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309.Стилистический анализ текста

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Федеральное агентство по образованию
ГОУ ВПО «Соликамский государственный
педагогический институт»
Л.Н. Пустосмехова
Стилистический анализ текста
Учебно-методическое пособие
Соликамск
2005
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
ББК 81.2 АНГ-5я73
П.89
Составитель:
кандидат педагогических наук, доцент кафедры
иностранных языков и методики преподавания
Л.Н. Пустосмехова
Пустосмехова Л.Н. Стилистический анализ текста:
Учебное пособие / Составитель Л.Н. Пустосмехова; Соликамский государственный педагогический институт. - Соликамск,
2005. - 56 с.
Stylistic Analysis is meant as a manual illustrating the theoretical
course of lectures on stylistics and enabling the student to start his
independent work on stylistic analysis.
The purpose of Stylistic Analysis is to help the students to
observe the interaction of form and matter, to see how through the
infinite variety of stylistic devices and their multifarious functions
the message of the author is brought home to the reader.
The manual includes some passages with rigorous stylistic
analysis which serves as pattern analysis. After each pattern analysis
a text with assignments is offered. The students are supposed to do
the assignments according to the preceding pattern analysis.
The texts both for pattern analysis and for the assignments are
taken from the works of the same author and present a certain
analogy in content and form. Such an arrangement makes analysis
easier for the students.
Рецензент: ассистент кафедры иностранных языков и
методики преподавания
С.С. Косикова
© Л.Н. Пустосмехова, составление, 2005
© Соликамский государственный
педагогический институт, 2005
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СОДЕРЖАНИЕ
СТИЛИСТИЧЕСКИЙ АНАЛИЗ ТЕКСТА
John Galsworthy
TO LET.............................................................................4
Stylistic Analysis...............................................................8
John Galsworthy
THE MAN OF PROPERTY
Irene’s Return..................................................................15
Ernest Hemingway
THE SHORT HAPPY LIFE OF FRANCIS
MACOMBER.................................................................19
Stylistic Analysis.............................................................26
Ernest Hemingway
CAT IN THE RAIN.........................................................40
Assignments for stylistic analysis...................................45
Joyce Cary
THE HORSE’S MOUTH................................................46
Notes...............................................................................50
Comments.......................................................................51
Assignments for stilistik analysis....................................54
Список использованной литературы...........................55
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white villages, goats, olive- trees, greening plains, singing
birds in tiny cages, water sellers, sunsets, mellons, mules, great
churches, pictures, and swimming grey-brown mountains of
a fascinating land.
It was already hot, and they enjoyed an absence of their
compatriots. Jon, who, so far as he knew, had no blood in
him which was not English, was often innately unhappy in
the presence of his own countrymen. He felt they had no
nonsence about them, and took a more practical view of things
than himself. He confided to his mother that he must be an
unsociable beast- it was jolly to be away from everybody who
could talk about the things people did talk about. To which
Irene had replied simply:
“Yes, Jon, I know.”
***
“Is that your favourite Goya, Jon?”
He checked, too late, a moment such as he might have
made at school to conceal some surreptitious document, and
answered: “Yes.”
“It certainly is most charming; but I think I prefer the
‘Quitasol’. Your father would go crazy about Goya; I don’t
believe he saw them when he was in Spain in ‘92.”
In ‘92 - nine years before he had been born! What had been
the previous existences of his father and his mother? If they had
a right to share in his future, surely he had a right to share in
their pasts. He looked up at her. But something in her face - a
look of life hard-lived, the mysterious impress of emotions,
experience, and suffering - seemed with its incalculable
depth, its purchased sanctity, to make curiosity impertinent.
His mother must have had a wonderfully interesting life: she
was so beautiful, and so - so - but he could not frame what he
felt about her. He got up, and stood gazing down at the town,
at the plain all green with crops, and the ring of mountains
glamorous in sinking sunlight. Her life was like the past of this
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СТИЛИСТИЧЕСКИЙ АНАЛИЗ ТЕКСТА
John
Galsworthy
TO LET
Part 2, Chapter 1
Mother and Son
The chapter refers to the time when Irene’s son Jon falls in
love with Soames’ daughter Fleur.
Jon’s parents trying to separate the young people propose
a travel to Spain.
To say that Jon Forsyte accompanied his mother to Spain
unwillingly would scarcely have been adequate. He went as
a well - natured dog goes for a walk with its mistress, leaving
a choice mutton- bone on the lawn. He went looking back at
it. Forsytes deprived of their mutton-bones are wont to sulk.
But Jon had little sulkiness in his composition. He adored his
mother, and it was his first travel. Spain had become Italy by
his simple saying: “I’d rather go to Spain, Mum; you’ve been
to Italy so many times; I’d like it new to both of us.”
The fellow was subtle besides being naive. He never forgot
that he was going to shorten the proposed two months into six
weeks, and must therefore show no sign of wishing to do so.
For one with so enticing a mutton- bone and so fixed an idea,
he made a good enough travelling companion, indifferent to
where or when he arrived, superior to food, and thoroughly
appreciative of a country strange to the most travelled
Englishman. Fleur’s wisdom in refusing to write to him was
profound, for he reached each new place entirely without
hope or fever, and could concentrate immediate attention on
the donkeys and tumbling bells, the priests, patios, beggars,
children, crowing cocks, sombreros, cactus- hedges, old high
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“Very well, darling. As soon as you’re fit to travel.” And at
once he felt better, and - meaner.
They had been out five weeks when they turned towards
home. Jon’s head was restored to its pristine clarity, but he
was confined to a hat lined by his mother with many layers of
orange and green silk, and he still walked from choice in the
shade. As the long struggle of discretion between them drew
to its close, he wondered more and more whether she could
see his eagerness to go back to that which she had brought
him away from. Condemned by Spanish Providence to spend
a day in Madrid between their trains, it was but natural to go
again to the Prado. Jon was elaborately casual this time before
his Goya girl. Now that he was going back to her, he could
afford a lesser scrutiny. It was his mother who lingered before
the picture, saying:
“The face and the figure of the girl are exquisite.”
Jon heard her uneasily. Did she understand? But he felt
once more that he was no match for her in self-control and
subtlety. She could, in some supersensitive way, of which he
had not the secret, feel the pulse of his thoughts; she knew by
instinct what he hoped and feared and wished. It made him
terribly uncomfortable and guilty, having, beyond most boys,
a conscience. He wished she would be frank with him; he
almost hoped for an open struggle. But none came, and steadily,
silently, they travelled north. Thus did he first learn how much
better than men women play a waiting game. In Paris they had
again to pause for a day. Jon was grieved because it lasted two,
owing to certain matters in connection with a dressmaker; as
if his mother, who looked beautiful in anything, had any need
of dresses! The happiest moment of his travel was when he
stepped onto the Folkestone boat.
Standing by the bulwark rail, with her arm in his, she said:
“I’m afraid you haven’t enjoyed it much, Jon. But you’ve
been very sweet to me.”
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old Moorish city, full, deep, remote - his own life as yet such
a baby of a thing, hopelessly ignorant and innocent. They said
that in those mountains to the West, which rose sheer from the
blue - green plain, as if out of a sea, Phoenicians had dwelt - a
dark, strange, secret race, above the land. His mother’s life
was as unknown to him, as secret, as that Phoenician past
was to the town down there, whose cocks crowed and whose
children played and clamoured so gaily, day in, day out. He felt
aggrieved that she should know all about him and he nothing
about her except that she loved him and his father, and was
beautiful. His callow ignorance - he had not even had the
advantage of the War, like nearly everybody else - made him
small in his own eyes.
***
About noon that very day, on the tiled terrace of their hotel,
he felt a sudden dull pain in the back of his head, a queer
sensation in the eyes, and sickness. The sun had touched him
too affectionately. The next three days were passed in semidarkness, and a dulled, aching indifference to all except the
feel of ice on his forehead and his mother’s smile. She never
moved from his room, never relaxed her noiseless vigilance,
which seemed to Jon angelic. But there were moments when he
was extremely sorry for himself, and wished terribly that Fleur
could see him. Several times he took a poignant imaginary
leave of her and of the earth, tears oosing out of his eyes. He
even prepared the message he would send to her by his mother
- who would regret to her dying day that she had ever sought
to separate them - his poor mother! He was not slow, however,
in perceiving that he had now his excuse for going home.
Towards half past six each evening came a “gasgacha” of
bells - a cascade of tumbling chimes, mounting from the city
below and falling back chime on chime. After listening to them
on the fourth day he said suddenly:
“I’d like to be back in England, Mum, the sun’s too hot.”
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his mother to Spain unwillingly would scarcely have been
adequate.”It gives an insight into Jon’s state of mind, who was
not unwilling to go to Spain, still not positively willing. The
idea is not expressed in a straightforward categorical manner.
The SD of litotes makes the sentence sound non- categorical.
Note that this litotes is not trite as the second negative
element “scarcely” is rather unusual, the usual word is the
negative particle”not.” The structural pattern of the litotes
is common: the adjective (or adverb) with a negative prefix
(“unwillingly”)
+ the negative particle, but the word
“scarcely” as the second negative component part is not
common and it makes this litotes a genuine SD.
All other sentences of this paragraph explain or clarify the
main idea. The 2nd and 3rd sentences present a prolonged simile.
By drawing a concrete image of a dog the author makes his
thought clear and more vivid: “He went as a well-natured dog
goes for a walk with its mistress, leaving a choice muton-bone
on the lawn. He went looking back at it”.
The 4th sentence (“Forsytes deprived of their mutton-bones
are wont to sulk”) relates the statement of Jon’s mood to the
larger and more generalized character of Forsyte as a type: and
it sounds like an epigramic sentence.
Note that the word “mutton-bone” which was used in
the 2nd sentence as an element of a simile, is used here as a
metaphor. The contextual meaning is not clearly defined and
may include a number of concepts: property, money, members
of their family - everything dear to Forsytes as mutton-bones
are dear to dogs.This metaphor besides presenting the idea in
a concrete way, suggests the writer’s evaluation of Forsytes
by his implied comparison of dogs.
Sentence 5 (“But Jon had little sulkiness in his composition”)
develops the preceding idea. The two sentences (4 and 5) are
closely linked by the so-called “root repetition”: the use of the
adjective “sulky” in sentence 4 and the corresponding noun
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Jon squeezed her arm.
“Oh! Yes, I’ve enjoyed it awfully - except for my head
lately.”
And now that the end had come, he really had, feeling a sort
of glamour over the past weeks - a kind of painful pleasure,
such as he had tried to screw into those lines about the voice
in the night crying; a feeling such as he had known as a small
boy listening avidly to Chopin, yet wanting to cry. And he
wondered why it was that he couldn’t say to her quite simply
what she had said to him:
“You were very sweet to me.” Odd - never could be nice
and natural like that! He substituted the words: “I expect we
shall be sick.”
They were, and reached London somewhat attenuated,
having been away six weeks and two days, without a single
allusion to the subject which had hardly ever ceased to occupy
their minds.
Stylistic Analysis
This chapter is more or less complete in itself, with the unity
of its subject-matter and idea. The chapter is called “Mother
and Son” and is aimed at revealing their feelings and relations
at the period of time the novel describes. The opening paragraph introduces the main subject of the
chapter. The first thing to remember about the paragraph is
that it is a unit concerned not with a group of topics but with
one topic only.The so-called topic sentence of a paragraph is
the sentence that contains the essence of what the paragraph
is about and to what every other sentence bears some relation.
The second thing to remember is that the paragraph is usually
arranged in a logical pattern with each sentence leading directly
into the next.
The first sentence of the paragraph we are analysing is
its topic sentence:”To say that Jon Forsyte accompanied
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or when he arrived, superior to food, and thoroughly appreciative of a country...”. Parallel constructions make the thought
clearer, besides such an arrangement lends an unmistakable
eloquence and rhythm to the utterance.
The 3rd sentence: “For one with so enticing a mutton- bone
and so fixed an idea, he made a good enough travelling companion...” directs the reader’s attention to a new topic which
is further developed by presenting some reasons: “indifferent
to where or when he arrived, superior to food, and thoroughly
appreciative of a country...”. See that the words “indifferent”
and “superior” have become in this sentence contextual antonyms of the word “appreciative”. Parallel constructions make
the antonyms more conspicuous and the arrangement of the
sentence as a whole is antithesis.
Note the peculiarity of SDs used to describe Jon: the litotes
and simile in the first paragraph which stress Jon’s twofold
impulse; the epithets “subtle”, “naive” in the topic sentence of
the second paragraph pointing out Jon’s contrasting qualities
and the antithesis now, all are aimed at revealing Jon’s state
of mind - his irresolution and twofold feelings.
Jon’s indifference is made palpable and concrete by means
of an incoherent and disorderly enumeration of things and
phenomena he sees in Spain: “and could concentrate immediate attention on the donkeys and tumbling bells, the priests,
patios, beggars, children, crowing cocks, sombreros, cactushedges...” and so on. This enumeration may be regarded as a
kind of cumulation. Pay attention to the words “concentrate
immediate attention” used with a slight ironical tinge.
Jon’s appreciation of Spain is stressed by the highly emotive epithet “fascinating” (“swimming grey-brown mountains
of a fascinating land”). A number of barbarisms (“patios”,
“sombreros”) help to create local colouring and add to the
concreteness of the description of Spain.
Note another barbarism: “Towards half past six each
evening came a “gasgacha” of bells - a cascade of tumbling
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“sulkiness” in sentence 5. The contrast of ideas supported by
“root repetition” and the conjunction “but” does not form the
SD of antithesis as the principal linguistic requirements for
this SD are not observed (parallelism, the use of antonyms).
Sentence 6 (“He adored his mother and it was his first
travel”) presents the SD of cumulation, as the two parts of the
sentence connected by the coordinating conjunction “and”
are logically heterogeneous. The sentence presents in fact two
reasons for Jon’s going to Spain not unwillingly and it returns
the reader’s attention to the topic sentence.
The last sentence completes the paragraph, explaining why
they went to Spain and not to Italy.
Note the use of the trite metonymy “Spain” and “Italy”
(for “travel to Spain or Italy”) common in colloquial speech.
The second paragraph logically develops the description
of Jon’s nature. The topic sentence, “The fellow was subtle
besides being naive”, introduces the main idea of the paragraph.
The 3rd sentence: “For one with so enticing a mutton- bone
and so fixed an idea...” completes the image of the “muttonbone” and refers the reader to the preceding paragraph where
it was used in the simile and implied Fleur. The words “so
enticing a mutton-bone” are used here in the same contextual
meaning (implying Fleur). So the contextual meaning is determined not by a narrow context of the given sentence but a
broader context including the preceding paragraph (a macrocontext). This metaphor gives a figurative concrete description
of the girl and the boy. The character of images chosen by the
author helps him to reveal his subtly ironical attitude to the
young generation of Forsytes.
Note the complete parallel constructions in the first part of
the 3rd sentence: “For one with so enticing a mutton-bone and
so fixed an idea...” intensified by the anaphoric repetition of
“so”; and another set of parallel constructions in the second
part of the sentence (partial parallelism): “Indifferent to where
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inner speech. It reveals what Jon thinks of his mother and how
greatly he admires her. Represented inner speech is closely
interwoven and interlaced with the author’s narration: the first
passage including three sentences is represented speech; then
comes the author’s narration (“He looked up at her...” to the
words “...to make curiosity impertinent”). The beginning of the
next sentence (“His mother must have had a wonderfully interesting life; she was so beautiful, and so - so -”) is represented
speech; the end - the author’s narration (“but he could not frame
what he felt about her”). Represented speech combines features
of direct and indirect speech. The morphological structure is
that of indirect speech: the character is referred to in the third
person singular, the tense of the narration is preserved. (The
Past Indefinite Tense).
Still represented speech is clearly singled out in the author’s
narration by its syntactical peculiarities which make it close to
direct speech: observe an elliptical sentence and exclamation
in the first passage (“In ‘92 - nine years before he had been
born!”); the form of the directly asked question (“What had
been the previous existences of his father and his mother?”).
All these peculiarities introducing the intonation and manner
of the personage himself, make the effect of his immediate
presence and participation. The colloquial contraction “92”
and the colloquial word “surely” contribute to this effect too.
In the second case (“His mother must have had a wonderfully interesting life; she was so beautiful, and so - so -”) a
sudden break in narration - the stylistic device of aposiopesis marks off this utterance as represented speech. Note the epithet
of colloquial character “wonderfully interesting”.
The analysis of the vocabulary in this paragraph shows an
obvious difference between words in the author’s narration and
those in represented speech: note such highly-literary words
and word combinations as “mysterious impress”, “incalculable
depth”, “its purchased sanctity” in the author’s narration and
more common, even colloquial words in represented speech.
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chimes...” contributing to the same effect. See that the Spanish word “gasgacha” is singled out graphically and explained
by the author through the prolonged metaphor “a cascade of
tumbling chimes, mounting from the city below and falling
back chime on chime”.
The next paragraph adds some more details to the reader’s
knowledge of the character. The topic sentence “It was already
hot, and they enjoyed an absence of their compatriots” presents
cumulative constructions: a linking thought is missing here and
cumulation stresses a sudden transition from the statement that
the weather in Spain was hot to an unexpected conclusion that
they “enjoyed an absence of their compatriots”, making the
second thought more conspicuous. The rest of the paragraph
may be regarded as a kind of missing link explaining why they
enjoyed themselves. Jon was “innately unhappy in the presence
of his own countrymen”; “It was jolly to be away from everybody who could talk about the things people did talk about”.
Note the litotes (a trite one) in the second sentence: “Jon
...had no blood in him which was not English” which together
with the phrase “so far as he knew” adds to the impression the
reader has got of Jon’s irresolute and mild nature.
In the 4th sentence we find represented speech: “He confided
to his mother that he must be an unsociable beast - it was jolly
to be away from everybody...” The words “he confided to his
mother” introduce it and show that the part which follows is
Jon’s actual speech given in the form of represented uttered
speech.
Mark the use of the graphic means of the dash, the colloquial expressions “an unsociable beast”, “it was jolly” and
the use of the Past Perfect Tense in the sentence following the
represented speech: “To which Irene had replied” pointing out
a transmission from one kind of speech (represented speech)
to another ( the author’s narrative).
Represented speech is widely used by J. Galsworthy in this
chapter. Paragraph 6 offers a good illustration of represented
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he felt better, and - meaner”) which emphasizes his pricks
of conscience and his mixed feelings of joy and shame; and
oxymoron (“And now that the end had come, he really had,
feeling a sort of glamour over the past weeks - a kind of painful pleasure...”) which serves the same purpose. Concrete
matter-of-fact images the writer draws to characterize Jon (“He
went as a well- natured dog goes for a walk with its mistress,
leaving a choice mutton-bone on the lawn”) show what sort of
attitude he has towards his character. Compare this simile with
the picturesque and elevated similes used to describe Irene:
“Her life was like the past of this old Moorish city, full, deep,
remote”. And: “His mother’s life was as unknown to him, as
that Phoenician past...”
Among other SDs used to depict Irene most striking are the
epithets: “the mysterious impress of emotions, experience, and
suffering - seemed with its incalculable depth, its purchased
sanctity...”, “She could, in some supersensitive way... feel the
pulse of his thought”, “...her noiseless vigilance which seemed
to Jon angelic”.
SDs employed to characterize Irene all contribute to the
elevation and remoteness of this image.
John Galsworthy
THE MAN OF PROPERTY
Irene’s Return
The passage deals with Irene’s return home after Bosinney’s death
On reaching home, and entering the little lighted hall with
his latchkey, the first thing that caught his eye was his wife’s
gold-mounted umbrella lying on the rug-chest. Flinging off
his fur coat, he hurried to the drawing- room.
The curtains were drawn for the night, a bright fire of cedar
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Represented speech may not stand out in the context clearly.
The sentence “Her life was like the past of this old Moorish
city...” may be considered represented speech though it has no
characteristic syntactical peculiarities marking it off as such.
The structure of the sentence is elaborate. Still the exclamatory
sentence and the words which are more common than those
of the surrounding utterance may convince the reader that
Jon’s thoughts are rendered here through represented inner
speech. The SD of antithesis based on balanced constructions,
anaphorical repetition (“her life” - “his own life”), contextual
antonyms (the isolated epithets “full, deep, remote” - “hopelessly ignorant and innocent”) emphasize the striking difference between their lives Jon so acutely feels. The first clause
has a simile (“like the past of this old Moorish city...”), the
second, a metaphorical epithet (“such a baby of a thing”) - these
images call forth certain pictures stressing the contrast in the
characters’ experience and life.
The last sentence of the paragraph is a culminating point
in Jon’s bitter self-evaluation: “His callow ignorance - he had
not even had the advantage of the War, like nearly everybody
else- made him small in his own eyes”. The part between two
dashes is represented speech. The peculiar use of the word
“advantage” marks it off as such: Jon uses it in his thoughts in
its direct meaning but the writer (who doesn’t eliminate himself
completely from the narration) uses it ironically.
Summing up the analysis of the chapter note the peculiarity
of SDs used by Galsworthy to describe Irene and Jon. When
applied to Jon SDs though different both in structure and
nature are used to serve the same stylistic purpose: to stress
Jon’s two-fold and contradictory feelings. We have mentioned
already: the litotes “no blood in him which was not English”;
the contrasting epithets in the sentence “The fellow was subtle
besides being naive” and the antithesis “indifferent to where
or when he arrived... appreciative of a country...”
We may add to this list the SD of zeugma (“And at once
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move away, like a woman in a terrible dream, from which she
was fighting to awake - rise and go out into the dark and cold,
without a thought of him, without so much as the knowledge
of his presence.
Then he cried, contradicting what he had not yet spoken,
“No; stay there!” And turning away from her, he sat down in
his accustomed chair on the other side of the hearth.
They sat in silence.
And Soames thought: “Why is all this? Why should I suffer
so? What have I done? It is not my fault!”
Again he looked at her, huddled like a bird that is shot and
dying, whose poor breast you see panting as the air is taken
from it, whose poor eyes look at you who have shot it, with a
slow, soft, unseeing look, taking farewell of all that is good - of
the sun, and the air, and its mate.
So they sat, by firelight, in the silence, one on each side of
the hearth.
And the fume of the burning cedar logs, that he loved so
well, seemed to grip Soames by the throat till he could bear it
no longer. And going out into the hall he flung the door wide,
to gulp down the cold air that came in; then without hat or
overcoat went out into the Square.
Along the garden rails a half-starved cat came rubbing her
way towards him, and Soames thought: “Suffering! when will
it cease, my suffering?”
At a front door across the way was a man of his acquaintance named Rutter, scraping his boots, with an air of “I am a
master here”. And Soames walked on.
From far in the clear air the bells of the church where he
and Irene had been married were pealing in “practice” for the
advent of Christ, the chimes ringing out above the sound of
traffic. He felt a craving for strong drink, to lull him to indifference, or rouse him to fury. If only he could burst out of himself,
out of this web that for the first time in his life he felt around
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logs burned in the grate, and by its light he saw Irene sitting in
her usual corner on the sofa. He shut the door softly, and went
towards her. She did not move, and did not seem to see him.
“So you’ve come back?” he said. “Why are you sitting here
in the dark?”
Then he caught sight of her face, so white and motionless
that it seemed as though the blood must have stopped flowing
in her veins; and her eyes, that looked enormous, like the great,
wide, startled brown eyes of an owl.
Huddled in her grey fur against the sofa cushions, she had
a strange resemblance to a captive owl, bunched in its soft
features against the wires of a cage. The supple erectness of
her figure was gone, as though she had been broken by cruel
exercise; as though there were no longer any reason for being
beautiful, and supple, and erect.
“So you’ve come back,” he repeated.
She never looked up, and never spoke, the firelight playing
over her motionless figure.
Suddenly she tried to rise, but he prevented her; it was then
that he understood.
She had come back like an animal wounded to death, not
knowing where to turn, not knowing what she was doing. The
sight of her figure, huddled in the fur, was enough.
He knew then for certain that Bosinney had been her lover;
knew that she had seen the report of his death - perhaps, like
himself, had bought a paper at the draughty corner of a street,
and read it.
She had come back then of her own accord, to the cage
she had pined to be free of - and taking in all the tremendous
significance of this, he longed to cry: “Take your hated body,
that I love, out of my house! Take away that pitiful white face,
so cruel and soft - before I crush it. Get out of my sight; never
let me see you again!”
And, at those unspoken words, he seemed to see her rise and
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describe Irene.
Ernest
Hemingway
THE SHORT HAPPY LIFE OF FRANCIS
MACOMBER
The passage presents the beginning of the story.
It was now lunch time and they were all sitting under the
double green fly of the dining tent pretending that nothing had
happened.
“Will you have lime juice or lemon squash?” Macomber
asked.
“I’ll have a gimlet,” Robert Wilson told him.
“I’ll have a gimlet too. I need something,” Macomber’s
wife said.
“I suppose it’s the thing to do,” Macomber agreed. “Tell
him to make three gimlets.”
The mess boy had started them already, lifting the bottles
out of the canvas cooling bags that sweated wet in the wind
that blew through the trees that shaded the tents.
“What had I ought to give them?” Macomber asked.
“A quid would be plenty,” Wilson told him. “You don’t
want to spoil them.”
“Will the headman distribute it?”
“Absolutely.”
Francis Macomber had, half an hour before, been carried to
his tent from the edge of the camp in triumph on the arms and
shoulders of the cook, the personal boys, the skinner and the
porters. The gunbearers had taken no part in the demonstration.
When the native boys put him down at the door of his tent, he
had shaken all their hands, received their congratulations, and
then gone into the tent and sat on the bed until his wife came
in. She did not speak to him when she came in and he left
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him. If only he could surrender to the thought: “Divorce her turn her out! She has forgotten you. Forget her!”
If only he could surrender to the thought: “Let her go - she
has suffered enough!”
If only he could surrender to the desire: “Make a slave of
her - she is in your power!”
If only even he could surrender to the sudden vision: “What
does it all matter?” Forget himself for a minute, forget that
it mattered what he did, forget that whatever he did he must
sacrifice something.
If only he could act on an impulse!
He could forget nothing; surrender to no thought, vision,
or desire; it was all too serious; too close around him, an unbreakable cage.
On the far side of the Square newspaper boys were calling
their evening wares, and the ghoulish cries mingled and jangled
with the sound of those church bells.
Soames covered his ears. The thought flashed across him
that but for a chance, he himself, and not Bosinney, might be
lying dead, and she, instead of crouching there like a shot bird
with those dying eyes Assignments for stylistic analysis
1. Speak on the way Irene is presented in the passage: a)
in the author’s description and
b) in represented speech.
2. Pick out metaphors and similes and analyse them.
3. Discuss epithets in the author’s speech and in the represented speech.
4. Analyse represented speech used in the passage and
its peculiarities.
5. Pick out cases of combination of represented speech
with direct speech and speak on the effect achieved.
6. Speak on the function of repetition.
7. Discuss the images the author repeatedly resorts to to
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kept himself very fit, was good at court games, had a number
of big-game fishing records, and had just shown himself, very
publicly, to be a coward.
“Here’s to the lion,” he said. “I can’t ever thank you for
what you did.”
Margaret, his wife, looked away from him and back to
Wilson.
“Let’s not talk about the lion,” she said.
Wilson looked over at her without smiling and now she
smiled at him.
“It’s been a very strange day,” she said. “Hadn’t you ought
to put your hat on even under the canvas at noon? You told
me that, you know.”
“Might put it on,” said Wilson.
“You know you have a very red face, Mr. Wilson,” she told
him and smiled again.
“Drink,” said Wilson.
“I don’t think so,” she said. “Francis drinks a great deal, but
his face is never red.”“It’s red today,” Macomber tried a joke.
“No,” said Margaret. “It’s mine that’s red today. But Mr.
Wilson’s is always red.”
“Must be racial,” said Wilson. “I say, you wouldn’t like to
drop my beauty as a topic, would you?”
“I’ve just started on it.”
“Let’s chuck it,” said Wilson.
“Conversation is going to be so difficult,” Margaret said.
“Don’t be silly, Margot,” her husband said.
“No difficulty,” Wilson said. “Got a damn fine lion”.
Margot looked at them both and they both saw that she was
going to cry. Wilson had seen it coming for a long time and he
dreaded it. Macomber was past dreading it.
“I wish it hadn’t happened. Oh, I wish it hadn’t happened,”
she said and started for her tent. She made no noise of crying
but they could see that her shoulders were shaking under the
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the tent at once to wash his hands in the portable wash basin
outside and go over to the dining tent to sit in a comfortable
canvas chair in the breeze and the shade.
“You’ve got your lion,” Robert Wilson said to him, “and a
damned fine one too.”
Mrs. Macomber looked at Wilson quickly. She was an
extremely handsome and well-kept woman of the beauty and
social position which had, five years before, commanded five
thousand dollars as the price of endorsing, with photographs,
a beauty product which she had never used. She had been
married to Francis Macomber for eleven years.
“He is a good lion, isn’t he?” Macomber said. His wife
looked at him now. She looked at both these men as though
she had never seen them before.
One, Wilson, the white hunter, she knew she had never truly
seen before. He was about middle height with sandy hair, a
stubby mustache, a very red face and extremely cold blue eyes
with faint white wrinkles at the corners that grooved merrily
when he smiled. He smiled at her now and she looked away
from his face at the way his shoulders sloped in the loose tunic
he wore with the four big cartridges held in loops where the
left breast pocket should have been, at his big brown hands,
his old slacks, his very dirty boots and back to his red face
again. She noticed where the baked red of his face stopped in
a white line that marked the circle left by his Stetson hat that
hung now from one of the pegs of the tent pole.
“Well, here’s to the lion,” Robert Wilson said. He smiled
at her again and, not smiling, she looked curiously at her
husband.
Francis Macomber was very tall, very well built if you did
not mind that length of bone, dark, his hair cropped like an
oarsman, rather thin-lipped, and was considered handsome.
He was dressed in the same sort of safari clothes that Wilson
wore except that his were new, he was thirty-five years old,
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you know, one way or another.”
This was no better. “Good God,” he thought. “I am a diplomat, aren’t I?”
“Yes, we take a beating,” said Macomber, still not looking
at him. “I’m awfully sorry about that lion business. It doesn’t
have to go any further, does it? I mean no one will hear about
it, will they?”
“You mean will I tell it at the Mathaiga Club?” Wilson
looked at him now coldly. He had not expected this. So he’s a
bloody four-letter man as well as a bloody coward, he thought.
I rather liked him too until today. But how is one to know about
an American?
“No,” said Wilson. “I’m a professional hunter. We never talk
about our clients. You can be quite easy on that. It’s supposed
to be bad form to ask us not to talk though.”
He had decided now that to break would be much easier. He
would eat, by himself and could read a book with his meals.
They would eat by themselves. He would see them through the
safari on a very formal basis - what was it the French called
it? Distinguished consideration - and it would be a damn sight
easier than having to go through this emotional trash. He’d
insult him and make a good clear break. Then he could read
a book with his meals and he’d still be drinking their whisky.
That was the phrase for it when a safari went bad. You ran into
another white hunter and you asked, “How is everything going?” and he answered, “Oh, I’m still drinking their whisky,”
and you knew everything had gone to pot.
“I’m sorry,” Macomber said and looked at him with his
American face that would stay adolescent until it became
middle-aged, and Wilson noted his crew-cropped hair, fine
eyes only faintly shifty, good nose, thin lips and handsome
jaw. “I’m sorry I didn’t realize that. There are lots of things
I don’t know.”
So what could he do, Wilson thought. He was all ready
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rose colored, sun-proofed shirt she wore.
“Women upset,” said Wilson to the tall man. “Amounts to
nothing. Strain on the nerves and one thing’n another.”
“No,” said Macomber. “I suppose that I rate that for the
rest of my life now.”
“Nonsense. Let’s have a spot of the giant killer,” said
Wilson.”Forget the whole thing. Nothing to it anyway.”
“We might try,” said Macomber. “I won’t forget what you
did for me though.”
“Nothing,” said Wilson. “All nonsense”.
So they sat there in the shade where the camp was pitched
under some wide-topped acacia trees with a boulder-strewn
cliff behind them, and a stretch of grass that ran to the bank of
a boulder-filled stream in front with forest beyond it, and drank
their just-cool lime drinks and avoided one another’s eyes
while the boys set the table for lunch. Wilson could tell that
the boys all knew about it now and when he saw Macomber’s
personal boy looking curiously at his master while he was
putting dishes on the table he snapped at him in Swahili. The
boy turned away with his face blank.
“What were you telling hm?” Macomber asked.
“Nothing. Told him to look alive or I’d see he got about
fifteen of the best.”
“What’s that? Lashes?”
“It’s quite illegal,” Wilson said. “You’re supposed to fine
them.”
“Do you still have them whipped?”
“Oh, yes. They could raise a row if they chose to complain.
But they don’t. They prefer it to the fines. “
“How strange!” said Macomber.
“Not strange, really,” Wilson said. “Which would you rather
do? Take a good birching or lose your pay?”
Then he felt embarrased at asking it and before Macomber
could answer he went on, “We all take a beating every day,
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“Oh, anything,” said Wilson. “Simply anything”. They are,
he thought, the hardest in the world; the hardest, the cruelest,
the most predatory and the most attractive and their men have
softened or gone to pieces nervously as they have hardened.
Or is it that they pick men they can handle? They can’t know
that much at the age they marry, he thought. He was grateful
that he had gone through his education on American women
before now because this was a very attractive one.
“We’re going after buff in the morning,” he told her.
“I’m coming,” she said.
“No, you’re not.”
“Oh, yes, I am. Mayn’t I, Francis?”
“Why not stay in camp?”
“Not for anything,” she said. “I wouldn’t miss something
like today for anything.”
When she left, Wilson was thinking, when she went off to
cry, she seemed a hell of a fine woman. She seemed to understand, to realize, to be hurt for him and for herself and to know
how things really stood. She is away for twenty minutes and
now she is back, simply enamelled in that American female
cruelty. They are the damnedest women. Really the damnedest.
“We’ll put on another show for you tomorrow,” Francis
Macomber said.
“You’re not coming.” Wilson said.
“You’re very mistaken,” she told him. “And I want so to
see you perform again. You were lovely this morning. This is
if blowing things’ heads off is lovely.”
***
“I’d like to clear away that lion business,” Macomber
said. “It’s not very pleasant to have your wife see you do
something like that.”
I should think it would be even more unpleasant to do it,
Wilson thought, wife or no wife, or to talk about it having done
it. But he said, “I wouldn’t think about that any more. Any one
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to break it off quickly and neatly and here the beggar was
apologizing after he had just insulted him. He made one
more attempt.
“Don’t worry about me talking,” he said. “I have a living
to make. You know in Africa no woman ever misses her lion
and no white man ever bolts.”
“I bolted like a rabbit,” Macomber said.
Now what in hell were you going to do about a man who
talked like that, Wilson wondered.
Wilson looked at Macomber with his flat, blue, machinegunner’s eyes and the other smiled back at him. He had a
pleasant smile if you did not notice how his eyes showed when
he was hurt.
“Maybe I can fix it up on buffalo,” he said. “We’re after
them next, aren’t we?”
“In the morning if you like,” Wilson told him. Perhaps he
had been wrong. This was certainly the way to take it. You most
certainly could not tell a damned thing about an American. He
was all for Macomber again. If you could forget the morning.
But, of course, you couldn’t. The morning had been about as
bad as they come.
“Here comes the Memsahib,” he said. She was walking over
from her tent looking refreshed and cheerful and quite lovely.
She had a very perfect oval face, so perfect that you expected
her to be stupid. But she wasn’t stupid, Wilson thought, no,
not stupid.
“How is the beautiful red-faced Mr. Wilson? Are you feeling
better, Francis, my pearl?”
“Oh, much,” said Macomber.
“I’ve dropped the whole thing,” she said, sitting down at
the table. “What importance is there to whether Francis is any
good at killing lions? That’s not his trade. That’s Mr. Wilson’s
trade. Mr. Wilson is really very impressive killing anything.
You do kill anything, don’t you?”
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ing about he may omit things that he knows and the reader, if
the writer is writing trully enough, will have the feeling of those
things as strongly as though the writer had stated them. The
dignity of movement of an iceberg is due to only one eighth
of it being above water” (E. Hemingway).
The writer leaves the surface comparatively bare: the meaning is plain and simple. The impression of simplicity which
strikes the reader from the first is brought out not only by the
plain dialogues, the common matter-of-fact events at the beginning of the story but by the language itself.
A close study of the story for the purpose of examining its
style involves a careful observation and a detailed description
of the language phenomena at various levels.
The text of the story is not homogeneous: the author’s narration is interrupted by the dialogues of the characters; inner
thoughts of some characters (mostly Wilson’s) are imperceptibly interwoven with narration.
Wilson’s inner thoughts are rendered either in the form of
direct speech (“Good God,” he thought. “I am a diplomat,
aren’t I?”) or in the form of represented inner speech (“He
would eat, then, by himself and could read a book with his
meals. He would see them through the safari on a very formal
basis - what was it the French called it?”)
A rigorous analysis of the vocabulary of the story clearly
shows that the author employs common words in the dialogue
and represented speech. Here are some examples of colloquial
words: “Tell him to make three gimlets.”; “You’ve got your
lion,” Robert Wilson said to him, “and a damned fine one too.”;
“Oh, yes. They could raise a row.”
The writer’s strong sense of place is revealed by the use of
barbarisms, still they are not numerous and always to the point:
“He was dressed in the same sort of safari clothes that Wilson
wore...” Safari - a hunting expedition (Swahili).
In many instances the reader sees that the number of syno26
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could be upset by his first lion. That’s all over.”
But that night after dinner and a whisky and soda by the
fire before going to bed, as Francis Macomber lay on his cot
with mosquito bar over him and listened to the night noises it
was not all over. It was neither all over nor was it beginning.
It was there exactly as it happened with some parts of it indelibly emphasized and he was miserably ashamed at it.But more
than shame he felt cold, hollow fear in him. The fear was still
there like a cold slimy hollow in all the emptiness where once
his confidence had been and it made him feel sick. It was still
there with him now.
It had started the night before when he had wakened and
heard the lion roaring somewhere up along the river. It was
a deep sound and at the end there were sort of coughing
grunts that made him seem just outside the tent, and when
Francis Macomber woke in the night to hear it he was afraid.
He could hear his wife breathing quietly, asleep. There was
no one to tell he was not afraid, nor to be afraid with him,
and, lying alone, he did not know the Somali proverb that
says a brave man is always frightened three times by a lion:
when he first sees his track, when he first hears him roar and
when he first confronts him. Then while they were eating
breakfast by the lantern light out in the dining tent, before
the sun was up, the lion roared again and Francis thought
he was just at the edge of camp.
Stylistic Analysis
This is one of Hemingway’s masterpieces. It gives a deep
insight into human nature and a true picture of contemporary
social and family relations in bourgeois society. Hemingway’s
basic literary principle which is usually interpreted by his
critics as “the iceberg principle” is masterfully realized in this
story. “If a writer of prose knows enough about what he is writ27
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forget what you did for me though.”; Macomber’s words “I’m
awfully sorry about that lion business.”; Wilson’s thoughts “If
you could forget the morning. But, of course, you couldn’t.
The morning had been about as bad as they come.” Margot’s
mocking words “I’ve dropped the whole thing... What importance is there to whether Francis is any good at killing lions”.
Note that this last remark is more concrete, it hints at what
actually happened in a more precise manner. See also Macomber’s words: “I bolted like a rabbit.”
Margot’s mocking remarks: “I wouldn’t miss something
like today for anything.” “And I want so to see you perform
again. You were lovely this morning.”
Note the various cases of logical periphrasis used by the
characters to say in a round-about way what happened that
morning. The reader is kept in constant suspence: “the whole
thing”; “about it”; “that lion business”; “something like today”.
Observe also the repeated use of the verb “to forget” stressing the intention of the speaker not to think of some unpleasant
fact; the verb “to forget” is used four times and its contextual
synonym “to drop” - twice.
The hints and suggestive remarks uttered by the characters
in their seemingly plain unpretentious dialogues are very effective in their implication.
The effect of implication and suspense is brought about
indirectly too: the author mentions the native boys’ reaction to
what Mr. Macomber did, leaving the reader in the dark as to
the actual reasons for their expressions. “Francis Macomber
had, half an hour before, been carried to his tent from the
edge of the camp in triumph on the arms and shoulders of
the cook, the personal boys, the skinner and the porters. The
gunbearers had taken no part in the demonstration. When the
native boys put him down at the door of his tent, he had shaken
all their hands, received their congratulations, and then gone
into the tent...”
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nyms is deliberately restricted. Note the use of verbs of communication (“to say” and its synonyms).
Besides, the author does not usually add any adverbial
modifier to show the manner in which the character speaks.
The author plainly states: “Macomber asked”; “Robert Wilson
told him”; “Macomber’s wife said”; “Macomber agreed”;
“Macomber asked”; “Wilson told him”.
The impression of impassive matter-of-fact narration is
brought out also by a very limited use of words denoting feelings. At the beginning of the text we can find only the following
words: “pretending”, “in triumph”, “smiled”, “liked”.
Hemingway’s scrupulous attention to minute details adds
to the matter-fact and logical tone of the story.
Underneath this simple exterior of restraint there lies a rich
treasure of suggestions and implications. The very structure
of the story adds to the effect of implication but the actual
meaning of what is going on is not clear at the beginning of
the story, as the feelings suggested by the writer are not precisely determined. The reader however feels that something
has happened and that the characters are strained and full of
hidden apprehension and suppressed emotions.
The effect of implication and suspense is brought about
in various ways, firstly by the direct means of stating that
something has happened but not revealing what. Observe the
repetition of the word “happen”. The story opens with the sentence: “It was now lunch time and they were all sitting under
the double green fly of the dining tent pretending that nothing
had happened.” Margot’s words: “I wish it hadn’t happened.
Oh, I wish it hadn’t happened.”
Note the word “pretending” which characterizes from the
start the atmosphere of suppressed emotion.
There are many other instances where the characters hint at
something which took place before the story began: Wilson’s
words “Forget the whole thing.”; Macomber’s answer “I won’t
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ply what is missing and creates the effect of implication. This
is one of the ways in which Hemingway employs his “iceberg
principle”: “I leave out what I know but knowledge is what
makes the underwater part of the iceberg,” writes Hemingway.
In a similar way the writer uses the verb “to smile”; the
implication conveyed by this verb is also brought out in the
macrocontext. The role of the macrocontext in Hemingway’s
story is of utmost importance.
Note instances where the verb “to smile” is used: “He smiled
at her now and she looked away from his face.” “’Well, here’s
to the lion,’ Robert Wilson said. He smiled at her again and,
not smiling, she looked curiously at her husband.” “’Let’s not
talk about the lion,’ she said. Wilson looked over at her without
smiling and now she smiled at him.”
So Hemingway’s story devoid at the beginning of any apparent emotional colouring, of any apparent expression of the
characters’ feelings is impassive and matter-of-fact only on
the surface whereas beneath the surface can be found intense
emotions, meditations, sufferings.
Read carefully the whole story and observe other instances
of the use of the verbs “to look” and “to smile” which can be
regarded as metonymical descriptions.
Note that the feelings and emotional reactions of Mrs.
Macomber and Wilson are mostly conveyed by this means.
Mr. Macomber’s fright, on the other hand, is rendered both
directly and indirectly (metonymically).
Note the role of repetition in heightening the impression of
Macomber’s growing fear: the word “fear” is used here twice,
and the word “afraid” is repeated three times.
One more note about Hemingway’s usage of words and how
it is related to the description of his characters.
Read the paragraph depicting Mrs. Macomber. The description is more business-like than emotional. The adjective “handsome” stresses her vigour rather than feminine charm. Further
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The words “in triumph”, “demonstration”, “congratulations”
imply that an action which was performed by Mr. Macomber
before the story began merits praise and congratulation, but
later the reader finds out that Mr. Macomber “had just shown
himself, very publicly, to be a coward”. This unexpected phrase
and the further description of what took place in the morning
make the words “in triumph” and “congratulations” sound
ironical to the reader. The macrocontext that comes after these
words affects them and determines their meaning.
The peculiar use of the verbs “to look” and “to smile” may
also be regarded as an indirect means of creating the effect of
implication.
The repeated use of the verb “to look” becomes the expression of Mr. Macomber’s silent reaction and response to the
other characters’ actions and words: “’You’ve got your lion’,
Robert Wilson said to him, ‘and a damned fine one too.’ Mrs.
Macomber looked at Wilson quickly.” “’He is a good lion, isn’t
he?’ Macomber said. His wife looked at him now. She looked
at both these men as though she had never seen them before.”
“’Well, here’s to the lion,’ Robert Wilson said. He smiled at
her again and, smiling, she looked curiously at her husband.”
So, whenever the lion is mentioned the writer shows the
silent reaction of Macomber’s wife by plainly stating that she
constantly looks at her husband or Wilson. The reader becomes
aware of some additional meanings hidden in the verb”to look”.
It is hinted at by the macrocontext of the story and in a few
cases determined by the modifiers the writer uses: (“looked”)
“quickly”, “curiously”, “away”. However additional contextual meaning and emotive colouring is received mainly from
the macrocontext. This manner of describing the character’s
reaction and emotions by presenting simple external actions
may be considered a specific SD - metonymical description
which is realized only in the macrocontext.
The SD of metonymical description makes the reader sup31
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red.”; “’It’s red today’, Macomber tried a joke.”) - all these
peculiarities of usage stress the adjective “red”as an important
detail in describing Wilson and make it an epithet.
Similarly, the adjective “blue” is affected by the surrounding words (it is costantly used in such combinations as “cold
blue eyes”, “his flat, blue, machinegunner’s eyes”) and had
acquired an additional contextual meaning making it an epithet
in the macrocontext.
It is the macrocontext that determines the meanings of some
words and suggests their implication in Hemingway’s story,
and therefore should not be underestimated.
The grammatical peculiarities of the story serve the basic
stylistic purpose - that of giving the impression of simplicity
and impartiality on the one hand, and creating implication and
emotional tension, on the other.
Long sentences which are so characteristic of the author’s
narration in the story do not produce a sense of complexity. On
the contrary, the long sentences give the illusion of simplicity. The impression of simplicity is generally maintained by a
peculiar sentence structure.
The most striking feature which is easily observed is the
repetition of one and the same conjunction within the sentence.
Read this sentence:
“The mess boy had started them already, lifting the bottles
out the canvas cooling bags that sweated wet in the wind that
blew through the trees that shaded the tents.”
Similar structure can be seen once more:
“She was an extremely handsome and well- kept woman
of the beauty and social position which had, five years before,
commanded five thousand dollars as the price of endorsing,
with photographs, a beauty product which she had never used.
Or:
“She noticed where the baked red of his face stopped in a
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the reader comes across the following statement: “She had a
very perfect oval face, so perfect that you expected her to be
stupid.” The adjective “perfect” is used here in its logical, direct
meaning (“a perfect oval face”), stressing the shape of the face
and not one’s emotional impression. The impartial tone and the
absence of emotive words in describing Mrs. Macomber may
be accounted for by two reasons: the writer’s principle to leave
the surface comparatively bare of any emotion, and the desire
to emphasize the woman’s nature by choosing relevant words
and expressions (note the writer’s way to explain her purpose
for desiring to marry again - “to better herself”).
Wilson’s thoughts about Mrs. Macomber are presented in a
different way: “She is away for twenty minutes and now she
is back, simply enamelled in that American female cruelty.
They are the damnedest women. Really the damnedest”. The
adjective “American” has acquired in this sentence a contextual
emotive meaning affected by the meanings of the words which
follow (“cruelty”, “damnedest”).
Note a different way the adjective “American” is used when
applied to Francis Macomber in the writer’s narration: “’I’m
sorry,’ Macomber said and looked at him with his American
face that would stay adolescent until it became middle- aged...”.
To determine what the adjective “American” means in the
combination “his American face” we must consider the macrocontext. The words “that would stay adolescent” throw light
on the meaning of “American” which acquires an additional
contextual emotive meaning of young, boyish, inexperienced.
The macrocontext helps to determine what a word means and
suggests additional emotive shades of meaning.
Analyse the use of the adjectives “red” and “blue” in the
story. Observe the repetition of the word “red” in describing
Wilson, the use of the antonym “white” (“She noticed where
the baked red of his face stopped in a white line.”, play on the
word “red” (“Francis drinks a great deal, but his face is never
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of the paragraph and in the one and the same conjunction.
Repetition assumes in the story various structural forms.
Catch-word repetition (anadiplosis) is frequently used giving
the impression of plain, logical structure: “Margot looked at
them both and they both saw that she was going to cry.” “But
more than shame he felt cold, hollow fear in him. The fear
was still there...”.
Note that anadiplosis produces the effect of a “chainpattern” structure similar to that produced by the successive
subordination often used in the story.
Anadiplosis is sometimes employed to connect successive
paragraphs.
The dominant conjunction which is employed frequently
and variously in the story is “and”.
The repetition of the conjunction “and” usually maintains
parallelism and rhythm:
“In the orchard bush they found a heard of impala, and leaving the car they stalked one old ram with long, wide-spread
horns and Macomber killed it with a very creditable shot that
knocked the buck down at a good two hundred yards and sent
the herd off bounding wildly and leaping over one another’s
backs in long, leg-drawn-up leaps as unbelievable and as floating as those one makes sometimes in dreams.”
The effect of rhythmical arrangement is heightened in this
example by alliteration at the end of the paragraph.
Suspense which is the basic compositional feature of the
story manifests itself in the structure of most paragraphs.
Read the paragraph by which the first part of the story
culminates:
“That was the story of the lion. Macomber did not know
how the lion had felt before he started his rush, nor during it
when the unbelievable smash of the 505 with a muzzle velocity
of two tons hit him in the mouth, nor what kept him coming
after that, when the second ripping crash had smashed his hind
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white line that marked the circle left by his Stetson hat that
hung now from one of the pegs of the tent pole.”
The use of one and the same conjunction and one and the
same type of subordinate clause within the sentence (a complex
sentence with successive subordination) creates a monotonous
analogous description where the author seems concerned only
with presenting a bare enumeration of details.
It is interesting to point out that folklore contains clear-cut
structures of this type with succsesive subordination as in
the well- known nursery rhyme “This is the house that Jack
built...”.
The established syntactical pattern which is repeated within
the sentence is a stylistically significant feature in the story
leading to a seeming lack of variety and maintaining the effect
of simplicity.
Note that this holds true not only of the sentence-structure
but to a larger extent of the paragraph-structure. The established pattern (or patterns) is repeated with a slight variation
throughout the paragraph giving the impression of analogy and
logic in structure. Read the paragraph beginning:
“It had started the night before when he had wakened and
heard the lion roaring somewhere up along the river.”
The predominant sentence-type in the above paragraph is
the complex sentence with a subordinate clause of time. The
conjunction” when” is repeated five times, the conjunction
“while” and “before” are used once each.
The paragraph being a unity of ideas presents in the story
a striking unity of syntactic structure. There is no conspicuous topic sentence, the paragraph gives a series of details or
actions which go on and on, as if the writer assumes that his
readers want only to learn as quickly and easily as possible
what happens. The unity of the paragraph manifests itself in
the established syntactical pattern used throughout the whole
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more at home to be able to leave him and better herself and
she knew it and he knew it. If he had been better with women
she would probably have started to worry about him getting
another new, beautiful wife: but she knew too much about him
to worry about him either.”
The principle of repetition which reveals itself in the use
of the established syntactic pattern and the repetition of one
and the same conjunction often leads to the SD of cumulation:
“So they sat there in the shade where the camp was pitched
under some wide- topped acacia trees with a boulder- strewn
cliff behind them, and a stretch of grass that ran to the bank of
a boulder-filled stream in front with forest beyond it, and drank
their just-cool lime drinks and avoided one another’s eyes...”.
The clash between the syntactical analogy and semantic
distance in the SD of cumulation brings about the effect of
implication and hints at the real relations of the characters.
Analyse the paragraph which contains a striking case of
cumulation:
“Francis Macomber was very tall, very well built if you
did not mind that length of bone, dark, his hair cropped like
an oarsman, rather thin-lipped, and was considered handsome.
He was dressed in the same sort of safari clothes that Wilson
wore except that his were new, he was thirty-five years old,
kept himself very fit, was good at court games, had a number
of big-game fishing records, and had just shown himself, very
publicly, to be a coward.”
Observe the structure of the paragraph consisting of two
sentences based on the analogous description of the main
character.
Note that there is no topic sentence. Each sentence of the
paragraph presents an enumeration and includes six homogeneous members; the last member in both sentences is linked
by means of the conjunction”and”.
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quarters and he had come crawling on toward the crashing,
blasting thing that had destroyed him. Wilson knew something
about it and only expressed it by saying, “Damned fine lion,”
but Macomber did not know how Wilson felt about things
either. He did not know how his wife felt except that she was
through with him.”
Note that the paragraph tends towards balanced structure
for the sake of contrast: “Macomber did not know...,” “Wilson
knew...”. The repeated use of words “knew”, “did not know”
adds to the effect of contrast and gives the impression of a
certain established pattern of the paragraph. Observe that
parallel constructions are interrupted by inserting modifiers
(three instances of subordinate clause of time introduced by
“before”, “when”, “when”) and some other relevant details (of
the 505 with a muzzle velocity of two tons). All this brings
about the effect of suspence.
Syntactical parallelism supported and intensified by lexical repetition (four instances of “know”; “nor...nor”; “when,
when...”; “how, how...”) lends an unmistakable rhythm to
the passage. Note that the length of sentences and clauses is
shortened and the number of inserted details is lessened by the
end of the paragraph and so causing a change in rhythm: from
a slow, even rhythm to a rapid, excited rhythm. This change
of rhythm heightens the emotional tension and reinforces the
implication suggested by the last unexpected sentence of the
paragraph: “He did not know how his wife felt except that she
was through with him.”
Note the repetition of the words “great beauty” and “knew”
in the paragraph following the one we have just analysed.
The repeated words do not assume any definite compositional pattern, such a simple scattered repetition contributes to
the impression or a colloquial simplicity of narration:
“His wife had been a great beauty and she was still a great
beauty in Africa, but she was not a great enough beauty any
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of the horns, and the head jerked, he shot again at the wide
nostrils and saw the horns jolt again and fragments fly, and
he did not see Wilson now and, aiming carefully, shot again
with the buffalo’s huge bulk almost on him, his rifle almost
level with the on-coming head, nose out, and he could see the
little wicked eyes and the head started to lower and he felt a
sudden white-hot, blinding flash explode inside his head and
that was all he ever felt.”
The passage tends to rhythmical structure: parallel constructions, various types of repetition, a peculiar scheme of
sense- group division - all contribute to this impression. The
distribution of the verbs reveals their more or less regular alternations: “saw” - “shot” - “did not see” - “shot” - “could see”
- “felt” - “felt”. The conjunction “and” is repeated 11 times.
All these features lend balance to the passage. A change in
rhythm from slow to rapid reinforces the effect of suspence
and climax.
Suspense is created by a number of interrupting but relevant
details postponing the completion of the thought. The length of
the interrupting phrases and coordinate clauses is shortened by
the end of the passage (note once again that the last three clauses
contain two sense-groups while the first four - three or six) and
causing a change in rhythm adds to emotional tension.
Suspense is suddenly broken by an unexpected unpredictable concluding phrase: “and he felt a sudden white- hot,
blinding flash explode inside his head and that was all he ever
felt.”This unpredictability (in meaning) and analogy (in syntactic form) brings about the effect of cumulation and climax.
The repetition of the verb “to feel” (a kind of framing) which
is substituted for the verb “to see” of the preceding clauses
heightens the stylistic effect of climax giving the impression
of finality.
The paragraph following the dramatic culmination is different in structure and in its stylistic effect:
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cates: in the first sentence “was” of the last predicate (“and
was considered handsome” is grammatically different (it is
an auxiliary verb) from “was” of the preceding predicates
(where it is a link verb); likewise “had” of the last predicate
in the second sentence (“and had just shown himself, very
publicly, to be a coward”) is grammatically different (it is
also an auxiliary verb) from “had” of the preceding predicates
(where it is a notional verb).
All these similar features contribute to the impression of
parallelism in the structure of the paragraph. The last phrase of
the first sentence may be regarded as a logical summing up of
what was previously said (“and was considered handsome”).
The last phrase of the second sentence built on the same grammatical principles unexpectedly presents a semantically alien
thought (“and had just shown himself, very publicly, to be
a coward”). Cumulation is striking as the clash between the
grammatical identity and semantic difference is sudden and
strong. Cumulation gives rise to implication and presents the
first obvious hint at what happened before the story began.
Now examine the most dramatic and expressive passage
which presents the crucial point of the story.
The main dramatic force is achieved by syntax - by the
writer’s mastery utilization of the resources concealed in the
syntactic structure of the language. Stylistic tendencies and
peculiarities of the story manifest themselves in the passage
most intensely and palpably. The paragraph consists of two
sentences. The sentence presenting a dramatic culmination
is a very long complex sentence, with inner subordination,
consisting of 7 co-ordinate clauses and 116 words - the longest sentence in the story. It gives a detailed enumeration of
Macomber’s successive actions and his feelings:
“Wilson, who was ahead was kneeling shooting, and Macomber, as he fired, unhearing his shot in the roaring of Wilson’s gun, saw fragments like slate burst from the huge boss
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monument. It was made of bronze and glistened in the rain.
It was raining. The rain dripped from the palm trees. Water
stood in pools on the gravel paths. The sea broke in a long
line in the rain and slipped back down the beach to come up
and break again in a long line in the rain. The motor cars
were gone from the square by the war monument. Across
the square in the doorway of the cafe a waiter stood looking
out at the empty square.
The American wife stood at the window looking out. Outside right under their window a cat was crouched under one of
the dripping green tables. The cat was trying to make herself
so compact that she would not be dripped on.
“I’m going down to get that kitty,” the American wife said.
“I’ll do it,” her husband offered from the bed.
“No, I’ll get it. The poor kitty out trying to keep dry under
a table”.
The husband went on reading, lying propped up with the
two pillows at the foot of the bed.
“Don’t get wet,” he said.
The wife went downstairs and the hotel owner stood up and
bowed to her as she passed the office. His desk was at the far
end of the office. He was an old man and very tall.
“Il piove,” the wife said. She liked the hotel keeper.
“Si, si, Signora, brutto tempo. It’s very bad weather.”
He stood behind his desk in the far end of the dim room.
The wife liked him. She liked the deadly serious way he
received any complaints. She liked his dignity. She liked
the way he wanted to serve her. She liked the way he felt
about being a hotel- keeper. She liked his old, heavy face
and big hands.
Liking him she opened the door and looked out. It was
raining harder. A man in a rubber cape was crossing the empty
square to the cafe. The cat would be around to the right.
Perhaps she could go along under the eaves. As she stood in
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“Wilson had ducked to one side to get in a shoulder shot.
Macomber had stood solid and shot for the nose shooting a
touch high each time and hitting the heavy horns, splintering
and chipping them like hitting a slate roof, and Mrs Macomber,
in the car, had shot at the buffalo with the 6.5 Mannlicher as it
seemed about to gore Macomber and had hit her husband about
two inches up and a little to one side of the base of his skull.”
The sentences are not so long, not so fragmentary, the relevant details are not so numerous. Note that some details are
repeated (“like slate” - “like hitting a slate roof”). The rhythm
of the paragraph is even and quiet giving the impression of an
impassionate description. The paragraph may be regarded as
a kind of comment on what had happened.
Note the use of the Past Perfect which plainly refers the
actions to those which have been mentioned.
The idea of suspense and the effect of implication is masterfully revealed at the end of the story - the writer does not
say plainly whether it was an accident or murder. The writer
presents only a sequence of outward actions and the reader is
left to imagine more than the words themselves convey.
Ernest
Hemingway
CAT IN THE RAIN
There were only two Americans stopping at the hotel. They
did not know any of the people they passed on the stairs on
their way to and from their room. Their room was on the second floor facing the sea. It also faced the public garden and
the war monument. There were big palms and green benches
in the public garden. In the good weather there was always
an artist with his easel. Artists liked the way the palms grew
and the bright colors of the hotels facing the gardens and the
sea. Italians came from a long way off to look up at the war
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“I wanted it so much,” she said. “I don’t know why I wanted
it so much. I wanted that poor kitty. It isn’t fun to be a poor
kitty out in the rain. It isn’t any fun to be a poor kitty out in
the rain.”
George was reading again.
She went over and sat in front of the mirror of the dressing
table looking at herself with the hand glass. She studied her
profile, first one side and then the other. Then she studied the
back of her head and her neck.
“Don’t you think it would be a good idea if I let my hair
grow out?” she asked, looking at her profile again.
George looked up and saw the back of her neck, clipped
close like a boy’s.
“I like it the way it is.”
“I get so tired of it,” she said. “I get so tired of looking like
a boy.”
George shifted his position in the bed. He hadn’t looked
away from her since she started to speak.
“You look pretty darn nice,” he said.
She laid the mirror down on the dresser and went over to
the window and looked out.
“I want to pull my hair back tight and smooth and make a
big knot at the back that I can feel,” she said. “I want to have
a kitty to sit on my lap and purr when I stroke her.”
“Yeah?” George said from his bed.
“And I want to eat at a table with my own silver and I
want candles. And I want it to be spring and I want to brush
my hair out in front of a mirror and I want a kitty and I want
some new clothes.”
“Oh, shut up and get something to read,” George said. He
was reading again.
His wife was looking out of the window. It was quite dark
now and still raining in the palm trees.
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the doorway an umbrella opened behind her. It was the maid
who looked after their room.
“You must not get wet,” she smiled, speaking Italian. Of
course, the hotel-keeper had sent her.
With the maid holding the umbrella over her, she walked
along the gravel path until she was under their window. The
table was there, washed bright green in the rain, but the cat
was gone. She was suddenly disappointed. The maid looked
up at her.
“Ha perduto qualque cosa, Signora?”
“There was a cat,” said the American girl.
“A cat?”
“Si, il gatto”.
“A cat?” the maid laughed. “A cat in the rain?”
“Yes,” she said,”under the table.” Then, “Oh, I wanted it
so much. I wanted a kitty.”
When she talked English the maid’s face tightened.
“Come, Signora,” she said. “We must get back inside. You
will be wet.”
“I suppose so,” said the American girl.
They went back along the gravel path and passed in the
door. The maid stayed outside to close the umbrella. As the
American girl passed the office, the padrone bowed from his
desk. Something felt very small and tight inside the girl. The
pardone made her feel very small and at the same time really
important. She had a momentary feeling of being of supreme
importance. She went up on the stairs. She opened the door of
the room. George was on the bed, reading.
“Did you get the cat?” he asked, putting the book down.
“It was gone.”
“Wonder where it went to,” he said, resting his eyes from
reading.
She sat down on the bed.
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suggests the whole, and the use of a relevant detail both as
fact and as a symbol.
Analysing the story proceed from Hemingway’s principle
(cited above) and try to perceive the “submerged parts of the
iceberg”, i. e. the unspoken reference.
Assignments for stylistic analysis
1. Comment on the following assertions of Hemingway’s
- “Prose is architecture not interior decoration.”; “The symbol
should partake of reality.”
2. Discuss Hemingway’s reply to the critics who found
his stories symbolic: “I tried to make a real old man, a real
boy, a real sea, a real fish and real sharks, but if I made them
good and true enough they would mean many things.” Express
your own opinion on the subject.
3. What means does the author use to give the reader an
insight into his characters and what is the role of implication
both in the description of the characters and in the dialogues
between them?
4. Speak on the characters of the American girl and her
husband and the SDs used by the author to show their attitude
towards each other (the relations between them).
5. Speak on the role of the hotel owner in the story and
the devices used by Hemingway to describe him. Note the
attitude of the American girl to the hotel owner and speak on
the stylistic role of the word “small” in the macrocontext of
the story: “The padrone made her feel very small...”
6. State what SDs are used in the dialogue between the
American girl and the maid and speak on the effect achieved
by them (note the use of barbarisms in the dialogue).
7. Dwell on the effect of implication achieved by the
words “silver”, “candles”, “kitty” used in the macrocontext
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“Anyway, I want a cat,” she said, “I want a cat. I want a
cat now. If I can’t have long hair or any fun, I can have a cat.”
George was not listening. He was reading his book. His
wife looked out of the window where the light had come on
in the square.
Someone knocked at the door.
“Avanti,” George said. He looked up from his book.
In the doorway stood the maid. She held a big tortoise-shell
cat pressed tight against her and swung down against her body.
“Excuse me,” she said, “the padrone asked me to bring this
for the Signora.”
The story is a short psychological study reflecting Hemingway’s approach to life in general. As it is rightly stressed by
Hemingway’s critics his talent lies, first and foremost in his
deep psychological insight into human nature.
Though Hemingway describes physical activity and the
outdoor world, for him the real battle ground is inward. This
is quite true, and to bring home to the reader the innermost
psychological world of his characters Hemingway makes the
reader share his character’s experience. “I want to convey
the experience to the reader” (Hemingway), so the reader
becomes a participant of the events described by the author.
Hemingway’s wonderful mastery of the language permits him
to convey the experience to the reader, the author probed capable “of getting below the skin and presenting the universal
underlying truth.”
Hence in the works of Hemingway it is the implication that
counts, the “submerged part of the iceberg”, the unspoken
reference due to which a briefly sketched natural description
is charged with mood and emotional atmosphere.
Note such distinguishing features of Hemingway’s style as
the masterful use of “relevant detail”, as essential detail that
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Peace on earth. Goodwill all round.
When I first met Hickson, I could have kissed his beautiful
boots. I loved them for themselves, works of art, and he was
so full of goodwill that it came off him like the smell of his
soap, linen, hair cream, tooth wash, shaving lotion, eye-wash
and digestive mixture. Like the glow of a firefly. Calling for
something. Until he got burned up, poor chap. A flash in the
dark. For, of course, the rich do find it hard to get through
the needle’s eye, out of heaven. And to spend all your life in
paradise is a bit flat. Millionaires deserve not only love but
our pity. It is a Christian act to be nice to them.
When lady Beeder asked me if my tea was all right, I said,
“Yes, your ladyship. Everything is all right. I’m enjoying
myself so much that you will have to throw me downstairs
to get rid of me. I think you and Sir William are two of the
richest people I’ve ever met. You have lovely manners and
lovely things, a lovely home, and very good tea. I suppose
this tea costs four and sixpence a pound, it is worth it. Genius
is priceless.”
The Professor kept coughing and making faces at me,
but I wasn’t afraid of embarrassing nice people. I knew they
would be used to unfortunate remarks. Rich people are like
royalty. They can’t afford to be touchy. Richesse oblige. And,
in fact, they kept on putting me at my ease; and paying me
compliments all the time. And when I told them how I had been
turned out of my studio by the Cokers, they said they hoped
that I would come and stay over the week- end, to keep the
Professor company while they were away.
“I’m sorry we can’t offer you a bed beyond Monday, but
we have only two bedrooms.”
“I could sleep on the sofa,” I said.
“Oh, Mr. Jimson, but we couldn’t allow you to be so
uncomfortable.”
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of the story.
8. What is implied in the words of the American girl:
“I want to pull my hair back....”
9. Point out cases of repetition used in the story both
as an expressive means and stylistic device and state what
effect is achieved by this.
10. Discuss the title of the story and in so doing speak
of the stylistic use of the word “cat” in the story.
11. Summing up your impressions of the story speak
of the mood created by the apt use of SDs and the effect
achieved by them. Joyce Cary
THE HORSE’S MOUTH
Just then the Beeders came in, Sir William and Lady.
Big man with a bald head and monkey fur on the back of his
hands. Voice like a Liverpool dray on a rumbling bridge.
Charming manners. Little bow. Beaming smile. Lady tall,
slender. Spanish eyes, brown skin, thin nose. Greco hands.
Collector’s piece. I must have those hands, I thought, arms
probably too skinny but the head and torso are one piece. I
should need them together.
Lady Beeder was even more charming than her husband.
“I’m so delighted, Mr. Gulley Jimson - I know you hardly
ever pay visits. I didn’t dare to ask you - but I hoped,” and
she asked me to tea. People like that can afford it. Nothing to
them to send their cushions to the cleaners.
But what I like about the rich is the freedom and the
friendliness. Christian atmosphere. Liberty Hall. Everything
shared because there is too much. All forgiveness because it’s
no trouble. Drop their Dresden cups on the fireplace and they
smile. They are anxious only that you should not be embarrassed, and spoil the party. That’s their aim. Comfort and joy.
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mount, of the best Bristol board, cut by a real expert, with a
dear little picture in the middle. Sky with clouds, grass with
trees, water with reflections, cows with horns, cottage with
smoke and passing labourer with fork, blue shirt, old hat.
“Lovely,” I said, puffing my cigar. “Only wants a title - what
will you call it? Supper time. You can see that chap is hungry.”
“I think the sky is not too bad,” said she. “I just laid it down
and left it.”
“That’s the way,” I said. “Keep it fresh. Get the best colours
and let ‘em do the rest. Charming”.
“I’m so glad you like it,” said she. And she was so nice that
I thought I should tell her something. “Of course,” I said, “the
sky is just a little bit chancy, looks a bit accidental, like when
the cat spills its breakfast.”
“I think I see,” said her ladyship, and Sir William said, “Of
course, Mr. Jimson, you do get skies like that in Dorset. It’s
really a typical Dorset sky.”
I saw the professor winking at me so hard that his face
was like a concertina with a hole in it. But I didn’t care. For
I knew that I could say what I liked to real amateurs and they
wouldn’t care a damn. They’d only think, “These artists are
a lot of jealous stick-in-the-muds. They can’t admire any art
but their own. Which is simply dry made-up stuff, without any
truth or real feeling for Nature”.
“Yes,” I said, “that is a typical sky. Just an accident. That’s
what I mean. What you’ve got there - is just a bit of nothing at
all - nicely splashed on to the best Whatman with an expensive
camel-hair- -”
“I think I see what you mean,” said her ladyship. “Yes, I do
see - it’s the most interesting.”
And she said something to Sir William with her left eyelash,
which caused him to shut his mouth and remove the picture so
suddenly that it was like the movies. And to pop on the next.
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“Then why shouldn’t Sir William sleep with the Professor
and I’ll sleep with her ladyship.You can count me as a lady at sixty-seven.”
Alabaster turned green and coughed as if he was going into
consumption. But I knew I couldn’t shock cultured people like
the Beeders. They get past being shocked before they are out
of school, just as they get over religion and other unexpected
feelings.
“A very good idea,” said Sir William, laughing.
“I’m greatly complimented,” said the lady, “but I’m afraid
I should keep you awake. I’m such a bad sleeper.”
“Perhaps,” said Sir William, getting up, “Mr. Jimson would
like to see some of your work, my dear.”
“Oh no, Bill, please.”
“But, Flora, that last thing of yours was really remarkable
- I’m suggesting that it was up to professional standards. But
as a quick impression - -”
“Oh, no,” said her ladyship, “Mr. Jimson would laugh at
my poor efforts.”
But, of course, they both wanted me to see her work and
say that it was wonderful. And why not? They were so kind,
so good.
“Why,” I said, “amateurs do much the most interesting
work.”
The Professor began to hop about like a dry pea on the
stove. He coughed and made faces at me, meaning “Be
careful, be tactful, remember these people are used to luxury
of all kinds.”
But I laughed and said, “Don’t you worry, Professor, I’m
not pulling her ladyship’s leg. I wouldn’t do such a thing. I
have too much respect for that charming limb.”
Sir William got out an easel and a big portfolio, in red morocco with a monogram in gold. And he took out a big double
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9. Dorset-a south-western county of England bounded by
the English Channel and often represented in English painting.
10. Stick-the-muds - dull old fellows with antiquated
notions.
11. Peter de Windt - an English landscape painter (17841849) who had a special fondness for river scenes, rustic cottages, shady trees, cornfields and the like; his weakness lay in
too much prettiness.
Comments
There are, probably, few funnier episodes in modern English
fiction than this afternoon spent by the artist with two silly
rich snobs and a young sponger hanging on them. The latter
calls himself Professor of Fine Arts, his name (very likely an
assumed one ) is Alabaster, which is suggestive of the fact that
he is as far from real art as alabaster is from marble.
The manner in which the Beeders are portrayed in the opening lines of our selection is exceedingly characteristic. Jimson
takes them in terms of graphic arts (e. g. “Greco hands”, “collector’s piece”). Quite professionally he first notes the most
characteristic details, and then appreciates the lady, and various
parts of her, from the standpoint of her possibilities as an artist’s model. The highest praise with him is the desire to draw,
so he thinks: “I must have those hands.”
The syntactical pattern is, of course, relevant. It is strikingly
uncommon: mostly one-member or elliptical sentences follow
one another in a breathless staccato succession. Similar structures are dominant throughout the book. It would not, perhaps,
be too far-fetched to suppose that the syntax employed suggests
the modernistic manner of Jimson as a painter.
Next comes a sardonic eulogy of the rich. Well-schooled
in the injustice of the existing social order, Jimson knows bet50
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A nice little thing of clouds with sky, willows with grass, river
with wet water, barge with mast and two ropes, horse with tail,
man with back.
“Now, that’s lovely,” I said. “Perfect. After de Windt. Look
at the wiggle of the mast in the water. What technique.”
“My wife has made a special study of watercolour technique,” said Sir William. “A very difficult medium”.
“Terrible,” I said. “But her ladyship has mastered it. She’s
only got to forget it.”
“I think I see what Mr. Jimson means,” says she. “Yes,
cleverness is a danger- -”
And she looked at me so sweetly that I could have hugged
her. A perfect lady. Full of forbearance towards this nasty dirty
old man with his ignorant prejudices.
Notes
1. Dray - a low strong cart for heavy goods.
2. Greco hands - hands like those in the pictures of the
Spanish painter El Greco (1541- 1614), very much in vogue
in the beginning of the 20th century.
3. Liberty Hall - any place where one may do as one likes.
4. Dresden cups - Dresden is noted for the manufacture of
china.
5. Hickson - a millionaire and a connoisseur in arts who
had been Jimson’s patron.
6. “Richesse oblige” (“Wealth imposes obligations” - a
para - phrase of the French proverb “Noblesse oblige” (“Rank
imposes obligations”).
7. The Cokers - a poor woman and her mother who, having
nowhere to live, moved to Jimson’s house-boat while he was
in prison.
8. Mount - a card surrounding a picture.
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get through the needle’s eye than for the rich to enter heaven.
With Cary the rich are supposed to be already in Paradise, to
find it dull there, and to have difficulties in getting out of it.
Thus Jimson finds reason not only to praise the rich, but to be
sarcastically sorry for them as well. To a pious Englishman
the passage must sound cynically blasphemous.
Another remodelled familiar quotation is that of the French
saying “Noblesse oblige”, which for the modern bourgeois
world is changed by Cary into “Richesse oblige”.
The latter statement applies well to Lady Beeder. She is
charming, friendly and utterly silly. Jimson makes fun of her
to his heart’s content, and she has to put up with it. He enjoys
forcing himself onto this rich couple, he enjoys Alabaster’s
dismay. The Professor’s “coughing and making faces”, his
turning green as if he was going into consumption serves to
stress the gay malice with which Jimson suggests different
possibilities of prolonging his stay in the Beeders’ residence.
The malicious cynicism of the painter’s suggestions reveals
the hypocrisy of the Beeders’ hospitality, which they offer and
withdraw simultaneously. Both are marked off by such ironical remarks as: “I wasn’t afraid of embarrassing nice people”;
“But I knew I couldn’t shock cultured people like the Beeders.
They get past being shocked before they are out of school,
just as they get over religion and other unexpected feelings.”
Lady Beeder paints a little, in an amateurish and trite manner, and when samples of her work are shown to Jimson he is
charming about them for a moment, and then cannot forbear
making fun of them.The lady, who does not understand much
of what he says, takes it all as a compliment and pretends to
be very deep and sensitive about it.
The narration on the whole is given in a colloquial style: it
is colloquial not only in its syntax and choice of vocabulary
but also in the ample use of abbreviated verbal forms: it’s,
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ter than to abuse the representatives of the ruling classes - he
praises them instead. This praise, however, is at bottom deeply
sarcastic. Jimson applauds the pretended virtues of the rich:
their friendliness, goodwill, forgiveness etc., running them
down at the same time by implying that all these qualities cost
them nothing and afford one more luxury - mental comfort:
“Everything shared because there is too much. All forgiveness
because it’s no trouble”.
The ironical glorification of the rich is extended into reminiscences of Hickson, another millionaire, who after financially
supporting Jimson’s work for a time finally robbed him of his
pictures. Jimson’s laughter is a desperate remedy; it makes him
proof against the world which persecutes him, reduces him to
a beggarly life and threatens him not only with starvation but
with actual imprisonment. Jimson seems to think that the moral
virtues of the bourgeois are only so many pieces of luxury. He
mocks at them when he mentions the millionair’s goodwill in
the same breath with his boots (“I loved them for themselves,
works of art, and he was so full of goodwill...”). This goodwill
is said to emanate from Hickson like the smell of all the lotions
the man washes himself with. There is a kind of gradation in
this lavish rush of homogeneous nouns, as each of the words
brings forth more intimately naturalistic details than the previous one (from mentioning soap and linen Jimson passes on to
the tooth wash, the digestive mixture being the climax). After
this enumeration of patent beautifiers the poetic comparison of
this same goodwill to the glow of a firefly heightens the comical effect of bathos so frequent with Cary. The effect is further
enhanced because this comical enumeration is succeeded by
Biblical allusions. This device, so much favoured by English
writers, is here applied in a very unexpected way. The quotation
is turned inside out and thus made into something very much
like a paradox. The Gospel says that it is easier for a camel to
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7. Comment upon Lady Beeder’s speech characterization.
8. Explain the stylistic devices used to describe Alabaster’s
behaviour.
9. Comment upon the use and choice of epithets.
10. Describe the various types of one-member and elliptical
sentences used in the writer’s narrative.
11. Comment upon the following sentences: a) “Nothing
to them to send their cushions to the cleaners”; b) “Alabaster
turned green and coughed as if he was going into consumption”; c) “They get past being shocked before they are out of
school, just as they get over religion and other unexpected
feelings”.
Список использованной литературы
1. Арнольд И.В., Дьяконова Н.Я. Аналитическое
чтение: Пособие для студентов педагогических
институтов и филологических факультетов
университетов. Л.: Просвещение, 1967.
2. Гальперин И.Р. Стилистика английского языка. М.: Высшая школа, 1971.
3. Сошальская Е.Г., Прохорова В.И. Стилистический
анализ: Учебное пособие для старших курсов
институтов и факультетов иностранного языка. М.:
Высшая школа, 1976.
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that’s etc. Yet even against the background of the artist’s inner
monologues the dialogue stands out as vividly and truthfully
rendering the dynamic rhythm of present- day colloquial English. The seemingly inconsistent impressionistic style, with its
fragmentary glimpses of things seen from a quite unexpected
viewpoint, the ironical cynical manner, absolute outspokenness, very typical of modern West-European tastes in literature
and art, are motivated in the excerpt by the personality of the
narrator.
Assignments for stilistik analysis
1. Is it very easy to say whose side the novelist takes?
What is there to guide us?
2. Find the characteristic Jimson gives to Lady Beeder’s art.
3. Is the title Supper Time, that Gulley Jimson suggests for
the landscape, flattering for Lady Beeder? What does she think
she managed to express in the picture?
4. Why does Jimson pay so much attention to the material
used by he lady for the picture?
5. What makes Lady Beeder’s remarks with italicized words
in them so ridiculous?
6. Analyse the syntactical structure of the sentences describing Lady Beeder’s pictures and the stylistic peculiarities
of these sentences. Define their tone. What features in Lady
Beeder’s work are thus made fun of?
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Людмила Назаровна Пустосмехова
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