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219.Перевод информационно-экспрессивных текстов

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Е.А. Княжева
И.Н. Яковлева
Учебное пособие
Издательско-полиграфический центр
Воронежского государственного университета
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Утверждено научно-методическим советом факультета РГФ 2009 г., протокол № 2 от 13.10.2009
Рецензент канд. филол. наук, доц. кафедры теории перевода и межкультурной коммуникации С.Л. Лукина
Учебное пособие подготовлено на кафедре ТПиМК факультета РГФ
Воронежского государственного университета.
Рекомендуется для студентов 5 курса д/о и 6 курса в/о факультета романогерманской филологии Воронежского государственного университета.
Для специальности 031202 – Перевод и переводоведение
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Задание 1. Выполните предпереводческий анализ и определите доминанты перевода следующего текста.
Adapt or Die
The wind of change is blowing through the empire of fast food. The vision
of endless growth through new markets across the planet for fast food companies
now looks unsustainable when it's not what people want anymore.
When fashions, styles and tastes change, it's time to adapt or die. As the
fast food companies have expanded around the world, they have had to adapt to
local sensitivities.
In the old days, no franchise holder could deviate from the 700 page
McDonald's operations manual known as "the Bible". But that policy may be
In the 34 restaurants in India, the "Maharaja Mac" is made of mutton, and
the vegetarian options contain no meat or eggs. There were disturbances in India
when it was learned that McDonald's french fries were precooked in beef fat in
the USA, because Hindus revere cows and cannot eat beef. Likewise,
McDonald's in Pakistan offers three spicy "McMaza meals", Chatpata Chicken
Roll, Chicken ' Chutni Burger and Spicy Chicken Burger. In the USA itself, the
taste for the food of the Eisenhower-era brightly coloured takeaway has changed
over fifty years too.
What the market is meant to offer is more choice, not less. In the heart land
of America, at Evansville, Indiana, there's now a McDonald's With the Diner
Inside, where waitresses serve 100 combinations of food, on china.
At the end of 2002, McDonald's began closing 175 outlets in 10 countries.
Some were branches in cities like London, but the company pulled out altogether
from some countries that were not giving appropriate financial returns.
The reasons for these corporate changes may not be just to do with fast
food. One of Ray Kroc's partners once admitted that McDonald's was not really
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in the food business at all, but in real estate. McDonald's actually makes most of
its money from rent, because it owns more retail property than any other
company on earth. Land is more valuable than appetite, and the sites are more
valuable an asset than what they sell. Will McDonald's mutate into another
business entirely, in order to survive?
Задание 2. Подберите русские соответствия к выделенным словам и
предложите варианты перевода следующих газетных заголовков.
Задание 3. Преобразуйте тексты следующих новостных сообщений в
газетные заголовки на русском языке.
1. Eighteen people were killed when the army tried to overthrow the
2. A leading diplomat has been mysteriously murdered.
3. The Prime Minister is trying to win the support of the trade unions.
4. The director of British Petroleum has been forced to resign.
5. A Member of Parliament was questioned by the police in an investigation into
the use of illegal drugs.
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Задание 4. Какую информацию несет упоминание в текстах СМИ
следующих имен собственных?
Kate Moss
Martin Amis
Mohammed al Fayed
Sir David Attenborough
Adam Smith
Michael Caine
Paul Smith
Francis Bacon
Camilla Parker-Bowles
William Blake
Sarah Ferguson
Terry Wogan
Jack Straw
Sean Connery
Ewan McGregor
Stephen Hawking
Rupert Murdoch
Sir Walter Raleigh
Oliver Cromwell
Evelyn Waugh
Задание 5. Определите объем фоновой информации, необходимой для
раскрытия содержания следующих британских реалий при переводе.
Dr Martens
Covent Garden
Monty Python
Ploughman’s lunch
10 Downing St.
Cooked breakfast
Battle of Britain
Sunday roast
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Radio 4
Cat’s eyes
Worcester sauce
The semi-detached
Aston Martin
The blazer
The Mini
Bay windows
The Sun
Jaffa Cakes
Black cabs
Corner shops
Baked beans
The Beano
Stand-up comedy
Quality Street
Jelly Babies
Milk Floats
Задание 6. Выполните полный письменный перевод следующего текста.
Mark Steel: So Karl Marx was right after all
The sudden change is disconcerting. For years I might suggest society
would be improved if we sacked these vastly overpaid bankers, and the response
would be some variety of "Here he goes again".
Now if you say the same thing the response is "SACK them? I'll tell you
what we should do, we should cover them in marmalade and lock them in a
greenhouse full of wasps, then scour the stings with a Brillo pad. Then prick them
with hedgehog spikes, smear them with fish paste and dip them in Sydney
Harbour, then glue them to a pig and send them into an al-Qa'ida training camp
with a letter announcing they're a work of art, never mind sack them."
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Even the Daily Mail exclaimed on its front page, "I'm keeping every
penny" in outrage at Fred Goodwin's pension. Maybe the paper is planning a
change of direction, and will be sold in shopping precincts by left-wing groups,
yelling "SMASH the bosses, get the WORKER'S Mail, for suburban fashion tips,
20 ways to cook a parsnip and an all-out GENERAL strike."
Even Karl Marx himself is in vogue. Most papers have had articles about
him in their business sections, commending his analysis of booms and slumps,
and he was on the front page of The Times. Soon a Times editorial will begin:
"As the global downturn gathers pace, perhaps one economic remedy to be
considered by our esteemed guardians is a violent workers' revolution as
envisaged by Mister Karl Marx, and championed with consummate aplomb on
page 32 by William Rees-Mogg."
A passage from Marx about the insatiable greed of bankers was quoted on
Radio 2 one morning by Terry Wogan. For all I know he's doing it every day
now, muttering: "Now here's a jolly old lesson from the old boy Karl – about
those rascals of the bourgeoisie, it seems they've been robbing us blind all along
and no mistake, so let's overthrow the nitwits for a bit of mischief. In the
meantime this is 'Surrey with the Fringe on Top'."
Sales of Marx's Capital are at an all-time high, and this can't just be due to
the current rage against characters such as Fred Goodwin and his merry bonus. It
must also be because Marx fathomed that under capitalism, boom and slump
would remain a perpetual cycle, as opposed to those such as Gordon Brown, who
said once an hour for five years, "We have abolished boom and bust", a theory
which is now in need of a minor tweak.
But Marx might be surprised at the way he usually appears in these
articles, as if he was mostly an analyst, a Robert Peston of his day. As a
professional analyst, Marx would have been a disaster. For example, one year
after Capital was due, his publishers asked him when it would arrive and he wrote
back: "You'll be pleased to know I have begun the actual writing."
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But he might also dispute the idea attributed to him, that slumps make the
collapse of capitalism inevitable. Because while he said SLUMPS were
inevitable, he also said the outcome wasn't inevitable at all, but depended on
whether the poor allow the rich to make them pay for it.
Which is to say an abridged version of the 1,100 pages of Capital would
go: "I'll tell you what we should do, spray them with wildebeest odour and make
them run through the Serengeti, with a commentary by Attenborough, then..."
Задание 7. Подберите русские соответствия следующим образным клише с учетом жанрово-стилевой специфики газетно-журнального текста.
1. energy flows ("The New York Times")
2. capital injection ("The Financial Times")
3. the currency fall ("American Thinker")
4. economic ties ("The Washington Post" о налаживании экономических
связей между Грузией и Западом)
5. information leaks ("The Independent")
6. money laundering ("The Guardian")
7. the pendulum of public opinion ("The National Interest")
8. ethnic cleansing ("The Observer")
9. the party's breakdown and policy paralysis ("Reuters")
10. immunity from prosecution in Russia ("The Times")
11. a surge of inflation ("The Observer")
12. economic and financial storm ("The Washington Post" )
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Задание 8. Продумайте возможные стратегии перевода метафор, использованных в следующих предложениях.
1. The financial system suffered a temporary cardiac arrest.
2. But these are slim and tender shoots on which to base predictions that Russia
is heading into a new spring of democracy.
3. Their aim is to derail Iran's nuclear weapons program.
4. The Russians have complained that the United States has given them the cold
5. He runs the tiny republic with an iron fist.
6. Senior American officials live in their own bubbles.
7. Vladimir Putin stripped away the independence of Russia's central bank.
8. Oil is the lifeblood of the Russian economy.
9. Now we learn Mr Crozier, already the UK's highest-paid public servant, has
the same sort of fat-cat pension arrangement.
10. Once aloft in the dark void of space, the Hubble promises a leap in
astronomical observing power unlike anything since 1609, when Galileo first
pointed a telescope at the heavens.
11. The Hubble is a spyglass that enables astronomers to look way back in time to
earlier age of the cosmos.
12. None of us are from Memphis. We are all transplants.
13. And now he was forced to act as if he was an ignorant pawn.
14. The United States was not plagued by crony capitalism.
Задание 9. Переведите следующие предложения, уделяя особое внимание выбору значения многозначного слова с учетом приведенного
1. Cowperwood had an interest in this business and hoped to reap good profit.
2. President Carter advised his cabinet that he expected to resolve the remaining
disarmament differences personally with Soviet leader.
3. The English channel is only twenty miles across but it presents a challenge
even to the strongest swimmers.
4. Many communities have turned to private security companies.
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5. Instead of declaring serious concerns about the court from the outset, the
president and his representatives trumpeted their support.
6. Mozart’s dead, and I’m alive.
7. There are doubts that the Russian government could deliver on its tough
austerity package.
8. If any clear message has come out of this meeting, it’s that the 178 nations
will all have to change.
9. These institutions can be seen as an unusually sophisticated system of
economic organization from an imperial centre.
10. The record of the British ministers has mostly been poor.
Задание 10. Сформулируйте переводческие проблемы и определите
способы их решения при переводе названий следующих организаций.
1. International Union of Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
2. Center for International Environmental Law
3. Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe
4. International Organization on Business and Investments
5. United Nations Environmental Program
6. International Chamber of Commerce
7. International Court of Justice
8. Association of South-East Nation
9. The Gulf Cooperation Council
10. Northwest Translators and Interpreters Society
11. World Tourism Organization
12. South-Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)
13. Council of Mutual Economic Assistance
14. Guild of European Translators
Задание 11. Выполните полный письменный перевод следующих текстовых фрагментов.
1. With funding from the National Science Foundation, NEON program
managers plan to collect and archive data online for at least 30 years. The
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information can be used by scientists to conduct studies, by policymakers to
make science-related decisions, and by educators to teach students about the
2. Doctor Aleida Guevara was recently in London, invited by the Cuban
Solidarity Campaign to speak at the European Social Forum. In Cuba, she works
as a doctor, specialising in allergies. She is firmly Cuban in every respect, except
for the fact that she can’t stand coffee.
3. Xerox Corporation funded the initial research on personal computers in their
Palo Alto laboratory in California. However, the company failed to capitalize on
this work, and the ideas that they put together went into the operating system
developed for Apple’s computers.
4. On the environment, IFG argues that conservation is the key to sustainable
development, and that capitalist-oriented globalisation is resulting in its
destruction. IFG opposes the emergence of a strong private sector as it
undermines the role of government in the protection of human rights, and
believes intellectual property rights, and TRIPs, should be reversed to reflect
local and domestic interests rather than the interests of transnational corporations.
(The International Forum on Globalization).
5. Medecins Sans Frontieres advances the importance of human rights and
public health above international trade, intellectual property rights and
commercial interests. This is clearly indicated through its ‘Access to Essential
Medicines’ campaign. MSF claims that the poor’s access to medicine is restricted
by market-driven prices, and that this is often the result of intellectual property
rights protection that favours rich countries.
6. An analysis of the typical shopping basket at eight supermarkets by the British
Market Research Bureau found that Sainsbury’s had the highest proportion of
packaging that could easily be recycled (66 per cent) while Lidl had the lowest
(58 per cent). Waitrose had the heaviest packaging (803g) and Tesco the lightest
7. The telescope is being run by scientists at the new Space Telescope Science
Institute, housed at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Md. The data will be
collected by some 380 institute researchers and computer technicians and will be
used by scientists all over the world. Over the Hubble's expected 15-year life11
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span, teams of astronauts will shuttle to and from the telescope to service and
upgrade it.
Задание 12. Проведите сопоставительный анализ исходного и переводного текстов и отредактируйте текст перевода.
Япония: вы снова можете
Japan: you can go home again
Seven hundred miles north of
smog-choked Tokyo, an emerald green
island rises from the sea. At this time of
the year, the air is fresh with the scent
of honeysuckle and pine. The waters
that wash the island's volcanic benches
are unpolluted, and the deep pools that
form among the rocks offshore are rich
in abalone.
вернуться домой
В семистах милях (1126 км) к
северу от покрытого смогом Токио в
изумруднозеленый остров. В это время года
наполненный ароматом жимолости и
незагрязнены, а глубокие бассейны
The Japanese families who live среди скал в открытом море богаты
in small fishing villages nestled at the
наличием морских ушек.
foot of the island's craggy basalt cliffs
make a good living from the sea. Most
own comfortable homes, and many живут в маленьких рыбацких
even have color television sets. But for поселках,
all its beauty and economic vigor, a основания скалистых базальтовых
dark cloud hangs over the isle today. утесов острова, зарабатывают на
For like many of Japan's rural areas, the жизнь морем. Большинство из них
island of Rebun seems to be dying.
благоустроенные дома. А у многих
The last ten years of economic есть даже цветные телевизоры.
boom have produced a severe labour Однако из-за его красоты и
shortage in Japan, leading millions of экономического
young people to forsake the villages of
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their ancestors and flock to the bright
lights and fat salaries of the big cities.
More than 500 Japanese villages have
dropped off the map completely. Others
have lost almost all their young people.
More than 10,000 persons lived on
Rebun in 1956; about 6,000 remain
today. This year, 148 of the island's 166
15-year-olds moved away.
Rebun has now launched a
vigorous new program to stem the tide.
The island is investing $380,000 in a
new sports center to help young people
while away the long harsh winters. And
Mayor Kanzaburo Mukose is talking of
opening up the island's lush interior to
beef-and dairy-cattle ranching. What
the leaders of Rebun really want,
though, is for more of the island's
young men to recognize the traditional
values of the fishing life. As an
incentive, the local government this
year is giving a free fishing boat to any
boy who opts for the sea. So far there
have been fourteen takers. One who
decided to remain on Rebun is Shinichi
Sasaki, 15. "We have been here for
three generations," his father, also a
островом нависло черное облако
дыма. Аналогично многим японским
отдаленным территориям, остров
Ребун, кажется, находится на грани
экономического подъема привели к
серьезному дефициту рабочей силы
в Японии, заставив тем самым
миллионы молодых людей покидать
поселки своих предков и стекаться в
большие города с освещенными
улицами и высокими окладами.
Более пятисот японских поселков
исчезли с лица земли навсегда.
практически без молодых людей. В
1956г. На острове Ребун жили 10
тыс. человек; сегодня осталось 6 тыс.
человек. В этом году 148 из 166
пятнадцатилетних жителей острова
покинули его.
руководство острова Ребун начало
новую стремительную программу по
приостановлению такой массовой
миграции. Они вкладывают 380 тыс.
долларов в новый спортивный центр
для того, чтобы помочь молодым
людям, пока не наступили длинные
In addition to tempting teenagers суровые зимы. А мэр Канзабуро
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like Shinichi to stay, Rebun is trying to Мукосее
persuade those who have left to come растительность
крупного рогатого и молочного
скота. Однако чего на самм деле
This year, teams of fishermen хотят руководители острова Ребун,
visited Tokyo, Osaka and Sapporo to так это того, чтобы молодые люди
seek out the island's youngsters. 'First осознали традиционные ценности
of all,' said the Mayor, 'we wanted to жизни в рыбацких поселках. В
make sure they were leading good качестве
clean lives. Cities tend to corrupt правительство в этом году бесплатно
simple island people. And then we предоставляет рыболовное судно
began asking them to come home.' The любому юноше, выбравшему жизнь
teams persuaded a dozen to return. у моря. Таких молодых людей на
Other small Japanese towns report up данный
to 40 per cent of their high-school четырнадцать. Один из них – 15-ти
graduates returning disillusioned after летний Шиничи Сасаки. «Мы живем
two or three years of employment in здесь вот уже три поколения», - с
urban industry.
гордостью рассказывает нашему
корреспонденту его отец, тоже
potentially even more important
weapon in the battle for survival. This
Помимо попыток убедить
summer hundreds of teenagers from юношей,
Japan's cities have flocked to the island. остаться, правительство старается
They have come clutching their guitars уговорить вернуться назад тех, кто
and wearing their backpacks, lured by
уже покинул остров.
the outdoor life and the people's gentle
ways. Most have left, but some 30
В этом году группы рыбаков
youngsters have preferred to stay. A приезжали в Токио, Осака и
few have even shown an interest in Саппоро, чтобы разыскать юношей
learning the fishing trade and staying острова. «Во-первых, - сказал мэр, мы хотели убедиться в том, что они
ведут достойный образ жизни.
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For the fishermen of Rebun, the
notion that young outsiders may choose
to adopt their way of life is both
fascinating and perplexing. 'After all,'
said Mukose, 'isn't it rather strange that
we have to fight to keep our youngsters
here while more and more kids from
the city come here every year?' But for
the first time, an increasing number of
young Japanese are rebelling against
their materialistic, career-oriented
society and like their brethren in
Europe and US, looking for alternative
Города портят простых людей с
острова. И тогда мы просим их
вернуться домой». В других мелких
возвращаются разочарованные после
2-3-х летней работы в городской
Однако, у острова Ребун есть
другое, потенциально даже более
важное оружие в борьбе за
выживание. Этим летом сотни
юношей из японских городов
соблазненные жизнью на открытом
воздухе и великодушием людей,
приехали на остров с гитарами в
руках и рюкзаками за спинами.
Большинство вновь уехали, но 30
Некоторые даже проявили интерес к
обучению рыболовному промыслу и
продолжают здесь жить.
Для рыбаков острова Ребун
мысль о том, что молодежь может
озадачивает. «В конце концов, сказал Мукосее, - не кажется ли
странным, что мы должны бороться
за то, чтобы удержать сою молодежь
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здесь, тогда как с каждым годом все
больнее городских детей приезжают
сюда?»Однако, это впервые, когда
столь большое количество молодых
японцев выступают против своего
собратьям из Европы и США, ищут
другой образ жизни.
Задание 13. Проанализируйте следующие переводческие решения с
учетом характера и функций используемых в оригинале прецедентных
И.Я.: As a rationale for genocide it was dizzying, but at the same time
wholly in character for the quixotic Karadzic, who seemed to have been forged
by the vicissitudes of his past to become the principal architect of an attempt to
re-engineer Bosnian history. (Times)
П.Я. Подобное обоснование геноцида выглядело странно, однако оно
абсолютно соответствовало донкихотовскому характеру Караджича,
превратности прошлого которого, казалось, специально подготовили его
для роли архитектора, пытающегося переделать историю Боснии.
И.Я. The British know that villainy is where the artistic gold lies. (NY
П.Я. Британцы знают: злодейство – это золотая жила в искусстве.
И.Я. The last supper: mystery of the Swiss motorbike courier (Times)
П.Я. Последний ужин – загадка швейцарского мотоциклистапутешественника.
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4. И.Я. Mr Henry's gastronomic marathon, has issued a personal appeal for
information on his whereabouts. "He couldn't just have vanished into thin air
leaving his notebook," said M. Bocuse. (Observer)
П.Я. Гастрономический марафон мистера Генри вызвал у повара личный
интерес к его местонахождению. «Он не мог просто провалиться сквозь
землю, оставив только записную книжку», – говорит Бокуз.
5. И.Я. Lost in translation: Mary Rose's demise blamed on multilingual crew.
П.Я. Трудности перевода: Крушение «Мэри Роуз» произошло из-за
непонимания в команде.
И.Я. Last September, America's great aviation daredevil took off on a
routine solo flight, and was never seen again. (Independent)
П.Я. В прошлом сентябре, великий американский авиатор, сорвиголова,
отправился в свой обычный одиночный полет, и больше его никто не видел.
И.Я.: When we try to impose democracy, we tarnish it. When we live up to
our own best traditions, we can stimulate emulation and create the soft power of
attraction. This approach is like “shining city upon the hill.” (Times)
П.Я.: Пытаясь навязать демократию, мы порочим саму идею демократии.
Следуя собственным лучшим традициям, мы можем подать пример для
подражания и создать мягкую силу привлекательности. Подобный подход –
это что-то вроде «сияющего города на холме».
И.Я.: Big Brother is watching ... us. Eyeball scanners, gadgets that sniff
bombs – airports get serious about security. (NY Times)
П.Я.: Большой брат следит за нами. Сканеры сетчатки глаз, всевозможные
устройства для обнаружения бомб – аэропорты все больше заботятся о
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Задание 14. Определите тип и функции прецедентных феноменов в
следующих текстовых фрагментах. Продумайте и обоснуйте возможные в этих случаях переводческие стратегии.
First we had to endure Lembit Opik, MP, playing his mouth organ to a
song called By-Election in the Town. This included such lines as "Labor voters
falling down, falling down" and "Delivering our Focus leaflets all around, all
around" (Times).
In the teeth of recession and suspicion from the Socialists, who run the city
and region, Mr Sarkozy is to lay out a vision for creating a green Greater Paris,
linking the ancient city with its dense suburban sprawl. This, he hopes, could earn
him a legacy as one of the capital’s builder kings like Napoleon III.
An open-and-shut inquest has been conducted like an Agatha Christie
whodunit with a dozen suspects in the court-room. (Times).
When a couple have many rough patches like Pete Doherty and Kate Moss,
it can be hard to find new ways of resurrecting it. (Independent)
It seems that most of the people who are toughest on immigrants are those
whose last names are as alien as mine. No matter where I came from, I am solidly
on American soil now. In appreciation, I am committed to making the same
sacrifices to protect America's values as the descendants of those brought over by
the Mayflower (Daily News).
Oddly enough, although Dan is from a decent family and was educated at a
posh school in St Albans, for some reason he has adopted an 'alright mate' semicockney accent of the Dick Van Dyke variety used in Mary Poppins. (Times)
It goes without saying that any violence directed against an individual for
his or her ethnicity or beliefs is tragic, especially when perpetrated by those who
claim to follow a man who forgave his own executioners from the cross (NYT).
"We Brazilians think that we are a country of promise, but that the time of
promise is always passing, " says Lourival Sant'Anna, a respected journalist. "My
parents were part of a generation in the 1950s who felt that they were building the
country. But they became completely disillusioned by the military, high inflation
and the lost decade" (Independent).
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"It looks to some people now as if the emperor has no clothes," said Sung
Won Sohn, chief economist at Wells Fargo, referring to Mr. Greenspan. "The Fed
doesn't have much ammunition left, and if they use it, the markets will fast
demand more." (NYT).
10. Could a team on the endangered species list less than two years ago really
win the World Series? As for the Tigers, if they cannot make any good luck this
weekend, perhaps they can take heart from the tagline for "Chicago": If vou can't
be famous, be infamous (Times).
Задание 15. Выполните предпереводческий анализ и полный письменный перевод следующего текста.
Turning our backs on immigrants
My mother had pale green eyes. In her youth, she also had a slight figure,
beautiful dark hair pulled back in a modest bun and few expectations for her life.
Like most Irish Catholic women, she rarely talked of herself and so I know
very little of her history behind the cold, angry glances she often gave. The one
thing I do remember her telling me, however, still chills.
I do not recall the context, perhaps, it was during a summer when I was
looking for my first paying job as a teenager. The years between her experience
and its telling to her fourth child had not taken the bite away from her anger.
When she came of age in Columbus, Ohio, during the Great Depression, she said,
employers had signs on their doors: HELP WANTED, NO IRISH NEED
There is no telling how the anti-Irish bigotry influenced her life and, by
implication, mine. Her first-generation father had abandoned the family. My first
generation grandmother left my mother and her two brothers to care for
themselves while she worked in a factory. It was not until after my mother died
that I learned my grandfather's name and the fact that he was an alcoholic.
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Bad genes, bad character, bad breaks or bigotry? Who knows. But it is
clear to me that such ethnic antagonism creates a heritage of self-loathing that I
see in the eyes of my daughters. And job discrimination too often leaves proud
men with nothing to offer their families other than their absence.
Now, the hatred and xenophobia that inspired those signs are guiding the
creation of public policy on the highest levels. The current Republican Congress
has written, and the Democratic president has signed, punitive legislation that
institutionalizes anti-immigrant beliefs and punishes the spouses and children of
runaway parents.
The reconstruction of federal assistance to the poor - it is not reform - has
many flaws. But perhaps the most morally repugnant are those that eliminate all
forms of assistance to legal immigrants, even though they have paid taxes.
These are the four major provisions affecting legal immigrants.
Effective immediately, they are no longer eligible for Supplemental
Security Income (federal assistance to the elderly and the handicapped). Those
who are currently receiving it will be weeded off the rolls throughout the coming
They also will be ineligible for food stamps.
In addition, they may also be denied – a state's option – federal cash
assistance to single-parent families, as well as Medicaid and social services.
(Those who lived in the United States for at least10 years are exempted
from these three provisions as are refugees, veterans and those granted political
Lastly, their sponsor will be considered financially responsible for them,
not for up to five years as it is now but until the immigrant becomes a citizen.
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I live in New York City now. Half the residents are either immigrants or
first generation. The new regulations are predicted to cost the city $290 million
during the coming year. California officials, also faced with a large immigrant
population, believe that their state will lose about $300 million in federal funds.
Illinois, with a city that has historically been the gateway to economic
independence for thousands, is likely to be heavily hit too. And no one in
authority is talking about how these cuts will affect the underground, all-cash
The economic havoc, however, is but one measure of how these changes
will affect our urban communities, filled to the brim as they are with people from
around the world.
If the predicted devastation materializes, it will be extremely sad. But the
violence done to our national character will be equally harmful. We will have
entered another shameful period in our history caused by our elected officials
deciding to turn their backs on the pledge our nation made to the world
(Remember: "Give us your tired, your weak.") and, instead, to become scions of
those who put up the signs that hurt my mother so.
Задание 16. Сопоставьте исходный и переводной тексты, квалифицируйте и исправьте допущенные переводческие ошибки.
"Nanofoods" Offer Big Flavor, Low
Fat, Stealth Vitamins
Richard Lovett
for National Geographic News, 2009
Imagine potato chips with all the
flavor but far less sodium. Or fish oilenriched bread that doesn't taste the
least bit fishy. These are just two ways
nanotechnology is poised to enter
grocery stores, a group of food
scientists said at a recent meeting of the
«Нанопища» - яркий вкус и
низкое содержание жиров.
Представьте себе вкусные
картофельные чипсы, но с меньшим
содержанием соды. Или хлеб,
обогащенный рыбьим жиром, но
меньше им пахнущий. Это только
прилавки наших магазинов, заявила
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Advancement of Science. The potato
chips would use "nanosalt"—plain-old
salt crystals, only smaller, said Qasim
Chaudhry, a toxicologist at Britain's
Central Science Laboratory in York,
England. Together the microscopic
grains have more surface area,
milligram for milligram, than larger,
conventional salt crystals. That means
more contact with your tongue,
resulting in a disproportionately salty
Chaudhry said, applies to a type of
development in Europe. Normal
mayonnaise's tiny oil droplets add rich
texture and taste. Nano-mayo instead
substitutes the oil with water droplets
thinly coated with oil. The result: lower
группа специалистов на недавней
встрече Американской Ассоциации
по Развитию Науки. В состав
картофельных чипсов будет входить
«наносоль» - это те же кристаллы
соли, только меньшие по размеру,
утверждал Касим Чодри, токсиколог
городе Йорк, Англия. Также, эти
занимают большую поверхность,
чем обычные кристаллы соли, а,
значит, большее их количество
попадает к вам на язык, … По
словам Чодри, то же самое можно
сказать и о новом виде майонеза,
разрабатывается в Европе. Немного
масла, добавленного в обычный
майонез, делает его вкус более
fat but full flavor.
богатым и выразительным. В наноBreaded Fish
майонезе его заменяет вода, лишь
Nanotech can also be used to
enrich a wide range of foods with tiny,
содержание жира уменьшается.
tasteless capsules of vitamins, minerals,
or health supplements. Bread, for
Рыбный хлеб.
example, could be enhanced with heartfriendly fish oil. Normally, that would
make the bread taste, well, fishy. But используются для того, чтобы
with nano-supplements, "you can добавить в огромное количество
encapsulate it and give all the health продуктов, незаметные безвкусные
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benefits without the flavor," Chaudhry
said. In China, he added, nano forms of
selenium have been used to enrich
green tea to combat deficiencies in
some parts of the country. More radical
is the possibility of making a low-fat
milkshake by coating microscopic
grains of silica, a sand-like mineral,
with chocolate. The silica doesn't have
any calories, and the tiny amount of
chocolate is all on the surface.Then it
hits the taste buds, you have huge
flavor," Chaudhry said.
Not Ready for Lunch
минералов и прочих полезных для
здоровья веществ. Хлеб, к примеру,
может быть обогащен рыбьим
жиром, который так полезен для
сердца. По идее, это бы придало
хлебу привкус рыбы. Но с
принести пользу своему здоровью,
постороннего вкуса», сказал Чодри,
добавив, что в Китае, для борьбы с
дефицитом в некоторых районах
страны зеленый чай, согласно
нанотехнологии, обогащали особой
радикальной является возможность
производства молочного коктейля с
низким содержанием жира при
микроскопических частиц кремния,
минерала, похожего на песок, вместе
с шоколадом. Кремний абсолютно
бескалорийный и то небольшое
количество шоколада находится на
поверхности. «Когда он достигает
ваших вкусовых рецепторов, вы
чувствуете превосходный вкус»,
Hermann Stamm of the European
Commission's Joint Research Center in
Ispra, Italy, appreciates nanofoods as a
"nutritional miracle." But he warned
that the body may react differently to
nanoparticles than to conventional
ingredients. Because the particles are so
small, they may be able to penetrate the
gut more easily. This is good for
vitamins or minerals but perhaps not so
good for preservatives or other
synthetic chemicals. Once in the
bloodstream, nanoparticles may be able
утверждал Чодри.
to enter cells in a wide range of organs,
with unknown effects. Even vitamins
К обеду не готов
and minerals might rush into the
bloodstream too quickly, causing
Герман Штамм, член Центра
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overdoses, warned Elke Anklam, also Европейской
of the Joint Research Center.
Исследований, расположенного в
Safe Applications Right now городе Испра, Италия, ценит
nobody knows much about the safety of нанопродукты и называет их
these products, said T. Scott Thurmond, «питательным
a regulatory toxicologist with the U.S. Одновременно
Food and Drug Administration's Center предупредил, что организм может не
for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. так реагировать на наночастицы, как
"It is still pretty much a crapshoot," на традиционные ингредиенты. Эти
Thurmond said. "We need to be частички ничтожно малы, поэтому
proactive and take a look at this now to впитываются намного быстрее. Это
avoid any potential problems down the хорошо для витаминов и минералов,
road." Some nanofood products, like но
nanosalt, are probably safe. That's противозачаточных
because, once the salt dissolves, прочих синтетических химикатов.
nanosalt is nothing special. "It will Попадая в кровь, наночастицы могут
behave like normal salt from then распространиться по клеткам многих
Science органов, и последствия этого
Laboratory's Chaudhry said. And the неизвестны. Даже витамины и
fat-coated water droplets in nano- минералы могут попасть в кровь
mayonnaise are likely to be safely очень быстро, вызвав передозировку,
broken apart in the gut, he said. The предупреждает
Joint Research Center's Anklam agreed который
that anything likely to be fully digested сотрудником Центра Проведения
probably poses little risk. "And we Совместных исследований.
should really enjoy the mayonnaise
having less fat."
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Задание 17. Какую информацию несет упоминание в текстах СМИ
следующих имен собственных?
Richard Cheney
Louis Armstrong
Andy Warhol
John D. Rockefeller
Charles Manson
Muhammed Ali
Leonard Bernstein
Robert Frost
Condoleeza Rice
Howard Hughes
Michael Jordan
Al Gore
Neil Armstrong
Oprah Winfrey
Dwight Eisenhower
Ted Turner
Amelia Earhart
Martin Luther King
Monica Lewinsky
Задание 18. Определите объем фоновой информации, необходимой для
раскрытия содержания следующих американских реалий при переводе.
Apple Macintosh
Oval Office
Secret Service
Fort Knox
Silicon Valley
Super Bowl
Ivy League
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La Guardia
Zip code
Задание 19. Выполните полный письменный перевод следующего текста.
General Motors Getting Eaten Alive by a Free Lunch
By Allan Sloan
A free lunch can be the most expensive meal in the world. For living proof,
look at General Motors. A big reason that GM has gotten into such trouble is that
the pension and health care commitments it made to employees decades ago
seemed to be a free lunch.
The United Autoworkers placed a high value on these benefits, but the
accounting rules of the time placed no cost on GM's risk of providing them. So
the UAW and GM made deals that were heavy on benefits, relatively light on
Lower salaries meant that GM reported higher profits, which translated
into higher stock prices and higher bonuses for executives. Commitments for
pensions and "other post-employment benefits" — known as OPEB in the
accounting biz — had little initial impact on GM's profit statement and didn't
count as obligations on its balance sheet. So why not keep employees happy with
generous benefits? It was a free lunch. Besides, GM's only major competitors at
the time, Ford and Chrysler, were making similar deals.
Now, as we all can see, pension and health care obligations are eating GM
alive. The bill for the "free" lunch has come in - and GM is having trouble paying
the tab. In the past two years, GM has put almost $30 billion into its pension
funds and a trust to cover its OPEB obligations. Yet these accounts are still a
combined $54 billion underwater.
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GM began its slide down the slippery slope in 1950, when it began picking
up costs for medical insurance, pensions and retiree benefits. There was huge risk
to GM in taking on these obligations — but that didn't show up as a cost or
balance-sheet liability. By 1973, the UAW says, GM was paying the entire health
insurance bill for its employees, survivors and retirees, and had agreed to "30 and
out" early retirement that granted workers full pensions after 30 years on the job,
regardless of age.
These problems began to surface about 15 years ago because regulators
changed the accounting rules which put OPEB balance sheet. Now, these
obligations — call it a combined $170 billion for U.S. operations — are fully
visible. And out-of-pocket costs for health care are eating GM alive.
"At the time GM began offering these benefits, no one had any idea that
the costs for prescription drugs and medical services would explode the way they
have," says GM spokesman Jerry Dubrowski. True. But the UAW was astute (or
lucky) enough to push the risk of covering these costs onto GM.
GM's pension funds are in pretty good shape, thanks to an $18.5 billion
infusion two years ago. GM got this cash by selling bonds at relatively low ratesr
hoping to resolve its pension problems once and for all. This maneuver has been
successful so far, but funding the pension plans has consumed much of GM's
borrowing power and strained its balance sheet.
At the end of last year, GM says, its U.S. pension funds showed a $3
billion surplus. GM's pension accountings which assumes that the funds will earn
an average of 9 percent a year on their assets, is highly optimistic. But things are
under control — as long as GM stays solvent.
By contrast, OPEB is out of control. At year-end, OPEB was $57 billion in
the hole, even though GM threw $9 billion into an OPEB trust in 2004. The
company has no legal obligation to pre-fund these costs, but it's trying to show
the financial markets and its workers that it’s dealing with them. The OPEB trust
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has a hefty $20 billion of assets — but GM calculates its obligations at a
staggering $77 billion.
What's more, GM says they're rising at 10.5 percent a year. Thus, even
though President Bush's Medicare prescription drug benefit whacked $4 billion
off GM's OPEB obligation last year - thanks, George — it covered barely half the
year's increase in the liability.
If GM were making lots of money selling vehicles, this would all be
manageable, sort of. GM could buy enough time for demographics to bail it out,
as more retirees begin getting Social Security and Medicare, reducing GM's
costs, and other retirees die off. Its ratio of retirees to workers, currently 2.5 to 1,
would shrink. Alas, GM's vehicle business is in the tank. Unless GM starts
making money on vehicles or gets a break from the UAW or the federal
government, things are going to get really ugly. I hope that doesn't happen, but it
easily could.
Тексты для самостоятельной работы
Текст 1
The modern approach to natural history
The science of life is being put together like a giant jigsaw puzzle – a piece
added here by the ancient Chinese, a bit by Aristotle, and sections contributed by
people like Linnaeus, Darwin and Mendel. We now have some important areas
complete, but there is still a long way to go.
From a naturalist's point of view the progress of knowledge can be divided
into four stages: what, where, how and why. We are still working on the "what" and
"where", of course, though nowadays we have a pretty good idea of which living
organisms inhabit the earth with us and where they are found. With Darwin's
revolutionary theory we come to the "why" stage in our studies. Why are there so
many different kinds of finch in the Galapagos Islands? Why are orchid flowers
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shaped so curiously? Darwin, too, asked "How?" – how does a plant climb a trellis,
and how do tiny corals build whole tropical islands?
One of the foremost naturalists in Victorian times was the French
entomologist Fabre. As for as he was concerned, although it was important to make
collections of insects it was also important to know how and why they behaved as
they did. He was one of the first entomologists to go out into the field and study how
insects lead their lives in nature. Not only that, he could write about his discoveries
simply and beautifully so that even people who did not understand anything about
entomology could appreciate them. J remember when I was ten years old, my brother
Lawrence introduced me to Fabre's writings. They opened up a magical world. Here
was a man who could tell me why dung beetles so busily made little balls from
horse or cow manure and buried them and how the glow-worm overpowers and
consumes snails; who could tell me what a praying mantis did on her wedding night
and who could describe exciting experiments to prove his theories – he once
borrowed a cannon and fired it off in front of his house (breaking all the windows)
to see if cicadas could hear. Though his main work was with insects, Fabre was
interested in the whole of nature from mushrooms to fossils and his writings meant
that you were suddenly transported out into the open air instead of, as with so many
Victorian naturalists, into a museum.
This tradition has been carried on by modern naturalists such as Konrad
Lorenz, through whose studies of animal behavior has emerged the science of
Текст 2
Scandal of Royal Mail's rich bosses
Royal Mail workers don't only fear for their jobs as the government presses
on with part-privatising the postal service.
Their pensions are under threat, too, because the scheme they paid into for
their old age has a £9billion shortfall. But that doesn't apply to Royal Mail's
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They have their own gold-plated scheme which will keep them in luxury
for the rest of their lives. Buried in the Royal Mail's accounts is the revelation
that the firm's payments into the executive fund more than doubled last year.
Meanwhile, the company's payments into the lame-duck workers' fund remained
virtually static.
This startling illustration of the Royal Mail's priorities has the
unmistakable - and, these days, predictable - whiff of public sector bosses
shamelessly enriching themselves while frontline staff bear the brunt of
redundancies and cut-backs.
One of the chief beneficiaries of the bosses' pension scheme is the chief
executive, Adam Crozier, who received £3million in pay and bonuses last year despite thousands of post offices being closed, letter volumes falling and delivery
targets missed.
There seems no end to the rewards paid to them for failure, weakening still
further the morale of rank and file postmen and women who we all depend on to
get our mail.
The public spotlight has this week been fixed on Sir Fred Goodwin, the
disgraced and reviled boss of RBS, who refuses to give back any of his obscene
£693,000-a-year pension from a bank which the taxpayer saved.
Now we learn Mr Crozier, already the UK's highest-paid public servant,
has the same sort of fat-cat pension arrangement.
Taxpayers have bailed out the banks - yet the bankers carry on as though
nothing has changed. The same should not be allowed to happen at the Royal
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Текст 3.
Bring me your tired, weak, poor, and hungry…
Well that’s what the statue of “liberty” should say. When I think about our
country, my country, I think about my dad going to fight a senseless war of
imperialism. I think about the senseless war being fought now in Iraq, and the
war being waged in Mexico so that we American’s can get stoned, lit-up, or
disappear into a nod. Most of all I think of the people who die trying to hold us to
our words inscribed on our communal whore: the lady liberty.
Why so angry you wonder? I’ll give you an easy answer: We are
hypocrites. We in the United States that claim to be freedom loving upholders of
democracy are exactly the reason why democracy is more of a fallacious ideal
than communism. The United States is the largest consumer of the world’s
narcotics and marijuana. We have created the illicit black market for things that
offend religious ideals in a society that was supposedly built on “religious
freedom”. It’s baffling the contradiction that runs rampant through every level
and facet of society.
We tell the world to “bring us your tired, weak, poor, etc” and then when
they try to get here we all but ensure their deaths. We lure people to tell them
they can’t come in. We “Christians” hold plates of food out as alms to the poor
so that when the neediest and most fragile come to collect we can pull it way;
giving a quick blow to the head.
After the invasion of Iraq by the U.S in 2003, the number of people trying
to emigrate to the U.S increased rapidly. The violence that we caused drove
millions of people from their homes. Many wanted to come to the U.S and live a
relatively peaceful life (much like they had under Saddam Hussein, believe it or
not). Unfortunately, being the generous invading imperialists we are, we have let
in only a small fraction of those seeking political asylum and refugee status. We
will not even let people into our country after we destroyed their country.
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The immigration issue with Mexico is very similar. The United States has
used the country on our southern most border as a step stool for over 150 years.
Since the Mexican American War, that ceded the west to the United States,
people of Mexican descent have been discriminated against. Their property taken
millions were driving south into a land they new as little about as the white
“settlers” coming to take their land. Now as the United States continues a forty
year love affair with various mind altering substances, they come through Mexico
and are fought over with each foot being traveled. The drug cartels are the most
powerful force in the country and they continue to grow. This is the fault of the
United States who callously purchases and discards the people of Mexico for
their cheap labor and cheap goods. But we do not let them live next to us. We can
let them clean, cook, tend the yard, drive, etc but they are not allowed to be like
us. They must either stay in the shadows or stay in a place that has no future, no
safety, and no leadership other than the cartels. The United States refuses to
accept responsibility for the problems it causes. I’m afraid that there will be a
revolution in Mexico that is not going to leave the U.S in a very opportune place
because we refuse to live up to our promises of the “American Dream” and the
words written at Lady Liberty’s feet.
So it’s the internet and I can say whatever I want. I know where to find the
sources and could give them to you if I wanted but I don’t. I think that I could be
nice and give you the easy to understand… err easy to stomach… articles and
news stories that detail the many problems to which I am referring, but I don’t
feel like being nice.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Учебное издание
Княжева Елена Александровнана,
Яковлева Ирина Николаевна
Учебное пособие
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Отпечатано в типографии Издательско-полиграфического центра
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