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1701.About Music at the Lessons of English

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНТСТВО ПО КУЛЬТУРЕ И КИНЕМАТОГРАФИИ
КЕМЕРОВСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ
КУЛЬТУРЫ И ИСКУССТВ
СОЦИАЛЬНО-ГУМАНИТАРНЫЙ ИНСТИТУТ
КАФЕДРА ИНОСТРАННЫХ ЯЗЫКОВ
ABOUT MUSIC AT THE LESSONS OF ENGLISH
ХРЕСТОМАТИЯ
по чтению на английском языке
для студентов очного и заочного отделений специальностей
070100 «Музыкальное искусство»,
070105 «Дирижирование»,
071301 «Народное художественное творчество»
Кемерово 2008
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Утверждена на заседании кафедры иностранных языков 14.03.08,
протокол № 7.
Рекомендована к изданию учебно-методическим советом
социально-гуманитарного института КемГУКИ,
протокол № 2 от 09.04.2008 г.
About Music at the Lessons of English: хрестоматия по чтению на английском языке для студентов очного и заочного отделений специальностей
070100 «Музыкальное искусство», 070105 «Дирижирование», 071301
«Народное художественное творчество» / сост. Т. Н. Юдина, М. В. Денисенко. – Кемерово: КемГУКИ, 2008. – 180 с.
Цель предлагаемого пособия – формирование и закрепление навыков
чтения и перевода аутентичных текстов.
Составители:
ст. преп. Юдина Т. Н.,
ст. преп. Денисенко М. В.
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Музыка – универсальный язык
человечества.
Генри Лонгфелло
ВВЕДЕНИЕ
Данная хрестоматия представляет собой пособие по чтению и предназначена для студентов дневного и заочного отделений специальностей
070100 «Музыкальное искусство», 070105 «Дирижирование», 071301 «Народное художественное творчество».
Чтение – естественная потребность современного человека. Чтение
же на иностранном языке в наш просвещенный век не просто желательно,
а совершенно необходимо для того, кто хочет шагать в ногу со временем.
Следует заметить, что даже на родном языке чтение требует определенных навыков и умений, которые сами по себе не формируются. Поэтому целью данного пособия является развитие у студентов навыков, необходимых для чтения аутентичных текстов по будущей специальности, а
также способствовать развитию навыков устной речи в сфере профессионального общения.
Чтение как вид речевой деятельности всегда занимало особое место
в процессе обучения. Искусство чтения является системообразующей основой для формирования информационно-академических умений. Именно
эти умения позволяют студентам эффективно ориентироваться в быстро
растущих информационных потоках.
Одним из признаков зрелого чтения является умение изменять характер чтения в зависимости от его цели и сложности текста. Совершенствование навыков чтения на иностранном языке предполагает овладение
всеми его видами с различной степенью полноты и точности понимания.
В отечественной методике выделяют следующие виды чтения: аналитическое, изучающее, просмотровое, поисковое, ознакомительное. В зарубежной англоязычной методике также выделяют несколько разновидностей или умений чтения, которые способствуют решению тех или иных ре3
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чевых задач: skimming – определение основной темы (идеи) текста; scanning – поиск конкретной запрашиваемой информации в тексте; reading for
detail – детальное понимание текста не только на уровне содержания, но и
смысла.
Для эффективного чтения на иностранном языке необходимо сформировать основные базовые технологии работы с текстом, включающие
умения:
- игнорировать неизвестное, если оно не мешает выполнению поставленной задачи;
- прогнозировать и вычленять нужную смысловую информацию;
- читать по ключевым словам;
- работать со словарем;
- использовать сноски и комментарии, встречающиеся после текста;
- интерпретировать и трансформировать текст.
Понимание текста предполагает оценку его содержания, поэтому
очень важно развить у студентов навык критического осмысления прочитанного текста на иностранном языке.
По структуре хрестоматия состоит из шести разделов:
I. The Theory of Music. – Теория музыки.
II. English Music. – Английская музыка.
III. American Music. – Американская музыка.
IV. Russian Music. – Русская музыка.
V. The History of Rock Music. – История рок-музыки.
VI. World-Famous Performers. – Всемирно-известные исполнители.
Каждый раздел данного пособия можно рассматривать автономно.
Возможно как последовательное изучение всех разделов, так и изучение
одного из разделов пособия как отдельного элективного курса. Выбор последовательности и глубины изучения будет определяться спецификой
учебной ситуации и потребностями студентов.
С тематической точки зрения каждый раздел представляет собой
единое целое: он открывается текстом обобщающего характера, в котором
ставится проблема или рассматриваются истоки развития того или иного
явления в истории или теории музыки, затем следуют тексты, в которых
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раскрываются частные вопросы или освещается творчество отдельного
композитора. Многие тексты могут служить не только источником информации, но и предметом дискуссии, что способствует развитию навыков
устной речи. Чтение как вид речевой деятельности приобретает значение
коммуникативно-направленного процесса; оно рассматривается как практика в речевой деятельности, а также развивает познавательную деятельность студентов и усиливает их заинтересованность, делая занятия более
интересными и живыми.
Тексты подобраны из оригинальных английских и американских источников и энциклопедических статей зарубежных изданий. Часть текстов
подверглась адаптации и сокращениям. Тексты представляют собой интересную информацию для студентов, изучающих западноевропейскую,
американскую и русскую музыкальную культуру в курсе истории музыки.
Каждый текст сопровождается примечаниями и объяснениями, снимающими экстралингвистические трудности.
Тематическая направленность текстов позволяет студентам творчески и профессионально оценить полученную из текстов информацию, соотнести ее с собственным опытом и знаниями из лекционных курсов таких
дисциплин как «Теория музыки» и «История музыки».
Хрестоматия снабжена приложениями, включающими список имен
всемирно-известных композиторов, музыкантов, дирижеров и музыковедов; список музыкальных терминов; англо-русский словарь. В конце пособия дан список литературы.
Составители пособия выражают признательность рецензентам, кандидату искусствоведения, доценту кафедры теории и истории искусств
Кемеровского государственного университета культуры и искусств Синельниковой О. В. и доценту кафедры иностранных языков Кемеровского
Российского
государственного
торговоинститута
(филиала)
экономического университета Акулиной Л. Н. за замечания, критические
суждения и советы, которые помогли в подготовке настоящей хрестоматии
к печати.
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Good music is music that sounds good.
Duke Ellington
I. THE THEORY OF MUSIC
WHAT IS MUSIC?
In ordinary speech we often use words to which everyone attaches a definite meaning; and yet if we are asked to state exactly what their meaning is, we
find it difficult to frame a satisfactory answer. Such terms, for instance, as
"beauty", "truth", "colour", "electricity", are hard to define, yet they have a real
meaning for everybody who uses them. The use of the term "Music" is common
enough, but nobody has yet found a satisfactory reply to the question "What is
Music?"
Music is an art concerned with combining vocal or instrumental sounds
for beauty of form or emotional expression, usually according to cultural standards of rhythm, melody, and, in most Western music, harmony.
Both the simple folk song and the complex electronic composition belong
to the same activity, music. Both are humanly engineered; both are conceptual
and auditory, and these factors have been present in music of all styles and in all
periods of history, Eastern and Western.
Music is an art that permeates every human society. Modern music is
heard in a bewildering profusion of styles, many of them contemporary, others
engendered in past eras. Music is a protean art; it lends itself easily to alliances
with words, as in song, and with physical movement, as in dance. Throughout
history, music has been an important adjunct to ritual and drama and has been
credited with the capacity to reflect and influence human emotion. Popular culture has consistently exploited these possibilities, most conspicuously today by
means of radio, film, television, and the musical theatre. The implications of the
uses of music in psychotherapy, geriatrics, and advertising testify to a faith in its
power to affect human behaviour. Publications and recordings have effectively
internationalized music in its most significant, as well as its most trivial manifestations. Beyond all this, the teaching of music in primary and secondary
schools has now attained virtually worldwide acceptance.
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Music is everywhere to be heard. Commentators have spoken of “the relationship of music to the human senses and intellect,” thus affirming a world of
human discourse as the necessary setting for the art. A definition of music itself
will take longer. As Aristotle said, “It is not easy to determine the nature of music or why anyone should have knowledge of it.”
It is quite possible to say a good deal about the material out of which music is made. This material is sound, but out of the multitude of sounds which can
be made, only a very few are used for musical purposes. Sound is the result of
vibration: if one strikes a low note on the pianoforte, the string can be seen in a
state of a violent agitation. Also if a drum be struck, and the fingers placed
lightly on the parchment, the vibration can easily be felt. Thus air-waves are
formed when a stone is thrown into a pond, and when they reach the ear they
give rise to a sensation known as sound. The human ear is not sensitive enough
to appreciate all sounds. If the vibrations are fewer than about twenty per second, or more rapid than about thirty-eight thousand per second, the ear in most
cases does not respond. It is interesting to note that some animals, especially
dogs, can detect sounds which are too high in pitch for us to distinguish.
Notes:
1. to frame an answer – дать ответ;
2. a good deal – много;
3. violent agitation – сильное возбуждение, волнение;
4. bewildering profusion of styles – сбивающее с толку изобилие стилей;
5. geriatrics – гериатрия (раздел медицины, изучающий особенности заболевания у людей пожилого возраста);
6. to affect human behaviour – воздействовать на поведение человека;
7. to testify to – свидетельствовать, что…;
8. trivial manifestation – мелкие (обыденные) проявления.
SOUND: THE MATERIAL OF MUSIC
In the beginning, we may suppose, there was silence. There was silence
because there was no motion, and therefore no vibration could move the air – a
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phenomenon of fundamental importance in producing sound. The creation of the
world, however it came about, must have been accompanied by motion – and
therefore sound. Perhaps this is why music has such magical importance for
primitive peoples, often signifying life and death.
Sound can only be produced by a kind of motion. The motion (or vibration) arising from a vibrating body, for example a string, or the skin of a drum,
generates waves of compression which travel through the air to our ear.
If the vibration is regular, the resulting sound is 'musical' and represents a
note of a definite pitch; if it is irregular the result is noise.
Every sound has three characteristic properties. Let us take an everyday
example. When walking along the street we hear several sounds at the same
time; cars, motorbikes, aeroplanes, radios, people walking and talking, simultaneously produce sounds of higher and lower, louder and softer degrees. With our
ear we automatically distinguish between the highness of a child's voice and the
lowness of a man's, the loudness of a passing plane and the hum of traffic, and
we know whether the tune coming from somebody's radio is played on a trumpet
or a violin. In doing this, we are unconsciously selecting the three characteristics
of a sound: pitch, volume, and quality.
Pitch. Perception of pitch means the ability to distinguish between the
highness and the lowness of a musical sound. That its pitch is high or low depends on the frequency (number of vibrations per second) of the vibrating body.
The higher the frequency of a sound, the higher is its pitch, the lower the frequency, the lower its pitch.
Volume. We have seen that the pitch of a note depends entirely on the
frequency of its vibration. The volume of a note depends on the amplitude of the
vibration. More (or less) intensive vibration produces louder (or softer) sounds.
Quality. Quality (or in French, timbre) defines the difference in tone colour between a note played on different instruments or sung by different voices.
Thus the 'colour' of a note enables us to distinguish between various instruments
playing the same tune.
Standard Pitch. When we go to a concert-hall, before the concert begins
we notice that at a given moment the musicians of the orchestra or ensemble adjust their instruments to a note played by the principal oboe or first violinist.
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They are tuning their instruments to a note which has (or should have) 440 vibrations per second. This standard pitch was accepted by most of the Western
nations at an international conference in 1939.
Intonation. Good intonation, that is, being in tune (pitching the notes accurately), has of course capital importance for the musician (not to say his listeners). But what happens acoustically when we notice uneasily that something
is wrong during a performance, that someone is playing too high or too low? We
commonly say that the player is out of tune. What actually happens is this; if
two notes have the same frequency, for example 440, we know that they have
the same pitch, and so they are in unison.
Notes:
1. to have three characteristic properties – иметь три характерных свойства;
2. the ability to distinguish – способность различать;
3. to depend on… – зависеть от …
FUNDAMENTAL ELEMENTS OF MUSIC
There are four fundamental elements in music: 1) Melody; 2) Harmony;
3) Rhythm; 4) Tone colour.
Melody is the agreeable succession and arrangement of sounds that are related to each other in such a way as to make musical sense and coherent expression. Melody has character. It has moods. Melody is present in all types of music.
Harmony is the simultaneous sounding in melody. Surrounding almost all
melodies are harmonious chords which support and give background to the melody. This is referred to as an accompaniment. Some combinations of tones are
more harmonious than others. There must be some sort of acceptable connection
between these tones. Most frequently the accompanimental chords are found in
the lower voices; but sometimes the accompaniment is placed in the higher register and the melody is divided among lower voices.
Rhythm is the time relation among tones as expressed by strong and weak
beats. Hum is a small part of any melody with which you are familiar, and ob9
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serve how some notes are held longer or shorter than others. That is rhythm. Do
not confuse the term tempo with rhythm. Tempo is the rate of speed, or pace, at
which the composition proceeds.
Tone colour is a phrase used to describe the quality of musical sounds.
For instance, the sound of the clarinet may suggest a pastel shade, perhaps a
light blue; the blast of a trumpet – a vivid red and deep yellow. Tone colour may
also be affected by the loudness or softness of a composition. The term "tone
colour" as applied to music is intended to indicate the varied tone shades of gradations of sound. Tone colour is an important factor in musical expression.
The phrase in music is comparable to the phrase of speech. We pause for breath
in our conversation. It is a natural and instinctive pause and by means of it we
impact expression to our words.
Notes:
1. to refer to – ссылаться на …, иметь отношение к чему-либо;
2. strong and weak beat – сильный и слабый удар;
3. to be affected by – находиться под влиянием, зависеть от чего-либо;
4. to make a musical sense and coherent expression – создавать музыкальный смысл и понятное (упорядоченное) впечатление.
A SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, INSTRUMENTS OF THE ORCHESTRA
From the group of approximately twenty that Bach had at his disposal or
of the thirty odd that Mozart knew, the modern orchestra has grown into an ensemble that may call for more than a hundred players. These musicians, many of
artist stature, give their full time to rehearsal and performance, achieving a precision of ensemble playing unknown in former times.
The orchestra is constituted with a view to securing the best balance of
tone. The performers are divided into four sections. Approximately two-thirds
are strings players, one-third are wind players. From three to five men take care
of the percussion. The following distribution is typical of our larger orchestras.
Strings, about 65:
18 first violins
16 second violins
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12 violas
10 violoncellos
10 double basses
Woodwinds, about 15:
Brass, 11:
Percussion, 5:
3 flutes, 1 piccolo
3 oboes, 1 English horn
3 clarinets
3 bassoons
1 double bassoon
4 horns
3 trumpets
3 trombones
1 tuba
2 kettle drums players
3 men for bass and side drum, glockenspiel, celesta, xylophone, triangle,
cymbals, tambourine, etc.
It will be noticed that there are about 34 violins which are divided into
two groups, first and second. Each functions as a unit and plays a separate part.
In the woodwind section one of the players of the principal instrument generally
doubles on the related one. The third flutist, for example, also plays the piccolo.
Saxophones are added when called for in the score. Certain works call for a larger brass section with additional horns and an extra trumpet. Included in the ensemble are also two harps and, for certain contemporary scores, a piano.
The instruments are arranged as to secure effective blending and contrast.
The softer ones are placed in front, the louder sit further back.
The ensemble is directed by the conductor, who beats time and indicates
the entrances of the various instruments, the shadings in the volume of tune, the
principal and subordinate lines, and a host of related details that serve to make
clear the structure of the work. It is the conductor's task to bring the ensemble to
life, to impose upon it a unifying conception, and to mold the group into a perfectly coordinated body.
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The conductor has before him the score of the work. This consists of from
a few to as many as twenty-five or more lines, each representing an instrumental
part. All the staves together comprise a single composite line. What is going on
at any moment in the orchestra is indicated at any given point straight down the
page.
The instruments in the orchestra are grouped in families: the woodwinds,
the brass, percussion, and strings.
Notes:
1. at smb’s disposal – в чьем-либо распоряжении;
2. to direct – руководить, управлять кем-либо;
3. thirty odd – тридцать с лишним;
4. principle and subordinate lines – главная и побочная партии;
5. to mold the group – создавать (формировать) оркестр.
THE STRING SECTION
The string section of the orchestra includes four instruments – violin, viola, violoncello, and double bass. These correspond roughly to soprano, alto,
tenor, and bass.
The violin was brought to its present form by the brilliant school of instrument makers that flourished in Italy from around 1600 to 1750. Most famous
among them were the Amati and Guarneri families; in those dynasties the secrets of the craft were transmitted from father to son, and by the master builder
of them all, Antonio Stradivari (1644-1737).
The violin is universally admired for its singing tone, which brings it of
all instruments closest to the human voice. Pre-eminent in lyric melody, it is capable too of brilliance and dramatic effect. It has a wide range, achieves subtle
shadings from soft to loud, commands the outmost rhythmic precision, and is
endowed with great agility in rapid passages.
The viola is somewhat larger than the violin. Its strings are longer,
thicker, and heavier; it is lower in range. The tone is husky in the low register,
somber and eloquent in the high. The viola is an effective melody instrument,
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particularly for themes of a mournful or passionate nature. It serves as a foil for
the more brilliant violin by playing a secondary melody, fills in the harmony, or
doubles (reinforces by duplication) the other parts.
The violoncello is notable for its lyric quality which takes on a dark resonance in the low register. Composers value highly its expressive tone. In the orchestra the cellos carry melody, enrich the sonority with their full-throated songfulness accentuate rhythm, and together with the double basses supply the harmonic foundation for the string choir.
The double bass, known also as contrabass or bass viola is the lowest in
range of the string group. It is about six feet high and its player either stands up
or sits on a stool. Its deep indistinct tones come into focus when they are duplicated an octave higher, usually by the cello.
When this is done, double-bass tone assumes great carrying power and
furnishes basic support for the entire orchestra.
In these instruments the strings are set vibrating by the action of the bow.
The player stops the string by pressing down a finger of his left hand at a particular point, thereby changing the length of that portion of the string which is
free to vibrate, and with it the rate of vibration and the pitch.
The string instruments are pre-eminent in playing legato (smooth and
connected), though they are capable too of the opposite quality of tone, staccato
(short and detached). A special effect, pizzicato ("plucked") is executed by the
performer's plucking the string with his finger instead of playing with the bow,
thereby producing a guitar-like tone. Vibrato refers to the throbbing tone which
the violinist achieves by moving his finger slightly away from and back to the
resonance. In glissando the player moves his hand rapidly along the string,
sounding all the pitches of the scale. Tremolo, the rapid repetition of tone
through a quick up-and-down movement of the bow, is associated in the popular
mind with suspense and excitement. The less important is the trill, a rapid alteration between a tone and its neighbour, giving a birdlike effect. Double-stopping
involves playing on two strings simultaneously. It is possible too to sound three
or four notes together. Thereby the violin, essentially a melody instrument, becomes capable of harmony. The mute is a three-pronged clamp which is slipped
onto the bridge of the instrument to muffle the tone. Harmonics are flutelike
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crystalline tones in the very high register, produced by lightly touching the
string at certain points instead of stopping it in the usual way.
The string section is the backbone of the orchestral ensemble. Its versatility and general usefulness have earned it the title of "the heart of the orchestra".
The violin, viola and cello also figure prominently as solo instruments, and in
chamber music, in duets, trios, quartets, quintets, and the like.
Notes:
1. to be notable for its timbre – быть известным (примечательным) за
счет ее тембра;
2. the heart of the orchestra – зд. сердце оркестра;
3. the backbone of the ensemble – суть (основа) ансамбля;
4. a rapid alteration – быстрая перестройка (изменение).
THE WOODWIND SECTION
The woodwind section of the orchestra consists of four principal instruments – flute, oboe, clarinet, and bassoon. Each of these is supplemented by at
least one instrument of the same family; the flute by the piccolo, the oboe by the
English horn, the clarinet by the bass clarinet, and the bassoon by the contrabassoon. Saxophones too are included in this group, although made of metal. Besides being prominent in the orchestra, the woodwinds possess a solo literature
and are widely used in chamber music.
The flute is the coloratura soprano of the woodwind choir. It possesses
an unmistakable timbre ranging from the poetic to the brilliant. Its tone is cool
and velvety in the expressive low register, and smooth in the middle. In the
upper part of the range the timbre is bright, bird-like, and stands out against the
orchestral mass. The present-day flute, made of a silver alloy rather than wood,
is a cylindrical tube stopped at the upper end and held horizontally, the player
blowing across a mouth hole out in the side of the pipe. The flute is much
prized as a melody instrument and is most agile in playing repeated notes,
scales, and trills.
The piccolo (from the Italian flauto piccolo, "little flute") has a piercing
tone. In its upper register it takes on a shrillness that is easily heard even when
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the orchestra is playing full blast. For this reason the instrument contributes to
many an orchestral climax. On the other hand, composers are coming more and
more to make use of the limpid singing quality of its lower register.
The oboe is made of wood. The double reed in the mouthpiece consists of
two slips of cane so shaped as to leave between them an extremely small passage for air. Because of this compression, the tone is focused and intense in all
registers. Oboe timbre is generally described as plaintive, nasal, reedy. The instrument is associated with pastoral effects and with nostalgic melodies. The
pitch of the oboe, once correctly established, is not readily subject to change, for
which reason it is chosen to sound the A for the other instruments when the
orchestra tunes up.
The English horn is in the nature of an alto oboe. Its wooden tube is
wider and longer than that of the parent instrument and ends in a pear-shaped
bell. The instrument would be well named were it not for the fact that it is neither English nor a horn. Its expressive, gently poignant tone made it a favourite
with the nineteenth-century romantics.
The clarinet has a single reed, a small elastic piece of cane fastened
against its mouthpiece. The instrument possesses a beautiful liquid tone, clear
and powerful in the high register, relaxed in the middle, cool and almost spectral
in the low. It has a remarkably wide range from low to high and from soft to
loud. The clarinet is a favourite instrument when it comes to playing melody.
Almost as agile as the flute, it has an easy command of rapid scales, trills, and
repeated notes. The bass clarinet's range is one octave lower. Its rich singing
tone, its flexibility and wide dynamic range make it an invaluable member of the
orchestral community.
The bassoon belongs to the double-reed family. Its tone is weighty and
thick in the low register, dry and sonorous in the middle, reedy and intense in
the upper. It is one of the most flexible and useful of the bass instruments. Capable of a hollow-sounding staccato and wide leap that create a humorous effect, it had been named "the clown of the orchestra". The designation is unfortunate, as it obscures the bassoon's highly expressive character. The double bassoon, known also as contrabassoon, produces the lowest tone in the orchestra. Its
tube, over sixteen feet in length, is folded four around to make it less unwieldy.
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Its function in the woodwind section may be compared to that of the double bass
among the strings, in that it supplies a foundation for the harmony. In recent
times the double bassoon has been much used for special effects and colours.
The saxophone is of fairly recent origin, having been invented by Adolphe Sax of Brussels in 1840. It was created by combining the features of several
other instruments – the single reed of the clarinet, the conical tube of the oboe,
and the metal body of the brass instruments. The saxophone blends well with either woodwinds or brass. In the 1920's it became the characteristic instrument of
the jazz band. French composers have been partial to it from the first; but, although it figures prominently in a number of important modern scores, it has not
yet established itself as a permanent member of the orchestra.
The woodwinds are a less homogeneous group than the string section.
They are not necessarily made of wood; and they represent several methods of
setting up vibration: by blowing across a mouth hole (flute family); by means of
a single reed (clarinet and saxophone families); by means of a double reed (oboe
and bassoon families). They do, however, have features in common; first, the
holes in the side of the pipe; and second, their timbres, which are such that composers think of them and write for them as a group.
Notes:
1. made of silver alloy – сделанный из серебряного сплава;
2. plaintive nasal reedy timbre – печальный гнусавый пронзительный
тембр;
3. a pear-shaped bell – раструб грушевидной формы;
4. “the clown of the orchestra” – «клоун оркестра».
THE BRASS SECTION
The brass section is the "heavy artillery" of the orchestra. Its four members – trumpet, horn, trombone, and tuba – are indispensable for melody, for
sustaining harmony, for rhythmic accent, for the weight of their massed tone,
and for the flamelike sonority they contribute to climaxes. These instruments
have a cap-shaped mouthpiece. The column of air within the tube is set vibrating
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by the tightly stretched lips of the player, which act as a kind of double reed. To
go from one pitch to another requires not only mechanical means such as a slide
or valves, but also variation in the pressure of the lips and breath, which demands great muscular control. Fatigue of lip muscles will cause even an expert
player to go off pitch.
Although the brass instruments are not as agile as either the woodwinds or
strings, succeeding generations of players have learned to handle them with ever
greater virtuosity. Besides playing an important role in the orchestra, the members of the brass choir have come to figure prominently in twentieth-century
chamber music and in the jazz band.
The trumpet, soprano of the brass choir, possesses a firm, brilliant timbre
that lends radiance to the orchestral mass. It is associated with martial pomp and
vigour. Played softly, the instrument commands a lovely round tone. The muted
trumpet is much used; the mute, a pear-shaped device of metal or cardboard, is
inserted in the bell. When the muted tone is forced, a harsh snarling sound results that is not soon forgotten. Jazz trumpet players have experimented with
various kinds of mutes, and these are gradually finding their way into the
orchestra.
The horn, known also as French horn, is a romantic instrument. Descending from the hunting horn, the instrument was a favourite with nineteenthcentury composers, who identified its sound with nature. Its golden resonance
lends itself to a variety of uses: it can be mysteriously remote in soft passages,
and nobly sonorous in loud. The timbre of the horn blends equally well with
woodwinds, brass, and strings, for which reason it serves as the connecting link
among them. Although capable of considerable agility, the horn is at its best in
sustained utterance. The muted horn has a poetic faraway sounding; if the muted
tone is forced, however, the result is an ominous rasping quality.
The trombone – the word in Italian means "large trumpet" – has a grand
sonorousness that combines the brilliance of the trumpet with the majesty of the
horn. In place of valves it has a movable U-shaped slide that alters the length of
the vibrating air column in the tube. Composers consistently avail themselves
of its orotund tone to gain effects of nobility.
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The tuba is the bass of the brass choir. Like the string bass and contrabassoon, it furnishes the foundation for the harmonic fabric. It is surprisingly agile for so unwieldy an instrument. To play it requires good teeth and plenty of
wind. The tuba adds body to the orchestral tone, and a dark resonance ranging
from velvety softness to a growl.
Mention should be made, too, of the brass instruments used in military
and outdoor bands. Most important of these is the cornet, which was developed
early in the nineteenth century from the post-horn. The cornet has a shorter body
than the trumpet and possesses greater agility; its tone is rounder but less brilliant. Because of the comparative ease with which it is played, it has become the
mainstay of brass bands and small orchestras of the music-hall type. The bugle,
originally a hunter's horn, has a powerful tone that carries in the open air. As it is
not equipped with valves, it is able to sound only certain tones of the scale.
Notes:
1. “heavy artillery” – «тяжелая артиллерия»;
2. a cup-shaped mouthpiece – мундштук в форме чашечки;
3. a harsh snarling sound – резкий рычащий звук;
4. to lend radiance – придавать блеск, великолепие;
5. to gain effect of nobility – получать (достигать) благозвучного
эффекта;
6. an orotund tone – полнозвучный тон.
THE PERCUSSION INSTRUMENTS
The percussion section comprises a variety of instruments that are made
to sound by striking or shaking. Certain ones consist of an elastic material such
as metal or wood. In others, such as the drums, vibration is set up by striking a
stretched skin.
The percussion section of the orchestra is sometimes referred to as "the
battery". Its members accentuate the rhythm, add body to the sound, generate
excitement in climatic moments, and inject splashes of colour into the orchestral
timbre. Like seasoning in food, they are most effective when used sparingly.
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The percussion instruments fall into two categories, those of definite and
those of indefinite pitch. In the former class are the kettledrums, or timpani,
which are used in sets of two or three.
The kettledrum is a hemispheric copper shell across which is stretched a
"head" of calfskin held in place by a metal ring. Adjustable screws or a pedal
mechanism enable the player to change the tension of the calfskin head and with
it the pitch. The instrument is played with two padded sticks. Its dynamic range
extends from a mysterious rumble to a thunderous roll. The muffled drum frequently figures in passages that seek to evoke an atmosphere of mystery or
mourning.
The glockenspiel (German for "a set of bells)" consists of a series of
horizontal steel plates of various sizes that are struck with two hammers and
produce a bright metallic sound.
The celesta, which in appearance resembles a miniature upright piano, is
a kind of glockenspiel that is operated by a keyboard: the steel plates are struck
by small hammers and produce an ethereal sound.
The xylophone consists of blocks of wood which produce a dry, crisp
timbre when struck. Expert xylophone players attain dazzling speed and accuracy.
The marimba, a xylophone of African and South American origin, is associated with exotic dance music.
Chimes consist of a set of metal tubes of various lengths suspended from
a frame and struck with a hammer. They have a broad dynamic range, from a
metallic tinkle to a sonorous clang, and are frequently called upon to simulate
church bells.
Among the percussion instruments of indefinite pitch are the bass drum,
the side drum, also known as snare drum, tambourine and castanets, the triangle,
cymbals, and gong.
Notes:
1. “the battery” – зд. «военная батарея»;
2. to inject splashes – зд. создавать шум;
3. a copper shell – медный котел;
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4. calfskin “head” – мембрана из телячьей кожи (часть музыкального
ударного инструмента – литавры);
5. to change the tension of calfskin head – менять (перестраивать) литавры путем изменения натяжения мембраны;
6. padded sticks – зд. палки, подбитые тканью: войлоком, фетром, синтепоном (2 палки с головками различной величины, формы, фактуры
и степени твердости, которые использует музыкант во время игры на
литаврах; выбор палок зависит от исполнения музыки).
OTHER INSTRUMENTS
The harp is one of the oldest of musical instruments. It appears in its earliest form on Babylonian inscriptions of over four thousand years ago. It was the
traditional instrument of the bards of ancient Britain and Ireland, and became the
national emblem of the latter country. Its strings are played by plucking and
produce a crystalline tone that blends well with the orchestral timbres.
Chords on the harp are frequently played in broken form; that is, the tones
are sounded one after another instead of simultaneously. From this circumstance
comes the term arpeggio, which means a broken chord (arpa is the Italian for
"harp").
Arpeggios occur in a variety of forms on many instruments. By breaking
up the chord instead of sounding it in block formation, composers are able to extend a harmony over a period of time and to arrange it in diverse rhythmic figures.
The piano, a most popular instrument, is widely used in the home as well
as on the concert stage. Whereas the violinist or clarinetist needs someone to accompany him, the pianist is able to play both melody and harmony. This selfsufficiency makes the piano an extremely useful instrument. It is indispensable
for accompanying and in small instrumental ensembles, and is of great assistance to musicians in the study of operatic and orchestral scores.
The full name of the instrument is pianoforte, the Italian for "soft-loud",
which indicates its wide dynamic range and its capacity for nuance. Its strings
are struck with little hammers controlled by a keyboard mechanism. The piano
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is pre-eminent for brilliant scales, arpeggios, and trills, rapid passages and octaves. It has a wide range from lowest to highest tone and commands great
rhythmic vitality. Nineteenth-century piano writing leaned toward sensuous
beauty and lyricism. Present-day composers have found a new use for the piano
as a rhythmic percussion instrument of crisp sonority, both solo and as a member of the orchestra.
The organ, once regarded as "the king of instruments", is a wind instrument into whose pipes the air is fed by mechanical means. The pipes are controlled by two or more keyboards and a set of pedals. Gradations of tone are
made possible by means of swell boxes. The organ possesses a multicoloured
sonority and majestic harmonies that fill a huge space.
Notes:
1. diverse rhythmic figure – разнообразные ритмические образы;
2. to be indispensable for accompanying – являться необходимым
для аккомпанемента.
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II. ENGLISH MUSIC
THE HISTORY OF ENGLISH MUSIC
England is world famous for its literature, painting (particularly for its
water-colours), for its theatre, but not for its great composers. Now why is this
so? Germans would have insisted if asked that the English are not a musical
people, that England is the land that cares little for music. But this is not true.
In fact the XVI century and early XVII witnessed Germans visiting England to
listen to music. Even back in the XV century Dunstuble enjoyed a European
reputation for his church music, and nearly two centuries later Dow-land’s
songs and aires for the lute were widely printed and performed abroad. Speaking of the music in England of the XVII century we should consider not
merely the splendid quality of Purcell's best work but the amount of music, of
all kinds, and most of it performed, that he produced during his short life
(1659-1695). This means that the demand for music was great, at least at
Court and in London.
In the XVIII and XIX centuries England may have been very backward
indeed in the creation of symphonies and concertos, but a nation so eagerly
vocal – the existing tradition of English choral singing should be mentioned
here – can hardly be described as being pathetically unmusical. And if London, after Handel, produced no great music, it could heartily welcome such
music, and if necessary, as the record shows, was ready to commission work
from famous composers, when they were left ignored by their own Central
Europe, because in England there were certainly persons anything but indifferent to music.
Besides, it is quite explainable why the XVIII century produced no
great composers. The XVIII century delighted in the theatre and entertainment
in general. The main entertainment was ballad opera, which usually offered as
much spoken dialogue as it did songs and dances.
As to the composers of the XIX century, we should remember that the
musical climate of Victorian England was unfavourable to bold and daring
composition. The first important British composer in two hundred years – that
is, since the death of Purcell – was Sir Edward Elgar (1857-1934). Elgar loved
England, her past, her people, her countryside and he responded to her need
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for a national artist. By inclination he was a natural musician of great invention. "It is my idea," he said, "that music is in the air all around us, the world is
full of it and it is important that you should take as much of it as you wish."
What he took was not always distinguished, but he managed to transform it
into something that shone with all the brilliancy of the post-romantic orchestra.
His music is full of sound and movement. It comes from an eclectic late
XIX century style. Elgar borrowed elements from Brahms, Strauss, and even
from Verdi, but it is stamped with British personality all the same. "He might
have been a great composer if he had not been such a perfect gentleman," one
of his admirers wrote. Nevertheless Elgar served his country well and England
will long remember him.
Frederik Delius (1862-1934) comes next. He found it essential that music should be the expression of a poetic and emotional nature, and indeed Delius's music reminds us of the English landscape and its seasons: the freshness
of spring, the short-lived brilliancy of summer, the sadness of autumn. He was
regarded as the most poetic composer born in England.
Delius was lucky to find an ideal interpreter in Sir Thomas Beecham. It
was due to this dynamic conductor that Delius's music became popular in
Great Britain. Sir Thomas Beecham organized in 1929 a six-day festival of
Delius's works which he conducted himself. It is said that had Sir Thomas
Beecham not organized that festival Delius might have died unrecognized as
an artist.
The English renaissance in music was heralded by an awakening of interest in the native song and dance. Out of this interest came a generation of
composers. The most important figure among them was Ralph Vaugham Williams (1872-1958) – the representative of English music on the international
scene.
He suggested that a composer in England should draw inspiration from
life around him. "Have we not all about us forms of musical expression which
we can take and purify and bring into line with the greatest art? Why should
not the musician build national monuments like the painter, the writer or the
architect?" He was in the first place a melodist. His love of folk tunes was part
of an essentially melodic approach to music. His natural expression was dia23
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tonic, with strong leanings toward modal harmony and counterpoint. He favoured old forms – the passacalia, fugue and concerto grosso, also the Elizabethan fantasia with its flowing counterpoint. He held the attention of the
world due to his superb command of the grand form.
Speaking of today's music it should be mentioned that now there are a
great many composers hard at work and what they are doing is very
promising.
Notes:
to care little – мало заботиться;
to enjoy a reputation – пользоваться репутацией;
not merely – не просто;
to delight in – наслаждаться;
to be unfavourable to – относиться неблагосклонно к …;
to manage to (inf). – удаваться;
to demand for – потребность в;
to draw inspiration – черпать вдохновение.
HENRY PURCELL
Henry Purcell was born in 1659 in Westminster, London. His father,
Henry Purcell, was a gentleman of the Chapel Royal. After his death in 1664,
young Henry Purcell was placed under the guardianship of his uncle, Thomas
Purcell. Through him the boy was admitted to the Chapel Royal as a chorister
and studied under Pelham Humfrey, a pupil of Lully.
The talented boy started composing music at the age of 9. In 1676 he
was appointed copyist at Westminster Abbey and in the same year he composed the music to the works by Dryden and Shadwell. These were followed
by the music to Mrs. Behn's tragedy Abdelazor, and in 1678 by an overture
and masque for Shadwell's version of Shakespeare's Timon of Athens. The
excellence of these compositions is proved by the fact that they contain songs
and choruses which never fail to please, even at the present day.
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He continued to write songs and anthems, till in 1680, at the age of 21,
he was appointed organist of Westminster Abbey – the most honourable position an English artist could occupy at that time. He now devoted himself almost entirely to the composition of sacred music, and for six years severed his
connection with the theatre.
The composition of his opera Dido and Aeneas, which forms a very important landmark in the history of English dramatic music, has been attributed
to this period. It is a musical drama in the strictest sense of the term, a genuine
opera, in which the action is entirely carried on in recitative, without a word of
spoken dialogue; and the music is of the most genial character, full of inspiration, overflowing with spontaneous melody, and in every respect immensely
in advance of his age. It never found its way to the theatre, though it was very
popular among private circles.
In 1682 Purcell was appointed organist of the Chapel Royal. His first
printed composition, Twelve Sonatas, was published in 1683.
In 1685 the composer wrote two of his finest anthems I was Glad and
My Heart is Inditing, for the coronation of James II. In 1687 he resumed his
connection with the theatre by scoring the music to Dryden's tragedy Tyrannic
Love. In 1693 he wrote the songs for Dryden's version of Shakespeare's The
Tempest; next year he produced his dramatic masterpiece King Arthur, also
written by Dryden. But Purcell's greatest work is undoubtfully his Те Deum
and Jubilate, written for St. Cecilia's Day, 1694, the first English Те Deum
composed with orchestral accompaniment. In this work Purcell was so far in
advance of his age that it was annually performed in St. Paul's Cathedral till
1712. In the years to come it was given alternately with the similar creation of
Handel. Purcell did not long survive the production of this great work. He died
on the 21st of November, 1695, and was buried under the organ in Westminster Abbey. His widow published a number of his works including the now
famous collection of songs called Orpheus Britannicus.
Besides the operas already mentioned, Purcell wrote Don Quixote, The
Indian Queen and others, a vast quantity of sacred music, and numerous odes,
cantatas and other pieces.
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Notes:
1. a gentleman of the Chapel Royal – член придворной капеллы;
2. masque – маска, увеселительное придворное представление в Англии XVI-XVII веков, приуроченное к торжественному пиршеству.
Основу маски составляли танцы и шествия в маскарадных костюмах под музыку, чередующиеся с выступлениями певцов и поэта,
читающего пояснительный текст. Сюжеты носили обычно мифологический или пасторальный характер;
3. Timon of Athens – «Тимон Афинский», трагедия В. Шекспира, написанная в 1608 г.;
4. which never fail to please – которыми нельзя не наслаждаться;
5. Dido and Aeneas – «Дидона и Эней». Опера написана Перселлом на
сюжет «Энеиды» Вергилия. Дидона, карфагенская царица, дала
приют знатному троянцу Энею, который прибыл в Карфаген после
падения Трои. Дидона полюбила его и покончила с собой, когда
Эней покинул ее;
6. The Tempest – «Буря» (1612), одна из последних пьес В. Шекспира
с очень сильными элементами фантастики.;
7. King Arthur– «Король Артур», пьеса Драйдена, написанная
в 1691 году, о легендарном короле Артуре и его рыцарях Круглого
Стола, прославившихся необыкновенными подвигами;
8. Те Deum – гимн для хора (или хоров) и симфонического оркестра
на текст католического песнопения. Те Deum Laudamus (лат.) –
«Тебя бога хвалим»;
9. Jubilate (лат.) – «Торжествуйте»;
10. St. Cecilia's Day – День святой Цецилии, покровительницы музыки
у католиков, празднуется ежегодно 22-го ноября. В Англии
в эти дни проходит большой фестиваль музыки, во время которого
исполняются специально написанные кантаты; их авторами
часто были великие композиторы: Г. Перселл, Ф. Гендель, Б. Бриттен и др.;
11. Don Quixote [don 'kwiksat]– «Дон Кихот», опера на сюжет одноименного сатирического романа М. Сервантеса;
12. The Indian Queen – «Королева индейцев», опера по пьесе Драйдена
и Говарда, поставлена в Лондоне в 1695 г.
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EDWARD ELGAR
Edward Elgar was born on the 2nd of June, 1857 in the town of Worcester where his father was for many years organist in the Roman Catholic
Church of St. George. His father's connections with music at Worcester, with
the Glee Club and with the Three Choirs Festival, supplied his son with varied
opportunities for a musical education, and he learnt to play several instruments. He worked as a band-master and later as conductor of an amateur orchestra before he succeeded his father as organist at St. George's, Worcester,
in 1885. Previously he was a member of an orchestra in Birmingham, and in
1883 an intermezzo by him was played there at a concert. At that period Elgar
also wrote a certain amount of church music. In 1885 the young composer
moved to London; but finding no encouragement there retired to Malvern
in 1891.
In 1904 he went to live at Hereford and in 1905 he was made professor
of music at Birmingham University. He was hardly known to the public at the
time till his oratorio The Dream of Gerontius was performed in Birmingham
in 1900, but this was at once received as a new revelation in English music,
both at home and abroad, especially by Richard Strauss in Germany. The
composer was made a Musical Doctor at Cambridge.
His experience in writing church music is to be regarded as a great contribution into the movement of developing the more artistic and sensuous side
of religious music – a thing which took place in all European music at the link
of the two centuries. That is why the same interest was attached to his later
oratorios: The Apostles (1903) and The Kingdom (1906). But Elgar's sudden
rise into popularity drew attention to his other productions.
In 1896 his Scenes from the Saga of King Olaf was recognized by musicians as a fine work, and in the same year his Scenes from the Bavarian Highlands and Lux Christi were performed. His song cycle Sea Pictures was sung
by Dame Clara Butt at Norwich in 1899 and his orchestral Variations on an
Original Theme were given at a Richter concert in the same year. In 1901 his
popular marches Pomp and Circumstance were played at a Promenade Concert, the stirring melody of his song "Land of Hope and Glory" being effectively utilized. It is impossible to enumerate all Edward Elgar's works, which
have excited a good deal of discussion in musical circles.
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Nevertheless he was recognized as one of the few front-rank English
composers of his day. His most important later production – his first orchestral
symphony – produced in 1908 with immediate success raised his reputation as
a composer to an even higher place. It is a work of remarkable power and
beauty which developed the symphony form and is combined with the originality of a real master of his art.
In 1908 Elgar resigned his professorship at Birmingham University and
till his dying day made public appearances chiefly as a conductor.
Notes:
1. a glee – вокальное произведение для трех и более сольных голосов,
исполняющееся обычно без аккомпанимента;
2. a glee-club – хор, исполняющий произведения для трех и более
голосов;
3. The Dream of Gerontius – «Сновидения Геронтия», оратория
на текст поэмы кардинала Ньюмена;
4. at the link of the two centuries – на рубеже двух веков (XIX и XX);
5. Elgar's sudden rise into popularity – внезапный рост популярности
Элгара;
6. Lux Christi (лат.) – «Свет Христа»;
7. to make public appearances – выступать перед публикой.
TRADITIONAL TUNES FROM FOLK SINGERS
Among the composers in England famous for their going into the
villages and taking down the traditional tunes from the lips of folk singers the
most important figure was Ralph Vaughan Williams. His being professor of
composition at the Royal College of music helped him to train many gifted
musicians of the new generation. He was the most active member of the socalled "folk song school of composers". He produced a lot of works, vocal and
instrumental in all genres. In the last years of his life Vaughan Williams was
regarded as the unofficial composer-laureate of his native land.
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The main idea of his creative activity consisted in bringing art into the
most direct relationship to life. He wrote: "The composer must not shut himself up and think about art. He must live with his people. The composer must
think of making his art an expression of the whole life of the community."
But life is not lived in the abstract. It is lived in a certain place with a certain
group of people. Such attitude to music brought him to folk music.
In his music Vaughan Williams used the ancient tunes of the peasantry,
in which he found the living profound expression of the spirits and traditions
of his people. The ancient tunes gave him also a feeling of being freed from
foreign influences. "We have all about us forms of musical expression which
we are able of raising to the level of great art. We must cultivate a sense of
musical citizenship, the musician must build national monuments like the
painter, the writer and the architect." Vaughan Williams was mainly a
melodist; his love of folk tunes was part of an essentially melodic approach to
music. Vaughan Williams holds the attention of the world largely because of
his having had a good command of the grand from. His music is full of freshness, it is cool and wholesome, and it is energetic and lyrical at the same time.
It is very noble in tone. It reflects the powerful personality and the warm heart
of this most English of English composers.
His compositions include 9 symphonies; concertos for piano, violin, and
for tuba; choral works; operas Huge the Drover; Sir John in Love; The Poisoned Kiss; Riders to the Sea; ballets Old King Cole; chamber music; many
songs.
Notes:
the Royal College of music – Королевский музыкальный колледж
(находится в центре Лондона; дает профессиональное среднее
образование и высшее образование; также присуждает премии
за успехи в области музыки; основан в 1883 году);
Huge the Drover – опера «Хью-гуртовщик», 1924;
Sir John in Love – опера «Влюбленный сэр Джон», 1924;
The Poisoned Kiss – опера «Отравленный поцелуй», 1937;
Riders to the Sea – опера «Уходящие в море», 1937.
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ARTHUR BLISS
The English composer Arthur Bliss (born in London) was educated at
Rugby and Pembroke College, Cambridge, and studied music there under
Charles Wood.
In 1913 he went to the College of Music in London, where he had lessons for a short time from Stanford, Vaughan Williams and Hoist. But he
joined the army at the outbreak of World War I and served off and on
throughout the period of hostilities (1914-18), being wounded twice. On his
return home he decided not to undergo any further academic training but
worked for himself to such purpose that he not only developed a very assured
technique, but was able to accept a professorship for composition at the College of Music. In 1919 he continued to experiment in unusual chamber music
combinations of voice such as his Rhapsody for soprano and tenor with flute,
English horn, string quartet and double-bass. Conversations, humorously descriptive pieces for string trio, flute and English horn, date from the same year,
while another curiously scored work was the Concerto for piano, tenor (exclamatory words of no definite meaning), strings and percussion. So far Bliss
had clearly been interested chiefly in the solution of new problems; but, enterprising as he was, his music was felt to be as yet the outcome of theories first
established by reasoning and then carried out with little inspiration, though
with much ingenuity. Music more likely to show lasting qualities was expected of him. The incidental music for a production of Shakespeare's Tempest
in London in 1921 did not show to great advantage. A much greater event,
however, was the production of the Colour Symphony, in 1922. There was still
a preconceived theory at the bottom of this work, each movement of which
was based on a colour and its ideological associations (e. g. purple: royalty,
pageantry and death, etc.); but the composer's chief concern now was that the
music as such should strike the listener, and when he revised the work some
ten years later, he had much less stress on the descriptive aspects of it.
In 1923 he left England for California. He was musically associated
with the film industry and composed a string quartet, piano pieces and songs.
He was back in England in 1926 and made a striking reappearance as a composer with the orchestral Hymn to Apollo and with a new version of the freak-
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ishly scored Concerto of 1919, now arranged for two pianos and orchestra and
considerably revised. He had become a perfectly serious composer though one
always intent on writing in a modern and enterprising way. He had become so
sure of himself that he could vary his style and adapt it to the special purpose
of each new work without in the least sacrificing his artistic personality. At the
same time he had by no means lost his interest in previously untried ways and
means. A work of 1923, for example, showed him as trying his hand at the
same time upon a new medium and a new way of dealing with words. This
was the enchanting Pastoral for a small chorus, mezzo-soprano solo, flute,
string orchestra and drums, set to a little anthology of bucolic verse.
In a quintet for oboe and strings he approached a beautifully mature
chamber style. No less fine is the sonata for viola and piano (1934), a spaciously planned work demanding great virtuosity.
Arthur Bliss' music was much admired for the qualities of decorative
stateliness and fierceness which exactly match the scenario. He has written
copiously: ballet, orchestral pieces, chamber music, concertos and film music.
Notes:
1. a period of hostilities – период вынужденных действий;
2. Shakespeare's Tempest – пьеса В. Шекспира «Буря», Артур Блисс
написал музыку по произведению В. Шекспира;
3. Colour Symphony – «Цветная симфония», оркестровое произведение написано в 1922 г.;
4. Hymn to Apollo – «Гимн Аполлону», произведение написано
в 1926 г.
A GREAT COMPOSER, CONDUCTOR AND PIANIST
Benjamin Britten is an English composer, pianist, conductor, publicman and outstanding representative of modern English music. He played the
piano at seven, composed an oratorio at nine, and had written a symphony,
quartets, and other works by the time he was sixteen.
The composer first attracted attention in 1934 with the music he composed for the International Society for Contemporary Music. During World
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War II, while living in the United States, he was commissioned to write an opera. This work, Peter Grimes, was successfully produced in the USA and
abroad.
Though he was early attracted to the atonal music of Schoenberg and
somewhat later was influenced by Mahler's post-Romanticism, Britten has adhered to no single style. He is essentially an eclectic composer whose manner
of writing is influenced by the aesthetic requirement of the work he is producing. He has written in many different veins – sometimes even in the same
work – and always with a brilliant command of his technique, complete faculty, and lack of inhibitions in his self-expression. At his best, he has engaging
warmth and a fine poetic speech.
He has been especially successful in the writing of realistic music set to
a definite verbal text, whether in song or in opera. His talent for re-creating
atmospheric backgrounds in his music, for evoking the exact mood of his text,
and for projecting dramatic climaxes has been exceptional. What was written
in the press about Peter Grimes might apply to all of Britten's works: "He has
found a right symbol for every situation, and every page bears evidence of distinction and originality."
The opera Peter Grimes, placed Britten among the major composers of
England, a position he solidified with subsequent works.
Among his other compositions are Let's Make an Opera, composed especially for young people, Beggar's Opera, Midsummer Night's Dream, Billy
Budd, War Requiem and The Turn of the Screw. While Britten's special gift
lies in his music for the stage, he has written a great deal of chamber music
and music for the orchestra, including the popular Young Person's Guide to
the Orchestra.
Notes:
1. aesthetic requirement – эстетическое требование;
2. Peter Grimes – «Питер Граймс» – опера, написанная в 1945 г.
(в центре оперы герой по имени Питер необычного типа, изгой,
терзаемый психологическими комплексами);
3. Beggar's Opera – «Опера нищего», опера написана в середине
40-х гг. XX столетия;
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4. Midsummer Night's Dream – «Сон в летнюю ночь», детская опера
(волшебная сказка), написана в 1958 г.;
5. Billy Budd – «Билли Бадд», опера (психологическая драма), написана в 1951 г.;
6. War Requiem – «Военный реквием», музыка для хора, написана
в 1961 г.;
7. The Turn of the Screw – «Поворот винта», опера (символическая
фантасмагория), написана в 1954 г.;
8. Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra – «Путеводитель по оркестру
для молодежи» – вариации и фуга на тему Пёрселла, написаны
в 1946 г.
LLOYD WEBBER
Lloyd Webber, Sir Andrew was born on the 22 of March, 1948, in London, England.
He is an English composer whose eclectic rock-based works helped
revitalize British and American musical theatre in the late 20th century.
Lloyd Webber studied at Magdalen College, Oxford, and at the Royal
College of Music. While a student he began collaborating with Timothy Rice
on dramatic productions, with Rice writing the lyrics to Lloyd Webber's music. Their first notable venture was Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor
Dreamcoat (1968), a pop oratorio for children that earned worldwide popularity in a later full-length version. It was followed by the rock opera Jesus Christ
Superstar (1971), an extremely popular though controversial work that
blended classical forms with rock music to tell the story of Jesus' life. This
show was one of the longest-running musicals in British theatrical history.
Lloyd Webber's last major collaboration with Rice was on Evita (1978), a musical about Eva Perón, the wife of the Argentine dictator Juan Perón.
In his next major musical, Cats (1981), Lloyd Webber set to music
verses from a children's book by T.S. Eliot. The London production of Cats
became the longest-running musical in the history of British theatre, and in
1997 the Broadway production of the play eclipsed the record set by A Chorus
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Line to become the longest-running show ever on Broadway; on September
10, 2000, Cats closed after 7,485 performances. With lyricists Charles Hart
and Richard Stilgoe, Lloyd Webber then composed a hugely popular musical
version of The Phantom of the Opera (1986). His other musicals included
Song and Dance (1982), Starlight Express (1984), and Aspects of Love (1989).
He was knighted in 1992.
Lloyd Webber's best musicals were flashy spectacles that featured vivid
melodies and forceful and dramatic staging. He was able to blend such disparate genres as rock and roll, English music-hall song, and operatic forms into
music that had a wide popular appeal.
Notes:
1. Jesus Christ Superstar – опера «Иисус Христос – Суперзвезда»,
1971.
2. Evita – мюзикл «Эвита», 1978.
3. Cats – мюзикл «Кошки», 1981.
4. The Phantom of the Opera – мюзикл «Призрак оперы», 1986.
5. Starlight Express – мюзикл «Звездный экспресс», 1984.
6. Aspects of Love – мюзикл «Лики любви», 1989.
ARTS AND CULTURE OF GREAT BRITAIN
ARTISTIC AND CULTURAL LIFE OF GREAT BRITAIN
Artistic and cultural life in Britain is rather rich. It passed several main
stages in its development.
The Saxon King Alfred encouraged the arts and culture. The chief debt
owed to him by English literature is for his translations of and commentaries
on Latin works.
Art, culture and literature flowered during the Elizabethan age, the reign
of Elizabeth I; it was the period of English domination of the oceans. It was at
this time that William Shakespeare lived.
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The empire, which was very powerful under Queen Victoria saw
another cultural and artistic hey-day as a result of industrialization and the
expansion of international trade.
But German air raids caused much damage in the First World War and
then during the Second World War. The madness of the wars briefly interrupted the development of culture.
Immigrants who have arrived from all parts of the Commonwealth since
1945 have not only created a mixture of nations, but have also brought their
cultures and habits with them.
Monuments and traces of past greatness are everywhere. There are
buildings of all styles and periods. A great number of museums and galleries
display precious and interesting finds from all parts of the world and from all
stages in the development of nature, man and art.
London is one of the leading world centres for music, drama, opera and
dance. Festivals held in towns and cities throughout the country attract much
interest. Many British playwrights, composers, sculptors, painters, writers, actors, singers and dancers are internationally famous.
The British Council promotes knowledge of British culture and literature overseas, organizing British participation in international exhibitions and
encouraging professional interchange in all cultural fields between Britain and
other countries.
Notes:
1. the expansion of international trade – расширение внешней торговли;
2. traces of past greatness – следы былого величия;
3. to display finds – выставлять, демонстрировать находки;
4. to encourage professional interchange – содействовать обмену профессиональным опытом;
5. (the) Elizabethan age – эпоха королевы Елизаветы, правившей с
1558 по 1603 год, получившей известность в качестве покровительницы наук и искусств;
6. the British Council – Британский совет (правительственная организация по развитию культурных связей с зарубежными странами;
создана в 1934 г.)
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ENTERTAINMENT IN BRITAIN
London is without doubt the entertainment capital of Britain, but many
regional theatres, opera houses and concert halls have varied programmes. Edinburgh, Manchester, Birmingham, Leeds and Bristol in particular have a lot
to offer and there are a number of summer arts festivals around the country
such as those at Bath and Cheltenham. Ticket prices are often cheaper outside
the capital.
Theatres
Britain has an enduring theatrical tradition dating back to Shakespeare
and beyond. All over the country, amateurs and professionals tread the boards
in purpose-built auditoriums, pubs, clubs and village halls. Productions and
performance standards are generally high, and British actors have an international reputation.
London is the place to enjoy theatre at its most varied and glamorous.
The West End alone has more than 50 theatres ranging from elaborate Edwardian, upholstered in red plush, to exciting modern buildings such as the
National Theatre on the South Bank in London.
In Stratford-upon-Avon, the Royal Shakespeare Company presents a
year-round programme of Shakespeare, as well as avant-garde and experimental plays. Bristol also has a long dramatic tradition, the Theatre Royal being
the oldest working theatre in Britain. Some of the best productions outside the
capital can be found at the West Yorkshire Theatre in Leeds, the Royal Exchange in Manchester and the Traverse in Edinburgh.
Open-air theatre ranges from the free street entertainment that is to be
found in many city centres, to student performances on the grounds of Cambridge or Oxford colleges or a production at Cornwall's spectacular clifftop
amphitheatre, the Minack Theatre. Every fourth year, York also stages a series
of open-air medieval mystery plays called the York Cycle. Perhaps the liveliest theatrical tradition in Britain is the Edinburgh Festival. Seaside resorts put
on summer programmes of lighthearted entertainment, traditionally stand-up
comedy.
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Ticket availability varies from show to show. You may be able to buy a
ticket at the door, especially for a mid-week matinee, but for the more popular
West End shows tickets may have to be booked weeks or even months in advance. You can book through agencies and some travel agents, and most hotels will organize theatre tickets for you. Booking fees are often charged. Beware of tickets offered by touts – these may be counterfeit. There are no age
restrictions in Britain's theatres. It is left to your discretion to decide whether a
show is suitable for children.
Music
A diverse musical repertoire can be found in a variety of venues. Church
choral music is a great national tradition and many churches and cathedrals
host concerts. London, Manchester, Birmingham, Liverpool, Bristol and
Bournemouth all have their own excellent orchestras. Rock, jazz, folk and
country-and-western concerts are staged periodically in pubs, clubs and sometimes in outdoor auditoria. Wales has a strong musical tradition which you
will come across in many Welsh pubs; northern England is renowned for its
booming brass and silver bands; and Scotland, of course, has its famous bagpipers.
Cinemas
The latest films can be seen in any large town. Check the local papers
or the tourist office to find out what is on.
Cinemas are having a revival, with luxurious multi-screen cinemas taking over from the local, single-screen cinemas. In larger cities a more diverse
range of films is often on offer including more foreign-language productions.
These tend to be shown at arts or repertory cinemas. Mainstream Englishspeaking films are usually shown by the big chains. Age limits apply to certain
films. Young children are allowed to see any feature film which is graded with
a U (universal) or PG (parental guidance) certificate. Cinema prices vary
widely; some are cheaper at off-peak times, such as Mondays or afternoons.
For new releases it is advisable to book in advance.
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Clubs
Most cities have some sort of club scene, though London has the most
famous venues. These may feature live music, discos, or DJ or dance performances. Some insist on dress codes or members only, and most have doormen,
or "bouncer". Apart from the major cities, Brighton and Bristol have lively
clubs.
Dance
This covers a multitude of activities: everything from classical ballet
and acid-house parties to traditional English Morris dancing or the Scottish
Highland fling, which you may come upon in pubs and villages around the
country.
Dance halls are rarer than they were, but ballroom dancing is alive and
well. Other dance events you may find are ceilidhs (pronounced kay-lee),
which is Celtic dancing and music; May Balls often held at universities (invitation only); dinner or tea dances and square dancing.
Birmingham is home to the Birmingham Royal Ballet and is the best
place to see performances outside London. Avant-garde contemporary dance
is also performed.
Notes:
beware of tickets offered by touts – остерегайтесь покупки билетов,
предложенных «зазывалами»;
tickets may be counterfeit – билеты могут быть фальшивыми;
“bounce”=doorman – «вышибала»;
celtic music – кельтская музыка;
venue – место сбора, встречи.
ENTERTAINMENT IN LONDON
London has the enormous variety of entertainment that only the great
cities of the world can provide. The historical backdrop and the lively bustling
atmosphere add to the excitement. Whether dancing the night away at a fa-
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mous disco or making the most of London's varied arts scene, the visitor has a
bewildering choice. A trip to London is not complete without a visit to the
theatre which ranges from glamorous West End musicals to experimental
Fringe plays. There is world-class ballet and opera in fabled venues such as
Sadler's Wells and the Royal Opera House. The musical menu covers everything from classical, jazz and rock to rhythm and blues performed in atmospheric basement clubs, old converted cinemas and outdoor venues such as
Wembley. Movie buffs can choose from hundreds of films each night. Sports
fans can watch cricket at Lord's or participate in a host of activities from water
sports to ice skating. Time Out, published every Wednesday, is the most comprehensive guide to what's on in London, with detailed weekly listings and reviews. The Evening Standard, The Guardian (Saturday) and The Independent
also have reviews and information on events. If you buy tickets from booking
agencies rather than direct from box offices, do compare prices – and only buy
from ticket touts if you're desperate.
Classical Music, Opera And Dance
London is one of the world's great centres for classical music, with five
symphony orchestras, internationally renowned chamber groups such as the
Academy of St-Martin-in-the-Fields and the English Chamber Orchestra, as
well as a number of contemporary groups. There are performances virtually
every week by major international orchestras and artists, reaching a peak during the summer proms season at the Royal Albert Hall. The newly restored
Wigmore Hall has excellent acoustics and is a fine setting for chamber music.
Although televised and outdoor performances by major stars have
greatly increased the popularity of opera, prices at the Royal Opera House
are still aimed at corporate entertainment but the policy now is to keep a few
cheaper seats. The refurbished building is elaborate and productions are often
extremely lavish. English National Opera, based at the London Coliseum, has
more adventurous productions, appealing to a younger audience (nearly all
operas are sung in English). Tickets range from £5 to £200 and it is advisable
to book well in advance.
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The Royal Opera House is also home to the Royal Ballet, and the London Coliseum to the English National Ballet, the two leading classical ballet
companies in Britain. Visiting ballets also perform in both. There are numerous young contemporary dance companies that have their own distinctive
style, notably the London Contemporary Dance Theatre, based at The Place
Theatre. Other major dance venues are Sadler's Wells, the Royalty Theatre
and the Chisenhale Dance Space.
The Barbican and South Bank Centre (comprising the Royal Festival
Hall, Queen Elizabeth Hall and Purcell Room) host an impressive variety of
events ranging from touring opera performances to free foyer concerts.
Elsewhere in London many outdoor musical events take place in summer at venues such as Kenwood House. Events to look out for are: the London Opera Festival (June) with singers from all over the world; the City of
London Festival (July) which hosts a range of varied musical events; and contemporary dance festivals Spring Loaded (February-April) and Dance Umbrella (October).
Rock, Pop, Jazz and Clubs
An ordinary weeknight in London features scores of concerts, ranging
from rock and pop, to jazz, Latin, world, folk and reggae. Many major bands
prefer to play the Brixton Academy and the Forum, both former cinemas.
The number of jazz venues has increased over the last few years.
London's club scene is one of the most innovative in Europe particularly
since 1990, when all-night clubbing (though not drinking) was legalized. It is
dominated by big-name DJs, who host different nights in different clubs and
some of the best clubs are one-nighters. The world-famous mainstream discos
Stringfellows and the Hippodrome are glitzy, expensive and very much part
of the tourist circuit.
Opening times are usually 10pm-3am, but on weekends many clubs
open until 6am.
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Notes:
1. Sadler's Wells (also English National Opera) – театр оперы и балета,
построен в 1931 г.;
2. The Royal Opera House – королевский оперный театр (ведущий театр оперы и балета в Лондоне, известный также как театр Ковент
Гарден); здание, в котором размещается театр, было построено в
1858 г.;
3. The Evening Standard, The Guardian, The Independent – название газет;
4. Royal Albert Hall – Ройал Альберт Холл (крупнейший концертный
зал в центре Лондона на 8.000 мест, в котором проводятся концерты, включая знаменитые Променад Консертс, парады, спортивные
состязания, официальные церемонии; построен в 1867-1871 гг. и
назван в честь принца Альберта, мужа королевы Виктории;
5. The Barbican – название района Лондона, в котором расположен
новый культурный центр столицы (3 кинотеатра, театр, галерея,
библиотека, ресторан и т. д.);
6. South Bank Centre – район в центральном Лондоне, расположенный
к югу от Темзы, в котором в 1951 году быд построен культурный
центр;
7. The Royal Festival Hall – Ройал Фестивал Холл входит в состав
культурного центра; построен в 1948-1951 гг.;
8. The Queen Elizabeth Hall – концертный зал королевы Елизаветы,
входящий в состав культурного центра; построен в 1967 г.;
9. Purcell Room – концертный зал, входящий в состав данного культурного Центра, назван в честь английского композитора-классика
XVII века Генри Перселла;
10. the Promenade Concerts – Променад Консертс (знаменитые концерты классической музыки, пользуются популярностью у молодых
любителей серьезной музыки, которые слушают концерт, стоя
на специальной площадке перед оркестром; раньше посетители
прогуливались во время концерта, отсюда их название, от “promenade” – прогулка).
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GREAT BRITAIN THROUGH THE YEAR
EVERY BRITISH SEASON has its particular charms. Most major
sights are open all year round, but many secondary attractions may be closed
in winter. The weather is changeable in all seasons and the visitor is as likely
to experience a crisp, sunny February day as to be caught in a cold, heavy
shower in July. Long periods of adverse weather and extremes of temperature
are rare. Spring is characterized by daffodils and bluebells, summer by roses
and autumn by the vivid colours of changing leaves. In wintertime, country
vistas are visible through the bare branches of the trees. Annual events and
ceremonies, many stemming from age-old traditions, reflect the attributes of
the seasons.
Spring
As the days get longer and warmer, the countryside starts to come alive.
At Easter many stately homes and gardens open their gates to visitors for the
first time, and during the week before Whit Sunday, or Whitsun (the seventh
Sunday after Easter), the Chelsea Flower Show-takes place. This is the focal
point of the gardening year and spurs on the nation's gardeners to prepare their
summer displays. Outside the capital, many music and arts festivals mark the
middle months of the year.
Summer
LIFE MOVES OUTDOORS in the summer months. Cafes and restaurants place tables on the pavements and pub customers take their drinks outside. The Queen holds garden parties for privileged guests at Buckingham
Palace while, more modestly, village fetes – a combination of a carnival and
street party – are organized. Beaches and swimming pools become crowded
and office workers picnic in city parks at lunch. The rose, England's national
flower, bursts into bloom in millions of gardens. Cultural treats include (openair theatre performances, outdoor concerts, the Proms in London, the National
Eisteddfod in Wales, Glyndebourne's opera festival, and Edinburgh's festival
of the performing arts.
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Autumn
AFTER THE HEADY escapism of summer, the start of the new season
is marked by the various party political conferences held in October and the
royal opening of Parliament. All over the country on 5 November, bonfires are
lit and fireworks let off to celebrate the Foiling of an attempt to blow up the
Houses of Parliament by Guy Fawkes and his co-conspirators in 1605. Cornfields become golden, trees turn fiery yellow through to russet and orchards
are heavy with apples and other autumn fruits. In churches throughout the
country, thanksgiving festivals mark the harvest. The shops stock up for the
run-up to Christmas, their busiest time of the year.
Winter
Brightly coloured fairy lights and Christmas trees decorate Britain's
principal shopping streets as shoppers rush to buy their seasonal gifts. Carol
services are held in churches across the country, and pantomime, a traditional
entertainment for children deriving from the Victorian music hall, fills theatres
in major towns. Many offices close between Christmas and the New Year,
Shops reopen for the January sales on 27 December – a paradise for bargainhunters.
Notes:
1. daffodil – цветок – желтый нарцисс;
2. bluebell – цветок – колокольчик;
3. vista – перспектива, вид;
4. to reflect the attributes of the season – отражать характерные черты
(особенности) сезона (времени года);
5. the Chelsea Flower Show – Праздник цветов в Челси;
6. the focal point – фокус, центр;
7. russet – красновато-коричневый;
8. orchard – фруктовый сад;
9. to reopen – вновь открывать, возобновлять;
10. a paradise for bargain-hunters – зд. рай для охотников за хорошей
покупкой.
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III. AMERICAN MUSIC
JAZZ: ITS ROOTS AND MUSICAL DEVELOPMENT
The origin of the word jazz is obscure. The term came into general use
in 1913-1915. It is used to designate a type of music which developed in the
Southern States of USA in the late 19th century and came into prominence at
the turn of the century in New Orleans, chiefly (but not exclusively) among
black musicians. Elements which contributed to jazz were the rhythms of
Western Africa, European harmony, and American "gospel" singing. Before
the term jazz was used, ragtime was the popular name for this genre. Ragtime
lasted from 1890 to 1917. It was an instrumental style, highly syncopated,
with the pianoforte predominant. Among the leading exponents of the pianoforte rag were Scott Joplin, Jelly Roll Morton, and J.P. Johnson, with the cornettists Buddy Bolden and King Oliver. Some rags were notated but the majority were improvised. About 1900 also, the "blues" craze began. "Blues" implies a largely vocal form and a repressed frame of mind on the part of the performer. The form originated from Negro spirituals, and made use of a blend of
major and minor harmony, and non-tempered scale intervals. In instrumental
blues the prominent instruments were trumpet, cornet, clarinet, saxophone or
trombone. Outstanding blues singers have been Bessie Smith and, later, Billie
Holiday.
The subsequent history of jazz has embraced a diversity of styles, e.g.
Dixieland, from с 1912, which borrowed elements from both ragtime and
blues and made a feature of group improvization led by the trumpeter. The
principal Dixieland musicians included the trumpeters King Oliver and Louis
Armstrong, the pianists Jelly Roll Morton and Earl Hines. In the 1920, jazz
became more sophisticated as it spread to New York, Paris, and London and
became a social "rage". The jazz arranger emerged and with him the bigger
band: harmony became more conventional, melodies were played by a full instrumental section with the solos as central display-pieces, like cadenzas.
These "big bands" had marked individual styles. Paul Whiteman popularized
"symphonic jazz" using violins and elaborate arrangements. At the other
extreme was the Negro style of Duke Ellington, the first great jazz composer.
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The 1930s coincided with the style known as "swing". The swing
bands – led by such virtuoso instrumentalists as Benny Goodman (clarinet),
Jimmy Dorsey (alto saxophone), Gene Krupa (drums), Glenn Miller (trombone), Tommy Rorsey (trombone), Artie Shaw (clarinet) – concentrated on
precision, arrangement, and good ensemble work. Though Ellington's band
was influenced by swing, its members were such superb players and such
strong individualists that improvisation still played a large part in his compositions. Swing yielded in the 1940s to "be-bop", principally for smaller groups
of perhaps 7 players. Rhythm was the prime feature of be-bop, allied to scat
singing. Tempi were fast and great virtuosity was needed. The dominant
player was the alto saxophonist Charlie Parker (1920-55). Also important were
Dizzy Gillespie (trumpeter), Stan Getz (alto saxophonist), and Kenny Clarke
and Max Roach (drummers). "Be-bop" was later re-christened "modern jazz".
Among its derivatives were "cool" jazz, led by Getz and Miles Davis,
and by Shorty Rogers (trumpet) and Lennie Tristano (pianoforte). In the 1960s
"free jazz" was pioneered but the jazz scene was overshadowed by the emergence of "pop" and the pop groups, e.g. the Beatles, the Rolling Stones,
and many others.
The influence of jazz on so-called "serious music" had been widespread
and beneficial. Ives composed ragtime pieces for theater orchestra as early as
1902; Debussy in 1908 wrote the Golliwogs Cakewalk; Ravel used the blues
in his violin sonata, and both his pianoforte concertos are jazz-influenced;
Stravinsky wrote ragtime pieces and composed the Ebony Concerto (1945) for
Woody Herman. Duke Ellington and Bill Russo are among the leading composers of jazz, while those who have written works throwing a bridge between
jazz and symphonic forms include Gershwin, Rolf Liebermann, Leonard
Bernstein, Gunther Schuller, Richard Rodney Bennett, and John Dankworth.
Notes:
1. to imply a large vocal form – широко (в большей степени) выражать
вокальную форму;
2. to embrace a diversity of styles – охватывать (включать) разнообразие стилей;
3. to be widespread and beneficial – быть широко распространенным
и полезным.
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JAZZ as an IMPORTANT AMERICAN ART MUSIC
Before the turn of the twentieth century, several vernacular musics had
achieved a distinctively American sound. Concert bands directed by Patrick
Gilmore and John Philip Sousa became balanced ensembles capable of performing transcriptions of orchestral and operatic literature as well as more
popular pieces, and – under the direction of Sousa, the "march king" –
achieved the highest levels of professionalism.
The form of Sousa's marches, namely a series of melodic strains, was
also the form of ragtime, a written piano music combining black rhythmic effects with European harmony and form. Ragtime pianists play syncopated
melodies in the right hand accompanied by a simple duple pattern in the left.
By the time of World War I, rags were being widely published by Tin Pan Alley, as the popular music industry was known, and many popular Tin Pan Alley songs had the sound and spirit of ragtime. The great popular songwriters
included Irving Berlin, Cole Porter, and George Gershwin, each of whom
wrote for Broadway musicals as well as for Tin Pan Alley.
When black musicians combined the forms, harmonies, and timbres of
white popular musics with Creole, Caribbean, and black African rhythmic and
melodic techniques, they produced a hot new music for dancing and later for
listening called jazz. The blues, an early manifestation of jazz, began as a
black folk song style but evolved to a sophisticated and influential form of
popular music. Boogie-woogie transferred the form and harmonic structure of
the blues to the piano.
New Orleans nurtured the first important black combos, in which soloists improvised on a given tune while other combo members backed them up.
Later, in Chicago, white Dixieland bands imitated the New Orleans sound.
White as well as black teenagers and young adults danced to early jazz, but the
white middle-aged public preferred sweet and symphonic jazz during the turbulent Depression years. Although not technically jazz at all, these genres introduced the art of the arranger and helped prepare America to swing with the
big bands of the 1930 s.
In the mid-1930 s, jazz reached its peak of popularity, which lasted for
about a decade. Big bands played arranged rather than improvised versions of
blues and pop tunes, their harmonies more adventurous and their pieces more
structured than in earlier jazz styles. Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie led a
musicians' rebellion against the commercialism and popularity of big band
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swing, establishing bebop, a music for listening, not dancing, which ushered in
the age of modern jazz. And in the forties, the interest of the general audience
and many serious jazz musicians turned away from big bands as singers
replaced them in popularity.
Since 1950, jazz musicians have formed alliances with the world of
concert music, producing symphonic works with jazzy flavors, jazz pieces in
classical forms, and third-stream pieces in which jazz and classical music
meet, yet retain their independent qualities. Among the individuals particularly
influential in the field of concert jazz, Duke Ellington, considered one of
America's greatest composers, wrote music for both the concert hall and the
church; Dave Brubeck extended the rhythmic concepts of jazz pieces by using
unusual meters; and Charles Mingus explored techniques of jazz composition,
prescribing a formal framework but no written score for each piece.
Progressive jazz introduced a symphonic approach, and cool jazz added
a sensuous element. Third stream combined classical music and jazz without
mixing them. Free jazz declared independence from most of the preconceived
notions about jazz. Through these and other concert styles, jazz has emerged
as an important American art music of the twentieth century.
Notes:
1. to emerge – появляться;
2. to nurture – воспитывать, питать;
3. ragtime – рэгтайм – стиль афро-американской музыки преимущественно для фортепиано;
4. to transfer – передавать, переносить;
5. duple – двухчастный.
GEORGE GERSHWIN AND HIS “RHAPSODY IN BLUE”
George Gershwin was born in Brooklyn on September 25, 1898. He was
by no means a prodigy, and his musical education was spasmodic. He took
lessons at the piano and later studied harmony. In his teens, he acquired a job
as song plugger at one of the largest publishing houses. Before long he was
writing songs of his own; and, in 1919, he was the proud parent of a "hit" that
swept the country –Swanee. His rise as one of the most successful composers
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for the Broadway stage was rapid. In 1924, he composed his first serious work
in the jazz idiom, the historic Rhapsody in Blue the success of which made
Gershwin famous throughout the world of music. After that he divided his activities between writing popular music for the Broadway stage (and later for
the Hollywood cinema) and serious works for concert hall consumption. In
both fields, he was extraordinary successful and popular. He died in Hollywood on July 11, 1937, after an unsuccessful operation on the brain.
Among his compositions are: tone-poem An American in Paris, variations on I Got Rhythm, a piano concerto, his opera Porgy and Bess and Rhapsody in Blue.
Gershwin's Rhapsody in Blue, originally conceived for jazz band and
piano but more often heard today as a piece for piano and orchestra, in all but
technicality might be considered a piano concerto – normally defined as a
three-movement duet between orchestra and solo instrument. As its title implies, however, the Rhapsody is a loosely organized work, a glorious venture
from one beautiful theme to another unhampered by preconceived structural
concerns. This one-movement piece consists of a series of melodic sections
related in key and style but following no prescribed formal design, though references throughout the piece to the lovely blues theme heard at the beginning
help to unify the composition.
The Rhapsody vividly demonstrates Gershwin's gift for pianistic writing, exploiting the keyboard instrument's magnificent capacity for wideranging timbres, moods, and techniques. Only a virtuoso pianist need attempt
to play this piece! Gershwin also used symphonic techniques with skill and
originality, weaving motives throughout the fabric of the orchestra and transforming his beautiful themes with seemingly endless creativity. The blues
theme that begins the piece, for example, sounds every bit as appropriate in its
fast and jazzy reincarnation as in the plaintive, haunting version heard before.
Rhapsody in Blue begins with a clarinet run that immediately evolves
into a wailing slide, or glissando. The clarinet then introduces the memorable
blues theme – syncopated, moderately slow, and highly expressive in mood. A
muted trumpet takes an irreverent turn with the theme before the piano enters
to play an extended, dissonant, and extremely virtuosic cadenza, or solo pas-
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sage. Next the romantic blues theme returns, passionately performed by the
full orchestra. Throughout the remainder of this popular and enduring composition, piano solos alternate with passages for orchestra or for orchestra and
piano, presenting new themes (including one particularly famous warm romantic melody introduced by the strings) and developing or transforming earlier ideas. It is important to note that while many of the cadenzas indeed sound
improvisatory, all of the notes in fact are written out.
The Rhapsody in Blue confused American critics, who were not sure on
which grounds to attack it: They found the piece too jazzy for concert music
but unacceptable as jazz since it involved no improvisation. But the public
greeted Rhapsody with enthusiasm, and it remains probably the best-known
and best-loved symphonic composition in the world.
Gershwin continued to be interested in concert as well as popular music,
though his later concert music never achieved the acclaim of his first Rhapsody. He wrote a Second Rhapsody, a tone poem (one-movement programmatic orchestral piece) titled An American in Paris, Three Preludes for piano,
a Cuban Overture, and the Concerto in F for piano, each of which reflects the
jazz implications that were an inherent part of Gershwin's music vocabulary.
(He also wrote the most popular of all American operas, Porgy and Bess and
many of the most affecting love songs ever heard.
A number of European composers, taking symphonic jazz and especially the Rhapsody in Blue to their hearts, also created several works in the
symphonic jazz idiom. Sweet and symphonic jazz remained in fashion through
the late twenties, soothing the troubled audiences of the Great Depression
years, while real jazz – hot, mostly black – went underground.
Notes:
1. An American in Paris – инструментальная музыка «Американец
в Париже», 1928;
2. Rhapsody in Blue – «Рапсодия в блюзовых тонах», 1924 (это произведение – одночастный фортепианный концерт, в котором элементы джаза, развлекательной музыки и афро-американского фольклора сочетаются с блестящим фортепианным письмом);
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3. Porgy and Bess – опера «Порги и Бесс», 1935 (музыка основана
на афро-американских интонациях и ритмах);
4. Three Preludes for piano – Три прелюдии для фортепиано с оркестром, 1930;
5. Cuban Overture – инструментальная музыка «Кубинская увертюра», 1932;
6. Concerto in F for piano – Концерт для фортепиано с оркестром
Фа мажор, 1925.
THE SWING ERA OF "DUKE" ELLINGTON
As a young man, Duke Ellington (1899-1974) moved from his hometown, Washington, D.C., to New York, where he formed his own band and
began to arrange music and write jazz compositions in a distinctive style. Although famous as a great jazz pianist, Ellington has been said to have used the
jazz band as his real "instrument," whose range of sounds he explored with
unprecedented imagination and creativity. By juxtaposing instruments in nontraditional combinations and using them in the extreme limits of their range,
he transformed their sound, sometimes even effectively obscuring their identification.
Ellington's ideas were his own and his genius led him to create an orchestra style marked by rich and daring harmonies, by subtle contrasting of
colors and timbres, and by an ingenious handling of solo and ensemble relationships. The orchestra became the vehicle through which Ellington
expressed his creativity, it came to represent the ideal big "swinging band".
Duke, as the leader, could accept the credit for it, but the contributions
of his sidemen were significant. They were brilliant soloists in their own
rights; they fitted in well with Duke's temperament; and they remained with
him over long periods of time.
Many of Duke's arrangements were worked out with his sidemen in the
true tradition of collective improvisation. Duke would bring to the meeting his
musical ideas, and one or another of the bandsmen would make suggestions
for changes or additions. Things were tried out on the spot in order to find out
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whether they worked. Often a composition was changed after it had been performed three or four times, sometimes resulting in an entirely new work.
Duke's constantly reiterated statement was, "Good music is music that sounds
good". Sometimes other musicians of the orchestra would bring their compositions to "creating sessions" to be worked out by the entire group.
A haunting tune Ellington composed Mood Indigo in 1930 and arranged
innumerable times for many combinations of instruments. The chromatic
melodies, bitonal harmonies (juxtaposing one key over another), and dreamy
mood made Mood Indigo music to both listen and dance to; and lyrics added
later rendered the piece a popular song of lasting appeal.
Ellington also wrote more serious concert music, including tone poems,
ballet suites, and short concerto-like pieces such as Concerto for Cootie, one
of Ellington's most beautiful compositions, which he wrote to feature the
trumpeter Charles "Cootie" Williams. Among his best-known symphonic
works is Black, Brown, and Beige, written in 1943 and played by the New
York Philharmonic Orchestra in 1949 and by other orchestras in later years.
He even wrote a concerto grosso – a multimovement Baroque form for orchestra and a small group of solo instruments, which in Ellington's piece Harlem
(1950) is a jazz band. Another well-known Ellington piece, Ko-Ko, has a
bluesy mood but modal effects and complex harmonies placing it in the realm
of concert music.
Later, Ellington wrote several choral compositions with sacred texts, using jazz rhythms, timbres, and melodic effects, and including brief improvisatory passages. At the time of his death, he was writing a comic opera, Queenie
Pie, which finally was staged on Broadway in 1986.
Ellington left more than 2,000 compositions; among them are symphonic suits, ballets, musicals and songs. Ellington made enormous contributions to the development of jazz and to American music in general.
Notes:
1. to haunt – преследовать;
2. to juxtapose – помещать рядом, сопоставлять;
3. mood – настроение;
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4. choral compositions with sacred music – духовная музыка в произведениях для хора;
5. Mood Indigo – название песни, написанной Д. Эллингтоном в 1930;
6. Concerto for Cootie – концерт для «Кути» (для трубача) – по имени
Charles “Cootie” Williams;
7. Black, Brown and Beige – сюита «Черный, Коричневый и Бежевый»,
1943.
BENNY GOODMAN
The white clarinetist and bandleader Benny Goodman (1909-1986)
brought big band music to national attention through his many recordings, and
radio programs. Although Goodman's unprecedented inclusion of outstanding
African American soloists in his band was warmly appreciated, his exploitation of the contributions of black musicians sometimes caused resentment.
Many of the Goodman band's best arrangements, for example, were by
Fletcher Henderson, but while the band made Henderson's arrangements extremely popular, Henderson never earned the money that Benny Goodman and
his band accrued. Both Goodman and Henderson had received classical music
training; both insisted on disciplined musicianship from their band members;
and the fact that Goodman's band became more popular than Henderson's was
a source of some bitterness by the end of the decade.
Goodman later divided his playing and recording between big bands
and various smaller ensembles; for while big bands remained highly popular
well into the forties, the range of jazz styles expanded greatly during that decade, offering musicians and listeners alike a wealth of exciting new musics.
CHARLIE "BIRD" PARKER
As a youngster in Kansas City, Missouri, Charlie Parker (1920-1955)
absorbed the sounds of Lester Young, Count Basie, and other outstanding jazz
musicians active in his musical home town. Later Parker moved to New York
City, where he jammed in Harlem clubs with pianist Thelonious Monk (19201982) and trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie, inspiring and inspired by them to develop the complex new music.
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Not only was Charlie "Bird" Parker an amazing saxophone virtuoso, his
sax tone dry and biting and his melodies highly jagged in contour, but he also
introduced new rhythmic, melodic, and improvisational techniques that lifted
jazz to a different plane. A knowledgeable musician, he sometimes quoted
fragments of popular and classical compositions, moving rapidly from such
familiar phrases to soaring flights of melodic virtuosity. Parker often performed with a fiercely rapid tempo and an unrelenting emotional intensity that
left the weak behind but offered adventurous listeners glorious new insights to
jazz.
Addicted to drugs and alcohol and ill for much of his short life, Parker –
whom some consider the most influential of all jazz musicians – died when he
was only thirty-four. In 1988, the movie Bird brought the story of Charlie
Parker to popular attention; but among serious jazz afficionados, his memory
and influence have never faded.
ELLA FITZGERALD – A FIRST JAZZ LADY
Ella Fitzgerald was born on April 25, 1918. She is an American singer
who became world famous for the wide range and rare sweetness of her voice.
She became an international legend during a career that spanned some six
decades. She developed a singing style that was much imitated in the 1950s
and '60s.
Fitzgerald worked in the Chick Webb orchestra from 1935, and in the
1940s she created a solo cabaret act. She toured internationally with such pop
and jazz stars as Benny Goodman, Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, Dizzy
Gillespie.
During much of her early career she had been noted for singing and recording novelty songs. Her status rose dramatically in the 1950s when jazz
impresario Norman Granz became her manager. He gave her better material to
sing, along with ideal jazz instrumental support. For many years the star attraction of Granz's Jazz at the Philharmonic, she was also one of the bestselling vocal recording artists in history. From 1956 to 1967 she recorded on a
19-volume series of "song books," in which she preserved for posterity nearly
250 outstanding songs composed by Richard Rodgers, Cole Porter, George
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Gershwin, Duke Ellington, Jerome Kern, Irving Berlin, and Johnny Mercer.
Although her diction is excellent, her interpretation of words is intuitive rather
than studied.
She appeared in films, on television, and in concert halls throughout the
world. She also recorded a number of live concert albums and produced a notable duet version of Porgy and Bess with Louis Armstrong.
Fitzgerald's clear tone and wide vocal range were complemented by her
mastery of rhythm, harmony, intonation, and diction. She was an excellent
ballad singer. Her mastery of "scat" singing, a technique in which the singer
improvises as a trumpet or saxophone would and uses nonsense syllables, was
widely imitated by both male and female jazz vocalists. Her most exciting recorded performances, such as Mack the Knife: Ella in Berlin, possess the
imagination and skill of a modern jazz horn player translated into scat.
Ella Fitzgerald won 12 Grammy Awards and several other honours.
Notes:
1. “scat” singing – пение по слогам (в джазе).
2. to span – охватывать, распространяться;
3. wide range – широкий диапазон.
STYLES OF JAZZ
RAGTIME
Ragtime is a propulsively syncopated musical style, one forerunner of
jazz and the predominant style of American popular music from about 1899 to
1917. Ragtime evolved in the playing of honky-tonk pianists along the Mississippi and Missouri rivers in the last decades of the 19th century. It was influenced by minstrel-show songs, blacks' banjo styles, and syncopated (off-beat)
dance rhythms of the cakewalk, and also elements of European music. Ragtime found its characteristic expression in formally structured piano compositions. The regularly accented left-hand beat, in 4/4 or 2/4 time, was opposed in
the right hand by a fast, bouncingly syncopated melody that gave the music its
powerful forward impetus.
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Scott Joplin, called “King of Ragtime,” published the most successful of
the early rags, “The Maple Leaf Rag,” in 1899. Joplin, who considered ragtime a permanent and serious branch of classical music, composed hundreds
of short pieces, a set of études, and operas in the style. Other important performers were Louis Chauvin, Thomas M. Turpin and Tony Jackson.
Notes:
1. Ragtime – рэгтайм – стиль фортепьянной игры и связанный с ним
жанр танцевальной пьесы, распространившийся в США в период
"беспечных 90-х" и первые десятилетия XX в. Основан на сочетании
остросинкопированной, импровизационной темы и ритмически четкого аккомпанемента. Основоположниками и пропагандистами стиля считаются композитор С. Джоплин, способствовавший его восприятию как серьезной музыки, Дж. Лэм и Джелли Ролл Мортон.
Рэгтайм оказал большое влияние на джаз, танцевальную музыку и
массовую культуру 1910-20-х в целом. От него ведут свое начало
фокстрот, тустеп, уанстеп и др.;
2. cakewalk – кейк-уок, танец афро-американского происхождения;
пара, которая продемонстрировала наиболее сложные фигуры,
получает премию в виде торта;
3. bouncingly syncopated melody – остросинкопированная мелодия;
4. honky-tonk pianists – пианисты, исполняющие на пианино блюз
с характерным "разбитым" звуком;
5. the early rags – (пренебрежительно) первые газетенки.
BEBOP
Disliking the polished performances of written, rehearsed "jazz" and resentful of the broad popularity of a music that had once belonged to an exclusive few, a few black jazz musicians introduced in the early 1940s a tight, difficult, virtuosic instrumental music called bebop. While its inventors conceived it as a return to the ideals of early jazz – improvisation, virtuosity, and
close interaction between soloist and combo – bebop or bop is generally considered the first truly modern jazz.
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Like much of the concert music of the forties and later, bebop was performed by a small ensemble of virtuoso performers. Each instrumental line
was stark, clear, and technically demanding, the angular melodies moving by
large unpredictable leaps instead of narrow steps. Rather than following prearranged or familiar harmonic progressions, bop musicians challenged each
other to chart new harmonic paths and make them work. Their chords, large
and richly dissonant, startled ears accustomed to tame and forever-pleasant
sounds. Conversely, they sometimes improvised on the harmony of a famous
tune rather than on the melody, which remained obscure to puzzled listeners.
The best bebop musicians in fact achieved a revolutionary sound that effectively changed the course of jazz.
The typical bebop combo consisted of trumpet and saxophone, double
bass, piano, and percussion. The melody instruments (trumpet and sax) sometimes began a composition by playing a pop, blues, or original melody in unison, then alternating with increasingly complex improvisations while supported by the other players. The double bass, which marked the beat, sometimes took melodic responsibility as well in a pattern inherited from the swing
era called the walking bass, while the piano and percussion supplied unexpected, irregular accents.
Notes:
1. jazz – джаз – этимология неясна. Вид музыкального искусства,
возникший в начале XX века на юге США. Джазовой музыке свойственны импровизация, ритм, полиритмия, синкопы;
2. bebop – бибоп – джазовый стиль, возникший в Нью-Йорке в начале
40-х. Основатель – Диззи Гиллеспи; среди ведущих мастеров –
Чарли Паркер.
COOL JAZZ
At the same time that Desmond, Brubeck, and Mingus were evolving
their "progressive" ideas, other jazz musicians were developing a style they
called cool, closely related to and sometimes indistinguishable from progres-
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sive jazz. In reaction to the complexity and exclusive nature of bebop, they organized larger bands that included the sensuous sounds of symphonic instruments such as the French horn and oboe. More elegant and less hot than bebop, cool jazz clearly reflected the influence of European concert music – especially the Impressionistic harmonies of Claude Debussy and the sharp dissonances of Russian composer Igor Stravinsky.
The important musicians involved in cool jazz included Miles Davis
(1926-1991) who in 1949-1950 led the nine-piece orchestra that recorded the
album later titled Birth of the Cool. But cool jazz was only one of the myriad
interests of Miles Davis, who made important contributions to several jazz
styles over many years. He became particularly interested in expanding the
melodic possibilities of jazz by basing melodies on modes rather than on the
major, minor, or blues scales. The music on Davis' album Kind of Blue, largely
modal, had important influence on many jazz musicians of varied tastes. A
virtuoso trumpet player, Davis was also an outstanding bandleader, composer,
and innovator who continued throughout his life to experiment with creative
ideas in jazz.
Notes:
1. “cool” – кул – стиль в джазе, основанный в 50-е годы XX столетия;
дирижеры вводили в состав оркестра некоторые симфонические
инструменты;
2. Miles Davis – Майлз Дэйвис (1926-1991) – американский джазовый
трубач, основоположник стиля “cool” (англ. – прохладный);
3. indistinguishable – неразличимый, незаметный;
4. to involve – вовлекать, влечь за собой;
5. myriad interest – бесчисленный интерес.
FREE JAZZ
In 1960, Ornette Coleman (b. 1930) introduced free collective improvisation in an album titled Free Jazz, defying the common perception of jazz as
generally accessible to the ordinary listener. Free jazz was a difficult music,
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challenging to performers and listeners alike, with no familiar chord changes,
no references to popular songs or blues, and ho steady beat. In free jazz, each
musician improvised independently, aware of and responsive to the other
players but bound by no preset obligations. Even the initial phrases of a composition, played by the soloists together, were not necessarily in unison.
It has been suggested that free jazz expressed in musical terms the same
sorts of freedom African Americans were demanding and finally achieving in
many areas of life. And the new significance free jazz gave rhythm instruments – assertive and independent rather than supportive as before – might be
compared to the respected positions African Americans were now assuming in
life. Free from the tyranny of bar lines, familiar melodies, established chord
changes, and traditional instrumentation, the new music also bore relationship
to chance music and to abstract expressionist art.
Free jazz also reflects an interest in some of the non-Western musics
that have intrigued twentieth-century composers of classical music. With no
chord changes to play, free jazz ensembles required no piano with its restrictive keyboard limited to the tones of the black and white keys, freeing musicians to explore non-Western scales and encouraging them to include instruments from other cultures in their ensembles and to play Western instruments
in nontraditional ways. For example, the use of microtones and certain rhythmic techniques derived from the music of India heighten the emotional effect
and the intellectual challenge of Coleman's performances.
Notes:
1. Free jazz – фри джаз – авангардный стиль джаза «свободный», основанный в начале 60-х годов XX столетия. Ярким представителем
является Орнетт Коулман. Джазовая импровизация соединяется с
ритмами рок-музыки и с электронным усилением инструментов;
2. to reflect – отражать, отображать;
3. traditional instrumentation – традиционная инструментовка.
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JAZZ AS CONCERT MUSIC
Given that folk music and popular dances have always enlivened European concert music, it seems natural now for contemporary classical musicians
to be inspired by popular vernacular musics, which are more varied and sophisticated than ever. Jazz in fact has become a particularly fertile source of
inspiration for concert music. Almost from the start of jazz, some European
composers, including Darius Milhaud, Bela Bartok, and Maurice Ravel, integrated the distinctive rhythms, timbres, and performance techniques of the
new music in their classical compositions. Impressed by Woody Herman's
band, which included such symphonic instruments as French horns and a tuba
and performed multimovement orchestral works much in the style of European concert music, the Russian composer Igor Stravinsky wrote his Ebony
Concerto specifically for Herman's band – perhaps the only and certainly the
most famous piece written by a classical composer for a jazz ensemble. Certain American classical composers, too, found jazz a source of stimulation.
Charles Ives was as impressed by good jazz as by any other music, classical or
popular; Aaron Copland based some of his, most successful early pieces upon
the new popular music; and Milton Babbitt also has been seriously interested
in jazz.
Conversely, a number of Americans writing music in the vernacular tradition have applied their knowledge of classical techniques to popular pieces;
and many composers have simply refused to distinguish between classical and
popular musics in terms of either quality or preference. Among those we have
studied, John Philip Sousa, the march king, composed operettas and symphonic works; Scott Joplin, the king of ragtime, wrote operas; and George
Gershwin wrote one opera and several symphonic pieces as well as the many
Broadway show tunes we still listen to and romance to today.
Thus during the forties, as jazz steadily grew more serious, dissonant,
intellectual, and complex, some jazz musicians absorbed influences from contemporary classical music, reversing the process by which classical musicians
had borrowed jazz techniques for their purposes. No longer music for dancing
and entertainment alone but for serious listening as well, jazz had become, in
fact, a kind of classical or concert music in its own right. By the early 1950s,
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jazz was performed frequently in concert, especially on college campuses or at
huge jazz festivals. Both black and white jazz musicians and their listeners as
well took a more intellectual approach to jazz than had earlier been customary,
and jazz criticism became a recognized field. Today certain jazz composers
collaborate with poets, choreographers, and classical musicians to produce
serious concert works.
Notes:
1. popular vernacular music – популярная национальная музыка;
2. Ebony Concerto – «Черный концерт» для кларнета и джаз-бэнда,
написан И. Стравинским в 1945;
3. to absorb influences from – «впитывать» (воспринимать) чье-либо
влияние (воздействие);
4. to collaborate with somebody – сотрудничать с кем-либо.
SOME ACADEMIC COMPOSERS
ROGER SESSIONS
Roger Sessions was born in Brooklyn, New York, on December 28,
1896. The composer occupied various teaching posts and in 1945 became professor of music at the University of California in Berkeley.
Roger Sessions, a man of marked originality and uncompromising musical ideals, is an excellent example of a composer whose music must be accepted on purely musical grounds. The complex texture of Sessions's music
results from intense contrapuntal activity, highly dissonant harmony, and
combinations of different rhythms. A long lyric melody is characteristic of
slow sections. His music is basically tonal, but, like Bartok's, the tonality is
determined by free association or context. Leading tones are more important
than chord progressions in determining the tonality. Some forms resemble
those of the sonata, while others are like Bach arias that evolve from germinal
motives contained in a condensed initial statement (Second Symphony, first
movement).
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One critic assures us that Sessions derives from Stravinsky, while another hailed him as an "American Brahms." If both are right, the result is an
amazing conciliation of opposites, and this argues a strong character. And that
is exactly what distinguishes the music of Sessions: strength of character. He
has deeply absorbed certain influences, notably those of Stravinsky, Schoenberg, and Richard Strauss. His creative personality, the interior dynamism that
prompts him to emotional expression in music, is strong enough to absorb
these influences and to emerge with a mode of utterance that is as personal as
it is eclectic.
He takes with the utmost seriousness every aspect of musical art, the
theoretical, the creative, the didactic, and the interpretative. Among works of
Sessions are three Chorale Preludes for organ, a Concerto for violin and orchestra, Two String Quartets, a Piano Sonata, three symphonies, and a one-act
opera The Trial of Lucullus.
Notes:
1. A Concerto for violin – Концерт для скрипки с оркестром, 1935;
2. Two String Quartets – камерно-инструментальная музыка «2 струнных квартета», 1946, 1953;
3. The Trial of Lucullus – одноактная опера «Осуждение Лукулла»,
1947.
ROY HARRIS
Few American composers of our time have achieved so personal a style
as Roy Harris. His music is easily identified by many stylistic traits to which
he has clung through his creative development: the long themes which span
many bars before pausing to catch a breath, the long and involved development in which the resources of variation and transformation are utilized exhaustively, the powerfully projected contrapuntal lines, the modal harmonies
and the asymmetrical rhythms are a few of the qualities found in most Harris's
works.
Though Harris has frequently employed the forms of the past (toccata,
passacaglia, fugue, etc.), has shown a predilection for ancient modes, and on
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occasion has drawn thematic inspiration from Celtic folk songs and Protestant
hymns, he is modern in spirit. His music has a contemporary pulse, the cogent
drive and force of present-day living; there is certainly nothing archaic about
it. More important still, it is essentially American music, even in those works
in which he does not draw his ideas from folk or popular music. The broad
sweep of his melodies suggests the vast plains of Kansas, the open spaces of
the West. The momentum of his rhythmic drive is American in its nervousness
and vitality. But in subtler qualities, too, Harris's music is the music of America. "The moods," Harris once wrote, "which seem particularly American to
me are noisy ribaldry, then sadness, a groping earnestness which amounts to
sup-pliance toward those deepest spiritual yearnings within ourselves; there is
little grace or mellowness in our midst." Such moods as noisy ribaldry, sadness, groping earnestness are caught in Harris's music; and to these moods are
added other American qualities: youthful vigour, health, optimism and enthusiasm.
Harris was born in Lincoln county, Oklahoma, on February 12, 1898.
While still a child, he learned to play the clarinet and the piano. In 1926 he
went to Paris to study with Nadia Boulanger. In Paris he wrote his first major
works: of them, the Concerto for the Piano, Clarinet and String Quartet
(1927) was the most successful. After returning to the United States, he wrote
several important works in which his personal style was being realized, notably the String Sextet (1932), the Symphony (1933), and the Second Quartet
(1936). Since then, Harris's position as one of the foremost composers in the
USA has never been seriously threatened.
His Fifth Symphony has been dedicated to the "Heroic and Peace-loving
People of the Soviet Union".
Notes:
1. span many bars – растягиваются на (занимают) много тактов;
2. Boulanger, Nadia – Буланже, Надя – французский дирижер, органист, музыкальный критик, педагог Парижской консерватории;
3. ribaldry – непристойность.
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PHILLIP GLASS
Born in Chicago in 1937, the American composer Philip Glass began
his musical studies on the flute and violin, going on to study at the Juilliard
School in New York, and later in Paris. By the 1980s Glass had already made
a considerable reputation for himself in the field of composition now generally
referred to as minimalism. In his output from the mid-1960s onwards, he had
examined the possibilities inherent in subjecting very small amounts of musical material – often just a few notes – to extensive repetition, in a style having
some similarities to those of his compatriots and almost exact contemporaries,
who include Terry Riley and Steve Reich. From 1968, all his compositions
were written for the amplified group consisting mainly of flutes, saxophones,
electric keyboards and, later, voices that became the Philip Glass Ensemble. In
the mid-1970s, however, his interest in the structural rigours of his music lessened, and he began to reinvest melody and harmony – elements which had
been sidelined in the obsession with minimalist processes – with a new purchase on their potential. Tunes and the sorts of chord progressions which accompanied them in more familiar kinds of Western music could now be explored afresh in the surviving context of minimalist repetition.
The result was a rather different kind of music from compositions such
as Music in Similar Motion of 1969, or even Glass's first stage work, Einstein
on the Beach, conceived in collaboration with the director and designer Robert
Wilson and premiered in 1976. New investigations of melody and, especially,
harmonic progression were already important strategies enabling Glass to sustain musical and dramatic interest over the several unbroken hours of Einstein's duration. But it was only when these had been allied with the vocal and
orchestral forces of the traditional Western opera house – forces much more
conventional than those of the composer's own ensemble – that he was able to
fulfill his new lyric and dramatic aspirations with the resources which come as
part of the natural territory of twentieth-century opera.
While the differences between Glass's early minimalist and later minimalist scores are considerable – making possible not only a greater range but
also, as a consequence of this, the composer's considerable success since the
early 1980s -continuities between the old Glass and the new abound. One of
these is his involvement with writing music for the 'legitimate', rather than the
musical, theatre. The composer's first wife, JoAnne Akalaitis, had been much
involved with a theatre group first formed during the couple's years in Paris in
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1964-6, which back in New York eventually became known as Mabou Mines.
This group became particularly associated not only with the plays but also
with other writings of Samuel Beckett, of which the author allowed Mabou
Mines to make staged versions.
Akhnaten, first performed in Stuttgart on the 24th of March 1984, is the
composer's third large-scale stage work; it was conceived as the final instalment of a trilogy with Einstein and Satyagraha (1980), the latter, based on
Mahatma Gandhi's early years in South Africa, being Glass's first opera for the
forces of the conventional Western opera house. Akhnaten's subject is the
Egyptian pharaoh of the fourteenth century ВС who is held to be the first
monotheist and whose radicalism led, after seventeen turbulent years, to his
overthrow and presumed murder. The opera's three acts show the rise and fall
of Akhnaten in a series of tableaux; the libretto is sung in a mixture of ancient
languages and English.
The Violin Concerto is the first of many orchestral works that Glass has
composed on commission since the late 1980s, following the acclaim accorded
to Satyagraha and Akhnaten. The choice of the concerto form seemed a natural one for a composer then currently obsessed with opera: he found it 'more
theatrical and more personal' than music for orchestra alone. The work was
premiered by Paul Zukofsky and the American Composers Orchestra under
Dennis Russell Davies in New York on 5th April 1987. Both these musicians
had worked with Glass before: Zukofsky played the part of Albert Einstein (in
Einstein on the Beach the character is represented by a solo violinist, not a
singer) in that stage work's first performances; Davies had conducted the premiere of Akhnaten.
The affecting minor modes and chromatically shifting harmonies of the
Violin Concerto are entirely typical of Glass's style at the time it was composed.
Notes:
1. Einstein on the Beach – опера «Эйнштейн на взморье», 1976;
2. Satyagraha – опера «Сатьяграха», 1980; сюжет из жизни Махатмы
Ганди;
3. Akhnaten – опера «Эхнатон», 1984;
4. The Violin Concerto – Концерт для скрипки с оркестром, 1987.
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IV. RUSSIAN MUSIC
A REAL MASTER OF OPERAS, BALLETS AND SYMPHONIES
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky is a leading Russian composer of the late
19th century, whose works are notable for their melodic inspiration and their
orchestration. He is regarded as the master composer for classical ballet, as
demonstrated by his scores for Swan Lake, The Nutcracker, and Sleeping
Beauty.
Tchaikovsky's father was superintendent of government-owned mines.
Because his mother was half French, and it was a customary practice among
upper-class Russians of the period, he had a French governess. Tchaikovsky
was musically precocious, but his interest in the subject was not actively encouraged because his parents considered that it had an unhealthy effect on an
already neurotically excitable child. He adored his governess, but she was
dismissed in 1848 when his father changed his post and moved to Moscow
and then to St. Petersburg, where the boy entered the preparatory department
of the School of Jurisprudence in 1850. There he was obviously disturbed by
being treated as a 'country bumpkin," but he soon settled down happily.
His state of mind was more seriously affected in 1854 when he was
14 and his mother, whom he loved with all the ardour of an acutely introspective child, died of cholera. To alleviate the distress caused to him both by her
death and by his easygoing father's comparative indifference to it, he composed a short waltz for piano and even thought of composing an opera. During
these school days, desultory singing, piano, and harmony lessons were all the
musical education he received, complemented by increasingly numerous visits
to the opera, which had a lasting influence on his musical taste.
He entered the newly founded St. Petersburg Conservatory of Music in
1862. His job as a clerk in the Ministry of Justice was hardly interesting
enough to prevent his increasing absorption with music. He soon left the government service and became a student. His first orchestral score (composed
1864), an overture based on Aleksandr Ovstrovsky's play The Storm, is remarkable in showing many of the stylistic features later to be associated with
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his music and a youthful vulgarity that was not the only constituent in it to appall his primly Mendelssohnian teacher, Anton Rubinstein. Even so, he was
offered in late 1865 a post as professor of harmony by Rubinstein's brother at
the Moscow Conservatory.
Tchaikovsky settled down comfortably in Moscow in January 1866, although he underwent a mental crisis as a consequence of overwork on his
Symphony No. 1 in G Minor (Winter Daydreams), Opus 13 (1866). His compositions of the late 1860s and early '70s reveal a distinct affinity with the music of the nationalist group of composers in St.Petersburg, both in their treatment of folk song and in their harmonies deriving from a common link with
Mikhail Glinka, the "father" of a Russian nationalist style. He corresponded
with the leader of the group. Mily Balakirev, at whose suggestion he wrote a
fantasy overture, Romeo and Juliet (1869). Tchaikovsky's intrinsic charm, testified to by many who knew him, is nowhere more apparent than in the nationalist comic opera Vakula the Smith (1874; first performed 1876), which in its
revised form, Cherevichki (The Little Shoes), is of similar merit to another opera, Sorochintsy Fair (also based on one of Nikolay Gogol's Ukrainian tales),
by the most original composer in the Petersburg group, Modest Mussorgsky.
Tchaikovsky's opera, however, is much closer to Balakirev's own folkloric idiom than anything Mussorgsky ever wrote.
During 1878-1880 P.I. Tchaikovsky wrote some of his compositions –
the Piano Sonata in G Major, Opus 37 (1878), the orchestral Suite No. 1 in D
Minor, Opus 43 (1878-79), music for the coronation of his patron the emperor
Alexander III, and the first of his mature attempts to write a commercially
successful opera. The Maid of Orleans (1878-79), for he never imagined that
Eugene Onegin was dramatic enough in the "theatrical" sense to be a popular
success.
In 1885 he bought a house of his own at Maidanovo in the vicinity of
Moscow, where he lived until the year before his death, when he moved into
the house that is now the Tchaikovsky House Museum in the nearby town of
Klin. He began to travel more in Russia, spending two particularly delightful
vacations in the Caucasus, where he was enthusiastically feted at Tbilisi. He
overcame an aversion to conducting, with successful performances of the
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newly revised Vakula, and in 1888 he undertook an important foreign tour, directing his own works in Leipzig (where he met the composers Johannes
Brahms and Edvard Grieg), Hamburg, Berlin, Prague, Paris, and London. His
music was well received everywhere.
This tour was the apex of Tchaikovsky's later life. From then on, in
spite of the continuing success of many of his former compositions and the acclamation of new ones, including his second Pushkin opera, The Queen of
Spades, and his favourite ballet, The Sleeping Beauty (first received coolly;
both performed 1890), he was working his way toward another nervous
breakdown. His major compositions, starting with Symphony No. 5 in E Minor, Opus 64 (1888).
Tchaikovsky went on further tours, including to the United States and
England, where he conducted his popular Piano Concerto No. 1 in В Flat Minor, Opus 23 (composed 1874-75), in 1889 and his Fourth Symphony in 1893.
In 1893 he was also awarded at the University of Cambridge an honorary degree of doctor of music. These arid other successes, including the tumultuous
reception accorded to the suite he hastily made for concert performance from
his Nutcracker ballet music (1892).
Among the most subjective of composers, Tchaikovsky is inseparable
from his music. His work is a manifestation, sometimes charming, often
showy, and occasionally vulgar, of repressed feelings that became more and
more despairing in later years and culminated in the composition of the Sixth
Symphony, one of the greatest symphonic works of its time. Though unequal,
his music shows a wealth of melodic inspiration and imagination and a flair
for orchestration. Its lapses of taste are partly redeemed by enormous technical
efficiency. Though his later work rejected conscious Russian nationalism, its
underlying sentiment and character are as distinctively Russian as that of the
Russian nationalist composers. Tchaikovsky's success in bridging the gulf between the musician and the general public partly accounts for the position he
enjoys in the Soviet Union.
No composer since Tchaikovsky has suffered more from changes of
fashion or from the extremes of over- and undervaluation. On the one hand, he
achieved an enormous popularity with a wide audience, largely through his
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more emotional works; on the other, the almost hypnotic effect that he was
able to induce led to serious questioning of his true musical quality. He is certainly the greatest master of the classical ballet. The symphonies may be variable in quality but all contain important music. The last three are deservedly
famous, though to these should be added the neglected Manfred Symphony,
The First Piano Concerto and the Violin Concerto, on the other hand, deserve
a higher reputation than vehicles for virtuosity. Notable among his other orchestral works are the early Romeo and Juliet Overture and the exquisite
Serenade for Strings. Of the operas, Eugene Onegin is a masterpiece and The
Queen of Spades dramatically effective. His string quartets are excellent, but
his piano music is largely undistinguished. His numerous songs include several fine examples.
Notes:
1. musically precocious – зд. музыкально одаренный;
2. neurotically excitable child – невротически (нервно) возбудимый
ребенок;
3. a country “bumpkin” – «деревенщина»;
4. Symphony No. 1 in G Minor (Winter Daydreams) – Симфония № 1,
соч. 13 соль минор («Зимние грезы»), 1866;
5. Romeo and Juliet – Увертюра-фантазия «Ромео и Джульетта», 1869;
6. Vakula the Smith – опера «Вакула Кузнец», 1974;
7. Cherevichki (The Little Shoes) – опера «Черевички», 1976 (2-я редакция оперы «Кузнец Вакула»);
8. the Piano Sonata in G Major – соната для фортепиано соль минор,
соч. 37, 1878;
9. Suite No. 1 in D Minor – сюита для оркестра № 1 ре минор, соч. 43,
1878-1879;
10. The Maid of Orleans – опера «Орлеанская дева», 1878-1879;
11. The Queen of Spades – опера «Пиковая дама», 1890;
12. The Sleeping Beauty – балет «Спящая красавица», 1890;
13. Piano Concerto No. 1 in В Flat Minor – концерт для фортепиано
с оркестром № 1 си бемоль минор, соч. 23, 1875;
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14. Nutcracker – балет «Щелкунчик», 1892;
15. Serenade for Strings – Серенада для струнного оркестра, соч. 48,
1880.
SERGEI PROKOFIEV
Prokofiev composed his first piece of music when he was five. He
entered the St. Petersburg Conservatoire at the age of 13, appearing at the
entrance examination with manuscripts of four operas, a symphony and a
number of piano pieces.
At the age of 19, making his first public appearance, he showed a definite taste of his own and a vivid personal style.
After the October Revolution Prokofiev emigrated to America. However he soon realized that it had been a bitter mistake. The splendid American
orchestras were indifferent to his music. He decided to try Paris. He was luckier in Paris where his ballet "The Buffoon" was produced. He stayed in Paris
making tours to the musical centres of Europe and the US. But living abroad
Prokofiev remained Russian, a citizen of his country. Acclaimed as a virtuoso
pianist and an outstanding composer, a mature artist at the height of his fame
Prokofiev still felt unhappy, homesick and lonely, living far from his native
land. He missed Russia and kept thinking about going back. He believed that a
composer who had lost his roots and musical traditions of his nation would inevitably lose the desire to compose and to create. It was only his motherland
that could give him spiritual strength and be a pure source of inspiration.
Between 1927 and 1932 Prokofiev took several trips to the Soviet Union. His concerts in Moscow and Leningrad aroused great interest among the
music-lovers. People listened to his music in complete silence. During these
concerts Prokofiev felt that he was listened to by his compatriots. Ever since
his first visit to the USSR in 1927, Prokofiev had been looking forward to returning to Russia. He wrote: "I have to live in the atmosphere of my homeland. I have to see Russian winter and its changeable spring. I have to hear the
Russian language and talk to people who are my people, so that they give me
back something I lack here – their songs, my songs. Here I risk dying of academism. Yes, I am going back!"
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In 1932 after his return to the Soviet Union, Prokofiev devoted all his
inspiration to his people. For 20 years until he died in 1953 he served his
country. In his new compositions he strove for clarity and simplicity. Prokofiev became one of the leading composers of the Soviet school.
Prokofiev has enriched both Russian and world music with superior
works full of humanism, original imagery and warm love for his people.
The influence of Prokofiev's music can still be traced in the works of
contemporary musicians. His invaluable heritage includes eight operas, seven
cantatas, seven ballets, seven symphonies as well as numerous piano pieces.
Among them there are such masterpieces as the opera "War and Peace", the
ballet "Romeo and Juliet", and the cantata "Alexander Nevsky".
Notes:
1. to show a definite taste – показывать определенный вкус;
2. to give somebody spiritual strength and inspiration – давать кому-либо
духовные силы и вдохновение;
3. to strive for something – стремиться к чему-либо.
S. PROKOFIEV: "ALEXANDER NEVSKY"
Prokofiev's Cantata is based upon music which the composer wrote for
Eisenstein's film "Alexander Nevsky". Prokofiev was so pleased with this project and so gripped by the subject, that he expanded his film material into a
full-length dramatic Cantata. Its hero is the Novgorod Grand Prince Alexander
and the work celebrates his victorious campaign in 1242 against the marauding Teutonic knights who had turned from the Crusades to pillaging the lands
of the further north.
The first of its seven movements, "Russia under the Mongol Yoke", depicts a depressed and defeated land; the second, "Song about Alexander
Nevsky", praises his previous successes and the third, harsh and cruel in accents portrays the Teutonic knights, with a grieving central section conveying
the feelings of the enslaved people of Pskov. The fourth movement, "Arise ye
Russian people", calls the country to arms. The fifth movement, "Battle on the
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Ice", the apex of the cantata, draws a graphic panorama of the battle between
Russian and Teutons on the frozen Lake Chudskoye on April 5, 1242. In the
sixth movement, a Russian girl mourns the fallen before a triumphant finale
for Alexander's entry into Pskov.
The work is conceived in bold, primary colours, rich in melody and
characterisation, particularly of the opposing armies. It is perhaps loose in
form but is bound together melodically by the recurring use of the representative themes, especially in the "Battle on the Ice". This movement is one of
Prokofiev's most exciting compositions, filled with the panoply of arms and
the bitterness of conflict, rising to an inexorable climax as the ice breaks under
the weight of the fully armoured Teutonic knights who drown in the freezing
waters.
Notes:
1. Teutonic knights – Тевтонские рыцари;
2. the apex of the cantata – вершина кантаты;
3. an inexorable climax – неумолимая (непреклонная), безжалостная
кульминация.
DMITRY SHOSTAKOVICH
Dmitry Dmitriyevich Shostakovich is a Russian composer, renowned
particularly for his 15 symphonies, numerous chamber works, and concerti,
many of them written under the pressures of government-imposed standards of
Soviet art.
Shostakovich was the son of an engineer. He entered the Petrograd (St.
Petersburg) Conservatory in 1919, where he studied piano until 1923 and
composition until 1925. He participated in the Chopin International Competition for Pianists in Warsaw in 1927 and received an honourable mention but
made no subsequent attempt to pursue the career of a virtuoso, confining his
public appearances as a pianist to performances of his own works.
Even before his keyboard success in Warsaw, he had had a far greater
success as a composer with the Symphony No. 1 (1924–25), which quickly
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achieved worldwide currency. The symphony's stylistic roots were numerous;
the influence of composers as diverse as Tchaikovsky and Paul Hindemith is
clearly discernible. In the music Shostakovich wrote in the next few years he
submitted to an even wider range of influences. The cultural climate in the
Soviet Union was remarkably free at that time; even the music of Igor Stravinsky and Alban Berg, then in the avant-garde, was played. Béla Bartók and
Hindemith visited Russia to perform their own works, and Shostakovich
openly experimented with avant-garde trends. His satiric opera The Nose
(composed 1927–28), based on Nikolay Gogol’s story "Nos", displayed a
comprehensive awareness of what was new in Western music, although already it seems as if the satire is extended to the styles themselves, for the
avant-garde sounds are contorted with wry humour. Not surprisingly,
Shostakovich's incomparably finer second opera, Lady Macbeth of the
Mtsensk District (composed 1930–32; revised and retitled Katerina Izmaylova), marked a stylistic retreat. Yet even this more accessible musical language was too radical for the Soviet authorities.
From 1928, when Joseph Stalin inaugurated his First Five-Year Plan, an
iron hand fastened on Soviet culture, and in music a direct and popular style
was demanded. Avant-garde music and jazz were officially banned in 1932,
and for a while even the stylistically unproblematic Tchaikovsky was out of
favour, owing to his quasi-official status in tsarist Russia. Shostakovich did
not experience immediate official displeasure, but when it came it was devastating. It has been said that Stalin's anger at what he heard when he attended a
performance of Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District in 1936 precipitated the
official condemnation of the opera and of its creator.
The composer's next major work was his Symphony No. 5 (1937), which
was described in the press as “a Soviet artist's reply to just criticism.” A trivial, dutifully “optimistic” work might have been expected; what emerged was
compounded largely of serious, even sombre and elegiac music, presented
with a compelling directness that scored an immediate success with both the
public and the authorities.
In 1937 Shostakovich became a teacher of composition in the Leningrad
Conservatory, and the German attack on the Soviet Union in 1941 found him
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ingrad during the latter part of that year and finished it in Kuybyshev (now
Samara), to which he and his family had been evacuated. The work achieved a
quick fame, as much because of the quasi-romantic circumstances of its composition as because of its musical quality. In 1943 Shostakovich settled in
Moscow as a teacher of composition at the conservatory, and from 1945 he
taught also at the Leningrad Conservatory.
From 1950-s Shostakovich's biography is essentially a catalog of his
works. He was left to pursue his creative career largely unhampered by official
interference. He did, however, experience some difficulty over the texts (Baby
Yar) by the poet Yevgeny Yevtushenko on which he based his Symphony No.
13 (1962), and the work was suppressed after its first performance. Yet he was
undeterred by this, and his deeply impressive Symphony No. 14 (1969), cast as
a cycle of 11 songs on the subject of death, was not the sort of work to appeal
to official circles. The composer had visited the United States in 1949, and in
1958 he made an extended tour of western Europe, including Italy (where already he had been elected an honorary member of the Accademia Nazionale di
Santa Cecilia, Rome) and Great Britain, where he received an honorary doctorate of music at the University of Oxford. In 1966 he was awarded the Royal
Philharmonic Society's Gold Medal.
Despite the brooding typical of so much of his music, which might suggest an introverted personality, Shostakovich was noted for his gregariousness.
After Prokofiev's death in 1953, he was the undisputed head of Russian music.
Since his own death his music has been the subject of furious contention between those upholding the Soviet view of the composer as a sincere Communist, and those who view him as a closet dissident.
Notes:
1. Chopin International Competition for Pianists – Международный конкурс пианистов имени Шопена;
2. to display a comprehensive awareness of – показать всестороннее понимание;
3. Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District – опера «Леди Макбет Мценского уезда», 1930-32;
4. to be officially banned – быть официально запрещенным;
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5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
Symphony No. 7 – симфония № 7, «Героическая», 1941;
a cycle of 11 songs – цикл из 11 песен;
condemnation – неодобрение, осуждение;
quasi- – почти, псевдо-;
to be out of favour – быть в опале;
in beleaguered Leningrad – в осажденном Ленинграде;
Royal Philharmonic Society – Королевское филармоническое общество (в Лондоне, основано в 1813; оркестр общества в 1946 стал именоваться Королевским филармоническим оркестром);
12. a subject of furious contention – предмет разъяренного спора;
13. gregariousness – коммуникабельность, общительность.
THE FOURTH AND THE FIFTH STRING QUARTETS
These two works contain some of the most interesting music, irrespective of form, that has come from the pen of the post-war Shostakovich. Ingenious, rigorously conceived, and often profoundly felt, both quartets reveal the
hand of a master of instrumental effect. The Fourth Quartet, although slight
from the formal point of view, glows with a restrained lyricism and folk-like
vigor.
The form of the Fifth Quartet is almost cyclical, marked by a recurrence
of three and five-note figures, an economy in the use of thematic material, and
a structural use of instrumental texture. The first violin sails into its highest
register at the end of the first movement and remains there for the balance of
the work. In this role, it has the effect of a steel thread weaving through the
quartet, and other formal devices augment the impression of unity. With this
unity of sound, there remains a quality of improvisation in the highly polyphonic texture, created by the use of abrupt jagged themes and exciting polyrhythmic effects. Moments of resolution are masked by the use of longer
themes, melodically reserved but strong in tonal feeling. These two compelling works seem worthy of repeated hearings and of a permanent place on the
record shelf.
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Notes:
1. a restrained lyricism – сдержанный лиризм;
2. abrupt jagged themes – внезапные (неожиданные) короткие темы:
3. polyrhythmic effects – полиритмические эффекты.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE RUSSIAN POST-WAR AVANT-GARDE
The development of the Russian post-war avant-garde began in the second half of the 1950's, with the first dodecaphonic work dating from 1956
(Musica Stricta for piano by Andrei Volkonsky), and a whole group of works
employing serial techniques already appearing in 1963-64 (I Symphony by
Aarvo Part, Italian Songs by Edison Denisov, Music for Piano and Chamber
Orchestra by Alfred Schnittke etc.). In mastering new musical techniques,
Russian music followed the Western avant-garde, although frequently it found
its own individuality. Perhaps the broadest international resonance amongst
Russian works of the time was achieved by the cantata of Denisov Sun of the
Incas (1964), which has been played by the world's best-known musicians, but
which attracted violent criticism in the Soviet Union of Composers and provoked sharp discussion in the journal «Soviet Music».
The avant-garde movement in Russia was extremely small (we must
add to the aforementioned the names of Nikolai Karetnikov, Sofia
Gubaidulina, Sergei Slonimsky, Rodion Shchedrin, Nikolai Sidelnikov, Roman Ledenev, Boris Tishchenko, and also Ukrainian, Valentin Silvestrov,
Leonid Hrabovski and others), but nonetheless, managed to produce a noticeable artistic and even «political» counterweight to the official artistic line. On
the one hand, this political aspect seriously complicated the organisation of
concerts of new music in Russia, but on the other hand, aided a greater interest
in the musical avant-garde from the broadest public, than even in the West.
The weakening of the artificial dogma of social realism in the 1960-70's
was a prerogative not only of the avant-garde. In Russian art of this time there
appeared a sharply opposing tendency – a return to «original sources» and addressing pure folklore. In literature, this was manifested in the direction of
«rural prose», and in music as a «new wave of folklore». Up to a certain time,
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both of these tendencies – avant-garde and neo-folklore – formed a united opposition to official art, and sometimes, even organically co-existed within one
work (Weepings, Edison Denisov, 1966; Russian Tales Nikolai Sidelnikov,
1968). In the next decades, these lines of art which personified the «Western»
and «Motherland» in Russian culture, radically parted ways.
From the middle of the 1960's – beginning of the 1970's, the key figures
of the Russian avant-garde were the famous 'Moscow Three» – Edison Denisov, Alfred Schnittke and Sofia Gubaidulina. The premieres of their works
were marked as significant events in musical life, and overflowing concert
halls became a new form of social demonstration, in its way, a sign of solidarity of the intelligentsia and also a silent opposition to communist power.
From another point of view, the expression of the «political aspect» of
the Soviet avant-garde aroused heightened interest from Western festivals and
orchestras. It is telling that the majority of first performances of the most significant works of this time took place abroad, most often in Germany and
France.
The post-war avant-garde appeared in Russia not only and not so much
as a symbol of the coming new epoch, as much as social sign of intellectual
and artistic freedom, and the consolidating spiritual opposition of society.
From here – specifically for Soviet music, and not characteristic for the Western avant-garde, the application of the newest means in conventional genres
and forms more appropriate for the audiences, based in the traditional expressivity of the word and different types of symbolism. From here – the much
brighter and unambiguous «historicity» and retrospectivity of Russian postmodernism, drawn to religious and aesthetic problems, seeing the alternative
to the imperfect and tragic «today», not in the unavoidable rightness of the
future, but in the everlasting values of «eternity».
Notes:
1. I Symphony by Aarvo Part – I Симфония Арво Пятра;
2. Sun of the Incas by Denisov – «Солнце Инков» Эдисона Денисова,
1964;
3. to attract violent criticism – привлекать резкую критику;
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4. to provoke sharp discussion – провоцировать острую дискуссию;
5. to complicate the organisation of concerts of new music in Russia –
осложнять организацию концертов новой музыки в России;
6. «original sources» – зд. «первоистоки»;
7. «rural prose» – зд. «деревенская проза»;
8. the traditional expressivity of the word and different types of symbolism
– традиционная выразительность слова и разного рода символика.
RUSSIAN MUSIC OF THE 1990'S
Russian music of the 1990's also entered a completely new phase of development. Processes occurring here in the last decade of the century in many
ways symmetrically reflected the epoch of the 1920's: the same deep fractures
in society, the same mass emigration of the intelligentsia, the same delimitation of creative and ideological positions and attempts to order new «normal»
currents of the musical process, and finally, the same quick parting with illusion.
New creative and organisational initiatives of this period were limited to
the beginning of the decade. In 1990, at the dusk of the existence of the USSR,
a group of middle generation composers announced the formation of the Association of Modern Music (ACM-2) and the eponymous ensemble, in opposition to the traditional line of the Union of Composers. In their initial manifestation, ACM didn't last long – the collapse of the USSR and mass emigration
of her members automatically transformed it into a section of the Moscow Union of Composers, although its activities left a clear imprint on the last years
of Soviet music. It was in just these years that the festivals Moscow Autumn
and Alternativa found their conceptual regeneration.
In 1993 the Centre for Contemporary Music was founded, whose purpose was the establishment of a new infrastructure, embracing all aspects of
the functioning of modern music – from study to festival-concerts. In the same
year the ensemble Studio for New Music was founded, and in 1994 the annual
international festival of contemporary music Moscow Forum had its premiere.
All of these actions were initiated to integrate Russian music into the broader
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European musical context.
The turn of the 1990's was the time of the post-perestroika boom, the
fall of the Berlin Wall, and the opening of Russia to the world. In Germany
took place several significant festivals «with a Russian accent» – in Duisburg,
Frankfurt, Berlin and Cologne. In turn, two festivals of new German music
took place in Russia (1989-1990, 1995).
However, in spite of expectations, the appearance of democracy in Russia didn't generate any moral upswing. Having ceased to be a «tool» of the
Cold War and an attribute of governmental prestige, modern music in Russia
was completely «separated from the government». The musical industry of the
country was destroyed: the widely branched network of concert organisations
practically ceased to exist, the Union of Composers and music publishers were
forced to the brink of extinction, the record label «Melodiya» simply disappeared, along with its unique recording archives, and Russia's system of
defending authors' rights lay in ruins.
The principle of the relationship between the government (in the form
of the Ministry of Culture) and creative collectives is well illustrated by the
long experience of the Centre for Contemporary Music – the organiser of this
festival. For the ten years of its existence, not one project, not one concert, not
even one composition by a young composer has received so much as one rouble of government support, even though many of them represented the music
of our country in prestigious international festivals and forums. Even such an
important event as the entry of Russia to the International Society for Contemporary Music (ISCM) in 2001 – in its own way a kind of musical United
Nations – was outside the boundaries of «national interest».
Modern music in Russia exists first of all «in spite of» and not «thanks
to», but according to completely different principles. To this day, the majority
of notable premieres of Russian composers happen in the West, for example
the great opera projects of Dmitri Smirnov, Nikolai Korndorf, Nikolai Karetnikov, Alexander Knaifel, of whom there is practically no information in their
homeland. In distinction to the 1970–80's, these compositions were practically
unheard in Russia, remaining events of the musical life of Germany, England,
France and The Netherlands.
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In this situation, many composers and performers were forced to emigrate. Already in 1995 in a Russian-German symposium taking place within
the framework of the Moscow Forum, Professor Yuri Kholopov distressingly
stated that: «An entire musical culture has left Russia». If in the first half of
the 1990's this process basically touched only composers of the older and
middle generations (Alfred Schnittke, Sofia Gubaidulina, Edison Denisov,
Rodion Shchedrin, Leonid Hrabovski, Nikolai Korndorf, Elena Firsova,
Dmitri Smirnov, Alexander Raskatov, Vladislav Shoot, Vassily Lobanov and
others), then in the second half of the 1990's – the outflow of younger composers increased.
The mass «outcome» of the 1990's influenced the internal creative situation of the compositional sphere, having changed the complex balance of positions and accents of priorities. New types of oversimplification of musical
language and stylistic reduction, having significantly reflected a capitulation
before the complexities of modem compositional writing and the problem of
individual style, denoted an essential change in aesthetic values and priorities.
Replacing the subtle new European techniques came a «new simplicity»
of minimalism and the ironic staging of democratic instrumental theatre and
musical performances.
Notes:
1. deep fractures in society – глубокий социальный разлом в обществе;
2. delimitation of creative and ideological positions – размежевание
на группы по творческим и идеологическим позициям;
3. the formation of the Association of Modern Music – образование
Ассоциации современной музыки;
4. the establishment of a new infrastructure – формирование новой
инфраструктуры;
5. to integrate Russian music into the broader European musical context –
интегрировать русскую музыку в общеевропейский культурный
контекст;
6. the record label «Melodiya» – фирма грамзаписи «Мелодия»;
7. to be outside the boundaries of «national interest» – оказаться за пределами «государственного интереса»;
8. to defend authors' rights – защищать авторские права.
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THE SONG-CYCLES OF VALENTIN SILVESTROV
Valentin Vassilevich Silvestrov was born on September 30, 1937 in
Kiev. He received his professional education as a composer at the Kiev Conservatory, from which he graduated in 1963 as a pupil of Boris Lyatoshinsky.
He was a winner of the International Sergei Koussevitsky Award in the USA
in 1967 and of the International Gaudeamus Competition (1970, the Netherlands). He received the title of a People's Artist of the Ukraine in 1989.
Among his works are numerous orchestral compositions (including seven
symphonies and a few compositions for solo instrument or solo voice and orchestra), solo and choral cantatas, works for chamber ensemble for various
combinations (among them two string quartets, sonatas for violin and cello,
the triptych Drama), three piano sonatas and other music for piano as well as
numerous vocal compositions with chamber ensemble or piano accompaniment.
Silvestrov's music is performed in numerous European countries and in
the USA. Among its performers are such outstanding musicians as Alexei Lubimov, Gidon Kremer, Ivan Monighetti, Tatiana Grindenko, conductors Andrei Boreiko, Dennis Russell Davies, Roman Kofman and David Robertson.
Valentin Silvestrov ranks among the most outstanding composers of today. In
his music one could sense an exceptional spiritual saturation and a purity of
artistic will. Distancing itself from programmatic concrete nature, avoiding
predicant pathos and the least trace of topicality, Silvestrov's music speaks
about what is most important – about the human being, who listens attentively
to himself and to the surrounding world. According to the composer, "music is
not a philosophy, but a song sung by the world about itself, a sort of a musical
testimony of existence".
When asked about the periodization of his creative career, Valentin
Silvestrov pointed out that the year 1974 had marked a new stage in his evolution: "a 'metaphorical' style in the vein of new traditionalism or neoromanticism". In those days stylistic surprises were quite in vogue. But Silvestrov's
Kitsch Music for piano and especially his song-cycle Silent Songs (written in
1974-77) shocked many listeners, in particular professional musicians, who
regarded them as a betrayal of the avant-gardist ideals and as renunciation of
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his own individuality. However dogmatism of any kind was ever alien to
Silvestrov, and this time the truly avant-gardist creative daring and the spiritual independence manifested themselves in his denial of the outdated musical
cliches.
Valentin Silvestrov turned his attention to the previously "non-topical"
romantic stylistics: the Russian romances of the 19th century with all their
numerous overtones, from Glinka and Schubert to the home music-making.
However it is not imitation, but a "weak style", to quote the composer; in other
words, his is a contextual style, based not so much on its own matter as on a
metaphor, an allegory, and an allusion. As Silvestrov would say later,
"Romantic phonemes belong not to Schumann but to speech itself."
The composer's poetic programme finds its indirect evidence in his
noted remarks for the performers: "To sing as if listening to himself. All the
songs should be sung very quietly, in an easy, transparent and lucid tone, with
restrained expressiveness and rigidly," without any psychological pressure. It
is desirable to perform the whole cycle without interruption, as a single song»
(Silent Songs).
The song-cycle Steps, which he started to work on back in 1980, continued to expand the line of Silent Songs but proved to be more refined. The title
of the cycle Steps is polysemantic. It embraces the steps of blessing and mollifying love, both earthly and heavenly, ruminations about the essence of being,
and the road to a blissful disappearance. There is no final resolution for the
warmth and naivety of "Last Love" set to Tyutchev's verses departs into the
tragic void of the last poem "I have forgotten the word I wanted to say" by
Osip Mandelstam. Only the reed-pipe tune reaches one’s ears from the realm
of shadows...
The initial version of Steps (nine songs) was first performed by Svetlana
Savenko and Valery Matyukhin in Kiev in May, 1982. The next, fuller, version was performed at the "Alternative" Festival in Moscow in October, 1989
(by Svetlana Savenko and Alexei Lubimov). Finally, on September 23, 1997
Silvestrov wrote one more song "You were clearer, truer and more lovely than
the rest" to the verses by Alexander Blok, which he dedicated to his wife
Larissa Bondarenko who had prematurely died in August, 1996. Since then
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this song came to open up the cycle Steps. Its final version was first performed
by Svetlana Savenko and Yuri Polubelov in the Rachmaninov Hall of the
Moscow Conservatoire on October 10, 1997.
Morning Song set to the composer's own verses and completed on November 3, 2000, was first presented also by the Duo of Savenko and Polubelov
at the recital of Silverstrov's works within the program of his "Oral Music" (in
the Rachmaninov Hall, on June 15, 2001).
Notes:
1. to sense exceptional spiritual saturation – ощущать исключительную
духовную насыщенность;
2. to avoid predicant pathos – избегать проповеднического пафоса;
3. a metaphorical style in the vein of new traditionalism or neoromanticism – метафорический стиль в русле нового традиционализма и
неоромантизма;
4. the truly avant-gardist creative daring – истинно авангардное творческое бесстрашие;
5. reed-pipe tune – свирельный напев.
THE DUET OF SVETLANA SAVENKO AND YURI POLUBELOV
Svetlana Savenko, born in Moscow, graduated from the Moscow State
Tchaikovsky Conservatoire where she studied with Yuri Kholopov as a musicologist. As a singer she was a student of Dora Beljavskaja. Now she is Professor of Russian Music at the Moscow State Conservatoire, author of more
than 100 publications (including several books) in Russian, English and German. The major fields of her specialization as a musicologist and as an interpreter are Russian music, music of the 20th century including avant-garde and
contemporary music. Her extensive repertoire includes works by Schoenberg,
Berg, Webern (complete songs with pianist Yuri Polubelov), Bartok, Cage,
Eisler, Hindemith, Kfenek, Zemlinsky; those of Russian composers (Stravinsky, Prokofiev, Roslavets, Mosolov, Mjaskovsky, Shillinger among others); as
well as works written specially for her (such as Vladimir Tarnopolsky's
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Chevengur). Savenko has performed as a soloist of Ensemble Studio New
Music (Moscow) with which she has appeared in such prestigious concert
halls as the Moscow Conservatoire, Berliner Philarmonie and Grosses Konzerthaus in Berlin. She has participated in many festivals in Russia and abroad,
and has toured in Ukraine, Belarus, Slovakia, Germany, Netherlands, Swiss,
Great Britain, Israel and USA.
Born in Vitebsk, Belarus, Russian pianist Yuri Polubelov studied piano
at Lvov Secondary Music School with Alexander Eidelman. He gave his first
solo recital at the age of 13 and became winner of the Ukrainian Young Musicians' Competition in Kiev. Polubelov graduated from the Moscow State
Tchaikovsky Conservatoire (piano class of Vera Gornostayeva and chamber
ensemble class of Konstantin Adjemov). Post-graduate studies included work
in Moscow and in New York with A. Eidelman. Now he is professor of
Chamber ensemble class at the Moscow State Conservatoire.
Yuri Polubelov has participated in festivals in Germany, France, Italy,
Slovakia, Estonia, Russia, and Ukraine. He has performed both as soloist and
in chamber ensembles with prominent musicians such as Alexei Lubimov,
Yuri Bashmet, Tatiana Grindenko, Ivan Monighetti, Alexander Rudin, Alexander Knyazev, Nelli Lee, Mark Pekarsky, Francois Leleux, Janne Thomsen,
Pascal Moragues, Mario Brunello. He has also given premieres of a number of
works by contemporary Russian and Ukrainian composers and pays special
attention to rarely performed works by composers such as Zemlinsky,
Schoenberg, Webern, Krenek, Hindemith and Brahms (choral works with
piano).
As a Duo Svetlana Savenko and Yuri Polubelov performed since 1997.
Their repertoire includes more than 300 songs for voice and piano of contemporary composers, from Stravinsky and Schoenberg to actual Russian authors.
They have given a number of world premieres of works, among them compositions written specially for the Duo, such as the vocal pieces of Leonid Hofman, Josef Bardanashvili and Alexander Knaifel. The Duo are also committed
to promoting vocal repertoire under special themes, for instance "Silhouettes
of the Silver Age", "In Schoenberg's Direction", "Hundred Years of the New
Music", "Stravinsky: Nursery and Music Hall".
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The Duo pays a special attention to Silvestrov's music. Savenko and Polubelov have performed the vocal cycles Steps, Simple Songs, Diptych on Poems by Fyodor Tyutchev, Two Songs on Poems by Velemir Khlebnikov, River
of Times on Poem by Gavriil Derzhavin, Moments of Poetry and Music on Poems by Paul Celan and others. A number of them were world premieres.
Notes:
1. duo – итал. дуэт; duet (англ.) – дуэт;
2. to give a number of world premieres – представить (дать) ряд мировых премьер;
3. to pay a special attention to… – обращать особое внимание на…
ELENA FIRSOVA – A CONTEMPORARY RUSSIAN COMPOSER
The essential qualities of Elena Firsova's music were established almost
from the very beginning of her composing life. Even in her student days she
was already an unashamedly confessional artist, whose clear intention was to
give utterance to intimate personal feelings. From her earliest works she favoured smaller, more delicate combinations of instruments, and deployed a
distinctive and at that time unfashionable musical language centred on the subtle manipulation of an emotionally expressive melodic line, often supported on
a delicate web of post-romantic harmony. She showed no interest at all in the
noisily conventional rhetoric so characteristic of most of the Soviet music being written and played around her. Firsova was born in Leningrad on the 21 of
March 1950.
Her parents were both physicists, and she grew up in an atmosphere
where education was taken seriously. When she was still quite young, her
family moved to Moscow, and there she received her musical training, entering music college in 1966 and the Moscow Conservatoire in 1970. During five
years at the Conservatoire, she studied composition with Alexander Pirumov
and analysis with the distinguished Yuri Kholopov. Edison Denisov and Philip
Gershkovich influenced on her creativity greatly. It was at this time when she
met her husband, the composer Dmitri Smirnov.
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In 1970, when she was still at music college, she wrote her first settings
of Osip Mandelstam who died in the Stalinist camps in 1938. Though now regarded as one of the greatest Russian poets of the 20th century, Mandelstam
was unpublished in the Soviet Union in the period when Firsova first fell in
love with his work, and was to remain so until Glasnost in the late 1980s. Her
contact with the luminous world of this writer's imagination could come only
through carefully hidden and preserved old editions or through unofficial samizdat publications. Firsova has written more than a dozen settings of Mandelstam’s verse and a series of instrumental compositions inspired by his words.
One of her most appealing and characteristic pieces is the chamber cantata
Earthly Life of 1984.
The collapse of Soviet power in the late 1980s and the troubled conditions of the new Russia have had a considerable effect on Elena Firsova's life
and music. Between 1988 and 1992 she completed four pieces for full orchestra which, taken together as a cycle, make up what is perhaps her most important creative statement to date.
The first of these orchestral works, Augury, composed in 1988 and premiered at the 1992 BBC Proms in London by the BBC Symphony Orchestra
under Andrew Davis, culminates in a choral setting of Blake's famous lines
beginning “To see the world in a grain of sand…” Although the text is by
Blake, Augury seems to sum up many of the characteristic preoccupations and
moods of Firsova's settings of Mandelstam; the music rises and falls on the
waves of a romantic and lyrical reaching after ecstasy. The composition of
Augury was followed in 1989 by Nostalgia, where both title and music seem
to reflect the composer's growing anxiety about the future and the increasing
pressure to consider a period spent outside Russia. In 1991 the decisive break
was made: Elena Firsova and her husband and children moved to Britain
where they made brief stays at Cambridge University and Dartington Hall in
Devon, before being appointed as joint composers-in-residence at Keele University.
Early in 1992, Firsova completed one of her most ambitious works, an
uncommissioned setting for soprano and full orchestra of poems by her beloved Mandelstam entitled Secret Way, commissioned by WDR and premiered
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by the Moscow Radio Orchestra under Vladimir Fedoseyev at the Musikverein in Vienna in 1996. The human voice, as in Augury, here fulfils a summarising role towards the end of the work, singing a text which explores a bleak
and broken world in which verbal memory is lost amidst the tolling of Stygian
bells. The fourth and last of this cycle of recent orchestral works is Cassandra,
commissioned, premiered and recorded by the BBC National Orchestra of
Wales under Tadaaki Otaka It is named after the prophetess of impending
doom who, for Firsova, spoke not only of Troy but also of contemporary Russia.
Firsova has continued to produce a large body of chamber music, both
for purely instrumental forces as seen in her ongoing series of string quartets,
and for the idiomatic combination of solo voice and chamber ensemble which
has been so central to Firsova's output. In 1992 she composed Distance for the
Birmingham Contemporary Music Group, a setting of poems by Marina Tsvetayeva which depicts the same loneliness and desperation as the contemporary
Secret Way. Firsova's 1994 chamber cantata Before the Thunderstorm returns
to Mandelstam and is an impressive successor to Earthly Life and Forest
Walks. All three chamber cantatas were given their premiere by the Nash Ensemble who together with the BBC, have been the most stalwart of champions
for her music. New departures for Firsova in recent years have included a
chamber opera, The Nightingale and the Rose, premiered at the 1994 Almeida
Opera Festival.
Through all the various changes that have taken place over the last decade, both in her outside life and in the inner life of her music, Elena Firsova
has clung tenaciously to her distinctive musical voice and to her fiercely held
musical ideals. In each new piece we can be sure to hear the characteristic
qualities that emerged so early in her career, the same singing line and supple
harmonies, and the same sense that this is an artist telling us about what she
herself has felt, about what she would have us feel too.
Gerard McBumey
Notes:
1. Earthly Life – кантата «Земная жизнь» для сопрано и камерного
ансамбля, слова О.Мандельштама, 1984;
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2. Cassandra – музыка для оркестра «Кассандра», 1992;
3. The Nightingale and the Rose – камерная опера «Соловей и Роза»
по О.Уайльду, 1991;
4. Before the Thunderstorm – кантата «Перед Грозой», 1994;
5. Forest Walks – кантата «Прогулки в лесу, 1994.
VLADIMIR TARNOPOLSKI
Vladimir Tarnopolski (1955) was born in Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine.
He studied composition at the Moscow Tchaikovsky Conservatory with Nikolai Sidelnikov and Edison Denisov and music theory with Yuri Kholopov.
His composition for the Conservatory's final exam was his Concerto for
Cello (1988); it was selected by G. Rozhdestvensky for a series of concert
programs, titled as From the history of Soviet music.
Tarnopolski is a frequent guest in many Western contemporary music
festivals, such as: The World Music Days of the ISCM, The Berliner Festwochen, The Munchener Biennale, Wien Modern, Holland Festival, Frankfurter Musikfest, Almeida Festival, Huddersfield Contemporary Music Festival, Hommage aux Russes Paris, The Schleswig-Holstein Musikfest, Tage fur
Neue Musik Zurich, Make Music Together (Boston U.S.A.), The San Diego
Arts Festival, Aktive Musik Dortmund, Rencontres Musicales d'Evian, Warsaw Autumn and many others. Numerous famous Russian conductors, such as
Gennady Rozhdestviensky, Mstislaw Rostropovich and Alexander Lazarev
have conducted his works. His music has been performed by such ensembles
as Symphonieorchester des Bayerischen Rundfunks, Ensemble Modern,
Schonberg Ensemble, Ensemble Reshershe, Ensemble of Soloists of the
Bo!shoi Theatre. His stage works were premiered in Russia, Germany, France,
Netherlands.
In Tarnopolski's compositions there is a fulminantly charged musical
substance which fits into a concisely articulated, well-balanced construction.
The composers' music combines in a paradoxical manner two aesthetical aspects. The first is a search for a new euphony, which is developed on the basis
of a complexly constructed sound material, which abolishes the juxtaposition
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between consonance and dissonance, sound and noise, harmony and timbre, as
well as electronic and acoustic instruments. The second is a refined postmodernist theatricality, filled with either a joyful irony or a surrealistic grotesquerie.
Tarnopolski plays a significant role in the development of contemporary
Russian musical life. He was one of the initiators of ACM, the Association of
Contemporary Music in Moscow (1989), which represented a group of composers, who reacted against the official Soviet cultural philosophy (the socalled socialistic realism). In 1993 he had founded the Centre for Contemporary Music at the Moscow Conservatory as well as the Studio for New Music
Ensemble, which had performed many works by the Russian Avant-garde
composers. In 1994 Tarnopolski had also founded Moscow Forum, a new annual International Festival of Contemporary Music in Moscow, the main focus
of which is the integration of contemporary Russian and East-European contemporary music with Western European contemporary music.
Since 1992 Tarnopolski is the professor of composition at the Moscow
Conservatory. He holds numerous composition seminars in Germany, Austria,
Netherlands, Switzerland and other countries.
Tarnopolski's musical compositions had been awarded many prizes including the Dmitri Shostakovich Prize (Russia 1991) and the Paul Hindemith
Prize (Plon 1991).
Notes:
1. joyful irony – радостная ирония;
2. euphony – благозвучие;
3. to premier – занимать первое место;
4. the Association of Contemporary Music (ACM) – ассоциация современной музыки.
«STUDIO FOR NEW MUSIC» ENSEMBLE
The Studio for New Music Ensemble, Russia's most active contemporary music group, was founded by composer Vladimir Tarnopolski and conductor Igor Dronov, in 1993. The first concert was given in France with Msti88
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slav Rostropovich as conductor. The main aim of ensemble is to integrate
Russian music into the contemporary Inter-European musical and cultural developments. The ensemble consists for the most part of graduate students of a
special class contemporary ensemble of the post-graduate program of
Tchaikovsky Conservatory, Moscow.
The ensemble specializes in 20th century and contemporary music;
among the vast repertoire of the Studio special attention is given to the Russian Avant-garde of the 1920's (Sergei Prokofiev, Gabriel Popov, Nicolai Roslavets, Alexander Mosolov, Arthur Lourie, Leo Golyshev, Ivan Vyshnegradsky, Alexei Zhivotov, Leonid Polovinkin, Vladimir Shcherbachiov,
Michail Gnesin) as well as compositions by contemporary composers, written
especially for the group. Another particular interest is given to all kinds of collaboration with young composers in competitions, workshops, masterclasses
and various other forms.
Studio for New Music regularly presents concerts in some of the most
famous concert halls in Moscow, and frequently goes on tours within Russia,
in the former Soviet republics and in Europe. During the eight years of its existence the ensemble gave nearly two hundreds concerts, on a monthly basis,
each time with new programs; it also took part in numerous international festivals of contemporary music in Russia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belgium, Czech
Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, the Netherlands, Portugal,
USA. It has recorded works for various foundations and radio stations, and
produced several CDs by Russian and foreign contemporary composers, including series of CD-portraits by most famous Russian contemporary composers on the Belgian label MEGADISC.
Studio for New Music is the basis ensemble of the «Moscow Forum»
Festival of contemporary music, which is organized by the Centre for Contemporary Music of the Tchaikovsky Conservatory.
Notes:
1. contemporary music – современная музыка;
2. vast repertoire – огромный репертуар;
3. all kinds of collaboration – разного рода сотрудничество.
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V. THE HISTORY OF ROCK-MUSIC
WHAT IS ROCK?
Rock Music, group of related music styles has dominated popular music
in the West since about 1955. Rock music began in the United States, but it
has influenced and in turn been shaped by a broad field of cultures and musical traditions, including gospel music, the blues, country-and-western music,
classical music, folk music, electronic music, and the popular music of Asia,
Africa, and Latin America. In addition to its use as a broad designation, the
term rock music commonly refers to music styles after 1959 predominantly
influenced by white musicians. Other major rock-music styles include rock
and roll (also known as rock 'n' roll), the first genre of the music; and rhythmand-blues music (R&B), influenced mainly by black American musicians.
Each of these major genres encompasses a variety of substyles, such as heavy
metal, punk, alternative, and grunge. While innovations in rock music have
often occurred in regional centers – such as New York City, Kingston, Jamaica, and Liverpool, England – the influence of rock music is now felt
worldwide.
Dictionary definitions of rock are problematic, not least because the
term has different resonance in its British and American usages (the latter is
broader in compass). There is basic agreement that rock “is a form of music
with a strong beat”, but it is difficult to be much more explicit. The Collins
Cobuild English Dictionary, based on a vast database of British usage, suggests that “rock is a kind of music with simple tunes and a very strong beat
that is played and sung, usually loudly, by a small group of people with electric guitars and drums”, but there are so many exceptions to this description
that it is practically useless.
Legislators seeking to define rock for regulatory purposes have not done
much better. The Canadian government defined “rock and rock-oriented music” as “characterized by a strong beat, the use of blues forms and the presence
of rock instruments such as electric guitar, electric bass, electric organ or electric piano”. In 1990 British legislators defined pop music as “all kinds of music characterized by a strong rhythmic element and a reliance on electronic
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amplification for their performance”. This led to strong objections from the
music industry that such a definition failed to appreciate the clear sociological
difference between pop (“instant singles-based music aimed at teenagers”) and
rock (“album-based music for adults”). In pursuit of definitional clarity, the
lawmakers misunderstood what made rock music matter.
Notes:
1. to refer to smth. – ссылаться на что-то;
2. to encompass – осуществлять, окружать;
3. legislator – законодатель;
4. grunge – грандж – направление в хард-роке 90-х, синтезировавшее
элементы металлического рока и эстетику панк-рока; наиболее яркий представитель – группа Nirvana;
5. rock and roll – рок-н-ролл – легкий танцевальный музыкальный
стиль, гармонически идущий от блюза; с характерным энергичным
ритмом и довольно простыми мелодиями; букв. «раскачивайся и
крутись», появился в США в середине 1950-х как «белый» вариант
афро-американского стиля ритм-энд-блюз;
6. rhythm and blues – ритм и блюз – сочетание блюза с негритянской
народной музыкой – музыкальный стиль, популярный, главным
образом, среди афро-американцев в период между 1940-ми и 1960ми гг. Отличается от блюза тем, что в его исполнении участвует
большой ансамбль.
CRUCIAL ROCK MUSICIANS
If it is difficult to define what rock is, it makes more sense to approach
the definition of rock historically, with examples. The following musicians
were crucial to rock's history. What do they have in common?
Elvis Presley, from Memphis, Tennessee, personified a new form of
American popular music in the mid-1950s. Rock and roll was a guitar-based
sound with a strong (if loose) beat that drew equally on African-American and
white traditions from the southern United States, on blues, church music, and
country music. Presley's rapid rise to national stardom revealed the new cultural and economic power of both teenagers and teen-aimed media – records,
radio, television, and motion pictures.
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The Beatles, from Liverpool, England, personified a new form of British
popular music in the 1960s. Merseybeat was a British take on the black and
white musical mix of rock and roll: a basic lineup of lead guitar, rhythm guitar, bass guitar, and drums (with shared vocals) provided local live versions of
American hit records of all sorts. The Beatles added to this an artistic selfconsciousness, soon writing their own songs and using the recording studio to
develop their own – rather than a commercial producer's – musical ideas. The
group's unprecedented success in the United States ensured that rock would be
an Anglo-American phenomenon.
Bob Dylan, from Hibbing, Minnesota, personified a new form of
American music in the mid-1960s. Dylan brought together the amplified beat
of rock and roll, the star imagery of pop, the historical and political sensibility
of folk, and – through the wit, ambition, and obscurity of his lyrics – the arrogance of urban bohemia. He gave the emerging rock scene artistic weight and
a new account of youth as an ideological rather than a demographic category.
Jimi Hendrix, from Seattle, Washington, personified the emergence of
rock as a specific musical genre in the late 1960s. Learning his trade as a guitarist in rhythm-and-blues bands and possessing a jazzman's commitment to
collective improvisation, he came to fame leading a trio in London and exploring the possibilities of the amplifier as a musical instrument in the recording
studio and on the concert stage. Hendrix established versatility and technical
skill as a norm for rock musicianship and gave shape to a new kind of event:
the outdoor festival and stadium concert, in which the noise of the audience
became part of the logic of the music.
Bob Marley, from Kingston, Jamaica, personified a new kind of global
popular music in the 1970s. Marley and his group, the Wailers, combined
sweet soul vocals with rock guitar, a reggae beat, and Rastafarian mysticism.
Marley's commercial success established Jamaica as a major source of international talent, leaving a reggae imprint not just on Western rock but also on local music makers in Africa, Asia, and Australia.
Madonna, from suburban Detroit, Michigan, personified a new sort of
global teen idol in the 1980s. She combined the sounds and technical devices
of the new York City disco-club scene with the new sales and image-making
opportunities offered by video promotion – primarily by Music Television
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(MTV), the music-based cable television service. As a star Madonna had it
both ways: she was at once a knowing American feminist artist and a global
sales icon for the likes of Pepsi-Cola.
Public Enemy, from New York City, personified a new sort of AfricanAmerican music in the late 1980s. Rap, the competitive use of rhyming lines
spoken over an ever-more-challenging rhythmic base, had a long history in
African-American culture; however, it came to musical prominence as part of
the hip-hop movement. Public Enemy used new digital technology to sample
and recast the urban soundscape from the perspective of African-American
youth. This was music that was at once sharply attuned to local political conditions and resonant internationally. By the mid-1990s rap had become an expressive medium for minority social groups around the world.
What does this version of rock's history – from Presley to Public
Enemy – reveal? First, that rock is so broad a musical category that in practice
people organize their tastes around more focused genre labels: the young
Presley was a rockabilly, the Beatles a pop group, Dylan a folkie, Madonna a
disco diva, Marley and the Wailers a reggae act, and Public Enemy rappers.
Even Hendrix, the most straightforward rock star on this list, also has a place
in the histories of rhythm and blues and jazz. In short, while all these musicians played a significant part in the development of rock, they did so by using
different musical instruments and textures, different melodic and rhythmic
principles, different approaches to song words and performing conventions.
Notes:
1. crucial – решающий, критический;
2. to personify – олицетворять, символизировать;
3. obscurity of his lyrics – зд. сложность (неясность) его стихов;
4. the arrogance of urban bohemia – высокомерность городской
богемы;
5. reggae – регги – стиль городской танцевальной музыки, возникшей
на Ямайке в середине 1960-х. Соединяет черты североамериканской развлекательной и традиционной афро-ямайской
музыки.
6. rap – рэп – популярный музыкальный стиль афро-американского
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происхождения, возникший в Нью-Йорке в 1970-х и получивший
широкое распространение в 1980-х. Представляет собой произносимые скороговоркой импровизированные рифмованные фразы
под аккомпанемент компьютерной ритм-группы или музыки многих других стилей. Непременными элементами стиля являются
танец и характерные жесты.
MUSICAL ELEMENTS
The central musical instrument in most kinds of rock music is the electric guitar. Important figures in the history of this instrument include jazz musician Charlie Christian, who in the late 1930s was one of the first to play the
amplified guitar as a solo instrument; Aaron Thibeaux “T-Bone” Walker, the
first blues musician to record with an amplified guitar (1942); Leo Fender,
who in 1948 introduced the first mass-produced solid-body electric guitar; and
Les Paul, who popularized the instrument in the early 1950s with a series of
technologically innovative recordings. Rock-and-roll guitarist Chuck Berry
established a style of playing in the late 1950s that remains a great influence
on rock music. Beginning in the late 1960s a new generation of rock guitarists,
including Jimi Hendrix, Eric Clapton, and Carlos Santana, experimented with
amplification, feedback (a type of electronic sound distortion), and various
electronic devices, extending the musical potential of the instrument.
Other instruments commonly used in rock music include the electric
bass guitar (introduced by Fender in 1951); keyboard instruments such as the
electric piano, organ, and synthesizer; and the drum set, an African American
innovation that came into rock music from jazz and R&B music. Instruments
that play important roles in certain rock-music genres include the saxophone –
prominent in jazz-rock and soul music – and a wide assortment of traditional
instruments used in worldbeat music. The microphone also functions as a musical instrument for many rock singers, who rely upon the amplification and
various effects (such as echo) obtainable through electronic means.
Rock music also shares more complex technical aspects. Most rock music is based on the same harmonies as Western music, especially the chords
known as tonic, subdominant, and dominant. The chord progression (series of
chords) known as the 12-bar blues is based on these chords and has figured
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prominently in certain styles, especially rock and roll, soul music, and southern rock. Other common harmonic devices include the use of a drone, or pedal
point (a single pitch sustained through a progression of chords), and the parallel movement of chords, derived from a technique on the electric guitar known
as bar-chording. Many elements of African American music have been a continuing source of influence on rock music. These characteristics include riffs
(repeated patterns), backbeats (emphasizing the second and fourth beats of
each measure), call-and-response patterns, blue notes (the use of certain bentsounding pitches, especially those related to the third and fifth degrees of a
musical scale), and dense buzzy-sounding timbres, or tone colors.
The musical form of rock music varies. Rock and roll of the late 1950s
relied heavily upon 12-bar blues and 32-bar song forms. Some rock bands of
the late 1960s experimented with more flexible, open-ended forms, and some
rock bands of the 1970s developed suite forms derived from classical music.
Another important formal development in rock music has been the so-called
concept album, a succession of musical pieces tied together by a loose narrative theme.
Much rock music is performed at high volume levels, so the music has
been closely tied to developments in electronic technology. Rock musicians
have pioneered new studio recording techniques, such as multi-tracking – a
process of recording different song segments at different times and layering
them on top of one another – and digital sampling, the reproduction by a computer of the patterns of a particular sound. Rock concerts, typically huge
events involving thousands of audience members, often feature high-tech theatrical stage effects, including synchronized lighting.
Notes:
1. a drone – гудение, гул, жужжание, шум;
2. riff – небольшая ритмическая фигура, часто служащая сопровождением к сольной импровизации (в джазе);
3. flexible – гибкий;
4. narrative theme – повествовательная тема;
5. burry-sounding timber – жужжащий тембр.
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ROCK AND YOUTH CULTURE
One way rock marked itself off from other popular musical forms so
it was in its constant pursuit of new sounds and new sound devices.
This pursuit of the new can be linked to rock's central sociological characteristic, its association with youth. In the 1950s and early 1960s this was a
simple market equation: rock and roll was played by young musicians for
young audiences and addressed young people's interests. It was therefore dismissed by many in the music industry as a passing novelty, “bubblegum”, akin
to the yo-yo or the hula hoop. But by the mid-1960s youth had become an
ideological category that referred to a particular kind of hedonism, individualism, and modernism. Whereas youth once referred to high-school students, it
came to include college students. Moreover, rock became multifunctional –
dance and party music on the one hand, a matter of serious attention and intimate expression on the other. As rock spread globally this had different implications in different countries, but in general it allowed rock to continue to define itself as youthful even as its performers and listeners grew up and settled
down.
Notes:
1. pursuit – поиск, стремление;
2. hedonism – филос. гедонизм; жизнелюбие, жажда наслаждений,
удовольствие;
3. multifunctional – многофункциональный.
ROCK AND ROLL
The first type of rock music, rock and roll, originated in the United
States in the 1950s, and was largely derived from music of the American
South. Rock and roll was a combination of the R&B style, the gospelinfluenced vocal-group style, the piano-blues style known as boogie-woogie,
and the country-music style known as honky tonk.
During the 1950s the term rock and roll was actually a synonym for
black R&B music. Rock and roll was first released by small, independent re-
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cord companies and promoted by radio disc jockeys (DJs) like Alan Freed,
who used the term rock 'n' roll to help attract white audiences unfamiliar with
black R&B. Indeed, the appeal of rock and roll to white middle-class teenagers was immediate and caught the major record companies by surprise. As
these companies moved to capitalize on the popularity of the style, the market
was fueled by cover versions (performances of previously recorded songs) of
R&B songs that were edited for suggestive lyrics and expressions and performed in the singing style known as crooning, by white vocalists. The most
successful rock-and-roll artists wrote and performed songs about love, sexuality, identity crises, personal freedom, and other issues that were of particular
interest to teenagers.
The group Bill Haley and the Comets had the first big rock-and-roll hit
with the song “Rock Around the Clock” (1955).
The golden age of rock and roll, which lasted only five years, from 1955
to 1959, is exemplified by the recordings of Chuck Berry, Elvis Presley, Little
Richard, and Buddy Holly. By the early 1960s, the popular music industry was
assembling professional songwriters, hired studio musicians, and teenage
crooners to mass-produce songs that imitated late-1950s rock and roll. In the
early 1960s professional songwriters in Manhattan and New York produced
numerous hit songs, many of which were recorded by female ensembles
known as girl groups. Also during this period, the role of the record producer
was expanded by Phil Spector, a producer who created hits by using elaborate
studio techniques in a dense orchestral approach.
Notes:
1. crooning style – зд. стиль «тихое пение»; тихо и проникновенно (с
чувством) исполнять популярные песни перед микрофоном;
2. crooner – эстрадный певец, шансонье;
3. disc jockey – диск-жокей, ди-джей – ведущий музыкальных программ по радио, телевидению или в дискотеке;
4. boogie-woogie – буги-вуги – фортепьянный стиль джаза. Для него
характерен неизменный ритм на басах и вариации на музыкальную
тему на высоких тонах. Приобрел популярность в 1930-е годы.
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The 1960s
In 1964 the Beatles traveled to New York City to appear on a television
broadcast and launched the so-called British Invasion. Influenced by American recordings, British pop bands of the period invigorated the popular music
mainstream and confirmed the international stature of rock music. Soon, several British groups had developed individual distinctive styles: the Beatles
combined the guitar-based rock and roll of Chuck Berry and Buddy Holly
with the artistry of the Tin Pan Alley style; the Rolling Stones joined aspects
of Chicago blues to their intense, forceful music.
As with early rock and roll, the major American record companies did
not take the British bands seriously at first – the Beatles' first hit singles in the
United States were released through small, independent record companies.
Soon, however, the success of the British bands became too difficult to ignore,
and some American musicians reacted by developing their own styles. In 1965
Bob Dylan performed live and in-studio with a band that played electric instruments. The short-lived group Buffalo Springfield, formed in 1966, blended
aspects of rock and country-and-western music to create country rock.
During the late 1960s, rock music diversified further into new styles
while consolidating its position in the mainstream of American popular music.
The Beatles' 1967 album, the first rock concept album, established new standards for studio recording and helped to establish the notion of the rock musician as a creative artist. Once again, American musicians responded to the
British musical stimulus by experimenting with new forms, technologies, and
stylistic influences.
In the late 1960s hard rock emerged, focusing on thick layers of sound,
loud volume levels, and virtuoso guitar solos. In London, American Jimi
Hendrix developed a highly influential electric-guitar style. His fiery technique gained exposure at the first large-scale rock festivals in the United
States, Monterey Pop (1967) and Woodstock (1969).
Notes:
1. intense – сильный, интенсивный;
2. forceful music – сильная, убедительная музыка;
3. Woodstock music festival – "Вудсток", Вудстокский фестиваль Фестиваль рок-музыки, состоявшийся 15-17 августа 1969 на ферме недалеко от городка Бетел, шт. Нью-Йорк (первоначально планировался в поселке Вудсток). Стал кульминационным событием эпохи
контркультуры. В нем приняли участие самые знаменитые рокгруппы и исполнители того времени, в том числе Дж. Хендрикс, К.
Сантана. Фестиваль стал актом протеста против войны во Вьетнаме и истеблишмента страны. На поляне, где проходил фестиваль,
палаточный городок разбили около 450 тыс. человек, преимущественно молодых людей [flower people]. Фестиваль проходил под
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проливным дождем; отсутствие какой-либо серьезной организации
привело к пробкам на дорогах, антисанитарии и к дефициту продуктов питания в окрестных магазинах. В 1994 был проведен фестиваль "Вудсток-94", собравший многих известных музыкантов, но
он носил уже явно коммерческий характер.
The 1970s
In the early 1970s the popular mainstream was dominated by superstar
rock groups, such as the Rolling Stones, the Eagles, and by individual superstars, such as Stevie Wonder and Elton John. Each of these groups and individual artists produced multiple albums, each of which sold millions of copies,
pushing the industry to operate at a new scale.
At the other end of the stylistic spectrum, the heavy-metal style was
pioneered by bands Led Zeppelin, Black Sabbath, and Deep Purple, all of
which featured aggressive guitar solos. Art rock, represented by bands such as
Emerson, Lake and Palmer, combined influences from classical music and
displays of technical skill with spectacular stage shows. Glitter rock, or glam
rock, cultivated a decadent image complete with such musicians as David
Bowie and Marc Bolan wearing heavy makeup and sequined costumes and
presenting themselves as sexually androgynous. The 1970s also saw the development of funk, a variant of soul music that was influenced by rock.
About 1976 punk rock originated in New York City and London as a
reaction against the commercialism of mainstream rock. As a movement of
disaffected youth of the late 1970s, manifesting itself in fashions and music
designed to shock or intimidate. Punk-rock music was raw, aggressive, and
fast often within a three-chord, three-minute format as exemplified by British
punk group the Sex Pistols. The punk movement also brought more women
into rock and was generally antiracist and antiestablishment.
Also in the mid-1970s, reggae music – developed by musicians in the
shantytowns of Kingston, Jamaica – began to attract attention among youth in
Great Britain and the United States. The style, associated with political protest
and the Rastafarian religion, combined elements of Jamaican folk music with
American R&B influences. The superstar of the style was Bob Marley, who
by the time of his death in 1981 had become one of the most popular musicians in the world.
Notes:
1. heavy make-up – «тяжелый» (яркий) макияж;
2. androgynous – женоподобный (о мужчине), двуполый;
3. glitter rock – глиттер-рок – рок-музыка в исполнении мужчин, переодетых в женскую одежду;
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4. funk – фанк – сильно ритмизованный, чувственный музыкальный
стиль, идущий от блюза – первоначально в джазе, а затем в попмузыке, где из него возник в 70-х танцевальный "диско".
The 1980s
Other mainstream rock hits of the 1980s came from a group of charismatic artists, each of whom attracted mass-audience followings extending
across traditional social boundaries. During the 1980s the audience for heavy
metal expanded from its original white-male, working-class core to include
more middle-class fans, both male and female. By the end of the decade,
heavy-metal bands, such as AC/DC, Guns N’ Roses, and Metallica, accounted
for as much as 40 percent of all sound recordings sold in the United States.
Another genre of rock music, labeled alternative rock, rejected the
heavy marketing and video-driven culture of the 1980s. In general, alternative
rock bands recorded for independent labels, played in small clubs, and maintained a defiant stance toward the conformity and commercialism of the music
industry.
Perhaps the most significant rock-music development of the 1980s was
the rise of rap, a genre in which vocalists perform rhythmic speech, usually
accompanied by music snippets, or samples, from prerecorded material or
from music created by synthesizers. Rap originated in the mid-1970s in the
South Bronx community of New York City and was initially associated with a
cultural movement called hip-hop, which included acrobatic dancing (known
as break dancing) and graffiti art. DJs experimented with innovative turntable
techniques, including switching between multiple discs; back-spinning, or rotating the disc by hand in order to repeat particular phrases; and scratching,
moving the phonograph needle across vinyl record grooves to create rhythmic
sound effects.
The first rap records were made in 1979 by small, independent record
companies. Although rap artists had national hits during the early 1980s, rap
music did not enter the popular music mainstream until 1986, when rappers
Run-DMC and the hard-rock band Aerosmith collaborated on a version of the
song “Walk This Way,” creating a new audience for rap among white, suburban, middle-class rock fans.
Notes:
1. snippet – отрывок, фрагмент;
2. sample – модель, шаблон;
3. multiple discs – многочисленные диски.
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The 1990s
During the 1990s, trends that had been established during the 1980s
continued, including growth in the popularity of genres such as rap, heavy
metal, and worldbeat and the introduction of new technologies for the digital
generation, transmission, and reproduction of sound. The 1990s also saw the
further splintering of rock music into a variety of specialized subgenres.
Electronic dance music, or techno, also became more widely popular
during the 1990s. The genre first emerged in the 1970s. Some forms of techno
were influenced by punk rock; others by experimental art music, jazz, and
world music; and still others by black popular music, including funk and rap.
Although techno produced few commercial hits during the decade, the recordings of musical groups such as the Prodigy, Orbital, and Moby did make
inroads into the charts during the late 1990s, and techno recordings were increasingly licensed as the soundtracks for technology-oriented television
commercials and films.
The popularity of alternative rock exploded during the 1990s. The genre
spawned a number of substyles, such as the grunge. This rock music style of
the early 1990s is characterized by a thick, abrasive, distorted guitar sound.
Grunge evolved from punk and came to prominence with the chart success of
the band Nirvana in 1991. Between 1991 and 1994 Nirvana released two multiplatinum albums and moved alternative rock’s blend of hardcore punk and
heavy metal out of specialty record stores and into the commercial mainstream.
Notes:
1. alternative rock – альтернативный рок – музыкальное движение,
противопоставленное коммерческому року с его достаточно жесткими стилистическими рамками;
2. to spawn – рождать, порождать, вызывать;
3. commercial mainstream – коммерческое направление.
CURRENT TREND
One of the most striking features of rock music in the first years of the
21st century was its sheer stylistic diversity.
Technological innovation continues to drive changes in the way rock
music is produced, heard, and sold. The development of low-cost digital technology has allowed musicians to make professional-quality recordings in their
homes. The emergence of Internet services, which allow fans to download
their favorite music in the form of compressed files, has raised thorny legal
questions about copyright laws while at the same time making the music of
unsigned and alternative musicians much more widely available. The development of home compact disc recorders has enabled rock fans to create their
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own digital compilations, mixing genres, artists, and musical epochs to suit
their own taste.
Rock music in the 21st century is increasingly influenced by the global
marketplace. Of the five major transnational corporations now responsible for
as much as 90 percent of music sales worldwide, only one is officially headquartered in the United States. Rock music continues to play a central role in
the popular culture of the United States and all over the world. Along with the
expansion of the global audience for North American and European rock music, there is increasing influence by musicians from Asia, Africa, Latin America, and other parts of the world.
Notes:
1. sheer stylistic diversity – полное (абсолютное) стилистическое
разнообразие;
2. emergence – появление;
3. thorny legal questions – острые (щекотливые) юридические
вопросы.
ROCK AS A REFLECTION OF SOCIAL AND CULTURAL CHANGE
Since its inception in the 1950s, rock music has moved from the margins of American popular music to become the center of a multi-billion-dollar
global industry. Closely connected with youth culture, rock music and musicians have helped to establish new fashions, forms of language, attitudes, and
political views. However, rock music is no longer limited to an audience of
teenagers, since many current listeners formed their musical tastes during the
golden age of rock and roll.
How should rock's contribution to music history be judged? One way to
answer this is to trace rock's influences on other musics; another is to attempt
a kind of cultural audit. But rock does not so much influence other musics as
colonize them, blurring musical boundaries.
Its cultural value must be approached from a different perspective. The
question is not how rock has influenced society, but rather, how it has reflected society. From the musician's point of view, for example, the most important change since the 1950s has been in the division of music-making labour. When Elvis Presley became a star, there were clear distinctions between
the work of the performer, writer, arranger, session musician, record producer,
and sound engineer. By the time Public Enemy was recording, such distinctions had broken down from both ends: performers wrote, arranged, and produced their own material; engineers made as significant a musical contribution
as anyone else to the creation of a recorded sound. Technological developments – multitrack tape recorders, amplifiers, synthesizers, and digital equipment – had changed the meaning of musical instruments; there was no longer
a clear distinction between producing a sound and reproducing it.
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From a listener's point of view, too, the distinction between music and
noise changed dramatically in the second half of the 20th century. Music became ubiquitous, whether in public places (an accompaniment to every sort of
activity), at home (with a radio, CD player, or cassette player in every room),
or in blurring the distinction between public and private use of music
(a Walkman, boom box, or karaoke machine). The development of the compact disc only accelerated the process that makes music from any place and
any time permanently available. Listening to music no longer refers to a special place or occasion but, rather, a special attention – a decision to focus on a
given sound at a given moment.
Rock is the music that has directly addressed these new conditions and
kept faith with the belief that music is a form of human conversation, even as
it is mediated by television and radio and by filmmakers and advertisers. The
rock commitment to access – to doing mass music for oneself – has survived
despite the centralization of production and the ever-increasing costs of manufacture, promotion, and distribution. Rock remains the most democratic of
mass media – the only one in which voices from the margins of society can
still be heard out loud.
Rock music will be central to 21st-century ways of doing things. Rock,
in short, not only reflects (and reflects on) social and cultural change; it is also
a social force in its own right.
Notes:
1. to establish new fashion – основать (учреждать) новую моду;
2. to trace rock’s influence on other music – проследить влияние рока
на другие направления музыки;
3. ubiquitous – вездесущий, повсеместный;
4. a Walkman – аудиоплеер, плеер (как вместе с радиоприемником
и наушниками, так и без них; первоначально название торговой
марки).
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VI. WORLD-FAMOUS PERFORMERS
LOUIS ARMSTRONG – THE KING OF JAZZ
Louis Armstrong grew up in dire poverty in New Orleans, Louisiana,
when jazz was very young. As a child he worked at odd jobs and sang in boys
quartet. In 1913 he was sent to the Colored Waifs’ Home as a juvenile delinquent. There he learned to play cornet in the home's band, and playing music
quickly became a passion; in his teens he learned music by listening to the
pioneer jazz artists of the day, including the leading New Orleans cornetist,
King Oliver. Armstrong developed rapidly: he played in marching and jazz
bands, becoming skillful enough. In the early 1920s he played in Mississippi
riverboat dance bands.
Oliver's Creole Jazz Band was the apex of the early, contrapuntal New
Orleans ensemble style, and it included outstanding musicians such as the
brothers Johnny and Baby Dodds and pianist Lil Hardin, who married Armstrong in 1924. The young Armstrong became popular through his ingenious
ensemble lead and second cornet lines, his cornet duet passages (called
“breaks”) with Oliver, and his solos. He recorded his first solos as a member
of the Oliver band in such pieces as “Chimes Blues” and “Tears,” which Lil
and Louis Armstrong composed.
Encouraged by his wife, Armstrong quit Oliver's band to seek further
fame. He played for a year in New York City in Fletcher Henderson’s band
and on many recordings with others before returning to Chicago and playing
in large orchestras. There he created his most important early works, the
Armstrong Hot Five and Hot Seven recordings of 1925–28, on which he
emerged as the first great jazz soloist. By then the New Orleans ensemble
style, which allowed few solo opportunities, could no longer contain his explosive creativity. He retained vestiges of the style in such masterpieces as
“Hotter than That,” “Struttin' with Some Barbecue,” “Wild Man Blues,” and
“Potato Head Blues” but largely abandoned it while accompanied by pianist
Earl Hines. By that time Armstrong was playing trumpet, and his technique
was superior to that of all competitors. Altogether, his immensely compelling
swing; his brilliant technique; his sophisticated, daring sense of harmony; his
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ever-mobile, expressive attack, timbre, and inflections; his gift for creating vital melodies; his dramatic, often complex sense of solo design; and his outsized musical energy and genius made these recordings major innovations in
jazz.
Armstrong was a famous musician by 1929, when he moved from Chicago to New York City and performed in the theatre review Hot Chocolates.
He toured America and Europe as a trumpet soloist accompanied by big
bands; for several years beginning in 1935, Luis Russell's big band served as
the Louis Armstrong band. During this time he abandoned the often bluesbased original material of his earlier years for a remarkably fine choice of
popular songs by such noted composers as Irving Berling and Duke Ellington.
With his new repertoire came a new, simplified style: he created melodic
paraphrases and variations as well as chord-change-based improvisations on
these songs. His trumpet range continued to expand, as demonstrated in the
high-note showpieces in his repertoire. His beautiful tone and gift for structuring bravura solos with brilliant high-note climaxes led to such masterworks as
“That's My Home,” “Body and Soul,” and “Star Dust.” One of the inventors of
scat singing, he began to sing lyrics on most of his recordings, varying melodies or decorating with scat phrases in a gravel voice that was immediately
identifiable.
Though his own bands usually played in a more conservative style,
Armstrong was the dominant influence on the swing era, when most trumpeters attempted to emulate his inclination to dramatic structure, melody, or technical virtuosity. Trombonists, too, appropriated Armstrong's phrasing, and
saxophonists as different as Coleman Hawkins and Bud Freeman modeled
their styles on different aspects of Armstrong's. Above all else, his swing-style
trumpet playing influenced virtually all jazz horn players who followed him,
and the swing and rhythmic suppleness of his vocal style were important influences on singers from Billie Holiday to Bing Crosby.
In most of Armstrong's movie, radio, and television appearances, he was
featured as a good-humoured entertainer. He played a rare dramatic role in the
film New Orleans (1947), in which he also performed in a Dixeland band.
This prompted the formation of Louis Armstrong's All-Stars, a Dixieland band
that at first included such other jazz greats as Hines and trombonist Jack Teagarden. For most of the rest of Armstrong's life, he toured the world with
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changing All-Stars sextets; indeed, “Ambassador Satch” in his later years was
noted for his almost nonstop touring schedule. It was the period of his greatest
popularity; he produced hit recordings such as “Mack the Knife” and “Hello,
Dolly!” and some outstanding. In his last years ill health curtailed his trumpet
playing, but he continued as a singer. His last film appearance was in Hello,
Dolly! (1969).
More than a great trumpeter, Armstrong was a bandleader, singer, soloist, film star, and comedian. One of his most remarkable feats was his frequent
conquest of the popular market with recordings that thinly disguised authentic
jazz with Armstrong's contagious humour. He nonetheless made his greatest
impact on the evolution of jazz itself, which at the start of his career was
popularly considered to be little more than a novelty. With his great sensitivity, technique, and capacity to express emotion, Armstrong not only ensured
the survival of jazz but led in its development into a fine art.
Notes:
1. odd jobs – случайная работа;
2. Colored Waifs’ Home – дом для беспризорных;
3. to seek further fame – искать дальнейшую славу;
4. to retain vestiges – сохранять признаки;
5. vital – живой.
A GIFTED RUSSIAN PIANIST
Svyatoslav Teofilovich Richter is a Soviet pianist whose technical virtuosity combined with subtle introspection, made him one of the preeminent
pianists of the 20th century. Though his repertoire was enormous, he was especially praised for his interpretations of J.S. Bach, Robert Schumann, Franz
Liszt, Sergey Prokofiev, and Modest Mussorgsky.
Richter's father, an organist and composer, taught his son musical rudiments at an early age – the young Richter largely taught himself piano on
the side. As a teenager he became a coach at the Odessa (Ukraine) Opera,
where he astounded others with his sight-reading ability. Though initially a
composer, by age 20 Richter had devoted himself to the piano. He made his
concert debut in 1935 in Odessa, and in 1937 he became a pupil at the Mos106
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cow Conservatory. Having met Prokofiev in 1937, Richter went on to premiere the composer's Sonata No. 6 in 1940, as well as Sonata No. 7 and Sonata No. 9 in later years. In 1945 Richter won the U.S.S.R. Music Competition. During the 1950s he toured Eastern Europe and China. Meanwhile, the
West eagerly awaited Richter's appearance. “Every musician in town was present,” reported the New York Times, for his 1960 debut at Carnegie Hall. To
great acclaim, he subsequently toured western Europe, Japan, and elsewhere.
He favoured intimate venues, such as the Aldeburgh festival in England,
where he played Schubert duets with his friend Benjamin Britten. In 1964
Richter started a lifelong association with the French Fêtes Musicales near
Tours. Because he detested the artificiality of the studio, more than half of his
recordings were of live performances. Among Richter's distinguished recorded
works are his superb performances of Mussorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibition,
as well as his controversial interpretation of Schubert's Sonata in B-flat Major,
which exhibits an unusually slow, hypnotic first movement.
Notes:
1. rudiments – основы; элементарные знания;
2. coach – репетитор, инструктор;
3. Mussorgsky’s Pictures at an Exhibition – фортепианный цикл
«Картинки с выставки» М. Мусоргского, 1874;
4. Schubert’s Sonata in B-flat Major – Соната Си-бемоль мажор
Ф. Шуберта, 1925.
FRANK SINATRA
Frank Sinatra is an American singer and actor. He became the idol of
squealing teenagers in the late 1930s and went on to serve as an object of fascination for several generations over a period of more than six decades.
Known variously as "the Voice," "Ol' Blue Eyes," and "Chairman of the
Board," he was celebrated nearly as much for his offstage activities – not only
his brawling, womanizing (and four wives: Nancy Barbato, Ava Gardner, Mia
Farrow, and Barbara Marx), and hobnobbing with both mobsters and prominent politicians but also his acts of extreme generosity – as for his performances on over 200 albums, in some 60 films, and in countless nightclub and
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concert appearances. A number of songs, among them "One for My Baby,"
"My Way," "Come Fly with Me," "New York, New York," and "My Kind of
Town," were considered his signatures. Sinatra's start in show business began
in the mid-1930s with a win for the Hoboken Four (Sinatra and three friends)
on the "Major Bowes Amateur Hour" radio program. A period of touring followed, and in 1939 he became a vocalist with Harry James's band. A move to
Tommy Dorsey's band came a few months later, and in 1942, having become
the idol of bobby-soxers, Sinatra went solo. Concert and radio performances
and appearances in such films as Anchors Aweigh (1945), Take Me Out to the
Ball Game (1949), and On the Town (1949) enhanced his popularity. In the
early 1950s, however, Sinatra's public image suffered because of his love affair with Gardner while he was still married to his first wife. Health problems
followed, and his career seemed to be over. Nonetheless, he persevered and
was given the role of Maggio in From Here to Eternity (1953), and his performance won him an Academy Award for best supporting actor. He followed
that with strong performances in such films as Suddenly (1954); Guys and
Dolls (1955); The Man with the Golden Arm (1955), for which he received an
Academy Award nomination for best actor. Lighter in tone were the motion
pictures he made with his group of friends known as the Rat Pack (Dean Martin, Sammy Davis, Jr., Peter Lawford, and Joey Bishop). Sinatra's recording
career also was reborn, especially when he began to take advantage of the
long-playing record. His most successful single came in 1966 with "Strangers
in the Night." Sinatra announced his retirement in 1971, but in 1973 that retirement ended with the television special "Ol' Blue Eyes Is Back." He continued to record and tour until 1995. Among the most prestigious of his numerous awards were the Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award (1971), a Grammy
legend award (1994), and the Congressional Gold Medal (1997).
Notes:
1. offstage activities – деятельность вне сцены;
2. brawling – скандалить (скандал);
3. bobby-soxers – девочки-подростки;
4. to hobnob with mobsters – «водить дружбу» с бандитами (гангстерами).
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WORLD-FAMOUS CELLIST
Mstislav Leopoldovich Rostropovich is a Soviet conductor and pianist
and one of the best-known cellists of the 20th century.
Trained by his parents (a cellist and a pianist) and at the Moscow Conservatory (1943–48), Rostropovich in 1956 became professor of cello at the
Moscow Conservatory. He began touring abroad in the 1950s. He also performed as a pianist in recitals with his wife, the soprano Galina P. Vishnevskaya, and in 1968 he made his debut as a conductor.
When in 1970 Rostropovich made clear his support of the dissident Soviet writer Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, the government sharply curtailed his ability to travel. In 1974, however, he and his wife were permitted to leave the
country, and in 1975 they announced their decision not to return to the Soviet
Union. In 1977 Rostropovich became music director of the National Symphony Orchestra in Washington, D.C. The Soviet government deprived them
of their citizenship in 1978 but reversed that decision in 1990.
Although sometimes criticized for occasional over-romanticism, Rostropovich is admired for his keen musicianship, both in contemporary works
and in the established concert repertory. His exploitation of the tonal resources
of the cello is considered exceptional. Composers who wrote works for him
include Aram Khachaturian, Sergey Prokofiev, Dmitry Shostakovich, Benjamin Britten, and Witold Lutoslawski.
Notes:
1. exploitation – разработка;
2. exceptional – исключительный.
BOB DYLAN
Bob Dylan, original name Robert Allen Zimmerman, is an American
folksinger who moved from folk to rock music in the 1960s, infusing the lyrics of rock and roll, theretofore concerned mostly with the intellectualism of
classic literature and poetry. Hailed as the Shakespeare of his generation, Dylan sold more than 58 million albums, wrote more than 500 songs recorded by
more than 2,000 artists, performed all over the world, and set the standard for
lyric writing.
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He grew up in the northeastern Minnesota mining town of Hibbing. He
acquired his first guitar in 1955 at age 14 and later, as a high school student,
played in a series of rock and roll bands. In 1959, just before enrolling at the
University of Minnesota in Minneapolis, he served a brief stint playing piano
for rising pop star Bobby Vee. While attending college, he discovered the bohemian section of Minneapolis known as Dinkytown. Fascinated by Beat poetry and folksinger Woody Guthrie, he began performing folk music in
coffeehouses, adopting the last name Dylan (after the Welsh poet Dylan Thomas). Restless and determined to meet Guthrie he relocated to the East Coast.
Arriving in late January 1961, Dylan was greeted by a typically merciless New York City winter. A survivor at heart, he relied on the generosity of
various benefactors who, charmed by his performances, provided meals and
shelter. He quickly built a cult following and within four months was hired to
play harmonica for a recording session. There Dylan's unkempt appearance
and roots-oriented song material earned him the whispered nickname
“Hammond's Folly.”
Dylan's eponymous first album was released in March 1962 to mixed
reviews. Dylan's second album, released in May 1963, sounded a clarion call.
Young ears everywhere established him as part of the burgeoning counterculture, “a rebel with a cause.”
In April 1963 Dylan played his first major New York City concert at
Town Hall. That summer Dylan made his first appearance at the Newport
(Rhode Island) Folk Festival and was virtually crowned the king of folk music.
The prophetic title song of his next album, The Times They Are
A-Changin' (1964), provided an instant anthem. Dylan was perceived as a
singer of protest songs, a politically charged artist with a whole other agenda.
Dylan spawned imitators at coffeehouses and record labels everywhere. At the
1964 Newport Folk Festival, while previewing songs from Another Side of
Bob Dylan, he confounded his core audience by performing songs of a personal nature, rather than his signature protest repertoire. Although his new lyrics were as challenging as his earlier compositions, a backlash from purist folk
fans began and continued for three years as Dylan defied convention at every
turn.
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On his next album, Bringing It All Back Home (1965), electric instruments were openly brandished – a violation of folk dogma – and only two protest songs were included. His song “Mr. Tambourine Man” from that album
was taken to number one on the singles chart. As Dylan's mainstream audience
increased geometrically, his purist folk fans fell off in droves.
In June 1965, consorting with “hardened” rock musicians, Dylan recorded his most ascendant song yet “Like a Rolling Stone”. Devoid of obvious
protest references, set against a rough-hewn, twangy rock underpinning, and
fronted by a snarling vocal that lashed out at all those who questioned his legitimacy, “Like a Rolling Stone” spoke to yet a new set of listeners and
reached number two on the popular music charts. It was the final link in the
chain. The world fell at Dylan's feet. And the album containing the hit single,
Highway 61 Revisited, further vindicated his abdication of the protest throne.
At the 1965 Newport Folk Festival, Dylan bravely showcased his electric sound. Reams were written about his electric betrayal and banishment
from the folk circle. By the time of his next public appearance, a month later,
the audience had been “instructed” by the press how to react. Dylan and the
band were booed throughout the performance; incongruously, the audience
sang along with “Like a Rolling Stone,” the number two song in the United
States that week, and then booed at its conclusion.
Dylan toured incessantly in 1965 and 1966, always playing to sold-out,
agitated audiences. On November 22, 1965, Dylan married Sara Lowndes.
They split their time between a townhouse in Greenwich Village and a country
estate in Woodstock, New York.
In February 1966, at the suggestion of his new producer, Dylan recorded a double album. Containing some of Dylan's finest work, Blonde on
Blonde peaked at number nine, was critically acclaimed, and pushed Dylan to
the zenith of his popularity. He toured Europe until the summer of 1966, when
a motorcycle accident in Woodstock brought his amazing seven-year momentum to an abrupt halt. Citing a serious neck injury, he retreated to his home in
Woodstock and virtually disappeared for two years.
During his recuperation, Dylan edited film footage from his 1966 European tour.
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In January 1968 Dylan made his first postaccident appearance at a memorial concert for Woody Guthrie in New York City. His image had changed;
with shorter hair, spectacles, and a neglected beard, he resembled a rabbinical
student. At this point Dylan adopted the stance he held for the rest of his career: sidestepping the desires of the critics, he went in any direction but those
called for in print. When his audience and critics were convinced that his muse
had left him, Dylan would deliver an album at full strength, only to withdraw
again.
Dylan returned to Tennessee to record Nashville Skyline (1969), which
helped launch an entirely new genre, country rock. It charted at number three,
but, owing to the comparative simplicity of its lyrics, people questioned
whether Dylan remained a cutting-edge artist.
Over the next quarter century Dylan continued to record, toured sporadically, and was widely honoured, though his impact was never as great or
as immediate as it had been in the 1960s. In 1970 Princeton (New Jersey)
University awarded him an honorary doctorate of music.
In 1975 and 1976 Dylan barnstormed North America with a gypsylike
touring company, announcing shows in radio interviews only hours before appearing.
Lowndes and Dylan divorced in 1977. In a dramatic turnabout, he converted to Christianity in 1979 and for three years recorded and performed only
religious material, preaching between songs at live shows. Critics and listeners
were, once again, confounded. Nonetheless, Dylan received a Grammy Award
in 1980 for best male rock vocal performance with his “gospel” song “Gotta
Serve Somebody”.
By 1982, when Dylan was inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame,
his open zeal for Christianity was waning. In 1985 he participated in the allstar charity recording “We Are the World”. Dylan toured again in 1986-87.
When Life magazine published a list of the 100 most influential Americans of the 20th century in 1990, Dylan was included, and in 1991 he received
a Grammy Award for lifetime achievement. In 1992 Columbia Records celebrated the 30th anniversary of Dylan's signing with a star-studded concert in
New York City. Later this event was released as a double album and video. As
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part of Bill Clinton's inauguration as U.S. president in 1993, Dylan sang
“Chimes of Freedom” in front of the Lincoln Memorial.
As the 1990s drew to a close, Dylan, who was called the greatest poet of
the second half of the 20th century by Allen Ginsberg, performed for the pope
at the Vatican, was nominated for the Nobel Prize for Literature, received the
John F. Kennedy Center Honors Award, and was made Commander in the Order of Arts and Letters (the highest cultural award presented by the
French government). In 1998, in a comeback of sorts, he won three Grammy
Awards – including album of the year – for Time Out of Mind.
Notes:
1. Grammy Award – премия Грэмми – Премия Национальной академии звукозаписи за лучшую пластинку и лучший альбом года.
Вручается с 1958. Выполнена в виде миниатюрного золотого
граммофона.
2. “Like a Rolling Stone” – «Сродни катящемуся камню»;
3. to consort – сопровождать;
4. “hardened” rock musicians – зд. «закаленные» рок-музыканты.
YURI BASHMET – A FOUNDER OF THE CHAMBER ORCHESTRA
Born in Rostov-on-Don in 1953, Bashmet grew up in Lvov in the
Ukraine, where – like so many others – he took up the violin at the behest of
his mother, although he actually preferred the guitar! In the 60s it was a new
sound that was energising the youth of the east just as it was in the west, and
Bashmet remains enthusiastic about the Beatles and, more at a distance,
Jimmy Hendrix.
“I started on the violin – I was at music school playing the violin and
that was for my mum. But it was at the time of the Beatles and I played the
guitar for myself. It was the fashion, but because I knew music grammar,
I was better than those from the street who didn't know. Then the music of
Jimmy Hendrix arrived, jazz rock from Chicago, but at that time I didn't understand Hendrix's style – it was not my style, as you can understand that for
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one who liked the Beatles! I like jazz rock very much, but it was not possible
to manage with our tradition and instruments and also players, although we
tried!”
Bashmet went on to win a young musicians' competition in the Ukraine
on the violin. The change to viola came soon after, a purely pragmatic decision, as suggested by a friend: "You would make a talented viola player – you
would need much less time to practise, because if you continue with your violin you will need five, six, seven hours of practice a day; with the viola you
will need much less time, and then you will have more time for your guitar!"
Thus – even though he was one of the top three violinists at the time in
the school – Bashmet broke against a tradition at music college, which had
always regarded viola as second best (a view Bashmet would meet, and defeat,
across his early career). And yet, he was still more interested in the guitar!
Bashmet plays a Testore viola made in 1758, which he bought in 1971.
It is the same make as Mozart's viola – with just three years difference in the
instruments' ages! Bashmet has actually played Mozart's instrument (housed in
the birthplace museum in Salzburg), the first player since the composer to do
so, performing the Sinfonia concertante at the Mozarteum Salzburg. He was
intrigued at the individual characteristics of each instrument; his the more projecting, Mozart's more suitable for chamber music, but with a very rich colour.
In 1986 Yuri Bashmet founded the Chamber Orchestra “The Moscow
Soloists”. The orchestra took part in different festivals and concerts in Russian
and abroad.
Bashmet's strongest and most personal connections with composers are,
unsurprisingly, with his Russian compatriots Alfred Schnittke, Sofia
Gubaidulina and Giya Kancheli.
Schnittke wrote two works for Bashmet while the composer was still
living in Russia, including the Viola Concerto which Bashmet premièred in
the Amsterdam Concertgebouw in 1986 (still one of the pinnacles of the repertoire as far as Bashmet is concerned). After Schnittke had left Russia, Bashmet
was expecting a Viola Sonata from him.
Tatar-born Sofia Gubaidulina has a special significance for Bashmet, as
he reveals in the liner notes to his latest CD.
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For him, Sofia Gubaidulina is one of the most important composers of
the 20th century. She is very idiosyncratic. She has a highly individual way of
expressing what she wants to say. And at the end of this journey are nothing
more or less than the questions of human experience: birth and death, love and
hatred, the beautiful and ugly, good and evil – as with Shakespeare, but in a
different way. In the process she uses a whole range of expressive devices,
including specific orchestral effects, and draws on an infinite number of
sources such as religious themes, the storehouse of more than 300 years of
Tatar history and so on.
In similar ways, Tbilisi-born Georgian composer Giya Kancheli is
moved by the traditions and community of his birthplace. Again his music
addresses great emotional and universal subjects. For Bashmet Kancheli provides a leading role for the viola, especially in the work Styx where "the viola
line contains within it the work's essential meaning and message".
Yuri Bashmet has recorded much of the repertoire composed for him by
these Russian composers. Giya Kancheli's Styx and Sofia Gubaidulina's viola
concerto are coupled on a disc issued by Deutsche Grammophon, performed
with Valery Gergiev, the St Petersburg Mariinsky Theater Orchestra and the
St Petersburg Chamber Choir – nominated for a Grammy Award.
The Symphony Orchestra of New Russia (Novaya Rossiya State Symphony Orchestra) was founded in 1990. In 2002 Yuri Bashmet was appointed
Director of the orchestra, opening a new chapter in its history. He brings to the
orchestra his own inimitable manner of interpretation, and thus every concert
evokes the feeling that the music is being created anew before the very eyes
and ears of the audience.
Such eminent musicians as Valery Gergiev, Vladimir Ashkenazy, Barry
Douglas, Peter Donohoe, Boris Berezovsky, Viktor Tretiakov and Natalia
Gutman are invited to work with this orchestra.
The Symphony Orchestra of New Russia is a frequent guest at festivals
in Russia and abroad, including the Moscow Easter Festival, the Alfred
Schnittke Festival in Moscow, the Besançon Festival in France, the Athens
Festival in Greece and the Festival of Russian Art in Essen, Germany.
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The orchestra has a regular subscription series under the auspices of the
Moscow Philharmonic Association, with varied programmes aimed at both
adult and younger listeners. It frequently tours abroad, notably to Finland,
France, Great Britain, Italy, Germany, Greece, Turkey, and Russia.
Bashmet has systematically expanded his symphonic repertoire, as well
as his commitments as guest conductor with symphony orchestras in Europe,
Japan and the Far East and North America.
Notes:
1. Sinfonia concertante – концертная увертюра (итал.);
2. behest – приказ, повеление;
3. inimitable – неподражаемый (своеобразный), неповторимый;
4. anew – снова, заново;
5. regular subscription series – ежегодные абонементы.
MADONNA
Madonna, whose original name Madonna Louise Ciccone, is an American singer, songwriter, actress, and entrepreneur whose immense popularity in
the 1980s and '90s allowed her to achieve levels of power and control unprecedented for a woman in the entertainment industry.
Born into a large Italian-American family, Madonna studied dance at
the University of Michigan and in New York City in the late 1970s before relocating briefly to Paris as a member of Patrick Hernandez's disco revue. Returning to New York City, she performed with a number of rock groups before
signing with Sire Records. Her first hit, “Holiday,” in 1983, provided the
blueprint for her later material – an upbeat dance-club sound with sharp production and an immediate appeal. Criticized by some as being limited in
range, her sweet, girlish voice nonetheless was well-suited to pop music.
Madonna was the first female artist to exploit fully the potential of the
music video. She collaborated with top designers, photographers, and directors, drawing inspiration from underground club culture or the avant-garde to
create distinctive sexual and satirical images – from the knowing ingenue of
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“Like a Virgin” (1984) to the controversial red-dressed “sinner” who kisses a
black saint in “Like a Prayer” (1989). By 1991 she had scored 21 Top Ten hits
in the United States and sold some 70 million albums internationally, generating $1.2 billion in sales.
Soon afterward Madonna temporarily withdrew from pop music to concentrate on a film career that had begun with a strong performance in Desperately Seeking Susan (1985), faltered with the flimsy Shanghai Surprise (1986)
and Dick Tracy (1990), and recovered with Truth or Dare (1991, also known
as In Bed with Madonna), a documentary of one of her tours. She scored massive success in 1996 with the starring role in the film musical Evita. That year
she also gave birth to a daughter.
In 1998 Madonna released her first album of new material in four years,
Ray of Light. A fusion of techno music and self-conscious lyrics, it was a
commercial and critical success, earning the singer her first musical Grammy
Awards (her previous win had been for a video). Her experimentation in electronica continued with Music (2000). Despite a brief marriage in the 1980s to
actor Sean Penn and her wedding in 2000 to English director Guy Ritchie
(with whom she had a son), Madonna has remained resolutely independent.
Notes:
1. to sign – подписываться;
2. the breezy innocence – зд. беззаботная наивность (невинность);
3. nonetheless – тем не менее, все же;
4. to give birth to a daughter – родить девочку;
5. starring role – главная роль для известной актрисы.
A SAXOPHONE VIRTUOSO
Igor Butman, saxophone virtuoso, bandleader, club owner and television host, is Russia's number one jazz personality. Born in 1961 in Leningrad
(now St.Petersburg), Igor Butman started playing the clarinet at the age of 11.
In 1976 he entered the Rimsky-Korsakov College of Music, where during his
second year he dropped the classical clarinet for the jazz saxophone. Besides
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stein, he took unofficial lessons from nightly broadcasts of jazz from
11:15 p.m. to midnight on Voice of America.
In 1983, Igor Butman played in Oleg Lundstrem`s big band – the best
one in the USSR. Next year he was invited by Nick Levinovsky to join the
most well known jazz group "Allegro" and played with them for three years.
In the Soviet Union, a country of over 300 million people, Igor was known as
the best tenor saxophonist, placing first in the Soviet Critics' Polls and recording many albums for Melodiya.
After Igor Butman immigrated to America in 1987, he went on to major
in Performance and Composition at Berklee College of Music in Massachusetts. By the time Igor arrived in the United States, he already had a "fan club"
made up of some of America's most respected Jazz artists. While still in the
U.S.S.R., Igor was invited to play with touring American musicians, including
Dave Brubeck, Chick Corea, Pat Metheny, Gary Burton, Louis Bellson and
Grover Washington Jr., who took Igor "under his wing". Igor appeared as
Grover's special guest in concerts at Chautauqua, New York, the Berklee Center in Boston and at Great Woods Center in Mansfield, Massachusetts. Igor
has performed as part of Grover's band several times, including at New York's
Blue Note. He is featured on Grover Washington Jr.'s Columbia release Then
& Now (1988) soloing on "Stolen Moments", "Stella By Starlight" and Igor's
own composition "French Connections".
Igor's big sound and boyish exuberance have earned him standing ovations and many new fans, and his US solo career has moved straight ahead. He
led his own group with Rachel Z. at Boston's leading Jazz club, the Regattabar, and has been featured soloist with the Billy Taylor Quartet, the Walter
Davis Jr. Quartet and the Monty Alexander Quintet. He appeared on "The Today Show", "Good Morning America" and numerous other international programs.
Moving to New York in 1989, Butman worked with The Lionel Hampton Orchestra. In 1992, Igor recorded with actor/musician Michael Moriarty's
Quintet the album Live at the Fat Tuesday`s on DRG Records. In Variety's review of this recording, it was noted that Igor, "Impressed with a round tone
and deft ability at double time efforts and harmonized tightly".
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In 90`s Igor Butman performed at almost every major jazz festival, such
as JVC Jazz Festival in New York, Boston Globe Jazz Festival in Boston,
Lionel Hampton Jazz Festival in Idaho, Festival Internationale de Jazz de
Montreal in Canada.
That year Igor Butman moved to Russia and during the following years
he became "a jazz bridge between Moscow and New York", bringing to Russia and playing with Eddie Gomez, Lenny White, John Abercrombie, Joe
Lock and many other musicians.
Especially pleasing to Igor's admirers was his new solo album Nostalgie
which was recorded at RPM Studio in New York and released on Soyuz label
in Russia in 1997 with Ira Gitler commenting that "Butman showed the fire
and depth of his world-class improvisational talent". The Igor Butman's videoclip Nostalgie has reached the second position on Canadian TV channel
Bravo!Canada.
Butman`s marvelous coalescence of soul, sound and technique drew
praise from American President Bill Clinton, one time tenor man, at a state
dinner hosted by Vladimir Putin at the Moscow Kremlin. Clinton stated that
Igor Butman is "may be the greatest living jazz saxophone player, who happens to be a Russian".
When Wynton Marsalis performed in Russia in 1998, he invited Butman to be a guest soloist with the Lincoln Center Jazz Orchestra. Next year
Marsalis was a featured guest with the Igor Butman Big Band at Le Club. On
September 18-20, 2003 Jazz at Lincoln Center opened its 2003-04 season with
a special collaboration between the renowned Lincoln Center Jazz Orchestra
and the Igor Butman Big Band. Two big bands on one stage occasionally
played at the same time, but more often passed the music back and force. In an
interview with Jazz Times magazine, Marsalis said of Butman, "I love Igor's
Butman playing and I love him personally. He has a great feeling for the music and for people and he's phenomenal musician. Igor Butman is my main
man!"
One of his accomplishments Butman considers "The Triumph of Jazz",
a tremendous concert that any producer of a three-day festival would be hard
pressed to duplicate. The talent-laden program thrilled the capacity audience
in February 2002 at Moscow's 3,000-seat Rossiya Concert Hall.
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Igor Butman has performed and recorded with the best world violist
Yuri Bashmet and his The Moscow Soloists Chamber Ensemble. Together
they have created a new video Vocalise on Rachmaninov's music.
Igor Butman is an artistic director at Le Club, Moscow's top jazz venue,
where he appears with his big band every Monday, and has presented such
musicians as Ray Brown, Chick Corea, George Benson, Kenny Garret, Randy
Brecker, Gary Burton and many others.
Igor Butman combines mastery of his chosen instrument with joy and
freedom, yet clearly and unquestionably conveys his experiences through his
music. Ken Franckling in Jazztimes called Igor "A post bop performer with
great stage presence, horn control and emotion... there is a deep resonance to
his up tempo playing and a mature softness to his balladry".
Notes:
1. to take “under his wing” – взять «под крыло»;
2. exuberance – избыток чувств;
3. marvelous – изумительный, чудесный;
4. to praise – хвалить;
5. renown – известность, популярность, слава;
6. mature – зрелый;
7. balladry – народные баллады и их стиль.
THE BEST BARITONE FROM SIBERIA
Dmitri Aleksandrovich Hvorostovsky is a world-class baritone opera
singer from Russia. Gifted with a powerful, yet incredibly rich and beautiful
voice, Hvorostovsky is reckoned by many to be one of the greatest baritones
of the last century.
Hvorostovsky was born in Krasnoyarsk in Siberia. He studied at the
Krasnoyarsk School of Arts under Yekatherina Yofel and made his debut at
Krasnoyarsk Opera House, in the role of Monterone in Rigoletto. He went on
to win First Prize at both the Russian Glinka Competition in 1987 and the
Toulouse Singing Competition in 1988. Hvorostovsky came to international
prominence in 1989 when he won the Cardiff BBC Singer of the World
Competition.
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His operatic debut in the West was at the Nice Opera in The Queen of
Spades (1989). In Italy he debuted at La Fenice as Eugene Onegin, a success
that sealed his reputation, and made his American operatic debut with the
Lyric Opera of Chicago (1993) in La Traviata.
From the moment he won the Cardiff Singer of the World Competition
in 1989, Dmitri Hvorostovsky has been hailed as one of the great voices of
his, or any, generation. Opera audiences around the world are getting younger,
but it is the beauty of his voice – refined and powerful – that cuts across barriers of age and taste. There is always an audible stir when Dmitri Hvorostovsky
strides on stage at the world’s great opera houses and concert halls where he
now regularly performs. His rare balance of technical command and passion,
coupled with a magnetic presence and expansive vocal instrument, has only
heightened his reputation as the years have passed.
A tall, handsome man with a striking head of prematurely silver hair,
Hvorostovsky has achieved international acclaim as an opera performer as
well as a concert artist. He was cast in People magazine's 50 most beautiful
people, a rare occurrence for a classical musician. His high, medium-weight
voice has the typical liquid timbre of Russian baritones and he is a subtle,
musical artist of outstanding technical accomplishment. His breath control is
unparralled and his musical, intellingent interpretation, combined with a
unique voice is admired across the globe.
His career exploded to take in regular engagements at the world’s major
opera houses and appearances at renowned international festivals, including
the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, New York’s Metropolitan Opera, the
Paris Opera, the Bavarian State Opera, Teatro alla Scala, the Vienna State Opera, and the Chicago Lyric Opera. The New York Times described him as
“born to play the role”.
The singer regularly performs in concert with top orchestras like the
New York Philharmonic and the Rotterdam Philharmonic, and conductors, including James Levine, Bernard Haitink, Claudio Abbado, Lorin Maazel, Zubin
Mehta, Yuri Termikanov and Valery Gergiev.
Do not grieve, a symphonic work by Giya Kancheli written for Dmitri
Hvorostovsky and the San Francisco Symphony Orchestra, premiered in May
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2002. The distinguished Russian composer Georgi Sviridov wrote a song cycle, St Petersburg, especially for the baritone, who often includes it and other
works by Sviridov in his recitals. He has also released the CD Sviridov: A Vocal Poem.
Hvorostovsky retains strong ties to Russia and remains deeply committed to introducing the wealth of Russian music to audiences around the world.
He was the first opera singer to give a solo concert with orchestra and chorus
at Moscow’s Red Square, which was televised in over 25 countries. In 2005,
at the invitation of President Vladimir Putin, Hvorostovsky gave an historic
tour throughout Russia – from Moscow and St Petersburg, to Krasnoyask,
Samara, Omsk, Kazan, Novosibirsk and Kemerovo – singing to crowds of
hundreds of thousands of people to commemorate WWII soldiers. Today, he
still tours Russian cities annually, playing before packed houses in stadiumsize arenas.
Often singing for heads of state – usually at their request – he appeared
at the July 2006 G8 Summit attended by such world leaders as President
George Bush, Britain’s Tony Blair and Germany’s Angela Merkel.
Dmitri Hvorostovsky’s extensive discography spans recital and aria
discs for Philips Classics and for Delos Records, as well as complete opera
performances on CD and DVD, notably a disc of Verdi arias. His recent releases include 2007’s Heroes and Villains; a disc of Soviet-era songs, Moscow
Nights, accompanied by Constantine Orbelian leading the Moscow Chamber
and a traditional Russian ensemble, the Style of Five.
He made his own film debut in a contemporary adaptation of Mozart's
opera Don Giovanni. In Don Giovanni Unmasked, produced by Rhombus
Films, he took on the demanding dual roles of noble and servant.
Notes:
1. Singer of the World competition – международный конкурс «Певец
мира», который состоялся в Кардиффе в 1989;
2. a song cycle “St.Petersburg” – вокальный цикл Г. Свиридова;
3. Don Giovanni Unmasked – «Дон Жуан без маски», фильм, в котором
снялся Д. Хворостовский;
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4. Do not grieve – «Не горюй», произведение для симфонического оркестра, написанное Гия Канчелли.
VANESSA-MAE
The beautiful young violinist Vanessa-Mae was just in her mid-teens
when she shattered the mold of the classical virtuoso with the release of her
first fusion album The Violin Player, forging a new style that has made her a
multi-million-selling worldwide phenomenon and the breakthrough artist who
virtually defined the fusion of classical and pop that became known as crossover. At the age of 25, she has been a superstar for a decade.
Vanessa-Mae has collaborated with such pop legends as Janet Jackson
and Prince, performed on the soundtrack of the Disney animated feature Mulan, played Bach for the British Royal Family on the 250th anniversary of the
composer's death, fiddled as she modeled a wedding dress on the runway of a
Jean-Paul Gualtier fashion show in Paris, and reached out to the children of
the South African township of Soweto, the first international artist to be invited to its music school. Her stunning presence only adds to her appeal. People magazine has voted Vanessa-Mae one of the "50 Most Beautiful People in
the World," and FHM named her one of "The World's 100 Most Beautiful
Women".
Born in Singapore on October 27, 1978 – she shares a birthday with the
first international violin superstar, Niccolò Paganini – Vanessa-Mae moved to
London with her family when she was four, began classical violin studies the
following year and made her professional debut on the international stage at
the 1988 Schleswig-Holstein Festival in 1988, the same year she made her
concerto debut in the U.K. with London's Philharmonia Orchestra. Her classical career was a prodigy's dream – the youngest violinist ever to record the
Tchaikovsky and Beethoven violin concertos, a world tour with the London
Mozart Players during the Mozart bicentennial year, great reviews from international critics – and she had three classical albums to her credit when she was
only 13 years old. It was her interest in new arrangements for violin of her favorite classical melodies that led Vanessa-Mae to seek more than the tradi-
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tional repertoire could offer. The result of that quest was The Violin Player
and the string of successful crossover discs that followed.
An explosive live performer, Vanessa-Mae stars in an intensive touring
program that has taken her around the world several times over. She has visited over 50 countries, including performances in many spectacular venues
such as the Kremlin Palace in Moscow, the Acropolis in Athens, an outdoor
pyrotechnic extravaganza in Dubai, and stadiums in Beijing and Shanghai.
She has performed at the Ajax arena in Amsterdam to a football crowd numbering 60,000, provided the climax to the International Go-Karting championships in Helsinki, and performed at the opening race of the F1 Grand Prix season in Melbourne. She also performed as featured artist at the opening ceremony of the 2002 Para Olympics in Salt Lake City, Utah.
Vanessa-Mae also has appeared in many rock festivals, including shows
with Michael Jackson, one of which saw her carried aloft by the ecstatic
crowd at the end of her performance. She made her U.S. debut in Times
Square, when she hopped spontaneously onto a passing yellow taxi, in the
climax to a live performance seen all over the world. She gave the first-ever
concert on the famed frozen lake of St. Moritz in Switzerland, making a spectacular entrance by delta-gliding down to the stage from a 2400m mountain.
She performed exclusively for the 26 heads of Asian-European governments
as well as Queen Elizabeth II and other members of the Royal Family at the
official closing of the Conference at Buckingham Palace.
Vanessa-Mae was the only foreign artist invited by the Chinese to perform at the pivotal moment of Reunification of Hong Kong to China at midnight. She also opened the first ever Classical Brit Awards as well as the MTV
Asia Awards. She is passionately involved in charity work as well. Through
her close links with the Red Cross, Vanessa-Mae has visited the organization's
field units in Kenya and Cambodia, participated in one of its TV ad campaigns
and given several fund-raising performances.
The worldwide embrace of Vanessa-Mae is a compliment returned in
her new Sony Classical album Choreography. The music draws its inspiration
from the rhythms and pulses of dance cultures from around the world – the
Argentinean tango, the Spanish bolero, the tribal dances of Africa, the com-
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plex allure of Indian music – and creates a new challenge for the remarkable
young beauty who changed forever the way audiences hear the violin.
DISCOGRAPHY
the violin player (1995)
Vanessa-Mae's debut pop album established her as a world star, racing
up the pop charts in over 25 countries, as well as breaking new ground for instrumental music.
the classical album 1 (1996)
Proving her determination not to turn her back on her classical roots,
this release couples core repertoire by German composers Bach, Brahms, Beethoven and Bruch. It instantly became the fastest-selling classical recording
ever, and won Vanessa-Mae the World Music Award for 'Best-Selling Classical Artist'.
storm (1997)
Following in the vein of The Violin Player, Storm takes the violin on an
even greater adventure of styles, including rock, disco, acid jazz and flamenco
influences.
china girl (the classical album 2) (1998)
Vanessa-Mae goes back to her Chinese roots for her second classical album which features a unique and beautiful mix of eastern and western melodies, including an arrangement of Puccini's favourite Nessun Dorma, and
Happy Valley, a composition commissioned for the re-unification of Hong
Kong to China.
the original four seasons (1998)
Vanessa-Mae's stunning new arrangement of Vivaldi's classic features
Laureate, her own hand-picked orchestra consisting entirely of international
award-winning players.
the classical collection – part 1 (2000)
The long-awaited re-release of Vanessa-Mae's impressive early classical
recordings, made between the ages of 11 and 13. These astonishing performances of virtuoso classics established her as a prodigious classical star long before expanding her horizons into the world of pop.
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subject to change (2001)
An even more radical departure than her previous non-classical albums,
subject to change, as its title suggests presents a new, contemporary, danceinfluenced Vanessa-Mae.
best of (2002)
A taste of Vanessa-Mae's incredible cross-over career to date offering
samples of her most innovative and popular works.
Notes:
1. Crossover – кроссовер – музыкальный стиль, соединяющий разные
направления, например, классику и поп-музыку – для популяризации более серьезных стилей или, наоборот, для "углубления" легких жанров;
2. virtually to define the fusion of classical and pop – фактически задать
(определить) слияние классики и поп-музыки;
3. worldwide phenomenon – всемирный феномен;
4. stunning presence – ошеломляющее присутствие;
5. bicentennial year – двухсотлетие;
6. to draw its inspiration from the rhythms and pulses of dance culture –
брать свое вдохновение из ритмом и мотивов танцевальной культуры.
THE ROLLING STONES
British rock group, formed in 1962, which drew on Chicago blues stylings to create a unique vision of the dark side of post-1960s counterculture.
The original members were Mick Jagger, Keith Richards, Brian Jones, Bill
Wyman, and Charlie Watts. Later members were Mick Taylor, Ron Wood,
and Darryl Jones.
No rock band has sustained consistent activity and global popularity for
so long a period as the Rolling Stones, still capable, more than 35 years after
their formation, of filling the largest stadiums in the world. Though several of
their mid-1960s contemporaries – notably Bob Dylan, Paul McCartney, Eric
Clapton, and Van Morrison – have maintained individual positions in rock's
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front line, the Rolling Stones' nucleus of singer Jagger, guitarist Richards, and
drummer Watts remains rock's most durable ongoing partnership.
In the process, the Stones have become rock's definitive, emblematic
band: a seamless blend of sound, look, and public image. It may be debatable
whether they have actually, at any given moment, been the “greatest rock-androll band in the world,” as their time-honoured onstage introduction has
claimed them to be. In their onstage personae, Jagger and Richards established
the classic rock band archetypes: the preening, narcissistic singer and the haggard, obsessive guitarist.
Formed in London as an alliance between Jagger, Richards, and multiinstrumentalist Brian Jones along with Watts and bassist Wyman, the Stones
began as a grubby conclave of students and bohemians playing a then-esoteric
music based on Chicago ghetto blues in pubs and clubs in and around West
London. Their potential for mass-market success seemed negligible at first,
but by 1965 they were second only to the Beatles in the collective affection of
teenage Britain. However, whereas the Beatles of the mid-1960s had longish
hair, wore matching suits, and appeared utterly charming, the Stones had considerably longer hair, all dressed differently, and seemed thoroughly intimidating. As the Beatles grew ever more respectable and reassuring, the Stones became correspondingly more rebellious and threatening.
The Stones' early repertoire consisted primarily of recycled gems from
the catalogs of the blues and rock-and-roll titans of the 1950s: their first five
singles and the bulk of their first two albums were composed by others. Then,
spurred on by the example of the Beatles' John Lennon and Paul McCartney,
Jagger and Richards began composing their own songs, which not only ensured the long-term viability of the band but also served to place the JaggerRichards team firmly in creative control of the group. Jones had been their
prime motivating force in their early days, and he was the band's most gifted
instrumentalist as well as its prettiest face, but he had little talent for composition and became increasingly marginalized. His textural wizardry dominated
their first all-original album, Aftermath (1966), which featured him on marimba, dulcimer, sitar, and assorted keyboards as well as on his customary guitar and harmonica.
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In 1970-80s produced first by Glyn Johns and Jimmy Miller and then by
Jagger and Richards themselves, their recordings of this period found them
adding country music to their list of influences and – most notably on Beggars
Banquet (1968) – adding more and more acoustic guitar textures to their already impressive command of musical light and shade.
They even briefly disbanded in the late 1980s after a public spat between Jagger and Richards. Both leaders recorded solo albums that performed
relatively poorly in the marketplace, though Richards's work was significantly
more favourably reviewed than Jagger's.
Disputes settled, the Stones reconvened in 1989 for their Steel Wheels
album and tour. Jagger, Richards, Watts, and Wood continue to trade as the
Rolling Stones, and, whenever they tour, audiences flock in the thousands to
discover if the old lions can still roar. The general consensus is that they can.
In their late middle age the ultimate rebels became the ultimate institution, and
to many they remain the ultimate rock band.
Notes:
1. to draw on – использовать;
2. styling – художественное оформление; (style – манера, стиль, направление);
3. counterculture – контркультура – контркультура родилась как социальный протест молодежи из среднего класса против существовавшего образа жизни и политических ценностей общества в 5060-х годах XX в.;
4. esoteric music – музыка, известная или понятная лишь посвященным.
ULSTER ORCHESTRA
Based in Belfast, Northern Ireland, the Ulster Orchestra was formed in
1996 and has established itself as one of the major symphony orchestras in the
United Kingdom. The orchestra's varied activities include participation in the
Belfast Festival at Queen's and the Belfast Proms, accompaniment to Opera
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Northern Ireland, educational work and concerts throughout Northern Ireland.
The internationally acclaimed Dmitry Sitkovetsky is the orchestra's Principal
Conductor and Artistic Advisor, while Takuo Yuasa is Principal Guest Conductor.
Gallaher is one of the Ulster Orchestra's major funding bodies and has
been its largest commercial sponsor since 1981. The company has sponsored a
wide range of the orchestra's activities, including concerts, community arts
events and a tour of England and Wales. This long running support by Gallaher, one of the largest manufacturing industry employers in Northern Ireland, demonstrates the company's commitment to the cultural life of the Province.
The orchestra records and broadcasts extensively for the BBC and has
acquired a high profile through its frequent television appearances. In January
1997 the orchestra gave the first public performance at Belfast's new major
performance venue, the Waterfront Hall. This concert preceded the broadcast
on network television of the orchestra's performance at the official opening
concert together with Dame Kiri Те Kanawa, in the presence of HRH the
Prince of Wales. The Ulster Orchestra has made over fifty commercial recordings, several of which have received prestigious British awards. Successful tours of Europe, Asia and America have added to the growing international
reputation of the orchestra, as have its regular appearances at the BBC Henry
Wood Promenade Concerts.
Notes:
1. Gallaher – "Галлахер" – крупная табачная компания; выпускает сигареты и сигары и основана в 1896 году.
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SUPPLEMENTS
LIST OF PROPER NAMES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
Amati – семья Амати, выдающиеся мастера изготовления скрипок,
жили в 16-17 вв.
Aristotle (384 BC – 332) – Аристотель, древнегреческий ученый и
философ.
Armstrong, Louis (1901-1971) – Армстронг, Луи – американский выдающийся трубач, тромбонист, певец; один из самых влиятельных
артистов в истории джаза.
Bach, Johann Sebastian (1685-1750) – Бах, Иоганн Себастьян – немецкий композитор и органист.
Balakirev, Mily (1836-1910) – Балакирев, Милий – русский композитор оркестровой музыки, фортепианной музыки и песен.
Bartok, Bela (1881-1945) – Барток, Бела – венгерский композитор,
пианист, этномузыковед и педагог.
Bashmet, Yuri (р. 1953) – Башмет, Юрий – российский альтист и дирижер. Разносторонний виртуоз и обладатель необычайно красивого
тона; завоевал международную известность в 1970-х; внес значительный вклад в популяризацию альта как сольного инструмента.
Basie, Count (1904-1984) – Бейси, Каунт – американский джазовый
пианист и руководитель джаз-бэндов.
Beecham, Thomas (1879-1961) – Бичем, Томас – английский дирижер, импресарио, композитор.
Bennett, Richard Rodney (р. 1936) – Беннетт, Ричард Родни – английский композитор и пианист.
Berg, Alban (1885-1935) – Берг, Альбан – австрийский композитор.
Berlin, Irving (1888-1989) – Берлин, Ирвинг – самый успешный американский композитор-песенник; написал слова почти ко всем своим песням.
Bernstein, Leonard (1918-1990) – Бернстайн, Леонард – американский
дирижер, композитор и пианист.
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14. Blake, William (1757-1827) – Блейк, Уильям – английский поэт и художник-график.
15. Bliss, Arthur (1891-1975) – Блисс, Артур – английский композитор и
дирижер.
16. Brahms, Johannes (1833-1897) – Брамс, Иоганнес – немецкий композитор и пианист.
17. Britten, Benjamin (1913-1976) – Бриттен, Бенджамин – английский
композитор, пианист и дирижер.
18. Butman, Igor (р. 1961) – Бутман, Игорь – российский виртуозный
джазовый тенор-саксафонист, композитор.
19. Cage, John (1912-1992) – Кейдж, Джон – американский композитор,
пианист и писатель, представитель американского музыкального
авангардизма.
20. Chopin, Frederic (1809-1849) – Шопен, Фридерик – польский композитор и пианист романтической эпохи.
21. Coleman, Ornette (b. 1930) – Коулмен, Орнетт – американский джазовый саксофонист, композитор и руководитель группы; основоположник и ведущий представитель направления фри джаз (“free
jazz”), появившегося в конце 1950-х.
22. Copland, Aaron (1900-1990) – Копленд, Аарон – американский композитор, оказавший значительное влияние на музыкальную культуру XX в.
23. Davis, Andrew (р. 1944) – Дэйвис, Эндрю – английский дирижер.
24. Davis, Miles (1926-1991) – Дэйвис, Майлз – американский джазовый
трубач, основоположник стиля кул (“cool”).
25. Debussy, Claude (1862-1918) – Дебюсси, Клод – французский композитор.
26. Delius, Frederik (1862–1934) – Делиус, Фредерик – английский композитор.
27. Dryden, John (1631-1700) – Драйден, Джон – английский поэт и драматург.
28. Dylan, Bob (р. 1941) – Дилан, Боб – американский певец, композитор
и поэт-песенник. Крупнейший представитель направления известно-
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29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
го как фолк-рок. Пользуется неизменной популярностью среди молодежи.
Eisler, Hanns (1898-1962) – Эйслер, Ханс – немецкий композитор,
педагог.
Elgar, Edward (1857–1934) – Элгар, Эдуард – английский композитор, дирижер.
Ellington, Duke (1899-1974) – Эллингтон, Дюк – американский джазовый композитор и пианист.
Fitzgerald, Ella (1917-1996) – Фицджералд, Элла – американская певица.
Gershwin, George (1898–1937) – Гершвин, Джордж – один из самых
выдающихся и популярных американских композиторов всех времен; писал музыку для музыкальных театров, а также оркестровые и
фортепианные композиции.
Gillespie, Dizzy (1917-1993) – Гиллеспи, Диззи – американский джазовый трубач.
Gilmore, Patrick (1829-1892) – Гилмор, Патрик – американский военный капельмейстер.
Glass, Philip (р. 1937) – Гласс, Филипп – американский композитор.
Glinka, Mikhail (1804-1857) – Глинка, Михаил – первый русский
композитор, получивший международное признание.
Goodman, Benny (1909-1986) – Гудмен, Бенни – американский кларнетист и джазовый музыкант; в 1934 году сформировал собственный
оркестр (джаз-бэнд).
Grieg, Edvard (1843-1907) – Григ, Эдвард – норвежский композитор.
Handel, George (1685-1759) – Гендель, Георг – английский композитор.
Harris, Roy (1898-1979) – Харрис, Рой – американский композитор,
один из основателей американской симфонической музыки.
Henderson, Fletcher (1898-1952) – Хендерсон, Флетчер – американский пианист, основоположник больших джазовых оркестров.
Herman, Woody (1913-1987) – Херман, Вуди – американский джазовый корнетист, саксофонист, вокалист и руководитель группы.
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44. Hindemith, Paul (1895-1963) – Хиндемит, Пауль – немецкий композитор.
45. Holiday, Billie (1915-1959) – Холидей, Билли – американский джазовый певец 1930-50 гг.
46. Holst, Gustav (1874-1934) – Холст, Густав – английский композитор.
47. Humfrey, Pelham (1647-1674) – Хамфри, Пелэт – английский композитор.
48. Hvorostovsky, Dmitri (р. 1962) – Хворостовский, Дмитрий – русский
певец. Один из популярнейших современных оперных баритонов.
В 1989 стал победителем международного конкурса «Певец мира»
в Кардиффе. Певец обладает безупречно поставленным голосом,
уверенной техникой и природным артистизмом.
49. Ives, Charles (1874-1954) – Айвз, Чарлз – американский композитор,
также органист и хормейстер.
50. Joplin, Scott (1868-1917) – Джоплин, Скотт – американский композитор, один из основоположников рэгтайма, стиля, который благодаря
ему стал классикой американского музыкального искусства.
51. Kern, Jerome (1885-1945) – Керн, Джером – американский композитор; написал несколько популярных мьюзиклов.
52. Krenek, Ernst (1900-1991) – Кшенек (Кренек), Эрнст – композитор,
музыковед и педагог чешского происхождения, родился в Австрии,
с 1938 в США.
53. Lloyd Webber, Sir Andrew (р. 1948) – Ллойд Уэббер, сэр Эндрю –
английский композитор, создатель рок-опер и мюзиклов.
54. Madonna (р. 1958) – Мадонна, американская певица и актриса. Занесена в "Книгу рекордов Гиннесса" благодаря альбому "Неподдельность", в 1986 ставшему самым популярным в истории поп-музыки
(свыше 11 млн. экз. в 28 странах).
55. Mahler, Gustav (1860-1911) – Малер, Густав – австрийский композитор и дирижер.
56. Mendelssohn-Bartholdy Felix (1809-1847) – Мендельсон-Бартольди,
Феликс – немецкий композитор, дирижер и пианист, педагог.
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57. Miller, Glenn (1904-1944) – Миллер, Гленн – американский композитор и тромбонист.
58. Mingus, Charles (1922-1979) – Мингус, Чарлз – американский джазовый контрабасист, пианист, композитор.
59. Mjaskovsky, Nikolai (1881-1950) – Мясковский, Николай – русский
композитор.
60. Monk, Thelonious (1920-1982) – Монк, Телониус – американский
джазовый пианист и композитор.
61. Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus (1756-1791) – Моцарт, Вольфганг Амадей – австрийский композитор, один из величайших композиторов в
истории западной музыки.
62. Mussorgsky, Modest (1839-1881) – Мусоргский, Модест – русский
композитор, один из членов «Могучей кучки».
63. Oliver, Joseph (“King”) (1885-1938) – Оливер, Джо (прозвище Кинг)
– американский джазовый корнетист, трубач.
64. Parker, Charles (“Bird”) (1920-1955) – Паркер, Чарли (прозвище Бёрд)
– ведущий джазовый музыкант своего времени, саксофонист.
65. Porter, Cole (1893-1964) – Портер, Коул – американский композитор
и автор текстов (поэт-песенник).
66. Prokofiev, Sergei (1891-1953) – Прокофьев, Сергей – русский композитор 20 века; писал симфонии, концерты, оперы, балеты, программные произведения.
67. Purcell, Henry (1658/9-1695) – Пёрселл, Генри – английский композитор.
68. Rachmaninov, Sergei (1873-1943) – Рахманинов, Сергей – русский
композитор, пианист.
69. Ravel, Maurice (1875-1937) – Равель, Морис – французский композитор.
70. Richter, Hans (1843-1916) – Рихтер, Ханс – австрийский дирижер.
71. Richter, Svyatoslav (1915-1997) – Рихтер, Святослав – русский пианист, музыкант-просветитель.
72. Rodgers, Richard (1902-1979) – Роджерс, Ричард – американский
композитор Бродвейских мьюзиклов.
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73. Rostropovich, Mstislaw (1927-2007) – Ростропович, Мстислав – русский виолончелист, дирижер. Музыкант с сильной и многогранной
артистической индивидуальностью.
74. Rozhdestvensky, Gennady (р. 1931) – Рождественский, Геннадий –
русский дирижер.
75. Rubinstein, Anton (1829-1894) – Рубинштейн, Антон – русский пианист, композитор.
76. Sax, Adolphe (1814-1894) – Сакс, Адольф – бельгийский мастер духовых инструментов.
77. Schnittke, Alfred (р. 1934) – Шнитке, Альфред – русский композитор,
автор
симфоний,
опер,
балета,
концертов
камерноинструментальной и хоровой музыки.
78. Schoenberg, Arnold (1874-1951) – Шёнберг, Арнольд – австрийский
композитор, основоположник серийной техники музыкальной композиции.
79. Schubert, Franz (1797-1828) – Шуберт, Франц – австрийский композитор.
80. Sessions, Roger (1896-1895) – Сешнс, Роджер – американский композитор, автор симфонической и инструментальной музыки.
81. Shakespeare, William (1564-1616) – Шекспир, Уильям – английский
драматург, поэт.
82. Shchedrin, Rodion (р. 1932) – Щедрин, Родион – российский композитор, пианист.
83. Shostakovich, Dmitry (1906-1975) – Шостакович, Дмитрий – русский
композитор, симфонист.
84. Sinatra, Francis Albert (1915-1998) – Синатра, Фрэнсис Альберт –
американский эстрадный певец и киноактер. Остался в истории как
олицетворение певца-актера легкого жанра.
85. Sousa, John Philip (1854-1932) – Соуза, Джон Филипп – американский композитор и брандмейстер, «король марша».
86. Stanford, Charles Villiers (1852-1924) – Стэнфорд, Чарлз Вильерс –
ирландский композитор, органист и дирижер.
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87. Stradivari, Antonio (1644-1737) – Страдивари, Антонио – итальянский скрипичный мастер, ученик Николо Амати.
88. Strauss, Richard (1864-1949) – Штраус, Рихард – немецкий композитор, дирижер.
89. Stravinsky, Igor (1882-1971) – Стравинский, Игорь – русский композитор, с 1910 года жил за границей.
90. Tchaikovsky, Pyotr (1840/1-1893) – Чайковский, Пётр – великий русский композитор. Создатель лирико-драматических опер и симфоний.
91. The Beatles – «Битлз» – английская поп-группа, созданная
в 1956 году.
92. The Rolling Stones – «Роллинг Стоунз» – английская рок-группа,
созданная в 1962 году.
93. Vanessa-Mae (р.1978) – Ванесса-Мэй – всемирно-извстная скрипачка.
94. Vaughan, Williams Ralph (1872-1958) – Воан, Уильямс Ралф – английский композитор, педагог.
95. Verdi, Guiseppe (1813-1901) – Верди, Джузеппе – итальянский композитор.
96. Webern, Anton (1883-1945) – Веберн, Антон – австрийский композитор, дирижер и педагог, последовательный приверженец додекафонии.
97. Wood, Charles (1866-1926) – Вуд, Чарлз – ирландский композитор,
профессор музыки.
98. Wood, Henri (1869-1944) – Вуд, Генри – английский дирижер,
в 1895 году учредил Променад-концерты и руководил ими
до 1940 года.
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RUSSIAN COMPOSERS OF POST-WAR AVANT-GARDE
1. Денисов, Эдисон (1929, Томск, – 24.11.1996, Париж). Русский композитор, музыковед, музыкально-общественный деятель. На рубеже 1950-60 годов Денисов заявил о себе как один из лидеров Советского авангарда. В творчестве Денисова 1980-90 годов значительное место заняли жанры ораториальной и театральной музыки;
им были созданы многочисленные камерные и камерно-вокальные
сочинения для разных составов. Важнейшие произведения:
«Реквием», опера «Пена дней», балет «Исповедь» и др.
2. Волконский, Андрей (1933, Женева). Русский композитор, клавесинист, дирижер, музыковед. Учился в Женеве и в Париже, а после
переезда в СССР – в Московской консерватории. Написал фортепианный цикл Musica Stricta («Строгая музыка») – первый образец
«серийной техники» в русской музыке. Кроме этого написал камерно-вокальные циклы «Сюита зеркал» и «Жалобы Щазы». В
1973 году Волконский эмигрировал из СССР.
3. Каретников, Николай (1930, Москва – 1994, там же). В 1953 году
окончил Московскую консерваторию по классу композиции. Увлекся додекафонией, приверженность которой сохранил на всю
жизнь. Среди произведений Каретникова выделяется масштабная
4-я симфония (1964), а также балеты «Ванина Ванини» (1961),
«Геологи» (1963), «Крошка Цахес» (1970). Н.Каретников написал
музыку к 60 фильмам.
4. Губайдулина, София (1931, Чистополь, Татарстан). Русский композитор. В 1954 году окончила Казанскую консерваторию по классу
фортепиано. Позднее училась в Московской консерватории по
классу композиции. В музыкальной жизни 1960-80 годов занимала
независимую позицию. Мировое признание принес Губайдуллиной
Скрипичный концерт «Offertorium», впервые исполненный Крамером в 1981 году в Вене. С 1992 года живет в Германии.
5. Слонимский, Сергей (1932, Ленинград). Родился в семье известного писателя Михаила Слонимского. Окончил Ленинградскую кон-
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серваторию по классу фортепиано и композиции. С.Слонимский –
профессор композиции Петербургской консерватории. Инициатор
цикла концертов, на которых исполняется музыка российских композиторов 20-50-х годов. Ежегодно ведет мастер классы на Международном семинаре «Звуковые пути» с момента его основания
(1990). В Самаре проходит ежегодный фестиваль музыки С. Слонимского. Среди сочинений – оперы «Виринея», «Мастер и Маргарита», «Гамлет», балет «Икар», симфонии, камерные вокальные и
хоровые произведения, музыка для детей.
6. Щедрин, Родион (1932, Москва). Русский композитор. В 1955 году
окончил Московскую консерваторию по классу фортепиано и композиции. Рано проявил себя как незаурядный юморист, изобретательный мастер оркестрового письма и приверженец русского народного колорита. Щедрин с юности живо интересовался новейшими западными техниками композиции и снискал репутацию
«умеренного» модерниста. Среди сочинений Р. Щедрина – оперы
«Не только любовь», «Лолита» и др.; балеты «Анна Каренина»,
«Чайка» и др., написанные для его жены М.Плисецкой, ведущей
балерины Большого театра; музыка для театра и кино.
7. Сидельников, Николай (1930, Тверь – 1992, Москва). С 1951 года
учился в Московской консерватории (отчислен после 2 курса за
«модернизм»; восстановлен в 1953 году). 25 преподавал в Московской консерватории на кафедре композиции. Определяет себя как
наследник русской линии творчества Стравинского. Сочинения в
основном ярко программны, симфоническое мышление тяготеет к
театральности. Плодотворно работал в жанре вокальной симфонии.
Среди сочинений – оперная дилогия по Лескову «Чертогон»
(1981), оратория на тексты русских летописей «Поднявший меч»
(1957), симфония для баритона и ансамбля на стихи Лермонтова
(1971) и др.
8. Леденев, Роман (1930, Москва). Окончил Московскую консерваторию в 1953 году. Преподавал на кафедре теории музыки Московской консерватории. Творчество Леденева первой половины
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60-х годов знаменуется серией произведений, ставшей своеобразным откликом на стиль Веберна – это циклы миниатюр для камерных или камерно-оркестровых составов. Композитор нашел свою
индивидуальность в намеренном упрощении музыкального языка
(«Техника простых деталей»). Известные произведения: симфония
«Русь – зеленая и белоснежная» (1991), концерты для флейты,
скрипки, альта, виолончели, фортепиано.
9. Тищенко, Борис (1939, Ленинград, ныне Санкт-Петербург). Русский композитор. Учился в Ленинградской консерватории, в том
числе в аспирантуре у Шостаковича (1962-65 гг.). Яркий представитель поколения «шестидесятников» в русской музыке. Среди
произведений – балеты «Двенадцать» (1963) и «Ярославна» (1974),
7 симфоний, концерты для виолончели, флейты, фортепиано и
струнных, для арфы с оркестром, вокальные циклы, музыкальные
спектакли для детей.
10. Смирнов, Дмитрий (1948, Минск). Русский композитор, с 1992 года живет в Англии. Учился в Московской консерватории. В своем
творчестве стремится к органическому синтезу современного музыкального языка и эстетических принципов высокой классики.
Многие произведения Смирнова вдохновлены метафизической поэзией Уильяма Блейка; среди них – оперы «Тириэль» (1985), «Жалобы Тэли» (1986).
11. Шнитке, Альфред (1934, Энгельс – 1998, Гамбург). Окончил Московскую консерваторию (1958) по классу композиции. В начале 60х годов обратился к изучению додекафонии, а затем и других новых техник композиции. Ввел в обиход термин «полистилистика»,
обозначив им актуальную тенденцию к сочетанию разнородных
стилей. Под пером Шнитке полистилистика превратилась в эффективное средство для воплощения глубоких философских тем. Среди поздних произведений выделяются 2 концерта для виолончели с
оркестром 7 и 8-я симфонии, а также оперы «История доктора Иоганна Фауста» и «Джезульдо», балет «Пер Гюнт».
12. Фирсова, Елена (1950, Ленинград). Окончила Московскую консер-
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ваторию в 1975 году. Автор более ста сочинений практически во
всех жанрах классической музыки. С 1991 года живет в Англии.
В 1993 по 1997 годы вела композицию в Киильском Университете.
В 1999 года преподает в Манчестере. Ее музыка, которой свойственен тонкий лиризм, поэтичность и графическая ясность, широко
известна в Европе. Ряд сочинений написан по заказам Би-Би-Си,
Немецкого Радио, ЭКСПО-2000 и других музыкальных организаций и фестивалей.
13. Корндорф, Николай (1947, Москва – 2001, Канада). Окончил Московскую консерваторию имени Чайковского по классам композиции и дирижирования. В течение 18 лет преподавал в консерватории оркестровку и чтение партитур. В 1991 года жил в Канаде
(Ванкувер). Для музыки Корндорфа характерно стремление к так
называемой «новой простоте», нередко в ней используются принципы минимализма и модальности. Среди наиболее значительных
сочинений Корндорфа – оперы «Марина и Райнер», 4 симфонии,
композиции для различных ансамблевых составов и др. Музыка
Корндорфа звучит на многих международных фестивалях и концертах.
14. Раскатов, Александр (1953, Москва). Окончил Московскую консерваторию и аспирантуру. Живя с 1994 года в Германии, активно
сотрудничает с издательством «M.R.Belaieff» (Франкфурт). Стипендиат многих фондов. Большинство сочинений композитора написано для камерного ансамбля и отличаются тембровой красочностью, изощренной структурой и тяготением более к неоритуальности, нежели к экспрессии. Многие из них наделены выразительной внутренней символикой.
15. Кнайфель, Александр (1943, Ташкент). Получил образование по
классу виолончели у М.Ростроповича в Московской консерватории
(1961-63 гг.). В 1963-67 годах занимался по классу композиции у Б.
Арапова в Ленинградской консерватории. Своими ранними сочинениями Кнайфель снискал репутацию радикального авангардиста.
Он – автор свыше 70 композиций, написал музыку более чем
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к 40 фильмам. А. Кнайфель – заслуженный деятель искусств России (1996). Среди сочинений – «Алиса в стране Чудес» (2001),
«Восьмая глава» для храма, хоров и виолончели (1993), «Медея»,
хореографическая симфония (1984).
16. Шуть, Владислав (1941, Воскресенск). Русский композитор. Окончил Музыкально-педагогический институт имени Гнесиных по
классу сочинения Н. Пейко. Работал музыкальным редактором в
издательстве «Советский композитор» (1967-1982). В 1993 года
живет в Великобритании. Его сочинения исполняются на многих
российских и зарубежных фестивалях – Московская осень, Almedia
(Лондон), Ars Musica (Брюссель), Presence (Париж). Среди сочинений – 5 камерных симфоний, «Warum» для камерного ансамбля
(1986), «Романтические послания» для фагота и камерного оркестра (1979).
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LIST OF MUSICAL TERMS
adajio [ə'da:dʒiou]
aria ['a:riə]
ballet ['bælei]
bass [beis]
bolero [bə'lεərou]
bravura [brə'vuərə]
cadenza [kə'denzə]
cantabile [kæn'ta:bili]
cantata [kæn'ta:tə]
capriccio [kə'prit∫iou]
chorus ['korəsl
clarinet [,klæri'net]
clavichord ['klæviko:d]
coda ['koudə]
composer [kəm'pouzə]
concert ['konsət]
concerto [kən't∫ə:tou]
crescendo [kri'∫endou]
debut ['deibu:]
etude [ei'tju:d]
finale [fi'na:li]
flute [flu:t]
fugue [fju:g]
glisserando [,glisə'ra:ndou]
guitar [gi'ta:]
harmonica [ha:'monikə]
harmony ['ha:məni]
intermezzo [,intə'metsou]
madrigal ['mædrigəl]
major ['meidʒə]
melody ['melədi]
minor ['mainə]
motet [mou'tet]
music ['mju:zik]
musical ['mju:zikəl]
musician [mju: 'zi∫ən]
nocturne ['noktə:n]
oboe ['oubou]
octave ['oktiv]
octet [ok'tet]
opera ['opərə]
oratorio [,orə'to:riou]
orchestra ['o:kistrə]
orchestral [o:'kestrəl]
organ ['o:gən]
organist ['o:gənist]
overture t'ouvətjuə]
passacaglia [,pa:sə'ka:ljə]
pedal ['pedl]
philharmonic [,fila:'monik]
pianissimo [pjæ'nisimou]
pianist ['pjænist]
polonaise [,polə'neiz]
polyphony [pə'lifəni]
prelude ['prelju:d]
quartet [kwo:'tet]
recitative [,resitə'ti:v]
requiem ['rekwiəm]
rhapsody ['ræpsədi]
romance [rə'mæns]
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scherzo ['skertsou]
solo ['soulou]
soloist ['soulouist]
sonata [sə'na:tə]
soprano [sə'pra:nou]
spinet [spi'net]
suite [swi:t]
symphonic [sim'fonik]
symphony ['simfəni]
tenor ['tenə]
timbre ['tε:mbr]
toccata [tə'ka:tə]
trombone [trom'boun]
tuba ['tju:bə]
variations [,vεəri'ei∫ənz]
viola [vi'oulə]
viola-gamba [vi'oulə
'gæmbə]
virtuoso [,və:tju'ouzou]
waltz [wo:ls]
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GLOSSARY
Concert, Recital, Evening
concert
Concert generally refers only to music. Therefore if non-musical items
are included, it is better in most cases to avoid concert, and use, for example,
show or entertainment.
e.g. In the evening the students put on a show/an entertainment.
Concert is used in the following expressions:
concert-goer
concert ticket
concert-going
concert programme
concert hall
The type of concert may be specified, for example:
symphony concert
pop concert
chamber concert
jazz concert
promenade concert
A promenade concert is a type of popular symphony concert in Britain, which takes place every evening for a season during the summer, and
where many of the audience stand (which makes the tickets cheaper) and the
atmosphere is very informal. Originally the audience even walked about,
hence the name, which is French for a walk. Promenade concert is often abbreviated to prom.
e.g. / like going to the proms.
recital
This is the proper name for a concert given by one performer or a small
group, with reference to classical music, and is widely used by regular concert-goers. It is often combined with the name of the instrument, or composer,
and sometimes the type of work is specified.
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e.g. a piano/violin/organ recita
a Chopin recital
a song recital
It is not essential to use recital when there is only one performer or a
small group. Concert may be used instead, although it is less common, at least
with regular concert-goers.
Recital is often the best translation of вечер in such expressions as
фортепианный вечер, вечер скрипичной музыки.
Recital may refer not only to music, but also to poetry, as in the expression a poetry recital. Poetry evening is possible, though less common.
evening
Evening is little used to denote a concert. As stated above, recital is often the best translation of вечер in this sense. The expression musical evening
exists, but this generally denotes an informal gathering of amateurs, for example, at someone's home, or at a club. All or most people present perform something, and there is no separate audience. The same applies to poetry evening.
Verbs used with concert/recital
Go is the most common in the sense of attend, and is the best translation
not only of ходить (на концерт) but often also of быть (на концерте) and
слушать (концерт).
e.g. a. / often go to concerts.
Note the use of the plural here.
b. / went to a very good concert last night.
Listen is not used here. Nor should it be used in translating such sentences as:
a.
Сегодня мы будем/пойдем слушать Рихтера/Брамса.
Today we're going to hear Richter (play). / a Brahms concert.
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b.
Что Вы слушали?
What sort of concert was it?
or: What did he/she/they play/sing?
c.
What was /were ... playing/singing?
if the speaker knows who was playing/singing
Кого Вы слушали?
Who was playing/singing?
This, however, has the disadvantage that the speaker must know
whether it was vocal or instrumental music.
Listen may be used with reference to broadcast concerts.
e.g. / listened to a concert on the radio.
Attend (a concert) is sometimes used in formal situations.
Visit (a concert) is not used.
Give is the verb generally used with reference to the performer(s).
e.g. The London Philharmonic gave four concerts in St. Petersburg.
Arrange and put on are used with reference to the organization, for example of the management (дирекция) of a concert hall.
e.g. They're arranging/putting on a series of concerts in memory of
Shostakovich this season.
Concert Programmes And Repertoires
work, item, number, piece
A concert programme consists of works or items. An item may be a
complete work or an excerpt. In practice, however, item is used of short works
such as songs, short instrumental pieces or excerpts.
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e.g. (Announcement at a concert) – The first item on the programme is
"The Road to the Isles", sung by ..., accompanied on the piano by ...
At concerts of classical music where a small number of complete works are
performed, work is preferable.
e.g. a. The programme consists of works by Bach, Vivaldi and Handel.
b. The first work (on/in the programme) is Handel's "Water Music".
Number is used of an item in a variety show, a jazz or pop concert.
It suggests something light.
Piece may be used to denote a short and usually not very serious musical work, or sometimes an excerpt.
e.g. (Announcement at an amateur concert) –... will (now) play two
pieces by ...: "In the Forest" and "Spanish Dance".
A piece of music is also used.
repertoire, repertory
These words are used of music in a similar way to the theatre, meaning
the works, pieces, numbers which a musician or orchestra can perform. Repertoire is the usual form.
e.g. a. (Speaking of a singer, pianist, etc.) – He has a large and
or:
varied repertoire.
His repertoire is limited.
b. (Of an orchestra) – They need to build up a repertoire.
с. This work has established itself firmly in the concert repertoire.
d. The orchestra has added Mahler's 7th symphony to its
repertoire.
Types Of Music
classical music
There is a tendency to use classical music with particular reference to
the music of the past, up to and including the nineteenth century. However, the
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term also includes music being written now, and we may therefore speak of
modern classical music. Classical here refers to genre, not period, and should
not therefore be used in contrast to modern.
A classic may be used of a musical work which is firmly established in
the concert repertoire and is therefore well-known. Such works are sometimes
called collectively the classics. However, classic is used less often in connection with music than with literature.
Light classical is used of short classical works or excerpts which are
easy to listen to, either because the composer's aim was simply to entertain, or
because of their familiarity. Light here is the opposite of serious
serious music
This is sometimes used as a synonym of classical music, but strictly
speaking it is not synonymous, since not all classical music is serious, and
other types of music, for example, folk music and jazz, can claim to be serious
too, in the sense of being not merely entertainment, but art. Serious music is
thus a wider concept than classical music.
light music
This is not so much a category as a collection of works from various
categories. It includes light classical music (see above), popular tunes and
songs from different sources, both traditional and new, dance music, film music, and so on.
folk music
Folk music corresponds to the Russian народная музыка, and includes
both instrumental music and songs.
jazz
This is defined by Hornby as follows:
"popular music first played by Negro groups in the southern USA
in the early 20th century, characterized by improvization and
strong rhythms, called traditional jazz; similar music played by
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large bands for dancing; a later variation much influenced by the
blues to produce an unhurried emotive style, called modern jazz."
(Blues is defined as "haunting jazz melodies originally of Negroes in the southern US".)
Traditional jazz is классический джаз. Classical jazz is not used.
Note that jazz is generally used without music.
e.g. / like (traditional/modern) jazz.
pop music
Pop is an abbreviation of popular, but it has developed a specific meaning: modern music of an uncomplicated type, played mainly on electric guitars
and drums, often with a singer.
The Russian эстрадная музыка includes some pop music, but it is a
wider category, and has no English equivalent.
In situations where эстрадный includes not only music but other types
of entertainment, variety can be used.
e.g. a variety show
a variety artist
Variety singer, however, does not seem to occur. There is only pop
singer.
dance music
This is not a specific type of music, since various kinds of music may be
used for dancing, including jazz and pop music.
film music
music composed for films
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background music
This expression is used in Britain to denote any music played softly as a
background for conversation, etc. Some people put on records as background
music when friends come to see them, and such music is increasingly heard in
public places in Britain: hotel foyers, airports, supermarkets, etc.
instrumental/vocal music
These categories correspond to the Russian инструментальная/вокальная музыка. The performers may be called instrumentalists, vocalists.
Vocal music and vocalist are often replaced in non-professional conversations by singing, and singer.
Instrumental music and instrumentalist also sound rather professional, but they have no colloquial equivalent. In some cases, however, player
can be used meaning instrumentalist.
e.g. The players came onto the platform with their instruments.
orchestral music
This corresponds more or less to симфоническая музыка. Symphonic
music is little used by non-professionals, as it has a narrower application than
orchestral music, referring only to symphonies, and excluding such works as
concertos, suites, etc.
Orchestral work/concert are also used.
chamber music
This corresponds in most cases to камерная музыка. Some chamber
music is orchestral, written for a chamber orchestra, but the category also
includes works for smaller groups of instrumentalists or vocalists, or soloists.
Chamber work/concert are also used.
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Classical Works
Instrumental Works
e.g.
Symphony – симфония
Tchaikovsky's fifth symphony
Beethoven's early/later symphonies
In formal style, for example, in advertisements and printed programmes,
the following form is often used:
Tchaikovsky. Symphony No. 5
Symphony is used adjectivally in the expressions:
symphony orchestra
meaning a large orchestra, as opposed to a chamber orchestra
symphony concert
a concert given by a symphony orchestra
Symphonic is used in symphonic poem, symphonic variations.
concerto – концерт
Note that there are two ways of translating концерт: concert and
concerto.
e. g. a. / went to a good concert last night.
b. Gilels played a concerto by Mozart. / a Mozart concerto.
Concertos are written for an orchestra with solo instrument(s) and the
instrument is often specified as follows:
a piano concerto
a violin concerto, etc.
Beethoven's third piano concerto
In formal style we often read:
Beethoven: Piano Concerto No. 3
Concerto No. 3 for piano and orchestra
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e.g.
Overture – увертюра
a. The concert began with Beethoven's "Egmont" overture.
b. They played the overture from "The Magic Flute" by Mozart.
suite – сюита
e.g. They played the ballet suite (from) "Romeo and Juliet".
sonata – соната
a work for solo instrument, sometimes with an accompaniment
e.g. a piano/violin sonata
Beethoven's piano sonatas
On printed programmes we read, for example:
Beethoven. Sonata No. 12
duet, trio, quartet, etc.
These are works composed for two, three or four performers. Here also
the instruments or type of instruments can be specified. The most common expression of this kind is string quartet.
The following terms are used of works for more than four instruments:
quintet – for five
septet – for seven
sextet – for six
octet – for eight
In practice these occur comparatively seldom.
Trio, quartet, etc. are also used to denote a group of three, four, etc.
players performing together.
e.g. There's a recital by a trio from Prague tomorrow.
movement, part
Symphonies, concertos and most other works mentioned above are divided into movements (части).
e.g. a. The symphony is in four movements.
b. I liked the first movement best.
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Part is not appropriate here. It is used sometimes, however, mainly with
reference to choral works and to some instrumental works which depart from
the traditional form.
Part has two other meanings connected with music:
1. part of a concert (отделение),
e.g. I enjoyed the second part (of the concert) better than the first.
2. what a particular musician has to play or sing (партия)
e.g. The piano part was played by ... tenor / sung
special names for musical works
Some works have special names connected with their theme or with the
circumstances of their composition.
e.g. Beethoven's Moonlight Sonata
Emperor Concerto
Mozart's Jupiter Symphony
Schubert's Unfinished Symphony
On printed programmes the name is generally put in brackets.
e.g. Beethoven. Piano Concerto No. 5 (The Emperor)
Schubert. Symphony No. 9 (The Unfinished)
In conversation these names are often used in such sentences as:
a.
I heard Richter play Beethoven's Emperor concerto.
b.
the Emperor concerto.
(In a discussion of Beethoven's symphonies)
I like the Pastoral better than the Choral.
Vocal Works
song
Songs may be folk songs, or romances, or songs written by classical
composers, for which there is no special name.
The German word lieder is used to denote songs of a lyrical type composed in the 19th century by such composers as Brahms, Schubert and Schumann. It is used only in the plural form given here.
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madrigal
Madrigals are part-songs, that is, songs to be sung in parts – for unaccompanied voices, written mainly in the 16th and 17th centuries.
aria
Arias from operas are sometimes performed at concerts, although they
are not complete works.
cantata | oratorio | requiem – choral works
Performers and Instruments
Orchestra, Band, Group, Ensemble
orchestra
Orchestra is used for classical music, light music, and fairly often for
jazz too, although band is the traditional term. It occurs in the following expressions:
symphony orchestra
string orchestra
chamber orchestra
variety orchestra
light orchestra
jazz orchestra
one which plays for variety shows
band
Band is used for:
1. jazz, especially traditional jazz:
a jazz band
Big band often occurs in connection with traditional jazz.
However, band is not the only possibility. As mentioned above, orchestra is also used, and, in the case of small groups, trio, quartet, etc.,
e.g. The Oscar Petersen Trio
Oscar Petersen is a famous American jazz pianist with his
own trio
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The Modern Jazz Quartet
a famous jazz quartet formed in New York in the 1950s
under the leadership of composer and pianist John Lewis
2. a group consisting only of brass instruments (медные духовые инструменты):
a brass band духовой оркестр
This may be a military band, or one composed of amateurs, who play
for recreation.
3. a group playing dance music:
a dance band
Band is the traditional word for a group of musicians playing in a
dance-hall or restaurant. If it is pop music, however, group tends to be used
instead, without dance.
group
This generally refers to folk or pop music:
a folk/pop group
Folk group could be used as a translation of народный оркестр, although they are not quite the same thing. In a folk group the emphasis is on
singing, and instruments are used mainly as an accompaniment. The guitar is
the most common instrument here, although it is not a traditional English one.
(Folk singing was formerly unaccompanied.)
Folk instrument and folk orchestra are not usual in Britain, although
there is no reason why they should not be used here.
Group is also used in madrigal group, which is a small choir, usually
amateur, who specialize in singing madrigals.
ensemble
This is something smaller than an orchestra, but bigger than a quartet.
It generally refers to classical music and occurs mainly in proper names.
e.g. The London Harpsichord Ensemble
вокально-инструментальный ансамбль
The nearest equivalent in Britain is the pop group. However, since they
are not quite the same thing, the Russian expression may be translated more or
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less literally, as vocal and instrumental group. This is not a set expression, but
is clear enough. The use of ensemble here is possible, but not to be particularly
recommended.
эстрадный ансамбль
This has no English equivalent. There are variety orchestras, as mentioned under orchestra, but they are larger, and the singers and other artists
who appear with them are not permanent, but vary from show to show.
A Symphony Orchestra
(Instruments and Players)
A symphony (or chamber) orchestra consists of several sections, as
shown below. The word section is confined mainly to formal style. These sections will now be listed, with the names of the instruments in each, and the
players.
the string section or the strings (струнные)
Note that strings is generally used here instead of string(ed) instruments. However, only the plural can be used in this way. We say, for example:
The violin is a string(ed) instrument.
In the above type of sentence strings is not used even in the plural.
e.g. a. The guitar and the balalaika are slring(ed) instruments.
b. The orchestra contains several unusual string(ed) instruments.
violin – скрипка
violinist
viola – альт
viola-player
cello – виолончель
cellist
double-bass – контрабас (pl. doubledouble-bass (player)
basses)
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the woodwind (section) деревянные духовые
flute – флейта
flautist
clarinet – кларнет
clarinettist
oboe – гобой
oboist
bassoon – фагот
bassoon-player
These are (wood)wind instruments.
the brass (section) медные духовые
trumpet – труба
trumpeter, trumpet-player
trombone – тромбон
trombonist, trombone-player
French horn – валторна
French horn player
These are brass instruments.
the percussion (section) ударные
This section consists of various kinds of drums барабаны, cymbals
тарелки and other instruments for certain works.
conductor, leader
Conductor corresponds to дирижер. Не rehearses the works to be performed with the orchestra and conducts at concerts. Conductor may be qualified as follows:
resident conductor
the conductor who regularly rehearses and conducts a certain orchestra
guest/visiting conductor
a conductor who conducts at only one or a few concerts with an
orchestra, and who may be the resident conductor of another orchestra
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assistant conductor
a conductor who assists the main, resident conductor
The leader of the orchestra is the first violin, who is the most important
member of the orchestra and assists the conductor at rehearsals. It corresponds
to первая скрипка, концертмейстер. First violin is also used.
Names of English Orchestras
Symphony orchestra is widely used in the names of English orchestras.
e.g. The London Symphony Orchestra
The BBC Symphony Orchestra
The City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra
Philharmonic and philharmonia also occur.
e.g. The London Philharmonic Orchestra
The Royal Philharmonic Orchestra
The New Philharmonia Orchestra
The Royal Liverpool Philharmonic Orchestra
Philharmonic society is used in some cases.
e.g. The Royal Liverpool Philharmonic Society
However, this generally includes the management, and is therefore not
often used with reference simply to the orchestra.
A few orchestras are named after their founder. For example, the oldest
professional symphony orchestra in Britain, the Halle Orchestra, in Manchester, is named after its founder, Charles Halle.
The word orchestra may be omitted when implied by the context.
e.g. I'm going to hear the London Philharmonic tonight.
There is also a tendency to refer to some well-known orchestras by their
initials.
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e.g.
the LSO – London Symphony Orchestra
the CBSO – City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra
Chamber may be included in proper names.
e.g. The English Chamber Orchestra
Use of “on” with names of instruments
We say: to play the piano/guitar/violin with no preposition but: to play
smth. on the piano/guitar/violin.
e.g. a. She plays the piano (very well).
b. She played some Strauss waltzes on the piano.
Singers and Choirs
choir, chorus
A group of singers is generally called a choir. Most schools in England
have a choir, and there are also many adult choirs, both amateur and professional. Some symphony orchestras have their own choir. Here, however, chorus is sometimes used instead of choir. For example, the London Philharmonic Orchestra has a choir, and the New Philharmonia Orchestra a chorus,
with no difference of meaning. The distinction between the two words is not
clear-cut.
As already mentioned, chorus is always used in opera. In addition it has
the meaning "refrain", that is, part of a song for everyone to sing, recurring after each verse.
e.g. David sang the verses and everybody joined in the chorus.
In chorus is used in the sense of "all together", with reference to both
singing and reading.
Most choirs have four groups of voices:
sopranos
contraltos
or altos
especially in children's choirs, where they may be either girls or
boys
tenors
basses
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They generally sing in parts (на несколько голосов), for example, in
two, three or four parts, but they sometimes sing in unison, that is, all together.
They are trained by a choir-master, sometimes called a chorus-master.
types of choir
The following types of choir exist in Britain:
school choir
student/university/college
choir
church choir
boys'/girls' choir
male voice choir
English choirs do not usually specialize in folk-singing, and the expression folk choir is rarely if ever heard. However, it can be used as a translation
of народный хор. There are folk groups in England. But besides being
smaller than most народные хоры (usually four, five or six people), they deliberately avoid training their voices and polishing their performance, often
cultivating a spontaneous and unprofessional effect.
(Хоровая) капелла in the sense of "choir" has no equivalent
in English and simply choir or chorus, or choral society should be used.
Chamber is not applied to choirs. There is no special expression for
a small choir in English.
Some Common Musical Terms
Note, Music, Score
Note corresponds to нота in such sentences as:
a. She couldn't reach the top note.
b. He played a lot of wrong notes.
However, note is not used in the plural to mean notes printed on sheets
of paper, like the Russian ноты. This is sheet music, or simply music.
e.g. a. The soloist hardly looked at his music.
b. He played from music/without music.
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Music in this sense also occurs in the expression to read music.
e.g. I can't read music.
This can be contrasted with to have an ear for music, where music
is used in its more usual sense.
e.g. He has an/no ear for music.
Score is used to denote the copy where all the parts (партии) are
shown, especially with reference to orchestral music.
e.g. The conductor hardly looked at the score.
It corresponds to партитура.
Score may also be used of the music itself, not simply its written form.
e.g. a beautiful score
Tune, Melody, Theme, Subject
Tune and melody are synonymous, but tune is more widely used than
melody. A tune may be simple or complex, fast or slow, ordinary or strikingly
beautiful. Melody tends to imply a beautiful tune, especially a slow and moving one. Tune is stylistically neutral, whereas melody is literary, and little used
in everyday conversation.
Tune is used in contrast to words with reference to songs.
e.g. It's a lovely tune, but I’т not very keen on the words.
It also occurs in the expressions:
in tune/out of tune
e.g.
a. It's difficult to sing in tune in a stuffy room.
b. He played out of tune.
с. You're out of tune.
Tune is used as a verb, sometimes with up, in the sense of настраивать (инструмент).
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e.g.
a. The piano needs tuning.
b. The orchestra were tuning their instruments / were tuning up.
Theme is used to denote a short tune which is developed repeated in a
sonata, symphony, etc., or which serves as the basis for a set of variations.
e.g. a. The theme of the first movement is very lively.
b. Reger. Variations on a Theme of Mozart
name of a work.
Subject is occasionally used instead of theme with refer-to sonatas,
symphonies, etc.
Concert Halls
A hall where concerts are held is called a concert hall. The word concert is usually omitted in proper names. For example, the main London concert halls are called:
The Royal Albert Hall
a very large hall built in the 19th century, and named after
Prince Albert, Queen Victoria's husband
The Royal Festival Hall
a large modern hall on the South Bank of the Thames, near
Waterloo Bridge, opened for the Festival of Britain in 1951
The Queen Elizabeth Hall
a smaller hall next to the Royal Festival Hall, built in the
1960s and named in honour of Queen Elizabeth II
The Wigmore Hall
a small hall in Wigmore Street, in the West End, used for
recitals.
Recital room is sometimes used of small halls for recitals. Such a hall
was opened next to the Royal Festival Hall and the Queen Elisabeth Hall in
1967, and is called the Purcell Room. It seats 372 people.
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ENGLISH-RUSSIAN VOCABULARY
A
absolute pitch – абсолютный слух
alteration – альтерация; переделка,
accent – ударение
перестройка
acclaim – провозглашать
alto – ит. альт (голос, инструмент)
accommodate – приспосабливать
amateur – любительский
accomplishment – достижение
ambiguous – неясный
accord – аккорд, созвучие
announce – объявлять
adaptation – аранжировка музы-
annual – ежегодный
кального произведения
anthem – гимн
add – прибавлять, суммировать,
antic – 1. гротеск; 2. шут
присоединять
appeal – обращение
adhere – твердо придерживаться
appreciate – оценить
adjunct – дополнение
approximately – приблизительно
admirer – поклонник
arrangement – аранжировка, расста-
adult – взрослый
новка, систематизация
affinity – сходство, родство
atonality – атональность
a-flat – ля-бемоль
attach – приписывать
agile – ловкий, проворный
attain – достигнуть, добиться
air – ария; партия; мелодия; пес-
auditory – слуховой
ня
avail of – использовать что-либо
alliance – союз
available – доступный
alter – изменять; менять
awakening – пробуждение
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B
blend – смешивать, сочетать
blues – 1) песенный жанр афроамериканцев; 2) медленный
темп в танцевальной музыке
bones – кастаньеты
bow – смычок
brass – медные духовые инструменты
brassy – металлический (о звуке)
brisk – живой, оживленный
brusque – резкий
bugle – охотничий рог, рожок,
горн
backbone – основа
background – фон, музыкальное
сопровождение
backward – отсталый
bandmaster – капельмейстер
bass – бас
bass clarinet – бас-кларнет
bass drum – большой барабан
bassoon – фагот
baton – дирижерская палочка
best-known – хорошо известный
blare – звуки труб
blast – звук (духового инструмента)
С
chorister – хорист
circumstance – случай, обстоятельство
clang – звон
clarinet – кларнет
clarity – ясность
clef – ключ
climax – кульминация
closing – заключение, финал
colour – оттенок, тембр
combo – небольшой эстрадный
ансамбль
commission – давать поручение, заказывать, поручать
cadence – каденция
canon – канон
capacity – способность
capture – уловить
castanets – кастаньеты
celesta – челеста (ударные музыкальные инструменты)
cello – виолончель
chamber – камерный
chime – колокол
chimes – набор колоколов
(ударные музыкальные инструменты)
choir-master – хормейстер
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commonly – обычно
commotion – волнение, смятение
comprehensible – понятный
conceptual – понятийный
concert-goer – любитель концертов
conductor – дирижер
confuse – ошибаться, смешивать, спутывать
conscious – сознающий, ощущающий; сознательный
consciousness – сознание
considerable – значительный
conspicuous – заметный, видный
contemporary – современный
contribution – вклад
conventional – общепринятый
обычный, традиционный
convey – передавать
cool jazz – манера исполнения
в джазе
creaky – скрипучий
creation – творение, создание
creativity – творчество
crude – грубый
crystalline – прозрачный, кристальный
cymbals – тарелки
D
dedicated – посвященный (кому-либо)
define – определять
derivative – производный
deserve – заслуживать
designation – назначение, обозначение, указание; цель
desire – (сильное) желание
destroy – разрушать
detachment – разъединение, отделение (нот), особый вид
«стаккато»
development – развитие
device – средство
devote – посвящать
dexterity – ловкость, сноровка;
хорошие способности
diapason – основной регистр
органа
die away – замирать (о звуке)
dimensions – величина, размеры
discordant – противоречивый;
диссонирующий
dissonance – диссонанс
distinctive – особый, отличительный
distinguish – различать
diverse – разнообразный
dodecaphony – додекафония
dolorous – печальный, грустный
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dormant – скрытый (о способностях)
double-bass – контрабас
double-bassoon – контрафагот
drum – барабан
drums – ударные инструменты
(в джаз-оркестре)
due to – благодаря
dulcimer – цимбалы
duplication – удваивание
dynamics – динамика
E
eagerly – страстно
eclipse – затмевать, приходить
в упадок
elegiac – грустный
eliminate – устранять
eloquent – выразительный
emphasis – выразительность;
ударение
enchant – очаровывать
enchanting – завораживающий,
очаровывающий
encourage – поощрять
endow – наделять, одарять
engender – порождать
English horn – английский рожок (альтовый теноровый гобой)
enormous – громадный
enrich – обогащать
ensemble – ансамбль, оркестр
entertainment – увеселение,
развлечение
entrance – вступление
episodical form – эпизодическая форма (рондо)
essential – существенный
establish – устанавливать
ethereal – легкий, эфемерный
euphony – благозвучие
event – событие
evolve – развиваться
exactly – точно
exalt – возвеличивать, возвышать,
поднимать настроение
exceptional – исключительный, необычный
excessive – чрезмерный
excitement – волнение
execution – исполнение (муз. произведения)
expression – выражение
exquisite – изысканный, утонченный; острый, сильный (об ощущениях)
extensive – пространный, обширный
extra – дополнительный
extraordinary – совершенно необычный
extremely – чрезвычайно, крайне
exultation – ликование, торжество
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F
flute – флейта
foil – фон
folk music – народная музыка
folk-tune – народная мелодия
framework – каркас, структура, рамка
freakishly – странно, причудливо
French-horn – валторна
frequency – частота (звука),
частотность
fusion – слияние
fancy – фантазия
fascinate – очаровывать
faulty – неправильный; несовершенный
favour – оказывать предпочтение
fierce – неистовый, сильный,
неудержимый
finger – указывать аппликатуру
fingering – аппликатура
flexibility – гибкость, эластичность
flexible – гибкий
flower – процветать
G
glorify – восхвалять
glowing – пылкий, горячий
gong – гонг
gospel – религиозная песня
gradations – оттенки
gradually – постепенно
grateful – благодарный
gravitate – стремиться
ground – тема (музыкальная)
guess – отгадывать; предполагать
guitar – гитара
gaiety – веселье
gamut – звукоряд
generation – поколение
genre – жанр
genuine – настоящий (подлинный)
gift – дар
glamorous – обаятельный, чарующий
glissando – глиссандо (скользящий переход от звука к звуку)
glockenspiel – букв.с немец. глокеншпиль, «колокольчики»
(ударные музыкальные инструменты)
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H
hammer – молоток
harmonious – гармонический
harmonist – музыкант; оркестратор
harmonium – фисгармония
harp – арфа
harper, harpist – арфист
harpsichord – клавикорды
harsh – неприятный, резкий (о
звуке, мелодии)
heritage – наследие
hey-day – зенит, рассвет
hit – успех
hollow – глухой (о звуке)
homesick – тоскующий по родине
homogeneous – однородный
homophony – гомофония (вид
многоголосия)
horn – рожок; валторна
hubbub – гул голосов
husky – сиплый; сильный
hymn – церковный гимн
I
incarnate – воплощать
incidental – побочный (о муз.
теме)
indicate – указывать, показывать
indirect – косвенный
indispensable – необходимый
indistinct – неотчетливый
induce – вызывать
inevitable – неизбежный
inflection – модуляция, интонация
inherit – унаследовать
inhibition – сдерживание, подавление
initial – первоначальный
innermost – сокровенный
insist – настаивать
identify – отождествлять, устанавливать
idiom – средство выражения (в
искусстве)
imagery – образность
imagination – воображение,
фантазия
imaginative – одаренный богатым воображением
imbued – наполненный (чувством и т. д.)
impassioned – страстный
impetuous – стремительный,
порывистый
implication – вовлечение
impose – производить сильное
впечатление
in unison – в унисон
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introduction – вступление
intuition – интуиция
invaluable – бесценный
invent – изобретать, придумывать
item – номер программы
inspirational – вдохновляющий
instalment – выпуск, серия;
установка, устройство
insure – обеспечивать
intention – намерение, цель
interaction – взаимодействие
intertwine – переплетать(ся)
intonation – интонация, модуляция
J
jar – резкий, дребезжащий звук
jubilation – ликование
K
kettledrums – литавры (ударные музыкальные инструменты)
key – ключ; тональность; тон,
высота голоса
keyboard – клавиатура
key-note – основная нота ключа, тональность
knack – умение (профессиональное); прием
L
likely – подающий надежды
long – страстно желать, стремиться (к чему-л.)
loose – ослаблять (струну)
loud – громкий, звучный
low – низкий (о ноте)
low-pitched – низкого тона, низкий (о звуке)
lack – не хватать, недоставать,
не иметь
leader – дирижер, регент (хора)
leading motive – лейтмотив
leaning – склонность
legendary – легендарный
leit-tone – вводный тон
length – длина
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lucid – ясный, светлый, прозрачный
lumber – громыхающие звуки
lute – лютня
luxurious – роскошный
lyricist – поэт-лирик
M
magnificent – великолепный
mainstay – поддержка, опора
majesty – величественность,
величие
many-voiced – многоголосый
march – марш
marimba – ксилофон (африканского происхождения)
masterpiece – шедевр, произведение искусства
matinee – дневной спектакль
mature – зрелый
measure – такт; размер; метр
meditative – задумчивый
melancholy – грустный
melodious – мелодичный
memorable – памятный
miss – зд. тосковать, скучать
по
mix – смешивать, перепутать
mode – лад, тональность;
строй
mold – создавать (что-л.),
формировать
mood – лад, тональность;
строй
motet – песнопение, мотет
mouthpiece – мундштук
movement – часть (музыкального произведения)
muffle – глушить, заглушать
(звук)
multicolored – многокрасочный
multitude – множество
musette – 1. пасторальная мелодия; 2. волынка
music master – преподаватель
музыки
musical volume – музыкальная
сила, полнота (звука)
musician – музыкант; композитор
music maker – композитор
musicology – музыкознание
mute – сурдина
mutual – взаимный
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N
nasal – носовой
nasality – носовой характер
звука
nation-wide – всенародный
nobility – знать, дворянство
note-row – звукозаряд
noteworthy – заслуживающий
внимания
noticeable – заметный
O
oboe – гобой
obscure – запутывать; неясный,
непонятный
occidental – западный
odd – дополнительный
opening – начальный; вступительный
organ – орган
oriental – восточный
orotund – полнозвучный
outworn – устарелый
overseas – за рубежом
overwhelming – непреодолимый
P
permanent – постоянный, долговременный
permeate – проникать
philharmonic – филармонический
piano – фортепиано
piccolo – малая флейта, пикколо
pipe – свисток, дудка, спирель
pitch – высота (звука, тона,
голоса)
pan-pipe – свирель
parchment – пергамент
pastoral – пастушеский; пасторальный
pathetically – жалостно
peasantry – крестьянство
peculiar – своеобразный, специфический
per second – в секунду
percussion – ударные инструменты
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program-music – программная
музыка
prohibition – запрещение
prominent – выдающийся
properties – свойства, качества
protean – многообразный, изменчивый
provide – подготовить; обеспечивать; создать, написать
psalmody – пение псалмов
purchase – преимущество
pure – ясный, чистый, отчетливый
purity – чистота
purple – пурпурный, багровый
purpose – цель
pluck – перебирать (струны)
pluck – собирать
pomp – пышность; помпа
position – позиция (в игре на
струнных инструментах)
possess – обладать, владеть
powerful – сильный, мощный
pre-eminent – превосходящий,
выдающийся, исключительный
prelude – прелюдия
present – представлять (тему)
prestigious – престижный
principal – главный
prodigy – необыкновенно одаренный человек (ребенок);
вундеркинд
Q
quality – окраска, тембр
quest – поиск
R
recital – сольный концерт
recognition – признание
record – запись на граммофонной пластинке; граммофонная пластинка
recorder – продольная флейта
reduction – сокращение, снижение
reedy – пронзительны!
refinement – усовершенствование; обработка
radiance – блеск, великолепие
ragtime – 1) синкопированный,
танцевальный ритм; 2) манера
игры на фортепиано в раннем
джазе («рваный такт»)
range – диапазон
rapid – быстрый
rapturous – восторженный
rasping – дребезжащий (звук)
rattle – трещотка
reception – прием, встреча
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reflect – отображать
regeneration – возрождение
register – регистр
reinvest – помещать, вкладывать, восстанавливать
reiterate – повторять
relax – смягчать, ослаблять
repeat – знак повторения; повтор
reprise – реприза
resign – уходить в отставку
respond – отвечать, реагировать
rest – пауза
restrain – сдерживать
restrained – сдержанный
restrict – ограничивать
resume – продолжать (возобновлять)
reticent – сдержанный
revitalize – воскрешать, восстанавливать
revival – возрождение
revive – возобновлять (постановку)
rhythm – ритм
rhythmic – ритмический
rigorous – строгий, суровый
rude – примитивный, грубый
rumble – грохот
S
sacred – духовный (о музыке)
sadness – печаль
satisfactory – удовлетворительный
scale – гамма
scenario – сценарий
score – партитура; оркестровать
screw – винт
scroll-shaped – в форме завитка
semitone – полутон
sensation – ощущение, чувство
sensibility – восприимчивость;
эмоциональность
sensitivity – чувствительность
sensuous – эстетический, чувственный
serene – спокойный; безмятежный
shade – оттенок, нюанс
shading – нюанс, оттенок
shake – трясти
shift – менять(ся); колебаться
shivery – хрупкий
shrewd – проницательный
shrill – резкий
side-drum – малый барабан
significance – важность, значительность
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significant – значительный
simulate – подражать
simultaneously – одновременно
single – один; отдельный
single-reed – однотростевый
snare drum – малый барабан
sol-fa – сольфеджио
sombre – мрачный, унылый
sound – звук
spasmodic – нерегулярный
specify – придавать особый
характер
spirit – настроение
spiritual – религиозная песня
staff – 1. нотный стан; 2. штат,
персонал
stage fright – волнение перед
выходом на сцену
state – установить, определить
strain – напев, мелодия
strike (struck, struck) – ударять
string – струна
string section – струнная группа оркестра
strings – струнные инструменты оркестра
subdue – смягчать
subject – тема; содержание
subordinate – подчиненный
subsequent – последующий,
более поздний
subsidiary – вспомогательный,
дополнительный
subtle – тонкий, нежный,
утонченный, искусный
sustain – поддерживать, подтверждать
swing – джазовый стиль
syncopation – синкопирование
synthesis – синтез
synthesize – включать, соединять
T
tambourine – бубен
tender – нежный, мягкий
tenor-drum – цилиндрический
барабан
theme – тема
timbre=quality – тембр
timorous – робкий, тихий
timpani – литавры (ударные музыкальные инструменты)
ting – разг. резкий звук, звяканье
tonal – тональный
tone – интонация
tool – инструмент
tootle – играть на флейте
trace – проследить
transparent – ясный, понятный,
прозрачный, просвечивающий
triangle – треугольник
tricky – сложный
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trill – трель
trombone – тромбон
trumpet – труба; звук трубы
tuba – туба, большая басовая
труба
tumultuous – шумный, беспокойный
tune – мелодия; настраивать;
звучать
tuneful – гармоничный, мелодичный
tuner – настройщик
tuning-fork – камертон
U
unconsciously – невольно, бессознательно
undisguised – открытый; откровенный
unequal – неравный, неравноценный
unify – объединять
unison – унисон
unwieldy – громоздкий (тяжеловесный)
up-beat – неударный звук в
такте
utterance – выражение
V
venture – авантюра, затея
veritable – настоящий, истинный
versatility – многосторонность,
универсальность, разносторонность
vibration – колебание
vigorous – сильный, энергичный
viola – альт (музыкальный инструмент)
violin – скрипка
violoncello – виолончель
valid – действительный, имеющий силу
value – 1. ценность, 2. длительность (ноты)
valve – клапан (духовых инструментов), вентиль
vamp – импровизированный аккомпанемент
variation – вариация
vary – исполнять вариации
vehicle – средство
vein – род, стиль
velvety – бархатный
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visible – видимый
vivacious – веселый; оживленный
vivid – яркий; живой
voice – голос
voiceless – безголосый
volume – сила, полнота (звука)
W
water-colours – акварели
wave – волна
wayward – своенравный; изменчивый
wind – трубить (в рог)
wind-instrument – духовой инструмент
wistful – печальный,
задумчивый
wizardry – колдовство, волшебство
wood-block – деревянная коробочка
woodwinds – деревянные духовые инструменты
wound – ранить
X
xylophone – ксилофон
Y
yield – уступать, поддаваться
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LIST OF SOURCES
1. Кипшидзе А. М. English reader for musical institutes: учебное пособие. –
М., «Высшая школа», 1984. – 112 с.
2. Колодяжная Л. Н. Познакомьтесь: Великобритания. – М., Рольф, Айрис-Пресс, 1999. – 160 с.
3. Либерман Н. И., Фролова-Багреева Н.А., Кедрова М. М. Английский
язык для вузов искусств. English for art students. – М.: Высшая школа,
1989. – 463 с.
4. Осадчук Л. В. Книга для чтения. On musical life in Britain. – М.: Высшая школа, 1983. – 118 с.
5. Поуви Д. Пособие по лексике разговорных тем. – М.: Высшая школа,
1988. – 120 с.
6. Прошкина Е. П. The World of Music: учебное пособие. – М.: Высшая
школа, 1991. – 141 с.
7. Радовель В. А. Английский для поступающих в вузы. – Ростов н/Д:
Феникс, 1999. – 320 с.
8. Страницы музыкальной истории XX века (Музыка второй половины
XX века). – М.: Центр современной музыки, 2003.
9. Тарнаева Л. П. Культура и общение. – СПб.: Союз, 2001. – 240 с.
10. Шевелева С. А. Английский для гуманитариев: учебное пособие
для вузов. – М.: Юнити-Дана, 2002. – 528 с.
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словарь. – М.: Большая Российская энциклопедия, 2001. – 527 с.
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CONTENTS
ВВЕДЕНИЕ………………………………………………………………………………………...………3
I. THE THEORY OF MUSIC............................................................................................. 6
WHAT IS MUSIC?......................................................................................................................................... 6
SOUND: THE MATERIAL OF MUSIC ........................................................................................................ 7
FUNDAMENTAL ELEMENTS OF MUSIC ................................................................................................. 9
A SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, INSTRUMENTS OF THE ORCHESTRA................................................ 10
THE STRING SECTION.............................................................................................................................. 12
THE WOODWIND SECTION ..................................................................................................................... 14
THE BRASS SECTION................................................................................................................................ 16
THE PERCUSSION INSTRUMENTS......................................................................................................... 18
OTHER INSTRUMENTS ............................................................................................................................ 20
II. ENGLISH MUSIC ........................................................................................................ 22
THE HISTORY OF ENGLISH MUSIC ....................................................................................................... 22
HENRY PURCELL ...................................................................................................................................... 24
EDWARD ELGAR....................................................................................................................................... 27
TRADITIONAL TUNES FROM FOLK SINGERS ..................................................................................... 28
ARTHUR BLISS .......................................................................................................................................... 30
A GREAT COMPOSER, CONDUCTOR AND PIANIST ........................................................................... 31
LLOYD WEBBER ....................................................................................................................................... 33
ARTS AND CULTURE OF GREAT BRITAIN........................................................................................... 34
ARTISTIC AND CULTURAL LIFE OF GREAT BRITAIN ....................................................................... 34
ENTERTAINMENT IN BRITAIN .............................................................................................................. 36
ENTERTAINMENT IN LONDON............................................................................................................. 38
GREAT BRITAIN THROUGH THE YEAR ............................................................................................... 42
III. AMERICAN MUSIC................................................................................................... 44
JAZZ: ITS ROOTS AND MUSICAL DEVELOPMENT ............................................................................. 44
JAZZ AS AN IMPORTANT AMERICAN ART MUSIC............................................................................... 46
GEORGE GERSHWIN AND HIS “RHAPSODY IN BLUE” ...................................................................... 47
THE SWING ERA OF "DUKE" ELLINGTON............................................................................................ 50
BENNY GOODMAN ................................................................................................................................... 52
CHARLIE "BIRD" PARKER ....................................................................................................................... 52
ELLA FITZGERALD – A FIRST JAZZ LADY........................................................................................... 53
STYLES OF JAZZ........................................................................................................................................ 54
RAGTIME ................................................................................................................................................. 54
BEBOP...................................................................................................................................................... 55
COOL JAZZ .............................................................................................................................................. 56
FREE JAZZ............................................................................................................................................... 57
JAZZ AS CONCERT MUSIC .................................................................................................................... 59
SOME ACADEMIC COMPOSERS............................................................................................................. 60
ROGER SESSIONS ................................................................................................................................... 60
ROY HARRIS ............................................................................................................................................ 61
PHILLIP GLASS ....................................................................................................................................... 63
IV. RUSSIAN MUSIC........................................................................................................ 65
A REAL MASTER OF OPERAS, BALLETS AND SYMPHONIES........................................................... 65
SERGEI PROKOFIEV ................................................................................................................................. 69
S. PROKOFIEV: "ALEXANDER NEVSKY".............................................................................................. 70
DMITRY SHOSTAKOVICH....................................................................................................................... 71
THE FOURTH AND THE FIFTH STRING QUARTETS ........................................................................... 74
THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE RUSSIAN POST-WAR AVANT-GARDE ............................................. 75
RUSSIAN MUSIC OF THE 1990'S.............................................................................................................. 77
THE SONG-CYCLES OF VALENTIN SILVESTROV............................................................................... 80
THE DUET OF SVETLANA SAVENKO AND YURI POLUBELOV ....................................................... 82
ELENA FIRSOVA – A CONTEMPORARY RUSSIAN COMPOSER ....................................................... 84
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VLADIMIR TARNOPOLSKI ...................................................................................................................... 87
«STUDIO FOR NEW MUSIC» ENSEMBLE .............................................................................................. 88
V. THE HISTORY OF ROCK-MUSIC ........................................................................... 90
WHAT IS ROCK? ........................................................................................................................................ 90
CRUCIAL ROCK MUSICIANS .................................................................................................................. 91
MUSICAL ELEMENTS............................................................................................................................... 94
ROCK AND YOUTH CULTURE ................................................................................................................ 96
ROCK AND ROLL....................................................................................................................................... 96
THE 1960S ..................................................................................................................................................... 98
THE 1970S ..................................................................................................................................................... 99
THE 1980S ................................................................................................................................................... 100
THE 1990S ................................................................................................................................................... 101
CURRENT TREND.................................................................................................................................... 101
ROCK AS A REFLECTION OF SOCIAL AND CULTURAL CHANGE................................................. 102
VI. WORLD-FAMOUS PERFORMERS ...................................................................... 104
LOUIS ARMSTRONG – THE KING OF JAZZ......................................................................................... 104
A GIFTED RUSSIAN PIANIST................................................................................................................. 106
FRANK SINATRA..................................................................................................................................... 107
WORLD-FAMOUS CELLIST ................................................................................................................... 109
BOB DYLAN ............................................................................................................................................. 109
YURI BASHMET – A FOUNDER OF THE CHAMBER ORCHESTRA.................................................. 113
MADONNA ............................................................................................................................................... 116
A SAXOPHONE VIRTUOSO.................................................................................................................... 117
THE BEST BARITONE FROM SIBERIA................................................................................................. 120
VANESSA-MAE........................................................................................................................................ 123
THE ROLLING STONES .......................................................................................................................... 126
ULSTER ORCHESTRA............................................................................................................................. 128
SUPPLEMENTS .............................................................................................................. 130
LIST OF PROPER NAMES .................................................................................................................... 130
LIST OF MUSICAL TERMS ................................................................................................................... 142
GLOSSARY ............................................................................................................................................. 144
ENGLISH-RUSSIAN VOCABULARY ..................................................................................................... 163
LIST OF SOURCES ........................................................................................................ 177
CONTENTS ...................................................................................................................... 179
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