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501.Введение в деловой английский для специальности ПИЭ

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации
Федеральное агентство по образованию
Ярославский государственный университет им. П.Г. Демидова
Кафедра иностранных языков
И.К. Бугрова
Введение
в деловой английский
для специальности ПИЭ
Методические указания
Рекомендовано
Научно-методическим советом университета для студентов,
обучающихся по специальности
Прикладная информатика в экономике
Ярославль 2009
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УДК 81:519.2
ББК Ш 143.21я73
Б 90
Рекомендовано
Редакционно-издательским советом университета
в качестве учебного издания. План 2009 года
Рецензент
кафедра иностранных языков Ярославского государственного
университета им. П.Г. Демидова
Б 90
Бугрова, И.К. Введение в деловой английский для
специальности ПИЭ: метод. указания / И.К. Бугрова; Яросл. гос.
ун-т. – Ярославль : ЯрГУ, 2009. – 51 с.
Методические указания написаны для студентов 1 курса
специальности «Прикладная информатика в экономике», а также
других специальностей, где программа предусматривает
изучение бизнес-терминологии и актуальных проблем бизнеса. В
раздел
грамматики
вынесены
вопросы,
традиционно
рассматриваемые поверхностно в учебниках для неязыковых
вузов, но важные при изложении материала любой тематики.
Вопросы компьютерных технологий не приводятся в издании, так
как его объем не позволяет уделить этому разделу серьезное
внимание. Все тексты взяты из аутентичных источников.
Предназначены для студентов, обучающихся по специальности
080801 Прикладная информатика в экономике (дисциплина
«Английский язык», блок ГСЭ), очной формы обучения.
УДК 81:519.2
ББК Ш 143.21я73
© Ярославский государственный
университет им. П.Г. Демидова, 2009
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Section One
Unit One
Learn the basic business terms:
Demand – (n) спрос
Employer – (n)
наниматель
employee – работник
Supply – (n)
предложение
Merchandise – (n)
товар (собир.);
продвижение товара
на рынке
Wares – (n)
CEO – Chief
предметы розничной Executive Officer –
торговли
(n) исполнительный
директор
Good(s) – (n) товар(ы)
Commodity – (n) товар;
предмет купли-продажи
независимо от
происхождения товара;
Commodity Exchange –
товарная биржа
Loan – (n) заем
Ex. 1. Remember the following words and expressions:
to assume – (v)
1) принимать, брать на себя;
2) допускать, предполагать;
3) присваивать;
4) принимать (форму, характер);
to embark – (v)
1) грузиться;
2) начинать, вступать (в дело, в войну);
handicap – (n)
1) гандикап, преимущество;
2) недостаток физический или умственный, увечье,
расстройство;
3) помеха, препятствие, барьер, преграда;
(v)
1) уравновешивать силы;
2) быть помехой, препятствовать, мешать;
attitude – (n) отношение, установка;
nanny – (n) няня;
penalty – (n) наказание, взыскание;
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averse – (a) нерасположенный, неохотный, питающий
неприязнь или антипатию;
preponderance – (n) перевес, превосходство, преoбладание;
to excel at – (v)
1) превосходить, быть значительнее;
2) отличаться, выделяться;
at the expense of – за счет
fraud – (n) обман
Risktaking
The dictionary defines an enterpreneur as «a person who
organizes, operates and assumes the risk for a business venture».
So the term should not be used for people «who take risks with
other people's money». Entepreneural CEO, a phrase sometimes
applied to corporate high-fliers, is a contradiction in terms. They
should be called managers and, unless laws are broken, they walk
away from failed ventures, wealthier than when they started by at least
the amount of their salary. The only true entrepreneurs are the ones
who embark on a business venture knowing that they may end up
poorer than when they started.
If you are not failing, you are not taking enough risks and there is
no reward without risk. In America a past business failure is almost a
badge of honour. In Britain it is a lasting handicap.
Gordon Brown, the Chancellor, has said he might change the law
to destigmatize non-fraudulent bankruptcy. But it will take more than
that to change the nation's attitude to business failure.
The French invented the term «entrepreneur» but their economy
with a nanny state and heavy social and legal penalties for failure has
created a nation of risk-averse people whose dream as youngsters is
more often to work for the government than to start a business. In
countries with a strong socialist background like Greece, one sees a
preponderance of another type of entrepreneur that excels at servicing
one customer only – the government.
The problem with these people in the eyes of public is that they
profit at the expense of taxpayers. Thanks to unscrupulous politicians,
rightly or wrongly, they tend to be seen as the bad guys exploiting the
system. The real problem for the economy is that fewer and fewer
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young people have the desire to risk their own money to become true
freelancers.
«The Economist» 2005
Ex. 2. Match the word combinations from sections a and b:
а) a badge of honour; a lasting handicap; to destigmatize nonfraudulent bankruptcies; a nation of risk-averse people; heavy
penalties; a nanny state; attitude to business failure; to excel at
servicing; unscrupulous politicians; tend to be seen as bad guys;
countries with strong socialist background; preponderance; at the
expense of taxpayers;
б) Как правило, воспринимаются как «плохие парни»;
серьезные взыскания (наказания, штраф); нечистоплотные
политики; страны с сильными социалистическими традициями;
государство-няня; преобладание; нация, избегающая идти на
риск; за счет налогоплательщиков; брать на себя риск, рисковать;
признак (знак) чести; ущербность, надолго ассоциируемая с
человеком; отношение к неудаче в бизнесе; отличаться особой
услужливостью; убрать клеймо позора с обанкротившихся фирм,
не уличенных в обмане (махинациях).
Ex. 3. Translate from Russian into English:
1) There is little merchandise.
2) We export ceramics and other decorations merchandise.
3) Enclosed is our price list for tools and other merchandise.
4) Customers are requested not to touch the merchandise.
5) Grocery and electrical goods are always in good demand.
6) Labour is bought and sold as any other commodity.
7) Water is sometimes a very precious commodity.
8) The stallholders began to sell their wares at half price.
9) This commodity is subject to seasonal trends.
10) Demand and supply are the two pillars of economy.
Ex. 4. Answer the questions using the following cliches:
As a matter of fact – фактически, на самом деле
Actually – фактически
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On the surface .... but deep down – на первый взгляд, ... но по
сути дела
On the one hand ....... on the other hand – с одной стороны....
с другой
Basically – по сути дела
It goes without saying – само собой разумеется
If you ask me – если вы хотите знать мое мнение
In my opinion – по моему мнению
To my mind – по-моему
To a certain extent – до некоторой степени
As regards – что касается
As to – что касается
As far as ...... is concerned – что касается...
Admittedly – общеизвестно; по всеобщему признанию
Ex. 5. Answer the following questions:
1) How does the dictionary define the term «entrepreneur»?
2) What is the difference between an entrepreneur and a manager?
3) What is the only «true entrepreneur»?
4) What kind of job is more interesting – that of a manager or an
entrepreneur?
5) Do you agree that if there is no risk, there is no reward?
6) What is your attitude to a past business failure? Compare it to
the general attitude among your acquaintances?
7) What is the difference in attitude to this notion in other
countries? Give examples.
8) Do you notice any changes in the attitude to the past business
failure in your country?
9) Where was the term «entrepreneur» invented?
10) Are the French the best entrepreneurs in the world?
11) What is the situation with free trade in the countries with a
strong socialist background?
12) Do young people tend to take risks today?
13) Do young people in your city tend to set up their own
business or look for a cushy job?
14) What kind of job do you excel at?
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Ex. 6. Translate the following sentences. Learn the cliches.
Use them in sentences of your own while giving opinion on
risktaking.
1) Statistically speaking, people tend to keep up their financial
position at all costs.
2) Estimates vary widely as to which strategy of coping with
crises is preferable
3) It's a sobering thought that G7 earn 67% of global GDP.
4) Contrary to popular belief the planet is not getting significantly
warmer.
5) There's every reason to believe that economic processes in
most countries follow more or less the same patterns and models.
6) She finds it a bit of a handicap to live without a phone.
7) Rescue efforts have been handicapped by rough sea.
8) The approach is a practical one and even extends to the needs
of handicapped children.
9) The Law penalizes the employment of children.
Ex. 7. Translate from Russian into English:
1) Оценки реальной ситуации на сегодня расходятся весьма
значительно. По сути дела, в ближайшем месяце единого мнения
ожидать не приходится.
2) Есть все основания полагать, что неудача в бизнесе в
прошлом больше не воспринимается как помеха для достижения
желаемого процветания.
3) Попытки обуздать инфляцию были нивелированы
повышением пенсии и стипендии.
4) Она считает, что их попытка спасти его фирму от
банкротства на самом деле мешает ему самому получить опыт
преодоления кризиса.
5) Если перевести на язык цифр эти данные, мы получим
следующую модель.
6) Какие меры порицания предусмотрены по данному виду
преступления?
7) Заставляет серьезно задуматься тот факт, что они не
приняли никаких мер предосторожности в столь серьезной
ситуации.
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Ex. 8. Read the texts, learn the expressions in bold type.
Describing statistics and numbers
When the different amounts were added up, the aggregate was
$600.000. [total]
I’ve aggregated all the figures. [added up all the different
amounts]
The Chancellor said the July rise in inflation was only a blip.
[temporary change]
The spectrum is a continuum of color from red to violet.
[something that changes gradually or in very slight stages, without
distinct divisions]
There seems to be a correlation between mathematical and
musical ability. [connection between facts or things which cause or
effect each other]
For some reason the July figures have deviated from the norm.
[moved away from the standard or accepted pattern]
There’s a discrepancy between our figures and yours. [difference
between two things that should be same]
Share prices have been erratic this last month. [not regular and
often changing suddenly]
The company’s figures were found to be flawed and the
accountant was fired. [inaccurate] Sales fluctuate from day to day.
[go up and down]
There’s been a five-fold increase in exam enrolments. [multiplied
by the stated number]
The teacher said that the quality of her students’ work was in
inverse proportion to its quantity – the shorter the essay the better.
[in opposite proportion to]
Our data is inconsistent with yours. [not in agreement with]
Interest rates seesawed all year. [went up and down]
Assessing quantity
Let me give you a ballpark figure1 of how much money we
expect to make this year. If I tot everything up2, we begin to run into
six figures3. There are a lot of varibles4 and our projected figures5
may not be all that accurate. So I’ve erred on the side of caution6
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and I’ve rounded things down7 rather than up in order to give you
a conservative8 estimate.
1) guess believed to be accurate
2) add everything up (less formal)
3) get a figure over 100.000
4) different factors that may change
5) planned figures
6) been cautious
7) make, say, 2.5 into 2 rather than 3
8) cautious
Ex. 9. Translate from Russian into English using expressions
from the texts above:
Позвольте мне дать вам общую картину финансового
положения нашей фирмы на текущий месяц. Если сложить доходы
всех наших филиалов и дочерних компаний, мы получим
четырехзначную цифру. К сожалению, есть все основания
полагать, что две из наших дочерних компаний не представили
реальных цифр на сегодня. Что касается наших нидерландских
партнеров, их долг за прошедший месяц действительно не более
чем временное явление. Оценки доходов наших южных партнеров
значительно расходятся, но явно наблюдается соотношение между
нашими ежемесячными инвестициями и тенденциями роста
отдачи. По какой-то причине (которую еще предстоит выяснить)
показатели за июль по-прежнему отклоняются от нормы. Кроме
того, все еще наблюдается расхождение между показателями двух
основных отделов западного филиала. К сожалению, цены на акции
были неустойчивы, но все убытки были компенсированы 3-х
кратным увеличением производительности труда после 15%
увеличения зарплаты. В завершение хочу отметить общую
позитивную тенденцию дохода нашей компании.
Ex. 10. Make up a description of the financial situation of any
famous company. Use all the key terms and expressions of the
Unit.
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Unit Two
Finance
Learn the following words and expressions:
Тo assess – оценивать;
давать оценку
(предполагает
формирование
значения, суждения,
вывода в результате
обдумывания)
To appraise –
оценивать, давать
оценку, определять
качество или
стоимость (носит
официальный характер
и употребляется при
профессиональной
оценке качества,
полезности или
стоимости чего-либо)
To evaluate – оценивать;
давать оценку (не носит
официального характера,
но предполагает
тщательное рассмотрение
ценности или полезности
чего-либо)
To estimate – оценивать,
определять (примерно)
To judge –
оценивать, судить
(личное мнение,
суждение)
To appreciate –
оценивать;
оценить по
достоинству;
понимать
(составить мнение)
Ex. 1. Translate from English into Russian:
1) It is difficult to assess the effects of the new legislation so far.
2) They assessed the value of the painting at over one million
dollars.
3) The officials were cautious in appraising the new aid
programme.
4) They appraised the house carefully before offering to buy it.
5) The mechanic estimated the cost of repair at $200.
6) They estimated the concert was watched by about 5 million
people.
7) The panel was asked to select and appraise this year’s
advertising.
8) I don’t believe the Prime Minister fully appreciated the
complexity of the issue.
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9) The restaurant is popular with people who appreciate food
service and fine wines (beverages).
10) I don’t think you appreciate the difficulties he is going to face
in your absence.
11) This test provides an excellent way of assessing applicants’
suitability.
12) I love it, but come along and judge for yourself.
13) We asked a number of ex-trainees to evaluate the course they
had taken.
Ex. 2. Read and translate the text. Look up the words in the
dictionary.
FINANCING A COMPANY
Let us take an example. The Smiths were planning to start up a
small retail business. Before making the final decision, they looked at
the amount of personal capital they had to invest. The remaining funds
they would have to finance through various short-term and long-term
arrangements. Another consideration was the type of equipment they
would have to purchase initially. Similarly, the Smiths evaluated the
costs of inventory, employee salaries and benefits, and other general
expenses. After reviewing all these factors, the Smiths decided to open
their business.
So, when going into business money is one of the most important
factors. Without sufficient funds a company cannot begin operations.
The money needed to start and continue operating a business is known
as capital. A new business needs capital not only for ongoing expenses
but also for purchasing necessary assets. These assets – inventories,
equipment, buildings, and property – represent an investment of
capital in the new business. Capital is also needed for salaries, credit
extension to customers, advertising, insurance, and many other day-today operations. In addition, financing is essential for growth and
expansion of a company. Because of competition in the market,
capital needs to be invested in developing new product lines and
production techniques and in acquiring assets for future expansion.
How this new company obtains and uses money will, in large
measure, determine its success. The process of managing this acquired
capital is known as financial management. In general, finance is
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securing and utilizing capital to start up, operate, and expand a
company. In financing business operations and expansion, a business
uses both short-term and long-term capital. A company utilizes shortterm capital to pay for salaries and office expenses that last a
relatively short period of time. On the other hand, a company seeks
long-term financing to pay for new assets that are expected to last
many years. When a company obtains capital from external sources,
the financing can be either on a short-term or a long-term
arrangement. Generally, short-term financing must be repaid over a
longer period of time.
Finance involves the securing of funds for all phases of business
operations. In attracting and using this capital, the decisions made by
managers affect the overall financial success of a company.
Ex. 3. Find the following word combinations in the text above:
Основать компанию; краткосрочные договоренности;
долгосрочные решения; подобным образом; общие расходы;
текущие расходы; закупка необходимых активов; имущество;
получать капитал из внешних источников; реклама; страхование;
оказывать влияние на общую успешность компании.
Ex. 4. Answer the questions:
1) What does a new business need to start operations?
2) What is capital?
3) Why does a company need capital?
4) Give the definition of finance.
5) What is the difference between short-term and long-term
financing?
6) Who makes financing decisions in a company?
7) What does finance involve?
8) What affects the overall financial success of a company?
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Ex. 5. Read this extract from Nestle Management Report 1999
and note how the information is organized:
Describing a company
Nestle, whose head office is in Vevey on the shores of Lake
Geneva, is the world’s largest food company. Although it is
Switzerland’s biggest industrial enterprise, only 2% of sales are
generated in Switzerland. We are a truly global company employing
230.929 people on every continent. Consequently, our management
and staff reflect a truly international outlook.
Nestle now produces the world’s favourite brands in 509 factories
worldwide. In over 130 years of growth and diversification, we have
never lost sight of our core business: improving the quality of people’s
lives through high-quality, nutritious, and convenient prepared foods
and beverages. Today, Nestle brands are present on almost every
supermarket shelf, and some products – like NESCAFE, NESTLE,
NESTEA, BUITONI, MAGGI AND FRISKIES – are sold in more
than 100 countries.
Geography: multinational, head office in Switzerland
Employees: 230.929 people on five continents
Activity: the world’s largest food company, producing global
bands
Production facilities: 509 factories worldwide
Financial information: market capitalization 112,032 million
Swiss francs
Geography: We are based in / located in / situated in…
Employees: We employ (n) people / there are (n) people on the
payroll
Activity: Our firm specializes in / produces / manufactures /
supplies…
Type: a joint venture
a subsidiary
a holding company
Position: is the leading company in its field
ranks number one in the market for…
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is a major player / operates in many different markets
is a group ranking among the world’s top 20…
recently established
well-established
with a long tradition of success
Financial information:
achieving annual turnover of $(n)
accounts for (n)% of sales
generates profits of (n)
Ex. 6. Describe a company after the model above.
MAKING DECISIONS
Ex. 7. Use the following words to complete the sentences
below:
Issue
Say
mind
thought
decision
consideration
1) Originally, he agreed to work with us, but now he has changed
his __________.
2) She said she would come, but now she’s having second
__________.
3) The boss always has the final _________ in purchases over
$500.
4) I’ve given the matter a lot of _________.
5) Everyone in the department backed the __________ to
abandon the project.
6) There are several factors to take into _________.
7) There are several things that we should bear in__________.
8) They haven’t addressed the problem at all: they’ve completely
dodged the _________.
9) I’m in two __________ s about whether to accept their
proposal or not.
10) Time was short. We had to make a snap_________.
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Ex. 8. Translate from Russian into English using the
expressions from ex. 7.
1) Шеф до сих пор не может решиться поменять поставщика
сырья (raw materials).
2) Она только что передумала брать кредит в этом банке.
3) Мы еще не решили, повышать ли зарплату менеджерам
среднего звена.
4) Вместо того чтобы немедленно решить проблему
оптимальной логистики для этого заказа, они полностью
уклонились от принятия решения.
5) У меня появились сомнения относительно доходности
вашего проекта.
6) Никогда не принимайте поспешных решений в денежных
вопросах.
7) Чье мнение решающее в подборе кадров для компании? –
Начальника отдела кадров.
GIVING ADVICE
Ex. 9. Use the following expressions and conjunctions while
giving advice:
You’d better – вам бы лучше (из разумных соображений)
Try... ing – попробуйте...
... is preferable to ... because of ... – ... предпочтительнее ... изза ...
... is not as attractive as ... – ... не столь привлекательно как ...
... is good choice, whereas ... – ... хороший выбор, тогда как...
If I were you, I’d ... – ... если бы я был на вашем месте...
It’s worth ...ing ... – стоит ...
My advice would be to... – я бы посоветовал...
In your shoes, I’d ... – на вашем месте я бы...
Why not do some ... – почему бы не...
It’s a good idea to… – хорошая идея…
Don’t fail to … – непременно…
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Ex. 10. Read the following text and write out all essential
advice on saving money. Use the structures from ex. 9.
ON SAVING MONEY
Hello everyone. I'm Sue Booth, from the Students Union Finance
office, and I also act as the Student Finance advisor. This workshop's on
managing a student budget, or in other words managing a budget as a
student. In this talk, I'll go over some ways of saving money. Let me
give you a few facts and figures first. As you already know life can be
very expensive while you are students. Not only is it expensive with
fees, accommodation, books and so on, students find they have very
little time to supplement their income with work. The average living
costs for home students are £8,400 in London and £7,31 outside
London – this is for home students only, while international students
have higher fees. Much of this total comes from the cost of
accommodation, with students spending around £2,800 in London and
£2,000 elsewhere.
Due to high costs like this, it means that many students have to
work to fund their education. Currently the National Union of Students
estimates that 42% of students work part-time but other estimates are
higher, with some figures saying that 60% of students work to cover
their basic cost of living. Of course, this can have a negative effect on
studies: according to the National Union of Students 38% of students
missed lectures because of working part-time and 21% missed deadlines
for giving work into their departments. However, for many students
even working part-time is not enough to cover their expenses. So here
are a few ways to keep down your costs.
Firstly, if you have a student account with a free overdraft,
withdraw the maximum amount of money and put it into a savings
account where you will earn interest: putting £1,500 in a savings account
giving you 4.5% interest could earn you around £69 a year. This doesn't
sound like much but according to estimates from the National Union of
Students, this is about 7% of students’ annual food bills.
Cutting down on your household costs can help too. Keep an eye
on your fuel bills – by lowering the heating in your house you could
save £30 a year, and by changing your light bulbs for energy efficient
lights, you can save £10 a year on electricity. Check the prices of your
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energy suppliers regularly and change supplier if you find a cheaper
one. You could buy a pre-pay fuel card to pay your bills – these often
give you a slight discount on your energy bill. If all this doesn‘t sound
like very much, you could save up to £70 on transport by investing in
a bicycle, and you get fitter with this too.
You can make another major saving by buying your books secondhand: the average cost of books is £367. Check out the departmental
notice board for students leaving the department and selling their books.
Alternatively you can go to the second-hand bookshops near the campus
or even buy second-hand books over the Internet.
Now let’s look at shopping. The Student’s Union has negotiated
student discounts at several different places including clubs, theatres,
cinemas, bookshop and stationery shops, so make sure that you know
where these places are and that you use your discount. Try to do your
shopping weekly and if possible do it with other students that you can
take advantage of offers at the supermarket. Finally, try to avoid
making cash withdrawals more than once a week and after you have
made your weekly withdrawal, leave your cash card at home.
Ex. 11. Read the following advice on how to live a long life.
Add some personal hints using structures from ex.9.
How to live forever: 8 golden rules
Rule 1
Don’t live in Iceland. With long dark winters, sub-zero
temperatures and active volcanoes, it has the world’s highest suicide
rate. Move to Palm Beach, Florida, where you have a much better
chance of living to be over a 100 – like the rest of the residents.
Rule 2
Don’t go to Johannesburg. It’s the murder capital of the world.
Statistically, it’s a lot more dangerous than Sao Paolo or New York.
Milan’s a little safer but try not to breathe. The pollution’s even worse
than in Mexico City.
Rule 3
Don’t get sick in Equatorial Guinea. There’s only one doctor to
every 70,000 patients and no anaesthetic. If you have to be ill, be ill in
Kuwait. It has by far the lowest death rate in the world. Only 3.1
people per thousand die annually, compared with 11.2 in Britain.
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Rule 4
If you’re a man, think of becoming a woman. On average, women
live 10% longer than men. If you’re a woman, stay single. Crime
figures show women are twice as likely to be killed by their partner
than anyone else.
Rule 5
Smoke one cigarette a day. It won’t do you much harm and,
according to some doctors, it’s one of the best ways of avoiding
senility in old age.
Rule 6
Drink red wine – in moderation. Half as many red wine drinkers
suffer from heart conditions as white wine and beer drinkers.
Rule 7
Become a “chocoholic”. Chocolate isn’t good for you, but it
releases chemicals in the brain that make you significantly happier.
And it’s a medical fact that happiness prolongs life.
Rule 8
Die young and famous – like Elvis and John Lennon. People will
think that you are still alive! Even if you can’t be as famous as M.
Monro or Kurt Cobain, you can be a little more careful than they
were. No sex, no drugs, no rock’n’roll. You won’t actually live longer.
It will just seem like it!
Ex. 12. Below are a number of ways of saving or making
money. Note down which you think are sensible and which you
would not recommend. Use the structures of giving advice.
1 buying in bulk to beat inflation
2 looking out for genuine reductions and real bargains in the
sales
3 buying supermarket brands rather than brand-name products
4 buying economy-size packets and tins of things
5 collecting packet tops that offer discounts on the next
purchase, have '5p off-'labels on them or contain forms for special
offers
6 looking out for special HP (hire-purchase) deals at good rates
of interest
7 delaying payment of bills until the final demand
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8 taking your holidays out of season at cheap rates
9 buying second-hand clothes in jumble sales or charity shops
10 buying products that offer trading stamps or gift vouchers or
competitions with once-in-a-lifetime prizes
11 using the telephone at off-peak, cheap-rate times
12 shopping only at places where money can be refunded rather
than goods exchanged
13 changing your foreign currency when the rates of exchange
are favourable
14 checking your bank statement and cheque counterfoils to
make sure there are no errors
15 looking after receipts and guarantees
Unit Three
Ex. 1. Learn the following words:
To acquire – (v)
обретать (умения,
навыки или что-либо
материальное)
To owe smth to smb –
(v) задолжать комулибо что-либо
To make a profit – (v)
получать прибыль
To refer to – (v)
1) ссылаться на что-либо;
2) называть
To own smth. – (v)
владеть чем-либо
To borrow smth from smb
– (v) занять; взять на время
что-либо у кого-либо
To go bankrupt – (v)
обанкротиться
To lend (lent) – (v)
одолжить комулибо что-либо
Maturity date – (n)
срок оплаты
(погашения)
To entail – (v)
повлечь за собой
The deadline – (n)
крайний срок
To meet obligations – (v)
удовлетворять
(выполнять) обязательства
A guaranteed return – Equity – (n) участие;
(n) гарантированный
капитал компании;
возврат на вложенные остаточная стоимость;
средства
акционерный капитал;
справедливость
Insolvency – (n)
Principal – (n)
неплатежеспособность 1) Лицо, от чьего имени
действует агент; 2) сумма
денег, на которую
начисляется процент
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At the discretion of
– (n) на
усмотрение...
To eliminate- (v)
ликвидировать
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Ex. 2. Read the text
ACQUISITION OF CAPITAL
All businesses need financial support. The process of acquiring
necessary capital is known as financing. A corporation uses two basic
types of financing: equity financing and debt financing. Equity
financing refers to funds that are invested by owners of the
corporation. Debt financing, on the other hand, refers to funds that are
borrowed from sources outside the corporation.
Equity financing (obtaining owner funds) can be exemplified by
the sale of corporate stock – pieces of paper that state that “the holder
of this share owns a part of this corporation”. When the corporation
makes a profit, its owners share in the benefits by receiving a dividend
or by selling their shares for more money than they originally paid.
When the corporation loses money, however, the dividends are
reduced or eliminated and the share price tends to fall. In the worst
case, the corporation goes bankrupt, owing more than it can pay. The
shares then become worthless, and the owners lose all the money
invested in them.
Often equity financing does not provide the corporation with
enough capital and it must turn to debt financing, or borrowing funds.
One example of debt financing is the sale of corporate bonds. In this
type of agreement, the corporation borrows money from an investor in
return for a bond. The bond has a maturity date, a deadline when the
corporation must repay all of the money it has borrowed. The
corporation must also make periodic interest payments to the
bondholder during the time the money is borrowed. If these
obligations are not met, the corporation can be forced to sell its assets
in order to make payments to the bondholders.
Stocks often rise and fall in value rapidly, while bonds tend to be
more stable. Bondholders are creditors of a corporation with a
guaranteed return on their investment, whereas stockholders are
owners, with all the risks and rewards ownership entails.
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Ex. 3. Study the table. Look up the words in the glossary.
Characteristics of Stocks and Bonds
Characteristics
Type of
financial
instrument
Order of claim
Stocks
Equity
Bonds
Debt
Dividends can be issued only
after interest on all debts
(including bonds) is fully paid.
Legal
Dividends may be varied or
obligations
to omitted at the discretion of
holders`
the board of directors; no
principal or maturity dates
are involved.
Rights of holders Voting stockholders can
influence management by
electing members of the
board of directors.
Tax status
Dividends are not taxdeductible.
Interest must be paid
before any dividends on
stock are issued.
Interest must be paid
regularly
to
avoid
insolvency; principal must
be repaid at stated maturity
date.
Bondholders have no voice
in management as long as
they
receive
interest
payments.
Interest as an expense of
doing business is taxdeductible.
Ex. 4. Answer the following questions:
1) How can the necessary capital be acquired?
2) What is the difference between equity and debt financing?
3) How can equity financing be exemplified?
4) What do we call the piece of paper stating that holder of this
share owns a part of this corporation?
5) What happens to the dividends when corporation loses money?
6) What is the outcome in the worst case?
7) What if equity financing doesn’t provide the corporation with
enough money?
8) Give an example of debt financing.
9) What are the characteristics of a bond?
10) What happens if the obligations are not met?
11) Why do stocks rise and fall? How do they compare to the
bonds?
12) Is it safer to be a stockholder or a bondholder? Why?
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Unit Four
Cross-cultural aspects
Study the table, prepare a report on different aspects of crosscultural communication. Use parentheses from the previous units
Greeting
France
Shake hands
on arrival
and
departure
On time; a
few minutes
delay is
tolerated
In a meeting
Business
the card is
Card
placed in
front of
owner
Very formal
Business
Correspondence language
Appointments
Germany
Japan
Shake hands
Shake hands
on arrival and only if
departure and offered-not too
announce your much eye
name
contact-short
head nod
Arrive 5
On time –
minutes only
phone, fax or
e-mail to
confirm
Cards not
Important giftalways
read carefullyexchanged
never write on
it
Serious
business-like
tone
7.00-16.00.
Working Hours Don’t
usually start Middle and
before 8.30 – senior
quite long
management
lunch –
often work
overtime
later
Department
Often based on
Decisionhead
collects
team work and
making
suggestions
consensus
and makes
decision
alone
Negotiating
Lengthy and
formal – like
to make
speeches
Precise, direct,
stick to the
point
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UK
Shake hands –
exchange
business cards
Mostly on
time
Exchange and
put into wallet
Usually short
messages
Sometimes
long winded
Contract: 9.0017.00reality:much
longer
Known to
work the
longest hours
in Europe
Group
decision – in
case of
deadlock
senior
manager
decides
Hard and
tough
Decisions can
be slow
Tough
underneath
polite and
sometimes
seemingly
vague attitude
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Telephoning
Entertaining
Meetings
Phone a lot –
might
interrupt
speaker
Lavish
restaurant
lunches
Lengthy, a
little
disorganized
with
interruptions
Short, direct,
no small talk
Phone a lot –
all day
Polite, a bit of
small talk first
Short canteen
lunches –
rarely invite
people home
Short,
punctual and
well prepared
Early and
lengthy
dinners-men
only
Polite, silences
which should
be respected
Business
lunches and
dinners-pubs
Informal tone
– use of
humour
Ex. 1. Read the dialogue. Write out all the peculiarities
concerning different nations.
Bill: Right. Thanks, Helen. Urn, information, particularly
something negative, is communicated in different ways around the
world. In the US, people tend to speak and write fairly explicitly and
frankly, and many people pride themselves on saying what they mean.
If they want to say ‘no’, they come straight out with it. But in some
societies, a great deal of information is transmitted non-verbally. The
Japanese, for instance, usually don’t want to displease others with a
negative answer, so they may not say ‘no’ – but it’s still clearly
understood if you can read non-verbal signs.
There can be a big difference in appropriate eye contact, too, from
country to country. In the United States, if you look someone in the
eye when they’re speaking to you, you’re thought to be honest and
reliable. Looking away or at the floor indicates that that you aren’t
paying attention or you’re guilty. But in Japan, an attempt to maintain
eye contact isn’t usually acceptable behaviour and may be taken as a
sign of aggression. Looking away is a sign of respect, rather than of
hiding something. On the other hand, in some Arab countries, such as
in Saudi Arabia, eye contact is important and can help in
communication.
Helen: Ways of shaking hands vary around the world, too. A
weak grip, held for a relatively long time, is normal in Japan, and
certainly doesn’t mean the person is weak. In the United States, the
way that someone shakes hands has long been taken as an indicator of
their personality. A firm grip is thought to show strength of character.
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Attitudes towards time vary. If you make an appointment with an
Arab business person, you may find that your meeting begins long
past the appointed time, though it’ll probably last as long as necessary
to conduct the business in hand. There, time is a servant, not a master,
and the idea that a person should be ruled by the clock is amusing. But
in United States, time is money. If someone’s kept waiting for a
meeting half an hour beyond the time that was agreed, it’s seen as a
signal that they aren’t important. So Americans try to avoid this
happening.
People are expected to arrive in good time for a meeting in Japan.
Being late demonstrates that you can’t be trusted to keep your word or
manage your time. But in Arab tradition, punctuality isn’t regarded in
the same way. People can show up hours later, or not at all, and it
won’t be taken as an insult. Of course, a lot of Arabs, particularly
business people, are aware that attitudes towards punctuality are
different in other parts of the world.
In Japan, business meetings normally start with some casual
conversation, because the Japanese are generally interested in getting
to know the people involved. In America, though, meetings sometimes
begin with phrases such as ‘Let’s get started’.
Over to you, Bill.
Bill: OK, let’s turn to personal space. When you’re standing
talking to someone, make sure you adopt the distance that’s
appropriate to the local culture. In the US and Britain, business people
usually stand close enough to shake hands, about 75 or 90 cm apart. In
the Arab world, it’s less, maybe under 30cm,and you sometimes see a
British person backing away to maintain their preferred distance,
while the Arab they’re talking to keeps moving towards them, to
maintain his or hers. The Japanese prefer a greater distance than
either, perhaps 120cm, and may see the British as getting too close.
One reason for maintaining that distance in Japan is to have room to
bow when they greet someone – a custom that to some extent
corresponds to the American habit of nodding.
Helen: And finally, you need to get used to the fact that in much
of Asia, people gravitate towards other people in public spaces. For
example, if you’re sitting in a movie theatre surrounded by empty
seats and a local resident enters, he’s likely to sit next to you – it’s
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considered appropriate in many parts of the world, but an American,
for instance, would feel they were sitting much too close. And that’s
as far as we’ve got.
Ex. 2. Read the text. Write out the characteristic features of
German business culture.
Business practice in Germany
German business practice is usually carefully structured and wellordered. Method and routine and hard work are preferred to
pragmatism and the inspirational approach. Anyone dealing with a
German company should stick to the timetable agreed and the terms of
the contract as closely as possible. To fail to meet delivery dates, to be
late for meetings, to say one thing and do another, is to build up
mistrust rapidly and gain a lasting reputation for unreliability. Even if
something goes wrong unexpectedly, or simply through bad luck, the
unhappy experience that results will produce uncomfortable feelings
that could well terminate the business relationship. It is always best,
therefore, in the words of Macbeth, to “make assurance double sure”.
It is bad practice, and bad manners in the eyes of many Germans, to
approach business with any appearance of lightheartedness, flippancy
or any attitude that suggests less than 100% commitment. Being able
to think quickly on the feet is no substitute for methodical planning.
Iron, rather than mercury, is the favoured mineral. They share with the
French a respect for the authority of those in responsible positions, but
place perhaps more emphasis on experience and track-record than on
technical or academic qualifications. Like the French, they expect
management to have some first-hand experience or factory floor
practice. At all times outsiders should avoid losing their tempers when
conducting business in Germany. Anger is a sign of weakness, not
strength. Forcefulness is sometimes interpreted as bluster. Strikes in
Germany tend to be short-lived affairs, often ending with surprisingly
little acrimony on either side. They are seen as the signal that a period
of careful and intense negotiation is needed, rather than as a
declaration of industrial war.
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Ex. 3. Answer the questions:
1) How can German business practice be characterized?
2) What should German partners stick to?
3) What kind of approach is out of the question in dealing with
Germans?
4) What can terminate a relationship with German partners?
5) It is always best “to make assurance double sure” with German
partners, isn’t it?
6) What is considered bad manners in the eyes of Germans?
7) Can commitment to business be less than 100% in deals with
German partners?
8) What do German partners share with French businessmen?
9) What do Germans place more emphasis on?
10) What do Germans expect from managers first and foremost?
11) What should outsiders avoid by all means?
12) What is a sign of weakness for Germans?
13) How can German strikes be characterized?
Unit Five
Business Etiquette
Ex. 1. Learn the words, read the text and state all the features
of the Arab etiquette.
1. loiterer – (n) бездельник; to loiter – (v) мешкать, копаться,
отставать, плестись;
2. delay – (n) задержка, простой, проволочка; to delay– (v)
откладывать, замедлять, задерживать;
3. once – (adv)(cj) если, когда, как только;
4. to indulge in – (v) потворствовать, баловать, портить;
доставлять удовольствие; дать себе волю в чём-то;
злоупотреблять;
5. bribery – (n) взяточничество; продажность;
6. gaol – (n) тюрьма;
7. to precede – (v) предшествовать;
8. to decline – (v) отклонять;
9. an insult – (n) оскорбление;
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10. strain – (n) напряжение;
11. to browbeat – (v) запугать;
THE ARAB WORLD
Business practices.
The Arabs are not a punctual people. This doesn’t mean that we
should show ourselves to be life’s loiterers, but we should expect
delays to the start of any meeting. It is impolite to show any anger or
frustration at such delays, however. To the Arab there is plenty of
time, and we must try to identify with that.
Once is gets under way, business is conducted at a slow pace.
Again, there must be no display of temper of this. It is also a dreadful
mistake to believe that things can be made to move more quickly by
indulging in a little bribery. Westerns do not understand the Arab way
of conducting business if we believe that bribery brings results. The
only result it might bring is several months or years in gaol.
It is essential to have plenty of business cards, printed in English
and Arabic (Persian, if we are going to Iran).
Meetings tend to be slow, relaxed and friendly. They are usually
preceded by the serving of coffee. This may be anything from grey to
yellow color, flavoured with spices. Small cups without handles are
passed to each person present, and it is bad manners to decline to
accept it them. The coffee will be sweet. The correct procedure is to
drink two of these tiny cups. In Saudi Arabia, to take only one is an
insult, and to take three or more is greedy. When we wish for our
second coffee, all we have to do is hold out the cup and it will be
refilled. When we have had enough, we simply cover the cup with our
hand and move it in a circular motion. A servant should then come to
take the cup away.
If we are a newcomer to the company assembled for the meeting,
then we shall be shown where to sit, and this will probably be next to
the most important person present. This is both as a mark of respect
and to put us at our ease. it is quite possible, however, that, as soon as
another newcomer enters the room, we shall be moved so that he may
sit next to the most important person present. All this may take a little
time – we have to be patient.
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Patience is essential in negotiations with Arabs. Any sings of
emotional strain or impatience, any display of anger, any attempts to
browbeat or to sell aggressively will be seen as marks of disrespect
and signs of weakness. It is important also not to be thrown by what is
normal behaviour at a business meeting.
Ex. 2. Match word combinations in parts a and b:
а) Терпение существенно важно; попытки запугать;
успокоить кого-либо; проявление нетерпения; ужасная ошибка;
позволив себе прибегнуть к взяточничеству; арабская манера
ведения дел; проявление неуважения; встречи, как правило,
проходят неторопливо; дурной тон отказываться принять; кофе,
как правило, сладкий; если мы полагаем, что взятка даст нужный
результат; как только он начнется; неторопливо;
b) To put smb at one’s ease; to decline to accept; coffee will be
sweet; if we believe that bribery brings results; once it gets under way;
display of temper; dreadful mistake; at a slow pace; bad manners;
meetings tend to be slow; the Arab way of conducting business; by
indulging in a little bribery;
Ex. 3. Answer the questions:
1) What kind of business partners are Arabs?
2) What kind of behaviour will be considered impolite?
3) How do Arabs perceive time?
4) Is it possible to make things happen quicker with Arabs?
5) How do Arabs react to bribery?
6) What will be very helpful in dealing with the Arab partners?
7) What are meetings preceded by?
8) How is coffee served in Arab countries?
9) What is the correct procedure of accepting coffee?
10) How are the participants of business meetings seated around
the table?
11) Prove that patience is really essential in dealing with the
Arabic partners?
12) What will be seen as marks of disrespect and signs of
weakness?
13) Would you be able to collaborate with Arabs?
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Unit Six
Ex. 1. Learn the words. Read the text. Describe the male and
female styles of business.
hands-on – активная вовлеченность в работу
hands-off- невмешательство
STYLES AND APPROACHES IN BUSINESS
Although more women are becoming sales managers, they’ll have
to tailor their management styles to the gender of their employees if
they want to have continued success. According to a study carried out
by John Doyle and Jill Harris of the University of Hull, both female
and male sales personnel welcome the newcomers. But it also points
out that there can be a difference between the management style males
prefer and the one that elicits their best performance.
In particular, the researchers wanted to discover differences in
satisfaction and variations in sales performance under female
supervision. Two management styles were identified. A transactional
style is the more traditional of the two. Male managers are hands-off
until something goes wrong. The philosophy is “When you’re doing
OK, you won’t even know I’m around. But, when you mess up, I’ll be
right next door.”
Women take more hands-on approach. A transformational mode
encourages a more hands-on individual-orientated manner. Women
more than men tend to motivate by encouragement and personal
attention. The former relate to their staff emotionally and tend to
foster new ways of thinking whereas the latter rely on rewards and
punishments.
Ex. 2. Translate from Russian into English:
1) проводить исследования;
2) приветствовать новичков;
3) стиль, дающий наилучшие результаты работы;
4) под руководством женщины-руководителя;
5) два стиля были идентифицированы;
придерживаются
политики
6) мужчины-менеджеры
невмешательства до того момента, пока все идет хорошо;
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7) способствовать включенности в деловые процессы;
8) стиль работы, ориентированный на каждого отдельного
человека;
9) первые из перечисленных относятся к;
10) склонны формировать;
11) последние из перечисленных;
12) рассчитывают не на систему поощрения и наказания.
Ex. 3. Fill in the blanks in the following grid:
Whether____________.From my point of view___________________
____________________ is, in my opinion, the most contributing factor.
Another ___________________________________________________
Finally_____________________________________ is to be considered
Unit Seven
Forecasting
Ex. 1. Read the text. Translate the words in bold type.
Be ready to find the following Russian word combinations:
нет ни малейшего шанса на; возможно произошло; можно
только гадать; растут опасения; шансы малы; очень мала
вероятность того, что; не может быть и речи; почти наверняка;
несомненно, последуют их примеру; просматривается тенденция
к тому, что.
Hopes were fading last night of a peaceful settlement of the
border dispute between North and South Wales. A long, bitter struggle
now looks inevitable after the predictable breakdown of yesterday's
talks.
Fears are growing for the lives of the fifteen people whose boat
sank off the Isle of Wight early yesterday morning. A diver at the
scene said, ‘There's really not the remotest chance of any of them
being found alive now’. The accident was almost certainly caused by
the unexpected change in weather conditions that time and may have
happened as close as twenty metres from the shore.
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The safety of the 250 passengers hijacked late yesterday
afternoon was still in the balance last night. The ten billion dollars
had definitely not been paid by the midnight deadline, and it seems
unlikely that it will be in the foreseeable future. What the hijackers'
next move will be is anybody's guess.
Prospects of an end to the three-month-old strike of Public
Service Employees still look slim. A union spokesman is quoted as
saying: ‘There's no possibility of any progress while the Government
remain so stubborn. There's no way we'll accept two and a half per
cent'. A Government Minister commented: 'An increased offer is
absolutely out of the question, certainly this year and most likely for
some years to come.'
It looks as if unemployment figures, interest rates and inflation
are all certain to continue rising. Cabinet Ministers now admit there is
very little likelihood of any improvement before the end of the
decade. Meanwhile BP have announced that in all probability they
will be forced to put up their petrol prices by 15% from next month. It
is thought that their competitors are bound to follow suit. A further
increase before the end of the year has not been ruled out, while
heavier taxation оn petrol is still very much on the cards.
Ex. 2. Translate the following Russian sentences into English:
1) Нет ни малейшего шанса на то, что он примет к сведению
(to take into consideration) наши рекомендации;
2) Все больше растут опасения относительно положительных
сдвигов в ситуации возможного банкротства этой компании;
3) Перспективы на получение существенных дивидендов с
акций этой компании пока ничтожны;
4) Четко (явно) прослеживаются тенденции к обесцениванию
акций его компании;
5) Как сложится ситуация с возвратом кредитов при общих
кризисных тенденциях, можно только гадать;
6) Его дальнейшее продвижение по служебной лестнице в
обозримом будущем маловероятно;
7) О досрочном возврате долга не может быть и речи;
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8) Совершенно определенно, что его требования не были
удовлетворены, и маловероятно, что это произойдет в обозримом
будущем;
9) Очень мала вероятность того, что поставка сырья будет
происходить в рамках договоренности прошлого года;
10) Не исключен резкий поворот от заявленных приоритетов;
11) Не остается никаких надежд на то, что переговоры
примут нужный нам ход;
12) Возможно, подписание договора все-таки состоялось.
Ex. 3. Write a forecast for some well-known company’s
performance. Use the clichés from the above exercises as well as
the following structural grids:
Plan A
Plan B
Plan C
Plan D
_______________ is a matter of debate.
There are, however, several strong arguments against this.
_______________________________ is obviously the main
argument.
Another justification is _______________________________
__________________________________________________
From my point of view, _______________________________
Many people are expressing concern about ________________ .
Other people, by contrast, ______________________________
There are, of course, several risks inherent in such a development.
The most obvious danger is _____________________________
____________________________________________________
is another hazard.
Having said that, however, I believe _______________________ .
____________________ is a matter of debate
There are, of course, several strong arguments for/against doing this.
____________________________ is obviously the main argument
for/against
However, in my opinion, _________________________________ .
another justification for/against is __________________________ .
Having said that, however, I feel ___________________________ .
From my point of view, __________________________________ .
_______________ has been a considerable hostile debate
There are, of course, a number of problems involved in adopting
such a policy.
The main difficulty is __________________._________________
is yet another obstacle.
As far as I am concerned, _________________________________ .
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Section Two
Grammar
Different ways of expressing future
Form
Meaning/ Use
Example
Future Simple with Decisions made at the OK, I'll see you this
‘will + base form’
moment of speaking
evening at eight.
All right, I'll see you at
eight.
Predictions, often with ‘I I think it will be a
believe, expect, hope, difficult game.
think, etc.’
Offers or willingness
I'll give you a lift if you
like.
All right. I'll water the
plants.
Requests
Will you do me a
favour?
Firm intentions, promises I'll love you forever.
Threats
I won't speak to you
ever again!
Facts about the future
Christmas day will fall
on Tuesday.
Be going to + base form Intentions, plans
I'm going to phone him
Something in the future tomorrow.
is because of something Look. It's going to rain.
in the present
Predictions,
especially That building is going
when there is evidence
to collapse.
Threats
and
official You shall do it.
Shall + base form
declarations
I'll see tо it.
Offers (with I or we)
Shall I help you with
Suggestions
those bags?
Asking for advice or What shall I say if she
calls?
asking for instructions
Activities planned to a We'll
be
waiting
Future Continuous
‘ will be + -ing’
future time
outside the station.
Arrangements, routines
I'll be going by bus as
usual.
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Present Continuous
‘ be + -ing’
Be + to-infinitive
Arrangements, often with
‘tonight, at eight, this
weekend,’ etc.
Official
arrangements,
especially
when
announced
Firm plans or timetables,
especially after ‘when, as
soon as, until,’ etc.
I'm having my hair cut
today.
The President is to visit
Brussels.
The boat leaves the
island on Friday.
I’ll phone you when I
arrive.
Reporting predictions in I thought it would be a
Would + base form
the past, often with ‘I difficult game.
believed, hoped,’ etc.
and You’ll have taken a
Will
+
Perfect Predictions
assumptions (referring to holiday in an English
Infinitive
the Present, Past and speaking country.
Future)
Present Simple
Time and condition clauses with future reference
Form
after + Present Simple
Meaning/Use
when (a future event
has happened)
immediately
after
(smth happens)
earlier than (a future
event)
during the time before
(smth happens)
at the same time as
Example
I’ll see you after I get
back from my holiday.
as soon as + Present
As soon as he arrives at
Simple
the hotel, call a taxi.
before + Present Simple
Finish your work before
Mum comes home.
by the time (that) +
He’ll have gone by the
Present Simple
time you get here.
immediately + Present
Tell me immediately you
Simple
arrive.
once + Present Simple
immediately
after Once she arrives, we can
(smth happens)
start.
until + Present Simple
up to the time that
Keep writing until I tell
you to stop.
when + Present Simple immediately after
I’ll call you when I’m
free.
whenever + Present at any time that
Phone me whenever it’s
Simple
convenient.
while + Present Simple during the time that
Let’s forget work while
we’re on holiday.
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Would
I. Characteristic behaviour or habits in the past (‘will’ in the
present).
Compare:
1. Every day Dan will come home from work and turn on the TV.
2. During the war people would eat all kinds of things that we
don’t eat now.
(We don’t use ‘would’ for a particular occasion in the past)
In speech, we can stress ‘will’ or ‘would’ to criticize people’s
characteristic behaviour or habits:
1. She will leave all the lights on in the house when she goes out.
2. She was happy when Sam left. He would talk about people
behind their backs.
II. To express things that happened repeatedly in the past but
don’t happen now. (Syn. used to)
E.g. Whenever we went to my Uncle Frank’s house, we would
play in the garden.
III. An auxiliary verb in the Subjunctive mood:
E.g. I would like to see this film.
In the main clause when used with I, II conditionals.
If it were not so cold, I would ski.
If I had had money, I would have bought a car.
IV. A modal verb expressing
а) A mild wish (not so direct as ‘will’ )
e.g. I would direct some critical remarks to the author of the
article.
In the negative form it expresses impossibility or lack of wish
to do smth.
e.g. The door wouldn‘t open.
He wouldn‘t answer her question.
b) Persistence
e.g I asked him not to bang the door, but he would do it.
V. An auxiliary verb for the Future-in-the-Past
E.g. He said he would go to France.
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Ex. 1. Analyze the uses of “shall”, “will” and “would”.
1) Boys will be boys, there’s nothing for you to worry about.
2) “Will you come into my parlour?” said the spider to the fly.
3) “Why she had to go I don’t know, she wouldn’t say”
(“Yesterday”).
4) I wish some of you, wise old men, would settle it for me.
5) “Deep in my heart I do believe: We shall overcome some day”.
6) The man had heard Gatsby’s name in a connection, which he
either wouldn’t reveal or didn’t fully understand.
7) “Before you sit down, would you be an absolute dear and do
something for me?”
8) “I like you”. “You won’t, when you know more”. “Yes, I will”.
Ex. 2. Fill in the blanks with “shall” or “will”.
а) The director of a company once noticed that his new secretary
was often late for work, and he asked her to explain it. She said, “It’s
not my fault at all, my watch is a little slow”. The director asked “so
what … we do about it? … you get yourself another watch, or … I get
myself another secretary?”
b) A young policeman was taking a thief to prison, and when they
were passing a baker’s shop, the chief said, “It’s a long way to go, and
we’re both hungry. I … drop in to get some bread for us, and you …
wait here”. The policeman agreed, and the thief disappeared. He was
soon caught again, and the same policeman was told to take him to
prison. When they approached the baker’s, the thief again suggested
buying some bread, but the policeman said, “Well, this time I … not
be deceived. You … stay out here, and I … go into the shop”.
с) A very resolute woman came to a famous pianist asking for a
ticket to his concert. He tried to convince her that all the seats were
taken, but she would not go without a positive answer; she said it
didn’t matter to her where to sit. So finally he said, “All right, I can
offer you the only seat that is left, if you … take it – at the piano”.
Ex. 3. Translate the following sentences using the verbs
“shall”, “will” or “would”, and comment on the meanings.
1) Не уходи, пожалуйста. – Не бойся, не уйду.
2) Дать вам другой экзаменационный билет?
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3) Почему ты не хочешь взять ребёнка с собой?
4) Ты сам можешь ехать, если хочешь, но детей ты с собой не
возьмёшь, я не позволю.
5) Мне было так трудно делать эту работу, но никто мне не
хотел помочь.
6) Почему ты не говоришь мне всей правды?
7) Я не мог и не хотел верить этому.
8) Я ни за что туда не поеду. – Поедешь! Уж я за этим
присмотрю (see to)!
9) Дверь никак не открывалась, пришлось её ломать (force).
10) Я уверен, что тебе понравится это блюдо, если ты только
попробуешь.
11) А родителям тоже с нами приходить?
12) Ты мог бы многого достичь, если бы захотел.
Ex. 4. Translate or paraphrase “shall”:
The Constitution of the United States of America (1787):
Article 1. Section 1. All legislative Power (Законодательная
власть) shall be vested (возлагать) in a Congress of the United States,
which shall consist of a Senate and a House of Representatives.
Section 6. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a
compensation for their services. They shall be privileged from arrest.
For any speech or debate in either House, they shall not be questioned
in any other place.
Article II. Section 1. The executive Power shall be vested in a
President of the United States of America. He shall hold his office
during the term of four years.
Amendment (поправка) 1. Congress shall make no law
respecting religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof (=of that);
of abridging (ущемление) the freedom of speech, or of the press.
Ex. 5. Put in the verb “shall”:
When, at last, the Queen had a baby, the King invited seven
Fairies to be godmothers to the little Princess. Each of the fairies
presented their gifts to the baby. The youngest declared, ‘The Princess
… be the most beautiful girl in the world’. The next said, ‘Whatever
she does, she … do it most gracefully’. The fourth declared, ‘The
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Princess … dance perfectly’. The fifth said, ‘She … sing like a
nightingale. The sixth promised, ‘She … be able to play sweetly on all
kinds of musical instruments’.
Ex. 6. Put in the verb “would” and comment on its use:
You never saw such a commotion (переполох) in the house in
your life as when my Uncle Podger decided to do a job. A picture …
come from the shop and it … be standing in the dinning room, and
Aunt Podger … ask what was to be done with it, and Uncle Podger …
say, ‘Oh, you leave that to me. Don’t you worry yourselves about that.
I’ll do that’. Then he … take off his coat, and begin. He … lift up the
picture, and drop it, and it … come out of the frame, and he … try to
save the glass, and cut himself; and then he … start looking for his
handkerchief, which was in the pocket of his coat.
Ex. 7. Study File3 and comment on all the cases of future
tenses.
Should
is used to express:
1) Advice, opinion (when smth is a good or the right thing to
do): You look tired. You should go to bed.
2) Smth that is not right or what we expect: I wonder where
Liz is. She should be in bed.
3) To say that we expect smth to happen: She is working hard
for the exam, so she should pass. (I expect her to pass.) There are
plenty of hotels in the town. It shouldn’t be difficult to find
somewhere to stay. (I don’t expect that it will be difficult).
4) After ‘can’t think why / don’t know why / see no reason
why’ … when the speaker queries the reasonableness or justice of
an assumption: “I see no reason why you should interfere in their
quarrel”.
5) Idiomatically with ‘ what, where, who’ in a dramatic
expression of surprise: “But why should I for others groan when
none will sigh for me?”
6) In the following expressions:
It is odd/funny…
It is advisable…
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It is better…
It is essential…
It is only right… that smb should do smth (for smb to do
smth)
It is desirable…
It is imperative…
It is important…
It is natural…
It is reasonable…
It is fair…
It is necessary…
e.g. It is only right that he should have a share.
It is better that he should hear it from you.
7) With the following expressions:
It is/was absurd
It is/was amazing
It is/was annoying
It is/was ludicrous
It is/was odd/funny
that smb should do smth
It is/was ridiculous
It is/was strange
It is/was interesting
e.g. It is ridiculous that we should
be short of water in a country where it is always raining. It is
strange that he should come so early.
8) In the main clause with conditionals of II, III types.
If I saw him, I should tell him about it. It I had seen him, I should
have told him about it.
9) In the conditional clause (I) to say that the possibility is
small.
If Tom should phone, tell him that I’ll phone him a bit later
(Should Tom phone, tell him that I’ll…).
10) After the following words in the construction “that …
should” (as an alternative to a gerund on infinitive construction):
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Advise
Agree
Arrange
Ask
Beg
Command
Decide
Demand
Determine
Insist
Order
Recommend
Request
Stipulate
Suggest
Urge
Ex. 1. Translate the sentences from English into Russian:
1. She advised me that I should keep the gate locked.
2. Also possible: She advised me that the gate should be kept
locked.
3. She advised keeping the gate locked.
4. She advised me to keep it locked.
5. She arranged that I should go abroad.
6. She arranged for me to go abroad.
7. She determined that he should study music.
Ex. 2. Complete the sentences with should (have) + V3 or
should + V1
1. You
missed
a
great
opportunity
last
might.
You_____________(come)
2. We don’t see you enough. You ____________and see us more
often (come)
3. I’m in a difficult situation . What do you think I _______?
4. I’m sorry. I didn’t take your advice. I ________what you said
(do)
5. I posted the letter three days ago, so it ________by now
(arrive)
6. It’s 10 a.m. Where’s Tom? – I think he ( be) in his office.
Ex. 3. Complete the sentences using “should” and one of the
following verbs:
ask
be
leave
say
worry
1. It’s strange that she ________ late. She is usually on time.
2. It’s funny that you ________ that. I was going to say the same
thing.
3. It’s only natural that parents ________ about their children.
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4. Isn’t it typical of John that he ________ without saying good.
5. I was surprised that he ________ me for advice. What advice
could I give him?
Be careful with the verb “suggest”
I suggest
(that) he (should) buy this car
his buying the car
that he buys the car
“Propose” is used in the same way but is slightly more formal.
Ex. 4. Read the text, learn the underlined words and
expressions. Comment on all the cases of using ‘would’:
I propose setting up an International Credit Insurance Corporation
as a sister institution to the IMF. This new authority would guarantee
international loans for a modest free. The borrowing countries would
be obliged to provide data on all borrowings, public or private, insured
or not. This would enable the authority to set a ceiling on the amounts
it is willing to insure. Up to those amounts the countries concerned
would be able to access international capital markets at prime rates.
Beyond these, the creditors would have to beware.
The authority would base its judgment not only on the amount of
credit outstanding, but also on the macroeconomic conditions in the
countries concerned. This would render any excessive credit
expansion unlikely. The capital of the proposed institution would
consist of Special Drawing Rights. This would render its guarantees
watertight. The SDRs would not be inflationary because they would
be used only in case of default; at that time they would replace money
that had been lost. There are many issues to be resolved. The most
important is the link between the borrowing countries and the
borrowers within those countries. Special care must be taken not to
give governments discretionary power over the allocation of credit
because that could foster corrupt dictatorships. But once the need for
such an institution is recognized, the details could be worked out. The
institution can be set up only at a time when international lending is in
a state of collapse. We are now entering such a period.
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To foster – (v) поощрять, стимулировать, питать,
Prime rate – (n) процентная ставка, которую банки взимают с
наиболее кредитоспособных клиентов.
Watertight – (p)
1) обоснованный,
2) не допускающий другого толкования.
To resolve – (v)
1) решать, принимать решения,
2) pазрешать (сомнения),
3) решиться на что-то, разделять,
4) изменяться.
Disctetion – (n) свобода действия.
Discretionary – (a) предоставленный на свое усмотрение.
To insure – (v) страховать.
Ex. 5. Suggest a fund or any other type of organization for
specific purposes. Use the structures from the above exercise.
Indirect Speech
Ex. 1. Study the dialogue in direct and indirect speech:
A. Harold Walters is talking to Bob Allen, a colleague in his
office.
Harold: I need your help, Bob, Can you lend me twenty pounds?
Bob: You’ve been gambling again, haven’t you? Well, I’m not
going to pay your debts. I’ve told you before that if you go on like
this, you’ll lose your job.
Harold: Oh, what a terrible situation! You see, I borrowed twenty
pounds from John Cope last week and I haven’t got the money. He
spoke to me about the debt again yesterday.
Bob: All right. This time I’ll lend you the money, but if you don’t
pay me back, I’ll tell the boss.
Harold: Oh, thanks, Bob. I won’t gamble any more, I assure you.
I’m sorry I’ve given you so much trouble.
B. Harold told Bob he needed his help. He asked Bob if he could
lend him twenty pounds. Bob accused Harold of gambling again, and
refused to pay his debts. He had warned him that if he went on like
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that, he would lose his job. Harold exclaimed that it was a terrible
situation. He explained that he had borrowed twenty pounds from
John Cope the week before and he hadn’t got the money. John had
reminded him of the debt the day before. Bob agreed to lend him the
money but threatened to tell boss if Harold didn’t pay him back.
Harold thanked Bob and promised not to gamble any more. He
apologized for giving him so much trouble.
Ex. 2. Write the following dialogue in indirect speech, in
ordinary narrative form.
e.g. Ann suggested having a party on the next Saturday. Mary
agreed and asked who they should invite.
1. Mary: Yes, let’s. Who shall we invite?
2. Ann: Let’s not make a list. Let’s just invite everybody.
3. Mary: We don’t want to do too much cooking, so what about
making it a wine and cheese party?
4. Ann: Suppose we ask everybody to bring a bottle?
5. Mary: Shall we hire glasses from our local wine shop? We
haven’t many left.
6. Ann: If it’s warm, how about having the party in the garden?
7. Mary: Why not have a barbecue?
8) Ann: Why not? We could ask Paul to do the cooking.
9) Mary: Last time we had a barbecue the neighbours complained
about the noise. Shall we ask everyone to speak in whispers?
10) Ann: Suppose we go round to the neighbours and apologize in
advance this time?
11) Mary: Why not invite the neighbours? Then the noise won’t
matter.
12) Ann: What a clever idea! Shall we start ringing everyone up
tonight?
13) Mary: What about working out how much it will cost first?
Ex. 3. (Alternative constructions are also possible.)
Ann suggested having a party on the following Saturday. Mary
agreed and asked who they should invite. Ann was against making a
list and suggested they should just invite everybody. Mary said they
didn’t want to do much cooking and proposed making it a wine and
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cheese party. Ann then suggested that they should ask everyone to
bring a bottle. Mary reminded her that they hadn’t many glasses left
and suggested hiring glasses from their local wineshop. Ann suggested
having the party in the garden if it was warm and then Mary put
forward the idea of a barbecue. Ann thought this was a good idea and
said they could ask Paul to do the cooking. Mary remembered that last
time they had had a barbecue the neighbours had complained about
the noise, and she wondered if they should ask everyone to speak in
whispers. Ann suggested going round to the neighbours instead and
apologizing in advance. Mary, however, proposed inviting the
neighbours, adding that then the noise wouldn’t matter. Ann thought
that was a clever idea and suggested ringing everyone up that night,
but Mary prudently suggested working out how much it would cost
first.
Ex. 4. Rewrite the polylogue in direct speech:
Garry raised the question of the training budget and invited
comment from the group. Anna insisted that we spend more on
advanced IT skills, but Ingmar doubted that was what was needed. He
pointed out that it was basic computer skills that most of our personnel
lack. Garry agreed and wondered if it wasn’t a recruitment problem.
He suggested we make computer literacy a requirement for
employment. Anna came in at that point and reminded everyone that
we were talking about entry-level staff. She explained that we did not
pay sufficient to expect computer skills and added that IT training was
company’s responsibility. Garry warned us that if we did not change
our recruitment policy, we would have to spend a fortune on training,
but Anna assured him the current cost of training was negligible and
recommended we spend more.
Ex. 5. Listed below are the typical stages in a story or
anecdote. Learn them and use in telling a story.
Opener: I’ll never forget the time I was …
Did I ever tell you about the time I was …
Context: It’s quite a few years ago now, but I can still remember it
Way back in (1985) it was.
This was around the time of…
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Emphasis: You are not going to believe this, but…
You should have heard\seen…
And the strange (funny, unbelievable) thing was…
And then to top it all…
But that was nothing compared to…
Close: Anyway, in the end…
I ended up…
Anyway, to cut a long story short.
Seems quite funny, but it didn’t at that time.
If you listen to a story, express your emotions using the
following clichés:
Sounds terrifying!
Oh, my God!
Oh, yes, I’ve read about this…
Goodness gracious!
I thought as much
You must be joking!
You don’t say so
No wonder…
I see what you mean
What on earth for?
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Section Three
Supplement
File № 1
MAKING A TRANSFER
Dialogue
Bank assistant: Fine. Now, where do you want to make the
transfer to and from?
Alice: I'd like to send money from my current account abroad.
Bank assistant: Which country are you sending it to?
Alice: To China – my boyfriend is on holiday there and he's run
out of money.
Bank assistant: Oh dear. China, okay. Now there are several
ways to do this. We can do it by credit card, by electronic transfer, by
cheque or by banker's draft.
Alice: Erm, I'm not sure – what's the best way?
Bank assistant: Well, that all depends. The simplest way is by
cheque really.
Alice: I just write the cheque and send it.
Bank assistant: Yes, but it can be very slow and take a long time
for the money to clear, between three to four weeks – how soon do
you need the money to get there?
Alice I'd like it to get there in the next couple of weeks
Bank assistant: So really sending a cheque is going to be too
slow
Alice: Yes, I think so.
Bank assistant: Let's look at electronic transfer then. This usually
takes between two and five working days.
Alice: That’s two to five days.
Bank assistant: Working or business days, if you send it on
Friday it will get there the following Friday at the latest
Alice: I see, that's much better.
Bank assistant: Yes, but we do charge a fee for this. We charge a
flat fee of £21, and on top of that the receiving bank may charge a fee
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and an agent may also charge you for transferring the money between
banks.
Alice: So how much is it altogether?
Bank assistant: We can't give you an exact amount – you need to
check it with the receiving bank and any agents that they use.
Alice: I see
Bank assistant: Also you can send it in sterling or dollars from
here, but there will be an additional fee depending on the exchange
rate when you convert it into Renmimbi.
Alice: So there will be another charge too?
Bank assistant: I am afraid so.
Alice: Does it make any difference if I send it in dollars or
sterling?
Bank assistant: It could make a difference according to which
currency has the best exchange rate. The other difference is this: if
you send dollars, the amount goes through the US clearing system: we
send the money to our branch in London they then send it to our
branch in New York and the New York branch sends it to the bank .
Alice: So how do I proceed with the transfer?
Bank assistant: OK, first we'll need some details about the
beneficiary from you.
Alice: The who?
Rank assistant: The beneficiary: the person receiving the money
Alice: OK – what do you need to know?
Bank assistant: We'll need the full name of the beneficiary and
their account number.
Alice: OK.
Bank assistant You need to tell us the name of the bank in China
and the address of the receiver. We also need the bank’s sort code and
the SWIFT number.
Alice: What's a SWIFT number?
Bank assistant: Basically it's an inter-bank code: it helps banks
identify each other through a unique code number.
Alice: OK, and that’s spelt ... ?
Bank assistant: S-W-I-F-T, swift. And the final thing we need is
the reason for sending the money
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Alice: You need a reason from me? I just told you my boyfriend’s
run out of money
Bank assistant: Well, we don't need a reason – the receiving
government needs to know why the money is entering the country and
we have to be able to tell them.
Alice: OK. So from me you need: the bank's name, the address of
the branch, the sort code and SWIFT number; the beneficiary's name
number and a reason for sending the payment
Bank assistant: Yes, that’s correct
Alice: OK, so I'll check these out and come back to you wish
them so we can go ahead with the transfer.
File № 2
Fill in the blanks with either “men” or “women” depending
on the context:
SURVEY HIGHLIGHTS
On phoning
The majority of both men and women want to be phoned within
three days. However, 35% of (1) _______ said they would expect to
be phoned the next day, while only 19% of (2) _______ gave this
answer.
On dates
On average, (3) _______ are prepared to wait for their date longer
than (4) _______. Eighteen per cent of (5) _______ said that they
would only wait for five minutes, whereas 67% of (6) _______ would
be prepared to wait half an hour or more.
On childcare
(7) _______ are far more in favour of men staying at home to
look after the children than (8) _______. While 65% of (9) _______
said it was fine, only 30% of (10) _______ agreed. The majority of
(11) _______ do not feel that it is appropriate for the man to stay at
home with the children.
On birthdays
The results of the survey suggest that (12) _______ attach greater
importance to birthday than (13) _______: 29% said they would be
angry and upset if their partner forgot their birthday.
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On attraction
Three out of four (14) _______ have bought new clothes to attract
a member of the opposite sex compared with only one in five (15)
_______. Similarly, while just under half of the (16) _______
interviewed have changed their hair or dieted, only one in ten (17)
_______ admitted to doing the same. However, a significant number
of both men and women admitted lying about their age, with the
important difference that (18) _______ tended to say they were older
while (19) _______ were more likely to knock a few years off their
age.
On marriage
The results of the survey show that (20) _______ are more in
favour of marriage than (21) _______. Sixty-one per cent of (22)
_______ didn’t think much of this institution whereas four out of five
(23) _______ interviewed gave a resounding thumbs-up to marriage
as the ideal romantic relationship.
File № 3
Task: Read the text. Give the main information about the
offshore areas.
Tax haven
A tax haven is a country, often a small island nation with little
local industry, where income and profits are not taxed or are taxed at a
very low rate. The purpose of a tax haven is not to facilitate illegal
international activities but to provide a low-tax environment to
otherwise overlooked economic centers. The most popular tax havens
are found on islands in the Caribbean and the Pacific, or in small
countries in Europe and Central America.
Many small states, such as the Cayman Islands or the Isle of Man,
require little or no taxes from the foreigners who come there to set up
operations. Just as many U.S. companies choose to register their
headquarters in Delaware to take advantage of lower taxes and
favorable legal requirements, many international companies set up
subsidiaries on small islands like those of the Netherlands Antilles to
benefit from favorable international regulations and tax rates.
A lot of companies from Europe and North America have also
used subsidiaries in the Netherlands Antilles to issue bonds in the
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Eurobond market. A bond is basically an IOU, a piece of paper
giving the holder the right to receive a specific amount of money at a
specific time. The borrower, or issuer, of a bond has two obligations.
First, the issuer has to pay back the original amount borrowed, called
the principal. Second, the borrower needs to pay interest periodically,
to reward those who use the bond as an investment. These interest
payments are also called coupons in reference to the little pieces of
paper attached to bonds before the electronic markets made such paper
transactions unnecessary. Bearer bonds are the ultimate transferable
security. Most international securities are issued in bearer form. There
is no name on the bond and no registration. The holder of a bearer
bond has the right to receive the full value of the bond at maturity, in
addition to all interest payments.
Some individuals also prefer the anonymity of setting up
companies in tax havens. They can then choose whether or not to
report the income booked through these offshore companies to their
home country. Even though this is illegal in their home country, it is
not necessarily illegal in the tax haven itself.
Although tax havens do attract some illegal operations, such as
money laundering, most activity in the world's tax haven fully
complies with international laws and regulations.
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Учебное издание
Бугрова Ирина Константиновна
Введение
в деловой английский
для специальности ПИЭ
Методические указания
Корректор И.В. Бунакова
Компьютерная верстка Е.Л. Шелеховой
Подписано в печать 02.04.2009 г. Формат 60×84/16. Бумага тип.
Усл. печ. л. 3,02. Уч.-изд. л. 2,0.
Тираж 50 экз. Заказ
.
Оригинал-макет подготовлен
в редакционно-издательском отделе ЯрГУ.
Отпечатано на ризографе.
Ярославский государственный университет.
150000 Ярославль, ул. Советская, 14.
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И.К. Бугрова
Введение
в деловой английский
для специальности ПИЭ
54
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