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1116.Английский язык для магистрантов технических направлений

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Ю.А. Орлов
Н.А. Макарова
И.Ю. Попова
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
для магистрантов
технических направлений
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ
ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНТСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ
ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ
ВЫСШЕГО ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ
«ОРЛОВСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»
Ю.А. Орлов, Н.А. Макарова, И.Ю. Попова
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
для магистрантов технических направлений
Рекомендовано редакционно-издательским советом ОрелГТУ
в качестве учебно-методического пособия для вузов
Орел 2008
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УДК 811.111 (075)
ББК 81.432.1 - 923
О66
Рецензенты:
кандидат филологических наук,
доцент кафедры «Иностранные языки»
Орловского государственного технического университета
О.Н. Сатковская,
кандидат филологических наук, доцент
заведующий кафедрой иностранных языков
Орловского государственного института
экономики и торговли
З.Е. Коротких
О66
Орлов, Ю.А. Английский язык для магистрантов технических направлений: учебно-методическое пособие для вузов /
Ю.А. Орлов, Н.А. Макарова, И.Ю. Попова. – Орел: ОрелГТУ,
2008. – 84 c.
Пособие содержит 12 технических текстов, заимствованных из
различных источников, в том числе монографий и диссертаций на английском языке. Каждый текст снабжен комментариями, включающими
подробный контекстуальный перевод терминов и труднопереводимых
слов и выражений, лексическими заданиями и грамматическими упражнениями на усвоение и закрепление профессиональной лексики и наиболее сложных разделов грамматики.
В конце пособия даны два приложения: «Чтение математических
формул и выражений» и «Образование множественного числа слов латинского и греческого происхождения».
Предназначено для магистрантов различных технических направлений ОрелГТУ, углубленно изучающих английский язык на 1 курсе магистратуры и может быть частично использовано аспирантами и соискателями научных степеней.
УДК 811.111 (075)
ББК 81.432.1 - 923
© ОрелГТУ, 2008
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СОДЕРЖАНИЕ
Введение ...................................................................................................... 5
Рекомендации по работе с пособием ....................................................... 6
Text 1. Science and Technology .................................................................. 7
Грамматика: Порядок слов в английском языке.
Информационная роль порядка слов в английском
и русском повествовательном предложении научно-технического
текста. Строевые слова и их роль в грамматическом строе
английского языка. Времена Perfect . Who – кто, который.
Which – который, что. What, that – что, который, какой
Text 2. Computer Graphics ........................................................................ 16
Грамматика: Употребление определенного, неопределенного
и нулевого артикля. Общий падеж и выражение падежных
отношений в английском языке с помощью порядка слов
и предлогов
Text 3. A Science City near Novosibirsk................................................... 21
Грамматика: Модальные глаголы can, may, must
c Indefinite Infinitive and Perfect Infinitive для выражения
разной степени уверенности в английском языке
Text 4. The Internet .................................................................................... 30
Грамматика: Образование, употребление и перевод пассивных
конструкций. Indefinite Infinitive Passive Voice в сочетании
с модальными глаголами
Text 5. Arithmetic ...................................................................................... 34
Грамматика: Выражение долженствования в английском языке.
Чтение математических выражений и формул.
Образование множественного числа слов латинского
и греческого происхождения
Text 6. Nanotechnology ............................................................................. 42
Грамматика: Отсутствие артикля перед именами
существительными типа: chapter, table, figure, equation, formula,
type, case, fraction, appendix
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Text 7. The Impact of Research and Development on Science
and Engineering.......................................................................................... 46
Грамматика: Значение лексики для правильного понимания
и перевода текста. «Ложные друзья» переводчика.
Многозначность слов. Уточнение значения слова в контексте
Text 8. Mechanics of Materials .................................................................. 51
Грамматика: О сочетаемости слов в английском языке.
Перевод фразеологических сочетаний и идиоматических
выражений
Text 9. Energy ............................................................................................ 57
Грамматика: Местоимение it, его функции и перевод.
Систематизация простых форм причастий и их перевод
на русский язык. Введение формального подлежащего there
Text 10. Elastic and Inelastic Bodies ......................................................... 62
Грамматика: Условные предложения.
Конструкции типа It is important, it is necessary, it is demanded
Text 11. Mechatronic Systems ................................................................... 68
Грамматика: Союзы when, while, if + ing-form или
III форма глагола, существительное, прилагательное, предлог.
Причастия
Text 12. Internal Centerless Grinding ........................................................ 73
Грамматика: Предложный оборот for + существительное
(или местоимение) + инфинитив и способы его перевода
на русский язык
Приложение 1. Чтение математических формул и выражений .......... 77
Приложение 2. Образование множественного числа слов
латинского и греческого происхождения .............................................. 81
Литература ................................................................................................ 82
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ВВЕДЕНИЕ
Данное пособие издается в ОрелГТУ впервые и имеет своей целью
подготовить магистрантов технических направлений к чтению и переводу оригинальной научно-технической литературы с английского
языка на русский и с русского – на английский. Пособие предусматривает и дальнейшее совершенствование умений и навыков устной
речи.
Пособие содержит 12 технических текстов различной тематики,
заимствованных из разных источников, в том числе монографий и
диссертаций на английском языке. Каждый текст снабжен комментариями, где дается подробный контекстуальный перевод терминов и
труднопереводимых слов и выражений; лексическими заданиями и
грамматическими упражнениями.
Изучение текстов и выполнение лексических заданий и грамматических упражнений позволит усвоить общенаучные слова, техническую терминологию, фразеологические словосочетания и идиоматические выражения, закрепить знания по курсу грамматики, особенно
по наиболее сложным грамматическим конструкциям.
Пособие рассчитано на проведение в течение учебного года 60 часов аудиторных занятий при обязательной самостоятельной работе
слушателей.
При изучении и повторении грамматического материала, указанного в рамке, рекомендуется использовать учебники: Т.М. Новицкая,
Н.Д. Кучин «Практическая грамматика английского языка» и Е.Е. Израилевич, К.Н. Качалова «Практическая грамматика английского языка».
В лексических заданиях особое внимание уделяется многозначности слов и сочетаемости их с другими словами. Задания такого рода
включают примеры употребления отдельных слов и словосочетаний
в предложениях и их перевод с английского языка на русский и с русского – на английский.
В конце пособия даны два приложения: «Чтение математических
формул и выражений» и «Образование множественного числа слов
латинского и греческого происхождения».
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РЕКОМЕНДАЦИИ ПО РАБОТЕ С ПОСОБИЕМ
Предлагается начинать работу над каждым текстом с повторения
ранее известного грамматического материала или объяснения нового
теоретического материала и выполнения грамматических упражнений. После просмотра комментария к тексту можно приступать к чтению и переводу самого текста. В процессе перевода текста преподаватель может давать разъяснения по той или иной сложной грамматической структуре или лексическим средствам, вызывающим затруднения. Целесообразно, чтобы магистранты запоминали общеупотребительную лексику, словосочетания и фразеологические обороты, а
также техническую терминологию. После проработки грамматики и
лексики, выполнения адекватного перевода текста и различных заданий магистрантам предлагается кратко передать содержание текста на
английском языке.
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TEXT 1. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Грамматика: Порядок слов в английском языке. Информационная
роль порядка слов в английском и русском простом повествовательном предложении научно-технического текста. Строевые слова и их
роль в грамматическом строе английского языка. Времена Perfect.
Who – кто, который; which – который, что
What, that – что, который, какой.
1. Translate the following sentences from English into Russian.
Remember the difference between the English and Russian word
order:
1. A press conference of the President of France was recently held in
Paris.
2. A new electric generator has also been designed this year.
3. The problem of using digital telemeter system will also be dealt with
the next paper.
4. United States and Chinese negotiators held the fifth session of their
talks on the problem of civilian repatriation at U.N. headquarters in Geneva
today.
5. The data on this new type of laser are on the other hand, owing to
technical difficulties, which have arisen lately, almost entirely lacking.
6. There are also systems, which are being developed to translate
articles from foreign journals by computer and to make up many lists of
information, which are needed in a modern library.
7. Recently radar to be mounted on lorries and cars has been designed
in the USA.
8. A continuous search is going on in the laboratories throughout the
world for more perfect, reliable and high-speed electronic circuit.
9. A woman came into the house.
10. The woman came out of the house and went along the street.
11. An interesting article was published in our newspaper yesterday.
12. An interesting book was given to me yesterday.
13. A man is waiting for you at the entrance hall.
14. The young man is waiting for you for about 20 minutes.
15. At the Institute there are fifty senior and eighty junior researchworkers.
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16. At the end of July, however, there were no longer any distinct
differences between the outer and inner regions.
17. No building is allowed to erect on this place.
18. Wonderful discoveries are being made in the field of science
nowadays.
19. It is impossible, however, to speak of present-day engineering
without mentioning chemical engineering.
2. Make the right choice: «who», «which» or «that».
1. She has already read the book … I bought last Friday.
2. Look at the old man … is standing near the window. Do you
recognize him?
3. This is the suit … I bought in London.
4. A non-smoker is someone … does not smoke.
5. There is a man here … wants to sell me a mark for five pounds.
6. This is the Eiffel Tower … is in Paris.
7. Here are the papers … you have not looked through yet.
8. We do not know the people … have just arrived.
9. Have you written the story … is to be completed?
10. He is the man … will help you whenever you require help.
11. A bus driver is a person … drives a bus.
12. I do not know … is the most sensible project to follow.
13. The children … live in that house are my brother’s friends.
14. The head of that chair ... is a highly educated man speaks several
foreign languages.
15. In the street I met a man … showed me the way to the station.
16. The Battle of Stalingrad, … is considered as the greatest battle of all
times, ended in the historic victory of the Soviet Army.
17. A letter … is written in pencil is difficult to read.
18. The book … we were talking about yesterday had been published
by one of the local publishing houses.
19. Earlier veteran workers … have retired on pensions got free medical
services and holydays at rest homes and sanatoriums.
20. In Russia higher education is available to all … want to study and
are able to pass entrance examinations.
21. All the answers to these questions may be found in the article …
we found in the latest number of «Machinery».
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22. Engineering is a science … deals with design, construction and operation of machines, engines and other devices used in industry and everyday life.
23. Hypertext is the text … contains links to other documents.
3. Make the right choice: «what» or «that».
1. Don’t you know … he is leaving on Monday morning?
2. She told me … she wanted to buy a new coat.
3. He was not surprised at … he saw because I told him … to expect.
4. I did … I could.
5. He did everything … he had to do.
6. Show me … you have got in your hand.
7. We do not know … they are talking about.
8. She is sure … … you say is true.
9. I didn’t know … you had promised the children to take them to the
Zoo.
10. They didn’t buy anything because they didn’t see … they wanted.
11. … books did he show you?
12. …did you suggest to them?
13. … University has your friend graduated from?
14. He asked us … we thought of it.
15. They laughed at … he said.
16. He has just gone away saying … he will return in an hour.
17. I know … he bought yesterday.
18. I know … he bought a dictionary yesterday.
19. He said … the ship would arrive at the end of the week.
20. The letter … I received from him yesterday is very important.
21. He has found the book … he was looking for.
4. Translate the sentences from English into Russian, in which
Perfect Tenses Active Voice are used:
1. From its early beginning in the 16-th century, the developments of
science have influenced the course of western civilization more and more
until today it plays a most dominant role.
2. The second part of the 20-th century has brought a number of
technical innovations, which are still very young but which are taken so
much for granted as if they have always existed.
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3. Scientific research has become so important in the 20-th century that
it is no longer possible to describe any human society without its rightful
place.
4. I shall give you the book after I have read it.
5. During the past decade development work for extremely powerful
and cost-effective computers has concentrated on new architectures.
6. Reactions such as we have described have been known for over a
century.
7. As scientific knowledge has grown and become more complicated,
many new fields of science have appeared.
8. In our days we very often hear that in the twentieth century science
has come to play a special role in the development of society.
9. Professor Gordon has been working at the University for twenty
years.
10. He has been working at that problem since 1998.
11. Since when has he been working on his thesis?
12. Have you ever been to Great Novgorod?
13. Have you seen many places of interest there?
14. He has looked through the newspapers.
15. She had studied English before she entered the University.
16. The teacher will have looked through all our exercise books by the
end of the week.
17. We felt very tired because we had been working for many hours.
18. We have built that hydroelectric station on the Volga River.
19. He has written his test papers rather well.
20. They have been carrying on the experiment since nine o’clock and
have not been through with it yet (to be through with something – закончить что- либо).
21. When I entered the hall Professor Gordon had been delivering his
lecture for 20 minutes.
22. We have done our work in time.
23. Kathryn, a Law graduate, has just received her degree.
5. Translate the sentences from Russian into English using the
Perfect Tenses Active Voice:
1. Пришел ли секретарь?
2. Я не написал свое упражнение.
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3. Мой друг уехал за границу.
4. Мы еще не читали этой книги.
5. Они известили меня о времени отгрузки товара.
6. Мой брат прочитал эту книгу дважды.
7. Они видели этот фильм три раза.
8. Он еще не окончил своей работы.
9. За последнее время мы не получали от них (никаких) писем.
10. Она не получала от него известий с тех пор, как он уехал из
Москвы.
11. Они уехали из нашего города в 1998 году, и я не видел их с тех
пор.
12. Студенты (уже) перевели статью к понедельнику.
13. Мы еще не дошли (не успели дойти) до вокзала, как начался
дождь.
14. К концу года он (уже) научился говорить по-французски.
15. Мы (уже) отгрузим товары к тому времени.
16. Они уже отгрузят товар, когда прибудет ваша телеграмма.
17. Поезд уже уйдет к тому времени, когда мы приедем на вокзал.
6. Translate the sentences from English into Russian, in which
Perfect Tenses Passive Voice are used:
1. Over the past 150 years the range of human knowledge has been
doubled every twelve to fifteen years.
2. Until now the switches inside computers have been electronic.
3. After a bill has been passed by Parliament it goes to the Queen for
Royal Assent before it comes law.
4. Reactions such as we have described have been known for over a
century.
5. For centuries Great Britain has been the leading shipbuilder in the
world.
6. He had sent the letter before I came.
7. Recently a new method of examining machine parts has been
developed.
8. It has been realized that the information explosion has affected every
field of study, especially in natural and applied sciences.
9. Our power stations have been connected by high voltage transmission lines into several networks.
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1. Electricity has replaced other sources of energy as it has been
realized that it offers improved service and reduced cost.
11. This important problem had been solved by the end of 1987.
12. This complicated problem will have been solved by the end of the
month.
7. Translate the sentences into English using the Perfect Tenses
Passive Voice:
1. Новое здание для нашего университета на Московской улице
будет уже построено к тому времени.
2. Это письмо только что подписано директором.
3. Соглашение уже подписано.
4. Здание новой школы было уже построено, когда мы приехали в
город.
5. Его научная статья уже опубликована в одном из научных
журналов.
6. Письмо еще не отправлено.
7. К 2010 году в городе Орле будет построен ряд новых жилых
домов.
8. К первому июля экзамены будут уже сданы всеми студентами.
9. Соглашение еще не достигнуто.
8. Translate the sentences from Russian into English:
1. Что ты делаешь сейчас?
2. Я перевожу статью из английского научного журнала.
3. Сколько ты уже перевела?
4. Я перевела половину.
5. Ты давно ее переводишь?
6. Я перевожу эту статью уже два часа.
7. Я всегда перевожу английские научные статьи медленно.
8. Этот ученый работает над данной проблемой уже много лет, и
он сделал уже ряд важных открытий.
9. Он начал работать в этой области еще до того, как приехал в
Москву.
10. Он изучает английский язык уже давно.
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11. Еще до того как мой друг поступил в институт, он изучал немецкий язык более пяти лет.
12. Я закончил свою работу и теперь могу идти домой.
9. Translate the sentences from Russian into English. Use such
adjectives as:
out-of-date, valuable, reliable, useful, practicable, up-to –date:
1. Только что получена ценная информация.
2. Разработаны реальные планы.
3. Выдвинуты полезные планы.
4. Все старое оборудование будет демонтировано (to demount).
5. Новое надежное оборудование уже разработано нашими инженерами.
6. Современное оборудование будет смонтировано к концу года.
7. Будут получены ценные результаты.
8. Этот аппарат является самым надежным из всех применяемых
сейчас.
Text 1.
1. Read and translate the text.
Science and Technology
The word «science» comes from the Latin word «scientia», which
means «knowledge». Science covers the broad field of knowledge that
deals with facts and the relationship among these facts.
Scientists study a wide variety of subjects. Some scientists search for
clues to origin of the universe and examine the structure of the cells of
living plants and animals. Other researchers investigate why we act the
way we do, try to solve complicated mathematical problems.
Scientists use systematic methods of study to make observations and
collect facts. They develop theories that help them to order and unify facts.
Scientific theories consist of general principles or law that attempt to
explain how and why something happens or has happened. A theory is
considered to become a part of scientific knowledge if it has been tested
experimentally and proved to be true.
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Scientific study can be divided into three major groups: the natural,
social, and technical sciences. As scientific knowledge has grown and
become more complicated, many new fields of science have appeared. At
the same time, the boundaries between scientific fields have become less
and less clear. Numerous areas of science overlap each other and it is often
hard to tell where one science ends and another begins. All sciences are
closely interconnected.
Science has great influence on our lives. It provides the basis of
modern technology – the tools and machines that make our life and work
easier.
The discoveries and inventions of scientists also help to shape our view
about ourselves and our place in the universe.
Technology means the use of people’s inventions and discoveries to
their needs. Since people have appeared on the earth, they had to have got
food, clothes, and shelter. Through the ages, people invented tools,
machines, and materials to make work easier. Nowadays when people
speak of technology, they generally mean industrial technology. Industrial
technology began about 200 years ago with the development of the steam
engine, the growth of factories and mass production of goods. It influenced
different aspects of people’s lives. The development of the car influenced
where people lived and worked. Radio and television changed their leisure
time. The telephone revolutionized communication.
Science has contributed much to modern technology. Science attempts
to explain how and why things happen. Technology makes things happen.
But not all technology is based on science. For example, people had made
different objects from iron for centuries before they learned the structure of
the metal. But some modern technologies such as nuclear power production and space travel depend heavily on science.
Notes to the text:
1) search for clues to origin – искать ключ к разгадке о происхождении;
2) overlap – перекрывать, частично совпадать;
3) discovery – открытие;
4) invention – изобретение;
1. Universe – вселенная;
2. shelter – кров, пристанище;
3. contribute to – вносить вклад в;
4. development – разработка.
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2. Find in the text the English equivalents for the Russian words
and word combinations:
1) происходит от; 2) означает использование; 3) решать сложные
задачи; 4) почему что-то происходит; 5) упорядочить и обобщить;
6) общие принципы; 7) общественные науки; 8) должны были иметь
кров; 9) время досуга; 10) внесла вклад в технологию; 11) происхождение вселенной; 12) проверена экспериментально; 13) на протяжении
веков; 14) основные группы; 15) структура металла; 16) другие исследователи исследуют; 17) создание автомобиля; 18) формировать наши
взгляды; 19) в то же самое время; 20) пытаются объяснить; 21) обеспечивает основу современной технологии; 22) примерно 200 лет тому
назад.
3. Answer the following questions:
1. What does the word «science» mean?
2. Does science cover the broad field of knowledge?
3. What do scientists use to make observations and collect facts?
4. When is a theory considered to become a part of scientific
knowledge?
5. Can numerous areas of science overlap each other?
6. What do the tools and machines do easier?
7. What do people mean when they speak of technology?
8. Can the discoveries and inventions of scientists change our opinion
about ourselves and our place in the universe?
9. Do you know examples when technology is not based on science?
4. Give a short summary of text 1, speak about:
a) Scientists study a wide variety of subjects.
b) Technology as a means of using inventions and discoveries by
peoples for their needs.
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TEXT 2. COMPUTER GRAPHICS
Грамматика: Употребление определенного, неопределенного и нулевого артикля. Общий падеж и выражение падежных отношений в
английском языке с помощью порядка слов и предлогов.
Grammar exercises
1. Use the proper article: «a/an», «the» or «-».
1. It was … evening. It was … warm summer evening. … evening
was very pleasant .
2. They passed all examinations on …June.
3. His favorite subject is …mathematics.
4. Let’s meet in …evening.
5. We started early in …evening.
6. This is …map of Great Britain.
7. …Great Britain is in …Europe.
8. This is … plan of London.
9. …London is in England.
10. …Thames is … river in England.
11. …river Thames is very wide.
12. …white building with two square towers in front of … Houses
of…Parliament is … Westminster Abbey.
13. Read this part of …text.
14. Read …end of …text.
15. England is on …east side of …Atlantic Ocean.
16. My friend is …student. He is …best student in …group.
17. They live in …new house. …house is very high.
18. Moscow is …capital of …Russia.
19. They live in …Gorky Street.
20. He is …English.
21. The most popular daily newspaper in Britain is … Daily Mirror.
22. They get up early in … morning.
23. We study … Chemistry.
24. He speaks … English well.
25. Mary comes from … France.
26. We left … Netherlands and crossed to … United Kingdom.
27. … Los Angeles is in … California.
28. They visited … Palace of Westminster.
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29. You should know that … milk is good for you.
30. Please, bring me … milk, which is on the table in the kitchen.
31. … Spanish is spoken by about 300 million people.
32. … Carol Parker is … Minister of Communications.
33. We saw a new good film last night. It was … new film by N. Michalkov.
2. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English:
1. Эта книга лежит на столе.
2. Возьмите книгу со стола.
3. Он видит студента. Студент видит его.
4. Она посылает нам письма каждый месяц.
5. Комнаты нашей квартиры светлые и большие.
6. Преподаватель объясняет правила студентам.
7. Эта книга написана М. Шолоховым.
8. Машина приводится в действие электродвигателем.
9. Посредством этого метода мы достигаем хороших результатов.
10. Он пишет карандашом.
11. Мы говорим о наших лекциях.
12. Они думают об этой экспедиции.
13. Он прошел мимо меня.
14. Дайте эту книгу студенту.
15. Подойдите к доске.
16. Проект этого инженера хороший.
17. Работа инженеров интересная.
18. Учебник студента находится на том столе.
19. Мы думаем о поездке в Сочи.
20. Некоторые из этих студентов сдали свои экзамены очень хорошо.
Text 2.
1. Read and translate the text.
Computer Graphics
Computer graphics is known to be pictures and drawings produced by
computers. A graphics program interprets the input provided by the user
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and transports it into images that can be displayed on the screen, printed on
paper or transferred to microfilm. In the process the computer uses
hundreds of mathematical formulas to convert the bits of data into precise
shapes and colours. Graphics can be developed for a variety of uses
including illustrations, architectural designs and detailed engineering
drawings.
Mechanical engineering uses sophisticated programs for applications in
computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM).
In the car industry CAD software is used to develop model and test car
designs before the actual parts are made. This can save a lot of time and
money.
Basically, computer graphics helps users to understand complex information quickly by presenting it in more understandable and clearer visual
forms. Electric engineers use computer graphics for designing circuits and
in business it is possible to present information as graphics and diagrams.
These are certain to be much more effective ways of communicating than
lists of figures or long explanations.
Today, three-dimensional graphics along with colour and computer
animation are supposed to be essential for graphic design, computer-aided
engineering (CAE) and academic research. Computer animation is the
process of creating objects and pictures, which move across the screen;
scientists and engineers use it to analyze problems. With appropriate
software they can study the structure of objects and how it is affected by
particular changes.
A graphic package is the software that enables the user to draw and
manipulate objects on a computer. Each graphic package has its own
facilities, as well as a wide range of basic drawing and painting tools. The
collection of tools in a package is known as a palette. The basic geometric
shapes, such as lines between two points, arcs, circles, polygons, ellipses
and even text, making graphical objects, are called «primitives». You can
choose both the primitive you want and where it should go on the screen.
Moreover, you can specify the «attributes» of each primitive, e.g., its
colour, line type and so on. The various tools in a palette usually appear
together as pop-up icons in a menu. To use one you can activate it by
clicking on it.
After specifying the primitives and their attributes you must transform
them. Transformation means moving or manipulating the object by
translating, rotating and scaling the object.
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Translation is moving an object along an axis to somewhere else in the
viewing area. Rotation is turning the object larger or smaller in any of the
horizontal, vertical or depth direction (corresponding to the x, y and z axis).
The term «rendering» describes the techniques used to make your object
look real. Rendering includes hidden surface removal, light sources and
reflections.
Notes to the text:
1) engineering drawings – технические чертежи;
2) precise – точный;
3) develop – разрабатывать, конструировать;
4) architectural design – архитектурный проект;
5) sophisticated – сложный;
6) computer-aided design (CAD) – автоматизированное проектирование;
7) computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) – автоматизированное
производство;
8) electric engineer – инженер-электрик;
9) graphic package – графический пакет;
10) rendering – рендеринг, (раскрашивание, тонирование);
11) primitive – «примитив», (простые геометрические формы);
12) attribute – свойство, характеристика;
13) polygon – правильный многоугольник;
14) specify – специфицировать, точно определять;
15) pop-up icons menu – всплывающее меню.
2. Answer the following questions:
1. For what uses can graphics be developed?
2. Where сan CAD be used?
3. How does computer graphics help users?
4. What is computer animation?
5. What geometrical shapes are called «primitives»?
6. Can you specify the «attributes» of primitives or not?
7. What does the word «palette» mean?
8. How can you describe the task of graphic package?
9. What is transformation?
10. What techniques are used to make the object look real?
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3. Find the Russian equivalents for the English words and word
combinations:
1) to display on the screen; 2) to transfer to microfilm; 3) computeraided design; 4) to present information as graphics and diagrams; 5) list of
figures; 6) appropriate software; 7) drawing and painting tools; 8) to make
the object look real; 9) detailed engineering drawings; 10) to specify the
«attributes».
4. Find in the text the English equivalents for the Russian words
and word combinations:
1) отражать на экране; 2) преобразовывать биты информации в
точные формы и цвета; 3) архитектурный проект; 4) автоматизированное проектирование; 5) разработка схем; 6) более эффективный
способ; 7) основные инструменты для черчения и рисования; 8) основные геометрические формы; 9) набор инструментов в графическом
пакете; 10) передвижение объекта вдоль оси.
5. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English:
1. Графические программы обрабатывают данные, вводимые
пользователем, и преобразуют их в образы, которые могут быть отражены на экране.
2. Компьютерная графика помогает пользователям понять сложную информацию, представляя ее в более доступной и ясной визуальной форме.
3. Инженеры-электрики могут использовать компьютерную графику для разработки схем.
4. Компьютерная анимация – это процесс создания объектов или
рисунков, которые могут двигаться по экрану.
5. Каждый графический пакет имеет широкий набор основных
инструментов для черчения и рисования.
6. После того как основные характеристики примитива заданы,
его нужно трансформировать.
6. Give a short summary of text 2, speak about:
a) What is computer graphics and how it can be used?
b) Graphic package and manipulations with various objects on a computer.
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TEXT 3. A SCIENCE CITY NEAR NOVOSIBIRSK
Грамматика: Модальные глаголы can, may, must с Indefinite Infinitive
и Perfect Infinitive для выражения разной степени уверенности в английском языке.
1. Translate the following sentences paying attention to modal
verbs in combination with Indefinite Infinitive:
1. She can drive a car.
2. Can it be true?
3. He cannot know this man. I am sure they have never met.
4. You may go home.
5. May I come in? Yes, you may.
6. It may rain today.
7. When he was young, he could run a mile in less than five minutes.
8. I could do it tomorrow, if I were free.
9. He said that he could translate this article from English into Russian.
10. She may come tonight, but I am not sure.
11. If he made haste he might catch the train.
12. We must go home before it gets dark.
2. Translate the following sentences paying attention to modal
verbs in combination with Perfect Infinitive:
1. He cannot have done it.
2. She cannot have said it.
3. Can he have said it?
4. You must have guessed what I meant.
5. He must have missed the train.
6. He must have left his notebook at home.
7. Some mistakes must have been made in assembling the parts of the
machine.
8. The expert pointed out that the goods must have been in a bad condition already at the time of dispatch.
9. The expert admits that the goods may have been damaged in transit.
10. He does not ring me up; he may have lost my telephone number.
11. They must have finished their experiment.
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12. They may have taken all the necessary steps, but I am not quite
sure.
13. They may have been working at this invention for three years, but I
am not at all sure.
3. Change the following sentences using the modal verbs must or
may with the Indefinite Infinitive or Perfect Infinitive:
Model: Probably he left his raincoat at home. – He must have left his
raincoat at home.
It is possible that he knows her address. – He may know her
address.
1. It is possible that he will return in a week.
2. He probably lost his key on his way home.
3. It is possible that he left his notebook at his office.
4. The text is probably very difficult, as he cannot translate it without a
dictionary.
5. It is possible that it will rain tomorrow.
6. It is possible that he was a good singer once, but he cannot sing now
at all.
7. They probably came home very late as I was asleep.
8. You probably walked very fast if you reached the station so quickly.
9. I cannot find my dictionary. I probably left it in the lecture-hall.
10. He is probably a very good student because his paper is excellent.
11. Perhaps he is in the library now.
12. She probably left Moscow because she has not come to the lecture.
13. Probably he knows English very well because there are no mistakes
in his home composition.
14. It is possible that they have gone to the park.
15. It is possible that this monument was erected in the 18-th century.
4. Choose the necessary modal verb:
1. Он, должно быть, уже пришел. He (must, may) have come.
2. Я не знаю, может быть, он сейчас занимается в читальном зале.
I do not know, he (may, must) be studying in the reading room.
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3. Она, наверное, уже сделала перевод и, может быть, собирается
смотреть телевизор. She (must, may) have done the translation and (must,
may) be going to watch TV.
4. Не может быть, чтобы она решила все уравнения. She (must not,
cannot) have solved all the equations.
5. Не может быть, чтобы она окончила университет в этом году.
She (could not, may not) have graduated from the University this year.
6. Они, должно быть, работают сейчас в саду. They (must, may) be
working in the garden now.
7. Она, вероятно, закончила свою работу. She (must, may) have
finished her work.
8. Возможно, он сейчас занимается в библиотеке университета. He
(may, must) be studying in the library of the University.
9. Она, возможно, оставила свою книгу в саду. She (must, may)
have left her book in the garden.
10. Он, должно быть (вероятно), работает уже несколько часов. He
(may, must) have been working for several hours.
11. Вы, должно быть (вероятно), устали после работы. You (must,
may) be tired after your work.
12. Вам нельзя этого делать. You (must, may) not do it.
5. Translate the sentences from Russian into English using the
modal verbs may or must:
1. Он, может быть, зайдет ко мне сегодня вечером.
2. Он, должно быть, дома сейчас.
3. Она, должно быть, уже слышала об этом.
4. Он, может быть, уже слышал об этом.
5. Этот дом, должно быть, был построен в начале 18 столетия.
6. Вы, может быть, знаете его сестру.
7. Они, должно быть, сидят сейчас в саду.
8. Секретарь, должно быть, забыла передать ваше письмо директору.
9. Они, может быть, еще не получили вашу телеграмму.
10. Они, вероятно, опоздали на поезд.
11. Может быть, он решил поступать в другой университет.
12. Он, вероятно, уже сдал все экзамены.
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6. Translate the following sentences containing the modal verbs
could, must or might with Perfect Infinitive:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
time.
6.
7.
8.
I said that he could not have done it.
She said that he might have lost her address.
You could have asked him about it. Why did not you do it?
If he had tried, he could have done it.
If they had worked harder, they could have finished their work in
He said that she might have lost his address.
If he had been here, he might have helped us.
She said that he might have forgotten about it.
7. Change the construction of the italicized parts of the sentences
by using the modal verbs must and may:
Model: It is already past eight o’clock and I am sure the shops are
shut. –
It is already half past eight o’clock and the shops must be
shut.
1. Those pictures, of course, have attracted his special attention;
usually he is rather indifferent to painting.
2. Perhaps, he is playing tennis at the stadium now; he always trains
there at this time.
3. Don’t be so impatient. I am sure she is waiting for you somewhere
here.
4. Perhaps, she has gone away for a moment.
5. He is sure they have been arguing for an hour and a half.
6. Probably, the announcement has been already made.
7. Perhaps, he has forgotten about it.
8. She is sure they have gone.
8. Choose the correct form:
1. This student must (finish, have finished) the translation some time
ago.
2. The delegation must (come, have come) yesterday.
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3. He must (be translating, have translated) an English article now.
4. He must (be translating, have translated) such articles from English
into Russian last term.
5. This student may (take, have taken) his English exam in a month.
6. Your friend may (pass, have passed) all his exams last month.
7. They may (come back, have come back) two days ago.
8. The may (come, have come) to Moscow next month.
9. He cannot (graduate from, have graduated) from the University last
year.
10. She cannot (graduate, have graduated from) the University next
year.
11. The conference cannot (be held, have held) yesterday.
12. The conference cannot (be held, have held) tomorrow.
13. These laboratory works may (be done, have been done) tomorrow.
Text 3.
1. Read and translate the text.
A Science City Near Novosibirsk
Akademgorodok, an interesting new city devoted entirely to science,
has been constructed 3,000 kilometers east of Moscow in the late 1950s as
the focal point for Siberian Department of the Academy of Science of the
USSR. It has brought to western Siberia a staff of eminent scientists from
all parts of the country to direct and encourage Siberian scientific efforts.
The Siberian Department was established as part of an overall plan to
make better use of the vast natural resources of this section of our country.
Territorially, Siberia constitutes more than half of Russia. Within its
geographic boundaries lie 70 per cent of the forest of the country and a
large area of virgin soil and of mineral resources, including coal, oil, and
natural gas. Several large rivers traverse Siberia, including the Irtysh, Yenisey, Lena, and Ob, on which power stations have been built to provide light
and heat for its inhabitants.
Akademgorodok, freely translated by us as Science City, is situated only 19 kilometers from Novosibirsk, the capital of Siberia. The Siberian capital is linked to Akademgorodok by highways and an electric railway system.
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The facilities of the Science City was under the direction of the
Chief of the Siberian Department of the Academy of Sciences, Mikhail
Alekseevich Lavrentiev, who served as the administrative and scientific
head of the city and who was also Vice-President of the Academy of
Science (in Moscow). Academician M.A. Lavrentiev and his colleagues
have supervised the construction of the city since its inception. According
to their general plan, the city was divided into three major units: the
university and institutes, apartment houses and single-family houses for the
senior scientific staff, and smaller dwellings used at present for the
construction workers.
But the most important, Lavrentiev created the science town around
the three cardinal principles that he believed to be fundamental to the
successful development of science in the modern world. First, its research
should be top-rate. Second, there should be close links between science and
industry so that the research results become technological innovation. And
finally, there should be an active selection and development of the next
scientific generation.
The University of Novosibirsk together with 15 institutes in
Akademgorodok and five institutes nearby Novosibirsk offer a diversified
program for scientific training. Ten of the 20 institutes are devoted to
physics, mathematics, and technology, five to chemistry, three to biology,
and one each to geology and economics.
Besides having a highly qualified teaching staff, the University of
Novosibirsk has a close relationship with the institutes. At Akademgorodok,
the academic staffs of the institutes and of the university work together;
thus, lectures are given at the university by institute members, and
third-and fourth-year university students spend as many as 3 to 6 days a
week in one of the institutes, gaining practical experience during college
years.
The academic and professional titles are separate, as in American
universities. The academic ranks in Russia are Professor, Docent, and Assistant, which correspond to Professor, Associate Professor, and Assistant
in the USA. The scientific ranks, which not necessarily related to the
academic ranks, are Academician, Doctor, and then Candidate.
A student attending the university earns a diploma after 5 years of
graduate work. To gain the next degree that of Candidate, he must devote
three additional years to study and must defend a thesis. The title of
Candidate approximates American Ph.D. degree. To obtain a doctorate, a
Candidate must pursue a course requiring from 3 to 20 years of research
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and study and must defend a second thesis on a more abstract subject. The
various departments elect their own department heads from among the
faculty members, generally from among those holding doctorates; the
period of tenure is 4 years. Assistants who have received their diplomas
after graduate work or have completed the course for Candidate fill the
junior posts.
Notes to the text:
1) scientific efforts – научные работы;
2) educational facility – учебное заведение;
3) facility – институт;
4) apartment house – жилой дом;
5) single family house – коттедж;
6) university and institute instructors – преподаватели университета
и научные сотрудники институтов;
7) member of the faculty – преподаватель вуза;
8) academic staff – научный персонал;
9) inception – начало;
10) academic and professional titles – ученые звания и ученые степени;
11) academic rank – ученое звание;
12) scientific rank – ученая степень;
13) graduate work – курс обучения в университете;
14) defend a thesis – защитить диссертацию;
15) Ph.D. (Philosophy Doctor) degree – степень доктора естественных наук;
16) obtain a doctorate – получить докторскую степень;
17) department – факультет;
18) department head – декан факультета;
19) hold a doctorate – иметь степень доктора;
20) period of tenure – срок пребывания в должности.
2. Answer the following questions:
1. When and where had a new Science City known as Akademgorodok
been constructed?
2. For what purpose was this city constructed?
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3. Was the Siberian Department of the Academy of Science of the
USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) established in this City?
4. Who headed the construction of the Science City in Siberia and the
Siberian Department of the Academy of Science?
5. What is the capital of Siberia?
6. Where is Akademgorodok situated?
7. How was the Science City divided according to the general plan?
8. Who offer diversified program for scientific training?
9. What must a graduate from the University do to gain a Candidate
degree?
3. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English:
1. Город Орел является одним из областных центров Российской
Федерации.
2. Он расположен в 382 км южнее Москвы.
3. Орел связан с Москвой и многими другими городами страны
железнодорожным и автомобильным транспортом, а также воздушным сообщением.
4. В нашем городе несколько высших учебных заведений.
5. Орловский государственный технический университет является
одним из наиболее значимых высших учебных заведений города.
6. Профессорско-преподавательский состав ведет научные исследования в различных областях науки и техники.
7. Студенты старших курсов и аспиранты делают доклады по
своим исследованиям на различных конференциях, проводимых в
ОрелГТУ и других университетах, а также в научно-исследовательских институтах России.
8. Студентов, окончивших ОрелГТУ с отличием, рекомендуют
для поступления в аспирантуру.
9. В течение трех или четырех лет учебы и исследований аспиранты должны подготовить и защитить кандидатскую диссертацию.
10. Ученая степень кандидата наук в России примерно соответствует ученой степени доктора естественных наук в США.
11. Чтобы получить докторскую степень, кандидату наук необходимо подготовить и защитить новую диссертацию по более общей теме.
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12. После защиты кандидатской и докторской диссертации многие
аспиранты и докторанты продолжают работать преподавателями в
университете и занимают руководящие должности.
4. Give a short summary of text 3, speak about:
a) What is the main aim to construct a science city in Siberia?
b) The cardinal principles, which were to be fundamental to the
successful development of science in the modern world.
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TEXT 4. THE INTERNET
Грамматика: Образование, употребление и перевод пассивных конструкций. Indefinite Infinitive Passive Voice в сочетании с модальными
глаголами.
Grammar exercises
1. Определите время и залог сказуемого в предложениях и переведите предложения на русский язык:
1. These books are sold everywhere. 2. The letter is written with a pencil. 3. The library is closed, as today is Friday. 4. He will be laughed at.
5. He is given a consultation.6. A production plan for the next year has
been worked out. 7. We have been told that the delegation will arrive from
the United States next month. 8. Russian architects and builders are
successfully carrying out the plan for the Reconstruction of Moscow.
9. A book is an invention by means of which thought is recorded, carried
about in the world, and handed down from one age to another. 10. In 1788
the first iron bridge was built, and now nearly all bridges, especially for
railroad traffic, are being built of cast iron. 11. How long have you been
waiting for me? 12. I am offered the post of chef engineer. 13. This
reference book can be relied on. 14. The telegram arrived five minutes after
you had left the house. 15. They had finished their work by 4 o’clock.
16. This rule must be paid attention to. 17. Each student will be spoken to
separately. 18. The figures, which have just been referred to, were
published in the newspaper last week. 19. The young children are being
taken care of by their elder sister. 20. He was awakened by the bright
morning sun.
2. Переведите предложения на английский язык:
1. Тема упругости будет обсуждена более полно в главе B.
2. Этy книгу перевели на английский язык в прошлом году.
3. Сроки, на которых Вы настаивали, не могли быть приняты.
4. На все его вопросы были даны ответы.
5. Нам сказали, что он делает значительные успехи в английском
языке.
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6. Когда поезд исчез из виду, мы покинули станцию.
7. Его напрасно ждали.
8. Здесь читаются лекции на различные темы.
9. На следующий день все газеты сообщили об этом событии.
10. Эти митинги посещали сотни людей.
11. Эта работа может быть выполнена сегодня.
12. Этот текст должен быть переведен завтра.
13. Письмо должно быть написано к понедельнику.
14. Этот сложный перевод может быть выполнен через неделю.
Text 4
1. Read and translate the text.
The Internet
The Internet is a magnificent global network with millions and millions
of computers and people connected to one another where each day people
worldwide exchange an immeasurable amount of information, electronic
mail, news, resources and more important ideas
It has grown at a surprising rate. Almost everyone has heard about it
and an increasing number of people use it regularly. The current estimate is
that over 70 million people are connected, in some way, to the Internet –
whether they know it or not.
With a few touches at a keyboard a person can get access to materials
in almost everywhere. One can have access to full-text newspapers,
magazines, and journals, reference works, and even books. The Web is one
of the best resources for up-to-date information. It is a hypertext-based
system by which you can navigate through the Internet. Hypertext is the
text that contains links to other documents. A special program known as
«browser» can help you find news, pictures, virtual museums, electronic
magazines, etc. and print Web pages. You can also click on keywords or
buttons that take you to other pages or other Web sites. This is possible
because browsers understand hypertext markup language or code, a set of
commands to indicate how a Web page is formatted and displayed.
Internet Video conferencing programs enable users to talk to and see
other, exchange textual and graphical information, and collaborate.
Internet TV sets allow you to surf the Web and have e-mail while
you are watching TV, or vice-versa. Image watching a film on TV and
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simultaneously accessing a Web site where you get information on the
actors of the film. The next generation of Internet-enabled televisions will
incorporate a smart card for home shopping, banking and other interactive
services. Internet-enabled TV means a TV set used as an Internet device.
The Internet is a good example of a wide area network (WAN). For
long-distance or worldwide communications, computers are usually
connected into a wide area network to form a single integrated network.
Networks can be linked together by telephone lines or fibre – optic cables.
Modern telecommunication systems use fibre-optic cables because they
offer considerable advantages. The cables require little physical space, they
are safe as they do not carry electricity, and they avoid electromagnetic interference.
Networks on different continents can also be connected via satellites.
Computers are connected by means of a modem to ordinary telephone lines
or fibre-optic cables, which are linked to a dish aerial. Communication
satellites receive and send signals on a transcontinental scale.
Notes to the text:
1 up-to-date – современный, новейший, (самый) последний;
2) mark up – (to record), записывать;
3) immeasurable – неизмеримый, громадный, несметный;
4) collaborate – сотрудничать;
5) surf – переходить с одного сайта на другой (to surf the Net/
Internet/ Web);
6) via – через; посредством чего-либо, с помощью чего-либо;
7) dish aerial – (спутниковая) антенна;
8) link (connection) – связь;
9) keyboard – клавиатура;
10) vice versa – наоборот, обратно, противоположно, взаимно.
2. Find the Russian equivalents for the English words and word
combinations:
1) a magnificent global network; 2) an immeasurable amount of
information; 3) current estimate; 4) to get access to; 5) reference work;
6) up-to-date information; 7) to click on keyword; 8) internet video
conferencing programs; 9) to exchange textual and graphical information;
10) to incorporate a smart-card; 11) to be linked to a dish aerial.
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3. Find in the text the English equivalents for the Russian words
and word combinations:
1) огромный объем информации; 2) получить доступ; 3) пользоваться; 4) один из лучших ресурсов; 5) ориентироваться в интернете;
6) связь с другими документами; 7) интерактивные услуги; 8) передвигаться по веб-сайтам; 9) занимать мало места; 10) получать и посылать сигналы; 11) электромагнитные помехи.
4. Make up a sentence out of two parts:
1. Almost everyone has heard about
Internet
2. With a few touches at a keyboard
one can get access
3. Web is one of the best resources
a) for up-to-date information.
b) to other pages or other Web
sites.
c) and an increasing number of
people use it regularly.
4. You can also click on keyword d) because they offer considerable
or buttons that take you
advantages.
5. Internet-enabled TV means
e) to full text, newspapers, magazines, reference works, and even
books.
6. Modern telecommunication
f) a TV sets used as an Internet
systems use fibre-optic cables
device.
5. Say what sentences correspond to the content of the text. Correct
the wrong sentences:
5) The Internet is a magnificent global network with millions and millions of computers and people connected to one another.
6) All Internet programs enables users to talk and see each other, exchange textual and graphical information, and collaborate.
7) Modern telecommunication systems do not use fibre-optic cables
because they are very costly.
8) Networks on different continents can also be connected via satellite.
9) Computers cannot be connected to ordinary telephone lines.
10)
Give a short summary of text 4, speak about:
1. What is the Internet?
b) What is the Web?
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TEXT 5. ARITHMETIC
Грамматика: Выражение долженствования в английском языке.
Чтение математических выражений и формул. Образование множественного числа слов латинского и греческого происхождения.
Grammar exercises
1. Translate the following sentences from English into Russian:
1. These questions must be answered at once.
2. These new methods of work must be used in all branches of our industry.
3. Shall I read? Shall I translate?
4. Shall we do this exercise in oral or written form?
5. You should help them.
6. Tools should always be kept clean.
7. You should have helped him.
8. I had to work hard last month, as I was to take my examinations.
9. He was to come at 5 but he didn’t come.
10. They were to have made this experiment.
11. We were obliged to finish reading this book in two hours.
12. You ought to help them.
13. You ought to have helped them.
14. We are to inspect this plant.
2. Write plural of the following Latin and Greek words and
translate them into Russian:
1) abscissa; 2) addendum; 3) analysis; 4) basis; 5) datum; 6) formula;
7) medium; 8) thesis; 9) spectrum; 10) phenomenon; 11) symposium;
12) terminus; 13) synthesis; 14) apparatus; 15) crisis; 16) hypothesis;
17) nucleus.
3. Say what words are used only in singular.
4. Read the following expressions and mathematics formulas:
16 + 17 = 33
410: 2 = 205
√64 = 8
28 – 13 = 15
42 = 16
2³=8
521.384
14 x 20 = 280
√ 625 = 25
³√27 = 3
0.325
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2/3, 3/5
3,789,642
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p(l  x)  0l  x x1dp
M
;
1


é
EI
dx
p (l  x)   0l  x ( R2  y12 ) x1dx1
;
2

4
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E(R  y )
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dé y
3 p(l  x)   0l  x ( R2  y12 )x1dx1  k
4) P 
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 l ;
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32 p
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5) f 
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E D d
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3  m  5;
6) f  
300m
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7)
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8) l  100 3
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k 
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9) x2  2 x  D2    D4  0 ;
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2
Text 5.
1. Read and translate the text.
Arithmetic
Arithmetic is the elementary branch of mathematics dealing with the
properties of numbers and their operation; the fundamental operations are
addition, subtraction, multiplication, division.
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The Arithmetic symbols now in use were derived from the Arabs and
the Hindus, the latter of whom introduced the symbol 0. These symbols
have been in use since the XVI century. Before the introduction of Arab
notation in Europe Roman numerals were used.
The Arabic system, which is a decimal system, employs ten figures to
express numbers, viz.:
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
zero one two three four five six
seven eight___nine
By combining these figures any number can be expressed.
In writing and reading numbers, the figures are separated into groups
of three figures each, called periods. These periods contain the hundreds,
tens, and units of each denomination.
In reading numbers expressed by three figures, the tens are read after
the hundreds, and the units after the tens without the word and. Thus:
745 is read «seven hundred forty-five»
609 is read «six hundred nine»
Example 1:
How to read a large figure: 21,040,385,861.
Rules: 1. Each period, except the one at the left, must contain three
figures.
2. The periods are separated from each other by commas.
Example 2:
Number 20,673,210,040,385,861 is read:
Twenty quadrillion, six hundred seventy-three trillion, two hundred ten
billion, forty million, three hundred eighty-five thousand, eight hundred
and sixty-one.
The periods above quadrillions in their order are: quintillions,
sextillions, septillions, octillions, nontillions, decillions, etc.
Addition. Addition consists in summing up several numbers into one
whole. Suppose we have to sum (or tot) up the numbers
4567
+ 3456
2345
Answer (or Sum)
10368
We begin with the column on the right hand and sum the figures up
from below. Then we take the next column and so on, speaking thus: 5 and
(or plus) 6 are 11, and 7 are 18; put down 8 and carry 1; 1 and 4 are 5, and
5 are 10, and 6 are 16; put down 6 and carry 1; 1 and 3 are 4, and 4 are 8,
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and 5 are 13; put down3 and carry 1; l and 2 are 3, and 3 are 6, and 4 are
10; write down 10. The total will be ten thousand three hundred and
sixty-eight. The same result will be found if we begin to sum up from the
top downwards.
Subtraction. Subtraction is the name of the operation by which a
smaller number or quantity is taken from a greater. The difference between
the greater and the lesser number is called the remainder. Suppose we have
to subtract (or to deduct) the number 3473 from 10987. We write down the
greater number10987 (which is called the minuend), from which the
smaller number, called the subtrahend, is to be subtracted.
From
10987
Deduct
3473
Remainder
7514
Beginning from the right hand we say thus: 3 from 7 leaves 4; 7 from
8 leaves 1; 4 from 9 leaves 5; 3 from 10 leaves 7. Remainder: seven
thousand five hundred and fourteen. In order to prove that the result is
right, add the remainder to the subtrahend and the total must reproduce the
minuend. Thus, subtraction is proved by addition.
Multiplication. The number to be multiplied is named the
multiplicand, the one which denotes how many times the given number is
to be taken, is denominated the multiplier. The multiplicand and the
multiplier are also called factors; the result of the operation of multiplying
two numbers is called the product. In order to be a good hand at multiplying, a thorough knowledge of the "Multiplication Table" is absolutely
necessary. Suppose the number 5243 is to be multiplied by 123. Each
figure of the multiplicand must be multiplied by each figure of the
multiplier. The sign = is read equals, equal, is, are, make.
In words: 3 times 3 are 9; 3 times 4 are 12; write down 2 and carry 1;
3 times 2 are 6, and carried are 7; 3 times 5 are 15. Second column:
twice 3 are 6 (to be set down below the last figure but one of the preceding
products); twice 4 are 8; twice 2 are 4; twice 5 are 10.
Third column: once 5243 are 5243. After summing up the 3 products,
the total product is obtained, being six hundred and forty-four thousand
eight hundred and eighty-nine. Multiplication is only an abridged addition.
Division, fractions. This is the operation by which one finds many
times one number, called the divisor, is contained in another, and called the
dividend. The result of division is denominated the quotient. Thus 20
divided by 5 is 4, or in other words: 5 goes into 20 four times. Sometimes
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there will be a remainder left, for instance: 23 divided by 5 is 4, and 3 as
remainder. In order to prove that the result is right, multiply the quotient
into the divisor, and add the remainder; the total must reproduce the
dividend 23.
The remainder, three-fourths (3/4) is a vulgar (common) fraction,
consisting of the numerator 3 and the denominator 4. The denominator
tells into how many of these parts are taken. A vulgar fraction is called a
proper fraction when its numerator is less than the denominator. It is
called an improper fraction when its numerator is equal or larger than the
denominator. A mixed number is a whole number and a fraction written
together, for example 2 1/2 is a mixed number.
There are also decimal fractions. A decimal fraction is merely a
fraction having a denominator of 10, 100, 1000 or some similar multiple
of 10. First putting down a period or decimal point and then writing the
numerator of the fraction after the decimal point in such manner that the
denominator can be understood write a decimal fraction. Everything that
comes after the decimal point (to the right of it) is a fraction. All figures to
the left of the decimal point are whole numbers. 1.62 is read: 'one point 'six
two. 5.34 is read: 'five point thirty-four', or 'five point 'three four. 0.007 is
read: point naught (o) naught (o) seven; or point two o seven.
The second power or the square of 7 is 7 times 7 or 49; the third power
or the cube of 7 is 7x7x7 = 343; the twentieth power of 7 is the product of
7 multiplied twenty times by it. On the other hand, 7 is the square root of
49, and 7 is also the cube root of 343. Equally the fourth (4-th), fifth (5- th)
etc. roots may be extracted of any number. All the above-mentioned operations are of frequent occurrence in algebra, especially in solving equations.
The Roman system. This system uses seven capital letters to express
numbers, viz.:
Letters:
I V
X
L C
D
M
Values: 1 5
10 50 100 500 1000
Repeating a letter repeats its value, thus I represents one; II – two:
X – ten, XX – twenty.
When a letter is placed before another of greater value its value is to be
taken from that of the greater. Thus, IV represents five minus one = four;
XL – forty (fifty minus ten).
When a letter is placed after another of greater value, their values are to
be united. Thus, VII represents seven; LXXX – eighty.
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The following table illustrates the method of combination.
I–1
II – 2
III – 3
IV – 4
V–5
VI – 6
VII – 7
VIII – 8
IX – 9
X – 10
XI – 11
XII – 12
XIII – 13
XIV – 14
XV – 15
XVI – 16
XVII – 17
XVIII – 18
XIX – 19
XX – 20
XXIV – 24
XXIX – 29
XXX –30
XL – 40
L – 50
LX –60
LXXX – 80
XC –90
C – 100
CC – 200
CCC – 300
CD – 400
D –500
DCCC – 800
M – 1000
MMM – 3000
Example: Read: MVIIIXXV, MMMXVI, MCMXXIV, MMCLXXX,
DCCLXVII.
Notes to the text:
1) to deal with – иметь дело с;
2) operation – действие;
3) to be derived from – происходить от;
4) introduction – введение;
5) notation – цифры;
6) viz – а именно;
7) denomination – разряд;
8) addition – сложение;
9) subtraction – вычитание;
10) остаток;
11) the minuend – уменьшаемое;
12) the subtrahend – вычитаемое;
13) deduct – вычитать;
14) multiplication – умножение;
15) the multiplicand – множимое;
16) he multiplier – множитель;
17) the product – произведение, результат;
18) column – столбец (цифр);
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19) division – деление;
20) fraction – дробь;
21) the divisor – делитель;
22) the dividend – делимое;
23) the quotient – частное (от деления);
24) a vulgar (common) fraction – обыкновенная (правильная) дробь;
25) the numerator – числитель;
26) the denominator – знаменатель;
27) a proper fraction – правильная дробь;
28) an improper fraction – неправильная дробь;
29) a mixed number – смешанное число;
30) decimal fraction –десятичная дробь;
31) a period or decimal point – точка;
32) power – степень;
33) the cube root of – корень кубический из;
34) he square root of – корень квадратный из;
35) factor – множитель.
2. Read and write the following cardinal numerals in writing:
a) 23; 45; 198; 439; 587; 683; 703; 899; 902; 976; 784: 248;
b) 2,075; 26,764; 28,907; 100,432; 2,987; 241, 234; 44, 768;
c) 33.765; 972.431; 1,006.317; 46,763.287; 15,987.456; 109,234.876;
3. Read and write the following common fractions and mixed
numbers in writing:
Model: a) ´ (читается: a (one) half); 1/3 (читается: a (one) third);
1/4 (читается: a (one) quarter); 2/3 (читается: two thirds);
b) 2 1/3 tons (читается: two and a third tons or two tons and
a third);
3
a) 2/3; /5; 4/5; 3/7; 8/25; 3/35; 14/57; 25/70.
b) 10 7/8; 21 5/9; 5 ´ 9 3/8; 12 5/9; 52 3/8; 144 ´
c) 0.051 читается: nought point oh five one; 2.13 читается two point
one three
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4. Read and write the following decimal fractions in writing:
Model: 23.76 tons (читается: two three point seven six tons).
44.365 kg; 78.953; 231.0044; 547.702; 1,098.66; 56.788,0015; 35.7;
76.54; 0.376; 23.0043; 78.13042; 579.0032;
5. Read and write the ordinal numerals in writing:
a) one - (the) first; two -; three -; four -; five -; eight -; nine -; twelve -;
twenty -; forty -;
b) hundred -; thousand -; million -.
c) 41; 108; 289; 321; 432; 543; 674; 795; 868; 959; 1012; 2120; 5214;
6468; 84915.
6. Read and write the dates in English in writing:
Model: a) 1848 год – eighteen hundred forty-eight, 1900 год – nineteen hundred; 2006 год – two thousand six;
b) в 76 году до нашей эры – in 76 BC – in seventy-six before
Christ;
с) в 908 году нашей эры – in 908 AD – in nine hundred eight
Anno Domini.
a) 1945 год; 1799 -; 1606 -; 1812 -; 1014 -; 194 -; 2001 -; 2003 -;
2010 -; 2017 -; 2025.
b) в 556 году до нашей эры, в 573 до н.э., 2004 до н.э., в 328 до н.э.,
в 55 г.;
c) 901год нашей эры, 1242 год н.э., 1564 год н.э., в 524 г. до н.э.,
в 1380 г. до н.э., 957 г. н.э.
d) 0. 237; 2.597; 10.128; 28. 394; 1.059;
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TEXT 6. NANOTECHNOLOGY
Грамматика: Отсутствие артикля перед именами существительными типа: chapter, table, figure, equation, formula, type, case, fraction,
appendix.
Grammar exercises
1. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English:
1. На рис. 2 показана характерная диаграмма энергетических
уровней.
2. По данным табл. 1 можно вычислить соотношение различных
веществ.
3. Теперь мы перейдем к случаю 2.
4. Этот вопрос будет рассмотрен в главе VI, где будет обсуждаться прoблема измерения.
5. Для удобства мы обозначим три принципиально различных типа селективности.
6. Из уравнения 3 следует.
7. Как было показано в главе 4, газовые реакции имеют особый
характер.
2. Try to match up the adjectives in column A with the nouns in
column B to form meaningful phrases:
A
1) outstanding
2) remarkable
3) well-off
4) a well educated
5) a sound
6) narrow
7) scientific
8) social
9) new
10) solid
11) final
B
a) advancement
b) mathematician
c) family
d) term
e) scientist
f) education
g) person
h) meaning
i) solution
j) examinations
k) body
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12) unusual
13) basic
14) complicated
15) similar
16) primitive
17) laboratory
18) differential
19) technological
20) higher
21) academic
22) qualified
23) foreign
24) practical
25) free
l) needs
m) gift
n) ideas
o) people
p) problem
q) work
r) progress
s) equation
t) year
u) mathematics
v) language
w) specialist
x) tuition
y) classes
Text 6.
1. Read and translate the text.
Nanotechnology
One of the most acceptable definitions for nanotechnology is: «Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale».
This covers current work and concepts that are more advanced.
A nanometer is one billionth of a meter. This is roughly ten times the
size of an individual atom. A cube 2.5 NM (nanometer) on a side would
contain about a thousand atoms. The smallest feature in an integrated
circuit of today is 250 NM on a side, and contains one million atoms in a
layer of atomic height. Proteins, the molecules that catalyze chemical
transformations in cells, are 1 to 20 NM in size. For comparison, 10 NM is
1000 times smaller than the diameter of a human hair.
In its original sense, nanotechnology refers to the projected ability to
construct items from the bottom up, using techniques and tools being
developed today to make complete, highly advanced products.
Miniature factories using nanomachines to build complex products,
advanced nanotechnology will make use of positionally controlled
mechanochemistry guided by molecular machine systems.
Shortly after this envisioned molecular machinery is created, it will
result in a manufacturing revolution, probably causing severe disruption.
It also has serious economic, social, environmental, and military implications.
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Nanotechnology not only will allow making many high-quality
products at very low cost, but it will allow making new nanofactories at the
same low cost and at the same rapid speed.
Nanotechnology is often referred to as a general-purpose technology.
That’s because in its mature form it will have significant impact on almost
all industries and all areas of society. It offers better built, longer lasting,
cleaner, safer, and smarter products for the home, for communications, for
medicine, for transportation, for agriculture, and for industry in general.
Notes to the text:
1) acceptable – общепринятый, распространенный;
2) molecular scale – молекулярный уровень;
3) cell – клетка;
4) envisioned – воображаемый;
5) severe disruption – сильное разрушение;
6) implication – зд.: последствия (to implicate – вовлекать, впутывать);
7) to be implicated – быть причастным к какому-либо делу);
8) significant impact – значительное влияние;
9) longer lasting – долговечный;
10) mature form – готовая форма.
2. Answer the following questions:
1. What is the most acceptable definitions for nanotechnology?
2. How can you describe a size of 1 nanometer?
3. What do you know about proteins?
4. What implications can have envisioned molecular machinery?
5. What does nanotechnology allow?
6. Why is nanotechnology often referred to as a general-purpose technology?
7. How big is the smallest feature in an integrated circuit of today?
3. Make up sentences out of two parts.
1. Nanotechnology is the engineering of a) is 250 NM on a side.
2. The smallest feature in an integrated b) molecular machine
circuit of today
systems.
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3. Proteins, the molecules that catalyze
chemical transformations in cells
4. Nanotechnology will make use of positionally-controlled
mechanochemistry
guided by
5. After this envisioned molecular
machinery is created, it will result in
10.
c) functional systems at
the molecular scale.
d) a manufacturing revolution, probably causing
severe disruption.
e) are 1 to 20 NM in size.
Translate the following sentences from Russian into English:
1. Нанотехнология – это создание функциональных систем на молекулярном уровне.
2. Куб со стороной 2,5 НМ может содержать около тысячи атомов.
3. Химические изменения в клетках происходят под влиянием молекул белка.
4. Создание молекулярного механизма может привести к промышленной революции и оказать влияние на экономику, экологию,
общество.
5. Нанотехнология позволит производить высококачественную
продукцию по низкой цене.
6. Она может оказать значительное влияние почти на все отрасли
промышленности и все сферы общества.
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TEXT 7. THE IMPACT OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
ON SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING
Грамматика: Значение лексики для правильного понимания и перевода текста. «Ложные друзья» переводчика. Многозначность слов.
Уточнение значения слова в контексте.
Lexical exercises
1. Decide which of the verbs on the left collocate with the nouns on
the right:
1) to pass;
2) to make up;
3) to suggest;
4) to get;
5) to solve;
6) to grant;
7) to accept;
8) to award;
9) to obtain.
a) a complicated problem;
b) final examinations;
c) one’s mind;
d) a new solution;
e) Master’s Degree in electrical engineering;
f) offer;
g) prize;
h) good results;
i) Doctor’s Degree in technology.
2. Translate the following sentences from English into Russian:
1. My farther is an early riser.
2. He likes such books.
3. They enjoyed that film.
4. We enjoy peaceful life.
5. He made a great contribution to the science.
6. We obtained accurate data.
7. He is a brilliant writer.
8. The audience was listening his report with great interest.
9. Russian language and culture is now a power instrument in international relations.
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10. My younger sister likes to read magazines and my farther journals.
11. The capacity of a new hydroelectric station will be about 10 million
kilowatts.
12. The scientific and technical achievements are of great importance
for the consolidation of the defence capacity of our state.
13. The plane TU-124 has a big passenger-capacity.
14. The conveyor’s capacity is 150 tons per hour.
15. This system of work is wasteful.
16. It would be most helpful if you could send us the names of the
persons who teach these courses.
17. To the end of his life Theodore Dreiser was a true friend and a
warm supporter of the Soviet Union.
18. While the Earth makes one revolution on its axis, the satellite
manages to fly almost 15 times around it.
19. Only few people write with left hand.
20. They left Orel for Moscow.
21. You must hand him the letter.
22. In applying this method we may face some troubles.
23. The builders will face the house with granite slabs.
24. The eyes, nose and mouth are parts of the face.
25. Many tourists from different counties come to Moscow every year.
26. Don’t forget to bring this book tomorrow.
27. Bring your brother to the evening party.
28. Our locomotives run many years without any overhauling.
29. Mr. Smith runs the physical laboratory.
30. The solid, liquid, gaseous and plasma states are four states of matter.
31. The Russian state assists other peaceful states in the civilian
employment of atomic energy.
32. The work to be welded should be carefully examined.
33. The device is shown in Fig.4 (Figure 4).
34. Every figure in the current 3-year plan is an indication of creative
efforts of our people.
35. In the long run the decline in prices affected the manufacturing
industry.
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36. Every effort should be directed to ensure the introduction of
up-to-date techniques in all industries.
Text 7.
1. Read and translate the text.
The Impact of Research and Development on Science
and Engineering
Those of us who live in the modern world of science and technology
are apt to think that the concept or concepts of research and development
belong peculiarly to our generation, starting within our lifetime and
being the dominant characteristic of our time; that our science and our
engineering are the first to feel their impact. However, science has used
experimental and theoretical investigation, or research, as its principal tool
since the dawn of modern science beginning with Galileo. And engineering
has used development as one of its principle tools for centuries. The
process of development goes right back to the first device or tool used by
man, a club, a lever or a bow.
The fields of science and engineering began to link intimately in
the 19-th century. Prior to then most investigations and engineering
developments stemmed from the practical needs of life and were produced
by craftsmen and artisans. Science, on the other hand, or natural
philosophy, as it was called until the 19-th century, was mostly quite
remote from the practicalities of life. However, in the nineteenth century
scientific research, which was undertaken purely in the search for
knowledge and understanding, began occasionally to precede engineering
application, even suggesting new practical applications. In some cases
scientific inquiry opened previously unimagined areas of application and in
its turn the resulting practical tools gave scientists more power to do new
research.
We have lived for at least a century and a half with the intimate
interdependence of science and engineering. The two methods of pursuing
these fields, research and development, are by now old hat. We even find
that the engineer has borrowed the process of research from the scientist
and the scientist has borrowed the process of development from the
engineer.
However, there is a characteristic of research and development that is
peculiar to our time. This simply is that research and development activity
of scientists and engineers has now grown to such proportions that it is a
major concern of all citizens. It is something big enough to be governed; in
fact it is now one of the principal causes of the growth of government. The
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need to regulate research and development and its products is apparent in
all sides.
One of the most characteristic features of research and development is
the inexorable growth of technical project. It starts as a simple, inexpensive
activity involving only a few scientists or engineers, with the motive either
of studying the nature of the universe or of developing something practical.
Soon it reaches a stage when the idea begins to take on more advocates,
either more scientists who realize that the idea is the beginning of a fruitful
field for scientific investigation, or more engineers, industrialists or
military men who realize that the idea, if properly developed, will pay off
in their field of application. Then it proves itself successful and takes a
place in the affairs of men in general. In the early days of the growth of the
idea, its advancement is limited only by technical considerations. As time
goes on, however, the impact of this idea on society begins to bring other
complicating factors and it changes from performance-limited stage to
society limited case.
By using the power of research and development as conducted by
scientists and engineers, many new ideas will grow to a point of size and
importance where society itself, rather than a few enthusiastic engineers or
scientists, will have to make the judgment of how much more should be
done in this field. This need for collective action in the making of this
judgment is really what is most characteristic of science and engineering in
our generation.
Notes to the text:
1) impact – влияние;
2) development – проектно-конструкторские работы;
3) be apt to think – быть склонным думать (считать);
4) stem from – происходить от;
5) investigation – (научное) исследование;
6) club – дубинка;
7) lever – лом;
8) bow – лук;
9) craftsman – ремесленник;
10) artisan – мастер, ремесленник;
11) natural philosophy – естествознание;
12) practicalities – практические запросы;
13) inquiry – поиск, исследование;
14) unimagined – непредвиденный;
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15) pursue – проводить (научные) работы;
16) be old hat – быть общеизвестным;
17) inexorable – неизбежный, неуклонный;
18) pay off – давать результат;
19) performance limited stage – стадия, определяемая достигнутыми
техническими характеристиками;
20) society limited case – проблема, определяемая социальными условиями.
2. Answer the following questions:
1. Are we apt to think that the concepts of research and development
belong peculiarly to our generation?
2. Since when has science used experimental and theoretical investigation as its principle tool?
3. Has engineering used development as one of its principle tools for
centuries?
4. When did the fields of science and engineering begin to link
intimately?
5. How was science called until the 19-th century?
6. Did scientific inquiry open previously unimagined areas of application in some cases?
7. What are now old hat?
8. Do you find that the engineer has borrowed the process of research
from the scientist and the scientist has borrowed the process of development from the engineer?
9. What is one of the most characteristic features of research and
development?
10. Is the need to regulate research and development and its products
apparent in all sides?
11. Does the idea begin to take on more advocates, either more
scientists who realize that the idea is the beginning of a fruitful field for
scientific investigation?
3. Give a short summary of text 7, speak about:
a) Link between science and engineering.
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b) The most characteristic features of research and development.
TEXT 8. MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Грамматика: О сочетаемости слов в английском языке. Перевод
фразеологических сочетаний и идиоматических выражений.
1. Translate the following sentences from English into Russian:
1. The tsarist government sentenced F.M. Dostoyevsky, the Great
Russian writer to hard labour for his democratic ideas.
2. The scientist’s report came under heavy fire.
3. Her husband is a heavy smoker.
4. The enemy regiment suffered heavy losses.
5. After long years of bitter and glorious struggle India’s people finally
won its freedom in 1947.
6. When he was twelve, his mind was already heavy with responsibility.
7. He was a short man.
8. The time is not standing still. In short, you must hurry!
9. Father cut me short with a sharp «No, you can’t».
10. Industry is the backbone of economy.
11. The enemy concentrated strong forces for an offensive against the
city.
12. To find the necessary data one would have to go back to the early
nineteen thirties.
13. I haven’t seen him for ages.
14. Keep your money with the saving bank.
15. The name of Theodore Dreiser, the well-known American writer, is
very popular with Russian readers.
16. These scientists took part in many expeditions.
17. I met a friend of mine in the street.
18. Earlier training at Russian higher educational institutes was free of
charge.
19. The computer centre works round the clock on three shifts.
20. Sooner or later the weather will change.
21. The peace campaign snowballed rapidly.
22. We are in the same boat.
23. It may be a white Christmas in Scotland and some parts of the North
according to forecasts.
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24. The delegates from different industries came to Moscow.
25. He was met with the bread and salt of hospitality.
2. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English:
1. У него не было ни единого врага на земле.
2. Это некий мистер Смит.
3. Теперь, когда закон принят, дружественные рекомендации любого иностранного правительства могут рассматриваться как вмешательство во внутренние дела Ирана.
4. В отношении Ирана нет согласия между этими двумя державами.
5. Единственно разумное решение – это установление такого мира, который дал бы малайскому народу желанную свободу.
6. Правительство, у которого в одной руке доллары, а в другой –
оружие.
7. У общественности всего мира имеются все основания полагать…
Text 8.
1. Read and translate the text.
Mechanics of materials
Mechanics of material is the branch of applied mechanics that deals
with the internal behavior of variously loaded solid bodies. The «solid
bodies» referred to here include shafts, bars, beams, plates, shells, and
columns, as well as structures and machines that are assemblies of these
components. Also called strength of materials or mechanics of deformable
bodies, mechanics of materials focuses primarily on stress analysis and on
the mechanical properties of materials. The study of mechanics of materials
is based upon an understanding of the equilibrium of bodies under the
action of forces. While static treats the external behavior of bodies that are
assumed to be ideally rigid and at rest, mechanics of materials is concerned
with the relations between external loads (forces and moments) and
internal forces and deformations induced in the body. Stress and strain
are fundamental quantities connected with the former and the latter,
respectively.
Complete analysis of a structure under load requires the determination
of stress, strain, and deformation through the use of three fundamental
principles, which will be outlined in Sec.1.3: the laws of forces, the laws of
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material deformation, and the condition of geometric compatibility. We
consider here the first principle, static equilibrium, and its application to a
loaded body. The remaining principles are studied in Chap.3.
Investigation of the behavior of solids under loads began with Galileo
Galilei (1564 – 1642), though Robert Hooke (1635-1703) was the first to
point out that a body is deformed if a force acts upon it. Since then many
engineers, scientists, and mathematicians in the field of stress analysis have
developed the basic knowledge on which modern methods are based, and
the literature related to the strength of materials is voluminous. A number
of selected references are identified at the end of the text for those seeking
more extensive treatment.
The mechanical properties of metals and alloys are as followed:
Strength. The strength of a material is the property of resistance to
external loads or stresses without incurring structural damage.
The strength of metals and alloys depends upon two factors, namely,
the strength of the crystals of which the metals are constructed and the
tenacity of adherence between theses crystals.
Stress and Strain. A stress is the force within a body, which resists
deformation due to an externally applied load. If this load acts upon a
surface of unit area, it is called a unit force and the stress resisting it a unit
stress. When an external force acts upon an elastic material, the material
is deformed and the deformation is in proportion to the load. This
distortion or deformation is strain.
Elasticity. Any material subjected to an external load is distorted or
strained. Elastically stressed materials return to their original dimensions
when the load is released if the load is not too great. The property of
regaining the original dimensions upon removal of the external load is
known as elasticity.
The Nature of Elasticity. The elasticity of a metallic substance is a
resistance of its atoms to separation or compression or rotation about one
another, and thus is a fundamental property of the material. So elasticity is
demonstrated as a function of atomic forces.
Yield Point. This is a point on the stress-strain curve at which the
stress levels off or actually decreases while strain continues. The term is
strictly applicable only to mild steels.
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Ultimate Strength. The greatest load that the specimen has supported
divided by the original cross-sectional area is called the ultimate tensile
strength or the ultimate strength of the piece.
Ductility. Ductility is the capacity of a metal to be permanently
deformed in tension without breaking.
Toughness. Toughness has been defined as the property of absorbing
considerable energy before fracture. The toughness of a metal is indicated
by the amount of slip, which may occur within the crystals without
resulting in rupture of the metal.
Malleability. Malleability is the property of a metal, which permits
permanent deformation by compression without rupture.
Brittleness. Brittleness implies sudden failure. It is the property of
breaking without warning, i.e., without visible permanent deformation.
Failure of metals and alloys under repeated or alternating stresses, too
small to produce even a permanent deformation when applied statically, is
called fatigue failure.
Corrosion Fatigue. Failure by corrosion fatigue is a fatigue failure
in which corrosion has lowered the endurance limit by the formation of pits
that act as centers for the development of fatigue cracks.
Hardness. The quality of hardness is a combination of a number of
physical and mechanical properties.
Notes to the text:
1) strength – прочность, сопротивление;
2) tenacity of adherence – прочность сцепления;
3) force within a body – сила, действующая в теле;
4) due to – в результате;
5) a unit force – единичная сила;
6) a unit stress – напряжение;
7) elasticity – упругость;
8) upon removal – после устранения;
9) yield point – предел прочности;
10) stress-strain curve – кривая деформации;
11) levels off – понижается;
12) mild steels – малоуглеродистые стали;
13) ultimate tensile strength – предел прочности при растяжении, сопротивление разрыву;
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14) ultimate strength – предел прочности;
15) ductility – ковкость, тягучесть, пластичность;
16) toughness – вязкость, прочность, плотность;
17) to be permanently deformed in tension – постоянно деформироваться при растяжении;
18) is indicated by the amount of slip which may occur within the
crystals – определяется величиной сдвига, который может произойти в
кристаллах;
19) malleability – гибкость, ковкость, способность легко обрабатываться под молотом;
20) brittleness – хрупкость;
21) breaking without warning – внезапный разрыв, разрыв без предупреждения;
22) under repeated or alternating stresses – при повторяющихся или
чередующихся напряжениях;
23) fatigue failure – излом усталости.
2. Answer the following questions:
1. What is mechanics of materials?
2. What do you understand under «solid bodies»?
3. What is mechanics of material concern with?
4. What does complete analysis of a structure under load require?
5. Who was the first to begin investigation of behaviour of solids under
load?
6. When did Robert Hooke live?
7. What is the strength of a material?
8. What is the difference between two notions: stress and strain?
9. What is elasticity?
3. Say correct or false?
1. Mechanics of material is the branch of applied mechanics that deals
with the internal behavior of variously loaded solid bodies.
2. «The solid bodies» referred to this text are stones, bricks, spades
etc.
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3. Complete analysis of a structure under load requires the determination of stress, strains and deformation.
4. Galileo Galilei was the first to point out that a body is deformed if a
force acts on it.
5. Elasticity is the force within a body that resists deformation due to
an externally applied load.
6. Elastically stressed materials do not return to their original
dimensions when the small load is released.
7. Ductility is the capacity of a metal to be permanently deformed in
tension with breaking.
8. Hardness is a physical property.
9. The property of regaining the original dimensions upon removal of
the external load is ductility.
10. Robert Hooke was the first who began to investigate the behavior of
solids under loads.
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TEXT 9. ENERGY
Грамматика: Местоимение it, его функции и перевод. Систематизация простых форм причастий и их перевод на русский язык. Введение формального подлежащего there.
Grammar exercises
1. Определите функцию местоимения it и переведите предложения на русский язык:
Take this book. It is interesting. Read it.
It is well known that radioactive isotopes can be used very
effectively in medicine for the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases.
What is it? It is a present for you.
It is cold. It is getting dark.
Where is my book? It is on the table.
Somebody is knocking at the door. Evidently it is the person we
have been waiting for.
It is no use telling him about it.
It was clear that he would not come.
It is expected that goods will be loaded at once.
To locate a target on the surface of the sea or on the ground, it is
necessary to determine not only in which direction it lies, but also exactly
how far away it is.
It is important that all be present at the lecture.
It is silver that is the best conducting metal.
It is obvious that he will not come and we waited for him in vain.
It seemed to us that the engine was out of order.
It is the Queen who officially appoints the Prime Minister.
Speaking of analytic geometry we must know that it uses geometric
figures to illustrate and to facilitate the solution of algebraic problems.
It has been raining since early morning.
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It is necessary for the goods to be packed in strong cases.
It was impossible to find the road in such darkness.
It is this book that I wanted to read.
It was he that (who) met my sister in the park.
It was his brother that (whom) I met in the street.
It was in the Crimea that I met my friend.
It is essential that the men’s executive committee should today unanimously fight Tory pit-closing policy.
It was on June 1875, that Bell and Watson transmitted the first
sounds.
It is our great Lomonosov who first discovered the Law of
Conservation of Energy.
It is mechanical engineering that deals with the design of all kinds
of machines and devices.
It may be said that mechanical engineering is one of the most
important branches of engineering.
2. Translate the sentences into English using the word there:
1. Существует 14 типов пространственной решетки.
2. В пользу этой точки зрения существует много данных.
3. Нет особых причин, почему это должно быть так.
4. По-видимому, из данных, приведенных в таблице 1, не существует никаких исключений.
5. Существует много изомерных соединений и, следовательно,
много реакций изомеризации.
6. Бывают разные методы металлообработки.
7. Существуют различные формы материи.
8. Существуют различные источники энергии.
9. Существует несколько точек зрения на этот вопрос (предмет).
10. Здесь надо отметить еще следующее.
3. Переведите предложения с английского языка на русский,
обращая внимание на выделенные причастия:
1. The student sitting at the window and writing something is our monitor.
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2. The article written by that student is very interesting.
3. The building housing the laboratory will soon be built.
4. The pictures seen by you at the Tretyakov Gallery in Moscow are
very beautiful.
5. Translating the article, he consulted the dictionary.
6. When written the article was handed to the editor.
7. While reading the article he made some notes.
8. He is translating the English article on electrical engineering.
9. The article was translated without a single mistake.
10. He has been translating the article since 12 o’clock.
Text 9.
1. Read and translate the text.
Energy
A body possesses energy when due to its position or condition it is
capable of doing work and the work it can do is a measure of its energy.
Energy is of two forms: potential energy and kinetic energy. The
potential energy of a body is the energy possessed by the body thanks to its
position or configuration. For example, a lifted weight has potential energy
due to the higher position into which it has been lifted since it can do work
as it falls under the action of gravity.
The potential energy of the weight in its highest position is the same as
its kinetic energy after it has fallen to its lowest position. We may say in
general that the energy possessed by an isolated body or a system of bodies
is constant, that energy can neither be created nor destroyed and this fact is
the principle of energy. The energy of a body may be measured in either of
the two ways. First, by the work, which a body is capable of doing. Second
by the work that has been done upon it to bring it into condition in which it
possesses energy.
The potential energy of a lifted body with respect to a given level is
expressed by the following equation
E = mgh
(E is equal to mg by h),
where E – stands for the work done in lifting the body from the given level
through a vertical heigh;
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h – against the force of gravity mg ( m stands for mass and g for the
acceleration of gravity).
This expression is obtained by multiplying the weight of the body mg
by the height through which it has been lifted.
The kinetic energy of a moving body may be expressed in terms of its
mass m and its velocity V.
Let it be assumed that an unbalanced force F is applied to a free body
of mass m at rest. Under the influence of the force F the body will start into
uniformly accelerated motion, the acceleration being given by
F
a=—
m
(a is equal to F divided by m).
The velocity acquired by the body in t seconds is:
V=at
(V is equal to a multiplied by t.)
The work done by the force in speeding up the mass m to the velocity V
is stored in the moving body as kinetic energy. It has been found that the
kinetic energy of a body having a mass m and a velocity V is:
E= ½ mV2
(E is equal to a half of m multiplied by V squared or by V to the second
power.)
If m is expressed in grams, V in cm/sec, E gives kinetic energy in ergs.
If m is expressed in pounds and V in ft/sec, the kinetic energy is given in
foot-pounds.
2. Find the equivalents:
1) the energy possessed;
2) a lifted weight;
3) an isolated system;
4) with respect to;
5) the given body;
6) uniformly accelerated motion;
7) the velocity acquired;
8) the force of gravity.
а) поднятый груз;
б) по отношению к;
в) энергия, присущая;
г) данное тело;
д) приобретенная скорость;
е) сила тяжести;
ж) равномерно ускоренное
движение;
з) изолированная система.
3. Join suitable parts:
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The potential energy of a body is the energy...
1) ... done upon it to bring it into motion;
2) ... lifted weight to the given level;
3) ... possessed by the body thanks to its position;
4) ... fallen under the action of gravity;
4. Find the answer to the following question:
What is the kinetic energy?
1. It is the energy possessed by the body thanks to its position or
configuration.
2. It is the energy converted from heat energy by means of machines.
3. It is the energy received by combusting coal or oil.
4. It is the energy of a moving body expressed in terms of its mass m and
its velocity
5. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English:
1. Тело, обладающее потенциальной энергией, может совершать
работу.
2. Силы, действующие на тело, производят работу.
3. Кинетическая энергия, которой обладает тело, зависит от его
массы.
4. Приложенная сила перевела тело из состояния покоя в состояние движения.
5. Полученные результаты показали, что эта работа нужна.
6. Используемое оборудование было получено в прошлом году.
7. Производимое оборудование широко используется на многих
заводах.
8. Потенциальная энергия поднятого груза по отношению к заданному уровню выражается с помощью следующего уравнения.
9. Ученые, применяющие такие методы, получат интересные результаты.
10. Проблемы, обсуждаемые на конференции, очень интересные.
11. Проблема, обсужденная на последней конференции в ОрелГТУ,
была крайне интересной.
12. Они много говорили об обсуждаемых проблемах.
13. Человек, ожидающий вас в коридоре, приехал из Тулы.
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14. Завод, строящийся в этом городе, будет производить грузовые
автомобили.
TEXT 10. ELASTIC AND INELASTIC BODIES
Грамматика: Условные предложения. Конструкции типа it is
important, it is necessary, it is demanded.
Grammar exercises
1. Determine the type of conditional sentences and translate them
into Russian:
1. If you know your lesson, you need not be afraid.
2. If he was sleeping, why did you disturb him?
3. If you studied more, you could learn English quickly.
4. He would not agree, even if you asked him.
5. If she were at home, we could go and see her.
6. If I were you, I would not speak about it.
7. If you had given me more time, I should have made a better report.
8. If you need a dictionary, go to the library.
9. Had I known it before!
10. If a comparatively soft piece of steel is quenched from a red heat, it
strength and hardness may be more than tripled.
11. If we take low carbon steel and examine it through the microscope,
we shall find that a second structural constituent is present.
12. If you can stay only a few days in London, you won’t have much
time for your sightseeing.
2. Translate the conditional sentences from Russian into English:
1. Если трудовые ресурсы будут использоваться более правильно,
то производительность труда возрастет.
2. Если бы мы использовали новое высокоэффективное оборудование, то мы снизили бы себестоимость продукции.
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3. Если через проводник протекает электрический ток, то он создает магнитное поле вокруг проводника.
4. Если мы не будем много (усердно) работать, мы не сможем
сдать свои экзамены.
5. Преподаватель спросил нас, видели ли мы когда-нибудь реактивный двигатель в действии.
6. Если бы мы пришли на станцию на несколько минут раньше,
мы бы встретили делегацию.
7. Только в Бруклине, в одном из пяти районов Нью-Йорка, проживает так много людей, что, если бы он был отдельным городом, он
был бы четвертым самым большим городом в США.
8. Если бы экспедиция была обеспечена всем необходимым оборудованием (но она не была обеспечена).
9. Если бы я увидел его, я сказал бы ему об этом.
10. Был бы он здесь, он помог бы нам.
11. Он мог бы это сделать, если бы он постарался.
12. Если бы они использовали последние научные достижения, они
бы получили более высокую прибыль.
13. Если бы эта система управления оказалась более эффективной,
они приняли бы ее.
14. Если она опоздает, нам придется ехать на такси до самого вокзала.
15. Если бы я был на вашем месте, я бы поехал в Кембридж.
16. Если бы я был на вашем месте, я бы взял такси.
17. Если мы поторопимся, мы успеем вовремя.
18. Если бы они пришли на пять минут раньше, они бы успели на
поезд.
19. Если бы они успели на поезд, они были бы уже здесь.
20. Если бы он увидел ребят на футбольном поле, он бы захотел поступить в этот колледж.
21. Если ему понравится колледж, может быть, он передумает.
22. Если погода будет хорошая, я буду проводить много времени на
открытом воздухе.
23. Если ты дашь мне ручку, я заполню анкету.
3. Translate the sentences and remember the meaning of the verb
to provide and the conjunction provided:
1. The experiment conducted provided very good results.
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2. Russian technological achievements that provided the launching of
rockets are known all over the world.
3. Provided new composite materials are used, it will be possible to
reduce overall aircraft weight.
4. Superliners could develop a higher speed provided some cooling
measures.
5. An aircraft pilot can get all the information he needs provided he
contacts aradio navigation station.
6. The work done provided us with new remarkable data.
7. Our laboratory has been provided with the latest equipment.
8. Having measured the distance between two points, it is possible to
сalculate the time during which a car can cover it provided we know the
average speed of the car.
4. Translate the following sentences from English into Russian:
1. It is important that the students should speak English.
2. It is impossible that they should go to Kiev so soon.
3. It is necessary that you should do this work in time.
4. It is strange that he should have said this.
5. It is natural that they should take part in this competition.
6. It is desirable that you should repeat grammar regularly.
7. It is necessary that this up-to-date machinery should be used on оur
construction sites (на наших стройках).
8. The workers demand that their wages should be raised.
9. It is desirable that the meeting take (should take) place in three days.
10. Everybody required that the new methods of management (should)
be taken consideration while making the programme.
11. It was essential that every student had been present at the first
lecture of Professor N.
12. We suggested that this project be discussed in detail.
13. It is doubtful that this method of work be applied in that case.
14. It is demanded that these devices be tested at once.
15.The engineer insisted that the new system should be introduced as
soon as possible.
16. It is desirable that you should be present at the conference as a
specialist in this branch of industry.
17. We suggested that his project be discussed in detail.
18. It is necessary that he should give his consideration to this subject.
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5. Translate the following sentences from English into Russian:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
I suggest that you should speak to the manager about it.
We propose that this question should be discussed at the meeting.
He demanded that I should be asked again.
The teacher suggested that we should read this book in the original.
We insist that they should be helped.
I suggest that he speak to the teacher about it.
The doctor demanded that she stay at home.
We propose that this plan be adopted.
6. Translate the sentences from Russian into English according to
the model:
Model A: Я предлагаю (настаиваю, требую), чтобы он поехал
туда сейчас. – I suggest (insist, demand) that he should go
there now.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Я предлагаю, чтобы они остались здесь.
Врач предлагает мне провести отпуск (leave) в Крыму.
Мы предлагаем вам отправиться туда сегодня.
Я настаиваю, чтобы письмо было послано немедленно.
Они требуют, чтобы этот вопрос обсудили на собрании.
Model B: Необходимо, чтобы вы выполнили эту работу сегодня.
– It is necessary that you should do this work today.
Необходимо, чтобы вы поддержали (to support) это интересное
предложение (proposal).
2. Необходимо, чтобы они приняли активное участие в нашей работе.
3. Необходимо, чтобы вы перевели эту сложную, но очень важную
для нас статью сегодня.
4. Необходимо, чтобы ты сделал эту работу вовремя.
5. Необходимо, чтобы вы решили эту сложную проблему в ближайшее время.
Text 10.
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1. Read and translate the text.
Elastic and Inelastic Bodies
Solid bodies offer resistance to a change in form or size. Certain
substances when forcibly distorted exhibit the property of recovering; that
is to say when the distorting force is removed they return more or less
completely to the original form or size.
Bodies possessing the property of recovery are said to be elastic. Inelastic bodies do not possess this property. Elasticity is the property of a
body to recover its original state. When acting upon an elastic body that
changes its original form the external force is opposed by forces acting
within a body. The internal force acting per unit of area is called the stress.
The stress may be found as follows:
external force
area
(That is, stress is equal to an external force divided by the area.) The distortion of a body per unit length or unit volume is called the strain
stress =
change in length strain
original length
(Strain is equal to a change in length divided by the original length.)
There are three kinds of stress: tensile stress, hydrostatic stress and
shearing stress.
A body is under tensile stress when the forces acting upon it tend to increase its length. The resulting change in length is called a stretch, and the
strain in such a case is the ratio of the stretch to the original length of the
body. A vertical wire is under tensile stress when supporting a weight.
A body is under hydrostatic stress when the pressure acting on it from
all the sides is the same. For example, any object in water is under hydrostatic stress since the water pressure acts upon it from all sides equally.
A body is under shearing stress when the forces acting upon it tend to
cause one layer of particles in the body to move over an adjacent one.
The strain in a body exceeding a certain value, the body will not recover completely its original state when the acting force is removed. A body
strained beyond the elastic limit may not recover completely its original
state when strained for a long time. Robert Hooke discovered that for elastic bodies under any kind of stress within the elastic limit, stress is proportional to strain. That is
strain =
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stress
= a constant
strain
This relation is known as Hooke's law. The elastic properties of various
materials are different, the ratio of stress to strain being always the same
for a given material within the elastic limit. The ratio of stress to strain for
a given material is called the modulus of elasticity.
Notes to the text:
1) recovery – восстанавливать (первоначальный объем), упругая
деформация;
2) elastic – упругий;
3) stress – напряжение, усилие;
4) strain – деформация;
5) tensile stress – растягивающее напряжение;
6) hydrostatic stress – гидростатическое напряжение;
7) shearing stress – скалывающее (срезывающее, касательное) напряжение;
8) stretch – удлинение;
9) elastic limit – предел упругости;
10) the modulus of elasticity – модуль упругости;
11) ratio of stress to strain – отношение напряжения к деформации;
12) to oppose – противодействовать;
13) to exhibit the property – проявлять свойство;
14) to force – заставлять;
15) to offer resistance – оказывать сопротивление;
16) to cause – вызывать, быть причиной;
17) to distort – искажать, искривлять;
18) elasticity – упругость.
2. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English:
1. Говорят, что тела, обладающие свойством восстанавливать свой
первоначальный объем, являются упругими.
2. Необходимо определить силу, действующую на тело.
3. Подняв тело на эту высоту, мы должны определить его кинетическую энергию.
4. Тело поднято на необходимую высоту. Теперь Вы можете начинать ваш эксперимент.
5. Действуя на тело, сила изменяет его первоначальный размер.
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6. Тело, поднятое на эту высоту, может быть использовано для
этого эксперимента.
3. Give a short summary of text 10, speak on:
a) The difference between stress and strain
b) Three kinds of stress.
TEXT 11. MECHATRONIC SYSTEMS
Грамматика: Союзы when, while, if + ing-form или Ш форма глагола,
существительное, прилагательное, предлог. Причастия.
Grammar exercises
1. Translate the following sentences from English into Russian:
1. This must be taken into account when comparing data secured in the
presence and in the absence of a catalyst.
2. While agitating the mixture no temperature rise was observed to
take place.
3. While taking part in the discussion he advanced his famous theory.
4. When water is pure it is colourless liquid.
5. When being pure, water is colourless liquid.
6. While (being) treated for several hours the compound turned dark
red.
7. If (being) properly carried out, microwave determination of dipole
moment should be of considerable reliability.
8. Many of the liquid esters decomposed slowly if (being) kept at room
temperature.
9. When (being) in solution the compound was less reactive.
10. When (being) a young man of 16 Kekule synthesized this
compound.
11. While (being) yet a boy he showed a great aptitude for physics.
2. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English:
1. Будучи маленькой девочкой, Софья Ковалевская проявила
большую склонность к математике.
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2. Когда ей было только 12 лет, она удивила своего учителя тем,
что предложила новое решение для определения соотношения диаметра круга к его окружности.
3. Вернувшись несколько лет спустя из Берлина в Петербург, Софья Ковалевская не смогла получить какую-либо должность в университете.
4. Принимая участие в научно-технической конференции, он предложил новое решение проблемы.
5. Будучи высокообразованным человеком, отец Софьи Ковалевской настоял на том, чтобы его дети – две дочери и сын – получили
хорошее образование.
3. Translate the sentences into Russian. Pay special attention to the
words given in italics. Compare your translation with the master-tape.
Model: Sp.: The theory in question was first advanced by Professor L.
St.: Теория, о которой идет речь, впервые была выдвинута
профессором Л. (интересующая нас теория впервые
была выдвинута …)
1. The idea of inflationary Universe under discussion was first
advanced by an American physicist Alan Guth.
2. The paper under discussion was published in the journal «New
Scientist».
3. The hypothesis in question was developed by the Soviet scientist
Andrey Linde.
4. The hypothesis under consideration is called chaotic inflation.
5. The subject under study is of great interest and scientific importance.
6. The research in progress in the field must be payed special attention
to.
4. Translate the sentences from Russian into English. Use the same
expressions of Exercise 3 for the Russian words given in italics.
1. Paccматриваемая проблема имеет большую научную ценность.
2. Доктор Л – один из крупнейших специалистов по обсуждаемому вопросу.
3. Статья, о которой идет речь, была опубликована в прошлом
году.
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4. Исследовательская работа, проводимая в этой лаборатории, обсуждалась на последней конференции.
Text 11.
1. Read and translate the text.
Mechatronic Systems
Many technical processes and products in the area of mechanical and
electrical engineering are showing an increasing integration of mechanics
with digital electronics and information processing. This integration is between the components (hardware) and by the information-driven functions
(software), resulting in integrated `mal balance between the basic mechanical structure, sensor and actuator implementation, automatic information
processing and overall control. Frequently, formerly mechanical functions
are replaced by electronically controlled functions, resulting in simpler mechanical structures and increased functionality.
The development of mechatronic systems opens a way to many innovative solutions and synergetic effects that are not possible with mechanics or
electronics alone. This technical progress has a very large influence on a
multitude of products in the area of mechanical, electrical and electronic
engineering and changes the design, for example, of conventional electromechanical components, machines, vehicles and precision mechanical
devices with increasing intensity. This book is intended to give an
introduction to the development of mechatronic systems, especially by
considering the modeling of the dynamics of the components, their interactions and overall behavior and by describing the components of information processing from sensors through microcomputers to actuators.
After considering the basic structure of integrated mechanicalelectronic systems, typical tasks for the design of mechatronic systems are
discussed. The design of the process and the implementation of the
information-processing algorithms generally require a precise knowledge
of the static and dynamic relations between input, state and output
variables and the possibilities of influencing them by control functions.
Therefore, theoretical (physical) modeling, computer-aided design methods
and experimental testing (identification) methods are required.
The first part of the book describes the basics of theoretical modeling,
the static and dynamic behavior of lumped parameter processes in a general
form and by a unified methodology for different physical domains, like
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mechanics, electricity and heat. After a classification of the various process
elements with regard to energy, matter or information flow, the fundamental equations for processes with energy and matter flow are stated, like
balance equations, constitutive equations and phenomenological equations.
Here, the analogies between the processes of different physical domains are
used by applying power variables for processes with energy flows, like
potentials and flows or across and through variables. Special energy
balance equations are stated for mechanical and electrical processes and
processes with compressible fluids, like gases and steam. For the formulation of the interconnection of the process elements with energy and mass
flows, the connection laws are stated, resulting in generalized node and
mesh equations.
«Mechatronics is the synergetic integration of mechanical engineering
with electronics and intelligent computer control in the design and
manufacturing of industrial products and process» (Harashima, Tomizuka
(1996)).
Notes to the text:
1) mechanical engineering – машиностроение;
2) electrical engineering – электротехника;
3) information processing – обработка информации;
4) implementation – реализация, внедрение;
5) with regard to – относительно;
6) fundamental equation – основное уравнение;
7) balance equation – уравнение баланса;
8) constitutive equation – уравнение состояния (определяющее
уравнение);
9) mesh equation (mesh-current equation) – уравнение контурных
токов.
2. Find the Russian equivalents for the English words and word
combinations:
1) information-driven function; 2) basic mechanical structure; 3) sensor
and actuator implementation; 4) formerly mechanical function; 5) electronically controlled functions; 6) synergetic; 7) conventional; 8) electromechanical components; 9) by considering; 10) lumped parameter;
11) with regard to; 12) intelligent computer control.
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3. Make up sentences out of below given words and word combinations:
1) the integration; the components; the information-driven functions; to
result; integrated systems; to call; mechatronic systems.
2) mechanical functions; to replace; electronically controlled functions;
formerly; resulting; increased functionality; in; simpler mechanical
structures.
3) to have a large influence on; technical progress; multitude of
products; the area of mechanical, electrical and electronic engineering; in.
4) to give; this book; an introduction to the development; to be
intended; of; mechatronic systems.
5) mechanical and electrical processes; to be stated; special energy
balance equation; for; and; processes with compressible fluids.
4. What sentences correspond to the text? Please, correct the
wrong sentences.
1. Many technical processes and products in the area of mechanical and
electrical engineering are showing a reducing integration of mechanics
with digital electronics and information processing.
2. Formerly mechanical functions are replaced by electronically
controlled functions.
3. This technical progress has a very small influence on a multitude of
products in the area of mechanical, electronic and electrical engineering.
4. The design of the process and the implementation of the information-processing algorithms generally don’t require a precise knowledge of
the static and dynamic relations between input, state and output variables.
5. The first part of the book describes the basics of theoretical
modeling, the static and dynamic behaviour of lumped parameter processes
in a general form.
5. Give a short summary of text 11, speak on
a) What is mechatronics?
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b) The development of mechatronic systems opens a way to many
solutions.
TEXT 12. INTERNAL CENTERLESS GRINDING
Грамматика: Предложный оборот for + существительное (или местоимение) + инфинитив и способы его перевода на русский язык.
Grammar exercises
1. Translate the sentences from English into Russian:
This mechanism is provided with special devices for the whole
system to function automatically.
Everybody waited for the meeting to start.
There are the books for you to read in summer.
It is not for them to decide this important question.
It was necessary for the students to repeat these rules if they wanted
to do these exercises without mistakes.
It is impossible for her to solve this problem without making a
number of experiments.
He supplied all the materials necessary for the students to go on the
experiment.
It was necessary too have the appropriate data for the experiment to
be successful.
It is necessary for the students to listen to tape-recordings as much
as possible.
2. Translate the sentences from Russian into English:
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1. Вам легко это говорить.
2. Необходимо, чтобы оборудование было упаковано (упаковать
оборудование) в крепкие ящики.
3. Это Вы должны решить.
4. Первое, что я должен сделать, это выяснить, когда придет поезд.
5. Мы ждали начала собрания.
6. Начинать обсуждение этого вопроса было поздно.
Text 12.
1. Read and translate the text.
Internal Centerless Grinding
Grinding is a machining process that utilizes hard abrasive particles of
random shape to remove material. Its cutting mechanisms allow surface finishes and tolerances far superior to other cutting processes to be achieved.
In addition, it is the most suitable process for machining
hardened materials. Because of these two properties, grinding is ideal for
the production of high precision parts such as bearing rings. Precision
grinding is usually used as the last of several manufacturing steps,
therefore making it the quality defining finishing process
Cylindrical grinding is a special grinding setup for manufacturing
cylindrical workpieces. During the material removal, both the grinding
wheel and the workpiece are rotating. Depending on the orientation of the
machined surfaces, it is further categorized into internal and external
grinding. Internal grinding refers to the machining of inner workpiece
surfaces such as bores. The process requires the grinding wheel to
be smaller than the diameter of the bore. For small bores, as they are
considered here, this presents a special challenge, since the wheel wears
even faster and requires more dressing cycles. As a result, the transient
nature of the grinding process is aggravated by the small wheel size
making the process even less predictable.
A common work holding mechanism for internal grinding is the
centerless setup. With this setup, the work piece is held in place by contact
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at three points. The work piece center however can float. In Figure 2-1, the
principle of the roll-shoe centerless fixture is shown. Two rolls and a
stationary shoe provide the three contact points. The two rolls rotate the
work piece during the grinding process. Two faceplates hold the workpiece
in the axial direction. The angles between the three contact points are an
important characteristic of the setup. The centerless work holding method
eliminates the step of workpiece centering, thus allowing very short
loading and unloading times. Because of this, the centerless fixture is ideal
for mass production. Unfortunately, due to the floating workpiece center,
the roundness generation process is more complex than with other
work holding methods and can be an additional source for errors. The
possibilities for adapting research results from the field of external grinding
to internal grinding are therefore limited .
Figure 2-1. Principle of the roll-shoe centerless fixture [from 17]
Notes to the text:
1) grinding – шлифование;
2) internal – внутренний;
3) centerless – бесцентровой;
4) machining – обработка (механическим способом);
5) hardened material – закаленные металлы;
6) bearing ring – опорное кольцо;
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7) finishing process – завершающий процесс;
8) setup – прибор, установка;
9) grinding wheel – шлифовальный круг;
10) bore – а) отверстие (расточенное или высверленное), б) диаметр
отверстия, внутренний диаметр;
11) dressing cycle – цикл (периодической) правки шлифовального
круга;
12) aggravate – усугублять, ухудшать;
13) predictable – предсказуемый;
14) faceplate – наружная часть (внешняя);
15) fixture – прибор, приспособление.
2. Answer the questions:
What is grinding?
For what materials is this process the most suitable?
What is cylindrical grinding?
Into what kind of grinding is the cylindrical grinding categorized?
What does the categorizing into internal and external grinding
depend on?
What mechanism can be used for internal grinding?
How does the centerless setup operate?
What is the important characteristic of the centerless setup?
3. Translate the sentences from Russian into English:
1. Шлифовка – это процесс наиболее подходящий для закаленных
металлов.
2. Точная шлифовка обычно используется в конце некоторых производственных этапов.
3. Этот процесс требует, чтобы диаметр шлифовального круга был
меньше, чем диаметр отверстия.
4. Во время цилиндрического шлифования вращаются и шлифовальный круг, и деталь.
5. При использовании бесцентровой установки для внутреннего
шлифования деталь фиксируется при помощи трех контактных точек.
6. Бесцентровая установка для шлифования идеальна при массовом производстве деталей.
7. Для шлифования деталей используется шлифовальный круг.
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4. Make up sentences using the following words and word
combinations:
Internal and external grinding; machining hardened materials; to
remove material; grinding setup; the machined surface; dressing cycles;
work holding mechanism; to held in place; workpiece center; rolls and a
shoe; to rotate; an important characteristic; loading and unloading times;
centerless fixture.
ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ 1
Чтение математических формул и выражений
ab 

a  b  a times b; a multiplied by b
a  b 
a/b 
a 
 the ratio of a to b; a divided by b
b 
a : b 
a c



b d
 proportion: a is to b as c is to d
a : b  c : d 
an the nth.power of a; aaa ... to n factors y
√ radical sign
a square root of a
n
a nth root of a
-n
a the reciprocal of an; 1/a"
log a common logarithm of a
log10 a logarithm of a to the base 10
ln a natural logarithm of a
F(x), f(x) function of x
y = f(x) y is a function of x
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dy df  x 
the derivative of y with respect to x
,
dx
dx
d2 y
the second derivative of y with respect to x
2
dx
a' [ei] prime, dash
a" [ei] second, double prime, double dashed
an [ei] sub n, subscribed n
∫ integral sign
∫∫ double integral
( ) parentheses
[ ] brackets
{} braces
LCM (1cm) least common multiple
GCD (gcd) greatest common divisor
< angle 1
∟ right angle
 perpendicular (is perpendicular to)
|| parallel (is parallel to)
Δ triangle
parallelogram
□ square
○ circle

 arc; AB (arc AB)
° degrees (of arc or angle)
' minutes (of arc or angle); foot (feet)
" seconds (of arc or angle); inches
sin A — sine of A
cos A — cosine of A
tan A — tangent of A
cot A (or ctn A) — cotangent of A
sec A — secant of A
cosec A (or esc A) — cosecant of A
A Few Examples on Reading Mathematical Expressions
Arithmetic
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Addition
12 + 13 Twelve plus thirteen is (makes, equals) twenty-five.
addend – слагаемое;
sum – cyмма.
Subtraction
71 – 24 = 47 Seventy-one minus twenty-four is (equals) forty-seven.
minuend – уменьшаемое;
subtrahend – вычитаемое;
remainder – остаток, разность;
difference – разность.
Multiplication
8 x 6 = 48 Six times eight is forty-eight (eight multiplied by six is fortyeight).
multiplicand – множимое;
multiplier (factor) – множитель;
product – произведение.
Division
90 : 9 = 10 Ninety divided by nine is ten.
divident – делимое;
divisor – делитель;
quotient – частное (от деления).
Fractions
Common fractions
1/2 a half (one second);
1/4 a quarter (one forth);
3/7 three seventh.
Proper fractions
2/3 2 – numerator; 3 – denominator
Improper fractions _ •
5/3 5 – numerator; 3 – denominator
Mixed number
5 1/3, 7 2/9
9 – common denominator
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Decimal fractions
0.4 nought point four (0 [ou] point four)
0.06 nought point nought six (0 [ou]
.2 point two (period two, two tenth)
.37 point thirty-seven (period thirty-seven)
652. 4 six hundred fifty-two point four (six five two point four)
1.007 one point 0 [ou] 0 [ou] seven
Power
raise to a power – возводить в степень
in the second power – во второй степени
in the third power – в третьей степени, в кубе
in the nth power — в n-ной степени
2³ 2 cubed (two to the third power)
3 a² three a to the second power (3 – coefficient; a – base; 2 – exponent)
Evolution
√ square root (radical sign)
√ 4 = 2 the square root of four is two
³√ cubic root
Ratio
H ration H per L; H to L
L
y = f (x) y is a function of x
dy, df(x) the derivative of y with respect to x
dx
dx
d2 y the second derivative of y with respect to x
dx2
1 – one: a unit single: once
2 – two; a pair; a couple; double; twice; twice the number; twice as much
3 – three; triple; three times
12 – a dozen
20 – a score
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ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ 2
Образование множественного числа слов латинского
и греческого происхождения
В английской научно-технической литературе очень часто встречаются слова латинского и греческого происхождения, которые в
единственном числе имеют окончания – is, -ies, -ics, -us. Такие слова и
некоторые другие существительные, заимствованные из греческого и
латинского языков, сохранили форму множественного числа исходных языков.
Например: abscissa – abscissae, addendum – addenda, analysis – analyses, bacterium – bacteria, basis – bases datum – data, emphasis –
emphases, formula – formulae, maximum – maxima, medium – media,
memorandum – memoranda, minimum – minima, phenomenon –
phenomena, spectrum – spectra, symposium – symposia, synthesis –
syntheses, terminus – termini, thesis – theses и т.д.
Примечание 1. В результате процессов нормализации и упрощения многие из приведенных выше существительных имеют параллельную форму множественного числа, образованную по нормам современного английского языка.
Например: abscissas, criterions, formulas, maximums, mediums, spectrums, symposiums, vacuums.
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Примечание 2. Слово apparatus встречается во множественном
числе, либо в неизменном виде (apparatus), либо в форме apparatuses.
Примечание 3. Слова, обозначающие названия наук и имеющие
суффикс –s, употребляются только в единственном числе.
Например: optics, economics, mathematics, physics, linguistics, phonetics.
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ЛИТЕРАТУРА
Дубровская, С.Г. Английский язык для инженерных специальностей вузов: учебник для технических вузов / С.Г. Дубровская,
Д.Б. Дубина, Э.А. Немировская и др. – М.: Высшая школа, 1965. –
296 с.
Кабо, П.Д. Книга для чтения по математике и физике (на английском языке) / П.Д. Кабо, Т.Н. Родзевич. – М.: Просвещение, 1968.
– 112 с.
Коваленко, В.Е. English: учебник / В.Е. Коваленко. – Львов,
Изд-во Львовского университета, 1969. –319 с.
Комиссаров, В.Н. Пособие по переводу с английского языка на
русский / В.Н. Комиссаров, Я.И. Рецкер, В.И. Тарасов. – М.: Изд-во
литературы на иностранных языках, 1960. – 176 с.
Красинская, М.С. Учебник английского языка для технических
вузов / М.С. Красинская, И.А. Головина. – М.: Высшая школа, 1972. –
320 с.
Курашвили, Е.И. Английский язык: учебное пособие по чтению
и устной речи для технических вузов / Е.И. Курашвили. – М.: Высшая
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Новицкая, Н.М. Практическая грамматика английского языка /
М. Новицкая, Н.Д. Кучин. – М.: Высшая школа, 1971. – 431 с.
Орлов, Ю.А. Английский язык для слушателей подготовительных курсов: учебное пособие / Ю.А. Орлов. – Орел: ОрелГТУ, 2002. –
138 с.
Орловская, И.В. Учебник английского языка для технических университетов и вузов / И.В. Орловская, Л.С. Самсонова, А.И. Скубриева.
– М.: Изд-во МГТУ им. Н.Э. Баумана, 2005. – 448 с.
Пумпянский, А.Л. Введение в практику перевода научной и технической литературы на английский язык /А.Л. Пумпянский. – М.: Наука, 1965. – 304 с.
Израилевич, Е.Е. Практическая грамматика английского языка /
Е.Е. Израилевич, К.Н.Качалова. – М.: Внешторгиздат, 1996. – 556 с.
Турук, И.Ф. Пособие по переводу технических текстов с английского языка на русский / И.Ф. Турук, В.Н. Стойкова. – М.: Высшая
школа, 1966. – 160 с.
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Черная, А.И. Английские общенаучные тексты / А.И. Черная. – М.:
Наука, 1969. – 145 с.
Чернухин, А.Е. Учебное пособие по английскому языку для техникумов / А.Е. Чернухин. – М.: Высшая школа, 1968. – 144 с.
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Учебное издание
Орлов Юрий Андреевич
Макарова Наталья Анатольевна
Попова Ирина Юрьевна
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
для магистрантов
технических направлений
Учебно-методическое пособие
Редактор И.А. Хлюпина
Технический редактор Т.П. Прокудина
Орловский государственный технический университет
Лицензия ИД №00670 от 05.01.2000 г.
Подписано к печати 07.10.2008 г. Формат 60х84 1/16.
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