close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

1042.Электротехнологии и электрооборудование в сельском хозяйстве

код для вставкиСкачать
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ БЮДЖЕТНОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ
УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ ВЫСШЕГО ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ
«ОРЕНБУРГСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ АГРАРНЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»
Кафедра иностранных языков
З.Х. ГАЛЬКИЕВА, Л.С. ИНЯКИНА
ЭЛЕКТРОТЕХНОЛОГИИ И ЭЛЕКТРООБОРУДОВАНИЕ В СЕЛЬСКОМ ХОЗЯЙСТВЕ Учебное пособие по английскому языку для магистрантов
направления подготовки 11080002.68
Оренбург
Издательский центр ОГАУ
2014
1
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
УДК 621.3
ББК 31.26
Г 17
Рекомендовано к изданию редакционно-издательским советом Оренбургского государственного аграрного университета (председатель – профессор В.В. Каракулев).
Одобрено методической комиссией юридического факультета 30 января
2014 г. (протокол № 6).
Рассмотрено и рекомендовано к изданию на заседании кафедры иностранных языков 10 февраля 2014 г. (протокол № 6).
Рецензенты:
Т.А. Губарева – кандидат педагогических наук, доцент кафедры иностранных языков ОГАУ;
Л.Р. Валитова – кандидат педагогических наук, доцент кафедры иностранных языков ОГАУ.
Галькиева, З.Х.
Г 17
Электротехнологии и электрооборудование в сельском хозяйстве:
учебное пособие по английскому языку для магистрантов направления подготовки 11080002.68 / З.Х. Галькиева, Л.С. Инякина. – Оренбург: Издательский центр ОГАУ, 2014. – 120 с.
Галькиева Зинфира Хайдаровна, Инякина Любовь Сергеевна
ЭЛЕКТРОТЕХНОЛОГИИ И ЭЛЕКТРООБОРУДОВАНИЕ
В СЕЛЬСКОМ ХОЗЯЙСТВЕ
Учебное пособие по английскому языку для магистрантов направления
подготовки 11080002.68
Подписано в печать 16.04.2014. Формат 60×84/16. Усл. печ. л. 7,0.
Печать оперативная. Бумага офсетная. Заказ № 6925. Тираж 30 экз.
Издательский центр ОГАУ. 460014, г. Оренбург, ул. Челюскинцев, 18.
Тел.: (3532) 77-61-43
Отпечатано в Издательском центре ОГАУ
© Галькиева З.Х., Инякина Л.С., 2014.
© Издательский центр ОГАУ, 2014.
2
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ
Настоящее учебное пособие по английскому языку предназначено для
магистрантов неязыковых вузов направления подготовки 11080002.68 «Электротехнологии и электрооборудование в сельском хозяйстве». Учебное пособие охватывает материал, предусмотренный типовой программой Государственного комитета по высшему образованию для неязыковых вузов. Пособие
состоит из 6 разделов, посвященных определенной теме. Пособие построено
на материалах современной учебной и справочной литературы, а также публикаций в периодической печати США. Некоторые оригинальные тексты
подвергнуты незначительному сокращению.
Каждый раздел включает лексические упражнения, тексты для чтения,
задания на говорение, вместе с тем рекомендуется параллельное использование учебников по практической грамматике английского языка. Лексические
трудности снимаются обширным словарем, система упражнений направлена
на усвоение и употребление слов, проверку понимания содержания текстов,
раскрытие затрагиваемых в текстах проблем.
Упражнения, тексты построены на принципе преемственности и поэтапного усложнения, что дает возможность оптимизировать усвоение материала. Пособие рационально сочетает различные формы работы: индивидуальная, парная, групповая, фронтальная и т.д.; что в конечном итоге гарантирует успешное овладение английским языком.
При разработке учебного пособия мы исходили из того, что большинство магистрантов, поступающих в университет на неязыковые специальности, обладает невысоким уровнем знаний по языку, слабо развитой мотивацией учебной деятельности. Тексты и задания в зависимости от уровня языковой подготовки могут выполняться полностью или выборочно, самостоятельно или под руководством преподавателя, т.е. существует возможность
дифференцированного подхода к овладению иностранным языком. Глоссарий основных терминов может быть использован для аудиторной и внеаудиторной работы в различных целях обучения.
Неизменным условием работы с данным пособием является атмосфера
доброжелательности, доверия, сотрудничества между преподавателем и студентами. Возможно творческое переосмысление данных и добавление новых
заданий в зависимости от методического опыта преподавателя и подготовленности группы.
3
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
UNIT 1 MY SPECIALTY
1. Read, translate and retell the following text. Add more information on the
topic:
Text А My Specialty
I study at Orenburg State Agrarian University, Engineering Faculty. It is one
of the largest higher educational establishments in our town. It trains engineerselectricians. During the years of its activity the faculty has trained many highlyqualified engineers. Such specialists are in great demand nowadays.
There are the day-time and the extra-mural departments. Those who combine studies with their work are trained at the evening-time and the extramural departments. The whole process of studying deals with mastering new systems of
power supply and progressive technology of using these systems.
The junior students are taught mathematics, physics, a foreign language
(English, German), chemistry, philosophy, computer processing of information.
We attend lectures, do laboratory work and tests. We have quite a number of wellequipped laboratories at our disposal. Mastering one of the foreign languages
enables us to read foreign literature and learn about the latest scientific and technical achievements abroad.
The senior students study special electric subjects such as: Strength of Materials, Electrical Engineering, Electrical Power Engineering, Vocational Training,
Industrial Physics, Economy and Organization of Production, Technical Servicing,
etc.
The fourth-year students combine their studies with their research work. We
write Course papers and graduation thesis on the scientific problems of our research work.
Many highly-qualified teachers work at the departments of our faculty, some
of them have candidate's degrees and scientific ranks.
According to (he academic plan the fifth-year students are sent to work at
different plants and electric power stations, where they learn to employ in practice
the knowledge they gained at the University.
During practice the students master the job of engineer-electrician and at the
same time collect materials for their diploma papers.
The final and most important period in the student's life is the defense of the
graduation work in the presence of the State Examining Board. All the graduates
find work according to their specialty.
We shall work at electric power stations, at heat and power plants or at industrial enterprises, at power control inspections, at design and research institutions and laboratories. Besides, we are provided with everything necessary for a
scientific career entering a post-graduate course. In a word we have a wide range
of job opportunities.
4
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
2. Match two parts of the sentences, using the text:
1. During the years of its activity the
faculty
2. We are provided with everything
necessary
3. Many highly-qualified teachers
work at the departments of our faculty, some
4. We have quite a number of well-
1. of them have candidate's degrees and
scientific ranks.
2. in great demand nowadays.
3. new systems of power supply and progressive technology of using these systems.
4. has trained many highly-qualified engineers.
5. Those who combine studies with 5. for a scientific career entering a posttheir work
graduate course.
6. The whole process of studying 6. is the defense of the graduation work in
deals with mastering
the presence of the State Examining Board.
7. We shall work at electric power 7. equipped laboratories at our disposal.
stations, at heat and power plants or
at industrial
8. The fourth-year students combine 8. are trained at the evening-time and the
their
extramural departments.
9. Such specialists are
9. studies with their research work.
10. The final and most important pe- 10. enterprises, at power control inspecriod in the student's life
tions, at design and research institutions
and laboratories.
11. Mastering one of the foreign lan- 11. literature and learn about the latest
guages enables us to read foreign
scientific and technical achievements
abroad.
3. Try to explain the following phrases in English:
the day-time and the extra-mural departments; evening-time departments;
new systems of power supply and progressive technology; the junior students;
well-equipped laboratories; senior students; special electric subjects; highlyqualified teachers.
Text B Profession of Electrical Engineer
1. Read the text quickly and answer the questions to the each part of it:
I. Education
designate – обозначать, именовать; получить
project management – проектный менеджмент
5
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
initially – в начале
pursue – продолжать
significant – значительный, важный
accidentia – научное сообщество, мир университетской науки
duration – длительность, продолжительность
Electrical engineers typically possess an academic degree with a major in
electrical engineering. The length of study for such a degree is usually four or five
years and the completed degree may be designated as a Bachelor of Engineering,
Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Technology or Bachelor of Applied Science depending upon the university. The degree generally includes units covering physics,
mathematics, project management and specific topics in electrical engineering. Initially such topics cover most, if not all, of the sub-disciplines of electrical engineering. Students then choose to specialize in one or more sub-disciplines towards
the end of the degree.
Some electrical engineers also choose to pursue a postgraduate degree such
as a Master of Engineering/Master of Science, a Master of Engineering Management, a Doctor of Philosophy in Engineering or an Engineer's degree. The Master
and Engineer's degree may consist of either research, coursework or a mixture of
the two. The Doctor of Philosophy consists of a significant research component
and is often viewed as the entry point to academia. In the United Kingdom and various other European countries, the Master of Engineering is often considered an
undergraduate degree of slightly longer duration than the Bachelor of Engineering.
1) How long does it take students to get an academic degree in electrical engineering?
2) What subjects do they study at university?
3) What undergraduate and postgraduate degrees do they get? What is the
difference between them?
II. Practicing engineers
a range of requirements – ряд требований
licensed – дипломированный
cade of ethics – моральный кодекс
abide – следовать
comply – соблюдать
expulsion – увольнение
negligence – халатность
tort – деликт, гражданское правонарушение
pertaining – отношение, принадлежность
obsolescence – устарелость
gauge – оценивать, измерять
meticulous – тщательный, подробный
In most countries, a Bachelor's degree in engineering represents the first step
towards professional certification and the degree program itself is certified by a
professional body. After completing a certified degree program the engineer must
6
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
satisfy a range of requirements (including work experience requirements) before
being certified. Once certified the engineer is designated the title of Professional
Engineer (in the United States, Canada and South Africa ), Chartered Engineer (in
the United Kingdom, Ireland, India and Zimbabwe), Chartered Professional Engineer (in Australia and New Zealand) or European Engineer (in much of the European Union).
The advantages of certification vary depending upon location. For example, in
the United States and Canada "only a licensed engineer may seal engineering work for
public and private clients". This requirement is enforced by state and provincial legislation such as Quebec's Engineers Act. In other countries, such as Australia, no such
legislation exists. Practically all certifying bodies maintain a code of ethics that they
expect all members to abide by or risk expulsion. In this way these organizations play
an important role in maintaining ethical standards for the profession. Even in jurisdictions where certification has little or no legal bearing on work, engineers are subject to
contract law. In cases where an engineer's work fails he or she may be subject to the
tort of negligence and, in extreme cases, the charge of criminal negligence. An engineer's work must also comply with numerous other rules and regulations such as
building codes and legislation pertaining to environmental law.
Professional bodies of note for electrical engineers include the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and the Institution of Electrical Engineers
(1EE). The IEEE claims to produce 30 percent of the world's literature in electrical
engineering, has over 360,000 members worldwide and holds over 300 conferences
annually. The IEE publishes 14 journals, has a worldwide membership of 120,000,
and claims to be the largest professional engineering society in Europe. Obsolescence
of technical skills is a serious concern for electrical engineers. Membership and participation in technical societies, regular reviews of periodicals in the field and a habit of
continued learning are therefore essential to maintaining proficiency.
In countries such as Australia, Canada and the United States electrical engineers make up around 0.25% of the labour force. Outside of these countries, it is
difficult to gauge the demographics of the profession due to less meticulous reporting on labour statistics. However, in terms of electrical engineering graduates percapita; electrical engineering graduates would probably be most numerous in countries such as Taiwan, Japan and South Korea.
1) What must the engineer do after completing a certified degree program?
2) What title is the certified engineer designated?
3) Is there any difference in certification of engineers in the US and Australia? 4) What are IEEE and IEE?
Text С Engineering Achievements
1. Read the entire text before doing the exercises:
National Academy of Engineering Reveals Top Engineering Impacts of the
20 Century: Electrification Cited as Most Important.
th
7
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
WASHINGTON – One hundred years ago, life was a constant struggle
against disease, pollution, deforestation, treacherous working conditions, and
enormous cultural divides unreachable with current communications technologies.
By the end of the 20th century, the world had become a healthier, safer, and more
productive place, primarily because of engineering achievements.
Speaking on behalf of the National Academy of Engineering (NAE), astronaut/engineer Neil Armstrong today announced the 20 engineering achievements
that have had the greatest impact on quality of life in the 20th century. The announcement was made during National Engineers Week 20001 at a National Press
Club luncheon.
The achievements – nominated by 29 professional engineering societies were selected and ranked by a distinguished panel of the nation's top engineers.
Convened by the NAE, this committee – chaired by H. Guyford Stever, former director of the National Science Foundation (1972–76) and Science Advisor to the
President (1973–76) – worked in anonymity to ensure the unbiased nature of its
deliberations.
”As we look at engineering breakthroughs selected by the National Academy
of Engineering, we can see that if any one of them were removed, our world would
be a very different – and much less hospitable – place“, said Armstrong.
Armstrong's announcement of the top 20 list, which includes space exploration as
the 12th most important achievement, covers an incredibly broad spectrum of human endeavor – from the vast networks of electrification in the world (No. 1), to
the development of high-performance materials (No, 20) such as steel alloys, polymers, synthetic fibers, composites and ceramics.
Referring to achievements that may escape notice by most of the general
public, Wm. A. Wulf, president of the National Academy of Engineering, said,
“Engineering is all around us, so people often take it for granted, like air and water.
Ask yourself, what do I touch that is not engineered? Engineering develops and delivers consumer goods, builds the networks of highways, air and rail travel, and the
Internet, mass produces antibiotics, creates artificial heart valves, builds lasers, and
offers such wonders as imaging technology and conveniences like microwave
ovens and compact discs. In short, engineers make our quality of life possible”.
The process for choosing the greatest achievements began in the fall of
1999, when the National Academy of Engineering, an enormous non-profit organization of outstanding engineers founded under the congressional charter drat established the National Academy of Sciences, invited discipline-specific professional
engineering societies to nominate up to ten achievements. A list of 105 selections
was given to a committee of academy members representing the various disciplines. The panel convened on December 9 and 10, 1999, and selected and ranked
the top 20 achievements. The overarching criterion used was that those advancements had made the greatest contribution to the quality of life in the past 100 years.
Even though some of the achievements, such as the telephone and the automobile,
were invented in the 1800s, they were included because their impact on society
was felt in the 20th century.
8
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Here is the complete list of achievements as announced today by
Mr. Armstrong.
1) Electrification – the vast networks of electricity that power the developed
world.
2) Automobile – revolutionary manufacturing practices made the automobile the world's major mode of transportation by making cars more reliable and affordable to the masses.
3) Airplane – flying made the world accessible, spurring globalization on a
grand scale.
4) Safe and Abundant Water – preventing the spread of disease, increasing
life expectancy.
5) Electronics – vacuum tubes and, later, transistors that underlie nearly all
modem life.
6) Radio and Television – dramatically changed the way the world received
information and entertainment.
7) Agricultural Mechanization – leading to a vastly larger, safer, less costly food supply.
8) Computers – the heart of the numerous operations and system, that impact our lives.
9) Telephone – changing the way the world communicate personally and in
business.
10) Air Conditioning and Refrigeration – beyond convenience, it extends
the shelf life of food and medicines, protects electronics and plays an important
role in health care delivery.
11) Interstate Highways – 44,000 miles of U.S. highways allowing goods
distribution and personal access.
12) Space Exploration – going to outer space vastly expanded humanity's
horizons and introduced 60,000 new products on Earth.
13) Internet – a global communications and information system of unparalleled access.
14) Imaging Technologies – revolutionized medical diagnostics.
15) Household Appliances – eliminated strenuous, laborious tasks, especially for women.
16) Health Technologies – mass production of antibiotics and artificial
implants led to vast health improvements.
17) Petroleum and Gas Technologies – the fuels that energized the 20th
century.
18) Laser and Fiber Optics – applications are wide and varied, including
almost simultaneous worldwide communications, non-invasive surgery, and pointof-sale scanners.
19) Nuclear Technologies – from splitting the atom, we gained a new
source of electric power.
20) High-Performance Materials – higher quality, lighter, stronger, and
more adaptable.
9
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
2. Show your understanding of the reading. Based on the text you just
read, choose the best answer to complete the statements:
1 Many people consider … to be the first American engineer.
a) George Washington
b) Neil Armstrong
c) Wm. A. Wulf
d) Thomas Edison
2. The area of engineering that received the most recognition on the
list of top achievements is…
a) power production
b) transportation
c) medicine
d) agriculture
3. The most important achievement affecting public health was …
a) imaging technology
b) laser surgery
c) antibiotics
d) safe water supply
4. Air-conditioning and refrigeration show how something that seems
ordinary can …
a) be very significant
b) be highly complex
c) be very popular
d) be taken for granted
10
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
UNIT 2 ELECTRICITY BASICS
1. Discuss the following questions:
Can you imagine our life without electricity?
What benefits can we get from electricity?
2. Some students are writing their course paper. Suddenly the light went off. Read
their conversation to see how they will solve this problem:
Ann: Max, I need your help badly. I'd like you to have a look at my table
lamp.
Max: What is wrong with it?
Ann: I have no idea. I was writing my course work when suddenly the light
went off. Can you repair it?
Max: I'll try. Give me the lamp.
Ann: Well?
Max: No wonder the light doesn't work. The bulb has a broken filament.
Ann: What do you mean?
Max: The bulb has simply burnt out. All we have to do is to turn the burnt
bulb out of the socket and replace it with a new bulb. Do you have one?
Ann: Unfortunately not. And my roommates are all asleep - I can't ask them.
You can't lend me your own lamp, can you?
Max: Well, yes. But it is time to sleep already. Why don't you finish the
coursework in the morning?
Ann: You see, my supervisor asked me to bring it to the consultation tomorrow. He expects me to finish it.
Max: OK. Don't sit up too late anyway. I'll ask Irene to bring you a new
bulb. Don't switch on the power till you have turned it into the socket.
Ann: I won't. Thanks a lot.
3. Complete the dialogues:
1)
– Nick, I need you to…
– ? It was all right ten minutes ago.
2)
– I'm afraid…
– Don't worry. We'll ask somebody to…
3)
– Let's…
– Well?
– You see …
– What shall we do?
– … But I'd like you to ... the power first.
– I'm sure you won't forget to turn on the ... again. The light will let … you
report.
11
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
4. Look up the following terms in the dictionary. Practice reading them:
alteration, bulb, cell, charged elements, circuit, electrical current (direct and
alternating), dielectric, filament, to transmit, transmission grid, insulator, power
(thermal, nuclear, underground steam, solar, kinetic, chemical power), power plant,
rectifier, socket, transformer (step-up, step-down transformers), capacitor, condenser, winding (input, output or primary and secondary winding), wire, overhead
conductor wire, resistance, to glow, notions, frequency, to reverse, a flow, mica.
5. Cross out the odd word. All the words in the line should belong to the same
part of speech:
1) complete, carry out, measurement, perform;
2) wire, bulb, socket, switch off;
3) winding, capacitor, frame, rectify;
4) current, power, electrical, flow;
5) into, out of, from, careful;
6) transformer, alternate, rectifier, generator;
7) voltage, insulate, frequency, resistance;
6. Look at the title and say what information the text gives. Read the text attentively for the details:
Text A Electricity Basics
Electricity is something we do not notice until we do not have it. However,
few people understand what it is and still fewer can explain it. Let us try it anyway.
So, what is electricity? Electricity is simply a movement of charged particles
through a closed circuit. The electrons, which flow through this wire, carry a negative charge. A lightning discharge is the same idea, just without the wire.
Electricity is made by converting some form of energy into flowing
electrons at the power plant. The type of power plant depends on the source
of energy used: thermal power (coal, oil, gas, nuclear, underground steam),
solar power (photovoltaic), kinetic power (water, wind) and chemical power
(fuel cell).
After it is made, electricity is sent into a system of cables and wires called a
transmission grid. This system enables power plants and end users to be connected
together.
The basic notions in electricity include the following.
An Amp (A) is a unit measure of amount of current in a circuit. An ammeter
permits the current to be measured.
The pressure that forces the current to flow is measured in Volts (V). A
trans-former is used to change the voltage of electricity. This allows electricity to
be transmitted over long distances at high voltages, but safely used at a lower voltage.
12
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
A Watt (W) is a unit measure of electric power that depends on amps and volts.
The more watts the bulb uses the more light is produced. Watts = Volts × Amps.
An Ohm (O) is a unit measure of materials resistance to a flowing current.
The filament in this light bulb glows because its high resistance makes it hot. Low
resistance of the support wires does not let them glow. The glass has a resistance
so high that it does not allow the current to move through it - this property makes
glass a good insulator.
There are two different kinds of electrical current. One is called direct current because electrons are made to move in one direction only. It is usually abbreviated to DC. This kind of electricity is produced by a battery.
AC Stands for alternating current, which is generated by power station for
domestic and industrial use. The wires in the centre of the generator rotate past the
North and the South poles of the magnet. Tins movement forces the electrons in
the circuit to reverse the direction of their flow. The number of these alterations (or
cycles) per second is known as frequency.
As domestic supply requires alternating current it is therefore necessary to
change it to direct current inside most electrical appliances. A rectifier allows AC
to be converted into DC.
Power stations are designed to provide electrical energy to large housing developments This causes the necessity to transmit power from its source, the generating station, to wherever it is required for use, which maybe far away with minimal energy losses. It is cheaper and easier to carry a very high voltage but low
current, over long distances. It can be done with the help of thinner overhead conductor wires, with an air gap between them to act as an insulator.
A transformer is used to increase or decrease the voltage of an electric power
supply. This is a static machine since it has no moving parts. It consists of two
coils of wire that are wound around a soft iron core. The coils are called windings
one is the primary, or input winding, and the other is the secondary, or output
winding.
When current passes through the primary winding, a magnetic field is created
around the iron core, which induces a voltage in the secondary winding If the number
of turns in the secondary winding is greater than that in the primary winding it is a
step-up transformer and the output voltage is greater than the input voltage And vice
versa, a step-down transformer enables the input voltage to be reduced.
A device, which allows an electrical charge to be build up and stored for
some time is known as a capacitor (or a condenser). A simple capacitor is made
from two metal plates (electrodes), which are separated by an insulator such as air,
paper or mica (the dielectric).
1. Say if the following statements are true or false. Correct the false statements:
1. There are two different kinds of electricity: AD and ВС.
2. Direct current is received from a battery.
13
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
3. AC is used for domestic and industrial purposes
4. The frequency is the number of cycles per second.
5. Conversion is brought about by means of an insulator
6. Air is a rather good insulator.
7. High voltage is supplied by a transformer
8. To decrease voltage a step-down, transformer should be used.
9. The function of a capacitor is to transmit electricity to electrical appliances.
2. Explain why...
a) two kinds of current exist;
b) electrons change the direction of the flow in AC;
c) a rectifier is necessary;
d) energy is lost on the way from the power plant to the end user;
e) a high voltage and low current are transmitted through the wires;
f) a transformer is used;
g) a transformer is known as a static machine;
h) a step-up transformer permits the input voltage to be increased;
i) a condenser is necessary in domestic appliances.
3. Give another title to the text. Render its contents in 6 simple sentences.
4. Create a questionnaire on the topic ”Basic Electricity Notions“ and test
your classmates’ knowledge.
5. Describe a step-down transformer, its structure, operation and function.
Use the description of a step-up transformer as a model.
6. You will be the engineer. Read the passage and say what a simple circuit is.
A simple circuit consists of three minimum elements that are required to
complete a functioning electric circuit: a source of electricity (battery), a path or
conductor on which electricity flows (wire) and an electrical resistor (lamp) which
is any device that requires electricity to operate. The illustration below shows a
simple circuit containing, one battery, two wires, and a bulb. The flow of electricity
is horn the high potential (+) terminal of the battery through the bulb (lighting it
up), and back to the negative (-) terminal, in a continual flow.
7. Read the texts and match them with the following titles:
Battery History
How Flashlights Work
The Flow of Electrons
How Batteries Work
Flashlight History
14
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
A. The first battery was demonstrated in 1800 by Count Alessandro Volla.
His experiments showed that different metals in contact with each other could
create electricity. He constructed a stack of discs of zinc alternating with blotting
paper soaked in saltwater and silver or copper. When wires made of two different
metals were attached to both the top and bottom discs, Volta was able to measure a
voltage and a current. He also discovered that the higher die pile, the higher the
voltage. The current is produced because of a chemical reaction arising from the
different electron attracting capabilities of the two metals. This device became
known as a ”voltaic pile“ (the French word for ”battery“ is “pile”). Although they
were large and bulky, voltaic piles provided the only practical source of electricity
in the early 19th century.
B. The pile or battery remained a laboratory curiosity for years, until the
newly invented telegraph and telephone created a demand for reliable electrical
power. After many years of experimentation, the “dry cell” battery was invented in
the 1860s for use with the telegraph. The dry cell is not completely dry, however.
It holds a moist paste inside a zinc container. The interaction of the paste and the
zinc creates a source of electrons. A carbon rod is inserted into the paste and conducts electrons to the outside of the cell, where wires or metal contacts carry the
electrons that power the device. A single dry cell produces about 15 volts.
С. The carbon rod, the chemical paste, and the can react to create free elections. The bottom terminal is called the "negative" terminal. The top terminal is
called trie “positive” terminal. When a circuit connects the positive and negative
terminals, the free electrons at the negative terminal flow towards the positive terminal. The flow of electrons is called an electric current, but engineers define the
current as moving from the positive terminal to the negative terminal, the opposite
of the actual flow of electrons. This is because current was defined before scientists knew that the charge on an electron is negative. Electrons are the panicles that
carry the electric current. In the example to the left below, a switch connecting the
battery to a bulb is in the ”off“ position, so the bulb is dark. On the right, the
switch is in the “on” position, allowing the flow of elections to light up the bulb.
D. In the 1890s, American Ever-Ready Company founder Conrad Hubert
invented the electric hand torch. Hubert acquired the patent for the first everyday
flashlight in 1898. Hubert's first flashlights were made from paper and fiber tubes,
with a bulb and a brass reflector. At the time, batteries were very weak and bulbs
were still developing, so the first flashlights produced only a brief ”flash“ of light –
which gave the invention its name.
E. There are seven main components to a flashlight:
1. Case or Tube: holds all die other components of the flashlight.
2. Contacts: thin spring or strip of metal usually made of copper or brass that
serves as the connection between the battery, lamp, and switch.
3. Switch, can be in on or off position.
4. Reflector plastic coated with a reflective aluminum layer to help brighten
the light of the bulb.
15
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
5. Bulb usually very small.
6. Lens: plastic cover in front of the bulb to protect the lamp which could
easily be broken.
7. Batteries: Provide power to the flashlight.
When the switch is in the "on" position, it connects the two contract strips
which allow electrons to flow. The batteries provide power to the flashlight, and sit
on top of a small spring that is connected to one of the contact strips. This contact
strip runs along the length of the case and contacts the switch. Another contact
strip connects the switch with the bulb. Finally, another contact connects the bulb
to the top battery, completing the circuit.
8. a) Draw a schematic diagram of the circuit design for the standard
flashlight in the ”on“ position; b) draw the schematic diagram for your improved flashlight.
Text B Main electricity concepts
1. Read the text and get ready to discuss the main electricity concepts in
detail:
Electricity is a general term for the variety of phenomena resulting from the
presence and flow of electric charge. Together with magnetism, it constitutes the
fundamental interaction, known as electromagnetism. It includes many well-known
physical phenomena such as lightning, electric fields and electric currents, and is
put to use in industrial applications such as electronics and electric power.
The ancient Greeks and Parthians knew of static electricity from rubbing objects against fur.
Though Benjamin Franklin's famous "invention" of electricity by flying a
kite in a thunderstorm turned out to be more fiction than fact, his theories on the
relationship between lightning and static electricity sparked the interest of later
scientists whose work provided the basis for modem electrical technology. Most
notably these include Luigi Galvani (1737–1798), Alessandro (1745–1827), Michael Faraday (1791–1867), Andre-Marie Ampere (1775–1836), and Georg Simon
Ohm (1789–1854). The late 19th and early 20th century produced such giants of
electrical engineering as Nikola Tesla. Samuel Morse, Antonio Mcucci. Thomas
Edison. George Westinghouse. Werner von Siemens. Charles Steinmetz and Alexander Graham Bell.
Electric charge is a property of certain subatomic particles (eg, electrons
and protons) which interacts with electromagnetic fields and causes attractive and
repulsive forces between them. Electric charge gives rise to one of the four fundamental forces of nature, and is a conserved property of matter that can be quantified. In this sense, the phrase “quantity of electricity” is used interchangeably
with the phrases ”charge of electricity“ and ”quantity of charge“. There are two
16
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
types of charge: we call one kind of charge positive and the other negative.
Through experimentation, we find that like-charged objects repel and oppositecharged objects attract one another the magnitude of the force of attraction or repulsion is given by Coulomb’s law.
The concept of electric field was introduced by Michael Faraday. The electrical field force acts between two charges, in the same way that the gravitational
field force acts between two masses. However, the electric field is a little hit different. Gravitational force depends on the masses of two bodies, whereas electric
force depends on the electric charges of two bodies. While gravity can only pull
two masses together, the electric force can be an attractive or repulsive force. If
both charges are of same sign (e.g. both positive), there will be a repulsive force
between the two. If the charges are opposite, there will be an attractive force between the two bodies. The magnitude of the force vanes inversely with the square
of the distance between the two bodies, and is also proportional to the product of
the unsigned magnitudes of the two charges.
The electric potential difference between two points is defined as the work
done per unit charge (against electrical forces) in moving a positive point charge
slowly between two points. If one of the points is taken to be a reference point with
zero potential, then the electric potential at any point can be defined in terms of the
work done per unit charge in moving a positive point charge from that reference
point to the point at which the potential is to be determined. For isolated charges,
the reference point is usually taken to be infinity. The potential is measured in
volts. (1 volt = 1 joule/coulomb). The electric potential is analogous to temperature, there is a different temperature at every point in space, and the temperature
gradient indicates the direction and magnitude of the driving force behind heat
flow. Similarly, there is an electric potential at every point in space, and its gradient indicates the direction and magnitude of the driving force behind charge
movement.
An electric current is a flow of electric charge, and its intensity is measured
in amperes. Examples of electric currents include metallic conduction, where electrons flow through a conductor or conductors such as a metal wire, and electrolysis, where ions (charged atoms) flow through liquids. The particles themselves often move quite slowly, while the electric field that drives them propagates at close
to the speed of light. See electrical conduction for more information.
Devices that use charge flow principles in materials are called electronic devices.
A direct current (DC) is a unidirectional flow, while an alternating current
(AC) reverses direction repeatedly. The time average of an alternating current is
zero, but its energy capability (RMS value) is not zero.
Ohm's Law is an important relationship describing the behaviour of electric
currents, relating them to voltage.
For historical reasons, electric current is said to flow from the most positive
17
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
part of a circuit to die most negative part. The electric current thus defined is called
conventional current. It is now known that, depending on the conditions, an electric
current can consist of a flow of charged particles in either direction or even in both
directions at once. The positive-to-negative convention is widely used to simplify
this situation. If another definition is used – for example, “electron current” – it
should be explicitly slated.
Electrical energy is energy stored in an electric field or transported by an
electric cur tent. Energy is defined as the ability to do work, and electrical energy
is simply one of the many types of energy. Examples of electrical energy include:
• the energy that is constantly stored in the Earth's atmosphere and is partly
released during a thunderstorm in the form of lightning;
• the energy that is stored in the coils of an electrical generator in a power
station, and is then transmitted by wires to the consumer; the consumer then pays
for each unit of energy received;
• the energy that is stored in a capacitor, and can be released to drive a current through an electrical circuit.
Electric power is the rate at winch electrical energy is produced or consumed, and is measured in watts (symbol is: W)
A fossil-fuel or nuclear power station converts heat to electrical energy, and
the faster the station bums fuel, assuming constant efficiency of conversion, the
higher its power output. The output of a power station is usually specified in megawatts (millions of watts). The electrical energy is then sent over transmission
lines to reach the consumers.
Every consumer uses appliances that convert the electrical energy to other
forms of energy, such as heat (in electric arc furnaces and electric heaters), light (in
light bulbs and fluorescent lamps'), or motion, i.e. kinetic energy (in electric motors). Like the power station, each appliance is also rated in watts; depending on
the rate at which it converts electrical energy into another form. The power station
must produce electrical energy at the same rate as all the connected appliances
consume it.
In electrical engineering, the concepts of apparent power and reactive power
are also used. Apparent power is the product of RMS voltage and RMS current,
and is measured in volt-amperes (VA). Reactive power is measured in voltamperes-reactive (VAr).
Non-nuclear electric power is categorized as either green or brown electricity.
Green power is a cleaner alternative energy source in comparison to traditional sources, and is derived from renewable energy resources that do not produce
any nuclear waste; examples include energy produced from wind, water, solar,
thermal, hydro, combustible renewables and waste.
Electricity from coal, oil, and natural gas is known as traditional power or
“brown” electricity.
18
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
2. Match two parts of the sentences, using the text:
The particles themselves
at the same rate as all the connected appliances consume it.
If both charges are of same sign
an alternating current (AC) reverses direction repeatedly.
gas is known as traditional power or
”brown“ electricity.
often move quite slowly.
energy is simply one of the many types of
energy.
there will be a repulsive force between the
two.
of static electricity from rubbing objects
against fur.
is called conventional current.
Energy is defined as the ability to do
work, and electrical
Electricity from coal, oil, and natural
A direct current (DC) is a unidirectional flow, while
The power station must produce
electrical energy
The output of a power station is
usually
Apparent power is the product of
RMS voltage
Reactive power is measured
and RMS current, and is measured in voltamperes (VA).
If the charges are opposite, there will as either green or brown electricity.
be
The ancient Greeks and Parthians in volt-amperes-reactive (VAr).
knew
Non-nuclear electric power is cate- an attractive force between the two bodies.
gorized
The electric current thus defined
specified in megawatts (millions of watts).
3. Try to explain the following phrases in English: can be defined; the
work done; a positive point charge; isolated charges; at every point in space; the
direction and magnitude of the driving force.
19
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
UNIT 3 ENERGY PROBLEMS
1. Discuss the following questions:
What do you know about the energy crisis we are facing today?
What solutions can you offer?
2. Read the student's discussion and name advantages and disadvantages of alternative energy sources:
Alice: Alex, I would like you to read tins article. It seems to be very interesting.
Alex: Does it really? What's so special about it?
Alice: Well, you had better read it by yourself. Anyway, it appears to discuss
the energy crisis threatening us today.
Alex: Oh, I hear something about it. We consume too much energy and exhaust our fossil fuel resources consisting of oil, coal and gas. However, technological progress cannot be stopped.
Alice: Don't worry. The solution is likely to be found anyway. Have you
heard about alternative energy sources developed by the scientists all over the
world?
Alex: Certainly, these alternative sources of energy are assumed to have
many advantages but actually they are very expensive and rather inefficient.
Alice: Well, the new method only needs perfection. Besides, as we are sure
to run out of fossil fuels soon, do we have other options?
Alex: No, we don't. And moreover, the alternative sources of energy seem to
be inexhaustible and causing no pollution.
Alice: That speaks for itself, doesn't it?
Alex: Without any doubts OK, where is the article? I need further information
Alice: Here it is.
3. Find the meaning and the pronunciation of the following words in the
dictionary:
alternative energy sources, exhaust, exhaustible, fossil fuel resources, steam,
essential, available, evident, constantly, renewable, nonrenewable, to consume,
consumption shortage, polluting, pollution-free, to satisfy smb's needs, immensely,
producing no waste, safe, dangerous, poisonous, dam, turbines, requirements, environment, advantage, disadvantage.
4. Match the words with the opposite meaning:
to accelerate
excess
adequate
pollution free
renewable
inexhaustible
polluting
to slow down
20
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
safe
shortage
expensive
suitable
exhaustible
A.
В.
unsuitable
nonrenewable
dangerous
cheap
inadequate
5. Find in В the derivatives from the words in A:
– civilization, civil, sensible, unsuitable
– converter, conservation, consumption, measurement
– consumer, usable, reduction, increase
– report, comfort, ensure, shortage
– empire, powerfully, sensible, waterwheel
– consist, student, suitable, institute
– example, inexhaustible, exhibition, explanation
– plant, pursuit, production, pollution
to civilize
to consume
use
short
power
to suit
to exhaust
to pollute
6. Translate the following compound nouns into Russian: energy crisis
prospects, steam engine, oil-equivalent, energy cost, total fuel consumption, overall energy supply
Text A Energy problems
Energy is an essential part of our civilization. A million years ago primitive
man used only 6,000 (kJ) a day, which he got from the food he ate. A hundred
thousand years ago people had learnt to make fire and used four times as much
energy (the equivalent of 25,000 kJ). By the 15th century man using animals,
windmills and waterwheels, and a little coal, was already; consuming nearly twenty times as much energy (120,000 kJ). By 1875 the steam engine made 340,000 kJ
a day available to industrial man in England. Today's technological man uses kJ a
day, or one hundred and fifty times as much as primitive man, about one third in
the form of electricity.
What do we need energy for? Comfort and lighter work, first of all. Energy
consumed in great quantities falls into two kinds: a) energy needed every day
(lighting, heating, etc.) and b) energy used to produce necessary objects (house,
clothes, etc.). Take a man building a small house (10 tons of oil-equivalent), heat21
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
ing (3 tons of oil-equivalent) and lighting (200 kg of oil-equivalent or 700 kWh) it
for a year and having a car (1.3 tons of oil-equivalent + 1.3 tons for every 12,000
km run). The energy cost of these basic things is tremendous but multiply it by 6
billion to get the real picture of man's needs. Besides, energy consumption is sure
to increase since the more energy is consumed, the easier our lite becomes.
The current energy problem caused by many interrelated factors must be
tackled quickly. Strange as it sounds, there is no shortage of primary energy. The
sun provides ten thousand times as much energy as we require today, in many
forms ranging from solar radiation through wind and waves to trees and plants.
The problem is to convert these resources into mechanical work or other usable
forms of energy. The history of energy has been the history of converters - man's
body itself converting food into warmth and mechanical work, animals doing such
work more powerfully, the waterwheel, the windmill, the steam engine, the nuclear
reactor and in the near future the solar cell.
1. Find answers to these questions in the text:
1. Did primitive man get the energy he needed?
2. How much energy does man consume today?
3. What does technological man do half of his life?
4. In what two ways is energy used?
5. What is the standard measurement of energy cost?
6. Does the car require much energy?
7. Why is it essential to cut energy consumption?
8. What is the primary source of energy?
2. Complete the table with the information from the article:
Time
Man
Years of Life
Energy
Why
Consumption
Consider food, domestic consumption, services (trade, office work, teaching,
and leisure), industry and agriculture, transport.
3. Think over the following situations:
1. What are the ways of using energy? Supply your own examples.
2. How much energy (in oil-equivalent) is necessary to build a house and
light and heat it for a year?
3. What is the energy problem? Describe its causes and ways of solving it.
4. Continue the sentence: The less energy we will use, the …. Do you agree?
Give reasons for your opinion.
5. What energy sources on the Earth are or have been provided by the Sun?
22
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
4. a) Does the article provide any interesting information? What is the
main idea of the article? What other questions does it discuss?
b) Give a title to the article.
5. Read the text for detailed information about alternative sources of
energy:
Text B Alternative Sources of Energy
It is not a secret that energy consumption has increased immensely in the last
decades. But do we have enough fossil fuels to satisfy our needs? As fossil fuels are
nonrenewable we are highly interested in developing alternative sources of energy.
Solar Power is renewable. It is used for heating houses. Solar cells and furnace make electricity from sunlight. Solar cells are expensive. Solar power isn’t
much use unless you live somewhere sunny. It doesn't cause pollution and doesn't
need fuel.
Wind Power is renewable as well. It doesn’t cause pollution, doesn’t need
fuel. However, a lot of generators are needed to get a sensible amount of power It is
necessary to put them where winds are reliable. And the noise can drive you nuts.
Hydroelectric Power plants are built for getting energy from flowing water.
Usually we build a dam, and let the water turn turbines and generators as it goes
through pipes in the dam. Renewable. No pollution, no fuel needed no waste. Very
expensive to build. Building a dam we flood a lot of land.
Waves Power. There's a lot of energy in waves on the sea. However it is not
easy to get it. A wave power station needs to be able to stand really rough weather,
and yet still be able to generate power from small waves. This source of energy is
renewable – the waves will come whether we use them or not.
Geothermal Energy means heat from underground hot rocks. Hot water
comes up and we use the heat to make steam to drive turbines, or to heat houses. It
is renewable – so long as we don’t take out too much, the energy keeps on coming.
However, there are not many places you can do it – the rocks must be suitable.
Sometimes we get poisonous gases coming up too.
«Biomass» means burning wood, dung, sugar cane or similar. It is renewable
– we can always plant more trees. We burn the fuel to heat water into steam, which
drives turbines, which drive generators. Burning anything we pollute the environment.
Nuclear (atomic) power stations use uranium as fuel. It is nonrenewable.
Heat from the reactor turns water into steam, which drives turbines, which drive
generators. It doesn’t cause pollution unless something goes wrong.
1. Answer the following questions:
1. Why do we have to develop alternative sources of energy?
2. What is solar energy used for?
23
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
3. What are the disadvantages of wind power?
4. What requirements should hydroelectric power stations meet?
5. Why can the use of geothermal energy be dangerous?
6. Are nuclear power plants considered safe?
2. Name the sources of energy that are ...
– renewable
– pollution-free
– producing no waste
– needing no fuel
– safe
3. Can these sources of energy be used in your country? Give your reasons.
Power Source
solar power
wind power
hydroelectric
waves power
geothermal
biomass
nuclear power
Can be Used
Cannot be Used
4. Your country is running out of fossil fuels soon and is facing an energy crisis. Other sources of energy must be developed quickly. Divide into several groups and make presentations of some projects (consider all the factors
both positive and negative), explain your choice and answer possible questions.
Text C Wind Power
1. Search your knowledge:
1. What's a wind turbine? How does it work? How is it similar to a windmill?
2. How is a wind turbine similar to an electric fan? How are they different?
3. Is wind power used widely around the world? Why or why not?
4. Can you name other sources of energy that are used by power plants to
produce electricity?
5. What are the advantages and disadvantages of wind power over other
sources of energy?
6. How can the disadvantages be overcome?
2. The text contains the words blade, prototype, flexible, hinge, niche, and
capacity. Do you know what these words mean? If you don't, see if you can
24
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
figure them out from the sentences that follow. Then, see how the words are
used in the article:
1. The blades of a fan, like the blades of a knife, cut through air and make
the air move.
2. After the engineers successfully tested the prototype of a newly designed
electric car, the managers of the company decided to go ahead with mass production of this design.
3. The Olympic gymnast was very flexible. She could bend backward so that
her head touched her feet.
4. When a door squeaks, it's time to oil its hinges to make it move more
smoothly.
5. a. A mouse found a niche in the side of a hill and made a nest there.
b. The little diner that serves only soup found a small but successful niche
in the large restaurant market.
6. a The gas tank in my car has a capacity of 16 gallons.
b. When the candy factory operates at full capacity, it produces 100 chocolate bars an hour.
3. Text “Wind Power for Pennies” (Peter Fairley from “Technology Review”)
A Lightweight wind turbine is finally on the horizon – and it might just be
the breakthrough needed to give Fuels a run for their money.
The newest wind turbine standing at Rocky Flats in Colorado, the U.S. Department of Energy's proving ground for wind power technologies, looks much like
any other apparatus for capturing energy from wind: a boxy turbine sits atop a steel
tower that sprouts two propeller blades stretching a combined 40 meters – almost
half the length of a football field. Wind rushes by, blades rotate, and electricity
flows. But there's a key difference. This prototype has flexible, hinged blades: in
strong winds, they bend back slightly while spinning. The bending is barely perceptible to a casual observer, but it's a radical departure from how existing wind
turbines work- and it just may change the fate of wind power.
Indeed, the success of the prototype at Rocky Flats comes at a crucial moment
in the evolution of wind power. Wind-driven generators are still a niche technology
– producing less than one percent of U.S. electricity. But last year, 1,700 megawatts’
worth of new wind capacity was installed in the United States - enough to power
500,000 houses – nearly doubling the nation's wind power capacity. And more is on
the way. Manufacturers have reduced the cost of heavy-duty wind turbines fourfold
since 1980, and these gargantuan machines are now reliable and efficient enough to
be built offshore. An 80- turbine, $240 million wind farm under construction off the
Danish coast will be the world’s largest, and developers are beginning to colonize
German, Dutch and British waters, too. In North America, speculators envision massive offshore wind farms near British Columbia and Nantucket, MA.
But there is still a black cloud hovering over this seemingly sunny scenario.
Wind turbines remain expensive to build – often prohibitively so. On average, it
25
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
costs about $1 million per megawatt to construct a wind turbine farm, compared to
about $600,000 per megawatt for a conventional gas-fired power plant, in the economic calculations of power companies, the fact that wind is free doesn't close this
gap. In short, the price of building wind power must come down if it's ever to be
more than a niche technology.
And that's where the prototype at Rocky Flats comes in. The flexibility in its
blades will enable the turbine to be 40 percent lighter than today's industry standard but just as capable of surviving destructive storms. And that lighter weight
could mean machines that are 20 to 25 percent cheaper than today's large turbines.
Earlier efforts at lighter designs were universal failures - disabled or destroyed, some within weeks, by the wind itself. Given these failures, wind experts
are understandably cautious about the latest shot at a lightweight design. But most
agree that lightweight wind turbines, if they work, will change the economic equation. «The question would become, «How do you get the transmission capacity
built fast enough to keep up with growth», says Ward Marshall, a wind power developer at Columbus, OH-based American Electric Power who is on the board of
directors of the American Wind Energy Association, a trade group «You'd have
plenty of folks willing to sign up».
And, say experts, the Rocky Flats prototype - designed by Wind Turbine of
Believue, WA- is the best hope in years for a lightweight design that will finally
succeed. «I can say pretty unequivocally that this is a dramatic step in lightweight
(wind turbine) technology», says Bob Thresher, director of the National Wind
Technology Center at Rocky Flats «Nobody else has built d machine that flexible
and made it work».
Steady as She Blows
Wind turbines are like giant fans run in reverse Instead of motor-driven
blades that push the air, they use airfoils that catch the wind and crank a generator
that pumps out electricity. Many of today's turbines are mammoth machines with
three-bladed rotors that span 80 meters - 20 meters longer than the wingspan of a
Boeing 747. And therein lies the technology challenge. The enormous size is
needed if commercial wind turbines are to compete economically because power
production rises exponentially with blade length. But these vast structures must be
rugged enough to endure gales and extreme turbulence.
In the 1970s and 80s, U.S. wind energy pioneers made the first serious efforts at fighting these forces with lightweight, flexible machines. Several startups
installed thousands of such wind turbines; most were literally torn apart or disabled
by gusts. Taking lightweight experimentation to the extreme, General Electric and
Boeing built much larger prototypes – behemoths with 80-, 90-, and even 100meter-long blades. These also proved prone to breakdown, in some cases their
blades bent back and actually struck the towers.
All told, U.S. companies and the Department of Energy spent hundreds of
millions of dollars on these failed experiments in the 1980s and early 1990s. «The
American model has always gravitated toward the light and sophisticated and
26
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
things that didn't work», says James Manwe 11, a mechanical engineer who leads
the University of Massachusetts's renewable-energy research laboratory in Amherst, MA.
Into these technology doldrums sailed researchers from Denmark's Riso National laboratory and Danish companies like Vestas Wind Systems. Dining the past
two decades they perfected a heavy-duty version of the wind turbine - and it has
become the Microsoft Windows of the wind power industry. Today, this Danish
design accounts for virtually all of the electricity generated by the wind worldwide.
Perhaps reflecting national inclinations, these sturdy Danish designs had tittle of
the aerodynamic flash of the earlier U.S wind turbines, they were simply braced
against the wind with heavier, thicker steel and composite materials. They were
tough, rugged – and they worked.
What's more, in recent years, power electronics – digital silicon switches that
massage the flow of electricity from the machine – further improved the basic design. Previously, the turbine's rotor was held to a constant rate of rotation so its alternating-current output would be in sync with the power grid; the new devices
maintain the synchronization white allowing the rotor to freely speed up and slow
down with the wind “If you get a gust, the rotor can accelerate instead of just sitting there and receiving the brute force of the wind”, says Manwell.
Mastering such strains enabled the Danish design to grow larger and larger.
Whereas in the early 1980s a typical commercial machine had a blade span of 12.5
meters and could produce 50 kilowatts - enough for about a dozen homes – today’s
biggest blades stretch 80 meters and crank out two megawatts; a single machine
can power more than 500 homes.
The newest challenge facing the Danish design is finding ways for it to
weather the corrosive and punishing offshore environment, where months can pass
before a mechanic can safely board and fix a turbine. Vestas, for one, is equipping
its turbines with sensors on each of their components to detect wear and tear, and
backup systems to take over in the case of, say, a failure in the power electronics.
Vestas’s approach goes to the test this summer, as Denmark’s power supplier begins installing 80 Vestas machines in shallow water 14 to 20 kilometers off the
Danish coastline. It will be the world’s biggest offshore wind farm, powering as
many as 150,000 Danish households.
Wind Shadows
These upgrades will make big, heavy turbines more reliable, but they don't
add up to a fundamental shift in the economics of wind power. Nations like Denmark and Germany are prepared to pay for wind power partly because fossil fuels
are so much more costly in Europe, where higher taxes cover environmental and
health costs associated with burning them. (About 20 percent of Denmark’s power
comes from wind). But for wind power to be truly cost competitive with fossil fuels in the United States, the technology must change.
What makes Wind Turbine's Rocky Flats design such a departure is not only
its hinged blades, but also their downwind orientation The Danish design faces the
27
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
blades into the wind and makes the blades heavy so they won't bend back and slam
into the tower. The Wind Turbine design can’t face the wind the hinged blades
would hit the tower – so the rotor is positioned downwind. Finally, it uses two
blades, rather than the three in the traditional design, to further reduce weight
A Lighter, Cheaper Turbine
Hinged blades and sophisticated control systems allow the lightweight turbine designed by Wind Turbine of Bellevue, WA, to survive storms and gusts.
In Normal Conditions: Blades spin freely, the entire turbine swivels according to wind direction, and a gearbox amplifies blade rotation speed so a generator
can produce power.
In High Wind or Erratic Conditions: Hydraulic dampers allow blades to flex
up to 15 degrees downwind and five degrees upwind to shed excess wind force.
Control systems include a brake to slow blade spin and a yaw drive to counteract
swiveling.
Advances in the computer modeling of such dangerous forces as vibration
helped the design’s development. Flexible blades add an extra dimension to the
machine’s motion; so does the fact that the whole machine can freely swivel with
the wind (Traditional designs are driven to face the wind, then locked in place).
Predicting, detecting and preventing disasters – like rapidly shifting winds that
swing a rotor upwind and send its flexible blades into the tower – are control challenges even with the best design. ”If you don't gel that right, the machine can literally beat itself to death“, says Ken Deering, Wind Turbine’s vice president of engineering.
Two years ago, when Wind Turbine's prototype was erected at Rocky Flats,
there were worries that this machine, too, would beat itself to death. Thresher says
some of his staff feared that the machine, like its 1980s predecessors, would not
long escape the scrap heap. Today, despite some minor setbacks, those doubts are
fading.
Emboldened by its early success, Wind Turbine has installed, near Lancaster, CA, a second prototype, with a larger, 48-meter blade span. By the end of this
year, the company expects to boost blade length on this machine to 60 meters – full
commercial size. What’s more, this new prototype has a thinner tower, aimed at
reducing the noisy thump- known as a ”wind shadow“ – that can occur each tune a
blade whips through the area of turbulent air behind the tower. And with its lighter
weight, the turbine can be mounted atop higher towers, inching up to faster winds.
Becalmed
Whatever the advances in technology, however, the wind power industry
still faces significant hurdles, starting with uncertain political support in the United
States. In Europe, wind power is already a relatively easy sell. But in the United
States, wind developers rely on federal tax credits to make a profit. These vital
credits face chronic opposition from powerful oil and coat lobbies and often lapse.
The wind power industry raced to plug in its turbines before these credits expired
at the end of last year, then went dormant for the three months it took the U.S Con28
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
gress to renew them. Congress extended the credits through the end of next year,
initiating what is likely to be yet another start-and-stop development cycle.
A second obstacle to broad adoption is the wind itself. It may be free and
widely accessible, but it is also frustratingly inconsistent. Just ask any sailor. And
this fickleness translates into intermittent power production. The more turbines get
built, the more their intermittency will complicate the planning and management of
large flows of power across regional and national power grids. Indeed, in west
Texas, a recent boom, in wind turbine construction is straining the region's transmission lines – and also producing power out of sync with local needs: wind blows
during coo) nights and stalls on hot days when people most need electricity.
Texas utilities are patching the problems by expanding transmission lines.
But to really capture the value of wind power on a large scale, new approaches are
needed to storing wind power when it's produced and releasing it when needed.
The Electric Power Research Institute, a utility- funded R&D consortium in Palo
Alto, CA, is conducting research on how to make better one-day-ahead wind predictions. More important, it is exploring ways to store energy when the wind is
blowing ”We need to think about operating an electrical system rather than just focusing on the wind turbines,“ says Chuck McGowin, manager for wind power
technology at the institute. Storage facilities "would allow us to use what we have
more efficiently, improve the value of it."
In the northwest United Slates, one storage option being developed by the
Portland, OR-based Bonneville Power Administration balances wind power with
hydroelectric power. The idea is simple when the wind is blowing, don't let the water pass through the hydroelectric turbines; on calm days, open up the gates/ And
the Tennessee Valley Authority is even experimenting with storing energy in giant
fuel cells, a pilot plant is under construction in Mississippi.
Wind power faces plenty of obstacles, but there's more reason than ever: to
believe these obstacles will be overcome. Worries over the environmental effects
of burning fossil fuels and political concerns about an overdependence on petroleum are spurring a boom in wind turbine construction. But it is advances in technology itself, created by continued strong research efforts, that could provide the
most critical impetus for increased use of wind power.
At Rocky Flats, four rows of research turbines – a total of a dozen machines
ranging from 400-watt battery chargers to gnd-ready 600-kilowatt machines –
share a boulder-strewn 115-hectare plain. With the Rocky Mountains as a backdrop, their blades whip against the breezes blowing in from F.I Dorado Canyon to
the west. At least, they do much of the time. ”We have a lot of calm days, in the
summer in particular, and for a testing site it's good to have a mix,“ Thresher says.
Calm days may be good for wind turbine research, but they're still among
the biggest concerns haunting wind turbine commercialization. While no technology can make the wind blow, lower-cost, reliable technologies appear ready to take
on its fickleness. And that could mean a wind turbine will soon sprout atop a
breezy hill near you.
29
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
4. What’s the Point? Show your understanding of the reading. Based
on the reading, choose the best answer to complete these sentences:
1. The new wind turbine being tested at Rocky Plats looks like
a) a normal wind turbine
b) a football field
c) a jet airplane turbine
2. Since 1980, wind turbines have become four times
a) more efficient
b) less expensive
c) smaller
3. The most important innovation of the new wind turbine is
a) flexible, hinged blades that face away from the wind
b) 2 blades instead of the traditional 3
c) greater height than that of existing turbines
4. According to the article, the new turbines would cost less because of
a) cheaper materials
b) lower weight
с) lower manufacturing cost
5. Early light-weight wind turbines
a) were successful in Denmark
b) were used offshore
c) all failed
6.The new wind turbine prototype was designed by
a) the Unites States Department of Energy
b) the National Wind Technology Center, a government agency
c) Wind Turbine, a company in Bellevue, Washington
7. Early American designs failed because they were
a) too simple
b) too high-tech
c) too expensive
8. Danish designs were successful because the wind turbines were
a) supported by strong, heavy structures
b) designed using advanced aerodynamics
c) constructed from new materials
9. Two important technological advances that made modern turbine designs possible are
a) power electronics devices and computer modeling
b) computer modeling and weather forecasting
c) weather forecasting and manufacturing
10. Since the early 1980s, the power production of a single wind turbine has
a) not increased significantly
b) increased four times
c) increased 40 times
30
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
11. The new wind turbine could be installed on a higher tower than before, and
could thus reach faster winds, because the tower would
a) be thicker and, therefore, stronger
b) be made of new stronger materials
c) support a lighter turbine
12. For wind power to become more widely accepted and used, it will be necessary.
a) to store wind energy; b) to replace hydroelectric power plants;
c) to build all wind turbines off shore.
5. Complete the sentences below based on the article you just read. To
complete a sentence, sometimes you may need a single word and sometimes a
phrase. You may use your own words o r words from the text:
1. According to the chart in the article, the number of countries that are «major players» in wind power is…
2. An important drawback (negative side) of wind power is…
3. When this article was written, the largest wind power plant was in…
4. Wind turbines must be very large in order to…
5. In the United Stales, the most abundant and least expensive form of
energy for producing electricly is…
6. In Europe, fossil fuels ore very cosily because of…, …
7. A commercial wind-turbine machine built by Wind Turbine Company
will have a combined blade length of…
8. A power-plant wind turbine can produce as much power as…kilowatts.
6. Understanding words and phrases. Choose one of the words to fill in
the blank in each sentence. You may have to change the form of the word to
fit the sentence:
breakthrough
intermittent
synchronization
conventional
in sync; out of sync
unequivocally
crucial
prone
universal
departure
to shift
to weather
to envision
1. People's tastes for different kinds of food vary from culture to culture,
but their pleasure in eating is…
2. Tom woke up many times during the night and felt tired the next day because of his…sleep.
3. Ten years ago, a great fire destroyed most of the family's farm, but
they…this catastrophe and are still running the farm today.
4. When Diane heard her name mentioned by her colleagues, she her attention from her work to their conversation…
5. Gandhi's peaceful protest against the government of Great Britain was
a …from the more violent rebellions against ruling regimes.
31
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
6. Katie was poor and had a difficult life, but she worked very hard and…a
brighter future for her two children.
7. After the dog lost one of its legs in an accident, it was…to falling down if
it ran too fast.
8. Helen's office clock, wristwatch, and computer clock are all…so she is
never sure of the correct time.
9. For a while, the factory workers weren't sure whether or not they
would lose their jobs. But, in a recent announcement, the company president
stated…that the factory would shut down in six months and all employees would
be laid off.
10. For a psychologist, the ability to listen is…
11. The discovery of antibiotics was a major…in treating infections.
12. For our home movie, we recorded the action on a videotape and the
sound on an audiotape. When we showed the movie, we had to…the two tapes to
match the action with the sound.
Text D History of Electrical Engineering
1. Read the text:
Electrical engineering deals with the study and application of electricity,
electronics and electromagrictism. The field first became an identifiable occupation in the late nineteenth century with the commercialization of the electric telegraph and electrical power supply. The field now covers a range of sub-disciplines
including those that deal with power, optoelectronics, digital electronics, analog
electronics, artificial intelligence, control systems, electronics, signal processing
and telecommunications.
The term electrical engineering may or may not encompass electronic engineering. Where a distinction is made, electrical engineering is considered to deal
with the problems associated with large-scale electrical systems such as power
transmission and motor control, whereas electronic engineering deals with the
study of small-scale electronic systems including computers and integrated circuits. Another way of looking at the distinction is that electrical engineers arc
usually concerned with using electricity to transmit energy, while electronics engineers are concerned with using electricity to transmit information.
Early developments
Electricity has been a subject of scientific interest since ai least the 17th century, but it was not until the 19th century that research into the subject started to
intensify. Notable developments in this century include the work of George Ohm,
who in 1827 quantified the relationship between the electric current and potential
difference in a conductor, Michael Faraday, the discoverer of electromagnetic induction in 1831, and James Clerk Maxwell, who in 1873 published a unified
theory of electricity and magnetism in his treatise on Electricity and Magnetism.
During these years, the study of electricity was largely considered to be a
32
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
subfield of physics. It was not until the late 19th century that universities started to
offer degrees in electrical engineering. The Darmstadt University of Technology
founded the first chair and the first faculty of electrical engineering worldwide in
1882. In 1883 Darmstadt University of Technology and Cornell University introduced the world's first courses of study in electrical engineering and in 1885 the
University College in London founded the first chair of electrical engineering in
the United Kingdom. The University of Missouri subsequently established the first
department of electrical engineering in the United States in 1886.
During this period, the work concerning electrical engineering increased
dramatically. In 1882, Edison switched on the world's first large-scale electrical
supply network that provided 110 volts direct current to fifty-nine customers in
lower Manhattan. In 1887, Nikola Tesla filed a number of patents related to a
competing form of power distribution known as alternating current. In the following years a bitter rivalry between Tesla and Edison, known as the "War of Currents", took place over the preferred method of distribution. AС eventually replaced DC for generation and power distribution, enormously extending the range
and improving the safety and efficiency of power distribution.
The efforts of the two did much to further electrical engineering-Testa's
work on induction motors and polyphase systems influenced the field for years to
come, while Edison's work on telegraphy and his development of the stock ticker
proved lucrative for his company, which ultimately became General Electric.
However, by the end of the 19th century, other key figures in the progress of electrical engineering were beginning to emerge.
Modern developments (Emergence of radio and electronics)
During the development of radio, many scientists and inventors contributed to
radio technology and electronics. In his classic UHF experiments of 1888, Hcinrich
Herti transmitted (via a spark-gap transmitter) and detected radio waves using electrical equipment. In 1895, Nikola Tesla was able to detect signals from the transmissions of his New York lab at West Point (a distance of 80 4 km). In 1897, Karl Ferdinand Braun introduced the cathode ray tube as part of an oscilloscope; a crucial
enabling technology for electronic television John Fleming invented the first radio
tube, the diode, in 1904. Two years later, Robert von Lieben and Lee Dc Forest independently developed the amplifier tube, called the triode In 1920 Albert.
Hull developed the magnetron which would eventually lead to the development of the microwave oven in 1946 by Percy Spencer. In 1934 the British military
began to make strides towards radar (which also uses the magnetron), under the direction of Dr Wimperis culminating in the operation of the first radar station at
Bawdsey in August 1936.
In 1941 Konrad Zuse presented the Z3, the world's first fully functional and
programmable computer. In 1946 the ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and
Computer) of John Presper Eckert and John Mauchly followed, beginning the
computing era. The arithmetic performance of these machines allowed engineers to
develop completely new technologies and achieve new objectives, including the
Apollo missions and the NASA moon landing.
33
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
The invention of the transistor in 1947 by William B. Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain opened the door for more compact devices and led to the
development of the integrated circuit in 1958 by Jack Kilby and independently in
1959 by Robert Noyce. In 1968 Marcian Hoff invented the first microprocessor at
Intel and thus ignited the development of the personal computer. The first realization of the microprocessor was the Intel 4004, a 4-bit processor developed in 1971,
but only in 1973 did the Intel 8080, an 8-bit processor, make the building of the
first personal computer, the Altair 8800, possible.
2. Expressions to be memorized:
electrical equipment
microwave oven
integrated circuit
occupation
power supply
artificial
electric current
conductor
electromagnetic induction
electrical supply network
direct current
distribution
alternating current
efficiency
induction motor
3. Practice the pronunciation: electrical engineering, discipline, electricity,
electronics electromagnetism, commercialization, optoelectronics, processing,
whereas, transmit, scientific, Missouri, subsequently, patent, enormously, telegraphy, ultimately, technology, experiments, oscilloscope, crucial, diode, triode, radar,
microprocessor, via.
4. Look up the following words and word combinations in the
dictionary: spark-gap transmitter, cathode ray tube, amplifier lube, magnetron, ignite, quantify, rivalry, identifiable, analog, electronics, encompass, large-scale, distinction, notable, unify, treatise, customer, compete, range, polyphase systems,
stock ticker, lucrative, emerge, culminate.
5. Give synonyms to the following words: burn, measure, competition, include, big, difference, important, client, finish, distance, find out, job.
6. Translate word combinations from English into Russian: to generate
electricity, to conduct electricity, static electricity, electricity flows, processing in34
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
dustry, data processing, food processing industry, picture telegraphy, wireless telegraphy, to apply (employ) technology, state-of-the-art technology, crucial point,
crucial game, to carry out an experiment, tunnel triode, early-warning radar, on a
large scale, draw (make) a distinction, biggest.
7. Translate sentences:
1. Scientists could not explain why the gas had suddenly ignited.
2 The questionnaire is intended to quantify consumer's requirements for
shopping malls.
3. There is often rivalry between brothers and sisters to do better at school.
4. The Hindu religion encompasses many widely different forms of worship.
5. Large-scale development has given new life to the inner city.
6 Blood samples can provide a clear distinction between the two forms of
the disease.
7. The creation of the UN was, perhaps, the most notable achievement of the
th
20 century.
8 The barman was serving the last customer.
9. Ford has launched a big new sales campaign in an effort to bring in new
consumers.
10. The phone lias a built-in transmitter with a range of about 50 kilometers.
11. More details of the plan emerged at yesterday meeting.
8. Answer the questions:
1. What is electrical engineering? Is it a discipline now?
2. What does this discipline deal with?
3. What sub-disciplines does the field cover now?
4. What is the difference between electrical and electronic engineering?
5. Name the notable developments of the 19 century?
6. What is known as the "War of Currents"?
7. Which scientists and inventors contributed to radio technology and electronics at the end of the 19th century?
8. What inventions were made in the 20th century?
9. Speak about the outstanding scientists who influenced the development of electrical engineering. Make presentations about them. Use the information from Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main Page) and IEEE
Virtual Museum (http://www.ieee-virtual-museum.org)
George Ohm
Michael Faraday
James Clerk Maxwell
Edison.
Nicola Tesla
Heinrich Hertz
35
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
UNIT 4 RUSSIAN ENERGY POLICY
Text A Energy Policy of Russia
The Energy policy of Russia is contained in an Energy Strategy document,
which sets out policy for the period up to 2020. In 2000 the Russian government
approved the main provisions of the Russian energy strategy to 2020, and in 2003
the new Russian energy strategy was confirmed by the government. The Energy
Strategy document outlines several main priorities: an increase in energy efficiency,
reducing impact on the environment, sustainable development, energy development and technological development, as well as improved effectiveness and competitiveness.
Russia, one of the world's two energy superpowers, is rich in natural energy
resources. It has the largest known natural gas reserves of any state on earth, along
with the second largest coal reserves, and the eighth largest oil reserves. Russia is
the world's fourth largest electricity producer after the USA, China, and Japan.
Russia is the world’s leading net energy exporter and a major supplier to the European Union.
Renewable energy in Russia is largely undeveloped although there is considerable potential for renewable energy use. Geothermal energy, which is used for
heating and electricity production in some regions of the Northern Caucasus and
the Far East, is the most developed renewable energy source in Russia.
On July 2008 Russia’s president signed a law allowing the government to allocate strategic oil and gas deposits on the continental shelf without an auction
procedure.
1. Complete the sentences:
1. Geothermal energy, which is used for heating and electricity production in
some regions of the Northern Caucasus and …
2. In 2000 the Russian government approved the main provisions of the Russian energy strategy to 2020, and in 2003 …
3. On July 2008 Russia's president signed a law allowing the government to allocate strategic oil and …
4. Renewable energy in Russia is largely undeveloped although there is considerable …
5. Russia is the world's fourth largest electricity producer after the …
6. Russia is the world’s leading net energy exporter and a major …
7. Russia, one of the world's two energy superpowers, is rich in …
8. It has the largest known natural gas reserves of any state on earth, along with
the second …
9. The Energy Strategy document outlines several main priorities: an increase
in energy efficiency, reducing impact on the …
36
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
2. Answer the questions:
1. Renewable energy in Russia is largely developed although there is considerable potential for renewable energy use, isn’t it?
2. The Energy Strategy document outlines several main priorities: an increase
in energy efficiency, reducing impact on the environment, sustainable development,
energy development and technological development, as well as improved effectiveness and competitiveness, doesn’t it?
3. The USA have the largest known natural gas reserves of any state on earth,
along with the second largest coal reserves, and the eighth largest oil reserves,
haven't they?
4. What is rich in natural energy resources?
5. What is used for heating and electricity production in some regions of the
Northern Caucasus and the Far East?
6. When did the Russian government approve the main provisions of the Russian energy strategy to 2020?
Text B Overview
The idea of a Russian national energy policy was approved by the government of Russia in 1992. At the same time government decided to develop the
Energy Strategy of Russia. For this purpose the Interagency Commission was established.
In December 1994, the Energy Strategy of Russia (Major Provisions) was
approved by the government, followed by the presidential decree from 7 May 1995
confirming the first post-Soviet Russian energy strategy On the Main Directions of
Energy Policy and Restructuring of the Fuel and Energy Industry of the Russian
Federation for the Period up to the Year 2010, and the governmental decision from
the 13 October 1995 approving the Main provisions for the Energy Strategy of the
Russian Federation.
The strategy was changed under the presidency of Vladimir Putin. On 23
November 2000, the Russian government approved main provisions of the Russian
energy strategy to 2020. On 28 May 2002, the Russian Ministry of Energy gave an
elaboration on the main provisions. Based on these documents, the new Russian
energy strategy up to 2020 was approved on 23 May 2003 and confirmed by the
government on 28 August 2003.
The main objective of Russian energy strategy is defined to be the determination of ways of reaching a better quality of fuel and energy mix and enhancing
the competitive ability of Russian energy production and services in the world
market. For this purpose the long-term energy policy should concentrate on energy
safety, energy effectiveness, budget effectiveness and ecological energy security.
The energy strategy document defines the main priority of Russian energy
strategy as an increase in energy efficiency (meaning decreasing of energy intensity in production and energy supply expenditures), reducing impact on the envi37
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
ronment, sustainable development, energy development and technological development, as well as an improvement of effectiveness and competitiveness.
1. Answer the questions:
How does the energy strategy document define the main priority of Russian
energy strategy?
How is defined the main objective of Russian energy strategy?
In December 2004, the Energy Strategy of Russia (Major Provisions) was
approved by the government, wasn’t it?
What did the Russian Ministry of Energy give On 28 May 2002?
What should the long-term energy policy concentrate on?
When was the idea of a Russian national energy policy approved by the government of Russia?
2. Agree or disagree with the sentences:
1. The new Russian energy strategy up to 2020 was approved on 23 May 2002
and confirmed by the government on 28 August 2002.
2. For this purpose the short-term energy policy should concentrate on energy
safety, energy effectiveness, budget effectiveness and ecological energy security.
3. In December 1994, the Energy Strategy of Russia (Major Provisions) was
approved by the government, followed by the presidential decree from 7 May 1995.
4. On 23 November 2000, the Russian government approved main provisions
of the Russian energy strategy to 2020.
5. On 28 May 2002, the Russian Ministry of Energy gave an elaboration on the
main provisions.
6. The energy strategy document defines the main priority of Russian energy
strategy as an decrease in energy efficiency, reducing impact on the environment,
sustainable development, energy development and technological development, as
well as an improvement of effectiveness and competitiveness.
7. The main objective of Russian energy strategy is defined to be the determination of ways of reaching a better quality of fuel and energy mix and enhancing
the competitive ability of Russian energy production and services in the world
market.
8. The strategy was not changed under the presidency of Vladimir Putin.
Text C Primary energy sources
Russia is rich in energy resources. Russia has the largest known natural gas
reserves of any state on earth, along with the second largest coal reserves, and the
eighth largest oil reserves. This is 32% of world proven natural gas reserves (23%
of the probable reserves), 12% of the proven oil reserves (42% of the probable re38
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
serves), 10% of the explored coal reserves (14% of the estimated reserves) and 8%
of the proven uranium reserves.
Natural gas. In recent years Russia has identified the gas sector as being of
key strategic importance. The share of natural gas as a primary energy source is
remarkably high compared to the rest of world. Russia has the world biggest natural gas reserves, mainly owned and operated by the Russian monopoly Gazprom,
which produces 94% of Russia's natural gas production. In global context Gazprom
holds 25% of the world's known gas reserves and produces of 16% of global output.
In 2006, Russia was the world's biggest natural gas producer with 22.0% of global
natural gas production and also the biggest exporter with 22.9% of global natural
gas export.
Gazprom has a monopoly for the natural gas pipelines and has exclusive right
to export natural gas, granted by the Federal Law "On Gas Export", which came into
force on 20 July 2006. Gazprom also has control over all gas pipelines leading out of
Central Asia, and thus controls their access to the European market. Russia has used
Central Asia's gas, primarily that from Turkmenistan, on occasions where it has
found itself unable to meet all its delivery obligations from its own production. Such
circumstances in 2000 led to Gazprom allowing Turkmenistan to use its pipelines to
supply gas to the Russian domestic market leaving Gazprom free to fulfil its obligations towards European customers. Other main natural gas producers in Russia are
gas companies Novatek, Itera, Northgas and Rospan, and vertically integrated oil
companies Surgutneftegaz, TNK-BP, Rosneft and LUKOIL.
The main export markets of Russian natural gas are the European Union and
the CIS. Russia supplies a quarter of the EU gas consumption, mainly via transit
trough Ukraine (Soyuz, Brotherhood) and Belarus (Yamal-Europe pipeline). The
main importers are Germany (where links were developed as a result of Germany's
Ostpolitik during the 1970s[, and also Ukraine, Belarus, Italy, Turkey, France and
Hungary.
Oil. Russia is the largest oil producer in the non-OPEC countries, and
second biggest in the world after Saudi Arabia, which it overtakes as the world's
number one from time to time. In 2006, Russia contributed 12.1 % of global oil
production and 11.6 % of global oil exports. In June 2006, Russian crude oil and
condensate production reached the post-Soviet maximum of 9.7 million barrels per
day (b/d), exceeding production in 2000 by 3.2 million b/d. Russian export consists
more than 5 million b/d of oil and nearly 2 million b/d of refined products, which
go mainly to the European market. The domestic demand in 2005 was 2.6 million
b/d on average. Russia is also the main transit country for oil from Kazakhstan.
The biggest Russian oil company is Rosneft followed by Lukoil, TNK-BP, Surgutneftegaz, Gazprom Neft and Tatneft. All oil trunk pipelines (except the Caspian
Pipeline Consortium) are owned and operated by the state-owned monopoly
Transneft; oil products pipelines are owned and operated by its subsidiary Transnefteproduct. Currently, Transneft is constructing the Eastern Siberia – Pacific
39
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Ocean oil pipeline that would bring Russian oil to the Asian-Pacific markets
(China, Japan, Korea).
As the Arctic ice cap shrinks due to global warming, the prospect of oil exploration in the Arctic Ocean is thought to be an increasing possibility. On December 20, 2001, Russia submitted documents to the UN Commission on the Limits of
the Continental Shelf claiming expanded limits to Russian continental shelf beyond
the previous 200 mile zone within the Russian Arctic sector.[18] In 2002 the UN
Commission recommended that Russia should carry out additional research, which
commenced in 2007. It is thought that the area may contain 10bn tonnes of gas and
oil deposits.
Coal. Russia has the world’s second largest coal reserves, with 157 billion
tonnes of reserves. Russian coal reserves are widely dispersed. The principal hard
coal deposits are located in the Pechora and Kuznetsk basins. The Kansk-Achinsk
basin contains huge deposits of brown coal. The Siberian Lena and Tunguska basins constitute largely unexplored resources, the commercial exploitation of which
would probably be difficult.
Non-conventional oil
Oil shale. Russia owns the biggest oil shale reserves in Europe equal to
35.47 billion tonnes of shale oil. More than 80 oil shale deposits have been identified. Main deposits are located in the Volga-Petchyorsk province and the Baltic
Basin. Extraction of the deposits in the Volga-Petchyorsk province began in the
1930s, but was abandoned due to environmental problems. Main oil shale industry
was concentrated on the Baltic Basin in Slantsy, but at the end of the 1990s the
Slantsy oil shale processing plant and oil shale-fired power station were converted
to use traditional hydrocarbons and mining activities ceased before 2005. In Syzran
a small processing plant continues to operate.
Natural bitumen and extra-heavy oil. Small extra-heavy oil reserves have
been identified in the Volga-Urals and North Caucasus-Mangyshlak basins. Large
deposits of natural bitumen are located in Eastern Siberia in the Lena-Tunguska
basin. Other bitumen deposits are located in the Timan-Pechora and Volga-Urals
Basins, and in Tatarstan. In September 2007, Tatneft and Royal Dutch Shell announced a strategic partnership to develop heavy crude oil production in Tatarstan,
where Tatneft already has pilot production of bitumen.
Uranium. Uranium exploration and development activities have been largely concentrated on three east-of-Urals uranium districts (Transural, West Siberia
and Vitim). The most important uranium producing area has been the Streltsovsky
region near Krasnokamensk in the Chitinskaya Oblast. In 2005, the Russian Federation was the world’s fourth largest producer of uranium, accounting for 8.2% of
global output.
1. Explain the meaning of the following in English: natural gas reserves,
in recent years, key strategic importance, a primary energy source, remarkably
high, Russian monopoly, the biggest exporter, exclusive right, the Russian domes40
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
tic market, the main transit country, global warming, carry out additional research,
deposits are located, the commercial exploitation, global output.
2. Match two parts of the sentences:
Russia is the largest oil producer in the
the Pechora and Kuznetsk basins.
non-OPEC countries, and second biggest in the world
In 2006, Russia contributed 12.1 % of
would bring Russian oil to the Asianglobal oil production
Pacific markets.
The principal hard coal deposits are lo- exploitation of which would probably be
cated in
difficult.
Russian export consists more than and 11.6 % of global oil exports.
5 million b/d of oil and nearly 2 million
b/d of refined
Russia is also the main
Transneft; oil products pipelines are
owned and operated by its subsidiary
Transnefteproduct.
The biggest Russian oil company is
products, which go mainly to the EuroRosneft followed by Lukoil,
pean market.
Currently, Transneft is constructing the after Saudi Arabia, which it overtakes as
Eastern Siberia – Pacific Ocean oil pipe- the world's number one from time to
line that
time.
The Siberian Lena and Tunguska basins TNK-BP, Surgutneftegaz, Gazprom
constitute unexplored resources, the
Neft and Tatneft.
commercial
All oil trunk pipelines are owned and
transit country for oil from Kazakhstan.
operated by the state-owned monopoly
3. Answer the questions:
1. As the Arctic ice cap shrinks due to global warming, the prospect of oil exploration in the Arctic Ocean is thought to be an decreasing possibility, isn’t it?
2. Has Gazprom also control over all gas pipelines leading out of Central Asia,
and thus controls their access to the European market?
3. What has Gazprom a monopoly for?
4. When did Russia contribute 12.1 % of global oil production and 11.6 % of
global oil exports?
5. Where are Main deposits located?
6. When did Russia submit documents to the UN Commission on the Limits of
the Continental Shelf claiming expanded limits to Russian continental shelf beyond
the previous 200 mile zone within the Russian Arctic sector?
7. Has Russia the largest known natural gas reserves of any state on earth,
along with the second largest coal reserves, and the eighth largest oil reserves?
41
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
8. Has Russia the world’s second or third largest coal reserve, with 157 billion
tonnes of reserves?
9. Russia is rich in not energy resources, is it?
10. What does Russia own in Europe?
11. The share of natural gas as a primary energy source is remarkably low compared to the rest of world, isn’t it?
Text D Electricity production
Russia is the world's fourth largest electricity producer after the USA, China,
and Japan. In 2005, Russia produced 951 TWh and exported 23 TWh of electricity.
Roughly 63% of Russia's electricity is generated by thermal plants, 21% by hydropower and 16% comes from nuclear reactors. Russia exports electricity to the CIS
countries, Latvia, Lithuania, China, Poland, Turkey and Finland.
The Russian energy market is dominated by the Unified Energy System.
While production and sale will be opened up to competition, transmission and distribution remain under state control.
In recent years there were several blackouts, notably the 2005 Moscow power
blackouts.
Hydropower
Gross theoretical potential of the Russian hydro resource base is 2,295 TWh
per year, of which 852 TWh is regarded as economically feasible. Most of this potential is located in Siberia and the Far East. Hydro generation (including pumpedstorage output) in 2005 was 175 TWh, which represents 5.8% of world hydroelectricity generation. Russia ranks as the fifth largest hydroelectricity producer in the
world. At the end of 2005 installed hydroelectric generating capacity was 45.7 GW.
Nuclear energy
In 2005 nuclear energy supply in Russia amounted to 149 TWh, which is
15.7 % of total Russian electricity output and 5.4 % of global nuclear energy production. The total installed capacity of nuclear reactors is 21,244MW. There are
plans to increase the number of commercial reactors from thirty one to fifty nine.
From 2001 all Russian civil reactors were operated by Energoatom. On 19 January
2007 Russian Parliament adopted legislation which created Atomenergoprom - a
holding company for all Russian civil nuclear industry, including Energoatom, the
nuclear fuel producer and supplier TVEL, the uranium trader Tekhsnabexport (Tenex) and nuclear facilities constructor Atomstroyexport.
Renewable energy
Renewable energy in Russia is largely undeveloped although Russia has
many potential renewable energy resources.
Geothermal energy
Geothermal energy, which is used for heating and electricity production in
some regions of the Northern Caucasus and the Far East, is the most developed renewable energy source in Russia. Geothermal resources have been identified in the
42
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Northern Caucasus, Western Siberia, Lake Baikal, and in Kamchatka and the Kuril
Islands. In 1966 a 4 MWe single-flash plant was commissioned at Pauzhetka (currently 11 MWe) followed by a 12 MWe geothermal power plant at Verkhne Mutnovsky, and 50 MWe Mutnovsky geothermal power plant. At the end of 2005 installed capacity for direct use amounted to more than 307 MWt.
Peat
Principal peat deposits are located in the north-western parts of Russia, in West Siberia, near the western coast of Kamchatka and in several other far-eastern regions.
The Siberian peat lands account for nearly 75 % of Russia's total reserves of
186 billion tones, second only to Canada’s. Approximately 5 % of exploitable peat
(1.5 million tones per annum) is used for fuel production. Although peat was used
as industrial fuel for power generation in Russia for a long period, its share has
been in long-term decline, and since 1980 has amounted to less than 1 %.
Solar energy
It has been estimated that Russia's gross potential for solar energy is
2.3 trillion tce. The regions with the best solar radiation potential are the North
Caucasus, the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea areas, and southern parts of Siberia
and the Far East. This potential is largely unused, although the possibilities for offgrid solar energy or hybrid applications in remote areas are huge. However, the
construction of a single solar power plant Kislovodskaya SPP (1.5 MW) has been
delayed.
Wind energy
Russia has high quality wind resources on the Pacific and Arctic coasts and
in vast steppe and mountain areas. Large-scale wind energy systems are suitable in
Siberia and the Far East (east of Sakhalin Island, the south of Kamchatka, the Chukotka Peninsula, Vladivostok), the steppes along the Volga river, the northern
Caucasus steppes and mountains and on the Kola Peninsula, where power infrastructure and major industrial consumers are in place. At the end of 2006, total installed wind capacity was 15 MW. Major wind power stations operate at Kalmytskaya (2 MW), Zapolyarnaya (1.5 MW), Kulikovskaya (5.1 MW), Tyupkildi
(2.2 MW) and Observation Cape (2.5 MW). Feasibility studies are being carried
out on the Kaliningradskaya (50 MW) and the Leningradskaya (75 MW) wind
farms. There are about 100 MW of wind projects in Kalmykia and in Krasnodar
Krai.
Tidal energy
A small pilot tidal power plant with a capacity of 400 kW was constructed at
Kislaya Guba near Murmansk in 1968. In 2007, Gidro OGK, a subsidiary of the
Unified Energy System (UES) began the installation of a 1.5 MW experimental orthogonal turbine at Kislaya Guba. If it proves successful, UES plans to continue
with Mezen Bay (15,000 MW) and Tugur Bay (7,980 MW) projects.
43
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
1. Complete the sentences:
1. A small pilot tidal power plant with a capacity of …
2. At the end of 2005 installed capacity for direct use …
3. Hydro generation (including pumped-storage output) in 2005 was 175 TWh,
which represents 5.8% of …
4. In 2005 nuclear energy supply in Russia amounted to 149 TWh, which is
15.7 % of total …
5. In 2007, Gidro OGK, a subsidiary of the Unified Energy System (UES) began …
6. If it proves successful, UES plans to continue with Mezen Bay …
7. It has been estimated that Russia's gross potential for solar …
8. Major wind power stations operate at Kalmytskaya (2 MW), Zapolyarnaya
…
9. Principal peat deposits are located in the north-western parts of Russia, in
West Siberia, near the western coast …
10. Renewable energy in Russia is largely undeveloped ….
11. Russia ranks as the fifth largest hydroelectricity …
12. The total installed capacity of …
13. There are plans to increase the number of commercial …
2. Agree or disagree with the sentences:
1. Although peat was used as industrial fuel for power generation in Russia for
a long period, its share has been in long-term decline, and since 1980 has
amounted to less than 10 %.
2. Geothermal energy, which is used for heating and electricity production in
some regions of the Northern Caucasus and the Far East, is the most developed renewable energy source in Russia.
3. Geothermal resources have been identified in the Northern Caucasus, Western Siberia, Lake Baikal, and in Kamchatka and the Kuril Islands.
4. In 2006 a 4 MWe single-flash plant was commissioned at Pauzhetka (currently 11 MWe) followed by a 12 MWe geothermal power plant at Verkhne Mutnovsky, and 50 MWe Mutnovsky geothermal power plant. At the end of 2005 installed capacity for direct use amounted to more than 307 MWt.
5. It has been estimated that Russia's gross potential for solar energy is
5.3 trillion tce.
6. Principal peat deposits are located in the north-western parts of Russia, in
West Siberia, near the western coast of Kamchatka and in several other far-eastern
regions.
7. Russia has high quality wind resources on the Pacific and Arctic coasts and
in vast steppe and mountain areas. Large-scale wind energy systems are suitable in
Siberia and the Far East (east of Sakhalin Island, the south of Kamchatka, the Chukotka Peninsula, and Vladivostok), the steppes along the Volga river, the northern
44
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Caucasus steppes and mountains and on the Kola Peninsula, where power infrastructure and major industrial consumers are in place.
8. The regions without the best solar radiation potential are the North Caucasus,
the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea areas, and southern parts of Siberia and the Far
East.
9. The Siberian peat lands account for nearly 75 % of Russia's total reserves of
186 billion tones, second only to Canada’s. Approximately 5 % of exploitable peat
is not used for fuel production.
10. This potential is largely used, although the possibilities for off-grid solar
energy or hybrid applications in remote areas are huge.
11. The construction of a single solar power plant Kislovodskaya SPP has been
delayed.
45
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
UNIT 5 ENERGY POLICY OF THE UNITED KINGDOM
Text A Overview
The 2007 White Paper: “Meeting the Energy Challenge” sets out the Government’s international and domestic energy strategy to address the long term
energy challenges faced by the UK, and to deliver 4 key policy goals:
To put the UK on a path to cut carbon dioxide emissions by some 60% by
about 2050, with real progress by 2020;
To maintain reliable energy supplies;
To promote competitive markets in the UK and beyond, helping to raise the
rate of sustainable economic growth and to improve productivity; and
To ensure that every home is adequately and affordably heated.
The scope of energy policy includes the production and distribution of electricity, transport fuel usage, and means of heating (significantly Natural Gas). The
policy recognises: "Energy is essential in almost every aspect of our lives and for
the success of our economy. We face two long-term energy challenges:
Tackling climate change by reducing carbon dioxide emissions both within
the UK and abroad; and
Ensuring secure, clean and affordable energy as we become increasingly dependent on imported fuel."
The policy also recognises that the UK will need around 30-35GW of new
electricity generation capacity over the next two decades as many of the UK’s current coal and nuclear power stations, built in the 1960s and 1970s, reach the end of
their lives and are set to close.
The 2006 Energy Review reintroduced the prospect of new nuclear power
stations in the UK. However, following a judicial review requested by Greenpeace,
on February 15, 2007 elements of the 2006 Energy Review were ruled 'seriously
flawed', and 'not merely inadequate but also misleading'. As a result, plans to build
a new generation of nuclear power plants were ruled illegal at that time. (See Nuclear power in the United Kingdom for details). In response, the Government ran
“The Future of Nuclear Power” consultation from May to October 2007. The Government’s response to the consultation conclusions, published in January 2008,
state “set against the challenges of climate change and security of supply, the evidence in support of new nuclear power stations is compelling.”
The January 2008 Energy Bill updates the legislative framework in the UK
to reflect their current policy towards the energy market and the challenges faced
on climate change and security of supply. Key elements of the bill address nuclear,
carbon capture and storage, renewables, and offshore gas and oil. A framework to
encourage investment in nuclear power within a new regulatory environment was
simultaneously published in the January 2008 Nuclear White Paper.
Though energy policy is an area reserved to the UK government under the
Scotland Act 1998 that established devolved government for Scotland, the Scottish
46
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Government has an energy policy for Scotland at variance with UK policy, and has
planning powers to enable it to put its policy priorities into effect.
1. Explain the meaning of the following in English: international and domestic energy strategy, sustainable economic growth, key elements, reliable energy
supplies, competitive markets, improve productivity, scope of energy policy, increasingly dependent on imported fuel, judicial review, were ruled illegal, consultation conclusions, legislative framework, current policy, energy market, regulatory environment.
2. Match two parts of the sentences:
The scope of energy policy includes the nuclear power plants were ruled illegal
production and distribution of
at that time.
Energy is essential in almost every
nuclear power plants were ruled illegal.
The Government’s response to the con- electricity, transport fuel usage, and
sultation conclusions
means of heating.
Energy Review reintroduced the pros- aspect of our lives
pect of
Tackling climate change by
carbon capture and storage, renewables,
and offshore gas and oil.
Plans to build a new generation of
energy policy for Scotland at variance
with UK policy
The Scottish Government has an,
was published in January 2008.
Key elements of the bill address nuclear, new nuclear power stations in the UK.
As a result, plans to build a new genera- reducing carbon dioxide emissions.
tion of
Text B 1980s Market Liberalisation
Under the Conservatives during the 1980s and 1990s, Government policy
was one of market liberalisation linked to the privatisation of state controlled energy companies and the dismantling of the Department of Energy.
As a consequence, Government no longer has the ability to directly control
the energy markets. Regulation is now carried out through the Office of Gas and
Electricity Markets (OFGEM), while energy policy is largely limited to influencing
the operation of the market. Such influence is exerted through taxation (such as
North Sea Oil Tax), subsidy (such as the Renewables Obligation), incentives,
planning controls, the underwriting of liabilities (such as those carried by the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority), grants, and funding for research.
An accomplishment of this liberalisation and privatisation has been a marked
decrease in energy intensity, the measure of energy consumed per unit of GDP
output. Another achievement has been substantial reduction of the population in
energy poverty. A third goal attained has been continuing its tradition of energy
47
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
supply reliability (measured as distribution and delivery on the electric and natural
gas grids); among European countries, the United Kingdom is second only to the
Netherlands in reliability features.
1. Agree or disagree with the sentences:
1. Among European countries, the United Kingdom is third only to the Netherlands and the USA in reliability features.
2. An accomplishment of this liberalisation and privatisation has been a
marked decrease in energy intensity.
3. Another achievement has been substantial reduction of the population in
energy poverty.
4. Government has the ability to directly control the energy markets.
5. Government policy was one of market liberalisation linked to the privatisation
of state controlled energy companies and the dismantling of the Department of Energy.
6. Regulation is not now carried out through the Office of Gas and Electricity
Markets.
7. Such influence is exerted through taxation, incentives, planning controls, the
underwriting of liabilities.
Text C Primary energy sources
Decommissioned Dounreay nuclear power complex.
Historically a country emphasising its coal, nuclear and off-shore natural gas
production, the United Kingdom is currently in transition to become a net energy
importer.
In the year 2007 the percentage of primary energy derived from major sources
was as follows:
 Oil: 38.0%
 Natural gas: 37.7%
 Coal: 16.7%
 Nuclear power: 5.8%
 Renewable: 1.8%.
48
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Coal
Coal usage may be expected to decline steadily because of eroding cost
advantages and pressure to reduce sulphur and carbon (carbon dioxide) emissions,
notwithstanding ongoing subsidy policies designed to retain jobs in the coal
mining industry. Future coal usage is highly dependent on legislative drivers on
emissions and the need to have security of supply. Whilst the costs of burning coal
with desulphurisation and carbon capture facilities is greatly increased, it is still
being actively considered as part of the UK energy strategy due to large domestic
reserves, higher price stability than natural gas and reduced capital expenditure and
construction time for plant compared to nuclear power.
The 2002 Energy Review concluded that the option of new investment in
clean coal technology (through carbon sequestration) needed to be kept open, and
that practical measures should be taken to do this.
Gas
During the 1980s and early 1990s, there was a massive expansion in gasfired generation capacity, known as the Dash for Gas. The rapidity of construction
of gas-fired plants (compared to coal-fired or nuclear plants) was especially
attractive due to the high interest rates of the period.
Natural gas looks set to take a smaller part in providing future UK energy
needs. Domestic production from the North Sea gas fields continues to lessen. And
despite investment to enhance pipelines and storage of imported natural gas
(Mostly from Norway) there is a reluctance to allow too great a reliance on Russia
and its gas exports for energy needs.
By the year 2021, North Sea oil and natural gas production is predicted to
slip 75 percent from 2005 levels to less than one million barrels per year. Oil and
coal reserves for all of Europe are among the most tenuous in the developed world:
for example, Europe's reserves to annual consumption ratio stands at 3.0,
perilously low by world standards.
Nuclear Power
Following the UK Government's January 2008 decision to support the
building of new nuclear power stations, EDF announced that it plans to open four
new plants in the UK by 2017. EON and Centrica have also shown interest in
building further plants. However, Scotland's First Minister Alex Salmond has said
there is "no chance" of more nuclear power stations being built in Scotland as the
Scottish Government is opposed to new nuclear power stations and has sufficient
powers to prevent any being built in Scotland. However, since the UK Parliament
holds supremacy, new legislation could be passed to bypass any Scottish objection.
Renewables
The UK Government's goal for renewable energy production is to produce
20% of electricity in the UK by the year 2020. The 2002 Energy Review set a
target of 10% to be in place by 2010/2011. The target was increased to 15% by
2015 and most recently the 2006 Energy Review further set a target of 20% by
2020.
49
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
For Scotland, the Scottish Executive has a target of generating 17% to 18%
of electricity from renewables by 2010, rising to 40% by 2020. Renewables located
in Scotland count towards both the Scottish target and to the overall target for the
UK.
1. Complete the sentences:
1. Coal usage may be expected to decline steadily because of eroding cost
advantages and pressure to reduce …
2. During the 1980s and early 1990s, there was a massive expansion in gasfired generation capacity, known …
3. For Scotland, the Scottish Executive has a target of generating 17% to 18%
of electricity …
4. Future coal usage is highly dependent on legislative drivers on …
5. Since the UK Parliament holds supremacy, new legislation could be passed
to …
6. Natural gas looks set to take a smaller part in providing future UK …
7. Renewables located in Scotland count towards both the Scottish target and
…
8. The 2002 Energy Review concluded that the option of new investment in
clean coal technology …
9. Whilst the costs of burning coal with desulphurisation and carbon capture
facilities is greatly increased, it is still being actively considered as part of …
2. Answer the questions:
1. Is there a reluctance to allow too great a reliance on Russia and its gas
exports for energy needs?
2. By the year 2025, North Sea oil and natural gas production is predicted to
slip 75 percent from 2005 levels to less than one million barrels per year, isn’t it?
3. Why may coal usage be expected to decline steadily?
4. What does continue to lessen?
5. When was there a massive expansion in gas-fired generation capacity,
known as the Dash for Gas?
6. Is future coal usage highly dependent on legislative drivers on emissions and
the need to have security of supply?
7. What part does natural gas look set to take in providing future UK energy
needs?
8. What reserves are for all of Europe among the most tenuous in the
developed world?
50
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
UNIT 6 WORLD RURAL ELECTRIFICATION
Text A Rural electrification
Rural electrification is the process of bringing electrical power to rural and
remote areas. Electricity is used not only for lighting and household purposes, but
it also allows for mechanization of many farming operations, such as threshing,
milking, and hoisting grain for storage; in areas facing labor shortages, this allows
for greater productivity at reduced cost. The most famous] such program was the
New Deal's Rural Electrification Administration in the United States, which
pioneered many of the themes still practiced in other countries. Worldwide more
than 1.6 billion people do not have access to electricity, of which 80 % live in rural
areas. In Sub Saharan Africa only 9 % of the rural population has access to
electricity.
Benefits
In impoverished and undeveloped areas, small amounts of electricity can
free large amounts of human time and labor. In the poorest areas, people carry
water and fuel by hand, their food storage may be limited, and their activity is
limited to daylight hours. Adding electric-powered wells for clean water can
prevent many water-borne diseases, e.g. dysentery, by reducing or eliminating
direct contact between people (hands) and the water supply. Refrigerators increase
the time that food can be stored, potentially reducing hunger, while evening
lighting can lengthen a community's daylight hours.
Drawbacks
Depending on the source, rural electrification (and electricity in general) can
bring problems as well as solutions. New power plants may be built, or existing
plant's generation capacity increased to meet the demands of the new [rural]
electrical users. A government may be inclined to use the cheapest generation
source, which might be the most polluting, and locate the power plant next
vulnerable minorities or rural areas. Many farmers, co-operatives and independent
organisations contest that the Rural Utility Service, which is responsible for
providing loans and subsidies for electric utilities who build in rural areas is
outdated and is inhibiting free-market competition. Over 99% of rural farms have
access to electricity, but many may benefit more from utility competition and
renewables.
Technology
One of the least expensive, most reliable, and best proven mains electricity
distribution systems for rural electrification is single wire earth return. This system
is widely used in countries such as Australia with very low population’s densities.
Also, there are some geographical requirements necessary for its use. There are
many instances where these two systems are used together in the same system to
serve remote and less remote rural populations. Since modern power distribution
51
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
networks can cheaply include optic fibres in the centre of one of the wires,
telephone and internet service may become available with rural electrification.
Locally generated renewable energy is an efficient technology, particularly
compared to electrification with diesel generators. Higher installations costs are
coupled with significantly lower running costs. Hybrid systems (renewables
combined with diesel generators) are a widely acknowledged technology for rural
electrification in developing countries.
1. Make up sentences with the following verbs: allow, reduce, pioneer
practice, limited, lengthen, built, increase, meet, incline, use.
2. Explain the meaning of the following words in English: expensive,
reliable, rural, widely, low, geographical requirements, instances, remote, modern,
power distribution, include.
3. Match two parts of the sentences:
A government may be inclined to use
a widely acknowledged technology for
the cheapest generation source, which
rural electrification in developing
might be
countries.
Adding electric-powered wells for clean access to electricity, of which 80 % live
water can prevent many water-borne
in rural areas.
diseases,
Hybrid systems are
by reducing or eliminating direct contact
between people (hands) and the water
supply.
Worldwide more than 1.6 billion people the most polluting, and locate the power
do not have
plant next vulnerable minorities or rural
areas.
Over 99% of rural farms have access to e.g. dysentery, by reducing or
electricity, but many
eliminating direct contact between
people and the water supply.
In Sub Saharan Africa only 9 % of the
with significantly lower running costs.
rural population
Adding electric-powered wells for clean has access to electricity.
water can prevent many water-borne
diseases, e.g. dysentery,
Higher installations costs are coupled
may benefit more from utility
competition and renewables.
4. Complete the sentences:
1. Rural electrification is the process of bringing electrical power to …
2. Electricity is used not only for lighting and household purposes, but it also
allows for mechanization of many farming operations, such as …
52
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
3. In impoverished and undeveloped areas, small amounts of electricity can
free large amounts of …
4. In the poorest areas, people carry water and fuel by hand, their food storage
may be limited, and their activity is …
5. New power plants may be built, or existing plant's generation capacity
increased to …
6. Many farmers, co-operatives and independent organisations contest that the
Rural Utility Service, which is responsible for providing loans and …
7. There are many instances where these two systems are used together in …
5. Answer the questions:
1. What is the process of bringing electrical power to rural and remote areas?
2. Electricity is used not only for lighting and household purposes, but it also
allows for mechanization of many farming operations, isn’t it?
3. In Sub Saharan Africa only 4 % of the rural population has access to
electricity, hasn’t it?
4. What can prevent many water-borne diseases?
5. What are the drawbacks of rural electrification
6. What is an efficient technology, particularly compared to electrification with
diesel generators?
6. Agree or disagree with the sentences:
1. Rural electrification is the process of bringing electrical power to rural and
remote areas.
2. The most famous such program was the New Deal's Rural Electrification
Administration in the United Kingdom, which pioneered many of the themes still
practiced in other countries.
3. Worldwide more than 1.9 billion people do not have access to electricity, of
which 90 % live in rural areas.
4. In Sub Saharan Africa only 9 % of the rural population has access to
electricity.
5. Adding electric-powered wells for clean water can prevent many waterborne diseases, e.g. dysentery, by reducing or eliminating direct contact between
people (hands) and the water supply.
6. Refrigerators increase the time that food can’t be stored, potentially reducing
hunger, while evening lighting can lengthen a community's daylight hours.
7. A government may be inclined to use the cheapest generation source, which
might not be the most polluting, and locate the power plant next vulnerable
minorities or rural areas.
8. Many farmers, co-operatives and independent organisations contest that the
Rural Utility Service, which is responsible for providing loans and subsidies for
electric utilities who build in rural areas is outdated and is inhibiting free-market
competition.
53
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
9. One of the most expensive, most reliable, and best proven mains electricity
distribution systems for rural electrification is single wire earth return.
Text B Continental and National initiatives
China
China launched the China Township Electrification Program in 2001 to
provide renewable electricity to 1,000 townships, one of the largest such programs
in the world. This is being followed by the China Village Electrification Program,
also using renewable energy, aimed at electrification of a further 3.5 million
households in 10,000 villages by 2010, to be followed by full rural electrification
by 2015.[1]
India
At least half of the population of India is in villages, and most of these villages receive less than eight hours of electricity per day.
The problem is not one of distribution, but of provision. Many people attempt to steal electric power. The electric company then responds with punitive
"tampering tariffs" that require payment for all the electricity that the fraudulent
connections and meters might have stolen. These very high tariffs are unaffordable,
resisted by all but the wealthiest users. The result is that the underfunded electric
power company reduces service to the amount of electricity it can afford to produce. The electric companies therefore also prefer to serve large institutional customers that pay their bills. Developments on cheap solar technology is considered
as a potential alternative that allows an electricity infrastructure comprising of a
network of local-grid clusters with distributed electricity generation. That could
allow bypassing, or at least relieving the need of installing expensive, and lossy,
long-distance centralised power delivery systems and yet bring cheap electricity to
the masses.
The government has proposed legislation to have village leaders operate local generators run from biomass (see links). Locally-controlled generation is preferable to distant generation because the fuel, billing and controls for the generator
will then be controlled by the villagers themselves, and they are thought more likely to come to an equitable arrangement among themselves. However, there is doubt
that villagers can run such an installation.
One proposal for such an installation would be to ferment the biomass, and
use the resulting gas to run a clean diesel engine producing about 500 kW. Directly
burning the biomass would require that it be dried from 50% water content to 1015%, and this uses energy. In contrast, fermenting biogases is well-established
technology, and produces fuel directly usable in a diesel engine. Also, since the
fuel is almost pure methane, the diesel's exhaust would itself be clean drinking water, and the heat of the exhaust could be used to distill more clean drinking water.
54
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
European Union
In Europe exists the Alliance for Rural Electrification (ARE), an
international non-profit organization founded in 2006. ARE promotes the use of
renewable energy in developing countries. ARE is partner of the United Nations
Global Compact and the European Union Sustainable Energy Campaign.
Ireland
During the 1930s most towns in Ireland were connected to the grid but the
outbreak of World War II in Europe lead to shortages of fuel and materials which
brought the process to a virtual halt until the early 1950s when the Rural
Electrification scheme gradually brought electric power to the countryside a
process that was completed on the mainland in 1973 (but it wasn't until 2003 that
the last of the inhabited offshore islands were fully connected). Currently the Rural
Electrification scheme continues but is primarily concerned with upgrading the
quality of the network (voltage fluctuations are still a problem in parts of Ireland particularly in rural areas) and making three phase supplies available to larger
farms and rural businesses requiring it.
United States
In 1892, Guy Beardslee, the original owner of Beardslee Castle, was paid
$40,000 to provide hydroelectric power to East Creek in New York. Before 1936, a
small but growing number of farms installed small wind-electric plants. These
generally used a 40V DC generator to charge batteries in the barn or the basement
of the farmhouse. This was enough to provide lighting, washing machines and
some limited well-pumping or refrigeration. Wind-electric plants were used mostly
on the Great Plains, which have usable winds on most days.
Of the 6.3 million farms in the United States in January 1925, only 3.2 million were receiving centralized electric services. The Rural Electrification Administration (REA) was created by executive order as an independent federal bureau in
1935, authorized by the United States Congress in the 1936 Rural Electrification
Act, and later in 1939, reorganized as a division of the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. It
was charged with administering loan programs for electrification and telephone
service in rural areas. Between 1935 and 1939 – or the first 4 ½ years after REA's
establishment, the number of farms using electric services more than doubled.
The REA undertook to provide farms with inexpensive electric lighting and
power. To implement those goals the administration made long-term, selfliquidating loans to state and local governments, to farmers' cooperatives, and to
nonprofit organizations; no loans were made directly to consumers. In 1949 the
REA was authorized to make loans for telephone improvements; in 1988, REA
was permitted to give interest-free loans for job creation and rural electric systems.
By the early 1970s about 98% of all farms in the United States had electric service,
a demonstration of REA's success. The administration was abolished in 1994 and
55
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
its functions assumed by the Rural Utilities Service. Also, the Tennessee Valley
Authority is an agency involved in rural electrification.
1. Explain the meaning of the following words in English: population, per
day, provision, attempt, to steal, tariffs, unaffordable, resist, users, result.
2. Match two parts of the sentences:
To implement those goals the adminispaid $40,000 to provide hydroelectric
tration made long-term,
power to East Creek in New York.
Wind-electric plants were used mostly
for electrification and telephone service
on the
in rural areas.
It was charged with administering loan
self-liquidating loans to state and local
programs
governments, to farmers' co-operatives.
In 1892, Guy Beardslee, the original
and some limited well-pumping or refriowner of Beardslee Castle, was
geration.
The administration was abolished in
United States had electric service, a
1994 and its functions
demonstration of REA's success.
This was enough to provide lighting,
farms installed small wind-electric
washing machines
plants.
By the early 1970s about 98% of all
Great Plains, which have usable winds
farms in the
on most days.
Before 1936, a small but growing num- assumed by the Rural Utilities Service.
ber of
Text С Rural Electrification in the Arts
Musicals. In 2005, a musical about the rural electrification of Ireland, The
Wiremen, written by composer Shay Healy and produced by John McColgan/Moya Doherty of Riverdance fame, ran for six weeks at The Gaiety Theatre,
Dublin. Set in the fictional village of Kilnacree in North Mayo, the story had the
drama of a young local farmer resisting progress, set against the comedy and
upheaval occasioned by the arrival of The Wiremen, in this case seven Dubliners,
known as The Lightning Jacks.
Films. The movie O Brother, Where Art Thou? contains a reference to rural
electrification in the end, when the main character Everett (George Clooney) talks
about how life will change with the introduction of a hydroelectric dam. The 1937
movie Slim (based on the novel by William Wister Haines) starring Henry Fonda
salutes the linemen who wired the remote parts of the United States for electric
power during the 1930s and realistically details many of the dangers they faced
climbing towers and working on energized high-voltage equipment. The movie is
shown occasionally on Turner Classic Movies and is said to have been one of Henry Fonda's favorite roles. The beginning of the film contains a montage tribute to
56
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
the men who pioneered the electric power industry and contains scenes from REA
documentaries describing the electrification of America.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
1. Complete the sentences:
A musical about the rural electrification of Ireland, ran for six …
The story had the drama of a young …
The movie O Brother, Where Art Thou? contains a reference to …
The movie is shown occasionally on Turner Classic Movies and is said to …
The beginning of the film contains a montage tribute to the men who …
2. Answer the questions:
In 2002, a musical about the rural electrification of Ireland, The Wiremen,
written by composer Shay Healy and produced by John McColgan/Moya
Doherty of Riverdance fame, ran for six weeks at The Gaiety Theatre, Dublin, didn’t it?
Had the story the drama of a young local farmer resisting progress, set
against the comedy and upheaval occasioned by the arrival of The Wiremen,
in this case seven Dubliners, known as The Lightning Jacks?
What contains a reference to rural electrification in the end, when the main
character Everett (George Clooney) talks about how life will change with
the introduction of a hydroelectric dam?
What is said to have been one of Henry Fonda's favorite roles?
Does the film contain scenes from REA documentaries describing the electrification of America or Africa?
57
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
READER
Energy & its usage in the UK
Year 2005 UK end use energy percentage is approximately:
 Transport: 35 %
 Space heating: 26 %
 Industrial: 10 %
 Water heating: 8 %
 Lighting/small electrics: 6 %
There is a steady increase of fuel usage driven by an increasingly affluent and
mobile population, so that fuel use increased by ten percent in the decade ending
2000. This trend is expected to be mitigated by increased percentage of more
efficient diesel and hybrid vehicles.
United Kingdom space and hot water heating consume a greater share of end
use compared to the USA and more mild southern European or tropical climates.
With regard to building and planning issues affecting energy use, the UK has
developed guidance documents to promote energy conservation through local
councils, especially as set forth in Part L of the Building Regulations
(Conservation of Fuel and power). The associated document. Part 2B, addresses
commercial uses, and is generally complete as to heating issues; the guidance is
lacking on lighting issues, except with guidelines for local switching of lighting
controls. In particular there are no standards set forth for illumination levels, and
over-illumination is one of the most significant unneeded costs of commercial
energy use.
Renewable energy
The established goals for UK renewable sources are 10% of electricity generation by 2010 and 20% by 2020, as published in the 2003 Energy White Paper.
However, in 2007 the Energy Minister Malcolm Wicks indicated that by 2020 the
figure has 'got to be somewhere between 10% and 15%'. The first such targets, 5%
of by the end of 2003 and 10% by 2010 'subject to the cost to consumers being acceptable' was set by Helen Liddell in 2000.
Although renewable energy sources have not played a major role in the UK
historically, there is potential for significant use of tidal power and wind energy
(both on-shore and off-shore) as recognised by formal UK policies, including the
Energy White Paper and directives to councils in the form of PPS 22. The Renewables Obligation acts as the central mechanism for support of renewable sources
of electricity in the UK, and should provide subsidies approaching one billion
pounds sterling per annum by 2010. A number of other grants and smaller support
mechanisms aim to support less established renewables. In addition, renewables
58
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
have been exempted from the Climate Change Levy that affects all other energy
sources.
The amount of renewable generation added in the year 2004 was 250 megawatts and 500 megawatts in 2005. There is also a program established for microgeneration (less than 50 KWe (kilowatt electrical) or 45 KWt (kilowatt thermal)
from a low carbon source) as well as a solar voltaic program. By comparison both
Germany and Japan have photovoltaic (solar cell) programs much larger than the
installed base in the UK. Hydroelectric energy is not a viable option for most of the
UK due to terrain and lack of force of rivers.
The government has established a goal of five percent of the total transport
fuel that must be from renewable sources (e.g. ethanol, biofuel) by the year 2010
under the Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation. This goal may be ambitious,
without the necessary infrastructure and paucity of research on appropriate UK
crops, but import from France might be a realistic option (based upon the French
wine lake).
In 2005 British Sugar announced that it will build the UK's first ethanol biofuel production facility, using British grown sugar beet as the feed stock. The plant
in Norfolk will produce 55,000 metric tonnes of ethanol annually when it is completed in the first quarter of 2007. However it has been argued that even using all
the UK's set-aside land to grow biofuel crops would provide for less than seven
percent of the UK's present transport fuel usage.
Energy poverty
Reducing occurrence of energy poverty (defined as households paying over
ten percent of income for heating costs) is one of the four basic goals of UK energy
policy. In the prior decade substantial progress has been made on this goal,[citation
needed]
but primarily due to government subsidies to the poor rather than through
fundamental change of home design or improved energy pricing. The following
national programs have been specifically instrumental in such progress: Winter
Fuel Payment, Child Tax Credit and Pension Credit. Some benefits have resulted
from the Warm Front Scheme in England, the Central Heating Program in Scotland
and the Home Energy Efficiency Scheme in Wales. These latter programs provide
economic incentives for physical improvement in insulation, etc.
2007 Energy White Paper
The 2007 Energy White Paper: Meeting the Energy Challenge was published
on May 23, 2007. The 2007 White Paper outlines the Government’s international
and domestic strategy for responding to two main challenges:[]
 cutting carbon emissions to tackle global warming
 ensuring secure, clean and affordable energy as imports replace declining
production from North Sea oil and gas
59
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
It seeks to do this in a way that is consistent with its four energy policy goals:[18]
 cutting the UK’s carbon dioxide emissions by some 60% by about 2050,
with real progress by 2020;
 maintaining the reliability of energy supplies;
 promoting competitive markets in the UK and beyond, helping to raise the
rate of sustainable economic growth and to improve productivity; and
 ensuring that every home is adequately and affordably heated.
The paper anticipates that it will be necessary to install 30-35 GW of new
electricity generation capacity within 20 years to plug the energy gap resulting
from increased demand and the expected closure of existing power plants. It also
states that, based on existing policies, renewable energy is likely to contribute
around 5% of the UK’s consumption by 2020, rather than the 20% target
mentioned in the 2006 Energy Review.
Government strategy
In summary, the government’s proposed strategy involves 6 components:
 Establishing an international framework to tackle climate change, including
the stabilisation of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations and a
stronger European Union Emissions Trading Scheme
 Providing legally binding carbon targets for the whole UK economy,
reducing emissions through the implementation of the Climate Change Bill.
 Making further progress in achieving fully competitive and transparent
international markets, including further liberalisation of the European Union
energy market.
 Encouraging more energy saving through better information, incentives and
regulation
 Providing more support for low carbon technologies, including increased
international and domestic public-private sector collaboration in the areas of
research, development, demonstration and deployment – for example though
the launch of the Energy Technologies Institute and the Environmental
Transformation Fund.
To achieve the government's aims, the White Paper proposes a number of practical
measures, including:
Energy conservation
Businesses:
 A new mandatory cap and trade scheme for organisations consuming more
than 6,000 MWh of electricity per year, to be known as the Carbon
Reduction Commitment.
 The introduction of Energy Performance Certificates for business premises
and Display Energy Certificates for public sector organisations.
60
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
The extension of smart metering to most business premises within 5 years.
Homes:
 A requirement for all new homes to be zero-carbon buildings as soon as
practically possible and preferably by 2016.
 Improving the energy efficiency of existing homes.
 Improving the efficiency of consumer electronics and domestic appliances,
and the possible phase-out of inefficient light bulbs by around 2011.
 Increasing the Carbon Emission Reduction Target for the electricity and gas
industries for 2008-2011.
 A requirement that new domestic electricity meters should have real time
displays from 2008, and a commitment to upgrade existing domestic meters
on request.
Transport:
 The introduction of a Low Carbon Transport Innovation Strategy
 Support for including aviation within the EU Emissions Trading Scheme

Energy supply








The introduction of a Biomass Strategy to expand the use of biomass as an
energy source.
Measures to grow distributed electricity generation and distributed heat
generation alongside the centralised system.
A reconfirmation that, under the Renewables Obligation, renewable energy
should supply 10% of electricity generation by 2010, an 'aspiration' to
achieve 20% by 2020, together with the introduction of bands within the
Obligation to support different renewable technologies.
The launch in November 2007 of a competition to demonstrate commercialscale carbon capture and storage technology
A 'preliminary view is that it is in the public interest to give the private
sector the option of investing in new nuclear power stations'. A consultation
on this was launched at the same time as the White Paper.
The introduction of the Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation in 2008-2009,
with a commitment that biofuels should provide 5% of transport fuel by
2010-2011.
Measures to support the recovery of the remaining oil and gas reserves from
the North Sea.
Removing barriers to developing new energy infrastructure and power plants
through reform of planning permission processes, as detailed in the 2007
Planning White Paper: Planning for a Sustainable Future.
61
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Response of the Scottish Government
The Scottish Government responded to the UK government paper by making
clear that it was against new nuclear power stations being built in Scotland and had
the power to prevent any being built. In a statement to parliament, Energy Minister
Jim Mather stated “Members will be aware that Greenpeace, backed by the courts,
have forced the UK Government to consult properly on the future role of nuclear
power. We will respond and we will make clear that we do not want and do not
need new nuclear power in Scotland. If an application were to be submitted for a
new nuclear power station that will be for Scottish Ministers to determine. We
would be obliged to look at it – but given our policy position, our generating
capacity, our multiplicity of energy sources and our strong alternative strategies
such an application would be unlikely to find favour with this administration”.
2006 Energy Review
Status
Following a judicial review requested by Greenpeace, on February 15, 2007
elements of the 2006 Energy Review were ruled 'seriously flawed', and 'not merely
inadequate but also misleading'. As a result, plans to build a new generation of
nuclear power plants were ruled illegal.
Background
The UK Government published its White Paper on Energy (“Our Energy
Future – creating a Low Carbon Economy”) in 2003, establishing a formal energy
policy for the UK for the first time in 20 years. Essentially, the White Paper
recognised that a limitation of carbon dioxide (CO2 – the main gas contributing to
global climate change) was going to be necessary. It committed the UK to working
towards a 60% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions by 2050, and identified
business opportunities in so doing: a recurrent theme throughout the document was
“cleaner, smarter energy”. It also claimed to be based on four pillars: the
environment, energy reliability, affordable energy for the poorest and competitive
markets.
However the White Paper focused more on analysing the issues than in
providing detailed policy responses. Some detail began to filter through in a series
of follow-on documents, including an Energy Efficiency Implementation Plan
(April 2004) and the DTI Microgeneration Strategy "Our Energy Challenge"
(March 2006). Nonetheless, most of the policies were a continuation of business as
usual, with emphasis on market-led solutions and an expectation that consumers
act rationally, for example in installing energy efficiency measures to make
running cost savings.
However, in November 2005 it was announced that the Government, under
DTI leadership, would undertake a full scale Energy Review, and over 500
organisations and individuals made detailed submissions as part of this review.
62
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Officially, the review was to take stock of the outcomes to date of the White Paper,
which a particular focus on cutting carbon (emissions of which remained
stubbornly high) and to look in more detail at security of supply, as the UK’s oil
and gas production from the North Sea had peaked, and Russia was seen as being a
high-risk supplier of gas.
Unofficially, it was widely felt that the real reason behind the review was to
allow nuclear power back into the energy debate, as it had been sidelined in the
2003 White Paper. That document had said “This white paper does not contain
specific proposals for building new nuclear power stations. However we do not
rule out the possibility that at some point in the future new nuclear build might be
necessary if we are to meet our carbon targets. Before any decision to proceed with
the building of new nuclear power stations, there will need to be the fullest public
consultation and the publication of a further white paper setting out our proposals.”
The Energy Review was therefore to be this public consultation. A further White
Paper was promised for early 2007.
The Energy Challenge: The Energy Review Report 2006
In the event, the Energy Review Report 2006 came out as a broader and more
balanced document than critics (in advance) had expected. It started by reiterating
the Government’s four long-term goals for energy policy:
 To put the UK on a path to cut carbon dioxide emissions by some 60 % by
about 2050, with real progress by 2020;
 To maintain reliable energy supplies;
 To promote competitive markets in the UK and beyond, helping to raise the
rate of sustainable economic growth and to improve productivity; and
 To ensure that every home is adequately and affordably heated.
It then identified two major long-term energy challenges:
 Tackling climate change, along with other nations, as global carbon
emissions from human activity continue to grow; and
 Delivering secure, clean energy at affordable prices, as we become
increasingly dependent on imports for our energy needs.
The Review took an internationalist response, stressing that the world’s
economies need to get on a path to being significantly less carbon-intensive, and
noting rising global demand, especially from countries such as India and China.
This means using less energy in products and services and changing the way
energy is produced so that more of it comes from low-carbon sources. It also
identified the need for a fairer distribution of energy around the world, and
identified that many resources, especially of fossil fuels which are concentrated in
just a few countries.
It placed its main concerns and proposals into three groups:
63
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Saving Energy
The starting point for reducing carbon emissions is to save energy. The
challenge is to secure the heat, light and energy we need in homes and businesses
in a way that cuts the amount of oil, gas and electricity used and the carbon dioxide
emitted. Actions proposed include:
 Increasing information, eg. through Home Information Packs
 Raising basic standards, removing inefficient goods from the market
 Making best use of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme and Climate Change
Levy
 Making the Government estate carbon neutral by 2012
 Increasing the focus on energy efficient transport
Cleaner Energy
Cost-effective ways of using less energy will help move towards the carbon
reduction goal. But on their own they will not provide the solution to the
challenges faced: there is also a need to make the energy used cleaner. Under this
head, the Government considered:
 more distributed energy generation including low-carbon heat
 more use of community based systems, including CHP
 a strong commitment to carbon pricing in the UK, through improving the
operation of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme
 a strengthened commitment to the Renewables Obligation
 proposals for reform of the planning regime for electricity projects
 a clear statement of our position on new nuclear build
 support for carbon capture and storage
 developing alternative fuels for transport
The Energy Security Challenge
The challenges of reducing carbon emissions and ensuring security of supply
are closely linked. Security of supply requires that we have good access to
available fuel supplies, the infrastructure in place to transport them to centres of
demand and effective markets so that supply meets demand in the most efficient
way. Many of the measures already described for tackling carbon emissions also
contribute to the healthy diversity of energy sources that is necessary for meeting
the energy security challenge.
There are two main security of supply challenges for the UK:
 Managing increased dependence on oil and gas imports, especially in the
light of the global distribution of energy reserves and growing international
demand; and
64
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Ensuring that the market delivers substantial and timely investment in
electricity generating capacity and networks so that households and
businesses have the electricity they need at affordable prices.
The Government’s response is to continue to open up markets and to work
internationally to develop strong relationships with suppliers, developing
liberalised markets.
So where does nuclear power fit within this debate? Although it is mentioned a
lot more in the Review compared to the White Paper (441 times, compared to 55 to
be exact), the Government does not propose building new stations itself. Instead, it
will leave it to the market, although it will ease some of the planning constraints
(which it also aims to do for renewables) and look into providing a design
authorisation procedure. However, as with many other aspects of the Energy
Review Response, the document is not likely to be the last word on the subject, as
there are plans for further consultation, and the establishment of further reviews
and studies in issues such as identifying suitable sites, and managing the costs of
decommissioning and long term waste management.

Issues not thoroughly addressed by UK policy
Despite some successes and stated goals, there are some issues that are
incompletely addressed by UK policy. The principal such items are:
 Loss of energy independence. Rather than creating an aggressive plan to
lessen the impending loss of energy independence, the UK policy succumbs
to that outcome, with resultant risks to future supplies and costs.
 Lack of strong national policy on transport fuel efficiency. While the city
of London and other local councils have given incentives to hybrid vehicles,
the national policy does not provide any real stimulus to highly fuel efficient
vehicles. In fact, the government has done so little to inform the public about
fuel efficient options that a survey released[20] in March, 2006: "Some of the
1200 people surveyed ... thought ‘hybrid’ meant two cars welded together.
Others thought hybrids had to be plugged in at night."
 Lack of emphasis of energy conservation by reducing over-illumination,
especially in commercial buildings.
Public opinion
The UK results from the 1st Annual World Environment Review, published on
June 5, 2007 revealed that:




81% are concerned about climate change.
79% think their Government should do more to tackle global warming.
73% think that the UK is too dependent on fossil fuels.
77% think that the UK is too reliant on foreign oil.
65
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»





87% think that a minimum 25% of electricity should be generated from
renewable energy sources.
24% think that the Government should do more to expand nuclear power.
56% are concerned about nuclear power.
76% are concerned about carbon dioxide emissions from developing
countries.
61% think it appropriate for developed countries to demand restrictions on
carbon dioxide emissions from developing countries.
Technologies and set-up
Microgeneration technologies include small scale wind turbines,
hydroelectric plants, photovoltaic solar systems, ground source heat pumps, and
Micro Combined Heat and Power (MicroCHP) installations[1]. Before installing
any small wind or solar energy technology, you should gather reliable data about
your site's energy potential[2].
The power plant
In addition to the electricity production plant (eg wind turbine, solar panel, ...),
infrastructure for energy storage and power conversion and a hook-up to the
regular electricity grid is usually needed and/or foreseen. Although a hookup to the
regular electricity grid is not essential, it helps to decrease costs by allowing
financial recompensation schemes. In the developing world however, the start-up
cost for this equipment is generally too high, thus leaving no choice but to opt for
alternative set-ups.
Extra equipment needed besides the power plant
The whole of the equipment required to set up a working system and for a
off-the-grid generation and/or a hook up to the electricity grid herefore is termed a
balance-of-system and is composed of following parts with PV-systems:
Energy storage apparatus
A major issue with off-grid solar and wind systems is that the power is often
needed when the sun is not shining or when the wind is calm, this is generally not
required for purely grid-connected systems:
 a series of deep cycle, solar, stationary or sealed maintenance free batteries
(the most common solution) or other means of energy storage (eg hydrogen
fuel cells, Flywheel energy storage, Pumped-storage hydroelectric,
compressed air tanks, ...)
 a charge controller for charging the batteries or other energy storage
66
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
For converting DC battery power into AC as required for many appliances, or
for feeding excess power into a commercial power grid:
 an inverter or grid-interactive inverter. The whole is also sometimes referred
to as ”power conditioning equipment“
Safety equipment
groundings, transfer switches or safety disconnects and surge protector. The
whole is also sometimes referred to as “safety equipment”
Usually, in microgeneration for homes in the developing world, a prefabricated
house-wiring systems (as wiring harnesses or prefabricated distribution units) is
used instead. Simplified house-wiring boxes, known as wiring harnesses can be
simply bought and drilled in the wall without requiring much knowledge on the
wiring itself. As such, even local village people are able to install them. In addition,
they are also comparatively cheap and offer safety advantages.
 battery meters (for charging rate and voltage), and meters for power
consumption and electricity provision to the regular power grid

Wind turbine specific
With wind turbines, hydroelectric plants, the extra equipment needed is more or
less the same as with PV-systems (depending on the type of wind turbine used, yet
also include:
 a manual disconnect switch
 foundation for the tower
 grounding system
 shutoff and/or dummy-load devices for use in high wind when power
generated exceeds current needs and storage system capacity.
Possible set-ups
As mentioned before, several microgeneration set-ups are possible. These are:
 Off-the-grid set-ups which include:
o Off-the grid set-ups without energy storage (e.g., battery, ...)
o Off-the grid set-ups with energy storage (e.g., battery, ...)
o Battery charging stations
 Grid-connected set-ups which include:
o Grid-connected set-ups without financial recompensation scheme
o Grid-connected set-ups with net metering
o Grid connected set-ups with net purchase and sale
All set-ups mentioned can work either on a single power plant or a
combination of power plants (in which case it is called a hybrid power system).
67
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Costs
Depending on the set-up chosen (financial recompensation scheme, power
plant, extra equipment), prices may vary. According to Practical Action,
microgeneration at home which uses the latest in cost saving-technology (wiring
harnesses, ready boards, cheap DIY-power plants (eg DIY wind turbines) the
household expenditure can be extremely low-cost. In fact, Practical Action
mentions that many households in farming communities in the developing world
spend less than $1 for electricity per month. However, if matters are handled less
economically (using more commercial systems/approaches), costs will be
dramatically higher. In most cases however, financial advantage will still be done
using microgeneration on renewable power plants; often in the range of 50-90%
A recent summary of the various microgeneration technologies indicates that
most are extremely expensive methods of carbon abatement with the exception of
micro CHP.
Comparison of Microgeneration and Large-Scale generation
Other names
micro generation
large-scale generation
Distributed generation
Centralized generation
Can be used for heating purWaste Heat poses, thus greatly increasing
by-product efficiency and offsetting energy total costs. This method is
known as micro combined heat
and power (microCHP).
It is used in some privatelyowned industrial combined
heat and power (CHP) installations. It's also use in large scale
applications where it's called
district heating and uses the
heat that is normally exhausted
by inefficient powerplants.
Transmission Proximity to end user typically A significant proportion of
closer resulting in potentially electrical power is lost during
losses
fewer losses.
transmission (approximately
8% in the United Kingdom according to BBC Radio 4 Today
programme in March 2006).
Changes to reduces the transmission load, increases the power transmitand thus reduces the need for ted, and thus increases the
Grid
grid upgrades
need for grid upgrades
Grid failure Electricity may still be availa- Electricity may be not available to local area in many cir- ble due to grid
event
cumstances
68
Notes
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Consumer
choices
Reliability
and
Maintenance
requirements
May choose to purchase any
legal system
May choose to purchase offerings of the power company
photovoltaics, Stirling engines, Managed by power company.
and certain other systems, are Grid reliability varies with lousually extremely reliable, and cation.
can generate electric power
continuously for many thousands of hours with little or no
maintenance. However, unreliable systems will incur additional maintenance labor and
costs.
sales-pitch Focused on the "green-ness" of Focused on the energy crisis
exaggerations energy
Ability to
meet needs



For wind and solar
energy, the actual production is only a fraction of maximum rated
capacity.
Fuel based systems are
fully dispatchable
Some solar panels are
simple to install and
will provide green
energy regardless of
fluctuations in electricity markets, according
to Jeremy Leggett.

Both produce
electricity. Both
are subject to
misinformation.
Commentators claim
that householders who
buy their electricity
with green energy tariffs can reduce their
carbon usage further
than with microgeneration and at a lower cost.
Economy of Necessitates mass production More economical given the
of generators which will create larger scale of the generators.
scale
an associated environmental
impact. Systems are less
expensive when produced in
quantity.
Microgeneration can dynamically balance the supply and demand for
electric power, by producing more power during periods of high demand and high
grid prices, and less power during periods of low demand and low grid prices. This
"hybridized grid" allows both microgeneration systems and large power plants to
operate with greater energy efficiency and cost effectiveness than either could
alone.
69
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Microgeneration as integrated part of domestic self-sufficient system
Microgeneration can be integrated as part of a self-sufficient house and is
typically complemented with other technologies such as domestic food production
systems (permaculture and agroecosystem), hydrogen or other extra electricity
generation systems for self-sufficient transport, water harvesters, composting toilets or
even complete greywater treatment systems. Domestic microgeneration technologies
include: photovoltaic solar systems, small scale wind turbines, ground source heat
pumps, micro combined heat and power installations, biodiesel and biogas.
Installing Solar Photovoltaic systems decentralized the generation of
electricity and centralizes the pooling of surplus energy. While they have to be
purchased, solar shingles and panels are both available. Initial startup costs more,
but saves in the long run. Solar PV panels can run any number of electric
appliances including fans, water pumps, food dryers, signs, refrigerators, fencing
and even entertainment electronics.
Passive solar heating is another effective method of utilizing solar power.
The most simple method is the solar (or a black plastic) bag. Set between 1 and 5
gallons out in the sun and allow to heat. Perfect for a quick warm shower.
The ‘breadbox’ heater can be constructed easily with recycled materials and
basic building experience. Consisting of a single or array of black tanks mounted
inside a sturdy box insulated on the bottom and sides. The lid, either horizontal or
angled to catch the most sun, should be well sealed and of a transparent glazing
material (glass, fiberglass, or high temp resistant molded plastic). Cold water
enters the tank near the bottom, heats and rises to the top where it is piped back
into the home. You can acquire designs through the National Center for
Appropriate Technology or design your own.
Wind turbines can be purchased for a wide range of prices. It takes a little
more technical knowledge to assemble one yourself but plans are available Mother
Earth News.
Ground source heat pumps utilize stable ground temperatures to maintain
heat in the pumps. Typically ground source heat pumps have a high initial cost and
can’t be created by the average homeowner. While efficient, they are still hooked
to non-renewable energy systems. Try combining ground heat with photovoltaics
or wind generators.
Biodiesel, an alternative diesel made from used vegetable or cooking oil
from restaurants, is a limited fuel source, but utilizes a waste product. You can
transform any diesel vehicle to run on biofuels, as long as they are brewed properly.
If you already own a diesel vehicle, this change is simple, requiring only a recipe
for biofuel and a restaurant willing to give up their waste oil. Domestic heat can
also run on biofuels, though it takes more effort in revamping the infrastructure of
your heating system.
Biogas is another alternative fuel, created from the waste product of animals.
Though less practical for most homes, a farm environment provides a perfect place
70
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
to implement the process. By mixing the waste and water in a tank with space left
for air, methane produces naturally in the airspace. This methane can be piped out
and burned, and used for a cookfire.
Government policy
There is considerable resistance to microgeneration from many governments,
local authorities and energy companies. Current incentives discourage energy
suppliers and grid operators from bringing energy generation to the point of demand.
Policy-makers are accustomed to an energy system based on big, centralised
projects like nuclear or gas-fired power stations, and it will require a change of
mindsets and incentives to bring microgeneration into the mainstream. Planning
regulations may also require streamlining to facilitate the retrofitting of
microgenerating facilities onto homes and buildings.
A number of countries, including the United Kingdom, Germany and USA
have laws allowing microgenerated electricity to be sold into the national grid.
United States
The United States has inconsistent energy generation policies across its 50
states. State energy policies and laws may vary significantly with location. Some
States have imposed requirements on utilities that a certain percentage of total power
generation be from renewable sources. For this purpose, renewable sources include
wind, hydroelectric, and solar power whether from large or microgeneration projects.
Further, in some areas transferrable "renewable source energy" credits are needed by
power companies to meet these mandates. As a result, in some portions of the
United States, power companies will pay a portion of the cost of renewable source
microgeneration projects in their service areas. These rebates are in addition to any
Federal or State renewable-energy income-tax credits that may be applicable. In
other areas, such rebates may differ or may not be available.
United Kingdom
The UK Government published its Microgeneration Strategy] in March 2006,
although it was seen as a disappointment by many commentators. In contrast, the
Climate Change and Sustainable Energy Act 2006 has been viewed as a positive
step. To replace earlier schemes, the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI)
launched the Low Carbon Buildings Programme in April 2006, which provides
grants to individuals, communities and businesses wishing to invest in
microgenerating technologies.
Prominent British Politicians who have announced they are fitting
microgenerating facilities to their homes include the Conservative party leader,
David Cameron, and the Labour Science Minister, Malcolm Wicks.
71
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
In the December 2006 Pre-Budget Report the Government announced that
the sale of surplus electricity from installations designed for personal use, would
not be subject to Income Tax. Legislation to this effect is to be included in the
Finance Bill 2007.
In June 2009 Better Generation, the popular green energy site, launched the
Power Predictor which the easiest way for UK residents to find out if their site is
suitable for microgeneration.
Distributed generation
Distributed generation, also called on-site generation, dispersed generation,
embedded generation, decentralized generation, decentralized energy or
distributed energy, generates electricity from many small energy sources.
Currently, industrial countries generate most of their electricity in large
centralized facilities, such as coal, nuclear, hydropower or gas powered plants.
These plants have excellent economies of scale, but usually transmit electricity
long distances.
Most plants are built this way due to a number of economic, health & safety,
logistical, environmental, geographical and geological factors. For example, coal
power plants are built away from cities to prevent their heavy air pollution from
affecting the populace, in addition such plants are often built near collieries to
minimize the cost of transporting coal. Hydroelectric plants are by their nature
limited to operating at sites with sufficient waterflow. Most power plants are often
considered to be too far away for their waste heat to be used for heating buildings.
Low pollution is a crucial advantage of combined cycle plants that burn
natural gas. The low pollution permits the plants to be near enough to a city to be
used for district heating and cooling.
Distributed generation is another approach. It reduces the amount of energy
lost in transmitting electricity because the electricity is generated very near where
it is used, perhaps even in the same building. This also reduces the size and number
of power lines that must be constructed.
Typical distributed power sources in a Feed-in Tariff (FIT) scheme have low
maintenance, low pollution and high efficiencies. In the past, these traits required
dedicated operating engineers, and large, complex plants to pay their salaries and
reduce pollution. However, modern embedded systems can provide these traits
with automated operation and clean fuels, such as sunlight, wind and natural gas.
This reduces the size of power plant that can show a profit.
Distributed energy resources
Distributed energy resource (DER) systems are small-scale power generation
technologies (typically in the range of 3 kW to 10,000 kW) used to provide an
alternative to or an enhancement of the traditional electric power system.
72
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
The usual problem with distributed generators are their high costs.
The one exception is probably microhydropower. A well-designed plant has
nearly zero maintenance costs per kWh, and generates useful power for many years.
One favored source is solar panels on the roofs of buildings. The production
cost is $0.99 to 2.00/W (2007) plus installation and supporting equipment unless
the installation is Do it yourself (DIY) bringing the cost to $6.50 to 7.50 (2007).[1]
This is comparable to coal power plant costs of $0.582 to 0.906/W (1979),[2][3]
adjusting for inflation. Nuclear power is higher at $2.2 to $6.00/W (2007).[4] Most
solar cells also have waste disposal issues, since solar cells often contain heavymetal electronic wastes, such as Cadmium telluride (CdTe) and Copper indium
gallium selenide (CuInGaSe), and need to be recycled. The plus side is that unlike
coal and nuclear, there are no fuel costs, pollution, mining safety or operating
safety issues. Solar also has a low duty cycle, producing peak power at local noon
each day. Average duty cycle is typically 20%.
Another favored source is small wind turbines. These have low maintenance,
and low pollution. Construction costs are higher ($0.80/W, 2007) per watt than
large power plants, except in very windy areas. Wind towers and generators have
substantial insurable liabilities caused by high winds, but good operating safety.
Wind also tends to be complementary to solar; on days there is no sun there tends
to be wind and vice versa. Many distributed generation sites combine wind power
and solar power such as Slippery Rock University, which can be monitored online.
Distributed cogeneration sources use natural gas-fired microturbines or
reciprocating engines to turn generators. The hot exhaust is then used for space or
water heating, or to drive an absorptive chiller for air-conditioning. The clean fuel
has only low pollution. Designs currently have uneven reliability, with some makes
having excellent maintenance costs, and others being unacceptable.
Cogenerators are also more expensive per watt than central generators. They
find favor because most buildings already burn fuels, and the cogeneration can
extract more value from the fuel.
Some larger installations utilize combined cycle generation. Usually this
consists of a gas turbine whose exhaust boils water for a steam turbine in a
Rankine cycle. The condenser of the steam cycle provides the heat for space
heating or an absorptive chiller. Combined cycle plants with cogeneration have the
highest known thermal efficiencies, often exceeding 85%.
In countries with high pressure gas distribution, small turbines can be used
to bring the gas pressure to domestic levels whilst extracting useful energy. If the
UK were to implement this countrywide an additional 2-4 GWe would become
available. (Note that the energy is already being generated elsewhere to provide the
high initial gas pressure - this method simply distributes the energy via a different
route.)
73
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
VOCABULARY
absorb – поглощает
accelerate – ускорить
array – выстраивать
automatic relay – автоматическое реле
battery – батарея
brooder – брудер
bury – зарывать в землю
candela – единица свечения
capacity – емкость, объём
circuit – цепь
consist – состоять
convert – превращать
coulomb – кулон
current – ток
decrease – уменьшать
device – устройство
direct current – прямой ток
discharge – разгрузка
drive turbines – загонять, заводить турбины
electric motors – электромоторы
electrical unit – единица электричества
electricity – электричество
electricity application – использование электричества
electrified production complex – электрифицированные производственные
комплексы
electroengineering – электроинженерия
electrons – электроны
energy – энергия
energy resources – энергетические ресурсы
experiment – эксперимент
feeder – филер
fence wire – проволочный забор
force – сила
fuel – топливо
generator – генератор
glass – стекло
glow – гореть, светиться
heat – тепло
heat house – обогревать дома
herbage – травяной покров
hydropower station – гидростанция
increase – увеличить
74
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
infrared lamp – инфракрасная лампа
infrared rays – инфракрасные лучи
insulator – изолятор
iron core – железный стержень
kelvin – киловатт
leakage – утечка
length – длина
light bulb – электрическая лампочка
lightning – освещение
magnetic field – магнитное поле
make fire – зажигать огонь
measure – измерять
metal plate – металлическая пластина
metre – метр
mole – моль
ohm – Ом
pascal – Паскаль
photoelectronic cells – фотоэлектронные клетки
poisonous gases – ядовитые газы
possibilitiy – возможность
pulsating – пульсирующий
reactor – реактор
rectifier(v) – выпрямлять
resistance – сопротивление
scale – шкала
second – секунда
socket – патрон, розетка
sterilization in milk production – стерилизация молочной продукции
storage batteries – хранение батарей
store(v) – хранить
substance unit – единица материи
sunlight – солнечный свет
systems irrigation – оросительные системы
table lamp – настольная лампа
technical progress – технического процесса
testing – проверка
thermodynamic – термодинамический
turn water –поворачивать воду
unit of time – единица времени
voltage – напряжение
volts – вольт
watt – ватт
wave – волна
75
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
TEST
1. The multimeter is used for measuring three types of electrical units; namely: …, resistance and current.
а) volume
б) voltage
в) vowel
г) value
2. Выберите вопрос к подлежащему: Power engineering takes about 20 %
of the primary energy resources.
а) What do takes about 20 % of the primary energy resources?
б) What does take about 20 % of the primary energy resources?
в) What is takes about 20 % of the primary energy resources?
г) What takes about 20 % of the primary energy resources?
3. The students of the Technical University were carrying out an experiment
… a multimeter in the lab last week.
а) for
б) at
в) from
г) with
What is the unit of time?
а) candela
б) metre
в) volts
г) second
4. The crocodile… are measured to make a good connection between the meter and the resistor.
а) circuit
б) currents
в) clips
г) cores
5. The reconstruction of the hydropower station has already begun in this region.
а) Where has the reconstruction of the power station already begun?
б) Where the reconstruction of the power station has already begun?
в) Where has begun the reconstruction of the power station already?
г) Where has begun the reconstruction has of the power station already?
6. Everybody was watching the indications … the volts scale.
а) on
б) in
в) for
г) from
76
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
7. The amount of electricity which is flowing (it is called the current) is measured in units called… .
а) volts
б) ohm
в) watt
г) amps
8. To strike the ground lightning must pass two stages.
а) is able to
б) has to
в) is allowed to
г) can
9. The uses of electricity … with lightning only.
а) does not end
б) are not end
в) do not end
г) is not end
10. Electric power is the source of energy that … .
а) today’s automatic feeding system makes possible
б) makes possible the today’s automatic feeding system
в) possible makes the today’s automatic feeding system
г) today’s feeding system possible makes
11.Ток, напряжение и сопротивление имеют определенную взаимосвязь.
а) Current, voltage and resistance have a definite relationship to one another.
б) Voltage and resistance have a definite relationship to current one another.
в) One another have a current voltage and resistance to definite relationship.
г) Current, voltage and resistance to one another have a definite relationship.
12. Выберите предложение с правильным порядком слов:
а) How a power plant does generate electricity?
б) How generate does a power plant electricity?
в) How does a power plant generate the electricity?
г) How does electricity generate a power plant?
13. The current and voltage determine the power, the rate at which electrical… is used.
а) energy
б) cell
в) filament
г) source
14. The function of a stream of negative electrical charge is to create an electrical connection … cloud and ground.
а) in
б) at
в) between
г) on
77
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
15. The needle of the multimeter has already indicated the value of the resistance on the scale.
а) показывает
б) показания
в) покажет
г) показал
16. The unit of electric current is… .
а) the kilogram
б) the meter
в) the ampere
г) the mole
17. Even … scientific achievements do not permit this and other questions to
be answered as yet.
а) late
б) lately
в) the latest
г) later
18. The black surface … reflect infrared rays.
а) is not
б) do not
в) does not
г) are not
19. The… indicates the value of the resistance on the ohms scale.
а) the needle
б) scale
в) function selector switch
г) probe
20. Next time they are planning to measure the current … a table lamp.
а) from
б) for
в) in
г) between
21. The students of the Technical University were … out an experiment with a
multimeter in the lab last week.
а) carrying
б) carry
в) carries
г) carried
22. The voltage determines the power, the unit of power is a … .
а) volt
б) watt
в) amp
г) ohm
78
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
23. What is substance unit?
а) ampere
б) mole
в) kilogram
г) metre
24. Из чего состоит электроизгородь?
а) Of what the electric fence does consist?
б) What of the electric fence does consist?
в) What the does electric fence of consist?
г) What does the electric fence consist of?
25. Photoelectronic cells … be used as substitutes for eyes for detecting
changes.
а) is able to
б) can
в) is allowed to
г) is to
26.The pressure of electricity, the voltage is measured in … .
а) meter
б) kilogram
в) volt
г) watt
27. What is the unit of electric current?
а) kelvin
б) ampere
в) ohm
г) watt
28. … many new spheres of electricity application today.
а) There are
б) They are
в) The are
г) This are
29. A hundred thousand years ago people had learnt to make fire and used
four timed as … energy.
а) more
б) the most
в) many
г) much
30. We can use the heat to make steam to drive turbines or to heat houses.
а) be allowed
б) be able
в) must
г) should
79
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
31. Heat from the reactor turnes water … steam, which drived turbines,
which drive generators.
а) for
б) with
в) out
г) into
32. The… is the unit of ( thermodynamic) temperature.
а) ampere
б) meter
в) mole
г) kelvin
33. Electricity is the source of energy that … .
а) pollutes not the environment
б) do not pollute the environment
в) not pollutes the environment
г) does not pollute the environment
34. What is the unit change?
а) kelvin
б) coulomb
в) ohm
г) watt
35. Technological man lives four times …long… primitive man and twice as
long as man in the 15th century.
а) as...as
б) so…as
в) as…so
г) not so…as
36. A hundred thousand years ago people had learnt to make fire and used
four times as much … .
а) resource
б) energy
в) wire
г) sunlight
37. In damp ground or under irrigation conditions, all that is needed is a rod
or one of the fence standards pushed … the ground.
а) from
б) out
в) on
г) into
38. Автоматизация, которая является основным фактором технического
процесса сегодня, основывается на электричестве.
а) Automation which is the main factor of technical progress today is based on
electricity.
80
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
б) Automation which the main factor of technical progress is today is based on
electricity.
в) Automation which today the main factor of technical progress is based is on
electricity.
г) Automation which the main factor of technical progress based is on today electricity.
39. If the ground is dry it … be necessary to bury a metal plate.
а) may
б) are able to
в) are allowed to
г) have to
40. Why is our energy… constantly increasing and accelerating?
а) pollution
б) transformation
в) consumption
г) variation
41. What is the unit of mass?
а) second
б) kilogram
в) metre
г) mole
42. The girl was using two … crocodile clips to make a good connection between the metre and the resister.
а) smaller
б) small
в) the smallest
г) more small
43. A million years ago primitive man used only 6,000(kJ) a day, which he
got … the food he ate.
а) to
б) from
в) with
г) at
44. The pressure of electricity, the voltage, … in volts.
а) is measuring
б) are measuring
в) is measured
г) be measured
45. The … energy problem caused by many interrelated factors must be
tackled quickly.
а) current
б) fossil
в) common
г) vary
81
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
46. Полностью электрифицированные производственные комплексы
улучшают качество продукции.
а) Fully complexes electrified production improve the products quality.
б) Complexes fully electrified production improve the products quality.
в) Fully electrified production complexes improve the products quality.
г) Fully electrified complexes production improve the products quality.
47. The rocks … be suitable for getting poisonous gases coming up.
а) is allowed
б) is able
в) must
г) should
48. … of storm clouds remains one of the unsolved mysteries of the weather.
а) source
б) frequency
в) insulator
г) electrification
49. The chief disadvantage is the somewhat … energy cost as compared to
other types of brooders.
а) highest
б) more high
в) most high
г) higher
50. Electricity provides light, heat and power in a clean and highly efficient
form.
а) What is electricity provide in a clean and highly efficient form?
б) What provides electricity in a clean and highly efficient form?
в) What does electricity provide in a clean and highly efficient form?
г) What provide electricity in a clean and highly efficient form?
51. Some pocket calculators are powered by … cells, but many use batteries.
а) solar
б) fuel
в) photovoltaic
г) soil
52. “Biomass” is renewable and we … always plant more trees.
а) can
б) is allowed
в) will
г) may
53. A unit of resistance is called an ohm.
а) называет
б) назвали
в) будет называться
г) называется
82
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
54. Electricity is made by converting some form of energy into flowing electrons at the … .
а) power plant
б) thermal power
в) solar power
г) chemical power
55. Power stations are designed to provide electrical energy to large housing
developments, which …be far away.
а) should
б) may
в) are allowed
г) are able
56. Электромоторы приводят в действие оросительные системы.
а) Electric motors operate systems irrigation.
б) Electric motors operate irrigation systems.
в) Electric motors irrigation systems operate.
г) Electric motors irrigation operate systems.
57. Electricity is simply a movement of charged particles through a … circuit.
а) opened
б) closed
в) expected
г) collected
58. Electrical energy from power station is … to carry a very high voltage but
low current.
а) cheaper and easiest
б) cheapest and easier
в) cheap and easier
г) cheaper and easier
59.Energy consumption … immensely in the last decades.
а) has increased
б) are increasing
в) have increased
г) increase
60. The more watts the… uses the more light is produced.
а) bullet
б) bulb
в) bulge
г) bulk
61. All electrical services can be provided with electricity at a cost which is
lower … that of any other fuel. а) so б) as в) than г) the
62. The black surface absorbs the infrared rays.
а) поглощают
б) поглощает
83
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
в) поглотили
г) будет поглощать
63. The… in this light bulb glows because its high resistance makes it hot.
а) frequency
б) furnace
в) filament
г) fossil
64. The fence wires are supported by insulators on driven or free standing
posts and care must be taken to ensure.
а) is able to
б) can
в) is allowed to
г) is to
65. A hundred thousand years ago people … to make fire and used four times
as much energy as primitive people.
а) was learnt
б) is learnt
в) had learnt
г) had learning
66. The glass has a resistance so high that it does not allow the current to
move through it - this properly makes glass a good … .
а) insulator
б) wire
в) socket
г) rectifier
67. Sheep are nowadays being sheared electrically this is by far … and more
efficient than the old hand method.
а) quick
б) quicker
в) quickest
г) more quick
68. There … a lot of energy in waves on the sea.
а) is
б) are
в) have
г) has
69. Ампер – это единица измерения количества тока в цепи.
а) Is a unit measure an amp of the amount of current in a circuit.
б) Of the amount an amp of current in a circuit is a unit measure.
в) An amp of current in a circuit is a unit measure of the amount
г) A unit measure of the amount is an amp of current in a circuit.
70. There … developed new alternative energy sources in the future.
а) is
84
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
б) are
в) was
г) will be
71. To carry a very high voltage but low current, over long distance … be
done.
а) should
б) can
в) are allowed
г) are able
72. Direct current is received from a … and usually abbreviated to DC.
а) battery
б) sunlight
в) array
г) wire
73. To act as an insulator can be done with the help of … overhead conductor
wires, with an air gap between them to act as an insulator.
а) thin
б) more thin
в) most thin
г) thinner
74. Выберите правильный общий вопрос:
а) Can be powered the electric fence from batteries?
б) What can be powered from batteries?
в) Can the electric fence be powered from batteries?
г) The electric fence can be powered from batteries
75. A… allows AC to be converted into DC.
а) transformer
б) rectifier
в) collector
г) gap
76. Electric motors are started and stopped by the touch of a button,…
а) aren’t they?
б) don’t they?
в) do they?
г) aren’t they?
77. A transformer is used to increase or decrease the voltage of an … power
supply.
а) thermal
б) nuclear
в) solar
г) electric
78. Few people can explain electricity.
а) should
85
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
б) may
в) are allowed
г) are able
79. This fuel was used in different engines long ago.
а) используется
б) был использован
в) использует
г) будет использован
80. As domestic supply requires alternating current it is therefore necessary to
change it to …current.
а) alternating
б) direct
в) negative
г) huge
81. A lightning discharge is the same idea, just … the wire.
а) out
б) without
в) at
г) for
82. There … a definite relationship between current, voltage and resistance.
а) are
б) is
в) has
г) have
83. A device, which allows an electrical charge to be build up and stored for
some time is known as a… .
а) circuit
б) current
в) condenser
г) core
84. The tractors will be … by electricity from storage batteries in the nearest
future.
а) powered
б) powers
в) powering
г) power
85. A simple capacitor is made from two metal plates, which are separated by
an … such as air, paper or mica. а) insulator б) wire в) transformer г) rectifier
86. The electric motor is a simple machine… .
а) where power is produced fumes without
б) where produced power is without fumes
в) where is produced power without fumes
г) where power is produced without fumes
86
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
87. When current passes through the… winding, a magnetic field is created
around the iron core.
а) input
б) secondary
в) primary
г) output
88. What is the unit of power?
а) pascal
б) watt
в) newton
г) joule
89. A wave power station needs to … to stand really rough weather.
а) be allowed
б) be able
в) must
г) can
90. Electricity can be used for operating automated production systems.
а) приведение в действие
б) работавший
в) работает
г) работающих
91. A high voltage and low current are transmitted through the… .
а) wire
б) winding
в) gap
г) core
92. Автоматическое реле времени могут регулировать последовательность ряда операций.
а) Automatic relays time the sequence can control of several operations.
б) Automatic time relays can control the sequence of several operations.
в) Automatic time relays control the sequence of several can operations.
г) Automatic can several operations time relays control the sequence of.
93. The… that forces the current to flow is measured in Volts (V).
а) solution
б) variation
в) pressure
г) pollution
94. The pressure that forces the current to floe is measured … volts.
а) of
б) with
в) on
г) in
87
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
95. Выберите вопрос к подчёркнутому члену предложения: This switch
can be used to turn off a conveying system offer a feeder has been fiiled.
а) What can the switch be used to turn off a conveying system?
б) When the switch can be used?
в) When can the switch be used to turn off a conveying system?
г) What be used can?
96. Fully electrified production complexes reduce the … cost of products.
а) prime
б) permanent
в) partial
г) previous
97. The laboratory assistant … the value of the resistor from 2 till 3 yesterday.
а) was measuring
б) measures
в) is measured
г) will measure
98. Electric … hatch chicks and ducklets, while eggs are electrically gathered,
graded and packed on the line.
а) devices
б) incubators
в) insulators
г) recorders
99. Electric fence units … be powered by electricity from batteries or from the
main supply.
а) is able to
б) can
в) is allowed to
г) has to
100. Electric energy is to provide optimum environment for farm animals to
obtain maximum output of production.
а) обеспечивает
б) должна обеспечить
в) обеспечивается
г) будет обеспечивать
101. Сейчас овец стригут при помощи электричества.
а) Sheep were being sheared electrically.
б) Sheep is being sheared electrically.
в) Sheep are being sheared electrically.
г) Sheep are shearing electrically.
102. The ammeter … indicating +10at the moment.
а) are
б) have в) is
г) has
88
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
103. Partial automation is the … for materials handling systems.
а) most practical
б) more practical
в) practical
г) less practical
104. Выберите правильное отрицательное предложение:
а) Automatic self-feeders do not very expensive and they can be used with all
kinds of animals.
б) Automatic self-feeders are very expensive and they can be used with all kinds of
animals.
в) Automatic self-feeders does not very expensive and they can be used with all
kinds of animals.
г) Automatic self-feeders are not very expensive and they can be used with all
kinds of animals.
105. Electric … are widely used on modernly equipped cattle breeding farms.
а) furrows
б) fusions
в) fences
г) forces
106. Comfort and … work, first of all.
а) more light
б) the most light
в) light
г) lighter
107.Ohm’s law tells us that current equals voltage … by resistance.
а) divided
б) dividing
в) divides
г) is divided
108. As the return circuit comes through the earth it is essential to provide a
good … connection.
а) air
б) earth
в) water
г) soil
109. The area under the wire is free from herbage through which current leakage could come.
а) is able to
б) can
в) must
г) may
110. Using renewable resources we can significantly reduce the amount of air
pollution.
89
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
а) используя обновляемые ресурсы
б) мы используем обновляемые ресурсы
в) обновляемые ресурсы используют
г) использование обновляемых ресурсов
112. If the ground is dry it may be necessary to bury a … plate well bellow the
ground surface.
а) metal
б) movable
в) major
г) manual
113. To decrease voltage a step-down transformer should be used.
а) следует использовать
б) должен использоваться
в) может использоваться
г) будет использоваться
114. You can improve your work efficiency by … modern technologies.
а) using
б) used
в) the use
г) to use
115. Electronic … are nowadays well known.
а) weaks
б) controls
в) devices
г) bodies
116. Выберите предложение с правильным порядком слов:
а) In recent years electricity made has a great contribution to radio communications.
б) In recent years electricity has made a great contribution to radio communications.
в) In years recent electricity made has a great contribution to radio communications.
г) In recent years made has electricity a great contribution to radio communications.
117. Only a single wire is needed, as the return circuit comes … the earth.
а) under
б) above
в) for
г) through
118. Photoelectronic cells are often used in switching on lights and controlling… .
а) current leakages
б) electric motors
в) shelter-belt
г) air movements
90
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
119. Environment for agricultural crops will provide the … yields.
а) more efficient
б) most efficient
в) less efficient
г) efficienter
120. Using electric power makes it possible to obtain high standard of hygiene
in milk production.
а) используя
б) использование
в) использует
г) использующий
121. Электричество – источник энергии, не загрязняющий среду.
а) Electric energy is the source of pollution-free power.
б) Electric energy is used as the source of pollution-free power.
в) Electric energy was the source of pollution-free power.
г) Electric energy will be the source of pollution-free power.
122. What is the unit of resistance?
а) ampere
б) ohm
в) kilogram
г) metre
123. The problem is to convert these resources into …work or other usable
forms of energy.
а) mechanical
б) more mechanical
в) the most mechanical
г) less mechanical
124. The history of energy has been the history … converts.
а) at
б) of
в) to
г) from
125.The source of light invented by Yablochkov won world-wide recognition.
а) изобрёл
б) был изобретён
в) изобретённый
г) изобретающий
126. With the aid of the electric energy the conditions of controlled environment for… livestock can be achieved.
а) farm
б) fan
в) flow
г) flax
91
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
127. If the number of turns in the secondary winding is greater … that in the
primary winding it is a step-up transformer.
а) that
б) than
в) the
г) those
128. The electric fence consists of a iron wire energized by a pulsating highvoltage electricity supply of safe low current.
а) пульсация
б) пульсирует
в) пульсируя
г) пульсирующий
129. Partial automation is the most …for materials handling systems.
а) prime
б) previous
в) private
г) practical
130. There will appear six-wheel-drive tractors controlled by computers.
а) управляющие
б) управляемые
в) управляют
г) управлялись
131. The electric time switch is both simple and very useful for the control of
materials handling … .
а) erection
б) equipment
в)environment
г) enterprise
132. The professor delivering a lecture on new technologies in electroengineering mentioned interesting facts.
а) читает лекцию
б) чтение лекции
в) читавший лекцию
г) читал лекции
133. The infra-red brooding is now a … type of brooding.
а) well-known
б) unknown
в) annual
г) basic
134. What is the unit of luminous intensity?
а) watt
б) candela
в) newton
г) joule
92
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
135. The noise of wind power … drive you nuts.
а) must
б) may
в) are to
г) can
136. Regular testings of the electric fence wire is necessary for its safe operation.
а) проверяющий
б) проверяет
в) проверяя
г) проверки
137. The infra-red brooding provides automatic… of the process.
а) cost
б) crest
в) crop
г) control
138. Few people understand what is electricity and still … can explain it.
а) fewer
б) more few
в) most few
г) fewest
139. The professor … reporting the results of the tests at the class tomorrow.
а) will be
б) were
в) is
г) was
140. A 250-watt infra-red lamp … in the brooding space supplies enough heat
for 70 to 90 chicks.
а) hanging
б) sitting
в) standing
г) saying
141. The chicks are warmed directly by the radiated infra-… energy.
а) blue
б) red
в) white
г) yellow
142. When current passes … the primary winding, a magnetic field is created
around the iron core.
а) thin
б) more thin
в) most thin
г) thinner
93
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
143. The results received were of great importance for further investigations.
а) результаты получили
б) результаты были получены
в) результаты получившие
г) полученные результаты
144. The chief disadvantage of the infra-red brooding method is the comparatively… energy cost.
а) high
б) low
в) prime
г) one
145. Electric fences are widely used on modernly equipped cattle breeding
farms.
а) оборудуется
б) оборудующий
в) оборудованные
г) оборудовали
146. Only electricity may provide a high standard of… and sterilization in
milk production.
а) hygiene
б) height
в) herbage
г) hotbed
147. What is the unit of thermodynamic?
а) ampere
б) kelvin
в) ohm
г) metre
148. Energy consumption is sure to increase since the …energy is consumed,
the easier our life becomes.
а) no
б) little
в) much
г) more
149. Выберите предложение с правильным порядком слов:
а) Is it important for an engineer electrical devices to know how to use?
б) Is it important for an engineer to know how to use electrical devices?
в) Is it important an engineer electrical devices for to know how to use?
г) Is it electrical devices important an engineer for to know how to use?
150. On most farms single-phase are… used.
а) planks
б) types
в) hoes
г) motors
94
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
151. Modern technologies open up new possibilities for … solar energy.
а) to apply
б) applying
в) applies
г) applied
152. Electric power is the ingredient that makes today’s automatic ….system
possible.
а) fuel
б) free
в) fat
г) feeding
153. What is length unit?
а) watt
б) metre
в) kelvin
г) second
д) mole
154. Electricity and electronics provide automatic controlling of temperature,
fresh air and light in farm buildings.
а) управляемые
б) управляющие
в) управление
г) управляя
95
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
ТЕСТ (ЧТЕНИЕ)
Electricity can be used for operating automated production systems. Electric
energy will provide optimum environment for the housed livestock or poultry to
receive maximum output of production. Engineering systems in plant-growing
structures will create an optimum environment for agricultural crops which will
provide the most efficient yields.
Radiation may, in future, replace some of the presently used chemicals as
plant foods. It also could be used for soil sterilization, or weed control. With the
aid of radiation biological control of plant shape, size, and development will be
possible.
Agricultural machines equipped with electronic devices will be able to determine the time of seeding and harvesting crops. Six-wheel-drive tractors powered
by electricity will be controlled by computers. Domestic animals housed in big and
high buildings will get an optimum environment for their growth and development.
Electricity and electronics will provide automatic controlling of temperature, fresh
air and light in every building. The supply of electric energy is unlimited for it is
created by man and used to serve him in his activities.
1. На какой из вопросов вы найдете ответ в тексте?
а) What will provide electricity controlling of temperature, fresh air and light?
б) Why will provide electricity controlling of temperature, fresh air and light?
в) What will provide automatic controlling of temperature, fresh air and light?
г) Where will provide automatic controlling of temperature, fresh air and light?
2. What could be used for soil sterilization, or weed control?
а) Radiation could be used for soil sterilization, or weed control.
б) Irrigation could be used for soil sterilization, or weed control.
в) Automatic could be used for soil sterilization, or weed control.
г) The first downstroke could be used for soil sterilization, or weed control.
3. Six-wheel-drive tractors powered by electricity… .
а) will be controlled by engines
б) will be controlled by radiation
в) will be controlled by environment
г) will be controlled by computers
4. Выберите заголовок к тексту:
а) Types of engines
б) Electricity and its kinds
в) Agriculture and machines
г) Environment
5. Agricultural machines equipped … .
а) with electronic devices
б) with crystalline structure
в) with intake valve
г) with the connecting rod
96
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
6. Какое предложение отвечает на вопрос: What will Engineering systems
in plant-growing structures create?
а)The burning if this mixture provides power and this power forces the piston
down.
б)The temperature of the compressed air is very high.
в)The piston draws the air and fuel into the cylinder.
г)An optimum environment for agricultural crops which will provide the most efficient yields.
7. The supply of electric energy is … .
а) unlimited
б) middle
в) powerfull
г) the end
8. Какое предложение соответствует содержанию текста?
а) Electric energy will provide optimum environment for the housed computers.
б) The exhaust valve opens and the piston forces out the burn gases.
в) Electric energy will provide optimum environment for the housed livestock.
г) The greatest number of cars use the piston engines.
97
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
APPENDIX
Appendix 1
SPEECH PRACTICE
My Research Work
Plan
1. Предмет Вашего исследования.
1 . The subject of your research work.
2. The current interest in the problem in
general.
2. Интерес к проблеме в целом.
1. Предмет Вашего исследования.
1. Предмет Вашего исследования.
3. Have there been any attempts made to
study the problem before?
4. Results already achieved and the aim
of your own research.
5. Materials, equipment, methods to be
used.
2. Интерес к проблеме в целом.
3. Изучалась ли данная проблема
раньше, кем и насколько?
4. Цель Вашей работы.
6. The current stages of the research.
5. Материалы, оборудование, методы, которые Вы используете в
процессе исследований.
6. На какой стадии находится Ваше исследование в данное время?
7. Если уже получены какие-либо
результаты, то какие именно?
8. Сколько времени Вам необходимо для завершения работы, что
еще необходимо сделать?
7. The results of your current research
work, if there are any.
8. The remaining part (portion) of the
work.
9. Significance of your research work in
case it is completed successfully.
9. Каково практическое значение
конкретно Вашей работы?
98
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
CLICHÉ
(stereotype block of expressions and patterns)
for a research work story
amine the results; to evaluate the data;
to summarize the results; to
Я аспирант (соискатель)...
Я магистрант..
1. I'm a postgraduate (research student)...
2. My scientific adviser (supervisor)
is...
3. The subject of my research is...
4. The reasons for my choice are...
Мой научный руководитель...
Предмет моего исследования...
Причины моего выбора следующие...
Моя научно-исследовательская работа включает в себя как теоретическую, так и практическую
части...
Я планирую заниматься...
Я собираюсь использовать ...
методы...
Мне требуется собрать большое
количество материала для моей работы...
В настоящее время я занимаюсь
подбором теоретических данных по
моей теме.
Мне приходится читать статьи (монографии, журналы) наших и зарубежных авторов.
Одной из главных задач моей научной работы является...
Я собираюсь проанализировать
(обобщить...)
В результате своих исследований я
планирую разработать практические рекомендации по..., разработать новый метод (теорию)...
В настоящее время я занят обзором
специальной литературы.
Я уже закончил проведение экспериментов...
5. My investigation has both
theoretical and practical parts...
6. I'm going to deal with...
7. I'll make use of... methods...
8. My work requires the collection of
a good deal of material...
9. Currently I'm busy with collecting
theoretical data on my subject.
10. I have to read articles (monographs, journals) of our and foreign
authors.
11. One of the main aims of my research work is...
12. I'm going to analyse (to generalise) the common practice of...
13. As result of my research I plan to
elaborate some practical recommendations for ... , to work out a new
method (theory)...
14. At present I'm busy with the survey of special literature.
15. I have already completed my experiments on...
16. My next aim is to organize the data, to analyze the information; to ex99
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Моя ближайшая задача - привести
в порядок данные, проанализировать информацию, оценить
данные, обобщить результаты, сделать необходимые расчеты...
17. I expect to be through with my research (to finish, to complete), my
thesis in a year.
18.I beleive (hope) my work will be
of practical interest for...
Я надеюсь закончить свои исследования (диссертацию) через год.
Я надеюсь, что моя работа будет
представлять практический интерес
для...
100
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
My Research work
My name is .
I work in ... where I have been
working for 4 years, two out of
them as Chief of the Law DepartМеня зовут
ment.
Я работаю уже 4 года, 2 из которых в качестве начальника юридического отдела.
Моя работа требует дополнительного образования, т.к. я часто
My job requires further education
as I often face problems to be
properly solved from the legal
point of view, therefore I have
made up my mind to become a
сталкиваюсь с проблемами, требующими правильного решения с
post-graduate student.
юридической точки зрения, поэто-
The subject of my research is the
му я решил стать аспирантом.
legal analysis of one or two articles of the Criminal Code.
Предметом моего исследования является юридический анализ одной
или двух статей Уголовного Кодекса.
Причины моего выбора следую-
The reasons for my choice are:
failure to apply some articles
the Criminal Code without the
щие:
Невозможно применять некоторые
статьи Уголовного Кодекса без
знания Таможенного права
knowledge of the Customs Law.
101
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
the newly adopted Criminal Code has not
been applied long enough, especially as regards the Customs Law.
neither has the Plenum of the Supreme Court
adopted any resolutions concerning these
questions.
I work in this sphere and these questions are
very interesting for me.
Therefore I am going to deal with the Criminal Code and with Customs regulations, in
particular.
The subject of my research also includes
comparison of the former and the new versions of the Criminal Code, regarding the
Customs regulations.
My job requires the collection of a good deal
of material.
1 am planning to get the material in the Customs House, to be more exact, in the "Investigation" Department, and also in the court.
1 am to study criminal cases, available there.
1 have to dwell on the specific details of
the application of these articles.
Вновь принятый Уголовный Кодекс применяется недолго, особенно, что касается Таможенного
права.
Также пленум Верховного Суда
не выносил своих постановлений
по данному вопросу.
Я работаю в данной сфере и эти
вопросы для меня очень интересны.
Поэтому я планирую заниматься
Уголовным Кодексом и в частности, таможенными нормами.
Также в предмет моего исследования входит сравнение прежней
и новой версии Уголовного Кодекса, касающееся таможенных
норм.
Моя работа требует сбора большого количества материала.
Я планирую получить материал в
таможне, точнее в отделе дознания, а также в суде.
Я должен изучить уголовные дела,
имеющиеся там.
Я сосредоточусь на особых деталях
применения этих статей.
I'll try to work out recommendation for proper Я попытаюсь выработать рекоapplication of the Criminal Law.
мендации для правильного применения Уголовного Закона.
1 am going to generalize the common prac- Я попытаюсь обобщить сущестtice, existent.
вующую практику.
1 know the research work is going to be raЯ знаю, эта научная работа будет
ther difficult.
довольно трудная.
1 have begun the selection of the
Я уже начал отбирать нормативный
regulatory material needed for my research
материал, необходимый для моей
work.
научной работы.
102
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
I think it will take me not less than a year
Я думаю это займет не меньше,
or about two years to get material enough for чем 1 или 2 года, прежде чем наanalysis.
берется материал, достаточный
для анализа.
I believe that this will be of practical interest Я верю, что данная работа будет
for professional lawyers.
представлять практический интерес для профессиональных юристов
103
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
MODELL 2
1. My name is...
2. I am a research student of the economy and agribusiness chair at the Economic
department.
3. My scientific supervisor is Candidate of Economic Sciences, professor...
4. The subject of my research work is exchange operations of banks.
5. Currently, there is considerable interest in the banks' operations.
6. The interest in banking activities has been active since 1990s and is becoming
increasingly stronger.
7. The point is that the development of banks and their anticipation determine the
viability of real sector of national economy.
8. As I've mentioned I'm interested in exchange operations of banks, because I'm
working in this department, and, secondly, because exchange operations department provides real money or profit.
9. One of the main aims of my research work is analyses of economic efficiency of
currency operations, that is relationship of expenses and income.
10. The second aim of my research is to find additional reserves for making profit
from currency operations.
11. My investigation is of mixed character, it has theoretical and practical parts.
12. I'm going to observe the economic efficiency of currency transactions on the
example of the Orenburg Savings Bank.
13. I'll make use of statistics, mathematical, monographic and other methods.
14. As a summary of my research I'm going to elaborate some practical recommendations from approved practices to improve the efficiency and profitability of
currency transactions.
15. At present I'm busy with survey of special literature.
16. Currently, I'm collecting theoretical data on my subject, I read articles, journals
of our and foreign authors, I familiarize myself with the experience of currency
department of top Russian and foreign banks.
17. If everything goes smoothly I'm planning to finish my thesis in….
104
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
1. My name is …..
2. I am a postgraduate student of a Forestry and reproduction of forest Department.
3. My supervisor is Associate Professor of Forestry and reproduction of forest
Department, candidate of agricultural sciences …..
4. The subject of my research is climatypes of Scots pine growing on the territory of the
Krasnoyarsk forestry district of Samara region.
5. I believe that my work is relevant, as the intensive exploitation of the pine forests, the
increase of recreational pressure, the numerous fires, mass destruction by pests result in a
dramatic reduction of forest area and also there are the disappearance of valuable populations
and decrease in biodiversity species.
6. In connection with this geographic cultures are essential to biodiversity conservation of
tree species and, in particular, Scots pine, as one of the securities forming species.
7. My investigation has both theoretical and practical parts.
8. I am going to deal with assessment of the current state of provenance, the study of
growth and development of climatypes pine, as well as the study of the morphological
parameters of the needles.
9. I'll make use the methods of enumeration and statistical analysis of inventory data.
10. My work requires the collection of a good deal of material, so in the scientific society
"Reproduction of forest and forest breeding" my students and I gather the materials.
11. Currently I’m busy with collecting theoretical data on my subject.
12. I have read articles, monographs, journals of our and foreign authors.
13. On the topic of my thesis two articles was published in the journal «News of
Orenburg State Agrarian University» and several articles in scientific journals in other cities.
14. The research results can be used to identify the nature of adaptation of different
climatic types of Scots pine to new environmental conditions.
15. My next aim is to organize the data, to analyze the information; to examine the
results; to evaluate the data; to summarize the results; to make necessary calculations.
16. I expect to finish my thesis in two years.
17. I hope that my work will be of practical interest for reforestation and afforestation.
105
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
I am a postgraduate student of the department of microbiology and infectious diseases of OSAU. My specialty is Veterinary Microbiology, Virology,
Epizootiology, Mycology and Immunology.
2. My supervisor is Candidate of Biological Sciences, assistant professor of
microbiology and infectious diseases …..
3. The subject of my research is biological properties of antagonistically active
enterococci isolates from animals.
4. The aim of my research is the study of the biological properties of enterococci isolated from the intestine of animals.
5. The main task is to identify the active antagonistic strains of enterococci.
6. The reasons for my choice are: first, probiotics are a good alternative to antibiotics, secondly, enterococci, showing antagonistic activity against a number of pathogens and non-virulence factors, can be used as a component of
probiotic preparations.
7. My research work includes both theoretical and practical parts.
8. I plan to study the biological properties of bacteria of the genus Enterococcus.
9. I'm going to use the classical bacteriological and modern molecular genetics
methods.
10. I want to collect a lot of material for my work.
11. I am currently involved in the selection of the theoretical data on my topic.
12. I have read articles, monographs, journals of our and foreign authors.
13. A major object of my work is to identify strains of enterococci with high
antagonistic activity.
14. I'm going to analyze the presence of virulence factors in intestinal isolates
of enterococci.
15. As a result of my research, I plan to develop practical recommendations for
a new probiotic preparation based on strains of enterococci.
16. I am currently busy with the review of the literature.
17. I've already finished the experiments.
18. My immediate task is to arrange the data, analyze information, summarize
results, make the necessary calculations.
19. I plan to finish my research (dissertation) in two years.
20. I hope that my work will be of particular interest for veterinarians and microbiologists.
1.
106
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
CLICHÉ
for making a summary of a newspaper article
1. The title of the article is...
The article is headlined
2. It is published in ”Moscow New“ number...
dated ...
3.The article is written by ...
The autor of the article is ...
4.The article deals with ...
The article is devoled to the analyses of the
situation in ...
– to the question (problem) of...
– to the discription of
5.The article (author) discusses...
– expresses the view that...
– concentrates on, focuses the reader's attention on...
– highlights...
– points out...
– stresses that...
– suggests that...
– sums up, summarizes ...
– (strongly) criticises...
– condemns
– reveals
– reviews
– considères
– comes out against...
– comes out in support
6. It should be noted that
7. The author pays special attention to the
fact...
8. To sum up ...
In conclusion...
107
Название статьи ...
Она опубликована в газете
«Москоу Ньюс» номер
... от...
Статья написана ...
Автор статьи ...
В статье говорится о ...
Статья посвящена анализу обстановки в ...
вопросу о...
описанию...
В статье обсуждается ... (автор
обсуждает)
выражается точка зрения о ...
концентрируется внимание на
освещается...
указывается на
подчеркивается что ...
говорится, что ...
подводится итог, суммируется...
(остро) критикуется
обсуждается
вскрывается
рассматривается
дается обзор
выступает против
выступает в поддержку
Следует отметить, что ...
Автор обращает особое внимание на тот факт, что ...
В заключении…
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
NEWSPAPER ABSTRACT
1. The title of the article is "Banks turning to the real sector".
2. The article is written by ...
3. The article is published in the newspaper "Moscow News", number 12, 1998.
4. The article deals with changes in the banking sector of Russia over the recent
year.
5. It is pointed out that the net assets have increased in absolute terms from $74 to
$ 110 billion.
6. But it's noted that the share of banking system in the national economy it still
small - about 25 percent of GDP, that is Gross Domestic Product.
7. It is stressed that the foreigner's share in the Russian banking system's aggregate
capital is from 5.3 to 5.8 percent.
8. By world standards these figures are insignificant, so, for example, in Hungary
the figure exceeds 50 percent.
9. Low share of foreigners in our bank's capital is explained by shortage of cash,
non-payments, use of bills, notes, bonds instead of real money.
10. It should be noted that 1997 was characterized by a slower growth of lending
institutions, so in 1996 there were 26 new lending institutions while in 1997 only
12 lending institutions were registered Oust 5 banks).
11. The consider instability in a government and corporate securities markets over
the last five months is forcing the banks to reorient their policy and work with the
real sector of economy.
12. The authors pay attention to the fact that banks cannot hope to get fast and high
profits in the real sector of economy.
13. Thus, banks develop their lending activity in the real sector very slowly, because Russia's industry is in depression and most of industrial enterprises are insolvent.
108
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
1) The title of the article is “Adaptive genetic variation in Scots pine
(Pinus sylvestris L.) in Scotland”.
2) It is published by the University of Edinburgh in 2011.
3) The author of the article in Matti J. Salmela.
4) The article deals with the ability of plants to adapt to local growing conditions.
5) The article is devoted to the studies of patterns of local adaptation.
6) The article stresses that the main motivation for these experiments was to find the best-growing seed sources for different sites.
7) It should be noted that experiments in long-lived trees are laborious, time-consuming, expensive and thus, normally established only for
species of commercial importance.
8) The author pays special attention to the fact that transfer trials
established for commercially important tree species such as Scots pine
and lodgepole pine have indicated that populations often grow best in
their home environments and that transfers along environmental gradients influence survival and growth.
9) The author sums up, that the acquisition by plants of various
adaptive traits depends on factors such as soil, moisture and temperature
of the environment, the presence of pests or herbivores.
10) In conclusion, studies of patterns of local adaptation in plants
have a long history due to the importance of many species in agriculture
or forestry.
109
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
The title of the article is «Enterococci in foods – a conundrum for food safety».
It is published in «International Journal of Food Microbiology», number 88, 2003.
The authors of the article are Charles Franz, Michael E. Stiles, Karl Heinz Schleifer and Wilhelm H. Holzapfel.
The article deals with the problem of enterococci, which are considerable members
of the community in the intestines of many animals and opportunistic pathogens
that cause millions of infections each year.
The article suggests that Enterococci are important in the environment, food and
clinical microbiology. These bacteria can play an important beneficial role in the
production of various fermented food products and can be used as probiotics.
The authors stress that opportunistic enterococci cause a number of questions on
their safety for use in foods or as probiotics.
It should be noted that the probiotic bacterial strains must meet certain requirements.
The authors pay special attention to two important criteria: ability to survive in the
gastrointestinal tract and an antagonistic effect against pathogenic bacteria.
Thus, the needs of studying the biological properties of strains of enterococci have
antagonistic activity against pathogenic microorganisms, including determination
of the presence of potential virulence factors, to establish a new basis for their probiotic preparations.
110
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
LIST OF QUESTIONS
1. What is your name?
2. When were you born?
3. How old are you?
4. What institute did you graduate from and when?
5. What faculty did you study at?
6. What is your specialty?
7. Are you a postgraduate or a research-student?
8. When did you enter (join) the postgraduate course?
9. What is the subject of your research?
What do you research?
What do you study?
10. Do you work at your thesis already?
11. What is the subject of your thesis?
12. Is your research work individual or is it a group research?
13. Where do you take experimental material?
14. Do you know how many parts does a thesis consist of?
15. What candidate examinations have you already passed?
16. What scientific degree will you get?
17. Have you a scientific adviser (supervisor)?
Who is your scientific adviser?
18. Have you any published papers?
Where are they published?
19. Is your investigation (research work) an experimental or theoretical one?
20. Have you passed all the candidate examinations?
21. What candidate examinations have you passed?
22. When will you take you philosophy (specialty) examinations?
23. Has your investigation real practical value?
24. Where can the results of your investigations be applied at?
111
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
VOCABULARY
- topical
- analogous
- identical
- long range
- effective
- length of service
- academician
- Academy of sciences
- post-graduate
- post graduate course
- Candidate of science
- Doctor of science
- assistant professor, senior lecturer
- head of the department
- professor
- rector
- deputy rector
- university administration
- scientific degree
- academic rank
- scientific secretary
- science
- scientific field (branch)
- research work
актуальный
аналогичный
идентичный
перспективный
эффективный
стаж
академик
Академия наук
аспирант
аспирантура
кандидат наук
доктор наук
доцент
заведующий кафедрой
профессор
ректор
проректор
ректорат
ученая степень
ученое звание
ученый секретарь
наука
научная область
научно-исследовательская
работа
научно-исследовательский
институт
научное общество
научный журнал
точные науки
прикладные науки
научный работник (сотрудник)
с/х науки
социальные науки
естественные науки
гуманитарные
посвятить себя науке
научный опыт
- scientific research institute
- scientific society
- scientific journal
- exact sciences
- applied science
- research worker
- agricultural sciences
- social sciences
- natural sciences
- the humanities
- to devote oneself to
- scientific experience
112
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
научная степень
лектор
лекция
читать лекцию
преподавать (химию)
- scientific degree
- lecturer
- lecture
- to deliver a lecture
- to teach, to be a lecturer in (chemistry)
- lecturer, instructor
- teaching staff
- teaching
- subject
- biology
- bionics
- biochemistry
- botany
- genetics
- history
- physics
- chemistry
- law science
- diploma
- thesis
- invention
- discovery
- observation
- publication
- paper
- generalization
- summary
- experiment
- trial
- phenomenon
- summary, abstract
- abstract
- theory
- result
- to study
- analyze
преподаватель в университете
преподавательский состав
преподавание
предмет (дисциплина)
биология
бионика
биохимия
ботаника
генетика
история
физика
химия
правоведение
диплом
диссертация
изобретение
открытие
наблюдение
публикация
печатная статья
обобщение
выводы
эксперимент
опыт испытание
явление
реферат
аннотация
теория
результат
изучать
анализировать
обрабатывать данные
получать данные
проводить исследование
решать проблему
113
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
- to process data
- to get data (obtain)
- to make a research
- to solve a problem
достигать
достижение
заниматься (проблемой) проводить исследования по…
составить план исследования цель исследования
собирать данные о…
разрабатывать
отвечать потребностям необходимо получить
было показано, что
было обнаружено, что
делать выводы
установить,
продемонстрировать факты...
усовершенствовать (прибор) добиться
успеха
потерпеть неудачу (не удалось) необходимо
для того, чтобы объяснить однако
несмотря на тот факт, что
в последнее время
с 1998 г.
за последний год
в этом году
в настоящее время
в прошлом году
в последнее время
114
- to achieve
- achievement
- be concerned with... to deal
with
- to do (carry out, conduct) a research - to draw up a study plan.
- the aim of the research
- collect data on ...
- to develop (work out)
- to meet the requirements
- it is necessary to obtain ...
- it has been shown that...
- it has been found that...
- to conclude, make conclusions
- to find (establish, show, - demonstrate, reveal) some facts...
- to improve
- to make progress
- to fail to ...
- it is necessary
- in order to explain ...
- however
- in spite of the fact that...
- lately
- since 1998
- over the past year
- this year
- at present
- last year
- lately
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Правила полного письменного перевода
(этапы работы над полным письменным переводом)
1. Ознакомиться с оригиналом, внимательно просмотрев его. Прочитать весь текст, пользуясь по мере надобности рабочими источниками информации: словарями, справочниками, специальной литературой и т.д. Работу со специальной литературой можно начать и до полного прочтения текста,
если в результате предварительного ознакомления с оригиналом станет ясно,
к чему нужно подготовиться заранее.
2. Сделать черновой перевод текста, последовательно работая над логически выделяемыми частями оригинала по следующей схеме:
а) Выделить законченную по смыслу часть текста (предложение, абзац,
период) и усвоить ее содержание.
б) Перевести выделенную часть текста, т. е. передать ее содержание порусски в письменной форме, полностью отвлекаясь от оригинала (не глядя в
него) и постоянно следя за стилем, т. е. за качеством, единообразием и логикой изложения.
в) Сверить переведенную часть текста с соответствующим местом оригинала, чтобы восполнить пропущенное (имеется в виду фактическая информация, а также другие пропущенные сведения).
3. Окончательно отредактировать перевод, прочитав его про себя, чтобы еще раз проверить качество, единообразие и логику изложения всего перевода и внести необходимые поправки.
Примечание: Редактирование, т. е. работа над стилем, на предыдущем
этапе касалось, прежде всего, частей текста; на данном завершающем этапе
предметом редактирования становится весь текст перевода в целом.
4. Перевести заголовок.
Примечание: Конечно, нередко правильно перевести заголовок можно
уже после предварительного знакомства с оригиналом, т. е. на первом этапе,
но, учитывая особую важность перевода заголовков в области профессионального перевода, мы выделяем эту работу в самостоятельный этап.
Реферативный перевод
Реферат – это краткое изложение сущности какого-либо вопроса.
Три формы составления реферата, которым соответствуют три самостоятельных вида технического перевода:
а) реферативный перевод;
б) перевод типа «экспресс-информация»;
в) сигнальный перевод главных пунктов.
Реферативный перевод – это письменный перевод заранее отобранных
частей оригинала, составляющих связанный текст.
Appendix 3
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Engineer Jokes
***
Before going to London, an Engineer drove his Rolls Royce to a Dublin city bank
and went in to ask for a loan of ˆ1,000. The loan officer, taken aback, requested
collateral. “Well, then, here are the keys to my Rolls Royce”, the Engineer said.
The loan officer promptly had the car driven into the bank’s car park for safe keeping, and gave him ˆ1,000. Two weeks later, the Engineer walked through the
bank’s doors and asked to settle his loan and get his car back. ‘That will be ˆ1,000
in principal and ˆ4.25 in interest’, the loan officer said. The engineer wrote a cheque and started to walk away. “Wait Sir”, the loan officer said, “While you were
gone, I found out that you are a millionaire. Why in the world would you need to
borrow ˆ1,000”? The Engineer smiled and said, “Where else could I safely park my
Rolls Royce in Dublin for two weeks and only pay 4.25!
***
There was an Engineer who entered a local paper’s pun contest. He sent in ten different puns in the hope that at least one of the puns would win. Unfortunately, no
pun in ten did!
***
An Engineer, Doc Faraday, made it his regular habit to stop off at a bar for a hazelnut daiquiri on his way home. The bartender knew of his habit and would always have the drink waiting at precisely 5.15 p.m. One afternoon as the end of the
workday approached, the bartender was dismayed to find that he was out of hazelnut extract. Thinking quickly, he threw together a daiquiri made with hickory nuts
and set it on the bar. The Doe came in at his regular time, took one sip of the drink
and exclaimed, “This isn’t a hazelnut daiquiri”. No, I’m sorry”, replied the bartender, “It’s a hickory daiquiri, Doc”
***
A hungry lion was roaming through the jungle looking for something to eat. He
came across two engineers. One was sitting under a tree and reading a book; the
other was typing away on his computer. The lion quickly pounced on the engineer
reading the book and devoured him. Even the king of the jungle knows that readers
digest and writers cramp!
***
116
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Three engineers and three accountants are traveling .by train to a conference. At
the station, the three accountants each buy tickets and watch as the three engineers
buy only a single ticket. “How are three people going to travel on only one ticket”
asks the accountant. “Watch and you’ll see”, answers an engineer. They all board
the train. The accountants take their respective seats, but all three engineers cram
into a rest room and close the door behind them. Shortly after the train has departed, the conductor comes around collecting tickets. He knocks on the restroom
door and says, “Ticket, please”. The door opens just a crack and a single arm
emerges with a ticket in hand. The conductor takes it and moves on. The accountants saw this and agreed that it was a very clever idea. So, after the conference the
accountants decide to copy the engineers on the return trip and save money (being
clever with money and all that!). When they get to the station, they buy a single
ticket for their return trip. To their astonishment, the engineers don’t buy a ticket at
all. “How are you going to travel without a ticket” says one perplexed accountant.
“Watch and you’ll see”, answers an engineer. When they board the train, the three
accountants cram into a rest room and the three engineers cram into another one
nearby. The train departs. Shortly afterwards, one of the engineers leaves his rest
room and walks to the rest room where the accountants are hiding. He knocks O
the door and says, «Ticket, please»!
***
An Architect and an Engineer were asked to measure the height of a flag pole. The
Architect takes his measure tape and begins to shinny up the pole. After some slipping and sliding, he gives up. The Engineer being very intefligent as all Engineers
are, walks over to the pole, turns the crank and the flag pole tilts over until it lies
on the ground. The Engineer stretches out his tape measure, cranks the pole back
up and says to the Architect, “It’s 15 metres”. The Architect scratches his head and
says, “A typical engineer, he’s asked for the height and he gives you the length”!
***
A Doctor, a Minister and an Engineer were playing golf. They are continually held
up by the group ahead of them. In frustration they turn to the Club Pro. He tells
them that the group playing so slowly are blind firemen. They saved the Club
House from total destruction in a horrendous fire, and lost their eye sight. The Club
felt such a debt of gratitude that it allows them to play whenever they want. The
Doctor says, “I think that perhaps I could find an eye surgeon who could restore
their sight. That would speed up play”. The Minister says, “I’ll pray to God for a
miracle to restore their sight so play can speed up”. The Engineer says, «Why
don’t you have them play at night?»
***
117
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
One day a farmer called up a Mathematician, a Physicist, and an Engineer and
asked them to fence off the largest possible area with the least amount of fence.
The Mathematician made the fence in a circle and proclaimed that he had the most
efficient design. The Physicist made a long straight line and proclaimed “We can
assume that the length is infinite and pointed out that fencing off half of the earth
was certainly a more efficient way to do it. The Engineer just laughed at them. He
built a tiny fence around himself and
said, «I declare myself to be on the outside»!
***
Five surgeons were taking a coffee break and were discussing their work. The first
said, “I think accountants are the easiest to operate on. You open them up and everything inside is numbered.” The second said, “1 think librarians are the easiest to
operate on. You open them up and everything inside is in alphabetical order.” The
Third said, “I like to operate on electricians. You open them up and everything inside is color-coded.” The fourth one said, I like to operate on lawyers. They’re
heartless, spineless, gutless, and their heads and their butts are interchangeable.”
Fifth surgeon said, “I like Engineers...they always understand when you have a few
parts left over at the end...”
***
An engineer and a lawyer were recently fishing in the Caribbean. The fishing was
outstanding and they got to talking about their vacations.
The lawyer said, “I’m here because my house burned down, and everything I
owned was destroyed by the blazing fire. The insurance company paid for everything.”
That’s quite a coincidence,” said the engineer. “I’m here because my house and all
my belongings were destroyed by a raging flood, and my insurance company also
paid for everything.”
The puzzled lawyer asked, ‘How DO you start a flood?”
***
Question: What is the difference between Mechanical Engineers and
Civil Engineers?
Answer: Mechanical Engineers design weapons, Civil Engineers design targets.
IRREGULAR VERBS
118
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
to be
to buy
to come
to do
t drive
to get
to give
to go
to have
to hear
to know
to learn
to leave
to make
to pay
to put
to read
to say
to see
to take
to teach
to tell
to think
to wake
to write
was/were
bought
came
did
drove
got
gave
went
had
heard
knew
learnt
left
made
paid
put
read
said
saw
took
taught
told
though
woke
wrote
been
bought
come
done
driven
got
given
gone
had
heard
known
learnt
left
made
paid
put
read
said
seen
taken
taught
told
thought
woken
written
CONTENTS
119
быть
покупать
приходить
делать
водить машину, ехать
получать
давать
идти
иметь
слышать
знать
учиться
покидать
делать
платить
положить
читать
говорить, сказать
видеть, смотреть
брать, взять
преподавать
говорить, беседовать
думать
будить
писать
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ ..................................................................................................... 3
Unit 1 MY SPECIALTY ........................................................................................... 4
Unit 2 ELECTRICITY BASICS ............................................................................. 11
Unit 3 ENERGY PROBLEMS ............................................................................... 20
Unit 4 RUSSIAN ENERGY POLICY .................................................................... 36
Unit 5 ENERGY POLICY OF THE UNITED KINGDOM ................................... 46
Unit 6 WORLD RURAL ELECTRIFICATION .................................................... 51
READER ................................................................................................................. 58
VOCABULARY ..................................................................................................... 74
TEST........................................................................................................................ 76
ТЕСТ (ЧТЕНИЕ).................................................................................................... 96
APPENDIX ............................................................................................................. 98
IRREGULAR VERBS .......................................................................................... 119
120
Документ
Категория
Информатика
Просмотров
236
Размер файла
687 Кб
Теги
сельское, 1042, электрооборудование, электротехнологии, хозяйства
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа