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328.Журнал Сибирского федерального университета. Сер. Гуманитарные науки №1 2009

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Журнал Сибирского федерального университета
Journal of Siberian Federal University 2009
2 (1)
Гуманитарные науки
Humanities & Social Sciences
Редакционный совет
академик РАН Е.А.Ваганов
академик РАН К.С.Александров
академик РАН И.И.Гительзон
академик РАН В.Ф.Шабанов
чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат.наук
чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук
чл.-к. РАН, д-р техн. наук
чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук
академик РАО, д-р физ.-мат. наук
В.С. Соколов
Editorial Advisory Board
Eugene A. Vaganov
Kirill S. Alexandrov
Josef J. Gitelzon
Vasily F. Shabanov
Andrey G. Degermendzhy
Valery L. Mironov
Gennady L. Pashkov
Vladimir V. Shaidurov
Veniamin S. Sokolov
Editorial Board:
Mikhail I. Gladyshev
Founding Editor:
Vladimir I. Kolmakov
Managing Editor:
Olga F. Alexandrova
Snezhana Kovrigina
Everyday Life of Children and Teenagers in the Angara Region
in 1945-1953
Daniil V. Pivovarov
Problem of Synthesis of the Main Definitions of Culture
– 17 –
Tatiana M. Lomanova
Nikolaj Rybakov: «… Between the Abyss and the Heaven»
– 23 –
Alexandra A. Semenova and Natalia P. Koptzeva
Truth as a Form of Modelling of Integrity at Social Being
– 31 –
Nina V. Malchukova
Nature of Belief and Role of Belief in Statements Producing
– 56 –
Natalia M. Libakova and Natalia P. Koptzeva
Native Culture of the 19th – 20th Centuries in Search After
Truth. Truth of Real Human Being in Vladimir Solovyov’s
Philosophy of the Universal Unity and Works of Art in the
Russian Painting
– 67 –
Elena N. Viktoruk, Efim V. Chebotarev
Ethical Education Innovations: Ethic-Project Work in the Sphere
of Commercial Business-Education
– 84 –
Executive Editor
for Humanities & Social Sciences:
Natalia P. Koptseva
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Consulting Editors
for Humanities & Social Sciences:
Gershon M. Breslavs
Sergey V. Deviatkin
Sergey A. Drobyshevsky
Oleg M. Gotlib
Boris I. Hasan
Igor E. Kim
Natalia V. Kovtun
Aleksandr A. Kronik
Pavel V. Mandryka
Boris V. Markov
Valentin G. Nemirovsky
Daniel V. Pivovarov
Andrey V. Smirnov
Viktor I. Suslov
Evgenia V. Zander
Igor S. Pyzhev
Viktoria G. Akulich
Russian and Foreign Experience of Distributive Relations in the
Sphere of Science and Education Integration
– 94 –
Larisa P. Kuksa
Integrated Sociology: Synthesis of Classical, Non-Classical and
Post-Nonclassical Approaches in Cognizing the Society
– 104 –
Pavel M. Vcherashnij, Vladislav Ju. Panchenko,
Irina S. Ferova and Ekaterina N. Ferova
Problems of Creation and Usage of Specific Capital Fund
– 113 –
Мaya G. Smolina
Maieutic Means of Criticism
– 120 –
Свидетельство о регистрации СМИ
ПИ № ФС77-28-723 от 29.06.2007 г.
Серия включена в «Перечень ведущих рецензируемых научных журналов и изданий, в которых должны
быть опубликованы основные научные результаты диссертации на
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кандидата наук», по экономике; по
истории; по философии, социологии
и культурологии
Maria V. Tarasova
The Rules of Art Communication Between a Viewer and an
– 131 –
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2009 2) 3-16
УДК 94(571)
Everyday Life of Children and Teenagers
in the Angara Region in 1945-1953
Snezhana Kovrigina*
Bratsk State University,
40 Makarenko st., Bratsk, 665709 Russia 1
Received 24.02.2009, received in revised form 03.03.2009, accepted 10.03.2009
Our publication is based on the expeditionary materials of the Research Laboratory of Humanitarian
Research of the Bratsk State University. The author’s scientific interest is aimed at the research of the
labour practices in the children’s everyday life in the villages of the Angara Region in 1945-1953. As for
oral historical sources, which were used, the children labour in kolkhozes, the work at the plot of land
were the only way of surviving for many families of the Angara Region in the hard post-war years. The
author is examining the process of transferring the social experience (including the culture of life with
its regional peculiarity; family’s relationships; using of the ties, which connected adults and children)
through the labour activity of teenagers.
Keywords: everyday life; oral history; labour practices; children labour; peasantry; Siberia; villages
of the Angara Region; post-war years; preschoolers; daycare centres; pioneers camps; pioneers;
school education.
The research of the different sections of
the population’s everyday life is one of the most
relevant trends of the modern historical science.
Researchers more often appeal to such questions
as family, marriage, relationships between parents
and children which form the cultural traditions
of society. The history of family, in the context
of which the history of childhood was examined,
has begun its life since 60s in Russia like in other
countries. Initially the trend, mentioned above,
was a subject of ethnographical research. Family
parentage was under the authority of genealogy.
The history of family of the newest time
became the research subject matter of domestic
In the modern historical science the history
of family and clan, in Thomas Sokoll’s opinion,
“presented in different discourses – from the
genealogical scheme to the research of it in
the microhistorical frames, – is assuming ever
greater popularity at present” [1, p.25]. In
domestic historiography the family matter trends
to subdivide into works concerning to rural
family or urban one. In recent years the oral
evidences and the methods of their interpretation
have become to use more widely in the historical
Our publication is based on the expeditionary
materials of the Research Laboratory of
Humanitarian Research of the Bratsk State
University. It should be emphasized that many
Corresponding author E-mail address:
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Snezhana Kovrigina. Everyday Life of Children and Teenagers in the Angara Region in 1945-1953
villages of the Middle Angara Region have not
already existed. They got into submerged area of
the Bratsk Hydro-Power Plant and the Ust-Ilimsk
Hydro-Power Plant. At this moment the migration
of the rural people of the Lower Angara Region,
getting into the submerged area of the Boguchany
Hydro-Power Plant, is going on. There is no doubt
that the economic development of the region,
the process of migration and natural population
loss influenced on the state of the informational
environment. The most amount of the people
being interviewed were born in the 1930s, the
older generation is represented in extremely small
amount. The respondents from the Lower Angara
Region mostly live in cities and towns now where
their cultural traditions are rather needed.
The author’s scientific interest is directed
at the research of the practices of the children’s
everyday life in the post-war period. The author
is examining the process of transferring the
social experience through the labour activity of
The problems of the hard war times, the
hard peasant labour and the extremely low level
of the rural families’ material security had great
influence on the children’s lives of the Angara
Region. It should be mentioned that “children’s”
question in the 1940s – 1950s was not out of the
state attention. Nevertheless, children were the
least secured age group from the hard post-war
The ramified state network of the objects
of the childhood, which was intended to occupy
all the periods and spheres of the children’s life,
began to form in 1920s. However, in the period
under consideration the most children of the
preschool age in the rural area of the Angara
Region proved to be excluded from the sphere
of the state projects. As the rural women did not
have the post-childbirth leave, so the problem of
caring of the preschoolers was extremely sharp.
By that reason women were 91 % of the 10532
kolkhoz members not fulfilled the minimum of the
workdays in Irkutskaya oblast’ in 1947 [2, p.139].
Many female inhabitants of the Angara Region
said that the absence of the preschool childcare
institutions in the villages was the reason of not
going to work. As A.V. Moskovskih, who worked
at the kolkhoz farm in the post-war period,
remembered nobody had made any allowances
for infants, “The foreman came to my place in
three days after I’d given birth to my firstborn
and said that I had to come to milk cows” [3, p.4].
It should be noted that such situations were rather
Organizing of the seasonal daycare centres
became a way out of that difficult situation and
was entrusted to the heads of the regional health
departments and the heads of the medical sections.
Such preschool institutions were recommended
to organize during the intensive farm work for
providing the most complete able-bodied female
kolkhozniks’ participation in the production
process. The task of improving bringing up and
medical care of the rural children was given.
The sub-regional committees offered to appoint
the “experienced older female kolkhozniks”
as kindergarten teachers. Thus, there were 129
kindergartens instead of 134, which were planned,
in summer period in Irkutskaya oblast’ in 1946
[4, p.71]. At the beginning of the research period
preschool education in Bratsk sub-region (the
Middle Angara Region) was presented by three
seasonal daycare centres in kolkhozes [5, L.1].
Not only those, who did not have any
suitable education, were allowed to take care of
children in the kindergartens, but also disabled
people: old, sick kolkhozniks or teenagers. Such
situation with the stuff of kindergartens led to
very unfortunate results. Here is the description
of the local kindergarten in Panovo village (the
Lower Angara Region), which was done by N.N.
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Snezhana Kovrigina. Everyday Life of Children and Teenagers in the Angara Region in 1945-1953
Kachina, “In summer the kindergarten worked
in the ordinary izba, there wasn’t any care of
children, there was a matron and girls – teenagers
for helping. The girls themselves wanted to play
much and they seated my younger sister on the
windowsill, so that she didn’t cry. They ran away,
and my sister fell off that windowsill. She broke
her spinal column, became invalid for the rest of
her life, she wasn’t even taken to school. How she
stayed alive!” [6, p.9].
The first steps in the development of the
preschool education in rural area of the Angara
Region were done in the sub-regional centres in
the first place. However, the shortage of financing
had an overall impact there. There were not enough
books, toys and furnishing. Kindergartens placed
in the peasant izbas, which were not suitable for
taking care of the little children. It was emphasized
that “there is no entertainment for the children
in the kindergartens, there are no books to read,
no toys to play, the kindergarten teachers did not
pay any attention to the children. Sanitary state
of the preschool childcare institutions is also very
bad. Children sleep on the dinner tables and in
their outerwear at that. Food is cooked very badly
without any medical inspection” [7, p.2].
Creating of the preschool childcare
institutions in the rural area was propagandized
actively. There were bright examples for
imitation of such creating in the region. As the
local newspaper, Udereysky Rabochy, reported
in the daycare centre of sovkhoz Reshajushy “the
children are wearing the identical dresses. They
look merry and lively. The room for the rest is
tidied well. Every bed is tidily done and has a sign
of the child’s name. Youngsters have delicious
food for dinner. Every group has different menu”
[8, p.2]. But such experience did not get enough
spread because of the financial difficulties of the
most agricultural artels. The absence of the means
of subsistence in kolkhozes and consequently poor
financing of the preschool childcare institutions
led to the great scarcity of them. If kolkhozes in
Irkutskaya oblast’ allocated 75 % cash funds of the
level of 1940 for organizing the daycare centres
and the playgrounds in 1946, in 1950 this number
made up only 29 %. In Krasnoyarsky Kray it was
49.5 % and 31 % in proportion [9, p.244]. This
problem was solved in the sub-regional centres
only due to the public funds given by the state.
For example, there were only three kindergartens
and one daycare centre in the sub-regional centre
Nizhne-Ilymsk village in 1950 [10, L.8], so
when giving a place in the preschool childcare
institutions the single mothers’ children and the
children from large families had a privilege [11,
It should be mentioned that the process
of educating was not the main feature in the
preschool childcare institutions because the
system of education itself was only a part of the
sub-regional department of public health. The
absence of the qualified stuff, even in the subregional centres, caused serious difficulties in
the process of educating. For example, the local
newspaper, Ilymsky Partizan, reported, “F.
does not bring up and educate children but only
does them harm, therefore crying, shouting and
even fighting can be heard in the group, which
is entrusted to her. F. is often walking along the
village while the children are leaving to their own
resources” [12, p.2]. It should be emphasized,
though that those children, who visited daycare
centres and kindergartens, had sometimes better
care, medical service and meals than they had at
However, in whole region the problem of
the preschool childcare institutions in rural areas
became unsolved. In the mentioned period only
childcare institutions of the sub-regional centres
and towns had showings of growth to a very slight
degree. So, for example, the attendance of the
kindergartens in Irkutskaya oblast’ were 26.7 %
up in 1950 than in 1941 [2, p.151].
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Snezhana Kovrigina. Everyday Life of Children and Teenagers in the Angara Region in 1945-1953
There were too little kindergartens in the
Angara Region for embracing all the children
under seven years. So, the traditional lifestyle
of caring of the children by their grandmothers
and older sisters were still rather actual over the
whole research period. The female inhabitant
from Prokopievo village of Nizhne-Ilymsk subregion remembered that she and her sister had
cared of their newborn brother at the age of four,
and their parents had locked the house in order
that “babysitters” had not run away [13, p.11].
In spite of much attention, paid to primary
and secondary education by state and local
authorities, there were many problems. Firstly, it
was shortage of school financing. The majority
of school building did not satisfy to elementary
specification of sanitation.
Primary schools, located in some villages,
were situated in the adapted quarters. Those
quarters that were built specially for schooling
had primitive design. All rural school had stove
heating and no plumbing. Sometimes the state
of such quarters was no good at all. So, the
situation with the school of Ancherikovo village
was submitted to the general public in 1947. The
letter of the instructor of the Sub-regional Party
Committee was published in the local newspaper
of Bratsk sub-region, The Flag of Communism,
where following facts were reported: “outward
and inward appearance of the building where
children study is awful. Doors are broken and
there is paper in windows instead of glass. The
wind is constantly blowing there as in the open
air. There is no illumination as in the vault. The
stove is in a very bad condition” [14, p.2]. In
connection with it, that is extremely significant,
“none of the school buildings was replaced” from
the submerged area of the Ust-Ilymsk Hydro
Power Plant in 1970s “because of the bad technical
condition and non-suitability of the buildings to
modern specifications” [15, p.159]. However, in
spite of the hardest financing in kolkhozes, rural
workmen built 133 school building with their own
means for the post-war five-year period [9, p.167].
Often there were not any studies in the
rural school in cold winter days. Teaching stuffs
tried to find ways out of the crisis by their own.
They stocked firewood, asked parents for help
[16, L.93].
There was acute shortage of qualified
teaching stuff in rural areas. So, in Kezhemsky
sub-region 35 teachers from 109 ones did not
have any pedagogical education, 30 teachers,
working in 5th-10th grades, did not have any
suitable education [17, L.62]. Because of the lack
of professionalism teaching consisted of simple
facts telling. Many teachers prepared to lessons
badly [18, L.6]. There was great percent of pupils
who repeated a year in schools. The progress of
schoolchildren in studies reached 74 % only in
Irkutskaya oblast’ [4, p.71].
In spite of great difficulties, all rural children
got primary education. Much attention was paid
by state and party authorities to the problem
of keeping the contingent of students – the law
of universal schooling was strictly controlled.
However, over the all period being studied schools
could not stop dropping out the students. One of
the main reasons was the low level of living in the
families which were able neither to feed nor to
provide their children with clothes. In Irkutskaya
oblast’ 6821 children did not go to school in 194647 academic year, it being known that 61 % of
students did not go to school because of the lack
of clothes and footwear [4, p.71]. It was overall
noted that the law of universal schooling was not
observed “just only by the reason of low level of
living: lack of footwear, clothes, and foodstuff”
[19, L.13]. During the academic year the amount
of students who gave up school because of this
reason was steadily rising. So, for example,
in Udereysky sub-region (the Lower Angara
Region) according to the data on the beginning
of the academic year 1951 the amount of students
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Snezhana Kovrigina. Everyday Life of Children and Teenagers in the Angara Region in 1945-1953
(age of 7-15) not attending schools was 83 people,
according to the data on the 1st of December 1951
the account of those who did not go to school rose
up to 212 people [20, L.42]. It was noted that in
Kezhemsky sub-region 300 students were left
at the secondary school where 700 people had
studied as there was a great dropping out because
of the lack of bread. [21, L.4] V.N. Polyakova (out
of large family without father) remembers failing
to get even primary education, “I cried, wanted
to go to school, but I did not have even panties”
[22, p.8].
The similar state of things was kept over
the all period being studied, especially in small
“poorly performing” collective farms. Without
any doubt, the government, including, school
and collective farm administration, was trying
to find the solution to this problem [23, L.59].
For example, in Kezhemsky sub-region in 1950
the fund for material help to schoolchildren was
created at the initiative of secondary school and
party-and-soviet activists for observing the law
of universal schooling. The fund gathered 15,700
rubles of money, 6 centners of grain, 12 centners
of potato and 58 pairs of footwear. From the
beginning of the academic year the material help
was given to 187 students: 45 pairs of footwear,
12 sets of underwear and outerwear; 125 students
were also provided with foodstuffs and money
[24, L.46]. Rural councils took decisions on
allocation of foodstuffs for hot breakfasts of lowincome students. For example, in the village of
Bedoba of Boguchansky sub-region there were
allocated 15 centners of grain, 25 kilos of butter,
150 kilos of cottage cheese, 300 liters of milk, 6
centners of potato out of collective farm’s funds
[25, p.2].
Even though the situation with the primary
education was gradually improving, not many
rural children continued their further education
in seven-year school. For example, in Irkutskaya
oblast’ in 1946 98,3 % of children attended
primary school, 83 % got seven-year education,
and only 64,2 % got ten-year education [4, p.71]
as further education required additional material
costs, besides there were some difficulties with
school attendance. Most children of the postwar period walked to school several kilometers,
“holding linen self-made bags, wearing quilted
jackets and felt boots in winter”. Schoolchildren
wasted much time to get to school, it was
especially difficult in slush autumn and in cold
winter. To get warm children played football
with “horse apples” (droppings) on the slippery
snowed road, it was lucky to get to school with a
coachman in passing sleigh” [27, p.152] – says the
residents of the Angara Region.
In Irkutskaya oblast’ about half of all types
of schools were situated in the southern part
crossed by Eastern Siberian Railway where there
were 16 densely populated areas. The situation
was more difficult in the remote areas of the
Lower and the Middle Angara Region where
there was insignificant amount of seven year and
secondary schools [4, p.74-75]. So, in Eniseysky
sub-region (the Lower Angara Region) in 1951
one of the reasons for reducing the number of
students was a great sparseness of settlements.
For example, in Makovsky rural councils there
were “32 settlements scattered from the schools
at a far distance – 100-150 km. There were no
school boarding houses in these schools for the
exception for one which had school boarding
house for 20 people” [28, L.42]. One of the ways
out was to open the school boarding houses for
children from remote areas. It is necessary to
mention that in spite of annual increase of the
amount of school boarding houses they could
not provide the required dwelling” [4, p.75]. So
in Irkutskaya oblast’ in 1950 there was 3 sq. km.
of bedroom space for a child while the standard
was 3.5 sq. km.
Besides large congestion in school boarding
houses it was also noted insufficient attention of
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Snezhana Kovrigina. Everyday Life of Children and Teenagers in the Angara Region in 1945-1953
school administration to the conditions of life.
The subject discussed by the Nizhne-Ilymsky
Sub-regional Committee of all-USSR Communist
Party in 1950 was insanitation in the sub-regional
center boarding house, particularly, it was that
“there is much mud, mess in the boarding school
house, so it is a shame when the parents come to
visit their children” [29, L.3]. However, even by
the end of the period being studied the problems
connected with the life of rural children in school
boarding houses had not been solved.
Most respondents tell that they had to live
that not all children started their independent
life successfully. As an example we can take the
claim of party organizer of sovkhoz, Shirokoje, in
Udereysky sub- region, “Our children have been
studying for 5 years, we sent them to Bryanka,
then to Krasnoyarsk. While studying in Bryanka
my son got completely spoilt, he had bad marks
and he was repeating a year in the 5th grade. I
found a flat for my daughter in Krasnoyarsk, she
studied in 8th grade, and this year she also had
had problems with studies. What should I do?
We, communists, could not teach our children
with their relatives and friends and in some cases
with unknown people in other villages.
According to the words of Z.V. Ivanova, there
was only primary school in village Moskovskaya,
so she went to the fifth grade in the village
Burnino, “We lived in the flats of unknown
people, slept on the floor, we came home for the
weekends, took foodstuffs, loaded on the boat
and went in single file, came back dirty, in wet
footwear” [30, p.4].
T.E. Mikhaleva reminds (village Guruk,
Kujtunsky sub-region), “We would live there for
a week. You would come on Sunday, would take
bags with all stuffs: potatoes, then we were given
bread, so we would take bread, a bottle of milk.
It was sharp frost; we used to put on our quilted
jackets, put the bottle in our bosoms, and went
back. Sometimes the bottle got frozen and burst.
But it didn’t matter – we went home. On Saturday
when we ran from school we had to wash the
floor in our host’s flat. Having washed the floor
and tidied up the flat we ran 12 kilometers home”
[31, p.12].
The same lifestyle was typical in the distant
villages of the Lower and the Middle Angara
Region. To continue their education children
had to part with their families and live with
unfamiliar people in unknown surrounding
being engaged with many other matters including
taking care of themselves. It should be noticed
properly. I had to take my children from school
for a year since it was useless to teach children
without parents’ control” [32, L.55]. Having the
same difficulties with teaching their children
many families made decisions to take their
children home out of school.
It was also necessary to have a definite
family welfare to continue education: “those
who were richer can study in Bratsk – there
was 10-year school there”; besides the payment
for dwelling (often payment was made by
foodstuffs), the family lost workforce (men as
workers were more appreciated than women).
From the personal diary of I.M. Moskovskih we
got known that in the village Moskovskaya there
were 44 male teenagers born in 1933-1943 (i.e.
all male children born in these years lived in the
village) went to work to sovkhoz after finishing
primary school [33, p.6]. That is why, perhaps,
most respondents with higher level of education
are women. As the result of all factors mentioned
above the level of education was still low during
post-war period. So, in 1950 in Komsomol
organization of Nizhne-Ilymsky sub-region 72 %
of Komsomol members had primary education,
4 % – secondary education and only 0.03 % –
higher education [34, L.16].
It should be mentioned that young rural
people had opportunities to continue their
education. In most sub-regional centers there
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Snezhana Kovrigina. Everyday Life of Children and Teenagers in the Angara Region in 1945-1953
were schools for rural young people, however, the
contingent of students was hardly half of what had
been planned, [4, p.71] and in some sub-regional
schools were closed in the second half year in
connection with large dropping out of students.
In spite of great financial difficulties, by the
academic year 1950-51 in Irkutskaya oblast’ the
number of comprehensive schools had grown by
20 % in rural area, in Krasnoyarsky Kray this rate
was lower and accounted for 10 % in comparison
with academic year 1940-41. However, even by
the end of the period being studied the number of
the World”, “Setting up Communism”… [36,
L.25] The curriculums of some seven year and
secondary schools included special classes
where the students had discussions on political,
scientific and educational topics. Every week the
political information was enlightened; in senior
classes the students presented the information
themselves. They organized reader’s conferences
with reading newspapers, magazines, fiction for
children [37, L.19]. Besides, children gathered
money to help orphans, families of war veterans
and disabled. Pioneers revived young volunteers’
students was still comparatively lower than it was
before war. The growth of contingent by 23 %
was only noted in the secondary schools in rural
area of Irkutskaya oblast’, while being observed
the reduction of contingent on the territory of
Krasnoyarsky Kray [9, p.253].
The history of children’s everyday life,
without doubt, cannot be full without paying
attention to the role of upbringing in the
education which performed the function of
children social adaptation. During post-war
period pioneers’ organizations at school played
special part. The model of soviet “happy
childhood” of Stalin’s epoch represented wellregulated state mechanism of upbringing soviet
citizens. Region party committees and all-Union
Lenin’s Communist Union of Youths paid great
attention to this sphere of life. They regularly
listened to the reports, controlled and checked
the work of pioneers’ organization. With the help
of pioneers’ organization, the soviet state and
society cultivated social and cultural norms and
values of behavior among children. The concept
of “soviet person” was becoming clearer: strong,
patient, determined, loyal to their country and
party citizens [35, p.14]. Thematic and subject
meetings were widely spread. For example, there
were meetings in Bratsk’s schools, “I.V. Stalin:
father, teacher and friend of soviet children”,
“S.M. Kirov”, “Our Motherland”, “Peace to
movements, with enthusiasm gathered scrap
metal [38, p.145].
They organized circles at schools:
mathematic, of drama, choir, “do-it-yourself”,
literature, physical education, young naturalist
etc., but it should be noted that “the activity
of circles had informal character and often
was connected with celebrations and holidays
(for example the activity of drama, choir and
literature circles” [39, L.19., L.58]. Physical
education of students was improving. In winter
pioneers of seven years and secondary schools
took part in ski competitions for a prize of the
newspaper Pionerskaya Pravda, various war
and sports games were held [40, p.107]. Sports
sections were organized everywhere, pioneers
and students enthusiastically passed the tests
on physical abilities “Ready for Labour and
Defense”, at the same time the role of ideological
upbringing was quite high, particularly, it was
noted that all the events being held “combined
military and physical training with the work of
political campaigns, so that they presented some
kind of mass cultural events” [41, L.48]. In spite
of activization of physical education program in
seven year and secondary schools it was noted
that there were no simplest sport playgrounds
in the majority of collective farms. There were
no stadiums in many sub-regional centers of the
Angara Region [42, L.22].
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Pioneers’ squads in sub-regional centers
reported to Irkutskaya oblast’ committee of allUnion Lenin’s Communist Union of Youths that
in their schools “pioneers struggle for organized
lesson, under the control of teachers and
tutors help poor students, fight against facts of
unconscientious, attitude to studies” [43, L.26].
Sub-regional committees of Party and Komsomol
gave money for rewarding the most conscientious
students with valuable prizes. The students
remembered such events all their life. They were
proud of good students either at home or at school
[44, p.145]. So, for example, N.V. Dubrovin
remembers, “Then school-leaving party was
not a party, but something like a holiday: they
congratulated us and awarded us prizes, small
ones – I got a belt. But it was the best reward – it
was better to have a belt rather than a rope for
trousers” [45, p.7].
It should be mentioned that the respondents
do not tell much about their pioneer’s childhood,
“I was a pioneer. Nobody asked us if you wanted
or not. Put a tie on, enroll, and you’re a pioneer.
The teacher enrolled us to pioneers” [46, p.13];
We sang chastushkas and declared verses at the
club on holidays – on the 7th of November, 1st of
May, the teacher prepared us” [36, p.2]; “Not all
were pioneers, some boy didn’t want to, they
liked bullying. The teased us, girls, fought. The
duty of a pioneer was to study well [47, p.17].
During the post-war period pioneers’ camps
played important role in the upbringing system.
The children from families with low income and
families of war veterans mainly got vouchers
[48, p.2]. By the beginning of 1950s there were
pioneers camps in each sub-region of the Angara
Region, though there were great difficulties
with their organization. Preparation for summer
opening was badly organized. For example, the
following was noted in Udereysky sub-region
in summer of 1952, “The location of camps has
not been defined yet. Pioneers’ camps have been
organized in various places for several years. The
absence of equipped pioneers” camp prevents
us from upbringing work” [49, p.2]. They had
difficulties with taking the children to the place
of rest, uncomfortable living conditions.
In 1950s in some sub-regions of the Angara
Region stationary pioneers’ camps were built
only for summer rest of children. The number
of schoolchildren spending summer at pioneers’
camps was increasing. So, it was reported that in
Zayarsk in summer of 1953 there would be 540
pioneers resting at pioneers’ camps [50, L.20].
The forms of spending leisure at pioneers’ camps
were various. The children read the books: The
story of a Real Man, Young Guard etc., took part
in drama, dance and sports activities, passed the
tests on physical abilities “Be Ready for Labour
and Defense”. Rural children had the opportunities
to go on excursion tours. “You can’t imagine the
impressions children had during their first trips
to Irkutsk. They had been telling about them for
a month. Nowadays we can compare such events
only with a trip abroad», – wrote famous historian
Yu. A. Petrushin [51, p.146].
However, pioneers’ camps could not
embrace a large number of schoolchildren, that’s
why other forms of summer rest for children were
organized at schools, for example the newspaper,
Kolkhoznik, of Kezhemsky sub-region reported,
“Children playground has been organized in the
village Prospikhino. There will be organized
squad at Kezhemsky primary and secondary
schools, and there will be brigades working at all
seven year schools of our sub-region and primary
school of village Bolturino” [52, p.2].
Hard post-war times forced many children
and teenagers to start working since the early
age. From one hand, the state considered the easy
children labour as the integral part of preparing
the labour resources for national economy. From
the other hand, the children labour was not only
the means of the Soviet socialization in the 1940s.
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It often used forcibly in agriculture because of
the constant shortage of labour resources. Here
are some facts: “the students of the 6th-10th forms
had begun to study since 1st-20th October in the
majority of schools because they had been working
at kolkhozes and sovkhozes” [53, L.14]. I.M.
Moskovskih, the native of Moskovskaya village,
remembered, “We had begun to study since 15th
October. You had to come and register in August
and not to forget the references from kolkhoz if
you wanted to be accepted to school. The school
year finished in May and we were immediately
sent to fields” [54, p.9]. Rural children helped on
kolkhozes’ fields and farms [55, L.66], worked
at the school plots [56, L.18] and took part at the
voluntary Sunday work” on the potatoes crowns
cutting” [57, L.9]. It is fixed in the reports of a
sub-regional committee of the all-Union Leninist
Young Communist League and publications of
the local newspapers.
In the post-war Soviet villages the children
labour was not only the means of upbringing but
more often the means of surviving. It is rather
interesting to look at “The Statistic Report. Family
Members and Usage of kolkhozniks labour in
January and July 1952”. It was created in Irkutskaya
oblast’ and it is based on the official rate of the
children labour. We compared the data received
from the report with the oral sources. According
to the report there were three groups of children
and teenagers who worked at kolkhozes: men – 1415 years old, women – 14-15 years old, children
(without any sex division) – 12-13 years old. In
winter one teenager was working at the kolkhoz, 50
people from 140 registered families were working
there during the July’s vacation. It makes up 34 %
of the boys (in winter it is 17.4 % and in summer it
is 74.5 %) and 2.6 % of the girls in winter and 50 %
of the girls in summer [58, L.6, 42].
However, the public inquiries, held during
the expedition in the villages of the Lower
and the Middle Angara Region, showed that
the majority of the 8-9 years old children were
working at kolkhozes in summer. Z.V. Ivanova
from Moskovskaya village reminds, “We’d
been working at kolkhoz since 9 years old. Our
foreman knocked at the window in the morning
and told where to go. We were weeding fields
in summer, storing up the firewood and sawing
trees in March during the spring vacation. Every
child had to work at kolkhoz, it was obligatory”
[36, p.7]. M.I. Kulakova from Yarkino village
(the Lower Angara Region) told that she, like the
majority of rural teenagers, had been working at
sheaves tying since 11 years old [59, p.5]. One
of the inhabitants of Ufimtsevo village (NizhneIlymsk sub-region) remembered, “We, girls, were
sent to the hardest work and there was nobody to
protect us in front of the foreman. We hadn’t got
fathers” [60, p.3]. 12-13 year-old boys were sent to
plough without any assistance. I.I. Rukosujev from
Yarkino village remembered that he was seated
on a horse when he was five and fastened that he
could not fall while the adults were operating the
wooden plough. Being teenagers, he and his friend
were sent to plough a remote field. It was a warm
May day. The work was going fast and well. They
decided to have a rest after dinner and fell asleep.
The foreman arrived the next day only and woke
the children up, “We caught it hot, the field wasn’t
ploughed” [61, p.4]. The respondents noticed that
nobody made allowance for the age or sex in the
time of they were working at kolkhozes. The same
situation was in many sub-regional centres. It was
pointed out on a meeting of Zayarsk sub-regional
committee of the all-ULYCL that “teenagers and
young workers in the age of 13, 14 and 15 have
already been working at workshops, storehouses
and garages for eight or even ten working hours in
day-shifts and night-shifts. Forty-three teenagers
in the age of 13, 14, 15 work for eight hours at
the Yakuttrans Trust. The labour protection of
teenagers is absent. Some of them work in night
shifts or at the detrimental to health workshops.
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The law about six hours’ working day for
teenagers younger than sixteen is not executed.
The same situation is at the other enterprises” [62,
L.7-8]. Children and teenagers became familiar
with labour both in family and at school. Having
got a job some of them found themselves in the
hard working and living conditions. They were
faced with misunderstanding and inertness of
people at the top.
Having worked hard, children came into adult
world too fast. At the same time in the middle of
the 1950s the practice of using the children labour
parents because children could not see them
very often. Teenagers entered into different
relationships through taking part in general work
of kolkhoz. They were getting the experience of
traditional labour culture of an ordinary Siberian
Working at kolkhoz did not solve the problem
of life supporting, that is why fishing, hunting,
picking up mushrooms and berries were of great
importance in an ordinary Angara village. It
should be mentioned that adults did not almost do
any gathering because of being busy a lot. It was
in kolkhozes and enterprises was over.
Because of the high intensification of the
adult labour, caring for supporting housekeeping
(keeping the house cleaned, responsibility for
harvest in the garden, caring of the cattle etc.)
was children’s duty, especially in summer. N.P.
Panova noticed, “My brother Vanya and I dug up
the whole garden and our grandmother promised
to boil an egg for both of us, then” [63, p.9]. M.P.
Afonina remembered, “I’ve been weeding and
watering since 9 years old in the garden. Mom
planted a lot” [64, p.7]. N.V. Bruhanova said, “I
used to be running and not to sweep the house,
mom punished me… We helped with harvesting.
I was 8 and already milked cows” [54, p.3].
There is no doubt that the role of labour in
socialization of children was very high in the
villages of the post-war Angara Region. T.E.
Mikhaleva remembered, “Before leaving for
work my mother leavened dough for bread and
asked me to knead it when it rose. She put the
dough into the stove and ordered, “As soon as the
bread turns brown, take it out.” Now I’m able to
cook the magnificent bread because I saw it by
my own eyes and learnt. I can milk cows and feed
pigs since my childhood. It was going on of itself
and imperceptibly. We were taught and forced to
learn and didn’t refuse” [37, p.14]. Upbringing of
children was built on the personal examples of
adults. It was not always the examples of their
a part of children’s and old people’s duties. M.I.
Porfirova, whose childhood was at Kezhma village,
told us that their grandmothers had often taken
them to pick up berries. They had gone with the
downstream of the Angara for picking up berries
and children had towed boats back along the bank,
“We were trying with all our strength and were
tired enormously. After a while we’re allowed to
have a rest by our grandmothers. It meant that we
might sit in the boats and rowed” [65, p.5].
Z.V. Ivanova remembers that the majority
of the boys in Moskovskaya village were busy
hunting. They laid snares for catching hares and
caught squirrels [36, p.9]. Thus, 60 young hunters
of Krasnoyarsky Kray took an active part in the
competition for the best young hunter and went
its conditions over in 1946. M. Pashin from the
Partizansky sub-region gave 2500 rubles worth
of furs, thereby going over the quota 500 % up.
M. Zhirnov from the Eniseysky sub-region gave
2400 rubles worth of furs. Young hunters from
the Boguchansky sub-region gave 7000 rubles
worth of furs [66, p.2]. S.M. Kosolapov, who
lived in the Nizhne-Ilymsk sub-region, told that
his grandfather had taken him for hunting since
the early childhood and, being 12 year-old boy,
he had shot at squirrels much better than his
grandfather. He had been allowed to go to the
Taiga on his own since that time [67, p.7]. I.M.
Moskovskih explained, “The old men shot better
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than the youth. And, by the way, they shot not
from the buttstock but from the hand. My father
trained me to shoot with a rifle. We shot at
sparrows. And he also trained me to shoot on-therun while swinging. I was swinging and hitting
the aim. I had to be able to do it because it would
be more comfortable to shoot in such a way while
you were riding a horse [63, p.4].
It should be noticed that many young Angara
girls helped adults (more often their mothers)
even in fishing.
The overwhelming majority of the girls from
family relationships, such as division of labour,
style of family communication etc.
the Lower and the Middle Angara Region were
busy needleworking, embroidering and knitting.
Traditionally peasant women were busy sewing,
weaving, mending clothes and their daughters
were always side-by-side. “Mom didn’t teach me
how to needlework. I took the crochet hook and
began to try knitting. I asked my friends about
patterns,” Z.V. Ivanova explained [36, p.11]. A.V.
Moskovskih said that mothers did not have enough
time to teach their daughters, “I was taught by my
older sister and I showed my friends how to do”
[3, p.9].
As concerns cooking, those respondents, who
live in the villages of the Middle Angara Region,
report that they learnt how to cook their traditional
everyday dishes watching the adults. It should be
mentioned that it was not the boys’ duty.
There was a custom in Yarkino village of
the Lower Angara Region: girls were not being
taught how to cook intentionally, that is why
not to break cooking traditions of their future
husbands’ families. It had to be done by their
mothers-in-law [68, p.3]. Taking part in the
housework children could assimilate the culture
of life, acquire the social skills they needed in
the childhood of peasants in the post-war years.
The last one depended on the zigzags of the state
policy and traditional peasant way of living.
Formation of the stable inner village traditions was
happening in a natural way because of the special
mechanism of bringing person in the culture of
the society where he was born, but it would be
in prospect to become a person of full value in
that society. Child acquired the behavior that had
been cultivated by his natives for centuries, while
they were adapting to the local conditions, and
imprinted in the culture of this society. Besides
that the constant communication with natives in
the network of the specific activity and special
psychological atmosphere formed the appropriate
set of moral valuable and habits of a person.
Having gone to school, child did not have
so much family influence because parents were
busy by providing family and children with a
source of permanent income in the post-war
years. Comprehensive school and junior social
and political organizations became the main
socializing institutions having undertaken the
duty to teach child the formal models, norms and
roles of behaviour in the post-war years.
Thus, there was “ordinary”, “normal”
children’s experience in the Angara Region. It
was such experience of socialization, which was
typical for many peasants. It did not contradict
the official doctrine of the Soviet childhood but
it was modified by everyday realities. There was
a great difference between the culture of the
childhood in the half-urbanized sub-regions and
“Family, house and kinship in History”, ed. by T. Sokoll, O. Kosheleva, Jü. Schlumbohm;
translated from English and German by K. Levinson, translated from French by L. Pimenova (St.
Petersburg: 2004), “Modern Trends in the Historical Science: the series of translations”, Vol. 2.
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2. A.V. Shalakh. Population’s Social Problems of Eastern Siberia: (1940s-1950s): scientific issue –
Irkutsk: ISEA, 2000.
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Kosih – Irkutsk, Eastern Siberian Publishing House, 1980.
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6. Archives of the Research Laboratory of Humanitarian Research of the Bratsk State University.
F. 1. Inv. 9. D. 1. Interview with N.N. Kachina.
7. Ilymsky Partizan, the local newspaper – 4th April, 1948.
8. Udereysky Rabochy, the local newspaper – 14th December, 1952.
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History. – Krasnoyarsk, 1990.
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11. Kolkhoznik, the local newspaper – 5th December, 1953.
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13. Archives of the Research Laboratory of Humanitarian Research of the Bratsk State University.
F. 3. Inv. 2. D. 1.
14. The Flag of Communism, the local newspaper. – 2nd February, 1947.
15. A.S. Bubnov. Ploughed field of Ilymsk. Time of Changes. Irkutsk: Irkutsk Regional Publishing
House № 1, 2002.
16. Archive Agency of Administration of Krasnoyarsky Kray F. p-19. Inv. 1. D. 405.
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18. State Archives of the Newest History of Irkutskaya oblast’ F. 1108. Inv. 1. D. 47.
19. Archive Agency of Administration of Krasnoyarsky Kray F. p-57. Inv. 8 D. 7.
20. Archive Agency of Administration of Krasnoyarsky Kray F. 1300. Inv. 2. D. 2182.
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22. Archives of the Research Laboratory of Humanitarian Research of the Bratsk State University
F. 1. Inv. 9. D. 1. Interview with V.N. Polyakova.
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24. Archive Agency of Administration of Krasnoyarsky Kray F. p-20. Inv. 1. D. 259.
25. Angarsky Kolkhoznik, the local newspaper – 7th November, 1945.
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27. Archive Agency of Administration of Krasnoyarsky Kray F. R-1300. Inv. 2. D. 2182. Kolkhoznik,
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28. State Archives of the Newest History of Irkutskaya oblast’ F. 185. Inv. 9. D. 202.
29. Archives of the Research Laboratory of Humanitarian Research of the Bratsk State University
F. 2. Inv. 1. D. 2. Interview with Z.V. Ivanova.
30. Archives of the Research Laboratory of Humanitarian Research of the Bratsk State University
F. 10. Inv. 1. D. 1. Interview with T.E. Mikhaleva.
31. Archive Agency of Administration of Krasnoyarsky Kray F. p-19. Inv. 1. D. 405.
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32. Archives of the Research Laboratory of Humanitarian Research of the Bratsk State University
F. 2. Inv. 1. D. 3.
33. State Archives of the Newest History of Irkutskaya oblast’ F. 185. Inv. 9. D. 199.
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39. S.K. Plushenkov. Where it is, comes from, the Taiga Land of Chuna. – Irkutsk: V.M. Posohin
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F. 1. Inv. 9. D. 1. Interview with N.V. Bruhanova.
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F. 1. Inv. 11. D. 1. Interview with M.M. Bruhanova.
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60. Archives of the Research Laboratory of Humanitarian Research of the Bratsk State University.
F.1. Inv.2. D.1. Interview with I.I. Rukosujev.
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61. State Archives of the Newest History of Irkutskaya oblast’ F. 185. Inv. 1. D. 381.
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F. 1. Inv. 9. D. 1. Interview with N.P. Panova.
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F. 1 Inv. 11. D. 1. Interview with N.V. Bruhanova.
65. Archives of the Research Laboratory of Humanitarian Research of the Bratsk State
F. 10. Inv. 1. D. 1. Interview with T.E. Mihaleva.
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68. Archives of the Research Laboratory of Humanitarian Research of the Bratsk State
F. 1. Inv. 11. D. 1. Interview with S.M. Kosolapov.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2009 2) 17-22
УДК 7.01
Problem of Synthesis of the Main Definitions of Culture
Daniil V. Pivovarov*
Urals State University,
51 Lenin st., Ekaterinburg, 620083 Russia 1
Received 24.02.2009, received in revised form 03.03.2009, accepted 10.03.2009
Axiological, operational and semiotical definitions of culture are exposed to the critical analysis.
Stages of evolution of concept of culture and basic changes of its sense are discussed. The author
formulates his synthetic definition: the culture is such a side of a human life which deals with creation
of ideals. The three-level structure of cultural science is offered.
Keywords: culture, cultivation, cult, ideal, process of manufacture of ideals, sacral basic ideals.
There are three main sights at the nature
of culture in modern philosophy – axiological,
operational and semiotical. In general sense
distinction between these three sights is based
on identification of culture whether with a
special thing (useful subjects, values), whether
with specific property (actions and operations),
whether with a version of the attitude (reflection,
a p p r o a c h is
developed in two variants: 1) there is a uniform
culture of mankind, and it can be imagined in the
form of a pyramid of universal values (Peirce,
Windelband, etc.); 2) there is no universal
culture, and there is a set of the incommensurable
cultural-historical systems representing original,
closed in and equal in rights systems of values
(Dilthey, Toynbee, Weber, etc.).
Supporters of the o p e r a t i o n a l a p p r o a c h
consider any culture as sociohistorical ensemble
of schemes of activity, operations (school of L.S.
Vygotskii, E.V. Il’enkov, etc.) – as «a system of
nonbiologically developed mechanisms owing to
which activity of people in a society is stimulated,
programmed and realized» (E. Markaryan). But
when the notion of culture is “evaporated” up to
such general concepts, as technological invariant
of acts or scheme of activity, then culture
theoretically forfeits its spiritual-vital properties.
According to the s e m i o t i c a l a p p r o a c h
culture is understood as system of information
codes (signs and symbols together with their values
and senses) – in these codes human experience
is packed; codes broadcast programmes of
behaviour, dialogue and activity; with their help
the behaviour of present and future generations is
programmed and adjusted (Y.A. Lotman, etc.).
The specified approaches, undoubtedly,
are lawful. Each of them in own way describes
this or that feature of the basis of a real culture.
And still the reduction of the basis of culture or
only to “thing”, or exclusively to “property”, or
to only one “attitude” is excessive simplification
and contradicts requirements of philosophical
Corresponding author E-mail address:
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Daniil V. Pivovarov. Problem of Synthesis of the Main Definitions of Culture
dialectics. The gene of culture, as well as any
fragment of social life, should be understood
comprehensively, namely as unity of a thing, its
properties and attitudes. On the other hand, in
each of the named unilateral approaches the logic
mistake of «too wide definition» is accomplished:
the culture is erected or to the sum: 1) everyone,
but not a special sort of values; 2) any, but not
certain sort of actions and operations; 3) any, but
not unique information codes.
All these three named above approaches are
forged by convincing examples of existence of
“uncivilized” values, “uncivilized” schemes of
action and “uncivilized” information codes. Here
I, say, have looked at my personal computer and
have immediately thought up three “denying”
examples: 1) intuitively do not carry to values
of culture axiological installation of the “serial”
hacker starting in our personal computers
viruses-murderers; 2) it is possible to hammer
in nails with a help of the system block of the
personal computer, but we shall confidently rank
such perverted scheme of action as “anticulture”;
3) at failures of the software of the personal
computer it is capable to make weight of the crazy
information codes which are not having for the
user absolutely any «cultural sense». Hence, the
logic demands to limit logic volumes of concepts
of value, operation and a code when them apply at
definition of a phenomenon of culture.
In the domestic literature the definition of
culture as «measure of realization of intrinsic
forces of the person» (L.N. Kogan) uses demand
also. It is easy to notice, that it is exclusively
abstract and is not specific. Under it every approach
that is opposite to a nature: “artificial”, “activity”,
“technics”, “a way of manufacture”, “civilization”
and so on. This definition does not consider item the
fact of ethnic polyalternativeness and opposition
of cultures (really at modern Germans and the
Frenchmen so different «measures of realization
of intrinsic forces of the person», so far as speak
about striking differences of German culture from
French?), neither their sacral beginning, nor their
is emotional-sensual fabric. About all “artificial”
(metanatural) to speak, that it is culture – means
to reduce the term to absurdity and to deprive
with its function to be the effective tool of the
philosophical-distinguishing analysis.
Whether generalizing synthesis of the
main modern concepts of culture in which the
culture is possible, first, was defined as unity of
three aspects of being (in unity of axiological,
operational and semiotical components) and,
secondly, was understood as unity not everyones,
but only the special values, specific schemes of
actions and some versions of information codes?
The variant of such synthesis has been offered
by the author of given article in 1990th (more in
detail about attempt of synthesis of three concepts
of Ideele and Ideale [these terms are written
here in German] – D.I. Dubrovsky, E.V. Il’enkov
and M.A. Lifshits’s models – see: Pivovarov
D.V. Problem of the carrier of an ideal image.
Sverdlovsk: Urals University Press, 1986). The
synthetic concept of interrelation of Culture and
Ideale was later concretized by the author (see:
Pivovarov D.V. Philosophy of religion. Мoscow:
The Academic Project, 2006, section II).
The concept of culture, in my opinion, more
precisely and more «realistic» to define as a s i d e
of hu ma n life refered to creat ion of
i d e a l s . This definition is much more narrow,
than definitions of culture mentioned above.
Such specific value appears in it, as Ideale;
manufacture of ideals and worship is interfaced
by it to special forms of activity; at last, Ideale,
being one of versions of symbols, extremely
capaciously packs in itself information codes of
comprehensible behaviour. The culture differs
from a nature (“not-culture”) that the carrier of
culture by all means corresponds with any object
(alive or inert, natural or artificial) only via an
Ideale. I shall explain the hypothesis.
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Daniil V. Pivovarov. Problem of Synthesis of the Main Definitions of Culture
As is known, in ethymological sense the latin
term cultura (a participle of future time from a
verb colere – to cultivate, esteem) is translated
into Russian by words: cultivation, leaving,
development, education, formation, reverence. At
ancient Greeks and Romans under a cult (latin.
cultus) set of ceremonies of reverence of any
state, the god or the person with the purpose of
reception from them the help was understood.
The basic stages of evolution of concept of
culture, in my opinion, answer logic of the law of
denying of denying – to a principle of a helicoid
ascention of the initial thesis A to the antithesis
Not-A, and then to dialectic synthesis of A and
1. The INITIAL THESIS. Originally, during
an epoch of the Middle Ages, culture was meant
not as a cult in sense of worship the God or the
person, but as a cultivation by a farmer of a field.
In those days the term culture designated a special
and extremely valuable kind of material activity,
namely an agricultural practice.
Cultivating ground and throwing grain in
it, the grain-grower, similarly to biblical Cain,
extracted excessive physical work to a daily
bread. All he was attracted to an arable land:
tended to ground, with love worshipped to the
fertile ground, idolized “ground-mother” feeding
him. But sometimes the ground ceased to give
birth because of a drought, an exhaustion of the
cultivated layer or for other material reasons.
Then the worker tore off the look from mothermatter, pointed it into the sky and begged the
absolute spiritual forces to help him. The help
came sooner or later, and people trusted, that
exactly the Sky cured misfortunes of agriculture.
The spiritual sense, invisibly and quantitatively,
collected in concept of culture as a special kind
of physical work.
2. The ANTITHESIS. This opposite –
spiritual – sense became obvious. In the
maintenance of concept of culture there was a
quantum leap – the reference value of the term
culture has undergone to dialectic denying,
rotation and to removal that was promoted much
by Christian church. Reminding people a parable
about malicious farmer Cain and kind shepherd
Abel, Christian pastors demanded to worship not
to matter, but to spirit. In XVIII–XIX centuries in
a number of the European countries (it is probable,
first of all in Catholic France and Protestant
Germany) extends essentially new perusal of the
discussed term.
So, more habitual began to understand culture
as a special kind of spiritual activity, namely as
worship the God, as spiritual increase of soul, as
formation of mind. Cultural – means, brought
up, formed, the aristocrat. Persons of physical
work, as a rule, not had decent formation, began
to carry to the category of uncivilized people.
Agricultural perusal of this term (in sense of an
agriculture as «damned work») is has left on a
The concept of culture has come to Russia from
the West already in value of education, and it was
associated with finding knowledge-as-light, with
reverence of spiritual light. That is why, in opinion
of many Russian religious thinkers (S. Bulgakov, P.
Florensky, etc.), concept of culture must interface
not with initial colere, but with сultus to which the
subject of this cult – fire or light – is added (cult
+ uro more correctly; latin. uro – to burn down
with fire). And a peasant in orthodox Russia refers
to “christianin”. «Any culture – from a cult », –
religious educators like to repeat. Nikolay Roerich
has specified communication latin uro with a word
ur (ur on a Sanskrit means light, a ray of light, and
at Egyptians Rа – the god of the Sun and the Sun).
And really, unless not the same root ur in words
the city Ur (Abraham is supposed to have lived at
Ur), Urartu, Urals Mountains? Roerich suggested
to leave from ethymology colere and to translate a
word culture in more modern sense – as the sum of
words cult and ur, i. е. as worship light.
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Daniil V. Pivovarov. Problem of Synthesis of the Main Definitions of Culture
However, very few scientists from
domestic experts pay attention to a word ur,
adhering to initial and very wide sense of
culture as of cultivation (then one of these two
words superfluous, and would be in Russian
admissible without special losses to replace the
term “culturology” with a word “delovedenie”),
or being limited to understanding of culture as
anonymous cult (“cultology”, “pocklonoslovie”).
But if the culture is all the same a cult, a cult of
that or whom? On this account our philosophers
and culturologists keep mum is more often,
recollecting well-known Wittgenstein’s maxima
(«about what you can not tell, about that store
3. SYNTHESIS. On a background of
secularization and atheistic aversion of a theme
of spirit and soul there is a radical revision of
concept of culture in a science of XX century.
In set of the put forward concepts of culture the
general tendency to unite is looked through and
considerably to generalize the last representations
about culture as, on the one hand, special spiritual
activity, and with another – as specific material
activity. As a result to the most influential today
became extremely abstract treatment of culture
as all sum of forms of human activity in general.
From here, we see allocation of independent
kinds of cultures – spiritual cultures and material
cultures. The first is defined as the sum of
any intellectual operations upon any sort of
conceivable objects. The second is treated as
set of any schemes of practical actions with any
material things. The technocratic abstraction
which has eliminated former sights at culture as
on special kinds of activity, described above, has
It is not necessary to consider the specified
abstraction as the casual misunderstanding
occuring from malicious intention of certain
antichristian position. I consider, that it has arisen
as the natural tendency of synthesis of strong and
mutually exclusive alternatives. In this plan it is
not a subject to the indignant condemnation, and
it is necessary to understand without emotions
the objective reasons of its intellectual victory in
XX–XXI centuries
However it is necessary to go further,
considering two circumstances. First, the known
principle says, that any radical action sooner or
later will undergo to adequate counteraction;
the suppressed qualities anyhow are restored
and, in turn, remove developed “state of
affairs”. Secondly, in connection with vigorous
differentiation of modern culturologic knowledge
(in conditions of postmodernist boom) the need
for its integration objectively amplifies.
Clearly, that speech goes first of all about
necessity to rethink essentially the limiting bases
of culturology and about a problem of synthesis
of the basic modern definitions of culture.
Clearly also, that those experts who do not
consider or simply do not understand dialectics
of differentiation and integration, will declare
by all means, that the problem designated by the
author is not so actual and it is not necessary to
be engaged in it. Well, let them also not to be
engaged in it and to remain at the settled opinion.
It is their legitimate right.
But let us return to a theme of a parity among
Ur and Ideale. Ur and an ideal, certainly, are not
the same, but there is much the general between
them. German language seizes distinction
between a way of existence of any idea (Ideelle)
and a character of existence of an ideal – as
especially valuable idea, light-carrier factor and
representative of sorts (groups) of things (Ideale).
Gegel understood under Ideelle: a) any virtual
existence, stay of subjects inside of hidden
essence in the form of opportunities; b) insertion
and representation of other-being inside of selfbeing; c) acknowledgement of supersensual
properties with which the consciousness allocates
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some reality. Under Ideale the German thinker
meant the perfect display of non-material essence
in some material phenomenon seldom meeting in
an external world having character of an aesthetic
subject (the visible essence, heard essence, the
sensual manifestation of idea). On Gegel, Ideale
is a concentration of a highlighted essence and
a transparent window in the thin world usually
hidden from a direct look.
People master classes of things and
processes through ideals, and Ideale carries out a
role of the luminary of a special sort. Somewhat
Ideale is a version of ur (light). Then, specifying
in language of secular philosophy a definition
of concept of culture (as «cult of light»), it is
possible to define culture as i d e a l - c r e a t i n g
p a r t o f l i f e . The concept “creation of ideals”
has many sides. Spiritual, sincere, intellectual and
material-practical components are also included
into it. This concept assumes the correspondence
between faith, emotions and technology in the
creed of a person. It focuses the philosopher on
vision not so much a culture in general, how on
many sets of separate cultures in their historical
and actual opposition.
As any sign or a symbol, Ideale has a
corporal cover and supersensual meaning.
Therefore the culture as ideal-creating side of a
human life is wrongful for dividing on certain
ostensibly separately existing «material culture»
and «spiritual culture». Unlike a usual sign,
Ideale is valuable not only due to its intellectual
meaning, but also to its corporal embodiment.
Owing to such duality the culture dialectically
is and not a sensual reality; that is why it is
eternally mysterious for the extraneous observer.
To comprehend and go through it more or less its
carrier must be able to switch from admiration
of a corporal covers of ideals to its supersensual
spiritual value. To a foreign person who is getting
acquainted his mother’s culture, he sees strange
culture in fallen asleep material forms – more
often as certain symbolical bodies, system of
As the distinctive attribute of any
culture, ideal-creative process is a process
of : a) preservation and change of samples of
reproduction of a specific public life esteemed
for ideals in its all measurements; b) painful
parting with the ideals ceasing life-givingly to
influence a gain of culture. Ideals are invented
not only in global societies and civilizations, but
are made also by separate people, social groups
and individuals. Therefore it is lawful to speak
not only about culture of a society or people, but
also about unique culture of a person, individual
Sacralized system of base ideals forms
a kernel of religion and economy, and system
of culture (almost as in I. Lakatos’s model of
scientific-research programme) consists from
this «firm kernel» and «a protective belt». The
scheme of culture can be drawn also in the form
of a pyramid: the basis consists of religious and
economic ideals, between which there occur
mutual reflections and contradictions; the top
gets married such ideals, as the standard of
meter, masterpieces of culinary art, norm of
recalculation of a rate of exchange of money
and so on. The whole culture, from this point of
view, does not happen neither cleanly religious,
nor cleanly secular, but to some extent contains
religious and secular components inside of itself.
The concept of creation of ideals as a complex
and long process means the dramatic conflict
of culture and anticulture, the contradiction
between tendencies of creation of alternative
ideals. Knowledge of properties and laws, related
to creation of ideals, I hope, will allow to explain
more deeply a birth, blossoming and destruction
of individual, national and world cultures,
to understand the reasons of an attraction
and pushing away of coexisting cultures, to
trace interaction of sacral basis and a secular
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superstructure in system of culture. In a view of
the offered approach philosophical representation
about «the general education of the person» is
important for coordinating to concept «native
culture»: the general education is immersing
the person in base ideals of native culture and
mastering of these ideals by it.
By way of addition to the above-stated I shall
state a reason about improvement of structure of
the academic cultural science. I suggest to allocate
(proceeding from logic «the general – especial –
separate») three basic levels of culturology as a
culture – as the ideological kernel of culturonomy –
consists from ontology of culture, epistemology of
culture and axiology (or praxiology) of culture.
The periphery is formed with the major general
scientific and specially-scientific methods of
research of a phenomenon of culture.
The second section – culturometria
(in Russian – культурометрия). Various
measurements of culture (ethnologic, religious,
economic, technical, political, psychological and
so forth) are compared in it
The third level of cultural science –
scientific and a subject matter.
It is logical to name the first, methodological,
section culturonomy (in Russian – культурономия;
the Greek term nomos means law). Philosophy of
culturography (in Russian – культурография). It
represents, first, a statement of history of concrete
cultures, secondly, the description of modern
cultures in their interactions and contradictions.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2009 2) 23-30
УДК 75
Nikolaj Rybakov: «… Between the Abyss and the Heaven»
Tatiana M. Lomanova*
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 24.02.2009, received in revised form 03.03.2009, accepted 10.03.2009
The article is devoted to the work of Nikolaj Rybakov, one of the most well-known painters of presentday Siberia. A brief outline of his life and work is given; the main stages of his creative development
are observed; the main themes of his oeuvre and specificities of his creative method are considered.
Keywords: Nikolaj Rybakov, Siberia, Siberian painting.
Nikolaj Rybakov takes the leading position
in the modern art of Siberia; his works embellish
museums and private collections in many
countries of the world, his canvases never fail to
impress by their inwardness. Being dissimilar in
his creative work to most of his brothers of the
brush, Rybakov has found his own picturesque,
his own self-expression from his youth, but still
staying integral, ambiguous, not being read up to
the end, and that is why exciting, making gaze
into his mysterious world again and again.
At first, his graphic series, and then,
canvases appeared for the first time at the
exhibitions in the end of 1970-s – in the beginning
of 1980-s, and they immediately became the
subject of temperamental disputes, of passionate
acknowledgment or explicit antagonism. But the
time was passing by and inner depth of Rybakov’s
images reveled itself in an every new cycle
of canvases; some incomprehensibility of his
depictive language, his strong conviction in the
correctness of the chosen way, his vivid artistic
talent fascinated more and more.
For a long time, the main personage of his
creative work has been an archaic Asia. From
his youth, Rybakov has found his own world of
modern inhabitants of the steppe South, he has
seen the connection of the settled scheme of their
life with ancient Siberian camping-grounds,
he has revealed for himself an unknown pagan
Siberia through the meeting with this world. The
master’s works of 1970-s-1980-s are actually
threaded by the themes of ancient campinggrounds, images of Nomads. Whatever plotassociative compositions, landscapes, still-life
paintings, themes, genres, and kinds of art the
painter has addressed, Asia has been included
into all the oeuvre of the artist. There is no simply
ancientry in the works of Nikolaj Rybakov, but
there is exactly Siberian ancientry with its epic
millenarian history, full of dramas. The artist
has seen, heard, felt with all his heart tabernacles
of Huns, and herds of Scythian horses, and the
clanking of chains of protopope Avvakum, rushed
by Siberian roads and the painter has sloped over
all these onto his expressive canvases. Landscape
Corresponding author E-mail address:
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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N. Rybakov The Meeting. 2007
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N. Rybakov The Orange Beam. 2007
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Tatiana M. Lomanova. Nikolaj Rybakov: «… Between the Abyss and the Heaven»
paintings of Rybakov are also ingrained by
this rich content. The landscape painting of
a concrete place is not important for the artist,
but associations, having been caused by this
place, are of big value. The painter says, that he
«constructs the landscape as if a still-life», i.e. as
if some temporary phenomenon, reflecting his
imaginary authorial world.
In the course of time the boarders of his
interests have been broadening and he has included
into his canvases not only Siberian immeasurable
vastitude, but also Tibet and central Asia. If
ethnography and antiquity took some place in
his cycles in the beginning of his creative work,
though there were never documentary facts, but
since 1990-s his Asian cycles have been already
filled by more generalized symbols out of space
and time. The author does not narrate about some
concrete events. Factual events are just an original
basis for the painter; they are causing vivid
generalized images. Basing on a concrete episode,
sometimes quite insignificant, the painter passes
over to panhuman considerations. In his oeuvre
reminiscences of his childhood and intuitive
context-rich historicity have successfully merged
together in one whole, when a small impulse is
enough in order the creative thought gives birth to
magnificent, spiritual, multitudinary canvases.
In painter’s metaphoric works, full of
dramatics and expression, the author contemplates
over the ways of mankind, over indissolubility of
spiritual connection with one’s ancestors, fulfilling
his creative work with content-rich symbols and
ascending over the commonness. His magnificent
and tragic personages live in their own world, not
seeing us and being plunged into far worlds of
may be past or may be future …
The grandeur and generality of the theme
requires a special depictive language, and the
author has found it in the convention of images.
The plots of his works are quite mysterious,
possessing that very degree of uncertainty, that
makes the spectators find associations, empathize,
There is always a cover of secrecy in all
the works of Nikolaj Rybakov. One can read
deeply hidden sadness even in the most clear
and full-of-life works, such as, for example, the
canvases from the cycle «The blossoming», or
polychromic, wonderfully picturesque still-life
paintings, having been made particularly a lot by
the artist in recent years. It is not the universal
sadness about the destinies of humankind, but
that very melancholy, which is being disclosed
along the cognition of the world order and oneself.
«Great is the sadness of mine about the land of
my reminiscences», – Nikolaj Rybakov considers
these lines from Halil Dzhibran’s poem to be the
epigraph to all his oeuvre. The author is always on
the verge: of reality and the world of unreal, of the
past and the present, of exaltation and sorrow, of
the light and shadows. And he has dedicated his
new jubilee exhibition to dualistic indissolubility
of the light and the dark.
Generally, all the creative works of Nikolaj
Rybakov are threaded by philosophic thinking,
there is always hankering for contemplations.
What is man’s assignment on the Earth? Is it,
as it was written by Nikolaj Gumilev, in order
«to draw one’s spirals between the time and the
abysm»? Or does the mankind have a different
destination? Or may be the striving to cognate
one’s past is the striving to see one’s future?
In the oeuvre of Rybakov, pictorial art and
graphics intermingle and are almost inseparable
from each other. His graphic works are saturated
with colour. Alongside with pictorial pieces, he
creates a great number of works performed by
mixed technique, which, possessing wonderful
colour-bearing, and made on the material (paper,
cartoon), still belong to graphics. Practically, the
approach itself to the representation can be called
pictorial art on paper, when the painter is thinking
with a help of colour. Precisely the colour, but
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not a stain or a line becomes the main means of
expression. His palette is excessively rich. Every
so often, his canvases are made on the contrast of
a deep «wraparound» background (usually, it is
a warm gamma of green, olivaceous, ochre, and
brown colours) and clear dynamic sheaves of vivid
cold or hot blazing overtones, stains of foreground.
The colours are clear, open; possessing amazing
working capacity, the painter has created hundreds
of canvases and graphic works in the course of
his life, but, remaining for ever one, he has never
repeated compositional and colorful treatments
of his works. The author vividly proves his high
professionalism in monochrome graphic pieces
as well: magnificent glow of his picturesque
canvases has transmitted to his black and
white graphic works, which prepossess by their
abundance, variety of tonal treatment, glimmering
and silveriness, refinement of lines. Striving for
maximal image disclosure, Rybakov does not draw
a line at the dilemma – pictorial art or graphics,
he invents his own authorial technique, whether
it is monochromic presentment on the canvas or
pictorial painting on the paper.
In November, 2007 a jubilee exhibition of
pictorial art and graphics of Nikolaj Rybakov,
dedicated to 60-th anniversary of the painter,
was open in the exhibition halls of the Centre of
The exhibition reflected the searchers of
the painter during last years. The exhibition
leitmotiv was the artist’s considerations about
indissolubility and struggle of two primacies:
worldly and celestial, the light and the dark.
Many works, being presented to the spectators,
were dedicated to this theme: the cycle of
canvases «Worldly – celestial», «Black star»,
«Conservation», «Yellow-brown substance»,
having been written in the last years.
And one more motive, having been attracting
the painter over the period of many years, sounded
in the exhibition – the motive of chalice. The
chalice is an ancient sacral symbol. It is both the
vessel of existence, and the chalice of sorrows,
and the uniting cup of piece, and there are a lot of
other readings of this object, perfect in its natural
simplicity, having been created during centuries
of mankind existence. Every artist has his own
vision of the chalice. Nikolaj Rybakov, admiring
its circular flowing shape, has filled the image of
the chalice with an inimitable multiformity in
his every canvas: now, the chalice, pierced by a
burning beam, becomes a torch in the dark, then,
it is filled with light from inside, and then, having
become almost insensuous, it dissolves in space.
The complicated imaginative world,
represented in graphic compositions of the jubilee
exhibition, never fails to attract attention.
Nikolaj Rybakov is wonderfully gifted with
a great talent and a grandeur working capacity,
but as any talented person, Rybakov is marked
by other talents as well, – whatever he touches
upon, everywhere there is a stamp of deepness
of his knowledge and of his creative ability. His
absorption in semantics of ancient petroglyphic
drawings in the last decade has brought
Nikolaj Rybakov to new creative horizons, it
has overgrown his just artistic vision and the
process of scientific cognition has captured his
Over the period of many years Nikolaj
Rybakov has been closely connected to Khakassia,
to the Ijussk steppe, where he spends several
months annually. These places are called by
the painter his «natural-landscape scientificresearch laboratory». The beauty of this land, its
gray antiquity, mysterious language of ancient
petroglyphic drawings have been giving the artist
all these years not only a creative impulse, but
have brought to that fact, that Rybakov has been
seriously interested in the researchers of Siberian
ancient history. He has been extremely excited by
the ancient monuments, connected, to his mind, to
the traces of Manichaeanism on the territory of the
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N. Rybakov The Nature. 2003
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N. Rybakov The Spring. 2007
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Tatiana M. Lomanova. Nikolaj Rybakov: «… Between the Abyss and the Heaven»
South Siberia. This ancient religion, being dead for
us, left, as Rybakov considers, some interesting
evidence of its being in Khakass-Minusinsk
basin. The interest to this almost unstudied theme
has captured his attention so much, that Nikolaj
Iosifovich has been studying this material deeply
and absorbedly: he has been spending hours in the
libraries, searching (and finding!) new monuments,
and writing articles. He has published 12 articles
related to Manichaeanism in Siberia in scientific
digests. He is plunging deeper and deeper into
scientific work, becoming a true researcher of
ancient Siberia.
Nikolaj Rybakov is also seriously interested
in artistic photography. Not that one photography,
which can be observed in abundance at various
exhibitions in the result of high-technologies’
widespread. His black and white artistic
photography is a continuation of his artistic
creativity. There is no any concrete plot here as
well, as in his pictorial works and graphics, the
same search for the utmost visualization, the
striving to capture the imperceptible.
He does for everything: creation, scientific
researches, publications, tours, and expeditions –
the fantastic working capacity of Nikolaj Rybakov
is simply amazing. He has organized dozens of
personal exhibitions all over the country and
abroad, has been done a whole row of publication
projects. One more quality of Rybakov is also
recognized – his constant will to help, to support,
give a hand to somebody. It is of special value in
our aggressive time.
So, thus, Nikolaj Iosifovich Rybakov, a
corresponding member of the Petrovsk Academy
of Arts and Sciences, a brilliant painter, an
absorbed researcher, being thoughtful and full
of most various conceptions, celebrates his 60-th
The consummate play with a flat surface of
the list, with a stain, flaming auroras of silvery
glimmering of lines, deep gaps of black bring into
the list something harassing, exciting, making
come back again and again.
We suppose that, it is for the first time, when
Nikolaj Rybakov has presented a significant
series of his works of minor size, performed by
wax paints over watercolors. In these works the
painter addresses the same panhuman themes,
threading all over his oeuvre.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2009 2) 31-55
УДК 008
Truth as a Form of Modelling of Integrity
at Social Being Level
Alexandra A. Semenova and Natalia P. Koptzeva*
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 24.02.2009, received in revised form 03.03.2009, accepted 10.03.2009
This article is about the problem of formation and existence of the social integrity. There is to be
named the factors of the formation of social integrity. The ideological basis of the social integrity
is underlined like the main factor for this formation. There is the review and analytic research of
the historical forms of religious and philosophic models of integrity at social being level. Historical
period of 15th and 16th of Old Russia is researched more detailed like the example of socio-centrism
model in historical development.
Keywords: cultural science; social cultural science; society; socio-centrism; socio-centrical
religiousness; social integrity; factors of formation of social integrity; religious models of social
integrity; philosophic models of social integrity; the old russia in 15th and 16th centuries; the moscow
russian in 15th and 16th centuries; national self-identification; the heretical ideas of the 15th and the
16th centuries of Old Russia; the heresy of the Judaizers; Iosif Volotzkyi; the concept of the absolute
monarchy; autocracy; tsar Ivan the Terrible.
Specificities of modelling of integrity
at social being level
First of all, it is necessary to mention that
the contraposition of individual and social being
is rather relative. An individual is directly and
organically included in society as integrity
of a larger scale. Individual self-being out of
that inclusion is not absolute and complete. An
individual and society supplement each other, and,
as the parts of each other, they give the meaning
of existence. At the same time, both of these
integrities, society and an individual, are to be
theoretically and practically considered as some
independent formations with their own specificity
and special laws of modelling of integrity. The
main question is how some creatures as atoms
turn into society, what the base, the content and,
perhaps, the aim of that integrity are.
As is well known, there are two main points
of view at the conditions of social integrity.
According to the first point of view, society is an
arena of incessant conflicts of the social groups
separated according to their economic, political
and ideological interests. The supporters of that
conception maintain the idea that the social
unity is fictitiously ephemeral, and theoretically
to substantiate that unity as something real
means hypocrisy, which conceals the purport of
screening the dictatorial attitudes of one social
Corresponding author E-mail address:
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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group to the others. But they also believe that the
social unity and integrity is a perspective object
of its being, which, after all, is to be achieved by
the efforts of some concrete social groups, the
interests of which coincide with the interests of
society as a whole.
The other conception is based on the fact
that the bright contrasts and contradictions in
society do not prevent from consideration of
society as a real, but not a nominal integrity
with its objectively common interests, and that
it is possible to take some stabilizing steps with
the appropriate technologies, which are to bring
to the compromise between the opposite forces,
permanently and dynamically re-producing
society as a complete whole. The conception is
also based on the systematic approach suggesting
the consideration of society as integrity, which
consists of the parts connected with each other,
and, as the result, some integral qualities appear
that characterize the integrity, but not its parts.
First and foremost, we are interested in the
reflective and spiritual processes, inside which the
social unity is formed as a way to the Absolute,
the forms of which society seeks and finds
inside itself. According to the conception of D.V.
Pivovarov, where it is mentioned of the socialcentric religions, which the searcher defines as
«… the search of the humankind or some part
of society for the omni-unity of all its essential
forces and realization of the searched spiritual
unity in a selected sacred object… The archetype
of counciliarity (sobornost), essential for the life
of society, gradually fades away. So the main
aim of the social-centric religions is to restore
the lost social unity» (Contemporary philosophic
dictionary, 1998).
Let us consider the situation of the lost
social unity. It appears quite objectively as the
real society exists only owing to real empirically
separated individuals with different interests,
aims and purports of their actions, as it’s been
already mentioned. In that sense, social life really
seems to be a sum of different wills, separated
“Ego” to whom every other individual seems to
be “Non-Ego”. Then the process of interrelation
of separated individuals is casual collisions
when the sides comes to some agreement,
which, nevertheless, doesn’t have any constant
significance and is not essential for the both of
the sides. Secondly, objective necessity makes
individuals consciously seek for consolidation
in order to survive, and the whole is formed by
the way of external submission to the leading
common will. It is the question of phenomena
of power and law not only in the state, but also
in any other social community, including family
and other kinds of union between people. In that
case, the principle of mutual restriction is in force:
the leading common will of the whole restricts
spontaneous displaying of wills of separated
individuals, who, in their turn, seek to realize
their individual rights by restriction of the will
of the whole.
It’s quite obviously that forced or mechanical
synthesis of separated individuals in some
integrity cannot last long. There is a necessity
for the inner striving of every separated creature
for the unity with those ones similar to him, it is
necessary to understand that the sought unity with
other individuals is an indispensable condition
for achievement of its individual integrity. So it
is also necessary that those separated individuals
might want to act in such a way their actions could
bring to their integrity. It requires some special
force, energy and infectiousness that could make
up the intuition or consciousness of solidarity
of individuals with each other. Of course, that
energy eventually turns into some other forms
and gradually expires, and that leads to society’s
suffering from rupture between its different
parts, including separated individuals. The word
“suffering” hasn’t been used by accident: to our
mind, if the integrity can be restored, that means
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it hasn’t been completely destroyed. Moreover,
there is a fundamental base of human being that
makes the unity of all separated individuals be
possible. The contradictions as essential moments
of society’s development are of importance only
because they always have a common field of their
appearance and conflicting interrelations.
In our opinion, the conception of threespheres of social organism going back to
Rudolf Steiner’s (Steiner, 1992) (Fig. 1) theory
is especially fruitful for elaboration of this
research question. Let us formulate its principal
propositions. In every society as integrity it is
possible to distinguish three basic elements of
its structure which form the system of social
unity. First and foremost, it’s an economic sphere
connected with everything concerning industry,
consumption and exchange of goods. In Russian
research literature that sphere of society’s life has
been analyzed completely and comprehensively
in a number of social sciences and humanities,
including social philosophy, economics, politics,
The second sphere of social life is politics
and law, including political life, legal and public
relations. If economics deals with everything
people need, with the products of nature and
industry they consume, and also with goods,
commodity circulation and consumption, the
second sphere is connected with human relations
coming merely from the bases of human nature. To
our mind, it is extremely important to emphasize
a relative independence of these two spheres or,
at least, fix the necessity of this independence for
the normal functions of a civil state. To be sure,
all people dealing with economy have feeling for
law and order at the same time. But a civil state
must have its own administrative and legislative
institutions based on some other principles than
those ones, which come from economic life of
society. Just owing to the functional division of
the both of these spheres of activities, each of
Fig. 1. Rudolf Steiner - austrien philosopher-mystic
(1861 - 1925)
them gets chance to have a necessary influence
on the activities of each other.
In those cases when a civil state becomes
an economic organization, it loses its capacity
of regulation of people’s legal life. In such a case
its measures and institutions become means of
satisfaction of commodity-consumption interests
and thus drive off the impulses directed to the
legal life.
That is not the question of exchange of
commodities. It is a necessary moment of the
modern social organism based on the division
of labour, but the question is that the exchange
of a right for commodity makes a right to be
commodity, for a right appears inside economic
life here. That transformation of a right into
commodity is possible to be prevented only in
the case of creating of two kinds of institution
in the society: on the one hand, those are the
institutions with the aim of expedient organization
of commodity circulation, and, on the other
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hand, the institutions regulating the rights of the
participants of turnover, producers, dealers, and
consumers. The division of economic and legal
organization of society is one of the main problems
of the contemporary society’s condition. But that
interesting problem is out of our analysis here.
Most of all we are interested in the third sphere of
the social organism.
The third sphere has the same relative
independence like the other two ones mentioned
above. The third sphere includes everything
concerned with the spiritual life. To be more
precise, it suggests everything based on
individual abilities and everything that is to be
included in the social organism exactly on that
basis coming from an individual. Everything
happening in the economic and legal spheres of
the society is under the forces of the third source
– individual personal talents of some individuals.
That sphere covers all people deeds serving
for the social unity from the highest spiritual
achievements to the simplest kinds of manual
work done according to some concrete physical
abilities of an individual. Everything happening
in this sphere is included in the social organism
by the perfect way of organization different from
the ways of organization of commodity-economic
and state-legal relations.
If some kind of human activity coming
from the individual abilities of a person is under
unnatural influence of economic life or state
organization, that kind of activity considerably
loses its true base of existence. Only the power
originating from the spiritual activity can be the
base. For the strong development of spiritual life
also variously connected with the development of
all the other individual human abilities (economic
and political and legal), it is necessary that the
spiritual life in its creative work should be left
to its own impulses and, in its turn, could find
co-authorship of those people who are able to
comprehend it. Normal existence of society
is possible only in the case of inclusion of an
individual in the social organism following the
impulses coming from the spiritual life. In its turn,
it is necessary the spiritual life to be distinguished
as a special reality with its own autonomous
content beyond the material life. Everything is
brought together in the sphere of spiritual life: art,
science, religion, world outlook, and all the things
connected with it. Nevertheless, it is possible to
descry the main stem able to organize not only
the spiritual life of society but also give energy
to the whole society in all its three spheres. The
question is of the desire for the lost unity, which
is fixed in the idea «aspiration for the Absolute»,
where the Absolute takes the shape of the united
and cemented society and where «Ego» of an
individual derives its strength from social «We».
That’s quite obvious, the problem of the
society’s unity takes place when that unity is
lost or when the radical need of its restoration is
realized. When that urgent objective necessity
of restoration of the lost unity springs up, the
function of that restoration is undertaken by
different social subjects who are to create a new
content of infectiousness and energy supplying
individuals’ inner aspiration for the social
integrity. Separate individuals, social groups,
special organizations, etc., can be such subjects.
This analysis reveals importance not in a type of
social object, which takes upon itself the aim of
restoration of the social unity, but in the happening
spiritual processes. First and foremost, it is the
question of the religious and philosophical models
of those processes with which society creates or
reproduces itself as the integral whole.
Specificities of the religious way
of modelling of integrity at social being level
On the one hand, there are various religious
models of social integrity arising inside some
religious theory: Christian socialism, idea of the
society of «great unity» in Confucianism, etc.
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On the other hand, we can speak about religious
experience as modelling of social integrity. First
and foremost, the second line is to be considered in
the research where religion takes a special form of
socio-centric religion (D.V. Pivivorov’s concept).
Firstly, that allows to broaden the conception of
essence of religion including all those religious
forms, which up to now has not been usual to
be considered from the point of view of their
religious characteristics (cult of personality, cult
of state, and cult of nation) and, secondly, that
also allows to comprehend these religious forms
not as something negative destroying society but,
on the contrary, as something necessary, which
unites society in its wholeness giving impulses
for the existence of all its spheres in their unity
and independence at the same time.
We choose a way of spiritual modelling
of social integrity by selecting religion and
philosophy as the models of social unity.
According to D.V. Pivovarov’s conception,
society’s spiritual unity is compulsory embodied
in a certain sacred object. A personality of a ruler,
nation, state, and political system can become that
object. To be sure, the question is of the society’s
static condition while its dynamics requires a
special analysis beside this research work.
Let us try to consider the way of choosing
of a sacred object uniting society in its integral
whole. Can that integrity be personified by the
territory, which a certain society occupies? No,
it cannot, as the frontiers of a territory always
change and serve as an object of international
disagreements. The unity of society consisting of
living individuals requires obviously personified
unity with strong-willed and spiritual traits
like the best representatives of that society; it
means that it is more natural that society is often
personified by an individual, a living subject. It is
connected with the spiritual object’s necessity of
sensitively concrete living form, shape and image
embodied in a living person.
Personification of society’s unity by a living
individual undoubtedly has religious nature when
state power is taken as something sacred giving
its personificator the supreme rank of social
hierarchy. Religious perception of individual
power of a ruler is to be observed in the history
of the mankind and in very different cultures
for thousands of years. A ruler, personifying the
unity of society, is a mediator between a society
and the Absolute and a bearer bringing multitude
to unity and also bringing society in the world of
the Absolute with the unity as its indispensable
Personification of society’s unity by an
individual ruler is based on the confidence in a
special link between a ruler and the Absolute,
which a common man does not have. That
connection makes a ruler to be a bearer of the
absolute source and demands him to be an actual
personification of the absoluteness in the real
society’s life. That’s why in the early ages of the
mankind’s history a ruler was to be worshiped
not only as personification of the state power but
also as the embodied Absolute. Being connected
with the Absolute with a very special link, he
was the first and supreme celebrant, the only
mediator between people and the Absolute. An
ancient ruler of the East was always worshiped
as God. The Ancient Rome also had the evolution
of deification of a ruler. Even having adopted
Christianity, Emperor Constantine didn’t decline
the title of the supreme sacrificer of the Roman
Empire for the sacrificer symbolically was present
at each religious ceremony held in the territory of
the State and, as a consequence, his presence was
spread everywhere.
Byzantine Christianity founds a special
doctrine of holiness of the emperor’s power based
on the emperor’s Chrismation, the ritual held only
for the emperor, not for any of his subjects. The
kings of the West always had sacerdotal rights
and traced their origin to gods. God the Father
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was pictured as an emperor in German and as a
king in France and England from the 14th century.
The idea of tsar’s greatness has the prototype of
greatness of God in Joseph Volotzkyi’s philosophy.
The examples can be given without end. In any
case, one of the forms of cementation of the
social integrity can be named the cult of a ruler’s
personality as a sacred person connected with the
Absolute and thus taking on his own shoulders
some special responsibility for that society,
videlicet for making special wholeness living
according to the Absolute’s laws and connected
of the Orthodox conciliar source. Conciliarity
is closely connected with the conception of the
universal unity brought by Vladimir Solovyov in
the Russian philosophy.
But the cult of nation as a sacred object
centralizing society’s integrity does not appear in
the Russian religious philosophy of the 19th and
the 20th centuries for the first time. That is one
of the most ancient models of re-construction of
society’s integrity. We can find it in the ideology of
contraposition of the Hellenes and the barbarians
in the ancient mind, and the personification of this
with the Absolute through the mediation of a
ruler’s personality.
The second form of a sacred object favouring
society’s cementation is the cult of the nation
which also has religious content.
For example, quoting of Feodor Tyutchev’s
quatrain is a commonplace in many public
Russia is baffling to the mind,
Not subject to the common measure
Her ways – of a peculiar kind…
One only can have faith in Russia.
(Translated by Avril Pyman)
But the first line of the poem is more often
and rather ironically accentuated while the
analysis of literary form of the poem shows
that the main idea the author tried to express is
in the end: “One only can have faith in Russia”.
Identification of a nation with the sacred object
that personifies social integrity is one of the main
forms of socio-centric religion.
The religious cult of a nation is bound up
with the fact that national specificities of the
society’s way to the unity with the Absolute are
associated with the universal ways, for all this the
archetype of the way to the Absolute is a national
model, not a universal one. In this connection,
the conception of conciliarity (sobornost) is
worked out in the Russian philosophy, and the
Russian people are to be considered as bearers
model is Plato’s “Ideal State”. In the European
spiritual culture the developed form of this sociocentric religion can be found in Hegel’s philosophy
of history, in his conception of historical and nonhistorical nations, where one or another nation is
considered as a bearer of the concrete spirit, the
Absolute revealing in time. As Hegel supposes, the
Spirit in itself is a meaningless idea and it finds
its reality in temporal forms, its substantial nature
is history through which freedom of actual being
is carried out. A temporal form of the Spirit is a
spirit of a united nation: “Individuals belong to it;
each individual is a son of his time, and as his state
develops, no one is left behind or less he takes the
lead over the state. This spiritual essence is the
essence of an individual; he is its representative
contained in it and coming from it” (Hegel, 1993).
The cult of nation as a form of socio-centric
religion helps to overcome the gravest crises
possible to take place in one or another state.
Thus, overcoming the Time of Troubles of the
Russian State started approximately in 1611 and
it was described by historian V.O. Kluchevskyi as
follows: “Moscow State was a sight of complete
destruction by the end of 1611… The state was
turning into some formless and restless federation.
But by the end of 1611, when the political
forces had been broken down, RELIGIOUS
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DYING COUNTRY” (Novgorodcev, 1991). The
expressions “the political forces had been broken
down” and “religious and national powers began
to be woken up” deserve special consideration
in this historical general conclusion. Political
forces are different political groups with their
own interests while the national interest is able
to unite those separate forces in order to save the
State and nation.
The other impressive historical example is
France overcoming the civil war caused by the
Revolution of the 18th century. The slogan united
the French State by Napoleon Bonaparte was
the following: “There is to be no any fractions
– the nation is first of all”. As a rule, a civil
war, especially prolonged one in the history of
the mankind could be got over with the help of
centripetal forces, creation of some new sacred
objects containing a way of connection of a nation
with God, gods and other forms of the Absolute,
renovation of that connection in the historical
past, and conviction that the connection is the
historical mission of that nation.
And as a rule, a national form of socio-centric
religion is connected with contraposition of a
nation and other nations, and that contraposition
can have both positive and negative forms. In
order the cult of some nation is not to be turned
into striving for total destruction of the integrity
of other nations, socio-centric religions very often
join each other and change for the level of cosmocentric religions, where that nation finds its
integrity not only inside itself but also outside in
the Universe, the Absolute and Cosmos to which
all the other nations and each individual belong.
That very combination of the national form of
socio-centric and cosmo-centric kinds of religion
is seen in the concept “conciliarity”, which was
formed and fixed in the Russian philosophy of the
19th and the first third of the 20th centuries.
Philosopher L.S. Frank writes proving the
substantial quality of the Russian national spirit:
Fig. 2 Semen Ludvigovich Frank – Russian philosopher
(1877 - 1950)
“The Russian spirit is distinct for its aspiration for
wholeness, universal and concrete completeness,
the last and supreme value and base; because of
this aspiration, the Russian mind and spiritual
life are religious not only in their essence (for we
can assert that any creative work is like that), but
religious feeling also penetrates into all external
spheres of spiritual life. The Russian spirit, so to
say, is religious to the core” (Frank, 1992) (Fig. 2).
In this connection, these thinkers consider
conciliarity as “the inner harmony of living
individual soul and super individual unity”
(Frank, 1992). While the national substance of
the idea “conciliarity” becomes a universal one
in S.L. Frank’s philosophy, philosophers S.N.
Bulgakov and P.A. Florenskyi, on the contrary,
insist on its special Russian Orthodox religious
meaning. Though fascism and racism phenomena
of the 20th century locked the positive qualities
of a concrete nation’s cult for researchers for a
long time, nevertheless on the grounds of the
mankind’s history we can see that the national
form of socio-centric religion very often has
objectively positive meaning by uniting the nation
in the periods of civil wars and crises.
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Every kind of social life includes religious
aspect. That was realized by both the founders
of the ancient polis and the Roman Empire and
the English thinkers created the theory of the
contemporary State. If a society is consciously
modeled on the religious base by its individuals,
then an individual, having given his best abilities
to the society, receives more energy from that
society, as he is to be answered by the whole
spirituality of the society. As K. Manheim
remarked, “the advantage of spiritually rich
social model is in the fact that an individual
cannot sink below a certain level” (Manheim,
1994). At the same time, there is a danger for
an individual in the society, steadily organized
according to a certain religious model, to
assimilate that model as a habit and custom by
refusing from his own will and making empty
conventions of some social activities. Then there
appears a peculiar “degeneracy” of that form
of social integrity, some kind of “tiredness”
of the society, which demands concrete efforts
for renovation of the principles of integrity. If
such efforts are not made by social subjects,
the society’s integrity becomes unstable and
exposed to destruction.
As it’s been mentioned above, society can
and sometimes has to turn to one or another
form of cosmo-centric religions in order to
make or restore social integrity. The example of
conscious turning to such form is the adoption
of Christianity by Prince Vladimir and so-called
“the Baptism of Rus”. The same situation can be
observed in the periods of appearance of Islam in
the Arabian world or adoption of Buddhism as the
State religion in medieval Japan. Therefore, after
consideration of the way of modelling of social
integrity in some forms of socio-centric religions
(all forms are still far from being discovered),
it is necessary to explore another aspect of this
problem, that is the way of modelling of society’s
integrity in cosmo-centric religions.
The difference of the models of social
integrity based on cosmo-centric religions is
connected with different forms of religious
1. Religious experience as personal contact
with the Absolute.
The question is of mystical experience
gained by its adherents, who find the firm belief
that there is nothing more true and important
for their existence than personal contact with
the Absolute. The significance of society for
those people is that they serve as transmitters of
spiritual and religious experience to the following
generations without dependence on any concrete
and present conditions. Besides, such bearers of
religious experience reveal the sense of secluded
existence to society in contrast to the public
openness preventing from the deep spiritual life.
2. Religious experience as spiritual
communication of people inside one or another
community or group. The cementing value of
society lies in aspiration of the people with such
experience for mutual aid, true comradeship,
and group unity based on the spiritual base.
Those people believe that such relations has
absolute character (there is God in them or they
are sanctified by the gods-protectors of various
unions), and their activities are quite contrary
than those ones of mystics keeping off any forms
of the “mundane” contact.
3. Religious experience as conservation
of traditional conventions such as dedication
of churches, carrying out of certain rites,
participation in one or another kind of religious
ceremonies. The significance of this kind of
religious experience for the integrity of society is
in the fact that sometimes conservation of ritual
religiosity is much more important than adoption
of subtlest ideas and complicated religious
doctrines for in such a case a religious impulse
can be received in a certain form from outside, the
meaning of which can be envisaged and planned.
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Most probably, the social integrity does
not need in one or another form of religious
experience, but its totality is important, which
at different moments displays itself either in
personal, either in communal or in traditionally
ritual forms. Therefore, one of the most important
problems of the contemporary social organization
is the reflection over what is necessary for the
modelling of integrity of this society and which
concrete actions are to be undertaken by the social
subjects, who are at the sources of conscious
modelling of social unity.
Specificities of the philosophical way
of modelling of integrity at social being level
Having defined the content of “truth”
concept as modelling of integrity at different
levels of human being, i. e. individual, social, and
universal ones, we have considered a few forms
of that kind of modelling. While approaching to
the end of the analysis of the problem of truth in
its present forms, it is necessary to consider the
philosophical models of reflection over social
integrity as one of the ontological forms of truth.
The question is of the models of thinking based
on the social (collective) foundation.
Philosophical formulation of the problem
of social integrity takes such a form: “Is truth
available to a human personal cognition, and
if it is, then is his cognition always personal in
itself?” (Trubetzkoy, 1994) (Fig. 3). We have tried
to answer to the first part of the question in our
previous research-work. As for the second part
of the question, since the Reformation period,
the European philosophy has been accepting the
principle of personal thinking without any proves
and independently of its trends. Mysticism of the
Modern History foresaw the base of personal
thinking in the revelation, rationalism did in
the process of logical and rational thinking, and
empiricism did in experience. But still there
was another line connected with the Ancient
Fig. 3 Eugenyi Nikolaevich Trubetzkoy – Russian
philosopher (1863 - 1920)
philosophy where the individual thinking was
associated with the world elements. Thus,
Heraclites thought that a man receives the rational
source by inhaling the world fire as Logos-fire.
Those, who were far from the fire-Logos, became
insane and plunged into the world of unconscious.
Socrates saw the source of personal mind in the
universal mind as well, and Aristotle defined
the rational source as universal and catholic.
Scholastics and theologians of the Middle Ages
proceeded from the imperfection of personal
consciousness and gave priority to the conciliar
consciousness of Church but they didn’t give
meaning to the philosophical comprehension of
conciliar nature of consciousness in full measure.
The Philosophy of the Modern History based on
protestant subjectivism and priority of personal
will proclaimed the absolute autonomy of thinking
“Ego” as a separate personality but by the middle
of the 19th and especially in the 20th centuries
the European philosophy including the Russian
philosophy more often turns to consideration
of trans-subjective forms of consciousness and
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way of thinking resting upon the principle of
stipulation of the personal consciousness by the
living collective consciousness of the mankind.
That principle is fixed in different philosophical
conceptions from the mentioned concept of
inter-subjectivity in E. Gusserl’s philosophy,
the conception of conciliar consciousness in the
Russian religious philosophy and including the
concept of noosphere elaborated in the philosophy
of Teyar de Chardin and V.I. Vernandskyi.
In any case, all of the arguments of
the supporters of priority of the collective
history in the history of philosophy. There is no
doubt that the serious start of its formulation
and argument was made by K. Marx, but his
conception of social conditionality of thinking
has negative character in many respects as it is
based on criticism and disclosure of ideology of
certain strata and classes of society. The next
stage was F. Nietzhe’s philosophy of life who
deduces gnosiology from so-called instincts of
the mankind and, in this connection, he uses
categories of «aristocratic» and «democratic»
cultures understood as a certain model of thinking
consciousness of the mankind regarding personal
one can be deduced to the following: “…only
through acknowledgement of such organic
conciliarity of human consciousness we are
able to comprehend how it can generally and
necessarily cognize reality; it is only then that
we can apprehend how people psychologically
and logically understand each other and all the
things, agree with each other in rational and
positive cognition of the objective universal truth
independently of any personal consciousness. Just
then we can understand possible impeccability of
every individual mind through cognition of some
universal and indispensable truths at experience
and mathematics (and at metaphysics in some
other cases)” (Trubetzkoy, 1994).
In this connection, we shall use the concept
«model of thinking» and consider such models
of thinking, which presuppose the possibility
of realization of positive unity of society as the
most harmonious way of individual and social
existence. In this context, the concept «model of
thinking» is contently defined as the model by
which an individual is implicitly guided in every
moment while approaching to comprehension and
discovering of one or another object (including
There are such models of thinking which
can’t be adequately perceived without exposure
of their social basis. That principle has its own
depending on society. Nietzhe’s philosophy is
closely connected with Z. Freud’s explorations,
where again human thinking is considered as
concealed form of instincts.
The most serious researches of social
conditionality of models of thinking were carried
out by L. Lukach following K. Marx’s strategy
and connecting his own theory with criticism
of ideology on the whole. Then it should be
distinguished M. Scheller’s conception, where
man’s essential characteristics were deduced
from the «Realm of the Universal Man» and
the most necessary aim of the present time
is seen in «smoothing» of different (class,
cultural, and national) social logics by which
the representatives of different social groups are
guided. As for the philosophy of our country of
the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th centuries,
as it’s been mentioned in the analysis of V.S.
Solovyov’s philosophy, it is primarily based on
the principle of universal unity: that principle
means priority of social Sophia (divine wisdom)
as an ideal prototype of human creative work for
thinking processes including thinking regarding
individual thinking.
The most important step in the exploration
of the social bases of thinking was taken by
the founder of the contemporary sociology of
knowledge German philosopher K. Manheim
(Manheim, 1994). Through guiding by the
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basic conclusions of K. Manheim’s sociology of
knowledge, there can be asserted that, on the one
hand, there is no such metaphysical essence, group
spirit cognizing by sublimation over separate
individuals whose ideas an individual just
reproduces, but, on the other hand, an individual
himself just relatively makes the model of thinking
that comes from him. Individual thinking can be
conceived only in its concrete connection with
historical and social situations, that is not people
and separate individuals who think. An individual
takes part in a certain process of thinking, which
existence of intellectual act nor some number
of actions taken by the whole society or a social
group, moreover the actions is organized in such a
way that they bring to achievement of the set aim,
and each action has its own special purpose in that
process. The actions that might be characterized
as phenomena of social rationalism are usually to
be calculated and, consequently, can be controlled
and organized and also planned. Those types of
society with prevalence of inclination for social
rationalism are mainly constructed as distinct
social hierarchy for social rationalism demands a
appeared long before that individual. He “…finds
himself in an inherited situation, in a possession
of the models of thinking appropriate for the
given situation and tries to work out the inherited
models of answers or to replace them by the
others in order to react to some new challenges as
consequences of the transformation of the given
situation” (Manheim, 1994).
Individuals act together in variously
organized groups inside society. Those groups
either seek to change the surrounding reality or
to preserve it in the present form. Such strivings
bring to appearance of thinking of certain
groups of people with their own specificities.
These models of thinking are to be considered in
order to comprehend the fundamental processes
bringing to formation of society’s integrity. In
order to keep philosophical implication at the
research of the models of thinking, let us turn
to the following gradation of concepts – «social
rationalism» and «social irrationalism». Let us
discern the influence of the models of thinking on
formation of social integrity after consideration
of the contents of these concepts.
If rationalism as a style of individual
thinking can be defined as existence of a certain
intellectual act by which an individual seeks to
conceive objectively existing things and events
and one way or another achieves his aim, then
the concept «social rationalism» means neither
special kind of social personality as permanently
reflecting individual capable of abstractly thinking
and rational adaptation to the most various life
phenomena. Such individuals «refusing» simple
following the elements of life are very few. Those
are the organizers holding the summit of social
hierarchy of the society, and if the number of
social situations requiring purposeful regulation
increases, then the number of elite organizers
able to regulate, on the contrary, reduces for much
keener intellectual and organization abilities
are demanded from them. Hence, reliance on
«natural and historical processes» is not enough
for cementation of society’s integrity. There is
an increase of specialization of social traits and
denial of ability to judge of a common member
of society and transfer of that ability to elite
organizers. In this connection, social integrity
is always in danger and demands some special
efforts, that’s why it is necessary that one or
another brightly expressed form of socio-centric
religion is to appear, the specificity of which
depends on the nature of cultural time and space
of the society’s existence.
The content of the idea «social irrationalism»
also differs from the concept «individual
irrationalism». First of all, it is necessary to remark
that social irrationalism is a direct consequence of
social rationalism. The society cultivating social
rationalism sooner or later organizes itself as a
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conglomeration of various social groups taking
their definite places in the social hierarchy. A
separate individual falls under uncontrolled
influence of his unconscious inclinations inside
a big social group much easier than an individual
isolated from the mass or included in a small stable
and traditional group (in a family, for example).
Besides, social rationalism brings to the fact that
it purposefully organizing social events furthers
the supplantation and suppression of a whole
range of unconscious processes. Therefore, as a
rule, social rationalism and social irrationalism
exist together in the society raising antinomies
and crises destroying its wholeness.
But if the organizing source of social
rationalism is evidently and purposefully aimed
at social unity, then cementing role of social
irrationalism is not so obvious as that one in the
age of the Roman Empire when great efforts
were made to organize mass activities, through
which the unity of society was strengthened on
the unconscious level. The necessity of special
creation of new forms of socio-centric religions
influencing on the collective unconscious in the
situations when released irrationality threatens
the unity of society is obvious today as never.
The society correctly organized organically
forms its desires directing them to creation of
cultural values or to the simple and pure «joy of
life» not destroying its wholeness in disorder.
Those are the functions of «sports», «national
celebrations», concerts at stadia, etc.
Thus, social irrationality is a danger not in
itself but in its quality when it takes the leading
part in the social activities, which are to be
extremely rationalized. First and foremost, the
question is of the sphere of political rights and
the sphere of government of society. Though,
the situation is always extremely contradictory
here. If the sphere of government of society
outwardly and inwardly represents a correctly
organized mechanism, then, on the contrary,
there might be expected with fear that sooner or
later the supplanted irrational and unconscious
source would display itself to the even greater
degree of violence and blood the more correctly
and organized it is represented at the moment. It
is impossible not to remember the mechanistic
accuracy of mass violence in German of the
1930s and also other historical facts confirming
that theoretical supposition.
There appears a necessity to understand
if it is possible to preserve social unity just for
some time at least or society is always doomed
to calamities and ruptures, which sooner or later
will destroy both society’s wholeness and that
one of the individuals as society’s members. This
research is purely theoretical and so it is possible
to advance hypotheses about planning of stable
and integral society on condition that those
stability and integrity are to be constructed not
from outside, but from inside, i.e. with a certain
style of thinking implicit for the majority of
individuals as members of some concrete society.
Moreover, it is necessary to broaden the content
of «thinking» concept by including visual, audile,
sensory and other kinds of thinking (Zhukovskyi
et al., 1991). If it is enough to make up a theoretical
model on the theoretical stage of elaboration of
this problem, then that is not sufficient for social
practice and there appears the need in some kinds
of social actions carried out consciously and,
perhaps, systematically. The problem is not only
the government of a state and economy but also
special and conscious formation of some social
style of thinking at society’s level. Conscious
statement of one or another style of thinking
consists of planning of vision, audition, sense of
touch, sense of smell, taste and their synthesis in
integral images producing the expected impulses
both from a concrete individual and from social
groups and society on the whole. Creative but not
destroying character of these impulses producing
a certain style of thinking is determined by the
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central stem around which they get together,
videlicet by the aim for the sake of which both
individual and social actions are carried out.
The essential nature of that aim is aspiration
for something absolute and universal, videlicet
aspiration for the unity, which has different
individual and social characteristics, i.e. the form
of ego-centric and socio-centric religions.
Having defined the ontological content of
truth as wholeness of being and the content of true
being as modelling of that wholeness in individual
or social activity by an individual or society, we
have given the religious base of various concrete
forms of truth and true being through the concept
of religion as aspiration of an individual or society
for the Absolute and the unity.
The cultural and logical model
of socio-centrism of the old Russian state
of the 15th and the 16th centuries
The stages of development of the ideas
of the Old Russian socio-centrism: economic,
political and legal, and ideological factors
In the first instance, it is necessary to
explain why it is possible to consider the selected
period of the Russian State of the 15th and the 16th
centuries as an example of modelling of integrity
at social being level. Let us turn to some historical
facts in the history of the Old Russian State.
The historical facts emphasize that the process
of centralization of the Old Russian State and
formation of socio-centrism in Old Russia (Rus)
are long processes complicated with the constant
inner contradictions at State system level – that
is struggle of secular with church powers, and at
the Old Russian religiosity level – that is search
for the stronghold of the Old Russian State in
monasticism or nationality, support of heretical
doctrines (as a matter of fact that is support of
a certain aspect of the Christian doctrine) or the
Orthodox Church, and in the choice of a social
model of the State system.
Let us retrace the evolution of formation
of the centralized Old Russian State from
the historical point of view. The process of
centralization of the Old Russian State connected
with the development of Moscow started in the
16th century.
It can be considered that the starting point of
development of the centralized Old Russian State
is the 16th century when economic and political
and legal bases of socio-centric unity were
formed. In the 16th century the main political
figures in forming of the centralized state are
prince Ivan Danilovich Kalita (1325 – 1340),
who starts enlarging of the territory of Moscow
princedom by purchase of the lands around
Moscow and who also gets the right to Vladimir’s
Grand Princedom from the Golden Horde’s
khans in 1339, and metropolitan Peter (? – 1326),
who decides to transfer the metropolitan’s throne
to Moscow in 1326. Moreover, the condition
of metropolitan’s transfer was building of the
Dormition Cathedral in the Kremlin, which
metropolitan Peter chose as his burial vault.
Henceforth Moscow is selected as the place of
repose of the Old Russian metropolitans: «If you
listen to me, my son, and raise the temple of the
Most Pure Mother of God in this town, you will
be glorified more than other princes and so will be
your sons, grandsons, and all of your generations,
and this town will be celebrated among the other
Russian towns. Its enemies will be disgraced and
God will be glorified in it; the sainted hierarchs
will live, and my bones will also be laid in it»
(Metropolitan Peter’s hagiography, bishop
Prohor, 1326) (Fig. 4). The military-political and
religious struggle for independence of the Tatars
and the Golden Horde is of no less importance.
Just the 14th century is marked by the significant
victory won by the Russian army over the Tatars
in 1380. Firstly, Moscow Prince’s victory over
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Fig. 4. Icon. Mitropolitan Peter with hagiography. Dionisyi. XVI century
the Tatars fortifies the position of Moscow as
a centre uniting Russian people. Secondly, it
is interesting to note the fact that relatively
peaceful coexistence of the Old Russian princes
and khans of the Golden Horde (contractual
relations) turned into victorious struggle of the
Russian princes in that period when the Golden
Horde was planning to adopt Islam as the basic
religion, what demonstrates that the antagonism
between the Russians and the Tatars had not only
political and economic base, but also religious
The Byzantine Empire’s fall in 1453 was the
main event of the development of the centralized
Old Russian State in the 15th century, and after
that Old Russia became the only big orthodox
state in the world. Byzantium was the legislator
of religious «modus vivendi» for Old Russia
from the moment of adoption of Christianity by
Old Russia: Byzantium appointed the Russian
metropolitans and gave the archetypes of iconpainting and icon-painters. Thus, the search
for a national peculiarity is combined with
disappearance of the centre in the 15th century,
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by which Old Russia was guided in its religious
search. In many respects, that event became a
starting-point of formation of social integrity at
ideological level.
The philosophical ideas and religious
search of the 15th and the 16th centuries allow to
consider exactly this period of the history of the
Old Russian State as a period of ideological and
religious unity of the Russian people. Within the
framework of this research, it will be interesting
to turn to a study of such philosophic ideas of
the Old Russian thinkers as Joseph Volotzkyi’s
absolute monarchy conception and «Moscow is
the Third Rome» conception formulated in its
well-known form by the monk Philorey from
Elizarov monastery near Pskov in «The Epistle
to the Astrologers» for the first time (1523 or
1524). On the whole, the period of the 15th and
the 16th centuries can be comprehended as the
process of active search for a religious way and
as the process of formation of the ideological
element of the centralized state for the Russian
people. In that period different heretical
movements were developing actively (the NonPossessors and the Judaizers) and little by little
different religious tendencies began to give
such ideas that presented harmonious unity of
the Russian people with God, and Josephism
suggested the basis of the very socio-centric
religious unity.
The Old Russia’s development of the 15th
century demonstrates crystallization of the
ideology of the Old Russian socio-centrism into
standard models. The Tsar of the all Russian lands
Ivan the Terrible IV (1530 – 1584) was crowned
in 1547 presenting himself as an individual
personification of socio-centric religiosity and,
thus, possessing sacred power as the God-chosen
tsar. The second model crystallizing the principles
of the centralized Old Russian State is the Church
of the Intercession of the Holy Virgin on the Red
Square (1555 – 1561).
Thus, the evolutional formation of sociocentrism in the Old Russian State in the period
examined passes the following stages:
1. Political and legal and economic bases are
developed in the course of centralization of the
Old Russian State around Moscow and Moscow
prince, and there is an economic and political
preparation for socio-centrism of Old Russia in
the 14th and the first half of the 15th centuries.
2. The ideological, spiritual and religious
program and the basis of social unity of Old
Russia are elaborated in the second half of the
15th and at the beginning of the 16th centuries: the
ideas of God-choiceness of the absolute monarch
are developed, and Old Russia becomes the centre
of the Orthodox world.
3. In the 15th century the gained ideological
unity and socio-centrism find their embodiment in
the exemplary image of the Tsar of all Old Russia
Ivan the Terrible and in the images accentuating
the national peculiarity of Old Russia with the
Old Russian tent-shape type architecture – in
particular, the main temple of the Old Russian
State of the 16th century – the Church of the
Intercession of the Holy Virgin.
And so, within the frameworks of this
research, let us dwell on the specificity of
formation of the spiritual component of the Old
Russian State’s socio-centrism, which took its
place mainly in the 15th and the 16th centuries.
Specificities of the religious modelling
of the Old Russian State’s integrity in 15th
and the 16th centuries
This part of the research is devoted to the
answer to the question how the religious ideas
of Old Russia in the 15th and the 16th centuries
favoured the formation of the Russian religiosity
in its socio-centric aspect.
The religious situation of those centuries
was much influenced by the fact of the Byzantine
Empire’s downfall and comprehension of the idea
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Fig. 5. The Church of the Intercession of the Holy Virgin on the Red Square. Moscow. 1555 - 1561
«Moscow is the Third Rome» verbally formulated
by the monk Philorey: «Two Romes have already
fallen, but the third stands up, and the fourth is
not to be» (quote with book Malinin, 1901). Thus,
the idea of God-choiceness of the Old Russian
State for the sake of the Orthodoxy gets its form.
It calls for a fixation of the idea of Moscow as the
third Rome, i.e. the country, which, on the one
hand, inherits the Orthodoxy and, on the other
hand, distinguishes its own (third) peculiarity
of the orthodox religiosity’s existence. Hence,
an intensive search for a national peculiarity of
the Old Russian religiosity takes place in those
centuries, which is characterized by the following
phenomena of the religious life: development of
the heretical doctrines, search for the Orthodoxy’s
national peculiarities, and appearance of the
peculiar Old Russian tent-shape templar form
instead of the Byzantine cross-vaulting temple.
The process of search for the national religious
peculiarity takes its place simultaneously with
the eschatological pendency and preparations of
the Russian people for the Doomsday and the
Judgment Day.
So, let us consider the main ideas of
Old Russia’s religious life in the 15th and
the 16th centuries. This period is marked by
coexistence of a large number of heretical
doctrines, the branches of the Orthodoxy, and
that is indicative of the intensive search for an
appropriate model of religiosity for the Russian
people within the frameworks of the Christian
religion (providing harmonious relations of a
person and God). And it is necessary to remark
that the heretical movements had existed in Old
Russia since the 12th century, and only at the
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beginning of the 14th century they «came into
the world» and started to be preached by their
The development of the heretical doctrines
of this period indicates the fact of the intensive
search for the «true» religiosity, which allows to
gain harmonious unity of a person and God, and
the ideal of harmony with God is obtaining Eden
in the Christian religion. A believer traditionally
seeks to obtain Eden in his own soul, but the
aspirations for achievement of righteousness
became intensified owing to the eschatological
and it existed without realization of the national
religious peculiarity up to the 15th century.
But some specific peculiarities of the
Russian religiosity had already appeared in the
pre-Mongolian period: for instance, the religious
feast of the Veil of the Mother of God established
by Andrew Bogolubskyi (≈ Theophilantropist)
in the 12th century hadn’t been known in
Byzantium but it became wide-spread in Old
Russia. The feast’s origin is connected with a
special actuality of the ideas of God’s patronal
attitude towards the Russian land and its people,
ideas in those centuries. Indeed, 1492 was expected
to be the year of the «Second Advent», this year
was supposed to be 7000 since the creation of the
world, and the date was calculated on the basis of
studying of the texts of the New Testament. The
apocalyptic expectations firstly brought to the
process of purification of the religious principles
and, secondly, intensified the need of the national
unity before the Doomsday.
So, let us consider the existence of religious
contradictions before formation of socio-centric
and there is also a connection between the feast
and Russia’s nature finding materialization of
the idea of the Veil of the Mother of God in
snow. The feast of the Veil of the Mother of God
kept its significant importance for Moscow state,
which is testified by the building of the main
Moscow temple on the Red Square dedicated to
the feast of the Veil of the Mother of God in the
16th century. The feast’s actuality is explained
by the fact that, as stated above, it’s the primal
Orthodox Russian feast, which accentuates the
national peculiarity of Old Russia, and that the
Veil of the Mother of God is an evidence of the
future Holy Virgin’s intercession for the Russian
people in the face of Christ on the Doomsday,
and that is also an evidence of her permanent
specificity in the period of Vladimir-and-Suzdal
princedom’s dominance over the others became
the relations of a person and God according to
the model of «devotion of a person to God in
fear and trepidation», which is connected with
the actuality of King David’s Psalter where «fear
and trepidation» in front of God is an inalienable
trait of a Christian. The development of the Old
Russia’s religion of the posterior periods always
had this aspect of fear in relations of a person
and God and was realized in the relation of the
Russian people and their tsar.
The heretical ideas of the 15th
and the 16th centuries as the models
of alternative development
of the Old Russian socio-centrism
Old Russia’s religious life of the 15th and
the 16th centuries in its contradictoriness to a
certain extent can be compared with the religious
searches of the first ecumenical councils when
only the Christian conciliar view could determine
which conception of the Christian religion was
the only true one. And just the conciliar faith of
the participants of the first ecumenical councils
favoured adoption of the dogma of the Godhead’s
Trinity, acknowledgement of Christ’s divine
nature, establishment of the monastic life’s rules,
etc. Such a kind of the Orthodox religion had
existed in Byzantium, was adopted by Old Russia,
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The ideas of obtainment of the national
religious peculiarity became especially actual in
the 15th century. How was the process of search
for the national peculiarity proceeding? In the
first instance, the Old Russian heretical doctrines
of the 15th century had a possibility of revealing
themselves and suggesting their own conception
of comprehension of the Orthodoxy. On the
whole, the heretical doctrines of the 15th century
can be considered not merely as deviations
from the Orthodox religion breaking the Divine
commandments but also as some special ways
who looked for the rational comprehension of
religious phenomena, and where the doctrine of
the «Strigolniks» had been developed with its
main aim – direct communication with God out
of church and religious rites and under the open
sky. The Judaizers also sought after the rational
comprehension of the Divine law, and the New
Testament full of symbols and demanding
sensible perception of divinity didn’t satisfy the
requirement, but the rational scheme of contact
of a person with God was suggested in the Old
Testament (human sin is a punishment from God,
of the Russian people’s comprehension of the
Orthodox religiosity.
The heresy of the Judaizers became widespread at the end of the 15th century. The heretical
doctrine originated in the circle of Novgorod
merchants preached the following to Mosaic
laws, i.e. the Old Testament, by rejection of the
laws of the New Testament for the following
reasons: the heretics refuted the doctrine of the
Trinity and Jesus Christ’s divine nature. Besides,
the Judaizers repudiated monasticism as an organ
of Christian religious society for the Bible says
nothing of monastic practice and monasticism
had been established by the church fathers, i.e.
by men. It is quite interesting to consider the
heresy of Novgorod merchants from the positive
point of view in the context of the ideas that the
doctrines intentionally repudiated by the official
culture were those vital forces which mainly
formed the epoch’s world outlook. Let us remark
that the information on the heretical outlook is
rather scanty and can be practically gathered
only according to the officially maintained
refutations, for instance, Joseph Volotzkyi’s
legend «Enlightener», and that does not allow
to understand those people who shared the
Judaizers’ ideas in full measure. We can draw
the following conclusions taking into account the
fact that the heresy of the Judaizers was formed
in the circle of freedom-loving Novgorod people,
a person’s good deed is a praise and reward from
God, etc.). Besides, the Old Testament suggested
direct contact of a person with God: there are
God, a man, and Moses prophet to whom God
declares His law. Thus, the heretical doctrine of
the Judaizers supposed discovery of the rational
base and clear and simple directions the following
which would completely correspond to God’s
demands from a human being and allow to see
a clear religious model of contact of God with a
person in the Christian religion.
The heresy of the Judaizers was so strong
at the time that in a certain moment there was
a possibility of its official spreading for Moscow
metropolitan Zosima was a representative of the
Judaizers, and the heresy was also supported by
the members of the princely family. That process
was mainly prevented by the anti-heretical
struggle of Joseph Volotzkyi whose efforts
promoted the passage of the decree of heretics’
capital punishment at Moscow council in 1504
(Fig. 6). Apart from Joseph Volotzkyi’s struggle
against the Judaizers, it is to be remarked that this
branch of the Christian religion would never be
officially supported. It would be rather strange
if the Orthodox state, the Orthodox religion’s
stronghold and the «Third Rome» adopted Mosaic
laws as a base – it would bring to repudiation of
the ideas of the Third Empire and violation of
the traditional development of the Old Russian
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Fig. 6. The Icon Crucifixion. Dionisyi. 1500. The episode with expatriation of Judaizers by ortodox church
religiosity. It is interesting to remark that the
early Christianity’s decree of acknowledgement
of Arianism (that also denied Jesus Christ’s
divine nature) as a heresy was also adopted in the
decree of the council, which points to the process
of formation of a new religion in its own way in
the 15th and the 16th centuries.
The Judaizers didn’t recognize churchdom,
hierarchy, seizure of lands by the church, and
«bribes». We can tell that the religious ideas of
the epoch are characterized with negation of
religious status of monastery and monasticism
as a whole. If monasticism was the stronghold of
the Old Russian religiosity up to the 15th century
(only monks provided people with spiritual
defence through their prayers while cloisters as
fortresses were physical defence of towns against
attacks), then by the 15th and the 16th centuries
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monastery lost its defensive power and ceded its
care of people’s physical and spiritual welfare to
the God-chosen sovereign, which will be spoken
of later.
The problem of religious unity of the
nation in the light of apocalyptical ideas should
be considered in detail. The «Revelation» text
of Saint John the Divine tells about nations’
presence before Christ on the Doomsday, not of
an individual: «Who shall not fear Thee, O Lord,
and glorify Thy name? for Thou only art holy:
for all nations shall come and worship before
that the monks should pray and defend people,
and it gave birth to anticlerical attitudes of the
contra-cultural tendencies. We can assume that in
spite of the fact that the expected «end of history»
didn’t happen, the God-chosen head of the state
took upon him the right of «divine» judgement
on earth. For instance, «Judgment-book» edited
in 1497 can be considered as the most important
legal document of the time of Ivan III, and during
the ruling of Ivan the Terrible IV the ideas of
God’s punishment’s embodiment in the earthly
existence found their realization in the events of
Thee; for Thy judgments are made manifest» (the
Revelation of Saint John the Divine – 5:4). Thus,
in the 15th and the 16th centuries there appears the
necessity of national unity for presence before
God on the Doomsday. It should be also noted that
while Old Russia turned to be the last Orthodox
state, the Russian people realized themselves as
God’s nation chosen by God not only to save the
true Orthodoxy, but, perhaps, also to become
God’s righteous people who are to be in Eden.
The idea of God-choiceness of the Russian
people is affirmed with the fact that the Orthodox
feast of the Holy Trinity was established in the
Old Russian State only in the 15th century when
Sergey Radonezhskyi was alive, but not at the
time of the Baptism of Rus. That can be explained
by the event of Epiphany of the Holy Trinity to
Abraham and Sarah in the Old Testament that
revealed them that the chosen people of Israel
would descend from them.
The epoch’s eschatological feelings directly
influenced on the process of development of the
Old Russian religiosity in its socio-centric aspect.
Until 1492 the Old Russian people had been waiting
for God’s punishment for their sins and they were
really frightened of the future justice. The mood
of the Judaizers and the Non-Possessors came to
light because of the eschatological feelings of the
people who on the threshold of the Doomsday
gave their lands and property to monasteries so
the oprichnina’s period.
Thus, the main specificity of the Old
Russian State’s religious life in the 15th and the
16th centuries is an aspiration for finding of the
national religious peculiarity: the territorial
unity with Moscow as a centre had already been
formed but it wasn’t enough for the national
identification. The epoch’s religious life has an
effect on the process of formation of the Russian
character and to understand so called Russian
national mentality means to turn back to this
period. Such aspects of the Orthodox religion are
actualized at that time:
A) the idea of God’s patronage to the Russian
B) in spite of God’s patronage to the
Russian people, permanent realization of one’s
own sins became the most important thing and,
as a consequence, permanent expectation of
God’s punishment. In those centuries it could be
explained by the approaching end of the world and
attitude to the mundane existence as something
fatally sinful. Thus, there is to be formed an
idea of great culpability of a human being who
is always waiting for the punishment for his sins
in fear;
C) as a result, the trial presence of a person
and nation as a whole in the face of God can be
conceived as the exemplary model of relations of
God and a person.
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Joseph Volotzkyi’s religious
and philosophical conception
of the absolute monarchy
Two religious and philosophical doctrines
were formed in Old Russia in the 15th and the 16th
centuries. The first one is Josephism suggested
by Joseph Volotzkyi (1440 – 1505) and the other
– the Non-Possessors’ movement formulated by
Nilus of Sora (1433 – 1508). The Non-Possessors’
movement of Nilus of Sora developed Byzantine
doctrine of hesychasm that supposed separation of
the church from the state and leaving the mundane
affairs, for Church was understood as an institute
primarily established not for the possession of
physical power but for the care of the spiritual side
of a human life. But this tendency wasn’t widespread in those centuries. It is explained by the
fact that the Hesychastic conception developed by
Nilus of Sora supposes an individual contact of a
person with God and a choice of an individual
religious way while the conciliar (soboral) way of
religious communication of a human being with
God worked out by Joseph Volotzkyi was more
actual for Old Russia of those centuries.
Joseph Volotzkyi’s (Fig. 7) conception was
developed from the idea of tsar’s limited power
over people in their mundane existence: «The
tsars must be served with fear and trepidation
as men having taken power from God and who
are able to torture and be benefactors to people
with their bodies, but not with their souls, and
give them tsar’s honours, but not those ones of
God» (quote with book Zamalyaev, 1987). As for
the idea of the absolute tsar’s power, it is to take
care of souls and bodies of its subjects. According
to Volotzkyi, the physical care of the subjects
means physical defence against foreign enemies
and injustice, and the spiritual care includes
deliverance from heretical discords inside the
Orthodox doctrine. Monk Volotzkyi is one of the
first Old Russian thinkers who developed the idea
of the absolute tsar’s power given by God. God-
choiceness of the Old Russian tsar is a traditional
idea of the Orthodox Christianity: firstly, the
Byzantine Empire had been ruled by the Godchosen emperors whose one of the main aims was
intercession and sacrificial presence before Christ
for all their people; secondly, there was formed an
idea of Russian princes’ resemblance to the Bible
kings in the period of domination of Vladimir
Princedom – for example, Andrew Bogolubskyi’s
ruling was compared with King David’s reign.
Joseph’s Volotzkyi’s book «The Enlightener»
became a handbook of tsar Ivan IV the
Terrible (1530 – 1584) who was the exemplary
personification of unification of secular (mundane)
and church (divine) powers. Tsar Ivan the Terrible
(Fig. 8) took the part of the absolute centre to
provide social unity for the Old Russian State.
Socio-centric religiosity
of the Old Russian State of the 15th
and the 16th centuries
The ideological centralization of the Old
Russian people took place in the situation of
solution of the most difficult contradictions. The
processes of centralization of the Old Russian
State, national identification of the Russian
people, search for an independent religious way as
the «Third Rome», and national unity before the
«end of the world» predetermined the formation
of the Old Russian religiosity as socio-centric and
national unity. The process of the most difficult
choice of the form of existence of the Old Russian
socio-centrism was proceeding in the 15th and the
16th centuries.
The contradictions of the religious situation
were reflected in a choice of one of the ways of
future development of the Orthodoxy in the
Russian state. On the one hand, the heretical
points of view suggested the direct unity of God
and the God-chosen nation, which proceeded
with keeping to the commandments given to
Moses’ people by God. On the other hand, there
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Fig. 7. Icon. Saint Iosif Volotzkyi (1439 - 1515)
was formulated the theory of mediatory unity of
the nation and God where the God-chosen tsar
was the main mediator and representative of the
Russian people in the face of God. Monasticism
and church lost the possibility of realization
of their mediation between people and God at
that period as in reality they stopped keeping
the Orthodox religiosity in its purity. There
was a reason for necessity of toughening of the
monastic regulations and keeping the church
away from interfering in the mundane affairs as
that participation hardly showed the connection
of the clergy with religious spiritual life. The
decree of Moscow council of 1504 supporting the
ideas of Josephism and passing the resolution of
capital punishment of the heretics determined the
choice of the Old Russian socio-centric religiosity
– that was the choice of a model of relations of the
nation and God through the mediation of the tsar’s
personage. The Russian tsar took upon himself
personal responsibility for the Russian people’s
Orthodox purity in the face of God. The choice of
that model was carried out not only in the way of
peaceful conciliar adoption of a common decision
of what kind of the Orthodoxy would exist in
the Old Russian land but that was also a way of
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savage reprisal with the heterodox people – the
heretics’ executions and annihilation of the whole
dissenting and disobedient towns (for example,
the bloody reprisal with Novgorod people among
whom the heretical doctrines had appeared).
We can suppose that the State’s bloody cruelty
didn’t bring to active opposition and hatred of
the people not only because of fear in the face
of violence but as the result of the expectation of
bloody executions before the «end of the world»
in 1492, and, as a consequence, were received as
the mankind’s just punishment.
The social unity of the Old Russian State
of the 15th and the 16th centuries consisted of
the process of national unity demanded by the
image of God contemporary to the epoch. The
image of God is a judge asking for the answer
to the nation’s deeds, not those ones of a single
person on the Doomsday in order they could
enter the Eden and the Jerusalem of Above; that
is also the image of God Who demands resigned
corporal and spiritual service of many people to
the only God. The national unity was forming in
the process of search for the God’s defence and
patronage in the spiritual and mundane affairs
and in the process of renewal of the ideas of the
Orthodox religiosity. Moreover, the Old Russian
socio-centric model presupposed the God-chosen
tsar as the absolute mediator between people and
God who could bring to his people the Divine Law
and Word in his orders (those are the laws of the
Holy Scripture which were the orientation of Ivan
the Terrible in legislation and all domestic affairs
and meditations) and who could pass people’s
expectations to God, defended them and satisfied
all their needs. The architecture of the Church
of the Intercession of the Holy Virgin on the
Red Square can be considered as the exemplary
image visually fixed that model of socio-centric
Thus, the situation of the 15th and the
16th centuries was a real process of modelling
Fig. 8. Parsuna. Tsar Ioann Vasilievich the Terrible.
XVII century
of socio-centric religious system in the Old
Russian State. There was a quite natural process
of the Russian people’s self-identification and
realization of their own peculiarity comparing
with the other nations (in particular, the Tatars
and Mongols, the Greeks) and peculiarity of
their home Orthodoxy in its difference wth the
Byzantine Orthodox, and, thus, the Russian
people find their whole idea of themselves. At
the same time, the process of sacrification of
the tsar’s personage takes place when the tsar
obtains a function of a mediator between his
people and God. The process of sacrification
of the Old Russian tsar’s personage is a heavy
and more unnatural process. There can be given
the following arguments as the proof of that
unnatural process of the tsar’s sacrification:
-- it contradicts the conciliar nature of the
-- it is at variance with the communal way
of life in Old Russia;
-- it contradicts the Slav sources for the
Slavs had lived the communal way of life
long before the conquerors arrived;
-- it also contradicts the Bible where the tsar
is not acceptable in the sight of God (God
hardly agrees to give the Israelites their
king in the Old Testament).
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Consequently, the tsar was always demanded
to give proves of his God-choiceness, affirmation
of his rights and mediation between his people
and God, and that gave the character of cruelty
and bloodiness while formation of the sociocentrism in Old Russia in the 15th and the 16th
In that way the specificities of the modeling
of the harmonious relationship between human
and Absolute at social being level are consisted in
processes. On the one hand it is the repression
by orthodox Russian church of the religious
opposition – the heresies Judaizers and NonPossessor’s – “alive” religious ideas. On the other
hand it is the creation of the official religious
doctrine with the central idea of the absolutely
monarchy – Josephism.
6) In the result it is possible to choose the
following factors as the components of the social
integrity of the Old Russia state. The first factor
is the process of national self-identification of
Russian nationality as the unique orthodox nation
the following theses:
1) The social integrity is allowed to reach
harmonious relationship between a person and
Absolute for every person of society provided the
observance the law of this society by human.
2) The social integrity is formed on conditions
of integrity of three factors: economical common
weal, political and legal basis of social integrity
and ideological basis for it.
3) The ideological basis of social integrity
could be modelling in religious and philosophic
4) The historical example of the modelling
of social integrity could be found in the history
of the 15th and 16th centuries in the Old Russia.
The process of social integrity’s modelling in
this period is characterized by the territorial
centralization the Russian lands around Moscow,
by the growing of economical common weal,
by making of unified political and lawful basis
(«Judgment-book» edited in 1497), by the
formation of ideological basis for integrity of the
Old Russia state.
5) The ideological basis of social integrity
of the Old Russia state is formed by two main
in the world after the end of the Byzantine Empire.
The second factor is the fact of the sacrification
of Russian ruler. The Byzantium example of the
sacrification of the ruler was adopted by Russia
in this period. And it was not an evolution way
of development for Russia, because before the
Russian ruler has the role of invitee person for
the protection of Russian land. The third factor is
the concept of the absolutely monarchy, which is
cultivated in the period of the end of 15th century.
The concept of absolutely monarchy means that
the ruler, the tsar has the power not only over
the physical human existence, but also over the
spiritual human existence.
7) The socio-centrism of Moscow Russia in
such way is based on the necessity of the strict
obedience of every person of the society to the
power of the tsar. And the tsar in his turn is
responsible for righteous of every person of the
society to the God. The punishment for the sins in
such situation is included in the tsar’s power. And
the result of it is the specific of the Old Russian’s
socio-centrism based on the cruelty and severity
of the tsar’s power, where the tsar is the mediator
between a person and the God.
A. Kazharov, “The role of socio-political Byzantium doctrines in the development of state’s
conceptions of Moscow Russia”, in the thesis of candidate’s of political science, (Moscow, 2006),
in Russian.
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2. D. Krapchunov, “The Russian heresies as the phenomena of cultural breaking on the border of
XV-XVI ages”, in the author’s abstract of candidate’s philosophic science thesis, (Novgorod,
2004), in Russian.
3. D. Pivovarov, “Religion”, in Contemporary philosophic dictionary, ed. by V.E. Kemerov (London,
Frankfurt on Main, Paris, Luxembourg, Moscow, Minsk: Panprint, 1998), 195, in Russian.
4. E. Suvorina, “The idea of statehood in Russian classical culture”, in candidate’s of science thesis
of philosophic science, (Tambov, 2004), in Russian.
5. Filorey, “The epistle to the Astrologers”, in “Old monk Filorey of Eleazarov cloister and his
epistles”, ed. by A.N. Malinin (Kiev, 1901), 383, in Russian.
6. G.V.F. Hegel, “The lectures on philosophy of history”, (Sank-Petersburg.: Science, 1993), 102, in
7. I. Volotzkyi, “The Enlightener”, (, in Russian.
8. I. Volotzkyi, “The word with blame of heretics”, in “Monuments of Ancient Russian literature (the
end of the 15th – the beginning of 16th centuries)”, (Moscow: Fiction, 1984), in Russian.
9. I. Volotzkyi, in “Philosophic ideas in mediaeval Russia”, A.F.Zamaliaev, (Leningrad: Science,
1987), in Russian.
10. K. Manheim, “The diagnosis of our time”, (Moscow: Lawer, 1994), 9. 528, in Russian.
11. P. Novgorodcev, “About social ideal”, (Moscow: Pressa, 1991), 572, in Russian.
12. Prokhor bishop, “Metropolitan Peter’s hagiography”, (
petrmetpar.doc), in Russian.
13. Psalm-book, (Moscow: Gift, 2006), in Russian.
14. R. Aslanov, “Formation of the authority’s vertical in Russia: historical-lawful analysis”, in the
thesis of candidate’s law science, (Moscow, 2005), in Russian.
15. R. Steiner, “The substance of social problem of vital necessities in present and future”, (Caluga:
Spiritual perception, 1992), in Russian.
16. Revelation of Saint Joann the Divine, “New Testament”, (
menu=29), chapter 15, in Russian.
17. S. Trubetzkoy, “Writings”, (Moscow, Thought, 1994), 492, 495, in Russian.
18. U. Bulichev, “The problem of cultural-historical uniqueness of Russia as the subject of philosophical
research”, in doctor’s thesis of philosophic science, (Sank-Petersburg, 2005), in Russian.
19. V. Kalashnikov, “The subjective factors and objective conditions of stable society’s development:
on the sources of Byzantium and the Ancient Russia”, in the thesis of doctor’s philosophic science,
(Krasnoyarsk, 2003), in Russian.
20. V. Zhukovskyi, “The Ancient Russian art”, (Krasnoyarsk, 2007), in Russian.
21. V. Zhukovskyi, “Visual substance”, Zhukovskyi V.I., Pivovarov D.V., (Sverdlovsk, 1991), in
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2009 2) 56-66
УДК 130.3
Nature of Belief and Role of Belief
in Statements Producing Process
Nina V. Malchukova
Irkutsk State University,
1 Karl Marx st., Irkutsk, 664003 Russia 1
Received 24.02.2009, received in revised form 03.03.2009, accepted 10.03.2009
Belief is considered as a complex phenomenon of super subject-realization nature. This consideration
is based on the combination of philosophical-anthropological approach and semiotic approach.
Differences between personal belief and religious, confessional belief are revealed. Functions of belief
in statements producing process are determined.
Keywords: belief, subject-realization, personal belief, religious, confessional belief, statements
producing process.
Beginning from the 1970’s in philosophy
of language influential concepts emphasizing
essential meaning of belief in linguistic
activity of the subject started to appear (Fodor,
1983; Searle, 1975, 1983). These concepts are
subjected to the thorough criticism (Petrov,
1987, 1990; Lectorskiy, 2006) which fairly
reproduces their important defects, ambiguities
and basic insufficiency in the interpretation of
statements producing process within the frames
of a natural language (For example, in Searle’s
theory of intentionality statements producing
process is explained as initiated by a condition
of conviction, desirability and sensation. But to
speak about desires, sensations and furthermore,
about belief and intentions with reference to the
person considering them as something essentially
extralanguage it is inadmissible. And if it’s so
then in Searle’s case the language behavior is
explained as caused by conscious-language
factors and conditions. But then in order to avoid
the tautology additional analysis of the linguistic
status of these conditions and mechanisms of
their interrelation with concrete speech acts
is necessary). At the same time knowledge of
essence of belief positive functions in language
realization of the subject still remains incomplete.
Thus in this article problems of the nature and the
influence of phenomenon of belief (Analyzing
phenomenon of belief it’s necessary to give its
preliminary definition: belief is understood here
as a mental act, condition or habit of placing trust
or confidence in a person, idea or thing. Such
definition implies both belief which rest to some
extent on proof or material evidence (though
they cannot be rigorous or immediately given)
and belief which doesn’t rest on them at least
distinctly. In the latter case belief can reveal itself
as a religious belief (belief in God), that is faith,
Corresponding author E-mail address:
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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which is particular belief state. Such approach
to definition of belief gives an opportunity to
understand that non-religious belief and religious
belief with all the differences between them have
the same nature) on linguistic activity of the
subject are considered.
Belief represents an original and besides
a syncretic component of a subjective reality,
because it incorporates elements of different
gnoseological and psychological nature: rationalconceptual structures, emotionally-sensual and
strong-willed states. Moreover, belief which is
paradoxical enough is some special knowledge,
namely the knowledge that substitutes ignorance
and accepted as necessary transition or synthesis
to that knowledge which should be intersubjective,
i.e. to that knowledge which should be presented
in demonstrative, obligatory forms. The
knowledge in the latter case appears as actual
knowledge, i.e. as a result of informative display
of real events and processes, a result presented
in the form of the cause-and-effect statements
(laws) empirically checked up and confirmed.
In contradistinction to it, belief knowledge as a
belief component has other content – presumable
and not-realizable. However, in its form belief
knowledge is still the knowledge, which is
represented as a connection of abstract concepts.
Here there is a true possibility to oppose
knowledge and belief to each other, though, of
course, this opposition cannot be absolute. After
all the presumable knowledge can be confirmed
subsequently, and on the other hand the system
of the proved knowledge usually contains fictions
and conventions (see, in particular, Dubrovskiy,
2002, p. 84-310). At the same time it is clear that
belief and knowledge cannot be identified. Belief
as it was already mentioned is a complex mental
condition of a subject (individual or collective
one) since in this condition emotionally-sensual,
intuitive, unconscious and rational components
of a subjective reality are specially synthesized
and in this synthesis the first three components
seriously overweight the rational one1.
Thus, despite certain rational “insufficiency”
in its structure, belief acts as utmost (not as
some private) spiritual metaattitude “entitling”
the person in all of his/her activity. In this case
ontological and gnoseological analyses of belief
appear to be insufficient and they are fairly
supplemented by praxeological and axiological
analyses of belief (see Dubrovskiy, 2002). From
positions of the philosophical-anthropological
approach synthesizing these four kinds of the
analysis of belief, in its unity with the semiotic
approach we’ll try to explain genesis of belief, to
reproduce some important belief characteristics
and also to determine functions of belief in
statements producing process.
Genesis of belief
and essential characteristics of belief
According to psychological, philosophical
and linguistic data, the transition from merely
sensory ways of the information processing by
living systems to primitive languages of rational
reproduction of the reality was connected with
appearance of a verb, and consequently with
comprehension of an agent (subject) (Meillet,
2002) who, on conditions of practice, was the
human being himself. As a result a specific
linguistic and intellectual attitude of basic
subject-realization appeared. In the field of
intellectuality, subject-realization revealed itself
in understanding that a subject is the one who
produces an action. And in the field of language,
subject-realization revealed itself in appearance
of precisely expressed subject and predicate in
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Thus knowledge as a component of belief is a so-called
tacit knowledge (see Polanyi, 1985). And in the case of
religious belief tacit knowledge has phantomlike, mystical character. So if in the frame of non-religious belief
tacit knowledge can turn to explicit, proved knowledge
in the process of cognition, then in the frame of religious
belief such turning at least by means of ordinary logic as
it will be shown further looks in principle impossible.
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initially united words-sentences. This grammar
and logic separation was the evidence of new
form of calculus mechanisms 2 that are in the
base of evolutionary improvement of language. It
proves, first, that ancestors of the modern human
being had already a variety of language means
of information reception and processing (sensory
language and verbal language), and, second,
that a specific linguistic-intellectual attitude
of super subject-realization had been formed.
Namely translanguage character of connections
(relationships) between these language systems
has caused the appearance of super subjectrealization that is the appearance of specific
mental metaattitude. It means that there is
intellectual and sensual state of the subject and
this state somehow “is built on” above his/her
states and actions as a certain independent carrier
of an action or an idea. At first super subjectrealization reveals itself in passive constructions
and also in designing an illusory subject. All this
finally has entailed the formation of mythological
and religious sign-symbolical systems and
languages. According to K. Uhlenbek, North
American Indian considers himself/herself not
as an independent producer of an action, but as
Calculus mechanisms here are understood as such way
of the reality representation when to its objects and
phenomena material configurations/signs (neural connections, sounds, letters, words, figures, etc.) are put in
conformity; and then according to accepted in system (in
the central nervous system, in system of verbal language
etc.) rules (conclusion rules) the operations which are
necessary for the decision of a concrete tasks are made
with them. It is obvious that for living systems including
human being maximally generalized immediate task is
the task of survival which in the evolution process of the
person and a human society gets the certain specification. As to the conclusion rules which are the important
characteristic of calculus mechanisms it is necessary to
notice that they are not limited in this case to rules of
formal logic. Thus calculus mechanisms appear to be
plurality of logic principles and their supplementation.
Concept of calculation if to treat it widely, i.e. not to
identify it exclusively with numerical and formal-logic
operations can be considered as a synonym of calculus
mechanisms and at the same time can designate concrete
cases of their display (including numerical and formallogic operations).
an executor of it, as the one who causes it. The
Indian’s way of speech should reflect this his/her
outlook (Meshchaninov, 1975).
Taking it into account, it is necessary to
specify the status of such illusory “agent”, i.e.
of subject. In the Homer’s poems one can find
an expression “Zeus is raining” instead of “it’s
raining” (Meillet, 2002). On this occasion N.
Marr wrote that all so-called impersonal verbs –
Russian “меня лихорадит”, French “il pleut”,
German “es regnat” – in fact are personal because
the subject here should be understood as a totem
(Marr, 1933-1937, p. 91-92)3. Illusory (irreal)
subject in the form of mythological personification
or in the forms of impersonal verbs, despite of
its archaism, can be considered as an evidence
of significant cogitative reorganizations, namely
both mystic-mythological and “impersonal”
perception of the subject of action meant a
movement of consciousness on a way of the
increasing generalization and abstraction. In
this case the subject is understood not simply
as a concrete person, whose borders and space
are quite definite (which usual (personal)
verbs characterized by), but as “a universal
subject” – the carrier of unlimited forces and an
arbitrariness. Such understanding of the subject,
undoubtedly, occurred with the participation of
sensory-emotional states of an ancient human
being which meant an interaction of rational and
sensual code structures, and the result of that was
the initial formation of super subject-realization.
Subsequently these archaic forms of super
subject-realization disappeared or were replaced.
However the mechanism of their generation
turned out to be effective and productive and led,
in particular, to the appearance of such complex
form of super subject-realization as belief.
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The fact that there is a semantic subject in so-called
impersonal sentences is proved also by contemporary
linguistic investigations (Zolotova, 1982; Pavlov, 1992;
Tarlanov, 1998).
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Before turning strictly to the belief
characteristics analysis it’s necessary to
emphasize that super subject-realization cannot
be understood as a certain intellectual-linguistic
phenomenon which is placed out of individual
subject. Super subject-realization is an intrasubject
property, though it has social origin and socially
articulated functioning. Certainly, there are
rather distinct philosophical traditions (for
example transcendentalism of German classical
philosophy, psychoanalysis etc.), which consider
super subject-realization to be independent from
the subject. But some of them mystify super
subject-realization (transcendentalism); others
emphasize suppressing influence of external
depersonalized super subject-realization on
the person (psychoanalysis). It’s true that these
traditions, each one in its own way, confirm the
linguistic-intellectual nature of super subjectrealization formation, but understanding of
super subject-realization proved in this article is
more universal and natural. This understanding
definitely confirms that every normally developed
subject has an ability to be a carrier of super
subject-realization and this last one is his/her
linguistic-intellectual property and a condition
which along with other mental components
carries out an active function in generation of
statements, especially significant statements.
These significant statements are those which
express constructive-reconstructive, i.e. creative
possibilities of the subject.
Super subject-realization is carried out by the
subject both in a mode of intellectual-strong-willed
management, and in a mode of “autonomous”
work of his/her central nervous system, when a
subject is relaxing but at the same time he/she is in
the state of an intellectual problem solution. But
in both cases super subject-realization represents
the utmost level of linguistic-intellectual freedom
of the subject, and it’s remarkable that in the latter
“not strong-willed” case super subject-realization
can be perceived as an «unexpected finding». At
the same time situations of such freedom testify
information management and self-management
in the sphere of intellectual activity of the
subject. In “an autonomous” mode – situations
of insight, intuitions, inspiration – super subjectrealization can provide the maximum creative
effect, though, it’s clear that such effect does not
always necessarily take place.
Belief has a super subject-realization status
because an agent in it starts to be realized as a
certain subject who transforms the real subject –
the carrier of even not thorough developed abstract
thinking – into the object of his will and reason.
Such result in its very beginning was caused by
a new form of calculus mechanisms, the basis
of which was an interaction of languages of
different types. In the state of developed abstract
thinking a subject has even more rich typology
of languages and developed code organization of
brain work which corresponds to them. All this
is the basis of formation of belief as the syncretic
spiritual metaformation defining all kinds of
realized mental activity and real acts of a subject.
In this connection it is necessary to specify the
well-known statement of M. Polanyi according
to which one should acknowledge again, that the
belief is a source of knowledge (Polanyi, 1985,
p. 277). The fact is that this statement puts at
once such question as what the source of belief
is. One should answer this question the following
way: initially belief as a specific component of
a subjective reality is a result of development of
cognitive structures and functions of the highest
nervous activity of a human being, that is a result
of dissipation of the language-symbolical means,
of formation of new calculus opportunities
within the frames of these means, and then it
is a result of their additional complication and
enrichment. Thus source of belief attitude are
those information invariants which are presented
by code interactions (calculations) of the highest
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nervous activity. It means that phylogenetically
cognitive processes are the base, the source of
belief attitude. So it is possible to assume that at
the initial stages of its formation in phylogenesis
of a person belief attitude revealed itself as “the
silent statement”, “silent consent”, “silent belief”.
There are two reasons that make such assumption
possible, first, animals with developed mentality
already have such form of belief, and, second,
such form of belief is a deep basis of realized
forms of belief which are only homo sapiens
has. “Silent belief”, operating not obviously, but
intuitively or retrospectively, acts at the level of
highly developed animals and the human being
as the fundamental factor of biological selforganization providing a survival of a living
being (Dubrovskiy, 2002, p. 303-304).
Ontogenetically belief attitude arises in the
process of overcoming of problematical character
and insufficiency of available knowledge. Belief
in this case acts as some sort of gangway from
available knowledge to possible new knowledge.
On the one hand such gangway is available in
“stock”, and on the other, it’s completed whenever
it’s necessary, and the completion material is
again some “cognitive content” having “obvious
or not obvious propositional structure”. In
this respect D. Dubrovskiy referring to J.
Margolis (Margolis, 1986) fairly considers that
propositional structure can exist irrespectively
of whether it’s expressed in language or not,
and the researcher reasonably adds that most
likely it is fair with respect to those subjective
states of “not verbal ideas (thinking)” which are
peculiar to the person possessing the developed
language competence (Dubrovskiy, 2002, p.
290). Thus belief being understood here as “an
act of acceptance of defined cognitive content”
(Dubrovskiy, 2002, p. 294), is based on some
knowledge, is expressed in many respects as a
knowledge, and only then belief can serve as a
factor of knowledge augment.
Belief reveals itself as a high level of a
coordination of spiritually-mental structures of the
subject, which help the subject to take an effective
decision in a difficult situation (it represents his
original existential basis). And this coordination,
being not completely realizable for the subject
(and in this sense being “ignorant knowledge”),
is formed and continued by behavioral successes,
when some sort of cause and effect connection
appeared, and in this connection a causal
part remains out of full explanation. These
characteristics of belief show its significance as a
value, because in a productive part of its evolution
belief carries out the interconnected functions
of an element of personal management and selfmanagement, of a stimulator of steady initiative
and creative behavior and also of internal spiritual
mediator of person integrity.
In the further realizations (for different
reasons) belief can undergo various transformations.
First, it can be a monotonously-obligatory state.
Though in this case belief will continue to carry
out integrating function, it will do so basically in
inertial-conservative mode that means a crisis of
belief and an appearance of doubt. Second, for this
reason (disability of belief to keep and develop
initiative-creative potential of a person) serious
change of belief can take place.
Thus, if belief assumes knowledge and
knowledge contains belief components, so
noted discredit of available belief assumes the
ascertainment of a role of doubt in the process of
belief discredit. We will concern here neither the
importance of historical-philosophical tradition
in the analysis of a category of doubt, nor the
detailed reproduction of positive modern results
of such analysis. Suffice it to be guided by some
characteristics summarizing both lines of the
analysis of doubt.
It is clear that the doubt is essentially
important both for cognitive process and for
states of belief. Thus the greater degree of doubt
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in knowledge and belief a subject possesses, the
smaller becomes a degree of strength of his/her
knowledge and belief. However as it is impossible
to imagine that a level of belief and knowledge
is equal to zero, so, obviously, (this again can be
perceived as a paradox) a level of doubt never
happens to be equal to zero. Liquidation of distrust
factuality, as well as liquidation of intellectual
significance of doubt, means liquidation of belief
and knowledge. In the process of affirmation of
successful knowledge everything that contradicts
to it is eliminated by means of doubt and, besides,
by means of doubt the vulnerable moments in a
positive part of knowledge are withdrawn. The
same things happen with usual (personal, civil)
belief. And in the case of doubt removal both
knowledge and belief pass into a dogmatism and
blindness zone. However the maximum, total
measure of doubt completely disarms the person
in cognition and behavior, depriving him/her of
any positive reference points. At the same time
belief directions, that are reliable enough, can not
only positively focus behavior of the person, but
also define his/her unacceptance of humanistic
harmful elements of possible own behavior and
behavior of associates.
Belief can have both special character (for
example, in case of I. Kepler’s confidence that the
way of planetary orbits organization conforms
to mathematical laws), and universal character,
assuming interosculation of the most general
ideas about the universe and about positions of a
human being in it. So, it is possible to believe, for
example, in orderliness and harmony of the world,
in probability of events in it. And it is possible
to believe also in all these things together and in
addition to this to believe in special orderliness
in this world – in being of the person. I. Kant’s
well-known statements, given in the conclusion
to his «Critique of practical reason», are perfectly
express it (we will afford volume citing): «Two
things fill the mind with ever new and increasing
admiration and awe, the more often and the more
steadily we reflect on them, they are: the starry
heavens above and the moral law within. I have
not to search for them and conjecture them as
though they were veiled in darkness or were in
the transcendent region beyond my horizon; I see
them before me and connect them directly with the
consciousness of my existence. The former begins
from the place I occupy in the external world of
sense, and enlarges my connection therein to an
unbounded extent with worlds upon worlds and
systems of systems, and moreover into limitless
times of their periodic motion, its beginning and
continuance. The second begins from my invisible
self, my personality, and exhibits me in a world
which has true infinity, but which is traceable
only by the understanding, and with which I
discern that I am not in a merely contingent
but in a universal and necessary connection, as
I am also thereby with all those visible worlds»
(Kant, 1965, p. 499-500; WWW). It’s necessary
to add only that Kant substantiating a unity of the
utmost purpose of the nature and the moral law
carrier of which is person recognized a morallyteleological substantiation of God’s life. For us,
however, though it’s clear that there is no need
in divine definition of moral establishments of a
person, but still essentially important remains a
unity of the world of the nature and the world of a
person in all of vital activities of the last one.
Thus, cited statements illustrate very well the
properties of fully represented belief: it unites the
ideas about the bases of the nature with knowledge
of them, with general ethical requirements, and
also with aesthetic representations. «The starry
sky over me» is not only briefly expressed
mechanics of space in unity with a person, but also
it is briefly expressed aesthetic representation. In
connection with this at least two more important
properties of belief are found out: 1) belief exists
and is expressed in the person in «large-block»
without a detailed articulation which is carried out
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only in concrete behavior of the person; 2) belief
has philosophical character – it’s synthesis of the
principles, full articulation of which grows in
philosophy where person is proved as the purpose
of herself/himself.
Religious, confessional belief (that is faith),
having as its object supernatural and in all senses
absolute, is a specific kind of belief. In this case
not only the object of belief gets transcendental
characteristics, but also belief attitude itself is
understood as having transcendental character,
i.e. as caused by the connection of a person with
of the interpretation of these plots and this
interpretation not only destroys an opportunity
of individual perusal of theological documents,
but also really deforms (distorts) them. It’s not
a coincidence, that outstanding freedom-loving
Russian philosopher – N. Berdyaev wrote: “I have
a real disgust for theological-dogmatic conflicts. I
feel pain reading history of ecumenical councils”;
“…historical revelation was secondary for me, in
comparison with spiritual revelation”; “Revelation
assumes activity of not only Revealing, but also
of the one who perceives revelation. Revelation
the Absolute. Thus object, mystery-topic and
ceremonial components of belief are perceived as
the unconditional (absolute, indisputable) true at a
level of regularly operating positive religiousness,
that is they are perceived as coinciding with
present and predicted constructive forms of
day-to-day life. Standard organized confessions
aspire to separate from mysticism as they see in it
a germ of high degree of individualization of the
religiousness leading to infringement of integrity
of the doctrine and to appearance of heresies
(Mechkovskaya, 1998). Nevertheless primary
mystic of the Creed develops in practice into
collective supermysticism. Archetypical-mystical
in this case can reveal itself especially persistently
both at the individual and collective levels and
gravitates towards serious strengthening, which
in some cases can lead to mass psychoses and
antihuman orientation (the religious fanaticism,
extremism and terrorism).
Religious, confessional belief, besides,
has strongly pronounced canonical-dogmatic
character: the object of belief and the ways of
attitude to it are canonized in two ways – initially
historical and situational-historical. The first
means absolutely canonical set and character of the
plots directed on disclosing of an object essence
of belief and the ways of attitude to it, and also the
form of their verbal expression; the second means
historically pragmatic admissible transformation
is binomial” (Berdyaev, 1991, p. 354, 210, 204).
The statements of N. Berdyaev show religious,
confessional belief can get sometimes personal
character4. Usually it happens when a believer has
a variety of linguistic-intellectual means. Only
having these means a person is capable to enter
into a wide context of the reality which includes
achievements and problems of science and art. In
this respect not only N. Berdyaev’s position, but
also V. Solovyev’s position is rather significant.
Though they are considered (which is fair enough)
as religious thinkers, undoubtedly, they are not
only and not simply religious. Religiousness
of these thinkers not only dissatisfies the
requirements of orthodox religiousness, but in
some cases turns into anti-religiousness, for
example: V. Solovyev (Solovyev, 1995) separates
ethics and religion5, N. Berdyaev distinctly
proclaims individuality of interpretation of
Unlike traditional confessional belief personal belief assumes high degree revelation of individual-personal element in its organization and freedom from dogmatism.
Examples of personal belief it’s necessary to search in
civil (secular) form of belief realization though as it was
already mentioned separate cases of individual-personal
transformation of confessional belief also can be perceived as examples of personal belief.
Solovyev writes in particular, that: «The moral philosophy does not depend entirely on positive religion … At
existence of many religions and creeds disputes between
them assume the general moral ground… and, hence,
ethical standards to which the arguing sides equally refer, cannot depend on their religious and creed distinctions» (Solovyev, 1996, p. 7).
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Revelation, perceiving with bewilderment and
despondency (depression) conflicts of orthodoxy.
Explaining this one should take into account that
they are gifted persons whose gift is conditioned
by and reveals itself in a variety of semioticlinguistic means designing their general spiritual
potential. Each of them is a magnificent expert on
history, art culture, philosophy; each of them is an
expert both in the field of poetry and in the field
of philosophical essayistic and at the same time
each of them is the recognized original author in
philosophical creativity.
Probably, as a special case of “reconciliation”
and “consent” of personal and confessional
belief can be considered P. A. Florenskiy’s
reasoning on the status of actual infinity and on
the Scriptures contradictions. Being an expert
on problems of mathematics, a logician and
partly semiotician orthodox ordained believer
P.A. Florenskiy, arguing on actual infinity in
connection with Cantor’s formulation of this
problem, proves such infinity to be an absolute
maximum (no more subjected to increase) in
a sense of maximum identity to God as it is
treated traditionally by theologicians. Other
kinds of actual infinity are, first, “in concreto,
in the dependent world, in a creature in natura
naturata” and, second, “in abstracto, in a spirit,
because it has a possibility to learn Transfinitum
in the nature and, to a certain extent, Absolutum
in God” (Phlorenskiy, 1990, p. 498-499). But
in these cases we deal only with symbols of
infinite, whereas real instance of infinite is
God. Similarly to it, fairly marking that formallogic law of the contradiction inadmissibility
is not absolute and agreeing with presence of
contradictions in the Scriptures, the religious
thinker concludes: “… there is no need to assure
rationalist that there are no contradictions: they
are available; yes, they also are doubtless. But
rationalist should believe mystic that these
contradictions appear to be the highest unity in
the light of Never-Setting Sun and then exactly
these contradictions show that the Scriptures
and dogmas are above flesh reasoning and hence
they could not be thought up by the person, i.e.
they are divine” (Phlorenskiy, 1990, p. 505).
Comments, as the saying goes, are unnecessary
here. It is possible only to emphasize that putting
noted problems in “bosom” of divine clarity is a
method which doesn’t guarantee advancement
in their solution.
Functions of belief
in statements producing process
Belief in any of its forms (whether
personal or confessional) is a semioticpragmatic spiritual formation that has super
subject-realization nature. This formation
carries out functions of self-determination and
self-substantiation of a person when the person
correlates accepted general regulations with
general plans of actions, with cardinal acts,
with significant speech self-expression. As for
the ability of belief to generate statements it’s
necessary to emphasize here that belief itself is
a phenomenon generated by propositions (even
not obviously), but at the same time it certainly
participates in generation of statements
(propositions) and texts. Participating in the
statements generation process belief carries out
the following functions:
– Initiating and stimulating function. In
this case belief not only in some ways turns on,
starts the mechanism of generation of statements
of certain semantic loading, but also supports,
stimulates it;
– Controlling and authorizing function.
Carrying out this function, belief, on the one
hand, authorizes selection of the language
means working both towards the solution of an
intellectual problem, and towards accepted belief
directions, strengthening this belief directions,
answering it (here rather significant is the use of
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the figurative, metaphorical, emotionally loaded
constructions); and on the other hand, supervises,
does not allow the use of the language means that
level it;
– Extrapolating function. In this case there
is a distribution of propositions of belief – the
statements establishing an object of belief – on
the majority of other statements which directly
haven’t been connected with this object. In
other words, these or those belief directions
accepted by the subject, belief attitude realized
by the subject can define speech behavior of the
subject on the whole. So, for example, belief
of a person in herself or himself, in her/his
abilities and calling, let’s say calling of teacher,
is capable to set the general tone (syntactic and
semantic) to each particular case of person’s
speech realization out of a school or high school
– Synthesizing function. Carrying out this
function, belief affects the composite organization
of texts both written, and oral. So performance of
this function by belief, for example in frameworks
of confessional belief, promotes the formation of
such initial genres of religious communication as
Revelation, sermon and prayer.
Also taking into account this function
it’s necessary to show how confessional
belief can influence both religious and secular
communication strategies. For example in the
Scriptures religions, in particular in Christianity
and Islam, fideistic and non-conventional
relation to a word appears to be connected
closely with a principle ipse dixit6 in the former
case and with a category of isnad7 in the latter
case. Noted principle and category can be taken
as an evidence of the same communicative aim:
Ipsi dixit (in Latin) means somebody main one — teacher, leader, master— has told (see Mechkovskaya, 1998,
p. 140).
Isnad is a chain of reference to narrators in collections of
legends about Prophet Muhammad and in other Muslim
treatises (see Mechkovskaya, 1998, p.170).
to keep most important information. And though
secular contexts of the XIX century in relation to
a principle ipse dixit already are basically ironic,
this principle even without former seriousness
and indisputability still remains a reference
point in modern communication space. As to
isnad, then first, in Islamic bookishness isnad
even in a greater degree, than the principle
ipse dixit in the European culture, brought up
Muslim theologician and lawyer in a constant
orientation on authorities, and, secondly,
isnad’s manifestations and a consequence of
them represent one of the powerful factors of
traditionalism in Islamic culture (Mechkovskaya,
1998, p. 171).
In the cultures based on doctrines and
religious practice of Buddhism and Daoism
in their diverse variations (Lamaism, dzenBuddhism, late daoists), a question Who has told
it?, which is in the base of a principle ipse dixit
and of a category of isnad, has no fundamental
value in communications management. Fideistic
and non-conventional relation to the word
isn’t peculiar to Buddhism and Daoism, on the
contrary basic mistrust to the letter, to a frozen
form, to a canon, to ability of language to help
intuition are peculiar to them. It’s well-known that
dzen-Buddhist monks prefer language of images
to language of words, and one dzen comparison
says: to put truth into words it is not easier than to
fish by a narrow-necked pumpkin (Konrad, 1980,
p. 119-120, 122).
On the whole, carrying out noted
functions, belief can be perceived as some sort
of statements catalyst because it is capable to
strengthen and accelerate statements influence
on interlocutor. If we consider that the vector
of fully represented belief can have a different
orientation both humanistic, and antihumanistic,
then it’s obvious that belief catalization of
statements can have both positive, and negative
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To sum up it’s necessary to emphasize
that belief is always some knowledge existing
in synthesis with ethic-aesthetic components,
which is accompanied and supplemented with
emotionally-strong-willed experiences; belief
possesses mutually supplementing properties –
to be a steady spiritual complex and, at the same
time, to have certain dynamics: belief complex
differs personally and besides it can change in the
evolution of a person.
The semiotic approach to the analysis of
belief shows the certain analytical opportunities
in revealing the spiritual status and specificity
of this phenomenon. Due to this approach that
allocates three aspects (attitude) of any sign
system – semantic, pragmatic and syntactic – it
appears possible to fix independence of belief
as a pragmatic formation of super subjectrealization nature. And genesis of this formation
has strong connections with the development
of general fundamental linguistic-semiotic and
gnoseological procedures, such as generalization,
abstraction and metaphor-making. Moreover,
the given approach allows revealing a
predominating role of the general spirituality of
a person, constituted by languages of science,
art, philosophy in relation to belief. Personal
belief, being the certain “organizing” part of
spirituality, does not assume a constant and strict
conscious regulation of any behavioral step. A
variety of linguistic-semiotic means which a
person has, person’s solution of different sort of
specific targets, mediating the main directions of
activity, weakens, and even completely removes
a constancy of belief dictatorship. It makes clear,
that belief carries out infrastructural functions in
language realization.
Personal belief, leaning on fundamental
“blocks” of the general spirituality of a person
more freely than confessional belief, promotes
expansion of borders of the general personal
freedom and is capable of providing overcoming
of person’s excessive mental isolation. Besides (for
noted reasons) personal belief is more inclined to
transformations, reconstruction and change.
N. Berdyaev, Self-cognition (experience of the philosophical biography) (Moscow: YMCA-Press,
1989), in Russian.
D. Dubrovskiy, Problem of ideal. A subjective reality (Moscow: Canon+, 2002), in Russian.
J. Fodor, The language of thought (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1975).
J. Fodor, The modularity of mind (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1983).
I. Kant, Critique of practical reason (Moscow: “Thought”, 1965, volume 4, part 1), in Russian.
I. Kant, Critique of practical reason (
I. Konrad, Study of history of culture of medieval Japan of VII-XVI centuries (Moscow: Progress,
1980), in Russian.
V. Lectorskiy, “Philosophy, artificial intellect and cognitive science”, in Artificial intellect: the
Interdisciplinary approach, ed. by D. Dubrovskiy, V. Lektorskiy (Moscow: IInteLL, 2006), 12-21, in
N. Marr, “Language and thinking”, in Selected works (Moscow;Leningrad, 1933-1937, volume
3), in Russian.
J. Margolis, Persons and minds (Moscow: Progress, 1986), in Russian.
N. Mechkovskaya, Language and religion (Moscow: Agency “FAIR”, 1998), in Russian.
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Nina V. Malchukova. Nature of Belief and Role of Belief in Statements Producing Process
A. Meillet, Introduction to comparative study of Indo-European languages (Moscow: Editorial
URSS, 2002), in Russian.
I. Meshchaninov, Problems of language development (Leningrad: Science, 1975), in Russian.
V. Pavlov, “Subject in impersonal sentences”, in Theory of functional grammar (Saint-Petersburg:
Science, 1992), 71-100, in Russian.
V. Petrov, “From philosophy of language to philosophy of mind (New tendencies and their
sources)”, in Philosophy. Logic. Language., ed. by D. Gorskiy, V. Petrov (Moscow: Progress, 1987),
3-18, in Russian.
V. Petrov, “Jerry Fodor: Cognitive measurement of thinking”, in Conceptualization and sense
(Novosibirsk: Science. Siberian Branch, 1990), 227-232, in Russian.
P. A. Phlorenskiy, Pillar and affirmation of truth (Moscow: “Truth”, 1990, volume 1 (II)), in
М. Polanyi, Personal knowledge: Towards a Post-Critical Philosophy (Moscow: Progress, 1985),
in Russian.
J. Searle, “The Nature of Intentional States”, in Intentionality (Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 1983), 1-29.
V. Solovyev, Justification of good: Moral philosophy (Moscow: Republic, 1996), in Russian.
Z. Tarlanov, “Russian impersonal sentence in the context of ethnic world-perception, Philological
sciences, 5-6 (1998), 65-75, in Russian.
G. Zolotova, Communicative aspects of Russian syntax (Moscow: Science, 1982), in Russian.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2009 2) 67-83
УДК 7.01
Native Culture of the 19th – 20th Centuries in Search After Truth.
Truth of Real Human Being in Vladimir Solovyov’s Philosophy
of the Universal Unity and Works of Art in the Russian Painting
Natalia M. Libakova and Natalia P. Koptzeva*
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 24.02.2009, received in revised form 03.03.2009, accepted 10.03.2009
The specificities of the Russian culture of the 19th – 20th centuries are considered in the article.
The authors think that the main philosophical problem of all times and nations is trustworthiness of
truth for a man in all the levels of his being. The specificity of the native culture of the period is that
truth, including the absolute truth, is a stem of a man’s simple and real being. Vladimir Solovyov’s
philosophy of the Universal unity (Vseedinstvo) and works of art of the great Russian painters –
«The Merchant’s Wife at Tea» painted by B.M. Kustodiev, «The Great Taking the Veil» painted by
M.V. Nesterov, «Phantoms» painted by V.E. Borisov-Musatov, and «The Whirlwind» painted by F.A.
Malyavin – can be offered as metaphysical base of the conception. The authors consider works of fine
arts to be visual philosophical texts where the painters set out their conceptions in keeping with the
great philosophical discoveries characteristic of the epoch, which allows to comprehend the present
reality with the means of painting.
Keywords: native philosophy, philosophy of the Universal unity (Vseedinstvo), V.S. Solovyov’s
conception, Russian painting, «The Merchant’s Wife at Tea», «The Great Taking the Veil», «Phantoms»,
and «The Whirlwind» paintings
Point of view
The philosophical conception of the great
Russian thinker Vladimir Sergeevich Solovyov
(Fig. 1) was constructed by its author in opposition
to the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzche, the most
popular German philosopher in Russia of the
end of the 19th century. Solovyov’s main work
«Justification of Good» is aimed against the force
destroying morals, which Vladimir Solovyov
apprehended in the author of the treatise «Beyond
Good and Evil». But that work summing up all the
searches of the thinker was preceded by a large
number of other works with the outlined general
features of Solovyov’s philosophical conception;
the basic concepts were worked out.
The base of the constructive moral
source, which Solovyov supposed that it was
the ontological basis of human existence, is a
natural result of the «development» (Losev,
1991). «Development» concept comes to his
conception from natural sciences, to be precise,
from biology he thoroughly had studied when
he had been a first-year student at Moscow
University. Development characterizes any
Corresponding author E-mail address:
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Fig. 1. Solovyov Vladimir Sergeevich (1853 – 1900)
real existence and, first of all, man’s real
existence, which is far from being perfect and
seeks to be more perfect, «happier». Vladimir
Solovyov constructs all the following logical
system of the philosophy of the Universal unity
(Vseedinstvo) proceeding from that simplest
aspiration for happiness.
To strive for an aim means permanent
motion, and development for constant immobility
excludes any aim. «To be in the process of
development» means: 1) being something concrete
at any moment of development; 2) each level of
development brings to a new quality which hasn’t
been before. But all the levels of development are
to be present in developing being in an unbroken
state from the very beginning. The mentioned
signs of development turn the development into a
synonym of «life», and being of every developing
existent becomes being of an organism or
Thus, the Neoplatonic concept «the World
soul», comprehended in some new biological
realities of the contemporary science, comes to
Vladimir Solovyov’s philosophy of the Universal
unity (Vseedinstvo). Vladimir Solovyov
repeatedly emphasized that his inner problem was
justification of «the fathers’ faith» at a «new level
of rational consciousness», i.e. a combination of
scientific and rational «spirit of the times» with
the religious tradition.
Every being as a constant development is a
living organism’s being. The being is universal
and whole, but that wholeness is not reduced to
naturalness of physics, chemistry and biology.
The extremes of naturalism ignore development
of spirit and spiritual wholeness. The extremes of
idealism, studying only development of the Spirit,
turns philosophy into a dried-up rational scheme
and a system of purely logical categories, which
is also powerless to cover the whole peculiarity of
integral being.
In order to get over the extremes of these two
types of cognition, Vladimir Solovyov brings in
«mystic philosophy» concept, which he defines
as follows: «The mystic philosophy’s object is
neither the world of phenomena reduced to our
perceptions nor the world of ideas reduced to our
thoughts, but and the LIVING REALITY of the
existent in their INNER VITAL RELATIONS;
that kind of philosophy doesn’t deal with the
external order of phenomena, but it deals with
the inner order of essences and their lives, which
is determined by their attitude towards the
primary essence» (quotation from Losev, 1991,
p. 72 ).
Thus, the term «mysticism» conceals the
aspiration for the integral inclusion of all the
aspects of being, which can be comprehended
neither with the empirical method (perceptions)
nor with the method of rational philosophy. As
Aleksey Fyodorovich Losev justly remarks,
Solovyov’s mysticism is a system of categories of
classical idealism constructed on the distinction
between «existent» and «being» concepts (Losev,
1991, p.74).
The «existent» concept fixes the sign of
unity. The existent is superior to any multitude.
It reveals the sense of the principle «the whole
is greater than the sum of its parts». If we see
only the existent or the super-existent, the things
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will cease differing from each other, and our
real world will turn into incognizable zero, the
absolute Nihility. Therefore, besides the One
Existent, it is necessary to assume an equivalent
existence of multitude of things, events, and
processes, i.e. distinctive and clear multitude
far from being zero. For another thing, different
things are gathered into relative unities and
structures accessible to our comprehension.
Solovyov gives a term «being» to those relative
unities and real multitude. The intersection of
«existent» and «being» concepts engenders the
concept «essence».
The second line of the philosophical
discourse is constructed from «the Absolute»
concept, which takes the central place in Vladimir
Solovyov’s religious philosophy. The Absolute
combines material and ideal realities. Logos
is a display of the Absolute in the material and
ideal worlds. The minimum unit of display of the
Absolute as Logos is an idea.
The intersection of the two lines of concepts:
1) existent – being – essence; 2) the Absolute –
Logos – idea – gives the system of categories at
Vladimir Sergeevich Solovyov’s philosophy of
the Universal unity (Vseedinstvo).
the Absolute
the Spirit
the Good
Thus, the Good is a synthesis of Spirit and
Will and it is the Absolute’s essence at the same
time (God the Father in the religious tradition);
Truth is a synthesis of Mind and Idea and
simultaneously it is the essence of Logos (God
the Son in the religious tradition); Beauty is a
synthesis of Soul and Sense and it is the essence
of Idea at the same time (God the Holy Spirit in
the religious tradition).
Thus, the idea of truth in Solovyov’s
philosophy takes the second place, not the
first one. Truth is a second stage of the Good’s
emanation. Truth is not the Absolute’s display in
the Being, but its reflection in Mind and Idea.
Vladimir Solovyov makes theoretical
philosophy as expression of truth dependent on
practical (moral) philosophy in accordance with
that conceptual line (Solovyov, 1988, Vol. 2., p.
321). There is a need of theoretical philosophy
until the Good in the social reality comes true.
The theoretical philosophy is also needed because
the social reality does not present the WHOLE
reality and it does not include the reality of due
(«the things that SHOULD be») and the reality
of future.
Solovyov defines truth explicitly and
categorically clear: «the Existent, the One and
all or the Universal Unity (Vseedinstvo) as
Existing». «With the Existent predicate taken
away, truth turns into an idle subjective idea,
which doesn’t correspond with anything real; if
truth is not the existent, then it becomes fiction
and, thus, ceases to be truth. With the predicate
«the one» taken away, truth loses its identity
and it is destroyed by disintegrating in its inner
contradiction. And if we finally take the «all»
predicate away, we’ll deprive truth of its real
content: like the only One deprived of everything,
truth will be such a poor principle, from which
nothing can be deduced and explained, while the
concept of truth has a demand that everything
should be deduced from truth and explained,
for truth is the truth of everything, and if it had
everything outside itself, it would be nihility»
(ibidem, p. 693).
Vladimir Solovyov finds shades of meaning
of the difference between the «existent» and
«being» concepts in connection with the search
after the absolute truth. At first, he defines «being»
as the basic element of philosophy: what the real
truth is in contrast to the illusory or ephemeral
one. It is found out that «being» conception is not
of one meaning. «In fact, «being» has two quite
different senses, and if one is distracted from that
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difference, then every definite sense is lost, the
only word is left» (ibidem, p. 698).
The first sense of «being» concept appears
when one says «I am», «this essence exists», i.e.
when one speaks of essence’s being, the being is
comprehended as a predicate of some subject. In
the second case it is said «This is red», «that is
such-and-such a thought», and «there is such a
feeling». Here the mentioned thing is a predicate
only of the feeling and thinking subject and,
consequently, it is not a being as an irrelative
predicate. The statements of the second kind in
their unconditioned form are false: «One cannot
say in a simple or unconditional way: will exists,
idea exists, and being exists, for will, idea and
being exist only because there is a willing and
thinking subject» (ibidem, p. 699-700).
Consequently, a real subject of philosophy
and any other knowledge is the existent in its
predicates, but not those predicates abstractly
taken. The object of philosophy is something to
which the being belongs, something expressed
in that being, and that subject to which those
predicates have a relation. If philosophy has true
KNOWLEDGE as its object, but not BEING IN
GENERAL, then its true object is «something to
which the being always belongs, i.e. the absoluteexistent, the existent as the absolute source of any
being» (ibidem, p. 700).
The absolute-existent is an absolute primary
source bearing positive power of any being.
That’s why it can be called «super-existent». It
is to be cognized through all of its displays, but,
while being everything, it is not identical with
that everything differing from it as its base and
originative source.
The absolute primary source acts through
Love. Only love has both self-denial and selfaffirmation at the same time. Due to love, the
absolute source exists in itself and in accordance
with the relative source, without which it also
couldn’t be. «Thus, when we say that the absolute
primary source in its nature is a unity of itself and
its denial, we repeat the great apostle’s word, but
in a more abstract form: God is Love» (ibidem,
p. 705).
Love is a source of plurality while the Absolute
source is the Absolute unity. The absolute source
in its eternity is divided by Love into two poles,
two centres. The first centre is a centre of unity, the
absolute unity, and freedom from any forms, from
any being. The second centre is creative energy
of being and multitude of forms. According to
the classical tradition, that second centre of the
Absolute is called PRIMARY SUBSTANCE as
the Absolute’s essence and spontaneous potency
of being by Vladimir Solovyov. The substance
is a concept of philosophy, but not that one of
chemistry or physics. The primary substance is
not connected with material and any quantitative
or qualitative relation. It has an inner and
subjective nature of desire and aspiration for
being. The language demonstrates it: «substantial
incentives», «substantial mind», «substantial
inclinations», etc.
The two centres of the Absolute cannot exist
without each other. A MAN is an identity of the
two dialectic sources of the Absolute. If West
European philosophy comes to philosophical
anthropology through philosophical reflection on
the acts of thinking self-position and constructs
anthropology by solution of the problem of true
human being, then Vladimir Solovyov’s way is
quite different. At first, he comes from truth as
an object of philosophy to the true being (God) as
the base of truth and then to the being of a human
as a bearer of the true being. And a human being
as the «SECOND ABSOLUTE» and a necessary
form of the World soul always and indispensably
has true being. For another thing, the human
reality is a dialectical identity of the reality,
which has happened («Sophia», divine wisdom),
and the reality happening now («a human being
in his concrete history»).
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The doctrine of human being as the second
Absolute brings Vladimir Solovyov out of the
bounds of Neo-Platonism. The Neoplatonic base
of his philosophy is well-known and, on the whole,
it is on the surface: it is a modification of Plotin’s
famous triad «the One – the Spirit – the Soul»,
which takes the form of the triads «Existent –
Being – Essence», «the Absolute – Logos – Idea»
and others in Vladimir Solovyov’s philosophy.
But Neo-Platonism couldn’t have the doctrine of
a human being as the second Absolute and the
Godmankind, which became a cornerstone in
Vladimir Solovyov’s philosophy (especially in
the work «Readings of the Godmankind»).
Thus, a human being is a dialectic identity
of the two sources in Vladimir Solovyov’s
conception: «if the first source IS the Universal
unity, then the second source BECOMES the
universal unity; and if the first source always
possesses the universal unity, then the second
source progressively takes it and, thus, merges
with the first source» (Solovyov, 1988, Vol. 1,
p. 711). «The second Absolute» is defined as an
indispensable base for the modifying and mobile
world: «That essence, by which many things,
particularity and untruth can really exist, where
the existing divinity has a real object distinct from
it and, as a result, can be something permanently
real in its absoluteness, – that essence, which thus
lays down a mutual condition both for the reality
of the world of the divine universal unity and
the world of material plurality, that essence is in
ourselves» (ibidem, p. 712-713).
Solovyov distinguishes three basic elements,
three sources in a human being as the second
Absolute, the duality of which becomes apparent
in each of them. The first source of the human
being is connected with the fact that a man is an
existing and absolute subject of ALL his actions
and states. The second source consists of the
fact that it is a qualitatively definite existent,
it has characteristics or a quality, with which
THAT CONCRETE subject is distinguished
from the others. The second source is an idea of
human being, and a man only through this idea,
combined with the others, is represented as the
Universal unity, for the idea of him is positively
made up with the all others, and it is a form of the
absolute content. Though that very idea gives a
possibility of its affirmation outside of everything
as everything is outside, «and then its special
quality makes it absolutely impenetrable for all
the others and makes it an unconditional bound
of everything, and as every creature has its own
idea or peculiarity, everything is the same border
for all things in that external relation, everything
is absolutely impenetrable and, thus, instead of
the inner positive unity, the interrelations of all
things represent the external negative identity»
(ibidem, p. 716).
That mentioned source of a human being is
empirical reality or a natural material source of
his being. That reality only little by little becomes
the one, and a man returns to the Universal unity
from his «normal» (non-absolute) state and
becomes the absolute out of himself freely and
Three sources of being determine the two
kinds of human being: 1) THE ABSOLUTE – what
that subject becomes; 2) NON-ABSOLUTE –
what he comes from.
Hence two relatively contrary kinds of order
of human being follow: 1) metaphysical and
logical order where the absolute takes the first
place; 2) genetic or phenomenal order, according
to the nature of which the NON-ABSOLUTE,
untrue, plural and particular are primary things.
The primacy of one order is the last thing for
the other. For all that, the genetic order, where
the Absolute is only formed, presupposes the
metaphysical order where the Absolute exists.
The necessity of the absolutely true being
as the base of human being reveals itself in the
cognitive process. The problem of truth as a
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problem of criterion of our knowledge appears
only in the human reality, which is complete
neither from the temporal point of view (it
doesn’t include future) nor from the point of
view of completeness of the content (it doesn’t
contain the perfect good). There is no point of
speaking of truth from the point of view of the
Absolute, for Will, Idea, Sense, Soul, the Spirit,
Mind, Truth, Beauty, and the Good coincide in
the Absolute.
What is the form of the human reality
where the primary truth is realized? That form is
a concrete image of ARTIST, and not that one of
God, but quite different. The content of Sophia is
to be a border between the positive Nihility of the
Absolute’s world and the concrete plurality of the
world of human reality.
Sophia is a total creative energy, which
combines a real creative work (including the
artificial creative work) and the aim embodied in
the real creative work.
Solovyov solves the poignant problem of
theodicy in religious philosophy by bringing in
the image of Sophia – justification of God for the
Sophia (Fig. 2. 3. 4), the great image-and-symbol
of Vladimir Solovyov and the whole Russian
culture of the first third of the 20th century. The
very use of the aesthetic image-and-symbol
discovers the character of Vladimir Solovyov’s
philosophy. Sophia is not a rational concept,
but a mythological one. The origin of this
mythological concept is also clear – it’s the Old
Testament Biblical text «The Book of Proverbs».
The mythological concept’s content is wisdom.
Sophia tells about herself in the Bible: «The Lord
possessed me in the beginning of his way, before
his works of old… I was set up from everlasting,
from the beginning of his way, or ever the earth
was… When he prepared the heavens, I was there:
when he set a compass upon the face of the depth:
When he established the clouds above: when he
strengthened the fountains of the deep: When he
gave to the sea his decree, that the waters should
not pass his commandment: when he appointed
the foundations of the earth: Then I was by him,
as one brought up with him…» (in the Russian
translation: «… then I was an ARTIST by Him»)
(Chapter 8: 22-23; 27-30).
The existence of the world as a permanent
creation of a work of art was reflected more than
once by Plato, Plotin, Dionysus Areopagite, and
much later by F.W.J. Schelling and F. Nietzche
in history of philosophy. Vladimir Solovyov’s
innovation consists of the fact that he brings in
existence of the evil in the world. Sophia is not
the only creative energy and the aim of creative
work, but it is also an ideal world, what it should
be according to its supreme purport, the world
of God’s conception. The human creative work
gets its energy by joining to the world of Sophia,
which is destined for giving it away. Sophia gets
its energy from God and gives it to the created
world, therefore the other mythological concept
of Vladimir Solovyov’s philosophy, which has
fundamental importance for the Russian Silver
Age, is the Eternal Femality, having given that
century multivarious impulses for the cultural
In this context, truth is a coincidence of
human creative work with Sophia and realization
of aspiration for the perfect Good in all its
displays – logical, ethical and artificial ones in
human creative work. A cognizing subject is
in his inner connections with the world owing
to the being rooted state in the Absolute as the
Universal unity.
The comprehension of philosophy as
WHOLE KNOWLEDGE, as a matter of life
and not that one of school becomes stronger in
the Russian tradition starting with Vladimir
Solovyov. Abstract knowledge is necessary
as for any man so for the whole mankind –
it is impossible to achieve logical lucidity
and systematic character of thinking. But
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Fig. 2. Sophia
Fig. 3. Sophia
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Fig. 4. Sophia
its transformation into some principle and
absolutization brings philosophy to a deadlock.
That’s why Vladimir Solovyov criticizes G.W.F.
Hegel’s philosophical system as the end of
New-European idealism. Solovyov says that, in
Hegel’s view, all the philosophical concepts are
self-development of the Absolute Nihility. While
to the great Russian thinker a philosophical idea
is a form of whole truth given in the intellectual
contemplation identical with the artistic content
of an artist. «Undoubtedly, the ideal intuition’s
existence is always proved by the fact of artistic
creative work… Those, who have any idea of
the process of creative work, know very well
that artistic ideas and images are not complex
products of observation and reflection, but they
come to the inner eye in their inner wholeness
all at once, and an artist’s work is reduced to
their development and embodiment into material
details» (quotation: Davydov, 1988, p. 53).
Undoubtedly, we have another tradition
coming from F.W.J. Schelling’s philosophy of
identity of intellectual intuition and creative
work. But, in contrast to the philosophy of I.
Kant and F.W.J. Schelling, Vladimir Solovyov’s
philosophy states that the very creativity is not a
product of ability for imagination, but a product
of inspiration combining three different abilities:
ability for imagination supposing subject’s certain
activity, and at the same time it doesn’t reach that
level of reality as the object of mind (practical
mind in the first place); intellectual intuition as
the supreme form of mind revealing the eternal
truths or ideas; the ability for breakthrough in
the transcendental world, which can be achieved
neither by imagination nor even by mind.
Thus, truth in Vladimir Solovyov’s
philosophy is a form of whole knowledge
dialectically taking off the contrasts of naturalism
and rationalism in itself.
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This conception had a considerable influence
on the Russian art of the 19th – 20th centuries. It
is reflected in a large number of aesthetic Utopias
characteristic of the Russian culture of that time
and proceeding from the principle of the world’s
change by the way of aesthetic transformation.
The creators of that epoch conceive a work of art
as the only true form of embodiment of whole
knowledge of the artist and, therefore, able to
transform the world external to the artist and the
human Universe according to God’s conception
of it.
Thus, Vladimir Solovyov’s philosophical
point of view is divided into many examples
characteristic of history of the native artistic
culture, which follows after his lifetime (like
Friedrich Nietzche, Vladimir Solovyov died in
1900). Those examples are to be considered in the
next part of this article.
Dichotomies in interpretation of the image
of woman in Russian culture in the
end of the 19th and at the beginning
of the 20th centuries
The variety of woman’s images represented
in the pieces of painting in the end of the 19th
and at the beginning of the 20 th centuries
discovers the whole plentitude of Sophia’s
many-sidedness. The divine artist appears to be
a border between the plurality embodied in the
diversity of the World and the Absolute’s Positive
Nihility. Representation of different measures of
correlation between carnal and spiritual sources
of female characters of the Russian painting
conveys the frontier nature of Sophia’s position,
combination of maximal spirituality and utmost
embodiment, and displaying of one source
through the other.
«The Merchant’s Wife at Tea» (1918, canvas,
oil. 120cm x 120cm) painted by B.M. Kustodiev
(Fig. 5) is an example of visualization of
correlation of carnal and spiritual sources where
the former prevails over the latter.
The painting represents a fleshy woman, a
portly merchant’s wife on the balcony at tea-time
against a background of a town.
There are some signs pointing out the
spiritual and carnal sources. These are the signs
revealing the spiritual source in the painting: the
space of the sky and churches. The signs pointing
at the carnal source: the fleshy and portly
Merchant’s Wife, a table lavishly set, a caracoling
horse under the balcony.
The disposition of painted signs in the
painting allows to observe the construction of
consecutive movement from the heart of pictorial
space towards a spectator: from the sky to the
churches, then to the space of the balcony, and to
the well-dressed, richly-dressed Merchant’s Wife,
and to the richly-laid table. Thus, an emanation
is represented, the layers’ movement is from the
depth to the surface, from inside to outside.
The given representation can be characterized
with the following notions: abundance, solidity,
wealth, good quality, and prosperity. The painting
visualizes the earthly wealth given to a human
being by God. And the Merchant’s Wife is in
the centre of that wealth and she appears to be
endowed with God’s mercy.
The portrayal of the Merchant’s Wife has
something in common with the saucer in her
hand: the outline of the saucer is correlated with
the contour of her low-necked dress. Therefore,
the very Merchant’s Wife is represented as some
cup or vessel receiving its filling.
What can that filling be? Two ways
determining the essence of filling of the
Merchant’s Wife as «vessel» can be represented
in the painting.
In the first place, the blueness of the sky and
roofs of the churches correlates with the colour of
the head-dress and eyes of the Merchant’s Wife,
and with the colour of the saucer’s inner side.
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Fig. 5. Kustodiev Boris Michaylovich «The Merchant’s Wife at Tea» (1918, canvas, oil, 120x120)
The eyes as a reflection of a soul reveal the inner
filling of the Merchant’s Wife and her connection
with the blueness of the sky. Thus, the Merchant’s
Wife is presented to be filled with celestial, divine
and spiritual source.
In the second place, the Merchant’s Wife
is represented at her tea-time; there are apples,
grapes, a water-melon, jam, honey, and buns in
front of her on the table. That is all the nature
gives to a man for his satiety and life. In that case,
the dishes on the table appear to be the gifts of
Nature and God to a man. Thus, the Merchant’s
Wife accepts the divine source by partaking of
those gifts.
Except for the plentiful supply of food on
the table, a casket covered with a diaper cloth is
presented in front of the Merchant’s Wife. The
very casket as a separate sign-and-index points
at some treasures, wealth, and gifts. There is a
sum of signs: the casket and the diaper cloth – the
covered casket – a sign of concealment, reticence,
some sacrament.
It turns out to be the following after
synthesizing the casket’s meaning with the
meanings of the other things of the sill life: there
is a representation of the sacrament of accepting
of God’s gifts presented as fruits, bread and
grapes in particular – the Sacrament’s symbols.
Therefore, the tea-drinking process as taking
food transfigures into the Sacrament – accepting
the divine source.
Such a specific feature of the work of art should
be noted: the Merchant’s Wife is represented sitting
at the table at tea-time, but her gaze is turned to
the spectator’s space, out of the painting’s frames.
There is also the table coming to the spectator’s
space and an apple rolling out to a spectator and
suggesting that he should join to the tea-party, take
the Sacrament, accept the divine gifts and be filled
with spirituality through them.
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It is possible that we should draw the
following general conclusion: the work of art «The
Merchant’s Wife at Tea» represents a Merchant’s
Wife divitem (Lat.), who has a healthy body and
splendid flesh. In that case, «dives» (Lat.) is to
be conceived as endowed by Divinity, and the
abundance is God’s gift. Hence it follows that
there is a representation of wealth (divitiārum) –
the magnificent and solid house, the smart dress,
the table lavishly set (and the very body of the
Merchant’s Wife) conceived as God’s gift – that
representation reveals itself as a form taken by
and spiritual sources of quite another character in
the painting «The Great Taking the Veil».
A solemn procession of women of different
ages is represented in the work of art «The
Great Taking the Veil»: young girls going to the
ceremony of taking the veil and nuns of elder age
accompanying them are depicted.
Taking the Veil is a rite of taking the monastic
vows expressed in cutting off hair on the top of
the head crosswise as a sign of devotion oneself to
Christ and conversion into a servant of God. That
rite’s essence is denial of one’s self-affirmation,
the eternal Absolute source in the process of
emanation. The representation of the earthly and
carnal source appears to be an expression of the
divine and spiritual source.
Actually, the represented tea-drinking is
a process of satiation of flesh, but conceived as
acceptance of the divine gifts endowed by God,
transfigures into the Sacrament – acceptance of
the divine source, filling of flesh with spirituality.
Thus, flesh is represented as a sign of the spiritual
The Merchant’s Wife is one of those
separate plural and various forms, into which
the One Absolute is emanated. The image of the
Merchant’s Wife visualizes such a correlation of
carnal and spiritual sources, where the carnal
source prevails, but it is an expression of the
spiritual source at the same time.
The piece of art «The Merchant’s Wife
at Tea» painted by B.M. Kustodiev represents
embodiment of the spiritual source visualizing
one of the contradictions harmoniously combined
in Sophia.
Like B.M. Kustodiev’s «The Merchant’s
Wife at Tea», the work of art «The Great Taking
the Veil» (1898, canvas, oil. 178 x 195) painted
by M.V. Nesterov (Fig. 6) is an example of
representation of predominance of the carnal
source over the spiritual one. But there is a
visualization of correlation between the carnal
earthly weaknesses, all the mundane affairs,
and devotion oneself to God. A mundane man
transfigures into a monk striving for subjection
of his flesh to the Spirit and his Spirit to Christ.
Taking the Veil is a rite of consecration,
which is carried out for those, who are completely
ready to devote themselves to God and refuse
the mundane life for ascetic deeds in order the
spiritual source would prevail over the carnal
The main motif of the painting «The Great
Taking the Veil»is a theme of procession, motion,
departure, and a way. According to the plot, the
scene is presented as a ceremonial appearance
and procession of the women accompanying the
young girls to the Taking the Veil rite.
The represented theme as a fixation of
some model of relation of finite and infinite
visualizes the Absolute’s motion, coming out and
It is developed by the signs of the work of art.
There is a blooming pussy-willow branch in the
foreground. According to the Russian Orthodox
tradition, pussy-willow is a symbol of the palm
branches laid under Christ’s feet when he was
entering Jerusalem. Christ came to Jerusalem
though he knew that people sought for his death
there, for the death of his body. Jesus Christ is
an example and ideal of harmonious combination
of the divine and human, carnal and spiritual
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Fig. 6. Nesterov Mikhail Vasilyevich «The Great Taking the Veil» (1898, canvas, oil, 178x195)
sources. Although while his entering Jerusalem,
he has the spiritual source prevailing – he went
to meet his death of his own free will; and that
was the death of flesh for the sake of the Spirit’s
victory. That is also a moment of revelation of
submission to God’s will, acceptance and precise
following to the dictate directions.
The girl going to the rite of taking the veil,
listening to the dictate directions of the Absolute
source and carrying them out is ready to renounce
the earthly blessing, all the mundane and carnal
things. As a matter of fact, she «goes to meet her
death» of her own will for the sake of spirituality’s
Hence a specificity of correlation between
the carnal and spiritual sources visualized in the
painting «The Great Taking the Veil» is displayed
by drawing a parallel with Christ’s entrance to
Jerusalem. The represented moment shows
prevalence of the spiritual source over the carnal
one in the depicted women’s characters and, in
the first place, in those ones of the girls going to
the rite of taking the veil.
The represented girls can be compared
with the thin and slim young birches. There is
also a possibility to draw an analogy with the
women and the wood as many elderly trees.
Thus, there is a following correlation: the girls
and the women, the young birches and the wood.
As a matter of fact, the young saplings mean the
process of wood’s renewal, continuation of its life
and preservation. The young girls are the same
continuation and form of preservation of the
women of elder age: the monastic traditions are
given to the girls and, thus, they are saved. That’s
why taking the veil is a «great» rite, for there is a
great importance of that event for conservation of
the tradition and continuity of monasticism.
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Monasticism in the Orthodox tradition is
comprehended as something that brings divine
light to the world and to all people living on earth.
The wax candles in the girls’ hands are a sign of
that divine light, which comes to the world through
them. The girls also seem to be like candles, all
their lives are to be consecrated to giving the light
to others and bringing God’s grace to the world.
The girls’ inner light of spirituality is visualized
in the flame of the candles in their hands. The
girls as receptacles of the divine light appear to
be Church – «the house of God on Earth», the
place of meeting and connection of the divine and
human sources.
Like birches, the girls unite the earth and
divine worlds: their roots are in the earth and
the branches extend themselves to the sky.
Descending motion from the sky down the slopes
of the mountains and roofs of the churches and
cells to the hermitage’s dwellers and further
through them to the whole earth is visualized in
the work of art.
M.V. Nesterov’s painting «The Great Taking
the Veil» reveals Sophia’s nature as a mediator
bringing the divine energy to the World through
the correlation of the carnal and spiritual sources
represented in the women’s characters.
On the one hand, the very women’s
characters represented in the painting appears
to be mediators bringing the divine light to the
world, i.e. they make their way to the finite world.
But on the other hand, they are maximally turned
to the Absolute, and they approximate to the
Absolute as much as possible for a human being.
There is a representation of women and girls in
their flesh and blood but they are maximally filled
with spirituality, and their flesh is subjected to the
spiritual source.
The women’s characters of «The Great
Taking the Veil» demonstrate a correlation of the
carnal and spiritual sources, where spirituality
predominates over flesh.
The work of art visualizes the Absolute’s
appearance and aspiration of the infinite source
for its embodiment in the world of the finite
source, for finding its bounds, and incarnation
of the spiritual source in flesh. But, at the same
time, there is a prevalence of the spiritual source
over the carnal source, and it is conveyed in such
a way: there is a representation of maximum
display of the Absolute in the work of art. The
finite form is filled with spirituality so much that
its own boundaries and frames become small.
The Absolute source has received its maximum
display in the finite form, and the carnal nature
is maximally filled with spirituality.
Thus, M.V. Nesterov’s painting «The Great
Taking the Veil» «de-picts» an emanative
motion – display of the Divine nature in the
variety of forms of the earthly world, having
approached its limit, the bifurcation point –
turning of the emanative motion into its contrast,
immanative motion, into interrelation of the
carnal and spiritual sources and a necessity of
one of them for another as the determinative
condition of their own existence.
«Phantoms» (1903, canvas, tempera.
117x144,5) painted by V.E. Borisov-Musatov (Fig.
7) is an example of visualization of the spiritual
source’s prevalence over the carnal source.
The painting represents a young girl strolling
not far from the estate in the autumn park.
The distribution of light and dark colours
relatively allows to divide the picture in two
spaces: the space of the earth and that one of the
heaven; the earth is represented as something
darker, and the heaven, accordingly, is something
much lighter.
The staircase leading from the park to the
house is a connecting link with the frontier space.
The image of staircase combines the signs of
earth and heaven – light and dark colours: dark
stairs and light railings. The ascending wave of
railings smoothly turns into the representation of
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Fig. 7. Borisov-Musatov Victor Elpidiphorovich «Phantoms» (1903, canvas, tempera, 117x144,5)
the building’s columns ascending further to the
dome with a spire melting in the sky.
The tree painted in the left part of the picture
is also a link connecting the spaces of earth and
sky. The tree’s roots are in the earth, but its
branches are painted as though stretching to the
sky. The massive curved tree’s trunk transforms
into its branches gradually getting thinner,
and, consequently, there is a visualization of
dissolution of mass, form and bodies as there is
ascension and approach to the heavens – the sign
of divinity.
The main heroine is represented in such a
way that a greater part of her is in the space of
earth, but this personage shows her craving for
penetrating into the space of heavens: aspiration
for moving upwards is disclosed in the girl’s
S-shaped posture, the manner she holds her
hands hidden under the clothes, which is possible
to compare with the folded wings that are about
to unfold and make a flight.
The clothes and space of the sky are
correlates with each other in colours – the girl is
like a cloud, and she doesn’t stroll, but she glides
and smoothly rises up to the sky.
The conditional character of the image of the
girl, her figure, features of her face, hair-do – her
body as a whole is an evidence of unimportance
of all these things. And as the carnal source is
of minimal importance, consequently, the other
component, spirituality, is accentuated in the
girl’s image.
The fragment of cloth in the left part of the
picture can be interpreted as a sigh of external
appearance, form, and body disappearing, melting
and fading away, from which the girl’s soul frees
itself filled with spirituality and directed to the
Absolute Spirit. So the main heroine’s image
is a sign of only the spiritual nature of the girl
becoming free from flesh and losing distinctness
and definiteness of the form stipulated by the
frames of flesh.
On the whole, the girl’s image can be
characterized with such notions as ephemeral
being, illusiveness, lightness, mystique, and
unreality. The synthesis of meanings of these
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notions and consideration of the girl’s image in
the sum with the fragment of cloth represented
in the left part of the painting’s space allow to
conclude – there is a representation of the girl’s
soul in the painting.
As far as the soul is a new quality formed
in the relation of the Spirit and flesh, then, as a
consequence, it has features of the both «parents».
Hence, the soul’s image takes the form of flesh in
the painting.
The work of art is named «Phantoms».
A phantom is a notion pointing at display of
something unrevealed, unreal, ephemeral, and
illusive; a phantom is often a display of some
event of the past, it’s a restless soul. A phantom is
a sign of past, some memory.
And there appears a question: what memory
is represented in «Phantoms» of V.E. BorisovMusatov? What makes the soul be uneasy? And
what makes impossible to find its peace?
If the girl’s image is to be interpreted as a
sign of soul, then the following answer to the
raised questions is formed.
Like flesh, a soul is a framing of the Spirit.
On the one hand, a soul is connected with some
concrete flesh and displays itself or becomes
existent only being joint with flesh. On the other
hand, a soul doesn’t lose its connection with the
Spirit. Only soul of a finite human being keeps its
memory of the original harmonious state before
incarnation and being in the infinite. Having a
memory of its belonging to the Eternity, a soul
seeks to restore its relation with the Absolute
Hence, a soul seeks to be reunited with the
Spirit. But it’s possible only in the case of rupture
between a soul and flesh, and achievement of
the spiritual sphere is possible by dissolution of
As a result, V.E. Borisov-Musatov’s piece of
art «Phantoms» represents a ghost looking for its
peace – it’s a soul of a girl becoming free from
flesh and making its way to the Spirit as its source
and origin. In that case, a phantom is a soul, which
almost left its body, and it seeks to find peace in
unity with the Absolute Spirit.
The depicted woman’s personage represents
such a correlation of the carnal and spiritual
sources, where the spiritual sphere predominates.
In that case, the woman’s image as a visualization
of the eternal femality reveals Sophia’s mediatory
function. Sophia, as a guide of a finite human
being to the sphere of infinite, shows the way
making the enthusiastic aspiration of finite being
be realized, get rid from its limited nature and
achieve the unity with the infinite.
F.A. Malyavin’s piece of art «The Whirlwind»
(1906, canvas, oil, 223x410) (Fig. 8) also visualizes
prevalence of the spiritual source over the carnal
one, but the women’s images of this painting
suggest entirely contrary way directing a finite
human being to the divine energy.
Peasant girls seized by motion of a rapid
dance are represented in the piece of art «The
The representation of the girls brightly
displays the carnal source; the warm of flesh and
its vital power are expressed by volume, vividness
and richness of colours. There is a representation
of the personages full of health, sunburnt, rosy,
merry, and active.
Bright and variegated dresses with fluffy
skirts, splendid shawls and beads are the attributes
showing the national features in the girls’ images
and emphasizing not everyday and ordinary, but
festival character of the represented scene.
The girls are painted in complicated
foreshortenings with expressive gestures of their
hands visualizing an active motion; the fluttering
dresses accentuate rapidity of that motion.
Pulsation of colours fixes a certain rhythm of
the motion. The red colour spread on the whole
painting is to intensify the expression of action,
activity, passion, and unrestraint.
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Fig. 8. Malyavin Philip Andreyevich «The Whirlwind» (1906, canvas, oil, 223x410)
As a result, the rapid and active motion
represented in the piece of art can be defined with
such a notion as dance.
A dance is a system of some regulated
actions, which are to express something. In the
folk Russian tradition preserving the features of
heathenism as indigenous Russian religiosity, a
dance is a rite, and its carrying out is directed
to realization of a human being’s aspiration for
restoration of the relation with the Absolute
On the one hand, the whirlwind expressed
through the wild character of colours and
complication of foreshortenings and gestures can
be comprehended as an instant rush of the wind,
which flapped the heroines’ skirts and inflated
the sleeves of their dresses. The «whirlwind»
can also be considered as something more
generalized – as the eternal element, powerful
energy of nature.
A whirlwind is a storm and dynamic rapid and
unrestrained dance as display of elemental force
in a man; the girls are in ecstatic rush bringing
them out of the everyday life and breaking them
away from the profane state.
Thus, the dance visualized in the painting
«The Whirlwind» reveals the enthusiastic
aspiration of the finite source for breaking out the
limits of its own finiteness in order to achieve the
unity with the infinite.
The rapid rhythm of the dance entirely
seizes the girls and, like a whirlwind, raises them
out of the limits of definiteness and finiteness.
The personages’ big figures, formed by the wild
motion of bright colours overflowing the whole
surface of the canvas, break out the frames of the
painting and limited space, too narrow for them
in their rushing motion.
Like bacchantes seek to reach the limits in
unrestrained ritual actions of Dionysian mysteries,
the dancing girls seek to the brink of the carnal
source in order to overcome it and break out to
the space of the Spirit, to tear and overwhelm
flesh for the sake of the Spirit’s victory.
Thus, F.A. Malyavin’s piece of art «The
Whirlwind» represents women’s characters
expressing the wild nature of the element and
wild display of the carnal source reaching ecstasy.
At the same time, the aim of such «whirlwind of
flesh» is transformation into its contrast – that
is the victory of spirituality. The piece of art
visualizes the enthusiastic aspiration for reaching
the limit of the carnal and finite source and break
out to the space of the infinite Spirit.
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The image of femality in the Russian painting
of the end of the 19th and the beginning of the
20th centuries has a large variety of its aspects –
starting with the images maximally expressing
the victory of flesh and the earthly nature of the
Eternal femality, and to the images maximally
expressing the aspiration for freedom from flesh
for the sake of the victory of the Spirit, Sophia’s
unity with Divinity.
The women’s images in the paintings reveal
the dichotomy of Sophia as Divine artist – that
On the one hand, the spiritual source has
a possibility to display itself only through the
carnal source while the carnal source is subjected
by the spiritual source. On the other hand, the
carnal source is able to exist only in the aspiration
for spirituality, and, at the same time, the carnal
source seeks to dominate over the spiritual
These contradictions and mutual craving
of the spiritual and carnal sources for each other
predetermine Sophia’s being as being of the
Eternal femality in dialectic interrelation of the
is embodiment of the Spirit and spiritualizing of
On the one hand, the women’s personages are
depicted as expression of the way of the Spirit’s
motion to flesh when the maximum display of
spirituality brings to the Spirit’s embodiment in
the end and turns to be a prevalence of the carnal
source and victory of flesh.
On the other hand, the women’s images are
represented as expression of the contrary way of
motion of flesh to the Spirit when the maximum
display of the carnal source brings to rupture
with flesh and turns into a predominance of the
Spirit and victory of the Spirit.
The mutual necessity of the contrary
notions, excluding each other, is a necessity of the
carnal and spiritual sources as the determinative
condition of their existence.
carnal and spiritual sources.
The variety of the image of woman
is represented in all its magnificence in
the painting of the end of the 19 th and the
beginning of the 20 th centuries. The whole
contradictoriness of the image of woman,
combination of uncombined things – the
Mother of God and fatal woman, a close
earthly and f leshy beauty and a distant
mysterious stranger, the Soul of the World, –
are expressed in the pieces of painting. All
that splendid variety of the women depicted
in the paintings maximally expresses Sophia’s
contradictoriness and suggests a human being
the only comfortable way eliminating the
experience of tragedies and breaking of hopes,
the way which brings to comprehension of
Koptzeva, N.P. Introduction to aletology (monograph) – Krasnoyarsk: Krasnoyarsk State
University, 2002. – P. 123-137.
2. Losev, A.F. Vladimir Solovyov and his time. – Moscow: Thought Edition, 1991.
3. Critics of Neo-Marxist conceptions of dialectics of the 20th century / Ed. J.N. Davydov. – Moscow:
Moscow State University, 1988.
4. Solovyov, V.S. Collected works in 2 volumes. – Moscow: Thought Edition, 1988.
5. Solovyov, V.S. Collected works in 2 volumes. – Moscow: Truth Edition, 1989.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2009 2) 84-93
УДК 378.034
Ethical Education Innovations: Ethic-Project Work
in the Sphere of Commercial Business-Education
Elena N. Viktoruka* and Efim V. Chebotarevb
Siberian State Technological University,
82 Mira, Krasnoyask, 660049 Russia
System Development Holding,
1-201 Televisornaja st., Krasnoyarsk, 660032 Russia 1
Received 24.02.2009, received in revised form 03.03.2009, accepted 10.03.2009
In the given article we consider the conditions and perspectives of development of ethical types of
«know-how» (and first of all, ethic-project works), basing on the many years’ working experience of
LLC SDH, the «Training Hall» project (Krasnoyarsk). Ethical education innovations are analyzed
with a due consideration of global change of the education paradigm, of today’s moral peculiarities
of «high modern» and specifics of the Russian society’s moral, where traditional, re-traditional,
rational and post-rational types of moral interrelate with each other in a complex way. Authors
describe one of the least researched segments of «the ethic-educative services market» – additional
corporative commercial education. They reveal certain difficulties in new values formation (including
the moral ones), and, as an example, we present our ethic-educative «product» «The Management of
Keywords: Ethical types of «know-how», ethical education, ethical innovations, corporative
commercial education, ethic projecting.
Today, ethic education undergoes significant
changing as in Russia, so in the whole world, and
it is caused by a whole number of factors. Firstly,
it is the transfer of education into a post-industrial
phase, which has the following peculiarities, as
massovization, commercialization, flexibility,
internationalization, appearance of new forms
of education (additional, corporative, businesseducation) and new educational technologies.
Appeals and trends of the post-industrial
paradigm are revealed in the ethical education
to their full extent: «the acquaintance» of the
lection-seminar model is substituted by «the
mastering of activity patterns», where exercises
and trainings of all types dominate, and also by
the model of «production». The following forms
as project session, project workshop, analytical
session, organizing-activity play, and brainstorming and so on are typical for the level of
«production». New educational technologies
development and implementation quite seriously
expand the sphere of ethics, going beyond the
borders of a standard humanitarian discipline,
taken from the curriculums of state higher
education institutions.
Corresponding author E-mail address:
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Secondly, ethical education innovations
are caused by transformation of the moral as a
social sub-system: the moral of «high modern»
(R.G.Apresjan) or of «early globalization society»
(V.I. Bakshtanovsky) is characterized by chaos,
by the mixing of moral values and principles,
and it speaks of «post-rational moral» formation.
As specialists justly notice, the moral crisis, we
observe, instability of morals, chaos in the world of
values – all these mean a prolonged and manysided
complicated process of the given civilization’s
values-and-standards system renewal, of
accumulation of positive tendencies, generated
by it in the moral life, which are connected
with hopeful prospects (V.I. Bakshtanovsky,
Yu.V.Sogomonov). Commercial ethical education
is defined b y the social and professional «order»
for reflexive mastering, development and formation
of corporative and professional values.
Thirdly, the image of modern ethic education
is to a large extent completed by the theory and
practice of applied types of ethics and an increasing
«through» involvement of ethic knowledge, skills
and experience into professional knowledge. The
demand in development of TECHNOLOGIES
of ethic knowledge appliance for some concrete
corporative and organizational problems salvation
is obvious in commercial ethic education, as
well as in applied types of ethics on the whole.
V.I. Bakshtanovsky, the director of the Applied
Ethics Research Institute (Tyumen State Oil and
Gas University), calls the development of such
technologies to be «ethic know-how». Phronestic
technologies are referred to a qualitatively new
form of knowledge. «Phronesis» is a peculiar kind
of knowledge, being opposed as to the theoretical
one (epistema), so to the skills and knowledge
of the craftsman (techno); it is a merge of skills
and knowledge, being different from the useless
and the utmost general, because it is a pragmatic
kind of knowledge (praxis) about the peculiar and
the private (Bakshtanovsky, Yu.V.Sogomonov, 2,
p.148). It is impossible to extract this knowledge
deductively from the system of scientific
principles, from the universals of any level; it
cannot be known beforehand and is revealed only
in appliance to a concrete case.
The processes of innovative changes in
the ethic education are the subject of scientific
reflections and wide discussions as in Russia, so
abroad (1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). Thanks to mass media
heavy coverage, one can get acquainted to a whole
row of ethic-educative projects, being realized in
Moscow, St. Petersburg, Tyumen and other Russian
towns. The authors and coordinators of these
projects underline the importance of the modern
stage of ethic education, as far as it is connected
not only with new programs creation, but also with
an implementation of new educational forms and
modern educational technologies: management
influence on the moral and up-bringing activity,
consulting, case-studies, ethic workshops, ethicbusiness plays, ethic simulations, ethic projecting.
These technologies bring ethics far beyond the
borders of traditional higher-education-institution
programs and demonstrate the social order for
practical morals as an instrument of formation
of effective professional and life strategies and
corresponding them norms, principals and ideals.
The subject of the given article is the least
studied segment of ethic education – a commercial
business education, on the materials of the System
Development Holding «SDH» in Krasnoyarsk.
So, in Russia the segment of commercial
corporative ethic education is poorly studied, but
it is precisely the sphere of rapid development
of phronestic technologies, development of
ethic kinds of know-how. Ethic projecting is a
complicated research field for a whole number of
• It is a continuous work (from several
weeks to several years);
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• It is a work, generating an original (or even
a unique) product, which is impossible
to predict beforehand, that is why it is
described sooner by its results;
• This work is based on «masterhood»,
which analysis and transfer are
encumbered, because the masterconsultant’s «unrevealed» knowledge
• Being a commercial corporative «order»,
such a work is often a «confidential»
product, and here, the non-disclosure of
performed analytical and projecting work
data is warranted beforehand.
Nevertheless, it is maybe necessary to single
out the main ideas and principals of this work.
The main idea of ethic projecting is development
of corporative culture elements (institutes or
infrastructure elements) upon the proximate
co-authorship of company’s employees. Here,
the main task is not to be carried away by the
temptation to do it by ourselves and not to create the
target document, instead of the participants. «The
counter motion» from ethic-applied speculations
to the demands of the real moral practice is an
obligatory condition of the ethic-project activity,
which cannot be reduced to the formula: «order –
development – implementation» (Bakshtanovsky,
Yu.V.Sogomonov, 2, p.204).
One of the main conditions of the ethicproject work is creation of a document, being
adequate to the real condition of society and
professional community. It is the specialists’
competence to define the kind (type) of final
document, where the social moral will be
detailed. In the example below, we present such
a document, which is the formalization and
regulation of ideology of one of the corporations
of the Krasnoyarsk region.
Ethic projecting is always a multi-level
process, which stages are the following: pre-project
work (interviews with the owners, top-managers
and key specialists, questioning / testing of the
personnel, observation of the employees in their
real professional situation); different approaches
to the model constructing; technology of
discussion and perfection, final version; analysis
of the project «lessons». Its «super-task» is being
accentuated on every of these stages: not simply to
help the subject (organizations, associations) in its
striving to activate the process of self-regulation,
but to try to influence on the MOTIVES of
such an actualization. It is important to raise a
problem in the subject’s conscious, concerning
the phenomenon of actual domineering of selfregulation utilitarian motives, and to increase
the motive of self-criticism of a concrete moral
situation in the organization, the situation
the subject is involved in at present moment
(Bakshtanovsky, Yu.V.Sogomonov, 2, p.204). The
work on a project contains the following blocks:
problematic situation – tasks – motivational
complex – self-definition, concerning the
corporative mission – employee, as a subject of
moral choice – behavior requirements – expertconsultative commission – comments.
In the course of transfer of Russian
education in to the post-industrial paradigm, one
of the most important questions in the process
of new educative technologies assimilation is:
shall we borrow the techniques, having been
developed in the West or to create our own
ones? Of course, there is no one single answer
here, but what concerns ethic-project works
with Russian (in particular with Krasnoyarsk)
organizations, we may surely say that there is
nothing to be borrowed. In some corporations
there are elements and even blocks of axiological
management (and education), but, first of all, this
kind of experience is still mainly segmentary,
and secondly, it has not frequently any system
(it does not embrace all the sphere of corporative
culture and may omit a regular company
training). That is why we are to invent much by
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ourselves. In particular, in the course of this year
we are planning to bring to life a new consulting
product «Management of Involvement» together
with Novosibirsk consultants, and this product
will be just exactly oriented to implementation of
axiological management in companies, including
the means and process of training.
The longstanding practice of LLC SDH, the
«Training Hall» project (Krasnoyarsk) allows
singling out the following peculiarities of nonacademic ethic business-education:
а) in commercial business-education,
formation of ethic skills, knowledge and
experience is associated to the organization’s
«order» for formation of a certain corporative
SYSTEM OF VALUES. Values, as a phenomenon,
are not at all reduced to the moral ones. But, the
dominating ones are dignity, duty, and corporative
responsibility, along with such values, as result
orientation, economical feasibility and market
b) Concrete company’s ethic has a concrete
meaning, making references to the panhuman
morals be inappropriate and so on. For example,
the following question requires very often a
separate discussion in companies: how should
the colleagues help each other – after the
«needing» colleague asks for help or upon the
proposal of the one «who can help». And very
often they come to a conclusion that even if an
employee needs some help, and it is obvious to
his colleagues, they should not offer their help to
him. Otherwise, the responsibility for the task,
being performed by the help needing colleague,
disappears (as far as, answering to the excuse:
«nobody could help me and so on…», the
following question should appear: «and whom
did you ask for a help?!»). Though, from the
point of view of the majority – it is inhumane
and even somehow amoral;
c) Company’s ethic has not so much an
abstract character (describing general rules),
as an applied one, in its pure form. That is why
(in case of a full-rate realization of company’s
axiological management) it goes through all the
vital elements of the business-organism: strategic
elections, business-processes, goals/results, –
and all this interrelation is being demonstrated in
the process of corporative training, is made more
visible and «implemented» into the employee’s
behavior models, what can be observed in the
example given in the of the section «Policies»;
d) Ethic business-education is resultoriented, and that is defined in еру achievement of
these or those key figures, which reflect the loyalty
to the organization’s ideology. For example, the
value of «customer focus» is connected with such
concrete values, as the number of complaints
from the buyers’ part; the share of clients, being
satisfied by the quality of service; the number
of justified claims from the part of inner clients
(representatives of other departments), with
whose help one can estimate correspondence of
the personnel’s behavior to the company’s ethic
and «correct» the employee’s behavior (both by
carrot and sticks).
Formalization of the organization’s ethic
is a complex product, which combines different
procedures, and there is not only training
work, but also project work, and «production»
on an adequate level. It is predominantly
the management team, which is engaged in
production. In the course of the project and with
a help of consultants, it forms the organization’s
mission (ideology), a short code of most
reclaimed norms, and organization’s values.
The next stage is the order to consultants for
development and maintenance of the project,
what means implementation of these values in
the organization and also includes the usage
of training technologies. As a result, the
Company-client gets not only the system of
company’s ideology implementation, but also the
mechanisms of control, which allows permanent
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tracing of its realization level. The system of KPI
(Key Performance Indicators) can serve as the
main technology of ideological plans realization
control, which allows considering the level of
ideological correspondence objectively and with
the help of figures. To these very indicators is
«attached» the system of motivation, which
supports precisely the required and «ideologically
correct» behavior of employees.
Coordination of values, development of
the system of values realization, mechanisms
of control and motivation – all these present
a continuous process in the process of the
Company’s activity:
1. First of all, the Company foresees the fact
of ethic mismatch, using the axiological filter in
the process of staff recruitment. For that very
reason, they create blocks of procedures in the
structure of staff recruitment, which are appealed
to show the candidate’s competence in the sphere
of the Company’s ideology. For example, value:
«customer focus» – competence: «customer
orientation» – skills: «active hearing» and
«hierarchy flexibility» are revealed in the course
of an interview and assessment procedures.
2. Moreover, in the course of probation period,
they consider the indicators by the adaptation
card, where the new-comer’s ideological
correspondence is reflected. For example, value:
«customer focus» – KPI «the number of justified
claims from the consumers’ part concerning the
quality of service»
3. When the employee is hired for a
permanent job, in the motivation system they
reflect a plan, concerning the indicators, and
which do not allow stepping aside from the ethic
priorities of the Company. For example, value:
«customer focus» – KPI: «the number of justified
claims from the consumers’ part concerning the
quality of service» – planned value: «not more
than two claims» – monthly bonus, if the plan is
achieved «**** rubles»
Only in case of such a systematic work, there
appears a possibility to create the environment
for full-rate realization of the Company’s values
and ideological orienteering points (ref. «Is
axiological management valuable?», «Social
Partnership» journal №3 (5) 2008».
In Russian business education, ethic
projecting has its own peculiarities: the
order for formation of corporative values of
«western», «bourgeois» type is performed on
the basis of the native moral, where the trend for
traditional «natural» moral is rather strong, and
which is characterized by: the limited choice,
authoritarianism, the weak social dynamism,
the limited capability to mobilization of inner
development resources. «A stagnation sub-type
of this kind of moral has been developed in this
country for various reasons: the person accepts
his fate as an inevitable play of chance of his own
birth fact, which does not need any consideration,
while the boarders of his life activity are clearly
defined, and he knows, who he is, what he should
do, and what his life is. It means that there is no any
project of one own “I”, and if wishes and cultural
images are balanced, the diapason of choice is
very limited» (Bakshtanovsky, Yu.V.Sogomonov,
2, p.204). The notions of freedom and social
justice, entrepreneurship and ethic norms, success
and decency are not compatible with this kind of
«immature», «re-traditional» moral.
In the given situation, «the original
material» can turn out to be one of the
curbstones, which cannot resist all the powers
of the ideological machine, and is not able
to perform the axiological transformation
independently. So, for example, in the course
of last decades, «ethoses» of the soviet sphere
of service and soviet trade with their unwritten
codes formed the situation, when growing like
mushrooms cafes, restaurants, boutiques and
so on could hire only young people, who had
not yet assimilated the values of the ethos of
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the soviet public service and trade, where the
instrumental value of «the skill to be useful»
(the modern «customer focus») was taken as
«groveling». And the instrumental values of
amiability, the skill of compromising, accuracy,
helpfulness, and correct speech – the values of
the western «bourgeois» business ethics – are
implemented into the Russian conscious with a
big difficulty, as far as in this country rational
and post-rational moral appears only in separate
professional highly-competitive centers: trading
companies; companies, providing professional
services; innovative industrial companies.
A Company’s order for formation of the
given concrete organization’s ethics presents
by itself a complex of training and consulting
procedures, which are usually set in the following
1. The Company’s self-definition. Its expected
result is a formalized Company’s ideology
a. Definition of the organization’s vision,
mission and its values
b. Definition of «the hedgehog concept» of
the organization (the key point of efforts
c. Analysis of the organization’s resources
and concept realization possibilities
d. Definition of the key factors of success
and strategic competences
2. Creation of development strategy in
correspondence with the Company’s ideology
a. Creation of the field of strategies
according to the Company’s perspectives
on the basis of the key factors of success
and taking into consideration the analysis
of the Company’s environments: its
Finances; Clients; Inner processes; and
b. Strategies decomposition up to the goals,
tasks and business events
c. Scheduling of a timetable of the strategy
realization. In the result we get a strategic
3. Description of the Company’s operational
a. Description of the main processes with due
consideration of the Company’s ideology
(for example, if we take «efficiency»
as a value, then the processes can be
simplified, then we get some additional
points of control and etc.). As a result, we
get described flows of Company’s values
b. Separation
responsibility zones according to the
processes and products of the Company.
In the result we get the main regulations
and procedures
c. Development of the system of indicators,
which allows performing a balanced (and
it turns out to be ideological as well (if
we continue the example, these will be
the additional control points of deadlines/
efficiency)) control of processes realization
according to the job-positions. In the
result we get the regulation according to
the departments and job-positions
4. Creation of the motivation system, which
supports the ideological choice of the Company.
Here, everything is rather simple: the system
must be able to meet the competition (must
attract and keep the personnel); the system
must support the necessary indicators, having
been achieved; the system must support the
achievement of forthcoming (and not only of
behindhand) indicators. As a rule, it includes
the following:
a. The system of labor remuneration
i. Its constant component (rewards for
job content performance)
ii. Its variable component (rewards for
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iii.Benefits (the system of rewards and
compensations for the personnel
keeping and its loyalty increase)
b. The system of non-material motivation
Formation of the organization’s system
of values starts from the self-identification. In
particular, it becomes obvious that the following
questions should be separated in their discussion
in the course of the project work for ideology
1. Who are we
2. What are we for
For us: working in the Company is a
MODEL of life of a business person, which
allows to combine the process of earning money
and the feeling of deep professional and personal
It is development of oneself as a
BUSINESSMAN, i.e. «a person, who creates
his own part of the SYSTEM» upon minimized
efforts and comfortable conditions and getting
the financial and hormonal results
3. Where are we going to
4. What is important for us in the process of
5. How shall we achieve it
Thereat, the answers to these questions
presuppose not so much specific content, which
will reflect the chosen segment of the market,
where the given Company is presented, as they
formulate the attitude of the key competent
persons of the Company towards themselves
and their surrounding reality. Here, we shall
give an example of ethic-project work with one
of the Krasnoyarsk organizations; the following
document has been created in the course of this
work: «Ideology of the Group of Companies…».
Formation of this document has taken two oneday sessions and about eight hours of independent
work of our consultants. The given document
allows detailing the process of realization of the
mentioned above positions.
Who we are:
«We, the employees of the Group of
Companies «SYSTEM», are the team of
professionals, who create and realize new
entrepreneurial possibilities, what demands
the highest level of competency and longsightedness. It allows us working successfully on
the venture markets and feeling deep professional
satisfaction, while meeting the demands of the
market and corporative ambitions.
It is a UNITITY of vision and of
understanding of the forces, which drive us and
our business
And that is why we are ready not only
to declare all these ideological orienteering
positions, but also to prove them by our real
Then, it really brings joy. Much joy. And,
first of all, it brings joy to us. 
○○ buy perspective assets
○○ hold control, increasing the cost
○○ trade efficiently,
PS: it makes us happy. Very happy.
Everybody’s happy»
• INSURANCE: safety of our key assets
• STAFF: ххх thousands employees in
transnational teams
• CAPITALIZATION: ххх euro assets of
our own
• CONFIDENCE of our partners: ххх euro
assets in control
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• SCALE of our business activity: three
continents’ markets coverage
1. SAFETY. We are a strategically
controlled corporation. That is why the most
important condition for realization of our longterm corporative ambitions and plans is safety of
our key resources:
○○ Of the Owner
○○ Of the Company
○○ Of the Employees
team have a possibility to become partners of
our Company and can realize their ambitions by
means of
○○ Their professionalism – their corres­
pondence to the qualification require­
○○ Their interest – their involvement into
the working process and the life of our
○○ Their loyalty – adherence to the goals of
their team and our Company
For us – adherence to the agreements is an
obligatory requirement to the professional
suitability of our team’s members. If agreements
have been made – then, it is obligatory to fulfill
them, if they are out of date – then, it is possible
to discuss them and to reconsider, in case the
new changes have been accepted – they are again
inviolable and are the key criterion of possibility
of further interaction as with the outer, so with
the inner environment. Precisely, that is why the
following ethic results are so important for us:
○○ Satisfied partner
○○ Harmony of our interests
3. LEADERSHIP. Our ambitions are preeminently fascinating, they are really high.
Thereat, we possess the resources, which full-rate
usage let us to achieve really desirable results.
That is why nothing can prevail us from realizing
of the following
○○ High standards of our activity
○○ Dynamic development of our technologies
and systems
○○ High profitableness of the main kinds of
our activities
○○ Our Company’s prestige image
everything for us. That is why we are ready to
combine our corporative goals and the interests
of our employees – the key members of our
1. We are «System», as far as independently
from the hierarchy, every member of the Company
is a part of the huge mechanism, brining him
money and satisfaction, that is why
2. We receive in our team only those people,
with whom we feel personal sympathy, as far
as we understand that our work demands to be
always ready to collaborate and also to trust, and
in connection with all these
3. We use the information, having been
obtained within the Company, out of its bounds
only after it has been reconciled with our topmanager, and it is possible because
4. We do not include in to our team those
people, whose personal and professional interests
are in a direct conflict, and that is why
5. We stick to the point, that the main
requirement to everybody’s work is «Grow or
Go Away», and in case it is not satisfied
6. We are ready to change a member of
our team, if he is obviously inefficient. A new
member of our team must prove his efficiency
in the course of his probation period, which is
estimated according to his key indicators, and
7. We are ready to express and accept
criticism and praise in accordance with the
operating results of every member of our team.
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Thereat, we criticize only in face to face or in
the presence of a very «close» circle, avoiding
spectators in the face of subordinate employees
or Company’s partners. It makes our relations
open-hearted and transparent, and it brings to the
8. We realize the principle «all for one, one
for all», cementing the relations of friendship
and trust within the team and shortening the
communication gap, and that is why
9. We address each other «on a first-name
basis» and all these speaks about the following
10. We know: «SYSTEM» MAKES
The structure and content of the presented
document let us also demonstrate one important
technological principle of the ethic-project work:
a qualitative ethic project presupposes a certain
balance between the sections, which characterize
SENSE-MAKING, and the sections, which
formulate STANDARDS. On one hand, such a
project allows avoiding dangerous extremes in
administrative regulations of the organization’s
moral life and, on the other hand, avoiding moral
anarchy and refusal from pan-human moral
influence on the individual professional-ethic
decisions. Upon the fact of realization of the given
project, the ideological tree of the company has
been discussed and agreed and it has allowed the
participants of the project group (top-managers and
key employees) to agree also the requirements of
realization of the operative line of management.
The participants develop a certain
understanding of the following condition, that
obligations, being formed by the professional
community of the Company, can become effective
only inasmuch, as they become the result of the
common AGREEMENT. The project work result
is «instrumentalization» of the moral values,
norms and principles. In the given document, it
is open through the choice of a recommended
concrete decision, mean, or action, which involves
directly or implicitly some moral value. This is
precisely the way, the effect of the ethic projecting
is revealed: to invent a method to combine the
world-outlook and the normative block of life of
the Company, being set in a document, provision,
and regulation.
1. Today, development of innovative ethiceducative technologies takes place in commercial
corporative and business-education. And here,
correlation of traditional and «advanced»
educative technologies, being in demand by
the post-industrial society, is obviously to the
benefit of the models of «mastering» (training
and imitations) and «production» (sessions,
organizing-activity plays and so on.).
2. Practice of the SDH Company (System
Development Holding) proves that in this very
sector, ethic projecting is closely connected to the
«order» for formation of systems of corporative
professional values of concrete organizations.
3. In the modern conditions, relevance
of ethic business-education is an «emerging»
demand: being «deeply» realized, it is YET
rarely formulated in the form of a concrete order,
with concrete financing. In the given direction,
the work perspectives are connected with already
a ready suggested product «The Management of
Involvement». Such a «wrapping» underlines an
obvious use for the client.
4. The sector of ethic business-education is
not large, but it is obviously important: here, the
selection of new ethic values, «a quiet revolution»
take place in fact, not in word, and along with the
instrumental values (custom focus, responsibility,
independence, ability to self-control and
others), it also forms universal values (values
of business and life success, professionalism,
rationalism, individualism, freedom of choice
and responsibility).
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Tyumen 2005
7. Ethics’s conference, Issue 29 – Tyumen: NII off applied ethics TyumSOGU 2006
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2009 2) 94-103
УДК 001.89:378.33
Russian and Foreign Experience of Distributive Relations
in the Sphere of Science and Education Integration
Viktoria G. Akulich*
Krasnoyarsk branch of the Moskow State Univesity of Economics,
Statistics and Informations
123 Semaphornaya st., Krasnoyarsk, 660012 Russia 1
Received 24.02.2009, received in revised form 03.03.2009, accepted 10.03.2009
In the given article we consider peculiarities of distributive relations in the sphere of science and higher
education in developed foreign countries. We raise the problems of development of distributive relations,
which appear in the process of becoming of scientific and educational components integration in the
sphere of the Russian higher education.
Keywords: integration, distributive relations, higher education, science, researches, financing sources,
state budget, institution of higher education (IHE).
In the conditions of modern market, a steady
development of the economical system greatly
depends on technological innovations creation
and expansion, innovations which being a result
of scientific researches, carried out by different
universities. Development of market relations
radically changes economical conditions of the
higher education sphere functioning, which,
being a source of new knowledge, transforms
the knowledge into a competitive product.
Thereat, innovative pattern of the country
economy development changes the role of the
higher school, and now it consists in the native
industry innovative way of development, i.e.
in active participation of IHEs in innovative
projects realization in the science-technical
sphere. Market economy demands to move the
institutions of higher education out into the
rank of the main organizations of knowledgeintensive production development, which take
part in scientific knowledge transformation into
a source of economical growth; and in the result
of this process, innovations and their practical
appliance become a source of profit in the
scientific-educational cognition in the modern
Thus, training of specialists, being able to
meet the requirements of the innovative economy,
becomes the main target of the higher education
sphere in the world scientific-educational process,
i.e. they must be not only its active participants,
but innovation subjects in all the spheres of the
social life. Being based on scientific knowledge,
education becomes a vitally important condition,
which contributes to the salaried employee’s
competitive ability, becomes a personal demand
and a significant factor of the market competition.
Corresponding author E-mail address:
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Viktoria G. Akulich. Russian and foreign experience of distributive relations in the sphere of science…
And, in present time, only an educated specialist,
being able to apply the newest research and
development implementations in practice, can
count for him being demanded in the labour
market, feels reassured concerning his material
support and well adapts to the conditions of the
modern informative society. Naturally, training
of such specialists is done in higher professional
institutions, which fulfill the following main
functions: reproduction and growth of the
intellectual, scientific-technical, and cultural
potential of the nation (Gendler and others.
2005, P.64) for all the branches of the national
Innovative form of the market economy
development determines the necessity to involve the
higher education sphere into the market relations
and to form its innovative sources of financing in
dependence on scientific-educational services
demand and supply. Consequently, distributive
relations in the sphere of science and higher
education integration must acquire a qualitatively
new form, which brings these two components
development to an adequate level.
That is why salvation of the problem of
influence of distributive relations mechanism on
the science-and-higher-education integration is
very important for development of any country
Opinion 1: Foreign institutions of higher
education pay special attention to fundamental
researches and developments. Fundamental
sciences development requires forming a common
creative environment for students, aspirants,
tutors in the so-called scientific-educational
centers, precisely the kind the institution of
higher education becomes under the conditions
of innovative market economy. It is possible to
organize IHEs’ scientific activity only if there
is a developed university infrastructure. Both
educational and scientific components of the IHE
require significant investments.
In western countries, IHEs’ scientific
research financing is done at the expense of
universities’ budgets, grants, subsidies, and
donations. Abroad, freedom in creation and
usage of innovations greatly contributes to the
development of innovative activity. State support
of universities is concluded in creation of funds,
centers, innovation development agencies; in
other words, the state fulfills the functions of an
The main source of education sphere
financing is the state budget. The share of
country’s budget, distributed for IHEs’ scientificeducational activity, has a tendency to cutting in
most European countries. It is connected with
the fact, that now a huge mass of people has a
possibility of higher education and for the state
financing it has become simply back-breaking to
provide it on an adequate level.
Cutting of the budget financing has not
at all any negative influence on the IHEs’
science development and educational process of
universities in foreign countries. Besides budget
funds, governments of developed countries also
include means of biggest branches of industrial
construction, agriculture, service industry, big,
middle and small businesses in to the system
of distributive relations, and thus they have
created maximally profitable conditions for IHE
and business collaboration. They have worked
out a policy, setting priorities of collaboration
of universities and industry, as one of the most
important conditions of innovative economy
and social development. This policy realization
support has been performed by means of creation
of real financial mechanisms (for example,
venture capital funds). They have improved the
current legislation in order to give universities
more possibilities and fillips in their activity of
scientific research results commercialization.
And in the result of that, the sphere of higher
education has begun to receive means from
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non-governmental sources – industry, private
companies and so on. But, at the same time,
governments of developed world powers do
not permit any risk of IHEs’ scientific research
activity suspension in case of financial crises at
the subsidizing enterprises, and that is why the
main share of expenses for IHEs’ fundamental
researches still lies on the state budget.
Opinion 2: Having considered the main
peculiarities of distributive relations in the sphere
of higher education of developed world countries,
let us address the experience of scientific
and educational processes integration in the
institutions of higher education in Russia.
The modern Russian pattern of distributive
relations in the sphere of higher education and
science was formed at the beginning of 90-s of
the previous century and since that time it has not
been practically changed at all. Up till now, there
prevails a residual principle of financing of these
kinds of activity from the state budget means.
Transition of the Russian economy to the new
management conditions was hazardous for higher
education by big problems, i.e. in terms of IHE
science development. Sharp cutting of the budget
financing brought to research activity recession
in the educational institutions. Most institutions
did not have enough means for realization of
educational process at least on an average level,
and most of IHEs had to forget about science
research activity at all.
One of the reasons of such attention to the
question of integration of higher education and
science is concluded in the following condition
of the Russian economy, when for the present
moment, the national economy is not the main
consumer of the intellectual product. The matter
is that in structural development of the Russian
economy there prevails oil-gas and metallurgical
export tendency, while manufacturing industry,
including those branches, producing means of
subsistence, give up their positions in favour of
the branches of raw materials. In Russia «since
market transformations have begun, production
in the sphere of light industry has declined by
90 %, in food industry declined almost by a
half, and import of these branches continues to
grow. The Russian market is full of imported TVsets, refrigerators, washing machines, vacuumcleaners and other major appliances, bringing
its native production to the very minimum or to
zero» (Medvedev, 2008, P.6-7). As it goes without
saying, the necessity of means distribution among
higher education institutions for the purpose
of scientific researches carriage disappears for
these branches by itself. If there is no industry,
then it means there is no demand for scientific
researches in this sphere. And those branches of
industry, which have been the main consumers
and orderers of the university scientific researches
in electronics, electrotechnics, instrument
engineering, machine-tool building, mechanical
engineering and others, are collapsing. The
government has made a stake at the raw resources,
which export to the world market does not demand
any science-intensive component. In the result of
such actions, predominantly educative activity,
being fully or partially rend from scientific work,
becomes the main goal of most Russian higher
education institutions. IHEs go in for extensive
outreach of the educative activity, obtaining
licenses for specialists’ training in the spheres
of jurisprudence and economics, in order to get
some kind of possibility of survival.
As it was mentioned earlier, in Russia the
principle of means distribution into the sphere
of higher education and science is used to be
called residual. From all directions one can hear
complains of Russian economists concerning
revenues, distributed to this economical sector.
«Long lasting education under-financing and
unwillingness of the state to change radically
the given situation is a distinct symptom of its
irresponsible attitude towards this most important
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and strategically significant sphere. In 2003 in
Russia, budget system education expenditures
made up 3.5 % GDP, while in developed European
countries it amounted to 5-7 % (here, we should
also take into consideration the difference
between GDP absolute values)» (Avdeeva and
others, 2005, P.71).
According to the RF Fiscal Code, financing
of educational institutions is carried out from the
corresponding state (federal, regional, municipal)
budgets. And what concerns the higher school, so
then here «most part of the state higher professional
education institutions are under the jurisdiction of
federal organs of power. That is why their financing
is done mainly by means of the federal budget (in
2004, 93.3 % of all the budget expenditures for
higher professional education.) (Abankina and
others,2006, P.50).
Example 1: the first place in scientific
researches financing belongs to the United States
of America and it is of no wonder, as far as this
country economy is oriented for implementation
of innovations. In the United States of America
organization of fundamental scientific researches
is mainly carried out in scientific-research centers
and laboratories of higher education institutions.
Results of these researches are included into
educational programs, and thus, they attract
most talented students to scientific work.
«Universities’ engineering centers are created
on the base of largest universities of USA with
financial support from the side of the government
in order to stimulate the development of new
technologies. They perform two main functions.
The first function is aimed for researching of
fundamental objective laws, lying at the root of
design engineering of principally new systems.
Such researches do not provide industry with
a product or technology, being ready for
implementation, but with a theory within the
frames of engineering sphere, which later can
be applied for salvation of production problems.
The other function is directed to training of a new
generation of engineers, possessing a necessary
level of qualification and a wide scientifictechnical range of vision» (Titova and others,
2007, P.46).
In the United States of America, the
biggest share of scientific-research and designexperimental development (R&D) belongs to the
military-defense complex. But, while creating a
powerful military-defense potential of the USA,
the Department of Defense does not leave without
attention the sphere of education and supports
university scientific programs, for example, in
the sphere of mathematics and engineering.
The second branch of R&D in USA is
considered to be the public health service. Paying
much attention to public health, V.S. Public Health
Service finances universitarian researches in the
sphere of fundamental and applied medicine.
Let us consider the sources of financing of
educative and scientific activities of the USA
universities. The first one is a study-for-fee form of
students’ education. «About 30-40 % of financial
receipts belong to this form of education in the
private higher education institutions, and about
one forth – in state institutions (Zamulin and
others, 2004, P.27). The second source is means of
the federal budget – it is presented in two forms of
direct money payments: in the form of grants for
scientific-research works on a competitive basis
and means for fundamental scientific researches,
making up «about a quarter of all the receipts in
the universitarian treasury» (Zamulin and others,
2004, P.27). The third source is financing from
the part of large enterprises and various businessstructures, and also private persons, the share of
such receipts is «about a quarter» (Zamulin and
others, 2004, P.27) of all the budget of the USA
Being directed to the real economy sector
development, Governmental policy of the United
States of America, brings considerable results,
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for example, «the share of American industry
accounts for 36 % of the market of scienceintensive production» (Neshitoj, 2008, P.17),
keeping the leading positions of the country in
the world rating.
Literally till the end of 80-s of the previous
century the People's Republic of China applied
imported technologies for high-technology
production. Using the experience of developed
countries, the Chinese considered such a method
of production to be the least expensive and
hazardous. But, having quickly understood,
that borrowed technologies would not make the
country be one of the leading world powers, the
government took the course for development of
native innovations in science and engineering.
At present time, the largest share of scientific
researches is carried out in the universities of the
country, and they create technology parks and
business-incubators on their basis. For example,
in 2006 13.3 billion dollars were invested into the
university science (Hochberg and others, 2008,
P.115), what accounted for 35 % (Hochberg and
others, 2008, P.115) of all the expenditures for
scientific-research works in CPR.
As far as such forms (technology parks and
techno-centers) of integration of science and higher
education are one of the leading in developed
countries, we shall consider them closer. We
shall analyze such forms of innovative activity
as scientific and technology parks on the federal
level. «Scientific Park is a form of collaboration
of industrial enterprises with universities. Its
main idea is: industrial companies create their
scientific-research organizations and enterprises
near universities and involve the employees of the
universities for working with these organizations
orders. In their turn, scientific workers have a
possibility to apply the results of their research
works in practice» (Titova and others, 2007, P.47).
Such peculiar form of interrelation of science and
industry takes place in some European countries,
for example, « the Manchester city council, the
city university and 4 of the local companies have
formed a scientific park. There are involved 12
firms, 5 of them have collaborative research
programs with the university. And for their
realization they use the scientific personnel of
the university. It gives the firms consultations
concerning not only scientific problems, but also
the questions of marketing and management»
(Titova and others, 2007, P.47).
Technology Park is a form of functioning
of «new technologies engineers with the firms,
undertaking the risks. The model of a scientificindustrial center, created on the basis of the
Stanford University in California, is taken as a
pattern of Technology Park in many countries.
This Technology Park consists of about 3 thousand
small and medium-size electronic firms with a
common number of 190-200 thousand people,
working for it. » (Titova and others, 2007, P.47).
demands considerable financial resources, and
for solving of this problem some institutions
of higher education have begun to unite into
consortiums, in order to merge financial means
for collaborative scientific work. Two Flemish
intercollegiate centers have consolidated their
financial funds in order to perform scientific
researches: Micro-Electronic Center (IMEC) and
Biotechnological Center (VIB), where scientific
infrastructure meets the highest international
The following features are typical for
education and science of the Federal Republic of
Germany. The first one is concluded in the fact,
that one of the main goals of the FRG federal
government is the enhancement of cooperation
of IHEs with research centers and industrial
enterprises in the form of joint researches and
fieldworks of firms’ employees at the institutions.
The second peculiarity is characterized by
the international directionality of science and
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education integration in terms of exchanging of
students and scientists. In Germany, they involve
most talented students for studies and scientificresearch activity.
In Germany, financing of the higher
professional education sphere is characterized
by the following: the main part of financial
expenditures for IHEs’ scientific-educative
activity falls on Lands’ budgets. At the same time,
in FRG they allot «16.5 % of national expenditures
for science» for the share of university science
financing. (Hochberg and others, 2008, P.115).
Example 2: in Russia, in the course of
transfer to the market relations the share of GDP
expenditures for science was sharply reduced. In
2001, the internal expenditures for research and
development amounted to 1.16 % of GDP, while
in USA, Japan, Korea, and Germany – from 2.5 to
3 % (Gvozdeva and others, 2005, P.99). Thereat,
government subsidies for science were also quickly
reduced: their share in GDP fell by half: from
0.99 to 0.47 % for the period from 1992 to 2000
(Gvozdeva and others, 2005, P.99). «In Russia,
the volume of science budget financing is much
behind its scales in the majority of the countries
of «the Group of Seven»: if in our country it is
approximately worth 5.1 billion dollars, then in
Italy, Great Britain, France and Japan it is within
the frames of 10-20 million dollars. In the USA
federal budget for 2002, they allotted 87.2 billion
dollars for science.» (Gvozdeva and others, 2005,
Let us consider table 1.
The data from table 1 show, that the number of
IHEs, carrying out research works, have declined
by 36 points for the period of 16 years. And
from 1990 to 2000 sixty three higher education
institutions ceased to be engaged in scientific
activities. We pay our readers’ attention to the
fact, that in Russia the main part of scientificresearch works are performed by scientificresearch organizations, and in 2006 their share
was more that 56 % , while the scientific activity
of IHEs was only 11.5 %. For comparison, let us
have a look at the following figures. If «in 1990
more than a half of the personnel, engaged in
research and development, was concentrated in
independent research institutes and engineering
bureaus, then in 2006 it was more than 83 %.
The unit weight of science expenditures is also
significant – it is approximately 83 % (Hochberg
and others, 2008, P.114). Thereat, we should not
forget that both IHE and academy science carry
out scientific researches for separate economical
sectors, but not for the whole national economy,
as it is in the developed countries of the world.
And what concerns the question of distributive
relations influence on the integration of science
and higher education, so here we are to underline
that science development does not get its adequate
Table 1. Organizations, Carrying out Scientific Research and Development in Russia (Hochberg and others, 2008,
Scientific-research organizations
Developing agencies
Projecting and planning-and-surveying organizations
Experimental plants
Higher education institutions
Industrial enterprises
Other organizations
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level within the frames of that one residual means
distribution into the sphere of higher professional
education from the state budget. «According to
the volume of expenditures from all the sources
for scientific research and development, Russian
IHE science (in 2006 – 1.1 billion dollars at parity
of purchasing ability) is approximately on the level
of Finland, Norway, Denmark and Israel (1.1- 1.3
billion dollars), noticeably yielding not only to the
major powers – the leaders of the world economy,
but to such developing countries, as Turkey
(2.5 billion dollars), Taiwan (1.7 billion dollars)
on the level of qualification and training of
the employees of all the sectors of the national
economy, and also on the scales of science and
technology prior branches development. The
modern economical model of developed market
economy is distinguished by the domineering
of branches, which are directly engaged in the
subsistence means production. But at the same
time, development of means is impossible without
the sphere, serving the social reproduction, i.e.
the sphere of service. Services of educative and
scientific character are vitally important for the
and Mexico (1.6 billion dollars)». (Hochberg
and others, 2008, P.115). So, the state turns out
to be not at all interested in the development of
the IHE sector of science. And development of
applied technologies for manufacturing regional
industries, within which structure there are
branches, producing means of subsistence, is
impossible without development of fundamental
researches, which largest part is carried out in the
higher education institutions.
Conclusion 1: the world experience of science
and higher education integration has shown that
science and higher education have a real value in
developed countries of the world. Higher education
institution becomes an integrator of scientific and
educative activities. As a result, on the basis of
scientific activity in IHE, there is a process of
generation of new knowledge, the beginning of
its transformation into innovations and transfer
of knowledge in the course of educative process.
Carrying out scientific researches for all the
spheres of economy, higher school acquires some
features of entrepreneurial structure, which is
oriented for profit-making.
Creating special conditions for efficient IHE
scientific-educative activity, foreign countries
understand quite well that the rates of subsistence
means production, providing a high level of the
nation’s welfare and the rates of economical
growth of the country on the whole, depend
whole country economy functioning.
That is why developed countries of the world
have concentrated their centers of fundamental
science development in the institutions of
higher education and, thereat, we can observe
a close connection of scientific and educative
activities of universities, to which the system
of financing, performed from various sources,
has been adjusted. Collaboration of the state,
business and education in the sphere of scientific
research can be explained by the fact that higher
school is harmoniously inscribed into the market
relations in some foreign countries, and, thereat,
distributive relations play the role of a sort of a
motivator of science development on the basis
of IHE. Thus, in order to attract means for IHE
science development, governments of developed
countries have created conditions for mutuallyprofitable collaboration of developed universities
and the major production, and also minor and
middle businesses. In these countries they have
worked out a policy, which sets the priority of
universities and industry collaboration, as one
of the most important conditions of innovative
economy and social development.
Conclusion 2: as far as in Russia the main
part of the higher education financing is done
from the state budget, then there quite reasonably
appears a question – why not to solve the problem
of increase of means for this sphere development
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with the help of a simple increase of this very
share, as far as its volume is much bigger in
foreign countries, than in Russia? But, at present
moment it is impossible. And the reason is again
in the problem of development of branches,
producing means of subsistence. The matter is,
that the most important cost item for the sphere of
higher education and science is the expenditure
of labor» (Medvedev, 2008). So, functioning of
all these activity spheres fully depends on the
rate of this component of gross value added. In
other words, possibilities of development of these
the base of scientific-research institutes. While
fundamental researches mainly accrue to IHEs,
as far as they are predefined by the university
sectorial specificity and are the basis for further
applied development. In order to take a steady and
noble position on the world arena, Russia needs
to develop the manufacturing sector of industry,
and also to realize its scientific potential. And
for these purposes the country needs significant
investments, which inflow is possible only in
the result of taxation and investment climate
improvement in the country, and also due to
activity spheres depend on the society’s revenue
position, which presents a mass of consumer
goods, produced in the country, per one working
person or capita» (Medvedev, 2008, P.8-9).
So, it becomes clear that, in order to increase
the share of budget means for higher education
and science, they need to increase the state budget
itself, but on the account of growth of such of its
component as a revenue in the form of wages. In
its turn, the size of the wages fund and GDP total
value «are mainly defined by the production of
substance means» (Medvedev, 2008, P.8).
That is why «whatever distributive
mechanism would be in the country, however we
would re-distribute the revenues among various
branches of national economy and different funds
(budget and extra-budget funds), being spent for
social needs, the upper limit of all the distributed
sums is defined by the frames of that fund of
substance means value, which has been created in
the country and is subjected to final distribution
and consumption» (Medvedev, 2005, P.21).
That is why the first direction of making
science and education closer must become
the increase of financing of IHE fundamental
researches – for preferential development of
manufacturing industries, including the branches,
producing the means of substance. As far as the
largest share of scientific researches for space,
aviation and military industries are carried out on
more proportional means distribution among the
branches of economy (at present moment up to
50 % of all the investments in Russia are spent for
raw materials sectors).
The next problem of IHE sector science
development is a formal separation of science and
education in the question of financing. The system
of separate financing of science and education in
Russia is still working, though, at present time,
the current RF legislation «Anent the Higher and
Post-Graduate Professional Education» provides
scientific-research activity carriage in educational
institutions. So, there appears a question: where
to get the means for scientific researches?
In 2001, they adopted a resolution, concerning
the federal special-purpose program «Integration
of Science and Higher Education in Russia for
the Period of 2002-2006». It provided financing
and conclusion of agreements with the winners of
competitive selection for performance of highly
qualified personnel training and scientific works
carriage. How can one perform a competition,
if one knows a winner beforehand? It is clear,
that in their number there will be leading and
famous universities of Russia (most part of them
are situated in Moscow) with a well-developed
scientific-educative and material base. Other IHEs
(for example, small ones and situated in far regions
of Russia) just have no material possibilities
for innovative developments of educative and
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scientific components. Such competitions can be
performed only in case they provide a more or less
corresponding material background for carriage
of scientific researches and development to all the
higher education institutions of Russia. On that
score, the point of view of I.B. Fedorov seems to
us to be very just: «All the amount of the budget
scientific order is supposed to be distributed
on the competitive basis and it is hard to argue
against it. But, nevertheless, some comparatively
small, but steady component (in some form) is
advisable to be left for some IHEs – proceeding
from the fact, that if we are speaking about the
integration of science and education, then every
(even enlarged) direction of students’ training
needs to be science supported, but it can be
absent in case the competition is lost. This steady
component (basic financing) can be defined as
some normative financing of scientific researches,
being carried out in the given direction in IHE»
(Fedorov, 2005,P. 11).
Thus, IHE has to spend some part of means in
the form of basic financing for scientific researches,
and the other part should be appropriated
according the work results, for example in the form
of grants, and on the competitive basis. Besides,
the Russian Academy of Science and other state
academies have basic financing and, moreover,
they take part in competitive programs, projects
and grants. The matter is that ideally grant is
given as to a scientific-research institute, so to an
IHE for realization of some scientific researches.
But, in the first case grant is a financial addition
to the basic activity, while in the second case it
is practically the only possibility to carry out
research and development.
That is why it is necessary to hand over the
main part of fundamental researches to IHEs and
to form their corresponding financing in the sphere
of scientific researches. In other words, in higher
education institutions there must be financing
of the integral educative-scientific process and,
as it has been numerously underlined, it will
bring not only to development of fundamental
scientific researches, but also to a possibility of
involvement of the Higher School graduates to
scientific, research and practical activities, and in
its turn, it will help them to better adjust to their
professional surroundings.
Russia has yet to solve a mass of problems,
connected to the process of integration of scientific
and educative activities in the higher education
institutions. And suggested in the given article
measures for manufacturing industry branches
and science development in order to develop and
apply innovations; and also for elimination of the
gap between science and higher school from the
point of view of their joint financing can become
the top-priority directions of these spheres
gradual integration.
A.S. Avdeeva, S. Batchikov, «Fatal Genes (About Governmental «Preferential Directions of
Educative Systems Development in the Russian Federation») », Russian Economical Journal, 1
(2005), 71.
2. A. Neshitoj, «The Necessity of Growth on Development Basis», The Economist, 2 (2008), 17.
3. V.A. Titova, O.A. Latuha, «Modern Aspects of Innovative Activity Management in a Higher
Education Institution», Management in Russia and Abroad, 6 (2007), 46-47.
4. V.A. Medvedev, «Gross Value Added and Commonwealth», Collection of Scientific Works,
Editor: V.A. Medvedev, (Krasnoyarsk: The Krasnoyarsk State University, 2005), 21.
5. V.A. Medvedev, «Structural Priorities of the Russian Economy Development», The Tomsk State
University Vestnik, 1 (2008), 6-9.
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Viktoria G. Akulich. Russian and foreign experience of distributive relations in the sphere of science…
6. G.H. Gendler, N.I. Vedernikova, «Remuneration of Labour of the Higher School Employees»,
Accountant’s Adviser in the Sphere of Science and Education, 1 (2005), 64 -65.
7. E. Gvozdeva, E. Vysockij, «Is there any Inducement to Work for Russian Science», Higher
Education in Russia, 1 (2005), 99.
8. I.V. Abankina, E.V. Savickaja, «Budget Financing of Education Institutions: its Structure and
Sources of Monetary Funds. », The Questions of Statistics, 7 (2006), 50.
9. I.B. Fedorov, «Integration of Education and Science: Key Aspects», Higher Education of Today,
6 (2005), 11.
10. L. Hochberg, G. Kitova, T. Kuznecova, «Strategy of Innovative Processes in the Sphere of Science
and Education», The Questions of Economics, 7 (2008), 114- 115.
11. O.A. Zamulin, B.G. Kapustin, D.L. Konstantinovskij, N.E. Pokrovskij, Ju.M. Pochta, V.V. Radaev,
«Transformation of Universities: Russian Problems and American Experience of Financing and
Competition in the Higher School», Higher Education of Today, 10 (2004), 27.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2009 2) 104-112
УДК 316.3
Integrated Sociology: Synthesis of Classical, Non-Classical
and Post-Nonclassical Approaches in Cognizing the Society
Larisa P. Kuksa*
Novosibirsk State University of Architecture
and Civil Engineering,
113 Leningradskaya st., Novosibirsk, 630008 Russia 1
Received 24.02.2009, received in revised form 03.03.2009, accepted 10.03.2009
The problem of sociological approaches for resolving the situation of the contemporary crisis of
the man and society is considered in the article. The aspects discovered in classical, non-classical,
and post-nonclassical approaches form the author’s position based on the principle of synthesis of
classical, non-classical and post-nonclassical models of cognition of society, which allows to work out
some new philosophical and methodological platform of social sciences. Sufficient attention is paid to
survey of the evolution of knowledge of the society, the process of phylogenesis and its importance for
the society and formation of a new and general sociological theory.
Keywords: Integrated sociology, phylogenesis, social-stratification factors, classical cognition, nonclassical cognition, post-nonclassical cognition.
The most important feature of the present is a
concern of the thinking part of the humanity about
an increasing crisis in all its displays – ecological,
social, and the crisis of the man. Sociologists are
searching the ways of resolving this crisis by
means of another epochal sociological theory
which would become a response to challenges of
the present.
However, the approaches seen by some
European sociologists to solve accumulated
problems not so much lead to a really epochal
theory as increase breakup of existing social
knowledge, its withdrawal from life and
practice. This doesn’t encourage a wider
vision of problems of social science and of the
world [1].
Taking into consideration this point of view,
one can hardly agree with G. Ioas’s conclusion that
it’s not society to be had as an object before eyes,
but social actions and “multiple moderns” based
on those actions and at the same time to carry
attention from macrosociology to microsociology,
which is to give understanding of wars, violence
and totalitarianism during modernization.
Searches of ‘essential rationality’ on which I.
Wallerstein trusts won’t give suitable results. It’s
“essential rationality” which causes his conclusion
that “the world is in a state of chaotic transition to
an alternative world-system or alternative worldsystems” [2], as “the essence of rationality” is in
reduction of the whole to constituents and their
state of chaos, as the whole vanishes because many
of its constituents are lost.
Corresponding author E-mail address:
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Larisa P. Kuksa. Integrated Sociology: Synthesis of Classical, Non-Classical and Post-Nonclassical Approaches…
The world has always been global, so long as
globality is conditioned not only by the amount
of population and ties of its separate formations,
but also by the planetary factor – the existence
of the mankind as the genus which rushes
into its evolution. It follows that the process
of globalization does not cause the epochal
sociological theory, as S.L. Arzhamand asserts
[3]. It is caused by a qualitatively new aspect
called forth by phylogenesis of the humanity [4].
Mechanism of phylogenesis is inherent in the
organic world, nature in whole and, consequently,
in the mankind. It is also inherent in society’s life
style. Everything moves in it according to the
principle of disintegration of the initial whole
into two and more affiliated formations up to the
contemporary “variety of moderns” by means
of natural selection, progressive development
with a rise of vital activity level or getting into
evolutionary lockups. Phylogenesis includes
periods of smooth development or spasmodic
transitions into a new quality.
Specific character of action of phylogenesis
in human collectives, societies and the world
community in general is conditioned by the
quality of ideal cogitative constructs which
influence on the trends of development and
conformation. These ideal cogitative constructs
of people also obey the action of phylogenesis
laws. And knowledge about the society is not an
exception. Moreover, it has its own specific role –
in all historic epochs this knowledge performs the
role of the factor restraining public disintegration
within the limits which phylogenesis permits and
also it provides an access to a new phase of social
That is why the application of the principle of
historicism as a condition of overcoming the crisis
by means of sociology can not be restricted by the
history of European sociology though brought to
the present [5]. It suggests application of dialectics
of integrity and system in connection with the
analysis of corresponding cogitative constructs
of the world community. Reasonableness as an
ability to synthesize will be opposed only in
terms of such an approach. A tendency lying in
the basis of the history of formation of knowledge
about the society, consequently, in sociology
itself will be discovered, its sources, formation
stages will be understood. Things happening in
the community of sociologists, related disciplines
and in practice will be also understood.
Finally, it will be understood that
accumulation of knowledge about the society
began with the description of despotic monarchies
of the East. This description is represented
by Europeans in numerous books written by
missionaries, travelers, merchants, orientalists
[6]. After that it was continued by the description
of alternation of structural modifications (ancient,
feudal, capitalist) carried out by Europeans
beginning from the Middle Ages up to the
nineteenth century. In the nineteenth century
there was a turnabout from simple and empirical
description of these structures to their theoretical
perception. An infinite variety of empirical
sociological theories tangled in their objects
and subjects and lost the essence appear as a
result. It’s the way of organizing different social
establishments attracting everlasting attention
which was lost. Though K. Marx’s sociology
combines these social structures with their world
history, the period of formation of empirical
theory in sociology separated these two notions
(structures and world history). That period also
reduced the social organization to properties of
a variety of special cases, and “the problematic
organization field” was reduced to problems of
client organization [7].
Completion of formation of the phylogenetic
lockup is determined by the fact mentioned above.
The main tendency which is connected with
concessive accumulation and comprehension of
the role and significance of the social organization
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Larisa P. Kuksa. Integrated Sociology: Synthesis of Classical, Non-Classical and Post-Nonclassical Approaches…
as the worldwide historical phenomenon
stipulating the unity of the mankind, its world
systems, its order and, consequently, progress is
lost. Reference to it is the logical completion of
searches of knowledge about the society and its
integrating factor – the world social organization.
It is in accordance with the general phylogenetic
trend of the world organization development. This
is where the great sense of phylogenesis is found.
Phylogenesis led people to necessity to harmonize
their mental condition with the complexity of
the social organization by means of the epochal
theory – the general theory of social management
and self-administration. Sociology is to become
that theory. As any other science this kind of
sociology must have its own structure, the object
and the subject, the major idea, the paradigm and
a corresponding technological aspect providing
its connection with practice.
The object of this theory is the society as
the whole world; the subject is the world social
organization in its universal meaning. The main
idea is conditioned by the subject. The essence of
the main idea is that it is high time to find out the
difference between the meanings “management”
and “governing” [8], to connect it with the action
of natural laws in the social organization of the
world and to define the role of sociology in the
society. The role of sociology in the society is
aimed at tracing natural processes of the world
social organization.
States and civil societies, politicians and
ordinary people will have to coordinate their
interests with them. This will become a basis for
overcoming the so called anthropological chaos
[9], as the measure of complete irrelevance of the
subjective factor of the degree of complexity of
that social organization will be gradually realized.
The active agent of the social organization is
people. This approach won’t just encourage
the synthesis of accumulated sociological
knowledge, but it will also modify the training
of specialists in this field and identify their role
in the society [10]. It will also raise a question
about sociological general compulsory education.
As a result there will be an understanding of the
fact that reference to universal meanings of the
social organization is the basis for synthesizing
sociological knowledge, creating the so called
epochal theory as a scientific support of all
levels of organizational activity in the society.
That is why a serious problem should be raised
and solved. This problem is connected with
dialectics of cognitive process and a discussion
about significance and priority of classical, nonclassical and post-nonclassical approaches in this
process [11].
The discussion was caused in the end of
the twentieth century by a deep contradiction in
cognition and gnosiological behavior connected
with it. The essence of the latter during the classical
period, that is the period of domination of the
mechanical picture of the world, is traditionally
made up of the subject-subject and subject-object
interaction. On the one hand, cognitive activity
of the man is put on to the first place within the
framework of this interaction, on the other hand,
realizing the process of cognition in interaction
of people with each other. The object, cognizable
objective reality that is, is secondary with respect
to the subject. It does not seem to be active in this
The subjects of cognitive process are
separated from each other by the results of
cognition. Some of them are added to an amount of
scientific knowledge which is rather contradictory;
others are added to “extra” and parascience. A
great number of “ideal” and “material” points
of objective reality don’t coordinate with one
another according to the laws of this reality. They
coordinate with one another only according to the
laws of the human intellect. Technologies appear
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on this basis, among them social technologies,
which lead to the ecosocial crisis. Inner individual
characteristics of the cognizing subject and
their objective natural conditionality don’t show
themselves. There are social-stratification factors
and influence of purely material dominants in
the foreground. This is the factor which restricts
the classical period of cognition. It is connected
with the formation and now with intellect which
has already become rationality as a quality of
consciousness which preceded reasonableness.
Intellect divides and differentiates by means
of developed mind. Reason synthesizes and
differentiates by means of Wisdom “knowledge
of truth contained in the matter” [12].
Yearning for truth contained in the matter
is the process of simultaneous progress of
cognition from specific to abstract-general and
from the latter to specific. This progress is the
essence of non-classical cognition. Nevertheless,
classical cognition is present in the structure
of non-classical cognition. The nature of unity
of these two sides of process of cognition can
be comprehended by means of dialectics of the
whole and the part. The whole is non-classical,
the essence of the mechanism of evolutional
cognitive process. Classical is occurrence of
this essence in a special form during a definite
stage of development and formation of the man
and the mankind as Homo Sapience. So there is a
period when process in its progress from abstract
to specific comes to an end in differentiation of
abstract and a long period of interaction of the
“parts” with each other.
These are the characteristics of the result
of contemporary cognitive process being the
content and the outcome of the last 300 years
which concluded progress from abstract-general,
defined as “Cosmos” [13] by Pythagoras, to
specific. Specific is defined as a number of
“material” and “ideal” points of the contemporary
result of cognition. The points have concealed
knowledge of the truth contained in the matter.
Disappearance of universal meanings of the social
organization from sociologists’ sight is connected
with this process.
The so called post-nonclassical period
reveals here as a reaction to the completion of the
classical period connected with the appearance
and cognition of different “parts” by means of
intellect armed with an atomic bomb. According
to the post-nonclassical approach, a new
integrating abstract-general concept is needed,
that is going through the next stage of ascending
from specific to abstract. It is necessary to find
out the essence and to overcome gnosiological
contradiction to do this. Analysis reveals that the
object-subject relation was concealed from the
sight of gnosiology and orientation to practice as
the criterion of the truth removed contemplation
during the period of development of cognition
during the so called classical period. That is
why it is necessary to add the formulas subject
and object of cognition on the basis of reflection
and practical activity by the formula object and
subject of cognition and contemplation, the latter
two should take the first foreground at that.
Return to idealism criticized by Marx,
because “the subject, reality, is considered
only as an object or contemplation but not
as human sensible activity, practice, it is not
considered subjectively” [14], is not spoken about
here. It is spoken about overcoming narrowmindedness of orientation only to practice and
reflection. This corresponds with the classical
period and acknowledgement of importance
of contemplation as a way of comprehending
the results of this practical activity and their
influence on the objective world by means of
Plato’s unsensory cognition of ideas (intuition).
The way of comprehending the results makes up
the basis of cognition “according to the truth” on
the one hand, and trust to logically substantiated
thinking about the object, that is about the
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cognizable world as “the single integral object”
including transcendention on the other hand.
According to Kant, the latter should undergo a
categorical revision and the process of revision
should become an act of development from
classical to non-classical or rational, cognizing
the general. He, who has understood the general,
can consider the particular well. “As the existing
things are not unified, homogeneous and simple,
they are represented in different and numerous
kinds. They can be conceptual and immaterial
kinds named the matter and they can be outward
and accessible to perception, which take part in
the matter proper” [15].
Solution of this problem is connected with
the post-nonclassical approach today, that is with
the new formulation of cognitive problems and,
first of all with overcoming scientific snobbery,
that is distrust to any knowledge acquired a priori,
beyond a purposeful scientific experiment. This
knowledge is acquired by means of philosophizing,
religious and mystical experience, trans-cendent
experience, artistic and creative comprehension
of the world as subject-object relations are always
interwoven with the system of the subject-subject
Admission of the fact that gnosiological
relation is carried out not only on the practical
basis but also on the spiritual and intuitive
constituent of every human being, makes it
possible to conclude that it’s necessary to note
not only routine but also collective insight in the
so called ordinary consciousness. It is precisely
here appears the fact that the subject-object and
the subject-subject relations are included into
the object-subject relation of cognizing process.
It means that this inclusion shows the active side
of the cognizable world, the objective reality
given us not only in perception but also beyond
it. It is that which is beyond perception shows the
essential part of the object-subject interrelation
as visible and perceptible is only a part of really
existing and it is accessible only to the collective
subject. This statement is true in connection with
discovery of the microworld and the removal of
the concept of “vacuum” in physics [16].
The object-subject interaction within the
structure of gnosiological relation specifies not
only individual and collective subjectivity of the
human being but also qualitative changes to the
extent of development of consciousness – from
the first signs of intellect to self-consciousness
of Homo Sapiens. It is precisely in this process
people develop from subconscious but integral
inclusion into the objective reality to utilitarian
and practical interrelation with it. The so called
classical period of cognition and practice is
conditioned by this. And, finally, the removal of
the latter on principle of the present being nonclassical, that is cognition within which cognition
of the general , objective as the whole becomes a
condition for cognizing the parts, synthesizing a
variety of “material” and “ideal” points singled
out in cognizing process. Also it is a condition
for returning to the non-classical period as real
In this connection the structure of scientific
research should be expanded. The problems
connected with constant attention to movement
of world outlook should be included in it with
necessity. Especially it concerns interpretation
of the world. More profound interpretation of
the universe should be achieved on the basis of
correlation of results of scientific researches
in natural sciences, technology, anthropology,
sociology on the one hand, and mythological
doctrines, modern philosophical and religious
teachings, manifestation of an of ordinary
consciousness and folk psychology on the other
hand. Exceptional importance of this synthesis is
confirmed by divergence in scientific paradigms,
persistent inclusion of the paranormal phenomena
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in so-called abnormal knowledge [17], destruction
of integrity, unity and expediency of an image of
the world in different professions1, loss of meaning
of the life and depreciation of the standard of
morals among the people.
The danger of developed situation consists
in increasing adherence only to concrete
scientific paradigms, a validity recognition
only what is based on experiment, experience,
and pejorative relation to the humanities, logic
thinking. The more these tendencies develop the
more complicated and ambiguous forming image
of the universe. This image of the world finds its
expression in a reality of human interrelations
and practice that get more and more destructive.
In cognition the contradiction between the
classical, the non-classical and the postnonclassical
always exists and the problem consists in the way
of its solving. The solution requires understanding
intimate and firm connection between practical
and spiritual activity, acceptance of distinctions
of individuals and expediency of various inbred
cognitive abilities. But the most important
thing consists in admitting close relationship of
movement of cognition from the concrete to the
abstract and from the latter to the concrete. This
For example, the Earth (as a planet) is conceived of by
the people of different professions as the cultivated areas or as the place where bees since olden days live, or
it is mentioned in connection with idea of its usage by
the person as a source of energy. The near-earth orbit
is mentioned in connection with the idea that it would
be nice to invent the lift for transportation of people
and cargoes there and back. Outer space is mentioned
as a place where microbiological researches of inhabited
spaces and т are conducted.
«Activity of the man» (people in general) is estimated as «one of the most powerful factors influencing
the nature». «Many countries of the world», «other countries», “abroad areas “ are places, where post workers
certainly deliver the mail or telephone communications
exist. References to concrete outstanding “places”, “areas” or certain people are used to describe global and
the most general characteristics of the mankind. There
are comparatively few examples to discussed global
categories (mankind, the world). One can call «cultural
values of other nations», «business relations between
countries», «international contacts» (18).
close relationship makes itself felt at the moment
of end of social development cycle when the
cognition plays the decisive role. The conscious
attitude to this situations will allow to keep an
eye always on all completeness of structure
of the gnoseological relations and, first of all,
object-subject interaction. The constant attention
to it will allow not only hoping for integrity,
orderliness and complexity of reality of the world,
participation of people in its order, but also will
cause a measure and degree of comprehension of
this participation during each concrete historical
period. Such approach can underlie in the socalled evolutionary theory of knowledge about
which necessity V.I.Vernadsky argued.
The measure and degree of comprehension
of human participation in a cognizable objective
reality in conditions of modern epistemological
turn can be designated by finding the most
abstract category which must reflect movement of
cognition from modern ensemble of «ideal» and
«material» points perceived chaotically, and must
show their connection, unity, interaction.
Probably, search of such abstraction can
show the beginning of the way out from modern
epistemological crisis. And such concept exists in
philosophy. This is «all-unity». All-unity denotes
a principle of complete unity of multiplicity
characterized by interpenetration of all its
elements and at the same complete autonomy
of all its elements. As well as Pythagorean
«Cosmos» that denotes the next cycle of climbing
from the abstract to the concrete set of «ideal»
and «material» points in which Cosmos presents
in consciousness and practice of modern mankind
in chaos of mutually exclusive concepts, notions
and actions, «all-unity» is called to synthesize
this «chaos».
It is time to bring this concept to the bosom
of a natural space order, on the basis of dialectics
of integrity, philosophical comprehension
of achievements of natural sciences, finding
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historical and logical connections of all stages
and the results of cognition, overcoming of
limitation of the basic question of philosophy
and the application of dialectics as a major tool
of cognition.
All this will promote in turn to development
of the Scientific man (Homo Academicus),
suggesting new criteria of his thinking and
activity. He can be a scientist who has acquired
all riches of knowledge accumulated by
mankind on the principle of integrative removal
of its “irreconcilable” contradictions for this
with an external world and social relations
between people, that determine so-called social
technology, but first of all one should see natural
technology. This technology influences greatly
the general social organization which throughout
all human history finds expression in the sequence
of the set of the target organizations developing
within the limits of a certain cycle. In turn, these
target organizations determine infinite variety of
a way of life of the people.
Such change of methodological orientation
will have crucial importance for sociology.
irreconcilable is only a necessary moment in
constant formation and development of both
objective reality, and cognitive abilities of people.
The conscious estimation of this situation will
inevitably lead to considering all knowledge
gained by mankind not by the principle of validity,
norms and anomie, but by degree of approaching
to the Truth. And then it will be found out, that
only in the aggregate of all forms of cognitive
process – ordinary and scientific contemplation,
reflection, modelling individual, mankind
steadily ascends to the summit, comprehending
and developing even when the cognition vector,
seemed to be directed back, as it was during the
so-called classical period. (This period was based
on uniformity (linearity) of the gnoseological
relation and aspiration for the Truth through
cognition of its parts mostly by criterion of
Orientation towards all-unity will not only
restore logic of cognitive process, but will have
a very positive effect on what is called as the
social knowledge the product of which is also
This science is to correct its concepts with
cosmos, all-unity and world history.
It is necessary to notice in the history of
the world not only will and actions of people,
mechanism of development of production of
material wealth, social type of laws of interaction
It should become a natural science and the
integrative factor of modern process of transition
from the classical to the postclassical. This
transition must remove limitations of the classical
paradigms, and return to the non-classical as the
synthesis of classical and postclassical heritage.
Thereby this synthesis means, that the nonclassical from a position of the gnoseological
relation presents a combination of the objectivesubject relation in such a manner that the subject
in all of its aspects stands in the centre of the
objects. Here one can find out the essence of
evolutionary knowledge. It consists in constant
movement of cognitive process in frameworks
of “hermeneutical circle” that means a phase of
movement from the general, united (nonclassical
approach) – to the particular, individual (classical
approach), and then a return phase from the
particular to the general by means of the postnonclassical.
The content aspect of movement of the
cognition within “hermeneutical circle” includes
not only integrity of forms of knowledge
historically replacing each other, but also sequence
of transition from empirical cognition and
corresponding empirical theories to possibilities
of abstract thinking and abstract, logic forms of
cognition. Among the last forms one can call
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not only and not so much “the hypothetical” (J.
Bruner), “the advancing” (P.K. Anokhin), “the
probabilistic” (Y.N. Sokolov, D. Aron) perception
of the situation in the conditions of concrete
experience in coordination with all previous
experience of the perceiver, as comprehension,
understanding inclusiveness of the situation
in the general picture of the world by means of
all-unity, a principle of the historical and logical
analysis, dialectics of the whole and its parts and
at the same time, by means of intuition, sensual
cognition as displays of inbred holistic world
appeared, however, not as a condition of survival
for it would characterize evolutionary lockup,
but as a condition of overcoming admissible
by phylogenesis limits of differentiation of
the organization of the world – systems. This
organization is disintegrating within the bounds
of the cycle which has exhausted itself.
From the position of such approach
«universality» of the organization of the society
can be comprehended. This universality consists
in the presence of spiritual, conscious (or spiritless,
unconscious) centre (by principle of an atom) round
The potential of such approach has been
evident for many Russian thinkers. One
can remember ethnology of L.N. Gumilyov,
V.I. Vernadsky’s evolutionary theory of cognition,
the concept of man as a cosmos-planetary
phenomenon (V.P.Kaznacheev E.A.Slirina),
universe sociology of V.G. Nemirovsky, the theory
of vital forces (S. I. Grigoriev) and А.I. Subetto's
Integrated sociology also has a place in
synthesis of the mentioned forms and the methods
of cognition and transition to its abstract-logic
forms. In this sense Integrated sociology is called
to become «connecting lens» at first in the science,
transforming different branches of knowledge into
one science about man, mankind and society as
way of its life. Then it should become the factor of
«compelling logic» of natural historical process,
which caused at first differentiation of the human
race to many nations and ethnic groups, and
accordingly, the organization of their societies as
societal formations. In the course of interaction of
the latter modern requirement of association has
which all processes are organized manifesting
simultaneously administrative hierarchy and selforganizing system [19], in case of spirituality and
consciousness or governing and an arbitrariness in
case of spiritual impoverishment. Comprehension
of this situation as a paramount question of
overcoming of the modern crisis will require
replacement of governing to management. The
first practical step in this respect can be creating
the organization, along with the U.N.O., aimed
at institualization of theoretical sociology in its
new quality as the sociological tool for general
compulsory education, vocational training for
management, the diagnosis and the forecast of
current social time.
Presence of such structure has to provide
steady increase spirituality and consciousness
in all kinds of organizational activity through
monitoring natural factor which influences
the society through the social organization,
determining each time in a new way its
administrative hierarchy and self-organizing by
that realizing the main function of sociology as
general theory of social management.
Romanovskiy N.V. Three approaches to the future of sociologists/ Sotsis, 2005, pp. 3-12.
Encyclopaedia on Philosophy. – M., Soviet Encyclopaedia, 1983, p. 725.
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Larisa P. Kuksa. Integrated Sociology: Synthesis of Classical, Non-Classical and Post-Nonclassical Approaches…
Romanovskiy N.V. Three approaches to the future of sociologists/ Sotsis, 2005, pp. 3-12.
The History of the East in two volumes. Vol.1, Vyshaya Shkola, 1994, p.20.
Sociology: Foundation of General Theory. Nauka, M, 2002, pp. 428-463.
Kuksa L.P. Conceptual Fundamentals of Steady Development/ Collection “Social, Economic and
Cultural of Steady Development of Modern Russia”, Novosibirsk, p.I, pp. 85-91.
Kuksa L.P. Integral Sociology, books 1, 2, Novosibirsk, “Mysl”, pp. 675-716.
Kuksa L.P. Russia’s Key Problem: Ideological and Organizational Crisis and Ways of Overcoming
It on Basis of Integral Sociology/ Collection “Perspective Ways of Development of Theoretical
Sociology in Russia at the Turn of XX – XXI Centuries”, Barnaul – Moscow, 2003, pp. 206-224.
Non-classical Sociology in Modern Russia: Accumulation of Methodological Potential and
Technological Possibilities, Moscow – Barnaul, 2003, p.288.
Yamvlikh. Pythagoras’s Life. – M., Aleytaida, 2002, p.100.
Ibid., 101
Marx K., Engels F., Vol. 42, p.264.
Yamvlikh. About Pifagorovoy of life, p.101
Kapra F. Tao of Physics, “Oris”, St. Petersburg, 1984, pp. 198-200.
Dynich V.I. and others. Non-scientific Knowledge and Modern Crisis of Scientific World-View//
Questions of Philosophy, 1994, N12, pp. 122-125.
Klimov Y.A. The World’s Image in Different-Type Professions. – M.: MGU, 1995, pp. 126-131.
Nemirovskiy V.G. The Universal Paradigm in Russian Sociology// Collection Sociology at the
Turn of XXI Century, M, 1999, p.99.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2009 2) 113-119
УДК 334.7
Problems of Creation and Usage
of Specific Capital Fund (Endowment)
Pavel M. Vcherashnij, Vladislav Ju. Panchenko,
Irina S. Ferova and Ekaterina N. Ferova *
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyask, 660041 Russia 1
Received 24.02.2009, received in revised form 03.03.2009, accepted 10.03.2009
The article is devoted to the problems of development and usage of the so-called endowment or (in
Russian interpretation) a specific capital fund. Importance of these problems is connected with the
necessity of multichannel financing of social institutions. So, as a rule, endowment fund is always
created to become one of the sources of financing. At the same time, endowment is one of the types
of charity, and, as a result, it’s a social responsibility of business. In this article, we study economic
and organizational problems, which are related to endowment management and establishment. And
we pay particular attention to the questions of creation and functioning of the asset-management
consulting firms. Among all the economic aspects, the emphasis is put on the sphere of taxation. And,
consequently, here are given variants of assets and different schemes of taxation usage.
Keywords: multichannel financing of social institutions, endowment, management and establishment,
different schemes of taxation usage, social responsibility of business, charity funds.
In the course of Russian market economy
development, innovative projects have become
one of the most important measures of financial
stability and development, particularly in the
sphere of education. Most European countries
have a considerable experience in creation of
such projects. For example, the Government of
Great Britain encourages the development and
invigoration of the scientific base. Such a policy
is the main source of economical growth. In this
country, innovations have been put into practice
mainly in the sphere of education since 80-s. For
today, the model of multichannel financing of
social institutions has become the dominating
one. Financial support of education is based on the
combination of budgetary and extra-budgetary
sources. Precisely such a combination allows
taking efficient measures and using them for
solving topical social-economical problems. One
of such financial instruments, ensuring stability,
is an endowment or a specific capital [2].
Specific capital is an endowment (from
English «endowment»), a specific fund, meant
for being used for the non-commercial purposes,
as a rule, for financing institutions of education,
medicine, culture, and also it is a transfer of
money as such or of some other property as a
free gift to these institutions, to a person or a
group of persons for them to use it as a source
of income.
Corresponding author E-mail address:
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Pavel M. Vcherashnij, Vladislav Ju. Panchenko… Problems of Creation and Usage of Specific Capital Fund (Endowment)
At present time, the questions of endowment
creation are extremely important. To our mind,
creation and replenishment of such a kind of
funds can be referred to a sort of charitable
We should note that day by day charity
becomes a more powerful instrument of
realization of the Russian social policy, which
acquires more comprehensive shapes during the
last years.
Moreover, from the point of view of business
society, the most important thing is that charity
being one of the forms of social responsibility
of business. Finally, we have come to a civilized
understanding of this phenomenon and in the
course of active discussions we have agreed that
by social responsibility of business we mean three
considerable formations.
The first formation, from the point of view
of the state form of government, is business
liabilities before the society in the form of
punctual and full size payroll and tax payments,
creation of new working places by means of new
The second formation is corporative
social programs – investments into the stuff,
development of educational, medical and other
And, finally, the third formation, we are
speaking about, and which being less traditional
for new Russia – is a charity activity.
Thus, fulfilling all these three functions of
social responsibility, business is also involved
into the realization of state social policy.
Correspondingly, the state must understand and
respect all these and stimulate the development
of the given functions.
Of course, charity is a superimposed,
but nevertheless, an important part of social
responsibility of business. Now, charity is
considered by powers not as a simple concussion
of business to transferring of some sums for
realization of social projects, which are adopted
by regional, local, and federal powers, but as a
mechanism of partnership of business, state and
civil society. And this fact is an indicator of a
new stage in the development of private and state
Let us consider the main organizational,
legislative and economical problems, which we
face while forming endowment funds [5].
If we take the sphere of education, then
at present time there are two main directions
concerning the usage of charity funds, being
received by universities, technical schools, and
schools, – it is a salvation of social problems,
including scholarships, and financing of
construction. But, such spheres as investments
in human capital assets are not covered by
charity, i.e. engagement of new professors,
increase of professors’ and scientific workers’
reeducation; equipment purchase. And it
amounts up to 60-70 percents of the charity fund
usage directions in universities and colleges in
developed countries. Thus, in Russia charity
activity practically reproduces a bad structure
of budgetary financing of this sphere. As the
budget finances the routine reproduction, so
the benefactors do the same, following the
budget. Thus, on the whole, the situation is
rather irrational.
The second problem, which we think to be
rather significant, is economic harassments to the
endowment formation. Along with the legislative
ones, economic harassments are defined and
clear. In Russia, the spheres, which get support,
are used to be next door to starving, and that
is why charity help is immediately consumed,
thus fulfilling the lacunes, having been left by
the underfunding of universities, schools, and
other objects, which are being supported. Such a
situation requires forming an efficient system of
endowment management.
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Pavel M. Vcherashnij, Vladislav Ju. Panchenko… Problems of Creation and Usage of Specific Capital Fund (Endowment)
The third problem is the organization of
charity business in our country. In Russia,
charity business is organized in the form
of funds and practically does not exist in
the form of management companies. So, we
observe an obvious misbalance towards money
spending, and practically complete absence
of efficient management of these means.
That is why, in parallel with funds, we are to
form management companies, which must be
organized on commercial basis, as far as only
such kind of basis can provide their efficient
functioning. For today, Russian charity funds
reproduce mainly inefficient schemes of fund
management in their activity, because these
funds activity is limited by the transferring
of means to different institutions without any
further control over the money. Thus, we are
to create an effective chain of charity funds
management, starting from the benefactor up
to the consumer. And this question is the key
An efficient size of endowment is also a
question of great importance. The Highest School
of Economy has carried out corresponding
researchers and comparisons with the international
practice. In order to develop a university, being
out of the leading hundred, one needs to provide
its current additional revenue in the amount from
50 to 250 million rubles annually. And this figure
is minimal, which will allow the endowments at
least somehow influencing the quality of our higher
education, i.e. putting in the revenues from the
resource capital investments into the intellectual
capital of universities, into the teaching staff,
into the formation of young specialists’ salaries
and bonuses, into the equipment purchasing. And
all these lay down certain demands to the initial
amount of the university endowment, which must
start from 1,5 billion rubles, i.e. from 50 million
dollars, and concerning small university – from
30 million dollars [5].
Now, we shall consider the problems of
economical character. Most of them are connected
with questions of taxation. Current Russian
Legislation forms various taxation regimes in
case of endowment of one-time donations and in
case of appearance of a regular financing source
for noncommercial organizations (NCO).
The problem, being connected with the
taxation load of the means, being received by NCO
in order to form such a regular financing source,
is in the following. If monetary means are given
to NCO by its founding shareholders, then these
means are not subjected to the profit tax as a part
of income of the given NCO, but are recorded as
special financing. But in case the person, willing to
replenish the capital of NCO, is not its shareholder,
then such contributions are included into the
composition of extraordinary incomes, which are
subjected to taxation. In order to exclude these
means out of the composition of extraordinary
incomes, one may make contributions in the
form of special financing (grant), but it is far not
always possible by the following reason. The Tax
Code provides the requirement that a grant must
be directed to support some concrete programs
and concrete researchers. Thereat, resource
capital is formed not only to spend money for
NCO activity financing, but also in order to get
certain income due to the management of the
resource capital means, and this presupposes that
in most cases it will be impossible to contribute
to the resource capital formation in the form of
special financing. Moreover, such revenues (as
well as the proper resource capital) are liable for
profit taxes according to the standard procedure
alongside with other entrepreneurial incomes of
All these bring to impossibility to form
steady and transparent sources of funds receipt
for non-commercial organizations.
It is necessary to make some changes in the
legislation, imposing preferential tax environment
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Pavel M. Vcherashnij, Vladislav Ju. Panchenko… Problems of Creation and Usage of Specific Capital Fund (Endowment)
for non-commercial organizations, which form
resource capital and use the revenues from
its investments for financing the main charter
activity [4].
The given conditions presuppose to relief
NCO from the profits tax payments as for the
revenues, received from the donators for the
resource capital forming (replenishment), so
for the revenues from the resource capital
investments. Thereat, the kinds of NCO activity,
revenues, and also other characteristics should
meet the given conditions.
Hardness of the given conditions depends
upon the scheme of the resource capital formation
and its usage:
Variant 1: NCO is simultaneously both
the resource capital owner and the recipient of
income from the resource capital investments
(beneficiary). Such NCOs have chance to get
profits tax exemption (for resource capital
formation and for its management revenues) in
case the following conditions are satisfied:
a) They limit the forms of agreements,
concluded by NCO in order to make revenues,
and the sources of profit receipt;
b) They limit authorized kinds of NCO
The given NCOs conduct their business
exclusively using the funds of the resource
capital formation and investments and carry the
main charter activity (for example, IHLs provide
exclusively educational services, hospitals render
medical aid and so on.), i.e. the NCO data have a
restricted list of revenues from goods, jobs and
services realization, and the list of permitted
types of activities, which will actually define
the types of the main charter activity in various
directions, will be fixed by the RF Government.
Fixation of so hard conditions of tax exemption
eligibility for NCOs, which are simultaneously
both the resource capital owners and the
recipients of income from the resource capital
investments, is hazardous, because these NCO
schemes data can be used in order to avoid the
taxation. Though, such limitations will create
uncomfortable business conditions for the NCOs,
willing to use their resource capital, but unwilling
to refuse from rendering of paid services, having
not been included into the list of permitted types
of activities (for example, leasing of some parts of
offices and buildings). And in this connection, we
consider variant 2.
Variant 2: The owner of the resource capital
is a specially created NCO «The Resource
Capital Management Fund». The recipients of
income from the resource capital investments
(beneficiaries) are some other NCOs.
The resource capital management fund
is created especially for administering of the
resource capital, being formed as the fund
property (its replenishment, selection of a
management company, which will invest
capital funds in financial assets, distribution of
resource capital management incomes among
other NCOs – beneficiaries and so on.). In other
words, the only object of such a Fund activity
is possession of the resource capital and its
investments income distribution in the favor of
other NCOs. Profits tax exemption of the Fund
is performed in the same order as in variant
concerning NCO-owner. I.e. monetary means
and other property, obtained for the resource
capital creation (replenishment), and also
revenues from the resource capital investments
will be referred to the Fund special-purpose
receipts, being not accounted while defining
incomes for profits taxation.
NCOs (beneficiaries) are the recipients of
income from the resource capital management and
they are not limited in their activities and gained
revenues (for example, an IHL, being the recipient
of income from the resource capital investments,
has a right to lease some parts of offices and
buildings, in comparison with an IHL, being
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Pavel M. Vcherashnij, Vladislav Ju. Panchenko… Problems of Creation and Usage of Specific Capital Fund (Endowment)
the resource capital owner) and NCO taxation is
performed within the frames of the given activity
and according to the current procedure. Such
NCOs get the right for tax concession only in the
part of resource capital management revenues,
distributed by the Resource Capital Management
Fund among the given NCOs.
In order to control the activity of the
NCO-the resource capital owner, they create
a board of guardians, consisting of benefactor
representatives, NCO beneficiaries, publicity
and other people. If the benefactor is the organ
of state power (organs of local self-government),
then participation of the state power organs
representatives (representatives of the local selfgovernment organs) in the board of guardians is
The functions of the board of guardians are
the follows: selection of a management company,
distribution of the resource capital management
incomes between NCOs – beneficiaries,
determination of volume of NCO executive
expenses and other questions, connected to the
resource capital administering.
The group of people, who has a right to take
part in the resource capital formation, consists of:
individuals and juridical persons, independently
from their organizational-legal forms, and
also state power organs (organs of local selfgovernment).
The composition of assets, forming the
resource capital (admissible assets), includes the
-- State securities and other obligations
of Russian emitters (which include
mortgage-backed securities);
-- Units (stocks, shares) of index investment
funds, allocating means in obligations
and stocks of other foreign emitters;
-- Monetary means on the accounts of credit
-- Credit organizations ruble deposits.
The NCO (the resource capital owner) and
the benefactor (the donator) make an agreement
about the resource capital usage, and within
the frames of this agreement they define the
-- The goals, for which achievement the
resource capital revenues will be spent.
(Thereat, the agreement can cover both
the concrete goals for resource capital
usage and the NCO right to define by
itself the directions of expenditures of the
resource capital management incomes).
-- The type and the cost of property, being
rendered to the resource capital amount
within the frames of set limitations
(admissible assets).
-- The recipients (beneficiaries) of incomes
from the resource capital management.
Thereat, the agreement can define as
concrete NCO-beneficiaries (address
resource capital), so, for example,
the procedure of NCO-beneficiaries
-- Variants of the resource capital
The agreement can cover the following
-- NCO has a right to spend all the revenues,
gained from the resource capital
-- NCO has a right to spend some part of
the revenues, gained from the resource
capital management, capitalizing the rest
of them;
-- NCO has a right to spend as the revenues,
gained from the resource capital
management, so some part of the resource
capital itself.
-- The period of the resource capital
(The agreement can contain the following
variants of the resource capital validity periods:
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Pavel M. Vcherashnij, Vladislav Ju. Panchenko… Problems of Creation and Usage of Specific Capital Fund (Endowment)
а) for a certain period, b) up to the moment of
spending of the whole amount of the resource
capital itself, c) up to the moment of achievement
of the goals, for which purposes the resource
capital has been created, d) unlimited resource
-- The resource capital liquidation order.
(The agreement may define the following
cases of the resource capital liquidation: а)
upon the completion of its usage, b) upon the
achievement of the goals, for which purposes the
resource capital has been created, c) in case of
funds has appeared in the United States of
America. Today, it also exists in Canada, Japan,
and countries of the European Union.
For the last two decades, one can observe
an obvious and accelerating development of the
USA endowment institution, what is directly
connected with the role elevation of the scientificeducational sector in innovation development
and its competitive growth, i.e. from the point
of view of strategic perspectives of the country
development. There are certain bases to think
that precisely a huge scale of the American
inappropriate expenditures of incomes, obtained
from the resource capital management, d) in case
of covenants violation in the resource capital
usage agreement).
-- NCO resource capital income use
accountancy and NCO activity checking
-- NCO costs assessment procedure of
administrative expenditures and so on.
The NCO (the resource capital owner) and
the management company make an agreement
about the resource capital usage, and within
the frames of this agreement they define the
-- Management company responsibility
before the trustor;
-- Procedure and periods for revenues
transfer from the resource capital to the
NCO (the resource capital owner);
-- The type and the cost of property, being
rendered to the property trust;
-- Management company accountancy to
the trustor and so on.
Thus, creation of endowments is a rather
difficult task. The institution of endowment
endowment (in comparison with other countries)
is a direct and significant factor of the USA
world leadership in development of fundamental
sciences and higher education, and indirectly –
in innovation and economical leadership of the
The Russian Federation Endowment
Institution is regulated by Federal Law №275-ФЗ
«Procedure of Non-Commercial Organizations
Special Capital Formation and Usage» dated
22.12.2006 (further is the law).
In Russia, at present time they actively
form university endowments (The Moscow State
University of Foreign Affairs, The European
University, The State University – Higher
School Of Economics, The Moscow School Of
Management «Skolkovo», The Special Capital
Fund «Education and Science of the Southern
Federal Region» and others.), and the means of
some of the funds has been already placed into
Salvation of the above mentioned problems
will advance the creation of endowments in
other spheres and will considerably raise their
1. Federal Law № 156-ФЗ «Investment Funds»
2. V.A. Balakirev. Evaluation of the Corporative Social Programs Influence in Russia: Situation and
Problematics. // Organization. – 2005. – № 3-4 (20/21).
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Pavel M. Vcherashnij, Vladislav Ju. Panchenko… Problems of Creation and Usage of Specific Capital Fund (Endowment)
Je.Ju. Vahrameev. Real Estate Unit Investment Funds in the RF: Dynamics of Development and
Objectives of Investments.// Innovations. – 2006. – № 4 (94).
4. Criteria of Assets Management Quality Estimation. Analytical Notes. // Economical Analysis
Centre « Interfax-CEA». – 2006. – July.
5. Special Social Capital.// Eurasia Economical Community Interregional Assembly. Typical Project
of Legislative Act. – 2007. – October.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2009 2) 120-130
УДК 7.01
Maieutic Means of Criticism
Мaya G. Smolina*
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyask, 660041 Russia 1
Received 24.02.2009, received in revised form 03.03.2009, accepted 10.03.2009
The work is dedicated to the consideration of Maieutic tools of creation of the text of art criticism.
There is a sample of applying Maieutic methods to the critical text about Mark Chagall’s creativity in
the article. The research is intended for experts in the field of art and art criticism, and also for those
who is interested in questions and problems of studying of the art.
Keywords. The Art criticism, Maieutic, the text of criticism, a work of art, an artistic image.
The main task of the research has been
consideration of a problem of tools for creation
of the art criticism text. In art criticism there is a
special area – Maieutics. This area is connected
with actualization of the relationship between
a spectator and an art-work. One of the major
problems of art-criticism Maieutics is the creation
of the interesting, attractive and substantial text
of art criticism. It is absolutely necessary to
create a special technique for making the text
of art. The technique obviously depends on the
person of the text’s addressee, but the scientific
problem is to come closest to understanding of
the universal Maieutic principles that involve
the person into the world of art. The purpose
of the art critic’s work should be creating an
opportunity for the dialogue space between an
art-work and the spectator. The leading role in
this dialogue should belong not to the subject
of perception, but to a work of art. Though the
academic analysis of an art-work is an obligatory
condition for creating of the art criticism text
based on the same art-work, nevertheless it is
not the sufficient basis for evoking interest to
the given text in different audiences of readers.
An opportunity of construction of a harmonious
relationship between the text appeal and its idea
is a very important professional problem for a
critic. The solution of this problem determines
further destiny not only of art-criicism speciality,
but also the development of human culture.
Methods and Instruments
According to the theory of V. Zhukovsky,
maieutics is considered to be one of three
aspects of professional model of an art-historian
(Zhukovsky, 2004). This aspect correlates to the
main target of the critical text – to help during
the process of artistic image generation, as a
result of relation between the spectator and the
work of art. The maieutics of criticism appeals,
to some extend, to the methods of the Socrates’
maieutics, being used in the rhetoric practice. In
Corresponding author E-mail address:
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Мaya G. Smolina. Maieutic Means of Criticism
this context, maieutics is a skill to help to give a
birth to something new, something more flexible,
it is knowledge about oneself and the world,
having been got by means of gradual making a
person to refuse from his initial convictions and
to pass over to this knowledge stereo rupture,
to the famous revelation of Socrates «At least, I
know – I know nothing». The ironic provocation
of the marking-down of human arrogance and
self-assurance is the knowledge refinement from
the seeming and illusory by means of raising
of paradoxical and contradictory questions.
Indication to these contradictions and, thus,
organization of a cognitive problem, of a conflict
is a methodical target of criticism. In the result of
such probation – the bringing to zero knowledge,
to a clear foundation – there must be born an
artistic image, which is, in any case, more flexible
and more thought-over, during the interaction of
the spectator and the work of art.
Sophistical negative relativism and its only
possible conclusion – «I know – I know nothing» –
is an intermediate product of the cognitive
procedure. Finally, it must be objectified into a
statement of a more general definition, making
the man closer to the essence of things. In this
connection there appear inviting, challenging,
initiative, provoking motives and intonations
in the text, thus, forming logical lacunes of
Maieutic critical text excites the feelings and
the intellect of the reader through disclosure of
the very possibility to experience or through the
promise to give an answer to the question, having
been raised by the critical article. The basis of
such a criticism is a game, inter-reversing the
«ego» of the author of the article and the «ego»
of its reader, temporally merging them into one
whole, and then advisably separating them. Such
a criticism never directly answers the question,
what the idea of the artistic work is; it does not
give any clear schemes of its perception, though
playfully suggests the reader to try some aspects
of relationship between the abstract spectator
and the work of art. The critic becomes a secret
intermediate, now acting as the piece itself,
imitating its «voice» (fragments of a literature
work are quoted in literature criticism, in pictorial
criticism there are used «lively» descriptions of
the work’s fragments), then acting on behalf of the
potential spectator, giving him unrestrictedness
and free rein to independent communication
alone with the work of art.
In March, 2005 it was 20th anniversary
from the date of death of great Marc Chagall – a
Russian painter, who died in France.
Beginning from XVIII century there was a
special attitude towards France in Russia. It was
the time, when the French language played as big
role, as today the English language pretends to
have in XXI century. The mythologeme “Paris is
the cultural centre of the entire world” blended
for a long time in the Russian conscious with the
mythologeme “the Russian and the French people
are mentally alike”. The myths about similarity
of the Russian and the French people, saturated
with a high-society speech of the heroes of «War
and Peace», with adventure novels of Dumas,
with Voltairian and Cartesian tractates and
sensual rocaille plots, haunted our conscious in
waves, interchanging with outbreaks of national
Nowadays, both in France, where the museum
of Marc Chagall functions in Nice, and in Russia,
where the same role is played by the Vitebsk
museum, Chagall’s oeuvre is actively discussed,
which exactly national culture’s property it is
more likely to be. But the picturesque works of
Chagall can themselves answer the question
about such an aspect of this painter’s creation.
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Мaya G. Smolina. Maieutic Means of Criticism
– Have a look, here it is, Russia!- I told
to my companion, having come on to
the platform of the Vilnensk railway
station. And I hardly managed to stop
the porter, who had almost edged away
with my baggage.
M.Z. Chagall. 2000. P. 243
The artist’s (who has given us the walks
and the flights over cities and towns in such a
talented way) surname Chagall, being imposing
in European and «speaking» in Russian, has not
been always so.
Marc Chagall appeared somewhat later, than
Moysha Segal had come into the world.
Moysha (equal to Moses) was born in the
Vitebsk town, not far from the Lithuanian State
Border. It was in 1887.
The name Marc – Moses in the mode of
France – appeared in 1910, when Chagall visited
Paris for the first time.
Oh, what if to saddle up the stone chimera
of Notre-Dame, to brace it with hands and legs
and to start flying! Paris is under me! My second
Vitebsk! (Chagall, 2000: 240)
The trip to Paris on a small grant from an
art patron was not a careless walk, the painter
lived in misery, «reading the menu as a poem» in
cafes, but in all other respects, Paris was his lucky
ticket for the provincial from a poor Jewry of the
Russian town, Paris for him was Louver, first of
all, and his radiant light of French culture.
Such a huge distance, separating my native
town from Paris, kept me from running away home
immediately in a week or in a month. I would have
cooked with pleasure some extraordinary event in
order to have an excuse to return. Louver put an
end to these hesitations (Chagall, 2000. P. 214).
One more representative of the Russian
upcountry was different from others probably
by that fact, that he remembered about it and,
more over, that he understood it quite well, that
the only way to prove it was to study the world
tradition, having overcome the peak of modern
European art.
Thus, the meeting of the world of Paris and
the world of Jewry happened. Thus, happened the
first genius «remake» of the eternal into the mode
of France.
One wonderful day (there are no other kinds
of days in the world), when mother was putting
the bread on a long-handled peel into the oven,
I came up to her, touched her floured elbow and
– Mummy... I want to be a painter.
I will be neither a salesclerk, nor an
accountant. I have had enough! It has been not
for a waste that I have felt all the time: something
special is going to happen.
Consider yourself: am I the same as others?
What am I good for? I want to become a painter.
Save me, dear mama. Let’s go with me, please,
let’s go! There is such an institution in our town,
if I enter it, finish the course, then I will become a
real painter. And I will be so happy!
-What? A painter? You’ve gone mad. Leggo,
don’t hinder me to put the bread into the oven
(Chagall, 2000:139).
Chagall experienced the situation of
loosing of his native land, of his previous name
Moysha, feeling himself, in some sense, even
a traitor in regard to his own roots. There, in
Vitebsk, his father, having never approved his
studying painting, did not even extend his hand
for a farewell handshake. His beloved mother
and father, brother and sisters, town fences, his
girl-friend Bella –all these was left far away. But
Chagall had to move further, he reconsidered his
trip to France, giving this fact the meaning of his
own high significance. Yes, one day he had been
born in a small country room in Vitebsk, and
people and cows had been curiously peeping into
the windows.
Chagall created a lot of paintings on the topic
of birth, wherein the same motives were present:
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a cow, a lamp, a dark room, a figure of a father,
a birthing mother and a baby. Narrating about
all these, Chagall described with great tender
the domestic details, growing up to the level of
symbols: for example, a washtub was the first
thing, which he saw, when he was born. His birth
was wonderful, and there was no exaggeration
in it.
A washtub was the first thing, which was
captured by my eyes. A common washtub: deep,
with well-rounded sides. Such ones are sold in
the market. I was fully in it.
I don’t remember who, most likely, my
mother told that, when I was born – the fire broke
out in a small house at the road, behind the
prison in the suburb of Vitebsk. The fire captured
the entire town, including the poor Jewry. My
mother and the baby by her feet, together with
the bed, were taken to a safety place, to other
end of the town. But what was above all, I was
born dead. I wouldn’t live. Imagine, such a small
pale lump, who did not want to live. As if he had
seen an eyeful of Chagall’s paintings (Chagall,
2000: 49).
In 1911 Chagall created the last «Birth»
(Fig. 1), wherein he directly announced the idea
of advent of a prophet-painter with the help of
the painting’s solemn vertical format and its
strictly symbolical composition, where the main
role belongs to a ray of light, descending into
the mother’s womb: the coupling of the divine
ray of light and the mother principle – this is the
explanation of the special foreordination of the
baby. Reconsideration of his birth in his Paris
work was connected with the motif of christening
(the washtub is a symbol of christening laver),
i.e. here, the idea of secondary birth, of birth in
France under a new name is refracted. That is
why he called Vinaver (his friend-art-patron)
his art father, and Paris – his second Vitebsk.
In Paris «Birth» there appeares strictness of
compositions, and even structure, which is not
typical to his previous life-describing paintings,
made on this topic. And that again reminds us
about the fact that Chagall, being in Paris, the
centre of modern art, was in search of his own,
unique technique of pictorial works’ creation,
in search of a new, god-inspired method of
expression. In this respect, Chagall remains to
be a Moses in pictorial art.
Once, the wife of one of my familiar
doctors, whom I visited sometimes in order to
get encouraged, retorted to my complaints, that I
was picked at even here, in Saloon: – and what?
You are to blame yourself; do not produce such
pictures (Chagall, 2000: 218).
In 1911 Chagall created the painting «Russia,
Donkeys and Others» (Fig. 2). Cultural elite of
Paris met it with enthusiasm. Everything, what
was depicted in the painting: on the roof of a
house – a red cow, green calves, a woman with
a vedro and with a torn head, hovering about in
black cosmic space – seemed to be a surrealistic
portrait of Russia. Under the woman there was
an image of church. «Sur-nature! » – pronounced
Guillaume Apollinaire for the first time.
So, it comes out to be Russia, does not it?
On the whole, I have hardly known it. And almost
have not seen it. Novgorod, Rostov, and Kiev –
where are they and what do they look like? But,
really, where?
I have seen only Petrograd, Moscow, the
Liozno place and Vitebsk. But Vitebsk is a special
place – poor, godforsaken little town. There are
dozens, hundreds of synagogues, butcher shops,
passers-by (Chagall, 2000: 245).
In 1913 «Self-Portrait with Seven Fingers»
appeared (Fig. 3). Marc Chagall wrote a lot
of self-portraits, but this one is unique. «SelfPortrait with Seven Fingers» is full of riddles.
Firstly, seven fingers. Secondly, Chagall presented
himself with his works – real and unreal. For
example, the highly-appreciated painting «Russia,
donkeys and others» is depicted on the easel
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Fig.1. M.Chagall. Child’s Birth.1911
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Fig.2.M.Chagall. Russia, Donkeys
and Others. 1911
Fig.3. M.Chagall.Self-Portrait with Seven
Fingers. 1911-1912
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Fig.4.M.Chagall. The View of Paris from the Window. 1913
before the artist. The view from the workroom
window is overlooking the Eiffel Tower – it is as
if a quotation of his own painting of 1913 «The
view of Paris from the window» (Fig. 4). In the
right corner there is a sight of the Vitebsk town in
the aureola of floating clouds, a constant motif of
Chagall’s oeuvre.
My motherland is in my soul.
Have you got?
I enter it without visa.
When I am lonely, – it ever knows,
Get me to bed; wrap me like mother (Chagall,
2000: 5).
Thirdly, the artist presentes his pseudocubic self-portrait, because, here all the depicted
space is broken by surfaces, squares and angles.
It is known about the attitude of the master
towards cubism: Chagall paid tribute to it, but he
wondered why it was necessary to make so much
effort, in order to depict an object in its physical
Sandrar assured me, that I could get on even
with the most arrogant cubists, for whom I was a
waste of space.
Their ideas did not in the least disturb me. I
thought – «let them eat to their health their square
pears on their triangle tables».
Probably, my manner of that time seemed
to the French to be slightly wildish, while I was
looking at them in awe. It was tormentingly.
On the other hand, I was thinking that, my
art did not contemplate, it was a melted plumbum,
an azure of my soul, pouring out on to the canvas.
Down with naturalism, impressionism and cuborealism! They were dull and abominable for me
(Chagall, 2000: 220).
Fourthly, in most of his self-portraits
Chagall draws himself in some relative clothing
(something is blue, something is of gray colour),
with some attributive elements (a white collar, a
glove, a hat). His suit of clothes in «Self-Portrait
with Seven Fingers» is a significant part of the
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composition. It would be fare to notice, that the
three-piece is presented in the manner of cubists,
and the suit itself is elegantly-official and serves
a symbol of festivity. Precisely that time, bow-tie
came firstly into fashion (after the first setting of
the opera «Chio-Chio-San, or madam Butterfly»).
Thus, we see the artist depicted in the process
of creation, having put on himself a fashionable
suit. Chagall presentes himself in the aspect of
«a fashionable» painter, who has shot extremely
actual tendencies of his time. Without doubts, it
is a self-irony. The spectator’s eye is capable to
painting «The View of Paris from the Window»
the parachutist has dotted eyes that make him
gazing in surprise. In this regard, Chagall
appears to be a descent both for European art and
for Russian as well. Having returned back home
in some period of time, he started enthusiastically
providing an artistic education in Vitebsk already
as a representative of world art, air-dropping the
European art heritage on to the Russian land.
Sixthly, the method of artistic space
organization resembles the principles of the
Russian icon. Still being in Petersburg, Chagall
build some formal parallels and with their help
the author slightly hints to the ambiguity of the
fashionable author’s position: the curves of the
painter’s hair are similar to the form of the clouds
on the right, wherein the image of his native town
is enclosed. Triangular forms of the Eiffel towel
and diagonal rays of light behind the workroom
window repeat the coat lapels, signaling that,
there is a connection between the coat – a symbol
of external prosperity, and France. The triangles
of the Eiffel towel and of the collar, motley Paris
life, presented on the garden background, and the
colourful and psychedelic design of the artist’s
shirt are uniting.
Consequently, having put on the clothing
(the form, the language) of Paris art, Chagall has
remained in his thoughts in his motherland, and
hence the content, but not the form of his creative
work, is associated.
Fifthly, we see a parachutist behind the
window near the Eiffel towel. Just the same as
in the painting «The View of Paris from the
Window». Though, it is difficult to surprise an
experienced spectator of Chagall’s paintings,
but nevertheless: the size of the parachutist is
too big in comparison with the Eiffel towel, but
it is enough to be well-seen, and to notice that
his parachute is a triangle, its top being upwards.
Is it a symbol of geometrism tendency in art? A
symbol of spiritual beginning of creation? In the
stood for a long time in the museum of Alexander
III (now – the Russian museum), silently talking
to icons. For Chagall, the Russian icon is a
pattern of mystic pictorial art; it is an absolutely
special world, it is built in reverse perspective,
its background is nominal, the figure is right
before the spectator, the central presentment
is often surrounded by stamps in the corners,
depicting sacred symbolic spaces: mountains,
trees, temples. Such stamps are signed. «The
stamps» – with the presentment of Paris on one
side, and with the presentment of Vitebsk on the
other, – are signed by Chagall with yellow colour
on the red background of the wall near the upper
boarder of the painting: «Paris» and «Vitebsk»,
but it is done with the help of Jewish letters, in
the Yiddish language. In this case, the icon’s
artificiality is squared: it is not an icon; it is a
«quasi» icon, more over, it is a social work, a selfportrait. It is surprising that, this «quasi» Jewish
icon is aimed for reading by that very people,
who has never had any icons at all because of the
prohibition on anthropomorphic presentments in
Hebrew art. The discovered Yiddish inscriptions
at the work’s upper boarder are also a sign, which
unexpectedly transforms the portrait genre of
the piece and makes us look at it from a different
point of view.
The seventh point is also a riddle, but not the
last. The riddle of seven fingers is a provocative
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outrageous element, awakening the spectator’s
interest, and on the other hand, it is an indication
to creation of a miracle. If we pay attention to the
artist’s hand, then we see one and the same right
hand on the left and on the right side. (Chagall
wrote with his right hand, what is testified by the
photos). We may suppose that, there are depicted
two phases of creation. The hand with five fingers,
holding the easel and the brushes is a thingish
phase, material side of his creative working. The
hand with seven fingers, touching the painting,
is a mysterious moment of creation. «Seven
fingers» idiomatically in Yiddish means «very
quickly», i.e. creation for Chagall is a process
without making any mental efforts, creation in
the stream of consciousness. Formal, material
side of the artist’s creative work is fragile for his
will of transfiguration. Why five fingers is not
enough for the author? Pentadactylism may serve
as a sign of humane capabilities, which are not
enough for the «prophet’s» super-task.
Messiah’s responsibility is expressed with
an actual wish to embrace the native land, being
physically so far, to include it into one’s own
paintings as more as possible, to place it into the
world order, and thus to save it from perishing,
from being forgot by god, from cultural isolation,
to prove its existential worthiness before the
whole world. A humane hand is not at all enough
for such an aim; here at least the hand of the
Creator, of the Maker is needed. Otherwise, it
seems that, one could have depicted simply more
than five (six, eight or eternal number) of fingers,
but exactly the number «seven» possesses the
root of miracle-creation, the continuity from the
apocalyptical tradition. Real, mathematically
correct «five fingers» transform into miraculous
«seven», which create a symbolic space and
resurrect seven days of the Creation (in this case,
the author is God), seven rainbow colours (here,
he is an artist) and seven-branched candlestick – a
sacral ritual of Judaism (he is Jew).
A walk with parachute is difficult to describe
adequately, as far as it should be experienced
by oneself. The same concerns all the eternal
creational riddles of our compatriot – Marc
Zakharovich Chagall.
The system of maieutic moves is encoded
in an every text of criticism. The essence of the
critical text is much predefined by the fact, that
the visual-imaginary and the research (analytical)
primacies are merged together. More over, the
outspread of the visual-imaginary beginning is
considered as the artistic method’s prevailing,
while the author’s underlining of the objectmatter’s analysis and its interrelations’ revealing
appear as a domination of the research, theoretical
In this article we give, for example, a pattern
of an artistic critical text, dedicated to the pictorial
art of Marc Chagall. The artistic critical text,
mentioned below, is full of factual material. The
text problematic is set by the question about the
national identity of the artist’s oeuvre. There is a
classical «literature» conflict in it: the relationship
between the man and his motherland, the problem
of willing or unwilling emigration, of Jewish
cosmopolitanism, a contagious eternal problem
of self-comprehension of a modern provincial,
being abroad, an outbreak of one myth-world and
a painful formation of the other myth, the process
of changing of the world’s notion. This is a crucial
moment of growing older, which every person
overcomes a lot of times during his entire life.
The structure of the text is not monotonous,
there is created an effect of a «springing» text
with a help of a chequerwork of the critical
author’s words and Marc Chagall’s citations from
his poems and memoirs, which are phenomenally
contagious by themselves. It gives a possibility
to the works of art to acquire «a voice» of their
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The presented author’s critical text
purposefully begins from an offbeat fact (about
that, that Marc Chagall took this name for himself
in France); this maieutic-teller’s move is counted
for gradual outspreading of the question, why it
was so important for the painter.
The means of maieutics are presented in
expression: the text strives to be unfinished; it
is open for discussion, it does not purposefully
draw the line in the interpretation of the idea of
the piece. At the same time, there are elements
of communication of an abstract spectator and
the work of art, wherein the author of the article
tries not to impose his point of view, but suggests
the reader a game returning into the spectator’s
guise, wherein the spectator is offered «a pig in a
poke»: at the moment of the article reading he is
supplied all the necessary expert information and
investigational ideas.
In a certain moment, the reader extrapolates
the history of Chagall to his own life experience,
according to the design of the artistic maieutic
critic: the history of a provincial, the history
of conquest and overcoming, and the history
of celebration of personal myth over social
stereotype. The main maieutic target of the
article is an adaptation, preparing of the reader
to the interaction with Chagall’s pieces. Thus, the
addressee is a man, who is striving to be elected.
As it was said by Vas. Rosanov, every man has
his own Passion Week in his life.
Maieutic means of art criticism promote
a birth of an integral artistic image by means
of gradual destruction of the person-reader’s
primary beliefs and stereotypes of knowledge.
As a result the reader gets a new, more flexible,
knowledge of the world and of oneself.
In each text of art criticism there should
be a system of maieutic operations. In many
respects the essence of the art criticism text is
predetermined by the certain form of relationship
between eye-minded and investigative (analytical)
principles. While the development of the eyeminded principle is considered to be predominated
by an art method, the author’s stress put on the
analysis of a picture subject which reveals its
interrelations should be understood as dominated
of the investigative theoretical method.
According to a plane of the art critic as
a maieutic, the reader of the article «Walks
with Mark Chagall’s parachute» at the certain
moment extrapolates Chagall’s story upon his
own life experience: the story of the provincial,
the story of conquest and overcoming, the story
of celebration of a personal myth above public
stereotypes. The main maieutic idea of the article
is to open up the artistic image but still to keep
a part of a secret about Chagall’s creativity. The
text of art-criticism shouldn’t act as a substitute
for a real relationship between the viewer and the
art-work; it should only motivate the reader.
Work has been supported by the grant of
Federal agency of Education of the Russian
Federation in 2004 (A04-I/7-41). The work has
also been financially supported by the grant for
the innovative projects by young researchers of the
Siberian Federal University in 2007 and in 2008. I
express my gratitude to the supervisor of studies,
Doctor of Philosophy V.I.Zhukovskyi, and also to
the professor, Doctor of Philosophy N.P.Koptseva.
N.P. Koptseva, A.P. Chekhov as a Philosopher: «Game» Phenomenon and «Existence in the Face
of Death» in his Dramas, Journal of Siberian Federal University “Humanities and social sciences”,
1(2008), 22-38. – (in Russian).
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N.P. Koptseva, V.I. Zhukovsky, The Artistic Image as a Process and Result of Game Relations
between a Work of Visual Art as an Object and its Spectator I N.P. Koptseva // Journal of Siberian
Federal University “Humanities and social sciences”, 2(2008), 226-244.- (in Russian).
D.V. Pivovarov, Objective and Subjective Religiousness, Journal of Siberian Federal University
“Humanities and social sciences”, 2 (2008), 250-252 – (in Russian).
V.I. Zhukovsky, D.V. Pivovarov, The Nature of Visual Thinking, Journal of Siberian Federal
University “Humanities and social sciences”, 1(2008), 149-158- (in Russian).
V.I. Zhukovsky, The Visual Content in Representative Paintings of Andrei Pozdeev // Journal of
Siberian Federal University “Humanities and social sciences”, 1(2008), 124-148. – (in Russian).
V.I. Zhukovsky, Theory of Pictorial Art. Texts of Lectures. Part 1 (Krasnoyarsk, 2004). –
(in Russian).
I. Karasik, «Before» and «Now» of Michael Roginsky, The New World of Art, 3 (2004). –
(in Russian).
M. Chagall, My Life (St. Petersburg, 2000). – (in Russian).
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2009 2) 131-149
УДК 7.01
The Rules of Art Communication Between
a Viewer and an Art-Work
Maria V. Tarasova*
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia1
Received 24.02.2009, received in revised form 03.03.2009, accepted 10.03.2009
The communication between the viewer and the art-work is considered to be organized by certain
rules which regulate speaking operations of partners in the art dialogue-relationship. Each element
of the art-work is a sign addressing its meaning to the viewer who discovers it and fills it with his
own personal sense. Rules of changes in both the communicant and the communication product are
analyzed by means of investigation certain works of art and principles of viewer’s communication with
them. Communication with the art-work helps to transfer to another communicational level – between
the human being and the completeness of the Universe.
Keywords: art-communication, visual concept, index, iconic, symbolic signs, speaking operations,
The investigation of the meaning and ways
of communication in the culture sphere is one
of the main tasks for the modern art theory
and modern philosophy of culture. Art is a key
element in the global mechanism of culture.
Culture is responsible for realization of the
leading human communication need – a human
desire to unite with Absolute, for a man is a part
of the whole Being. To get the desired unity is a
way to find harmony for a human being. Culture
is the only sphere where a person is able to build
relationship between his own finiteness and
Absolute infinity.
The basis of the communication mechanism
realized by culture is formed by the rules of
ideal-creating process. In art the space and inner
mechanisms for ideal-creating are provided by
the relationship between a viewer and an art-work
who are mediums in the dialogue of finiteness
and infinity.
The main aim of this work is to define rules
of the dialogue between a viewer and an art-work.
These rules are not investigated and systemized
for they are considered to be completely
individual and dependent on the certain viewer
and his position as a recipient of an art-work.
The definition of art-communication rules
may be realized on the following methodological
-- the principles of the reflection theory by
George W.F. Hegel [1];
Corresponding author E-mail address:
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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-- the main concepts of the synthetic theory
of ideal by Daniil V. Pivovarov [2];
-- the ideas of the visual thinking conception
by Vladimir I. Zhukovsky [3];
-- the principles of the visual essence
of religion theory by V.I.Zhukovsky,
N.P.Koptseva, D.Pivovarov [4];
-- the fundamental concepts of fine art
theory by Vladimir I. Zhukovsky [5];
-- the method of philosophical art-critical
analysis of the art-work.
The named theories form the methodological
ground for the research of communication acts
between viewers and art-works.
Results and Discussion
Several tasks have been solved for reaching
the aim of analyzing the rules of the communication
between an art-work and a viewer.
The first one has been to define the
subjects of the art communication process.
Their specific characteristics influence the
rules of art communication. The subjects of art
communication are a viewer and an art-work.
The art-work plays the role of an ideal in terms
of the ideal-creating process. According to the
rules of ideal-creating, an ideal contains an ideal
scheme of action with itself. Thus the art-work as
an ideal contains the ideal scheme of a viewer’s
action with the art-work. For this reason the artwork may be defined as a subject which is more
active and which starts art-communication. The
viewer and the art-work turn into communication
subjects only when they are participating in the
art dialogue-relationship.
The second task has been to define
the product of the relationship between artcommunication subjects. It also influences the
communication rules. The product is constantly
in the coming-to-be state and it is determined
by ideal inter-reflection of both the subjects
of art-communication. Interaction of art-
communication subjects may be defined by the
notion “dialogue-relationship”. It denotes both
the tendency of subjects to self-opening to the
partner and the birth they give to the new being
as a result of communication. This new being
is an embodiment of inter-dependence, mutual
necessity of art-communication partners in each
other. This new being may be determined as a
visual concept. A visual concept is essence in a
visible and perceptible form.
The third task has been to analyze changes of
art-communication product and specific character
of a viewer and an art-work dialogue-relationship
development. In the process of dialoguerelationship the visual concept is coming-to-be
in a successive row of statuses: material, index,
iconic, symbolic. The visual concept statuses are
steps of approaching the dialogue-form revelation
of the existence truth and steps to realization of
the major communication need.
product status marks the change of subjects’
communication capacities. It also marks the
change of transition to another level of idealcreating communication process. While
dissolving in each other during communication,
a viewer and an art-work turn from addresser and
addressee to speaking partners and then to coauthors of an art-text. A viewer and an art-work
co-authorship leads the dialogue-relationship
to the level of finiteness and infiniteness coexistence. The phase of the dialogue-relationship
with an art-work turns into a phase of the dialoguerelationship between finiteness and infinity
by means of an art-work as a medium. What is
more important, the relationship of finiteness and
infinity becomes possible only during the process
of communication with an art-work.
During the dialogue-relationship subjects of
art-communication – a viewer and an art-work –
act as systems of speaking operations. Both
the communicants and their encounter come to
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existence only in the language sphere. The general
scheme of a dialogue-relationship in the language
turns into a dialogue encounter of communicants
only when the language turns from potential
state into actual state of certain speaking acts.
The art-communication language exists only in
the process of speaking self-realization and it is
always coming into being.
Any speaking act is coming-to-be as a result
of inter-reflection of object-language and subjectlanguage. This inter-reflection results in the
formation of objective meanings and subjective
personal sense. Object-language is more important
in the process of speaking act production because
it is a source of language unity which is a
necessary condition for the first phase of visual
concept successful self-development. Objectlanguage is a general communication scheme
according to which the dialogue-relationship
starts its development. Subject-language of an artwork and of a viewer is individual development of
a general communication model.
According to the type of communication
direction there are two categories of objectlanguages in fine art. Language systems
organized by the predominated communicative
energy of infinity that searches for finite, visual,
crystallized forms for its own display make
up the first category, called object-language
of Area-Classicism style space. Language
systems organized by the predominated energy
of finiteness that breaks its own limits and
searches for dissolving in the infinity belong to
the second category called object-language of
Area-Romanticism style space. None of objectlanguages can dominate completely in the space
of certain speaking encounter because both
communicative tendencies must be present in
the art speaking act. Their equal participation
demonstrates mutual presence of the higher
level communication subjects, i.e. finiteness and
infinity. The art-works which are style specimens
of the first or the second style space conduct
communication in only one predominant direction
though they also not devoid of the opposite
communicative models. The object-language of a
masterpiece is formed by means of co-existence
of both communication tendencies: movements
of finiteness and infinity towards each other are
equal in their power and they tend to harmonize
each other.
The subject-language of the art-work is a
unique sign form to realize the medium function –
an ability to be the “bridge” of dialoguerelationship for the certain viewer. The subjectlanguage of the viewer is a unique ability to
answer the communicative action of an art-work,
individual ability “to go along” this “bridge” that
is provided by an art-work; the ability that helps
to pass from the level of mediated relationship to
the level of direct relationship.
The viewer’s and an art-work’s speaking
operations in a dialogue-relationship contain
both object-language and subject-language signs
merged in a dialectical unity. Dialectical relations
of subject-language and object-language make
the potential language model come to action:
the certain art-work becomes a medium in the
relationship of finiteness and infinity for the
certain viewer.
It is impossible to investigate the artcommunication mechanism in a form of abstract
discussion. It is necessary to divide the integral
art-communication act into several phases in order
to analyze all the changes in art-communicants
statuses and to describe each status of selfdeveloping visual concept. The investigation
is only possible in the process of modelling the
dialogue-relationship of a viewer with certain
art-works. The model of each communication
stage is considered to be best analyzed when it
is based on usage of different art-works. “The
Circus” by G.Seurat, “Rinaldo and Armida” by
N.Poussin and “Scream” by E. Munch have been
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chosen for the analysis. The model of viewer’s
art-communication with each of these art-works
demonstrates all specific features of an artcommunication certain stage.
The rules of ideal speaking scheme proposed
to a viewer by the art-work.
Material and index statuses
of a visual concept
The art-work “The Circus” (Fig.1) by the
French neoimpressionist George Seurat was
taken to model the first phase of a viewer and
art-work dialogue-relationship. The phase is
resulted in the formation of material and then
index statuses of a visual concept. The pointillism
(another name – divisionism) method was created
by G.Seurat and it scientifically generalized
all the achievements that had been made in
painting in previous epochs. The method is the
visualization of the painting itself. G.Seurat’s
method focuses attention mostly on the painting
surface. It helps to realize the primacy of an
art-work move in the dialogue-relationship. The
art-work deliberately makes a viewer pause and
reflect on that art-communication stage which is
usually easily overcome. This is the way for any
pointillism art-work to inform that the meanings
of art-work signs are not the result of abstract
generalization but that they are inevitably
connected with the painted surface. The signs
are unities of material and immaterial nature
and they get their meanings only in certain
use. The opportunity to model creation process
makes the viewer co-creator. Thus organized
dialogue with the art-work in general maintains
the dialogue world-outlook. The pointillism
technique puts special emphasis on the dialogue
type of the process in which the visual concept
is coming-to-be. Although this effect is typical
for an art-communication with any painting
art-work of any style and any technique the
pointillism makes the effect more visible and
obvious. Any painting canvas is covered with
separated strokes which integrate into the whole
only with a help of a viewer.
The dialogue-relationship with the art-work
“The Circus” reveals the laws of the first artcommunication phase. According to the main
rule of an art-relationship, art-work starts the
Material status of a visual concept, forming
on the first phase of art-communication, is a
product of meeting intersection of an art-work’s
and a viewer’s speaking operations.
The art-work “The Circus” speaking
operations providing formation
of the visual concept material status
1. The first message sent by the art-work
“The Circus” to the viewer is determined by
the painting technique. Pointing manner of
pointillism represents the canvas space as a
whole, non-divided into separate forms and
constructed by combination of great number of
points. The combination is well-regulated, the
points are all equal to each other in their size and
form. The elements are like atoms. At the same
time the whole is rather unstable because number
of elements it is divided into is endless.
2. The colour scheme sends two main
messages to viewers. The first one is determined
by the fact that every point is of local colour. Local
colours are placed next to each other according
to the rules of “optic mixture” and principle
of “simultaneous contrast of supplementary
colours”. When put alongside local colours
represent mutual opposites. The colour scheme
of the art-work “The Circus” is based on the
contrast of the yellow and the blue, the orange
and the violet colours.
3. The colour scheme second message is
the predominance of the yellow and orange
colours which construct the general tone of every
composition elements.
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Fig. 1. George Seurat Circus. 1891. Oil on canvas. 186х151,4 cm. D’Orsay Museum, Paris
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4. The diagonal dominance of the composition
directs it both from the left bottom corner to the
right upper corner and back – from the right upper
to the left bottom corner. Diagonals organize the
compositional structure of the art-work.
5. Large format of the art-work (186x151.4
cm) is also a specific sign for the art-work to start
the relationship with the viewer.
The viewer of the art-work “The Circus”
speaking operations providing formation
of the visual concept material status
5. The viewer tends to open himself up to the
art-work because its large size shows similarity
between two art-communicants. The viewer
tends to see the place for dialogue-relationship
as comfortable for communication. The viewer is
tempted to enter the space of dialogue-relationship
that opens for him.
The description of the visual concept
material status
The first phase of art-communication
between a viewer and an art-work (modelled
Each of the art-work “The Circus” message
is addressed to the ideal viewer and is expected to
be responded in the certain ideal way.
1. The viewer assembles separated point
elements into the whole while reflecting on his
role in the process of creating the new being nonexisted before and without his assistance and
participation. The forms and the separation of
forms from the background are not just comingto-be during the corporal action of both the viewer
and an art-work surface. On creating the whole
constructed of separated elements the viewer
realizes the ideal programme of global synthesis.
2. The viewer forms new colour combinations
in the process of optic mixture of opposite
supplementary colours. The viewer executes the
proposed ideal programme of constructing the
new being by means of uniting the opposites.
3. Being influenced by the colour dominance
of the art-work “The Circus”, the viewer develops
the programme of active, excited, enthusiastic
and joyful participation.
4. The viewer defines the predominant
compositional diagonal as an “entrance” mode
(from the upper right to the bottom left corner)
that provokes viewer’s enthusiasm to “meet” the
entering. At the same defining the other diagonal
as a mode of “victory” (from the bottom left to
the upper right corner) provokes an enthusiastic
and joyful moving up along the way of victory.
on the dialogue-relationship with the artwork “The Circus” by G.Seurat) results in
a visual concept with the following major
The visual concept in the beginning of its
self-development is being formed on condition
of art-work speaking operations predominance.
At this stage the main purpose of art-work
messages is to cause a viewer’s back reaction.
The viewer fulfills the ideal speaking operation
implied and programmed by the art-work.
The viewer’s participation is not accidental
but regulated. The art-work doesn’t need any
viewer but the viewer of this very art-work;
the viewer who is able to participate in the
dialogue-relationship and who is ready for
further operations leading to visual concept
self-development. The message coming from
the art-work is addressed to the ideal addressee.
The certain viewer may correspond to the ideal
answering scheme only to some extent. Feeling a
need for an ideal collocutor the art-work strives
to transform the certain viewer. The art-work
challenges the viewer for developing a speaking
ability close to ideal.
The general status of ideal actions makes
them embody in certain viewer’s actions rather
adequately and naturally. No matter what the
viewer’s individual characteristics may be, the
viewer of the art-work “The Circus” fulfills the
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general programme of combining the separated
points into the whole. These operations may
be called “universal” because they activate the
potential for participation in each viewer who
opens himself up, who sees the art-work speaking
exactly to him. The pointillism technique is
the reason why the viewer is “caught” by the
dialogue-relationship with “The Circus” and is
tempted to go on the art-communication for the
further development of a visual concept to the
highest level of communication.
The visual concept of the material status
more detailed form. But the definitions found on
the first material level of the visual concept are
The model of index status of the visual
concept development may be constructed on the
basis of the further analysis of art-communication
between the viewer and the art-work “The Circus”
by George Seurat.
is specified by the formation of the total sign
space, still not divided into separate signs.
The total sign space is the regulation source
of both the art-work and the viewer’s speaking
The presence of the material status in the
visual concept development designates the sign
potential of the art-work material nature. The
painted canvas surface is an origin of the visual
concept formation. Moreover all the further
phases of the visual concept self-development
are concentrated here. Later the visual concept
reveals its sign nature more evidently but it is
already present in its completeness at the first
phase. The highest communication result – when
a Human Being becomes a dialogue partner for
Absolute that is eternally resolving into atoms,
that is coming to be in its eternal conflict of
opposites brought to unity with a help of human
participation – this result is originated from the
material status of “The Circus” visual concept.
Material status demonstrates and visualizes
the result of art-communication though it is not
recognized at this stage.
The visual concept in its material status,
formed in the dialogue-relationship between the
viewer and the art-work “The Circus” may be
defined as “complicity”, “dynamic coming-tobe”, “aspiration”, “meeting of entering”. These
definitions will be developed and specified in a
Index status of the visual concept is specified
by differentiation of the sign whole formed on the
first phase of the material status into separate
1. The size and disposition of the character
represented in the foreground send the message
of “accordance” to the size and disposition of the
viewer in front of the picture.
2. The actions of the character transfer joyful
and attentive observation to the viewer. They also
transfer simultaneous opening and closing of
something hidden.
3. The character’s attributes are the mask,
the clown’s costume and the curtain in his hand.
A clown’s role in a circus is one of the medium
between arena and spectators. This function of
mediation is extrapolated on the viewer. Also the
viewer’s speaking programme is introduced to
operations of standing on the border between the
game and reality, on the border of entering the
dialogue space.
4. The clown in the foreground is alike
the clowns at the arena. The likeness initiates
interrelation of separate signs into the whole and
provokes viewer’s immersion into the dialoguerelationship with the art-work.
5. The diagonal of the curtain in the
foreground is alike the diagonals of the curtain in
the background. It is also the means of attraction
to the dialogue-relationship sphere.
The art-work “The Circus” speaking
operations providing formation
of the visual concept index status
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The art-work “The Circus” viewer’s
speaking operations, providing formation of the
visual concept index status
1. The figure of the character in the foreground
creates “the viewer’s niche”: the viewer’s head,
neck and shoulders happen to be at the place of
the clown’s head, neck and shoulders. This figure
is an index for a viewer to find his role and place
in the dialogue.
2. The clown’s role is a source of certain
behaviour. The nature of the behavior becomes
ideal for the viewer who identifies himself with
the character. The clown’s actions automatically
become viewer’s actions. That means the viewer
looks the same direction as the clown does – up –
at the performance. The character is laughing
that strengthens the atmosphere of joyful
observation that has already been perceived on
the first level of communication – with a help of
warm orange colour tone predomination. The
presence of simultaneous opening and closing the
curtain makes the viewer consider himself as an
important and active side of the dialogue. It makes
the viewer the curtain’s owner. The viewer’s
position is the only one that is responsible for
the completeness of the event. The curtain and
freedom of operation with it point at the existence
of minimum two spaces – in front of the curtain
and behind it. “The Circus” viewer is at the
similar position – he is simultaneously inside of
the art-communication space and outside of it –
in the exhibition hall.
3. Having identified himself with the
character in the foreground the viewer “puts on”
the mask that marks the significance of existence
in two spaces. The clown’s mask and costume
dress the viewer like the participant in the
performance. The role of the participant is always
to stand between the spectators and actors in the
process of creation.
4. Seeing similar clowns on arena makes the
viewer “step inside” the dialogue-relationship.
Speculatively the viewer moves himself into the
centre of the arena.
5. The correlation of curtains in the
foreground and in the background reveals the
mirror principle of dialogue area construction.
The rows of spectators standing in the
entrance space in the background may be
seen as a reflection for those viewers who are
standing in front of the picture. The area of
the game is getting closed within itself and
prevents leaving the tempting and attractive
circle of dialogue-relationship space. This
is an extra sign-medium that is seducing the
viewer to enter the dialogue-relationship not
as a detached observer but as a partner who is
enjoying equal rights who is speaking language
of interrelation.
The description
of the visual concept index status
While revealing index status of the visual
concept the viewer is guided by the art-work; he
fulfills the ideal scheme of art-communication
transferred to him by the art-work. At the same
time the viewer tends to show his own capacity
for speaking acts. At the last stage of index status
formation the viewer turns to the communication
activity of a speaking partner.
The index status demonstrates the sign
whole falling into single separate signs. The signs
are formed only in the process of the relationship
between the viewer and the art-work. The sign
meaning is determined by its dynamic realization,
its functioning in the dialogue area. The sign
meaning is mutual programme of communicants
behaviour towards each other resulting in the new
being formation.
Index signs tend to synthesize with each
other. But visual concept index status is specified
by definite independency of signs’ meanings
which is followed by their integrity in the iconic
status of the visual concept.
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The rules of object-language dialogue
between a viewer and an art-work.
Iconic status of the visual concept
The beginning stage of an art-communication
introduces partners into the dialogue-relationship,
and the art-work initiates the viewer’s back
reaction. The next stage of art-communication
may be specified as action of speaking partners
equal in their speaking power. Equality is caused
by the common object-language communication
system for both a viewer and an art-work.
The tempting mechanism of the artcommunication first stage was represented on the
model of dialogue-relationship with the art-work
“The Circus” made in pointillism style. This artwork clearly visualized the sign potential of the
material surface of any art-work. Further artcommunication modelling demands a different
art-work. The object-language aspect of artcommunication can be best revealed with a help
of such an art-work which unique language
mostly corresponds to one of two general objectlanguage schemes.
The art-work “Rinaldo and Armida” (Fig. 2)
by Nicolas Poussin was taken as a model for the
object-language dialogue-relationship with the
viewer. The classicism style is mostly appropriate
to the Area-Classicism object-language. All
the art-works by N.Poussin can be called style
specimens of this object-language system.
For both art-communication partners to
speak the object-language of Area-Classicism
style is a condition for further visual concept
self-development. It must be noted that Nicolas
Poussin himself described the necessity for the
viewer and the art-work to speak one and the
same language in the communication process.
The unity of the programme of creating artworks and the programme of discussing and
understanding art-works is provided by unity of
the object-language scheme both the viewer and
the art-work can speak.
The object-language competence of the
art-work “Rinaldo and Armida” includes the
capacity for a speaking actualization of such signs
as “clarity”, “flatness”, “linearity”, “closure”,
“plurality”. These signs are basic for thematic,
plot, genre and other signs and they realize the
communication mode of infinity crystallized in
the finite forms.
The object-language competence of the
“Rinaldo and Armida” viewer consists of the
ability to speak the language formed by the
composition signs of Area-Classicism style. Other
necessary abilities are the capacity for rational
reflection, the knowledge of ancient mythology
and of the poem “Liberated Jerusalem” by T.
There are several main stages of the visual
concept iconic status formation.
On the first stage separate index signs
gradually sum up into the integral icon. The
meaning of every sign in the icon is determined
by the syntactic rules of signs interrelation.
Integration of index signs is regulated by
the action scheme suggested at the material level
of the visual concept formation. Material status
development has already settled the general
principle of composition, as well as principles of
colour and linear conception.
Icon, as an integral, is formed by means
of the art-communicants speaking operations
encounter. Every time the first speaking move is
done by the art-work it provokes the viewer for
the answer in their speaking partnership.
Several iconic levels of the integral
meaning are revealed on the second stage of artcommunication between the art-work and the
viewer in the situation of their partnership.
The third stage is the gradual filling the
iconic meanings with deep personal sense for
the viewer. Creation of these personal meanings
is already a signal that the visual concept selfdevelopment next phase began.
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Fig. 2. Nicolas Poussin. Rinaldo and Armida. 1630. Oil on canvas. 95х133 cm. The Pushkin Museum of Fine
Arts, Moscow
In the icon level such index signs as “chariot”,
“coachwomen”, “horses”, “clouds”, “trees”,
“column”, “lying man”, “woman”, “children”,
“old man”, “vessel with water” are integrated into
the signing whole.
The art-work “Rinaldo and Armida”
speaking operations, providing formation
of the visual concept iconic status
1. The primary level of index signs
integration represents signs summary with rather
independent position of each sign. The general
principle of co-existence and interrelation of
heaven and earth is represented in the picture.
2. The iconic integrity of the art-work
“Rinaldo and Armida” signs is determined by
ancient mythology. According to the ancient
mythology the integrate meaning of the group
in the background, formed by such signs as
“sky horses”, “golden chariot” and round outline
of coachwomen figures may be understood as
the “Sun road”, the “time road”, the “life road”
guided by divine forces. The background group
initiates descending along the diagonals formed
by the coachwomen’s glances and poses. The
ways the earth and heaven space are related
here are revealed with the help of the following
major signs of Area-Classicism object-language
-- “Flatness”: there is the movement from
the depth of the background to the
foreground surface formed by means of
the lying human figure. The predominance
of “effusion” is supported by the group
depicted in the foreground right corner
where the pouring water out of the old
man’s vessel and out of the boy’s mouth
follows the direction of sun rays pouring.
-- “Clarity”: while approaching the
foreground, the cloudy mist is clearing
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up: the earthly world is illuminated by
divine sun rays.
-- “Closure”: descending diagonals are
balanced by the trees and the column
verticals as well as by the horizontal line
of the foreground formed by the clothes,
human figures and arms. The stable
triangle composition is a sign of the divine
force visualized in the forms chosen for
its embodiment and personification.
-- “Linearity” and “plurality”: the figures
contours illumination in the dark
recognition intellectual effort made by the
viewer is directed by the represented physical
effort made by the coachwomen who are holding
back divine horses that are trying to go on their
run. The stopped divine chariot represents the
pause on the Sun, time and life road. This iconic
message when transferred to the viewer is met
with the viewer’s back message of pausing and
reflecting on the meaning of divine influence on
human life. The cycle of the Sun road determines
the Universe development, and human life is
an inseparable part of this development. The
background marks individual significance
of each element in the whole. Each element
is represented equally illuminated and
therefore filled in with the power of the
-- The integrity of all composition signs makes
the scene represent the gradual effusion of
the divine energy from all-seeing god of
Sun Helios to the earthly human world. The
Divine appears in gradual illumination of
Itself, and It moves to the surface of the
foreground that represents human earthly
world. The divine nature defines itself in
the found limits of well-outlined separate
elements witch act as embodiments of
divine forces.
movement of light from the misty cloudy depth to
the foreground surface – to the enlightenment of
human earthly life – is responded by the viewer’s
back communication move – the viewer gets
enlightened. The “Rinaldo and Armida” viewer
makes a step to revealing the iconic status of
the visual concept: human life is in the power of
Divine forces and it is illuminated by Divine light.
And Divine makes the first communication step
towards the area of human and earthly world.
2. The next iconic level of the visual
concept is integrated with the help of “Liberated
Jerusalem” plot knowledge. This poem written
by T. Tasso was used by Nicolas Poussin for this
art-work. The poem plot determines the kind
of respond of the human being in the power of
divine forces. The main conflict of the moment
chosen from the poem by Nicolas Poussin is
the conflict of male and female, of rational and
irrational, of passive and active sides. Literature
plot also stresses the religious implication of the
conflict – between true Christianity, personified
by the crusader Rinaldo and temptations of the
enchantress and unbeliever Armida who leads
the warrior of Christ off conversion.
3. The dynamic composition of the middle
ground, uprising along the diagonal of “victory”
provokes active conflict resolution.
-- The method to overcome the conflict
situation is given by the plot of the poem.
The art-work “Rinaldo and Armida”
viewer’s speaking operations,
providing formation
of the visual concept iconic status
1. As a speaking partner of the art-work
“Rinaldo and Armida”, the viewer realizes the
type of the relationship between divine and
human worlds. Ancient myth indicates the
basic principle of the ancient religion to see god
power as penetrating all forms of earthly nature.
According to the ancient religious system every
nature part is God’s embodiment and human
life is a subject of total God regulations. The
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According to the literature text, Rinaldo is
to break the imprisonment of passion, to
rejoin his army and to fulfill his Christian
duty to liberate Jerusalem.
-- The future uprising of the hero onto
the right path is designated here by the
analogy between the inactive figure of the
warrior and empty stopped chariot. The
chariot is destined for Rinaldo, it is a sign
of his future way. The struggle between
feeling and duty has stopped human life
for a moment but divine determinism
had already destined the ascension way
to the truth for the hero. The truth lies in
harmony between human and divine.
-- What’s more, active figure of the River God
who is the personification of Divine law
plays the part of the positional reflection
for Rinaldo. It signifies the potential force
that lives inside the sleeping hero who
still has the power for rational, moral and
religious awakening.
-- The represented Rinado’s helmet with its
meaning of the potential vessel for divine
waters also points at the relation of these
two characters and signifies the knight’s
openness to his future divine destination.
4. The image of the old River God is placed
in a distance from the main scene. His distant
and detached position plays the part of necessary
reflection on eternal laws of existence. The
character is the stoic wise man who demonstrates
ideal estrangement from all life conflicts and
ideal understanding the power of divine law. This
character is devoid of any temporary and vain
feature. He is represented naked, concentrated
and meditative. The character helps the viewer
make the final step in the development of
Rinaldo and Armida theme. Waters from the
stoic wise man’s vessel are depicted descending
the opposite way in comparison with the
direction of Amur’s invisible arrow. It signifies
the transient quality of sensual, irrational victory
over duty because everything in this life is as
transient and temporary as the water flow. But
the tension between passion and ratio is basic for
the character, as well as it is basic for any human
being. It is visualized in opposition of the tree
and the column – two vertical borders which are
parallel to the canvas borders. They make the
balance of two confronting diagonals in human
life inner development. The struggle against
temptations of flesh is necessary for Spirit’s
victory, and this is the way Rinaldo’s helmet is
again filled with divine energy while Rinaldo is
again ready for struggling and winning.
It is important to add that Rinaldo cannot fulfill
the operation scheme of ideal warrior of Christ at
the given moment – Rinaldo is represented in the
position of not realized potential. The only one
who is placed into the position of realizing this
potential is the viewer of “Rinaldo and Armida”
art-work. The viewer is the one who can make the
heroic deed of the knight. This is the way objectlanguage meanings are beginning to be filled with
personal meanings. It demonstrates the resources
of future art-communication development for the
viewer. The further development is managed by
means of breaking the borders of iconic level.
The description
of the visual concept iconic status
The leading rule of art-communication in
the process of visual concept iconic status selfdevelopment is usage of the common objectlanguage scheme by both communicants. This
communication stage is specified by the mutual
activity of communicants that become speaking
partners. The art-work keeps the position of the
dialogue catalyst but viewer’s reaction becomes
more deliberate and well-considered. Speaking
partners in their speaking acts realize the
communication programme of Area-Classicism
object-language. The viewer and the art-work
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act as language partners and send their objectlanguage messages to each other.
The iconic status of the visual concept selfdevelopment is formed by means of integration of
those index signs that were differentiated on the
previous art-communication level. The meaning
of each sign element is extended by its functioning
in syntactic relationship with other signs and by
its mission in the formation of the sign whole.
Usage of the common Area-Classicism objectlanguage communication system lets the artwork “Rinaldo and Armida” and its viewer
construct dialogue-relationship on the basis of
realization such key signs of the object-language
as “closure”, “plurality”, “clarity”, “linearity”,
“flatness”. Iconic signs integrity is formed by
means of index signs syntactic conjunction.
Every index sign with its individual independent
meaning gets involved into the complex system
and broadens its own meaning by participation in
the context of creating the sign whole. Signs unite
according to the main compositional principles.
The visual concept is both the process and the
result of viewer and “Rinaldo and Armida” artwork relationship. The visual concept is comingto-be in the form of the following operations.
The Divine appears, gradually stepping out of
the uncertainty mist and enlightening Itself,
when descending into the earthly world of the
foreground. It defines Itself in borders of clear
linear separate elements which serve as Divine
power embodiments. This primary move initiates
the viewer’s answering move towards the Divine.
On iconic level the answer realizes in revealing
the certain plot.
While forming the visual concept iconic
status the art-communication realizes the
dialogue-relationship in its finite aspect of
relation. The viewer gets related mostly to artwork’s “parents”: the author, the creation epoch,
the plot, etc. All of them are finite, limited by
their inevitably individual features. In regard of
“Rinaldo and Armida” finite “parents” are the
plot, based on T.Tasso’s “Liberated Jerusalem”,
Nicolas Poussin’s world-outlook, his attitude
towards art, specific features of the seventeenth
century world-outlook in Western Europe, etc.
This communication level is reached owing to
the meaning unity of those messages that are sent
by speaking partners to each other and that are
met in the space of dialogue-relationship. But
the contact gradually gets more personal, object
meanings become subjective. For both speaking
partners it provokes the necessity for breaking
the borders of object-language relationship.
Iconic level result of the art-communication
cannot be satisfying because it is limited by
peculiarities of the certain plot, characters,
and events. In general it is limited by certain
finished image represented in the art-work.
The new communication level of relationship
with the “Rinaldo and Armida” art-work can
be reached in the process of following visual
concept self-development. Being the speaking
partner to the “Rinaldo and Armida” art-work,
the ideal viewer fulfills the ideal communication
programme. He reveals the visual concept that
is “placing human being in the power of the
Divine eternal law”. The visual concept also
transfers the idea of necessary rational reflection
on rules of human own existence determined by
Supreme Order. Thus the art-communication
turns to the next phase of visual concept selfdevelopment.
The Rules of Subject-Language
The Symbol Status of a Visual Concept
The art-work “Scream” (1893) (Fig. 3) by the
Norwegian artist Edward Munch was taken as a
model of the new art communication phase.
The choice of the art-work “Scream” for
the analysis of the conclusive stage of the visual
concept self-development was made according to
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Fig. 3. Edward Munch. Scream. 1893. Oil, pastel, tempera on cardboard. 83,8х67,3 cm. National Gallery, Oslo
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Maria V. Tarasova. The Rules of Art Communication Between a Viewer and an Art-Work
the possibility to show most clearly the transition
to the subject-language communication level in
the process of intercourse between an art-work
and a spectator. The visual concept of iconic
status which had been opening in the process of
the intercourse between a spectator and the artwork “Scream” is specified with its principal
incompleteness and openness for further stages
of self-development. When index signs are
syntactically united into the integral icon sign
their contextual meanings are not exhausted by
the part they take in this icon unity. The certainty
of representation which is defined by the plot, by
the author’s position or by the world-outlook of
the late XIXth century epoch still is not able to
complete the sign unity which is being formed
in the dialogue-relation between a spectator and
the art-work “Scream”. It provokes breaking the
borders of the visual concept of iconic status and
leads beyond the scope of the object-language
level of art communication.
Speaking acts of the art-work “Scream”
providing the formation
of a symbol status of the visual concept
When starting dialogue at the subjectlanguage level of communication, the artwork “Scream” provokes returning to the signs
the material and index statuses of the visual
1. Index signs, such as “a man”, “a bridge”,
“a fiord”, “a bank”, “a sky”, “a scream” open their
universal meanings.
-- A face and a figure of the character in
the foreground are devoid of individual
characteristics: all possible measurements
of his finite existence, such as gender,
age, height, features, etc. are leveled. This
is a reason to define this character as a
“Human Being” in general.
-- The representation of a bridge is also
devoid of any certain features. And for a
Human Being bridge is a symbol of his
road of life.
-- The landscape which is organized here
with the signs of the sky, water, a bank
cannot be correlated with any certain
space and time: the represented event is
happening nowhere and everywhere in
the world, on the Earth.
-- The represented scream doesn’t refer to
any certain feeling, whether grief, or pain,
or sadness, etc. And it cannot be defined
as a scream of this certain represented
man because the representation is
characterized by the physiology breach –
the mouth is painted only by contour and
there is no colour difference between an
open mouth and the rest of the character’s
face. So this is a symbol of existential
scream of the Human Being addressed to
the Universe.
2. The universal nature of index signs meanings
is based on the following signs which had formed
the visual concept in its material status:
-- The mixed technique (cardboard; oil,
tempera, pastel) creates an indefinite
representation whole, dissolves the
borders of every separate element of this
whole and forms total vagueness and
-- Prevailing wavy lines which penetrate
and bind all compositional elements in
one single whole form rhythmic unity of
human and nature substances.
3. The unity of symbolic signs visualizes
dynamic relations of the heaven and the earth
which are connected with a human being.
-- Straightforward rhythm of symbolic life
road space – the bridge – is broken with
windings of the human body. Thanks to
these windings a Human Being becomes
an organic element of the nature whole.
The Human Being and the nature are
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Maria V. Tarasova. The Rules of Art Communication Between a Viewer and an Art-Work
enveloped by the same anxiety; and
they merge in one single scream which
becomes a “bridge” in the relationship of
these two substances.
-- The connecting link of the heaven and the
earth is also the bridge. Its perspective
provides a headlong moving from
the foreground into the depths of the
-- At the same time the movement along the
bridge is eventually stopped by the two
straight human figures. Those characters
1. In the spectator’s reply the objective
meaning of the symbol “Human Being”
crystallizes in the subjective sense “Myself”,
which is a maximum personal concentration of
the meaning “all the people”, “every person”.
2. The uncertainty of the landscape lets this
sign gain the subjective sense of the time and place
which is rather familiar for every spectator.
3. The representation of the skull is a sign of
an internal hidden essence of a human face. During
the communication with a spectator it also gains the
meaning of the mask of death. Correlation of these
also symbolize unity but in a finite aspect
of relationship between people. Those
figures are represented in the end of a
compositional diagonal which is called
a diagonal of “failure”. The opposite
movement of the Human Being symbolizes
rejection of co-existence with other people
and entering the level of co-being with an
Absolute, nature substance.
-- The head of the Human Being is represented
above the bridge parapet, that is in the
nature space which is also may be called
the space “outside of” human definiteness.
The scream reduces the body finiteness till
it loses its own boundaries. The scream
makes the Human Being melt and come
into eternity in his spiritual gust.
two meaning elements lets conclude that mortality
is an essence of human existence. A Human
Being is represented naked in his mortality. It is
clearly visualized here that every man is marked
with a stamp of death, and that the realization of
this fact leads any human into a state of eternal
despair. So it helps to open the personal meaning
of the represented scream which is the scream of
existential sorrow of every spectator.
4. Revealing the mortality and finiteness
of human existence becomes an impulse of an
opposite motion: the spectator, when realizing his
own finiteness, is ready to make a step towards
eternity – the step which is offered to him by the
5. On the other hand, the perspective, which
provokes very fast movement towards two figures
at the furthest end of the bridge, means that a
person is naturally predisposed to overcome the
situation of this upper spiritual tension. But only
this tension makes it possible to in-feel the nature,
to merge into eternity. To overcome it means to
leave for calm and stable state which is closed for
co-being with the Absolute.
Speaking Acts of the Spectator
of the art-work “Scream” which provide
the formation of the visual concept
in its symbolic status
Defining universal meanings of symbolic
signs initiates the formation of personal senses.
The specific feature of those signs which are
opening in the dialogue-relationship with the artwork “Scream” is that they involve the spectator
into a state of enormous agitation. Every symbol
is a unity of objective meanings and subjective
The Characteristic
of the Symbolic Status of Visual Concept
The symbolic status of visual concept which
is opening during the dialogue-relationship
between the spectator and the art-work “Scream”
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Maria V. Tarasova. The Rules of Art Communication Between a Viewer and an Art-Work
is characterized with gradual crystallization
of the mediatory quality of the visual concept.
This mediatory quality is being realized in basic
principles of the composition.
The laws which organize the material status
of the visual concept create the new unity of index
signs. This unity lets overcome the certainty of
icon status and lets achieve the sense unity which
helps both the spectator and the art-work open up
their own co-author potential.
The Human Being is demonstrated here as
a communicator between the spheres of earth
communication. The silhouette of the
cathedral tower vaguely seen at the bank
and the ships masts also construct the way
out to the heaven sphere. According to its
size and colour maximum intensity, this
sphere takes one of the leading places in
the composition. The waves in the sky are
represented multilayered and therefore
symbolize the process of gradual liberation
from the boundaries of finiteness.
The human figure, represented in the
center of the composition, is meant to be an axis
and heaven. The represented head of the Human
Being (i.e. the source of scream) is a point of
intersection where human and inhuman turn into
each other, merge into co-being with each other.
This relationship, with the Human Being as a
linking element, is constructed in several stages.
It is shown at different levels of compositional
-- On the first level wavy lines of body
and hands pressed to the head turn to
bank outline marked by pastel and then
merge into water space of fiord. The dark
skyline, the figures at the bridge, the water
circle with two ships which are bound to
go round this water circle and then new
return to the hands held up in horror make
the first level of relationship between the
Human and the Absolute. At this stage the
Human is still shut in the snare of his own
mortality. And penetration into the forces
of nature only makes to draw an analogy
of total finiteness of all mundane.
-- But the composition is actually open: the
line which forms a so may be called frame
in the right part of the art-work provides
a swift movement up. Pastel lines put
over oil paints play the same part – they
deliberately show the exit beyond the bridge
limit. These material signs help come
up to the next upper level of represented
holding the whole Universe. The communication
of the earth and the heaven spheres is only
possible with a help of the unique human nature
combined of triple unity of body, soul and spirit.
With the scream making the body lose its own
boundaries the soul overcomes the body and
acquires a quality of spirit. The soul enters the
space of communication between the human
and the Absolute spirituality. The human being
gets devoid of all individual and gets filled with
all universal. Through the scream of rejection
everything mortal in himself he starts the
dialogue-relationship with the Absolute eternity
and finds himself as a part of this eternity. The
scream of death turns into a scream of eternal life
which fills the bright-red sky.
The symbolic status of the visual concept
when the signs turn into multilayered symbols is
specified with its tendency to liquidate itself. The
definiteness of the image loses its importance.
The spectator who had opened the sense potential
of signs in the communication with the art-work
“Scream” feels his own human nature being able
to become a mediator between the earth and the
heaven spheres, to be an axis where the Being
comes into a state of completeness. It means that
communication with the art-work “Scream” has
realized its extrapolation programme and let the
ideal become real – to act as a mediator in the
relationship of the individual finite substance
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Maria V. Tarasova. The Rules of Art Communication Between a Viewer and an Art-Work
and the eternal Absolute. At the same time it
should be mentioned that there may be only short
moments of direct communication on the highest
communicative level. These moments emerge at
the final stage of art dialogue-relationship though
the scheme of this communication is recorded in
the art-work and is always ready to realize itself
in speaking acts with the spectator who is able to
hear and respond.
The purpose of this study has been to
investigate the major visual speaking operations
realized by the partners of art dialoguerelationship in order to make the mechanism of
the visual concept develop itself. Each stage of the
visual concept self-discovery has been analyzed
with the help of modeling dialogue-relationship
between viewers and certain art-works.
The results show that the leading tendency
of all art-communication rules is constant
transformation of statuses both of communicants
and the communication product.
The first rule of the dialogue-relationship
in art is to fulfill the ideal scheme of acting
which is addressed by the art-work to the viewer.
Realization of the ideal scheme helps forming
material and index statuses of the visual concept.
The second rule for an art-work and a viewer
in an art-dialogue is a rule to communicate
as speaking partners using the same object-
language. The partners are equally active
subjects of communication. The communication
at this phase forms visual concept in its iconic
status. The third rule of art-communication is
to transfer from object-language to subjectlanguage interrelation between the viewer and
the art-work. Gradual personalization of signs
meanings helps to enter the sphere of intimate
importance of the art-communication for the
viewer. Meanings turn into personal subjective
senses. The forth rule of art-communication
regulates self-destruction of the visual concept.
It loses its distinctive visual perceptive borders.
The symbolic status of visual concept forms
at this communicational level. The symbolic
quality of the visual concept is characterized
by loss of all clear and determined features of
the iconic visual status. The communication is
tended to break the border of the sensual level
and become a “bridge” for meeting of the body
and soul in the human whole and a “bridge” for
meeting of the complete human being with the
universal absolute spirit.
The work was supported by the fundamental
researches in art theory realized at the art-criticism
faculty of the Siberian Federal University. The
results of the study have been used at the courses
of lectures on art history of the XVIIth and XIXth
centuries in Western Europe.
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