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832.Функциональный синтаксис

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
CONTENTS
Федеральное агентство по образованию
CHAPTER ONE. Subject-Verb Agreement (3 activities)............................... 3
Омский государственный университет им. Ф.М. Достоевского
CHAPTER TWO. Types of sentences (4 activities) ..................................... 12
CHAPTER THREE. Appositives (1 activity) ............................................... 79
CHAPTER FOUR. Sentence Fragments (8 activities) .................................. 81
CHAPTER FIVE. Clauses: The Essential Building-Blocks (1 activity) ....... 97
CHAPTER SIX. Run-ons – Comma Splices – Fused Sentences
(5 activities)................................................................................................. 106
CHAPTER SEVEN. Practice In Combining Sentences (3 activities) ......... 122
THE KEYS TO THE EXERCISES ............................................................ 126
ФУНКЦИОНАЛЬНЫЙ
СИНТАКСИС
Учебное пособие
Технический редактор Н.В. Москвичёва
Редактор О.А. Сафонова
Дизайн обложки З.Н. Образова
Подписано в печать 29.12.05. Формат бумаги 60х84 1/16.
Печ. л. 10,5. Уч.-изд. л. 11,0. Тираж 150 экз. Заказ 592.
Издательство Омского государственного университета
644077, Омск-77, пр. Мира, 55а, госуниверситет
168
Изд-во
ОмГУ
Омск
2005
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
CHAPTER ONE
УДК 802.0
ББК 81.2Англ-2я73
Ф94
SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT
Рекомендовано к изданию редакционно-издательским советом ОмГУ
Рецензенты
О.С. Дворжец, зав. кафедрой англ. яз., доцент ОмГУ;
В.Г. Болотюк, канд. филол. наук, доцент ОмА МВД России
Ф94
Функциональный синтаксис: учебное пособие / сост.
О.В. Гоголь. – Омск: Изд-во ОмГУ, 2005. – 168 с.
ISBN 5-7779-0658-3
Состоит из 7 разделов, в каждом из которых дан теоретический
материал, сопровождающийся практическими заданиями по тематике раздела. Практическая часть представлена разнообразными по
типу упражнениями, разработанными на основе аутентичного материала, которые способствуют приобретению и закреплению навыков грамотной письменной речи.
Для студентов III курса факультета иностранных языков.
УДК 802.0
ББК 81.2Англ-2я73
ISBN 5-7779-0658-3
© Омский госуниверситет, 2005
2
Basic Principle: Singular subjects need singular verbs; plural
subjects need plural verbs
My brother is a nutritionist.
My sisters are mathematicians.
1. The indefinite pronouns anyone, everyone, someone, no one,
nobody are always singular and, therefore, require singular verbs.
• Everyone has done his or her homework.
• Somebody has left her purse.
Some indefinite pronouns – such as all, some – are singular or
plural depending on what they're referring to. (Is the thing referred to
countable or not?) Be careful choosing a verb to accompany such pronouns.
• Some of the beads are missing.
• Some of the water is gone.
On the other hand, there is one indefinite pronoun, none, that
can be either singular or plural; it often doesn't matter whether you use
a singular or a plural verb – unless something else in the sentence determines its number. (Writers generally think of none as meaning not
any and will choose a plural verb, as in "None of the engines are working," but when something else makes us regard none as meaning not
one, we want a singular verb, as in "None of the food is fresh.")
• None of you claims responsibility for this incident?
• None of you claim responsibility for this incident?
• None of the students have done their homework. (In this last
example, the word their precludes the use of the singular verb.
2. Some indefinite pronouns are particularly troublesome Everyone and everybody (listed above, also) certainly feel like more than
one person and, therefore, students are sometimes tempted to use a plural verb with them. They are always singular, though. Each is often
followed by a prepositional phrase ending in a plural word (Each of the
cars), thus confusing the verb choice. Each, too, is always singular and
requires a singular verb.
Everyone has finished his or her homework.
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You would always say, "Everybody is here." This means that the
word is singular and nothing will change that.
Each of the students is responsible for doing his or her work in
the library.
Don't let the word "students" confuse you; the subject is each
and each is always singular – Each is responsible.
6. The words there and here are never subjects.
• There are two reasons [plural subject] for this.
• There is no reason for this.
• Here are two apples.
With these constructions (called expletive constructions), the
subject follows the verb but still determines the number of the verb.
3. Phrases such as together with, as well as, and along with are
not the same as and. The phrase introduced by as well as or along with
will modify the earlier word (mayor in this case), but it does not compound the subjects (as the word and would do).
• The mayor as well as his brothers is going to prison.
• The mayor and his brothers are going to jail.
7. Verbs in the present tense for third-person, singular subjects
(he, she, it and anything those words can stand for) have s-endings.
Other verbs do not add s-endings.
He loves and she loves and they love_ and . . . .
4. The pronouns neither and either are singular and require singular verbs even though they seem to be referring, in a sense, to two
things.
• Neither of the two traffic lights is working.
• Which shirt do you want for Christmas? Either is fine with me.
In informal writing, neither and either sometimes take a plural
verb when these pronouns are followed by a prepositional phrase beginning with of. This is particularly true of interrogative constructions:
"Have either of you two clowns read the assignment?" "Are either of
you taking this seriously?" Burchfield calls this "a clash between notional and actual agreement”.
5. The conjunction or does not conjoin (as and does): when nor
or or is used the subject closer to the verb determines the number of the
verb. Whether the subject comes before or after the verb doesn't matter;
the proximity determines the number.
• Either my father or my brothers are going to sell the house.
• Neither my brothers nor my father is going to sell the house.
• Are either my brothers or my father responsible?
• Is either my father or my brothers responsible?
Because a sentence like "Neither my brothers nor my father is
going to sell the house" sounds peculiar, it is probably a good idea to
put the plural subject closer to the verb whenever that is possible.
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8. Sometimes modifiers will get between a subject and its verb,
but these modifiers must not confuse the agreement between the subject and its verb.
The mayor, who has been convicted along with his four brothers
on four counts of various crimes but who also seems, like a cat, to have
several political lives, is finally going to jail.
9. Sometimes nouns take weird forms and can fool us into thinking they're plural when they're really singular and vice-versa. Words
such as glasses, pants, pliers, and scissors are regarded as plural (and
require plural verbs) unless they're preceded the phrase pair of (in
which case the word pair becomes the subject).
• My glasses were on the bed.
• My pants were torn.
• A pair of plaid trousers is in the closet.
10. Some words end in -s and appear to be plural but are really
singular and require singular verbs.
• The news from the front is bad.
• Measles is a dangerous disease for pregnant women.
On the other hand, some words ending in -s refer to a single
thing but are nonetheless plural and require a plural verb.
• My assets were wiped out in the depression.
• The average worker's earnings have gone up dramatically.
• Our thanks go to the workers who supported the union.
The names of sports teams that do not end in "s" will take a plural verb: the Miami Heat have been looking … , The Connecticut Sun
are hoping that new talent … .
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11. Fractional expressions such as half of, a part of, a percentage of, a majority of are sometimes singular and sometimes plural, depending on the meaning. (The same is true, of course, when all, any,
more, most and some act as subjects.) Sums and products of mathematical processes are expressed as singular and require singular verbs.
The expression "more than one" (oddly enough) takes a singular verb:
"More than one student has tried this."
• Some of the voters are still angry.
• A large percentage of the older population is voting against her.
• Two-fifths of the troops were lost in the battle.
• Two-fifths of the vineyard was destroyed by fire.
• Forty percent of the students are in favor of changing the policy.
• Forty percent of the student body is in favor of changing the
policy.
• Two and two is four.
• Four times four divided by two is eight.
12. If your sentence compounds a positive and a negative subject
and one is plural, the other singular, the verb should agree with the
positive subject.
• The department members but not the chair have decided not to
teach on Valentine's Day.
• It is not the faculty members but the president who decides this
issue.
• It was the speaker, not his ideas, that has provoked the students to riot.
Subject-Verb
Agreement
4. Doesn't is a contraction of does not and should be used only
with a singular subject. Don't is a contraction of do not and should be
used only with a plural subject. The exception to this rule appears in
the case of the first person and second person pronouns I and you. With
these pronouns, the contraction don't should be used.
5. Do not be misled by a phrase that comes between the subject
and the verb. The verb agrees with the subject, not with a noun or pronoun in the phrase.
6. The words each, each one, either, neither, everyone, everybody, anybody, anyone, nobody, somebody, someone, and no one are
singular and require a singular verb.
7. Nouns such as civics, mathematics, dollars, measles, and news
require singular verbs.
8. Nouns such as scissors, tweezers, trousers, and shears require
plural verbs. (There are two parts to these things.
9. In sentences beginning with there is or there are, the subject
follows the verb. Since there is not the subject, the verb agrees with
what follows.
10. Collective nouns are words that imply more than one person
but that are considered singular and take a singular verb, such as: group,
team, committee, class, and family.
In very few cases, the plural verb is used if the individuals in the
group are thought of and specifically referred to.
11. Expressions such as with, together with, including, accompanied by, in addition to, or as well do not change the number of the subject. If the subject is singular, the verb is too.
Quiz 1 on Subject-Verb Agreement
Additional Tips:
1. When the subject of a sentence is composed of two or more
nouns or pronouns connected by and, use a plural verb.
2. When two or more singular nouns or pronouns are connected
by or or nor, use a singular verb.
3. When a compound subject contains both a singular and a plural noun or pronoun joined by or or nor, the verb should agree with the
part of the subject that is nearer the verb.
Select one answer from the choices provided after each sentence. The word you choose should fit the blank in the sentence.
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1. Either the physicians in this hospital or the chief administrator
____ going to have to make a decision.
is
are
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2. ______ my boss or my sisters in the union going to win this
grievance?
is
are
3. Some of the votes __________ to have been miscounted.
seem
seems
4. The tornadoes that tear through this county every spring
_____ more than just a nuisance.
are
is
5. Everyone selected to serve on this jury _____ to be willing to
give up a lot of time.
have
has
6. Kara Wolters, together with her teammates, _________ a formidable opponent on the basketball court.
presents
present
7. He seems to forget that there __________ things to be done
before he can graduate.
are
is
8. There _______ to be some people left in that town after yesterday's flood.
have
has
9. Some of the grain __________ to be contaminated.
appear
appears
10. Three-quarters of the students _______ against the tuition hike.
is
are
11. Three-quarters of the student body __________ against the
tuition hike.
is
are
12. A high percentage of the population _________ voting for the
new school.
is
are
13. A high percentage of the people _________ voting for the
new school.
was
were
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Quiz 2 on Subject-Verb Agreement
Select one answer from the choices provided after each sentence. The word you choose should fit the blank in the sentence.
1. Carlos is the only one of those students who __________
lived up to the potential described in the yearbook.
has
have
2. The International Club, as well as the Choral Society and the
Rowing Club, __________ to submit a new constitution.
need
needs
3. One of my best friends _____________ an extra on Seinfeld
this week.
are
is
4. Not only the students but also their instructor ________ been
called to the principal's office.
have
has
5. Most of the milk _____ gone bad. Six gallons of milk
_______ still in the refrigerator.
has – are
have – is
6. Each and every student and instructor in this building
__________ for a new facility by next year.
hope
hopes
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7. The students and instructors each ________for a new facility
by next year.
hopes
hope
8. Rice and beans, my favorite dish, __________ me of my native Puerto Rico.
remind
reminds
9. A large number of voters still ___________ along straightparty lines.
votes
vote
10. Four years _______ a long time to spend away from your
friends and family.
are
is
11. Politics __________ sometimes a dirty business.
are
is
12. To an outsider, the economics of this country ________ to be
in disarray.
seem
seems
10. The players, as well as the captain, (want, wants) to win.
11. Either answer (is, are) acceptable.
12. Every one of those books (is, are) fiction.
13. Nobody (know, knows) the trouble I've seen.
14. (Is, Are) the news on at five or six?
15. Mathematics (is, are) John's favorite subject, while Civics (is,
are) Andrea's favorite subject.
16. Eight dollars (is, are) the price of a movie these days.
17. (Is, Are) the tweezers in this drawer?
18. Your pants (is, are) at the cleaner's.
19. There (was, were) fifteen candies in that bag. Now there (is,
are) only one left!
20. The committee (debates, debate) these questions carefully.
21. The committee (leads, lead) very different lives in private.
22. The Prime Minister, together with his wife, (greets, greet) the
press cordially.
23. All of the CDs, even the scratched one, (is, are) in this case.
Making Subjects and Verbs Agree: Exercise
Choose the correct form of the verb that agrees with the subject:
1. Annie and her brothers (is, are) at school.
2. Either my mother or my father (is, are) coming to the meeting.
3. The dog or the cats (is, are) outside.
4. Either my shoes or your coat (is, are) always on the floor.
5. George and Tamara (doesn't, don't) want to see that movie.
6. Benito (doesn't, don't) know the answer.
7. One of my sisters (is, are) going on a trip to France.
8. The man with all the birds (live, lives) on my street.
9. The movie, including all the previews, (take, takes) about two
hours to watch.
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CHAPTER TWO
TYPES OF SENTENCES
TYPES OF SENTENCES:
SIMPLE, COMPOUND, COMPLEX,
and COMPOUND-COMPLEX
A simple sentence consists of an independent clause, so it contains a subject and a verb.
It does NOT contain either a dependent clause or another simple
sentence.
Examples of simple sentences
short simple sentence: The dog barked.
long simple sentence: Leaning first this way and then that, the
large tan dog with a wide black collar barked loudly at the full moon
last night from under the lilac bush in the shadow of the north side of
the house.
The simple sentence may have a compound subject:
The dog and the cat howled.
It may have a compound verb:
The dog howled and barked.
It may have a compound subject and a compound verb:
The dog and the cat howled and yowled, respectively.
A compound sentence consists of two or more simple sentences joined by
(1) a comma followed by a coordinating conjunction (and, but,
or, nor, for, yet, so):
The dog barked, and the cat yowled.
(2) a semicolon: The dog barked; the cat yowled.
(3) a comma, but ONLY when the simple sentences are being
treated as items in a series: The dog barked, the cat yowled, and the
rabbit chewed.
A complex sentence consists of a combination of an independent clause and a dependent clause.
An example with a relative clause as the dependent clause:
The dog that was in the street howled loudly.
A student who is hungry would never pass up a hamburger.
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An example with a subordinating conjunction creating the dependent clause (note the various positions of the dependent clause):
End: The dog howled although he was well fed.
Front: Because the dog howled so loudly, the student couldn't eat
his hamburger.
Middle: The dog, although he was well fed, howled loudly.
A compound-complex sentence consists of a combination of a
compound sentence and a complex sentence.
As the dog howled, one cat sat on the fence, and the other licked
its paws.
Definition
A clause is a group of related words containing a subject and a
verb A clause can be usefully distinguished from a phrase, which is a
group of related words that does not contain a subject-verb relationship,
such as "in the morning" or "running down the street" or "having
grown used to this harassment."
We can categorize clauses into independent and dependent
clauses. This simply means that some clauses can stand by themselves,
as separate sentences, and some can't. Another term for dependent
clause is subordinate clause: this means that the clause is subordinate
to another element (the independent clause) and depends on that other
element for its meaning. The subordinate clause is created by a
subordinating conjunction or dependent word.
An independent clause, "She is older than her brother" (which
could be its own sentence), can be turned into a dependent or subordinate clause when the same group of words begins with a dependent
word (or a subordinating conjunction in this case): "Because she is
older than her brother, she tells him what to do."
Independent Clauses
Independent Clauses could stand by themselves as discrete sentences, except that when they do stand by themselves, separated from
other clauses, they're normally referred to simply as sentences, not
clauses.
Clauses are combined in three different ways: coordination, subordination, and by means of a semicolon. Coordination involves join13
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ing independent clauses with one of the coordinating conjunctions: and,
but, or, nor, for, yet, and sometimes* so. Clauses thus connected are
usually nicely balanced in length and import.
• Ramonita thought about joining the church choir, but she never
talked to her friends about it.
Subordination involves turning one of the clauses into a subordinate element (one that cannot stand on its own) through the use of a
Subordinating Conjunction (sometimes called a dependent word) or a
Relative Pronoun. When the clause begins with a subordinating word,
it is no longer an independent clause; it is called a dependent or subordinate clause because it depends on something else (the independent
clause) for its meaning. There are other ways of combining ideas – by
turning independent clauses into various kinds of modifying phrases.
Again, see the section on Avoiding Primer Language.
• Although Ramonita often thought about joining the choir, she
never talked to her friends about it.
• Ramonita never talked to her friends about joining the choir,
because she was afraid they would make fun of her.
• Yasmin is Ramonita's sister. Yasmin told Ramonita to join the
choir no matter what her friends said. Joining these with the
use of a relative clause: Yasmin, [who is] Ramonita's sister,
told Ramonita to join the choir. . . .
Semicolons can connect two independent clauses with or without the help of a conjunctive adverb (transitional expression). Semicolons should be used sparingly and only when the two independent
clauses involved are closely related and nicely balanced in terms of
length and import.
• Ramonita has such a beautiful voice; many couples have asked
her to sing at their wedding.
• Ramonita's voice has a clear, angelic quality; furthermore, she
clearly enjoys using it.
There are three basic kinds of dependent clauses, categorized according to their function in the sentence. Remember that a dependent
clause always contains a subject and a verb, but it cannot stand by itself.
• Adverb clauses provide information about what is going on in
the main (independent) clause: where, when, or why. "When
the movie is over, we'll go downtown." or "John wanted to
write a book because he had so much to say about the subject."
• Adjective clauses work like multi-word adjectives. "My brother,
who is an engineer, figured it out for me." or "The bridge that
collapsed in the winter storm will cost millions to replace." A
special kind of adjective clause begins with a relative adverb
(where, when, and why) but nonetheless functions as adjectivally.
• Noun clauses can do anything that nouns can do. "What he
knows [subject] is no concern of mine." or "Do you know what
he knows [object]?" or "What can you tell me about what he
has done this year [object of the preposition "about"]?"
Noun Clauses as Subject
What they did with the treasure remains a mystery. Whatever
you want for dessert is fine with me. That you should feel this way
about her came as a great surprise to us.
Noun Clauses as Object
Juan finally revealed what he had done with the money. Her husband spent whatever she had saved over the years.I don't know what I
should do next.
Noun Clauses as Prepositional Object
In fact, he wrote a book about what he had done over the years.
We are interested in what he does for a living.
Dependent Clauses
Dependent Clauses cannot stand by themselves and make good
sense. They must be combined with an independent clause so that they
become part of a sentence that can stand by itself.
Noun Clauses as Predicative
The trouble was that they had never been there before.The biggest disappointment of last season was that the women's team didn't
make it to the final four.
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Adjective (Relative) Clauses
My brother, who now teaches math in a small college, never
liked math in high school. The dealership that sold more cars ended up
actually losing money. The Federated Bank, which was founded nearly
two centuries ago, folded during the state's economic crisis.
Adverb Clauses
The team had fallen behind by ten points before they were able
to figure out the opponent's defense.
Since he started working nights, he doesn't see much of his kids.
While Josie sat inside watching television, Gladys shoveled the driveway.
Quiz on Sentence Types
After each sentence, select the option that best describes that
sentence.
1. Pauline and Bruno have a big
argument every summer over where
they should spend their summer
vacation.
A. Simple Sentence
B. Compound Sentence
C. Complex Sentence
D. Compound-Complex Sentence
2. Pauline loves to go to the beach
and spend her days sunbathing.
3. Bruno, on the other hand, likes
the view that he gets from the log
cabin up in the mountains, and he
enjoys hiking in the forest.
A. Simple Sentence
B. Compound Sentence
C. Complex Sentence
D. Compound-Complex Sentence
4. Pauline says there is nothing relaxing about chopping wood, swatting mosquitoes, and cooking over a
woodstove.
A. Simple Sentence
B. Compound Sentence
C. Complex Sentence
D. Compound-Complex Sentence
5. Bruno dislikes sitting on the beach;
he always gets a nasty sunburn.
A. Simple Sentence
B. Compound Sentence
6. Bruno tends to get bored sitting
on the beach, watching the waves,
getting sand in his swimsuit, and
reading detective novels for a week.
A. Simple Sentence
B. Compound Sentence
C. Complex Sentence
D. Compound-Complex Sentence
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C. Complex Sentence
D. Compound-Complex Sentence
A. Simple Sentence
B. Compound Sentence
C. Complex Sentence
D. Compound-Complex Sentence
7. This year, after a lengthy, noisy
debate, they decided to take separate
vacations.
A. Simple Sentence
B. Compound Sentence
C. Complex Sentence
D. Compound-Complex Sentence
8. Bruno went to the White Mountains of New Hampshire, and Pauline
went to Cape Cod.
A. Simple Sentence
B. Compound Sentence
C. Complex Sentence
D. Compound-Complex Sentence
9. Although they are 250 miles apart,
they keep in constant contact on the
internet.
A. Simple Sentence
B. Compound Sentence
C. Complex Sentence
D. Compound-Complex Sentence
10. Bruno took the desktop computer
that he uses at work, and Pauline sits
on the beach with her laptop computer, which she connects to the
internet with a cellular phone.
A. Simple Sentence
B. Compound Sentence
C. Complex Sentence
D. Compound-Complex Sentence
Quiz 1
Independent Clauses
After each sentence select the option that best describes the
use of clauses in that sentence.
1. The doctor told Charlie to lose weight and exercise vigorously
for forty-five minutes a day.
This sentence has two independent clauses.
This sentence has no independent clauses.
This sentence has one independent clause.
2. The doctor was worried that Charlie was putting on too
much weight.
The section in blue is an independent clause.
The independent clause is "The doctor was worried."
This sentence has no independent clause.
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3. Charlie has a hard time sticking to a diet; he really loves rich,
sweet desserts.
This sentence has two independent clauses.
This sentence has one independent clause.
This sentence has no independent clauses.
4. In fact, the last time he tried to lose weight, he ended up actually gaining weight.
"he ended up actually gaining weight" is the only independent
clause.
The section in blue is the independent clause.
This sentence has two independent clauses.
5. Charlie has decided to hire a personal trainer because he is
worried about his heart.
The section in blue is an independent clause.
This sentence has two independent clauses.
"Charlie has decided to hire a personal trainer" is the independent clause.
6. His new personal trainer, whose name is Adriana Bongiorno,
thinks Charlie may be a lost cause.
The part in blue is not an independent clause.
The part in blue is an independent clause.
This sentence has two independent clauses.
7. That she can make him do the exercises but not stick to the
diet.
The part in blue is the independent clause.
This sentence has two independent clauses.
This sentence has no independent clause.
8. He is very good as long as Miss Bongiorno is around, but he
goes to the freezer for ice-cream when she leaves.
This sentence has three independent clauses.
This sentence has two independent clauses.
This sentence has one independent clause.
9. Charlie must learn that eating all those sweets may give him a
temporary pleasure but that it's not good for his heart and that he would
feel better about himself if he stopped eating all those rich and sweet
foods that are not good for him.
The independent clause has three words.
The independent clause begins with the first "that."
This sentence has several independent clauses.
10. Miss Bongiorno is starting to make a difference, though, and
Charlie is starting to make some progress.
This sentence has one independent clause.
The clause following "though" is a dependent clause.
This sentence has two independent clauses.
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Quiz II
Independent Clauses
Select the option that best describes the arrangement of
clauses within each sentence. Sometimes the description will refer
to only the underlined part of a sentence. Read all the options
carefully before making your choice.
1. Before Raoul bought his new car,
he remembered that his grandmother
might give him her old sedan.
The independent clause is "Before
Raoul bought his new car."
The independent clause in this sentence contains only two words.
There are two independent clauses
here.
2. Alicia's wrist began to hurt, and
her mother made a doctor's appointment for her.
The underlined part is the sole independent clause here.
The real independent clause begins
with "and."
This sentence contains two independent clauses.
3. Zipping around the park in her
little sportster, Juditha began to feel,
at last, like a millionaire.
The underlined part is the independent clause.
Trick question: there is no independent clause.
The independent clause begins with
"Juditha."
4. Although Jerzy had taken several
courses in computer science, he
couldn't solve the problems with his
hard drive.
The underlined part is the independent clause.
The independent clause begins with
the word "he."
The sentence contains two independent clauses.
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5. The Celtics have begun their long
journey back to championship basketball, working seriously on fundamentals and beginning to attract new
fans to the game.
The sentence is one long independent
clause.
The sentence contains two independent clauses.
Only the underlined part is the
independent clause.
6. Ernesto wanted to spend the night
studying, but his wife had other
ideas.
The sentence contains two independent clauses.
Only the underlined part of the sentence is an independent clause.
The sentence is one long independent clause (with a compound verb).
7. The crowd began to clap and cheer
as the team entered through a cloud
of smoke.
The sentence contains two independent clauses.
The independent clause begins with
the word "as."
The underlined part is the independent clause.
8. Gordy worked his way up to middle management but kept on wishing
for a better job.
The underlined part of the sentence
is the independent clause.
The sentence is one independent
clause.
The sentence contains two independent clauses.
9. Gesualdo began to leap around the
room when his wife fed him the jalapeño peppers.
The independent clause is the part of
the sentence not underlined.
The independent clause is the part of
the sentence that is underlined.
The sentence contains two independent clauses
10. Heitor signed the contract but
never agreed to purchase the CDs.
This sentence contains two independent clauses.
The underlined part is the complete
independent clause.
The entire sentence is one independent clause.
The Functions of Clauses
3. She wrote a book about what she has learned over the years.
4. What she worries about is the general decline in American
language-learning skills.
5. She believes that American families used to take more
pride in learning second languages.
6. The internet, which has become such a global phenomenon,
has contributed to the predominance of English.
7. My sister's conviction is that American students could use
the internet to help them learn other languages.
8. English is the dominant language on the internet because the
American computer industry dominates the rest of the world.
9. When non-Americans get on the internet, they frequently
are trying to improve their English.
10. What computers have meant to language learning has surprised just about everyone in the academic world.
Adjective Clauses and reduced adjective clauses quizzes
Adjective clauses: Quiz 1
1. William C. Buckhoff,____________________, lives in North
Dakota.
A. who is my father
B. is my father
C. that is my father
D. which is my father
2. The car was not running,__________________________ .
A. that surprised the mechanic
B. which surprised the mechanic
C. who surprised the mechanic
D. surprised the mechanic
Identify the type and kind of dependent clauses in these sentences:
1. Although Americans love to travel to foreign countries,
they seldom learn to speak other languages.
2. My sister, who teaches Spanish and Italian in New York,
says that she had more students twenty years ago.
3. ________________________________who visited our class
last week.
A. Tomohiro talked to the woman
B. Tomohiro who talked to the woman
C. Tomohiro talking to the woman
D. Tomohiro that talked to the woman
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4. The movie ________________________ was intriguing.
A. who we saw last month
B. that we saw last month
C. that saw last month
D. that we seeing last month
10. The keys__________________________.
A. who are on the floor belong to Rie
B. that is on the floor belong to Rie
C. that are on the floor belong to Rie
D. which is on the floor belong to Rie
5. The Mariah Carey CD ____________________________.
A. which we listened was good
B. which to we listened was good
C. to which we listened was good
D. that we listened was good
11. Is Pupat the type of person __________________________?
A. who is extroverted around people
B. whose is extroverted around people
C. who are extroverted around people
D. whom extroverted around people
6. _______________________whom I told Saleh about.
A. Is this the woman
B. This is woman
C. This are the woman
D. This is the woman
7. It is important to read books_________________________.
A. that have good plots
B. having good plots
C. have good plots
D. which has good plots
8. We affirm the students= right to their own patterns and varieties of language B the dialects of their nurture or whatever dialects
__________________________.
A. which they find their own identity and style
B. in that they find their own identity and style
C. which they find their in own identity and style
D. in which they find their own identity and style
9. ___________________________ whom we spoke to at the
English Club party.
A. Dr. Rong Chen is the professor
B. Dr. Rong Chen is professor
C. Dr. Rong Chen the professor
D. Dr. Rong Chen the professor is
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12. _____________________________ that have been used to
classify the many different kinds of rocks in the San Bernardino mountains.
A. I would like to give you the scientific name
B. I would like give you the scientific names
C. I would like to give you the scientific names
D. I would likes to give you the scientific names
13. Professor Higgins is the type of professor________________
_____________________________.
A. to whom others wouldn't consider exactly exciting
B. whose others wouldn't consider exactly exciting
C. which others wouldn't consider exactly exciting
D. whom others wouldn't consider exactly exciting
14. We all know that we often have times when many of us feel
happy_______________________ .
A. and other times when we feel sad
B. and other times where we feel sad
C. and other times why we feel sad
D. and other times whenever we feel sad
15. Emi feels shy______________________________where she
doesn't know many people.
A. when she go to a party
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B. she goes to a party
C. she going to a party
D. when she goes to a party
Adjective Clauses: Quiz 2
1. A person_____________________ is a compassionate person.
A. who helps the needy
B. who help the needy
C. helps the needy
D. which helps the needy
16. ___________________________, Lake Arrowhead is a setting which can be quite adventurous to the tourist.
A. Located in the San Bernardino Mountains
B. Locating in the San Bernardino Mountains
C. It is located in the San Bernardino Mountains
D. To locate in the San Bernardino Mountains
17. __________________________________ in which there is a
nonthreatening and relaxing atmosphere.
A. Some ESL students learns better in situations
B. Some ESL student learn better in situations
C. Some ESL students learn better in situations
D. Some ESL students better learn in situations
18. The Higashi's are the couple__________________________
________________________________.
A. with whom the real estate agent is negotiating
B. whom the real estate agent is negotiating to
C. whom the real estate agent is negotiating
D. with which the real estate agent is negotiating
19. Unyarat likes to talk to people________________________.
A. which she feels comfortable with
B. she feel comfortable with
C. she feels comfortable with
D. she feels comfortable
20. The woman I saw at the theater _______________________.
A. is my English teacher last year
B. who was my English teacher last year
C. my English teacher last year
D. was my English teacher last year
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2. Ai Shiibi,_______________________, is a very giving person.
A. helps her fellow students with their homework assignments
B. that helps her fellow students with their homework assignments
C. who helps her fellow students with their homework assignments
D. whose helps her fellow students with their homework assignments
3. The lady ___________________________ will be the new
transcripts evaluator of the university.
A. stopped by the admissions office
B. that stopped by the admissions office
C. she stopped by the admissions office
D. who she stopped by the admissions office
4. The house____________________________ is for sale.
A. which is on the other side of the lake
B. is on the other side of the lake
C. it is on the other side of the lake
D. that on the other side of the lake
5. Vancouver, ______________________________, is a province of British Columbia, Canada.
A. was the location of the Teachers of English to Speakers of
other Languages in March 2000
B. who was the location of the Teachers of English to Speakers
of other Languages in March 2000
C. it was the location of the Teachers of English to Speakers of
other Languages in March 2000
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D. which was the location of the Teachers of English to Speakers
of other Languages in March 2000
6. The swimmers _______________________ are from Los Angeles.
A. which we saw at Laguna Beach
B. whom we saw at Laguna Beach
C. whom saw at Laguna Beach
D. saw at Laguna Beach
7. It is important to date someone you feel comfortable with,
______________________________.
A. this fact will help you in choosing your future marriage partner
B. that will help you in choosing your future marriage partner
C. a fact which will help you in choosing your future marriage
partner
D. a fact will help you in choosing your future marriage partner
8. The family ______________________________ will have to
pay a substantial fine.
A. of which his dog escaped and ate the two cats next door
B. their dog escaped and ate the two cats next door
C. who's dog escaped and ate the two cats next door
D. whose dog escaped and ate the two cats next door
9. I found out ________________________, which surprises me.
A. what she is actually a very quiet person
B. that she is actually a very quiet person
C. who is actually a very quiet person
D. which she is actually a very quiet person
10. I've discovered that
________________.
A. that surprises me
B. which surprise me
C. which surprises me
D. the idea surprises me
Mansour
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is
not
an
extrovert,
11. I've been surprised to discover _______________________.
A. who Mansour is not an extrovert
B. that Mansour not is an extrovert
C. that Mansour is not extrovert
D. that Mansour is not an extrovert
12. Moviegoers, _________________________, are fond of the
Titantic.
A. many of whom love romance and drama
B. many of them love romance and drama
C. many of which love romance and drama
D. many love romance and drama
13. Independent films, ______________________________, are
now becoming more popular.
A. most of which were once unfamiliar to many audiences
B. most of them were once unfamiliar to many audiences
C. most were once unfamiliar to many audiences
D. most of whom were once unfamiliar to many audiences
14. __________________________, in which case you might
want to attend a more local one.
A. You will have to pay a lot of money to go to a major U.S.
amusement park
B. You will have to pay a lot of money to go to a U.S. amusement park major
C. You will have to pay a lot of money to go a major U.S.
amusement park
D. You will have pay a lot of money to go to a major U.S.
amusement park
15. California amusement parks, _________________________,
continue to be frequented by Californians and tourists alike.
A. examples of some parks are Disneyland, Knott's Berry Farm,
and Magic Mountain
B. some examples are Disneyland, Knott's Berry Farm, and
Magic Mountain
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C. which examples are Disneyland, Knott's Berry Farm, and
Magic Mountain
D. examples of which are Disneyland, Knott's Berry Farm, and
Magic Mountain
16. Citizen Kane, ___________________________, is based on
the life of William Randolph Hearst.
A. is said to be the greatest movie of all time
B. who is said to be the greatest movie of all time
C. that is said to be the greatest movie of all time
D. which is said to be the greatest movie of all time
17. The movie Titantic asks some important questions,
______________________?
A. which is this: could this terrible tragedy have been prevented
B. which is this: this terrible tragedy could have been prevented
C. among which is this: could this terrible tragedy have been
prevented
D. which is among this: could this terrible tragedy have been
prevented
18. Dennis Oliver,___________________________, has a great
sense of humor.
A. is the co-creator of Dave's ESL Cafe
B. that is the co-creator of Dave's ESL Cafe
C. who is the co-creator of Dave's ESL Cafe
D. who the co-creator is of Dave's ESL Café
19. Michael Buckhoff, ____________________________, doesn't have do his own taxes.
A. who's brother is a forensic accountant and professor
B. his brother is a forensic accountant and professor
C. whose brother is a forensic accountant and professor
D. who brother is a forensic accountant and professor
20. AIDS,_____________________________ , is prevalent in
San Francisco among gay and bisexual men.
A. is a non-curable disease affecting the immune system
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B. that is a non-curable disease affecting the immune system
C. it is a non-curable disease affecting the immune system
D. which is a non-curable disease affecting the immune system
Adjective Clauses Exercise 1
Each of the following 10 situations has two short paragraphs.
Read each paragraph. Next to the paragraphs is a short sentence.
The sentence needs an adjective clause to clarify its meaning. Use
information from one of the paragraphs to create the adjective clause
and rewrite the sentence.
1. Bill wrote a letter to Karen. He told her that
he had found a new girlfriend and didn't love
Karen anymore.
John wrote a letter to Karen. He was very
happy in New York. He had a good job and
invited Karen to come visit him soon.
The letter made
Karen feel sad.
2. Some of the students did not do well on the
test. The teacher asked them to stay and review so that they would do better the next
time.
Some of the students did very well on the test.
The teacher let these students go home early
so that she could talk to the other students.
The students
went home
early.
3. At the swimming competition, one boy came
in third place. His father was disappointed
because he expected his son to come in first.
At the swimming competition, one boy came
in second. His was father was extremely
happy because his son did so well.
The man was
very disappointed.
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4. Mrs. Grady listened to the speaker at the
neighborhood meeting about a plot of empty
land. The speaker supported building a shopping mall on the empty land. Mrs. Grady
didn't agree with him at all.
Mrs. Grady listened to another speaker. The
speaker talked about asking the city to use the
empty land for a new library. Mrs. Grady
thought that was a good use of the land.
Mrs. Grady didn't agree with
the speaker.
5. Maria bought a new car. It is very comfortable and gets more than 30 miles per gallon
of gas. She is very happy with her new car
and its good gas mileage.
Susan bought a new car. It is very comfortable and gets about 18 miles per gallon of
gas. She likes her new car, but she wishes it
had better gas mileage.
The car has
good gas mileage.
6. ABC Company recently bought Smith Corporation. Many of the Smith Corporation employees are very worried because their jobs
are in danger.
The employees of ABC Company are very
happy with the merger. They own stock in the
company, and the price will increase.
The employees
are very worried.
7. Janice bought a new computer graphics program. It is very powerful, and she can create
some wonderful pictures, but it is taking her a
long time to learn how to use it well.
Peter bought a new computer graphics program. It has a lot of wonderful features and is
very easy to use. Peter was able to create
some beautiful pictures in a very short time.
The computer
graphics program is easy to
use.
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8. When Karen Lee was growing up in Oakland,
she used to go swimming in a stream near her
house. She recently went back to her hometown, and she was happy to see that the
stream was still there.
When Teresa was growing up in Mapleton,
she used to climb trees in a wood near her
house. She recently went back to her hometown, and she was very sad to see that new
houses were built where the wood used to be.
She was sad to
see that the
place was no
longer there.
9. Michael loves to read. He often uses the
Internet to buy books. He can find almost any
book he wants, and most books have a 40%
discount.
Michael also loves to go to his local bookstore. He likes to look at the new books and
browse through the magazines. Both
magazines and books have a 10% discount.
Michael gets a
40% discount on
the books.
10. Robert lives in a neighborhood with lots of
children. One of his neighbors has several
children. They run around and ride their
bikes, but they are careful not to damage
Robert's flowers or lawn.
One of his neighbors has several children.
They run around, often stepping on his flowers. They ride their bikes, sometimes onto his
lawn. Robert has asked his neighbor to control his children, but he never does.
Robert always
complains to the
neighbor.
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Adjective Clauses Exercise 2
Each of the following 10 situations has two short paragraphs.
Read each paragraph. Next to the paragraphs is a short sentence.
The sentence needs an adjective clause to clarify its meaning. Use
information from one of the paragraphs to create the adjective clause
and rewrite the sentence.
1. On John's birthday, his Aunt Margaret
sent him a sweater as a present. It was too
big, so he had to exchange it.
John's grandmother also sent him a
sweater. It fit perfectly, and he wore it the
next time he visited her.
John had to exchange the sweater.
2. For their summer vacation, Mary wants
to go back to Hawaii because she and her
husband spent their honeymoon there.
For their winter vacation, Mary wants to
go to a new place. She wants to go to
Barbados.
For her summer vacation, Mary wants
to go to the place.
3. One of my neighbors has a dog. It recently dug up the flowers in my garden. I
am quite angry about his dog.
One of my neighbors has a cat. I sometimes see the cat walking on top of the
fence. It never bothers me.
I am going to complain to the
neighbor.
4. Betty went to the record store. She had
read about a CD in a magazine a few
weeks ago. She decided to buy it.
Betty also saw a new CD by a popular
singer. She hadn't read anything about it
yet. She decided not to buy that CD yet.
Betty bought a CD.
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5. Susan had two final papers to write. She
wrote one for her English class. She felt
very good about that paper.
The other paper was for her psychology
class. She thinks this paper is only so-so.
Susan doesn't like
the paper.
6. Billy likes to play outside. He often goes
to Central Park because he can catch insects and snakes there.
Sometimes Billy goes to Riverview Park.
He likes to climb trees there.
Billy often goes to
the park.
7. Marsha needs to hire a new secretary.
The secretary doesn't have to know how
to use a computer.
Marsha needs to hire a new secretary.
The secretary must know how to speak
both English and Spanish.
Marsha wants a
secretary.
8. Paul has several tall pine trees in front of
his house. They are green and healthy.
Paul is going to keep these trees.
Paul has several old oak trees in his
backyard. They have a tree disease and
need to be cut down. Paul is sorry that
they have to go.
Paul is going to keep
the trees.
9. On his way to school, Robert sees many
people. One man works in the bakery. He
always waves to Robert.
On his way to school, Robert sees many
people. One man works at the newspaper
stand. He always looks tired and grumpy.
The man is always
friendly to Robert.
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10. One of our company's employees is getting a promotion. He is moving to a different building. Brian is going to get his
office.
One of our company's employees has quit
his job. He got a better position with another company. Karen is going to get his
office.
The man is getting a
promotion.
Adjective Clauses Test
Choose the best answer
1. An adjective clause is:
is a complete sentence and can stand alone.
is a dependent clause that modifies and identifies a noun.
is a dependent clause that modifies another dependent clause.
2. I met a woman in a cafe _____ had a funny name.
who
which
where
3. Combine the sentence: The woman is from Brazil. I met
her.
The woman whom I met is from Brazil.
The woman is from Brazil who I met.
The woman which I met is from Brazil.
4. Combine the sentence: The woman is a member of a dance
company. I told you about her.
The woman about whom I told you is a member of a dance company.
The woman whom I told you is a member of a dance company.
The woman is a member of a dance company who I told you
about.
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5. Indicate all of the possible adjective clause pronouns that
can be used: The man ______ you met last weekend will be coming
for dinner.
who, that, which, 0
who, which,
who, that, 0
which, 0
6. Combine the sentences: I saw a man. His car had been hit
by a bus.
I saw a man his car had been hit by a bus.
I saw a man who his car had been hit by a bus.
I saw a man whose car had been hit by a bus.
7. Combine the sentences: The man ran after the thief. The
thief stole his wallet.
The man ran after the thief whose wallet he stole.
The man ran after the thief who stole his wallet.
Man whose wallet he stole ran after the thief.
8. Which pronoun CANNOT be used: The city _________ he
lives has several historical landmarks.
where
in which
which
9. The parking lot ___ which I parked is lot 8.
on
in
at
10. Complete the sentence with the pronoun: Monday is the
day ______ I have a doctor's appointment.
when
which
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11. Complete the sentence: Food and blankets are available
for those ______
want them.
who want them.
which want them.
18. What does "which" refer to: My brother drank all of my
milkshake, which upset me.
the milkshake
my brother's drinking the milkshake
my brother
12. My neighbor, Mr. Dupont __________ comes home
around 5:00 p.m.
who works in the bank
who works in the bank
19. How can the clause in this sentence be shortened: The
page which was torn from the telephone book was the page I
needed!
The page which torn from the telephone book was the page I
needed!
The page was torn from the telephone book was the page I
needed!
The page torn from the telephone book was the page I needed!
The page tearing from the telephone book was the page I needed!
13. I think the woman _______ works at Channel 5.
who lives next door to you
who lives next door to you
14. The moon ___________ has been the subject of poetry for
ages.
which revolves around the earth
which revolves around the earth
15. Mar's moon ___________ is ugly. (Mars has several
moons.)
which looks like a potato
which looks like a potato
16. I bought a new car. The car ________ rides smoothly.
which I took for a drive this morning
which I took for a drive this morning
17. Combine this sentence: My tomatoes grow very well.
Most of them are as big as grapefruit.
My tomatoes, most of which are big as grapefruit, grow very
well.
My tomatoes, which most of them are big as grapefruit, grow
very well.
My tomatoes, which most of are as big as grapefruit, grow very
well.
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20. Shorten the sentence: Anyone who claims that he is right
must be able to prove it.
Anyone claims that he is right must be able to prove it.
Anyone claiming that he is right must be able to prove it.
Anyone claimed that he is right must be able to prove it.
Adverb Clauses Exercises
A. Combine the following sentences using adverb clauses at
the end of the sentence.
1. We watched the robins. They raised their young in our apple
tree.
2. Becky read the book. It was recommended by a friend.
3. Dad donates his suits to charity. He has worn them a year.
4. The policemen delayed the drivers. The wrecks were cleared.
5. Ann ate an apple. She studied her vocabulary.
B. Combine the following sentences using adverb clauses at
the beginning of the sentence.
1. Frank started medical training. He drove a forklift for a living.
2. The rains had started the mud slides. The homes were not safe
to live in.
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3. Older people love to sit in the park. They feed the birds and
visit.
4. I enjoyed camping out. I was much younger.
5. Joe recognised the man. The man had stopped his car to help.
C. Find the adverb clauses in these sentences. What are their
meanings (time, place...)? If it is a reduced adverb clause, add the
missing words.
1. You seem very happy when you help other people.
2. While you wait, we will detail your car.
3. I am happier than I ever was before.
4. That horse is more obstinate than a mule.
5. The woman took notes while being taught to cook with broccoli.
6. Ben fields baseballs better than he hits.
7. As the lions approached the carcass, the cheetahs retreated
once more.
8. While eating, I choked on a bone.
4. Steve will have purchased his new computer______________
______________________.
A. by the time his Dad will come to visit
B. by the time his Dad comes to visit
C. by the time his Dad come to visit
D. by the time his Dad has come to visit
5. ______________ ever since I was a child.
A. I know her
B. I have know her
C. I have known her
D. I will have known her
6. The students stayed at the Phau Library__________________.
A. until they should finish their work
B. until they finished their work
C. until they finish their work
D. they finished their work
Quiz 1: Adverb clauses–time relationships
1. When the party ends, _____________________________.
A. all you will have to go back to you houses
B. all of you will has to go back to your houses
C. all of you will have to go back to your houses
D. all of you will have go back to your houses
2. She will attend class __________________________, which
is the right decision to make.
A. after she finishes her homework assignment
B. which she finishes her homework assignment
C. she finishes her homework assignment
D. after she finishing her homework assignment
3. By the time he arrived, _________________________.
A. the other students already left
B. the other students were already leave
C. the another student had already left
D. the other students had already left
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7. _____________________ as soon as it becomes sunny.
A. We will go to the beach
B. We go to the beach
C. We be going to the beach
D. We will go the beach
8. ______________________, Takahiro will never speak to
Sayaka again.
A. So long as he live
B. So long he lives
C. So long as he lives
D. Long as he lives
9. ___________________, I always say hello.
A. Whyever I see Yu-Chi
B. Whenever I will see Yu-Chi
C. Whichever I see Yu-Chi
D. Whenever I see Yu-Chi
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10. It is important to reward your pet ____________________.
A. every time it obey you
B. every time it will obey you
C. every time it obeys you
D. every times it obeys you
11. ___________________, I went to a Lakers' basketball game.
A. The first time I went to Los Angeles
B. The first time I go to Los Angeles
C. First time I went to Los Angeles
D. The first time I was going to Los Angeles
12. I took a TOEFL test _______________________.
A. the last time I went to University Hall
B. last time I went to University Hall
C. the last time I go to University Hall
D. the last time I was attending to University Hall
13. After Unyarat had finished her MBA studies, ____________.
A. she get a job at IBM
B. she will get a job at IBM
C. she got a job at IBM
D. she got a job IBM
14. I will leave class today ___________________ and not a
minute sooner.
A. after I finishing my homework assignments
B. after I finish my homework assignments
C. after I will finish my homework assignments
D. as I finish my homework assignments
15. ______________________ as soon as the shipment of steel
was delivered to the job site.
A. The workers finally begin to retrofit the building
B. The workers finally will begin to retrofit the building
C. The workers finally began retrofit the building
D. The workers finally began to retrofit the building
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16. __________________, the rest of the students had already
decided to go home because of inclement weather.
A. By the time Attawut came to class
B. By the time Attawut had comes to class
C. By the time Attawut had came to class
D. By the time Attawut would come to class
17. _______________________since he left the Ontario Mall
last night.
A. I told the police officers that I hadn't saw him
B. I told the police officers that I hadn't seen him
C. I told the police officers I haven't seen him
D. I told the police officers that I hadn't seen
18. Everyone stayed in the storm shelter ___________________.
A. as the dangerous winds subsided
B. whereas the dangerous winds subsided
C. until the dangerous winds subsided
D. because the dangerous winds subsided
19. Once the sun comes out,_____________________________
______________________________.
A. we will go to the beach to surf, swim, snorkel, and we will
bathe in the sun
B. we will go to the beach to surf, swim, snorkel, and bathe in
the sun
C. we go the beach to surf, swim, snorkel, and bathe in the sun
D. we will go to the beach to surf, swim, we will snorkel, and
bathe in the sun
20. ________________________, they decided to go over to
Khalid's house.
A. A little while the students went to the store
B. A little while after the students went to the store
C. Little while after the students went to the store
D. A little while as the students went to the store
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C. Now that Yousef has taken care of his business in Saudi Ara-
Quiz 2: Adverb clauses–cause and effect relationships
1. Because he was tired, he scored poorly on the exam,
____________________.
A. this will cause him to not be admitted into the university
B. this is a fact which will cause him to not be admitted into the
university
C. a fact which will cause him to not be admitted into the university
D. a fact which will cause him to not admit into the university
bia
D. Yousef has taken care of his business in Saudi Arabia but
6. ______________________, we should go to Laguna Beach.
A. For we do not have to work today
B. We do not have to work today
C. Since we do not have to work today
D. Since we do no have to work today
7. Fabiana will not go to work today ______________________.
A. , she is a bit ill
B. because she a bit ill
C. because she is a bit ill
D. which is she is a bit ill
2. _________________________, he will be admitted into the
university.
A. Now that he passes the TOEFL with a score of 550
B. That he has passed the TOEFL with a score of 550
C. Now , he has passed the TOEFL with a score of 550
D. Now that he has passed the TOEFL with a score of 550
3. Since July 4th is a holiday, _______________________.
A. so we do not have to go to work
B. we do not have to go to work
C. as a result, we do not have to go to work
D. thus, we do not have to go to work
4. Yousef went back to Saudi Arabia______________________
_______________________.
A. and he needed to take care of some business in his company
B. because he needed to take care of some business in his company
C. which he needed to take care of some business in his company
D. because he need to take care of some business in his company
5. _________________________, he will return back to the
United States to study English.
A. Had Yousef taken care of his business in Saudi Arabia
B. Now that Yousef has taken care his business in Saudi Arabia
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8. ___________________, the temperature should begin dropping.
A. Now that the sun setting
B. Now that the sun set
C. The sun setting
D. Now that the sun has set
9. ________________________ since most professional jobs require writing skills.
A. Learn how to write is important
B. Learning how write is important
C. Learning how to write is important
D. Learning how to write it is important
10. ________________________, the research paper is beneficial to students since it requires them to critically think, read, and write
about a specific body of knowledge in which they have an interest.
A. A requirement at most universities
B. It is a requirement at most universities
C. A requirement at most universities it is
D. Requirement at most universities
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11. _________________________, I am ready to enter the job
market, so I will begin to send out my résumé to prospective employers.
A. Now that my universities studies have been over
B. Now, that my universities studies are over
C. Now that my universities studies are over
D. My universities studies are over
12. Waldo, _______________________, has learned a great deal
of English since he came to the U.S.
A. he is a practicing lawyer from Chile
B. who a practicing lawyer is from Chile
C. a practicing lawyer from Chile
D. a practicing lawyer from Chile who
13. ___________________________, most runners must train
for several months before they are sufficiently conditioned.
A. Because of the extreme fatigue which involved in running a
marathon
B. Because of the extreme fatigue involving in running a marathon
C. Because of the extreme fatigue involved in running a marathon
D. Because of the extreme fatigue involved in run a marathon
14. ___________________________, you are ready to run a
marathon.
A. You have trained at a rate of fifty-five miles per week for ten
consecutive weeks
B. Now that you have trained at a rate of fifty-five miles per
week for ten consecutive weeks
C. Now that you have trained at a rate of fifty-five miles per
week for ten consecutive weeks so
D. Now that you train at a rate fifty-five miles per week for ten
consecutive weeks
B. since he injured his right arm
C. since he injure his right arm
D. he injured his right arm
16. _______________________, she is going to change the bait
she is using.
A. Because Ivy has not catched any trout yet
B. Ivy has not caught any trout yet
C. Because Ivy has not caught any trout yet
D. Because Ivy had not caught any trout yet
17. Alfredo, _________________________, cannot pay his tuition now that his father is unemployed.
A. has high academic aspirations
B. who he has high academic aspirations
C. who has high academic aspirations
D. have had high academic aspirations
18. __________________________, it has been very hard for Ai
and her family to pay their bills.
A. The Asian economic crisis
B. Because the Asian economic crisis
C. Since the Asian economic crisis
D. Since Asian economic crisis
19. Halle Berry faces legal problems______________________
____________________________.
A. because she was involved in a car accident and left the scene
without exchange information with the injured driver
B. because she was involve in a car accident and left the scene
without exchanging information with the injured driver
C. because she was involved in a car accident and left the scene
without exchanging information with the injured driver
D. because she was involved in a car accident and leaves the
scene without exchanging information with the injured driver
15. He hasn't lifted any weights________________________ .
A. since he injures his right arm
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20. Now that India is approaching one billion people, it will soon
surpass China as the world's most populated country,______________
_____________________________.
A. a fact which has alarmed geographers and environmentalists
like
B. this is a fact which has alarmed geographers and environmentalists alike
C. which a fact which has alarmed geographers and environmentalists alike
D. a fact which has alarmed geographers and environmentalists
alike
Quiz 3: Adverb clauses–unexpected results/direct contrast
1. ______________________, I didn't bring my coat.
A. Even though it be cold outside
B. Even though it cold outside
C. Even though it was cold outside
D. Whereas it was cold outside
2. Bill Gates is a private entrepreneur, ____________________.
A. however, Al Gore is a public official
B. whereas Al Gore is a public official
C. where Al Gore is a public official
D. although Al Gore a public official
3. The computer still works ___________________.
A. it was infected by the "Melissa" virus
B. so it was infected by the "Melissa" virus
C. even though it was infected by the "Melissa" virus
D. whereas it was infected by the "Melissa" virus
4. ___________________________, hurricanes form over water.
A. Unless Tornadoes generally occur over land
B. As Tornadoes generally occur over land
C. While Tornadoes generally occur over land
D. Tornadoes generally occur over land
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5. _____________________________, he was not elected to the
most coveted position in politics.
A. Because Ross Perot spent a considerable amount of money
while campaigning for president of the U.S.
B. Even though Ross Perot spent a considerable amount of
money while campaigning for president of the U.S.
C. While Ross Perot spent a considerable amount of money
while campaigning for president of the U.S.
D. Even though Ross Perot spent a considerable amount of
money while he campaigning for president of the U.S.
6. Whereas the economy of the 19th was spurred by the industrial revolution, the economy of the 21st century is centered on an information age, ____________.
A. thus it changed the job market for prospective employees
B. thus changed the job market for prospective employees
C. thus changing the job market for prospective employees
D. it changed the job market for prospective employees
7. ______________________, the other castaways were busy
gathering food for that night's dinner.
A. While resting in his hammock
B. While Gervase was resting in his hammock
C. Gervase was resting in his hammock while
D. While Gervase is resting in his hammock
8. _____________________, Southern California has a dry one.
A. Because Thailand has a humid climate
B. Whereas Thailand a humid climate has
C. Thailand has a humid climate but
D. Whereas Thailand has a humid climate
9. Junko cut her exercise schedule short ___________________.
A. so the weather was too hot
B. because the weather is too hot
C. because the weather was too hot
D. although the weather was too hot
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10. While most houses in North San Bernardino are kept in immaculate condition, this house has not been maintained for
_______________________.
A. years, unfortunately, the house is now one of the worst eyesores in the city
B. years; unfortunately, the house is now one of the worst eyesores in the city
C. years, unfortunately; the house is now one of the worst eyesores in the city
D. years; unfortunately, the house being now one of the worst
eyesores in the city
11. ______________________, many people have them much
more frequently.
A. Even though there is a city ordinance prohibiting more than
two garage sales per year per family
B. Even though there is a city ordinance prohibits more than two
garage sales per year per family
C. Even though there is a city ordinance which prohibiting more
than two garage sales per year per family
D. Since there is a city ordinance prohibiting more than two garage sales per year per family
12. ______________________, she has never "officially" run a
marathon.
A. Because Maria trains at distances of more than 30 miles
B. While Maria trains at distances of more than 30 miles
C. Although Maria trains at distances of more than 30 miles
D. Maria trains at distances of more than 30 miles but
13. __________________, John is protestant.
A. Sue is Catholic but
B. Whereas Sue is Catholic
C. Where Sue is Catholic
D. Sue is Catholic even though
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14. _______________________, you may go to the movies with
us later on today.
A. Have you enough money to pay for your own ticket
B. If you have enough money to pay for your own ticket
C. If you had enough money to pay for your own ticket
D. Unless you have enough money to pay for your own ticket
15. __________________________, the principal found no fault
at all with his questionable behavior.
A. While the teacher infuriated at the student's total disrespect
for authority
B. With the teacher was infuriated at the student's total disrespect
for authority
C. While the teacher was infuriated at the student's total disrespect for authority
D. Because the teacher was infuriated at the student's total disrespect for authority
16. Whereas Tsunami's are caused by underwater earthquakes,
______________.
A. storm surges caused by gale force winds and high tides
B. storm surges are caused gale force winds and high tides
C. storm surges which are caused by gale force winds and high
tides
D. storm surges are caused by gale force winds and high tides
17. ____________________, no one died due to the mandatory
evacuations enacted by the government.
A. Although pummeled a huge Tsunami the northern coast of
Japan
B. Although a huge Tsunami pummeled the northern coast of Japan
C. Despite a huge Tsunami pummeled the northern coast of Japan
D. Although pummeling a huge Tsunami the northern coast of
Japan
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18. _____________________, he saw suspicious behavior occurring in the little red farm house.
A. While he was fishing
B. He was fishing while
C. While he fishing
D. Whereas he was fishing
19. ___________________, she was reluctant to testify in court.
A. Although an eyewitness she was to the murder
B. Although she an eyewitness was to the murder
C. She was an eyewitness to the murder, however
D. Although she was an eyewitness to the murder
20. _____________________, the jury found him innocent of all
criminal charges.
A. There was a preponderance of physical evidence linking O.J.
Simpson to the murders but
B. Even though a preponderance of physical evidence linking
O.J. Simpson to the murders
C. Even though there was a preponderance of physical evidence
linking O.J. Simpson to the murders
D. Even though there was a preponderance of physical evidence
links O.J. Simpson to the murders
3. In the event that you should fail the first writing assignment
for this class, ________________________.
A. I would give you one more week to revise
B. I will give you one more week to revise
C. I will have given you one more week to revise
D. I give you one more week to revise
4. John would exercise more ____________________.
A. have he more time
B. because he more had time
C. if he had more time
D. if he had many time
5. _______________________, I'm going to Newport Beach.
A. Even the weather is cold
B. Even if the weather cold is
C. Even if the weather is cold
D. Even if the cold weather is
6. If John had had more time, _______________________.
A. he will have finished the report
B. he would have finished the report
C. he would finish the report
D. he would have finish the report
Quiz 4: Adverb clauses–conditional meanings/conditional wishes
1. I will be at my friend's house _________________________.
A. in case you should need to call me
B. in case you should need call me
C. in which you should need to call me
D. in that you should need to call me
2. _____________________, I exercise every day.
A. Had I enough time
B. Whereas I have enough time
C. If have I enough time
D. If I have enough time
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7. I will go swimming tomorrow __________________.
A. because it is too cold
B. unless it is too cold
C. unless too cold it is
D. unless it too is cold
8. _________________, I always get a headache in the afternoon.
A. If I skip breakfast and lunch
B. If I breakfast and lunch skip
C. Skip I breakfast and lunch
D. If to skip breakfast and lunch
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9. Only if it rains continuously for three hours_______________
_______________________.
A. the officials will cancel the baseball game
B. will cancel the officials the baseball game
C. will the officials cancel the baseball game
D. the officials cancel the baseball game
10. ________________, I wouldn't give so many tests.
A. Was I teaching this class
B. If I were this class teaching
C. If I were teaching this class
D. If I was teaching this class
11. If anyone shoplifts in Walmart, _______________________.
A. they will be prosecuted to the fullest extent of the law
B. he/she will prosecuted to the fullest extent of the law
C. he/she will be prosecute to the fullest extent of the law
D. he/she will be prosecuted to the fullest extent of the law
12. I would have helped John ____________________.
A. if had he told me about his problem
B. if he had tell me about his problem
C. had he told me about his problem
D. told he me about his problem
13. _________________, I will post all urgent phone numbers
on the refrigerator.
A. In which case you have an emergency while I am gone
B. In that you have an emergency while I am gone
C. In case you have an emergency while I am gone
D. You have an emergency while I am gone In case
14. ___________________, I would go out for a walk.
A. Were it not raining right now
B. Was it not raining right now
C. If it was not raining right now
D. Were it not rain right now
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15. The police officers are ready to come to your house in the
event that your ex-husband should violate the restraining order
___________________.
A. in which you have filed against him
B. who you have filed against him
C. that you have filed against him
D. what you have filed against him
16. If she had not been in the liquor store at approximately 3:50
pm, ___________.
A. she will not have been murdered
B. she would not have been murdered
C. in which case she would not have been murdered
D. she would not been murdered
17. You cannot study at this university ____________________.
A. unless you have an F-1 Visa
B. despite you have an F-1 Visa
C. which you have an F-1 Visa.
D. that you have an F-1 Visa
18. _________________, he would not be so angry now.
A. If I initially told Jim the truth about his ex-wife
B. If I have initially told Jim the truth about his ex-wife
C. If I had initially told Jim truth about his ex-wife
D. If I had initially told Jim the truth about his ex-wife
19. I will exercise___________________.
A. whether it rain or not
B. whether rains or not
C. whether it rains or not
D. whether it rains
20. She studied all night to prepare; ______________________.
A. otherwise; she would have failed the test
B. otherwise, she would fail the test
C. otherwise, she will have failed the test
D. otherwise, she would have failed the test
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Quiz 5: Reduced adverb clauses–active and passive meanings
1. ________________________, I saw an old friend of mine.
A. While I walking home from work
B. While walking home from work
C. While walked home from work
D. While walking home work
2. ________________, I brushed my teeth.
A. Before left my house
B. Before I leaving my house
C. Before leaving my house
D. Before my house leaving
3. I feel asleep___________________.
A. while I watch TV
B. while watching TV
C. while watched TV
D. during I was watching TV
4. ______________________, a mild earthquake shook the
classroom.
A. While the teacher lecturing about adverb clauses
B. While the teacher was lecturing about adverb clauses
C. While lecturing about adverb clauses
D. While lectured about adverb clauses
5. __________________, a dog chased us down the street
A. While running
B. While we were running
C. We were running while
D. While running we were
6. _____________________, Yih-Ping has made many friends.
A. Since coming to San Bernardino
B. Since come to San Bernardino
C. Since she coming to San Bernardino
D. Since she comes to San Bernardino
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7. Peter went back to school __________________.
A. after John calling him on the phone
B. John had called him on the phone
C. after John had called him on the phone
D. after John had called him the phone
8. __________________, we saw many deer.
A. While we hiking through the woods yesterday
B. Hiking through the woods yesterday
C. During hiking through the woods yesterday
D. Hiking through the woods we yesterday
9. _______________________, she was not hired for a job.
A. Lacked the necessary qualifications
B. When lacking the necessary qualifications
C. Lacking the necessary qualifications
D. Because lacking the necessary qualifications
10. Unable to run the entire 42 kilometers, she decided to drop
out of the race, ______________________.
A. the fatigue from the intense heat almost gave her a heat
stroke
B. the fatigue from the intense heat having almost given her a
heat stroke
C. which the fatigue from the intense heat having almost given
her a heat stroke
D. the fatigue from the intense heat had almost given her a heat
stroke
11. _________________________ , he was able to gamble in
Las Vegas.
A. When reached the age of 21
B. Reached the age of 21
C. As reaching the age of 21
D. Upon reaching the age of 21
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12. _______________________, Martha was watching her favorite TV program.
A. While Penchart talking to his friend
B. While Penchart was talked to his friend
C. While Penchart was talking to his friend
D. Penchart was talking to his friend while
13. _____________________, I will need to finish all of my
business dealings with my clients.
A. Before leaving for North Dakota visit my brother and his
family
B. Before leaving for North Dakota to visit my brother and his
family
C. Before left for North Dakota to visit my brother and his family
D. Before I leaving for North Dakota to visit my brother and his
family
14. ___________________ , the student won a $10 million lottery.
A. While worked on the computer
B. While working on the computer
C. While she working on the computer
D. Working on the computer while she
17. ____________________, the teacher carefully explained the
meaning of "animal" idioms.
A. Using his laser pointer to point to an example on the board
B. Used his laser pointer to point to an example on the board
C. While he using his laser pointer to point to an example on the
board
D. While he was used his laser pointer to point to an example on
the board
18. _____________________, she took the bus every morning to
work.
A. Because she unable to buy a car
B. Being unable to buy a car
C. Be unable to buy a car
D. Because she were unable to buy a car
19. ___________________, I discovered that my stereo had
been stolen.
A. On that looking into my car
B. When I look into my car
C. Looking into my car when I
D. On looking into my car
20. ______________________, it is prohibited to light camp
fires.
15. _________________, Selim has secured a great job as a finance manager of a major corporation in Turkey.
A. Since he finishing his MBA studies
B. Since finishing his MBA studies
C. Since finished his MBA studies
D. Since he finish his MBA studies
16. Joo Kyung always watches TV ________________.
A. after finished her homework
B. after finishing her homework
C. after she finished her homework
D. after she finish her homework
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A. The forest area in the San Bernardino mountains is so dry
during the summer
B. Being the forest area in the San Bernardino mountains is so
dry during the summer
C. Because the forest area in the San Bernardino mountains so
dry during the summer
D. Being the forest area in the San Bernardino mountains was so
dry during the summer
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Quiz 6: Reduced adverb clauses–active and passive meanings
1. ___________________, international health organizations are
taking proactive preventative measures against the spread of this terminal disease.
A. Recognize that Aids is a serious worldwide epidemic
B. Recognized that Aids is a serious worldwide epidemic
C. Recognizing that Aids is a serious worldwide epidemic
D. Recognizing Aids a serious worldwide is epidemic
2. __________________, medical doctors are using robotics
during open heart surgery.
A. By using new technology developed by the National Space
and Aeronautics Administration they are
B. By used new technology developed by the National Space and
Aeronautics Administration
C. By using new technology developing by the National Space
and Aeronautics Administration
D. By using new technology developed by the National Space
and Aeronautics Administration
3. ________________ if he would support George W. Bush as
the Republican nominee running for president of the U.S., the opposing
candidate reluctantly said yes.
A. When asked
B. When he asked
C. When he was ask
D. When asking
4. _________________, her friend, Masanori, was having lunch.
A. While Tomoe talking to her English Grammar instructor
B. While Tomoe was talking her English Grammar instructor
C. While Tomoe was talking to her English Grammar instructor
D. Tomoe was talking to her English Grammar instructor
5. Not wanting to give too much information to the jury,
________________.
A. O.J. Simpson who declined to testify of his innocence
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B. O.J. Simpson was declined to testify of his innocence
C. O.J. Simpson declined to testify of his innocence
D. who is O.J. Simpson who declined to testify of his innocence
6. __________________, we must choose to finish our education before returning to our respective countries.
A. Give the choices that we see before us
B. Given the choices that we see before us
C. Giving the choices that we see before us
D. When we are give the choices that we see before us
7. We must reduce the amount of drunk driving accidents on our
freeways ______________.
A. by take specific measures to prosecute those in violation of
this serious offense
B. by taking specific measures prosecute those in violation of
this serious offense
C. by taking specific measures to prosecute those in violating of
this serious offense
D. by taking specific measures to prosecute those in violation of
this serious offense
8. _______________________, President Clinton refused to
truthfully answer the questions,
A. Not wanted to publicize the explicit nature of his love affair
with Monica Lewinsky
B. Not wanting to public the explicit nature of his love affair
with Monica Lewinsky
C. Not wanting to publicize the explicit nature of his love affair
with Monica Lewinsky
D. Because he do not want to publicize the explicit nature of his
love affair with Monica Lewinsky
9. I learned a great deal about international politics___________
___________________.
A. while read an essay on the proliferation of nuclear weapons
worldwide
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B. while I reading an essay on the proliferation of nuclear weapons worldwide
C. while reading an essay on the proliferation of nuclear weapons worldwide
D. while I was read an essay on the proliferation of nuclear
weapons worldwide
10. _________________________, vocabulary can be learned in
a relatively short period of time.
A. If study extensively
B. If studying extensively
C. If studied extensively
D. If it is study extensively
11. ___________________________, many citizens might react
violently
A. Presenting with a proposal of an additional 24% in income
taxes
B. If they are present with a proposal of an additional 24% in income taxes
C. Presented with a proposal of an additional 24% in income
taxes
D. If present with a proposal of an additional 24% in income
taxes
12. ___________________, Angela witnessed an armed robbery
in Clarion's Jewelry store.
A. While shop at the mall
B. While shopping at the mall
C. While she was shop at the mall
D. While shopped at the mall
13. Since John finished his Master's Degree,________________
____________________.
A. his wife is able to resume her studies at the university
B. his wife being able to resume her studies at the university
C. his wife has been able to resume her studies at the university
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D. his wife who has been able to resume her studies at the university
14. William returned to school ________________.
A. after recovering from his rather lengthy illness
B. after recovered from his rather lengthy illness
C. after he recover from his rather lengthy illness
D. after he recovers from his rather lengthy illness
15. ________________, the police officers finally apprehended
him.
A. Followed the suspect by helicopter
B. Because the police follow the suspect by helicopter
C. Following the suspect by helicopter
D. Following the suspect by helicopter they
16. ________________, I would rather see another film instead.
A. Have seen the movie Titanic several times
B. I Having seen the movie Titanic several times
C. Having seen the movie Titanic several times
D. Because I have see the movie Titanic several times
17. _________________, the student asked the professor if she
could turn in the paper on a later date.
A. Unable complete the research paper on time
B. Because she is unable to complete the research paper on time
C. Unable to complete the research paper on time
D. Unable to complete the research paper on time she
18. ____________________, Yumiko decided to stop seeing
him.
A. On learn that Yoky was already married
B. On learning Yoky was already marry
C. On learning which Yoky was already married
D. On learning that Yoky was already married
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19. _______________________, the doctor stopped by the
pharmacy to pick up new medication for one of his patients.
A. Before leave for the hospital
B. Before leaving for the hospital
C. Before he leaving for the hospital
D. Before was left for the hospital
20. ________________________, the Wilson family prepared
for the destructive tornado.
A. After heard a sound similar to a loud freight train
B. After hearing a sound similar to a loud freight train
C. After they hear a sound similar to a loud freight train
D. While hear a sound similar to a loud freight train
Noun Clause Practice Quizzes
4. Your brother is playing his music too loud. I can't hear what
____________ .
a. is saying your brother
b. that your brother is saying
c. is saying your brother
d. your brother is saying
e. your brother says
5. When I left home, my uncle gave me some advice. He said
__________ give up.
a. I shouldn't
b. that shouldn't
c. don't
d. that I don't
e. no
1. I had an accident and took my car to the garage. My husband
asked me where ________.
a. is my car
b. my car was
c. my car is
d. was my car
e. is your car?
6. Jill didn't want to go to the car show. Her husband insisted
that ___________ with him.
a. she come
b. she came
c. she had come
d. she comes
e. she has come
2. The old lady next door must have a lot of cats. I don't know
how many _______________.
a. cats does she have
b. does she has cats
c. she has cats
d. cats she has
e. cats has she
7. My boss wants this report immediately. He demanded that it
______________ ready by 5:00.
a. is
b. will be
c. be
d. was
e. should be
3. Do you know ____________ from the earth? I have no idea.
a. how far the moon is
b. how far is the moon
c. how the moon is far
d. if how far the moon is
e. whether how is the moon far
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8. Did he tell you where __________ the report when you finish?
a. should you put
b. you to put
c. you put
d. to put
e. will you put
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9. My friend predicted _____________ receive a lot praise for
my work.
a. that I would
b. that I
c. what would I
d. what I
e. me to
10. My friend saw an accident. He told me ____________ at the
scene of the accident.
a. if he'd seen
b. what he saw
c. what he'd seen
d. whether he saw
e. that he'd seen
11. Is it true all of the computers will shut down in the year
2,000? _______ is unbelievable!
a. That all the computers could shut down
b. All computers could shut down
c. Due to the fact that all computers could shut down
d. It is that all computers could shut down
e. Shutting down of all computers
12. Can you tell me how to fix my computer? That depends on
____________ an old computer.
a. have you
b. whether you have
c. that have you
d. if have you
e. about your having
13. Is it true __________ people are saying about Y2K?
a. that what
b. that
c. if
d. whether or not
e. what
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14. _______________ an old "date" chip is important.
a. A computer has
b. Does a computer
c. If a computer have
d. Whether or not a computer has
e. Has a computer
15. What are you going to do with your old computer? Nothing!
_________ is too expensive.
a. That I want to do
b. What I want to do
c. That what I want to do
d. What do I want to do
e. If what I want to do
Noun clauses/infinitives: Quiz 1
1. Do you know _____________________?
A. where we will be taking the TOEFL test
B. where will we be taking the TOEFL test
C. where we will taking the TOEFL test
D. which we will be taking the TOEFL test
2. _________________changed his life forever.
A. That Tomo did
B. What did Tomo do
C. What Tomo did
D. Who Tomo did
3. I will talk _________________.
A. about whatever is on your mind
B. whatever is on your mind
C. about whenever is on your mind
D. about whichever is on your mind
4. I don't know ____________________.
A. when will we go to the football game
B. whom we will go to the football game
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C. whenever we will go to the football game
D. when we will go to the football game
C. Whether she pass or not
D. Whether she passes or not
5. ______________________ when the others will arrive?
A. Do Steve know
B. Do Steve knows
C. Does Steve know
D. Is Steve know
11. Sue Ellen does not know ____________________.
A. who the rest of the students are going to come to the movies
B. what the rest of the students are going to come to the movies
C. if the rest of the students are going to come to the movies
D. which the rest of the students are going to come to the movies
6. Did the student hear ______________________?
A. who Jim Drake said about open university advising
B. what Jim Drake said about open university advising
C. what did Jim Drake say about open university advising
7. After four hours of interrogation, the police officers finally
figured out ____________.
A. who he was behind the Bank of America bank robbery
B. who was behind Bank of America bank robbery
C. who was behind the Bank of America bank robbery
D. whose was behind the Bank of America bank robbery
8. ________________ is hire a tutor who can help them with
their math skills.
A. What they do
B. What should they do
C. Whatever they should do
D. What they should do
9. Do you know ________________?
A. who's house that is
B. whose house is that
C. whose house that is
D. whose house is
10. ______________is unimportant to her peers.
A. If she passes
B. Whether does she pass or not
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12. I wonder _________________.
A. whether or not will she finish her graduate studies before December
B. whether or not she will finish her graduate studies before December
C. if she finish her graduate studies before December
D. whether or not she finish her graduate studies before December
13. _________________was the question asked by the campus
authorities.
A. Whose bike this belonged to
B. Whose bike does this belong to
C. Who's bike this belonged to
D. Which's bike does this belong
14. Atthawut doesn't know ___________________.
A. what he do after he graduates from college
B. what should he do after he graduates from college
C. what to do after he graduates from college
D. what to do after he graduate from college
15. Saleh can't decide ________________.
A. whether go fishing or go swimming
B. whether to go fishing or to go swimming
C. whether to go fish or to go swimming
D. whether should he go fishing or should he go swimming
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16. ___________________ how to get to the bus station from
this university?
A. Could you please tell me
B. You could please tell me
C. Could please you tell me
D. Could you please say me
17. Dorothy Punch taught us __________________.
A. how improve our listening and pronunciation skills
B. how should we improve our listening and pronunciation skills
C. how to improve our listening and pronunciation skill
D. how to improve our listening and pronunciation skills
18. _________________ is obvious at this point.
A. That she did not pass the TOEFL
B. What she did not pass the TOEFL
C. That did she not pass the TOEFL
D. That she not did pass the TOEFL
19. It is a fact ____________________.
A. are earthquakes quite prevalent in San Bernardino
B. that earthquakes quite are prevalent in San Bernardino
C. that earthquakes are quite prevalent in San Bernardino
D. that earthquake are quite prevalent in San Bernardino
20. _____________________ was a suggestion by his friend
who had successfully passed the beastly exam.
A. What he should go to the next TOEFL seminar
B. That he should go to the next TOEFL seminar
C. That should he go to the next TOEFL seminar
D. Why he should go to the next TOEFL seminar
Noun clauses connectors "what and that:" Quiz 2
1. _________ he said to me was not important.
A. that
B. what
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2. I know ____________ Hiroko has talked to Jun.
A. that
B. what
3. He doesn't remember __________ happened at the accident.
A. that
B. what
4. I heard ______________ there was a serious traffic accident
on the corner of University Parkway and College Avenue.
A. that
B. what
5. ______________ we should do in the case of an earthquake
should be an agenda item at the next City Council meeting.
A. that
B. what
6. _____________ we should keep a 72 hour emergency kit in
case of an earthquake was a suggestion at the city council meeting.
A. that
B. what
7. I need to talk to you about ___________ John said to Mary at
the party last Friday.
A. that
B. what
8. Everyone knows _____________ she said to him.
A. that
B. what
9. We know _____________ good love is always hard to find.
A. that
B. what
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10. Friendship in a relationship is _______________ I seek.
A. that
B. what
11. It is unlikely _______________ we will have hurricanes in
Southern California.
A. that
B. what
12. _____________ I do is not a concern of yours.
A. that
B. what
13. _______________ transpired at the game must be investigated if the police really want to understand the state of mind of the
criminal.
A. that
B. what
14. ____________ Soumaya has successfully completed her
MBA studies is not surprising because she has always been an exceptional student.
A. that
B. what
15. ____________ causes most teenage suicides remains a mystery to most professional counselors.
A. that
B. what
16. The soccer coach wanted to know ____________ problems
caused her team to suffer their worst defeat in 75 years, a defeat bringing shame to the entire student body.
A. that
B. what
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17. It is unfortunate _____________ the weather is so hot in the
high desert. Otherwise, it would be the perfect place to live.
A. that
B. what
18. ___________ he had asked for is not what he would eventually get, which disappointed him immensely.
A. that
B. what
19. ______________ the U.S. possesses a nuclear arsenal is a
well known military fact around the world.
A. that
B. what
20. _____________ we saw on TV was the most bizarre show I
have ever seen.
A. that
B. what
Noun clauses "the subjunctive:" Quiz 3
1. The coach advised _____________________.
A. that the students competed in the race
B. when the students compete in the race
C. that the students compete in the race
D. why the students compete in the race
2. I wish __________________.
A. that I was there at the party
B. were I there at the party
C. I was there at the party
D. that I were there at the party
3. The teacher asked __________________.
A. that all students are on time for the practice TOEFL test
B. all students are on time for the practice TOEFL test
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C. that all students be on time for the practice TOEFL test
D. that all students should be on time for the practice TOEFL
test
4. I demand ___________________.
A. that you do your chores immediately
B. that you do your chore immediately
C. that you should do your chores immediately
D. that you will do your chores immediately
5. Did you know _______________________?
A. that voyeur television be becoming and more popular
B. that voyeur television is becoming and more popular
C. that is voyeur television becoming and more popular
D. what voyeur television is becoming and more popular
6. His girlfriend insists ______________________.
A. not that he date other women
B. that he not dates other women
C. he must not date other women
D. that he not date other women
7. Historians don't really know ____________________.
A. whose invented fire
B. who invented fire
C. who did invent fire
D. who invents fire
8. I propose _________________________.
A. we should finish the kitchen installation next week
B. that we will finish the kitchen installation next week
C. that we finish the kitchen installation next week
D. where we finish the kitchen installation next week
9. She recommended ___________________.
A. that John complete his homework before watching television
B. that John completes his homework before watching television
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C. that John should complete his homework before watching
television
D. whom John complete his homework before watching television
10. The admissions employee requested____________________
_______________________.
A. that Shadi will resend all his transcripts from Israel
B. that can Shadi resend all his transcripts from Israel
C. that Shadi should resend all his transcripts from Israel
D. that Shadi resend all his transcripts from Israel
11. The police officer suggested__________________________
_________________________________.
A. that we be alert when we pull up to a stop light, a fact which
might prevent a carjacking
B. that we are alert when we pull up to a stop light, a fact which
might prevent a carjacking
C. that we alert when we pull up to a stop light, a fact which
might prevent a carjacking
D. that we must be alert when we pull up to a stop light, a piece
of advice which might prevent a carjacking
12. It is essential ___________________.
A. that you are on time for all business meetings
B. that you be on time for all business meetings
C. that you should be on time for all business meetings
D. that you on time for all business meetings
13. It is imperative ____________________.
A. that you are not late for your appointment
B. that you not late for your appointment
C. that you be not late for your appointment
D. that you not be late for your appointment
14. It is important __________________.
A. that we are prepared for all possible emergencies
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B. that we be prepared for all possible emergencies
C. that we be prepare for all possible emergencies
D. that we prepared for all possible emergencies
15. You can tell _____________________________________.
A. whomever you want about the party as long you don't know
tell Teresita
B. whoever you want about the party as long as you don't know
tell Teresita
C. whomever you want about the party as long as you don't
know tell Teresita
D. whomever you want the party as long as you don't know tell
Teresita
16. It was critical ____________________________________.
A. that the paramedics be arrived within five minutes of the traffic collision
B. that the paramedics should arrive within five minutes of the
traffic collision
C. that the paramedics arrived within five minutes of the traffic
collision
D. that the paramedics arrive within five minutes of the traffic
collision
17. It is absolutely necessary ___________________________.
A. that we are in the library by 5:00 PM if we want sufficient
time to prepare for the test
B. that we should be in the library by 5:00 PM if we want sufficient time to prepare for the test
C. that we be in the library by 5:00 PM if we want sufficient
time to prepare for the test
D. that we in the library by 5:00 PM if we want sufficient time to
prepare for the test
18. It is vital _______________________________________.
A. that we tell teenagers about the dangers of smoking
B. that we teenagers tell about the dangers of smoking
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C. that teenagers told by us about the dangers of smoking
D. that we tell teenagers about the dangers smoking
19. I know __________________________________________.
A. that Tom had said to Bill, which surprised me a lot
B. whatever Tom had said to Bill, which surprised me a lot
C. what Tom had said to Bill, which surprise me a lot
D. what Tom had said to Bill, which surprised me a lot
20. _______________________________ was already common
knowledge to most of the students in the high school.
A. That Tom talk to Bill about the problem
B. What Tom had talked to Bill about the problem
C. That Tom had talked to Bill about the problem
D. Tom had talked to Bill about the problem
Noun clauses "Reported Speech:" Quiz 4
Choose the answer that best reports the speaker's words in a
noun clause. Be sure to check the verb form in the noun clause to make
sure that the most appropriate verb form is used.
1. " I go to school every day."
A. He said that he had gone to school every day.
B. He said that he went to school every day.
C. He said that he was going to school every day.
D. He said that he goes to school every day.
2. "Shogo is eating dinner."
A. Shogo said that he is eating dinner.
B. Shogo said that he ate dinner.
C. Shogo said that he was eating dinner.
D. Shogo said he has eating dinner.
3. "Michael has lived in San Bernardino for seven years."
A. Michael said that he had lived in San Bernardino for seven
years.
B. Michael said that he was living in San Bernardino for seven
years.
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C. Michael said that he lived in San Bernardino for seven years.
D. Michael said that he has lived in San Bernardino for seven
9. "I have to leave."
A. He said that he must leave.
B. He said that he had to leave.
C. He said that he would leave.
D. He said that he was leaving.
years.
4. "He had already purchased the tickets when John announced
that he would also attend."
A. He said that he had already purchase the tickets when the
John announced that we would also attend.
B. He said that he has already purchased the tickets when the
John announced that we would also attend.
C. He said that he already purchases the tickets when the John
announced that we would also attend.
D. He said that he had already purchased the tickets when the
John announced that we would also attend.
10. "I should do my homework."
A. She said that she should do her homework.
B. She said that she must do her homework.
C. She said that she would do her homework.
D. She said that she had to do her homework.
11. "I ought not to watch so much television."
A. He said that he should not to watch so much television.
B. He said that he would not watch so much television.
C. He said that he had better not to watch so much television.
D. He said that he ought not to watch so much television.
5. "I am going to see a movie at 4:00 PM."
A. He said that he would see a movie at 4:00 PM.
B. He said that he was going to see a movie at 4:00 PM.
C. He said that he went to see a movie at 4:00 PM.
D. He said that he will see a movie at 4:00 PM.
12. "You need to study for your test next week."
A. He said that I need to study for my test next week.
B. He said that I study for my test next week.
C. He said that I should study for my test next week.
D. He said that I needed to study for my test next week.
6. "I can run up to 20 miles a day if I want."
A. He said that he could run up to 20 miles a day if he wanted.
B. He said that he can run up to 20 miles a day if he wanted.
C. He said that he runs up to 20 miles a day if he wanted.
D. He said that he should run up to 20 miles a day if he wanted.
13. "Go to the library."
A. He told me to go to the library.
B. He said that I must go to the library.
C. He said that I go to the library.
D. He told me go to the library.
7. "I may go to the game."
A. She said that she may go to the game.
B. She said that she could go to the game.
C. She said that she might go to the game.
D. She said that she goes to the game.
8. "I must eat some food."
A. She said that she would eat some food.
B. She said that she should eat some food.
C. She said that she ate some food.
D. She said that she had to eat some food.
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14. What did the professor just say to us?
A. He said that he want us to turn in our research paper next week.
B. He said that he wants us to turn in our research paper next week.
C. He said that he did want to turn us in our research paper next
week.
D. He said he was wanting us to turn in our research paper next
week.
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15. I heard that you talked to Tom yesterday. What do he say
about me?
A. He said that he want to take you out to dinner soon.
B. He said that he wants to take you out to dinner soon.
C. He said that he wanted to take you out to dinner soon.
D. He said that he will take you out to dinner soon.
16. "The earth revolves around the sun."
A. She said that the earth revolved around the sun.
B. She said that the earth is revolving around the sun.
C. She said that the earth revolves around the sun.
D. She said that the earth was revolved around the sun.
17. What did Hai-Chu just say? I was busy talking to Suwimol.
A. She said that she wanted to go skiing after class on Friday.
B. She said that she will want to go skiing after class on Friday.
C. She said that she did want to go skiing after class on Friday.
D. She said she wants to go skiing after class on Friday.
18. "I will watch the baseball game."
A. He said that he will watch the game.
B. He said that he would watch the game.
C. He said he would be watching the game.
D. He said that he is going to watch the game.
19. I am going to swim at Laguna Beach.
A. She said she was going to swim at Laguna Beach.
B. She said she would go swimming at Laguna Beach.
C. She said she will be swimming at Laguna Beach.
D. She said she is going to swim at Laguna Beach.
20. "Leave the room."
A. She told him to leave the room.
B. She said that he must leave the room.
C. She told him that he leave the room.
D. She told him leave the room.
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CHAPTER THREE
APPOSITIVES
An appositive is a noun or pronoun – often with modifiers – set
beside another noun or pronoun to explain or identify it. Here are some
examples of appositives.
• Your friend Bill is in trouble.
• My brother’s car, a sporty red convertible with bucket seats, is
the envy of my friends.
• The chief surgeon, an expert in organ-transplant procedures,
took her nephew on a hospital tour.
An appositive phrase usually follows the word it explains or
identifies, but it may also precede it.
• A bold innovator, Wassily Kandinsky is known for his colorful
abstract paintings.
• The first state to ratify the US Constitution, Delaware is rich in
history.
• A beautiful collie, Skip was my favorite dog.
Punctuation of appositives
In some cases, the noun being explained is too general without
the appositive; the information is essential to the meaning of the sentence. When this is the case, do not place commas around the appositive; just leave it alone. If the sentence would be clear and complete
without the appositive, then commas are necessary; place one before
and one after the appositive.
Here are some examples:
• The popular US president John Kennedy was known for his
eloquent and inspirational speeches.
Here we do not put commas around the appositive, because it is
essential information. Without the appositive, the sentence would be
The popular US president was known for his eloquent and inspirational
speeches. We wouldn't know which president was being referred to.
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• John Kennedy, the popular US president, was known for his
eloquent and inspirational speeches.
Here we put commas around the appositive because it is not essential information. Without the appositive, the sentence would be
John Kennedy was known for his eloquent and traditional speeches.
We still know who the subject of the sentence is without the appositive.
• John Kennedy the popular US president was quite different
from John Kennedy the unfaithful husband.
Here we do not put commas around either appositive because
they are both essential to understanding the sentence. Without the appositives, the sentence would just be John Kennedy was quite different
from John Kennedy. We wouldn't know what qualities of John Kennedy were being referred to without the appositive.
Exercise on appositives
Underline the appositives in the following sentence:
1. My son, the policeman, will be visiting us next week.
2. The captain ordered the ship's carpenters to assemble the shallop, a large rowboat.
3. Walter, the playboy and writer, is very attached to his mother,
Mrs. Hammon.
4. The actor Paul Newman directed only one picture.
5. Elizabeth Teague, a sweet and lovable girl, grew up to be a
mentally troubled woman.
Underline and punctuate the appositives in the following sentences. Remember: not all require punctuation:
6. Sweetbriar a company known throughout the South is considering a nationwide advertising campaign.
7. An above-average student and talented musician John made
his family proud.
8. The extremely popular American film Titanic was widely
criticized for its mediocre script.
9. The greatest American film ever made Citizen Kane won only
one Academy Award.
10. 60 Minutes the TV news magazine program featured a story
on the popular singer Whitney Houston.
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CHAPTER FOUR
Sentence Fragments
Fragments are incomplete sentences. Usually, fragments are
pieces of sentences that have become disconnected from the main
clause. One of the easiest ways to correct them is to remove the period
between the fragment and the main clause. Other kinds of punctuation
may be needed for the newly combined sentence.
Below are some examples with the fragments shown in red.
Punctuation and/or words added to make corrections are highlighted in
blue. Notice that the fragment is frequently a dependent clause or long
phrase that follows the main clause.
Fragment
(phrase or dependent clause)
Possible Revision
Purdue offers many majors in
engineering. Such as electrical,
chemical, and industrial engineering.
Purdue offers many majors in
engineering, such as electrical,
chemical, and industrial engineering.
Coach Dietz exemplified this
behavior by walking off the field
in the middle of a game. Leaving
her team at a time when we
needed her.
Coach Dietz exemplified this
behavior by walking off the field
in the middle of a game, leaving
her team at a time when we
needed her.
I need to find a new roommate.
Because the one I have now isn't
working out too well.
I need to find a new roommate
because the one I have now isn't
working out too well.
The current city policy on housing is incomplete as it stands.
Which is why we believe the
proposed amendments should be
passed.
Because the current city policy
on housing is incomplete as it
stands, we believe the proposed
ammendments should be passed.
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You may have noticed that newspaper and magazine journalists
often use a dependent clause as a separate sentence when it follows
clearly from the preceding main clause, as in the last example above.
This is a conventional journalistic practice, often used for emphasis.
For academic writing and other more formal writing situations, however, you should avoid such journalistic fragment sentences.
Some fragments are not clearly pieces of sentences that have
been left unattached to the main clause; they are written as main
clauses but lack a subject or main verb.
Fragment
(incomplete main clause)
Possible Revisions
No main verb
A story with deep thoughts
and emotions.
Appositive: Gilman's "The Yellow
Wallpaper," a story with deep
thoughts and emotions, has impressed critics for decades.
Direct object: She told a story with
deep thoughts and emotions.
Toys of all kinds thrown everywhere.
Complete verb: Toys of all kinds
were thrown everywhere.
Direct object: They found toys of
all kinds thrown everywhere.
A record of accomplishment
beginning when you were
first hired.
Direct object: I've noticed a record
of accomplishment beginning when
you were first hired.
Main verb: A record of accomplishment began when you were
first hired.
No subject
With the ultimate effect of all
advertising is to sell the
product.
Remove preposition: The ultimate
effect of all advertising is to sell the
product.
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By paying too much attention to polls can make a political leader unwilling to
propose innovative policies.
Remove preposition: Paying too
much attention to polls can make a
political leader unwilling to propose
innovative policies.
For doing freelance work for
a competitor got Phil fired.
Remove preposition: Doing freelance work for a competitor got Phil
fired.
Rearrange: Phil got fired for doing
freelance work for a competitor.
These last three examples of fragments with no subjects are also
known as mixed constructions, that is, sentences constructed out of
mixed parts. They start one way (often with a long prepositional phrase)
but end with a regular predicate. Usually the object of the preposition
(often a gerund, as in the last two examples) is intended as the subject
of the sentence, so removing the preposition at the beginning is usually
the easiest way to edit such errors.
Sentence Fragment Exercise 1
The sentences below appeared in papers written by students.
Act as their editor, marking a C if the sentences in the group are all
complete and an F if any of the sentences in the group is a fragment.
Could you tell these writers why the fragments are incomplete sentences?
____ 1. Then I attended Morris Junior High. A junior high that
was a bad experience.
____ 2. The scene was filled with beauty. Such as the sun sending its brilliant rays to the earth and the leaves of various shades of red,
yellow, and brown moving slowly in the wind.
____ 3. He talked for fifty minutes without taking his eyes off
his notes. Like other teachers in that department, he did not encourage
students' questions.
____ 4. Within each group, a wide range of features to choose
from. It was difficult to distinguish between them.
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____ 5. A few of the less serious fellows would go into a bar for
a steak dinner and a few glasses of beer. After this meal, they were
ready for anything.
____ 6. It can be really embarrassing to be so emotional. Especially when you are on your first date, you feel that you should be in
control.
____ 7. The magazine has a reputation for a sophisticated, prestigious, and elite group of readers. Although that is a value judgment
and in circumstances not a true premise.
____ 8. In the seventh grade every young boy goes out for football. To prove to himself and his parents that he is a man.
____ 9. She opened the door and let us into her home. Not realizing at the time that we would never enter that door in her home again.
____10. As Christmas grows near, I find myself looking back
into my childhood days at fun-filled times of snowball fights. To think
about this makes me happy.
____11. Making up his mind quickly. Jim ordered two dozen red
roses for his wife. Hoping she would accept his apology.
____12. They were all having a good time. Until one of Joe's
oldest and best friends had a little too much to drink.
____13. Although it only attained a speed of about twelve miles
an hour. My old rowboat with its three-horsepower motor seemed like
a high-speed job to me.
____14. With my brother standing by my side, I reached for the
pot handle. Tilting the pot way too much caused the boiling water to
spill.
____15. The small, one-story houses are all the same size and
style. With no difference except the color.
____16. Being a friend of mine like he was when we first joined
the soccer team. Together we learned a lot.
Sentence Fragments: Exercise 2
These paragraphs need proofreading for possible fragments.
Use the space below each paragraph for revisin:
1. How can a person find patriotism in a local night club? Well,
it did not take me too long. About four weeks ago in a little night club
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in Louisville, Kentucky, a couple of my friends, Rick and Lon, the duo
who were providing the entertainment that night for the club.
2. For the past twenty years, the Survey Research Center at the
University of Michigan has been measuring the level of Americans'
trust and confidence in their politicians and quasi-political trust and
confidence in their political institutions and their leaders. "Political"
being all levels of government, and "quasi-political" churches, labor
unions, large professional/business associations, educational institutions, and the like. The result is that a very sharp decline has taken
place every year since 1964.
3. For 200 years Americans believed in better jobs, better homes,
a better life for one's children. This confidence no longer exists. Polls
now indicate that fewer Americans who feel they are better off today
than they were five years ago. A public-opinion analysis group has
found that large numbers of Americans, at some times and in some
places, see themselves as lower on the ladder. Adding worse living
conditions and anticipation of further decline over the next five years.
4. Well, in looking at the picture at the left you see an old lady.
She has a very funny look on her face. As if she's lonely and just wants
to be left alone. She also looks as if she has seen a lot and experienced
lots of things.
5. A president is an appointed leader. Someone who is a decision
maker in the executive branch of our government. This doesn't necessarily mean that the person the people elect is capable. Just hopefully
assumes. Assumes through his past record as a politician, over the
years' buildup of experience and handling situations.
Sentence Fragments: Exercise 3
The following paragraph has no capital letters or periods to
mark the beginnings and ends of sentences. Add capitals, periods,
commas, and/or other punctuation that may be needed to make the
word groups into complete sentences. Your goal is to be sure that
there are no fragments:
my brother was always my best friend when I was a child especially as we two were almost alone in the world we lived with our old
grandmother in a little house, almost a shack, in the country whenever I
think of him now I see a solemn, responsible boy a boy too old for his
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D. All of the above
E. None of the above
years who looked out for me no matter what once there was a bully
John Anson who looked enormous to me though he was probably an
average twelve-year-old John had it in for me because he liked Littice
Grant who liked me he decided to beat me up right before her eyes I
was lucky my brother came by he didn't interfere any he just stood
there somehow though his presence gave me confidence I licked the
stuffing out of John Anson if my brother hadn't been there I don't think
I could have done it.
Exercise on Fragments and Types of Sentences
1. Which of the following is a sentence fragment?
A. However, he didn't finish the essay.
B. Although he didn't finish the essay.
C. Therefore, he didn't finish the essay.
D. All of the above.
E. None of the above.
2. Which of the following is a sentence fragment?
A. However, the dog doesn't bite him.
B. The dog will not bite him.
C. Although the dog will not bite him.
D. All of the above.
E. None of the above.
3. What is true of the following example?
"Guinevere and Lancelot, who can be considered archetypal
betrayers."
A. It contains a noun clause.
B. It contains an adverbial clause.
C. It is a comma splice.
D. It is a sentence fragment.
E. It is a run-together sentence.
4. Which of the following contains a sentence fragment?
A. I studied for the exam. Therefore, I will do well.
B. I studied for the exam; therefore, I will do well.
C. I studied for the exam therefore I will do well.
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5. Which of the following contains a sentence fragment?
A. I will help you with the homework if you ask me.
B. I will help you with the homework, if you ask me.
C. I will help you with the homework. If you ask me.
D. All of the above
E. None of the above
6. What is true of the following sentence? "If the characters'
speeches were analyzed, the author's prejudices would emerge."
A. It is a sentence fragment.
B. It is a complex sentence.
C. It is a compound sentence.
D. It is a comma splice.
E. None of the above.
7. What is true of the following sentence? "Whereas, no one
could believe that she had married him."
A. It is a sentence fragment.
B. It is a comma splice.
C. It is a compound sentence.
D. It is a compound-complex sentence.
E. None of the above.
8. What is true of the following sentence? "Moreover, no one
could believe that she had married him."
A. It is a sentence fragment.
B. It is a comma splice.
C. It is a compound sentence.
D. It is a compound-complex sentence.
E. None of the above.
9. What is true of the following sentence? "When , cows
flew."
A. It is a sentence fragment.
B. It is a comma splice.
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C. It is a compound sentence.
D. It is a compound-complex sentence.
E. None of the above.
1.
Mrs. Blanco gone to visit her mother at the hospital.
Finding a parking space there is usually easy during the week.
Driving in the city during the evening rush hour.
2.
To apply for a job at the new store in the mall.
Asking the interviewer how often he would have to work on
weekends.
Shaking his new boss's hand, Tony knew he would like working
there.
3.
By the time Frances found out how expensive the wallpapering
job would be.
After getting estimates from five contractors, she decided to do
the work herself.
Before picking out an interesting wallpaper pattern that went
well with her furniture.
4.
Who borrowed Stefanie's car Saturday night.
The nineteen-year-old car looked out of place next to the new
models.
Which the salesman was surprised to find in such good shape.
5.
While waiting for her neighbor to move the car that blocked the
driveway.
To avoid hitting the other car, Michael had to back across the
corner of the lawn.
By making sure that no one will park across the driveway again.
6.
Because Manuel was sure he had heard the same strange story
many months ago.
Although I will never forget how cold we were when we lost our
heat last winter.
Since Anna wasn't at the meeting, I took notes so that she
wouldn't miss anything.
7.
When my cousin moved to Troy, New York, after he finished
school.
After he went to all the trouble of fixing up his apartment.
While living there, he made very few friends.
8.
My brother has been running a charter fishing boat for five years.
Many of his customers coming back three or four times over the summer.
His business been so busy that he has very little time for anything else.
9.
In the hiding place that Carl had been using for years to get away
from the noisy house.
By the time that everyone had quieted down, my favorite television show was over.
Before planning another family get-together at the already
crowded park.
10.
Although I knew she might wear something outrageous, I was
still shocked by her dress.
Because she didn't want to tell where she had bought the strange
outfit.
When we finally heard that she had made the dress herself.
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10. What is true of the following sentence? "Nevertheless,
cows flew."
A. It is a sentence fragment.
B. It is a comma splice.
C. It is a compound sentence.
D. It is a compound-complex sentence.
E. None of the above.
SENTENCE FRAGMENTS:
Practice Exercise 1
Which of the sentences is NOT a fragment?
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SENTENCE FRAGMENTS:
Practice Exercise 2
Which of the sentences is NOT a fragment?
1.
Although it was snowing harder than we had ever seen it snow
before.
We decided to leave before it got any worse.
The tread on our snow-tires, after all, not what it used to be.
2.
Snow piling up on my neighbor's roof.
He decided to use a snow-blower to blow the snow from his roof.
However, how he ever expect to get the snow-blower up on his
roof.
3.
After doing a superb job of keeping his driveway clear all winter
long.
Mostly because he was afraid of what his neighbors would say.
Luis just gave up on it this time.
4.
It's always pleasant to look out at the snow while it's falling.
Mrs. Burke wondering how she would ever clear the sidewalk.
When the snow finally began to taper off in the late morning.
5.
Brenda said she always prefered snow to rain.
These blizzards getting a bit ridiculous though, she added.
Because snow-removal is so costly to large cities.
6.
Sometimes snow-plows gettting to the back streets two days after a storm.
The citizens were getting quite angry.
By the time the snow plows get here, they shouted.
7.
Connecticut getting its share of northeastern-type storms this year.
My neighbor says he leaving for Florida soon.
Since he hasn't saved a dime, I wonder where he'll get the money
to move.
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8.
Handicapped people affected the most by this snow.
Getting out of their cars and negotiating sidewalks a real problem for them.
Handicapped parking spots are often covered by several feet of
snow.
9.
To earn some money over the semester break.
Charlie spent $20 on a new snow shovel.
Although it seems to have stopped snowing suddenly.
10.
As long as we don't lose our power in the night.
That's what worries me.
Sick of this weather and worried about his aging mother.
SENTENCE FRAGMENTS:
Practice Exercise 3
Which of the sentences is NOT a fragment?
1.
Before the committee finished the annual report.
Get the file on Designs Unlimited for me.
Although the textbooks have not yet arrived.
2.
Unless Mr. Parsons arranges the meeting.
In the most interesting book that I have ever read.
We considered several solutions to the problem.
3.
Running the presses all by himself.
Impressed by several of the largest buildings in town.
Because Miles could not attend the seminar, he borrowed my
notes.
4.
By hiding all the ash trays in the house.
Our company has been considering a change in operating procedures.
The radio been on for hours.
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5.
To answer her audiences' many questions.
Hoping to convince the other committee members to vote for the
bill.
Wanting to be respected by others is not a selfish goal.
6.
While we were waiting, the usher announced the show was canceled.
When we finally arrived at the hotel.
That we expect to find in better condition.
7.
Leaving early to catch a flight at the local airport.
Many of the students looking forward to the end of the semester.
To play the guitar better has been my dream for years.
8.
At the monthly meeting of the regional astronomy society.
In the last five minutes, she has sneezed ten times.
Continuing to think that the weather would clear.
9.
The water was overflowing from the tub by the time she returned.
Since his subscription to the computer magazine had run out.
Several dogs running through the back yard.
10.
Testing the sound system in the auditorium.
Hearing the train approaching, the crowd moved closer to the
edge of the platform.
Before picking up her car at the repair shop.
11.
Falling interest rates have resulted in increased real estate sales.
Which we were all very happy to hear about.
In the few stores that carry parts for that model.
12.
Mr. Higgins been nominated for president of the nature society.
Dreaming of clear blue summer skies and long walks on the
beach.
When we saw how much the town had changed, we were disappointed.
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13.
James having trouble starting his car.
Before deciding to finish weeding the grden.
Raised in Boston, she later moved to Tucson.
14.
Surprised at how enthusiastic their response was.
Music sifted gently through the open windows.
At the opening of the new museum.
15.
Since we knew they were busy, we didn't bother to call.
That she heard on the news this morning.
Whose latest book she had just read.
16.
To graduate in the top 10 percent of the class.
The singer at the wedding, who was so highly recommended,
sounded awful.
Which made me feel even worse than before.
17.
Crossing the light just as the light changed.
From the way he signaled to his assistant.
When they returned, I was asleep.
18.
Before the party was over.
After the game, we went out to eat.
Who planned the entire convention.
19.
Caitlin been working at the restaurant for three months.
By preparing his speech several days in advance.
Watching television is a favorite pastime for many.
20.
Although the reports aren't ready yet.
At the end of the last song, the audience stood and applauded.
Considering that the car has so many miles on it.
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Fragments and Run-Ons
From A, B, C, and D, choose the answer that best describes
each sentence:
1. Although he had been an often decorated soldier during World
War II and had fought many battles for the losing cause of liberalism in
Congress.
A. There is nothing wrong with the structure of this sentence.
B. Run-on: put a comma after World War II.
C. Run-on: put a semicolon after World War II.
D. Fragment: put a comma after Congress and finish the sentence.
2. This is going to be the most difficult exam of your college career, you had better start studying for it immediately.
A. There is nothing wrong with the structure of this sentence.
B. Fragment: put a comma after immediately and finish the sentence.
C. Run-on: replace that comma with a semicolon.
3. Knowing better than anyone else how the state legislature had
ignored the needs of the community college system and created a crisis
characterized by an uneducated workforce that had no place to go for
proper training and realizing that someone had to do something about
the situation or the state would begin to lose jobs to states in the
American south that were more aggressive in providing and publicizing
excellence in education, Representative Fuentes began to lay plans for
an education bill that took into consideration the needs of the state's
community colleges and the students who attended them.
A. There is nothing wrong with the structure of this sentence.
B. This sentence is too long; it must be a run-on.
C. Even though this sentence is very long, it is actually a fragment.
4. Coach Espinoza really wants this job with Notre Dame University, she is very excited about returning to the college she graduated
from.
A. There is nothing wrong with the structure of this sentence.
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B. Fragment: put a comma after from and finish the sentence.
C. Run-on: change that comma to a period and start a new sentence.
5. Right after the Christmas holidays and during those three
weeks before class begins in January.
A. There is nothing wrong with the structure of this sentence.
B. Fragment: put a comma after January and finish the sentence.
C. Run-on: put a comma after holidays.
6. She ran.
A. There is nothing wrong with the structure of this sentence.
B. Fragment: the sentence is too short and needs more details to
be a complete thought.
7. Perplexed by the rising rates of inflation and alarmed by the
decline in major construction projects.
A. There is nothing wrong with the structure of this sentence.
B. Run-on: put a comma after inflation.
C. Fragment: put a comma after projects and finish the sentence.
8. Anabel realizes what she is doing, I think, but she doing it
anyway.
A. There is nothing wrong with the structure of this sentence.
B. Fragment: we're missing part of a verb.
C. Run-on: change the comma after doing to a semicolon.
9. Professor Pepin spends a lot of time translating medieval texts
on ancient medicine, however, he also stays informed about the latest
developments in modern asthma treatments.
A. There is nothing wrong with the structure of this sentence.
B. Fragment: although this is a long sentence, it's missing part of
a verb.
C. Run-on: remove the verb from the second independent clause.
D. Run-on: change the comma after medicine to a semicolon.
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10. If we're ever going to get out of here in time, we're going to
have to re-write all these papers, set up the desks, and clean the chalkboards; stack those books in the corner and clean up the mess around
the wastebasket; notify security about the broken window, the thermostat that Raoul messed up, and the desk that was stolen before we even
got here.
A. There is nothing wrong with the structure of this sentence.
B. Run-on: the sentence should be broken into three smaller sentences.
C. Fragment: although the sentence is very long, it's missing a
verb string.
D. Run-on: change those two semicolons to commas.
CHAPTER FIVE
CLAUSES: THE ESSENTIAL BUILDING-BLOCKS
Definition
A clause is a group of related words containing a subject and a
verb A clause can be usefully distinguished from a phrase, which is a
group of related words that does not contain a subject-verb relationship,
such as "in the morning" or "running down the street" or "having
grown used to this harassment."
Words We Use to Talk about Clauses
Learning the various terms used to define and classify clauses
can be a vocabulary lesson in itself. This digital handout categorizes
clauses into independent and dependent clauses. This simply means
that some clauses can stand by themselves, as separate sentences, and
some can't. Another term for dependent clause is subordinate clause:
this means that the clause is subordinate to another element (the independent clause) and depends on that other element for its meaning. The
subordinate clause is created by a subordinating conjunction or dependent word.
An independent clause, "She is older than her brother" (which
could be its own sentence), can be turned into a dependent or subordinate clause when the same group of words begins with a dependent
word (or a subordinating conjunction in this case): "Because she is
older than her brother, she tells him what to do."
Clauses are also classified as restrictive and nonrestrictive
clauses. (The words essential and nonessential are sometimes used
and mean the same thing as restrictive and nonrestrictive, respectively.
British grammarians will make this same distinction by referring to
clauses with the terms defining and non-defining.) A nonrestrictive
clause is not essential to the meaning of the sentence; it can be removed from the sentence without changing its basic meaning. Nonrestrictive clauses are often set apart from the rest of the sentence by a
comma or a pair of commas (if it's in the middle of a sentence).
• Professor Villa, who used to be a secretary for the President,
can type 132 words a minute.
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Review the Notorious Confusables section on the difference between That and Which for additional clarification on the distinction
between restrictive and nonrestrictive.
Relative clauses are dependent clauses introduced by a Relative
Pronoun (that, which, whichever, who, whoever, whom, whomever,
whose, and of which). Relative clauses can be either restrictive or nonrestrictive determining whether relative clauses are restrictive or nonrestrictive (parenthetical or not) and whether commas should be used to
set them off from the rest of the sentence. In a relative clause, the relative pronoun is the subject of the verb (remember that all clauses contain a subject-verb relationship) and refers to (relates to) something
preceding the clause.
• Giuseppe said that the plantar wart, which had been bothering
him for years, had to be removed.
(In this sentence, the clause in this color is a restrictive [essential]
clause [a noun clause – see below] and will not be set off by a comma;
the underlined relative clause [modifying "wart"] is nonrestrictive
[nonessential – it can be removed from the sentence without changing
the meaning of the sentence] and is set off by commas.)
Some relative clauses will refer to more than a single word in the
preceding text; they can modify an entire clause or even a series of
clauses.
• Charlie didn't get the job in administration, which really sur-
prised his friends.
Charlie didn't get the job in administration, and he didn't even
apply for the Dean's position, which really surprised his friends.
A relative clause that refers to or modifies entire clauses in this
manner is called a sentential clause. Sometimes the "which" of a sentential clause will get tucked into the clause as the determiner of a noun:
• Charlie might very well take a job as headmaster, in which case
the school might as well close down.
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Independent Clauses
Independent Clauses could stand by themselves as discrete sentences, except that when they do stand by themselves, separated from
other clauses, they're normally referred to simply as sentences, not
clauses. The ability to recognize a clause and to know when a clause is
capable of acting as an independent unit is essential to correct writing
and is especially helpful in avoiding sentence fragments and run-on
sentences..
Needless to say, it is important to learn how to combine independent clauses into larger units of thought. In the following sentence,
for example,
• Bob didn't mean to do it, but he did it anyway.
we have two independent clauses – "Bob didn't mean to do it"
and "he did it anyway" – connected by a comma and a coordinating
conjunction ("but"). If the word "but" is missing from this sentence, the
sentence would be called a comma splice: two independent clauses
would be incorrectly connected, smooshed together, with only a
comma between them. Furthermore, a long series of clauses of similar
structure and length begins to feel monotonous, leading to what is
called "Dick and Jane" or primer language (after the kind of prose that
we find in first grade textbooks or "primers").
Clauses are combined in three different ways: coordination, subordination, and by means of a semicolon. Coordination involves joining independent clauses with one of the coordinating conjunctions: and,
but, or, nor, for, yet, and sometimes* so. Clauses thus connected are
usually nicely balanced in length and import.
• Ramonita thought about joining the church choir, but she never
talked to her friends about it.
Subordination involves turning one of the clauses into a subordinate element (one that cannot stand on its own) through the use of a
Subordinating Conjunction (sometimes called a dependent word) or a
Relative Pronoun. When the clause begins with a subordinating word,
it is no longer an independent clause; it is called a dependent or subordinate clause because it depends on something else (the independent
clause) for its meaning. There are other ways of combining ideas – by
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turning independent clauses into various kinds of modifying phrases.
Again, see the section on Avoiding Primer Language.
• Although Ramonita often thought about joining the choir, she
never talked to her friends about it.
• Ramonita never talked to her friends about joining the choir,
because she was afraid they would make fun of her.
• Yasmin is Ramonita's sister. Yasmin told Ramonita to join the
choir no matter what her friends said.
Joining these with the use of a relative clause:
Yasmin, [who is] Ramonita's sister, told Ramonita to join the
choir. . . .
Semicolons can connect two independent clauses with or without the help of a conjunctive adverb (transitional expression). Semicolons should be used sparingly and only when the two independent
clauses involved are closely related and nicely balanced in terms of
length and import.
• Ramonita has such a beautiful voice; many couples have asked
her to sing at their wedding.
• Ramonita's voice has a clear, angelic quality; furthermore, she
clearly enjoys using it.
The Ingredients of Independent Clauses
1. Which of the following words is a coordinating conjunction?
A. although
B. however
C. nevertheless
D. All of the above
E. None of the above
2. Which of the following words is a subordinating conjunction?
D. All of the above
E. None of the above
3. Which of the following sentences is prescriptively correct?
A. The space station has been damaged; therefore, we must
abandon it.
B. The space station has been damaged, therefore, we must
abandon it.
C. The space station has been damaged, therefore we must abandon it.
D. All of the above
E. None of the above
4. Which of the following sentences is a comma splice?
A. The space station has been damaged; therefore, we must
abandon it.
B. The space station has been damaged, therefore, we must
abandon it.
C. The space station, has been damaged therefore we must abandon it.
D. All of the above
E. None of the above
5. Which of the following sentences is a run-together sentence?
A. The space station has been damaged; therefore, we must
abandon it.
B. The space station has been damaged, therefore, we must
abandon it.
C. The space station has been damaged therefore we must abandon it.
D. All of the above
E. None of the above
6. Which of the following sentences is prescriptively correct?
A. There are many good examples of this in his writing, one is:
B. The implications are obvious, the adjective golden gives the
impression of good.
A. although
B. however
C. nevertheless
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C. The peacock has no monetary value, rather it is "another
mouth to feed."
D. All of the above
E. None of the above
7. Which of the following sentences is prescriptively correct?
A. Mrs. Biber was not evil; she was just wrong.
B. Mrs. Biber was not evil, she was just wrong.
C. Mrs. Biber was not evil therefore she was just wrong.
D. Mrs. Biber was not evil she was just wrong.
E. Mrs. Biber was not evil nevertheless she was just wrong.
8. Which of the following is a conjunctive adverb?
A. nevertheless
B. however
C. thus
D. All of the above
E. None of the above
9. Which of the following is a coordinating conjunction?
A. and
B. for
C. nor
D. All of the above
E. None of the above
10. Which of the following is a subordinating conjunction?
A. since
B. although
C. when
D. All of the above
E. None of the above
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Independent and Dependent Clauses: Additional Tips
Definitions
Independent Clause (IC)
An independent clause is a group of words that contains a subject and verb and expresses a complete thought. An independent clause
is a sentence.
Example: Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz.
(IC)
Dependent Clause (DC)
A dependent clause is a group of words that contains a subject
and verb but does not express a complete thought. A dependent clause
cannot be a sentence. Often a dependent clause is marked by a dependent marker word.
Example: When Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry
quiz . . . (DC) (What happened when he studied? The thought is incomplete.)
Dependent Marker Word (DM)
A dependent marker word is a word added to the beginning of an
independent clause that makes it into a dependent clause.
Example: When Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry
quiz, it was very noisy. (DM)
Some common dependent markers are: after, although, as, as if,
because, before, even if, even though, if, in order to, since, though,
unless, until, whatever, when, whenever, whether, and while.
Connecting dependent and independent clauses
There are two types of words that can be used as connectors at
the beginning of an independent clause: coordinating conjunctions and
independent marker words.
1. Coordinating Conjunction (CC)
The seven coordinating conjunctions used as connecting words
at the beginning of an independent clause are and, but, for, or, nor, so,
and yet. When the second independent clause in a sentence begins with
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a coordinating conjunction, a comma is needed before the coordinating
conjunction:
Example: Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz,
but it was hard to concentrate because of the noise. (CC)
2. Independent Marker Word (IM)
An independent marker word is a connecting word used at the
beginning of an independent clause. These words can always begin a
sentence that can stand alone. When the second independent clause in a
sentence has an independent marker word, a semicolon is needed before the independent marker word.
Example: Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz;
however, it was hard to concentrate because of the noise. (IM)
Some common independent markers are: also, consequently, furthermore, however, moreover, nevertheless, and therefore.
Proper Punctuation Methods
This table gives some examples of ways to combine independent
and dependent clauses and shows how to punctuate them properly.
IC. IC.
I went to the store. I didn't buy any bread.
IC; IC.
I went to the store; I didn't buy any bread.
IC, CC IC.
I went to the store, but I didn't buy any bread.
IC; IM, IC.
I went to the store; however, I didn't buy any bread.
DC, IC.
When I went to the store, I didn't buy any bread.
IC DC.
I didn't buy any bread when I went to the store.
(or) I like this class; it is very interesting.
(or) I like this class, and it is very interesting.
(or) I like this class because it is very interesting.
(or) Because it is very interesting, I like this class.
Fused Sentences
Fused sentences happen when there are two independent clauses
not separated by any form of punctuation. This error is also known as a
run-on sentence. The error can sometimes be corrected by adding a
period, semicolon, or colon to separate the two sentences.
Incorrect: My professor is intelligent I've learned a lot from her.
Correct: My professor is intelligent. I've learned a lot from her.
(or) My professor is intelligent; I've learned a lot from her.
(or) My professor is intelligent, and I've learned a lot from her.
(or) My professor is intelligent; moreover, I've learned a lot from
her.
Sentence Fragments
Sentence fragments happen by treating a dependent clause or
other incomplete thought as a complete sentence. You can usually fix
this error by combining it with another sentence to make a complete
thought or by removing the dependent marker.
Incorrect: Because I forgot the exam was today.
Correct: Because I forgot the exam was today, I didn't study.
(or) I forgot the exam was today.
Some Common Errors to Avoid
Comma Splices
A comma splice is the use of a comma between two independent
clauses. You can usually fix the error by changing the comma to a period and therefore making the two clauses into two separate sentences,
by changing the comma to a semicolon, or by making one clause dependent by inserting a dependent marker word in front of it.
Incorrect: I like this class, it is very interesting.
Correct: I like this class. It is very interesting.
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CHAPTER SIX
Run-ons – Comma Splices – Fused Sentences
The above are all names given to compound sentences that are
not punctuated correctly. The best way to avoid such errors is to punctuate compound sentences correctly by using one or the other of these
rules.
1. Join the two independent clauses with one of the coordinating
conjunctions (and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet), and use a comma before
the connecting word.
_______________________, and _______________________.
(He enjoys walking through the country, and he often goes backpacking on his vacations.)
2. When you do not have a connecting word (or when you use a
connecting word other than and, but, for, or nor, so, or yet between the
two independent clauses) use a semicolon (;).
________________________;___________________________.
(He often watched TV when there were only reruns; she preferred to read instead.)
or
_________________________; however,__________________.
(He often watched TV when there were only reruns; however,
she preferred to read instead.)
So, run-ons and fused sentences are terms describing two independent clauses which are joined together with no connecting word or
punctuation to separate the clauses.
Incorrect: They weren't dangerous criminals they were detectives in disguise.
Correct: They weren't dangerous criminals; they were detectives
in disguise.
Incorrect: I didn't know which job I wanted I was too confused
to decide.
Correct: I didn't know which job I wanted, so I was too confused to decide.
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Commas vs. Semicolons in Compound Sentences
A group of words containing a subject and a verb and expressing
a complete thought is called a sentence or an independent clause.
Sometimes, an independent clause stands alone as a sentence, and
sometimes two independent clauses are linked together into what is
called a compound sentence. Depending on the circumstances, one of
two different punctuation marks can be used between the independent
clauses in a compound sentence: a comma or a semicolon. The choice
is yours.
Comma (,)
Use a comma after the first independent clause when you link
two independent clauses with one of the following coordinating conjunctions: and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet. For example:
I am going home, and I intend to stay there.
It rained heavily during the afternoon, but we managed to have
our picnic anyway.
They couldn't make it to the summit and back before dark, so
they decided to camp for the night.
Semicolon (;)
Use a semicolon when you link two independent clauses with no
connecting words. For example:
I am going home; I intend to stay there.
It rained heavily during the afternoon; we managed to have our
picnic anyway.
They couldn't make it to the summit and back before dark; they
decided to camp for the night.
You can also use a semicolon when you join two independent
clauses together with one of the following conjunctive adverbs (adverbs that join independent clauses): however, moreover, therefore,
consequently, otherwise, nevertheless, thus, etc. For example:
I am going home; moreover, I intend to stay there.
It rained heavily during the afternoon; however, we managed to
have our picnic anyway.
They couldn't make it to the summit and back before dark; therefore, they decided to camp for the night.
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Pattern Three: Compound Sentence
Sentence Punctuation Patterns
Pattern One: Simple sentence
Independent clause
Independent clause
.
Example: Doctors are concerned about the rising death rate from
asthma.
Doctors are concerned about the rising death rate from asthma .
This pattern is an example of a simple sentence.
Pattern Two: Compound Sentence
Independent
clause
independent clause
, coordinating
conjunction
;
Independent clause
.
Example: Doctors are concerned about the rising death rate from
asthma; they are unsure of its cause.
Doctors are concerned about the rising ; they are unsure of its .
death rate from asthma
cause
This pattern is an example of a compound sentence.
Pattern Four: Compound Sentence
.
Independent
clause
, independent clause
; independent
marker
.
There are seven coordinating conjunctions: and, but, for, or,
nor, so, yet.
Example: Doctors are concerned about the rising death rate from
asthma, but they don't know the reasons for it.
Examples of independent markers are the following: therefore,
moreover, thus, consequently, however, also.
Example: Doctors are concerned about the rising death rate from
asthma; therefore, they have called for more research into its causes.
Doctors are concerned about the , but they don't know the rea- .
rising death rate from asthma
sons for it
Doctors are concerned about ; therefore , they have called for .
the rising death rate from
more research into its
asthma
causes
This pattern is an example of a compound sentence.
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This pattern is an example of a compound sentence.
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Pattern Five: Complex Sentence
Dependent marker + dependent ,
clause
Independent clause
.
Examples of dependent markers are as follows: because, before,
since, while, although, if, until, when, then, after, as, as if.
Example: Because doctors are concerned about the rising death
rate from asthma, they have called for more research into its causes.
Because doctors are concerned , they have called for more re- .
about the rising death rate from search into its causes
asthma
This pattern is an example of a complex sentence.
Pattern Six
Independent clause
dependent
clause
marker
+
dependent .
Examples of dependent markers are as follows: because, before,
since, while, although, if, until, when, then, after, as, as if.
Example: Doctors are concerned about the rising death rate from
asthma because it is a common, treatable illness.
Doctors are concerned about the rising because it is a common,
.
death rate from asthma
treatable illness
This pattern is an example of a complex sentence.
Pattern Seven
First part of an inde- , non-essential clause ,
pendent clause
or phrase
rest of the inde- .
pendent clause
Example: Many doctors, including both pediatricians and family
practice physicians, are concerned about the rising death rate from
asthma.
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Many , including both pediatri- , are concerned about the ris- .
doctors cians and family practice ing death rate from asthma
physicians
Pattern Eight
First part of an inde- essential clause or rest of the inde- .
pendent clause
phrase
pendent clause
Example: Many doctors who are concerned about the rising
death rate from asthma have called for more research into its causes.
Many who are concerned about the have called for more re- .
doctors rising death rate from asthma search into its causes
Using Commas
The comma is a valuable, useful punctuation device because it
separates the structural elements of sentences into manageable segments. The rules provided here are those found in traditional handbooks; however, in certain rhetorical contexts and for specific purposes,
these rules may be broken.
1. Use commas to separate independent clauses when they are
joined by any of these seven coordinating conjunctions: and, but, for,
or, nor, so, yet.
The game was over, but the crowd refused to leave.
The student explained her question, yet the instructor still didn't
seem to understand.
Yesterday was her brother's birthday, so she took him out to dinner.
2. Use commas after introductory a) clauses, b) phrases, or c)
words that come before the main clause.
a. Common starter words for introductory clauses that should be
followed by a comma include after, although, as, because, if, since,
when, while.
While I was eating, the cat scratched at the door.
Because her alarm clock was broken, she was late for class.
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If you are ill, you ought to see a doctor.
When the snow stops falling, we'll shovel the driveway.
However, don't put a comma after the main clause when a dependent (subordinate) clause follows it (except for cases of extreme
contrast).
1. She was late for class, because her alarm clock was broken.
(incorrect)
2. The cat scratched at the door, while I was eating. (incorrect)
3. She was still quite upset, although she had won the Oscar.
(correct: extreme contrast)
b. Common introductory phrases that should be followed by a
comma include participial and infinitive phrases, absolute phrases,
nonessential appositive phrases, and long prepositional phrases (over
four words).
Having finished the test, he left the room.
To get a seat, you'd better come early.
After the test but before lunch, I went jogging.
The sun radiating intense heat, we sought shelter in the cafe.
c. Common introductory words that should be followed by a
comma include yes, however, well.
Well, perhaps he meant no harm.
Yes, the package should arrive tomorrow morning.
However, you may not be satisfied with the results.
3. Use a pair of commas in the middle of a sentence to set off
clauses, phrases, and words that are not essential to the meaning of the
sentence. Use one comma before to indicate the beginning of the pause
and one at the end to indicate the end of the pause.
Here are some clues to help you decide whether the sentence
element is essential:
• If you leave out the clause, phrase, or word, does the sentence
still make sense?
• Does the clause, phrase, or word interrupt the flow of words in
the original sentence?
• If you move the element to a different position in the sentence,
does the sentence still make sense?
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If you answer "yes" to one or more of these questions, then the
element in question is nonessential and should be set off with commas.
Here are some example sentences with nonessential elements:
Clause: That Tuesday, which happens to be my birthday, is the
only day when I am available to meet.
Phrase: This restaurant has an exciting atmosphere. The food,
on the other hand, is rather bland.
Word: I appreciate your hard work. In this case, however, you
seem to have over-exerted yourself.
4. Do not use commas to set off essential elements of the sentence, such as clauses beginning with that (relative clauses). That
clauses after nouns are always essential. That clauses following a verb
expressing mental action are always essential.
That clauses after nouns:
The book that I borrowed from you is excellent.
The apples that fell out of the basket are bruised.
That clauses following a verb expressing mental action:
She believes that she will be able to earn an A.
He is dreaming that he can fly.
I contend that it was wrong to mislead her.
They wished that warm weather would finally arrive.
Examples of other essential elements (no commas):
Students who cheat only harm themselves.
The baby wearing a yellow jumpsuit is my niece.
The candidate who had the least money lost the election.
Examples of nonessential elements (set off by commas):
Fred, who often cheats, is just harming himself.
My niece, wearing a yellow jumpsuit, is playing in the living
room.
The Green party candidate, who had the least money, lost the
election.
Apples, which are my favorite fruit, are the main ingredient in
this recipe.
Professor Benson, grinning from ear to ear, announced that the
exam would be tomorrow.
Tom, the captain of the team, was injured in the game.
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It is up to you, Jane, to finish.
She was, however, too tired to make the trip.
Two hundred dollars, I think, is sufficient.
5. Use commas to separate three or more words, phrases, or
clauses written in a series.
The Constitution establishes the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government.
The candidate promised to lower taxes, protect the environment,
reduce crime, and end unemployment.
The prosecutor argued that the defendant, who was at the scene
of the crime, who had a strong revenge motive, and who had access to
the murder weapon, was guilty of homicide.
6. Use commas to separate two or more coordinate adjectives
that describe the same noun. Be sure never to add an extra comma between the final adjective and the noun itself or to use commas with
non-coordinate adjectives.
Coordinate adjectives are adjectives with equal ("co"-ordinate)
status in describing the noun; neither adjective is subordinate to the
other. You can decide if two adjectives in a row are coordinate by asking the following questions:
• Does the sentence make sense if the adjectives are written in
reverse order?
• Does the sentence make sense if the adjectives are written with
and between them?
If you answer yes to these questions, then the adjectives are coordinate and should be separated by a comma. Here are some examples
of coordinate and non-coordinate adjectives:
He was a difficult, stubborn child. (coordinate)
They lived in a white frame house. (non-coordinate)
She often wore a gray wool shawl. (non-coordinate)
Your cousin has an easy, happy smile. (coordinate)
The 1) relentless, 2) powerful 3) summer sun beat down on them.
(1-2 are coordinate; 2-3 are non-coordinate.)
The 1) relentless, 2) powerful, 3) oppressive sun beat down on
them. (Both 1-2 and 2-3 are coordinate.)
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7. Use a comma near the end of a sentence to separate contrasted
coordinate elements or to indicate a distinct pause or shift.
He was merely ignorant, not stupid.
The chimpanzee seemed reflective, almost human.
You're one of the senator's close friends, aren't you?
The speaker seemed innocent, even gullible.
8. Use commas to set off phrases at the end of the sentence that
refer back to the beginning or middle of the sentence. Such phrases are
free modifiers that can be placed anywhere in the sentence without
causing confusion. (If the placement of the modifier causes confusion,
then it is not "free" and must remain "bound" to the word it modifies.)
1. Nancy waved enthusiastically at the docking ship, laughing
joyously. (correct)
2a. Lisa waved at Nancy, laughing joyously. (incorrect: Who is
laughing, Lisa or Nancy?)
2b. Laughing joyously, Lisa waved at Nancy. (correct)
2c. Lisa waved at Nancy, who was laughing joyously. (correct)
9. Use commas to set off all geographical names, items in dates
(except the month and day), addresses (except the street number and
name), and titles in names.
Birmingham, Alabama, gets its name from Birmingham, England.
July 22, 1959, was a momentous day in his life.
Who lives at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, DC?
Rachel B. Lake, MD, will be the principal speaker.
(When you use just the month and the year, no comma is necessary after the month or year: "The average temperatures for July 1998
are the highest on record for that month.")
10. Use a comma to shift between the main discourse and a quotation.
John said without emotion, "I'll see you tomorrow."
"I was able," she answered, "to complete the assignment."
In 1848, Marx wrote, "Workers of the world, unite!"
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11. Use commas wherever necessary to prevent possible confusion or misreading.
To George, Harrison had been a sort of idol.
Comma Abuse
Commas in the wrong places can break a sentence into illogical
segments or confuse readers with unnecessary and unexpected pauses.
12. Don't use a comma to separate the subject from the verb.
An eighteen-year old in California, is now considered an adult.
(incorrect)
The most important attribute of a ball player, is quick reflex actions. (incorrect)
13. Don't put a comma between the two verbs or verb phrases in
a compound predicate.
We laid out our music and snacks, and began to study. (incorrect)
I turned the corner, and ran smack into a patrol car. (incorrect)
14. Don't put a comma between the two nouns, noun phrases, or
noun clauses in a compound subject or compound object.
The music teacher from your high school, and the football coach
from mine are married. (incorrect: compound subject)
Jeff told me that the job was still available, and that the manager
wanted to interview me. (incorrect: compound object)
15. Don't put a comma after the main clause when a dependent
(subordinate) clause follows it (except for cases of extreme contrast).
1. She was late for class, because her alarm clock was broken.
(incorrect)
2. The cat scratched at the door, while I was eating. (incorrect)
3. She was still quite upset, although she had won the Oscar.
(correct: extreme contrast)
_____ Madame de Stael was an attractive gracious lady.
_____ Nice is a word with many meanings and some of them are
contradictory.
_____ The contractor testified that the house was completed and
that the work had been done properly.
_____ Some people refuse to go to the zoo because of pity for
creatures that must live in small cages.
_____ Taxicabs that are dirty are illegal in some cities.
_____ The closet contained worn clothes old shoes and dirty hats.
_____ The uninvited guest wore a dark blue tweed suit.
_____ After surviving this ordeal the trapper felt relieved.
_____ Mark Twain's early novels I believe stand the test of time.
_____ December 7 1941 will never be forgotten.
_____ The field was safe enough wasn't it?
_____ Write the editor of the Atlantic 8 Arlington Street Boston
Massachusetts 02116.
_____ He replied "I have no idea what you mean."
_____ After a good washing and grooming the pup looked like a
new dog.
_____ Because of their opposition to institutions that force creatures to live in captivity some people refuse to go to the zoo.
_____ Men who are bald are frequently the ones who are the
most authoritative on the subject of baldness.
_____ Vests which were once popular have been out of vogue
for several years.
_____ As a celestial goddess she regulated the course of the
heavenly bodies and controlled the alternating seasons.
_____ I hope that some day he will learn how to be polite.
Using Commas: Exercise #1
_____ He left the scene of the accident and tried to forget that it
had happened.
_____ Oil which is lighter than water rises to the surface.
Commas: Exercise #2
1. The problems involved in this operation are I think numerous.
2. Celene who does not usually tell anyone what she feels said
she didn't want to go to the dance.
3. To get tickets for some Broadway musicals one has to order
three months in advance.
4. Listening to the radio Jun heard an announcement that
Spangler his own dog was lost.
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5. I used to live at 16689 Sutton Avenue Milpitas California but
we have since moved to 1895 Holland Way Dubuque Iowa.
6. The Valley of the Moon the name of a section in Napa County
California is the heart of the state's wine producing area.
7. Chris did not see how he could organize write and proofread
this paper in only two hours.
8. By the pilings of the old pier I found four starfish a clam and a
sea anemone.
9. Yes Helen did mention that all three of you were coming for
lunch.
10. I believe therefore that fraternities are good influences on a
college campus.
13. To perform well on Saturday afternoon the athlete must train
every day of the week.
14. Understanding history increases your understanding of today's world.
15. Meg Fischer my cousin hopes to graduate from law school in
two years.
16. He reads everything: road maps want ads and cereal boxes.
17. Having cut the roses she decided to bring them to her friend
in the hospital.
18. "When" Jaime asked "will you return my book?"
Commas: Exercise #3
1. The girl with the bright friendly smile wore a bright green
scarf to celebrate St. Patrick's Day.
2. As he read the Chekhov story he became aware of the Russian's genius.
3. Dauphin Island located off the coast of Alabama is a favorite
spot for fishing.
4. She was as a matter of fact mainly interested in showing off
her vocabulary.
5. I often go to the seashore and collect rocks there.
6. Before reaching the summit the climbers were forced by a
storm to turn back.
7. Did you know that James Agee the novelist and poet was also
a film critic?
8. Lady Jane Grey was the queen of England from July 10 1553
to July 19 1553.
9. Joseph registered for English 101 History 204 and Biology
106.
10. After discussing "Rain" we agreed that Somerset Maugham
could really tell a good story.
11. Squaw Valley California the scene of the winter Olympics in
1960 is a ski resort.
12. Tomorrow I believe is the last day to register to vote in the
November general election.
tia.
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Commas: Exercise #4
1. We went to Bar Harbor but did not take the ferry to Nova Sco2. The ginkgo tree whose leaves turn bright yellow in the fall
came to this country from Asia.
3. The address for the governor's mansion is 391 West Ferry
Road Atlanta Georgia.
4. The villagers enjoyed fairs festivals and good conversation.
5. When the intermission was over the members of the audience
moved back to their seats.
6. Andy took the elevator to the third floor rushed into the office
and asked to see his father.
7. When he stumbled over your feet William was clumsy not
rude.
8. She listened to her favorite record with close careful attention.
9. Jillian who had worked in the dress shop all summer hoped to
work there again during the Christmas holidays.
10. Go the first traffic light turn left and then look for a yellow
brick building on the north side of the street.
11. Once she has graduated I do not know where she is going or
what she is planning to do.
12. "Oh no" Max exclaimed "I think that Dr. Holmes was referring to Eliot the novelist not Eliot the poet."
13. Below the fields stretched out in a hundred shades of green.
14. To understand the purpose of the course the student needs to
read the syllabus.
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15. All students are eligible to receive tickets but must go to the
athletic office to pick them up.
16. Thomas Paine's pamphlet appeared in Philadelphia Pennsylvania on January 9 1776.
17. You don't want any more hamburgers do you?
Further Punctuation Practice Exercise
Use any punctuation marks that you believe are necessary in
these sentences:
1. The men in question Harold Keene Jim Peterson and Gerald
Greene deserve awards.
2. Several countries participated in the airlift Italy Belgium
France and Luxembourg.
3. Only one course was open to us: surrender said the ex-major
and we did.
4. Judge Carswell later to be nominated for the Supreme Court
had ruled against civil rights.
5. In last week's New Yorker one of my favorite magazines I enjoyed reading Leland's article How Not to Go Camping.
6. Yes Jim said I'll be home by ten.
7. There was only one thing to do study till dawn.
8. Montaigne wrote the following A wise man never loses anything if he has himself.
9. The following are the primary colors red blue and yellow.
10. Arriving on the 8:10 plane were Liz Brooks my old roommate her husband and Tim their son.
11. When the teacher commented that her spelling was poor
Lynn replied All the members of my family are poor spellers. Why not
me
12. He used the phrase you know so often that I finally said No I
don't know.
13. The automobile dealer handled three makes of cars Volkswagens Porsches and Mercedes Benz.
14. Though Phil said he would arrive on the 9:19 flight he came
instead on the 10:36 flight.
15. Whoever thought said Helen that Jack would be elected class
president
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16. In baseball a show boat is a man who shows off.
17. The minister quoted Isaiah 5:21 in last Sunday's sermon.
18. There was a very interesting article entitled The New Rage
for Folk Singing in last Sunday's New York Times newspaper.
19. Whoever is elected secretary of the club Ashley or Chandra
or Aisha must be prepared to do a great deal of work said Jumita the
previous secretary.
20. Darwin's On the Origin of Species 1859 caused a great controversy when it appeared.
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CHAPTER SEVEN
Quiz 2
PRACTICE IN COMBINING SENTENCES
Directions: In the text-area below each group of sentences,
combine all of those sentences into one effective sentence containing
only one independent clause.
1.
Mark Twain is the author of Huckleberry Finn.
Huckleberry Finn is a classic American novel.
Mark Twain's real name was Samuel L. Clemens.
He lived in Hartford for several years.
2.
Mark Twain's house was very elaborate and elegant.
It was on Farmington Avenue.
It was in an area called Nook Farm.
He was a neighbor of Harriet Beecher Stowe.
Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin.
3.
Mark Twain's home has a large side porch.
Windows and a balcony overlook the porch.
Today, people say the windows and balcony remind them of a
steamboat.
In his youth, Twain piloted steamboats on the Mississippi.
4.
Mark Twain was one of the first three people in Hartford to own
a telephone.
The telephone was first used commercially in nearby New Haven.
There was practically no one to talk to.
Mark Twain never really liked this newfangled gadget.
5.
Mark Twain loved industrial inventions.
He lost a fortune investing in them.
One of these inventions was the elaborate Paige typesetter.
Unfortunately for Twain, this machine was developed at the
same time as the Linotype.
The Linotype machine was much simpler and less expensive.
6.
Mark Twain's beloved daughter, Susy, died in the Hartford home.
She died of spinal meningitis.
Quiz 1
Directions: In the text-area below each group of sentences,
combine all of those sentences into one effective sentence containing
only one independent clause.
1.
Hartford is the capital of Connecticut.
It is the second largest city in the state.
2.
Hartford was once known as an industrial center.
It was the home of several manufacturers.
They made firearms, typewriters, bicycles, and even cars.
3.
Today, though, several insurance companies make Hartford their
home.
Aetna, the Travelers, the Hartford, and Cigna are in Hartford.
Their home offices are within miles of one another.
4.
Manufacturers once took advantage of Hartford's access to the
Connecticut River.
They also enjoyed Hartford's well-educated workforce.
5.
Eventually, cheap labor in the southern states lured manufacturing away from Hartford.
Large empty factories were all that was left of Hartford's industrial past.
6.
Some of these factories have been torn down.
Some of them have been converted to artists' studios.
7.
Today, great wealth abounds in Hartford.
The wealth is centered in the insurance industry.
However, few manufacturing jobs are still available.
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Twain never felt the same about the house again.
He soon left the house and Hartford.
He returned only once.
He came back for the funeral of his friend, Charles Dudley Warner.
Avoiding Primer Language
Try to combine the following sentences into one effective sentence with only one independent clause. (Any exceptions to this requirement are noted as a hint.)
1. One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest is a novel written by Ken
Kesey.
Its protagonist is Randall Patrick McMurphy.
He pretends to be insane to escape a work farm.
He discovers he is now trapped in an asylum.
He shows other characters the truth of their situation.
6. Some students become nervous around computers
They are nervous around anything high-tech.
Other students seem to enjoy new challenges.
They regard learning how to use computers as a kind of game.
HINT: Use a semicolon in this re-write.
7. ER is my favorite television program.
ER is now in its third year.
It has won numerous Emmy Awards.
8. Lowell Weicker was once Governor of Connecticut.
He was leader of that state's American Party.
Weicker has long been known as a maverick among politicians.
He now teaches at the University of Virginia.
2. Tiger Woods is the name of a young American golfer.
He set a record in the 1997 Master's Tournament.
He surprised all the veterans.
He was 22 at the time.
3. Ramonita Espinoza used to coach at Notre Dame University.
She now works at UConn.
She is the new soccer coach.
4. Ronald E. Pepin is a well known translator of medieval texts.
He has two honorary degrees from Fordham University.
He recently published his fourth book on ancient medical practices.
He was only forty-four years old at the time.
5. John F. Kennedy was inaugurated into office in January of
1961.
He was assassinated in November of 1963.
He spent only 1000 days in office.
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THE KEYS TO THE EXERCISES
CHAPTER ONE
Subject-Verb Agreement
Quiz 1 on Subject-Verb Agreement
1. Either the physicians in this hospital or the chief administrator
____ going to have to make a decision.
is
are
2. ______ my boss or my sisters in the union going to win this
grievance?
Is
Are
3. Some of the votes __________ to have been miscounted.
seem
seems
4. The tornadoes that tear through this county every spring
_____ more than just a nuisance.
are
is
5. Everyone selected to serve on this jury _____ to be willing to
give up a lot of time.
have
has
6. Kara Wolters, together with her teammates, _________ a formidable opponent on the basketball court.
presents
present
7. He seems to forget that there __________ things to be done
before he can graduate.
are
is
8. There _______ to be some people left in that town after yesterday's flood.
have
has
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9. Some of the grain __________ to be contaminated.
appear
appears
10. Three-quarters of the students __________ against the tuition hike.
is
are
11. Three-quarters of the student body __________ against the
tuition hike.
is
are
12. A high percentage of the population _________ voting for
the new school.
is
are
13. A high percentage of the people _________ voting for the
new school.
was
were
Quiz 2 on Subject-Verb Agreement
1. Carlos is the only one of those students who __________
lived up to the potential described in the yearbook.
has
have
2. The International Club, as well as the Choral Society and the
Rowing Club, __________ to submit a new constitution.
need
needs
3. One of my best friends _____________ an extra on Seinfeld
this week.
are
is
4. Not only the students but also their instructor ________ been
called to the principal's office.
have
has
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5. Most of the milk _____ gone bad. Six gallons of milk
_______ still in the refrigerator.
has – are
have – is
6. Each and every student and instructor in this building
__________ for a new facility by next year.
hope
hopes
7. The students and instructors each ________for a new facility
by next year.
hopes
hope
8. Rice and beans, my favorite dish, __________ me of my native Puerto Rico.
remind
reminds
9. A large number of voters still ___________ along straightparty lines.
votes
vote
10. Four years _______ a long time to spend away from your
friends and family.
are
is
11. Politics __________ sometimes a dirty business.
are
is
12. To an outsider, the economics of this country ________ to be
in disarray.
seem
seems
Making Subjects and Verbs Agree: Exercise
6. Benito doesn't know the answer.
7. One of my sisters is going on a trip to France.
8. The man with all the birds lives on my street.
9. The movie, including all the previews, takes about two hours
to watch.
10. The players, as well as the captain, want to win.
11. Either answer is acceptable.
12. Every one of those books is fiction.
13. Nobody knows the trouble I've seen.
14. Is the news on at five or six?
15. Mathematics is John's favorite subject, while Civics is Andrea's favorite subject.
16. Eight dollars is the price of a movie these days.
17. Are the tweezers in this drawer?
18. Your pants are at the cleaner's.
19. There were fifteen candies in that bag. Now there is only one
left!
20. The committee debates these questions carefully.
21. The committee lead very different lives in private.
22. The Prime Minister, together with his wife, greets the press
cordially.
23. All of the CDs, even the scratched one, are in this case.
CHAPTER TWO
Quiz on Sentence Types
1. Pauline loves to go to the beach and spend her days sunbathing.
A. Simple Sentence
B. Compound Sentence
C. Complex Sentence
D. Compound-Complex Sentence
1. Annie and her brothers are at school.
2. Either my mother or my father is coming to the meeting.
3. The dog or the cats are outside.
4. Either my shoes or your coat is always on the floor.
5. George and Tamara don't want to see that movie.
2. Bruno, on the other hand, likes the view that he gets from the
log cabin up in the mountains, and he enjoys hiking in the forest.
A. Simple Sentence
B. Compound Sentence
C. Complex Sentence
D. Compound-Complex Sentence
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3. Pauline says there is nothing relaxing about chopping wood,
swatting mosquitoes, and cooking over a woodstove.
A. Simple Sentence
B. Compound Sentence
C. Complex Sentence
D. Compound-Complex Sentence
8. Although they are 250 miles apart, they keep in constant contact on the internet.
A. Simple Sentence
B. Compound Sentence
C. Complex Sentence
D. Compound-Complex Sentence
4. Bruno dislikes sitting on the beach; he always gets a nasty
sunburn.
A. Simple Sentence
B. Compound Sentence
C. Complex Sentence
D. Compound-Complex Sentence
9. Bruno took the desktop computer that he uses at work, and
Pauline sits on the beach with her laptop computer, which she connects
to the internet with a cellular phone.
A. Simple Sentence
B. Compound Sentence
C. Complex Sentence
D. Compound-Complex Sentence
5. Bruno tends to get bored sitting on the beach, watching the
waves, getting sand in his swimsuit, and reading detective novels for a
week.
A. Simple Sentence
B. Compound Sentence
C. Complex Sentence
D. Compound-Complex Sentence
10. Miss Bongiorno is starting to make a difference, though, and
Charlie is starting to make some progress.
This sentence has one independent clause.
The clause following "though" is a dependent clause.
This sentence has two independent clauses.
QUIZ 1 Identifying Independent Clauses
6. This year, after a lengthy, noisy debate, they decided to take
separate vacations.
A. Simple Sentence
B. Compound Sentence
C. Complex Sentence
D. Compound-Complex Sentence
7. Bruno went to the White Mountains of New Hampshire, and
Pauline went to Cape Cod.
A. Simple Sentence
B. Compound Sentence
C. Complex Sentence
D. Compound-Complex Sentence
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1. This sentence has one independent clause. (The "and" in this
sentence is connecting two infinitives, not two clauses. There is only
one subject-verb relationship in this sentence: "doctor told.")
2. The independent clause is "The doctor was worried. ("that
Charlie was putting on too much weight" cannot stand by itself because
of the subordinating word "that." "The doctor was worried" is the
independent clause.)
3. This sentence has two independent clauses. (This sentence has
two independent clauses connected by only a semicolon. On either side
of the semicolon, you see a clause that could stand by itself, as its own
sentence, but the two clauses are nicely balanced and can fit into the
same sentence in this way.)
4. "he ended up actually gaining weight" is the only independent
clause. ("He tried to lose weight" is actually a dependent clause, but the
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subordinating word "that" has been left out. The independent clause
begins with "he ended up.")
5. "Charlie has decided to hire a personal trainer" is the independent clause. (The part in blue is a dependent clause; it is introduced
by the subordinating conjunction, "because," and cannot stand by itself.)
6. The part in blue is not an independent clause. (The part in blue
is a dependent (or relative) clause, defining "personal trainer." It cannot
stand by itself. The independent clause is "His new personal trainer . . .
thinks Charlie may be a lost cause.")
7. This sentence has no independent clause. (This is a sentence
fragment. It contains a subject-verb relationship ("she can make"), but
it begins with a dependent word and cannot stand by itself.)
8. This sentence has two independent clauses. (This sentence has
two independent clauses connected by a comma and the coordinating
conjunction "but." "When she leaves" is a dependent clause.)
9. The independent clause has three words. ("Charlie must learn"
is the independent clause in this sentence. All the rest is a dependent
clause (after the dependent word "that").)
10. This sentence has two independent clauses. (This sentence
has two independent clauses connected by the coordinating conjunction
"and." The word "though" is not acting as a dependent word in this sentence.)
QUIZ 2 Identifying Independent Clauses
1. Before Raoul bought his new car, he remembered that his
grandmother might give him her old sedan.
The independent clause is "Before Raoul bought his new car."
The independent clause in this sentence contains only two
words.
There are two independent clauses here.
2. Alicia's wrist began to hurt, and her mother made a doctor's
appointment for her.
The underlined part is the sole independent clause here.
The real independent clause begins with "and."
This sentence contains two independent clauses.
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3. Zipping around the park in her little sportster, Juditha began to
feel, at last, like a millionaire.
The underlined part is the independent clause.
Trick question: there is no independent clause.
The independent clause begins with "Juditha."
4. Although Jerzy had taken several courses in computer science,
he couldn't solve the problems with his hard drive.
The underlined part is the independent clause.
The independent clause begins with the word "he."
The sentence contains two independent clauses.
5. The Celtics have begun their long journey back to championship basketball, working seriously on fundamentals and beginning to
attract new fans to the game.
The sentence is one long independent clause.
The sentence contains two independent clauses.
Only the underlined part is the independent clause.
6. Ernesto wanted to spend the night studying, but his wife had
other ideas.
The sentence contains two independent clauses.
Only the underlined part of the sentence is an independent clause.
The sentence is one long independent clause (with a compound
verb).
7. The crowd began to clap and cheer as the team entered
through a cloud of smoke.
The sentence contains two independent clauses.
The independent clause begins with the word "as."
The underlined part is the independent clause.
8. Gordy worked his way up to middle management but kept on
wishing for a better job.
The underlined part of the sentence is the independent clause.
The sentence is one independent clause.
The sentence contains two independent clauses.
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9. Gesualdo began to leap around the room when his wife fed
him the jalapeño peppers.
The independent clause is the part of the sentence not underlined.
The independent clause is the part of the sentence that is underlined.
The sentence contains two independent clauses
10. Heitor signed the contract but never agreed to purchase the
CDs.
This sentence contains two independent clauses.
The underlined part is the complete independent clause.
The entire sentence is one independent clause.
ADJECTIVE CLAUSES QUIZ 1
1.
6.
11.
16.
A
D
A
A
2.
7.
12.
17.
B
A
C
C
3.
8.
13.
18.
A
D
D
A
4.
9.
14.
19.
B
A
A
C
5.
10.
15.
20.
C
C
D
D
ADJECTIVE CLAUSES QUIZ 2
1.
6.
11.
16.
A
B
D
D
2.
7.
12.
17.
C
C
A
C
3.
8.
13.
18.
B
D
A
C
4.
9.
14.
19.
A
B
A
C
5.
10.
15.
20.
D
C
D
D
Adjective Clauses Exercise 1
1. Bill wrote a letter to Karen. He told
her that he had found a new girlfriend and didn't love Karen anymore.
John wrote a letter to Karen. He
was very happy in New York. He
had a good job and invited Karen to
come visit him soon.
2. Some of the students did not do
well on the test. The teacher asked
them to stay and review so that they
would do better the next time.
Some of the students did very well
on the test. The teacher let these
students go home early so that she
could talk to the other students.
3. At the swimming competition, one
boy came in third place. His father
was disappointed because he expected his son to come in first.
At the swimming competition, one
boy came in second. His was father
was extremely happy because his
son did so well.
4. Mrs. Grady listened to the speaker
at the neighborhood meeting about
a plot of empty land. The speaker
supported building a shopping mall
on the empty land. Mrs. Grady
didn't agree with him at all.
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135
The letter made Karen
feel sad.
The letter that Bill wrote
made Karen feel sad.
The students went home
early.
The students who did
very well on the test went
home early.
The man was very disappointed.
The man whose son came
in third place was very
disappointed.
Mrs. Grady didn't agree
with the speaker.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Mrs. Grady listened to another
speaker. The speaker talked about
asking the city to use the empty
land for a new library. Mrs. Grady
thought that was a good use of the
land.
5. Maria bought a new car. It is very
comfortable and gets more than 30
miles per gallon of gas. She is very
happy with her new car and its good
gas mileage.
Susan bought a new car. It is very
comfortable and gets about 18 miles
per gallon of gas. She likes her new
car, but she wishes it had better gas
mileage.
6. ABC Company recently bought
Smith Corporation. Many of the
Smith Corporation employees are
very worried because their jobs are
in danger.
The employees of ABC Company
are very happy with the merger.
They own stock in the company,
and the price will increase.
7. Janice bought a new computer
graphics program. It is very powerful, and she can create some wonderful pictures, but it is taking her a
long time to learn how to use it well.
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Mrs. Grady didn't agree
with the speaker that supported building a shopping mall.
The car has good gas
mileage.
The car Maria bought has
good gas mileage.
The employees are very
worried.
The employees who work
for Smith Corporation are
very worried.
The employees whose
jobs are in danger are
very worried.
The computer graphics
program is easy to use.
Peter bought a new computer graphics program. It has a lot of wonderful features and is very easy to
use. Peter was able to create some
beautiful pictures in a very short
time.
8. When Karen Lee was growing up in
Oakland, she used to go swimming
in a stream near her house. She recently went back to her hometown,
and she was happy to see that the
stream was still there.
When Teresa was growing up in
Mapleton, she used to climb trees in
a wood near her house. She recently
went back to her hometown, and
she was very sad to see that new
houses were built where the wood
used to be.
9. Michael loves to read. He often
uses the Internet to buy books. He
can find almost any book he wants,
and most books have a 40% discount.
Michael also loves to go to his local
bookstore. He likes to look at the
new books and browse through the
magazines. Both magazines and
books have a 10% discount.
10. Robert lives in a neighborhood with
lots of children. One of his
neighbors has several children.
137
The computer graphics
program that Peter bought
is easy to use.
She was sad to see that
the place was no longer
there.
She was sad to see that
the place where she used
to climb trees was not
longer there.
Michael gets a 40% discount on the books.
Michael gets a 40% discount on the books that
he uses the Internet to
buy.
Robert always complains
to the neighbor.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
They run around and ride their
bikes, but they are careful not to
damage Robert's flowers or lawn.
One of his neighbors has several
children. They run around, often
stepping on his flowers. They ride
their bikes, sometimes onto his
lawn. Robert has asked his neighbor
to control his children, but he never
does.
Robert always complains
to the neighbor whose
children step on his flowers and ride bikes on his
lawn.
Adjective Clauses Exercise 2
1. On John's birthday, his Aunt
Margaret sent him a sweater as a
present. It was too big, so he had
to exchange it.
John's grandmother also sent him
a sweater. It fit perfectly, and he
wore it the next time he visited
her.
John had to exchange the
sweater.
2. For their summer vacation, Mary
wants to go back to Hawaii because she and her husband spent
their honeymoon there.
For their wintervacation, Mary
wants to go to a new place. She
wants to go to Barbados.
For her summer vacation,
Mary wants to go to the
place.
3. One of my neighbors has a dog.
It recently dug up the flowers in
my garden. I am quite angry
about his dog.
I am going to complain to
the neighbor.
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John had to exchange the
sweater that his Aunt Margaret sent him.
For her summer vacation,
Mary wants to go to the
place where she and her husband spent their honeymoon.
One of my neighbors has a cat. I
sometimes see the cat walking on
top of the fence. It never bothers
me.
I am going to complain to
the neighbor whose dog dug
up the flowers in my garden.
4. Betty went to the record store.
She had read about a CD in a
magazine a few weeks ago. She
decided to buy it.
Betty also saw a new CD by a
popular singer. She hadn't read
anything about it yet. She
decided not to buy that CD yet.
Betty bought a CD.
5. Susan had two final papers to
write. She wrote one for her English class. She felt very good
about that paper.
The other paper was for her psychology class. She thinks this
paper is only so-so.
Susan doesn't like the paper.
6. Billy likes to play outside. He
often goes to Central Park because he can catch insects and
snakes there.
Sometimes Billy goes to Riverview Park. He likes to climb trees
there.
Billy often goes to the park.
7. Marsha needs to hire a new secretary. The secretary doesn't have
to know how to use a computer.
Marsha wants a secretary.
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Betty bought a CD which she
had read about in a magazine
a few weeks ago.
Susan doesn't like the paper
she wrote for her psychology
class.
Billy often goes to the park
where he can catch insects
and snakes.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Marsha needs to hire a new secretary. The secretary must know
how to speak both English and
Spanish.
Marsha wants a secretary
that can speak both English
and Spanish.
8. Paul has several tall pine trees in
front of his house. They are green
and healthy. Paul is going to keep
these trees.
Paul has several old oak trees in
his backyard. They have a tree
disease and need to be cut down.
Paul is sorry that they have to go.
Paul is going to keep the
trees.
9. On his way to school, Robert
sees many people. One man
works in the bakery. He always
waves to Robert.
On his way to school, Robert
sees many people. One man
works at the newspaper stand. He
always looks tired and grumpy.
The man is always friendly
to Robert.
10. One of our company's employees
is getting a promotion. He is
moving to a different building.
Brian is going to get his office.
One of our company's employees
has quit his job. He got a better
position with another company.
Karen is going to get his office.
The man is getting a promotion.
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ADJECTIVE CLAUSES QUIZ
1.
6.
11.
16.
2
3
2
2
2.
7.
12.
17.
2
2
1
1
3.
8.
13.
18.
1
3
1
2
4.
9.
14.
19.
1
2
2
2
5.
10.
15.
20.
3
1
1
2
ADVERB CLAUSES EXERCISE
Suggested answers:
Paul is going to keep the
trees that are in front of his
house.
The man who works in the
bakery is always friendly to
Robert.
The man whose office Brian
is going to get is getting a
promotion.
The man who is moving to a
new building is getting a
promotion.
A.
1. We watched the robins while they raised their young in our
apple tree.
2. Becky read the book since it was recommended by a friend.
3. Dad donates his suits to charity after he has worn them a year.
4. The policemen delayed the drivers until the wrecks were
cleared.
5. Ann ate an apple as she studied her vocabulary.
B.
1. Before Frank started medical training, he drove a forklift for a
living.
2. Because the rains had started the mud slides, the homes were
not safe to live in.
3. While they feed the birds and visit, older people love to sit in
the park.
4. When I was much younger, I enjoyed camping out.
5. After the man had stopped his car to help, Joe recognised him.
C.
1. when you help other people (time)
2. While you wait (time)
3. than I ever was (happy) before (comparison)
4. than a mule (is obstinate) (comparison)
5. while (she was) being taught to cook with broccoli (time)
6. than he hits (baseballs well) (comparison)
7. As the lions approached the carcass (time)
8. While (I was) eating (time)
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ADVERB CLAUSES QUIZ 1
1.
6.
11.
16.
C
B
A
A
2.
7.
12.
17.
A
A
A
B
3.
8.
13.
18.
D
C
C
C
4.
9.
14.
19.
B
D
B
B
ADVERB CLAUSES 6
5.
10.
15.
20.
C
C
D
B
5.
10.
15.
20.
C
A
B
D
5.
10.
15.
20.
B
B
C
C
C
C
A
C
5.
10.
15.
20.
C
C
C
D
B
C
B
D
5.
10.
15.
20.
B
B
B
A
1.
6.
11.
16.
C
B
C
C
2.
7.
12.
17.
D
D
B
C
3.
8.
13.
18.
A
C
C
D
4.
9.
14.
19.
C
C
A
B
5.
10.
15.
20.
C
C
C
B
ADVERB CLAUSES QUIZ 2
1.
6.
11.
16.
C
C
C
C
2.
7.
12.
17.
D
C
C
C
3.
8.
13.
18.
B
D
C
C
4.
9.
14.
19.
B
C
B
C
ADVERB CLAUSES QUIZ 3
1.
6.
11.
16.
C
C
A
D
2.
7.
12.
17.
B
B
C
B
3.
8.
13.
18.
C
D
B
A
4.
9.
14.
19.
C
C
B
D
ADVERB CLAUSES QUIZ 4
1.
6.
11.
16.
A
B
D
B
2.
7.
12.
17.
D
B
C
A
3.
8.
13.
18.
C
A
C
D
4.
9.
14.
19.
ADVERB CLAUSES 5
1.
6.
11.
16.
B
A
D
B
2.
7.
12.
17.
C
C
C
A
3.
8.
13.
18.
B
B
B
B
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4.
9.
14.
19.
NOUN CLAUSES EXERCISES
NOUN CLAUSES INTRODUCTION QUIZ
1. B
6. A
11. A
2. D
7. C
12. B
3. A
8. D
13. E
4. D
9. A
14. D
5. A
10. C
15. B
NOUN CLAUSES QUIZ 1
1.
6.
11.
16.
A
B
C
A
2.
7.
12.
17.
C
C
B
D
3.
8.
13.
18.
A
D
A
A
4.
9.
14.
19.
D
C
C
C
5.
10.
15.
20.
C
D
B
B
5.
10.
15.
20.
B
B
B
B
5.
10.
15.
20.
B
D
C
C
NOUN CLAUSES QUIZ 2
1.
6.
11.
16.
B
A
A
B
2.
7.
12.
17.
A
B
B
A
3.
8.
13.
18.
B
B
B
B
4.
9.
14.
19.
A
A
A
A
NOUN CLAUSES QUIZ 3
1.
6.
11.
16.
C
D
A
D
2.
7.
12.
17.
D
B
B
C
3.
8.
13.
18.
C
C
D
A
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4.
9.
14.
19.
A
A
B
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NOUN CLAUSES QUIZ 4
1.
6.
11.
16.
B
A
D
C
2.
7.
12.
17.
C
C
D
D
3.
8.
13.
18.
A
D
A
B
4.
9.
14.
19.
D
B
B
A
5.
10.
15.
20.
B
A
C
A
CHAPTER THREE
Appositives
Exercise:
Underline the appositives in the following sentences.
1. My son, the policeman, will be visiting us next week.
2. The captain ordered the ship's carpenters to assemble the shallop, a large rowboat.
3. Walter, the playboy and writer, is very attached to his mother,
Mrs. Hammon.
4. The actor Paul Newman directed only one picture.
5. Elizabeth Teague, a sweet and lovable girl, grew up to be a
mentally troubled woman.
Underline and punctuate the appositives in the following sentences. Remember: not all require punctuation.
6. Sweetbriar, a company known throughout the South, is considering a nationwide advertising campaign.
7. An above-average student and talented musician, John made
his family proud.
8. The extremely popular American film Titanic was widely
criticized for its mediocre script.
9. The greatest American film ever made, Citizen Kane won only
one Academy Award.
10. 60 Minutes, the TV news magazine program, featured a story
on the popular singer Whitney Houston.
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CHAPTER FOUR
Sentence Fragments
Sentence Fragments: Answer Key to Exercise #1
F 1. Then I attended Morris Junior High. A junior high that was
a bad experience. (dependent clause)
F 2. The scene was filled with beauty. Such as the sun sending
its brilliant rays to the earth and the leaves of various shades of red,
yellow, and brown moving slowly in the wind. (dependent clause)
C 3. He talked for fifty minutes without taking his eyes off his
notes. Like other teachers in that department, he did not encourage students' questions.
F 4. Within each group, a wide range of features to choose from.
It was difficult to distinguish between them. (no main verb)
C 5. A few of the less serious fellows would go into a bar for a
steak dinner and a few glasses of beer. After this meal, they were ready
for anything.
C 6. It can be really embarrassing to be so emotional. Especially
when you are on your first date, you feel that you should be in control.
F 7. The magazine has a reputation for a sophisticated, prestigious, and elite group of readers. Although that is a value judgment and
in circumstances not a true premise. (dependent clause)
F 8. In the seventh grade every young boy goes out for football.
To prove to himself and his parents that he is a man. (dependent clause)
F 9. She opened the door and let us into her home. Not realizing
at the time that we would never enter that door in her home again. (dependent clause)
C 10. As Christmas grows near, I find myself looking back into
my childhood days at fun-filled times of snowball fights. To think
about this makes me happy.
F 11. Making up his mind quickly. Jim ordered two dozen red
roses for his wife. Hoping she would accept his apology. (dependent
clause)
F 12. They were all having a good time. Until one of Joe's oldest
and best friends had a little too much to drink. (dependent clause)
F 13. Although it only attained a speed of about twelve miles an
hour. My old rowboat with its three-horsepower motor seemed like a
high-speed job to me.
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C 14. With my brother standing by my side, I reached for the pot
handle. Tilting the pot way too much caused the boiling water to spill.
F 15. The small, one-story houses are all the same size and style.
With no difference except the color. (dependent clause)
F 16. Being a friend of mine like he was when we first joined the
soccer team. Together we learned a lot. (dependent clause)
Sentence Fragments: Answers to Exercise 2
Suggested answers are printed here as indented paragraphs. You
may have had other solutions.
1. How can a person find patriotism in a local night club? Well,
it did not take me too long. About four weeks ago in a little night club
in Louisville, Kentucky, a couple of my friends, Rick and Lon, the duo
who were providing the entertainment that night for the club. (dependent clause)
How can a person find patriotism in a local night club? Well, it
did not take me too long. About four weeks ago in a little night club in
Louisville, Kentucky, a couple of my friends, Rick and Lon, the duo
who were providing the entertainment that night for the club, opened
with the Star Spangled Banner and then America, the Beautiful.
2. For the past twenty years, the Survey Research Center at the
University of Michigan has been measuring the level of Americans'
trust and confidence in their politicians and quasi-political trust and
confidence in their political institutions and their leaders. "Political"
being all levels of government, and "quasi-political" churches, labor
unions, large professional/business associations, educational institutions, and the like. The result is that a very sharp decline has taken
place every year since 1964. (no main verb)
For the past twenty years, the Survey Research Center at the
University of Michigan has been measuring the level of Americans'
trust and confidence in their politicians and quasi-political trust and
confidence in their political institutions and their leaders. "Political"
refers to all levels of government, and "quasi-political" includes
churches, labor unions, large professional/business associations, educational institutions, and the like. The result is that a very sharp decline
has taken place every year since 1964.
3. For 200 years Americans believed in better jobs, better homes,
a better life for one's children. This confidence no longer exists. Polls
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now indicate that fewer Americans who feel they are better off today
than they were five years ago. A public-opinion analysis group has
found that large numbers of Americans, at some times and in some
places, see themselves as lower on the ladder. Adding worse living
conditions and anticipation of further decline over the next five years.
(dependent clause)
For 200 years Americans believed in better jobs, better homes, a
better life for one's children. This confidence no longer exists. Polls
now indicate that fewer Americans feel they are better off today than
they were five years ago. A public-opinion analysis group has found
that large numbers of Americans, at some times and in some places, see
themselves as lower on the ladder with worse living conditions and
anticipation of further decline over the next five years.
4. Well, in looking at the picture at the left you see an old lady.
She has a very funny look on her face. As if she's lonely and just wants
to be left alone. She also looks as if she has seen a lot and experienced
lots of things. (dependent clause)
Well, in looking at the picture at the left you see an old lady. She
has a very funny look on her face, as if she's lonely and just wants to be
left alone. She also looks as if she has seen a lot and experienced lots of
things.
5. A president is an appointed leader. Someone who is a decision
maker in the executive branch of our government. (no main verb) This
doesn't necessarily mean that the person the people elect is capable.
Just hopefully assumes. (no subject) Assumes through his past record as
a politician, over the years' buildup of experience and handling situations.
A president is an appointed leader, someone who is a decision
maker in the executive branch of our government. This doesn't necessarily mean that the person the people elect is capable. This just hopefully assumes so based on his past record as a politician, over the
years' buildup of experience and handling situations.
Sentence Fragments: Answers to Exercise 3
My brother was always my best friend when I was a child, especially as we two were almost alone in the world. We lived with our old
grandmother in a little house, almost a shack, in the country. Whenever
I think of him now, I see a solemn, responsible boy, a boy too old for
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his years, who looked out for me no matter what. Once there was a
bully, John Anson, who looked enormous to me, though he was probably an average twelve-year-old. John had it in for me because he liked
Littice Grant, who liked me. He decided to beat me up right before her
eyes. I was lucky my brother came by. He didn't interfere any. He just
stood there. Somehow, though, his presence gave me confidence. I
licked the stuffing out of John Anson. If my brother hadn't been there, I
don't think I could have done it.
Exercise on Fragments and Types of Sentences
1. Which of the following is a sentence fragment?
A. However, he didn't finish the essay.
B. Although he didn't finish the essay.
C. Therefore, he didn't finish the essay.
D. All of the above.
E. None of the above.
2. Which of the following is a sentence fragment?
A. However, the dog doesn't bite him.
B. The dog will not bite him.
C. Although the dog will not bite him.
D. All of the above.
E. None of the above.
3. What is true of the following example? "Guinevere and
Lancelot, who can be considered archetypal betrayers."
A. It contains a noun clause.
B. It contains an adverbial clause.
C. It is a comma splice.
D. It is a sentence fragment.
E. It is a run-together sentence.
4. Which of the following contains a sentence fragment?
A. I studied for the exam. Therefore, I will do well.
B. I studied for the exam; therefore, I will do well.
C. I studied for the exam therefore I will do well.
D. All of the above
E. None of the above
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5. Which of the following contains a sentence fragment?
A. I will help you with the homework if you ask me.
B. I will help you with the homework, if you ask me.
C. I will help you with the homework. If you ask me.
D. All of the above
E. None of the above
6. What is true of the following sentence? "If the characters'
speeches were analyzed, the author's prejudices would emerge."
A. It is a sentence fragment.
B. It is a complex sentence.
C. It is a compound sentence.
D. It is a comma splice.
E. None of the above.
7. What is true of the following sentence? "Whereas, no one
could believe that she had married him."
A. It is a sentence fragment.
B. It is a comma splice.
C. It is a compound sentence.
D. It is a compound-complex sentence.
E. None of the above.
8. What is true of the following sentence? "Moreover, no one
could believe that she had married him."
A. It is a sentence fragment.
B. It is a comma splice.
C. It is a compound sentence.
D. It is a compound-complex sentence.
E. None of the above.
9. What is true of the following sentence? "When, cows flew."
A. It is a sentence fragment.
B. It is a comma splice.
C. It is a compound sentence.
D. It is a compound-complex sentence.
E. None of the above.
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10. What is true of the following sentence? "Nevertheless,
cows flew."
A. It is a sentence fragment.
B. It is a comma splice.
C. It is a compound sentence.
D. It is a compound-complex sentence.
E. None of the above.
SENTENCE FRAGMENTS:
Practice Exercise 1
1.
Mrs. Blanco gone to visit her mother at the hospital.
Finding a parking space there is usually easy during the
week.
Driving in the city during the evening rush hour.
2.
To apply for a job at the new store in the mall.
Asking the interviewer how often he would have to work on
weekends.
Shaking his new boss's hand, Tony knew he would like working there.
3.
By the time Frances found out how expensive the wallpapering
job would be.
After getting estimates from five contractors, she decided to
do the work herself.
Before picking out an interesting wallpaper pattern that went
well with her furniture.
4.
Who borrowed Stefanie's car Saturday night.
The nineteen-year-old car looked out of place next to the new
models.
Which the salesman was surprised to find in such good shape.
5.
While waiting for her neighbor to move the car that blocked the
driveway.
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To avoid hitting the other car, Michael had to back across
the corner of the lawn.
By making sure that no one will park across the driveway again.
6.
Because Manuel was sure he had heard the same strange story
many months ago.
Although I will never forget how cold we were when we lost our
heat last winter.
Since Anna wasn't at the meeting, I took notes so that she
wouldn't miss anything.
7.
When my cousin moved to Troy, New York, after he finished
school.
After he went to all the trouble of fixing up his apartment.
While living there, he made very few friends.
8.
My brother has been running a charter fishing boat for five
years.
Many of his customers coming back three or four times over the
summer.
His business been so busy that he has very little time for anything else.
9.
In the hiding place that Carl had been using for years to get away
from the noisy house.
By the time that everyone had quieted down, my favorite
television show was over.
Before planning another family get-together at the already
crowded park.
10.
Although I knew she might wear something outrageous, I
was still shocked by her dress.
Because she didn't want to tell where she had bought the strange
outfit.
When we finally heard that she had made the dress herself.
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SENTENCE FRAGMENTS:
Practice Exercise 2
1.
Although it was snowing harder than we had ever seen it snow
before.
We decided to leave before it got any worse.
The tread on our snow-tires, after all, not what it used to be.
2.
Snow piling up on my neighbor's roof.
He decided to use a snow-blower to blow the snow from his
roof.
However, how he ever expect to get the snow-blower up on his
roof.
3.
After doing a superb job of keeping his driveway clear all winter
long.
Mostly because he was afraid of what his neighbors would say.
Luis just gave up on it this time.
4.
It's always pleasant to look out at the snow while it's falling.
Mrs. Burke wondering how she would ever clear the sidewalk.
When the snow finally began to taper off in the late morning.
5.
Brenda said she always prefered snow to rain.
These blizzards getting a bit ridiculous though, she added.
Because snow-removal is so costly to large cities.
6.
Sometimes snow-plows gettting to the back streets two days after a storm.
The citizens were getting quite angry.
By the time the snow plows get here, they shouted.
7.
Connecticut getting its share of northeastern-type storms this year.
My neighbor says he leaving for Florida soon.
Since he hasn't saved a dime, I wonder where he'll get the
money to move.
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8.
Handicapped people affected the most by this snow.
Getting out of their cars and negotiating sidewalks a real problem for them.
Handicapped parking spots are often covered by several feet
of snow.
9.
To earn some money over the semester break.
Charlie spent $20 on a new snow shovel.
Although it seems to have stopped snowing suddenly.
10.
As long as we don't lose our power in the night.
That's what worries me.
Sick of this weather and worried about his aging mother.
SENTENCE FRAGMENTS:
Practice Exercise 3
1.
Before the committee finished the annual report.
Get the file on Designs Unlimited for me.
Although the textbooks have not yet arrived.
2.
Unless Mr. Parsons arranges the meeting.
In the most interesting book that I have ever read.
We considered several solutions to the problem.
3.
Running the presses all by himself.
Impressed by several of the largest buildings in town.
Because Miles could not attend the seminar, he borrowed my
notes.
4.
By hiding all the ash trays in the house.
Our company has been considering a change in operating
procedures.
The radio been on for hours.
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5.
To answer her audiences' many questions.
Hoping to convince the other committee members to vote for the
bill.
Wanting to be respected by others is not a selfish goal.
6.
While we were waiting, the usher announced the show was
canceled.
When we finally arrived at the hotel.
That we expect to find in better condition.
7.
Leaving early to catch a flight at the local airport.
Many of the students looking forward to the end of the semester.
To play the guitar better has been my dream for years.
8.
At the monthly meeting of the regional astronomy society.
In the last five minutes, she has sneezed ten times.
Continuing to think that the weather would clear.
9.
The water was overflowing from the tub by the time she returned.
Since his subscription to the computer magazine had run out.
Several dogs running through the back yard.
10.
Testing the sound system in the auditorium.
Hearing the train approaching, the crowd moved closer to
the edge of the platform.
Before picking up her car at the repair shop.
11.
Falling interest rates have resulted in increased real estate
sales.
Which we were all very happy to hear about.
In the few stores that carry parts for that model.
12.
Mr. Higgins been nominated for president of the nature society.
Dreaming of clear blue summer skies and long walks on the beach.
When we saw how much the town had changed, we were disappointed.
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13.
James having trouble starting his car.
Before deciding to finish weeding the grden.
Raised in Boston, she later moved to Tucson.
14.
Surprised at how enthusiastic their response was.
Music sifted gently through the open windows.
At the opening of the new museum.
15.
Since we knew they were busy, we didn't bother to call.
That she heard on the news this morning.
Whose latest book she had just read.
16.
To graduate in the top 10 percent of the class.
The singer at the wedding, who was so highly recommended,
soundd awful.
Which made me feel even worse than before.
17.
Crossing the light just as the light changed.
From the way he signaled to his assistant.
When they returned, I was asleep.
18.
Before the party was over.
After the game, we went out to eat.
Who planned the entire convention.
19.
Caitlin been working at the restaurant for three months.
By preparing his speech several days in advance.
Watching television is a favorite pastime for many.
20.
Although the reports aren't ready yet.
At the end of the last song, the audience stood and applauded.
Considering that the car has so many miles on it.
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Fragments and Run-Ons
1. Although he had been an often decorated soldier during World
War II and had fought many battles for the losing cause of liberalism in
Congress.
A. There is nothing wrong with the structure of this sentence.
B. Run-on: put a comma after World War II.
C. Run-on: put a semicolon after World War II.
D. Fragment: put a comma after Congress and finish the sentence.
2. This is going to be the most difficult exam of your college career, you had better start studying for it immediately.
A. There is nothing wrong with the structure of this sentence.
B. Fragment: put a comma after immediately and finish the sentence.
C. Run-on: replace that comma with a semicolon.
3. Knowing better than anyone else how the state legislature had
ignored the needs of the community college system and created a crisis
characterized by an uneducated workforce that had no place to go for
proper training and realizing that someone had to do something about
the situation or the state would begin to lose jobs to states in the
American south that were more aggressive in providing and publicizing
excellence in education, Representative Fuentes began to lay plans for
an education bill that took into consideration the needs of the state's
community colleges and the students who attended them.
A. There is nothing wrong with the structure of this sentence.
B. This sentence is too long; it must be a run-on.
C. Even though this sentence is very long, it is actually a
fragment.
4. Coach Espinoza really wants this job with Notre Dame University, she is very excited about returning to the college she graduated
from.
A. There is nothing wrong with the structure of this sentence.
B. Fragment: put a comma after from and finish the sentence.
C. Run-on: change that comma to a period and start a new
sentence.
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5. Right after the Christmas holidays and during those three
weeks before class begins in January.
A. There is nothing wrong with the structure of this sentence.
B. Fragment: put a comma after January and finish the sentence.
C. Run-on: put a comma after holidays.
6. She ran.
A. There is nothing wrong with the structure of this sentence.
B. Fragment: the sentence is too short and needs more details to
be a complete thought.
7. Perplexed by the rising rates of inflation and alarmed by the
decline in major construction projects.
A. There is nothing wrong with the structure of this sentence.
B. Run-on: put a comma after inflation.
C. Fragment: put a comma after projects and finish the sentence.
8. Anabel realizes what she is doing, I think, but she doing it
anyway.
A. There is nothing wrong with the structure of this sentence.
B. Fragment: we're missing part of a verb.
C. Run-on: change the comma after doing to a semicolon.
9. Professor Pepin spends a lot of time translating medieval texts
on ancient medicine, however, he also stays informed about the latest
developments in modern asthma treatments.
A. There is nothing wrong with the structure of this sentence.
B. Fragment: although this is a long sentence, it's missing part of
a verb.
C. Run-on: remove the verb from the second independent clause.
D. Run-on: change the comma after medicine to a semicolon.
10. If we're ever going to get out of here in time, we're going to
have to re-write all these papers, set up the desks, and clean the chalkboards; stack those books in the corner and clean up the mess around
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the wastebasket; notify security about the broken window, the thermostat that Raoul messed up, and the desk that was stolen before we even
got here.
A. There is nothing wrong with the structure of this sentence.
B. Run-on: the sentence should be broken into three smaller sentences.
C. Fragment: although the sentence is very long, it's missing a
verb string.
D. Run-on: change those two semicolons to commas.
CHAPTER FIVE
Clauses: The Essential Building-Blocks
The Ingredients of Independent Clauses
1. Which of the following words is a coordinating conjunction?
A. although
B. however
C. nevertheless
D. All of the above
E. None of the above
2. Which of the following words is a subordinating conjunction?
A. although
B. however
C. nevertheless
D. All of the above
E. None of the above
3. Which of the following sentences is prescriptively correct?
A. The space station has been damaged; therefore, we must
abandon it.
B. The space station has been damaged, therefore, we must
abandon it.
C. The space station has been damaged, therefore we must abandon it.
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D. All of the above
E. None of the above
4. Which of the following sentences is a comma splice?
A. The space station has been damaged; therefore, we must
abandon it.
B. The space station has been damaged, therefore, we must
abandon it.
C. The space station, has been damaged therefore we must abandon it.
D. All of the above
E. None of the above
5. Which of the following sentences is a run-together sentence?
A. The space station has been damaged; therefore, we must
abandon it.
B. The space station has been damaged, therefore, we must
abandon it.
C. The space station has been damaged therefore we must
abandon it.
D. All of the above
E. None of the above
6. Which of the following sentences is prescriptively correct?
A. There are many good examples of this in his writing, one is:
B. The implications are obvious, the adjective golden gives the
impression of good.
C. The peacock has no monetary value, rather it is "another
mouth to feed."
D. All of the above
E. None of the above
7. Which of the following sentences is prescriptively correct?
A. Mrs. Biber was not evil; she was just wrong.
B. Mrs. Biber was not evil, she was just wrong.
C. Mrs. Biber was not evil therefore she was just wrong.
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D. Mrs. Biber was not evil she was just wrong.
E. Mrs. Biber was not evil nevertheless she was just wrong.
8. Which of the following is a conjunctive adverb?
A. nevertheless
B. however
C. thus
D. All of the above
E. None of the above
9. Which of the following is a coordinating conjunction?
A. and
B. for
C. nor
D. All of the above
E. None of the above
10. Which of the following is a subordinating conjunction?
A. since
B. although
C. when
D. All of the above
E. None of the above
CHAPTER SIX
Using Commas: Exercise #1 Answers
__C__ He left the scene of the accident and tried to forget that it
had happened. (rules 13 and 4)
__3__ Oil, which is lighter than water, rises to the surface.
__6__ Madame de Stael was an attractive, gracious lady.
__1__ Nice is a word with many meanings, and some of them
are contradictory.
__C__ The contractor testified that the house was completed and
that the work had been done properly. (rules 14 and 4)
__C__ Some people refuse to go to the zoo because of pity for
creatures that must live in small cages. (rules 2 and 4)
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__C__ Taxicabs that are dirty are illegal in some cities. (rule 4)
__5__ The closet contained worn clothes, old shoes, and dirty hats.
__C__ The uninvited guest wore a dark blue tweed suit. (rule 6)
__2__ After surviving this ordeal, the trapper felt relieved.
__3__ Mark Twain's early novels, I believe, stand the test of time.
__9__ December 7, 1941, will never be forgotten.
__7__ The field was safe enough, wasn't it?
__9__ Write the editor of the Atlantic, 8 Arlington Street, Boston,
Massachusetts, 02116.
__10_ He replied, "I have no idea what you mean."
__2__ After a good washing and grooming, the pup looked like a
new dog.
__2__ Because of their opposition to institutions that force creatures to live in captivity, some people refuse to go to the zoo.
__C__ Men who are bald are frequently the ones who are the
most authoritative on the subject of baldness. (rule 4)
__3__ Vests, which were once popular, have been out of vogue
for several years.
__2__ As a celestial goddess, she regulated the course of the
heavenly bodies and controlled the alternating seasons. (also, rule 13)
__C__ I hope that someday he will learn how to be polite. (rule 4)
Commas: Answers to Exercise #2
1. The problems involved in this operation are, I think, numerous.
2. Celene, who does not usually tell anyone what she feels, said
she didn't want to go to the dance.
3. To get tickets for some Broadway musicals, one has to order
three months in advance.
4. Listening to the radio, Jun heard an announcement that
Spangler, his own dog, was lost.
5. I used to live at 16689 Sutton Avenue, Milpitas, California,
but we have since moved to 1895 Holland Way, Dubuque, Iowa.
6. The Valley of the Moon, the name of a section in Napa
County, California, is the heart of the state's wine producing area.
7. Chris did not see how he could organize, write, and proofread
this paper in only two hours.
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8. By the pilings of the old pier, I found four starfish, a clam, and
a sea anemone.
9. Yes, Helen did mention that all three of you were coming for
lunch.
10. I believe, therefore, that fraternities are good influences on a
college campus.
Commas: Answers to Exercise #3
16. He reads everything: road maps, want ads, and cereal boxes.
17. Having cut the roses, she decided to bring them to her friend
in the hospital.
18. "When," Jaime asked, "will you return my book?"
Commas: Answers to Exercise #4
1. We went to Bar Harbor but did not take the ferry to Nova Scotia.
1. The girl with the bright, friendly smile wore a bright green
scarf to celebrate St. Patrick's Day.
2. As he read the Chekhov story, he became aware of the Russian's genius.
3. Dauphin Island, located off the coast of Alabama, is a favorite
spot for fishing.
4. She was, as a matter of fact, mainly interested in showing off
her vocabulary.
5. I often go to the seashore and collect rocks there.
6. Before reaching the summit, the climbers were forced by a
storm to turn back.
7. Did you know that James Agee, the novelist and poet, was
also a film critic?
8. Lady Jane Grey was the queen of England from July 10, 1553
to July 19, 1553.
9. Joseph registered for the English 101, History 204, and Biology 106.
10. After discussing "Rain," we agreed that Somerset Maugham
could really tell a good story.
11. Squaw Valley, California, the scene of the winter Olympics
in 1960, is a ski resort.
12. Tomorrow, I believe, is the last day to register to vote in the
November general election.
13. To perform well on Saturday afternoon, the athlete must train
every day of the week.
14. Understanding history increases your understanding of today's world.
15. Meg Fischer, my cousin, hopes to graduate from law school
in two years.
2. The ginkgo tree, whose leaves turn bright yellow in the fall,
came to this country from Asia.
3. The address for the governor's mansion is 391 West Ferry
Road, Atlanta, Georgia.
4. The villagers enjoyed fairs, festivals, and good conversation.
5. When the intermission was over, the members of the audience
moved back to their seats.
6. Andy took the elevator to the third floor, rushed into the office,
and asked to see his father.
7. When he stumbled over your feet, William was clumsy, not
rude.
8. She listened to her favorite record with close, careful attention.
9. Jillian, who had worked in the dress shop all summer, hoped
to work there again during the Christmas holidays.
10. Go the first traffic light, turn left, and then look for a yellow
brick building on the north side of the street.
11. Once she has graduated, I do not know where she is going or
what she is planning to do.
12. "Oh no" Max exclaimed, "I think that Dr. Holmes was referring to Eliot, the novelist, not Eliot, the poet."
13. Below, the fields stretched out in a hundred shades of green.
14. To understand the purpose of the course, the student needs to
read the syllabus.
15. All students are eligible to receive tickets but must go to the
athletic office to pick them up.
16. Thomas Paine's pamphlet appeared in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on January 9, 1776.
17. You don't want any more hamburgers, do you?
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Further Punctuation Practice Exercise
1. The men in question (Harold Keene, Jim Peterson, and Gerald
Greene) deserve awards.
2. Several countries participated in the airlift: Italy, Belgium,
France, and Luxembourg.
3. "Only one course was open to us: surrender," said the exmajor, "and we did."
4. Judge Carswell–later to be nominated for the Supreme Court–
had ruled against civil rights.
5. In last week's New Yorker, one of my favorite magazines, I
enjoyed reading Leland's article "How Not to Go Camping."
6. "Yes,"Jim said, "I'll be home by ten."
7. There was only one thing to do–study till dawn.
8. Montaigne wrote the following: "A wise man never loses anything, if he has himself."
9. The following are the primary colors: red, blue, and yellow.
10. Arriving on the 8:10 plane were Liz Brooks, my old roommate; her husband; and Tim, their son.
11. When the teacher commented that her spelling was poor,
Lynn replied, "All the members of my family are poor spellers. Why
not me?"
12. He used the phrase "you know" so often that I finally said,
"No, I don't know."
13. The automobile dealer handled three makes of cars: Volkswagens, Porsches, and Mercedes Benz.
14. Though Phil said he would arrive on the 9:19 flight, he came
instead on the 10:36 flight.
15. "Whoever thought," said Helen, "that Jack would be elected
class president?"
16. In baseball a "show boat" is a man who shows off.
17. The minister quoted Isaiah 5:21 in last Sunday's sermon.
18. There was a very interesting article entitled "The New Rage
for Folk Singing" in last Sunday's New York Times newspaper.
19. "Whoever is elected secretary of the club–Ashley, or
Chandra, or Aisha–must be prepared to do a great deal of work," said
Jumita, the previous secretary.
20. Darwin's On the Origin of Species (1859) caused a great
controversy when it appeared.
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CHAPTER SEVEN
Combining Sentences
Quiz 1
1. The capital of Connecticut, Hartford is the second largest city
in the state. OR, better yet: Hartford, the capital of Connecticut, is the
second largest city in the state. OR: Hartford, the second largest city in
the state, is the capital of Connecticut.
2. Once known as an industrial center, Hartford was the home of
manufacturers of firearms, typewriters, bicycles, and even cars.
3. Today, though, several insurance companies – Aetna, the
Travelers, the Hartford, and Cigna – have home offices in Hartford
within miles of one another.
• One writer prefers this version: "Today, several insurance
companies, Aetna, the Travelers, the Hartford, and Cigna, whose home
offices are within miles of each other, make Hartford their home.
• Still another writer prefers this rendering:"Today in Hartford,
though, the insurance companies of Aetna, the Travelers, the Hartford
and Cigna all have home offices within miles of one another."
4. Manufacturers once took advantage of Hartford's access to the
Connecticut River and the city's well-educated workforce.
5. Eventually, after cheap labor in the southern states lured
manufacturing away from Hartford, large empty factory buildings were
all that was left of Hartford's industrial past. OR, a definite improvement suggested by Gerald E. Smyth: Eventually, cheap labor in the
southern states lured manufacturing away from Hartford, leaving large
empty factories as the only remnants of Hartford's industrial past.
6. Some of these factories have been torn down, others converted
to artists' studios. OR – as Sandy Weiss suggests: "Some of the factories have been torn down or converted to artists' studios."
7. Although there is much wealth centered in Hartford's insurance industry today, there are few manufacturing jobs available.
Quiz 2
1. The author of the classic American novel Huckleberry Finn,
Mark Twain, whose real name was Samuel L. Clemens, lived in Hartford for several years
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2. Mark Twain's elaborate and elegant house on Farmington
Avenue was in an area called Nook Farm, where he was a neighbor of
Harriet Beecher Stowe, author of Uncle Tom's Cabin.
3. Today, people say that the balcony and windows overlooking
the large side porch on Twain's home remind them of a steamboat, the
kind of Mississippi steamboat young Mark Twain used to pilot.
4. Although there was practically no one else to talk to in Hartford and he never really liked the newfangled gadget, Mark Twain was
one of the first three people in Hartford to own a telephone, a device
first used commercially in nearby New Haven.
5. Mark Twain loved industrial inventions and lost a fortune investing in machines such as the elaborate Paige typesetter – which, unfortunately for Twain, was developed at the same time as the much
simpler and less expensive Linotype machine.
6. After Mark Twain's beloved daughter, Susy, died of spinal
meningitis in the Hartford home, he never felt the same about the house
again and soon left the house and Hartford, to return only once, for the
funeral of his friend, Charles Dudley Warner.
published his fourth book on ancient medical practices when he was
only forty-four years old.
5. John F. Kennedy spent only 1000 days in office between his
inauguration in January 1961 and the assassination of November 1963.
6. Some students are nervous around computers or anything
high-tech; others enjoy new challenges and regard learning how to use
computers as a kind of game.
7. Now in its third year, my favorite television program, ER, has
won numerous Emmy Awards.
8. Now a teacher at the University of Virginia, Lowell Weicker,
long known as a maverick among politicians, was once Governor of
Connecticut and head of that state's American Party.
Avoiding Primer Language
1. The protagonist of Ken Kesey's novel, "One Flew Over the
Cuckoo's Nest," Randall Patrick McMurphy, escapes a work farm by
pretending insanity but then becomes trapped in an asylum, where he
shows other characters their true situation.
2. An American golfer, Tiger Woods, was only 22 when he surprised all the veterans and set a record in the 1977 Master's Tournament.
OR At the age of 22, Tiger Woods, the young American golfer,
surprised all the veterans when he set the record in the 1997 Master's
Tournament.
OR Twenty-two-year-old American golfer Tiger Woods surprised all veterans when he set a record in the 1997 Master's Tournamen
3. Ramonita Espinoza, the new soccer coach at UConn, was
formerly a coach at Notre Dame University.
4. Ronald E Pepin, a well known translator of medieval texts and
a recipient of two honorary degrees from Fordham University, recently
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