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#4 (229) 2015
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????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????? 66, 69
??????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????? 46, 47, 48
?????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????72
?????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????24
???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????34
????????, ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????39
?????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????70
???????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????20-24
??????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????52
??????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????36
?????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????39
??????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????52
?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 65, 68
?????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????13
?????????? ????????.................................. 70, 72
????????????? ?????...........................................74
??????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????36
??????? ?????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????33
???????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????? 66, 68
?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????34
???? ????????????????????????????????????????????????? 70, 71, 72
????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????? 47, 48
??????................................................................20-24
?????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????74
??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????76
?????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????? 50, 52
???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????14
?????????............................................ 51, 52, 53, 54
??????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????74
???????? ????????????????????????????????????????? 70, 71, 72
????.................................................................. 66, 68
????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????35
???????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????38
?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????70
6
??????-?????? ?????? #4 2015
??????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 73, 74
???????? ??????????????????????????????????????? 65, 68, 69
?????????? ??????????..................................42-45
??????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????38
?????а? ????????????
????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????73
?????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????74
????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 66, 68
??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????33
?????????? ????????????............................. 15, 18
?????????? ????????? ????................................70
????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????35
??????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 71, 72
?????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????13
?????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 36, 39
???????????? ???? ??????????????
?????? (??????????)????????????????????????????????????????????32
????..........................................................................34
???????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????? 67, 69
???..........................................................................71
???-???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 31, 33
???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 66, 69
?????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????70
????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????46
?????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????42-45
????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????39
????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????29
?????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????12
??? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????20
????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 50, 53
?????? ????????????????????????????????????????? 51, 52, 53, 54
????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????? 12, 30, 36
???????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????? 66, 68
??????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????? 16, 17
???, ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????12
???? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????71
??????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????? 46, 47, 48
????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????? 52, 53
?????????? ???? ????????????............................36
????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????33
??????? ????????????? ????????.......................70
??????? ??????????????????????????????????????????? 14, 17, 18
?????????? ?????????.................................. 16, 18
??????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????39
????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????79
?????? ??????..................................... 14, 15, 17, 18
???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 66, 69
?????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????74
???????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????13
??????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????13
??????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????16
???????-?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????34
????-???????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 52, 53
??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????24
???????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????? 74, 75
????????? ?????, ?????????????????????????????????????????????16
????????????? ????????.....................................36
?????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????69
??????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????73
????????? ?????????? ?????................................18
?????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????? 16, 17
??????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????68
?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 70, 71
?????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????38
??????? ??????, ???????????????????????????????????????? 14, 17
???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????16
???? ????????
????????-???????????????????????????????????????????????????????67
????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????74
????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????12
???????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????71
??????? ?????????????????????????????????????????? 65, 67, 68
???????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????67
????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????29
????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????13
??????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????36
??????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????46
???????.............................................................30-33
??-?????..................................................... 65, 68, 69
????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????34
?????, ????????????...........................................15
????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????72
????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????33
?????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????37
?????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????12
????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 67, 68
A-Z
Alibaba Group??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????54
AliExpress????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????54
Apple.........................................................................44
China Smart Logistics?????????????????????????????????????????????54
Cisco..........................................................................44
City Express?????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 51, 52
Constellation Communication.................................27
Coral Travel??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????39
DPD...........................................................................52
Elastec/American Marine.........................................28
EMS Russia??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????50
eZWay.................................................................42-45
Global Learning???????????????????????????????????????????????????????28
Google................................................................ 28, 29
GVA Sawyer................................................. 73, 74, 75
Hitachi Data Systems??????????????????????????????????????? 67, 68
Hotelplan?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????35
Human Longevity????????????????????????????????????????????????????29
J?son & Partners Consulting....................................51
Kuoni.........................................................................35
Lamoda????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????51
MANGO OFFICE?????????????????????????????????????????? 65, 67, 68
Masten Space Systems............................................28
Microsoft............................................................ 20, 29
Mojave Aerospace Ventures....................................20
MR Group?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????74
Nokia.........................................................................28
Ozon..........................................................................50
Parallels............................................................. 66, 67
Planetary Resources???????????????????????????????????????? 26, 29
Pony Express?????????????????????????????????????????????? 52, 53, 54
Prostor Capital????????????????????????????????????????????????????????67
Qualcomm???????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 28, 29
Riverbed Technology???????????????????????????????????????????????69
RRG...........................................................................74
Sapato??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????50
Scaled Composites??????????????????????????????????????????????????26
SpaceX?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????20
STONE HEDGE?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????74
Thomas Cook???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????35
TUI.............................................................................35
TWEED?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????74
United Travel????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????36
Veeam Software??????????????????????????????????????????????????????67
VKO...........................................................................35
VMware????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????67
WD.............................................................................68
Wildberries???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????51
www.b-mag.ru/index
??? ?????????
????? ???????????????
??????? ?а2014 ????
?????????? ????????? ????? ?а???????????
124,7???? ?
16,3 ???? ?
5,3 ???? ?
????? ????????
??а??????
??????? 2015 ????
?????? 2015 ????
$9????
??????? ??а??????? ????????? ????????
?????????????? ??????????? ????
??????????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ?????
?а???????????, ???????? ??? ??а??????? ??а??????????? ???????? ?а???????. ??????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??? ?????????? л????????? ????????????╗, ??а???? ??????????????
??????? ???????? ???????????. ????? 90а???? ?????? ????
?????????? ??а??????? ??????? ???????????, ??????????
??????????, ???????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ?????, ????????????? ?????????? ??????. ????????? ????????
???? ??а??????????? ????? ???????????????, ?????? ?а?????,
?а????? ??а???????????? ?а???????????? ?????, ???????????,
??????????? ?????? ????? ?а????????? ?????????.
???????? ???????????
?????????
$15 ????
?????? ????? ???????? ??а?????? ??????????: ?а??????
???? ??а?????? ?????? ??? $24а????, ?????????? ?а??????
???????????????. ??а?????? ????? ?????????????????
??????? ????????, ??а?????? ???? ????? ???????? ????????
????? $115а????. ???????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ???
???, ????????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ????
??????????, ?а?????? ????? ???????? ??а?????? ?а2015 ????
????????? ??а????? $135а????. ????? ??????, ??а???????
??????? ??????? ??а??????, ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????.
????????? ??????????
??????
$2,89
$1,98
????
$1,69
????
????
-49% -40%
2009 ???
2015 ??? (???????)
??????? ??????? ????????? ?а2015?? ????? ???? ??????????? ?а????????? 2009 ?????, ????????? ?????????? ????????. ?а??????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????
37,9%, ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????. ?????
????? ?????? ???? ??а?????? ?????????? ?????????????
?????: ??? ??????? ??????? General Motors, ??а????? 2015
???? ????? ????????? ??????? Opel, ?аChevrolet ???????????? ???? ???????????. ??????? ??????? ???? ?а?а???????????.
??а?????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????
????????? ?????????, ?а??????? ????????? 9 ??????? ?????
????????? ??а?????? ????????? ???????????а? ??? ?????
25% ??а?????? ?????.
8
??????-?????? ?????? #4 2015
2012 ???
2013 ???
2014 ???
????? ?????????? ?а????????? PwC ????????? ?а??? ??????
????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ?а?????? ?а2014 ????.
??????? ????????? ??????????, ??????? ????????? ??????,
??????, ?????? ?а?????????? ?а??????????????, ???????????
??а????????? ?а2013 ????? ??а71%. ?????? ???? ?а??????????
?????????. ???, ??а30% ????? ????? ?????????? ??а????????
?????? ????????? ????????. ??????? ??????????? ?????
?????????? ??????? ?????????? ??а??????????????????
????????а? ????? ??а43%. ??а?????? ?????????, ??? ??????????????? ?а????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????.
???? ??????
?????
??а???????
???? ?
??????????
??????
294,81
129,0 ???? ?
117,0 ???? ?
?????
??????????
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4?? ????? ???????
7?? ????? ??????
Bloomberg ???????? ?????? л??????????-???????????╗а?
????? ?а????? ?????????????? ????????????? ??????????.
?а?????? Misery Index ????? ?????? ?????? ???????????
?а????????? ?а??????? ??????????????? ???. ????? ???а???????????? ????? 51 ?????? ????, ??????? ????????. ??????
?????? ?а??????? ??????? ????????????, ?????? 20 ??????
л?????????????╗ ??а??? ?????????. ???????? ?а???????
??????? ?????????а? ??а????????? Bloomberg, ??а?????????
??????? 85 ??а100 ??????.
?????????????? ??????? ?????? ?а?????? ???????? ??????????, ??????? ????? ?????????? ???????????? G20.
?а2011-2013 ????? ?? ?? ??????? ???????? ?а127 ??????, ?????? ??????? ??? ???????. ??? ???? ???????????? ????????
??????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????
????? ??????? ??: ????????, ?????????? л??????╗ ????,
???????? ?????? ??а?????? ??? ??а??????, ??????????? ????
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??? ?????????
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??????
(?????? 2015 ????)
???????
??????
???????? ??????? ???????? ?а?????? ?????????? ?а?????? 2015 ???? ??а15%, ???????? $15,9а????. ??а???? ???????
?????? ??????????? ?????????????????. ????????????
????????????? ??????? ??????? ??? ????????, ??? ?а???????
???????. ??? ???? ??????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ??а???????? ???: ???? ??????? ?а??? ?????? ?????????? ??а30,1%
??а$12,6а????, ????? ??а??? ?а??????а? ??а37% ??а$1,6а????.
?????????? ?????? ?а???????? ??а???????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ????????????????? ???????
(??????? ??а41,9%), ??????????? ??????? ?а????? (??а39,2%)
?а?????????? ????????? (??а35,3%).
-26,5% -36,9%
????????????
??????? (?????? 2015 ????)
????? ?????
???????? ????????
-25%
??????? ??????
?а???????? ???????
-38%
?? ?????? 2014 ???? ?????????? ????? ????????????
????????????? ??????? ????????????????? ???????? ????
??а6,4%, ?????????? ?а???-?????. ?????? ?????? ??????
2015 ???? ????? ???????? ???????? л?????????? ??????╗.
???????? ??????, ???а?? ???? ???????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???? ?????????, ?а????????? ???????? ??????
?????????? ????? ???????????.
10
??????-?????? ?????? #4 2015
??????? ???????????
?а2035 ????
????? ????? ??????
?а??????
-10%
%
3
0
+1
?????? ?а?????????
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?а??????????╗, 17.03.2015
(?????????? ??а???????
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???????? ??а??????
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19.03.2015
??? ????????? ????????? ?????????
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? ???? ????? ??????, ?????????, ?????????? ?????????
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?????????? ?а????????????? ??????? ?а???????, ??а?????
???????? ?аFACEBOOK, 28.01.2015
? ????????????, ??? ???????, ?а???????а? ??? ?а??? ????????? ?????????
??а?????, ?а???а????? ?а???? ??????? ????????????, ??????? ??а???? ????? ????
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?????????????
12
??????-?????? ?????? #4 2015
? ?????????, ??, ???а?? ?????, ???
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?????????????? ?а?????? ?????? ????
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???????? ?а??????, ??а????????????????, 13.03.2015
????????? ?????? ?а????????
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????????.
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?а???????? ????????
????????? ???????,
17.03.2015
?? ??????? ?????? ???????
???????????? ?а????????, ???????
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??????????? ??????????? ??а30%.
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???????? ??а?????????
???????? ?а???????, 23.03.2015
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??????? ?????????? ??????? 12%.
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20.03.3015
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?а???????, 23.03.2015
????????? ?????, ?????????
????, ???????? ??а????????????????, 20.03.2015
?????????????????
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????, 19.03.2015
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?????.
??????-?????? ?????? #4 2015
13
????????
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?
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?а????????????? ???? ??а120 ??. ??а?????? ??????, ??? ?????
1,9а???. ?? ??????????? ??????, ??? ????? ?????????? ??????. ??? ??????? ?????????? ?а?????????? л???????╗ ??????
????????, ??а???? ??? ??а????? л?? ????????╗а? ?????а???????? ???????????? ?????? ?а????????? л????╗. ?а??????
????? ???? ??????? ?????????????? ????????? ??????,
?а????? ?????? ??а?????? ?????, ?а???? ??а??? л?????????╗
??а?????? ???????? 7-8 ????. ???????? ????, ??? ??????????
?????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ?а?????
??????,а? ?????. ?????? ???? ????????? ??а????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ??????
??????? ?а?????????? ?????
????????? ??а?????? ???????? ?а???, ???а?????? ?????
??????? ????? ?????? ??????, ???а??????? ??????, ?а???а??
2020 ???? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ??а500 ?? ??????,
????? ??????? ?????????????????? ??а?????????? ??????
???? ??а??а70%. ???? ???? ??? ???????? ???????? ?????
??????? ????? ???????? ??а??????????.
14
??????-?????? ?????? #4 2015
? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????????
????????? ???????. ?????? ??????
????????? 80%, ????????? ????????
?????????. ?а??????????? ???????????,
???а?????? ?????? ??????? ???????
??????. ?????? ?????? ????? ?а???????
???а??????????а? ?????? ??а?????????.
????????, ???????? ??????????
?а??????????? ???????? ???? ???????
?????????? ??а???????? ??????.
??????????? ???????а? ??????????????????? ??????,
????????????? ?????????????. л??????? ???????? ??????
????? ?а???????? ???????? ?????????????????? ??????????? ??а?????? ?а???????? ?????????, ??а?а? ??????? ????????╗,а? ??????? ????????? ???????, ??????????? ????????
л?? ??????? ??????╗ (4 ????????? ????????? ?а??????
????????) ?а???????????? ????????? ????????????? ?????
?????????????? ??????. ??? ?????? ???а?????????????? ??????????, ?????????? ???????, ??????? ????? л??????????╗,
???? ????? ??????? ??????? ???а?? ????????, ?????????
?????? ??????, ??????????? л??????????? ???????????-
?????? ????????????? л?? ??????? ??????╗
???
??╗. ??? ???????????а? ??? 94 ?? ????????? ??????, 1,5а???.
?????????? ?а200а??? ?????? ??????? ??а?????? ????????
????. ??а??? ?а????????? ??а??????????. л???????? ???????:
???? ??????? ??а??????????, ??а?? ?????????,а? ???????
??????.а? ?????????, ??? ??? ????????? ????????, ?????,
???????? ??? 8 ??. ??? ????? ???????? ??а?????????????╗.
????????? ???????? ????????????: ???????? ??????????????
????????? ??????? ?????? ??? ?????, ???? ??а??????? ?????????? ?????????? ??а?????? ????? ?а?????? ????? ?????????
л?????╗ ?а?????????-?????????, ??? л??? ???????╗ 144 ??.
л??????????╗ ?????????? ??????????????? ??????а? ??????
??????????? ????????-????????????????? ????? ????????
17а???. ??. ??????, ?а??????? ?????? ???????? ???????????
???????.
??? ??а???????????, ???? ???????? ????????? ?????
?а???????, ??? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ?а???????,
????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????. ??а????????
???????, ??а?????? ???????,а? ?а?????????? ??????? ???а???????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ?а?????????????
????? ??????. ?ал??????????╗ ?????? 15 ?? ???????????
??????, ?а?????????а? ???????????, ??????? ??а35 ??а40
???. ??????, ??????, ??????????, ???а???? ????? ?????????
???????? ??????????, ???? ??????????? ??????????????,
??а??????? ??????????????? ?а?????? ????????, 9,6%. ??а???????? ??????, ????? ??????? ??????????, ??а???а????
????? ???????????, ???????? ????????? ?а?????????, ?????
?????????????? 25-30%, ??????? ??????????? ?????????????. ???? ??а????? ????????, ???а??????, ??????? ???????????
?а????????? ???????.
?????????????, ?????????? ????????? ????????? ???????
????? ??а???????????, ?а?????????? ???а??????????? ????
??????, ???????, ?????. ??? ????? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????, ??????? ???????? IFC Markets
??????? ???????.
????? ??????? ?????? ?а?????? ?а????????? ???? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ?а2а???. ?? ?????? 4,7а???. ?? ?а???????
????????? ???????. ??????? ?????? ??а???????????? ??????
?????? ??а???????????, ?а????? ??????? ??а??????????????
?????. ??????? ?а??а??? ???? ????????? ?а?????????? ?а???????? ?????????, ?????? ???а??????? ????? ????????а? ???
???????, ??????????? ??? ?а1980?? ????; ??????? ??? ???????????? ????????? ??????????, ??????? ?а???????? ??????
????????? ????????????? ???? ???????????. ????????????
????? ??????? ??а???? 20% ?????????? ????????? ?????????????-?????? ?????? #4 2015
15
????????
??????????? ??????
??????? ??????? ??а????????????, ????????
????? ????????, ??????????? л?? ?????????
?????╗, ?????????? л?????????????? ?????????????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ??????
???? ?????????╗.
?а??????,а???. ????
??? ???????? ????? ????????, ??а??а?????????? ??????? ???????? ??а???? ??????.
??а??а??? ??а??? л?????╗ ??????????. ??а??????? л?????????? ?????╗, 50 ???????? ????????
?а????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????,
?а??а?????? ????????? ??????????? ???????
??? ??? ????????? ????????????? ??а??? ?????
20. ?????? ???????, ???а??? ????? ????? ?а????????? ??????. ??а??? ?а????????? ???????
??? ?????????, ?????????? ????? ???????
??а???????? л????╗. ???? ??????? ????????? ??а????, ??? ?а2012 ???? ???????? ????????
???????? ??а?????????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????, л? ?????╗ ????? ?????????
??а????? ?????? ????????. ?????? ??а?????
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
???????????????? ????? ?????????? ?????
???. ???, ??????? ????????? ????????? ??
??????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????
????????: ?????????? л??????? ??????╗
?????? ????? ??а?????? ?? ?а?????????? (???
50% ??а???? ????????? ?а?????? ????????!).
???. ????? ??????? ???-???? ?????? ???? ????? ?а?????????
??а?????????? ??????????? ??????????, ???????? ?????????
??????????? ???????: ?а??????? ???? ????????? ?????????
?????? ??????? ?а?????? ??а???? ??? $1а???? ?а???? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ?а700а???. ????.
?????? ?а????? ?а???? ??????? л?????? ????????????? ????
??????????? ?????????? ??а??????-????? ???????? ?????а???????? ?????????╗. ????? ???????? ???????? ?а??????????
???????????? ??????????? ??а??????????. ??????????
??????? ???????. ??? ??????? ????? ???????, ??????? ???????
?а??????а? л?????╗ ?ал??????????╗а? ??????????? ??а??????????? ?а????? ?????а? ????? ????????????. ???????????
????????. л?????╗ ??? ??????? ??????????? ????? ??????,
??????? 10а???. ????????????????? ????????????-????????а? 2014 ???? 100% ????? ??????????? ??????? ??а70а????
?????, ?? ?а????????? ????? ???????? ??????.
?????? ???? ???. л? ????????? ??? ???? ??а?????? ??а?????????? ??а???????? ???????? ???а???????? ??????? ??????
????????, ??а?????????????,а? ??????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ???? ?????, ??? ???а??? ??????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????,а? ??? ?????? ????? ??а????????. ??а??????????? ????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????╗. ?????? ????? ???????, ???????
???????? ?????????? ??а10 ?? ???????? 1-1,5а???? ??????, ???
????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ?а???????? ???????????
???? ??????? ???? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ??????????
??а??????????????. ???? ?????????? ??а???????? ?????????
?а8-10 ???. ????? ?????? ????? ?????????????? ???????????
?????????? ?а????????????? ?а????? ????????????? ??????.
???????? ???????. ?????? ??? ??а???? ??????????? ?????
?????? ???? ???????? ??????????? ??а????? ?а????????????
?????? ?а???????????? ????? ??а?????????????? ??????????
?????????? ????????? ?????????????: ????? ?????????????????? ??? ??????????????? ????????? ???????????????.
???? ??а36 ?? ?а???. ??а????? ???????, ???а???????? ??а??????
????? ??????????????, ????????, ???????? ???????? л????╗
????????????? ?а????????, ??? ??? ???????????? ??????
??а????????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ?????????
??????????? ???.
л???????????╗а? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?а??????.
??????????? ????????? ?????????? ??а???????????,
????????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?а?а????? ??????
???????? ?а?а?????????? л??????? ??????╗: ??? ???????
???????????. ??а?????? ?????? ?????????, ??а??????????
???????а? ??? ?????????, ???????????? ??????? ??????,
?????? ?а??? ??????, ???? ??????? ??????? ???????????
??????? ?????????? ???????????. ???? ?ал????????????╗
??????? 120 ?? ?????? ?а??. ????? ?а???. ?а??????????
?????????, ???????? ???????? ???????. ??а?????? ??????
????? ?????? ??а??????? ?????а???????????? ????????????
????????????, ???????????? ???????? л?????????? ?????╗,
???????????? ?а?????????? ????????????????? ??????:
????????? ??? ????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????????
????????-?????????? ?а????????, ?а???????? ?????????
???????????, ?а??а??а????? ?????????? ????? ?????????а?
?????? ????? ??а???????????. л???????? ?а???????,а? ?????????? ???? ??? ??????????? ????????? ??????????????.
????? ????? ???????,а? ???? ??????????? ?????? ???:
?а????????? ??????? ???? ????????? ????? ???????????,
??? ???????????? ????????? ?а?????? ??????????, ???
?????? ???????? ?????? ????. ?а??????? ???? ????????????
???????? ?????????? ?а?????? ?? ??а10а????? ???? ?а?????.
?????а?????? ??а?????????????? ?????????? ????????, ????????, ?????????? ??????, ???????? ???????? ?????????
????? ??? ??????????? ???????????????а? 40а?? ?а5а???.
???????? ??? ????????╗.
???????????, ??????????? ??а?????. ????? ?????????? л?????????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ????????
???? ?????????╗ ???????? ??? ??а?????? ????????????, ???л?????????????╗ ??а16 ??, ??????? ??а????? ?????? ???????
??????????? ????? ?????? ?а??????????????, ??????? ?а???
????? ??а????? ??????????? ?а?????? (?????? ?ал???????╗
615
577
572
545 541
541 526 526 507
16
??????-?????? ?????? #4 2015
?а??????????). ??а??? ??????????? ??????, ??а??????? ????????? ??а1,1а???? ?????? ?а???, ???????? 400-500а??? ???н
??? ???????, ?????? ?????????????? ??а?????? ????? 50%,
?а??????? ?????????? ??????? ??а???? ???. ??? ????????????
??????????? ??????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ??а?????????. ?а???а??????? ?а????? ????????? ????????а? ???????
??а?????? ??а?????????? ????????? ?а?????? ???????????
??????????. ???????? ???????, ???а???????????????? ????????? ?????????? ?а?????? ??а????? ????-?????. ?а???????
?????????? ?????????????? ??а???????а? 10?12%. ?а??????
???????? ?????????? ??? ??а????? ?????????????а? ?????????? ?????. л250 ????????? ?????? ??а?????? ???????а?
??? ?а???????? ??а????????,а? ??????? ????? ????????.а?
?????? ???? ??а????? 150 ?????????╗.
?? ???????? ??а?????
????????? ??????????? ??а??, ??????? ?????? л??? ????н
???╗ ???????? ???????, ?????? ????????????? ??????????
?????????? ??????????? ????? ???????? ????. л??????
2012 ???? ??а????????? ???????? ?????????, ??????? ??????????? ??а20 ?????? ???????, ???а?а???? ?????????? ????????????? ??а????????????╗,а? ?????????? ?????? ??????
(л??????????╗).
?? ?????????? ????????????? ??а???????? ????????????? ?????? ??а?????????????????? ???????а? ??????????
?????? ????????????? ??а?????? ??а????????????, ??????,
????? ?а??. ????? ????? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????? (??а??? ?а2014?? ???????? 65% ?????? ?????????).
???????а? ?а????????, ?а??????? ????????????? ??????
??????, ?а??? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??а???????????? (????
???????????? ?????????? ?????????????). л????? ??а???????
??????????? ?????????? ?????????, ??????? ???????????-
????????????
????????? ?????????
??????
???? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????╗,а? ???????
?????? ??????????? (л?????????? ?????╗).
????????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??а?????????? ??????????, ???????????? ?а?????????. ???????????? ???????????
????? ?????? ??????? ?а??????? ?????????. л?? ????????
???????? ?????????? ?а????????????, ??????? ??????? ?????????, ????????????, ????????? ????????????? ?????,
?а?? ?????? ????????? ??а??????????? ?а????????,а? ??????? ????????? ??????? (л??????? ??????╗).а? ???? ??????
?????????? ???????, ??а?????? ??а????? ???????╗. л???????
??????╗ ????????? ??а????????? ???-??? ???? ?????? ????????? ?а?????? ????????, ???? ????? ??а???????? л???????????????╗ ????????? ??а????????? ?????. ???????????
???????а? ??? ????? ?????????????? ?а?????????? ????????
??????????, ?????? ??а??????? ???????????? ?????????????.
?????????? ?????? ??????? ???? ????? ??????? ??????????
?????? (?????????? ????????????, ?????? ?????????? ????????), ???а?а????????? ????????? ???????? ??????. ?а????
??????? ???????? ??????????? ?а??????????? ????????????????????????? ????????, ???? ???? ?а?????????? ?????????????а? л??????????╗, л????????????????╗. ?а?????????
?????? ?????? ??а?????а? ??????????? ????????. ?????????
???????????? ????? ?????а? ????????. ??, ?а?????????? ????????????? ?а???????? ???????????? л????????╗ ?????????а? ????????, ?????? л?? ???????, ???а??????????????
?????, ?????????? ?а??????????????? ??????? ?а??????
?????????а? ??а????? 30%. ?а?а????? ???????? ?а??а40%, ???
??? ??а?????? ????????????? ???????╗,а? ??????? ???????.
?? ???? ?????????? ????????????? ??????????????????
?????? ??а??????????? ??????????? ?а????????, ????????
?????? ???????????. ??а??а?????? ?а???????, ??а???????
???????? ??????, ?а?????????? ??????? ??????, ?а?а?????????
???????
??????,а???. ??
?????????????? ????????? (??????? ???????
?????????? ??а1 ?? ????????? ??????), ???. / 1 ??
?????
80
16 967
??????
42
3 010
??????????
10
1 691
???????
8,5
7 837
??????
6,3
6 108
??????
1,9
76 982
????????: л??????-??????╗ ??а?????? ?????? ??????????? ??
??????-?????? ?????? #4 2015
17
????????
??????? ?????? ????????? ??????????????????а? ??? ???????? ?????? ????????????, ?а?????? ?а??????????? ????????.
л????? ?????? ????????????? ??????? ????????????,
??а????????????? ???? ??????? ??а????? ?а????????
????╗,а? ???????? ???? ?????, ???????? ??а??????????
л????????? ?????????? ?????╗. ??? ??а??? ?????????? ???????, ??? ??а?????????????, ??а????????????? ?а????? ?????????? ??а????????? ?????, ??а?????? ?????? ?????????, ??а40%.
????? ?????????????, ??а??????? ??????? ?а???? ?????????
????????????: ?????????, ??????, ?????????. ????? ???? ????
??????????? ???а?????? ?????????? ????????, ??а???????
????, ????????? ????????? ??? ??????????. ????????,
л?????╗ ???????? ???? ????? ???? ?а??????? ????????????? ????? ?а2014 ????. ??а?????? ?????????? ???????????,
??????? ?а????????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ?а???? ?а???????. ??????????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????,
???????????? ????????????? ?????? (??????????? ????????
5-6а??? ????? ?а???) ?а?????????. ?а???????а? ??а?????????
8 ??????? ???????, ???а???????????? ??????? ???, ????????
??????????, ?????? ???а????????а? 30-50%.
??? ?????????? ????????????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ???а???????? ????????. ?а?????? ?????
??а????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ?????????, ??????? ???????? ????? ?????? ????
??????????. ??а??????? ??? ???? ???? ???????? ????????,
??????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??а???????? ??????, ???????????? ????????? ???????. ??а????????????? л??????????╗
?а?ал?????╗ ?а??????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????
???????? ?????????, ?????????? ??а???????? ????????.
л??????? ????, ?????, ?????? ???????а? ??а?? ??? ??????,а? ????????? ???????????????? ????????? ???????????
л???????????╗ ?????? ??????.а? ?а??? ?????? ?????????
????? ????????? ?????? ?????????╗.
???????? ??????????? ???????, ??а????????? ?а????
?????????? ??????. ???????, ??? ?????????? ???? ?????????????, ??а??? ??????. ??а?????? ???????????, л?????╗
?????? ???? ??а10-15%. ?а??а????????? ????? ????????,
??????? ???? ??а????????? ????? ?а?????? ??????????
??а30-40%. ??????, ?????????? ?а??????? ????????, ???????
?а???, ???а???? ??а????????? ????? ??????????? ??а???????
??а????????? ?а??????? ?????, ?а??????? ??а?????? ????????? ?????? (????????? ??????). ???? ????? ??ал?????????
?????????? ?????╗ ????????? ??а??, ???а????? ???????????????
??????? ???????? ??а??????, ?а?????????????? ????? ??????
???? ?????а????, ???а?????????????????? ??????? ?????????.
??а????? ????? ?????? ??а????????? ??????????? ?????????
????, ?????? ???а??????????? ???????????. ??? ???а??? ??????: ??? ??а????????? ????? ?????? ??????????? ??????,
??? ??????? ????????? ??а????????? ?????????, ?????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????
??????? ???а??????
л??? ??????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??????
???????╗,а? ????????? ????? ???????? (л????????? ?????╗).
?а????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?а???, ???а????????????? ?????????? ??а??????? ???? ??????????????.
? ???? ????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????
???????: ????????? ???????? ?а??? ??а?????????, ?а??????????????? ?а????????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????????? ??а?? ?????.
18
??????-?????? ?????? #4 2015
???? ???????????? ??а?????? ?а??????? ??????????, ???
?????? ????????? ??????? ?а????????????? ?а????????? ????????????. ???? ?а????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ?????????
??????а? ????????? ??а??????? ??????? ????????????.
?????? ???????? ?а????????????? ???? ?????: ?????
???? ???????? ??а???????????? ??????? ??????????????
?????????? ?????? ??а???????. ????? ????, ?????? ????????
??а???????????? ????????: ??????? ?????????????? ???????? ?а????????? ????????????, ???????? ?а????????????
?а??????????????.
????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ????????? (?? 19.12.2014) ??????? ??????????????? ??????????
??а20% ?????? ?????? ??? ????????????? ?а????????????
????????? ??????????. ?а2015 ???? ?а??????? ???? ??? ??а???
???? ????? ?????????? ??а???????????? ??????? ??а???
?а?????? ????????? ??????. ??????????? ??????????? ??????а? ??????, ??а?????? ??? ??? ????? ????, ??? ????????
????????. ??а?а????? ????: ?????????????? ????? ??????,
??????? ????? ????????. ???? ??????????? ????? ??????????
30-40% ????????? ?????????????, ??а?а2016 ???? ????? ???????? ??? ????????? ????????.
?????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????????
?????????? ?????? ???а????? ????????. ??????????? ??????
????? ????????? ?а????? 10% ??а???????? ??а?????????????
????? ????????. л?? ?а??? ??????????, ????????, ??а?????,а?
???????? ????????? ??????? (л??????? ??????╗).а? ??,
????????, ???а????? ???????????? ??? ?а??а??????????
??????????? ??????, ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????╗. ?????? ???????а? ??????????????? ?????????????,
????????????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ?а?????????: ?????? ????? ?????
??? 11%, ???а????????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????????????
10 ???????? ?????? ???????? л????╗. ??а????? ????? ????
??????? ???????, ???? ????????? ????????? ?а?????????
????????? ????????? ???????, ???????????? ????? ???????.
??????????? ?а?????????? ?????????? ?а???????????
?????????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????????????? ????????? ??????????? ??а??????????????, ???????,
??а??????? ????????????? ????? ?????????????? ??????,
???????? ??а40% ?а????????????? ????????? ?????????.
?а????? ???????????? ???? ????????? ?а?????????????,
????????????????? ?а??????????. ??а??а??? ??а????? ????????
?????? ?????? ??а????? ?????????. ????? ???????? ???????,
???а??????????? ?????? ???????? ?а?????????? ????????
????????: л?????????????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????
?????а? ???????, ???????????, ?????????? ?????? ?а??? ???,
??????????,а? ?????? ??????????, ????? ??? ??????????????
??? ?а??????????????╗ ??????????? ???????????????????
????????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ???????? ??? ?????????
?????? ??а????????????? ?а???, ???а????? ???????? ????????? ??а????????? ??????????????, ????????????? ???????
(???а?????? ??а??????????????), ??????????????? ?????????.
??а????? ?????????, ??? ?а????????? ????????????? ?????
???????? 10%, ???????? ??? 10%, ?а??? ??????????????? ??????? ?????а??????? ????????? ????????????? ?а??????а? ????
?є????? ?????. л???? ??а?а??а??????? ??а?????? ????????????,
?????? ??а????? ??а????????????? ??а????????? ?а100 ????????? ?????? ?а???,а? ???????????? ??.а? ??? ??? ???????!╗
???? ??????, ???а??? ??а??? ????????? ????? ??????
???? ?ал???????????╗ ????????.
??????? ??????
?????
?? ??????
???????
????????
??????? ??а??????????????? ?????????
???? ???????? ??а???? ?????: ????????
??а??????а? ????????????? ???????.
?????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ??
???????? л??????╗ ?????????????
??????????? ??????? ??а??????
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Composites, ??????????? ?а?????????? ??????????? ??????
SpaceShipOne: ??а????? ???? ??????? ???????? ??а??????
102,9 ??. ?а??? ??? ????????? ??а??а??????? ??а?????????
????????????? ????????. ??а??????? 17 ????????? ?а???????
??????????? ??????????, ??????? ?????????? ??а??? ??????,а? ??а??????? ?а????????? ??????????? ??а???????? ?????.
??????????????????? ??????? ????? ????????? ??????????? ??а????: ??? ?а1950?? ????? ?а??????? ?????? ????
?а?????????? ??????? ?????? ?а???-????, ??? ????? ???????
???????? ?????????-???????????????? ????????. л????,
??????? ??? ???? ???????? ??а???????? ?а????????????
??????? ?а???-?????, ???????? ??????????? ????, ???а?
???????????? ?????? ???а? ??а????-??????? ?а????╗,а?
??????? ?????????. ????????? ???????? ?????? ???? ?????
26
??????-?????? ?????? #4 2015
? ????????? ???? ??? ????????????
???????? Planetary Resources
?????? ???????????? ??????????
???? ??????????. ??а????????????
???? ????????? ????? ????????
??а?????????????????
????????? ????????. ????????
????????? ?????????? ???????
?а??????????????? ????? ?????????,
?а???? ?????? ???? ?????????? ??? ?????
?а???????????? ???????????? ???????
???????? ??????? ??????. ??????,
?а2020 ???? ???????? ???????? ??????
????????? ?????????.
???????? ?????: ??а????????? ????????? ????? ????????
?а??????????? ????? ???????? ?а??????? ??????? ?????????
?а???????????? ????????. ???????, ?????? ??а??а???????
??а???. ???? ??????????? ???????? ?а??????????? ????????
??????? ????????? ??????????? ?а???????????? ???????????
?а?????????????? ??????????????? ?????????. ?????????
??????? ????????? ??а?????? ???????, ??а?а?????????:
?а???????? ?а???????????? ???? ??а????? ??????? ????????
??а?????????????? ??????????? ????? ?????? ?а??????????,
????????? ????????????? ?????? ???? ?????? ??а?????????.
?????? ????????? ???? ?а?????????? ??????????, ?????????
??????? ?????? ?а????????? ??????????? ?????????????????
??????? ?а???????????? ??? ?а??????? ?????????? ?аNASA.
??? ??а?????? ????? ??а??????? ???????????? ?????? ??а???????? ???????? ????????????, ?а????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????????????, ??? ?????
??????? ???????????? ?????????. ??? ????????? ??а???
??? ????? ?????? ??????. ???????? л???????? ??а????????
???????╗ ????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?а????? ??????? ?а????? ???а35 ???????????????
???????? ??а???? ???????? ???????, ?а????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ?а???????????
?а??????-????????????????? ???????? ???????? ??????.
?????? ?а???????????? ?а??????????????? ????????????
??????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ?а????????
??????. ?????? ??? ???????????? ??? ????? ????????? ?а????
????????????? ??? ????????????? ???????????? ???????.
л????? ?а??????? ?????? ????????????? ?а??????? $5а???.,
??а?????????? ???? ???, ?????? ??? ???????? ??? ??а???????
????????╗,а? ?????????? ??. ?а1989 ???? ????????? ?????,
???а?????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ????, ?а????????
???? ?????? ??????????? ??????а? ???????? ??а????????????? ????????? International Microspace. ???????? ??????????????? ????????? ??????-???????? ???а?????? ??а?????-
?????? ?????? ????????? ????? ??а100 ??. ??? ????????
??????????? ?????????? $100а??? ??а???? ??????. ??????
?а?????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ???? ??????????? ?????????. ?а1993 ???? ??????? ?????? ??????????
???????? CTA ??а?????????. ????? ??а????????? ???????
?????? ?а?????? ???? ??????????? ??????а? Constellation
Communication, ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ???а?????????: ?????? ????????? ??а?????? ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ?а?????????.
?? ?????????? ??????
?????????? ??????????????? ???????, ???а???????
??????????? ???????, ?а??????? ???? ??? ?????, ????? ????
????????? ???а??????????. ?????? ??а???????? ?????????
?а?????????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????, ??????? ????? ??а???????????? ?????????? ?????????. ?????????????
???????????? ???????? ??????? ??????????, ??а????? ???????????-?????? ?????? #4 2015
27
??????? ??????
л????????╗
X PRIZE
FOUNDATION
?? ?????? ?????? ???? X Prize ??????? ??????
?????? ????????, ??? ???? ??а?????????.
ANSARI X PRIZE
??????????????? ??????? ???? ????? ?а?????????
??? ????? ?????? 2004 ???? ???????? ???????
??а????????????? ??????? ???????? ????????????
??????? ????????????? ?????????????, ???????
???? ??????? ???????? ??а?????? ?а100 ??.
LUNAR LANDER X-CHALLENGE
???????? Masten Space Systems ???????? $1а???
?а??????? 2009 ???? ??а???????? ???????? ?а???????????? ???????? ?а????????. ????????? ????????
????????? ?????????? Northrop Grumman.
AUTOMOTIVE X PRIZE
???????????? ???????? ?а???????? 2010 ????
????? ??? ?????????, ????????????????? ?????????? ?а?????? ??????? ??????? (????? 200 ??
??а????) ?а???????? ???????, ???? ?????????????
??????????. ????????? ????????? ????? ?????????
???????? Progressive Insurance.
OIL CLEANUP X-CHALLENGE
???????? Elastec/American Marine ????????
$1,4а??? ?а??????? 2011 ???? ??а?????????? ????????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????
????????. ??????? ?а?????????? ????????, ??????????????? ????? ????? ??аSchmidt Marine Science
Research Institute, ????? ?????????? ??а????????
????????? Deepwater Horizon.
????????? ???????? ???????? Google ??а????????????? ??????????????????? ????????,
Qualcommа? ??а??????????? ???????????? ???????????????? ??????????, Nokiaа? ??а????????
???????????????????? ????????? ??????????
???а?????????? ?а????????, Global Learningа?
??а???????? ???????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???а????? ???????? ????, ?а????? ???????
????? ?????а? ??а???????? ?????? ??????????
??????.
28
??????-?????? ?????? #4 2015
????, ??? ???а?????? ??а?????????? ?а????? ??????????????
????а? ??? ?????? ??????????, ??? ?а?????? ???????????
???????????,а? ????? ???? ????????. ?а1993 ???? ??а?????
?????????? ???????? ????? ?а?????? ?????????а? ???????,
??????? ?а1927 ???? ??????? ?????????, ????? ????????
???? ???????? ??????. ?????, ???????? ????????? ??????
л???????╗ ?ал???????╗, ?????????????? ??????? ?а?????????
$25а???. ????, ??? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??а???-?????
?а?????. ??? ????????? ????????? ????? ?а????? ?????? ?????
??????????: ????? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ??????, ??????? ?????? ??????? ?а??????? ?????? ????? $400а???.а? ?а16
??? ??????, ???а???????? ????!
??????? ?а??????а? ??????? ???????: ???? ???? ??????????
???????? ????? ?????????, ??а?а?а?????? ??а????? ?????????
?а???????? ??????? ???????, ???????? ????? ?????????.
?а1996 ???? ??а????????? $10а??? ????, ??? ?????? ????????? ??а??????? ????????? ?а????????, ???????? ??а?????
?а????? ???????? ???? ????? ??а??? ??а??????????? ????????
?а??????? ???? ??????. ??????? ???????а? ??????? ??????
???? ???????? ??а?????? ??????? ??????????. ??????? X Prize
??????? ??????? ???????: ?????????? ??а???????????? ?????????? ????? NASA, ??????????, ???????????? ????????
?а????? ????????????. ?а2001 ???? ??? ???????? ??????
??????? ??? ???????? ????????????? ??????. л?а??????????
?????? ?а????? ?????????: ?а???? ??а???? $10а???╗,а? ?????????? ?????????? ????????. ???????? ?????? ????????
??????????????. л???╗ ?а???????? ????????, ??????, ????????
??????????а? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ??а???
????????, ??????? ?????? ??????. ?????? ???????? ????????? ?а??????????? ???????? ??а?????????. ????????? ??????????? ?а150 ??????????????? ??а????? ???а??? ????????
??а????? ????, ??????? ???? ???????????? ??????? ????????.
??а????? ?????? ?????? ?????. ??а?????????? ???????????
??а????? ??? ???????? ?????? ??а????? ??????а? ???????????, ??????? ?????? ???а??????? ???? ???????? Telecom
Technologies. ?а????????? ??? ????????????, ???а????? ???????
????????? ?????????????? ????? ?а?????? (?а2006 ???? ??
????????????? ??? ???????). ?????????? ???? ?????????!
4 ??????? 2004 ???? ????????? ?????????? ????????:
?????????? SpaceShipOne ?а???? ???? ???????? ?????? ???????? ?????, ??????? ??а??????? ??????. ??а?????? ??а?????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ??а??????????
????????????? ??????? ?а???????????? Microsoft ???? ??????,
???????????????? ????????-?????????? Scaled Composites.
?а????? ????????? ?а???????? ??????????? 26 ?????? ??а7
?????, ??????? ?????? ????????? ??а??????????????? ?????????? ????? $100а???; ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????
$26а???. ??? ????? ????? ???????, ???а????????? ???? ??а??????????а? ??а???? ???????? ????? ??????? ???????????????
???????????? ???????. ???????, ?????????? ???????? Virgin
Galactic ?а???????? ????????????? ??????? SpaceShipTwo,
???????? ?????? ?а?????? ??????? ??????????: ?а??????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ?а????? ??????? ???????????
??????? ?????????? ??а$1а????.
л????????, ???????? X Prize, ????????? ???????? ????
??а?????? ??а????? ????а? ?а????????? ?????? ???????????,а? ??????? ????? ?????????.а? ?а????? ?????? ??а?????????? ???? ????????? ?а10-40 ??? ?????? ??а?????????
??а?????????? ?????, ??????????? ???????? ???? ???????
????? ????????????? ???????. ?а???????а? ????????? ?????
????? ???????╗. ??????????? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ??????: ?а?????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????
?????????? ???????? ??а??????? ???????????, ?а?????????
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?а????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ??? ??????????
????????? ??????????????. ???????? ?????? л?????????
?????????????╗ ????????? ???????????? ???????? ??а?????.
?а2005 ???? ??????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???????????:
?????????? ?а?????????? ?????, ???????? ?????????? ?????
(?????? ?а???????), ??????????? ?а????????, ???????? ?а????????. ?а?а????? ????????? ???????? ????? ????? ??-???????,
??? Google ?аQualcomm.
????????? ????????? ???????? ?а???????????????? ??
???????? ??????, ???а? ????? 2015 ???? ??????? ?а????????
??????????? ??????????????? ????????? HeroX, ?а???????
??????? ????? ???????? ????? ???????? ???? ???????????
???????. ??а???????, HeroX ?????? ????? ???????? Kickstarter,
?????? ??????????????? ???а????????????? ?????????,
?а??а???а?????????????. ???????, ???? ????? ??а???????? ????
??а???????, ????????? ?????? ??????? ??а??????? л? ????
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?????????. ?а?????, ?????? ??а??? ????????? ?????????????
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??? ?????????????? ????????? ???????, ?а??а??????????
???????. ?????????? X Prize, ??????, ?а????? ??а??? ??????
????????? ????????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????
??????.
??? ??а?а????
? 2008 ???? ????? ??а??????????? ??а??????????? TED
????? ????????? ?????? ?а????????? ????????????? ?а??????????? ???? ?????????? ??????? ????? ???????????
?а?????????? ??????а? ??????????? ?????????????. л??
??????? ????????? ??????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?а????, ??? ??? ????? ???? ???????????? ???а??????? ??????? ????? ????????????╗,а? ????????? ???? ??????
?????????. ??а?????????? ???? ??????? ????????? ??????
?????? ??а?????????????? ??????????????????? ?ал?????????? ????????╗. ?а???????? л????????? ??????╗ ??
???? ??????? ??????? ????????, ??????? ??????? ??? ??????,
??????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ??а????? ?????????
????? ?а????????? ?????? ???. ??а?????????? ??????????
????????????, ??? ?????????? ??? ??????? ????? ???????
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????? ??? ????????? ??а?????? ???????????? ????????
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??????????. ??? Zero Gravity Corporation ????? $5а???. ??а?????
?а????????? ??????????? ??а???????? Boeing 727-200а? ???
???а????????, ??? ?а???а???????????????? ??????????????.
???????? Space Adventures ?????????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????? ??а????????????? ??????????? ???????.
?а2001 ???? ?а?? ??????? ?а??????? ??????? ?????? ?а????
?????? ?????? ????, ??????????? ??а??? $20а???. ?????????,
???а?????? ?????????????? ??а?????????? ??????? ??? ???
?????? ???????? л????╗: Space Adventures ??? 14 ??? ??????-
?????? ?а???????????. ??????? л??????? ?а??????╗ ?????????
???????? ???????? ??? ?а$30-40а???. ???????? Rocket Racing
League ???????? ???????? ????? ?а???????? ????????????
??а?????????, ?????????????? ????? ?????а??????? ?????
????????? ???????? ?а????????. ???? ??а????????? ????????? ??????????а? ???????? ?а????? 2014 ???? ????????
Human Longevity, ??????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????
????????, ?а????? ????????? ???????????? ?а????????.
?????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????? ????????????
???????? ?????? ?а??????? ???????? ???????? ??а??????????.
???????? ?????? ?????????? Planetary Resources ?????????? ?????? ?а???????? ??а????? ????? ????????? ???????
????, ?а????? ?????? ???????а? ???????, ???????, ????????
?а??????. ?????? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????, ???????
?????? ???????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ???а????????????? ????????. ?????? ????????? ??????? ????????
?????, ?а????? ??а??а??????? ?а????? ??а????????? ?????????.
???????????? ?????????????? ????? ???? ??????? ??????.
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??а?????. ???? ???????????? ??а?????????? ???????: ??????? Arkyd-3 ??? ???????? ?а?????????? ?????????? ???????
??????-???????? ?а??????? 2014 ????. ??а??? ??а????? 2015
???? ???????? ??????? ????????? ???? ?а??????? ??а??????
???? ?????? ???????, ????????????? ?????????? ??????????. ???????? ??а????????????? ???? ???? ?????, Planetary
Resources ???????? ???????????? NASA, ?а??????? ??????
????? ??? ?????????? ????????????, ?а?а????? ??а??????????
????? ???? ???????????? Google ????? ????? ?а???? ?????.
??????? ???????? ?а???, ???а?????????? ???????????
???? ??а????? ??????????? ?????? ?а??????. ????? ???????
?????? ??????а? ?????? ?????: ??????????? ??????? ???????
?????? ???????????? ???????????. ???????????? л????????╗,
?????????????? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ???????????,а? ??????? Dragon, ????????????? ????????? NASA
?а????????? ??????????? ????? ????? Space X. ?????? ???
?????? ???? ????????? ??????? ??????: 11 ???????????????
?????? ??????????? ?а$1,6а????. ???????? ????????????
???????????????? (Dragon ???? ???? ????????? ????????
900а??), ???????????? ????? ?????????? ???а?????? ????
?????? ?????????. ?а?????? ?а???????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ???? ??а?????????? ???????. ??а????
?????а? ?????????????? ?а2020 ????а? Planetary Resources
?????????? ??????? ????? ??????????? ??????????????
?????????? ?а??????????? ????????. ?а?а???? ??????????
????? ????????? ????????? ??????. ?? ???????? ????????????,
????????, ????? ?????????? ????? ??а??????????? ??????.
? ????? ????? л????????: ??????? ?????, ???а?? ???????╗,
??????? ???????????? Amazon, ????? ????????? ??????????,
???а??? ??????а? ?????? ??а??????? ??????? ?????? ?а??????.
л????? ?а?????? ?????, ???а?? ????? ???? ?а????? ????????,
??? ???????????,а? ??????? ??.а? ????? ??? ???????? ????????? ???????????????? ????? ??????????????? ??????????? ???а????, ????? ???????? ???, ??? ???????? ??????????
????????????? ?????. ??? ????? ????????, ??????? ????
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???а????, ????? ??а??? ???????. ??? ???????, ???а?????????
?????????? ????? ?????? ?а????? ??????????? ????????
???? ?????????? ?? ??? ??а??????, ???а????? ??????!╗
??????-?????? ?????? #4 2015
29
??????
?
?? ?
?? ???????
????
????????
?
??????? ?????а?? ?????????? ????? ????????????
???????? ??????. ?а????? 1990?? ?????? ???? ??????
?а??????????? ????????????, ???????? ?????? ??????????????? ?а????????? ?????????????? ??а??????????
???????? ??????, ??????????????? ???????? ?????? ?????.
?а????? ????? ???????? ?а????? ?????????? ?????????-????????????, ????????????? ?а?????? ??а????????? ??????
??а??????????. ??? ??????? ?а????? ??????, ???? ?а?????
???????? (?????????? ?а????), ??а??????-?? ?????? ??????.
???-?? ?а?????? ????? ??? ?????????, ??????????? ?????.
??????? ????? ?????? ???????? ??? ????????? ??????????
??????, ?????????? ?а???????, ?????? ???? ?а???? ?а????????
?а????????а? ??? ?а?????? ?????????????????? ?а??????.
?а???? ???????? ????? ?а???????? ???????? ???????, ?????
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???????? ??????????
??????? ???? ??????, ?????????????. ????????? ???? ???????? ?а?????????? ????????????? ???????????? ?а???????,
???? ?????????? ??? ?а??????????? ???? ???????? (???????
?а????????? ?а??????? 1990 ????). ???????? ??а????????????????? ????? ???? ????? ?а?????? ?а?????????, ??????? ?????
???????? ?????? ????????????? ?????? ?????. л?????????
???? ????? ?????????, ????? ???? ????? ???????????, ???
?????а? ??????????╗,а? ?????????? ????. ?????? ????
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