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100.Фонетическая корректность и фонетическое членение речи как дискурсивные составляющие

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Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации
Федеральное агентство по образованию
Государственное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
«Оренбургский государственный университет»
Кафедра английской филологии и методики преподавания английского языка
Н. В. Иноземцева
ФОНЕТИЧЕСКАЯ КОРРЕКТНОСТЬ И
ФОНЕТИЧЕСКОЕ ЧЛЕНЕНИЕ РЕЧИ
КАК ДИСКУРСИВНЫЕ
СОСТАВЛЯЮЩИЕ
Методические рекомендации по курсу практической фонетики
английского языка
Рекомендовано
к
изданию
Редакционно-издательским
советом
Государственного образовательного учреждения высшего профессионального
образования «Оренбургский государственный университет»
Оренбург
ИПК ГОУ ОГУ
2009
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
УДК 802.0 (075.8)
ББК 81.2 Англ я 73
И 67
Рецензент
канд. фил. наук, Э.Т. Болдырева
И67
Иноземцева, Н.В.
Фонетическая корректность и фонетическое членение речи как
дискурсивные составляющие: методические рекомендации по курсу
практической фонетики английского языка ⁄ Н. В. Иноземцева;
Оренбургский гос. ун-т. – Оренбург : ОГУ, 2009. – 22 с.
Методические рекомендации по курсу практической фонетики
английского языка. Данное пособие состоит из курса лекций вводнокоррективной части, а также включает теоретический материал необходимый
для успешного усвоения курса практической фонетики.
Методические рекомендации по курсу практической
фонетики
английского языка предназначены для преподавателей и студентов 1-2 курсов
специальностей: «Теория и методика преподавания английского языка» и
«Перевод и переводоведение», специализации «Зарубежная филология», –
Оренбург: ОГУ, 2009.- 22 с.
УДК 802.0 (075.8)
ББК 81.2 Англ я 73
© Иноземцева Н.В., 2009
© ГОУ ОГУ, 2009
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Contents
Introductory................................................................................4
1 Introductory phonetic course..................................................5
2 Basic components …...........................................................19
2.1 Monophthongs...…………………………………………..19
2.2 Accentuation structure...…………………………………..20
2.3 Rhythmic groups …..……………………………………..20
2.4 Intonation...………………………………………………..21
Literature ……………………………………………………..22
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Introductory
The course is meant for the first year students of the faculty of foreign
languages. It may be used after the introductory phonetic course for further drilling
of English sounds. It contains some theoretical explanations and of course,
recordings are also available.
The collection of exercises supplies material for training English
pronunciation, stress, rhythm, intonation. It is meant for correct pronunciation of the
English words in common use.
The language is a means of communication; it has primary nature and the
sounding aspect of the language which is the obligatory character of the language.
Only the sounding aspect of the language makes it possible to develop a thought
from generation to generation.
Phonetics studying the material aspect of the language has for its turn an
independent autonomic status. And it has its own subject. The subject of Phonetics is
all the material means of the language in all their manifestations and functions.
As the course of practical phonetics lasts for two years, the whole course is
published in two parts: for the first year students and for the second year students.
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1 Introductory phonetic course
As a rule, students of the first course shouldn’t be allowed to read English
words, sentences, texts until they pass the so-called introductory phonetic course.
This course lasts for one month and the students are supposed to have Phonetics
instead of other English subjects.
In the end of September they are going to pass a credit in Phonetics to be able
to go on working not only with the English sounds, but also with words, sentences
and texts.
Here is an exemplary introductory course in Phonetics.
Every lesson should begin with some theoretical material and teacher’s explanations,
and only then sounds and words should be trained.
Lecture 1
Phoneme is the smallest linguistic unit, used in a language for the formation
of many units and for their differentiation. It is potentially connected with meaning
and is realized in speech in its allophones.
Allophone is a realization of the phoneme in a definite position.
There are three types of allophones:
1.
principal allophone which appears in the position of maximum independence,
for example
/laıt/ /lıt/
Here the sound / l / is the so-called light.
2.
positional allophone depends upon the position in a word, for example
/lig/ /bel/
Here the difference in pronunciation of the sound / l / lies in its different position in
the word. In the first case / l / is light, and in the second – it’s dark.
3.
combinatorial allophone depends upon the neighboring sounds, for example
/' w e l Ө / / p l e ı t / /' l ı t l /
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Here the pronunciation of the sound / l / depends upon the neighboring consonants.
In the first word / l / is pronounced on the teeth, because of the dental sound / Ө /. As
for the next two words, here we deal with the lateral plosion.
At home: students are to learn the theory.
Lecture 2
ORGANS OF SPEECH are divided into active and passive. Active organs of
speech include: tongue, lips, soft palate, uvula, vocal cords, and lower jaw. To
passive organs of speech belong: teeth, alveolar ridge, nasal cavity, hard palate,
pharynx, and larynx.
It should be clearly explained to all students that The English language is
characterized by the apical position of the tongue during the pronunciation, in
comparison with Russian where the tongue is always in the dorsal position.
All sounds in English are divided into consonants, vowels and sonorants.
Consonants can be weak ( b, d, g, z…) and strong ( p, t, k, s…) , vowels can be tense
( α, i, u…) and lax ( ρ, I , U …).
Sonorants are the following: n, m, l, r…
CONSONANTS can be divided:
1. according to the active organ of speech. They can be labial, lingual;
2. according to the kind of obstruction;
3. according to the kind of acoustic or the manner of production of noise;
4. according to the strength or weakness.
VOWELS
1. can be classified according to the row. They can be front, mixed, back.
2. according to the openence. They can be close, mid-open, open.
3. according to the rounding or labialization. They can be rounded, unrounded.
4. according to the tenseness or laxness. They can be tense and lax.
Tense vowels are
Lax vowels are
i, 3, u, α, o
I, e, U, ρ, ٨ + æ
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Pay attention to the vowel / æ /. It belongs to the lax vowels but it has degrees of
duration of tense vowels.
Degrees of duration of lax vowels.
VOWELS ARE LONG:
- before a weak consonant
big / b I g /
good / g U d /
VOWELS ARE SHORT:
1. before a sonorant
bell / b e l /
bun / b ٨ n /
2. before a strong consonant
sit / s I t /
bet
/bet/
Degrees of duration of tense vowels.
VOWELS ARE LONG:
1. in an open syllable
car / k α /
tea / t i /
saw / s O /
2. before a weak consonant
seed / s i d /
card
/kαd/
3. before a sonorant
ball / b O l /
been / b i n /
VOWELS ARE SHORT:
- before a strong consonant
court / k O t /
seat / s i t /
As for consonants, they have degrees of aspiration. They are the following:
STRONG ASPIRATION
- before the stressed vowels
kid / k I d /
tip / t I p /
WEAK ASPIRATION
1. before the unstressed vowels
better /' b e t ə / supper /'s ٨ p ə /
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2. in a final position of a syllable
tip / t I p /
book / b U k /
ABSENCE OF ASPIRATION
1. after “ S”
speak / s p i k /
skate / s k eI t /
2. in clusters of sounds
ptk
+ l
/ p l eI t /
+ j
/pjUə/
+ w
/twInz/
+ n
/ 'k I t n /
There are special marks for short sounds “” and for long sounds “¯”.
These marks are used above the sounds only in the transcription.
Now, it’s time to start learning how to pronounce the English sounds correctly.
The first sound is / I / - front, close, unrounded, lax. These characteristics appear
due to the points according to which all consonants and vowels are divided. Students
should put them down and learn by heart.
For example, / b I g /
/bIn/ /sIt/
Here the teacher can give the example of correct pronunciation of this sound to avoid
wrong pronunciation.
Then, pass on to reading the words containing this sound. These words are in the
special book which is available.
The next sound is / l / - fore lingual, apical, alveolar, oral sonorant, lateral.
For example, / l aI t / / s e l / / 'l I t l / / 'w e l θ /
/ d / - fore lingual, apical, alveolar, occlusive, plosive, noise, weak.
For example, / d ρ g / / b I d / / 'w I d θ /
/ t / - fore lingual, apical, alveolar, occlusive, plosive, noise, strong.
For example, / t i / / l I t / / 'p æ t n /
/ n / - fore lingual, apical, alveolar, occlusive, sonorant nasal.
For example, / n i t / / t I n / / 't e n θ /
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At home students are to learn the material and to transcribe ex. 1-3, to put all marks
and to read the words, paying attention to correct pronunciation of the sounds.
Lectures 3, 4
It’s better to include special phonetic exercises to train active organs of speech.
Here are the exemplary exercises. There are separate exercises for lips, jaw, tongue, soft
palate.
EXERCISES FOR LIPS
1. Firstly, protrude the lips then spread them showing the teeth. Protrude, spread,
protrude, spread…..
2. Press the lips, spread them but don’t show the teeth, then again press the lips and
spread them showing the teeth. Repeat this exercise 5-7 times.
3. Make the lips like fish, then press the lips. Repeat this exercise 5-7 times.
4. Spread the lips showing the teeth, make a hypocritical smile, move the lower jaw
down as if pronouncing the letter “o”, then protrude the lips. Repeat this exercise 5-7
times.
EXERCISES FOR JAW
1. Move the lower jaw to the left and to the right. Left, right, left, right…..
2. Move the lower jaw forward, backward, forward, backward……
EXERCISES FOR TONGUE
1. Move the tongue apical, dorsal inside the mouth. Apical, dorsal, apical, dorsal…
2. Push the cheeks with the tongue. Left, right….
3. Push one cheek, first, with the tongue, then make the tongue apical, push another
cheek, and then make the tongue dorsal. One, two, three, four…
4. Put the tip of the tongue on teeth, then on alveolar, post alveolar, retroflex.
EXERCISES FOR SOFT PALATE
1. Open the mouth and breathe through the mouth. Imagine you are breathing on the
window and it mists over.
2. Breathe through the nasal cavity.
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Moreover, it’s preferable to train some Russian tongue twisters to make
students’ speech fluent. Here are some of them.
1). Роман Кармен положил в карман роман Ромена Роллана и пошел в
« Ромен» на « Кармен».
2). У Кузи кузина Кузинина Зина.
3). Цапля чахла, цапля сохла, цапля сдохла.
4). У попа поп и поп попа похваливает.
5). Ерш, пескарь, осетр, белуга рады повстречать друг друга.
6). Дыбра- это животное в дебрях тундры, вроде бобра и выдры, враг кобры и
пудры, бодро тибрит ядра кедра в ведрах и дробит добро в недрах.
7). Лена искала булавку, а булавка упала под лавку и т.д.
Then go on working with the English sounds. Check the homework, ask the
characteristics of the previous sounds and go on with new sounds.
/ i / - front, close, unrounded, tense.
for example, / ki /, / nid /, / tim /
/ s / - fore lingual, apical, alveolar, constrictive, fricative, noise, strong.
for example, / sI t /, / nI s /, / swi t /
/ z / - fore lingual, apical, alveolar, constrictive, fricative, noise, weak.
for example, / zu /, / tiz /
/ e / - front, mid-open, unrouded, lax.
for example, / pet /, / ted /, / ten /
Tell that this sound is like in the Russian word “сети”, so that they can easily
pronounce this new sound correctly.
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Here introduce tables 1, 2 of English vowels and consonants.
Table 1 - English Vowels
front
close
I
mid-open
e
open
æ
mixed
back
u U
i
٨ 3
O
α
Table 2 - English Consonants
Occlusive
Active organ of
Labial
speech
Place of
obstruction
Manner of
bilabi Labioproduction of
al
dental
noise
Plos
p/b
ive
noise
Sonorant
nasal
Med
Sono ian
rant
oral Late
ral
bac
klin
forelingual
dent alve Palato
al
olar alveolar
Pha
ryn
gual
Post
cacu vela
alve minal r
olar
t/d
Affr
icate
k/g
t∫/dƷ
m
Noise
Constrictive
Lingual
Pass
ive
n
f/v
t/d
s/z
w
h
j
r
∫/Ʒ
l
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Students should learn these tables by heart and in exam every one should present
them. At home students are to review the material, learn new one and transcribe ex. 4-10,
also they should read these exercises. As for ex. 1-3, students should prepare test reading
of them and the teacher should give marks.
Lecture 5
The sound / æ / - front, open, unrounded, lax.
For example, / sæd / / bæn / / bæt /
/ s / - fore lingual, apical, palato-alveolar, constrictive, fricative, noise, strong.
For example, / si / / sæ∫ /
/ p / - bilabial, occlusive, plosive, pure, noise, strong.
For example, / p i / / pæ t / / 'peI pə / / l I p / / spaI / / preI /
/ b / - bilabial, occlusive, plosive, pure, noise, weak.
For example, / bi / / b I l / / læb /
Then read the words with these sounds (students have the transcription of these
words).
At home: 1). Ex. 1-3 (revision);
2). Ex. 4-10 ( test reading);
3). Ex. 11-13 ( drill), and learn theory.
Lecture 6
The sound / m / - bilabial, occlusive, sonorant, nasal.
For example, / dIm / / mit / / tim /
/ a / - back, open, unrounded, tense.
For example,
/ ba / / ban / / pat /
/ ρ / - back, open, unrounded, lax
For example, / gρd / / dρl / / pρt /
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Then read the words with these sounds ( students have the transcription of these
words).
At home: 1). Ex. 1-10 (revision);
2). Ex. 11-13 ( test reading);
3). Ex. 14-20 (drill), and learn theory.
Lecture 7
The sound / O / - back, open, rounded, tense.
For example, / p O / / s O d / / d O n / / p O t /
/ k / - back lingual, occlusive, plosive, pure, noise, strong.
For example, / ka / / s i k / / 'beIkə / / ski / / klu / / 'kwOtə / / kju /
/ g / - back lingual, occlusive, plosive, pure, noise, weak.
For example, / giz / / lig /
/ f / - labio-dental, constrictive, fricative, noise, strong.
For example, / fil / / lif /
/ v / - labio-dental, constrictive, fricative, noise, weak.
For example, / vil / / l i v /
Then read the words with these sounds (students have the transcription of these
words).
At home: 1). Ex. 1-13 (revision);
2). Ex. 14 -20 (test reading);
3). Ex. 21-29 (drill), and learn theory.
Lectures 8, 9
The sound / h / - pharyngal, constrictive, fricative, noise.
For example, / hi / / si hIm / / tel hIm /
/ ٨ / - mixed, mid-open, unrounded, lax.
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For example, / b٨n / / b٨d / / b٨t /
Then read the words with these sounds (students have the transcription of these
words).
Introduce new material to the students.
Loss of plosion appears in case of clusters of the following sounds ptk and bdg
/ 'sIt daUn / / 'bI g b O I /
Lateral plosion appears in case of clusters l + ptk, l+ bdg
/ 'lI tl / / pleI / / glu /
Nasal plosion appears in case of clusters of sonorants m, n + ptk, bdg
/ 'pætn / / 'hI dn /
At home: 1). Ex. 1-20 (revision);
2). Ex. 21-29 (test reading);
3). Ex. 30-35 (drill), and learn theory.
Lecture 10
The sound / θ / - dental, constrictive, fricative, noise, strong.
For example, / θI k / / baθ /
/ ð / - dental, constrictive, fricative, noise, weak.
For example, / ðI s / / sið /
/ u / - back, close, rounded, tense.
For example, / t u / / tjun / / luz / / gus /
/ U / - back, close, rounded, lax.
For example, / gUd / / bUl / / bUk /
/ j / - fore lingual, post-alveolar, constrictive, fricative, sonorant median.
For example, / jes /
When / j / is met with ptk, it becomes voiceless.
/ pj U ə / / kj U ə / / 'tjuzdI /
When / j / is met with d, t there appears the following affricates / t∫ / and / dƷ /
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Then read the words with these sounds (students have the transcription of these
words).
At home: 1). Ex. 1-29 (revision);
2). Ex. 30-35 (test reading);
3). Ex. 36-44 (drill), and learn theory.
Lecture 11
The sound / 3 / - mixed, mid-open, unrounded, tense.
For example, / f 3 / / θ3d / / b3n / / f 3st /
/ ə / - mixed, mid-open, unrounded, lax.
For example, / ə pen / / ðə pen / / 'bI tə /
/ r / - fore lingual, apical, cacuminal, oral sonorant.
For example, / red / / 'sρrI / / preI /
Then read the words with these sounds ( students have the transcription of these
words).
At home: 1). Ex. 1-35 (revision);
2). Ex. 36-44 (test reading);
3). Ex. 45-47 (drill), and learn theory.
Lecture12
The sound / Ʒ / - fore lingual, apical, palato-alveolar, constrictive, fricative,
noise, weak.
For example, / 'meƷə / / ruƷ /
/ dƷ / - fore lingual, apical, alveolar, palato-alveolar, affricate, noise, weak.
For example, / 'dƷ3mən / / 'vIlIdƷ /
/ t∫ / - fore lingual, apical, alveolar, occlusive, plosive, noise, strong.
For example, / t∫uz / / s٨t∫ /
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Then read the words with these sounds ( students have the transcription of these
words).
At home: 1). Ex. 1-44 (revision);
2). Ex. 45-47 (test reading);
3). Ex. 48-54 (drill), and learn theory.
Lecture 13
The diphthong / aI / - front, open, unrounded, diphthong.
For example, / l aI t / / maI / / glaId / / maI n /
/ a U / - front, open, unrounded, diphthong.
For example, / daUn / / ə'baUt /
/ Iə / - front, close, unrounded, diphthong.
For example, / rI əl / / bIəd / / pIəs /
/ εə / - front, open, unrounded, diphthog.
For example, / tεə / / pεəz / / skεəs /
/ η / - back lingual, velar, occlusive, nasal, sonorant.
For example, / sI η / / sI ηk /
/ w / - bilabial, constrictive, oral sonorant.
For example, / w I nd / / twI nz / / 'kwO tə /
/ Uə / - back, close, rounded, diphthong.
For example, / tUə / / dUəl / / flUənt /
/ eI / - front, mid-open, unrounded, diphthong.
For example, / meI / / meI n / / keI t /
Then read the words with these sounds (students have the transcription of these
words).
At home: 1). Ex. 1-47 (revision);
2). Ex. 48-54 (test reading);
3). Ex. 55-65 (drill), and learn theory.
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Lectures 14, 15
The diphthong / əU / - mixed, mid-open, rounded, diphthong.
For example, / nəU / / nəUn / / nəUz / / nəUt /
/ OI / - back, open, rounded, diphthong.
For example, / bOI / / lOId / / vOIs /
Then read the words with these sounds (students have the transcription of these
words).
At home: 1). Ex. 1-54 (revision);
2). Ex. 55-65 (test reading);
3). Learn theory; review the characteristics of the sounds.
Lectures 16 Revision
Prepare the students for the approaching credit.
Lectures 17 Credit
The whole introductory course is represented as a separate book with the cassettes.
The following cards may be used to check students’ knowledge.
CARD 1
Task 1 Give the definitions of the following phenomena:
1. a phoneme;
2. a principle allophone.
Task 2 Divide all organs of speech into active and passive:
The lips, the upper and the lower teeth, vocal cords, the tip, the lungs, the alveolar,
hard palate, soft palate, the larynx, the mouth cavity, the jaw, the uvula.
Task 3 Explain the essence of the following processes:
1. assimilation;
2. nasal plosion;
3. degrees of duration of tense and lax vowels.
Task 4 What type of assimilation is it?
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Apt, garden, metal, asked, cattle.
Task 5 Transcribe the following words. Mind the allophones. Mark everything you know.
Clear, part, sword, lend, league, shop, lamp, pens, vast, stiff, sport, duck, lark,
curious.
Task 6 Characterize the sounds:
/ s /, / 3 /, / ð /, / p /, / Iə/.
CARD 2
Task 1 Give the definitions of the following phenomena:
1. an allophone;
2. a combinatorial allophone.
Task 2 Divide all organs of speech into active and passive:
The lips, the upper and the lower teeth, vocal cords, the tip, the lungs, the alveolar,
hard palate, soft palate, the larynx, the mouth cavity, the jaw, the uvula.
Task 3 Explain the essence of the following processes:
1. lateral plosion;
2. loss of plosion;
3. degrees of aspiration of the consonants.
Task 4 What type of assimilation is it?
Mitten, eaten, middle, picked, fact.
Task 5 Transcribe the following words. Mind the allophones.
Theme, paths,thistle, desk, smooth, learn, bush, pattern, ebbed, kept, vest, mob, dark,
metal.
Task 6 Characterize the sounds: / l /, / v /, / α /, / t∫ /, / aI /.
2 Basic components
The Main Course in Phonetics
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If the speech of the foreign learner is to be a perfect reproduction of that of the
native speaker, he must use the special assimilated and slided word forms used in context,
observe the rules, concerning weak forms, should cultivate the correct variations of word
rhythmic patterns according to the context. In any case, whether or not he uses such forms
himself, he must know their existence, for otherwise he will find it difficult to understand
such of ordinary colloquial English.
The following plan of the lesson on the first course in Phonetics is offered to teachers:
1. work on monophthongs;
2. work on accentuation structure;
3. work on rhythm;
4. work on intonation.
2.1 Monophthongs
According to the stability of articulation, the vowels are subdivided into:
- monophthongs;
- diphthongs,
- tripthongs.
Monophthongs are pronounced with more or less stable lips, tongue, mouth walls.
They are:
e I U i a u O
There are special exercises on monophthongs in a separate book. The drilling starts
with separate words, then sounds are practiced in word combinations, then in
sentences and only then in small texts or dialogues. It’ll be better to make students
learn geographical and proper names in exercises 4, 5 with each monophthong. Pay
attention to the exercises based on oppositions.
2.2 Accentuation structure
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It’ll be better to ask students to learn the words together with their accentuation
structures and write down the dictations.
2.3 Rhythmic groups
To an English-speaking person the rhythm of many other languages sounds
mechanically regular- a series of little bursts of sound all of about the same size and force,
like machine gun fire. English pronounced with such rhythm would probably not be
understood. In a line of English poetry the number of sentence-stresses is more important
than the number of syllables. Here are two verses from Tennyson which are considered to
be perfectly matched and of the same length.
“ Break, break, break,
On the cold gray stones, o sea!”
The unstressed syllables are so unimportant, rhythmically speaking, that it is not
even necessary to count them. When a person recites those lines, it takes him as long to say
the first as the second, even though the first contains only three syllables and the second is
made up of seven. This leads to a significant observation regarding English pronunciation.
Sentence-stresses tend to recur at regular intervals. The more unstressed syllables
there are between stressed ones, the more rapidly they are pronounced.
It is a feature of English that the utterance is delivered as a series of close-knit
rhythmic groups, which override in importance on the phonetic level the significance of the
word on the linguistic level.
The exercises in a separate book will help to acquire correct rhythmic habits.
2.4 Intonation
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Every utterance from pause to pause in spite of its length must be phonetically
organized as a whole unit. This phonetic formation is called the intonation of
utterance. Some linguists even speak of the subjective character of the intonation
that is every person in their opinion, has its own intonation. One and the same
sentence can be differently intoned, but in that case the emotional and intellectual
coloring of the sentence is changed. That is the problem of objectivity and
subjectivity of intonation.
We are to distinguish between 2 aspects of intonation:
1). Communicative
2). Emotional.
In its communicative aspect intonation has the following functions:
- it is a means of division our speech flow into sense groups or syntagms;
- intonation serves for distinguishing of different communicative types;
- function of expressing the relation between the elements of a intonation units or
sense groups;
- sentence delimiting function showing the division of the sentence into sense groups;
- the function of completeness and non-completeness;
- emotional or attitudinal function.
The Components of Intonation.
The main component of intonation is melody. The melodic characteristics are
range of voice, steepness of voice, interval, etc
Intensity correlates with loudness. The more the amplitude of the vibration, the more
you sound.
Duration correlates with tempo of speech. The more fluent pronunciation of words
shows that they are less important.
Pause; it is not a complete disappearing of the sound. It means that we have a sharp
breaking of melodic contour.
Tempo means the present of some concentration of voice energy.
There are exercises and recordings on all types of tones: low drop, high drop, low
rise, high rise, etc
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There are some dialogues which are useful for practicing intonation and velocity of
speech. These dialogues are recorded.
A List of Literature
1 Basics of English Phonetics. Основы фонетики английского языка: учебное
пособие / Л.П. Бондаренко, В.Л. Завьялова, М.О. Пивоварова, С.М. Соболева. - М.:
Флинта: Наука, 2009. - 152 с.
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