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History about Stonehenge Підготувала учениця 9 класу Жабокрик Анна с. Хомутинці 2012 Stonehenge - a majestic building with giant boulders, built four thousand years ago on Salisbury Plain British Isles. Now is received convincing evidence that Stonehenge was used as an astronomical observatory, which allowed to determine the change of seasons, and solar and lunar eclipses. The majestic ruins remain secret. Will we get the news brought by them from incredible depths of millennia? Or, maybe, humanity is appointed to the solution of the message left to us unknown civilization? Legends, History "If you are inclined to think that life is shallow and soon we'll get to the base of everything, these ancient stones, gray columns remind us of the immeasurable depths of time."In the whole world there is nothing else like these harsh ruins which "are ever so lonely, like on his boundless plain." What was this gigantic and silent? What is created, what was, this monument, created by those from whom the land were no more tracks? This question, the answer is unknown, yet people interested for a long time. Stonehenge is so old that in antiquity his true history was forgotten. This place has always been surrounded by legends and tales, each in his own era tried to explain its mystery.Legends say that once Uther Pendragon, father of the legendary King Arthur, appeared in Salisbury, "which counts and princes ... lay buried," and "thought it would be better ... as a place to honor the green turf which covered so many noble warriors" . Magician Merlin advised him: "If you wish to decorate the grave of these people worthy to mark it forever, send people for Tank Giants, in Killaros a mountain in Ireland. • These stones, and is currently not able to install them none unless there is reason it big as his art. because these enormous stones, and nowhere others, endowed with equal force, and is set in a ring round the place, as they are now, and they are idle until the end of ages. Uther laughed and said: "But why carry the stones are so huge with so far country, though in Britain will not find the stones for such things?" Merlin said, "Do not laugh without thinking ... in these stones hidden secret ... Giants in antiquity brought them out distant lands of Africa, and set in Ireland in the days when they lived there ... and there is among them a stone not empowered to witchcraft. "Merlin convinced the king, and in one night with the help of the" magic words "and magical forces moved these stones Britain.In the 17th century. thought that Stonehenge was devoted to the glory Queen Boudica, who led a revolt against Rome. Proclaimed the majestic ruins and "an Old triumphal temple in honor Anarayit, their goddess of victory," and "a giant building, erected by the Danes to be a royal court or a place for the election and coronation of kings."In the same era were made, perhaps, the first in the history of a thorough inspection of the building by John Aubrey. He inspected the monument, and concluded that these old stone church were Druids.Stonehenge, like all other circular structures of stone, was a "snake house" or "Dragontiy." Legends, guesses versions about the origin and meaning of Stonehenge continue to multiply. In the early twentieth century. were committed serious archaeological study of the monument. History of Stonehenge proved no less interesting. Multiton stone slab delivered, processed and set with great accuracy that impressed researchers. • • In the 70 years of the century astronomer Gerald Hawkins, native of England, made a discovery that was a major step in the solution of the mystery of Stonehenge. His work was first performed, that this building is the oldest observatory. Further development of this theory showed that unknown builders had profound knowledge in astronomy and mathematics. Advanced as a complex astronominyh tools and at the same time simple from an architectural point of view, slim and sophisticated in their function, economic and majestic in appearance, causing trembling, Stonehenge is a brilliant example of design. Facts and hypotheses In the 70 years of the century astronomer Gerald Hawkins, native of England, made a discovery that was a major step in the solution of the mystery of Stonehenge. His work was first performed, that this building is the oldest observatory. Further development of this theory showed that unknown builders had profound knowledge in astronomy and mathematics. ► Advanced as a complex astronominyh tools and at the same time simple from an architectural point of view, slim and sophisticated in their function, economic and majestic in appearance, causing trembling, Stonehenge is a brilliant example of design ► Many attempts to assume and model building methods, organization, management, supplies needed for such a huge work led researchers to conclude that the construction of Stonehenge can be compared with modern design program of space research dollars. According to scientists, Stonehenge was erected in three stages. The first was a large circular ditch dug from two banks on either side of the entrance to the northeast and one vertical stone set outside. External shaft diameter of about 115 meters was an earthen embankment width of 2.5 m and a height of 50-80 cm Inside, on the perimeter of the inner shaft was a ring of 56 holes (called Aubrey holes). 56 Aubrey holes - a ring of pits are carefully marked and dug, and then - filled with the crushed chalk. So the exact placing of 56 holes on such large circle represents a considerable engineering achievement. The inner shaft the most significant component of Stonehenge Cretaceous - bright white, about 6 m wide, from ridge to ridge about 100 m to the northwest of the shaft is not locked. Approximately 30 meters northeast of the center for the shaft is Heelstone, surrounded by a small ditch. He stands between two parallel earthen called Alyeyeyu. Near the inner edge of the shaft are two stones, called "basic" (№ 91 and № 93) Sarso, quite similar to each other either in form or size. In addition, near the inner edge of the shaft there are two circle mounds whose centers form with two supporting stones rectangle (№ 92 and № 94). It is logical to assume that both embankments once there were two supporting stones. Ring with large worked stones with horizontal called sarsenovoho ring. At one time sarsenove ring in 31 m diameter included 30 stones. But now only 17 stones, some of which once fell down and were lifted and set again. Preserved in its place six bars. Vertical faces bars were curved, which repeated the arc of a circle. Crossbar sarsenovoho rings aligned on one level with an accuracy of one centimeter, and held in place by mounting that carpenters called "nest-tenon" (the vertical slab "spike" on the horizontal - "Nest"). Between themselves also clamped: their sides that merge are performances and gutters. The system of these connections gave the building a significant resistance. The largest stones of Stonehenge - a 10 enormous Sarso installed in pairs inside the main ring. Each pair of stones of his time lying crossbar, and to describe such a construction of three stones were devised word "trilit." Now, after one trilit was restored in 1958, there are three trilitis of five. Nearby trilitis horseshoe that its open end facing the Alley and Heelstone. Their height is 5 m and weight - up to 50 tons Trilitis horseshoe ring, tied together by transverse plates and Ancient Heelstone formed the grand stone buildings. They are enormous by modern standards: height from 6 to 9 m, width about 2m, weight - 25 to 50 tons. • • • • Inside the sarsen ring remains of another ring of smaller "blue" stones, which have a blue tint in wet weather. Inside the horseshoe trilitis are other blue stones. Finally, inside the horseshoe of blue stones, though not exactly in the center is a block dubbed "Altarnyy stone." At the end of the 18th century first drew attention to the fact that the axis of Stonehenge is oriented to the point of sunrise at the summer solstice. In the mid-19th century found that supporting stones are also astronomical orientation. The line drawn through the supporting stone number 93 and number 94, also shows the point of sunrise at the summer solstice.