close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

1203.Учебные задания по английскому языку для студентов 2 курса специальности «Промышленный дизайн», 3 семестр

код для вставкиСкачать
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
2053
Министерство образования и науки РФ
Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
«Липецкий государственный технический университет»
КАФЕДРА ИНОСТРАННЫХ ЯЗЫКОВ
УЧЕБНЫЕ ЗАДАНИЯ
по английскому языку
для студентов 2 курса
специальности «Промышленный дизайн»
3 семестр
Составители: Пономарева Светлана Александровна
Мавлина Ирина Трифоновна
Савельев Юрий Николаевич
Липецк
Липецкий государственный технический университет
2012
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
ББК Ш 13 (англ) я 7
П 563
Рецензент: канд. филолог. наук, доцент Н.В.Барышев
П 563 Пономарева, С.А.Учебные задания по английскому языку для студентов 2
курса специальности «Промышленный дизайн», 3 семестр./ С.А. Пономарева,
И.Т. Мавлина, Ю.Н. Савельев. - Липецк: Издательство ЛГТУ,2011.-22с.
Целью данных учебных заданий является ознакомление студентов с
профессиональной лексикой, формирование умения вести беседу по актуальным
проблемам дизайна в промышленности с использованием различных структурных
моделей.
Использование разноплановых упражнений направлено на дальнейшее
совершенствование навыков аудирования, чтения, говорения и письма.
Учебные задания сопровождаются комплексом аудио и видеоматериалов.
© ФГБОУ ВПО «Липецкий государственный
технический университет»,2012
2
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
MODULE ONE
LESSON ONE
ESTABLISHING INDUSTRIAL DESIGN AS A PROFESSION
1. Look at the photos and discuss the questions.
a. What do you think all the items have in common?
b. When do you think each of the items was designed?
2. Scan the text and complete the summary of the life of Raymond Loewy.
1893
 Raymond Loewy is born in
Paris, France
 receives degree in electrical
engineering
1919


receives first industrial
design commission
 starts his own design firm
1934

from 1937
 designs streamlined styling
of passenger trains for
Pennsylvania Railroad
1930s and 40s

 forms Raymond Loewy
Associates
1954

 redesigns Coca-Cola bottle
1960

1961
 Designs Avamdi sports car
for Studebaker
 Designs five cent U.S.
postage stamp, John F.
Kennedy
1967-73

1971
 designs Shell logo
3. Read the article again and complete the notes with examples of Loewy designs.
a. household consumer goods:__________________________________
3
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
b. transportation:_____________________________________________
c. soft drinks:_______________________________________________
d. miscellaneous:_____________________________________________
R1 Raymond Loewy was born in Paris, France in 1893. He obtained a degree in electrical engineering
in 1918. One year later, he left France for the United States. He first worked as a fashion illustrator for
Vogue magazine and also designed window displays for department stores in New York City.
In 1929 he received his first industrial design commission – to modernize the appearance of
Gestetner’s duplicating machine. Loewy’s design was to remain unchanged for the next forty years. In
the same year, Loewy started his own design firm.
In 1934, he designed the Coldspot refrigerator for Sears, Roebuck and Co. It was a great
commercial success and it won first prize at the Paris International Exposition of 1937.
Starting in 1937, Loewy began working for the Pennsylvania Railroad, designing streamlined
styling for their passenger trains. Over the following years, he designed various locomotives and
passenger cars.
During the 1930s and 1940s, Loewy designed a wide range of household products with rounded
corners and simplified lines such as Frigidaire range of refrigerators and freezers. Ht made important
contributions to the designs of electric shavers, toothbrushes, office machines, ballpoint pens, radios,
bottles for soft drinks, packages, etc. etc.
In 1945, with five partners, he formed Raymond Loewy Associates, which was to become the
largest industrial design firm in the world.
In 1954, he designed Greyhound’s Scenicruiser bus. In 1955, Loewy redesigned Coca-Cola’s
famous contour bottle adding the distinctive white lettering and in 1960 he designed Coca-Cola’s first
aluminum can.
In 1961, he designed the now classic Avanti sports car for Studebaker, for whom he had worked
previously on other cars.
As a designer, Loewy’s range was impressive. In 1964, he even designed a US postage stamp –
the five-cent stamp featuring John F. Kennedy.
From 1967 to 1973, Loewy worked for NASA designing interiors for the Apollo and Skylab
spacecraft.
In 1971 he designed the distinctive yellow and red Shell logo that is still used today.
4. Read the sentences and decide whether they are TRUE or FALSE. Correct the FALSE ones.
a. By 1920, Loewy had already left France.
b. By 1940, Loewy had worked for the Pennsylvania Railroad.
c. By 1958, he had designed both bottles and cans for Coca-Cola.
d. When he designed Avanti, he had already designed other cars.
e. By 1928, Loewy had established his own design firm.
f. By 1965, Loewy had started working for NASA.
g. By 1970s, Loewy had even designed postage stamps.
5. Read the text and complete each space with the correct form of the verb in parentheses.
Through his accomplishments in product design, Raymond Loewy (1) ______ (help) to establish
industrial design as a profession. By the end of his life, his career (2) __________ (encompass) all
applications of modern industrial design, from consumer products to interior building space, packaging,
and transportation.
Long before his death, Loewy (3)______________ (become) one of the best known industrial
designers of the twentieth century and his vision of beauty through the use of streamlined, highly
functional forms (4) ___________ (shape) modern industrial design in the United States. For decades,
his work (5) ___________ (permeate) the nation’s lifestyle and influenced – and (6) ___________
(continue) to influence today – countless aspects of American life.
6. Discuss these questions.
4
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
a. In your opinion, what were Loewy’s most impressive design achievements?
b. Where can Loewy’s influence on the world of industrial design still be seen?
c. What does Loewy’s career reveal about the work of an industrial designer?
d. What aspects of industrial design do you find most and least appealing?
7. Research and prepare an illustrated written report about a well - known present-day
industrial designer from your own country or from abroad.
LESSON TWO
NO SINGLE, UNIFIED STYLE OF INDUSTRIAL DESIGN
1. Read and discuss the text.
According to currently prevailing standards of industrial design, a product, apart from being costeffective in its use of resources, should satisfy the following criteria, though the relative importance of
any of these standards will vary depending on the object:
 expression of function in terms of form
 beauty of line, color, proportion, and texture
 convenience and/or comfort in use
 high efficiency and safety of operation
 durability
 ease of maintenance and repair
2. Look at the following list of products and, for each one, write the industrial design criteria
that you think would have, relatively, more importance. Discuss your answers as a group.
a. a lawn mower:____________________________________________
b. an office desk lamp:________________________________________
c. a garbage collection truck:___________________________________
d. a mobile phone:___________________________________________
e. a washing machine:________________________________________
f. a piece of jewelry:_________________________________________
g. a mincing machine:________________________________________
h. a sofa:___________________________________________________
i. a copier:_________________________________________________
j. a wheel chair:_____________________________________________
3. Look at the photos (A, B) and answer the questions.
A
a. Which armchair do you prefer and why?
b. What design improvements, if any, would you suggest for either of them?
B
Real Mouse Computer Mouse
Homemade travel-size computer mouse. Fully functional and furry!
5
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Bamboo Mouse
Get environmentally- friendly with the Bamboo Eco-Friendly Mouse.
Elegant for the executive, practical for everyone. For right or left
hand use, with optical sensing technology, PC and Mac compatible.
Germ-Free Mouse
The Germ-Free Wireless Laser Mouse is coated with a Titanium Dioxide
(TiO2) and Silver (Ag) nano-particle compound, which uses two mechanisms
to deactivate enzymes and proteins to prevent a wide spectrum of bacteria,
virus, fungi, and algae from surviving on the surface of the mouse. It has been
tested and proven effective against the settlement of harmful microbes on the
insulated surface, an excellent tool for medical offices, libraries, schools and
public computers in general.
Wearable Fingertip Mouse
Meet the Ring-Style Fingertip Mouse. This Japanese finger-mouse
straps onto your index finger and uses an optical sensor to
track your pointing - a thumb-wheel acts as a clicker as well. The
mouse is super-compact and intended for use in cramped
circumstances - you can even use your thigh as a mousing
surface, how cool is that?
Heart Mouse
Feel the love with every click of the Red Heart Computer Mouse. It may not be
a heart shaped diamond, but for a computer geek it’s almost equivalent to one.
Hamburger Mouse
This is one burger at the desktop that won't drop any crumbs into
your keyboard - the Hamburger Mouse. Its deliciously ergonomic
design has a guarantee of approximately three million clicks,
probably one million more than you'll ever need in your lifetime.
Washable Mouse
With a water-resistant design, the washable mouse can endure spills and you
can hand-wash it right under a running faucet. Dirt, food, liquids, germs,
bacteria - all wash right off with some soap and water.
a. Which computer mouse do you prefer and why?
b. What design improvements, if any, would you suggest for either of them?
4. Here is someone’s opinion about four trends in industrial design. Read and number the topics
in the order that they are discussed. Four of the topics below are not mentioned. Then read again
and take notes of the positive views expressed about each topic.
6
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
□ the origins of industrial design
□ artificially accelerated obsolescence
□ packaging
□ the cost of industrial design
□ an emphasis on impersonality
□ the role of art in design
□”classics” of industrial design
□ streamlining
Positive point of view
Negative point of view
Topic 1
Topic 2
Topic 3
Topic 4
R2 There is no single, unified style of industrial design but there are four trends that we can identify.
One of these is a stress on impersonality in design – something that Peter Behrens was one of the first
to establish. It is characterized by a certain neutrality of expression. Whether a design comes from an
individual or a group. In my opinion, this is just a natural part of mass production and marketing and it
represents average taste.
Another trend we can see in industrial design is the way designers try to wrap or
package products. Complex electronic or mechanical devices – perhaps designed by other engineers –
have protective shells that keep them safe and clean and that also look neat and attractive.
There’s also the continuing tendency to streamline designs. This design principle goes
back to the 1930s with people like Raymond Loewy, who was a very influential designer. Streamlined
designs have contours designed to other minimum resistance when moving through air or water. These
designs are smooth and clean and extremely appealing to the eye.
The fourth trend I can identify is artificially accelerated obsolescence. This refers to the
practice of changing a design intentionally to try to get people to replace the things they have with new
ones. It’s not just the design, of course. Advertising and changes in fashion play a large part as well.
From an economic point of view, well, it’s very affective.
5. Now read another speaker’s opinion offering a contrasting point of view and complete the rest
of the chart.
R 3 I agree with the list of the prevailing trends in industrial design. But, personally, I have doubts
about a number of things. For example, this emphasis on impersonality. To me, it goes against
individual expression - as if we all have to submit to “the machine.”
As for the exterior packaging that covers up the engineering “insides’ of a product, well,
to me this is sort of superficial. I think some industrial designers spend too much time and money on
this.
What is said about streamlining is true. People seem to like smooth, sleek lines. They
suggest speed and movement. But, I think we’ve taken this trend to ridiculous extremes. I mean, why
do we streamline things like refrigerators and toasters when they have nothing to do with movement or
speed?
As for the last point, this is also true, regrettably. I can understand and accept the idea of
artificially accelerated obsolescence in things that are just fashion items but I think it is unacceptable to
try to persuade people to replace things like household appliances sooner than would usually be
necessary as a result of normal wear and tear.
7
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
6. Read the text and complete each space with an appropriate
preposition.
Peter Behrens (1868-1940), a German architect and designer, was born ___
Hamburg. Initially a graphic artist ___ the florid art nouveau style, he turned
___ architecture about 1900. Behrens soon developed an austerely geometric, functional style that ___
time became the standard ___ modern industrial buildings. Appointed artistic supervisor ___ the
Allgemeine Elektricitдts-Gesellschaft (AEG) ___ 1907, he designed its products and built factories and
workers' housing. Behrens pioneered ___ the use ___such new building techniques and materials as
poured concrete, exposed exterior steel supports, and a lavish use ___ glass, as ___ his AEG Turbine
Factory (1909) ___ Berlin. His brick Hцchster Farbwerke (1920-24), ___ Frankfurt, was less inventive.
Behrens employed three men who became leaders ___ modern architecture: Walter Gropius, Ludwig
Mies van der Rohe, and Le Corbusier.
7. In small groups, debate the merits of the two speakers’ respective points of view.
8. Write an article about the way you think industrial design will change in the future.
LESSON THREE
COMPROMISES AND ENGINEERING DESIGN
1. Discuss the questions.
a. What does the term “dilemma” mean?
b. What sorts of dilemmas might you face in your studies or in your work?
c. What do you understand by the term “trilemma”?
2. Work in groups of three. You are part of a software design team. Read the information on
the role cards and assign one card to each person in your group.
Designer 1
Designer 2
Designer 3
You want to make a lowcost educational computer
game and you want to bring
it to the market quickly.
You want to make a highquality
and
low-cost
educational computer game.
You want to make a highquality educational computer
game and you want to bring
it to the market quickly.
3. Working alone, make notes about the software product you want to make.
This computer game will have a low cost. We will try to launch it
by…____________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
__________________________
4. Work again in the same group of three. Take turns sharing your ideas with the other
members of your group.
5. Complete the sentences to explain the software economics “trilemma.”
8
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
a. You can make a high-quality product and you can bring it to market quickly,
but…___________________________________________
b. You can make a high quality, low-cost product, but…___________
c. You can make a low-cost product and you can bring it to market quickly,
but…___________________________________________
6. Complete the text with the nouns in the box. There are two extra words.
merits
engineers
models
markets
requirements
mathematics
solutions
costs
compromises
designs
(1)___________ use their knowledge of science and (2) ________, along with their own relevant
experience, to find a suitable solution or solutions to a problem. They create appropriate
mathematical (3) _____________ of a problem, they analyze it, and then test potential (4)
_____________. Usually there are a number or reasonable solutions to a problem. So, engineers
evaluate each design option on its (5) ______________ and choose the solution that best meets their
(6) ________________. (7) __________ are at the heart of all engineering (8) ___________. The
“best” design is the one that meets as many of the given requirements as possible.
7. Discuss the text and how these principles apply to your studies or to your work.
8. You have been assigned the task of designing a new hand-held computer game device. First,
complete the lists of desirable design values with the correct nouns and adjectives. Add any
other desirable design values that you think are relevant to this product.
noun/noun phrase
adjective/adjective
phrase
noun/noun phrase
adjective/adjective
phrase
(1)
durable
high quality
(5)
attractiveness
(2)
(6)
efficient
low cost
low-cost
ease of use
easy to use
(3)
reliable
(7)
compact
safety
(4)
light weight
(8)
9. Work in groups. Discuss the ways in which one design characteristic might conflict with
others and the design compromises you would have to make. Share the conclusion of your
group’s discussion with the rest of the class.

If you make it more durable, that will increase the weight and also the cost.

But if we make it more lightweight, it won’t be so strong.
ASSESSMENT MODULE ONE
1. Translate into Russian in writing.
Hungarian-American designer and architect
contemporary chair design by creating the
production. In 1925 he designed one of his
armchair, made of chrome-plated steel tubing
9
Marcel Breuer revolutionized
first chairs suitable for mass
most famous chairs, the Wassily
and canvas. Breuer studied and
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
later taught at the Bauhaus school of design in Weimar, Germany, and his furniture designs reflect
the Bauhaus principle of achieving a functionalist balance between technology, purpose, and
aesthetics to yield simple, practical pieces different from traditional styles of furniture.
2. Design a new household product.
You work in the design department of a large manufacturing company that makes a wide variety of
household products. With you team:
a. Decide on a product for your design project.
b. Determine the following three characteristics of your product:
 how quickly it has to be brought to market
 whether it is to be a high-quality or a low-quality product
 whether it is to be a high-cost or a low-cost product
c. Decide on the relative importance of various design criteria
(convenience, durability, efficiency, beauty, safety, etc.) for your product.
d. Give a presentation of your finished design proposal complete with any relevant
sketches, models, diagrams, graphs, charts, tables, etc.
MODULE TWO
LESSON ONE
ERGONOMIC DESIGN
1. Discuss the questions.
a. What does the term “ergonomics” mean?
b. What tools do ergonomists use to create products and workstations that fit the possible users?
2. Read the text and fill in the correct heading for each paragraph. There is one extra heading
you are not going to use.
Factors taken into consideration
Ergonomics success
General definition
Mechanisms imperfection
Human weaknesses
Faults
Basic principles
R4
1 _____________________
Ergonomics, also known as human engineering or human factors
engineering, is the science of designing machines, products, and systems to maximize the safety,
comfort, and efficiency of the people who use them.
2 ___________________ Ergonomists draw on the principles of industrial engineering, psychology,
anthropometry (the science of human measurement), and biomechanics (the study of muscular activity)
to adapt the design of products and workplaces to people’s sizes and shapes and their physical strengths
and limitations.
3 ______________________ Ergonomists also consider the speed with which humans react and how
they process information, and their capacities for dealing with psychological factors, such as stress or
isolation. Armed with this complete picture of how humans interact with their environment,
ergonomists develop the best possible design for products and systems, ranging from the handle of a
toothbrush to the flight deck of the space shuttle.
4 _______________________ Ergonomists view people and the objects they use as one unit and
ergonomic design blends the best abilities of people and machines. Humans are not as strong as
machines, nor can they calculate as quickly and accurately as computers. Unlike machines, humans
need to sleep, and they are subject to illness, accidents, or making mistakes when working without
adequate rest.
5 ________________________ But machines are also limited - cars cannot repair themselves,
computers do not speak or hear as well as people do, and machines cannot adapt to unexpected
situations as well as humans.
10
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
6 ________________________ An ergonomically designed system provides optimum performance
because it takes advantage of the strengths and weaknesses of both its human and machine components.
3. In small groups, think of at least one example to illustrate the principles of industrial
engineering employed by ergonomists.
4. Complete the text about consumer products design with nouns from the box. There are two
extra nouns.
models
industries
razor
project surface
performance
bodies
designers
toothbrush
importance
consumer
design
Ergonomic (1) _______ makes (2) ________ products safer, easier to use, and more reliable. In many
manufacturing (3) _________, ergonomists work with (4) ____________ to develop products that fit
the (5) ________ and meet the expectations of the people who will use them. An ergonomically
designed (6)_________, for example, has a broad handle for easy grip, a bent neck for easier access to
back teeth, and a bristle head shaped for better tooth (7) ______ contact. The shaving (8) __________
has undergone a similar design revolution. The bent-handled, easy-grip (9) _______ popular today are
more comfortable to use and have a better shaving (10) __________ than the straight-edged razors of
days gone by.
5. Read and complete the text with the correct form of the verbs in the box or with other words
(nouns, adjectives, etc.) derived from these verbs.
affect
adjust
save
equip
replace
require
appear collide remove
Ergonomic design has dramatically changed the interior (1) ___________ of automobiles. The
steering wheel - once a solid, awkward disk - is now larger and padded for an easier, more comfortable
grip. Its center (2) ________ to improve the driver’s view of the instruments on the dashboard. Larger,
contoured seats, (3) __________ to suit a variety of body sizes and posture preferences, (4)
___________ the small, upright seats of early automobiles. (5) ________ with seatbelts and adjustable
headrests that prevent the neck from snapping backward in the event of a (6) __________, modern
automobile seats are not only more comfortable, they are also safer. The principles of ergonomic
design (7) ___________ other features of the automobile as well. The center-mounted rear windshield
brake light, now a (8) _____________ component of all new automobiles, is an ergonomic innovation
that (9) ________ lives.
6. Choose one of the products from the box and write a report about ergonomic improvements it
might undergo.
computer hardware
computer software
computer mouse
user interface
The following words and phrases can help you.
hand-shaped / input device / enable / click of a button / keyboard / replace / voice-activated / input
system / verbal command / touch / screen / pencil-like instruments/ enter / graphical user interface.
LESSON TWO
THE DESIGN PROCESS
1. Discuss the questions.
a. Which areas of knowledge should a modern designer be competent in to create a successful
product?
b. What does a life cycle of any successful product depend on?
11
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
2. Scan the article and find any relevant information concerning each step involved in
designing and manufacturing a product.
3. Read the text again and answer the questions.
a. Do you agree that the design and style of TVs, mobiles, refrigerators, automobiles, and washing
machines have changed greatly over the years? Could you illustrate your answer with any
examples?
b. How would you define the idea of an innovative approach?
c. Who does the word ‘others’ in paragraph 2 refer to?
d. Why do analytical models prove to be essential to the design process?
e. What modern methods can be used to assemble different components of a product?
f. How can the process of total quality control of a product be maintained throughout the process
of manufacturing?
g. Why are computer-aided design techniques so popular today?
R5
The design process for a product first requires a clear understanding of the functions and the
performance expected of that product (see the chart below). The product may be new, or it may be a
revised version of an existing product. You undoubtedly have observed, for example, how the design
and style of radios, toasters, watches, automobiles, and washing machines have changed. The market
for a product and its anticipated uses must be defined clearly, with the assistance of sales personnel,
market analysts, and others in the organization.
The design process begins with the development of an original product concept. An innovative
approach to design is highly desirable - and even essential - at this stage for the product to be
successful in the marketplace. Innovative approaches can also lead to major savings in material and
production costs. The design engineer or
designer in charge of the product must be
knowledgeable of the interrelationships
among
materials,
design,
and
manufacturing, as well as the overall
economics of the operation. In most
cases, the majority of the decisions for
selecting materials and manufacturing
processes for a product are made by the
designer, with input from others in the
organization.
Product design often involves
preparing analytical and physical models
of the product, as an aid to analyzing
factors
such
as
forces,
stresses,
deflections, and optimal part shape. The
necessity for such models depends on
product complexity. Today, constructing
and studying analytical models is made
easy by the use of computer-aided design
and manufacturing techniques. Based on
these models, the designer selects and
specifies the final shape and dimensions
of the product, its surface finish and
dimensional accuracy, and the materials
to be used. The selection of materials is
12
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
often made with the advice and cooperation of materials engineers, unless the design engineer is also
experienced and qualified in this area.
An important design consideration is how a particular component is to be assembled into the
final product. Take apart a ballpoint pen or a toaster, or lift the hood of your car and observe how
hundreds of components are put together in a limited space. Note also how difficult it is on some cars
to remove a spark plug or an oil filter, much less to make repairs or perform maintenance on the
engine.
The components of a product may be assembled by a variety of means, such as with bolts,
screws, and rivets or by welding, soldering, or adhesive bonding. The method of assembly should be
reliable and economical and require as little time as possible to perform, particularly for mass-produced
items such as hair dryers, calculators, and automobiles. In fact, by walking through an automobile
plant, you can readily observe that assembly operations are a major and important activity.
The next step in the production process is to make and test a prototype, that is, an original
working model of the product. Testing, either at this stage or periodically during production, is an
important aspect of product manufacturing. Testing is now done statistically, and the proper
interpretation of test results is crucial to maintaining the quality of a product (statistical process
control). Total quality control of a product throughout the manufacturing process is one of the most
important considerations in manufacturing engineering.
Tests must be designed to simulate as closely as possible the conditions under which the product is
to be used. These include environmental conditions such as temperature and humidity, as well as the
effects of vibration and repeated use and misuse of the product. Computer-aided design techniques are
now capable of comprehensively and rapidly performing such simulations. During this stage,
modifications in the original design, materials selected, or production methods may be necessary.
Difficulties are often encountered in making the product function properly while fulfilling design,
quality, and service requirements or producing it economically.
After this phase has been completed, appropriate manufacturing methods, equipment, and tooling
should be selected with the cooperation of manufacturing engineers, process planners, and all others
that are to be directly involved in production. Various manufacturing processes are available for
making parts with a variety of shapes, depending on the material and various other factors.
4. Match the italicized words with their definitions.
a. the action or process of performing a task or function;
b. a device for toasting bread, usually electric, and often equipped with an automatic timer;
c. help, typically of a practical nature;
d. present or existing from the beginning; first or earliest;
e. featuring new methods; advanced and original;
f. a contribution of work or information;
g. the degree to which the result of a measurement, calculation, or specification conforms
to the correct value or a standard;
h. the bonnet of a motor vehicle;
i. the action of fitting together the component parts of a machine or other object;
j. a first or preliminary version of a device or vehicle from which other forms are
developed;
k. the wrong or improper use of something;
l. decisive or critical, especially in the success or failure of something;
5. Give synonyms for the underlined words and word combinations in the text, or briefly
explain their meaning.
13
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
6. Write out the passage using the most appropriate tense or form of the verb in parentheses.
THE HA SHEM IS UNVEILED
An international music prodigy and a Cornishman (1) __________ (develop) a brand new instrument,
the Ha Shem. The instrument (2) _____ (be) a three-necked guitar that can (3)_______ (play) like a
cello.
Classical guitar prodigy Esteban Antonio and local guitar maker Kif Douglas Wood (4)_________
(join) forces to produce the new guitar. Its name - Ha Shem, (5) ______ (mean); "lord and master of
all".
The guitar (6) _______ (look) like a widened version of a standard guitar but with three necks
feeding into three pickup's (7) _____ (recognize) musical notes; there are 3 jacks that can (8)_______
(plug) into an amplifier.
Esteban (9) _______ (spend) a year (10) ______ (devise) the idea for the instrument which is a
blend of violin, cello, harp and of course, guitar. (11) ______ (reflect) on the design process, builder
Kif (12) _____ (say): "It was scary; we're dealing with a very small instrument, with very thin, delicate
timbers to get the sound.
Esteban Antonio (13) ______ (be) a professional musician for many years after (14)________
(award) a scholarship to the Royal College of music at the young age of nine. He is now a worldrenowned performer specializing in classical and flamenco pieces.
LESSON THREE
OVERDESIGN
1. Discuss the questions.
a. Which factors can influence the price of a product?
b. Do you agree that the reliability of a product depends on its design complexity that
exceeds usual standards?
2. Scan the article and give a definition of overdesign practice.
3. Read the text again and answer the questions.
a. What might overdesign result from?
b. What can overdesign lead to?
c. Is overdesign an unquestionably negative phenomenon?
d. Why do manufacturers resort to the practice of downgrading the material
and production methods used?
e. Are the accusations made against manufacturers well grounded?
R6 Surveys have indicated that many products in the past have been overdesigned. That is, they
were either too bulky, were made of materials of too high a quality, or were made with unwarranted
precision and quality for the intended uses.
Overdesign may result from uncertainties in design calculations or the concern of the designer
and manufacturer over product safety in order to avoid user injuries or deaths and the likelihood of
product liability lawsuits. Many designs are based on past experience and intuition, rather than on
thorough analysis and experimentation. Overdesign can add significantly to the product's cost. We
must point out, however, that this entire subject is somewhat controversial. From the consumer's
standpoint, an automobile, washing machine, or lawnmower that has been operating satisfactorily for
many years without needing repairs or part replacement is a good product - in other words, it is reliable
and economical.
14
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Manufacturers are sensitive to the public image of their products in the marketplace. In fact, some
products, such as washers and driers that require infrequent repair have been advertised as such in the
public media. However, many manufacturers believe that if a product works well for an extended
period of time, it may have been overdesigned. In such cases, the company may consider downgrading
the materials and/or the processes used. Some industries have even been accused of following a
strategy of planned obsolescence in order to generate more sales over a period of time.
4. Match the italicized words with their definitions.
a. an investigation of the opinions or experience of a group of people, based on a series of
questions;
b. taking up much space, typically inconveniently; large and unwieldy;
c. the ability to understand something instinctively, without the need for conscious
reasoning;
d. the state or fact of something's being likely; probability;
e. giving rise or likely to give rise to public disagreement;
f. consistently good in quality or performance; able to be trusted;
g. obsolescence is the state of being no longer needed because something newer or more
efficient has been invented;
5. Give synonyms for the underlined words and word combinations in the text, or briefly
explain their meaning.
6. Each blank space in the paragraph below should be filled with either a, an or the, or left
without any article.
The Visual Story, With Lasting Lessons
By Linda Hales
a. Through ___ miracle of ___ Google and without any design education, Leonard Wood and Vernon
Woodland have created ___ prototypes for ___ line of hip-hop shoes. ___ two men sent ___
rudimentary sketches from ____ Prince George's County to ___ manufacturer in___ China. With ___
addition of ___ little venture capital, they could start ___ production and lay claim to ___ first
designed-in-Hyattsville "urban fashion shoes."
Their story is ___ insignificant but powerful example of how firmly design has worked its way
into ____ everyday life and aspirations in our community. I write about them today, in ____ farewell
column, as ____ expression of design as ___ most populist and accessible of __ arts.
b. ___ design feat of ___ different dimension occurred last week in ___ District's Seventh Street arts
corridor. It is ___ classic example of ___ innovation and creativity lavished on ___ objects that touch
___ few lives today, but which we hope will trickle down to ____ rest of us tomorrow.
At ___ Apartment Zero store, ____ owners Douglas Burton and Christopher Ralston gambled
correctly that customers were ready for ____ ultimate holiday bauble: ___ magnum of Dom Pérignon
champagne encased in ___ limited-edition, neon-green ice bucket. ___ two-foot-tall collectible was
signed by Marc Newson, ___ Australian industrial designer whose 20-year-old aluminum chaise, ___
Lockheed Lounge, was sold at auction in June for $968,000 - ___ record for ___ piece of furniture by
___ living designer.
7. Fill in the blanks with the most suitable prepositions.
British road signage
Jock Kinneir and Margaret Calvert started work __ the design __ a new signage system __ Britain's
roads more than 50 years ago, just as the country was __ to start building a network __ new motorways
15
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
and the government realised that the haphazard and inconsistent road signs __ the day were no longer
safe or functional.
Despite the passage __ time, and the compromise __ their vision __ a clutter __ commercial
logos that now disfigure our motorways, their work looks as modern today as it did then. They took a
cool, clear-sighted look __ how we understand signs and directional systems, decoding the
complexities __ driving and finding our way __ a hierarchy __ signs and colours: blue for motorways,
green for trunk roads, white __ local roads.
They came up __ an elegant typeface and a set __ pictograms that have stood the test __ time,
and set a standard __ the world to follow. It was not part __ the brief, but __ the most fundamental
level, Kinneir Calvert's work, because __ its very ubiquity, has become part __ the background __ daily
life __ Britain, and so __ its national identity.
ASSESSMENT MODULE TWO
1. Translate into Russian in writing.
Information Design
Cognitive ergonomists specialize in information design - the best way to present complex information.
These professionals study the way the human brain processes information. Using this knowledge and
the principles of graphic design, cognitive ergonomists develop signs, maps, instruction manuals, and
even computer programs and Internet sites that are easy to use or intuitive. The work of cognitive
ergonomists is particularly evident in public transportation buildings, such as airports or train stations.
These buildings are often large, complex, and difficult to navigate. Cognitive ergonomists develop
clear, easy-to-understand navigation aids, such as signs and maps, to help people find their way to their
gate as simply and efficiently as possible. Color-coded subway maps, for example, help subway riders
navigate with relative ease through a complicated maze of interconnected underground tunnels.
Cognitive ergonomists also work with manufacturers to design the instruction manuals
packaged with consumer products. They evaluate the tasks required to assemble or operate the goods,
and present the tasks as a set of sequential, easy to follow instructions. When designing instruction
manuals, cognitive ergonomists must consider not only the way the brain processes information, but
also the way people expect to receive instructional information. As they develop and learn, humans
grow accustomed to receiving different types of information in particular formats. When information
does not conform to its customary format, people may find it difficult to follow or understand.
2. Look at the examples of subway maps. Which one do you find the most easy–to-understand?
Come up with an idea for a navigation map for the Lipetsk State Technical University.
Moscow subway map
New York City Subway Map
Beijing Subway Map
MODULE THREE
LESSON ONE
Everyday Design
1. Discuss the questions.
16
Munich Subway Map
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
a. What is your own definition of an everyday design?
b. What objects in your everyday environment do you find exquisite from the design point of
view?
2. Skim the article to find out which everyday objects the author focuses on.
3. Read the article again and answer the questions.
a. What definition of design is the author of the article impressed by?
b. What is the concept of modern design?
c. What sort of ‘different experience’ does the author mean?
d. We each design the way we live our lives, don’t we? Why/ Why not?
R7
Reading the book “A Whole New Mind” by Daniel Pink, I found perhaps the best definition of the
word I’ve ever heard, by Paola Antonelli, the senior curator of architecture and design at the Museum
of Modern Art: “Good design is a renaissance attitude that combines technology, cognitive science,
human need, and beauty to produce something that the world didn’t know it
was missing.”
But how has design become something that we speak about more and
more? For sure, companies like Apple have made consumers more aware of the
importance of good design simply by making products that are so easy to use and so well-designed that
they become must-haves. Target (a company that I have advised) introduced high-design products by
people like Michael Graves and Philippe Starck at affordable prices. Even the 3M Post-It note - a
seemingly simple product - has become part of MoMA’s permanent collection, and is perhaps one of
the few products we all have on our desks or in our kitchen drawers. Companies like OXO, with the
help of companies like Smart Design, manufacture products that have made tasks like opening a soup
can or peeling a carrot so much simpler. That is design. It is not only about making everyday products
better and easier, but it is also about creating memorable experiences.
I was a draftsman in the Milan studio of my great-aunt, Anna Castelli Ferrieri, when she was
hired to design flatware for the Italian company Sambonet. I still remember drafting, over and over, the
shape of the soup spoon. Yes, we were doing everything by hand, including creating prototypes. Anna,
looking over my shoulder as I was designing, kept saying how important the proportions were, so that
the spoon would have the right amount of soup every time, and how it had to be easy to handle. Well, it
took months of designing and months of developing, but the result was a different experience when you
were eating soup. That is design, too.
Nowadays we all are fond of creating better experiences and better products. When I think
about what I would like to have for my family and me, which would be the best, right? We just need to
think that way. When I became a citizen, I read the Constitution, and it begins, “We the people of the
United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility….”
It is about designing a better place to live. Perhaps I am pushing it, but on some level, don’t we each
design the way we live our lives?
4. Give synonyms for the underlined words and word combinations in the text, or briefly
explain their meaning.
5. Match the italicized words with their definitions.
a. eating utensils such as knives, forks, and spoons;
b. the administrative head of a museum, art gallery, or similar institution;
c. a person, esp. a man, who makes detailed technical plans or drawings;
d. an essential or highly desirable item;
e. lasting or intended to last or remain unchanged indefinitely;
f. a native registered or naturalized member of a state, nation, or other political community;
g. inexpensive; reasonably priced;
h. feel or manipulate with the hands;
17
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
6.The Silver Superstore, one of the largest independent tabletop retailers in
the USA, has come up with an idea of a ‘Gone Fishing'set which is one of
the most unique flatware patterns available today. Each piece has a
modern artistic fish shape, and is surprisingly comfortable to eat with.
Look at the photo and try to work out a marketable design for any flatware
item. Use the following words and word combinations to present your idea.
Drawings and sketches are highly welcome.
silver-plated flatware/ stainless steel / intrinsic properties / strong / great luster / a trend / a shape / to
feel great in the hand /a piece / smooth / sleek lines / style / the focus on feel.
7. Each blank space in the paragraph below should be filled with either a, an or the, or left
without any article.
Contemporary Yet Classic
In 1989 Lenox celebrated its centennial — ___landmark reached by no other American
porcelain company. Its luster remains undiminished. Lenox china patterns, including
Eternal (1965) and Federal Platinum (1991), consistently rank among __ most popular
nationwide. Newer designs, such as Winter Greetings® (1995) by __ noted nature
artist Catherine McClung, have been hailed as contemporary classics. And while
Lenox is __ leader in such current trends as transitional china and mix-and-match
placesettings, it continues to employ centuries-old craft techniques, including
piercing, jewelling, and etching. In addition to __ White House, Lenox tableware
is at home in __ vice president's official residence, more than 300 U.S. embassies,
and more than half of __ governors' mansions. Its giftware has been selected for
presentation to dignitaries by __ U.S. Congress and U.S. Department of State,
among others. Its products are in __ permanent collections of America's most
prestigious cultural institutions, including __ Metropolitan Museum of Art in New
York, and have been __ centerpieces in exhibitions of American decorative arts. And most important,
Lenox continues to be used with pleasure and given with pride by families across __ country.
LESSON TWO
RECAPTURING THE TERRAIN
1. Discuss the questions.
a. What sort of connection can you find between a country’s economic stability and its real estate
sector?
b. Why has the profession of a landscape designer become so popular of late?
2. Skim the article to find out what problems the homeowners faced.
3. Read the article again and answer the questions.
a. Why do you think the backyard always seemed to lag behind?
b. What were the main reasons for buying the four-storey brownstone?
c. What does the author mean by saying:’ This was a canvas in desperate need of some brush
strokes.’
d. What was the designer’s vision for the garden?
e. How was the old patio transformed?
f. Do you find the choice of plants appealing?
R8
Even in good financial times, when home renovations in Brooklyn were as common as restaurant
openings, one aspect of the restorations always seemed to lag behind: the backyard.
18
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
After a lengthy renovation, many homeowners found it daunting to confront the usual patch of tall
weeds out back and replace it with a well-designed garden. Yard projects
usually ended up way down the to-do list, on their way to the never-done
list.
Gigi Sharp and George Gilpin were determined not to let that
happen. After all, when they moved from the East Village to Cobble Hill in
2003, they chose their four-story brownstone almost entirely because of its
outdoor space.
“We saw a lot of houses in this neighborhood, and they looked pretty much the same,” Mr.
Gilpin said. “The draw here was the big backyard.”
The three-level yard, 80 feet by 20 feet, had lots of potential. But when the couple arrived, it
was neglected and forbidding: overgrown, dank and mosquito-ridden, with an unattractive patio and a
soggy lawn that the dogs quickly turned into a mud pit. This was a canvas in desperate need of some
brush strokes.
Mr. Gilpin and Ms. Sharp set about their plan and they hired a garden designer.
The designer’s vision for the garden involved modernizing it and removing the compacted,
poorly draining turf. Ms. Welti (the designer) also wanted to make the most of the garden’s three
levels. She knew that preserving the grade change and not having to move large amounts of soil would
save money, while also allowing for separate spaces that could function like rooms, to be used for
different activities.
The levels were separated by two existing low walls. She replaced the dated railroad-tie wall
nearest the house with a more modern-looking concrete barrier. It visually connected the garden to the
brownstone’s new rear façade.
For the patio, Ms. Welti replaced the unattractive too-new brick with uniformly sized bluestone.
The homeowners furnished it with vintage pieces to make an elegant outdoor living room.
Stepped up about two feet and behind a yew hedge was the second level, where Ms. Welti
added a stylized woodland grove with two kinds of Japanese maples. The small trees are surrounded
and underplanted by ostrich ferns and other perennials planted on a low mound.
4. Give synonyms for the underlined words and word combinations in the text, or briefly explain
their meaning.
5. Match the italicized words with their definitions.
a. to start or begin;
b. a district, esp. one forming a community within a town or city;
c. restoration ( of something old, esp. a building) to a good state of repair;
d. denoting something from the past of high quality, especially something representing the best
of its kind;
e. a paved outdoor area adjoining a house; a roofless inner courtyard;
f. (of a plant) living for several years;
g. to be the last to deal with;
h. causing fear or discouragement; intimidating;
6. Write out the passage using the most appropriate tense or form of the verb in parentheses.
Why (1) ___ (to stay) cooped up inside when you can(2) ____ ( to extend) the livable portion of your
property by(3) ___ (to create) outdoor living spaces? – Yes, we (4) ___ (to talk) about our backyard.
Imagine (5) ___ (to come) home from a rough day at work to your very own backyard oasis, you can
(6) ____ (to enjoy) the benefits of water features in your yard. Amazing garden
(7) ____ (to plant) all by yourself, with great green lawn. Or maybe vegetable garden that you
(8) ____ (to dream) about. Enjoy your own, all organic vegetables and fruits.
19
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
7. Fill in the blanks with the most suitable prepositions.
Why not plan your next get-together __ friends or family outside __ your backyard . Plenty __outdoor
furniture will be an asset __ this case .Having a swimming pool __ your back yard can be a summer
dream come true. Swimming pools can be a wonderful source __ backyard fun __ the summertime, an
attractive asset __ your property, not to mention a theme __ any party. Unfortunately, they can also
entail a lot __ upkeep (or even be downright hazardous), which may seriously cut __ your time and
energy __ backyard fun. Find __ how to keep the swimming pool area safe and low-maintenance __ the
summer.
8. Each blank space in the paragraph below should be filled with either a, an or the, or left
without any article.
Through proper plant selection, you can attract a lot of wild birds to your yard. Bird watching is one of
__ simple pleasures that many people have come to appreciate as __ year-round source of backyard
activities. Or maybe birds are too messy for you? If you're worried about feeling like __ statue in a
park full of pigeons, watching __ graceful flight of butterflies may be more your idea of __
unforgettable backyard fun.
9. Come up with a competitive project for any recreation area in the city- it might be a theme
park, a children’s park or a University campus yard.
LESSON THREE
1. Discuss the questions.
a. Which Russian magazine would you recommend to pick up creative ideas in design?
b. How do social changes affect design trends?
2. You are going to read part of an interview with Sir Terence Orby Conran, (born 4 October,
1931), an English designer, restaurateur, retailer and writer. Skim the article and formulate the
tasks design is able to tackle.
3. Read the article again and answer the questions.
a. How can economic problems be turned to the advantage of the design industry?
b. What kind of austerity can be beneficial both for the industry and people?
c. Do you agree with Sir Terence Conran on the role design should perform in society?
d. Can you identify any design approaches which can create easier living for people in Russia?
R9
SIR TERENCE CONRAN ON THE FUTURE OF DESIGN
Sir Terence Conran parts the clouds and looks into the future of design, the new creative
economy, the trouble with social housing and why space is going to be the greatest luxury of the
21st century.
It's hard not to avoid the influence the economy is going to have on design in the
next decade. It can be turned to our advantage in some senses but I don't
underestimate how tough it is going to be for the industry. I've lived through five or
six recessions and while they're not enjoyable they can make you pause and rethink
your attitude to design. How can it continue to improve our lives? A bit of austerity
20
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
won't do it any harm. Things have become a bit lavish. We've seen this overblown, blingy approach to
design, straining to project luxury, and it's led to a glut of over-decorated pieces that look as if they
came from a sweetshop.
Design is extremely important to the economy of this country and must remain so in the future.
We are never going to be the workshop of the world again, we can't compete in labour costs but we can
compete in value for money and design can play a crucial role in that if we're going to make things in
this country again. The idea of living in a country that doesn't produce anything is a dismal thought.
We must inspire industry to make things by forging design and innovation, two things I believe go
hand in hand, to allow us to make products the world wants.
Design itself can create demand. A designer's job is to add to the quality of people's lives and
there's still such a vast amount to do. I don't think we're anywhere near the point of creating a world
where everything lasts for ever — far from it.
For example, many people live in extremely depressing surroundings in the UK. There's a hell
of a lot to do and that's just in our own country. My ambition has always been to create easy living,
places people feel relaxed in their surroundings.
4. Give synonyms for the underlined words and word combinations in the text, or briefly explain
their meaning.
5. Match the italicized words with their definitions.
a. decisive or critical, especially in the success or failure of something;
b. desire to do or achieve something;
c. sumptuously rich, elaborate, or luxurious;
d. causing a mood of gloom or depression;
e. an excessively abundant supply of something;
f. a temporary depression in economic activity or prosperity;
g. plainness and simplicity in appearance;
6. Write out the passage using the words from the box.
device
technology
skills
challenges
designers
cellphone
discipline
crisis
population
things
humanity
THE DECADE'S BEST DESIGN
Most (1)_____________ spent most of their time developing (2)_________ that were tangible. Almost
all of their work was for the wealthiest 10 percent of the global (3) __________, the pampered minority
already owning more than they needed or wanted, although only a few of them feeling guilty about it.
All of that has changed in the last 10 years - or should have. Just think of what’s happened.
(4)____________ is witnessing giant leaps in science and (5) ____________, environmental(6)
________, economic turbulence and social and political meltdown, this tsunami of changes having
created daunting (7)_____________ and thrilling opportunities for designers. How have they fared?
First the good news. Designers have succeeded in redefining their (8)___________ as
something that does more than just produce “things.” This is because the intellectual process of design
thinking, whereby designers apply the instinctive (9) ________ they have developed to identify
problems and invent solutions, has been proven to be useful too.
With pure product design having changed, a cheap (10)_________ now has more computing
power than NASA when it launched the first U.S. satellite in 1958. The size of a digital (11)_______
bearing no relation to what it does, the old design cliché of “form follows function” is now redundant.
Designers have also made progress in humanizing their work, the Modernist dream of
standardization having soured.
21
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Another success has been the development of new ways for designers to help us understand the
torrent of data bombarding us each day, maps, charts and other conventional forms of communication
design being unable to depict all that information.
ASSESSMENT MODULE THREE
1. Translate into Russian in writing.
Designers of an Ottoman
Mary Little and Peter Wheeler are known to have created their designs for contract furniture
companies - their Pool collection for Brayton, for example is reported to have made quite a splash
several years ago. But until now the two, who hail from Ireland and England, respectively, and work
under the name Bius Studio, are said to have failed to approach the consumer market, except through
private commissions.
Their first public foray is a limited-edition collection of ottomans, a project that is known “to have been
over a year in the making,” Ms. Little said. “We are sure to launch three
collections a year, and each is likely to have three ottomans available in editions of
eight.” The first collection, available now, uses Maharam fabrics by Kvadrat, but
the pair plans to commission artists and designers to produce fabrics specifically
for them. All ottomans are handmade.
2. Look at the photos of some products of the future. Write your comments. The following words
and word combinations might help you.
image / inspire / modeling / concept / example / art / combine / industrial design / truly beautiful /
functional / object / to behold / awesome work / helpful / attractive / purpose /
Future truck design Future sneaker design
A race car of the future
Future rocking chair design
Редактор Р.А. Черникова
Учебные задания
по aанглийскому языку для студентов 2 курса
специаль ности «Промышленный дизайн»
3 семестр
Составители: Пономарева Светлана Александровна
Мавлина Ирина Т рифоновна
Савельев Юрий Николаевич
Подписано в печать
Формат 60 х 84 1/.8.Бумага офсетная.
Ризография. Печ.л. 1.3. Т ираж 100 экз. Заказ №
Издательство Липецкого государственного технического университета
Полиграфическое подразделение Издательства ЛГТ У.
398600 Липецк, ул. М осковская, 30
22
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа