida” art-work. The viewer is the one who can make the heroic deed of the knight. This is the way objectlanguage meanings are beginning to be filled with personal meanings. It demonstrates the resources of future art-communication development for the viewer. The further development is managed by means of breaking the borders of iconic level. The description of the visual concept iconic status The leading rule of art-communication in the process of visual concept iconic status selfdevelopment is usage of the common objectlanguage scheme by both communicants. This communication stage is specified by the mutual activity of communicants that become speaking partners. The art-work keeps the position of the dialogue catalyst but viewer’s reaction becomes more deliberate and well-considered. Speaking partners in their speaking acts realize the communication programme of Area-Classicism object-language. The viewer and the art-work – 142 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria V. Tarasova. The Rules of Art Communication Between a Viewer and an Art-Work act as language partners and send their objectlanguage messages to each other. The iconic status of the visual concept selfdevelopment is formed by means of integration of those index signs that were differentiated on the previous art-communication level. The meaning of each sign element is extended by its functioning in syntactic relationship with other signs and by its mission in the formation of the sign whole. Usage of the common Area-Classicism objectlanguage communication system lets the artwork “Rinaldo and Armida” and its viewer construct dialogue-relationship on the basis of realization such key signs of the object-language as “closure”, “plurality”, “clarity”, “linearity”, “flatness”. Iconic signs integrity is formed by means of index signs syntactic conjunction. Every index sign with its individual independent meaning gets involved into the complex system and broadens its own meaning by participation in the context of creating the sign whole. Signs unite according to the main compositional principles. The visual concept is both the process and the result of viewer and “Rinaldo and Armida” artwork relationship. The visual concept is comingto-be in the form of the following operations. The Divine appears, gradually stepping out of the uncertainty mist and enlightening Itself, when descending into the earthly world of the foreground. It defines Itself in borders of clear linear separate elements which serve as Divine power embodiments. This primary move initiates the viewer’s answering move towards the Divine. On iconic level the answer realizes in revealing the certain plot. While forming the visual concept iconic status the art-communication realizes the dialogue-relationship in its finite aspect of relation. The viewer gets related mostly to artwork’s “parents”: the author, the creation epoch, the plot, etc. All of them are finite, limited by their inevitably individual features. In regard of “Rinaldo and Armida” finite “parents” are the plot, based on T.Tasso’s “Liberated Jerusalem”, Nicolas Poussin’s world-outlook, his attitude towards art, specific features of the seventeenth century world-outlook in Western Europe, etc. This communication level is reached owing to the meaning unity of those messages that are sent by speaking partners to each other and that are met in the space of dialogue-relationship. But the contact gradually gets more personal, object meanings become subjective. For both speaking partners it provokes the necessity for breaking the borders of object-language relationship. Iconic level result of the art-communication cannot be satisfying because it is limited by peculiarities of the certain plot, characters, and events. In general it is limited by certain finished image represented in the art-work. The new communication level of relationship with the “Rinaldo and Armida” art-work can be reached in the process of following visual concept self-development. Being the speaking partner to the “Rinaldo and Armida” art-work, the ideal viewer fulfills the ideal communication programme. He reveals the visual concept that is “placing human being in the power of the Divine eternal law”. The visual concept also transfers the idea of necessary rational reflection on rules of human own existence determined by Supreme Order. Thus the art-communication turns to the next phase of visual concept selfdevelopment. The Rules of Subject-Language Communication. The Symbol Status of a Visual Concept The art-work “Scream” (1893) (Fig. 3) by the Norwegian artist Edward Munch was taken as a model of the new art communication phase. The choice of the art-work “Scream” for the analysis of the conclusive stage of the visual concept self-development was made according to – 143 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Fig. 3. Edward Munch. Scream. 1893. Oil, pastel, tempera on cardboard. 83,8х67,3 cm. National Gallery, Oslo Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria V. Tarasova. The Rules of Art Communication Between a Viewer and an Art-Work the possibility to show most clearly the transition to the subject-language communication level in the process of intercourse between an art-work and a spectator. The visual concept of iconic status which had been opening in the process of the intercourse between a spectator and the artwork “Scream” is specified with its principal incompleteness and openness for further stages of self-development. When index signs are syntactically united into the integral icon sign their contextual meanings are not exhausted by the part they take in this icon unity. The certainty of representation which is defined by the plot, by the author’s position or by the world-outlook of the late XIXth century epoch still is not able to complete the sign unity which is being formed in the dialogue-relation between a spectator and the art-work “Scream”. It provokes breaking the borders of the visual concept of iconic status and leads beyond the scope of the object-language level of art communication. Speaking acts of the art-work “Scream” providing the formation of a symbol status of the visual concept When starting dialogue at the subjectlanguage level of communication, the artwork “Scream” provokes returning to the signs the material and index statuses of the visual concept. 1. Index signs, such as “a man”, “a bridge”, “a fiord”, “a bank”, “a sky”, “a scream” open their universal meanings. -- A face and a figure of the character in the foreground are devoid of individual characteristics: all possible measurements of his finite existence, such as gender, age, height, features, etc. are leveled. This is a reason to define this character as a “Human Being” in general. -- The representation of a bridge is also devoid of any certain features. And for a Human Being bridge is a symbol of his road of life. -- The landscape which is organized here with the signs of the sky, water, a bank cannot be correlated with any certain space and time: the represented event is happening nowhere and everywhere in the world, on the Earth. -- The represented scream doesn’t refer to any certain feeling, whether grief, or pain, or sadness, etc. And it cannot be defined as a scream of this certain represented man because the representation is characterized by the physiology breach – the mouth is painted only by contour and there is no colour difference between an open mouth and the rest of the character’s face. So this is a symbol of existential scream of the Human Being addressed to the Universe. 2. The universal nature of index signs meanings is based on the following signs which had formed the visual concept in its material status: -- The mixed technique (cardboard; oil, tempera, pastel) creates an indefinite representation whole, dissolves the borders of every separate element of this whole and forms total vagueness and uncertainty. -- Prevailing wavy lines which penetrate and bind all compositional elements in one single whole form rhythmic unity of human and nature substances. 3. The unity of symbolic signs visualizes dynamic relations of the heaven and the earth which are connected with a human being. -- Straightforward rhythm of symbolic life road space – the bridge – is broken with windings of the human body. Thanks to these windings a Human Being becomes an organic element of the nature whole. The Human Being and the nature are – 145 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria V. Tarasova. The Rules of Art Communication Between a Viewer and an Art-Work enveloped by the same anxiety; and they merge in one single scream which becomes a “bridge” in the relationship of these two substances. -- The connecting link of the heaven and the earth is also the bridge. Its perspective provides a headlong moving from the foreground into the depths of the background. -- At the same time the movement along the bridge is eventually stopped by the two straight human figures. Those characters 1. In the spectator’s reply the objective meaning of the symbol “Human Being” crystallizes in the subjective sense “Myself”, which is a maximum personal concentration of the meaning “all the people”, “every person”. 2. The uncertainty of the landscape lets this sign gain the subjective sense of the time and place which is rather familiar for every spectator. 3. The representation of the skull is a sign of an internal hidden essence of a human face. During the communication with a spectator it also gains the meaning of the mask of death. Correlation of these also symbolize unity but in a finite aspect of relationship between people. Those figures are represented in the end of a compositional diagonal which is called a diagonal of “failure”. The opposite movement of the Human Being symbolizes rejection of co-existence with other people and entering the level of co-being with an Absolute, nature substance. -- The head of the Human Being is represented above the bridge parapet, that is in the nature space which is also may be called the space “outside of” human definiteness. The scream reduces the body finiteness till it loses its own boundaries. The scream makes the Human Being melt and come into eternity in his spiritual gust. two meaning elements lets conclude that mortality is an essence of human existence. A Human Being is represented naked in his mortality. It is clearly visualized here that every man is marked with a stamp of death, and that the realization of this fact leads any human into a state of eternal despair. So it helps to open the personal meaning of the represented scream which is the scream of existential sorrow of every spectator. 4. Revealing the mortality and finiteness of human existence becomes an impulse of an opposite motion: the spectator, when realizing his own finiteness, is ready to make a step towards eternity – the step which is offered to him by the art-work. 5. On the other hand, the perspective, which provokes very fast movement towards two figures at the furthest end of the bridge, means that a person is naturally predisposed to overcome the situation of this upper spiritual tension. But only this tension makes it possible to in-feel the nature, to merge into eternity. To overcome it means to leave for calm and stable state which is closed for co-being with the Absolute. Speaking Acts of the Spectator of the art-work “Scream” which provide the formation of the visual concept in its symbolic status Defining universal meanings of symbolic signs initiates the formation of personal senses. The specific feature of those signs which are opening in the dialogue-relationship with the artwork “Scream” is that they involve the spectator into a state of enormous agitation. Every symbol is a unity of objective meanings and subjective senses. The Characteristic of the Symbolic Status of Visual Concept The symbolic status of visual concept which is opening during the dialogue-relationship between the spectator and the art-work “Scream” – 146 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria V. Tarasova. The Rules of Art Communication Between a Viewer and an Art-Work is characterized with gradual crystallization of the mediatory quality of the visual concept. This mediatory quality is being realized in basic principles of the composition. The laws which organize the material status of the visual concept create the new unity of index signs. This unity lets overcome the certainty of icon status and lets achieve the sense unity which helps both the spectator and the art-work open up their own co-author potential. The Human Being is demonstrated here as a communicator between the spheres of earth communication. The silhouette of the cathedral tower vaguely seen at the bank and the ships masts also construct the way out to the heaven sphere. According to its size and colour maximum intensity, this sphere takes one of the leading places in the composition. The waves in the sky are represented multilayered and therefore symbolize the process of gradual liberation from the boundaries of finiteness. The human figure, represented in the center of the composition, is meant to be an axis and heaven. The represented head of the Human Being (i.e. the source of scream) is a point of intersection where human and inhuman turn into each other, merge into co-being with each other. This relationship, with the Human Being as a linking element, is constructed in several stages. It is shown at different levels of compositional communication. -- On the first level wavy lines of body and hands pressed to the head turn to bank outline marked by pastel and then merge into water space of fiord. The dark skyline, the figures at the bridge, the water circle with two ships which are bound to go round this water circle and then new return to the hands held up in horror make the first level of relationship between the Human and the Absolute. At this stage the Human is still shut in the snare of his own mortality. And penetration into the forces of nature only makes to draw an analogy of total finiteness of all mundane. -- But the composition is actually open: the line which forms a so may be called frame in the right part of the art-work provides a swift movement up. Pastel lines put over oil paints play the same part – they deliberately show the exit beyond the bridge limit. These material signs help come up to the next upper level of represented holding the whole Universe. The communication of the earth and the heaven spheres is only possible with a help of the unique human nature combined of triple unity of body, soul and spirit. With the scream making the body lose its own boundaries the soul overcomes the body and acquires a quality of spirit. The soul enters the space of communication between the human and the Absolute spirituality. The human being gets devoid of all individual and gets filled with all universal. Through the scream of rejection everything mortal in himself he starts the dialogue-relationship with the Absolute eternity and finds himself as a part of this eternity. The scream of death turns into a scream of eternal life which fills the bright-red sky. The symbolic status of the visual concept when the signs turn into multilayered symbols is specified with its tendency to liquidate itself. The definiteness of the image loses its importance. The spectator who had opened the sense potential of signs in the communication with the art-work “Scream” feels his own human nature being able to become a mediator between the earth and the heaven spheres, to be an axis where the Being comes into a state of completeness. It means that communication with the art-work “Scream” has realized its extrapolation programme and let the ideal become real – to act as a mediator in the relationship of the individual finite substance – 147 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria V. Tarasova. The Rules of Art Communication Between a Viewer and an Art-Work and the eternal Absolute. At the same time it should be mentioned that there may be only short moments of direct communication on the highest communicative level. These moments emerge at the final stage of art dialogue-relationship though the scheme of this communication is recorded in the art-work and is always ready to realize itself in speaking acts with the spectator who is able to hear and respond. Conclusion The purpose of this study has been to investigate the major visual speaking operations realized by the partners of art dialoguerelationship in order to make the mechanism of the visual concept develop itself. Each stage of the visual concept self-discovery has been analyzed with the help of modeling dialogue-relationship between viewers and certain art-works. The results show that the leading tendency of all art-communication rules is constant transformation of statuses both of communicants and the communication product. The first rule of the dialogue-relationship in art is to fulfill the ideal scheme of acting which is addressed by the art-work to the viewer. Realization of the ideal scheme helps forming material and index statuses of the visual concept. The second rule for an art-work and a viewer in an art-dialogue is a rule to communicate as speaking partners using the same object- language. The partners are equally active subjects of communication. The communication at this phase forms visual concept in its iconic status. The third rule of art-communication is to transfer from object-language to subjectlanguage interrelation between the viewer and the art-work. Gradual personalization of signs meanings helps to enter the sphere of intimate importance of the art-communication for the viewer. Meanings turn into personal subjective senses. The forth rule of art-communication regulates self-destruction of the visual concept. It loses its distinctive visual perceptive borders. The symbolic status of visual concept forms at this communicational level. The symbolic quality of the visual concept is characterized by loss of all clear and determined features of the iconic visual status. The communication is tended to break the border of the sensual level and become a “bridge” for meeting of the body and soul in the human whole and a “bridge” for meeting of the complete human being with the universal absolute spirit. Acknowledgements The work was supported by the fundamental researches in art theory realized at the art-criticism faculty of the Siberian Federal University. 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