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2551.In the world of Diplomacy

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
А.Н. Войткова
In the world of
Учебное пособие
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In the world of
Учебное пособие
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Министерство образования и науки РФ
ГОУ ВПО «Иркутский государственный лингвистический
А.Н. Войткова
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ББЛ 81.43.1 – 923
Г 37
Печатается по решению редакционно-издательского совета Иркутского государственного лингвистического университета
канд. филол. н., доцент, заведущая кафедрой
«Английского языка (2 специальность)» ИГЛУ, М.А.Егорова;
канд. филол. н., доцент кафедры американистики ИГЛУ
Калашников Э.В.
Войткова А.Н.
In the world of Diplomacy: учеб. пособие / А.Н.Войткова. – Иркутск,
2011. - 68 с..
Учебное пособие содержит обширный аутентичный текстовой материал по актуальным проблемам иноязычной профессиональной коммуникативной деятельности и
систему заданий к нему.
Предназначено для студентов среднего (среднепродвинутого) уровня, обучающихся в вузах с расширенной сеткой преподавания английского языка, а также для студентов 4 курса лингвистического университета неязыковой специальности «Связи с
общественностью». Настоящее пособие направлено на формирование профессиональной дискурсивной иноязычной компетенции.
ББК 81.43.1 – 923
© Войткова А.Н., 2011
© Иркутский государственный лингвистический университет, 2011
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Module I
1. Introduction to the world of Diplomacy. Active vocabulary part.
2. A brief history of diplomacy
3. Wars are won by words not weapon
4. Ministry of foreign affairs (Russia & the USA).
 What is Public Diplomacy?
 Diplomacy & public opinion
Module II
5. Challenges & Rewards of a diplomatic career
 Topical vocabulary
 The challenge a Future diplomat may face
 How to be appointed an ambassador?
 Negotiation on edge. Negotiating behavior
 What makes a diplomat? Diplomatic skills
 Gender in diplomacy
 Diplomat jokes
 Personalities in diplomacy
6. The language of diplomacy.
7. Intercultural communications.
8. Caricatures. Cartoons on Diplomacy.
9. Project work
Additional activities
Movies Talk about diplomacy (“Посол Советского Союза”, “Переводчица”, serials “17 мгновений весны”, “Звездочет”, “Красная Капелла”)
Module III Diplomacy in Business
Business ethics & Culture
Round Tables. Negotiations in Business
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Настоящее учебное пособие является частью серии комплексных
разработок кафедры иностранных языков для специальных целей и предназначено в первую очередь для студентов 1 и 2 курса направления «Музееведение» по дисциплине «Иностранный язык в профессиональной сфере».
Задания составлены в соответствии с учебным планом и рабочей
программой из расчета 34 часов аудиторной работы и 6 часов, предоставленных для самостоятельной работы.
Целью данного пособия является совершенствование уровня профессионально-коммуникативной компетенции в рамках изучаемой темы.
Пособие содержит большой пласт лексических единиц по темам, актуальным для данной дисциплины и упражнения на тренировку активного
вокабуляра, аутентичные тексты и задания к ним, лексико-грамматические
упражнения, письменные и коммуникативные задания.
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Task 1 Introduction.
Ex. 1.1. What is diplomacy? Brainstorming
Which things generally come under the
heading of “diplomacy”? Divide your
group into 2 teams & name as many words as possible
that you can associate with the heading. Discuss them in
class. How many words/phrases/ ideas have coincided?
Dishonesty/ lies
Politics / business
International relations
/ conflicts
Espionage \ spies
Ex. 1.2. Read the following quotations &
sum up the definition of your own to define diplomacy. Complete the diagram below it helps you to reflect your ideas in a
Diplomacy is the art of saying "Nice doggie" until you
can find a rock. Will Rogers
All war represents a failure of diplomacy. Tony Benn
Diplomacy in general does not resolve conflicts. Wars end not due to peace processes, but due to one side giving up. Daniel Pipes
Diplomacy is to do and say the nastiest things in the nicest way. Isaac Goldberg
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Diplomacy means the art of nearly deceiving all your friends, but not quite deceiving all your enemies. Kofi Busia
Diplomats are just as essential to starting a war as soldiers are for finishing it...
You take diplomacy out of war, and the thing would fall flat in a week. Will
In the world of diplomacy, some things are better left unsaid. Lincoln Chafee
To say nothing, especially when speaking, is half the art of diplomacy. Will Durant
Widowhood had done nothing to curb my smart mouth. So much for diplomacy.
Esther Williams
 Which of the quotations have you liked most & why?
Ex. 1.3. YOUR DEFINITION should be here (formulate the
idea of your own):
Ex. 1.4.
A) Study the dictionary entry:
Oxford American Dictionary
■ the profession, activity, or skill of managing international relations, typically
by a country's representatives abroad # an extensive round of diplomacy in the
Middle East
■ the art of dealing with people in a sensitive and effective way
# his genius for tact and diplomacy
■ Origin: late 18th cent.: from French diplomatie, from diplomatique ‘diplomatic’, on the pattern of aristocratie ‘aristocracy’
The noun DIPLOMACY has 3 senses:
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1. negotiation between nations
2. subtly skillful handling of a situation
3. wisdom in the management of public affairs
B) Below are the kinds of diplomacy. Think over the differences.
Gunboat diplomacy - the use of a country's financial
power to extend its international influence
Dollar diplomacy - the use of a country's financial
power to extend its international influence
Kid-glove diplomacy - "дипломатия в лайковых
перчатках", тонкая дипломатия
Ex. 1.5. Below is the opinion of a student
“Diplomacy is the patriotic art of lying for one’s country”. Express yourself on the issue.
Dear friends! Today I’m going to throw light on the issue of diplomacy
as the patriotic art of lying for one’s country.
Abraham Lincoln once said that he did not think much of people, who
hold one point of view forever. I agree with him. This doesn’t refer to diplomacy only, it also deals with more general issues. People should be flexible and
consider the changing conditions. Of course we should be sincere with our close
friends and relatives, because friendship and family relationship should be
based on truthfulness and confidence.
However, if we speak about diplomacy on an international scale, the diplomacy as an ability to make and maintain relations between states and international subjects, we will remember that the main task of a diplomat is to win
wars by words, not weapons. That’s why he has to be flexible and sometimes
smooth-tongued. Thus he is working for the benefit of his country. Therefore
his lies can be called “white lies”!
For example, if a neighboring state observes some problems in the domestic policy of a certain diplomat’s country, it might be thinking about invading
some part of this country. In such a situation, our diplomat will have to improve
the relations between the two states by negotiation. Obviously that it’s impossible to manage this business without a great deal of flexibility.
Under these circumstances, the ability of a diplomat to solve urgent
problems for the benefit of his country by flattery and some other arts and
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wiles is very helpful. So, we can see now, that diplomacy really IS the patriotic
art of lying for one’s country.
I’d like to finish my talk leaving you with one more statement to think about: If
a diplomat says «yes», he means «perhaps»; if he says «perhaps», he means
«no», if he says «no», he is no diplomat.
Sheverdina Irina, Faculty of World Politics
1.5.1. Ponder over the questions
 Is it possible to manage a country (any business)
without flexibility as a main feature?
 Comment on the last saying in the text?
 Do you share the student’s opinion? What do you
agree with & what you don’t?
1.5.2. Match the words from the text & their definitions &
then use the words in the context of your own
1. Flattery
2. Flexible
3. Smooth-tongued
4. Benefit
5. Invade
6. Confidence
7. Urgent
8. Obvious
9. Sincere
10. circumstances
a) (of a person) ready and able to change so as to adapt to different circumstances
b) (of a person) intended to please & flatter
c) the feeling or belief that one can rely on someone or something;
firm trust
d) excessive and insincere praise, esp. that given to further one's
own interests
e) enter a country or region so as to subjugate or occupy it
f) free from pretense or deceit; proceeding from genuine feelings
g) an advantage or profit gained from something
h) (of a state or situation) requiring immediate action or attention
i) a fact or condition connected with or relevant to an event or action
j) easily perceived or understood; clear, self-evident, or apparent
Ex. 1.6. Make up an oral essay of what you think of diplomacy: its advantages & disadvantages & how it can be
related to specialization .
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Ex. 1.7. Study the key vocabulary of the diplomacy & do
the exercises below.
1. Authorize
Authority n
Authorities n
(rule) adj
give official permission for or approval to (an undertaking or agent)
the action or fact of authorizing or being authorized
the power or right to give orders, make decisions, and
enforce obedience
Administration , people in the office
■ able to be trusted as being accurate or true; reliable
# authoritative information and advice | an authoritative
■ commanding and self-confident; likely to be respected
and obeyed # she had an authoritative air | his voice was
calm and authoritative
favoring or enforcing strict obedience to authority, esp.
that of the government, at the expense of personal freedom
Study the meaning of the words in context :
1. The signing of the resolution is to be authorized by Parliament.
2. The Ambassador's authority dominates in the embassy.
3. An authority to handle such matters is to be established.
4. I would like you to show me your authority to act on his behalf.
5. The authorities of the community refused to consider our needs.
6. His authoritative opinion was taken into consideration.
7. It was authoritatively claimed that the taxes would not be raised.
8. No arrest of an individual is possible without an authorization of the court.
9. No democracy is possible under an authoritarian rule.
2. Relate
= link / connect
Maintain relations
Break off relations
1) give an account of (a sequence of events); narrate
2) be causally connected
the way in which two or more people, countries,
or organizations feel about and behave toward
each other
cause or enable (a condition or state of affairs) to
destroy / stop
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Conduct relations
Promote relations
support or actively encourage
Relative adj. (ly)
considered in relation or in proportion to something else
Study the meaning of the words in context :
1. All these problems are related to the economic ones.
2 He was asked to relate the events in their sequence.
3. An important purpose of diplomacy is to promote good relation between states.
4. Many other ministries are engaged in our bilateral relationship.
5. English is relatively simple to learn at the beginning.
6. The relative value of political friendships and alliances is to be estimated.
4. Negotiate with smb v.
Negotiations / talks n.
To conduct negotiations
To carry out negotiations
To carry on negotiations
Negotiator n.
try to reach an agreement or compromise by
discussion with others
Hold negotiations
fulfil, realize negotiations
continue negotiations
Study the meaning of the words in context :
1 The terms of the contract are yet to be negotiated.
2 Their willingness to negotiate was doubtful.
3 The negotiators are expected to start work early next week.
4 The two countries have been negotiating peace for a long time.
5 Negotiations are to be held at a very high level.
6 This involved problem needs negotiating.
Study the meaning of some other words related to diplomacy in context & guess their meaning:
5. appoint, appointment, appointee
1. British prime-minister is officially appointed by the Queen.
2. The appointments to the Cabinet are made by the Prime-minister.
3. You can be received only by appointment.
4. Any appointee to a diplomatic post must possess certain important qualifications.
6. dominate, dominance, domination, dominant
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1 Britain dominated the world trade in the 19th century.
2. Churchill had a forceful character and his dominance in the House of Commons was clearly felt.
3. Napoleon's domination on the Continent encouraged him to prepare an invasion of the British Isles.
4. Domination of Britain in the sea was unchallenged at the time.
5. France grew more and more dominant in the field of diplomacy and imposed
not only its rules but also the Language.
7. involve, involved, involvement
The organization was deeply involved in worldly affairs.
To know the language well involves a lot of practice.
The job of a diplomat involves traveling a lot.
The task is too involved for him to manage it alone.
The organization denied its involvement in the terror act.
The issue involved is to be considered later.
8. maintain, maintenance
Many career diplomats maintain that their job is too challenging!
Nations between the two countries should be maintained at the same
friendly level.
Maintenance of peace in the region is conducted by the UN forces.
Maintenance of the equipment is going to be costly.
A foreign office is responsible for the maintenance of foreign policy
9. respond, response, responsive, (ir) responsible, responsibility
1. The authorities were not certain how to respond to the criticism.
2. Diplomats must be flexible in handling diverse responsibilities.
3. The attack was a response to the death of two Israeli soldiers.
4. The question remains: who is to be responsible for the deal?
5. Teachers are happy to have responsive students, willing to learn.
6. A fundamental belief is that the poor tend to be idle and irresponsible.
PART 2 ***Mind the confusables & derivatives:
10. economic vs economical
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economic - of or relating
to economics or the economy
Economics - the branch of
knowledge concerned with the
production, consumption, and
transfer of wealth
Economist - an expert in
Economical - ■giving good value or service
in relation to the amount of money, time, or effort spent # a small, economical car ■ (of a person or lifestyle) careful not to waste money or
Economy - the wealth and resources of a country or region, esp. in terms of the production and
consumption of goods and services
Economize - spend less; reduce one's expenses
Study the difference between the pairs of words which
may cause confusion in context. Translate the examples.
economics / economy
1 Economics is the science of the production, distribution, and use of goods
and services.
2. Economics is also the financial aspects of a branch of industry.
3. A specialist in economics is called an economist.
4. The economics of the heavy industry has improved lately.
5. Today some special knowledge of international economics can be a very useful asset.
6. The new economics of production offered unprecedented opportunity at
home and abroad.
7. Economy is the system by which a country produces wealth.
8. Economy is also a way of spending and saving money.
9. The economy of the country has suffered severe setbacks lately.
10. The first economy introduced by the government was the reduction of electricity consumption.
economic / economical
1. The economic situation in the country was worsening quickly.
2. The world economic crisis embraced many countries.
3. For a decade or more the slogan in the country was 'Economics must be economical'.
4. Uneconomical ways of spending the fund led to its elimination.
5. The government was considering most economical ways of managing the
6. The economic problems demanded economical management.
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11. diplomat & diplomate
‘diplo’mate - a person who
holds a diploma, esp. a doctor certified as a specialist by a board of
‘diplomat - an official representing a
country abroad (a person who can deal
with people in a sensitive and effective
diplomatic - concerning the profession, activity, or skill of managing international relations # diplomatic relations between the U.S. and
12. policy / politics
Policy (national / public/
home / domestic / foreign)
To conduct a policy
To carry out a policy
Politics (with a singl. verb) the activities associated with the governance of a
country or other area, esp. the debate or
conflict among individuals or parties having or hoping to achieve power
Get/ go into politics
Engage in politics
Get out of the politics
Give up politics
Quit big politics
Policies - a course or principle of action adopted or proposed by a government, party,
business, or individual
Politicians - a person who is Politics (with pl. verb) - a particuprofessionally involved in politics, lar set of political beliefs or principles
esp. as a holder of or a candidate
for an elected office
play politics - act for political or personal gain rather than from principle
Study the difference between the pairs of words which
may cause confusion in context. Translate the examples.
policy / politics
1. Politics is the art and science of governing a country.
2. He has chosen a career in politics.
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3. If you do not care for politics, politics will take care of you.
4. We are always so quick to criticize American politics.
5. A diplomat is not to publish any writing on international politics
6. His politics were a pragmatic mixture of socialism, radical Liberalism and
trade union demands.
7. Policy is a plan of action taken by a government, political party, business,
8. The government must have policies to run the country.
9. This means an economic policy for economy, and foreign policy for actions
taken by the country in other parts of the world.
10. Karl Marx wrote that "politics is born of economics".
1. 9. Fill in the gaps with the right derivatives in the required form.
authorize, authorized, authority, authorization, authoritative(ly), authoritarian
1. The governors had almost absolute……………………...
2. Everyone waited for an ………………….opinion of the Chairman.
3. The communist and fascist dictatorships were different from the
……………….regimes of Latin America.
4. At the period the …………………of the Church was expanded.
5. Discipline and …………………. power were most important,
6. These two ……………………complimented each other.
7. One has to have an……………………….. to take pictures in the palace.
8. The need of the age is ……………………… rather than liberty.
9. The editor refused……………………….. the publication.
10.An official…………………………. to investigate these complaints.
11.…………………agents of a foreign ministry conduct various jobs abroad.
12. The Prime Minister's unique position of ……………………..comes from majority support in the House of Commons.
appoint, appointment, appointee
1. In the organization each had his ……………………………place and function.
2. Non-professional diplomats are often referred to as political……………………….
3. The real power of……………………. ministers lies with the president,
4. The way diplomats…………….. in the USA is often criticized.
5. In the US the…………………to diplomatic posts often receive them as a gratitude from the elected president for their financial support.
6. One can get to his office only by……………………..
7. In the US most ambassadorial………………….are gained through financial contributions.
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8. The prime minister has the power__________ ministers.
dominate, dominance, dominant, domination
1. Britain's early 19th century commercial______gave way to United States'
economic, diplomatic and cultural_______in the 20th century.
2. The island countries of the Caribbean_________by distant European economic and political powers.
3. The civilization of ancient Greece and Rome had extended its political_______into North Western Europe.
4. Today multilateral mechanisms have become_________.
5. From the_______aggressive power in European international politics
France almost overnight became a victim state.
6. The Conservatives managed ___________the voting.
7. Of the four_______personalities of the early sixteenth century - Charles V
was the central figure.
8. Religion became again a_________ factor even in politics.
9. If there is any challenge at all to the________of English, it may come from
inside America itself.
10. In the newly independent states English was associated with colonial_______of the past.
11. The English language___________at international forums.
12. These skills are…………….. in the activities of a diplomat.
13. In the 16th centuries 'the French system of diplomacy' emerged
and________international relations.
14. The________ English invariably took the loyalty of the other countries for
15. Disagreeing with the………………….. view is dangerous.
involve, involved, involvement
1. The job is monotonous and_________attention but no initiative.
2. The implementation of the task will require the ________ of all the staff.
3 The new appointment will________moving from place to place.
4. Their relations are too much__________.
5. The arrested denied any_________in the robbery.
6. In some instances regional interests___________and this will also demand
7. The expansion of political, economic and social issues have pushed diplomats
to increased________in external affairs of domestic ministries.
negotiate, negotiation, negotiator
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1 Rapid communication now enables a__________to remain in constant touch
with the government throughout.
2. ________ help improve state-to-state relations.
3. The terms of the contract_________are to be studied carefully.
4. In________ both parties demonstrated their willingness to cooperate.
5. The treaty is ……………….. before being signed.
6. The ………………….. were dominated by the mediator's authority.
7.______ and arbitration skills are necessary for a diplomat.
relate, relation(s), relationship(s), relative(ly), unrelated
1. The links between persons or states are referred to as_______.
2. These two developments were closely_______
3. After the end of the Napoleonic Wars, Europe experienced almost a century
4. The revolution was accomplished with ……………………… little bloodshed.
5. Those were four central ideas closely…………………….to each other.
6. The intricate ……………… between state and church may be studied in England
on a …………….. large scale.
7. The decision was delayed by an …………………. dispute over the procedure.
8. The Senator was accused of having given posts to his ……………………….
9. For centuries, maintaining __________between nations through the exchange of representatives has been the task of diplomacy
10. These two events are hard_________to each other.
respond, response, responsive, responsible, responsibility
1. The uprising was people's_______to the government reforms.
2. The trade union leaders waited for the authorities_______ to their demands.
3. The defence secretary is_________for the armed forces.
4. All the …………….. for the taken decision is to be laid on the head of the department.
5. Children are ……………….to kindness.
6. ________students do not need to be forced to study.
7. Considerate people are always ________to other people's misfortunes.
8. All of us should share the_______for what has happened.
9. In_______to the criticism some arguments were produced.
10. The ………………….for the failure of the reform is to be laid on the government.
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represent, representation, representative; present(ly), presentation, presence
1. ………………….of credentials is held officially.
2. Foreign Service work involves, among others, the functions of ……………………..
3. He was……………… an official ………………….of the company.
4. One of the rewards that careers in the Foreign Service offer is pride and satisfaction of________your country abroad.
5. Presidents and chairpersons of international institutions are from the ranks
of member states' ……………
6. The question is whether ………………abroad should reflect a country's economic difficulties
7. Learning a language may______ difficulty when there is low or no motivation.
8. The community in which the UN diplomat operates is composed
of_______of other governments.
9. The features the typical diplomat_________an infinite variety.
10. The congress was very________. The heads of all major powers
11. The tradition leading to the ……………….world system of international relations originated in ancient Greece. 12. _________, you must accept
the_________of others or they would not accept you.
13. Public diplomacy activities often______ many differing views as________by
private individuals and organizations.
14. Textbooks ………………….science as a noble search for truth.
economy (ies) / economics
1. For a quarter of a century politicians have argued over the relevance and
usefulness of 'Western'________to 'non-Westen’ ………………….
2. It can be said that an early definition of________was ‘An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations'.
3. The national_________is the system of the management and use of resources of a country.
4. The first ______ introduced by the government involved the reduction of
fuel consumption.
5. The developing countries are mainly agricultural producers whose _______is
based on relatively primitive farming methods.
6. The emergence of a global______is to be welcomed because it contributes
to international harmony.
7. _______influences politics at every level.
8. National_________have increasingly been integrated into a single, global
9. The ………………… campaign is gaining ground.
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10. In the early sixteenth century the European expanding with unprecedented
economic / (uneconomical (ly)
1. Inflation may cause a country to be in a bad ……………….. state
2. It is usually more_________to buy large quantities of a product.
3. First we need to improve our ……………. situation.
4. We must be more ……………….if we want to overcome our
5. The U.S. ambassador is known to communicate a lot with people on
6. The________ties between our countries are strengthening.
7. He insists that the budget for the next year is very_______.
8. The question is whether representation abroad should reflect a country's____ ___difficulties.
19. The United States dominates all other countries not only ………….but also
10 ________ policy in this branch of industry has led to its decline
policy /politics
1. An ideal diplomat is to share his government's____
2. He is a democrat that is why I can't share his______
3. What principles in defence___ is your country guided by?
4. Home______should be guided by the interests of the people.
5. P.C. is initialism for Politically Correct, a term for taking a position in
______or otherwise, which is offensive to no one.
6. We expect all employees to follow the company______regarding dress code.
7. He is much concerned with the specific details of public …………………..
8. …………… is a way of conducting_______.
9. One of the main …………………… of the government is to reduce unemployment.
10. He has been thinking for some time of getting out of________
11 ________is the activity through which people make, preserve and amend
rules under which they live.
12. In practice his_________was always to choose whatever course would
benefit Britain.
13. From the dominant, aggressive power in European international
_________ France almost overnight became a victim state.
14. Religion became again a dominant factor even in ………………… for another
century and a half
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15. Public bills include measures relating to public…………………
1. 11. Translate the sentences into English.
a. use economy, economics, economic, economical, economist
1. Эти цифры указывают на спад одной из самых удачных экономик.
2. Экономика государства - важная отрасль знания.
3 Экономисты сделали вывод, что экономика выходит из кризиса.
4 Наша экономика развивается очень медленно, если развивается вообще.
5 Самый большой кризис в экономике США наблюдался в 30-е годы прошлого века и получил название 'Великой депрессии'.
6. Во многих областях экономической деятельности наблюдается спад, и
все ждут, когда экономика вновь начнет быстро развиваться.
7. Экономичное использование бюджетных средств - это первое, что
необходимо для поднятия экономики.
8. Экономика сельского хозяйства требует пристального внимания правительства.
9. Экономические санкции не всегда приводят к желаемому результату.
10. Многие уверены, что страна стоит перед экономическим кризисом.
b. use 'policy' or 'politics'
1. Государственная политика по этому вопросу не определена.
2. Политика отечественной автомобильной промышленности оставляет
желать лучшего, (leaves much to be desired.
3. Изучать политику - значит по сути изучать науку управления или осуществления власти.
4. Большой политикой занимается ограниченный круг людей.
5. Внешняя политика страны стала главным вопросом для обсуждения.
6. Что влияет на политические взгляды людей?
7. Одна из задач дипломата - объяснять политику своего государства за
8. Успеху такого политического курса могут способствовать различные
A Brief History of Diplomacy
Ex. 2.1. Read the text & answer the questions below to
check the information from it.
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 Where was the practice of diplomacy used? Who were the diplomats that
 Where were modern diplomacy's origins traced to?
 What kind of relationships did they have that time? What kind of missions
were recognized & became the standard?
 Why was old diplomacy dominated by the French system?
 Who was an ambassador at that time? What were the requirements for an
 What are the tasks of a resident ambassador?
 What is the difference between an envoy & ambassador? How were they
 When? Why & by whom was the system of diplomacy disrupted?
 What did Napoleon refuse to acknowledge related to diplomacy?
 Until what event did diplomacy persisted for over a century?
 What role has diplomacy played & continue to play in international relationships?
A Brief History of Diplomacy
The ability to practice diplomacy is one of the defining elements of a
state, and diplomacy has been practiced since the formation of the first citystates. Originally diplomats were sent only for specific negotiations, and would
return immediately after their mission concluded. Diplomats were usually relatives of the ruling family or of very high rank in order to give them legitimacy
when they sought to negotiate with the other state.
One notable exception involved the relationship between the Pope and
the Byzantine Emperor. Papal agents, called apocrisiarii, were permanently
resident in Constantinople. After the 8th century, however, conflicts between the
Pope and the Emperor (such as the Iconoclastic controversy) led to the breaking
down of these close ties.
Diplomacy was then a game of wits played in a narrow circle. And etiquette took an incredible amount of time. The ‘haute diplomatie’ appeared as a
process of exalted haggling, conducted with an utter disregard of the ordinary
standards of morality, but with the exquisite politeness in accordance with more
& more elaborate rules.
Modern diplomacy's origins are often traced to the states of Northern Italy in the early Renaissance, with the first embassies being established in the
thirteenth century. Milan played a leading role, especially under Francesco Sforza who established permanent embassies to the other cities states of Northern
Italy. It was in Italy that many of the traditions of modern diplomacy began,
such as the presentation of an ambassador's credentials to the head of state.
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The practice spread from Italy to the other European powers. Milan was
the first to send a representative to the court of France in 1455. Milan however refused to host French representatives fearing espionage and possible intervention in internal affairs. As foreign powers such as France and Spain became increasingly involved in Italian politics the need to accept emissaries was
recognized. Soon all the major European powers were exchanging representatives. Spain was the first to send a permanent representative when it appointed
an ambassador to the Court of England in 1487. By the late 16th century, permanent missions became the standard.
Many of the conventions of modern diplomacy developed during this period. The top rank of representatives was an ambassador. An ambassador at this
time was almost always a nobleman - the rank of the noble varied with the
prestige of the country he was posted to. Defining standards emerged for ambassadors, requiring that they have
large residences, host lavish parties, and play an important role in
the court life of the host nation.
In Rome, the most important post
for Catholic ambassadors, the
French and Spanish representatives sometimes maintained a retinue of up to a hundred people.
Even in smaller posts, ambassadors could be very expensive.
Smaller states would send and receive envoys who were one level below an
Ambassadors from each state were ranked by complex codes of precedence that were much disputed. States were normally ranked by the title of the
sovereign; for Catholic nations the emissary from the Vatican was paramount,
then those from the kingdoms, then those from duchies and principalities. Representatives from republics were considered the lowest envoys.
Ambassadors at that time were nobles with little foreign or diplomatic
experience and needed to be supported by a large embassy staff. These professionals were sent on longer assignments and were far more knowledgeable
about the host country. Embassy staff consisted of a wide range of employees,
including some dedicated to espionage. The need for skilled individuals to staff
embassies was met by the graduates of universities, and this led to an increase in
the study of international law, modern languages, and history at universities
throughout Europe.
At the same time, permanent foreign ministries were established in almost all European states to coordinate embassies and their staffs. These ministries were still far from their modern form. Many had extraneous internal responsibilities. Britain had two departments with frequently overlapping powers until 1782. These early foreign ministries were also much smaller. France,
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which boasted the largest foreign affairs department, had only 70 full-time employees in the 1780s.
the French diplomacy developed several key features of contemporary diplomacy – resident ambassadors, the art of conducting secret negotiations, ceremonial duties & protocol.
The elements of modern diplomacy slowly spread to Eastern Europe and
arrived in Russia by the early eighteenth century. The entire system was greatly
disrupted by the French Revolution and the subsequent years of warfare. The
revolution would see commoners take over the diplomacy of the French state,
and of those conquered by revolutionary armies. Ranks of precedence were
abolished. Napoleon also refused to acknowledge diplomatic immunity, imprisoning several British diplomats accused of scheming against France. He
had no patience for the often slow moving process of formal diplomacy.
After the fall of Napoleon, the Congress of Vienna of 1815 established an
international system of diplomatic rank. Disputes on precedence among nations
(and the appropriate diplomatic ranks used) persisted for over a century until
after World War II, when the rank of ambassador became the norm.
As a consequence, the tasks of the new multilateral diplomacy have been
broaden. Diplomacy now involves not only presenting credentials & participating in the diplomatic circuits & various functions of a national capital, but
also it requires special art of explaining & defending national policies at a global level in a variety of international organizations. Diplomats working both in
foreign offices & international organizations contribute to gathering information, laying the groundwork for new initiatives of their governments, reducing interstate friction, creating & amending international rules.
Ex. 2.2. Fill in the table below with the English equivalent
taken from the text
Делать вклад во чтото
Собрать информацию
Игры в остроумии
Использовать дипломатию
Устанавливать законность
Византийская империя
Близкие связи
В дипломатических
Исправлять (ситуации)
Основа для
Уменьшить конфликты
между государствами
Знаменитое исключение (из правил)
Папа Римский
Миссия закончена
Вести переговоры с
Ко двору Франции
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Истоки ведут
Эпоха Возрождения
Отказаться принять
Стать нормой (2)
Традиции правила
нечто, дающее человеку право заниматься определённой деятельностью
назначить на должность посла
не потерпеть
В внутренние дела
Жизнь при дворе
Устраивать (принимать) богаты е приемы
первенство, превосходство; более высокое положение;
высший верховный
графство герцогство
знать много
принимающая страна
привести к чему-то
работа с перекрытием,
работа с совмещением
посадить в тюрьму
замышлять (недоброе) ;
плести интриги,
Ex. 2.3. Comment on: Diplomacy & politics is a matter of survival in the next 100 years..
Diplomacy is the foundation and practical realization of politics.
For example, diplomacy is similar to the Earth, while politics
can be compared to changing seasons. Today politics can bear
this colour, next day it is tinted differently. However without
diplomacy politics is colourless, shadeless, unimpressive!! By
Ivan Systsov, Faculty of World Politics
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Ex. 2.4. Make up situations on cards where it is appropriate to resort to diplomacy.
 Would you like to be appointed ambassador? Why yes
or Why not? Give your reasons
Ex. 2.5. Make up dialogues on the following: ‘if there is
an important role of diplomacy & its integral part nowadays’. One of you is a journalist & another one is an ambassador. Base your talk on the information above. Talk
about the topicality about diplomacy nowadays
Revision. Vocabulary part
Complete the sentences with correct derivatives of the words in brackets.
1. (authorize) agents maintain mutual (relate).
2. Secret (negotiate) have always been a key feature of diplomacy.
3. Britain became one of the first major powers to reopen diplomatic (relate)
with Russia.
4. The (appoint) secretaries are (respond) for the (manage) of foreign affairs.
5. (dominate) of French diplomacy in previous centuries is common
6. The conduct of (relate) in old diplomacy was on the bilateral basis.
7. (negotiate) with governments and defence of national policies is one of the
tasks of diplomacy.
8. (establish) of international organizations broadened the tasks of diplomacy.
9. An (authorize) for search is to be given by court.
10. The basis of bilateral diplomacy is (maintain) of state-to-state (relate).
11. The (appoint) of ambassadors is the (respond) of the Foreign Secretary.
12. They decided, even at the loss of several days, to wait for the new (appoint), who was highly recommended to them.
13. He thought that a Canadian Prime Minister might have more influence in a
joint (relate) than under total independence.
14. He could become a mediator, with (authorize) and power which could be
fostered and enlarged.
15. The (dominate) feature of modern diplomacy is that it is conducted multilaterally.
16. Public diplomacy is as necessary for (maintain) and strengthening of friendly (relate) with other countries as traditional diplomacy.
17. The Prime Minister insisted that (economics) Canada will have big opportunities.
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18. Non-career diplomats are often called political (appoint).
19. One of the main problems of modern international intercourse is the increasing (respond) of diplomacy to public opinion.
20. In the international organizations diplomats serve not only as (represent)
and (promote) of their country's interests guided by the instructions of national
(authorize) and as their political advisers but also as (contribute) to the interests of the global (communicate).
Supply appropriate English equivalents to the Russian
1. Various types of (политических) forums are to be distinguished from the
UN's own regional (экономических) commissions.
2. Diplomacy is the method by which nation-states, (через уполномоченных)
agents, (поддерживают) mutual (отношения), (общаются) with each other,
and (выполняют) political, (экономические) and legal tasks.
3. The new diplomacy (подразумевала) the (создание) of an international organization to act as a forum for peaceful settlement of disputes.
4. (общение осуществляется при помощи) verbal exchanges.
5. Special knowledge of international (политике) can be very useful.
6. A diplomat is expected to have an out-going personality and a capacity
(поддерживать) strong personal (связи).
7. Much of the Foreign Office's work is (ведется) in secret.
8. When Churchill (был назначен) a secretary for the colonies he
worked toward the (создание) of new Arab states.
9. Churchill insisted on Hitler's unconditional surrender - peace (путем переговоров) never entered into his (планы).
10. Secretariat staff (занимается) in surveys of world (экономических) and
social trends and problems.
11. (Господство) of the French diplomacy was natural due to the (господствующему) position of France in (экономической) and (политической)
spheres over the whole Europe.
12. The (назначение) as an ambassador to the U.S. does not often
depend on the qualifications of the (назначенца).
13. (Представительство) of the country in this international organization was
very limited.
14. (При осуществлении) her (политики) Margaret Thatcher (отвечала) by
force to force,
15. We try (вовлекать) many of other ministries to have active roles
in our (двухсторонних отношениях).
16. Political (назначенцы) gain their (авторитет) in science, culture, (политике
и экономике).
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Ex. 3.1. Read the essays on
“Wars are won by words not
weapon” sum up the ideas mentioned in the table below.
Wars are won by
words not weapons.
It's common knowledge
that ordinary people consider wars to be the result of
arts and wiles of politicians. It may be a true statement as diplomas’ words can be really influential and
they can move heaven and earth to achieve their goals.
Sometimes atomic diplomacy or other threats can lead
to horrible and disruptive wars, and I'm sure that
every involved diplomat may ask himself the same question as one
Molier's character: "Mais que diable allait-il faire dans cette galere?" which means "What the devil am I doing?"
I truly believe that every war can be finished even without being
started. Negotiation is the most acceptable way of solving any problem rather than a lot of bloodshed. I hope that diplomats will build
bridges, not walls and people from all over the world will sleep peacefully in their homes.
Nataly Yurtchishina, Faculty of World Politics
Wars are won by words not weapons.
For centuries people have tried to solve their problems by negotiation. To escape conflicts and wars
they have used words to persuade their opponents.
That’s where diplomacy begins.
As is known to everyone, diplomacy is an intellectual
activity and decision–making derived from on–going
analysis of current situations. Diplomacy includes
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the combination of ways and abilities which any state can use for its
worthy existence in the world and for establishing cooperation with
other members of international community.
However who plays the main role in diplomacy? Of course it’s a diplomat.
A diplomat is the only person who can win the war by words, not
weapons. That’s what makes him one of the most important people in
any country’s government. I would also like to mention that not any
diplomat is able to play and win the game of international intrigue.
It’s common knowledge that a perfect diplomat should possess a
combination of endless ingenuity, wit and common sense comparable
to, for example, Confucius’s wisdom. Moreover, diplomats must be
highly qualified experts to be able to solve any problem even in an
unpredictable situation.
Once Abraham Lincoln said: “I don’t think much of people who are not
flexible.” Flexibility is a very important quality of a diplomat.
Turning to my final point I should say that only the possession of all
the characteristics I’ve mentioned above can turn an ordinary person
into a professional diplomat and let him win any political game on national or international scale.
Olga Ignatyeva, Faculty of World Politics
Wars are won by words not weapons.
I’d like to comment on this statement because in my
opinion it is a very wise aphorism which should be
considered by any serious politician.
There is no doubt that being a diplomat or a politician is a great responsibility. The decision-making of
these people may cause wars or (if the worst comes
to the worst) many unpredictable situations. That’s
why diplomats should always act adequately and be flexible in the
changing conditions. For example, Abraham Lincoln was a wise politician and a flexible diplomat. These qualities determined his success
in the American Civil War.
Apparently, the only way to solve serious problems between countries
is negotiations. Reaching an agreement is the most difficult task. A
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single word may influence the whole world’s history. That’s why a
smart diplomat should draw upon the heritage of the past.
For example, Prophet Muhammad was a very wise and tolerant diplomat. Once he was exiled from Mecca because of his belief in a single
God, while others were pagans. But he faced the challenge and coped
with it. He conquered people by his Words, not weapons. He won the
city without violence and bloodshed.
To sum it up I would like to emphasize that all wars should be won by
means of words not battles. And those who are able to act according
to this principle demonstrate tolerant and wise diplomacy.
Amir Abdalov, Faculty of World Politics
Wars are won by words, not weapons.
Leo Tolstoy once said that wars are the nastiest things that can ever happen.
However there are a lot of armed conflicts in
today’s world. Of course, it is the consequence of
the wrong diplomacy which belligerent powers carry
out. Therefore the main task of diplomacy is to get
all people of all countries to live in peace and safety. That’s why a person who wants to follow diplomacy as a career should understand that thousands
and even millions of human lives depend on his or her decisions. A
good diplomat should try to solve every conflict by means of negotiation. Moreover, in addition to endless ingenuity a good diplomat
should possess wit and common sense, comparable to, for example,
Confucius’s wisdom. In fact, diplomacy is an ability to build and maintain relationships between countries; it helps to prevent wars and
senseless deaths of peaceful citizens. Among other things diplomacy
is the tool for making coalitions and creating alliances. On the other
hand one wrong word or irrelevant expression of a diplomat can cause
a major conflict. That’s why a model diplomat should also possess
specific abilities such as language and communicative skills; he or she
should be flexible and consider the changing conditions. Diplomats
should be led by policy rather than sentiment, in other words they
should draw upon their own knowledge and experience.
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Diplomacy helps to avoid wars and conflict by different means.
For example, it can warn the confronting states about the consequences of their conflict, because sometimes belligerents don’t even
imagine the real danger of a war; or it can try to reconcile them after having found all the circumstances and reasons of the problem.
Conflicts appear all the time, but,
fortunately, not all of them beRussian
come the real world-wide probMinistry
lems. Of course it is a merit of
of Foreign
diplomacy and diplomats, who try Affairs
their best to stop disagreement
between the parties. By Nikolay
Balan, Faculty of World Politics
Ex. 3.2. Fill in the table according to the essays above.
Argument for & against
4.1. Surf the net & get information about Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Russia
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia is the central government institution charged with leading the foreign affairs of Russia.
See also
List of Russian foreign ministers
In connection with the Moscow building that houses the Ministry's main office:
All-Russia Exhibition Centre
Hotel Leningradskaya
Ministry of Heavy Industry of Russia
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Moscow State University
Palace of Soviets
Academy of Science (Riga)
Seven Sisters (Moscow)
Warsaw Palace of Culture and Science
Make reports on the things above
4.2. Get the information about the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in the USA.
4.3. What public diplomacy
is and is not
When, early in their careers,
Anwar Sadat, Valery Giscard d'Estaing, Helmut Schmidt, Raul Alfonsin,
and Margaret Thatcher, among many
other national leaders, visited the United States under the educational exchange programs of the United States
government, U.S. public diplomacy
was at work. When Latin Americans
viewed a film called The Trip on their
local television stations, depicting the dangers of illegal narcotics trafficking to
all societies, including their own, they were watching a product made by USIA,
the U.S. Government's public diplomacy agency. When U.S. astronauts landed
on the moon for the first time, it was the Voice of America, the radio service of
USIA, that carried Neil Armstrong's words to millions here on earth.
When a student or a scholar in a developing country conducts research in
a U.S. information center in his capital city, he is utilizing one of the popular
services provided by U.S. public diplomats in his country. When a newspaper
correspondent in a country that has diplomatic relations with the U.S. asks for
clarification of a statement allegedly made by a high-ranking U.S. official, he
contacts the U.S. Embassy's press attache -- a U.S. public diplomat. When a student or an educator in a foreign country wants to know more about U.S. education in general or a specific college or university program in the U.S., it may be
a U.S. public diplomat, or someone on his staff, to whom such a query can best
be directed.
When a U.S. performing artist is on a foreign tour sponsored by the U.S.
Government, U.S. public diplomats in the cities the artist visits will publicize the
tour and make arrangements for his or her performances. When a need is per32
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ceived to publish a pamphlet in a particular country or group of countries on a
subject of binational interest, U.S. public diplomats may plan such a pamphlet
and arrange its publication and distribution. These are but a few of the various
activities with which the practitioners of public diplomacy become involved, but
they demonstrate the scope and variety of modern public diplomacy.
Public diplomacy defined
According to the Planning Group for Integration of USIA into the Dept. of
State (June 20, 1997), public diplomacy is defined as follows:
"Public Diplomacy seeks to promote the national interest of the United
States through understanding, informing and influencing foreign audiences."
The Planning Group distinguished Public Affairs from Public Diplomacy
as follows:
"Public Affairs is the provision of information to the public, press and
other institutions concerning the goals, policies and activities of the U.S. Government. Public affairs seeks to foster understanding of these goals through dialogue with individual citizens and other groups and institutions, and domestic
and international media. However, the thrust of public affairs is to inform the
domestic audience."
4.3.1. Prove that:
a) The U.S. Public Diplomacy is dependent on the US Government
b) The U.S. Public Diplomacy is at work round the world
c) Public Diplomacy differes from traditional diplomacy
d) Public Diplomacy is not the same as public affairs
4.3.2. Discuss the following
1. Does public diplomacy work in your country?
2. Who & what are engaged in it?
3. What examples of public diplomacy at work in
your country can you give?
4. Is public diplomacy independent of the government?
5. In what areas does public diplomacy seem to be
the most effective: publications, motion pictures,
cultural exchanges, education or radio & television?
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Read the text below. Find arguments 'for' and 'against9 diplomacy to be open to public criticism. Do the tasks that
Vocabulary notes to the text:
1. glare - severe look; scrutiny - close look
2. to veil - to cover up
3. eloquence - the art of speaking or writing beautifully
4. personal fascination - personal charm, attractiveness
5. reticence - silence, reserve
6. to take into confidence - to make people believe
Diplomacy and Public Opinion
One of the main problems of moderm international intercourse is the increasing responsibility of diplomacy to public opinion. The question is how far
has the public discussion of international affairs affected the legitimate functions
of diplomacy: for the better or for the worse? To the diplomat of the old school
the answer seems clear. For him diplomacy was too delicate, too personal an art
to survive the glare and confusion of publicity.
A master of the old diplomatic art of intrigue, of veiling his purpose under
a cloud of eloquence, moreover, of the art of person fascination was Metternich.
Public opinion to him was only a dangerous force to be kept under control.
Distinct from him was George Canning, who may be called the great prototype
of the new diplomacy. He saw clearly the immense force that would be added to
his diplomatic action if he had behind him the force of public opinion.
The success of the policy of a foreign minister in a democratic state must
ultimately rely on the support of public opinion, but the necessity for its support
in the conduct of foreign affairs has its peculiar dangers. In the difficult game of
diplomacy a certain reticence always necessary. Thus, even in Great Britain, the diplomatic correspondence laid before parliament is carefully edited.
The appeal to public opinion may be used as a diplomatic weapon.
Bismarck, whose statesmanship was at least as cynical as that Metternich,
was a master of the art of taking the world into confidence when it suited him to
do so; and the reptile press, hired to give seemingly independent support to his
policy, was one of his most potent weapons. So far the only necessary consequence of the growth of the power of the public opinion on the art of diplomacy
has been to extend the sphere of its application.
a. look back at the text and answer the italicized question put
in the text.
b. Discuss the following ideas with the class or with a partner;
support or challenge them
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1. Diplomacy is too delicate, too personal an art to survive the glare and confusion of publicity.
2. The success of the policy of a foreign minister in a democratic state must ultimately rely on the support of public opinion.
3. In the difficult game of diplomacy a certain reticence is always necessary.
4.5. Complete the text with the words given below.
Advancing, representatives, unlikely, ambassadors (2), relations, public, promoting(2)} politicians, management, appears, fluently, major, engaging(2), current, certain
The British Foreign Office in the 21st century.
One thing we can say for (1) ………………………..about the future Foreign Office is that it will not be immune to change. And it will always have its critics as
well as admirers. In 2000 the Foreign Policy Center, a New Labour think-tank,
proposed replacing traditional (2)……………………and diplomats, businessmen and
foreign nationals by computers. The same year Robin Cook, the Foreign Secretary, voiced his desire to see the Foreign Office staffed by more (3)________of
ethnic minorities, more women, and fewer products of Britain's elite
(4)________ schools.
The main role of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office continue to be
the (5)__________of Britain's foreign (6)…………………….. a day-to-day basis, and
running of Britain's embassies abroad. The work of the overseas missions (7)________ trade, (8) ………………… in dialogue with local (9)________and
(10)________British interests, (11) ________ cultural, social and educational
links, and (12) ………………….in 'public' diplomacy - is (13)
………………redundant Today's (14) …………………………abroad are visible, highprofile figures - Francis Bertie, Ambassador to France in the early twenty century, gave only one or two speeches in his thirteen years in France whereas Michael Jay, the (15) ________ Ambassador, (16) ………………….
_________ frequently on French news programmes, speaking (17)
________in French.
Britain may not have been able to resolve its position with Europe and its
place in the world, but it nevertheless remains true that Britain's history and its
ambitions ensure it will play a (18) ………….. ……… role in the world well into the
twenty-first century.
4.6. Look through the service record of Alexander Vershbow, 49, fоrmer American Ambassador to Russia. Do a
two-way translation of an interview given by him to a Rus35
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sian correspondent. Learn the interview and role-play it in
Alexander Vershbow
Place of birth: Boston, Massachusetts
Wife Lisa, sons Benjamin and Gregory
Education: B. A. in Russian and East European Studies from Yale University
(1974), Master's degree in International Relations and Certificate of the Russian
Institute from Columbia University (1976).
Diplomatic rank: Career Minister
Previous posts:
1998-2001: US Ambassador to NATO
1994 -1997: Special assistant to the President and Senior Director for European
Affairs at the National Security Council.
1993 - 1994: Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for European and
Canadian affairs.
1991 - 1993: U.S. Deputy Permanent Representative and Charge d'Affairs of the
US mission to NATO.
1988 -1991: Director of the State Department's Office of Soviet Union Affairs.
1985 -1988: Served in the U.S. Embassy in London. 1981 - 1985: Served in the
Office of Soviet Union Affairs. 1979 -1981: Served in the U.S. Embassy in
Moscow. 1977 - 1979: Served in the Bureau of Politico-Military Affairs.
http:/ /
Interviewer: Как Вы смотрите на вашу роль посла?
Ambassador: First of all, I am here to represent US interests, which lie in doing
what President Bush wants to do.
I : Как бы Вы сформулировали цели, которые преследует господин Буш в
нашей стране?
А: President Bush is seeking to transform the Russian-American relationship into something that approaches not just a partnership but an alliance. So my role is
to play an active part in trying to explain - to what is still a rather skeptical Russian elite of public opinion ~ that we do have common interests.
I. Что же, как посол, Вы практически делаете для этого?
A. I have been deliberately active in engaging with the Russian Press and doing
public speaking events in order to get our side of the story into circulation. And
I'm also trying to promote goodwill by taking an active part in cultural activities
and social events, bringing a lot different people into our great national resource,
Spaso House.
I. С кем в России Вы общаетесь больше всего?
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A. Obviously as a diplomat I deal with first and foremost with the Ministry of
Foreign Affairs - with the minister and the deputy ministers primarily - but we
also have regular contacts with people in the presidential administration and the
Russian Security Council. I also have a lot of interaction with people on the
economic side. We try to engage many of the other ministries to have active
roles in our bilateral relationship - atomic energy science and technology, finance, labour. I try to spend a lot of time with the print and broadcast media,
and involve think-tankers are influential one way or another. So it's a busy job.
Discuss the following in pairs or with the class.
1. What are the aims of a resident ambassador abroad?
2. How does he try to achieve those aims?
3. What are his responsibilities as the host of an embassy?
4. Who does he deal with most in the host country?
5. What are his relations with the government he represents?
4.7. Render the text into English. Use the active vocabulary for the underlined words.
Значительный вклад в становление и укрепление державы обретение
ею прочных международных связей и позиций внесли первые российские
послы. Определенная последовательность дипломатических должностей и рангов упоминалась в знаменитой петровской "Табели о
рангах": атташе, секретарь, второй секретарь, первый секретарь,
советник, посланник, посол.
Названия у должностей в МИД такие же, как и у рангов. Но часто
на практике ранг отстает от должности. Ранги присваиваются
пожизненно и сохраняются, даже если человек уходит с дипломатической
Посол - высший ранг, но не самая высокая должность. Тех, прошел
все ступеньки дипломатической службы, называть карьерными дипломатами. Послами или посланниками могут стать и непрофессионалы. Таких дипломатов называют политическими назначенцами. Свой
авторитет они завоевали науке, культуре, политике или экономике.
Общеизвестно, что из сотен стран мира большую политику вершат
не больше десятка. Естественно, значимость и авторитет у послов в этих
странах выше, чем у других.
США ввело понятие народной дипломатии, которая осуществляет
связи между правительственными учреждениями государства с негосударственными учреждениями или гражданами других стран.
4.8. Discuss the following statements in class; choose one
and write a comment on it of about 80 words.
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a. "An ambassador is one official the state cannot do without".
b. "Ambassadors are eyes and ears of states."
С. Diplomatic methods are often more effective than forceful actions.
d. Many people maintain that diplomacy is one of the black arts.
Remember that writing a comment is expressing your opinion on the subject,
which is similar to writing a composition, but in which you produce your own
arguments supporting or rejecting the idea stated.
You may begin with:
I (don’t) support the statement / the idea expressed because ... ' or I (don't)
quite agree with the statement involved because ... or 'To my mind/ In my opinion there is a lot of/ little truth in the statement...
In developing your idea use such words as: First (ly), secondly), thirdly) ...
Furthermore, moreover, however, though, on the one hand ... on the other
hand... etc.
When finishing your writing use:
To conclude, To sum up, In conclusion,
Summing up I 'd like to repeat /to emphasize / to point out again that...,
It is worth repeating / emphasizing /pointing out again ...
4.9. Here are two short texts criticizing the US diplomacy.
What is being criticized? Read and discuss the texts.
a. an extract from the book Talking To Strangers by Monteagte Stearns, a
former U.S. diplomat.
The United States may be the only remaining military superpower but in its
approach to diplomacy it too often looks like the remaining banana republic.
Professionalism is prized in the U.S in virtually all professions except diplomacy. Our closest allies take diplomacy more seriously than we do. So do our adversaries. In its day even the Soviet Union, not a state that relied on diplomacy
when intimidation was an option, managed its foreign service less cavalierly
than do most American administrations. In the training they gave their young
diplomats, especially language training, the Soviets were light years ahead of us.
Typically, promising candidates were identified in secondary school and after
passing their entry examinations spent five years in a diplomatic prep-school
(the Moscow State Institute for International Relations). The orientation training
of US Foreign Service officers, including language training, is less than a year.
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Effective communication with foreigners requires the ability to speak their
languages, to understand other cultures, to see the world through other eyes.
Comprehension of a foreign culture is impossible to achieve without proficiency
in the language. Only by knowing what the world looks like from inside will
diplomats be able to provide political superiors with a realistic interpretation of
the motives of the other government and a reasonably accurate forecast of their
future conduct. There is nothing else that a diplomat does that could not be done
by lawyers, business people, or academics, all of whom do, in fact, serve frequently as nonprofessional diplomats.
b. an extract from an article by Adam Watson
Some criticisms of present-day diplomacy are worth considering. The most
familiar concerns secrecy. Many people feel that secret diplomacy leads to intrigue and war, and the public has the right to know what is being said in its
name. Another criticism is that the international relations of a democracy should
not be left in the hands of professional diplomats. A diplomatic service, it is argued, is unrepresentative, it does it own recruiting and forms an unelected
The US practice of assigning ambassadorships to people who have contributed to election campaigns has obviously disadvantages, but there is a real
gain both to the Administration and the host government to have an American
ambassador who has easy access to the President and knows his mind. It can be
argued that for the same reasons 'non-career' European ambassadors at posts like
Tokyo, Washington and the United Nations tend to be more effective political professional diplomats, provided they are supported by professional staff.
But each case needs to be judged on its merit is no hard and fast rule.
Questions for discussion:
1. The US is compared to a banana republic, but what does the author imply?
2. Why do you think professionalism in diplomacy is prized so low in the
3. What arguments does Stearns produce in favour of thorough language learning for a diplomat?
4. Why does the author draw some difference between knowing a foreign language and comprehending a foreign culture?
5. What do you think about secrecy in diplomatic matters? What should be
open to public scrutiny and what should remain secret?
6. Do you agree that diplomatic officers are the influential elite which does not
represent the public?
7. What is the authors' attitude to professionalism in diplomacy?
8. Must a diplomat be a professional in your opinion? Give your arguments for
or against.
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4.10. Look through the service record of the Russian Ambassador to the U.S. and do a two-way translation of the
interview given by Yuri Ushakov, 55, at the Embassy in
Washington. Use the active vocabulary. Role-play the interview in class.
Yuri Ushakov
Place of birth: Moscow Family:
Wife Svetlana, one daughter
Moscow State University of International relations! (1970). Later defended a thesis on the foreign policy of European countries for a Ph.D. in
Diplomatic rank: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary.
Previous posts: 1998-1999: Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Russian
1996-1998: Ambassador, permanent representative of the Russian Federation to
the OSCE in Vienna, Austria.
1992-1996: Director of the department of all-European cooperation for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation.
1986-1992: Deputy Chief of Mission and Minister-Counsellor in the Embassy of
the USSR / Russian Federation to Denr 1979-1986: held various posts in the Soviet Embassy to Denmark, in the Scandinavian Department, in the Secretariat
of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the USSR and in the departments of postgraduate studies of the Diplomatic Academy,
http: //
I. Mr. Ambassador, tell us about being the Russian Ambassador in Washington. How have you been spending your time?
А. Это интересная, но трудная работа, которую очень трудно планировать
заранее. Всегда возникает какой-то вопрос, который надо срочно решать.
Сейчас все мои силы и моих сотрудников направлены на подготовку
встречи между нашими двумя президентами в Москве и Петербурге.
I . as ambassador, do you have a proactive agenda of people to meet and policies to advocate? What’s your vision of your role?
А. Какова роль посла? Он поддерживает контакты с ' представителями
страны, в которой работает, в моем случае с правительством США и излагает им точку зрения России. Также он постоянно информирует Москву и
ее руководителей о тонкостях американской политики.
i. Who do you deal the most in the American community?
a. Естественно, я встречаюсь не только с политиками и официальными
лицами, но и с общественностью. Мы организуем приемы, выставки и
культурные мероприятия, приглашаем художников и музыкантов из России для выступлений в посольстве и в резиденции посла. Завтра я лечу в
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университет Северной Каролины, где выступлю перед студентами. Этот
университет имеет тесные связи с моей alma mater - МГИМО.
I. What do you see as most important in ambassador's work?
А. Важнее всего, конечно, то, что посол должен работать в положительном
ключе (for the positive). Он должен работать для развития положительных
конструктивных отношений между нашими двумя странами, не осложнять,
а решать проблемы. Вот принципы, которыми я руководствуюсь в своей
I. When it comes to foreign policy decisions, do you consult often with the
Foreign Ministry? Do you ever consult directly with President Putin, or receive instructions from him?
А. Каждый вечер я посылаю телеграммы (cables) в Москву, которые отражают встречи и разговоры в течение дня, а также наш комментарий о различных событиях в США и наши рекомендации. А утром получаю огромное количество телеграмм от послов других стран, инструкции и приказы
от моего начальства.
I. How can you compare the work you are doing with ambassadorial work of
the Cold War period?
А. Сравнивать нельзя. Раньше вся информация шла (to be funneled) только
через посла. Сегодня лидеры стран могут общаться напрямую по телефону.
I How does it affect your work?
А. В некотором отношении это облегчает работу посла, так как руководители стран или обладающие властью официальные лица могут быстро решить проблемы вместе. С другой стороны, это осложняет его работу, так
как послу необходимо быть в курсе всех переговоров вокруг него, уметь
все учесть при планировании своих собственных действий и выработки
I. Is it even possible to stay on top of all that?
А. Необходимо. Такие контакты становятся все более обычными и наша
работа качественно меняется
The topical vocabulary to be remembered
1. office n.
пост, должность,
■a position of authority, trust, or service, typically
one of a public nature the office of attorney general
■ tenure of an official position, esp. a government
position a year ago, when the president took office
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to be in office \ hold
the office
to leave / to quit / resign office
to get / come into office
to run / to manage an
public office
good offices
officer n. (senior/junior)
official n.
a career official / officer
official adj.
to challenge v.
ставить под сомнение, оспаривать
syn. to question
challenge n.
вызов, сложная задача, проблема
to pose a challenge
to face a challenge
to respond to a challenge
challenger n.
to handle (sth) v.
/ to manage / to control / to deal with
to handle one's responsibilities
| he was ejected from office in 1988
■ (Office) the quarters, staff, or collective authority
of a particular government department or agency
the Foreign Office
занимать пост, должность
yйти с (занимаемой) должности, уйти в отставку
вступать в должность, приступать к исполнению
служебных обязанностей
управлять ведомством
гос. учреждение
добрые услуги, любезность
служащий, чиновник (высшего \ низшего звена)
должностное лицо, сотрудник;
штатный сотрутдник
официальный, формальный служебный
■invite (someone) to engage in a contest # he challenged one of my men to a duel
invite (someone) to do something that one thinks
will be difficult or impossible; dare # I challenged
them to make up their own minds
■a call to take part in a contest or competition, esp.
a duel # he accepted the challenge ■ a task or situation that tests someone's abilities # the ridge is a
challenge for experienced climbers
Представлять трудность
Сталкиваться с трудностью
Отвечать на вызов
Претендент соперник
Управлять обрабатывать
Выполнять обязанности
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to be committed (to
do) / (to sth /doing)
to commit (a mistake,
a crime, etc)
to commit oneself (to
sth, to do sth)
commitment n.
to guide v. вести, руководить
to be guided (by)
guidance n.
guide n.
ведущий, руководитель, гид
to distinguish v.
(between; one from
to distinguish oneself
to be distinguished
(from) / to differ
distinguished adj.
distinguishing adj. /
(in) distinguishable
distinct adj.
(as) distinct from
distinction n
be dedicated to , feeling dedication and loyalty to a
cause, activity, or job; wholeheartedly dedicated # a
committed Christian
быть приверженным, призванным
carry out or perpetrate (a mistake, crime, or immoral act) he committed an uncharacteristic error
посвятить себя ч-л, взять
на себя обязательство
приверженность, готовность, преданность, обязательство, совершение
direct or have an influence on the course of action
of (someone or something)
руководствоваться ч-л
■a person who advises or shows the way to others #
this lady is going to act as our guide for the rest of
the tour ■ a professional mountain climber in
charge of a group 2) a thing that helps someone to
form an opinion or make a decision or calculation
путеводитель, справочник
recognize or treat (someone or something) as different
perceive or point out a difference # bees are unable
to distinguish between red, black, and various grays
различать, отличать
отличиться, проявить себя
отличаться, различаться
отличимый, различимый
четкий, ясный, отчетливый
в отличие от
5.1.1. Complete the sentences with the right words.
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office, officer, official(s)
1. Foreign____ are staffed with………………… of different ranks.
2. The embassy ……………………communicate their government views on political
issues to foreign ......................
3. Briefing a visiting senior............................ is one of the jobs a political
4. His twice-extended term in ……………… is due to expire next year
5. You should stop letting your………………. having their own way.
6. The mansion was an_______ residence of the prime-minister for his term in
7. The UN Secretary General may participate in resolving a conflict through
8. In his job a foreign service________has to carry out a lot of responsibilities.
challenge, challenging, (tin) challenged, challenger
1. The Government and the Immigration Minister have powers which it is useless________.
2. The career of a diplomat poses a number of_______.
3. No one_________the authority of the speaker.
4. All former diplomats admit that their profession is________.
5. If there is any__________at all to the dominance of English, it may come
from inside America itself.
6. Domination of Britain in the sea was_________at the time.
7. Among the_________ that service in a ministry of foreign affair offers are
being able to report and interpret events and trends in; variety of cultures and
political systems,
8. There will be expected several_______to the mayor's post
9. With her limited forces Britain simply could not guarantee to meet all the
possible________by herself.
10. Sooner or later the dominant position of the English language can be successfully_______.
1. One of the arts a future diplomat must possess is the art of _______people.
2. In his job a foreign service officer has_________a lot of things.
3. The responsibilities were such that he was not able________.
4. Any government must_________the immigrants with extreme
5. Diplomats must be flexible in_________diverse responsibilities
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6. ________various responsibilities, especially in smaller posts, is one of the
challenges a foreign service officer faces.
7. He______the opportunity with considerable skill.
commit (oneself) . (be) committed to, commitment(s)
1 His_________to the common cause was challenged.
2. The mistake that you_________may appear to have far-reaching consequences.
3 I am sure other_______ could be put off.
4. A foreign service officer is expected_______country's interests abroad.
5. Mother Theresa, who died recently, is known …………….to promote his to
6. Though some of its candidates were socialists, the party as a whole was not
__________to socialism
7. Britain avoided giving binding_______to join in a war.
8. Britain decided to abandon her traditional naval strategy in favour of a massive_______to a land War.
distinguish, distinguished, distinguishing / distinctive, distinct, distinctly, distinction
1. _________from those who work in a foreign office, a diplomat working
abroad is on duty in the front line all the time.
2. _________is to be made between 'economic' and 'economical'.
3. There are a number of_________Russian diplomats whose biographies are
worth reading.
4. It is hard not________between these two notions.
5. Honesty, dignity and professionalism are the_________features of a good
6. A diplomatic interpreter should speak in a_________voice.
7. The 'new diplomacy' is________from the 'old' one.
8. In all serious and cultured speech and writing there is very little by which the
two can__________.
9. The Financial Times may________from the Times by its colour and content.
10. There are some interesting examples of the_________between British and
American English.
11. He is known__________himself in the diplomatic service.
12. The employee has a_________record of service.
13. Brevity is a
characteristic of the author.
14. Public Diplomacy is_______ from Public Affairs.
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15. A_________feature of modem diplomacy is that it has become more open
to the public at large.
5.2. Read the text and make up 10 questions to cover its
Foreign Offices or Ministries of Foreign Affairs in national capitals are
staffed with officers of different ranks exercising the duties in various departments. They analyze and report to their seniors on political matters that may affect the national interests of the country. They communicate their government
views on political issues to foreign officials, negotiate agreements and maintain
contact, with political leaders, third country diplomats and other influential people.
Among the challenges that service in a ministry of foreign affairs offers
are being able to report and interpret events and trends in a variety of cultures
and political systems. Foreign officers must also be able to communicate rapidly and concisely, and be flexible in handling various responsibilities, especially
in smaller posts. In more specialized areas they are expected to know the language, history, culture and politics of a nation or a region in which they specialize.
As distinct from those who work in a foreign office, a diplomat working
abroad is on duty in the front line all the time. He must be committed to promote
and defend his country's policy abroad in various ways. His first and foremost
duty is to keep the authorities in his country constantly informed about the current events taking place, in the country of his residence related to not only political but also economic and cultural issues. His job may involve reporting and
analyzing the events and changes in the host country, briefing and suggesting
remarks for a visiting senior official, and perhaps escorting the official,
while handling the daily flow of cables and correspondence relating to the visit.
Besides the most important duties, there is in every Embassy Legation an
immense amount of routine work, and many monotone subjects may crop up.
One of the chief functions of the head of the mission is to train the junior members of the service in the right performance of their duties especially in the preparation of reports on subjects of interest, in drafting dispatches and paraphrasing
the text of ciphered telegrams. Serving in various countries abroad diplomats
and their families may face various challenges ranging from harsh climates to
lack of jobs for the spouses and schools for the children.
In the international organizations diplomatic work is distinguished by the
fact that diplomats serve not only as representatives and promoters of their country's interests guided by the instructions of national authorities and as their political advisers but also as contributors to the interests of the global community.
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In diplomatic life at home and abroad success in the Foreign Service requires a strong command of the mother tongue as well as of a foreign language
since language problems crop up at every step. All F.S. officers must be able to
speak and write clearly, concisely, persuasively and correctly.
(from On Diplomatic Practice)
Discuss the text in pairs. Make use of your questions.
5.2.2 Say what you think of the following:
1. Why are reporting and interpreting events and trends in the world political
systems referred to as challenges for a political officer?
2. What do various responsibilities in smaller posts involve?
3. What are the ways in which a diplomat may promote his country's interests?
4. Why is it necessary for a diplomat to have a strong command of the mother
tongue as well as a foreign language?
5. How important is good knowledge of the history and culture of the country a
diplomat specializes in?
a. Fill in the chart below with the duties and responsibilities of a Foreign Service officer in the Ministry of Foreign
Affairs and in overseas missions basing on the text and on
your ideas.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Overseas missions
b. Imagine you are a juniour foreign officer at the Foreign
Ministry. Speak about your responsibilities.
5.2.4. Find in the text English equivalents to the following:
выполнять различные обязанности
затрагивать национальные интересы
информировать представителей иностранных государств о
политических взглядах своего правительства
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объяснять события и тенденции
проявлять гибкость при выполнении обязанностей
находиться на передовой линии
быть готовым продвигать и защищать политику своей страны
постоянно держать свое правительство в курсе событий и
изменений в стране пребывания
кратко инструктировать
сопровождать высокопоставленного чиновника
принимать и обрабатывать ежедневный поток корреспондент!
учить младших сотрудников правильно выполнять свои обязанности
составлять дипломатические депеши
излагать тексты шифрованных телеграмм
столкнуться с трудностью
работать в качестве политического советника посла
говорить и писать правильно, кратко и убедительно
over the text & discuss it in class.
Diplomats’ Work: “Anything But Easy Sometimes, But Always Exciting”
Column: Diplomacy: The Succession of Generations
Sergey Lavrov, the Foreign Minister of Russia,
answered Diplomat’s questions.
Diplomats’ Work: “Anything But Easy Sometimes, But Always Exciting”
Sergey Lavrov, the Foreign Minister of Russia,
answered Diplomat’s questions.
- Mr. Lavrov, how do you explain the difficulty
of attracting young people to work at the Foreign Ministry since the early
First of all, I would like to set the record straight: certain personnel issues that
emerged in the 1990s were due not so much to problems with attracting young
people as to an outflow of skilled staff to other government structures and businesses. Today, there is not a single major Russian company that does not employ former staff members of the Foreign Ministry, sometimes in top positions
For young people, a job at the Foreign Ministry was, is and will be prestigious
and, most importantly, exceptionally responsible. At all times, the diplomatic
service has been one of the forefronts of defending the interests of the Father48
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land. Russian diplomacy has always been known for its traditions. These traditions include enlightened patriotism, high professional standard, a profound understanding of national interests, and the ability to correlate foreign policy to the
country’s real possibilities and resources. A diplomat must have all these qualities and they are all the more needed at the present complicated stage of world
We therefore cannot complain about a lack of applicants for a position in our
diplomatic office. At the initial selection stage, there are generally no less than
two—three college graduates applying for every position at the Russian Foreign
Ministry’s central office or at a Russian institution abroad. The applicants have
to take a series of qualification tests. The applicant is supposed to know two foreign languages at the same level as students who have gone to a foreign language college, to have completed specialized subject-related training, pass a
Russian language test, and a test in political science. You’ll admit that not everyone may prove to be up to that. We are pleased to see a growing influx of
skilled, energetic and well-educated young people. This trend has manifested itself especially conspicuously the last few years after the country’s leadership
provided substantial financial and other support for the Foreign Ministry staff.
What steps have you managed to take in the last few years to improve the
financial situation and life of the Russian Foreign Ministry personnel in
Moscow and abroad?
In the first place, I want to mention higher salaries for the staff of both the Foreign Ministry’s central office (practically two times higher in 2007) and the foreign institutions (an average pay raise of 1.5 times in 2007 and almost a third of
it last year). The ruble part of the salaries of civil servants is indexed on a regular basis. This year, we expect there to be indexation as well, despite the global
financial and economic crisis.
We highly value our diplomatic staff. The enactment of the law “On the Specifics of the State Federal Civil Service at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the
Russian Federation,” a law drafted by the Foreign Ministry on instructions of the
President, will be of great importance for enhancing the social status and prestige of the profession of diplomatic workers. The bill provides for creating the
legal framework for forming a modern diplomatic service that would be attractive to the most skilled and talented professionals, as well as for improving the
legal and social protection of the employees.
Mr. Lavrov, how do you assess the young people working at the Foreign
Ministry? What are their linguistic proficiency and the level of their regional-study training?
The graduates of a variety of higher education establishments of not only Moscow but also of St. Petersburg, Nizhny Novgorod, Kazan, Tomsk, Arkhangelsk,
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Yoshkar-Ola and other cities, where future diplomats study such subjects as “international relations,” “world economy,” “international law,” “regional studies,”
and “international journalism,” currently occupy junior diplomatic positions at
the Foreign Ministry central office and Russian institutions in other countries. In
2008, 101 graduates of 15 institutions of higher learning were taken on by the
Foreign Ministry. At present, about a quarter of the 4,500 professional diplomats
are under 30 years old.
Diplomacy is a fairly conservative profession. So there have been no drastic
changes in their training at MGIMO and the Diplomatic Academy, educational
establishments subordinate to the Foreign Ministry. They account for more than
half of the new staff members of our ministry. It goes without saying that the
present system has scrapped the ideological dogmas and come closer to “world
standards,” so to speak. Foreign languages, world history, the history of diplomacy, political science, foreign policy analysis, bilateral relations with individual countries, and international law remain the main subjects. At the same time,
the training continues to be improved there as well as in the rest of the country’s
universities and institutes in accordance with the present-day requirements. Several new subjects, specifically, economic subjects and an in-depth study of IT,
have been introduced.
Of late, we have toughened the foreign language proficiency requirements for
both the Russian Foreign Ministry staff and newcomers to the ministry. Once a
young professional is in the diplomatic service, he/she automatically becomes a
student of the Higher Foreign Language Courses and takes tests on a regular basis. His or her career growth largely depends on his/her performance on them.
As to the level of regional-study training, it varies even in the case of the graduates of MGIMO and the Diplomatic Academy, which are subordinate to the Foreign Ministry, let alone the graduates of our partner colleges. That’s why we
immediately send the recently employed young diplomats to the Diplomatic
Academy where all diplomatic staff members of the Ministry take courses raising their qualifications and sharpening their professional skills. What’s more, the
work in the Russian Foreign Ministry system itself prompts the young people to
keep pace with the times and continuously increase their knowledge of international relations.
Most of the Foreign Ministry’s young employees are promising professionals. It
is my hope that over time, they will apply themselves and become real professionals. The opportunities for one’s self-fulfillment are fairly ample nowadays;
one has only to find and use them. We, for our part, are trying to help them.
Suppose you graduated from MGIMO this year, what career would you
choose? Would you work in the Foreign Ministry again?
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What do you expect a foreign minister to say? You know, I have gone up all the
steps of a diplomat’s ladder. Sometimes, it was anything but easy, but it always
was exciting and interesting. I’m convinced, as I have always been that diplomatic work is one the most fascinating professions combining wide possibilities
of unfolding one’s creative potential with the high social value of that kind of
b) Work in pairs. Ask your partner:
1) whether s/he thinks it is easy or difficult to enter the profession of a diplomat;
2) why there are so many young people willing to enter the career
of a Foreign Service officer;
3) what rewards the career of a diplomat may offer;
4) how appealing those rewards are for your partner;
5) if there is anything that s/he does not accept about this career and why;
6) if the career of a Foreign Service officer is really for him / her;
7) if s/he sees her/himself in the profession of a diplomat;
8) what and why is more important for your partner in his / her future career:
money, interest, challenge, an opportunity to travel or promotion opportunities.
b. Make notes and report your findings to the class.
c. Sum up the arguments 'for' and 'against' serving as a foreign officer in
general and for you personally. Record the arguments ffi\ the table below and
report them in class.
5.4. How to become a diplomat. There are many ways to
become a diplomat.
5.4.1. Read some of them:
1. Be sure you are equipped, trained and educated to do foreign service. The
good and harmonious relationship of two countries depend on a diplomat's performance.
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2. Normally ambassadors rose from the ranks of being junior staff of the country's foreign affairs department. Some can be nominated by the President or the
Prime Minister, in an instant, passing through Congressional appointments.
3. A competitive exams are usually administered to become consular officers
such as foreign service competitive exams given by the Foreign Affairs department of each country. This is a difficult battery test to determine the ability of
the aspiring diplomat. If you pass this exam, you can now rose from the ranks
and later on be an Ambassador, Consul or a senior consular officer.
4. Inquire in your country of origin, your Foreign Service Bureau (or whatever
name you have), on the foreign service careers available that will suit your qualifications and attainment. Take the exams if necessary. Plan your career path in
Foreign Service. An exciting and challenging career!
Take a close look at the round 3 What kind of exam
should there be? What should it involve? What steps if
5.4.2. Work out the exam to get
diplomacy degree?
5.5. Negotiations on edge
Negotiating behavior
Negotiators have a distinctive
style: forceful, explicit, legalistic, urgent, and results-oriented.
Although these traits inevitably vary according to personalities
and circumstances.
While American diplomats tend to see themselves as tough
but fair bargainers, most foreign practitioners regard the United
States as a hegemonic power that is less concerned to negotiate
than it is to persuade, sermonize, or browbeat negotiating counterparts into acceding to American positions.
Negotiators must work within certain constitutional constraints. Culture significantly influences how negotiators use lan52
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guage and time. They tend to be blunt and legalistic while employing a conceptual vocabulary drawn from such diverse fields as
labor relations, Christian theology, and sport. They are uncomfortable with silence and ignore body language. They enter a negotiation with their own timeframe and usually press for an early
agreement, especially if the issue at stake has political significance at home.
What makes a diplomat?
5.4.2. What are diplomatic skills & qualities required to be
successful in this position
 What makes a diplomat? Use ideas in the box below &
add your own ones.
Leadership qualities
be good at public speech
Have no right to be politically indifferent
competent to deal with Mass Media & etc
5.5.3. The Important
Qualities of a Good Diplomat
Since the world ceased to
rely on war to settle disputes, the
art of international negotiation
has not only gained its momentum, but also forged a new
world order that heavily hinged
on people who can handle a
awkward situation without upsetting any side. A seasoned
diplomat can bring his country
the utmost benefits while retaining national dignity. He would
not shun from the responsibility
to patch up the rifts caused by
war or conflicts. Indeed, most
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people can be trained to be career diplomats, but excellent ones share some qualities that are not found in others. The most critical three are patriotism, language
skills and adaptation.
Strong patriotism is always glorified in the career because the patriot
thinks first of his country and later of himself. A sagacious diplomat cannot
show greater passion for his motherland than by carrying national interests
through. Nevertheless, the vaunted patriotism never gets a diplomat anywhere.
People fervidly patriotic would know what to say and what to do to benefit his
country, even his supervisors might not take advice well, and even he would get
passed by promotions because of being straightforward. And as he must be firm
with the leaders of the country to which he is accredited, also must he be so with
leaders of his own country. In most cases, a good diplomat has to act on instructions, but he will also warn, argue and even protest in the light of his wisdom
and consciousness when national interests rise above everything else.
Although a white-hot patriotism makes a great diplomat, the career requires eloquence and good command of foreign languages. There is no more
unpleasant task for a diplomat than to argue on his country’s behalf a policy
which he cannot express in another language used in the circumstance. At
1993′s APEC, the minister Lin Xin-yi did not go out front and protested at the
assembly’s decision of changing Taiwan’s membership as"non-sovereignty."
While China’s representative shouted him down, the only English word he said
was "but…." It would be a pain when a diplomat prepares himself for an operation in the area where bureaucracy, public relations and politics all meet, only to
find that he cannot express himself without an interpreter. On the other hand,
when the America-Russia relation was faced with the first-ever intension after
the Cold War because of the U.S.’s plan of installing TMD system in the Europe, the secretary of state Condolece Rice answered the Russian ambassador’s
question about the threat that TMD might cause to the balance of power in Europe, she was credited with replying "After the launch of RS-22 (anti-TMD) ballistic missile, the TMD is just what doctor ordered to balance the situation." To
be diplomatic in a hot situation, timing and skills of expression can be a twoedged sword, which can slash the price of competition or hurt a country.
Being equipped with passion and languages, a good diplomat still need
the final building block to make him competent—adaptation. On the one hand,
the world seems smaller, thanks to globalization and communication. On the
other hand, beneath a deceptive courtesy, cultural gulfs often remain hidden. In
order to make themselves globally competitive, successful diplomats should
strive to achieve certain characteristics or adapt to unfamiliar circumstances,
even if the desired traits and the surroundings are contrary to their own. If each
would-be diplomat fusses over the area to which they would be accredited, weak
and underdeveloped countries would have no diplomacy. Adjusting oneself to
differences is the key point to many excellent jobs, including the art of diplomacy.
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A well-run diplomacy requires more than the above ones, but the passion can push a diplomat to learn quickly while his tongue is candied with the
spell of language. Then, adjustment will be only an issue of time.!A3D794B516B60A10!241.entry
5.5.5. Read the text and find 21 qualities which are required to be a diplomat
Some Qualities Desirable in a Future Diplomat
A popular notion which has done much in the past to discredit diplomatic
profession is that the chief duty of a diplomat is to secure some advantage for
his own country over another, if necessary by means which are not strictly
straightforward. Past history affords many instances to support this view. In the
year 1604 Sir Henry Cotton defined an Ambassador as "an honest man sent to
lie abroad for the good of his country".
Nations as to their proper qualifications of a diplomat vary today as much
as they varied in previous centuries. The only invariable rule is to find the right
man for the right place. It is difficult to lay down the law. Diplomats must be
human, versatile and adaptable. A diplomat must possess initiative and personality.
He should have the faculty of mixing and getting on with anyone in any
walk of life and of treating all as equals. He should have sufficient selfconfidence to stand up to anyone in any walk of life, Sovereign, Prime Minister
or whatever he may be.
Powers of observation, of description, sound judgement and a faculty of
hard work are so essential as to go without saying; so is the readiness to take responsibilities, provided it is certain that they are not of some senior officer.
Certainly a diplomat should not be emotionally effusive in his behaviour,
however excellent the relations may be which he is called upon to conduct. And
certainly he should preserve calm when things go wrong and relations become
A certain capacity for deception as far as ordinary good manners is needed. Like everyone else who aspires to be socially welcome, he must keep a good
deal of what he thinks to himself and say for the sake of politeness a good many
unimportant things he does not mean. Above all he must constantly steer a
course between extremes. He must be intelligent, carefully refrain from my oppressive display of intellectual powers. He must invariably be dignified, have
humour and wit, and there is one final virtue that must be specifically mentioned
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and which is the essence of the profession, this is patience, without which the
would-be diplomat will never in reality become a diplomat at all.
And finally it is difficult to exaggerate the importance of a thorough knowledge
of languages for a diplomat. An envoy who can spare time to study the language
of the country to which he is sent, will find its acquisition of great advantage.
The surest way to gain admission to the heart of the nation is to give this proof
of a desire tocultivate intimate relations with, and to understand the feelings of
i people.
(from On Diplomatic Practice)
Note to the text:
Wotton, Sir Нету (1568-1639) - English diplomat and poet, Ambassador to '
Venice (1604-1624).
b. Answer the questions.
1. How would you rate the qualities mentioned? Which of them, do you think,
are more and which are less valuable for a diplomat
2. Could you think of some other qualities that a diplomat must possess? Share
your ideas with the class.
3. Why is patience emphasized as one of the most essential quality?
4. How important for a future diplomat is good professional education? Should
diplomats be career or non-career?
5.5.6. Translate some opinions of the qualities a diplomat
should possess expressed by some former Russian ambassadors.
Юрий Кашлев, ректор Дипломатической академии, чрезвычайный и
полномочный посол:
‘От дипломата требуются высочайшая эрудиция, знание собственной
страны и зарубежных стран, обязательно патриотизм, никогда не
забывать, что ты защищаешь не интересы, а интересы государства",
Александр Бовин, чрезвычайный и полномочный посол России в Израиле (1991-1997):
Дипломатическое искусство - это умение отстоять свою зрения и убедить
партнера, что нужно сделать так. как! говоришь. А говорить надо так, чтобы вам верили и относился серьезно к вашим словам. Поэтому на первое
место я поставил общую культуру и жизненный опыт. Что касается качеств, мои требования элементарны. Во-первых, порядочность, во-вторых,
ум. В третьих, интеллигентность''.
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Андрей Кравцов, главный советник МИД, Чрезвычайный и Полномочный Посланник второго класса, генеральный консул России в
Саппоро (1995-1999):
Дипломатия требует очень большого опыта, потому что нет готовых решений. Из человеческих качеств я бы назвал выдержку, спокойствие, трезвость, рассудительность, смелость в принятии решений. Важно расположить к себе собеседника, установить с ним контакт. Быть откровенным, но
в определенных пределах. Надо говорить правду, только правду, но необязательно всю правду ".
Анатолий Адамишин, Чрезвычайный и Полномочный Посол России в
Италии (1990-1992), Великобритании (1994-1997), первый замминистра
иностранных дел по делам СНГ (1998):
"Дипломат должен быть порядочным и образованным человеком. Артистизм, чувство меры и такта тоже не помешают. Чтобы тебя уважали, нужно расположить к себе собеседника, быть ему интересным, никогда не обманывать, не демонстрировать свою эрудицию. Надо хорошо знать страну
пребывания, ее культуру и обычаи. Важно блюсти достоинство, не столько
свое личное, сколько своей страны".
Prepare to speak about a distinguished person in the diplomatic world (living or dead). Focus on his personality9
skills and qualifications, and on the field in which the person distinguished himself.
Work in pairs. Exchange the information about a well
known diplomat Listen to your partner attentively and then
report what you have heard to the class.
5.6. Gender in diplomacy. Think over why politics, diplomacy & business sphere are
not the places for women. Is
there a gender discrimination?
5.7. Diplomat Jokes. Comment on the following joke &
say what makes it funny.
A Diplomat is a person who...
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always knows what to talk about, but doesn't always talk about what he
always tries to settle problems created by other diplomats.
can always make himself misunderstood.
can bring home the bacon without spilling the beans.
can convince his wife not to hide her nice body under a floor-length sable.
can convince his wife to show off her new coat in a bus rather than in a
can juggle a hot potato long enough for it to become a cold issue.
can keep his shirt on while getting something off his chest.
can look happy when he has unexpected dinner guests.
can make his wife believe she will look fat in a mink coat.
can make nothing sound like something.
can put his best foot forward when he doesn't have a leg to stand on.
can put his foot down without stepping on someone's toes.
can say the nastiest things in the nicest way.
can tell a man he's open-minded when he means he has a hole in his
can tell you to go to hell so tactfully that you look forward to the trip.
comes right out and says what he thinks when he agrees with you.
divides his time between running for office and running for cover.
has a straightforward way of dodging issues.
knows how far to go before he goes too far.
lets you do all the talking while he gets what he wants.
never tells a woman how nice she looks in a gown. He tells her how
nice the gown looks on her.
puts his cards on the table, but still has some up each sleeve.
straddles an issue whenever he isn't dodging one.
will approach every question with an open mouth.
will lay down your life for his country.
will refuse to answer any question on the ground it might eliminate
How many famous politicians can you name who were
great diplomats?
Winston Churchill? Soviet Diplomats ((Колонтай, Урицкий, Чечерин, Ворский, Громыко, Литвиненко)
Famous diplomats include:
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Henry Kissinger (United States)
James Bryce (United Kingdom)
Joseph Marie De Maistre (France)
Dag Hammarskjold (Sweden)
Hubert Languet (France)
Raoul Wallenberg (Sweden)
Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand (France)
Albright, Madeleine / 1937Secretary of State and Permanent Representative to the United Nations .
Annan, Kofi / 1938Seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations. Ghanaian
 Make your reports on famous people in diplomacy
5.9. Enjoy the poem & speculate about the ideas behind
the scene.
Стихотворение из воспоминаний английского посла в России накануне революции. Он рассуждает о полезности гольфа для политика, и приводит
вот такие стихи их юмористического журнала:
Oft have I wondered, as my weapon's
Disintegrated solid chunks of greenery,
Or as my pilule flew the bounding
Into outlying sections of the scenery,
What moral value might accrue
From billiards played beneath the blue.
Little I fancied, when I topped the
And on its candour left a coarse impression,
Or in the bed of some revolting mere
Mislaid three virgin globes in swift
That I was learning how to grip
The rudiments of statesmanship.
Thus Balfour learned the politician's game,
And thus Lloyd George was trained to be a
Thence many a leader, who has leapt to
Got self-control, grew harder, tougher,
Reared in the virtues, which prevail
At Walton Heath and Sunningdale.
Golf being thus the source of so much good,
I own my conscience suffers certain
Recalling how the Links at Chorley Wood
Have seen me on the Sabbath carving
Where Tommies might be put to pitch
The deadly bomb from ditch to ditch.
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Yet so it was. I schooled myself to gaze
Upon the object with a firmly glued
And, though I moved by strange and
devious ways,
To keep in view the goal or finis ludi,
And ever let my language be
The language of diplomacy.
For I reflect that my intruding spade,
That blocked the foursome and debarred the
May well have checked some statesman yet
Some budding Hogge, some mute inglorious
And that is why my shovel shrinks
From excavating other links.
6.1. look at the cartoon &
give your understanding of
6.2. Read the text and answer the questions that follow.
Vocabulary notes
1. a disguise - clothes to hide
2. an end - an aim
3. smattering - little knowledge
4. fraught with ~ full of
5. slip - accidental minor language mistake
6. obscure - vague, unclear
Language Problems in Diplomatic Intercourse.
"The man who speaks in a foreign
tongue, not his own, is to a extent
wearing a disguise. If one wants to
discover his ideas, encourage him to
use his own language. " Earnest Satow.
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Unlike academics and intelligence analysts, diplomats must apply their
knowledge of foreign culture and languages in their daily work. Diplomatic expertise with regard to a foreign culture and language is not an end in itself; it is
a means to an end.
It is difficult to exaggerate the importance of a the knowledge of
languages for a diplomat. His value to the government increases with every
fresh language he learns. In the matters of languages 'a little knowledge is a particularly dangerous thing' ( Essay on criticism by A. Pope). Sometimes an amateur diplomat acquires a smattering of a foreign language and sets out to make
use of it. When this happens it's time to take cover, for although many of his
mistakes are merely amusing, some of them lead to trouble and misunderstanding not easily dispelled.
An Ambassador or a Minister who does not speak the language of the
country is entirely dependent upon the staff of his mission to keep him informed, to make his communications for him, interpret conversations, and carry
on pretty well every step of his official life.
A thorough working knowledge of several languages is an absolute essential for a secretary, and should be considered practically an essential for an Ambassador or Minister. A minister who can spare time to study the language of the
country to which he is sent, will find its acquisition of great advantage.
In diplomatic life we are at every step confronted with language problems.
These, however, are of recent origin. For several centuries there used to be only
one diplomatic language, Latin, and international affairs were conducted by professional diplomats only. Later French was recognized as the language used by
all Ambassadors and other envoys. Then after the First World War under the
Treaty of Versailles English and French became two official languages, which
led to the appearance of a new profession, that of official diplomatic interpreter.
Interpreters have found that their work is most challenging. Every single
word is fraught with significance and is closely watched by parties, so that any
slip, or even weakness of the interpreter may have the most serious consequences. Interpreters should be able to grasp a meaning with lightning speed. If time
and circumstances allow the interpreter should refer to all kinds of reference material. Should part of speech, or sometimes a whole speech be obscure, the interpreter must decide from his knowledge of the speaker whether he intended to be
obscure, or whether it was accidental. Interpreters should know the basis and
logic of the case their side wishes to make before they are called upon to render
it into the other side's language. They can play an invaluable role in shaping arguments in ways that the other side can most easily understand and accept.
(from On Diplomatic Practice)
Notes to the text.
1 Earnest Satow is a distinguished British politician and diplomat.
2. Alexander Pope is an English poet.
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Questions for discussion:
1. What is implied by 'diplomatic expertise'? Why is it not an end but a means?
2. Why does a value of a diplomat to the government increase with every fresh
language learnt?
3. What are the disadvantages of a diplomat acquiring only a smattering of a
foreign language?
4. How are an ambassador's activities affected if he does not the language of
the country?
5. What advantages can a diplomat find in the acquisition of languages?
6. Why are the language problems we are confronted with of on recent origin?
7. What do the language problems result in?
8. Why is the interpreter's work challenging?
9. What role do diplomatic interpreters play in negotiations?
6.3. Explain and comment on the following:
1. "The man who speaks a foreign tongue, not his own, is to a certain extent
wearing a disguise."
2. If one wants to discover a foreigner's ideas, encourage him to J his own language.
3. In the matter of languages 'a little knowledge is a particularly dangerous
4. A thorough working knowledge of a foreign language should I an essential
for a diplomat.
5. Any slip or even weakness of the interpreter may have the mo^ serious consequences.
Today an Internet search on the topic of
intercultural communication or cross-cultural
communication yields over 100 000 results. In recent years practitioners in a
wide variety of fields—scientific cooperation, academic research, business,
management, education, health, culture, politics, diplomacy, development, and
others—have realised just how important intercultural communication is for
their everyday work. Fast travel, international media, and the Internet have
made it easy for us to communicate with people all over the world. The process
of economic globalisation means that we cannot function in isolation but must
interact with the rest of the world for survival. The global nature of many
widely diverse modern problems and issues such as the environment, governance of the Internet, poverty and international terrorism call for cooperation
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between nations. Intercultural communication is no longer an option, but a necessity.
7.2. Why is it important to improve intercultural communication? Can Lack of knowledge of another culture
lead, at the best, to embarrassing or amusing mistakes in
communication? At the worst, May such mistakes confuse or even offend the people you wish to communicate
with, making the conclusion of business deals or international agreements difficult or impossible. Can you give examples. Read some below
Donnell King of Pellissippi State Technical Community College provides some
examples from the advertising world of how simply translating words is not
enough—deeper understanding of the other culture is necessary to translate
meaning effectively:
A General Motors auto ad with "Body by Fisher" became "Corpse by
Fisher" in Flemish.
A Colgate-Palmolive toothpaste named "Cue" was advertised in France
before anyone realized that Cue also happened to be the name of a widely
circulated pornographic book about oral sex.
Pepsi Cola's "Come Alive With Pepsi" campaign, when it was translated
for the Taiwanese market, conveyed the unsettling news that, "Pepsi
brings your ancestors back from the grave."
Parker Pen could not advertise its famous "Jotter" ballpoint pen in some
languages because the translation sounded like "jockstrap" pen.
One American airline operating in Brazil advertised that it had plush
"rendezvous lounges" on its jets, unaware that in Portuguese (the language of Brazil) "rendezvous" implies a special room for having sex.
 Do you think there should be “cross-cultural training” courses or workshops, publish papers or
workbooks, or some software for intercultural
communication should be developed? What is the
aim of these courses? To help people to move
abroad to work? To let communication be as constructive as possible, without misunderstandings
and breakdowns? To do some research on the nature of linguistic and cultural similarities and dif63
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ferences which can play a positive and constructive role?
7.3. Imagine , you have to run a “cross-cultural training”
course or workshop? Surf the Net to get the information on
Intercultural Communication (# negotiations in China) &
deliver a lecture to the participants.
8.1. Speculate about:
Look through the present brochure for the pictures &
cartoons on Diplomacy & comment on the ideas behind them.
Does humor reflect the historical, cultural background
of the nationality?
Give your understanding of the following cartoon?
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8.2. Scan newspaper, surf the net to find the caricatures &
cartoons that reflects what is behind the diplomacy.
As you see you know little about diplomacy on the
whole. why not open up a museum Of diplomacy . Its
main function will be to highlight the relevance of diplomacy to modern society, as opposed to the use of
force. The Museum will present historical examples of
the success of diplomacy. Visitors will have a chance to
communicate “across time” with famous diplomats from
the past including Talleyrand and Metternich????????
Talking shop (Key words in MM) See the book
Diplomacy in everyday life. Manipulation Work out the
discussion (Deil Carnegie)
Read the text about CIA & FB below & give an oral
summary of them.
ЦРУ - Центральное разведывательное управление США (ЦРУ, англ.
Central Intelligence Agency, CIA)
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian
intelligence agency of the United States government.
It is an independent agency responsible for providing national security intelligence to senior United
States policymakers.
The CIA's primary function is to collect information
about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and to advise public policymakers. The agency conducts covert operations
and paramilitary actions, and exerts foreign political influence through its Special Activities Division. The CIA and its responsibilities changed markedly in
2004. Before December 2004, the CIA was the main intelligence organization of
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the US government; it coordinated and oversaw not only its own activities but
also the activities of the US Intelligence Community (IC) as a whole. The Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 created the office of the
Director of National Intelligence (DNI), which took over some of the government and IC-wide functions. The DNI manages the IC and therefore the intelligence cycle. The functions that moved to the DNI included the preparation of
estimates of the consolidated opinion of the 16 IC agencies, and the preparation
of briefings for the President of the United States.
Today, the CIA still has a number of functions in
common with other countries' intelligence agencies;
see Relationships with foreign intelligence agencies.
The CIA's headquarters is in Langley in McLean, unincorporated Fairfax County, Virginia,[7] a few miles
west of Washington, DC along the Potomac River.
Sometimes, the CIA is referred to euphemistically in government and military
parlance as Other Government Agencies (OGA), particularly when its operations in a particular area are an open secret.[8][9] Other terms include The Company[10][11][12][13] and The Agency.
ФБР The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is an agency of the United
States Department of Justice that serves as both a federal criminal investigative
body and an internal intelligence agency. The FBI has investigative jurisdiction
over violations of more than 200 categories of federal crime.[2] Its motto is "Fidelity, Bravery, Integrity", corresponding to the FBI initials.
The FBI's headquarters, the J. Edgar Hoover Building, is
located in Washington, D.C.. Fifty-six field offices are located in major cities throughout the United States as well
as over 400 resident agencies in smaller cities and towns
across the country. More than 50 international offices called "legal attachés" are
in U.S. embassies worldwide.
Down load a series of popular serials (Звездочет, Красная
капелла и т.д.), exchange the series with your group mates & watch them at home & make a review about the serial in class following the steps below. (Also movies: Посол советского Союза, Переводчица)
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A) How did it hold your attention (Did it keep your attention)?
B) What emotions did you experience while watching it (What emotion did
it appeal to you )?
(background (setting, type of the story, main points of the plot))
A) Acting (Were the characters real. Say a little about their play - was it believable. Did the characters act / react believably as you would expect people to …)
B) Special effects (lighting…), background effects (weather, appropriate
sound, music)
C) Logical plot (Was the plot logical / intriguing etc)
D) Comment on the set, location. (Did they stay in a certain place)
E) Appropriate sound , music
F) Smooth ending (predictable, shocking…)
A) What did you learn from the movie
B) What did the movie say about people & their problem. Speak out the
They overcome the problems. Discuss lessons to be learned from the
C) What was the author's director's purpose message
(give your recommendation whether the is worth seeing or not)
1. Яницкая Л.П. Английский язык в дипломатии и политики. – М.:
МГИМО(У) МИД России, 2005. – 279с.
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