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366.Иностранный (английский) язык в сфере юриспруденции

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ:
ТЕМА № 1. Автобиография. Высшее образование…………………….
ТЕМА № 2. Профессия юриста. Юридические профессии в странах
изучаемого языка ………………………………….……………………..
ТЕМА № 3 Система государственных органов……………………….…
ТЕМА № 4. Проблемы права. Исторический обзор правовых систем ..
ТЕМА №5. Отрасли права………………………………………………...
ТЕМА № 6. Правоохранительные органы и их функции ………………
ТЕМА № 7. Судебная система. Стадии судебного разбирательства…..
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9
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ТЕМА № 1. About Myself. Higher Educati on
ТЕКСТ 1.
About Myself
Let me introduce myself. My name is Igor Bodrov . I’m seventeen
years old. I’m a first-year student at the University. I’m tall, slender, darkhaired boy with blue eyes. I live in Kiev. I have a brother and a sister. My elder
brother Sergey is twenty, he studies at the Kiev National University, and he will
be a lawyer. My younger sister Olga is ten, she studies at school. By the way,
we have one more member of our family, cat Ryzhik. We love him very much.
My Mum is forty-two, she is a Spanish teacher. My Dad is forty -five,
he is a computer programmer. My grandparents are already retired. My
Grandma likes gardening, and Grandpa likes fishing. They live in our city and
visit us at weekends.
I have many friends. We spend a lot of time together. We play football,
volleyball, basketball. In summer we like swimming in rivers and lakes. Besides
studying, I go in for sports. I play tennis. It’s an exciting game, and I like it very
much. Sometimes I take part in different tennis competition. I have many
interests and hobbies, for example, sports, travelling, music.
My parents wanted me to be a computer programmer, like my Dad.
But I’m not sure because I’m not very good in mathematics. I like computer
games, I like to surf the Net, to communicate with people in different social nets
and forums. I even have my own blog. But I don’t want a computer
programming to be my profession. Also I like tennis, but I don’t want to be a
professional sportsman. You can ask me, why? Because I have another passion!
I’m fond of travelling so I’d like to work for a tour company. I hope my dreams
will come true!
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Переведите текст “About Myself”.
1.
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
Ответьте на вопросы по содержанию текста.
What is Igor’s surname?
Where does he live?
What relatives does he have?
How old is Igor’s brother?
What are Igor’s parents by profession?
Where do his grandparents live?
What is Igor fond of?
What does he like best of all?
2.
Прочитайте
текст
соответствующие его содержанию:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
rivers and lakes.
6)
7)
3.
1)
2)
3)
4)
и
отметьте
предложения,
Igor Bodrov is seventeen years old.
He has a younger brother and an elder sister.
His brother is a lawyer.
Igor loves his cat very much.
He likes playing football and volleyball and swimming in
His Grandma likes gardening, and Grandpa likes fishing.
Igor wants to be a computer programmer.
Исправьте предложенный план текста:
Igor’ family.
Igor Bodrov’s hobbies and interests.
Personal information about Igor Bodrov.
His plans for the future.
ТЕКСТ 2.
Higher Education in Great Britain
All British universities are private institutions. Students have to pay
fees and living costs, but every student may obtain a personal grant from local
authorities. If the parents do not earn much money, their children will receive a
full grant which will cover all the expenses. Students studying for first degrees
are known as “undergraduates”. New undergraduates in s ome universities are
called “fresher”. They have lectures, there are regular seminars.
After three or four years the students will take their finals. Those who
pass examinations successfully are given the Bachelor’s degree: Bachelor of
Arts for History or Bachelor of Science. The first postgraduate degree is Master
of Arts, Master of Science. Doctor of Philosophy is the highest degree. It is
given for some original research work which is an important contribution to
knowledge. Open Days are a chance for applicants to see the university, meet
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students and ask questions. All this will help you decide whether you have
made the right choice.
The most famous universities in Britain are Oxford and Cambridge.
They are the two oldest English universities and they both have a long and
eventful history of their own. Oxford and Cambridge are regarded as being
academically superior to other universities and as giving special privilege and
prestige. Cambridge University consists of a group of 32 independent colleges.
The first students came to the city in 1209 and studied in the schools of the
cathedral and monasteries.
Further education in Britain is for people over 16 taking courses at
various levels up to the standard required for entry to higher education. The
Open University offers degrees for people who do not have a formal education
and qualifications, or who are older. Students study at home and then post them
off to a tutor for marking. Most courses take six years and students get a
number of credits for each year’s work. The Open University was founded in
1969 and started its first course in 1971. About 120, 000 people have enrolled
since then.
1. Прочитайте
текст и выполните письменно следующее
задание.
1. Write out the definition of the word “undergraduates”.
2. Write out the definition of the word “fresher”.
3. Enumerate the degrees that are given to the British graduates and
postgraduates.
4. Write out all the information about Oxford and Cambridge
Universities.
2. Заполните пропуски подходящим по смыслу, словом из
списка:
courses, colleges, costs, degrees, applicants, fees, finals
1. Students have to pay … and living … .
2. After three or four years the students will take their …
3. Open Days are a chance for … to see the university and ask
questions.
4. Cambridge University consists of a group of 32 independent … .
5. Further education in Britain is for people over 16 taking … at
various levels.
6. The Open University offers … for people who do not have a formal
education and qualifications.
3. Переведите письменно абзац 4.
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Грамматические упражнения.
1.
Вставьте глагол to be в Present Simple.
1. What ... your name? - My name ... Shirley Frank.
2. What ... your address? - My address ... 175 Grand Central Parkway.
3. What ... your phone number? - My phone number ... 718-1930.
4. Where ... you from? - I ... from New York.
5. My father ... not a teacher, he ... a scientist.
6. ... your aunt a doctor? - Yes, she ... .
7. ... they at home? - No, they ... not at home, they ... at work.
8. My brother ... a worker. He ... at work.
9. ... you an engineer? - Yes, I ...
10. ... your sister a typist? - No, she ... not a typist, she ... a student.
11. ... your brother at school? - Yes, he ... .
12. ... your sister at school? - No, she ... not at school. My sister ... at
home.
13. ... this your watch? - Yes, it ... .
14. Helen ... a painter. She has some fine pictures. They ... on the
walls.
15. Helen has a brother. He ... a student. He has a family.
2. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на модальные
глаголы.
1. You must work hard at your English.
2. I can answer the questions. They are very easy.
3. May I invite Nick to our house?
4. She can type and speak well on the telephone. She hopes she can
find a good job.
5. You may not cross the street when the light is red.
6. May I take Pete’s bag?
7. You must not argue with the boss.
8. Kate can speak English very well.
9. My brother can come and help you in the garden.
10. You must not make notes in the books.
3. Заполните пропуски необходимой формой глагола “have”.
1.
My best friend ______ a lot of spare time every day because
he doesn’t work.
2.
_____ you _____ a minute? I’d like to talk to you.
3.
I wonder where is Peter? He ________some work to do.
4.
Tomorrow morning I’ ll _____ an appointment with my future
boss.
5.
What about going to the cinema? - I ______ enough money.
6.
Call the police or we’ll ________ problems!
7.
I decided to _______ a pet in my house because I’m very fond
of them.
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8.
Tomorrow we’ ll _____ a party. Will you join us?
9.
I_______ some urgent business yesterday.
10.
She _________ a large flat in the center of the city.
11.
I am really very tired after this working week. I need
to_______ a rest.
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ТЕМА № 2. Legal Professions
Lawyer
A lawyer is a person trained and licensed to prepare, manage, and
either prosecute or defend a court action as an agent for another. A lawyer also
gives advice on legal matters that may or may not require court action. Legal
practice varies from country to country. In Britain, for example, lawyers are
divided into barristers and solicitors.
Barristers engage in advocacy (trial work), and only they may argue
cases before a high court. A barrister must be a member of one of the four Inns
of Court. “Inns of Court” is a collective name of the four legal societies in
London that have the exclusive right of admission to the bar. These societies Lincoln's Inn, Gray's Inn, the Inner Temple, and the Middle Temple - date from
the 14the century. They take their name from the buildings where originally
schools of law were held. Today the societies are more like clubs, although they
still control admission to the bar.
Solicitors are admitted to practice before the supreme court of
judicature. He is the agent of the person whose suit he handles, and is
distinguished from a barrister, who argues cases before the judge. The solicitor
serves as an intermediary agent between the barrister and his client, negotiating
fees and preparing the case for trial. Solicitors may take the place of barristers
in the lower courts, and in the 1990s gained new rights of audience in higher
courts. They are officers of the court. They have a monopoly of certain legal
business and are subject to court regulation. The training required of a solicitor
includes several years of clerkship under a practicing solicitor and attenda nce at
a law school.
In Scotland trial lawyers are called advocates
In Canada, all lawyers are both barristers and solicitors, though
individual lawyers may describe themselves as one or the other.
In the U.S. attorneys often specialize in limited areas of the law. U.S.
attorneys represent the United States federal government in United States
district court and United States court of appeals . There are 93 U.S. Attorneys
stationed throughout the United States. One U.S. Attorney is assigned to each of
the judicial districts. Each U.S. Attorney is the chief federal law enforcement
officer within his or her particular jurisdiction.
1. Прочитайте текст и выполните письменно следующее
задание.
1. Write
2. Write
3. Write
4. Write
out and translate the definition of the word “lawyer”.
out and translate the definition of the word “barrister”.
out and translate the definition of the word “solicito r”.
out and translate the definition of “Inns of Court”.
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2. Ответьте на вопросы по содержанию текста.
1) What are the main functions of a lawyer?
2) What types of lawyers are there in Britain?
3) Why are the four legal societies in London called Inns of Court?
4) What kind of training is required for a solicitor?
5) Who prepares the case for trial in Britain?
6) What is the main function of a U.S. Attorney?
3. Переведите письменно последний абзац текста «Lawyer».
Грамматические упражнения.
1. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present, Past или
Future Simple.
1. I (to go) to bed at ten o'clock every day.
2. I (to go) to bed at ten o'clock yesterday.
3. I (to go) to bed at ten o'clock tomorrow.
4. I (not to go) to the cinema every day.
5. I (not to go) to the cinema yesterday.
6. I (not to go) to the cinema tomorrow.
7. You (to watch) TV every day?
8. You (to watch) TV yesterday?
9. You (to watch) TV tomorrow?
10. When you (to leave) home for school every day?
2. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Simple или
Present Continuous.
1. What you (to do) here? - I (to wait) for a friend.
2. He (to speak) English? - Yes, he (to speak) English quite fluently.
3. Don't enter into the classroom! The students (to write) a test there.
4.
She
(to
write)
letters
to
her
mother
every
week.
5. Listen! The telephone (to ring).
6. The man who (to smoke) a cigarette is our English teacher.
7.
Let's
go
for
a
walk,
it
not
(to
rain).
8. You (to hear) anything? - I (to listen) hard, but I not (to hear) anything.
9.
My
husband
(to
smoke)
a
great
deal.
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3. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Past Simple или
Past Continuous.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
When
When
When
When
When
When
When
While
I (to work) in the garden, my little sister (to sleep).
Nick (to return) home, his brother (to play) with his toys.
mother (to ring up) home, I (to do) my homework.
father (to repair) the car, Pete (to watch) the process.
mother (to come) home, the children (to play) on the carpet.
I (to get) up, my mother and father (to drink) tea.
I (to open) the door, the cat (to sit) on the table.
I (to wash) the floor, I (to find) my gold earring.
4. Вставьте some, any или по.
1. There are ... pictures in the book.
2. Are there ... new students in your group?
3. There are ... old houses in our street.
4. Are there ... English textbooks on the desks? Yes, there are ... .
5. Are there ... maps on the walls? No, there aren't ... .
6. Are there ... pens on the desk? Yes, there are....
8. Are there ... sweets in your bag? Yes, there are ... .
9. Have you got ... English books at home? Yes, I have ... .
10. There are ... beautiful pictures in the magazine. Look at them.
ДЛЯ ЗАМЕТОК
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ТЕМА № 3. State Power System
ТЕКСТ 1.
The American State Power System
The United States is a constitutional republic. The nation operates as a
presidential system also known as a congressional system. The federal
government’s power is divided between three branches – the legislative, the
executive and the judicial.
The legislative branch – the Congress – is made up of elected
representatives from each of the 50 states. It is the only branch of U.S.
government that can make federal laws, levy federal taxes, declare war, and put
foreign treaties into effect. Members of the House of Representatives are
elected to two-year terms. Each member represents a district in his or her home
state. In all, there are 435 representatives in the House. Senators are elected to
six-year terms. Each state has two senators, regardless of population. There are
100 senators. To become a law, a bill must pass both the House and the Senate.
After the bill is introduced in either body, it is studied by one or more
committees, amended, voted out of committee, and discussed in the chamber of
the House or Senate. If passed by one body, it goes to the other for
consideration. Once both bodies have passed the same version of a bill, it goes
to the president for approval.
The chief executive of the United States is the president, who together
with the vice president is elected to a four-year term. As a result of a
constitutional amendment that went into effect in 1951, a president may be
elected to only two terms. Other than succeeding a president who dies or is
disabled, the vice president's only official duty is presiding over the Senate. The
vice president may vote in the Senate only to break a tie. The president's powers
are formidable but not unlimited. As the chief formulator of national policy, the
president proposes legislation to Congress. The president may veto any bill
passed by Congress. The president is commander-in-chief of the armed forces.
Within the executive branch, the president has broad powers to issue regulations
and directives carrying out the work of the federal government's depa rtments
and agencies.
The judicial branch is headed by the U.S. Supreme Court, which is the
only court specifically created by the Constitution. In addition, Congress has
established 13 federal courts of appeals and, below them, about 95 federal
district courts. The Supreme Court meets in Washington, D.C., and the other
federal courts are located in cities throughout the United States. The Supreme
Court consists of a chief justice and eight associate justices. With minor
exceptions, cases come to the Supreme Court on appeal from lower federal or
state courts.
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1. Ответьте на вопросы по содержанию текста.
1. How many states are there in the USA?
2. Does this country have a constitution?
3. Who is the official head of this country?
4. Is the USA a democratic state? Prove it.
5. What are the main branches of power in America?
2. Сопоставьте английские слова и словосочетания с их
русскими эквивалентами.
1. local authorities
a) отдельный штат
2. to carry out the work
b) управлять делами
3. federal system of government c) апелляционные суды
4. to collect taxes
d) поправка
5. to make laws
e) проводить работу
6. to run affairs
f) главнокомандующий
7. to_go_into_effect___________g)_федеральная_система
___________________________________правления
8. associate justices
h) вступить в действие
9. commander-in-chief
i) местные власти
10. individual state
j) собирать налоги
11. courts of appeals
k) члены Верховного суда
12. amendment
l) создавать законы
3. Переведите письменно 1 и 2 абзацы.
ТЕКСТ 2.
The State System of Britain
Britain is a parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch –
Queen Elisabeth II as a head of state. The British Constitution is not set out in a
single document. Instead it is made up of a combination of laws and
conventions.
The Bill of Rights was the first legal step towards constitutional
monarchy. This Bill prevented the monarch from making laws or having an
army without Parliament’s approval. Since 1689 the power of parliament has
grown, while the power of the monarch has become weaker. The UK is a
constitutional monarchy; the head of the state is a king or a queen. In practice,
the sovereign reigns, but doesn’t rule. The present sovereign is Queen Elisabeth
II. Today the Queen isn’t only head of state, but also an important symbol of
national unity. In law the Queen is head of the executive, head of the judiciary,
the commander-in-chief of all the armed forces of the Crown and the
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established Church of England. In fact the Queen is impartial and acts on the
advice of her ministers.
The Government is formed by the party with majority support in the
Commons. The party in power determines the home and foreign policy of the
country. The Queen appoints its leader as Prime Minister. As head of the
Government the Prime Minister appoints about 100 ministers, of whom about
20 are in the Cabinet – the serious group which takes major policy decisions.
Ministers are collectively responsible for their own departments. The second
largest – party forms the official opposition with its own leader and “shadow
cabinet”. The opposition has a duty to challenge government policies and
present an alternative program.
1. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов
и словосочетаний:
1) глава государства;
2) править;
3) национальное единство;
4) беспристрастный;
5) законы и соглашения;
6) одобрение парламента;
7) оспаривать политику правительства;
8) сокращать;
9) бесчисленный.
2.
Составьте вопросы к предложениям.
Model: The British Constitution is made up of a combination of laws
and conventions. (What)
What is the British Constitution made up of?
1. Between 1066 and 1215 the king ruled alone. (When)
2. In 1264 the first parliament of nobles met together. (When)
3. Parliament invited William and Mary to become Britain’s first
constitutional monarchs. (Who)
4. The Queen acts on the advice of her ministers. (How)
5. Today every man and woman aged 18 has the right to vote. (Who)
3. Переведите письменно абзац 3.
Грамматические упражнения.
1. Раскройте скобки, употребляя требующуюся
прилагательного.
1. Which is (large): the United States or Canada?
2. What is the name of the (big) port in the United States?
3. Moscow is the (large) city in Russia.
форму
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4. The London underground is the (old) in the world.
5. There is a (great) number of cars in Moscow than in any other
Russian city.
6. St. Petersburg is one of the (beautiful) cities in the world.
7. The rivers in America are much (big) than those in England.
8. The island of Great Britain is (small) than Greenland.
9. What is the name of the (high) mountain in Asia? 1
10. The English Channel is (wide) than the straits of Gibraltar.
2. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Perfect или
Past Simple.
1. At last I (to do) all my homework: now I shall go out.
2. If everybody (to read) this new novel, let's discuss it
3. He (to be) ill last week, but now he (to recover).
4. We already (to solve) the problem.
5. He (to come) a moment ago.
6. I never (to speak) to him.
7. He just (to finish) his work.
8. You (to make) any spelling mistakes in your dictation?
9. It (to be) very cold yesterday.
10. The new court (to begin) working last year.
3. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Perfect или
Present Perfect Continuous.
1.
I … (lost) my key. Can you help me look for it?
2. Look! Somebody …(break) that window.
3. I … (read) the book you gave me but I … (not/finished) it yet.
4. 'Sorry I'm late.' 'That's all right. I …(not/wait) long.
5. Hello! I … (clean) the windows. So far I … (clean) five of them
and there are two more to do.
6. There is a strange smell here … (you/cook) something?
7. My brother is an actor. He … (appear) in several films.
2. Выберите правильную форму глагола.
1. I … (take) a shower when you called.
a) was taking
b) took
c) was taken
2. My brother … (have) never been to Europe until he went there last
year.
a) has
b) had
c) hadn't
3. Diane … (feel) very sick but she decided to go out anyway.
a) was feeling
b) has been feeling c) has felt
4. He … (call) her all night.
a) has called
b) call
c) was calling
5. I … (want) to go swimming but the water was too cold.
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a) have wanted
b) wanted
c) am want
6. I … (be) able to sleep well for a week now.
a) didn't was
b) was not
c) haven't been
7. When I first saw her, she … (stand) on the balcony.
a) was standing
b) has stood
c) has been standing
8. Really? You moved to a new apartment? How long … (live) there?
a) have you been living b) did you live
c) did you living
9. Every time I see that movie, it … (make) me cry.
a) has made
b) made
c) makes
10. I … (stop) smoking three years ago.
a) have stopped
b) have been stopping c) stopped
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ТЕМА № 4. Law Worldwide
The legal systems of the world
The legal systems of the world today are generally based on one of
three basic systems: civil law, common law, and religious law – or
combinations of these. However, the legal system of each country is shaped by
its unique history and so incorporates individual variations.
Civil law is the most widespread system of law around the world. It is
also sometimes known as Continental European law. The central source of law
is codification in a constitution or statute passed by legislature. While the
concept of codification dates back to the Code of Hammurabi in Babylon 1790
BC, civil law systems mainly derive from the Roman Empire (the Corpus Juris
Civilis issued by the Emperor Justinian AD 529). Civil law was also partly
influenced by religious laws such as Canon law and Islamic law. Civil law
today, in theory, is interpreted rather than developed or made by judges. Only
legislative enactments are considered legally binding.
Common law and equity are systems of law whose sources are the
decisions in cases by judges. Alongside, every system will have a legislature
that passes new laws and statutes. The relationships between statutes and
judicial decisions can be complex. In some jurisdictions such statutes may
overrule judicial decisions. Common law developed in England, influenced by
Anglo-Saxon law. Common law was later inherited by the Commonwealth of
Nations, and almost every former colony of the British Empire has adopted it
(Malta being an exception). The doctrine of precedent by courts is the major
difference to codified civil law systems. Common law is currently in practice in
Ireland, most of the United Kingdom (England and Wales and Northern
Ireland), Australia, New Zealand, India (excluding Goa), Pakistan, South
Africa, Canada (excluding Quebec), Hong Kong, the United States (excluding
Louisiana) and many other places. In addition to these countries, several others
have adapted the common law system into a mixed system. For example,
Nigeria operates largely on a common law system, but incorporates religious
law.
Religious law refers to the notion of a religious system or document
used as a legal source. The main kinds of religious law are Sharia in Islam,
Halakha in Judaism, and canon law in some Christian groups. In some cases
these are intended purely as individual moral guidance, whereas in other cases
they are intended and may be used as the basis for a country's legal system.
There are also hybrid legal sys tems. The most prominent example of a
hybrid legal system is the Indian legal system. India follows a mixture of civil,
common law and customary or religious law. Separate personal law codes apply
to Muslims, Christians, and Hindus.
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1.
Ответьте на вопросы по содержанию текста.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
What are the three basic systems of law?
What is the main source of civil law?
How can you define common law?
Where did common law develop?
What is the main difference between civil law and common
6.
7.
What are the main kinds of religious law?
What countries are the three legal systems in practice?
2.
Заполните пропуски подходящим по смыслу словом из
law?
списка:
dates back, is shaped, ollows, derive from, are based, adopted, is used.
1.
Civil law systems mainly … the Roman Empire.
2.
The former colonies of the British Empire … common law.
3.
The legal systems of the world today … on one of three basic
systems.
4.
In religious law the notion of a religious system … as a legal
source.
5.
India … a mixture of civil, common and religious law.
6.
The legal system of each country … by its unique history.
7.
The concept of codification … to the Code of Hammurabi in
Babylon.
3. Переведите письменно абзацы 4 и 5.
4. Изучите следующие определения понятия «право» и на их
основе сформулируйте свое определение.
Rule made by authority for the proper regulation of a community or society
or for correct conduct in life; the whole body of laws considered collectively. (Oxford
Student's Dictionary of Current English)
A rule that is supported by the power of government and that controls the
behavior of members of a society; the whole set of such rules. (Longman Dictionary of
Contemporary English)
Rule of conduct or action, recognized by custom or decreed by formal enactment,
considered binding on the members of a nation, community, or group; a system or body of
such rules. (Webster’s Dictionary)
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Грамматические упражнения.
1. Употребите подчеркнутые глаголы в соответствующей
форме Simple Passive:
1.
We clean the rooms on Saturdays. – As for our family, the
rooms … on Fridays.
2.
I finished the report yesterday. - And my report … next week.
3.
The police arrested one of the criminals 2 days ago - We hope
all the members of the gang … soon.
4.
The teacher tested the students of our group last month. –
Really? The students of our group … every week.
5.
The history conference is being hold now. – I know, that the
language conference … in 3 days.
6.
We are translating a text about types of crimes now. – I am
sure, this text … by our group at the previous lesson.
2.
Ответьте
на
вопросы,
используя
Present
Perfect
Passive:
Model: Are you still translating the article?
No, the article has already been translated.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Are you still learning the traffic rules?
Are you still studying Theory of State and Law?
Is he still typing the letter?
Is she still preparing for the seminar?
Are they still painting the house?
Are they still planting the flowers?
Are they still investigating that case?
Is he still collecting evidence?
3. Определите в каком из времен страдательного залога
употреблены глаголы и переведите предложения на русский язык:
Model: Her new book will be translated into some foreign languages.
(Future Simple Passive) – Ее новая книга будет переведена на несколько
иностранных языков.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
My bicycle was stolen in the street yesterday.
The machine has been repaired already.
The report will have been finished by 4 p.m.
New rules are being explained by the teacher now.
Several special subjects will be studied next year.
How much are you paid?
This man is suspected of committing a bank robbery.
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8.
This crime has been solved very quickly.
9.
The criminal is being identified at the moment.
10.
The suspect was being interviewed by the investigator, when
the expert arrived.
11.
People’s rights are often violated.
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ТЕМА № 5. Law Branches
Different Branches of Law
If you are a student of law, you must be well aware of the different
branches of law. Each of these branches deals with a different aspect of law,
and has its own set of specialists and advisors. There are more than 20 of them.
The two main branches of law are civil law and criminal law.
Civil law is the law relating to the adjustment of legal disputes between
individuals. Criminal law concerns a crime committed against public authority
or other citizens. There are some distinctions between civil and criminal laws. A
civil action is brought by a private, injured party to seek compensation for a
harm unlawfully caused by another party, whereas a criminal action is brought
by the state to punish a defendant for a deliberate offense against the
community. Civil actions are pursued in civil courts and are governed by rules
of civil procedure, whereas criminal actions are pursued in criminal courts and
are governed by rules of criminal procedure. Civil actions give rise to civil
remedies like money damages or injunctions, whereas criminal actions give rise
to criminal punishments like imprisonment or the death penalty.
Along with these two main branches that are some more different
branches
of
law.
Property law deals with ownership and disputes regarding property ownership.
It is important to understand the difference between movable and immovable
property here. Movable property is one's personal possessions, while
immovable law refers to real estate and land. Property laws deal with the issues
regarding
immovable
property.
Labor law deals with the terms and conditions and disputes regarding
employment of labor. This is a set of rulings and regulations that govern the
relationship and terms between an employer and employee. Though this falls
under civil law, it is highly vast and extensive in nature.
Environment law is a set of treaties, agreements, rules and statutes that aim to
protect the environment. Due to its general nature, environment law does not
fall under the criminal law category. This is one of the types of law that are
more generic in nature, and require highly specialized lawyers.
Administrative law is a body of laws that deals with the activities and governing
capacities
of
the
administrative
bodies
of
the
Government.
Constitutional law is one of the different branches of law that deals with the
study and the practice of the principles set forth b y the Constitution. Any
violation that disregards Constitutional policies is scrutinized by specialists in
this branch of law and governance.
International law is the set of rules binding in relations between states
and nations. It differs from national legal systems in that it only concerns
nations rather than private citizens.
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1.
задание.
Прочитайте
текст и выполните
письменно следующее
1. Write out and translate the definition of Criminal law.
2. Write out and translate the definition of Civil law.
3. Enumerate the differences between Criminal law and Civil law.
2. Сопоставьте отрасли права и их определения.
International
1. law
a) is a branch of law that deals with оwnership.
2. Labor law
b) is a set of treaties that aim to protect the environment.
3. Property law
c) is set of rulings regarding employment of labor.
4. Constitutional law
d) is a body of laws that deals with the activities of the
------------------------------ad ministrative bodies of the Government.
5. Administrative law e) is the set of rules binding in relations between states.
6. Environment law f) is a branch of law that deals with the principles set forth
---------------------------by the Constitution.
3. Переведите письменно абзац 3.
Грамматические упражнения.
1. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на причастие I
и II.
1.
We see a growing interest to the economic situation of the
2.
Having discussed all the problems the students closed the
USA.
meeting.
3.
Having been translated by the students before the texts did not
seem difficult.
4.
The bill signed by the President becomes a law.
5.
The problem being discussed at the conference mus t be
solved.
2. Сгруппируйте предложения с причастными оборотами
согласно таблице и переведите их.
The
Absolute
Participle
Construction
1.
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Accusative with
the Participle I
Accusative with
the Participle II
Nominative
with
the
Participle
The police felt him knowing something about the crime.
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2.
The article about the functions of the police being interesting,
I used it in my report.
3.
The witness saw the criminal trying to steal a bag from the
car.
4.
He has the article about the American police translated.
5.
The investigator is seen interrogating an offender.
6.
The police having many functions, their work is very difficult.
7.
They had a new rule explained.
8.
The criminal having been caught at the crime scene, the
investigation didn’t last long.
9.
The crime was thought investigated.
10.
People want the public order being always maintained.
11.
They had the pictures of the American police at work shown.
12.
The suspect is considered being guilty of a murder.
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ТЕМА № 6. Law Enforcement
The British Police
The British police officer, sometimes called the “bobby” after Sir
Robert Peel, the founder of the police force – is a well-known figure to anyone
who has visited Britain or who has seen British films. Policemen and
policewomen are to be seen in towns and cities keeping law and order, either
walking in the streets (“pounding the beat”) or driving in cars (known as “panda
cars” because of their distinctive markings). The police have regular meetings
with social workers, community readers and health officers. They visit schools
and talk to children. In some districts primary schools have “adopted” police
officers who take on a school as their special responsibility. They play with the
children and talk to them and try to show them that the police are their friends
to whom they can go if they are in trouble.
Few people realize that the police in Britain are organized very
differently from many other countries. Most countries, for example, have a
national police force which is controlled by the central government. Britain has
no national police force, although police policy is governed by th e central
government’s Home Office. Instead, there is a separate police force for each of
the 52 areas into which the country is divided. Each has a police authority – a
committee of local county counselors and magistrates.
The forces cooperate with each other, but it is unusual for members of
one force to operate in another area unless they are asked to give assistance.
This sometimes happens when there has been a very serious crime. A Chief
Constable, who is the most senior police officer of a force, may sometimes ask
for the assistance of London’s police force, based at New Scotland Yard known
simply as “the Yard”.
In most countries, the police carry guns. The British police generally
do not carry firearms, except in Northern Ireland. They are not armed t o avoid
street gunfights in which innocent people might get killed. A few policemen are
regularly armed, for instance, those who guard politicians and diplomats or who
patrol airports.
Like in the army, there are a number of ranks: after the Chief
Constable comes the Assistant Chief Constable, Chief Superintendent, Chief
Inspector, Inspector, Sergeant and Constable. Women make up about 10 per
cent of the police force. The police are helped by a number of Special
Constables – members of the public who work for the police voluntarily for a
few hours a week.
Each police force has its own Criminal Investigation Department
(CID). Members of CID are detectives, and they do not wear uniforms.
The job of the traffic wardens is to make sure that drivers obey the
parking regulations. They have no other powers – it is the police who are
responsible for controlling offences like speeding, careless driving and drunken
driving.
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1. Определите, соответствуют ли данные предложения
содержанию текста.
1. “Panda cars” is another name for police cars.
2. The Police in Britain do not communicate with the public.
3. The organization of the British police does not differ from any
other country.
4. The forces cooperate with each other, especially when serious
crimes happen.
5. The British police officers are generally not armed.
6. Chief Superintendent is the highest police rank.
7. Special Constables are not policemen.
8. Traffic wardens have the power to control traffic crimes.
2. Соотнесите звания офицеров полиции Британии с их
русскими эквивалентами.
1. Inspector
a) главный инспектор
2. Constable
b) главный констебль
3. Sergeant
c) заместитель главного констебля
4. Chief Inspector
d) главный суперинтендент
5. Chief Constable
e) сержант
6. Chief Superintendent
f) констебль
7. Assistant Chief Constable
g) инспектор
3. Расположите звания офицеров полиции Британии в
порядке убывания.
1. Chief Constable.
2. …
3. …
4. …
5. …
6. …
7. …
4. Переведите письменно абзац 2.
Грамматические упражнения.
1. Соотнесите
эквивалентами.
28
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предложения
с
их
русскими
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1. I’m always happy to listen to
music.
2. I’m happy to be listening to such
music.
3. I’m happy to have listened to that
music.
4. I’m happy to have been listening to
this music for a long time.
5. I’m happy to be listened to.
6. I’m happy to have been listened to.
a) Я рад, когда меня слушают.
b) Я рад слушать эту музыку так
долго.
c) Я рад слушать такую музыку.
d) Я всегда рад слушать музыку.
e) Я рад, что меня выслушали.
f) Я рад, что послушал эту музыку.
2. Переведите предложения
внимание на формы инфинитива.
на
русский
язык,
обращая
1. I’m sorry to have taken so much of your time.
2. He expected to be helped by his friends.
3. It seems to have been raining since we came here.
4. He reported to have finished the interrogation.
5. I’m glad to have been introduced to this famous detective.
6. I didn’t expect to be asked such a question.
7. They are supposed to have been experimenting in this field for about
a year.
8. She is happy to have achieved good results in English.
9. The boy pretended to be sleeping.
10. He will be pleased to get information on that case.
11. We are afraid not to be told the truth.
3. Переведите предложения с инфинитивами на английский
язык.
1. Я рад дать вам эту книгу.
2. Я рад, когда мне дают книги.
3. Я рад, что дал вам книгу.
4. Я рад, что мне дали книгу.
5. Они очень довольны, что наконец-то обезвредили
преступников.
6. Нам повезло, что нам предоставили эту секретную
информацию.
7. Он терпеть не может, когда ему лгут.
8. Ему удалось снять отпечатки пальцев на месте преступления.
9. Мы надеемся, что нам помогут в расследовании этого
происшествия.
10. Он не ожидал, что его задержат так быстро.
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ТЕМА № 7. Court Trial
U.S. Federal Court System
The federal courts are often called the "guardians of the Constitution".
They exist to fairly and impartially interpret and apply the law, resolve disputes
and, perhaps most importantly, to protect the rights and liberties guaranteed by
the Constitution. The courts do not "make" the laws. The Constitution delegates
making, amending and repealing federal laws to the U.S. Congress.
Composition
of
the
Federal
Judiciary
The very first bill considered by the U.S. Senate divided the country into 12
judicial districts or "circuits." The court system is further divided into 94
eastern, central and southern "districts" geographically across the country.
Within each district, one court of appeals, regional district courts and
bankruptcy courts are established.
The Supreme Court is the highest judicial body of the country. It
consists of the Chief Justice and eight associate justices. The Supreme Court
hears and decides cases involving important questions about the interpretation
and fair application of the Constitution and federal law. Cases typically come to
the Supreme Court as appeals to decisions of lower federal and state courts.
Each of the 12 regional circuits has one U.S. court of Appeals that
hears appeals to decisions of the district courts located within its circuit and
appeals to decisions of federal regulatory agencies. The Court of Appeals for
the Federal Circuit has nationwide jurisdiction and hears specialized cases like
patent and international trade cases.
The 94 district courts, located within the 12 regional circuits, hear
practically all cases involving federal civil and criminal laws. Decisions of the
district courts are typically appealed to the district's court of appeals.
There are two special courts that have nationwide jurisdiction over
special types of cases:
U.S. Court of International Trade hears cases involving U.S. trade with
foreign countries and customs issues.
U.S. Court of Federal Claims considers claims for monetary damages
made against the U.S. government, federal contract disputes and disputed
"takings" or claiming of land by the federal government Federal Judges
Under the Constitution, judges of all federal courts are appointed for life by
the president of the United States, with the approval of the Senate. Federal
judges can be removed from office only through impeachment and conviction
by Congress. The Constitution also provides that the pay of federal judges
"shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office."
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1.
1.
Constitution"?
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
2.
Ответьте на вопросы по содержанию текста.
Why are the federal courts often called the "guardians of the
What is the highest judicial body of the country?
How many justices are there in the Supreme Court?
What is the main function of the Supreme Court?
What is the jurisdiction of courts of Appeals?
What kind of cases do district courts hear?
Who appoints the federal judges?
Соотнесите типы судов США и их основные функции.
1. U.S. Court of Federal Claims
a) hears cases of trade with
foreign countries.
2. The Supreme Court
b) hears all civil and criminal
cases.
3. U.S. Court of International Trade c) is the highest judicial body.
4. U.S. court of Appeals
d) hears appeals to cases of the
district courts.
5. U.S. district court
e) hears claims for monetary
damages against
the U.S. government.
3. Переведите письменно последний абзац текста.
Грамматические упражнения.
1. Переведите на русский язык, обращая
герундий.
1. I avoided speaking to them about that matter.
2. She burst out crying.
3. They burst out laughing.
4. She denied having been at home that evening.
5. He enjoyed talking of the pleasures of travelling.
6. Excuse my leaving you at such a moment.
7. Please forgive my interfering.
8. He gave up smoking a few years ago.
9. They went on talking.
10. He keeps insisting on my going to the south.
11. Oh please do stop laughing at him.
12. Do you mind my asking you a difficult question?
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2. Переведите на русский язык сложные предложения.
1. Where there is a will, there is a way.
2. Take care lest you should fall.
3. When the rain stopped we set out for the next town where we had
planned to stay the night.
4. The men managed to survive even though they were three days
without water.
5. We will have plenty to eat, provided that no uninvited guests turn
up.
6. He works hard that he may become rich.
7. Though he was strong he could not fight against three people at
once.
8. His mother said that he had gone to the market to make some
purchases.
9. If the dog was mine, I would have taken it to a veterinary doctor.
10. The man who did most to convince the world that slavery was
unethical was Wilberforce.
11. The people we met were very nice.
12. I didn’t believe the story she told me.
ДЛЯ ЗАМЕТОК
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
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