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Stonehenge

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Дивовижна Британія
History about
Stonehenge
Підготувала
учениця 9 класу
Жабокрик Анна
с. Хомутинці
2012

Stonehenge - a majestic building
with giant boulders, built four
thousand years ago on Salisbury
Plain British Isles. Now is received
convincing evidence that
Stonehenge was used as an
astronomical observatory, which
allowed to determine the change
of seasons, and solar and lunar
eclipses.

The majestic ruins remain secret.
Will we get the news brought by
them from incredible depths of
millennia? Or, maybe, humanity is
appointed to the solution of the
message left to us unknown
civilization?
Legends, History

"If you are inclined to think that life is
shallow and soon we'll get to the base of
everything, these ancient stones, gray
columns remind us of the immeasurable
depths of time."In the whole world there is
nothing else like these harsh ruins which
"are ever so lonely, like on his boundless
plain." What was this gigantic and silent?
What is created, what was, this monument,
created by those from whom the land were
no more tracks? This question, the answer
is unknown, yet people interested for a
long time. Stonehenge is so old that in
antiquity his true history was forgotten.
This place has always been surrounded by
legends and tales, each in his own era
tried to explain its mystery.Legends say
that once Uther Pendragon, father of the
legendary King Arthur, appeared in
Salisbury, "which counts and princes ... lay
buried," and "thought it would be better ...
as a place to honor the green turf which
covered so many noble warriors" .
Magician Merlin advised him: "If you wish
to decorate the grave of these people
worthy to mark it forever, send people for
Tank Giants, in Killaros a mountain in
Ireland.
•
These stones, and is currently not able to
install them none unless there is reason it
big as his art. because these enormous
stones, and nowhere others, endowed with
equal force, and is set in a ring round the
place, as they are now, and they are idle until
the end of ages. Uther laughed and said:
"But why carry the stones are so huge with
so far country, though in Britain will not
find the stones for such things?" Merlin
said, "Do not laugh without thinking ... in
these stones hidden secret ... Giants in
antiquity brought them out distant lands of
Africa, and set in Ireland in the days when
they lived there ... and there is among them
a stone not empowered to witchcraft.
"Merlin convinced the king, and in one
night with the help of the" magic words
"and magical forces moved these stones
Britain.In the 17th century. thought that
Stonehenge was devoted to the glory Queen
Boudica, who led a revolt against Rome.

Proclaimed the majestic ruins and "an
Old triumphal temple in honor
Anarayit, their goddess of victory,"
and "a giant building, erected by the
Danes to be a royal court or a place
for the election and coronation of
kings."In the same era were made,
perhaps, the first in the history of a
thorough inspection of the building by
John Aubrey. He inspected the
monument, and concluded that these
old stone church were
Druids.Stonehenge, like all other
circular structures of stone, was a
"snake house" or "Dragontiy."
Legends, guesses versions about the
origin and meaning of Stonehenge
continue to multiply. In the early
twentieth century. were committed
serious archaeological study of the
monument. History of Stonehenge
proved no less interesting. Multiton
stone slab delivered, processed and
set with great accuracy that impressed
researchers.
•
•
In the 70 years of the century
astronomer Gerald Hawkins, native of
England, made a discovery that was a
major step in the solution of the
mystery of Stonehenge. His work was
first performed, that this building is the
oldest observatory. Further
development of this theory showed
that unknown builders had profound
knowledge in astronomy and
mathematics.
Advanced as a complex astronominyh
tools and at the same time simple from
an architectural point of view, slim and
sophisticated in their function,
economic and majestic in appearance,
causing trembling, Stonehenge is a
brilliant example of design.
Facts and hypotheses
In the 70 years of the century
astronomer Gerald Hawkins, native of
England, made a discovery that was a
major step in the solution of the mystery
of Stonehenge. His work was first
performed, that this building is the
oldest observatory. Further development
of this theory showed that unknown
builders had profound knowledge in
astronomy and mathematics.
► Advanced as a complex astronominyh
tools and at the same time simple from
an architectural point of view, slim and
sophisticated in their function, economic
and majestic in appearance, causing
trembling, Stonehenge is a brilliant
example of design
►



Many attempts to assume and model
building methods, organization,
management, supplies needed for
such a huge work led researchers to
conclude that the construction of
Stonehenge can be compared with
modern design program of space
research dollars.
According to scientists, Stonehenge
was erected in three stages. The first
was a large circular ditch dug from two
banks on either side of the entrance to
the northeast and one vertical stone
set outside.
External shaft diameter of about 115
meters was an earthen embankment
width of 2.5 m and a height of 50-80
cm Inside, on the perimeter of the
inner shaft was a ring of 56 holes
(called Aubrey holes). 56 Aubrey holes
- a ring of pits are carefully marked
and dug, and then - filled with the
crushed chalk.


So the exact placing of 56 holes on such
large circle represents a considerable
engineering achievement. The inner shaft the most significant component of
Stonehenge Cretaceous - bright white,
about 6 m wide, from ridge to ridge about
100 m to the northwest of the shaft is not
locked. Approximately 30 meters northeast
of the center for the shaft is Heelstone,
surrounded by a small ditch. He stands
between two parallel earthen called
Alyeyeyu.
Near the inner edge of the shaft are two
stones, called "basic" (№ 91 and № 93) Sarso, quite similar to each other either in
form or size. In addition, near the inner
edge of the shaft there are two circle
mounds whose centers form with two
supporting stones rectangle (№ 92 and №
94). It is logical to assume that both
embankments once there were two
supporting stones. Ring with large worked
stones with horizontal called sarsenovoho
ring.

At one time sarsenove ring in 31 m
diameter included 30 stones. But now
only 17 stones, some of which once
fell down and were lifted and set
again. Preserved in its place six bars.
Vertical faces bars were curved,
which repeated the arc of a circle.
Crossbar sarsenovoho rings aligned
on one level with an accuracy of one
centimeter, and held in place by
mounting that carpenters called
"nest-tenon" (the vertical slab "spike" on the horizontal - "Nest").
Between themselves also clamped:
their sides that merge are
performances and gutters. The
system of these connections gave
the building a significant resistance.


The largest stones of Stonehenge - a
10 enormous Sarso installed in pairs
inside the main ring. Each pair of
stones of his time lying crossbar, and
to describe such a construction of
three stones were devised word "trilit."
Now, after one trilit was restored in
1958, there are three trilitis of five.
Nearby trilitis horseshoe that its open
end facing the Alley and Heelstone.
Their height is 5 m and weight - up to
50 tons
Trilitis horseshoe ring, tied together by
transverse plates and Ancient
Heelstone formed the grand stone
buildings. They are enormous by
modern standards: height from 6 to 9
m, width about 2m, weight - 25 to 50
tons.
•
•
•
•
Inside the sarsen ring remains of
another ring of smaller "blue" stones,
which have a blue tint in wet weather.
Inside the horseshoe trilitis are other
blue stones. Finally, inside the
horseshoe of blue stones, though not
exactly in the center is a block dubbed
"Altarnyy stone."
At the end of the 18th century first
drew attention to the fact that the axis
of Stonehenge is oriented to the point
of sunrise at the summer solstice.
In the mid-19th century found that
supporting stones are also astronomical
orientation. The line drawn through the
supporting stone number 93 and
number 94, also shows the point of
sunrise at the summer solstice.
Автор
olesiavizniak
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