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1146.Grammar for students to understand business English. Ч

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
ЛИПЕЦКИЙ КООПЕРАТИВНЫЙ ИНСТИТУТ (ФИЛИАЛ)
ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОГО УЧРЕЖДЕНИЯ ВЫСШЕГО
ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ
ЦЕНТРОСОЮЗА РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ
«БЕЛГОРОДСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ ПОТРЕБИТЕЛЬСКОЙ КООПЕРАЦИИ»
Л.Л. Курченко
О.В. Ермолова
ENGLISH
FOR BUSINESS COMMUNICATION
Учебное пособие для экономических специальностей
Часть I
Рекомендовано к изданию научно-методическим советом института
2-е издание
Липецк
2006
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
ББК 81.2 Англ.я 73
К 93
Рекомендовано к изданию кафедрой
гуманитарно-социальных дисциплин
Липецкого кооперативного института
(филиала) БУПК
Протокол № 2 от 20 октября 2006г.
Составители:
Курченко Лидия Леонидовна, старший преподаватель кафедры
гуманитарно-социальных дисциплин Липецкого кооперативного
института
Ермолова Ольга Викторовна, к.п.н., старший преподаватель
кафедры
гуманитарно-социальных
дисциплин
Липецкого
кооперативного института
Рецензент:
Кузовлев Владимир Петрович, к.п.н., профессор, начальник
отдела АСУП издательства «Просвещение»
К 93
Курченко Л.Л., Ермолова О.В.
English for business communication.
Учебное пособие для экономических
специальностей. Часть 1. перераб. и доп./
Л.Л. Курченко, О.В.Ермолова. – 2-е изд. Липецкий кооперативный институт
(филиал) БУПК, Липецк 2006 – 68 с.
Учебное
пособие
содержит
тексты,
лексические
и
функционально-смысловые
таблицы,
лексико-грамматические
упражнения для самостоятельной работы студентов с текстами,
ситуативные упражнения.
Пособие предназначено для студентов I курса экономических
специальностей.
© Липецкий кооперативный институт, 2006
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CONTENTS
Введение ............................................................................................... 4
Unit 1 Test yourself ...............................................................................6
I. Sample test .........................................................................................6
II. Rulles of reading ...............................................................................8
Unit 2 Business communication ..........................................................11
I. Conversational Formulas For Successful Interaction ......................11
II. At the hotel ......................................................................................14
III. At the restaurant ............................................................................15
IV. Food and drinks .............................................................................17
V. In town ............................................................................................ 19
VI. Telephoning ...................................................................................20
VII. Activities ......................................................................................21
Unit 3. About Myself..........................................................................22
I. My friends and I ..............................................................................22
II. Tell your groupmates ......................................................................23
III. Life Events .....................................................................................24
IV. Activities .......................................................................................32
Unit 4 Education .................................................................................36
I. A visit to Cambridge ........................................................................36
II. My Institute ....................................................................................37
III. Higher Education in Russia ...........................................................38
IV. Higher education in Great Britain .................................................43
V. The English language in madern life .............................................46
UNIT 5. Across Great Britain, the USA, Russia ............................... 51
I. The Geographic position of the USA, the UK and Russia .............51
II. Economy of the USA ......................................................................52
III. Industry аnd Agriculture of the UK. .............................................54
IV. Sights ............................................................................................. 56
V. My native town ...............................................................................57
VI. Customs and traditions ..................................................................58
VII. Activities ......................................................................................59
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ВВЕДЕНИЕ
Цель данного пособия – способствовать овладению студентами
современным
экономическим
мышлением,
представить
разнообразные формы работы с оригинальной, адаптированной
литературой для извлечения полной, основной и частичной
информации
для
расширения
экономического
кругозора,
приобщения студентов к другим культурам.
Важной задачей пособия является расширение использования
индивидуальных возможностей студентов, как в условиях
аудиторной, так и внеаудиторной самостоятельной работы. Таким
образом, индивидуализация и дифференциация обучения составляет
основу методики обучения студентов, так как студент предстает
перед преподавателем как индивид с определенным уровнем
развития способностей, как субъект учебной деятельности,
характеризующийся разной степенью рациональности приемов
выполнения задач, как личность со своим опытом, интересами,
эмоциями и чувствами. Пособие состоит из 5 циклов (Unit). Каждый
цикл
включает
различные
формы
индивидуализации
и
дифференциации обучения студентов: тексты для работы в
аудитории с преподавателем с извлечением полной информации
(«Read, say and discuss»), тексты, содержащие лексикограмматические упражнения для самостоятельной работы в
аудитории с целью извлечения основной или частичной информации
(«Read the text and do exercises on it in writing»), тексты, содержащие
упражнения переводного характера, помогающие студентам
реферировать, читать, аннотировать тексты по специальности («Read
and do exercises in translation»). Выполнение упражнений в переводе
предусматривает наличие знаний по грамматике в рамках
обозначенных программой тем, а именно знание и умение
распознавать и использовать:
- конструкции,
выражающие
субъектно-предикативные
отношения (с глаголами-связками, с глаголами, выражающими
принадлежность);
- грамматические явления, выражающие действие (в настоящем,
прошлом, будущем) и характер его протекания;
- средства определенности - неопределенности (артикль,
местоимение), единичности - множественности предметов; интенсивности качества, порядка и количества предметов;
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- средства выражения определительных и определительнообстоятельственных отношений (конструкции с инфинитивом,
причастием, герундием).
Тексты имеют информационно-повествовательный характер и
разработаны на основе тем, предусмотренных программой;
включают упражнения, развивающие у студентов навыки работы со
словарем.
Данное пособие включает лексические, функциональносмысловые таблицы, которые дают возможность каждому студенту в
силу своих индивидуальных способностей изъясняться на
английском языке, систематизировать и обобщать информацию по
различным проблемам в повседневных ситуациях общения,
профессиональной коммуникации. На основе таблиц организуется
как индивидуальная, так и парная работа со студентами. Ролевые
игры, дискуссии, творческие задания по созданию проектов
компаний организуются после работы над текстом. Для работы с
мотивированными студентами в пособие включены тексты и задания
повышенной сложности со значком (  ). Работа каждого цикла
завершается разделом, содержащим упражнения по обогащению
словарного запаса, развитию навыков самостоятельной работы у
студентов, расширению культурологического и экономического
кругозора.
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Unit 1 TEST YOURSELF
I. Sample test
1. Раскройте скобки, употребив глаголы в нужном времени
A LETTER FROM LONDON
Dear Alice,
Hi! I’m on holiday in London. I 1______________(stay) with my
friend, Lane. She 2______________(live) in the centre of London, near
Hyde Park. I 3___________(be) here since Saturday and I
4_____________(already, do) lots of things. I 5____________(visit) the
Tower of London, the British Museum and Madam Tussaud’s. I
6_____________(go) to Madam Tussaud’s on Monday. It
7______________(be) terrible. When I 8_____________(enter) the
Chamber of Horrors, I 9___________(scream). Yesterday Kane and I 10
_____________(go) shopping. I 11_____________(want) to buy some
souvenirs. But while I 12___________ (pay) for a T-shirt, someone
13__________(steal) my bag. Luckily, I 14______________(spend,
already) nearly all my money. There 15__________(be) a lot of things I
16_____________(not, do) yet. I 17_____________(not, be) on a boat trip
down the Thames yet, I 18____________(not, see) the Millennium Dome.
If the weather 19___________(be) fine tomorrow, I 20____________(go)
on a boat trip I hope Jane 21_____________(can) keep my company. I
22______________(like) London very much. I 23___________(never,
see) a beautiful city. You 24__________(must) visit it some day. I
25____________(be) back in a week, so I 26___________(call) you then.
2. Задайте вопросы к тексту: “A letter from London” (общий,
вопрос к подлежащему, разделительный, альтернативный, 3
специальных вопроса)
3. Из четырех вариантов (A), (B), (C), (D) выберите
единственно правильный.
1. There’s no doubt that computers
have _______our lives easier.
(A) done
(C) become
(B) got
(D) made
11. By the time we arrived at the
station, the train_______
(A) left
(C) had left
(B) las left
(D) was left
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2. The journalist asked me________
(A) what was my favourite pastime
(B) what my favourite pastime was
(C) what is my favourite pastime
(D) what my favourite pastime is
12. Mount Everest is
_____mountain in the world.
(A) high
(C) the higher
(B) highest
(D) the highest
13. What do you want________?
3. You’ll be here tomorrow, _______? (A) me to do (C) I do
(A) isn’t it
(C) will you
(B) that I'll do (D) for me to do
(B) won’t you (D) will you be
14. If he lived in the country
4. There was________to eat and drink he______ happier.
after the party.
(A) was
(C) will be
(A) many
(C) a lot
(B) is
(D) would be
(B) lot of
(D) lots of
15. Rome is famous for
5. ___________that strange man
its________archaeological sites.
sitting over there?
(A) ancient
(C) old - fashion
(A) whose
(C) who
(B) old
(D) modern
(B) which
(D) who’s
16. ____________operate a
6. A kangaroo has such strong legs
computer is not as difficult as
_________it can jump over a car.
many people think.
(A) so
(C) as
(A) to learn
(C) learning
(B) so as
(D) that
(B) to learning (D) learning to
7. Does he know_______ foreign
languages?
(A) some
(C) any
(B) some of
(D) the
17.When did he arrive
______Moscow?
(A) at
(C) in
(B) on
(D) for
8. The telephone was___________by
Alexander Graham Bell.
(A) discovered
(C) explored
(B) invented
(D) studied
18. Nobody ____________why
people walk or talk in their sleep.
(A) know
(C) knew
(B) knows
(D) is knowing
9. This programme
______________me a lot of money.
(A) cost
(C) had costed
(B) costed
(D) was cost
19. There is oxygen on this
planet! We _____________to
breathe!
(A) can
(C) be able
(B) will can
(D) will be able
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10. It happened_______ our way
home.
(A) in
(C) for
(B) on
(D) about
20. What will __________be like
tomorrow?
(A) the weather (C) weather
(B) a weather (D) the weathers
II. Study the following rules of reading and use the table while
reading if necessary.
Основные правила чтения
Таблица 1
Буквы
ch (tch)
sh
th
ck
ng
nk
qu
ph
gh
c
g
Чтение согласных букв
Звук
Примеры и пояснения
cheese сыр
t  (ч)
ship корабль
 (шь)
θ или ð
thin тонкий
that тот
chick цыпленок
k
long длинный
η
think думать
ηk
quick [kwik] быстрый
kw
philosopher философ
f
не читается
brought принес
перед e, i, y, city [´siti]
s
город
перед остальными буквами
и на конце слова: cat [cæt]
кошка
k
physics [´fiziks] физика
d3
g
перед e, i, y
large [´la : d3] большой
перед остальными буквами
и на конце слова
go [gou] ходить
bag [bæg] сумка
в начале слова и после
глухих согласных на конце
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s
s
z
x
j
ks
d3
Буква
b
k
w
Буквы
a
e
i
o
u
Не читается
перед m
перед n
перед r
слова
sand [sænd] песок; cats
[cæts] кошки
между согласными и после
звонких согласных rise
[raiz]подниматься
dogs [dogz] собаки
fox лиса
Jim Джим
Примеры
dumb [d۸m ] немой
knife [naif] нож
write [rait]писать
Чтение гласных букв
Гласные в открытом слоге
Звуки
ei
i:
ai
ou
ju
u:
Примеры
take, mate, race,
Pete, be, he
time, kite, pine
tone, bone, rope
tube
rule
Гласные в закрытом слоге
Буквы
a
e
i
o
u
Звуки
æ
e
i

۸
9
Примеры
bad, had, map
pen, send, ten
bit, kid, it
hot, not
bus, club
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Буквы
ar
or
er
ear
ir
ur
Буквы
ee
ea
oo
ew
ai
ay
ey
ow
ou
au
oa
igh
air
are
ear
ere
ire
Гласные в сочетании с буквой r
Звуки
Примеры
a:
car
:
sport
her
learn
girl
turn
Гласные буквосочетания
Звуки
Примеры
i:
tree [tr i: ] дерево
i:
speak [spi:k] говорить
или е
dead [ded] мертвый
(перед d)
u:
spoon [spu:n] ложка
u
look [luk]
ju:
new [nju:]
pain [pein] боль
ei
day [dei] день
hey [hei] сено
ou
window [windou] окно
au
brown [broun] коричневый
au
count [count] считать
:
Austria Австрия
ou
coat [cout] пальто
ai
high [hai] высокий
ε
aı
air воздух
care забота
near около
here здесь
fire огонь
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Гласные в сочетании с другими согласными
Буквы
Звук
Примеры
a (после w)
want хотеть

a (перед ll или
tall высокий

1+согласная)
walk гулять
a (перед ss или st)
a:
grass трава
vast обширный
i (перед ld или nd)
ai
o (перед ld)
ou
child ребенок
kind добрый
cold холодный
Чтение буквы y
Буква
y
1) в начале слова
2)
на
конце
односложных слов
3) на конце двух- и
многосложных слов
Слог
areexbe-
Звук
Примеры
j
ai
yes [jes] да
my [mai] мой
i
many [meni] много
family [´fæmili] семья
Безударные слоги
Звучание
ri
iks
bi
Примеры
about
remember
express
become
UNIT 2 BUSINESS COMMUNICATION
I. Conversational Formulas For Successful Interaction
1. Greetings and Inquiries about Life
A. Hi. Hello. How do you do? How are you? How are you doing?
B. Everything's OK. I am fine, thank you. Not too bad. As usual.
Too much work, otherwise OK. Keeping busy.
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2. Introducing People
A. Meet my friend Betsy. Let me introduce my friend Betsy. This is
my friend Betsy.
B. It's a pleasure to make your acquaintance. Pleased to meet you.
A. Same here. Likewise.
3. Attracting People's Attention
A. I'm sorry. Sorry to interrupt you. Excuse me. Pardon me.
B. Yes? What is it? What can I do for you? Could / Can I help you?
4. Leaving
A. Goodbye. Bye! See you soon. See you later. Thanks for inviting
me. Thank you very much for having me. See you on Monday.
Take care. Have fun. Have a good time. Have a good weekend.
Take it easy.
B. See you. Give my regards to your family. Say hello to Betsy.
Give my love to our daughter. Give [a mutual friend] a hug when
you see him/her.
5. Congratulations and Good Wishes
A. Best wishes to all of you. Congratulations on your new job. Happy
birthday. Happy Thanksgiving. Merry Christmas. Happy Easter.
Have a happy holiday.
B. Thanks for remembering my birthday. You have a good holiday,
too.
6. Invitations and Offers
A. May I invite you to the movies? I'd like to invite you to see a show
with me. Are you free on Thursday? What are your plans for the
holidays? Would you like to have dinner with me? When can we
get together? Will 7:00 work for you?
B. I'm sorry; I'm busy all next week. Great, it's a date. Eight would be
better for me. Can I bring a friend?
C. Agreed? Settled? Is it a deal? See you then. I'll pick you up at
your place. I'll meet you at the theatre.
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7. Apologies
A. I'm sorry. I am terribly sorry. Sorry to bother you. Excuse me. I
apologize. I apologize for being late. 1 am sorry to have
inconvenienced you.
B. That's all right. It's OK! Don't worry yourself about it. No bother.
No trouble at all. No harm done. It was my fault.
8. Requests
A. Please open the window. Do you mind opening the window?
Would you mind opening the window? Do you think you could
open the window? Do you mind if I open the window? Would you
mind if I opened the window? May I open the window? Is it all
right if I open the window?
C. Certainly, I'll be happy to do so. Be my guest. Suit yourself. Go
ahead. It makes no difference to me. Please yourself. Go ahead. I'd
rather you didn't, I have a cold. Please don't, I don't like drafts.
9. Thanks
A. Thank you very much. I can never thank you enough. Thanks a lot.
I appreciate what you did for me. Many thanks. Thanks a million.
B. You're very welcome. It was my pleasure. My pleasure entirely.
Think nothing of it. The pleasure was ours. It was a pleasure doing
business with you.
10. Opinion
In my view ... It seems to me that … That makes sense to me. You've
got a point there. Right on! I'm not an expert, but I think you're on to
something there [this is a good idea that may need further
exploration]. You are entitled to your own opinion, but I still think
otherwise. To my mind … In my opinion …
11. Agreement
I agree with you. That's just what I think. Tell me about it! I couldn't
agree with you more. You know it! That's right on target. Amen!
12. Disagreement
I disagree with that point. I'm afraid you're mistaken. Far from it. I
wouldn't say that. Not a chance. No way. Yeah, right [disparaging, said
with falling intonation].
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13. Surprise
You don't say so! Fancy that! - Who'd have thought it? That's
amazing. That's incredible! I don't believe it!
14. Advice
I think you should do something about it. Why don't you see a doctor?
I don't see why you should get upset about it. Take it easy. Relax. Don't
panic. Take your time. Don't take it to heart. Stay cool. Don't let it get you
down.
15. Appointments
I would like to make an appointment to see Doctor Smith. What time
is convenient for you [him/her]? I wonder if the doctor could see me at 2
o'clock? Is Doctor Smith available on Thursday at 3 o'clock?
16. Compliments
You were superb! That was excellent. You've done a wonderful job.
That's a fine piece of work. Well done. Terrific! Outstanding! Bravo!
II. At the hotel
What hotel shall we stay at?
В какой гостинице мы
остановимся?
Have you any accommodation?
Есть ли свободные номера?
Where is the manager?
Где администратор?
I have booked a room.
Я заказал номер.
I have a reservation.
У меня предварительный заказ.
I would like a single room,
Я хотел бы получить
одноместный номер,
a double room.
двухместный номер.
I want a room on the first (second, Я хочу номер на первом (втором,
third) floor.
третьем) этаже.
How much is the room per night Сколько стоит номер в сутки
(per week)?
(неделю)?
Does that include service (meals)?
Включено ли в оплату
обслуживание (питание)?
Do you have anything cheaper?
Есть ли у вас что-нибудь
подешевле?
This is too expensive.
Это слишком дорого.
Reserve a room for me, please.
Оставьте, пожалуйста, номер за
мной.
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I shall take it.
Sign here, please.
I hope you will like it here.
Please give me breakfasts (dinner,
supper) in my room.
I will have dinner (supper) in the
restaurant.
Where is a hairdresser’s?
Please, send up tea (coffee,
sandwich).
I must tidy myself up.
Thank you for a pleasant stay.
Это подойдет.
Распишитесь здесь, пожалуйста.
Надеюсь, вам понравится у нас.
Я прошу подавать мне завтрак
(обед, ужин) в номер.
Я буду обедать (ужинать) в
ресторане.
Где находится парикмахерская?
Принесите, пожалуйста, чай
(кофе, бутерброд).
Мне нужно привести себя в
порядок.
Спасибо, здесь было очень
приятно.
III. At the restaurant
Let us have breakfast together.
Позавтракаем вместе.
Come to the café with us.
Пойдемте с нами в кафе.
I would be glad to. I am very hungry. С удовольствием. Я сильно
проголодался.
Where is the nearest restaurant?
Где здесь поблизости ресторан?
Is there a restaurant in the hotel?
В гостинице есть ресторан?
Which
restaurant
would
you Какой ресторан Вы можете
recommend?
порекомендовать?
I do not like Mexican food. It is too Я не люблю мексиканскую кухню.
spicy for me.
Она слишком острая для меня.
We would like to order Russian Мы хотели бы заказать русские
dishes.
блюда.
Here is the clock-room.
Вот гардероб.
Please, take my coat.
Примите, пожалуйста, у меня
пальто.
Here is you check.
Возьмите, пожалуйста, номерок.
Good evening. Do you have a table Добрый вечер. У вас есть столик
for three?
на троих?
Is this table vacant?
Здесь свободно?
Who is serving us?
Кто здесь обслуживает?
This table is vacant.
Этот стол свободен.
Right this way, please.
Сюда, пожалуйста.
Sorry, this table is reserved.
Извините, этот стол заказан.
Will you take a seat at that table?
Садитесь за тот стол, пожалуйста.
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Можно сесть там?
в углу?
у окна?
Я заказывал столик. Меня зовут…
Стол заказан.
Меню, пожалуйста.
Что Вы посоветуете?
Могу предложить Вам…
В нашем ресторане подают блюда
русской кухни.
You can try oriental dishes.
Вы можете попробовать блюда
восточной кухни.
What else, please?
Что еще желаете?
They serve very good meals here and Здесь хорошо кормят и цены
the prices are quite reasonable.
умеренные.
Now what is there for desert?
А что можно заказать на десерт?
What specialties (national) dishes do Какие
у
Вас
фирменные
you have?
(национальные) блюда?
Take our order, please.
Примите, пожалуйста, у нас заказ.
Could we have a bottle of wine?
Принесите, пожалуйста, бутылку
вина.
I am full. Nothing more, thanks.
Я наелся. Больше ничего, спасибо.
Please, bring me some…
Подайте
мне,
пожалуйста,
немного…
I do not drink strong wine.
Я не пью крепких вин.
Please, pass me the pepper.
Передайте, пожалуйста, перец.
the salt
соль
the mustard
горчицу
the vinegar
уксус
the hours-radish
хрен
the sauce
соус
I do not like spicy food.
Я не люблю острой пищи.
Would you like some …?
Не хотите ли немного …?
My compliments to the food.
Мне нравится ваша кухня.
It was delicious.
Было очень вкусно.
Please, serve us quickly.
Обслужите нас побыстрее,
пожалуйста.
Do not worry, I will serve you quickly. Не волнуйтесь, я обслужу Вас
быстро.
May I have the bill, please?
Могу я получить счет?
Could I have a table over there?
in the corner?
by the window?
I have reserved a table. My name is…
Reserved
Menu, please.
What do you recommend?
I can offer you…
Our restaurant serves Russian food.
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Пожалуйста, Ваш счет.
Here is your bill.
Bacon
Ham
Pressed
caviare
Corn flakes
Picked
mushrooms
Salad
Cheese
Scrambled
eggs
Hard-boiled
eggs
Artichokes
Eggplants
Green peas
Tomatoes
Beetroot soup
Broth
Pea soup
Potato soup
Chicken soup
Vegetable
soup
Noodle soup
Fish soup
Bean soup
Cabbage soup
Hot dog
Tongue
Fish in jelly
IV. Food and drinks
Бекон
Sandwich
Ветчина
Soft caviare
Икра паюсная
Sausage
Бутерброд
Икра зернистая
Колбаса
Кукурузные
хлопья
Маринованные
грибы
Салат из овощей
Сыр
Яичница
Butter
Масло сливочное
Omelet
Омлет
Sour cream
White bread
Rye bread
Яйца вкрутую
Soft- boiled eggs
Сметана
Хлеб белый
Хлеб черный
(ржаной)
Яйца всмятку
Артишоки
Баклажаны
Зеленый
горошек
Помидоры
Cabbage
Onions
Cucumbers
Капуста
Лук
Огурцы
Beans
Фасоль
Борщ
Бульон
Гороховый суп
Картофельный
суп
Куриный суп
Овощной суп
Beef Stroganoff
Meatballs
Steak
Partridge
Бефстроганов
Биточки
Бифштекс
Куропатка
Hamburger
Cheeseburger
Chop
Meat dumplinks
Liver
Roast beef
Гамбургер
Мясная котлета с
булкой, сыром и
овощами
Отбивная котлета
Пельмени
Печень
Ростбиф
Sturgeon
Осетрина
Суп с лапшой
Уха
Фасолевый суп
Щи
Сосиски с
булкой
Язык
Заливная рыба
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Flounder
Crabs
Shrimps
Salmon
Perch
Lobster
Камбала
Крабы
Креветки
Лососина
Окунь
Омар
Sardines
Herring
Pike perch
Oysters
Trout
Pike
Сардины
Сельдь
Судак
Устрицы
Форель
Щука
Sponge
Roll (bun)
Jam
Jelly
Fruit-cake
Sweets (candy)
Honey
Ice cream
Cookies
Flake pies
Бисквит
Булочка
Варенье
Желе
Кекс
Конфеты
Мед
Мороженое
Печенье
Пирожки
слоеные
Пирожное
Пудинг
Сахар
Торт
Шоколад
Apricot
Pineapple
Orange
Grapes
Cherry
Pomegranate
Grapefruit
Pear
Strawberry
Lemon
Абрикос
Ананас
Апельсин
Виноград
Вишня
Гранат
Грейпфрут
Груша
Клубника
Лимон
Mandarin
Plum
Sweet cherry
Apple
Мандарин
Слива
Черешня
Яблоко
Cake (pastry)
Pudding
Sugar
Cake
Chocolate
White wine
Brandy
Whisky
and
soda
Whisky on the
rocks
Neat
Vermouth
Port
Rum
Dry wine
Белое вино
Gin
Бренди
Gin and tonic
Виски с содовой Cocktail
Джин
Джин с тоником
Коктейль
Виски со льдом
Cognac
Red wine
Liqueur
Beer
Cherry
Champagne
Коньяк
Красное вино
Ликер
Пиво
Херес
Шампанское
Soda
Газированная
вода
Какао
Кока-кола
Mineral water
Минеральная вода
Milk
Milkshake
Молоко
Молочный
Cocoa
Coca-cola
Виски чистый
Вермут
Портвейн
Ром
Сухое вино
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Stewed fruit
Coffee
Lemonade
Cream
Компот
Кофе
Лимонад
Сливки
Sour milk
Tonic
Tea
Juice
коктейль
Простокваша
Тоник
Чай
Сок
V. In town
-ADMISSION BY
-TICKET ONLY
- ADMISSION FREE
Вход платный
-BUS STOP
Вход бесплатный
- ATTENTION!
Внимание
- DANGER!
Опасно!
- DEPARTMENT
STORE
- DETOUR
- HAIRDRESSER’S
Универмаг
- CAUTION!
- CLOSED
- CUSTOMHOUSE
- EMERGENCY
EXIT
- ENTRANCE
- HOTEL
Гостиница
- INFORMATION
Справочное бюро
- NO ADMISSION
- NO ENTRY
Вход воспрещен
Проход
воспрещен
Стоянка
запрещена
Фотографировать
запрещено
Не курить
- NO PARKING
- NO
PHOTOGRAPHING
- NO SMOKING
- NO SWIMMING
- SERVICE
ENTRANCE
- SMOKING
SECTION
- STOP!
- SUBWAY
Объезд
Парикмахерская
Остановка
автобуса
Осторожно!
Закрыто
Таможня
Запасный
выход
Вход
- HOURS: … TO
…
- MEN
- PARKING
Выход
Пристегните
ремни!
Скорая
помощь
Открыто с …
до …
Для мужчин
Стоянка
- POLICE
STATION
- POST OFFICE
Полицейский
участок
Почтамт
- PRIVATE
PROPERTY
- PULL
Частная
собственность
К себе
- RESTAURAUNT
Ресторан
Место для
курения
Стойте!
- RESTROOMS
Туалет
- ROAD CLOSED
Проезд закрыт
Метро
- TAKEN
(RESERVED)
Купаться
запрещено
Служебный вход
19
- EXIT
- FASTEN
SAFETY BELTS!
- FIRST AID
Занято
(забронировано)
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Телефон
Остановка
трамвая
Для женщин
- TELEPHONE
- TRAM STOP
- WOMEN
Стоянка такси
Зал ожидания
- TAXI RANK
- WAITING
ROOM
- WALK!
Идите!
VI. Telephoning
a) When you make a phone call to a person in a company, you often
have to call a switchboard of general number first, then ask the
receptionist for the person you want to speak to.
RECEPTIONIST
CALLER
1
2
The switchboard
operator answers
Smith, Thomas & Manton. Can I
help you?
OR
Good morning, Smith, Thomas &
Manton
Replying to the switchboard
operator
Can/ could I speak to … please?
OR
I’d like to speak to …
OR
Extension 8248 please.
4
3
Can’t get through?
No, thanks, I’ll call back later.
OR
Could I leave a message for him/her?
OR
Could you put me through to his/her
secretary?
OR
Can you ask him/her to call me back?
Being connected
The line’s busy, will you hold?
One moment, please.
OR
Hold the line please, I’ll put you
through.
Getting through
5
6
My name is … (the first call
only)
OR
It’s Chen Chen Ju here.
Greeting a caller
Hello. Barry Smith
speaking
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VII. Activities
1. Receiving Visitors. Thanks and Apologies
Complete the dialogues.
1. Clive Harris:
Mr Sakai:
Responds:
It’s a pleasure. Don’t mention it.
Thanks:
Thank you very much for collecting me.
Asks polite question:
1. _____ __________ _______ ______ ?
Responds:
2. Yes, ________. It’ fine.
Thanks:
It’s good of you to visit us. Thank you
for sparing the time. I know you have a
busy itinerary.
Responds:
3. _______ _______ _______. Mr Harris.
Responds:
5. _______ _______ _______ ________
to say so.
Adds polite comment:
4. I _______ coming to Britain.
And I’m looking forward to my visit to
Bibury systems.
2. Mr Sakai:
Derec:
Greets Derec and apologises:
Responds:
_______ _________ ________. I like
meeting visitors.
Hello, Mr Jones.
_____ _______ _______ interrupt
your work.
Use these expressions:
It’s …
Would you like some…?
Thank you
Shall we have …?
That would be very nice.
Let’s go to …
You must …
This is …
Would you like to …?
What about …?
What if we …?
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UNIT 3. ABOUT MYSELF
I. Tell your group mates
appearance
education
about yourself and your
friend. Use this table.
will, want to
looks, has /have, am/is
activities
is (am) fond of, is (am) mad about,
is (am) interested in ,
adore to, enjoy,
prefer, like, my joy is,
is (am) involved in, is (am) engaged
in
22
…dancing,…reading,…cooking,
...visiting museums, …exhibitions,
concert halls,
…doing crosswords,
…doing sports,
…listening to music,
…watching TV,
…taking photographs,
…playing computer games,
…painting,
…playing cards,
…fishing
personal details
beautiful, attractive,
a good complexion,
a slender figure,
of middle height,
delicate (large, regular),
features
…study at,
…obtain knowledge,
…get the profession of,
…am (is) engaged in selfeducation,
…become a qualified
specialist
My friend and
I
skills
features of character
…name is…
…was born in …in
…am (not) married
…live in
…studied at …
...left...studied...
… entered…
Family
…have, have got
…is friendly
..consists of
…understand, trust one another
…give a helping hand to
…get together on special occasions
…compromise with one another
…celebrate holidays
can, like, enjoy
is /am/are/
sew, drive a car,
ride a horse
cook, knit,
repair things,
construct things
well-bred, decent, fair, friendly, sociable,
generous, noble, honest, decisive,
polite, hard working, authoritative
tactful, boastful,
ambitious, touchy, punctual
(un)communicative
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II. Tell your groupmates
about your family and family
relations within the family
a modern family
…consists of
…lose touch with
…move away
…take an immediate family
…are expensive
…take up rooms
…can’t afford food, clothes,
education
problems
family
…consists of
…there is (are)
…have, have got
…is, works
…studies
…is (isn’t) married
traditions
activities
23
…are engaged in…
… vacuum carpets
… wipe and dust furniture
…prepare food
…do shopping
…look after pets
…wash dishes
relationships within the family
…understand
…support
…give a helping hand
…don’t betray
…take care of
…encourage
…don’t compromise with
…miscompromising leads to…
…yell at … for
…don’t let … wear … go…
…force…to … against my will
…don’t let… make…decisions
Family,
Family relations
government’s policy
…gives financial help
…safeguards rights
…adopts laws defending
(can get married without parents consent)
…have the right to vote, to own property
23
…have, follow
…get together
…have a holiday dinner
…discuss problems
…give and receive presents
…sing songs on special
occasions
Wishes, dreams of
Parents, children
want, expect, ask, don’t want
to be polite, kind, friendly,
hard working, punctual,
not to be rude, to smoke;
to be kind, to understand them,
to give pocket money,
to leave them alone
to use alcohol, drugs
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
III. Life Events
1. Look at the charts of life events for Harry and Sally, and make up
a story about them
a) Say when Sally met Harry
Harry
Sally
Age
age
Born 1970
Born 1967 in Ontario,
0
0
Canada
Went to Loughborough
11
Grammar School for 6 years 11
Joined a drama group.
Start a life-long passion
Went to London University
18
for 3 years
Came to live in England
15
summer 1982
Started going out with Suzie.
19
Ended Christmas 1993
Went to Teacher Training
19
College for 3 years
Went to live in Paris Feb22
July 1992
Taught in Poland for two
23
years
Met Sally at a party
23
Met and married Paul
24
Got a job in a record shop
August 1991. Had a
24
daughter. Polly born 13
Married Sally 23 March
May 1992
25
1995. Promoted to store
manager of the record shop 25
Came back to England
Autumn 1995
with Polly but without
Paul 1992
Bought a house in
26
Wimbledon
Divorced Paul. Started
26
teaching in a school in
London Sept 1993. Met
Harry Christmas 1993
b) Ask questions about them
a. When__________________?
In 1970
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b. How long______________ at Loughborough
Grammar School?
Until________________________
c. How long____________________________?
Three years.
d. How long ________________________Suzie?
_____________________
e. How long ______________________in Paris?
_______________________
f. Where______________________________?
At a party
g. How long ____________________________
in the record shop?
h. How long ____________________manager?
Since___________________________
i. When_______________________________?
____23 March 1995.
j. How long _____________________they
________________________in Wimbledon?
k. How long _____________________Sally
__________________________in Canada?
___________she was fifteen?
l. How long __________________________
________________________married to Harry?
q. How long ____________________
________________________interested in drama?
m. When ______________________meet Paul?
While________________________________
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r. How long _______________________
_________________in the school in London?
Since_________________
m. When ______________________________
married for the first time?
n. When____________ Polly___________?
How long_________________________
________________________________
married to Paul?
2. What would you tell the groupmates about your life events?
3. Ask your groupmates about their important life events.
4. Look at the information about Georges, Keiko, Mark. Ask your
partner questions about them.
a) Keiko Wilson
Country
An interpreter
b) Georges Teste
Japan
A taxi driver
Country
France
Town
Tokyo
Town
Paris
Place of work
At the United Nations
Place of work
In the centre of Paris
Languages
Japanese, English and
Russian
Languages
Family
Married to an
American, two sons
Family
Free time
skiing
Free time
26
No
A dog (!)
Walking with his
dog and football
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
c) Mark King
A journalist for the BBC
Country
England
Town
Edinburgh
Place of work
In an office
Languages
English, Russian and German
Family
Married, three daughters
Free time
tennis
5. My Free Time Activities
1) Tell us what you like and what you don’t like to do in your free
time
I really enjoy …____________
But I don’t like … at all
I don’t much like…___________
I’m also fond of…__________
going to (the cinema, theatre,
exhibition halls, disco, a night club, a
casino)
dancing
visiting museums
doing crosswords
doing sports (skiing, tennis, football,
judo, basketball, volleyball, )
watching TV
taking photographs
cooking
playing (computer games, the guitar,
the cards)
sailing
diving
painting
swimming
reading
eating in a restaurant
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I prefer… to …____________
I think that I’m good at …_______
I hate …________________
I think that … is a waste of time.
windsurfing
fishing
singing
dancing
driving a car
riding a horse
visiting friends
collecting
go hiking
doing shopping
sewing
collecting (stamps, pictures, labels,
cans, boxes, bottles)
travelling
2) Tell us: about free time activities of young people. Use the
words from the box.
85% Watching TV
60% Listening to tapes and CDs
55% Visiting friends and relations
40% Playing computer games
are fond of
are keen on
are mad about
prefer…to…
enjoy
don’t like…very much
35% Going to clubs and Disco
27% Reading books and newspaper
20% Doing sports
3) How do you feel about these activities? Use the words given
below.
I really enjoy…
I’m extremely interested in…
I’m fascinated by…
I’ve always wanted to learn about…
I don’t much like…
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I’m bored by…
4) Write an application to International pen-friend club.
International pen friend club
First name: ______________________________________________
Surname: ________________________________________________
Age: ____________________________________________________
Brothers/sisters: ___________________________________________
Friends: _________________________________________________
Favourite subjects? ________________________________________
Hobbies: _________________________________________________
Sports: __________________________________________________
Pets: ____________________________________________________
Your country: _____________________________________________
5) What country would you like to write to? Why?
Great Britain
[‘greit’britn]
Germany [dʒə:məni]
Australia [ :streiljə]
Austria [ :streiə]
Greece [gri:s]
Italy [itəli]
Belgium [beldʒəm]
Bulgaria [b∧lgεriə]
Brazil [brəzil]
Canada [kænədə]
Cuba [kju:bə]
Finland [finlənd]
Switzerland
[switsələnd]
Thailand [teilænd]
Sweden [swi:dən]
Norway [n :wer]
China [t∫αinə]
Japan [dʒəpæn]
Egypt [i:dʒipt]
France [frα:ns]
India [ndjə]
Spain [spein]
Korea [kəriə]
Mexico [meksikou]
Hungary [h∧ŋgəri]
the USA
Mongolia
[m ŋgouljə]
Turkey [kə:ki]
Poland [poulənd]
Denmark
[dənmα:k]
Indonesia
[indounizjə]
29
Iran [irα:n]
Iraq [ira:k]
Singapore [siŋgəp :]
the Netherlands
[ne∂ələndz]
Columbia [kəl∧mbiə]
Portugal [p :tjugəl]
Israel [izreiəl]
New Zealand
[nju:zi:lənd]
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6. 1) Your Curriculum Vitae should be:
• world processed
• laser printed on good quality paper
• no longer than two pages of A4 paper
You should include:
Personal details.
The employer wants to know who you are and how to contact you
(essential information only)
Education.
Work experience. Don't just describe the job - stress what you achieved
and what you learnt.
Positions of responsibility.
If you do not have a lot of work experience, this section will show
employers your potential.
Skills. Be positive about your ability - never undersell your experience.
Interests. Stress any significant achievements related to your interests.
Referees.
• Current students and recent graduates should choose an academic
referee and a personal one (this could be an employer).
• Get your referees permission first and tell them what you are applying
for and what you would like them to stress in a reference.
2) Read Melanie Henderson’s CV. Ask questions on her Curriculum
Vitae.
Personal Details
Address
Melanie Henderson
99 Newlands Park
Date of birth
London
3.11.1978
SE 30 8
Tel: 017125650
Education 1997 – present
Degree in French and Films Studies, University of London
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Degree performance to date: 2.1
Specialist subjects: British Cinema, The Narrative Technique
1992-1997
Royal Latin School, Aylesbury
Levels: French (B), German (C), English (B), Film studies (A)
GCSEs: French (A), German (A), English (A), History (B), Art
(A), Maths (B), Economics (B)
Work experience
1999
Information Officer, Futuroscope, France. Responsible for
dealing with enquiries in a busy office, responding to 2000
enquiries a week. This demonstrated my ability to retain a
professional approach and a sense of humour while working
under pressure.
1998
Customer Services Assistant Provided support for customer
enquiries. Dealing with customers’ complaints demonstrated my
ability to remain calm under pressure. Explaining complex issues
simply and clearly helped me to develop my communication
skills.
Positions of responsibility
In my final year at school, I helped to organize a career fair for all
final year students.
Skills
Good working knowledge of Microsoft Word and Excel
Spreadsheets
Working knowledge of French and Italian
Current clean driving licence
Interests Travel: I have travelled extensively and independently in
Europe.
Music: I play the guitar in a semi-professional band and have
done a number of gigs for school and students clubs.
Referees Hamish Roberts
Richard Gayle
(Tutor at University of London)
(Customer Services
Manager) DAT
17 Woodland Avenue
31 Pleasant Street
Oxford
London
OX GGR
SE LSR
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IV. Activities
*1. Read the poem
On Sunday afternoon in the middle of July
I like sitting in the sun just looking at the sky.
I like listening to the birds singing in the trees — in July.
I hate going to work when the sun shines
Or standing in the rain,
I hate queueing at a bus stop,
Or trying to read a paper on a train.
On cold December mornings I like walking through the snow
I like watching all the people as off to work they go.
I like dozing (дремать) in a chair, without a care - in December.
On rainy April days I just like staying at home.
I like reading a book or simply being alone.
I like thinking of you, and all the thing that you do - in April
But most of all I like loving you.
You're a Sunday afternoon, a December morning too.
You're an April day, sunshine in June - You're you.
(Ray Kingsbury Patrick O'Shea)
2. Ask your partner whether he/she likes (hates) doing all these
things. Let your partner use:
I like it very much. No, not very much. I hate it. I really love it.
3. Ask and answer. Find out your friend’s likes and dislikes. Then
sum up his/her answers and tell the class about his/her preferences
(preference предпочтение).
collecting things, spending money, flying, going
by coach, travelling, taking photographs of
yourself, of other people, meeting people,
Do you enjoy
travelling in a group, staying in hotels, staying with
Do you hate
your friends, staying at home during your
holiday, reading guide-books, eating in
restaurants?
4. Complete the following sentences.
The status of parenthood results ……(1)…… certain rights and duties
existing …..(2)…… parents and minor children. Modern statues in the
United States provide that ……. (3)……. the father and the mother are
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natural guardians of their offspring. If it becomes necessary for the law of
appointing alternative guardians, these people are known ……(4)……
guardians by law. Parents are responsible ……(5)…… the health,
financial support, and education of their children. Illegitimate children are
usually given into the custody of the mother, with the father providing
support.
1. a) in
4. a) a like
b) of
b) as
c) for
c) for as if
2. a) among
5. a) to
b) amongst
b) for
c) between
c) about
d) amidst
d) in
3. a) all two
b) both
c) also
d) even
*5. Read the dialogue and say what problems the English teens
come across? Do you have the same problems?
Katie: I make lots of friends on holiday.
Reporter: You’re still at school, aren’t you?
Katie: Yes. I’ll leave next year, when I am 18.
Reporter: Do you make most of your friends at school?
Katie: Yes. In the evenings and at weekends I go out with school
friends, and go to their parties. That's how I meet other people. Or I
meet them on holiday. It's easier then, because you're more
adventurous when you're away from home.
Reporter: Why?
Katie: I think it's because you have more freedom. You can do things,
and then go away and forget about them. You become a different
person. Even if you're very shy you can go and chat up a bloke.
Reporter: Do you like foreign boys?
Katie: Well, they're attractive just because they're foreign. But also
they pay more attention to you than English boys. They're really
interested in what you have to say. And they're more romantic.
English boys often prefer to go out with their mates than with a girl.
Reporter: Do you think English boys are shy?
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Katie: I don't really know. They certainly don't show their feelings.
Perhaps it's because they're afraid to. I remember that I used not to
show my feelings, because I was afraid of being rejected.
Reporter: What do foreign boys think of English girls?
Katie: I talked about this with some Swedish boys. They said they
liked English girls. They thought we were friendly and outgoing, and
good fun.
Reporter: Would you prefer to marry a foreign boy?
Katie: No, I don't think so. I want to marry an English man, when I'm
about 30. I'm very traditional, really. I want a traditional marriage. I
don't believe in this open marriage, where you can have affairs with
other men while you're married. I believe that you stick with one
person, and that's it.
Reporter: Do you remember the first time you went out with a boy?
Katie: Yes. I was 14. I was very worried, because I didn't know what
he'd expect.
Reporter: Was it all right?
Katie: Yes. We walked round the park and talked about each other. I
felt a bit silly. But after a while we got on like a house on fire!
Reporter: When you go out with a boy, do you share the costs
equally?
Katie: Yes, but my boy-friend doesn't like it - he's even more
traditional than me! He prefers to pay for me when we go out. But
we're both still at school, and neither of us has any money, so that's not
possible. I prefer to pay for myself. Why should a boy have to pay for
everything? You always hear about girls wanting equality, but they
expect their boy-friends to spend a fortune on them!
Reporter: Have you ever secretly planned to meet a certain boy?
Katie: Yes, once. He was called Simon, and he worked with my sister.
I liked him, and wanted to go out with him. But he didn't ask me out.
So I asked my sister to arrange all sorts of times when I would
"accidentally" meet him.
Reporter: Did your plan work?
Katie: Yes, it was very successful! We went out together for five
months.
Reporter: Why did the relationship end?
Katie: I met another boy on holiday, and I was in a holiday mood.
When I came back to England, I just wasn't interested in Simon. He
suddenly became boring.
Reporter: What about the boy you met on holiday?
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Katie: We wrote to each other for a couple of weeks, and then that
was it I never heard from him again. It's always like that: you say
you'll write, and he says he'll write. You both say you’ll send a photo.
And two weeks later, that's it! Finished!
Reporter: So did you regret breaking up with Simon?
Katie: No. I found out that he was a pig anyway!
Reporter: How do you usually feel when a relationship ends?
Katie: Depressed. Suicidal at times. I feel that I'm not a good person,
and that it's all my fault. And I start thinking, "How can I change
myself? How can I make myself be loved and wanted?" I feel
desperate.
Reporter: Do you sit at home, hoping that a letter will arrive, or that
the telephone will ring?
Katie: Oh, yes. I say to myself, "Please, God, let that telephone ring."
I have said that so many times. And a couple of times I've said,
"Please, God, don’t let that telephone ring!"
*6. Groupwork. Look at the following statements. Choose those
you agree with, and those you do not agree with, expressing the
opinion of everyone in your group.
Parents and teenagers.
1. Young people should only leave home after they are married.
2. Young people should never leave home without their parent's
permission.
3. Young people who live at home should pay rent to their parents.
4. Young people should only stay at home when they can't find
anywhere to live.
5. Young people who leave home are selfish.
6. Young people should be allowed to go to court to 'divorce' their
parents.
7. The state should help young people find a home of their own.
8. Young people should allow elderly parents to live with them.
Now discuss:
• Do young people leave home in your country? Why? Why not?
• Would you want to leave home soon? Why? Why not?
• Do you agree with this proverb?
Home is where the heart is.
• Do you have similar proverbs in your language?
• Try to summarize the advantages and disadvantages of leaving home
as a young person.
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UNIT 4 EDUCATION
I. A visit to Cambridge
1) Read, say and discuss.
My name is Ann Berlina. I am a student at Moscow State Linguistic
University.
Last winter I spent ten days in the University City of Cambridge. It is
built on a river called the Cam. Cambridge University, founded in 1209, is
still one of the two best places to study in England; Oxford is the other.
Students work very hard to obtain a place at «Oxbridge» - either at Oxford
or at Cambridge. There is great rivalry between these two ancient
universities: each wants to be better than the other, but in reality both are
equally good.
Today, Cambridge is famous not only for its university but also
because it is a very picturesque and ancient city. Many of its buildings are
very old, some were built about 700 years ago. Some of the older buildings
are covered with beautiful plants such as ivy. Many are surrounded by
green lawns and multicoloured flower-beds. Although all the colleges
belong to the same university, each has its own character and style. In
1440 King Henry VI founded King's College, hoping that this would make
people remember him. It is still the most famous college in Cambridge
because its chapel is one of the finest churches in Western Europe. There
are also many beautiful bridges across the Cam including the
Mathematical Bridge and the Bridge of Sighs.
In my view, Cambridge is a very pleasant city to live and study in.
Since there are so many colleges, a large number of the city's inhabitants
are young students. In the day-time the students work in libraries or attend
lectures, while in the evenings they go back to their college rooms, or
university lodgings.
Sport plays a large part in university life. As Cambridge is on the river
Cam rowing seems to be the most popular sport. There are "boathouses"
all along the river bank and early in the mornings you'll see many students
rowing, whatever the weather. The best of them are preparing for the
famous annual boat race against their rivals from Oxford. This race attracts
much attention: thousands of people line the banks of the Thames in
London to cheer both teams on, and the race is broadcast on television in
many different parts of the world.
When visiting Cambridge, one should certainly take the time to have a
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look around the shops. There are many bookshops for students and tailors'
shops where long traditional gowns are sold. At weekends shops are often
crowded with tourists looking for souvenirs such as mugs, T-shirts.
Students wear scarves of various colours in the winter when the weather is
cold — at least-by English standards. They often complain of the wind and
rain, as most of them travel around by bicycle.
2. Give some information about Cambridge and its university. If
necessary use these words.
 was founded, picturesque, beautiful, ancient, are surrounded, are
covered, green lawns, beautiful bridges, is famous for;
 are involved in sports, is popular, take part in, attracts the attention,
souvenirs, shops and bookshops, are crowded.
II. My Institute
Are you proud of your institute? Say using this table.
Students
Our institute
it
they
sport
the institute
there
I
We
prepares
was founded
participate
broadcast
is surrounded by
by
work
attend
take part in
- hard to obtain a place at the institute
- in 2003
- programmes on specialized topics
- music (classical, jazz, pop)
- amusing parties, discoes, discussions
- different activities
- at the library
- houses and green trees, shops, cafes
- knowledge
- a large part in the institute life
- voluntary work
- lectures and seminars
- laboratories with modern equipment
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A course at
the institute
Teachers
Each student
organize
do
plays
has
is rich in
is located
are
can listen to
enjoy
get
is
obtain
study
trains
takes
pay
are engaged in
learn
give lectures on
- some computer classes
- in the centre of the town
- the profession of an economist, a lawyer,
a bookkeeper, an auditor, an expert in the
science of commodities
- highly qualified specialists in the fields
of economy and law
- a pleasant educational establishment to
study
- sport competitions
- special shops, a bar for the study
- a faculty of economy and science of
commodities, a faculty of law
- academic, non-academic and optional
subjects
- for 5 years
- money for their education
- research work
- fundamental theoretical subjects,
Philosophy, Foreign languages,
Economics, History; Cooperative
movement, The Theory and the History of
Russian entrepreneurship, sociology,
Psychology, Accounting
III. Higher Education in Russia
1. Moscow University
1) Read the text and say what you have learned about the history
of Moscow University.
An important part in the development of higher education in Russia
was played by Moscow University which was founded in 1755. It was not
by accident that Moscow was chosen as the place for the first Russian
University. Moscow was situated in the centre of the country and it was
easier for students to come there from all parts of the country, besides, life
in the older capital was cheaper than in St Petersburg.
Moscow University was opened on April, 26 (May, 7) 1755 in the
three-storied building where the State Historical Museum is situated. But it
was too small for the University and several houses in Mokhovaya Street
were bought the next year. In 1786 the sum of 125,000 roubles was
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allotted (ассигновано) by the government to build a new University
building. It was built by a famous Russian architect Kazakov in
Mokhovaya Street.
The University had three faculties: philosophy, law and medicine. The
philosophy faculty was considered to be preparatory and study there was
obligatory for all students. Philosophical, natural and philological disciplines
were studied for 2 or 3 years. Special attention was paid to "the history of the
Russian empire". After finishing the courses at the philosophy faculty,
students could choose to study either law or medicine. At the law faculty
students were taught civil law, commercial law, military law and law of the
sea. Each student could work independently according to an individual plan
of studies, which was based on the general university curriculum and he
could study the disciplines, which he had chosen in any order he wished. The
University also contained a library, a minerological museum, a "natural"
museum, an anatomical theatre, a chemical laboratory, an astronomical
observatory, etc. In accordance with the University Charter (устав) debates
among students were organized. They were supervised by professors and "all
lovers of the arts and sciences" (гуманитарные и естественнонаучные
дисциплины) were welcome to these debates. The best students were
awarded gold and silver medals at the end of each year. After graduation they
were sent abroad to perfect their knowledge.
All lectures were given in Latin. Professor Popovskiy who gave lectures
on philosophy and literature was the first to propose giving lectures in Russian stating that "there exists no idea that can't be properly explained in
Russian". But lectures in Russian were not allowed until 12 years later in
1767.
The number of students at the University was small. Thus in 1755
there were only 61 students. Later their number gradually began to grow.
Now at the University there are 16 faculties where more than 30,000
students are given instruction by about 10,000 teachers. (After "The
History of Moscow").
2) Make up 5 questions in writing on the text.
3) Retell the story. If necessary use the following phrases:
…was founded in …
… contained …
There … only …
…were given in …
… was built by …
… was the first to propose …
… had … faculties
… were awarded …
… was paid to …
… were sent …
…were taught …
… there are …
… could work independently …
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2. University system in Russia
1) Pre – reading task. Check the meaning of the following words
in your dictionary
philology concrete
spirit
skill
work-load
graduate
discipline
civic
ability
pass
institutions pertain
responsibility deal with oral
academy
attach
acquire
amount significance
advanced undergraduate post-graduate
2) Read the text and do exercises on it in writing.
1. The universities in Russia educate students in the “university”
disciplines. Among the sciences there are Mathematics, Physics,
Chemistry, and Biology, and among the Arts History, Philosophy,
Economics, Law and Philology.
While learning at a university or college, students have time to study
not only such fundamental theoretical subjects as Mathematics, Chemistry,
History and concrete disciplines pertaining to their speciality, but also such
general-education subjects in the social and economic group of sciences as
Philosophy and Economics. Great importance is also attached to educating
students in the spirit of civic responsibility, to their acquiring
organizational skills and the ability to perform social duties, as well as
cultivating an interest in teamwork when dealing with co-workers.
In the first years of learning, there are set subjects for one's speciality;
in the latter years a certain amount of freedom in the choice of subjects is
allowed, some of which are optional (факультативные).
2. The work-load of a student, including his individual out-of-class
work, is planned to take up approximately 50-55 hours a week. During the
period of learning, every student must pass 35-40 term examinations not
counting the written and oral tests. In the last stages of learning, special
significance is attached to the students developing their creative abilities
and skills in their chosen speciality. This stage culminates in preparing and
publicly presenting ("defending") a diploma paper (thesis, dissertation).
3. University graduates work as teachers in universities, colleges and
secondary schools, in cultural institutions, research institutes of the
Russian Academy of Sciences and other establishments.
4. It is well-known that higher education must be closely connected
with the development of science and advanced methods of production.
This means that research and work in the actual production must be an
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integral part of the process of instruction, especially for undergraduates,
while for post-graduates it is the chief form of activity.
3) Read and answer the questions:
a) What is the main idea of the text?
b) What is the university system like?
4) While reading match the number of the paragraph with the
necessary letter. Say what the paragraph is about.
1
2
3
4
A. research work
B. curriculum
C. graduates
D. work-load
5) Choose the right idea according to the text.
A. University graduates work as teachers
1. in the latter years
2. in schools
3. in different establishments
4. in the spirit of civic responsibility
B. While learning at a university the students have time to
1. work as teachers
2. study fundamental theoretical subjects
3. do sports
4. do voluntary work
C. The work-load of an undergraduate consists of
1. Russian Academy of Sciences
2. 50-55 hours a week
3. freedom in the choice of subjects
4. instructions
A
B
C
6) Match a line in A with a line in B to make a sentence.
A
B
1. In the last stages of learning a) students in «university» disciplines
special significance is attached to
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2. Great importance is attached to
b) with the development of science
and advanced methods of production
3. The universities in Russia educate c) concrete disciplines pertaining to
their speciality
4. Higher education must be closely d) to educating students in the spirit
connected
of civic responsibility
5. While learning at a university e) the students developing their
students study
creative abilities and skills in their
chosen speciality
7) Say if the following statements are true or false. Write «F» next
to false, «T» next to true:
A. University graduates work as economists in universities
colleges, secondary schools, research institutes.
B. Students obtain knowledge on mathematics, physics,
chemistry, biology, philosophy, economics.
C. Great importance is attached to educating students in the
spirit of civic responsibility.
D. In the last stages of learning special significance is attached
to ability to perform social duties.
E. The work-load of a student including his individual, out-ofclass work takes up approximately 50-55 hours a week.
A
B
C
D
E
8) Post reading task. Put the following phrases in the correct order to
make up a short story about university system in Russia.
1. have time to study fundamental theoretical subjects…, general- a
education subjects…
2. obtain knowledge in science…
b
3. is attached to educating…acquiring…cultivating
c
4. must be closely connected with…
d
5. includes… takes up 50-55 hours a week
e
6. must pass 35-40 term examinations
f
7. graduates work as teachers
g
8. is attached to the student developing
h
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9) Find English equivalents of the following Russian phrases and
learn them at home.
Естественнонаучные дисциплины; гуманитарные дисциплины;
теоретические дисциплины; общеобразовательные дисциплины;
обязательные курсы; факультативные курсы; студент; выпускник;
аспирант;
научно-исследовательский
институт;
научноисследовательская работа; гражданская ответственность; навыки
организаторской работы; развивать интерес к коллективному
творчеству; внеаудиторная работа; семестровые экзамены, зачеты;
творческие способности и навыки; избранная специальность; писать
и защищать диплом; развитие науки и передовых методов
производства; составная часть процесса обучения.
IV. Higher education in Great Britain
1. Read the text below and do exercises on it.
1) Pre – reading task. Check the meaning of the following words in
your dictionary.
Institution, extra-mural, extension, refresher, preliminary, locate, medical,
include, faculty, arts, science, technology, engineering, economics,
commerce, agriculture, award, Bachelor, medicine, proceed, supervise, set,
provide, hostel, accommodation, curriculum, department, law.
2) While reading. Answer the questions:
a) What kinds of higher learning are there in Great Britain?
b) What is the biggest university in England?
c) What are the most common faculties in it?
d) How do young people enter universities?
HIGHER EDUCATION IN GREAT BRITAIN
In Britain there are different kinds of institutions of higher learning:
universities, colleges, university extra-mural departments, evening
departments at colleges, extension groups or extension courses, refresher
courses and preliminary courses. There are 22 universities in Great Britain:
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16 in England, 4 in Scotland, 1 in Wales and 1 in Northern Ireland. The bestknown universities are located in Oxford, Cambridge, London, Manchester,
Liverpool, Durham, Edinburgh, Southampton, Cardiff, Bristol, Birmingham.
Of these Oxford is the oldest, for its history goes back to the twelfth century.
London University is the biggest of the modern English universities, and
it consists of a great number of colleges and other institutions, including
medical schools. A university usually has both faculties and departments.
The most common faculties are arts, law, medicine, science and technology.
The departments include, engineering, economics, commerce, agriculture,
music and technology. After three years of study a university graduate is
awarded with the Degree of Bachelor of Arts, Science, Engineering,
Medicine, etc. Later he may proceed to the degrees of Master and Doctor.
Professors and lecturers give lectures to large groups of students and
supervise the work of individual students in smaller groups. Oxford
University is famous for its tutorial system. Each student has a tutor who
plans the student's work, sets tasks and discusses with him what he has done.
Admission to the universities is by examination and selection. Women
are admitted on equal terms with men, but the proportion of men is rather
more than 75 per cent. Most of the universities provide hostel
accommodation for their students, but many students live in private rooms.
The rent is very high (135-170 pounds a year). Colleges provide a
specialized training. There are colleges within universities, teacher training
colleges, technical colleges of various types, colleges of arts and commerce.
The curriculum of a college is not so wide and the course of studies is not so
long as those at a university.
(At present the student population in Great Britain is 443.000)
3) Match a question word in A with an answer in B
A
B
1. Whom...?
a) London University is the biggest of the modern English
universities;
2. What...
b) the departments include engineering, economics,
like?
commerce. agriculture, music, technology;
3. What... for? c) Oxford university is famous for its tutorial system;
4. Where...? d) most universities provide hostel accommodation for
their students;
5. What...?
e) the student population in Great Britain is 443.000
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4) Without referring back to the article, put the following parts of
sentences into the right order by numbering the 29 parts below. The
first and the last parts are in the correct order.
1. In Britain there
 is the biggest
 including medical schools
 of individual students
 to the universities
 college is not so wide
 the best known universities
 and it consists
 give lectures
 in smaller groups
 examination and selection
 provide
 are different kinds of higher learning
 are located in
 of modern universities
 of colleges and other institutions
 of students and supervise the work
 admission
 the curriculum of a
 Oxford, Cambridge, London, Manchester
 Of a great number
 to large groups
 colleges
 and the course of studies
 London university
 professors and lecturers
 is by
 a specialized training
 is not so long as those at a university
5) Translate § 2 into your language. Translate ideas, not word for
word.
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V. What is the role of the English
language in modern life.
Express your opinion.
education
activities
2
science
is used, speak, are
organized, communicative
is studied, is, get, is spoken
…at schools, colleges,
institutes
…the second most
spoken language
…education abroad
…different professions
is used, are done, teach, gives, is given
…world festivals, forums,
…shows, sport
competitions, exhibitions
The English language
in modern life
46
computers, scientific information on
any
subject, a lot of scientific works…,
computer programmes …, English
individually
role
… is necessary, learn, is, want
…to do business, to read
…to speak fluently
…a means of
…to use in a job
…to understand foreign culture
…to understand films
…to correspond with
…is a world language
(2/3 countries of the word)
…the official language of 34 nations
…to communicate with
…to live in a foreign country
Travelling
requires, communicate, travel,
helps
the knowledge, cafes, hotels,
restaurants, airports, shops, to
explore new ideas, to learn
more about …, to relax, to meet
new people, to feel comfortable
in every day’s life
is used, are done, broadcast,
are (is), are printed
labels of goods, …advertisements,
instructions of medicine, guide books
75% of world’s mail
60% of the world’s telephone calls
60% of the world’s radio stations
50% of periodicals
46
in the life of
famous people
study, know,
could write, could
speak
in modern business
is, study, there are, meet,
work, use, travel, speak
…international; …a lot;
…cultural differences
…subsidiary companies
…foreign colleagues
Pilots, air traffic controllers,
diplomats, politicians,
scientists, doctors, students…
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VI. Activities
1. Read the texts about Cambridge and Oxford and compare the
two universities. What facts do you find most unusual.
Cambridge*
My visit to Cambridge has been an unusual experience. From
whatever country one comes as a student one cannot escape the influence
of the Cambridge traditions — and they go back so far. Here, perhaps,
more than anywhere else, I have felt at one and the same time the Past, the
Present and even the Future.
The story of the University begins, as far as I know, in 1209 when
several hundred students and scholars arrived in the little town of
Cambridge after they had walked 60 miles from Oxford. These students
had been studying in Oxford at that city's well-known schools. It was a
hard life at Oxford for there was constant trouble between the people
living in the town and the students. Then one day a student accidentally
killed a man of the town. The Mayor (мэр) arrested three other students
who were innocent (невиновны) and they were put to death. In protest, all
the students moved elsewhere, some coming to Cambridge; and so the new
University began.
The Colleges join one another along the curve (изгиб) of the river
Cam. Going through a college gate one finds one is standing in an almost
square space of about 70 square yards (the size varies from college to college) known as the "court" or quadrangle (quad). Looking down into the
court on all sides are the buildings where the students live. The Colleges
are built on a plan common to all. There is a chapel (часовня), a library
and a large dining-hall. The student gets a clear idea of much of the
English architectural styles of the past 600 years - the bad as well as the
good.
There are nineteen colleges, including two for women students which
were built near the end of the last century (women students do not have a
very active part in University life at Cambridge by the way, but they work
harder than men and one seldom sees them outside of the classrooms).
It is difficult to walk around the quiet quads of the Colleges without
feeling a sense of peace and scholarship (ученость).
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Oxford*
Oxford is like London: it is international, it is old and it has great
charm. It is also a town that grew up near the River Thames.
Oxford is international because people from many parts of the world
come to study at its university. They join the university "family" that has
more than 9,000 members.
The city of Oxford is old and historical. It has existed since 912. The
university was established in the 12th century. The oldest of the twentyseven men's colleges is University College. Some of the other old colleges
are Merton College, Magdalen College, and New College.
You can see the charm of Oxford in the green fields and parks which
surround the city and you can see it in the lawns and gardens which surround the colleges.
You can see the charm of Oxford in the River Thames and its streams
which pass near the city. Punting (punt - плоскодонка) is a favourite sport
among the students at Oxford. It is a very peaceful sport and helps you to
do a lot of thinking - especially if you are studying for an examination!
When you go to Oxford, there are two things you must do:
1. Go to the top of the Radcliffe Camera (next to the Bodleian
Library) and look out across the city.
2. Stay up till midnight and listen to Great Tom, the bass bell at Christ
Church, which tolls 101 times each night.
2. Read the text about M.V. Lomonosov and understand the context. The
contents are given in wrong order. Read it again and put its parts into
correct order.
M.V. Lomonosov
1. M.V. Lomonosov was the founder of Moscow University which
was established in 1755. He devoted his whole life to spread science in the
country. Many of his cherished ideas were realised only in our time. M.V.
Lomonosov's memory is highly honoured in our country and many of our
educational institutions are named after him. He belongs to the people of
whom the whole cultured world is proud.
2. Soon Lomonosov became a student of Marburg University. There
he studied chemistry, mining, natural history, physics, geometry,
trigonometry, mechanics, hydraulics and hydrotechnique, and German,
Latin and French languages. The three years stay in Marburg was very
productive for M.V.Lomonosov. He became acquainted with the
achievements of science in Europe at that time.
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3. The history of mankind knows many examples of people having
numerous talents. Leonardo da Vinci was a great Italian painter and at the
same time a gifted scientist. Alexander Borodin was a physician, an
outstanding chemist and a brilliant musician.
4. When Lomonosov returned to Petersburg in 1741 he was ready to
work for the good of his country. Soon he was appointed assistant
professor at the Academy where he taught chemistry, mineralogy and
versification. In 1745 M.V. Lomonosov was appointed; professor of
chemistry. On his initiative the first chemical laboratory was built in
Russia.
5. We can give other examples of gifted men, but there is hardly any
other person more gifted than Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov. He was a
historian, mechanic, chemist; mineralogist, an artist and a poet.
6. In the winter of 1730 Lomonosov went to Moscow where he
entered the Slavonic-Greek-Lalia Academy. He was a brilliant pupil and in
1735 he was sent to Petersburg to continue his studies at the University. In
Petersburg Lomonosov began to study German, Latin, mathematics,
rhetoric, geography, history and physics. He was an extremely capable
student and soon was sent to continue his education abroad.
7. M.V. Lomonosov's talent as a poet also developed and even brought
him popularity at the. imperial court. This improved his position at the
Academy. M.V. Lomonosov also wrote treatises which played an
important role in the development of the Russian language (Rhetoric and
Russian Grammar). M.V. Lomonosov's Russian Grammar served as model
for later Grammars. He did a lot for the development of out-language and
literature.
8. In 1741 Lomonosov came back to Petersburg. These years of study
made M. V. Lomonosov an all-round scientist and practician, ready to take
up any kind of work.
9. Mikhail Lomonosov was born in Sepiember 1711 into the family of
a fisherman. He began to work at an early age and often accompanied his
father on long and dangerous voyages. During these voyages he observed
nature, the life and customs of the people. Everything young Mikhail saw
aroused a thirst for knowledge which was unusual in a boy of his age. But
he could not get his education at home.
10. The combination of science with practice, with problems of
everyday life was an organic feature of M. V. Lomonosov's work. All his
work was done to serve his Motherland. "What joy it is to work for your
country's good!" he would say.
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11. M.V. Lomonosov read public lectures on physics to spread
education in Russia. Me made many theoretical investigations in physics.
He wrote-several fundamental-works on physics. M.V. Lomonosov
studied electricity and enriched this branch of physics with new and
valuable observations and ideas. He also discovered the existence of an
atmosphere around Venus. M.V. Lomonosov did a lot for developing the
applied sciences. M.V. Lomonosov's scientific work covered-various
questions of theoretical and applied physics and chemistry, chemical
technology, theoretical and experiments meteorology and many others.
M.V. Lomonosov was the founder of Russian scientific terminology.
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UNIT 5. ACROSS GREAT BRITAIN, THE USA, RUSSIA
I. The Geographic position of the USA, the UK and Russia is different. Which factors make these countries
different or similar?
Use the table.
…is…(isn’t)
…is believed to be…
…is considered to have
…is rich in…
…is…
…is believed to be…
…enjoys…
51
a beautiful country,
a stable and
democratic society
a well- developed country
the largest
trading nation
a highly industrialized
country
the largest energy
resources
an international
reputation in the world
an important world
producer of oil, gas, coal,
steel
records of achievements
in the fields of sports,
arts, music
the largest exporter of
goods
England, Wales
Scotland
records of achievements
in the fields of physics,
chemistry, biology,
literature, technology
Northern Ireland
50 states and Alaska
7 regions
89 subjects, a lot of
republics
the Atlantic Ocean
the Pacific Ocean
mountains,
plains,
lakes
Canada,
China,
Norway
ferrous
metallurgy,
non-ferrous metallurgy
…is rich in
…has …
A lot of mineral
deposits (resources)
…grow(s) …
corn,
wheat,
oranges,
grapefruit
cattle
valleys,
tundra,
rivers
Mexico, Ireland
Mongolia,
Finland
mining industry,
textile industry,
light industry,
chemical industry
coal,
gas
non-ferrous metals
cotton,
flax,
lemons,
potatoes
live stock
the North sea, the Irish
Sea
forests,
Highlands,
towns
Georgia,
Azerbaijan,
Byelorussia
electronics, shipbuilding,
aircraft industry,
space research
the English Channel
…has…
there is…(are)…
… is covered with
…borders on
…is bounded by
…has a sea border with
…has (hasn’t) a well developed
the Arctic Ocean,
12 seas
taiga
seas
silver,
lead, nickel
aluminium
oats,
sugar-beet,
soy-beans
copper,
zinc,
iron ore
barley,
rye,
peanuts
sheep
pigs
…is
made
up
…consists of
…includes
…doesn’t include
is washed by
… raise/ breed …
of
Korea,
the Baltic States,
France
machine building industry
automobile industry
gold,
oil,
iron
maize,
sunflower,
tobacco,
sugar-beet
poultry
51
lowlands,
deserts,
cities
Kazakhstan,
the Ukraine,
Japan, the USA
agriculture,
animal husbandry,
field husbandry
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II. ECONOMY OF THE USA
Read the text and do exercises on it in writing
1) Pre-reading task. Check the meaning of the following words in
your dictionary
landscape
dot
cluster
advertise
fertile
average
skyscraper
consumer goods
vegetables
tend
giant
deal with
processing
refine
2) While reading. Choose a sentence which expresses the main
idea:
a. New York is the biggest City of the United States;
b. There is a lot of fruit raising areas;
c. The USA has a lot of mineral deposits or resources;
d. The USA is a highly developed industrialized country.
ECONOMY OF THE USA
The United States of America is a highly developed industrialized
country. Shipbuilding, electronics, automobile industry, aircraft industry,
space research are highly developed in the States.
Each region of the United States has characteristics of its own due to
the differences in climate, landscape and geographical position.
Great Lakes, Atlantic Coast, Pennsylvania, New Jersy are biggest
industrial regions of the country. The United States has a lot of mineral
deposits or resources such as coal, gold, silver, copper, lead and zinc. The
south, especially Texas is rich in oil. The coalfields of Pennsylvania are
rich in coal. There are plenty of coal mines. Illinois, Iowa, Nebraska is the
richest farming region of America and it is known as the Corn Belt. The
land is fertile and well watered. They grow mostly corn and wheat there.
Much livestock is also raised here. There is a lot of fruit raising area. For
example, California oranges, grapefruit, lemons, as well as other fruits,
wines and vegetables are shipped all over the States and to other parts of
the world. The most important crops grown in the States are also tobacco,
soy-beans, peanuts, grapes and many others. There are a lot of large and
modern cities, but a great proportion of the country consists of open land
dotted with farmhouses and small towns. The usual average town, in any
part of the United States, has its Main Street with the same types of stores
selling the same products. Many American residential areas tend to have a
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similar look. As to big cities their centres or downtowns look very much
alike. Downtown is the cluster of skyscrapers imitations of New York
giants.
New York City is the first biggest city of the States. Its population is
more than eight million people. It is a financial and advertising business
centre. It is also a biggest seaport of the Hudson River. Industry of
consumer goods is also developed here.
Chicago with a population of more than three and a half million is the
second largest city in the U.S.A. It deals in wheat and other grains, cattle,
meat processing and manufacturing. Other big cities are Huston, an oil
refining and NASA space research centre. New Orleans, a cotton industry
centre, Los Angeles with Hollywood, Phyladelphia, a shipping commercial
centre, Detroit, a world's leading motor car producer and many others.
3) Choose the right answer for the following questions.
A. What industries are well-developed in the USA?
1. electronics, automobile
3. consumer goods
2. mineral deposits
4. meat processing
B. How is field husbandry developed in the USA?
1. It grows soy-beans, tobacco, corn, wheat. 3. they grow corn.
2. there is a lot of fruit.
4. there are plenty of
fields.
C. Is New York famous for
1. oil refining?
3.advertising?
2. motor cars?
4.coal mines?
D. Is the climate of the USA favourable for the development of
1. oil.
3. agriculture.
2. land.
4. seaport.
A
B
C
D
4) Write out words from the box in two columns according to their
meaning. Use exercise 1. page 71.
Illinois, Iowa, Nebraska, Philadelphia, New York, California, Texas, New
Jercy, Springfield, Des Moines, Lincoln, Sacramento, Harrisburg, Albany,
Austin, Trenton
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a State
a Capital
5) Put the sentences in order according to the contents of the text.
1. The USA has a lot of mineral deposits or resources.
2. Huston is an oil refining and NASA space research centre.
3. The most important crops grown in the USA are tobacco, soy
beans, peanuts, grapes.
4. Oranges, grapefruit, lemons, fruits, wines, vegetables are
shipped in California.
5. The USA is a highly developed industrialized country.
6. Farming is well-developed in Nebraska.
1
2
3
4
5
a
b
c
d
e
f
6
6) Complete sentences not changing the meaning of the first one.
a) Is New York the biggest city of the states? Do you know _______.
b) Does the US have a lot of mineral resources? Do you happen to
know ___________.
c) What is Nebraska famous for? Could you tell me ______________.
d) What are the most important crops grown in the USA? Have you
any idea ________________ .
e) Where is New York City situated? I wonder __________________ .
7)* Find in text words that mean the following:
 the dimenions of height, depth, width in which all things exist and
move
 a layer of matter, often deep under the earth, that has formed
naturally.
 to sent or transport sth /sb in a ship
 a very tall modern city building
 a town with a harbour used by large ships
 petroleum found in rock underground
 engaged in of concerned with commerce
III. Industry and Agriculture of the UK
Read the text. Compare the economy of the USA with that of Great
Britain. Use the table below the text.
In the past English industrial prosperity rested on a few important
products, such as textiles, coal and heavy machinery. Now the U.K. has a
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great variety of industries, for example heavy and light industry, chemical,
aircraft, electrical, automobile and many other industries. The United
Kingdom is considered one of the world's major manufacturing nations.
Now high technology industries are more developed than heavy
engineering. Heavy engineering and other traditional industries have
experienced a certain decline. Certain areas are traditionally noted for
various types of industries. For instance, Newcastle is famous for coal
industry, the county of Lancashire for its textile industry. The Midlands, or
the central counties of England, are famous for the production of
machinery, coal, motor cars and chemicals. In recent times regional
industrial distinctions have become less clear as more and more new
factories are built in the different parts of the country. Speaking about the
cities of the United Kingdom the first mention should be made of London,
the capital of the U.K. It is a big port on the River Thames, a major
commercial, industrial centre. Leeds is a centre of clothing industry
producing woollen articles. Glasgow is a major port on the River Clyde
where shipbuilding industry is developed. Liverpool on the River Mersey
is a flour milling and engineering centre. Birmingham is an iron and steel
centre. Manchester is famous for textiles manufacturing.
Three-quarters of the United Kingdom's land is dedicated to
agriculture. About two per cent of the populations of the United Kingdom
are engaged in agriculture, but the yields of English farms and pastures are
very high. Wheat, barley, oats and potatoes are the most important crops
grown. Sheep, cattle and pigs are the most numerous types of livestock.
Sheep is a source of both wool for textile industry and mutton for food
industry. Mutton is the best liked English meat.
Common features
GB
The USA
Differences
GB
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The USA
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IV. Sights
What are the capitals famous for?
56
…is…
the capital of…, a
historical centre
a political centre,
an economic centre
…is…
…was founded
an ancient city,
there is (are)…
…is famous
for…
…affracts the
attention of …
higher educational
establishments
in… by
1147 U. Dolgoruky
2000 Romans
J. Washington
shops, supermarkets,
department stores,
financial organizations
(the Stock Exchange,
the Bank of England)
It is interesting
to visit (see)
One can’t but
admire (visit) …
…is visited …
…are proud of,
..is famous for
Red Square,
Pennsylvania,
Avenue, Trafalgar
Square
The Kremlin,
the White House,
Buckingham Palace
Capitol,
Houses of Parliament,
The Statue of Liberty
the National Gallery,
the State Tretjakov
Gallery,
the National Portrait
Gallery
Kennedy Centre,
the Bolshoi Theatre,
House Covent Garden,
The Madame Tussaud’s
Washington
Monument,
the Mausoleum,
A Column to
Admiral Nelson
…are …
… prides on …
New York,
Washington,
Sheffield
the Library of Congress,
the Russian State
Library,
the British Museum,
the Pushkin Museum of
Fine Arts
Los Angeles,
Bermingham,
St. Petersberg
Chicago, Leeds,
Moscow
Sochi
Philadelphia,
Glasgow
Novosibirsk
56
a commercial,
financial,
business centre
the official residence of
the … president
a scientific centre,
a cosmopolitan city
numerous banks,
offices, firms
research institutes,
technical colleges,
academies of art
and music
an educational
centre
a cultural centre,
an administrative
centre
a modern,
picturesque city
Cathedrals,
churches, best
hotels, theatres,
palaces,
monuments,
exhibition halls
the Kremlin Wall,
The Ostankino
Westminster Abbey Television Tower,
Granovitaya
Palace
The Tower of
London, St. Paul’s
Cathedral, the
Moscow
Underground
San Francisco,
Edinburgh
Vladivostok
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V. My native town
activities
take part
in, are
organized
sport competitions
travelling exhibitions
festivals, shows,
celebrations, carnivals
an educational
centrehas
there
is (are), obtain,
health for,
– resort centre
Is afamous
there is, are
…2 sanatoriums
…mineral water
…are cured by dirt
History
therePast
were
(was), was
founded, was, had
…few places to go
…some schools
…by Peter I
… a small town
…no much traffic
one-storey and
2 storey houses
My town
57
…a lot of institutes
…3 Universities
…77 schools
…155 Kindergardens
… a lot of vocational schools
…schools for handicapped
children
Nowadays
looks like,
is considered
to be, is, enjoys, sells, is
known as
a cultural
centre
one can’t
but visit,
has,
there is (are)
… 3 theatres
… churches
…the exhibition hall
…the Local Museum
…sport clubs
…fitness clubs
…disco clubs
…casinoes
57
…a modern town
…an international reputation in
the world
…steel to more than 50
… the largest trading town
…a lot of supermarkets,
markets, departments stores
…a highly industrialized city
…a cultural centre
…a health – resort centre
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VI. Customs. Traditions. What countries are these customs and traditions connected with?
arrangements
…are involved in
…decorate homes
…vacuum carpets
…wipe / dust furniture
…polish cutlery
…check menu
…prepare food
…do shopping
…buy / light candles
…cook special dishes
58
reasons
…relax
…entertain themselves
…follow customs and traditions
…believe …attend
…(don’t) ignore
…is a day off
…like the spirit of
…enjoy the perfect atmosphere
before
there are, observe,
follow, celebrate
New
Year’s Day, Christmas Epiphany,
Shrovetide, Easter, May Day, Victory Day,
Women’s Day, Independence Day, Constitution
Day, St. Valentine’s Day, Thanksgiving Day,
Halloween, April Fools Day, Washington’s,
Lincoln’s Birthday
Customs, traditions
What …like…?
…is, (isn’t)…
old-fashioned, most popular special,
a family reunion day, perfect,
ancient, funny, living, merry,
religious, national, international
58
the background of
is /was/ observed,
celebrated,
connected with
activities
…are engaged in
...buy souvenirs, presents
… take part in parades, celebrations
… go to church and stay for a service
…get and send postcards
…invite and are invited to parties
…get together and have discussions
…sing songs on special occasions
…have a carnival
…tell fortunes
…ride a troika
…climb a pole for a gift
…make and wear fancy costumes
…congratulate on …
…take eucharist…
…confess their sins to a priest
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VII. Activities
1. The USA States and their Capital
2. Which of the following words would you associate with the UK,
the USA and Russia? Give reasons.
The Kremlin
Madame Tussaud’s
The Statue of Liberty
Westminster Abbey
The Russian Museum
The Bolshoi Theatre
The Library of Congress
The National Gallery
The Tower of London
Buckingham Palace
3. Read the story and say why the 1st May became international
workers’ Day?
MAY DAY
History and tradition.
May Day originated in the city of Chicago in the United States of
America in 1886 as a workers' protest demonstration against the
MacCormick International Harvesting Corporation. The low pay and big
profits made by the company, which produced agricultural machinery and
employed more than 30,000 workers at that time was the cause of this
peaceful demonstration.
When the workers reached the Haymarket the demonstration was
attacked by mounted police, several workers lost their lives and hundreds
were badly beaten.
The Progressive press all over the world wrote about this shameful
interference with the rights of workers. As an act of solidarity the 1st of
May became an International Workers' day of protest and demonstrations in
nearly all civilized countries of our planet.
It is interesting to note that the fathers of the city of Chicago erected a
statue of a policeman in the Haymarket stating that “due to the brave deeds
of the Police law and order was restored” calling the workers “Hoodlums”,
Hooligans and law breakers". Needless to say this statue to “law and order”
was quickly removed by the public demand.
4. Read the text , use the word given in capitals at the end of each
line to form a word that fits in the space in the same line.
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THE THANKSGIVING DAY
One day the people of the village suddenly saw a tall ____
who was
walking ____ the street.
They ____ very much, but this Indian came
up to____, smiled and said, "Hallo, Yankee!".
Few days ____ this Indian came to the village again
together with some
____ Indians.
They came as friends and helped the white ____ very
much. But white
men forgot about this help very ____, a few years later
when many
people from Europe came to America, they began to take
the land away
from the Indians and to kill ____.
At ____ spring came. The people of New Plymouth began
to plant
corn, and the Indians showed them how ____ maize. In
autumn the
crops were very good and the people of New Plymouth
wanted to make
a holiday____. They asked the Indians to this dinner, and
the Indians
brought____ wild turkeys as a present. The turkey was an
American
bird. Very few people in Europe ____ about it but when
they ate it at
this dinner they liked it very much. The people of New
Plymouth called
their holiday "Thanksgiving Day". Since that time
Thanksgiving Day
____ a great holiday
in the ____ States of America,
and since that day ____ have always had turkeys for the
Thanksgiving
Day.
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India
Long
Frighten
They
Late
Others
Man
Quick
They
Late
Plant
Dine
Something
Heard
Has been
United
Americans
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5. Read the text. Use the word given in capitals at the end of each
line to form a word that fits in the space in the same line.
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2
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GEORGE BERNARD SHAW
George Bernard Shaw _____in Dublin, Ireland, on
July 26, 1856
____father was a small official. Bernard Shaw
attended school which he
didn't like and which he remembered as a boy prison.
He went to school as
a "day boy" which meant that he had his afternoons
free. And at home there
was music-always music. His mother had a ___voice.
He and___________
his sisters _____ sing well enough and there were,
____ the piano, many
other _____ instruments always lying about. The
sitting-room was
seldom _____ in the evening, and music came to play
an important
______part in young Shaw's life.
At the age of fourteen, after ______ from secondary
school, Shaw was put into a job as clerk in a land
agents office. The monotonous daily routine,
the _____figures and forms, the feeling that he had
become
an _______part of a machine, all that alarmed the
youth. In many
things he was _____ informed than most of his
fellow_____. Shakespeare, Byron, Shelley and many
other great poets
and writers had been read and ______ by him.
At his job he was quite _____and he had mastered the
problems of his
work without any ______.
Yet he was far from _____ happy. Bernard Shaw felt
that he had to leave and so in 1876 he said good-bye
to Ireland and went to London.
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Bear
He
Beauty
He
Can
Beside
Music
Silence
Educate
Graduate
End
Significant
Good
Clerk
Read
Efficiency
Difficult
Be
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6. Read the text and choose A, B, C or D that fits best each space.
WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE
The 1__ half of the XVI and the beginning of the XVII centuries are
known 2__ the golden age of English literature. It was the time of the
English Renaissance, and sometimes it 3__ "the age of Shakespeare".
William Shakespeare, the 4___ and most famous of English writers, and
probably the greatest playwright who ever 5___, was born in Stratford-onAvon. We know very 6___ about his life. The things that we know about
Shakespeare's life begin with the date when he was baptized in 7__ church
of Stratford, on April 26, 1564, when he was only a few days old. So he is
believed 8__ on April 23.
Though little is known about William's childhood, there is every reason
9__ that he was educated at the local Grammar School. When little over
eighteen he married Anne Halthaway of Shottery.
William lived in Stratford until he was about twenty-one, when he went
to London. We do not know 10__Stratford-on-Avon.
There is a story that Shakespeare's first job in London was 11__ rich
men's horses at the theatre door. But nobody can be sure that this story is
true.
Later, Shakespeare 12 ___ an actor and a member of one of the chief
acting 13___. Soon he began to write plays for this company and in a few
years became a 14__ author.
Shakespeare's experience as an actor (although he usually acted only
small parts, like the Ghost in Hamlet) helped him greatly in the 15__ of his
plays. His knowledge of the stage and his poetical genius made his plays the
most wonderful ones ever 16__.
Shakespeare wrote 37 plays. Among them there are deep tragedies, such
as Hamlet, King Lear, Othello, Macbeth, light comedies, such as All’s Well
That Ends Well, Twelfth Night, historical dramas, such as Henry IV, Richard
III.
17___ Shakespeare's plays were not published in his lifetime. So some
of 18___ may have been lost in the fire the "Globe" burned down in 1613.
Shakespeare spent the last years of his life at Stratford, where he died in
1616. He 19__ in the church of Stratford. A monument was erected in
memory of the great playwright in the Poets Corner in 20__ Westminster
Abbey.
A
B
C
D
later
latter
latest
1 last
as
so
such
2 how
is calling
is called
calls
3 has called
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5
6
7
8
great
has been living
little
the
to the born
9 believe
10 why left he
hold
has become
companies’
well-known
being
written
he most
they
have been
buried
20 the
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
greater
is living
less
a
to have been
born
to believe
why he left
greatest
lives
least
an
was born
most greatest
has… lived
more little
being born
held
becomes
company
Good known
write
writing
most
them
buried
believing
why does she
leave
holding
had become
companies
well
writing
to write
mostly of
themselves
was buried
believed
why did he
leave
to be held
became
company’s
well know
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wrote
most of
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a
an
-
7. Read the following text and decide which answer A , B, C or D
best fits each space.
CHARLIE CHAPLIN
This is a story that Chaplin liked to tell about 1___. It happened after the
great actor 2__ world famous.
A theatre announced that a competition 3__ to see who could act like
Charlie Chaplin. Those taking part 4__ dress like Chaplin, walk like Chaplin
and act one of the roles in 5__ Chaplin film.
When Charlie Chaplin 6__ about it, he 7__ as a joke, to take part in the
competition himself. Naturally, he kept his plan secret from everybody.
When the results of the 8__ were announced Chaplin said: "I didn't
know whether to feel angry or only surprised. I 9__ win the first prize".
A
B
C
D
he
himself
His
1 him
had became was becoming becomes
2 became
will be held
would hold
3 Would be held was held
could
had to
were to
4 must
the
a
an
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6
7
8
9
Has heard
solved
play
hadn’t won
was hearing
decided
show
didn’t win
heard
thought
competition
wasn’t won
had heard
meant
performance
wouldn’t win
*8. Read about Sydney, Australia. Complete sentences using
information from questions and answers below the text.
SYDNEY
Sydney has a population of (a) __ . It is Australia's largest and oldest
city, and it is built around the harbour, named (b) ___. Captain Cook called
it this when he sailed to the area in (c) ___. Sydney wasn't planned from the
start, as many later Australian cities were. It has a tight, congested centre
without wide boulevards. But it is a very (d) __ city, with the most energy
and style of all Australian cities.
In Sydney, the buildings are higher, the colours are brighter and the
nightlife more exciting. North of the harbour is more residential, and the
south is more industrial. The two shores are joined by the Sydney Harbour
Bridge, which was built in (e) ___. The city centre is (f) ____.
Sydney's most famous building, the Opera House, was opened in (g)
____. Designed in the 1950s by a young Danish architect, (h) ____, it is
supposed to look like sails in the wind. It took 16 years to build.
The best place to go shopping is (i) ____. The Post Office is (j) _____.
The climate in New South Wales is (k) ____. There are some of the best
beaches in the world, notably Bondi Beach and Manly.
Tourist offices are open five days a week from (I) ____ to 5 pm.
Complete the indirect questions.
Here are the answers to the
questions! Put a letter a-1next to
each one.
a) Do you know what _________?
1. ____ it is a very modern city.
b) I've no idea what __________.
2. ___ 1770.
c) I wonder when _____________. 3. ___ Joern Utzon.
d) I wonder what sort __________. 4. ____ 9am.
e) Do you know when _________? 5. ___ Port Jackson.
f) Could you tell me where _____?
6. ___ It is generally warm, though it
g) I've no idea when ___________. can get a little cold in winter.
h) I haven't a clue who ________.
7. ___ It is on Martin Place.
i) Could you tell me where ______? 8. ___ The best place is George Street
and Pitt Street.
j) Do you know where __________? 9. __3,700,000.
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k) I wonder what ____________ like. 10. ___1932.
l) Do you happen to know what ___? 11. ____1973.
12. ___ It is south of the harbour.
9. Do you know that…?
NAMING OF AUSTRALIA
It isn't often that a place gets its name before it is discovered. But this is
actually what happened to a continent — Australia!
"Australia" means "southern" in Latin. When the map makers in the
17th century were studying the earth, they figured it out this way: there are
all those great landmasses in the north, so there had to be a great tract of
land in the Southern Hemisphere to balance them. They marked this empty
space "Terra Australia Incognita" — the Unknown Land of the South.
The Dutch, who got there first, called it New Holland. But in 1795, an
English navigator, Matthew Flinders, called it "Australia," meaning South
Land... Exactly what the map makers had called it before it was discovered.
10. Match the facts to the names.
NAMES:
a. Queen Victoria
b. Charlie Chaplin
c. Frankenstein's monster
d. Leonardo Da Vinci
e. Tutankhamun
f. Robin Hood
g. The three musketeers
h. Sherlock Holmes
i. Tarzan
j. Charles Dickens
k. Davy Crockett
l. Henry VIII
m. Saint Christopher
n. V. I. Lenin
o. Abraham Lincoln
p. Napoleon Bonaparte
q. Guy Fawkes
r. Florence Nightingale
s. John F. Kennedy
t. Van Gogh
u. William Shakespeare
FACTS:
1. …used to make people laugh.
2. …used to draw with his left hand.
3. …used to help travelers.
4. …used to rob the rich to give to the poor.
5. …used to live in the jungle.
6. …used to write plays.
7. …used to solve crimes.
8. …was a nineteenth century American president.
9. …used to get tired of his wives, he had six of them!
10. …used to work as a nurse in the Crimean War in the 1850s.
11. …used to paint lots of pictures of himself.
12. …was a famous French emperor. He won many battles.
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13. …was the Queen of England; she ruled for sixty-five years.
14. …was a famous Roman Catholic. He tried to blow up the Houses of
Parliament.
15. …was a famous American. He died at the Alamo.
16. …used to fight all for one and one for all.
17. …was an American president. Lee Harvey Oswald shot him.
18. …used to kill people.
19. …was an Egyptian king.
20. …was an English novelist. He wrote Oliver Twist and David
Copperfield.
21. used to be one of Russia's most famous leaders.
10. Read the text and answer questions on it.
AMERICAN PAINTER
Mary Cassatt (1844-1926) was the most distinguished woman painter of
America. She spent most of her life in France. She was selftaught. She
joined the impressionist group at the invitation of Degas, who became her
lifelong friend.
Although there was something of Manet and Renoir in her works, she
imitated none of them and developed her own style, which shows a strong
influence of Japanese print. Her individual style had a freshness and
directness free from affection.
Her favourite subject was womanhood. Almost all her works were
devoted to the woman-and-child theme. Her treatment of it was
characterized by a certain tenderness, yet it was objective and original and
free from sentimentality.
Questions
1. What is Mary Cassatt noted for?
2. Was her style unique?
3.What was her favourite subject?
11. Read the text and think of one word which best fits each gap.
Influence, movement, medieval, painter, way, born, alive, persecution,
expressed, impressed, to join.
RUSSIAN PAINTER
Vassili Surikov (1848 — 1916) was _____ in Siberia. In 1868 he set out
for St. Petersburg on horseback _____ the Academy. The journey took him a
year. On his ______ to St. V. Surikov made frequent stops in ancient towns of
was greatly __________ by Moscow and it determined i way of life and work.
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V. Surikov was the first Russian ___________ to turn to the past of
Russia for the subjects of his works. V. Surikov ____________ the past
against the background of ordinary people.
Surikov's masterpiece 'Boyarinja Morozova' (1884) is set in the-streets of
_________ Moscow. Enormous in size and scale the canvas depicts the
__________ of the 'old believers' by patriarch Nikon. The painting is very
vivid and full of __________. The dynamism of the painting can be traced to
the ancient Russian art. Surikov used a colourful palette. The colours and the
surface rhythm make the painting___________.
V. Surikov exerted a great ____________ on all the Russian artists of his
time.
12. Read and say what you have learned about political system of
Great Britain? Does it differ from Russia? the USA?
BRITISH GOVERNMENT AND ADMINISTRATION
Monarchy
Political stability owes much to the monarchy. Its continuity has been
interrupted only once (the republic of 1649-60) in over thousand years.
Today the Queen is not only the head of the State, but also is an important
symbol of national unity. The royal title in Britain is: ‘Elizabeth the second, by
the Grace of God of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
and of Her other Realms and Territories: the Queen, the Head of the
Commonwealth, the Defender of the Faith’.
In law the Queen is the head of the executive; an integral part of the
legislature, the head of the judiciary, the commander-in-chief of all the armed
forces of the Crown and the ‘supreme governor’ of the established Church of
England. As a result of a long process of evolution, during which the
monarchy’s absolute power has been progressively reduced, the Queen is
impartial and act on the advice of her ministers.
The Queen and the royal family continue to take part in many traditional
ceremonies. Their visits to different parts of Britain and to many other
countries attract considerable interest and publicity, and they are also closely
involved in the work of many charities.
Political Party System
The political party system is an essential element in the working of the
constitution. Although the parties are not registered of formally recognized in
law, in practice most candidates in elections, and almost all winning
candidates, belong to one of the main parties. Since 1945 eight general
elections have been won by the Conservative Party and six by the Labor Party.
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A number of smaller parties are also represented in Parliament. Political
parties have national and local organizations outside Parliament, and are also
represented in local Government.
Government
The Government is formed by the party with majority support in the
Commons. The Queen appoints its leader as Prime Minister. As head of the
Government the Prime Minister appoints about 100 ministers, of whom about
20 are in the Cabinet – the senior group, which takes major policy decisions.
Ministers are collectively responsible for government decisions and
individually responsible for their own departments. The second large party
forms the official Opposition, with its own leader and ‘shadow cabinet’. The
Opposition has a duty to challenge government policies and to present an
alternative program.
Policies are carried out by government departments and executive
agencies staffed by politically neutral civil servants. They served the
government of the day regardless of its political complexion. Over half the
Civil Service – or about 295,000 civil servants – work in over 75 executive
agencies. Agencies perform many of the executive functions of government,
such as the payment of social security benefits and the issue of passports and
drivers’ licences. They are headed by chief executives who are personally
responsible for the performance of the agency and enjoy considerable freedom
of financial, pay and personnel matters.
Citizens charter
Important new proposals to raise standards in the public services were set
out in the Citizen’s charter, which was published by the Government in 1991.
The proposals, which cover all public services and privatized utilities, involve
more privatization, wider competition, further contracting-out and pay more
closely related to performance. They also include requirements for published
standards of service and results achieved, comprehensive information on
service, consultation with users of services, better redress for the citizen when
things go wrong, and tougher and more independent inspectorates and
auditing. All major public services are expected to publish separate charters,
and so far some 19 have done so.
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