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396.Методические указания по работе с книгой У.С

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Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации
Омский государственный университет им. Ф.М. Достоевского
М 54
Рекомендованы к изданию редакционно-издательским советом ОмГУ
Рецензент Н.Ю. Цыганкова
М 54
Методические указания по работе с книгой У.С. Моэма
«Луна и грош»: для студентов языковых специальностей,
изучающих английский язык / Сост. Д.Ю. Малетина. – Омск:
Изд-во ОмГУ, 2004. – 40 c.
Методические указания предназначены для работы по аспекту
«Домашнее чтение» и содержат тексты, посвященные биографии,
творчеству, эстетическим взглядам У.С. Моэма, систему упражнений тренировочного и творческого характера, направленных на
усвоение лексико-грамматического материала, проверку понимания и обобщения прочитанного, а также элементов аналитического чтения.
Цель заданий – закрепить навыки чтения и перевода художественного произведения, активизировать умения и навыки устной
В приложении приведен лингвострановедческий материал,
способствующий более полному пониманию книги, и критическая статья.
Для студентов факультета иностранных языков и отделения
регионоведения исторического факультета, изучающих английский язык.
© Омский госуниверситет, 2004
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Read W.S. Maugham’s biography and say what occupations and facts of his life, in your opinion, were of benefit to him as a writer.
(born Jan. 25, 1874, Paris, Fr. - died
Dec. 16, 1965, Nice)
William Somerset Maugham is
an English novelist, playwright, and
short-story writer whose work is characterised by a clear unadorned style,
cosmopolitan settings, and a shrewd
understanding of human nature.
When Maugham was born – in the British Embassy in Paris in
1874 – he was destined to become a lawyer. His father and grandfather
had been prominent attorneys, and his oldest brother went on to become
England's Lord Chancellor. However, Maugham had a severe stammer,
which left him afraid to speak; so there were no plans for him to follow
the family tradition. Furthermore, he was orphaned by the age of 10 and
was sent to England to be raised by an uncle, a clergyman. These
circumstances led the young Maugham to be shy and withdrawn;
consequently he became an observer rather than an active participant,
but he was able to turn this to his advantage as a writer. After a year at
Heidelberg, he entered St. Thomas' medical school, London, and
qualified as a doctor in 1897. He drew upon his experiences as an obstetrician in his first novel, Liza of Lambeth (1897), and its success, though
small, encouraged him to abandon medicine.
He travelled in Spain and Italy and in 1908 achieved a theatrical
triumph – four plays running in London at once – that brought him financial security. During World War I he worked as a secret agent. In
1917 Maugham took the first of many long trips to the Pacific Islands
and the Far East, which resulted in some of his finest writing. The first
of these stories was The Moon and Sixpence (1919), a novel based on
the life of Gauguin. He wrote highly readable travel books – On a Chinese Screen (1923) and The Gentleman in the Parlour (1930) – and
several collections of short stories. The Trembling of a Leaf (1923) contained his most recognized story, "Rain," and The Casuarina Tree
Sometimes Maugham's stories were thinly disguised episodes involving his host or others he had met on his travels – circumstances that
occasionally resulted in threats and lawsuits. The Painted Veil (1925)
was revised at least twice to eliminate references to people still living in
Hong Kong, and the various issues of this book remain of great interest
to Maugham collectors.
In 1927, Maugham left England amid scandal and moved to
France, where he spent the rest of his life. He enjoyed a royal lifestyle
at the Villa Mauresque, and an invitation by Maugham to spend a few
weeks there was highly prized by the literary and social elite. In spite of
his relocation, he continued his disciplined habit of writing several
hours every morning and his love of travel.
His reputation as a novelist rests primarily on four books: Of
Human Bondage (1915), a semi-autobiographical account of a young
medical student's painful progress toward maturity; The Moon and Sixpence (1919), an account of an unconventional artist, suggested by the
life of Paul Gauguin; Cakes and Ale (1930), the story of a famous novelist, which is thought to contain caricatures of Thomas Hardy and
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Hugh Walpole; and The Razor's Edge (1944), the story of a young
American war veteran's quest for a satisfying way of life. Maugham's
plays, mainly Edwardian social comedies, soon became dated, but his
short stories have increased in popularity. Many portray the conflict of
Europeans in alien surroundings that provoke strong emotions, and
Maugham's skill in handling plot, in the manner of Guy de Maupassant,
is distinguished by economy and suspense. In The Summing Up (1938)
and A Writer's Notebook (1949) Maugham explains his philosophy of
life as a resigned atheism and a certain scepticism about the extent of
man's innate goodness and intelligence; it is this that gives his work its
astringent cynicism.
He died in 1965 at the age of 91. The Maugham persona of the
sophisticated world traveler and story teller, rather than the social
dramatist, is his legacy.
¾ unadorned – lacking embellishment or decoration: plain,
¾ obstetrician – a physician specializing in obstetrics, a branch
of medical science that deals with birth;
¾ disguised – furnished with a false appearance or an assumed
¾ lawsuit – a case before a court;
¾ maturity – the quality or state of being mature; especially:
full development;
¾ unconventional – being out of the ordinary;
¾ astringent – rigidly severe, austere, pungent, caustic;
¾ sophisticated – having a refined knowledge of the ways of
the world cultivated especially through wide experience.
Now study some of Maugham’s quotations. What deductions about his world outlook can you draw? Do they
correspond to the portrait below?
µ "I've always been interested in
people, but I've never liked them."
µ "It was such a lovely day I
thought it was a pity to get up"
µ "At a dinner party one should
eat wisely but not too well, and talk well but
not too wisely."
µ "When you choose friends, don't
be short-changed by choosing personality
over character."
µ "It is salutary to train oneself to be no more affected by
censure than by praise."
µ "Money is like sixth sense without which you cannot make a
complete use of the other five."
µ "People ask you for criticism, but they only want praise."
µ "You can do anything in this world if you're prepared to
take the consequences."
µ "Dying is a very dull, dreary affair. And my advice to you is
to have nothing whatever to do with it."
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ASSIGNMENT 1: chapters I–V, pp. 4–22
4. Find in the text passages where Maugham speaks
1. Find in the text English equivalents of the following
words and phrases. Reproduce the situations.
быть предметом насмешек (4);
нелепейшее заблуждение (5);
шокировать почтенное семейство (7);
оправдывать, обелять кого-то (9);
перипетии войны (10);
глупый как баран (12);
скрывать замешательство (14);
быть всецело поглощенным собственными делами (16);
тяга к «светским львам» (17);
подстраивать свое поведение под кого-л.(19);
разумный совет (20);
до смерти наскучить (22)
2. Give the synonyms to the following words and expressions:
9 authentic
9 insignificant
9 extravagant
9 notoriety
9 hazardous
9 bashful
9 malicious.
Make up the longest possible sentence using these words.
3. Translate the passage into Russian:
¾ art and artists;
¾ the behaviour of young generation;
¾ the receptions in the houses of the literary;
¾ the gift of sympathy.
Comment upon them.
5. Find sentences and paragraphs with a touch of
humour, irony, sarcasm; and comment upon them.
ASSIGNMENT 2: chapters VI–X, pp. 22–41
1. Find in the text English equivalents of the following
words and phrases. Reproduce the situations.
невзрачная внешность (24);
принять приглашение с готовностью (25);
продолжать здоровые традиции своей расы и сословия (26);
высокомерие ранней юности (29);
чрезвычайно неловко (30);
соблюдать светские условности (31);
навязчивый женский недостаток (32);
супружество (34);
увлечься, позволить вскружить себе голову (37);
судорожно сжимать и разжимать руки (39);
забыть о прошлом (40);
женщина широких взглядов (40).
pp. 17–18 "My engagements were few"……. "…seemed simple
and unaffected."
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2. Give the synonyms to the following words and expressions:
5. Give character sketches of:
а) Mrs Amy Strickland;
b) Mr Charles Strickland;
c) Colonel MacAndrew.
9 commonplace
9 average
9 thick-witted
9 agitated
9 indiscreet
9 draw in one's horns
9 not to have a bob
9 prosperous.
6. Find sentences and paragraphs with a touch of
irony, sarcasm; the examples of metaphors (pp. 26, 41) and
comment upon them.
ASSIGNMENT 3: chapters XI–XVI, pp. 42–68
Make up a short story using these words.
3. Translate into Russian:
pp. 24–25 "I had nothing to say and so sat silent"………. "…to
waste one's time over him."
pp. 40–41 "It was known where Strickland was staying…"
……….. " in her breast with misery."
4. Answer the following questions:
1. Find in the text English equivalents of the following
words and phrases. Reproduce the situations.
роскошное, великолепное место (43);
чувствовать себя в своей тарелке (45);
красноречивая фраза (47);
нелепое положение (47);
громогласно рассмеяться (50);
быть одержимым бесом (53);
оставаться безмятежным, хладнокровным (55);
совсем свихнулся (61);
каприз, прихоть (63);
говорить задыхаясь (64);
распространиться среди… (67) .
1) Why did Maugham think of the Stricklands' family life with a
touch of envy?
2) Why was Maugham slightly shocked when he came to know
that Strickland had run away from his family?
3) Do you think it natural that Mrs Strickland should be so particular about what people talked?
4) Do you believe that Mrs Strickland was sincere when she tried
to assure Maugham that she and Strickland got on very well and their
married life was perfectly happy?
5) Why was Mrs Strickland so determined never to divorce her
Furtive eyes (44); a hat much in need of brushing (45); abandoned luxury (45); a thronging vitality (46); to carry out one's embassy
(48); straightened / easy circumstances (50); necessary grounds (50); an
2. Read the following word combinations and suggest
the way of translating them into Russian:
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awful sell (52); an utter blackguard (53); stout refusal (54); pidgin
French (55); to break with irksome ties (57); not to care a row of pins
for (58); to make head or tail of (61) ; housewifely instincts (61); to
strike home (64); to be more of piece (65).
3. Translate into Russian:
pp. 42–43 "During the journey…" …….. "… goodness in the
p. 53 "There was real passion…" ……… "… I could not have
placed him."
p. 60 "When I reached London…" ……… "… dowdy and expensive."
4. Answer the following questions:
1) Why did Maugham feel that his position was complicated
when he spoke with Strickland in his shabby abode in Paris?
2) Why did Strickland feel no remorse towards his wife and
children? How does it characterize him?
3) Do you think Strickland really did not care what people
would think?
4) Did Strickland take any interest in women?
5) Why was the appeal to conscience ineffective to Strickland?
6) Did the MacAndrews' manner of speaking reflect their characters?
7) Why could Mrs Strickland have forgiven her husband if he
had fallen in love with somebody, but not if he had left her for the idea?
8) Was Amy Strickland a woman of character? Why was it so
important for her that people should think her husband had eloped with
a French dancer?
5. Find in the text words and phrases describing the
appearance and character of:
a) Mrs MacAndrew;
b) Charles Strickland in Paris.
6. Give a description of:
a) Strickland's shabby hotel;
b) the poorest parts of Paris (the avenue de Clichy).
ASSIGNMENT 4: chapters XVII–XXII, pp. 68–91
1. Find in the text English equivalents of the following
words and phrases. Reproduce the situations.
приобрести репутацию благодаря чему-л. (69);
шут, фигляр (70);
постоянно задевать чьи-то чувства (72);
точное понимание, оценка (72);
скрывать глубокое чувство (75);
почувствовать неловкость (77);
душевная мука (79);
чрезвычайная худоба (80);
способность к экспрессии (83);
полное безразличие к комфорту (83);
заработать кругленькую сумму (84);
вызывать восторг в душе (86);
2. Read the following word combinations and suggest
how they can be translated into Russian:
To grow stale (68); derisive laughter (70); a genuine enthusiasm
for the commonplace (70); the needy (71); a rare treat (72);
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gesticulating conversation (72); to bombard smb with questions (73);
vulgar beyond belief (76); obviously picturesque things (76); a sluggishness of habit (79); to seek for some gibe (81); to appeal to one's
sardonic temper (84); a man possessed (85); verbose frankness (89); Is
merit enough to bring success? (90).
3. Translate into Russian:
p. 70 "But I knew it was not…" …….. "… petty and vindictive."
pp. 71–72 "It was because I felt…" ……… "… of incomparable
p. 75 "She had quiet grey eyes…" ……… "… her manners were
4. Answer the following questions:
1) Did Mrs Strickland change much 5 years later? Why did she
try to prove her exclusiveness?
2) What was the tragedy of Dick Stroeve's life?
3) Why didn't Maugham know whether Blanche loved her
4) What kind of man was Dick Stroeve? What did he think of
5) What changes did Maugham notice in Strickland and what
did those changes suggest?
6) Why did Strickland paint with great difficulty? Was he really
indifferent to fame?
7) Was Strickland a clever man? Why was he so cruel to other
5. Dwell upon the characters of:
a) Mrs Strickland 5 years later;
b) Dirk Stroeve;
c) Strickland as a painter.
6. Comment upon the following passages:
a) Dirk Stroeve speaks about beauty (p. 79);
b) Strickland and Maugham speak about fame (p. 85)
c) The picture-dealer says how he recognizes the real merit of an
artist (p. 90)
7. Find sentences and paragraphs containing similes,
humour, irony, sarcasm and comment upon them.
ASSIGNMENT 5: chapters XXIII–XXVIII, pp. 91–116
1. Find in the text English equivalents of the following
words and phrases. Reproduce the situations.
быть равнодушным к уязвимым местам других людей (91);
бахвалиться, кичиться (92);
нежная привязанность (94);
приписывать кому-то собственные переживания (95);
простой, банальный план (97);
сильный жар (98);
быть сиделкой, ухаживать за больным (100);
осязаемое присутствие (104);
наблюдать по очереди (106);
убитый горем (108);
помешательство, безрассудство (111);
ревновать к кому-то (111);
умолять кого-то не делать что-л. (113);
страдать от лишений (115).
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2. Read the following word combinations and suggest
how they can be translated into Russian:
A comfortable eye (92); to run aimlessly hither and thither (94);
an exuberant soul (94); to frequent the same cafe (96); a voice cracking
with emotion (98); to be on the verge of tears (101); to pull oneself
together (102); smb's doggedness(104); a ragged red beard (106);
injurious calm (113); to abandon one's self-respect (115).
6. Retell the scene of Blanche's leaving her husband
from the part of:
9 Blanche
9 Strickland.
7. Find sentences and paragraphs containing metaphors, similes, irony, sarcasm and comment upon them.
3. Translate into Russian:
p. 95 "Shortly before Christmas…" …….. "… on which he was
pp. 103–104 "She was panting now…" ……… "… I'll do my
best for him."
4. Answer the following questions:
1) Was Maugham right thinking that the Stroeves' life was in its
own way an idyll?
2) Why was Stroeve so eager to take Strickland to his studio?
3) What made Blanch get amazingly agitated? Why did she
consent later?
4) Comment on the author's attitude towards Strickland after his
illness (p. 107).
5) Do you think Blanche was really in love with Strickland?
5. What new traits did you find in the characters of:
a) Blanche Stroeve;
b) Dirk Stroeve;
c) Strickland?
ASSIGNMENT 6: chapters XXIX–XXXV, pp. 116–137
1. Find in the text English equivalents of the following
words and phrases. Reproduce the situations.
малодушие (117);
недостойные подозрения (118);
предпочитать мучения ревности мукам разлуки (118);
беззащитный против страсти (120);
подстерегать кого-то (123);
хранить аромат счастливого прошлого (125);
проявлять такт (126);
дать подсказку (127);
бесплотный дух (128);
предвидеть ужасную катастрофу (129);
глубокое безразличие (130);
выйти из себя (132);
слышать как кто-то стонет (133);
бесцеремонные манеры (134);
быть полным сострадания (136).
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2. Read the following word combinations and suggest
6. Develop the following situations ( make up a dia-
how they can be translated into Russian:
To stomach smb's weakness (116); to sound casual (118);
physical appeal (120); fashioning fingers of the artist (121); a man
without any conception of gratitude (122); an insane irritation (124); to
inflict torture (124); tell-tale flash (127); a readiness for the hand-tomouth (128); woeful eyes (130); sun-baked streets (131); immediate
danger (134).
1) Blanche speaks to a friend about pros and cons of her family
life and explains why she felt she had to be with Strickland (pp. 120–
2) Two psychiatrists discuss the phenomenon of Dirk Stroeve's
behavior after his wife's leaving (pp. 123–124)
3. Translate into Russian:
p. 122–123 "I could not believe…" …"… to seek the analysis of
his emotion."
pp. 127–128 "Her face was a mask…" ……… "… draw subtle
4. Explain what the author means by:
a) She ceased to be a woman, complex, kind and petulant,
considerate and thoughtless; she was a Maenad.(121) For more
information look up Appendix 1.
b) Dirk Stroeve had the passion of Romeo in the body of Sir
Toby Belch (126). For more information look up Appendix 1.
c) What a cruel practical joke old Nature played when she flung
so many contradictory elements together, and left the man face to face
with perplexing callousness of the universe (126).
5. Comment on the following passages:
9 Stroeve speaks about conjugal unfaithfulness (117);
9 Maugham gives his opinion on the essence of love (122);
9 The doctor's attitude to suicide attempts (134).
7. Find sentences and paragraphs containing metaphors, irony, sarcasm and comment upon them.
ASSIGNMENT 7: chapters XXXVI–XLII, pp. 137–164
1. Find in the text English equivalents of the following
words and phrases. Reproduce the situations.
соболезнования (137)
единственное пристанище (140)
откладывать каждую копейку (142)
пугающее самообладание (144)
продуманно артистичная обстановка (145)
любопытство в нем взяло верх (145)
иметь другие дела, планы (148)
не лезть за словом в карман (151)
незамедлительно (154)
рискнуть, отважиться (156)
бесчувственный, бесчеловечный (157)
ненаглядные сокровища (161)
странно дразнящий и мучительный (162)
найти избавление в любви (164).
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2. Read the following word combinations and suggest
how they can be translated into Russian:
metaphors (e.g. p. 140, 152, 155), irony (150), a hyperbole
To gather together the threads (139); something of buffoonery
(140); to have a knack for smth (141); to summon up courage (143); a
nude (145); Fire away (146); to be dumbfounded (148); a lamentable
business (149); to laugh at smb up in one's sleeve (151); social
intercourse (159); That is the lot (160); the clumsiness of smb's
technique (161).
(140) and comment upon them.
3. Translate into Russian:
p. 147 "Stroeve tried to talk to me…"…….."…the discovery of
new mysteries."
p. 148 "I felt that his chance…" ……… "… before he died."
p. 157 "When a woman loves you…" ………. "… to leave me
p. 163 "Each of us is alone…" ……… "…is in the house."
4. Write out the words and expressions connected
with painting.
5. Comment on the following passages:
9 Stroeve's and Maugham's reflections about the world and fate
(141+163). What's your point of view on this problem?
9 Strickland expresses his attitude towards: a) women (156–157);
b) Blanche's suicide. How does it characterize him? Can you find
anything rational in his words?
9 "Is it possible for any man to disregard others entirely?" Give
your reasons.
ASSIGNMENT 8: chapters XLIII–XLVII, pp. 164–189
1. Mind the French names for some places in the
¾ Asile de Nuit = ночлежный дом
¾ “Bouchee de Pain” = «Ломоть хлеба»
¾ “Cuillere de Soupe” = «Ложка супа»
2. Find in the text English equivalents of the following
words and phrases. Reproduce the situations.
оставаться отстраненным (168)
первостепенный интерес (169)
отличаться оригинальностью (171)
снова пробудить интерес к… (173)
море темнокожих лиц (174)
женатый холостяк (178)
своеобразная внешность (180)
моряк, сидящий на мели (182)
преследовать, часто появляться где-л. (182)
портовый грузчик (183)
напрашиваться на скандал (187)
приступ белой горячки (188)
3. Translate into Russian:
p. 166 "He must have acquired…" …….. "… more single-hearted
than Strickland."
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p. 168 "She was afraid to leave him alone…" ……… "… awake
an equal love."
p. 170 "He lived more poorly…" ………. "… he was a great
p. 172 "I suppose no artist…" ……… "…here he found himself."
4. The author uses a number of historical and literary
allusions. Point them in the text and give brief information
¾ Prometheus
¾ Titian, Rembrandt
¾ Chardin, Van Gogh
5. Comment on the following:
9 Strickland’s attitude towards the old masters (p. 171)
9 "Perhaps both were trying to put down in paint ideas which
were more suitable to literature” (p.172)
6. Find and present information concerning Tahiti.
7. Give a character sketch of Captain Nichols. Com-
▪ делать поблажки (191)
▪ быть чьей-то страстью (194)
▪ почувствовать себя дома (196)
▪ приступить к исполнению новых обязанностей (197)
▪ ощутить ликование (198)
▪ занимать второстепенное положение, "играть вторую
скрипку" (200)
▪ остепениться (202)
▪ обмануться, ошибиться в ком-то (204)
▪ страстно желать, стремиться (205)
▪ здорово смахивать на туземца (210)
▪ несправедливо поступить с кем-то (212)
2. Translate into Russian:
p. 193–194 "But Tiare Johnson would never….." …….. "… is a
p. 196–197 "I have an idea…" ……… "… he finds rest."
p. 201 "I wondered if Abraham…" ………. "… the claim of the
p. 209 "So, I went. …" ……… "…and by the world forgotten."
ment upon the relations with his wife.
8. Find sentences and paragraphs containing metaphors, irony, oxymoron, similes and comment upon them.
ASSIGNMENT 9: Chapters XLVIII–LIII, pp. 189–213
1. Find in the text English equivalents of the following
words and phrases. Reproduce the situations.
3. Comment on the following:
9 The way the Tahitians began to value Strickland's pictures
(pp.192, 193, 210).
9 "Some men are born out of their due place". Speak about the
phenomenon of deja-vu (p. 196).
9 The theme of happiness in the story of Abraham (chapter L).
9 “It’s a terrible thing the way some men treat women!” The
ideal of married life from the Tahitian point of view (p. 204).
▪ важный, выдающийся человек (190)
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4. Give a character sketch of Tiare Johnson.
5. Make up dialogues (choose the situation you like):
a) Ata speaks to her relative about Strickland as her husband
(how she met him, the way he treats her, her notion of an ideal husband,
his everyday routine, etc.);
b) The old woman, who helped Ata give birth to her child, discusses Strickland's household and family with the village people;
c) Abraham discusses his decision to change his life with his girlfriend (acquaintance, etc) – reasons, the impression of Alexandria, the
sense of life, etc.
6. Find sentences and paragraphs containing irony,
sarcasm, similes and comment upon them.
ASSIGNMENT 10: Chapters LIV–LVIII, pp. 213–238
1. Find in the text English equivalents of the following
words and phrases. Reproduce the situations.
причуда, выходка (213)
напряженно работать (215)
удрученный вид (218)
негодовать по поводу чьего-то вторжения (219)
необъяснимое молчание (220)
нелепые иллюзии (222)
отвратительный, тошнотворный (224)
напугать до смерти (227)
варварский поступок (231)
идти в ногу со временем (235)
внутренняя убежденность (237)
беспечный паренек (238)
2. Translate into Russian:
p. 214 "What on earth can it be….." …….. "… a profound
p. 224 "When Dr Coutras arrived…" ……… "… it was
p. 228–229 "For a long time I could not…" ………. "… you saw
3. Strickland's disease: explain why all the islanders were
horrified about it; speak about their reaction, the doctor's visits and the
end of Strickland's life. For more information about leprosy look up
Appendix 2.
4. Give your opinion on the following:
9 "Perhaps neither of us knew it, but we were both aiming at one
and the same thing – beauty." Comment on the ways Captain Brunot
and Strickland understood beauty and tried to create it (p. 214–216).
9 Captain Brunot claims to be a happy man. Compare his story
with that of Abraham (chapter L) and give your point of view on a
person's happiness.
9 Dr Coutras compares Strickland's works with Michael
Angelo's Sistine Chapel in Rome. Do you agree with such a parallel?
5. Give character sketches of:
ΠDr. Coutras
ΠMrs Strickland (compared with her image in the previous
ΠMrs Strickland's children.
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6. Summarize all your knowledge about Tahiti and
the way of living of its inhabitants.
7. Find sentences and paragraphs containing irony
(228, 236), metaphors (213 228, 233), similes (214, 217,
228), periphrases (227) and comment upon them.
Translate into English using the words and expressions
from the novel.
1) Он не был выдающимся человеком, и ничего необычного
в нем тоже не было. Он был одиноким человеком лет тридцати пяти. Ему очень хотелось остепениться, обзавестись семьей, и поэтому он решил найти избавление в любви.
Однажды он прогуливался по парку и услышал, как кто-то
прерывисто вздыхает. На скамейке сидела молодая женщина и
плакала. Глаза ее были полны скорби. Это была женщина выдающейся внешности. Что-то подсказывало ему, что она иностранка, и
еще его поразило физическое притяжение, которое, казалось, она
излучала. Он не обладал талантами светского общения, но все же
любопытство в нем пересилило, и, собравшись с духом, он спросил, что за скорбная история с ней приключилась. Девушка незамедлительно обо всем ему рассказала.
В 13 лет она осталась сиротой и пошла работать прислугой.
она решила напряженно работать и откладывать каждую копейку.
Некоторые люди полагали, что в этом ее стремлении было что-то
шутовское, но она продолжала свои усилия. Потом тайная убежденность в собственном таланте заставила ее уехать из родного
городка в Париж. Она надеялась выставить свои картины, но все
салоны отвергли их из-за грубой техники исполнения. Все ее нелепые иллюзии развеялись, и вот она осталась без денег и без надежды на будущее...
Девушка закончила свою историю, и воцарилось неловкое
молчание. Молодой человек был полон сострадания и с пугающим
его самого самообладанием предложил ей свою помощь.
Make up your own continuation of this story.
2) Считается, что художник – это своего рода одержимый
человек, который равнодушен к комфорту и роскошным местам.
Он часто претерпевает ужасные лишения и ни в грош не ставит
возможность заработать кругленькую сумму. Говорят, что его, в
отличие от обычных людей, вдохновляют стесненные обстоятельства. Для многих творцов особенное удовольствие – быть наедине
с природой, которая вызывает в их душе восторг и помогает созда-
Так она прожила шесть лет. Но душа ее стремилась к большему, ей
хотелось стать художницей, работать в собственной студии с подчеркнуто артистической обстановкой, ходить на приемы. Что-то в
таком стиле жизни странно дразнило и притягивало ее, поэтому
вать живописные пейзажи.
Возможно, талантливые люди большую часть времени так
погружены в свою работу, что им нет дела до окружающих, даже
если их близкие питают к ним нежную привязанность. Люди искусства могут невольно ранить чувства других, потому что они
равнодушны к их уязвимым местам. Но, с другой стороны, у художников есть своя миссия, которую надо выполнить, хоть это
иногда и приводит общество в замешательство. Иногда эти люди
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становятся объектами для насмешек и даже шутами, потому что
они не хотят ни под кого подстраивать свое поведение.
И все же, гениям тоже нужна семья, друзья – словом, такое
окружение, где они могут чувствовать себя в своей тарелке и сохранять душевное равновесие. Однако, если семейные узы или
друзья наскучат им до смерти, они могут легко разорвать надоевшие путы и сказать: "Что прошло, то быльем поросло".
Часто случается, что публика готова делать поблажки и обелять человека, заработавшего себе репутацию выдающимися работами и тонким пониманием искусства, потому что общество благодарно творцам за их шедевры.
(По мотивам студенческих сочинений)
Appendix 1
In the 6th century BC, or perhaps very much earlier, the orgiastic
religion of the god Dionysus, probably originating in Thrace and
Phrygia, was established in Greece. In the Dionysian rites the Maenads
(female attendants) became possessed by the spirit of Dionysus by
means of tumultuous music and dancing, the free use of wine, and an
orgiastic meal (the tearing to pieces and devouring of animals embodying Dionysus Zagreus with their bare hands as the central act of the
Bacchanalia). Though not necessarily sacramental, these rites enabled
the Maenads to surmount the barrier that separated them from the
supernatural world and to surrender themselves unconditionally to the
mighty powers that transcended time and space, thus carrying them into
the realm of the eternal. (from “Encyclopaedia Britannica”)
A fictional character, the boisterous uncle of Olivia in W.
Shakespeare’s comedy “12th Night”, whose alcohol-induced wit
produces much of the humour for the play’s subplot.
Appendix 2
Leprosy (Hansen's disease)
Leprosy is one of the most feared of diseases, a dread that
stretches back into antiquity, the leper being considered as “unclean.”
Yet it is not a highly infectious disease, prolonged intimate family
contact being needed for its spread from one person to another. Most
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adults in areas in which leprosy occurs appear to be immune, but
children are very susceptible. The disease has almost disappeared from
most temperate countries, but it is still common in Asia, Africa, and
Central and South America. At least 2,000,000 people are known to
have the disease, and the actual number of infected people may be as
high as 15,000,000. In sheer numbers, leprosy presents a serious
problem, not lessened by the fact that it is a disabling, deforming disease, slowly progressing throughout the life of the leper but not usually
cutting that life short. Management of leprosy involves social,
power in the muscles of the area, loss of sense of pain, and loss of circulation in the affected part. This is most commonly seen in the forearm
or lower leg, and it leads to claw hand and gross deformity of the foot,
but paralysis of muscles of the face, eye, and neck may also occur. The
patient is unable to feel pain and minor injuries pass unnoticed. Large
eroding ulcers can form, causing loss of fingers and toes; sometimes the
condition of the limb is so bad that amputation is necessary.
The progress of leprosy is slow. It may be years before a child infected by a parent shows the first sign of the disease, often a vague,
vocational, medical, rehabilitative, orthopaedic, and reconstructive
surgical services.
The disease is caused by the leprosy (or Hansen) bacillus,
Mycobacterium leprae, and has two principal forms, the tuberculoid
and the lepromatous. How the bacillus gets into the human body is not
clearly known. It can be discharged in enormous quantities from the
nose or broken-down sores of an infected person and, therefore, can be
inhaled or spread from skin to skin. It seems that prolonged, close
physical contact with an infected person usually (but not invariably)
precedes active infection in those who are susceptible. Congenital
leprosy is unknown; infants born of infected parents do not develop the
disorder if separated from them at birth
The human body's first reaction to the leprosy bacillus takes place
in the deep layers of the skin. The intense cellular reaction involves all
of the thicknesses of the skin and the tissues under it, the sweat glands,
the hair follicles, and the nerve fibrils that end in the skin. All of this
scarcely noticed spot on the skin. Years may pass before any change is
noticed, and the child has often grown to an adult before the disease is
recognized. Lepers suffer occasionally from bouts of fever, but the
course of the disease is mainly one of increasing disability and
disfiguration. Lepers often do not die of leprosy; they can live a normal
span of years and, with proper medical and rehabilitative care, can live
in some measure of comfort.
Apart from the use of drugs, the management of the disease is a
vast human problem. The leper must be helped in his disfigurement and
his paralysis. The greatest problem is the prevention of infection. A
baby born to a leprous mother has little chance of escape unless it is
separated from her. A father is almost bound to infect some members of
his family unless taken away from them. The fear of separation makes
the family conceal the disease and thus increases the danger of its
spread. The ideal must be not a colony for lepers but village or
community groups in which whole families can live in good conditions
shows up on the infected person's skin as a firm dry spot in which there
is no sense of heat, cold, or touch. The cellular reaction continues to
spread into the main trunk of the involved nerve, tending to strangle it
so that impulses cannot get up or down and thereby causing loss of
and the leper can be given necessary treatment and the encouragement
and help to work within the disease's limitations.
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Appendix 3
Read and compare two reviews of this novel written 80
years one after the other. What are the opinions and impressions
of the authors? Why are they so different? Which one do you
a) “The Moon and Sixpence” by W.S. Maugham reviewed in the Guardian, May 2 1919.
From the archives
Drawing down the moon
The character of a man insensible to ordinary human relations,
who lives the life of pure selfishness which is sometimes supposed to
produce great art, has always had its fascination for novelists inspired
only by the unusual. Accordingly there have been novels in plenty
depicting the conflict of (by ordinary standards) brutal genius with
uncongenial environment and Mr. Maugham has followed a recognized
convention in this story of an imaginary artist of posthumous greatness.
He treats him throughout with mock respect, and surrounds his affairs
with contributory detail. Mr. Maugham's story is that of a respectable
stockbroker who deserts his wife after seventeen years of marriage and
goes alone to Paris to follow a new ideal – the ideal of great and for a
time unrecognizable art. The break is succeeded by privation and
industry, by long periods of work and outbursts of savage sexual conquest; and the artist at length dies, blind and leprous, in Tahiti.
The book revolves throughout around the character of Strickland
and the quality of his art. Does Mr. Maugham so convince us that his
Strickland is a real man and a real artist that we can absorb his traits as
parts of the essential human creature who lives eternally by his work? It
seems to us that he does not. Where every detail should be pungently
real, one is constantly checked in belief by the sense of calculated and
heightened effect, and by the passion of Mr. Maugham for what is odd
and "strong." Such a passion has always defeated its object. Here once
more one is repelled, not by Strickland's monosyllabic callousness, but
by the knowledge that this callousness is seen and represented without
subtlety. The callousness of the artist is something more complex than it
is here shown to be. The callousness of Strickland is merely the
conventional brutality employed by other novelists of an older
generation, the generation which first found in the behaviour of artists a
theme to be exploited in fiction. That Mr. Maugham uses the elaborations of a modern technique does not create the illusion of reality that
he is pursuing. It simply emphasizes the cleverness, the clever unconvincingness, of his portrait – not at all the vigour and personality of one
who will starve and suffer for the sake of his artistic ideal.
All the minor drawings in the book are extremely effective, and
the simplicity of the narrative is notable. Technically the whole thing
has great interest. But as an illumination of the nature of bizarre and
uncompromising genius, ready to sacrifice every person and every
association that stands in the way of its fulfillment, "The Moon and
Sixpence" fails through its literary accomplishment and its lack of true
creative inspiration.
b) Review by Edward Tanguay published in the Guardian, August 13, 2002
Before reading this I was a bit afraid that Maugham's fictional
Strickland would somehow distort my conception of Paul Gauguin.
Whether this is true or not, Gauguin's paintings now glow with that vast
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hollowness of possessed genius with which Maugham instills Stickland
in the book.
In a plummeting step-by-step fall you get to know Strickland.
Maugham begins with what is a super ordinary man ("He was null. He
was probably a worthy member of society, a good husband and father,
an honest broker; but there was no reason to waste one's time over
him.") Maugham spends a calculated amount of time describing to you
the ordinariness of Strickland's life and character, here, of Strickland
and his wife:
He is so dry it makes you laugh. But then you realize that Strickland is seriously empty and the emotions waver to sadness and then disgust for him. You are not expecting how removed Strickland is from
normal social behavior and you begin guessing what has happened inside of him. Maugham has a way of letting you identify with the narrator ("I could not struggle against his indifference.").
Strickland has "the directness of the fanatic and the ferocity of
the apostle." He becomes not so much an intricate character but a fantastically unbelievable character. In fact, describing Strickland the man
They would grow old insensibly; they would see their son and
daughter come to years of reason, marry in due course – the one a
pretty girl, future mother of healthy children; the other a handsome,
manly fellow, obviously a soldier; and at last, prosperous in their dignified retirement, beloved by their descendants, after a happy, not unuseful life, in the fullness of their age they would sink into the grave.
This builds you up for the descending into Strickland's empty
soul. And one day in a natural Sartrian movement of absolute freedom,
Strickland just leaves. Something must have smoothly and silently broken inside of him to make him just move away. He has no more emotion, and Maugham spends the rest of the book expertly showing us this
in contact after contact between the narrator and Strickland.
In meeting after meeting, Strickland proves himself to be nothing
else but empty of normal response ("Then, what in God's name have
you left her for?" – "I want to paint.") He "just wants to paint," which is
an extremely mild way of putting that he needs to madly pursue a gen-
becomes the goal of the book.
Does Strickland not have the same morals as the pursuer of Lolita? It is an all-out pursuit of beauty, and that is the only moral rule.
When confronted that if everyone acted like him, "the world couldn't go
on," Strickland replies, "That's a damned silly thing to say. Everyone
ius demon inside of him. Strickland simply repeats, "I've got to paint"
until finally he is confronted with "You are a most unmitigated cad" to
which he replies, "Now that you've got that off your chest, let's go and
commitment and responsibility towards others.
I enjoyed seeing how those back in England responded to the
news of him in Paris. They try to understand him ("Charles Strickland
doesn't want to act like me. The great majority are perfectly content to
do the ordinary thing." This is not really impressive reasoning, but reasoning is not what Strickland does well.
"You evidently don't believe in the maxim: Act so that every one
of your actions is capable of being made into a universal rule."
– "I never heard it before, but it's rotten nonsense."
– "Well, it was Kant who said it."
– "I don't care; it's rotten nonsense."
The narrator (does the narrator have a name?) continues to reason
with Strickland, but to no avail, there is no end to his depth of indifference, he simply doesn't feel those feelings that others feel about social
have dinner."
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had become infatuated with a French dancer"), yet they have no paradigms with which to understand the man. No one seems to.
Dirk Stroeve and his wife come into the story as perfect foils to
show us the next set of depths to which Strickland's fate binds him. That
Stroeve forgives Strickland in the end for ruining his wife to her death
brings out Strickland's character even more so.
Strickland becomes a paradox ("He was a sensual man, and yet
was indifferent to sensual things") yet you begin to get a better picture
of him from description to description ("He did not seem quite sane. It
Strickland was indifferent to his surroundings, and he had lived
in the other's studio without thinking of altering a thing.
When I imagined that on seeing his pictures I should get a clue to
the understanding of his strange character I was mistaken. They merely
increased the astonishment with which he filled me.
With Strickland the sexual appetite took a very small place. It
was unimportant. It was irksome. His soul aimed else where. He had
violent passions, and on occasion desire seized his body so that he was
driven to an orgy of lust, but hated the instincts that robbed him of his
seemed to me that he would not show his pictures because he was really
not interested in them. I had the idea that he seldom brought anything
to completion, but the passion that fired him, he lost all care for it.")
The more possessed Strickland appears, the more you understand him.
An important distinction that surprised me was that Strickland
was not an elegant speaker:
self-possession. I think, even, he hated the inevitable partner in his debauchery. When he had regained command over himself, he shuddered
at the sight of the woman he had enjoyed.
Strickland was an odious man, but I still think he was a great
When Stroeve's wife stated that she was in love with Strickland
we get one level deeper. This episode shows a nice love/hate attraction,
which emphasizes Strickland's paradoxal nature.
The shift to the island gave the book a new dimension and kept it
fresh. This is a nicely balanced book, you do not get bored in any setting of it, it has a motion all the way through. As strange as the island is,
it was a place which Strickland needed:
He used gestures instead of adjectives, and he halted. He never
said a clever thing, but he had a vein of brutal sarcasm which was not
ineffective, and he always said exactly what he thought."
He is shut in a tower of brass, and can communicate with his fellows only by signs, and signs have no common value, so that their sense
is vague and uncertain.
Like a sculptor, Maugham reveals Strickland's character piece by
For choice he sat on a kitchen chair without arms. It often exasperated me to see him. I never knew a man so entirely indifferent to his
The emotions common to most of us simply did not exist in him,
and it was as absurd to blame him for not feeling them as for blaming
the tiger because he is fierce and cruel.
Sometimes a man hits upon a place to which he mysteriously feels
that he belongs. Here is the home he sought, and he will settle amid
scenes that he has never seen bfore, among men he has never known, as
though they were familiar to him from his birth. Here at last he finds
He painted and he read, and in the evening, when it was dark,
they sat together on the veranda, smoking and looking at the night.
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He was an extraordinary figure, with his red beard and matted
hair, and his great hairy chest. His feet were horny and scarred; so that
I knew he went always barefoot. He had gone native with a vengeance.(!)
The ending has a Dorian Grey touch, as if Strickland's looks and
leprous condition began to show the deterioration of his soul. Then a
visitor comes to the house and finds that Strickland, even though
blinded from leprosy, had painted the inside walls of his cabin as he
died. Here you get the last clues into the depths of Strickland's possessed soul:
His eyes grew accustomed to the darkness, and now he was
seized by an overwhelming sensation as he stared at the painted walls.
He knew nothing of pictures, but there was something about these that
extraordinarily affected him. From floor to ceiling the walls were covered with a strange and elaborate composition. It was indescribably
wonderful and mysterious. It took his breath away. It filled him with an
emotion which he could not understand or analyze. He felt the awe and
the delight which a man might feel who watched the beginning of a
world. It was tremendous, sensual, passionate; and yet there was something horrible there too, something which made him afraid. It was the
work of a man who had delved into the hidden depths of nature and had
discovered secrets which were beautiful and fearful too. It was the work
of a man who knew things which it is unholy for men to know. There
was something primeval there and terrible. It was not human. It brought
to his mind vague recollections of black magic. It was beautiful and ob-
The characters are sharp in this book. Maugham is a master at
this. For instance, you get full, bright concepts of Stroeve's character in
descriptions like this:
I suggested that he should get a thermometer, and a few grapes,
and some bread. Stroeve, glad to make himself useful, clattered down
the stairs.
He looked like an overblown schoolboy, and though I felt so
sorry for him, I could hardly help laughing.
Stroeve stopped again and mopped his face.
I begged Stroeve to behave more wisely.
Fine writing. Enjoyed the book.
Edward Tanguay
The moral issue comes up again. Strickland was a bastard of a
person, but was his life complete? Was he true?
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WILLIAM SOMERSET MAUGHAM .............................................................. 3
ASSIGNMENT 1: CHAPTERS I–V, pp. 4–22.................................................. 7
ASSIGNMENT 2: CHAPTERS VI–X, pp. 22–41............................................. 8
Учебно-методическое издание
ASSIGNMENT 3: CHAPTERS XI–XVI, pp. 42–68....................................... 10
ASSIGNMENT 4: CHAPTERS XVII–XXII, pp. 68–91 ................................. 12
ASSIGNMENT 5: CHAPTERS XXIII–XXVIII, pp. 91–116.......................... 14
Дина Юрьевна Малетина
ASSIGNMENT 6: CHAPTERS XXIX–XXXV, pp. 116–137......................... 16
ASSIGNMENT 7: CHAPTERS XXXVI–XLII, pp. 137–164 ......................... 18
ASSIGNMENT 8: CHAPTERS XLIII–XLVII, pp. 164–189.......................... 20
ASSIGNMENT 9: CHAPTERS XLVIII–LIII, pp. 189–213 ........................... 21
ASSIGNMENT 10: CHAPTERS LIV–LVIII, pp. 213–238 ............................ 23
REVISE YOUR VOCABULARY ................................................................... 25
APPENDICES.................................................................................................. 28
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