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1313.Основы реферирования и аннотирования научной английской литературы. В 2 ч. Ч

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
МИНИСТЕРСТВО СПОРТА РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ
СИБИРСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ
ФИЗИЧЕСКОЙ КУЛЬТУРЫ И СПОРТА
ОСНОВЫ РЕФЕРИРОВАНИЯ
И АННОТИРОВАНИЯ НАУЧНОЙ
АНГЛИЙСКОЙ ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ
Учебно-методическое пособие
Summarizing English Scientific Literature.
Guide for Master Course and Postgraduate Students
Часть 1
Омск 2013
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Р ецензенты:
профессор, д-р. пед. наук СибГУФК В. Н. Попков
профессор, канд. пед. наук, зав. кафедрой ТиМ туризма
и социально-культурного сервиса, СибГУФК Т. А. Кравчук
канд. филол. наук, доцент кафедры иностранных языков
ОмГТУ И. А. Рожнова
Основы реферирования и аннотирования научной английской
литературы : учебно-методическое пособие. В 2 ч. Ч. 1 / сост.
К. Ю. Симонова – Омск : Изд-во СибГУФК, 2013. – с. 124
Настоящее учебно-методическое пособие поможет сформировать навыки по составлению рефератов и аннотаций с последующим обсуждением их на аудиторных занятиях.
Пособие снабжено дополнительными текстами по различным спортивным направлениям из аутентичных источников.
Также предложен англо-русский глоссарий на 680 терминов и
терминологических единиц.
Предназначено для студентов, магистрантов и аспирантов.
Печатается по решению редакционного совета университета
© ФГБОУ ВПО СибГУФК, 2013
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СОДЕРЖАНИЕ
Введение ………………………………………………………...
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Глава I. Краткие сведения о реферате…………………………
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Глава II. Краткие сведения об аннотации..…………………….
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Глава III. Практическая часть: тексты для реферирования
и аннотирования…………………………………………………
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Глоссарий………………………………………………………...
91
Библиографический список ……………..……………………..
122
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ВВЕДЕНИЕ
Чтобы оперативно знакомиться с огромным потоком научной
литературы на иностранном языке, специалисту приходится все
чаще обращаться к вторичным документам – рефератам и аннотациям,
которые
составляются
на
основе
аналитикосинтетической обработки информации, включенной в оригинале.
Нередко возникает необходимость самостоятельно составлять
реферат или аннотацию, что представляет одну из форм владения
иностранным языком.
Написание аннотации и реферата (на родном и иностранном языках) является одними из важных умений письменной
речи. Развитие этих умений у обучающихся и педагогов приобретает особую актуальность в связи с постепенным повышением требований к профессиональной подготовке специалистов.
Реферат и аннотация представляют собой жанр научной прозы,
который обладает рядом специфических отличительных черт,
характерных только для этого жанра. Для овладения навыками
реферирования и аннотирования нужно, прежде всего, иметь
четкое представление о требованиях, предъявляемых к этому
виду научно-технической информации, и его особенностях.
Кроме того, во многих российских регионах неотъемлемым
требованием присуждения высшей квалификационной категории
при аттестации является публикация результатов своих исследований в научно-популярных и учебно-методических журналах.
Многие из таких журналов требуют сопровождения статьи аннотацией или резюме на русском и английском языках. Поэтому
владение навыками написания аннотации согласно существующим в российской и мировой практике правилам во многом поможет обучающимся и педагогам эффективно представить себя
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и позиционировать свой проект или работу. Именно это и определило необходимость написания учебного пособия, посвященного правилам составления аннотации и реферата. При отборе текстового материала в качестве основного критерия
служила информативная ценность текстов и их соответствие
интересам целевой аудитории. Тексты взяты из аутентичных
спортивных материалов.
Пособие снабжено глоссарием, который может снять
смысловую зависимость при переводе аутентичных текстов и
помочь при составлении темы для беседы по теме своего научного исследования.
Учебное пособие может быть использовано как для аудиторных занятий, так и для самостоятельной работы.
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ГЛАВА I. КРАТКИЕ СВЕДЕНИЯ
О РЕФЕРИРОВАНИИ И АННОТИРОВАНИИ
Определение понятия «реферат». Слово «реферат»
/precis/ происходит от латинского «refferre» – сообщать, докладывать и означает:
- публичный доклад;
- изложение сущности какого-либо вопроса.
Реферат – это краткое изложение содержания первоисточника с основными фактическими сведениями и выводами на языке
оригинала или родном языке.
Различают два вида рефератов: информативный, или реферат-конспект и индикативный, или реферат-резюме.
Информативный реферат содержит в обобщенном (концентрированном) виде все положения реферируемой публикации. В
нем указывается предмет исследования и цель работы, сведения о
методике исследования, использовании оборудования, основные
результаты и выводы, а также отмеченные автором возможности
и сфера применения полученных данных. Здесь могут быть даны
также основные характеристики новых технологических процессов, технических изделий и т. п. В информативном реферате сохраняется последовательность мыслей оригинала.
Индикативный реферат содержит не все, а лишь основные
положения, которые тесно связаны с темой реферируемой публикации. Все второстепенные для данной темы детали опускаются,
при этом допускается изменение порядка следования материала
по сравнению с оригиналом.
На практике применяются также смешанные рефераты, сочетающие элементы информативного и индивидуального рефератов.
Структура реферата. Реферат любого вида состоит из
двух частей:
1) библиографическое описание, которое дает исходную
информацию о первичном документе. Как правило, заглавие
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документа, содержащееся в библиографическом описании,
служит заглавием реферата;
2) текст реферата, который включает наиболее существенную, проблемную информацию документа-источника.
Текст реферата включает следующие сведения:
1) тему, проблему, предмет, цели и содержание первичного
документа;
2) методы исследования (особенно новые);
3) результаты исследования;
4) выводы автора (оценки, предположения, принятые или
опровергнутые гипотезы);
5) пути практического применения результатов работы.
При необходимости приводятся сведения об авторе, его трудах, таблицы, схемы, чертежи, формулы, графики и т. п.
Композиционно текст реферата может состоять из вступления (вводной части), основной части (описания) и заключения.
Алгоритм реферата может быть следующим.
1. Вводная часть реферата, содержащая выходные данные,
название публикации, фамилию автора, место издания, издательство, год, число страниц, иллюстраций. Независимо от того, на
каком языке пишется реферат иностранного источника, заголовочная часть составляется на иностранном языке.
Русский вариант
В статье «...», помещенной в
журнале «...» № ... за ... год, рассматриваются вопросы (проблемы, пути, методы)... Автор статьи – известный ученый... Статья называется (носит название..., под названием..., озаглавлена..., под заголовком.., опубликована в...).
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Английский вариант
In article «...», placed in the
magazine «...» No... for... year,
questions (problems, ways,
methods) are considered... The
author of article is the known
scientist... Article is called ( is
entitled..., under heading., is published in...).
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Тема статьи –... (Статья на те- The article subject is... (The artiму..., Статья посвящена теме cle is on a subject..., Article is
devoted to a subject (to a prob(проблеме, вопросу)...).
lem, a question)...)...
Статья
представляет
собой Article represents generalizaобобщение (изложение, описа- tion (a statement, the description, the analysis, the review).
ние, анализ, обзор).
В статье речь идет... (о чем?),
(говорится (о чем?), рассматривается (что?), дается оценка (чему?, чего?), анализ (чего?), изложение (чего?).
In the article it is a question...
(about what?), (it is told (about
what?), it is surveyed (what?),
the assessment (is given what?),
analysis (what?), statement
(that?).
Сущность проблемы заключает- The essence of a problem consists (in what).
ся (в чем?), состоит (в чем?).
2. Основная часть. Собственно реферативная (описательная),
представляющей собой концентрированную передачу содержания
реферируемого документа (главную идею и существенные положения). Эта часть строится на базе выделенных при чтении ключевых фрагментов. Здесь принято не выделять абзацы.
Статья делится на ... части(-ей)
(состоит из ... частей, начинается (с чего?), заканчивается
(чем?)...).
Во введении формулируется ...
(что?) (дается определение ...
(чего?))
В начале статьи определяются
(излагаются) цель (цели, задачи)...
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Article shares on... part(s) (consists from... parts, begins (with
what?), comes to an end
(than?)...).
In the introduction it is formulated... (what?) (definition is
made... (what?))
At the beginning of article the
purpose (the purposes, tasks)...
are defined (are stated)
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Далее дается общая характери- Further the general characterisстика проблемы (глав, частей), tic of a problem (heads, parts),
исследования, статьи...
researches, articles is given...
В статье автор ставит (затрагивает, освещает) следующие проблемы, (останавливается (на
чем?) касается (чего?)...)
In article the author puts (affects, covers) the following
problems, (stops (on what?)
concerns (that?)...)
В основной части излагается
(что?), приводится аргументация (в пользу чего? против чего?), дается обобщение (чего?)
(научное описание (чего?)...
В статье также затронуты такие
вопросы, как...
Автор приводит (ссылается на)
пример(ы) (факты, цифры, данные), подтверждающие, иллюстрирующие его положения...
In the main part it is stated
(what?), the argument (in favor
of what is provided? against
what?), generalization (that is
given?) (scientific description
(that?)...
In the article such questions,
as.. are also affected...
The author brings (the example
(s) (the facts, digits, data), confirming provisions illustrating it
refers on)...
В статье приводится, дается...
In article it is brought, given...
3. Заключение, в котором содержатся основные выводы по
проделанной работе в целом.
Автор приходит к выводу (заключению), что... (подводит нас
к..., делает вывод, подводит
итог)
В конце статьи подводятся
итоги (чего?)
В заключение автор говорит, что
(утверждает, что)...
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The author comes to a conclusion that... (brings us to...,
draws a conclusion, sums up)
At the end of article are
summed up (that?)
In summary the author says
that, (argues that)...
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В заключение говорится, что...
(о чем?)
Сущность вышеизложенного
сводится к (следующему)...
It is in summary said that...
(about what?)
The essence of the foregoing is
comes to (following)...
Требования, предъявляемые к составлению реферата:
- объективность, точность изложения; полемика с автором и
оценки референта могут быть даны в специальных «Примечаниях референта»;
- полнота (изложение всех существенных положений);
- использование единой терминологии и сокращений;
- простой, ясный язык;
- логичная композиция реферата.
Особенности реферата. Выбор вида реферата зависит от того, каково его целевое назначение, а также от типа реферируемого материала (монография, статья теоретическая, статья описательная, описание открытия, изобретения и т. д.).
Форма записи. Реферат не содержит разделов и рубрик, не
расчленяется на абзацы, так как он представляет собой компактное изложение основного содержания первоисточника. Исключение из этого правила допускается лишь в рефератах большого
объема с целью выделения основных вопросов.
Язык и стиль реферата. Для реферата характерна самостоятельная литературная форма, отличающаяся строгой последовательностью изложения и своеобразием языка.
Характерная черта реферата – экономия языковых средств. В
процессе реферирования происходит не просто сокращение текста, а существенная переработка содержания, композиции и языка оригинала. В содержании выделяется главное и излагается сокращенно, сжато. Второстепенные факты, детальные описания,
примеры, исторические экскурсы (если они не важны для реферата) исключаются. Однотипные факты группируются, и им дается
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обобщенная характеристика. Цифровые данные систематизируются и обобщаются.
Для описания выбираются слова, которые могут выражать
содержание целых смысловых отрезков. Поскольку термины
несут в себе наибольшее количество информации по сравнению с
обычным словарем, то рефераты, как правило, насыщаются
терминами (главным образом существительными). В рефератах
могут использоваться вводные слова типа «даны», «приведены»,
«перечислены», «описаны» и т. п.
В реферате в основном употребляются простые распространенные предложения (около 70 %). В связи с тем, что главное
внимание сосредоточивается на фактах и действиях, а не лицах,
их совершающих, в тексте реферата преобладают неопределенноличные, безличные страдательные конструкции.
Материал реферируемой статьи или книги в реферате излагается точно, без искажений и субъективных оценок.
Объем реферата нестабилен. Как правило, он определяется
содержанием первичного документа, т. е. зависит от объема оригинала, его научной ценности. Средний объем – 500 печатных знаков
для заметок и кратких статей, 1000 – для большинства статей, патентов, 2500–12 000 – для документов большого объема.
Методика составления реферата. Процесс составления реферата состоит из двух этапов.
I этап
1. Определение темы публикации на основании заглавия и
тематической направленности лексики (ознакомительное чтение).
2. Выявление композиционной структуры текста на основании деления текста на разделы и подразделы, подзаголовков или
ознакомления с оглавлением (при реферировании монографий).
3. Выявление основного содержания через полное и последовательное восприятие текста.
4. Оценка информации в целом.
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II этап
1. Составление логического плана публикации в форме
утвердительных предложений или выписывание ключевых предложений и ключевых слов (по абзацам). При этом надо иметь в
виду, что по своей структуре абзацы бывают однотематическими
и многотематическими, в зависимости от количества развиваемых в них тем. С другой стороны, бывают абзацы, не несущие
существенной информационной нагрузки. Такие абзацы исключаются.
2. Группировка пунктов логического плана в более крупные
обобщающие пункты.
3. Составление реферата и его редактирование. Здесь необходимо обратить особое внимание на лаконичность языка. В тексте
реферата не должно быть информации, содержащейся в заголовке,
повторений, уточнений, описания литературы, вопроса и его истории, подкрепления теоретических положений примерами, подробного обоснования выдвинутых тезисов, противоречивых утверждений. Краткость изложения также достигается за счет использования
условных буквенных сокращений (например, IOK – International
Olympic Committee – Международный олимпийский комитет).
Пример реферата на английском языке.
Effect of contrast water therapy duration on recovery of cycling
performance: a dose–response study. Nathan Versey, Shona Halson and Brian Dawson
Abstract. This study investigated whether contrast water therapy
(CWT) has a dose–response effect on recovery from high-intensity
cycling. Eleven trained male cyclists completed four trials, each
commencing with a 75-min cycling protocol containing six sets of five
15-s sprints and three 5-min time-trials in thermoneutral conditions. Ten
minutes post-exercise, participants performed one of four recovery
protocols: CWT for 6 min (CWT6), 12 min (CWT12), or 18 min
(CWT18) duration, or a seated rest control trial. The CWT commenced in
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hot water (38.4 ± 0.6°C) and alternated between hot and cold water
(14.6 ± 0.3°C) every minute with a 5-s changeover. The cycling protocol
was repeated 2 h after completion of exercise bout one. Prior to exercise
bout two, core temperature was lower in CWT12 (−0.19 ± 0.14°C,
mean ± 90% CL) and CWT18 (−0.21 ± 0.10°C) than control. Compared
with control, CWT6 substantially improved time-trial (1.5 ± 2.1%) and
sprint performance (3.0 ± 3.1%), and CWT12 substantially improved
sprint total work (4.3 ± 3.4%) and peak power (2.7 ± 3.8%) in exercise
bout two. All CWT conditions generally improved thermal sensation,
whole body fatigue and muscle soreness compared with control, but no
differences existed between conditions in heart rate or rating of perceived
exertion. In conclusion, CWT duration did not have a dose–response
effect on recovery from high-intensity cycling; however, CWT for up to
12 min assisted recovery of cycling performance.
Aerodynamic drag and biomechanical power of a track cyclist as
a function of shoulder and torso angles. L. Underwood, J. Schumacher, J. Burette-Pommay and M. Jermy
Abstract. The speed attained by a track cyclist is strongly influenced
by aerodynamic drag, being the major retarding force in track events of
more than 200 m. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of
changes in shoulder and torso angles on the aerodynamic drag and power
output of a track cyclist. The drag of three competitive track cyclists was
measured in a wind tunnel at 40 kph. Changes in shoulder and torso
angles were made using a custom adjustable handlebar setup. The power
output was measured for each position using an SRM Power Meter. The
power required by each athlete to maintain a specific speed in each
position was calculated, which enabled the surplus power in each position
to be determined. The results showed that torso angle influenced the drag
area and shoulder angle influenced the power output, and that a low torso
angle and middle shoulder angle optimised the surplus power. However,
the lowest possible torso angle was not always the best position. Although
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differences between individual riders was seen, there was a strong correlation between torso angle and drag area.
Глава II. ОПРЕДЕЛЕНИЕ ПОНЯТИЯ «АННОТАЦИЯ».
ВИДЫ АННОТАЦИЙ
Слово «аннотация» (abstract, summery) происходит от латинского «annotatio» – примечание, пометка.
Аннотация – это краткая справка о тексте, патенте, книге,
справочнике с точки зрения содержания. При аннотировании печатный материал излагается в предельно сжатой форме. Это процесс свертывания (сжатия) информации с очень большим уменьшением по отношению к оригиналу.
В русском языке термин «аннотация» используется в разных
значениях и включает в себя разное понятийное содержание в зависимости от сферы употребления. Авторская аннотация к статье
или проекту – это краткая характеристика работы, содержащая
только перечень основных вопросов. В этом смысле слово «аннотация» может быть использовано в качестве синонима термину
«резюме» (статьи) и английскому «abstract». Аннотации бывают
описательные, справочные, реферативные, рекомендательные и
критические. Остановимся лишь на описательных аннотациях,
так как умение составлять их необходимо студентам в учебном
процессе для обработки печатной информации на иностранном и
русском языках и при оформлении записок к дипломным проектам. Специалисты и ученые обязаны уметь писать аннотации к
своим научным статьям, докладам для конференций, используемой литературе и т. д.
В отличие от реферата, который отвечает на вопрос: «Что
сказано», «Что излагается в первоисточнике?», аннотация отвечает на вопрос: «О чем говорится в первоисточнике?»
Описательная аннотация в сжатой и конкретной форме раскрывает сущность содержания и основные выводы аннотируемой публикации. Она состоит обычно из трех частей:
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1. Справка к аннотации, где указываются следующие данные: автор, название работы на английском языке, перевод
названия; количество страниц, таблиц, рисунков, ссылок на
использованную литературу; на каком языке написана работа.
Для журнала: его название на английском языке, номер и год
издания; для патентов – номер патента и запатентовавшая страна; для каталогов – фирма, выпустившая данный каталог; для
книг, монографий, учебников – название издательства. Эта
часть необязательна при аннотировании учебных текстов.
2. Основная часть должна отражать перечень наиболее характерных положений по содержанию работы.
3. Заключительная часть. В этой части должен быть общий
вывод автора работы или указание на один вопрос, которому в
работе уделено особое внимание, а также рекомендации, для кого
данная работа может представлять особый интерес.
Рекомендательная аннотация содержит оценку публикации,
цель которой состоит в том, чтобы помочь читателю в подборе
нужной ему литературы.
Структура аннотации. Умение написания аннотации во
многом определяется развитием умения обобщения. В аннотации
необходимо определить основные идеи/разделы работы, соединить их вместе и представить в достаточно краткой форме. Аннотация, как функциональный тип текста, имеет свою структуру.
Представляя содержание целой работы, аннотация должна включать в себя ее основные разделы: актуальность, постановку проблемы, пути решения поставленной проблемы, результаты и выводы. На каждый из разделов может отводиться по одному предложению. Поэтому четкость изложения мысли является ключевым при написании аннотации.
Объем аннотации. Аннотация может быть развернутой или
краткой. Развернутая аннотация, объем которой составляет приблизительно 75 слов, содержит сведения о публикации в более
или менее подробном виде. Краткая аннотация состоит из нескольких фраз или слов.
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Выбор объема аннотации зависит от ее назначения, от чьего имени ведется изложение (автора или библиографа) и от ее
полиграфического оформления. Если аннотация помещается
непосредственно перед статьей, в нее не включают библиографические данные.
Язык аннотации. К аннотациям как на русском, так и на английском языке предъявляются следующие требования.
- Лаконичность языка, т. е. использование простых предложений (глаголы употребляются всегда в настоящем времени в
действительном или страдательном залоге. Модальные глаголы,
как правило, отсутствуют).
- Строгая логическая структура аннотации.
- Обязательное введение в текст аннотации безличных конструкций и отдельных слов, например: «Сообщается…», «Подробно описывается…», «Кратко рассматривается…», «Излагаются…», «Комментируются…» и др., с помощью которых происходит введение и описание текста оригинала.
- Недопущение повторений в заглавии и тексте аннотации.
- Точность в передаче заглавия оригинала, отдельных формулировок и определений.
- Использование общепринятых сокращений слов, таких как
напр., и т. д., и т. п., и др.
- Единство терминов и обозначений.
- Текст аннотации должен быть максимально кратким, от 500
до 1000 печатных знаков.
Основные штампы (key-patterns) аннотаций на английском и
русском языках представлены ниже.
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LIST OF CLICHES FOR ANNOTATING
The article is divided into…
major parts
Статья разделена на …
главных частей
The article presents a picture of...
Статья представляет картину…
The article reveals the problem Статья
how...
как…
показывает проблему
The article points out that...
Статья отмечает, что…
The article is supplemented with
extensive notes
Статья дополнена, подкреплена обширными примечаниями
The article is completed by ... Статья дополнена ... данными
figures and tables
и таблицами
Первая часть касается…
The first part deals with…
The second chapter shows (pre- Вторая
часть
показывает
sents, examines, stresses) ...
(представляет, проверяет,
подчеркивает)…
The third part contains (studies, Третья часть содержит (изучает,
analyses, describes)…
анализирует, описывает)…
The fourth chapter concentrates Четвертая часть
on...
сконцентрирована на…
The author considers (points out, Автор рассматривает (отмечает,
concludes, analyses)...
заключает, анализирует)…
The author believes (stresses, Автор полагает (подчеркивает)
underlines) that...
что…
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Автор продолжает обсуждать...
The author goes on to discuss...
In examining the problem the В
исследовании проблемы
author points out that...
автор указывает на то, что...
In the first
determines...
part
the author В первой части автор
определяет…
In the opinion of the author…
По мнению автора…
According to the author...
Согласно автору…
The author calls attention to the Автор привлекает
fact that...
к факту это...
The author
results of...
summarizes
внимание
the Автор обобщает результаты…
At the end of the article the В
конце
статьи
автор
author sums up...
суммирует (обобщает)…
The author warns that…
Автор предупреждает, что…
Attention is called to the fact Внимание
that…
что…
привлекает
факт,
The article (paper, book, etc.) Эта статья (работа, книга
deals with…
и т. д.) касается…
As the title implies the article
describes…
Согласно названию, в статье
описывается…
It is specially noted…
Особенно отмечается…
A mention should be made…
Упоминается…
It is spoken in detail…
Подробно описывается…
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…are noted
Упоминаются…
It is reported…
Сообщается…
The text gives valuable
information on…
Текст дает ценную
информацию…
Much attention is given to…
Большое внимание
уделяется…
The article is of great help to …
Эта статья окажет большую
помощь…
The article is of interest to…
Эта статья представляет интерес для…
It (the article) gives a detailed Она (статья) дает детальный
analysis of …
анализ…
It draws our attention to…
Она (статья, работа)
привлекает наше внимание к…
The difference between the Следует подчеркнуть различие
terms…and…should be stressed
между терминами …и…
It should be stressed
(emphasized) that…
Следует подчеркнуть, что…
…is proposed
Предлагается…
…are examined
…проверяются
…are discussed
Обсуждаются…
An option permits…
Выбор позволяет…
The method proposed … etc.
Предлагаемый метод… и т. д.
Чтобы составить аннотацию статьи, нужно ознакомиться с ее
заголовком, просмотреть подзаголовки, иллюстрации, таблицы,
прочитать введение и заключение. Достаточно одноразового про19
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смотра статьи, т. е. просмотрового чтения. При этом следует
иметь в виду, что конкретная тема научно-технического текста
обычно излагается в первом или одном из начальных предложений введения и реже в заключении.
Методика составления аннотации. Работа по составлению
аннотации проводится в следующем порядке:
1. Первоначальное изучение аннотируемой публикации с целью определения ее тематики, общего характера и целевой
направленности. Для этого нужно внимательно просмотреть данные на титульном листе, оглавление, прочитать предисловие или
введение, затем детально ознакомиться с текстом. Особое внимание нужно обратить на заключение, а также резюме, где автор
суммирует основные положения своей книги или статьи.
2. Вторичный, более тщательный просмотр книги или статьи
для проверки правильности первоначально сделанных выводов.
При вторичном просмотре на отдельном листке бумаги выписывают предметы, вопросы и т. д., которые надо отметить в аннотации.
3. Объединение родственных проблем, предметов и т. д., которые освещены в аннотируемой работе в разных местах, и вычеркивание второстепенных, мало существенных сведений.
4. Составление аннотации с последующим редактированием,
которое предполагает перестановку отдельных слов и фраз, сжатие текста и уточнение терминологии.
Предлагаем следующий алгоритм составления аннотации
The Algorithm for Rendering a Newspaper Article
The outline for rendering
Some expressions to be used while
rendering an article
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1. The title of article. The The article is entitled
headline of the article
The article is headlined
The headline (the title) of the article
I have read is
2. The author (the reporter, the The author of the article is
commentator. the newsman, The article is written by…
the. interviewer, the pressman); The author of the article is not know
where, when the article was It is (was) published in
published (printed, taken from) It is (was) printed in
3.The key-note of the article. The main idea of the article is…
The main idea of the article
The article is about
The article is devoted to...
The article deals with
The article touches upon...
The purpose of the article is to give the
reader some information on…
The aim of the article is to provide the
reader with some material (data) on …
4. The contents of the article. a) Firstly, the author writes (states,
Some facts, names, figures
stresses, considers, points out, says,
thinks, describes, comments on) that
b) Secondly, the author reports (says)
that
c) Thirdly, the author mentions the
facts about
He concerns (deals with)...
d) In the fourth (fifth) the author cites
(quotes)
the words of....
e) In conclusion....
The author comes to the conclusion
that...
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5. Your opinion of the article.
Your recommendations
I found the article interesting
(important, up-to-date, out-of-date,
dull)
The article is of no value.
The article is too difficult for
understanding
In my opinion...
To my mind...
It may be useful to….
So much for this article.
Примеры аннотаций на английском языке.
The article is headlined «It is all about controversy». The author
of the article is Gillian Ridgley. The article is about the differences
and disputes in the preparation and holding of the Olympic Games.
Firstly, the author says that often there is disagreement between
the organizers of the Olympic.
Secondly, the author explains in more detail about artists taking
part in a concert opening and closing ceremonies.
Thirdly, the author mentions the Olympic flame lighting ceremony
and talks about the creative ideas that arise from the organizers.
Fourthly, the author submits that even the simplest events of
Olympic Games may be in dispute and controversy. He gives us an
example: «At the 1908 Olympics, the parade of athletes was marred
by several rows. The American team refused to dip its flag to King
Edward VII, and some of the Finnish team refused to march under the
Russian flag; events which set the scene for further controversies
which were not resolved by the time the Games were over».
In conclusion the author expresses the hope that such
disagreements in the past and the organizers of future Olympic Games
will not have such disputes. This article may be useful for people who
are interested in sports, in particular the Olympic Games and the
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Olympic Movement, as it provides interesting facts and opinions
about the preparation and holding of the Olympic Games.
Key Words: the Olympic Games, controversy, holding, dispute.
The article is headlined «Martial arts». The author of the article
is not mentioned. The article may be printed in a sport magazine and it
may be used on conference devoted to kind of sports or history of
sport. The purpose of the article is to give the reader some information
on material arts which are of East Asian origin. The first part deals
with typically categorized of martial arts. The second chapter shows
the influence on martial arts by Taoism and Zen Buddhism. The
author says about kind of martial arts and writes about black belt
status. Thirdly, the author mentions the facts from history of Karate.
I found the article interesting, because I learned about the different
techniques used in martial arts, what is the difference between them, the
birthplace of Karate. In my opinion the article may be useful for people,
who want to learn about the sport and its intricacies and diversity.
Key Words: Martial arts, Karate, black belt, origin.
The title of article is «Language». The author of the article is not
mentioned. The article is devoted to specific terminologies of sports.
The main idea of the article is the study of language is not
straightforward. It is necessary to note some facts of text.
Firstly, the author writes that most sports have their specific
terminologies which are forms of shorthand language used by
participants and observers to communicate with each other.
Secondly, the author reports that use of language, and the
meaning attached to it, has been at the root of some of the most
intense academic arguments during the twentieth century. Thirdly, the
author reports that theorists have argued that the use of language does
not simply impart information, but develops meaning as a result of
choosing given words within a cultural set ting. In the fourth the
author says that especially important for the use of language in sport
has been the development of advertising and sponsorship. In
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conclusion the author gives us such example: Nike’s appeal for us all
to ‘just do it’, encouraged us to embrace sport and competitiveness,
become a winner, and most importantly, to wear the correct footwear.
I found the article interesting for theorist of language and for
students who study on specialties connecting with word, sentence and
communications.
Key Words: language, terminology, watcher, listener, advertising.
The article is headlined «Wellness». In this article the author's
name is not mentioned. The article is about the impact of adverse
weather on the participants and the consequences after the competition
in foul weather. Firstly, the author writes that the impact of adverse
weather can result in bruises, career disruption, and sometimes death.
Secondly the author says that for spectators, inclement weather may
result in increased risk to health, or simply non-attendance, with the
consequent loss of revenue to sport. Thirdly, author reports that the
promoters have plans how to cope with bad weather until 1970. In
conclusion, the author says that some of the caprices of nature were
changed and the competition rules, the other has attempted to combat
weather conditions by better stadium design, drainage improvements,
and the use of all-weather surfaces. Some sports have used the same
climatic conditions as the basis of its existence. In my opinion the
article is very interesting, it is said about the different sports, and how
people are struggling to weather conditions. This article is interesting
not only for athletes but also for people who love to watch sports life.
Key Words: adverse weather, the participants, increased risk to
health, stadium design.
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ГЛАВА III. ПРАКТИЧЕСКАЯ ЧАСТЬ:
ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ АННОТИРОВАНИЯ И РЕФЕРИРОВАНИЯ
Sportswear. By Dylan Thomas.
An interesting commercial phenomenon of recent years is the
way in which clothing apparel has copied sportswear. Hitherto, the
wearing of tracksuits or jogging suits was confined to those
practising sports. However partly because of the higher profile
accorded to athletes and sports people via television, consumers
began themselves to buy sports clothes for leisure wear. Research
and investment by shoe companies, particularly Nike and Adidas,
undoubtedly improved the quality of athletes’ footwear and
introduced the running shoe or ‘trainer’. The companies used
various new materials.
They also pruned their production costs by building factories in
Asia and spent fortunes on sponsorship and advertising. As these
shoes were both lightweight and comfortable, they became
popular with consumers in general. This has meant that the sale of
conventional leather shoes has declined, as that of sports shoes has
risen. Sports clothing tends to be bought more by young males (47.8
percent); however, 27.9 percent of all adults bought trainers and 17.7
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percent bought track suits in 1994. Even in the age group 55–64, 14.1
percent bought tracksuits (cloned briefly as ‘shell suits’). A feature of
Britain’s supermarkets is the number of overweight people in trainers
and jogging suits pushing shopping trolleys around the store as
quickly as they can so they can get outside for a cigarette.
Formerly British clothes were discreet in terms of colours and
attribution (a small label inside the collar at the rear). Clothes with
logos displayed on the breast pocket of, shirts and pullovers then
became popular. These included those of Fred Perry (tennis), Pringle
(golf ), Ron Hill (running). A striking feature of the high street now is
that much of the clothing that people wear is bright and has got large
writing on it. That applies to general designer-wear such as Tommy
Hilfiger or Helly Hansen, but this trend has come from sportswear
where purchasers are practically walking advertising hoardings for:
Nike, Umbro, Adidas, Asics, Fila and so on. The baseball cap is also
becoming as universal in Britain as it is in the USA, though the
influence here is partly sport, partly homage to America.
Coaching Principles. Is Coaching an Art or a Science?
Science. By James Joyce.
To support the coach there is a wealth of scientific information
based on research conducted with athletes. Information is available to
support the coach and athlete in all areas of training and development
including nutrition, biomechanics, psychology, physiology &
medicine. There are a number of scientific methods to measure and
analyze the athlete's performance e.g. computer aided analysis of VO2
max, lactate levels, running technique etc.
Art. The art of coaching comes when the coach has to analyse the
scientific data and convert it into coaching and training programs to help
develop the athlete. This analysis process relies heavily on the coach's
experience and knowledge of the event/sport and the athlete concerned.
By understanding the science, which is the foundation of training,
a well designed training program can be developed that will help an
athlete reach their full potential.
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So is coaching the art of understanding the science and then
applying it?
Coaching Process. The coaching process comprises of three
elements:
 Planning – developing short and long term training programs to
help your athlete achieve their goals.
 Conducting – delivery of training programs.
 Evaluating – evaluation of the programs, athlete development
and your coaching. This element may result in adjustment of your
athlete's training program and your coaching.
 To support this process you will need to develop your
knowledge and practical coaching skills. These include, but not
limited to:
 your coaching philosophy;
 coaching styles;
 teaching methods;
 the learning process and training principles;
 the code of ethics and conduct for sports coaches;
 the sports coach's legal responsibilities;
 how to apply an athlete centred approach to your coaching;
 prepare training programs to meet the needs of each athlete;
 Long Term Athlete Development (LTAD);
 capabilities of growing children;
 the rules for your sport/event;
 how to assess your coaching performance;
 how to communicate effectively with your athletes;
 advise athletes on issues of safety applicable to their
sport/event;
 the causes and symptoms of over-training;
 how to reduce the risk of injury to your athletes;
 assist athletes to develop new skills;
 the biomechanical principles that underpin efficient action;
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 use evaluation tests to monitor training progress and predict
performance;
 advise athletes on their nutritional needs;
 advise athletes on legal supplements;
 how to develop the athlete's energy systems;
 how to develop the components of fitness as appropriate for
your athlete and event;
 advise athletes on relaxation, visualisation and mental imagery skills;
 advise athletes how to prepare for competition;
 evaluate an athlete's competition performance;
 evaluate athlete/training and athlete/coach performance;
 provide clear and effective instructions, explanations and
demonstrations;
 conduct effective observation and analysis;
 provide clear and effective feedback;
 use effective questioning to determine what an athlete knows or
can do, their understanding and to develop their self awareness.
Sport Drinks. By Joseph Conrad.
Sport drinks are electrolyte replacement beverages popular among
athletes to replace water lost during exercise. It is important to drink
plenty of fluids during strenuous exercise, especially during hot
weather, because the body requires water for efficient cooling and for
efficient operation of the kidneys in moving wastes from the blood.
Glucose sodium sport drinks provide extra sugar and sodium, which
also promote rapid fluid uptake by the small intestine. Some
beverages contain glucose polymers (maltodextrins), small fragment
of scratch. Glucose polymer beverages may be more effective than
glucose drinks in replacing carbohydrates and in increasing blood
sugar during endurance events (more than two hours in duration).
They do not slow the passage of liquid through the stomach as a
high-glucose concentration does. Simple carbohydrates seem to
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provide their greatest benefit when exercise exceeds 60 minutes. A
potential benefit of consuming glucose replacements during exercise
is that fluid intake may increase if the taste is more appealing than
plain water. The carbohydrate-electrolyte sport drink should be mixed
so that the carbohydrate concentration is less than 10 percent to
minimize retention by the stomach. On the other hand, the
carbohydrate concentration should be at least 6 percent to improve
endurance. When fluid loss is reduced by a cold environment such as
in cross-country skiing, fluids with a carbohydrate concentration
greater than 10 percent are appropriate. Sport drinks often contain
more sugar and salt than are needed for optimal absorption of fluids,
and they often contain less potassium than a glass of orange juice.
Plain water, which is both easily absorbed and palatable, effectively
replaces water lost with strenuous exercise. In general, there does not
seem to be any need to replace electrolytes lost through sweating by
consuming expensive beverages. Sport drinks appear likely to
improve performance only in endurance exercise or day-long events.
Diluted fruit juices are usually adequate electrolyte replacements.
Fruit juices should be diluted at least twofold from standard
preparations to prevent delayed gastric emptying. Electrolytes and
carbohydrates are readily replenished by eating a banana, fruit, or
crackers with water. Many commercial soft drinks contain caffeine,
which acts as a diuretic. Therefore, athletes are advised to limit their
intake of such beverages.
Early history of the sport. By Thomas Pynchon.
The history of sport probably extends as far back as the existence of
people as purposive sportive and active beings. Sport has been a useful
way for people to increase their mastery of nature and the environment.
The history of sport can teach us a great deal about social changes and
about the nature of sport itself. Sport seems to involve basic human skills
being developed and exercised for their own sake, in parallel with being
exercised for their usefulness. It also shows how society has changed its
beliefs and therefore there are changes in the rules. Of course, as we go
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further back in history the dwindling evidence makes the theories of the
origins and purposes of sport difficult to support. Nonetheless, its
importance in human history is undeniable.
Sports that are at least two and a half thousand years old
include hurling in Ireland, harpastum (similar
to rugby)
in Rome,
cuju (similar to association football) in China, and polo in Persia.
The Mesoamerican ballgame originated over three thousand years ago.
There are artifacts and structures that suggest that
the Chinese engaged in sporting activities as early as 2000 BC.
Gymnastics appears to have been a popular sport in China's ancient
past. Monuments to the Pharaohs indicate that a number of sports,
including wrestling, weightlifting, long jump, swimming, rowing,
shooting, fishing and athletics, as well as various kinds of ball games,
were well-developed and regulated several thousands of years ago in
ancient Egypt. Other Egyptian sports included javelin throwing, high
jump, and wrestling. Ancient Persian sports such as the
traditional Iranian martial art of Zourkhaneh. Among other sports that
originated in Persia are polo and jousting.
Sports in the Middle Ages. By Christopher Marlowe.
The sports of medieval times were less well-organized. Fairs and
seasonal festivals were occasions for men to lift stones or sacks of
grain and for women to run smock races (for a smock, not in one). The
favourite sport of the peasantry was folk football, a wild sort of noholds-barred unbounded game that pitted married men against
bachelors or one village against another. The violence of the game,
which survived in Britain and in France until the late 19th century,
was such that Renaissance humanists, such as Sir Thomas Elyot,
condemned it as more likely to maim than to benefit the participants.
The nascent bourgeoisie of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance
amused itself with archery matches, some of which were arranged
months in advance and staged with considerable fanfare. When town
met town in a challenge of skill, the companies of crossbowmen and
longbowmen marched behind the symbols of St. George, St.
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Sebastian, and other patrons of the sport. It was not unusual for
contests in running, jumping, cudgeling, and wrestling to be offered
for the lower classes who attended the match as spectators. Grand
feasts were part of the program, and drunkenness commonly added to
the revelry. In Germanic areas, a Pritschenkoenig was supposed to
simultaneously keep order and entertain the crowd with clever verses.
The burghers of medieval towns were welcome to watch the
aristocracy at play, but they were not allowed to participate in
tournaments or even, in most parts of Europe, to compete in imitative
tournaments of their own. Tournaments were the jealously guarded
prerogative of the medieval knight and, along with hunting and
hawking, his favourite pastime. At the tilt, in which mounted knights
with lances tried to unhorse one another, the knight was practicing the
art of war, his raison d'être. He displayed his prowess before lords,
ladies, and commoners and profited not only from valuable prizes but
also from ransoms exacted from the losers. Between the 12th and the
16th centuries, the dangerously wild free-for-all of the early
tournament evolved into dramatic presentations of courtly life in
which elaborate pageantry and allegorical display quite overshadowed
the frequently inept jousts. Some danger remained even amid the
display. At one of the last great tournaments, in 1559, Henry II of
France was mortally wounded by a lance blow.
Peasant women participated freely in the ball games and footraces
of medieval times, and aristocratic ladies hunted and kept falcons, but
middle-class women contented themselves with spectatorship. Even
so, they were more active than their contemporaries in Heian Japan
during the 8th to the 12th century. Encumbered by many-layered
robes and sequestered in their homes, the Japanese ladies were unable
to do more than peep from behind their screens at the courtiers'
mounted archery contests.
Deeper. By Thomas Dekker.
The Latin words «Citius, Altius, Fortius» have been used as
the Olympic motto since the Modern Olympics started in 1894. In
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English, we translate that motto into «Swifter, Higher, Stronger».
Now, with the possibility of adding «Extreme Sports», popular
competitive events that test the limits of human endurance and talents in ways not thought of in 1894, the current Olympic’s organizers may also have to rethink their motto.
Extreme Free Diving (EFD) is a sport that is growing in
participants worldwide and is being discussed as a possible
Olympic event. If accepted into the Olympics, EFD could make the
Olympic’s organizers think about adding a new Latin term into the
motto that we could translate as «Deeper».
Most of us think of deep water diving as the use of snorkels,
masks, and fins to help us dive down beneath the surface of the water.
Then there is scuba diving. Scuba divers wear wet suits made out of
material to protect against the cold; they need oxygen and other
equipment that enable them to safely breathe while traveling deep
beneath the surface of the sea. For those with the courage and
opportunity to attend the required classes and certification process to
scuba dive and have actually entered the deep and swum with the fish
and coral, scuba diving is an extremely gratifying experience. But is it
the ultimate underwater extreme sport for those who like to live on the
edge? When scuba diving is compared to Extreme Diving, diving
without a tank of oxygen deeper and farther from the surface than anyone had imagined it would be possible to go, scuba diving seems a
little less «Extreme». Extreme Free Diving has become very competitive and is exploding in popularity with «extreme» divers wherever
athletes live near a sea.
The first official European record for Extreme Free Diving was
recorded in 1911 when Greek Yorgos Haggi Statti descended to the depth
of 253 feet, almost the length of a football field. He dove without a mask,
fins, or an oxygen tank. He just dove. His record stood for many years until the modern «professional» EFDs began to dive even deeper.
Today, EFDs sink to depths approaching 400 feet, using weights
to help them descend vertically into the big blue depths of cold and
darkness that surround the earth. Free divers like Italian Umberto
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Pelizzari and Cuban Pipin Ferreras frequently break world records by
diving without the use of wet suits, fins, or oxygen tanks. Extreme
Free Diving is truly a breathtaking sport. One day adding the word
«Deeper» to the Olympic motto of «Swifter, Higher, Stronger» looks
like a sure bet. The legendary Yorgos Haggi Statti would wipe water
from his eyes, smile, and nod in approval.
Effective Teaching Techniques. By John Fletcher.
The most consistently identified teacher effectiveness variable is
time on task. That is, the more time that students spend learning
specific academic content, the better they will learn it. Distinction is
made between allocated time on task (the time that teachers allocate to
particular instructional activities) and engaged time on task (the time
that students actually spend engaged in instruction). Although no
consistent relation has been seen between allocated time on task and
academic achievement, research has demonstrated that engaged time
on task is positively related to academic achievement.
Strategies for maximizing engaged time on task have been
identified and include effectively managing transitions, avoiding
digressions and other irrelevant verbalizations, and managing
classroom behavior. Sometimes, teachers can improve studentengaged time on task by examining the amount of allocated time for
class and monitoring their own teacher behaviors more closely. For
example, teachers may find that they start classes 5 minutes late, end
classes 5 minutes early, stop during the middle of class to search for
relevant instructional materials, and stop to manage inappropriate
classroom behaviors. Once such target areas are identified, teachers can
design strategies to improve each area that will result in increasing the
amount of student-engaged time on task during classes.
Effective teacher presentations have also been identified.
Teachers maximize achievement when their presentations contain
elements such as structure of lesson, clarity of teacher presentation,
redundancy in emphasizing important concepts, and enthusiasm.
Structure includes enlisting students’ attention, providing a lesson
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overview that includes lesson objectives, providing outlines of the
lesson and indicating when transitional points occur, and
summarizing and reviewing key points as the lesson proceeds. It is
important that students be made aware of the structure and
objectives of the lesson so that they will know what is to be
accomplished and how it will be accomplished. For example,
teachers who begin with statements indicating the order of the learning activities (e. g., «First, we will...», «Second, we will be…», «Finally, we will…») provide the structure for the lesson for all students. Clarity includes presenting clearly and directly to the point of
the lesson, avoiding vague or unfamiliar terminology, and providing
concrete understandable examples. All teacher dialogue should be
directly pertinent to the objective of the lesson.
Redundancy does not refer to unnecessary repetition; rather, it
refers to reemphasis and restating of the key elements of a lesson,
particularly significant concepts and rules. Redundancy refers to the
provision of multiple opportunities to practice learning newly
presented content. Additional practice opportunities can vary in format and length given that the goal is to provide students with many
chances to practice learning new information.
Sport or Theater? By Francis Beaumon.
While a complex, rapidly developing sport may be expected to
generate many internal problems, synchro’s main controversy, «sport
or theater,» is generated externally, by media that are unwilling to
consider as «sport» anything not meeting the «swifter, higher, stronger» standard. But even Sports Illustrated, despite normally less than
flattering reviews, admitted in its report on the 1984 Los Angeles
Olympics, «Synchronized swimmers may look like cupcakes, but
they’re tough cookies, half the routine is performed upside down in a
pool.»Its water-show beginnings still haunt it. The idea that water
ballet is show, while synchronized swimming is sport, has been hard
to sell to swimming officials, the public, and the media. Its acceptance
into the Olympic Games came only after Lord Killanin, then chair of
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the International Olympic Committee, saw it for himself at the third
World Aquatic Championships. «I am very impressed. I saw
synchronized swimming for the first time today. It is a very elegant
sport.» Synchro enjoys more popularity and acceptance as a sport in
parts of the world outside the United States. In every Olympic
competition, 1984 through 1996, it has been one of the first sports to
sell out all audience tickets. Another issue is male participation.
Interestingly, at the turn of the century competitions in the equivalent of
figures were for males. Then the beautiful spectaculars of aquacades and
films accented the female attraction. Early U.S. competitions included
male championships, but they were never popular. Neither U.S. nor
international rules prohibit male participation except for the Olympic
Games and the World Aquatic Championships.Presently, male
participation is greater in Europe than in the United States and Canada.
Indeed, in 1991, the French national champion duet was a mixed pair
and a junior male qualified, in 1996, to be part of the U.S.National
Junior Team and will compete in competitions that allow males. Men are
included in the U.S. masters program.
Sports Science and Technology. By Beaumont Fletcher.
The discipline of sports science in medicine and technology is a
combination of biomechanics, kinesiology, and anatomy. Within these
parts, sports science dates back to Aristotle and Archimedes, when
sport was an integral part of Roman and Greek life and inspired a
fascination with the mechanics of the human body. By the twentieth
century, sports science also began to include varying disciplines such
as engineering, polymer science, psychology, and psychiatry, and
performance-enhancing pharmaceuticals inspired by high-stakes
competition. Today, the business of sports equipment – from running
shoes to stair machines – is a multibillion dollar industry based on the
continuing evolution of sports science. As a regular to Gladiator
competitions and a physician to the athletes, the second century AD
Greek Galen laid out the basic motor functions of the human body. He
identified the processes of muscle contraction and the influence of the
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mind – or «animal spirits» as he called it – on the performance of the
body. Isaac Newton’s basic theories of scientific reasoning, specifically
the study of modern dynamics, laid the groundwork for understanding
the relationship between forces and their effects, based on his laws of
rest and movement published in Principia Mathematica Philosophiae
Naturalis. Not until Leonardo da Vinci studied the structure of the full
human body were the specific mechanics necessary for simple movements grasped – from walking and sitting to jumping and sprinting.
From that time, interested physicians, engineers, and scientists have
pursued elements of biomechanics and kinesiology.
By 1865, Gullaume Benjamin Amand Duchenne published
Physiologie des Mouvements, which identified each individual muscle in
relation to its range of movement, making it the basis of most sports
science work today. Twenty years later, Etienne-Jules Marey studied the
motion of humans and animals through photography, publishing his
groundbreaking work, Le Mouvement, which examined, frame by
photographic frame, the intricate interaction of nerves, muscle, and bone.
With the onset of World War I, an interest in biomechanics
swelled, though under unfortunate and sometimes inhumane
circumstances: Analysis of soldiers on the march and of prosthesis for
amputees and the exhaustive study of prisoners of war and
concentration camp prisoners all furthered the understanding of
biomechanics and kinesiology. In particular, Frenchman Jules Amar,
evaluated the human gait and the task performances of World War I
veterans. He employed force and motion measurement techniques to
help develop prosthetic limbs. Further research in this subcategory of
kinesiology led to studying movement in three dimensions, which led
to mathematical analysis of the range of joint forces, movements, and
the elements of muscle strain and force against bone and ligaments.
The invention of the ergograph by Angelo Mosso in 1884 assisted
greatly in further analysis of human movement in the first half of the
twentieth century and evolved into several specialized forms to study
very specific muscular functions in the human body. In general, the
study of ergonomics as part of the Industrial Age push to better human
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work performance influenced the development of specialized sports
equipment. Track shoes, for example, were designed to allow the foot
a «natural» range of motion by using soft leather and a snug fit.
Child protection. By Robert Herrick.
Professionals. All individuals involved in sports activities with
children and young people have a responsibility to safeguard their
welfare. The majority of children who participate in sport do so in a
safe and positive atmosphere with the support and encouragement of
those involved with the sport. However a number of children do not
have a positive experience and sport like other aspects of society now
recognises the need to guard against individuals who may abuse their
position in a sport. An increasing number of children and older
athletes are now speaking out about their experiences of abuse and
those involved in this field are beginning build up a clearer picture of
the nature and extent of abuse in sport. There are a number of steps
you can take to promote the welfare of the children and young people
involved in sport. Within this section you will find advice and
information about developing good practice in relation to child
protection. You should also consider contacting the governing body of
your sport or your professional body who may have produced a child
protection policy and detailed guidance about how to respond to
concerns. What is abuse? Child Abuse is any form of physical,
emotional or sexual mistreatment or lack of care that leads to injury or
harm. It commonly occurs within a relationship of trust or
responsibility and represents an abuse of power or a breach of trust.
Abuse can happen to a child regardless of their age, gender, race or
ability. Abuse and Neglect Somebody may abuse or neglect a child by
inflicting harm, or by failing to act to prevent harm. Children may be
abused in a family or in an institutional or community setting by those
known to them or, more rarely, by a stranger.
Sports and Nationalism. By Richard Lovelace.
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In the US, the Olympics have been the most obvious site for the
intersection of sports and nationalism. Until recently, therefore, the
major compensation that could be derived from being an Olympian,
given the strictures associated with maintaining status as an amateur,
came from the visibility afforded those who represented their country
preferably with distinction. When most Americans played football and
baseball, games which had only a limited international dimension,
sporting outlets for nationalist and patriotic fervor were confined to
the Olympics. Television commentators were acutely aware of this
and their coverage of the Olympics focused fundamentally on
highlighting American successes. Moreover, nationalist intensity
associated with the Olympics was exacerbated by Cold-War rivalries.
Americans as the leader of the «Free World» competed with East
Germany and the Soviet Union, the communist powerhouses.
African American track stars, boxers and college basketball
players were able, at least in small measure, to reap the benefits of
favorable attitudes deriving from their goldmedal winning
performances. Many of the athletes also celebrated their «Americanness,» often taking victory laps or in some way wrapping themselves in the American flag. Other black athletes, especially at the
1968 Mexico and 1972 Munich Olympics, used the platform to make
statements of protest against racial policies in the United States.
Many of the memorable moments in Olympic sports, then, have
been those that could be framed in reference to nationalism. The
Soviet Union’s disputed victory at the 1972 Munich Olympics against
a highly favored American basketball team (the game being decided
on a very controversial last-second play) was cause for dismay. Eight
years later, at the winter games in Lake Placid, New York, during the
Iran hostage crisis, the success of the US hockey team’s college players against the Soviet «machine» gave rise to widespread euphoria. In
gymnastics, the five-medal performance of Mary Lou Retton at the
1984 Los Angeles games (clad in new flag-motif leotards) made her
the darling of games tainted by a Soviet boycott.
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This identification between nationalism and the Olympics has
diminished somewhat in recent years. In part this is due to the end of
Cold-War rivalries, but it is also a result of the growing
professionalism of the Olympics. The athletes no longer need to
maintain amateur status and so no longer pin all their hopes on their
Olympic performances. Moreover, some of the competitiveness has
been undermined by the inclusion of professionals in recent games.
Instead of a team of American basketball players drawn from the
NCAA, the US now fields «dream teams» that pull in stars exclusively
from the NBA. The winner of the gold medal is now a foregone
conclusion and many of the games in which the United States plays
end up being humiliating for the other team. In other Olympic sports,
nationalist sentiment is on the rise. This is particularly so for women’s
soccer, where Americans dominate but maintain strong rivalries with
countries like Brazil and China, and patriotic feelings feed on the other major arena of sporting nationalism – soccer’s world cups.
TOPIC: TEACHING. By Thomas Carew.
It is the profession of those who give instruction, especially in an
elementary or a secondary school or in a university.
Measured in terms of its members, teaching is the world's largest
profession. In the late 20th century it was estimated that there were
30,000,000 teachers throughout the world. Though their roles and
functions vary from country to country, the variations among teachers
are generally greater within a country than they are between countries.
Because the nature of the activities that constitute teaching depends
more on the age of the persons being taught than on any other one
thing, it is useful to recognize three subgroups of teachers: primaryschool, or elementary-school, teachers; secondary-school teachers;
and university teachers. Elementary-school teachers are, by far, the
most numerous worldwide, making up nearly half of all teachers in
some developed countries and three-fourths or more in developing
countries. Teachers at the university level are the smallest group.
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The entire teaching corps, wherever its members may be located,
shares most of the criteria of a profession, namely (1) a process of formal training, (2) a body of specialized knowledge, (3) a procedure for
certifying, or validating, membership in the profession, and (4) a set of
standards of performance – intellectual, practical, and ethical – that is
defined and enforced by members of the profession. Teaching young
children and even adolescents could hardly have been called a
profession anywhere in the world before the 20th century. It was, instead, an art or a craft in which the relatively young and untrained women and men who held most of the teaching positions «kept school» or
«heard lessons» because they had been better-than-average pupils themselves. They had learned the art solely by observing and imitating their
own teachers. Only university professors and possibly a few teachers of
elite secondary schools would have merited being called members of a
profession in the sense that medical doctors, lawyers, or priests were
professionals; in some countries even today primary-school teachers
may accurately be described as semiprofessionals. The dividing line is
unprecise. It is useful, therefore, to consider the following questions: (1)
What is the status of the profession? (2) What kinds of work are done?
(3) How is the profession organized?
The teacher and the learner. By John Dryden.
In the act of teaching there are two parties (the teacher and the
taught) who work together in some program (the subject matter)
designed to modify the learners' behaviour and experience in some way.
It is necessary to begin, therefore, with observations about the learner,
the teacher, and the subject matter and then to consider the significance
of group life and the school. It will then be possible to consider the
factors and theories involved in modifying a person's behaviour and
understanding. These include theories of learning in education, of school
and class organization, and of instructional media.
A child enters school with little if any attainment in written
expression and leaves it capable of learning much from human culture. It
was thought originally that this progress was just a matter of learning,
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memorizing, associating, and practicing. The work of psychologists has
revealed, however, that the growth of the pupil's intellectual powers
must include a large element of development through different phases,
beginning with simple sensorimotor coordination; going on to the
beginnings of symbolizing, helped by the growth of language and play;
and then on to logical thought, provided the material is concrete; and,
finally, in midadolescence, on to the power to examine problems
comprehensively, to grasp their formal structure, and to evoke
explanation. In his emotional life, the child progresses from direct,
immediate, uninhibited reactions to more complex, less direct, and more
circumspect responses. The physical growth of the child is so obvious as
to need no comment. Any attempt to educate the child intellectually and
emotionally and for action must take account of these characteristics.
Education must pace development, not follow it and not ignore it. The
components in the child's overall educational growth are physical and
mental maturation, experience, formal teaching through language, and
an urge in the learner to resolve discrepancies, anomalies, and
dissonances in his experience.
What is required of a teacher is that he enjoys and be capable of
sharing work programs with children, designed to modify their
behaviour and experience. This means making relevant experience
available to the student at the right time. The teacher must be mature,
have humour with a sense of status, be firm yet unruffled, and be
sympathetic but not overpersonal. With large classes, the teacher
becomes a leader of a group, providing stimulating learning situations.
General objectives of teaching. By William Wycherley.
The classification of the general objectives of teaching in terms of
school subject matter is not sufficient to explain the ultimate ends of
education. These include, essentially, the promotion of a wellintegrated person capable of taking a responsible, active role in society. With such a purpose in mind, one may achieve more insight by
choosing a psychological analysis of the objectives into the attainment
of intellectual abilities and social insights (cognition), the learning of
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practical active skills (psychomotor learning), and the development of
emotions, attitudes, and values (affective learning).
Cognitive growth begins at the level of the infant school, with the
acquisition of early language and numerical capabilities, and
continues increasingly to dominate education to the secondary and
higher levels. But the learner is more than an enlarging reservoir of
information. With this acquisition goes a growing power to generalize,
abstract, infer, interpret, explain, apply, and create. Cognitive training
produces a thinker–observer aware of the modes of thought and
judgment making up human intellectual activity. In the final stages,
the teacher aims at a thinker, critic, organizer, and creator.
In the development of psychomotor learning, the teacher is
concerned with the promotion of coordinated skills and their creative
use. Instruction begins with the acts of handwriting and plastic art
play, characteristic of earlier years of schooling. It includes painting,
games, workshop skills, and practical science. It has a high prestige
value among the pupils themselves and the wider community.
The permeation of emotional learning throughout the whole
educative process is not always obvious, in part because very often it
is brought about incidentally. Teachers may be self-conscious and
self-critical about the deliberate inculcation of emotional responses,
which will provide the energy and a mainspring of social life. The
acquisition and application of values and attitudes are most marked by
the time of adolescence and dominate the general life of the young
individual. Theoretical, aesthetic, social, economic, political,
hedonistic, and religious values pervade the school curriculum.
Literature, art, the humanities, and religious teaching are all directly
involved, and the teaching of science and mathematics can bring about
a positive attitude toward cognitive and theoretical values.
A person's emotional structure is the pattern of his values and
attitudes. Under the influence of instruction and experience, this structure
shows three kinds of change. First, the pupil learns to select those
situations and problems to which he will make appropriate emotional
responses. Second, in general, an increasing range of situations includes
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happenings more remote from the learner. At first, emotions are aroused
by situations directly affecting the child, but as he becomes more mature
he is increasingly involved in affairs and causes far removed from his
own personal life. Third, his repertoire of emotional responses gradually
becomes less immediate, expressive, and linked with physical activity.
TOPIC: MARTIAL ARTS. Judo history. By George Etherege,
James Thomson.
Judo as a martial art came into existence in 1882 being derived
from the much older techniques of attack and defence called ju-jitsu.
Before the advent of judo or more properly Kodokan Judo there
existed some twenty independent ju-jitsu schools. A young Japanese
man Jigoro Kano, wanting to be able to handle some bigger bullying
companions, decided to join one of the ju-jitsu schools. He studied the
techniques of various schools for several years. Finally in 1882 he
established his own which he called the Kodokan and instead of using
the word ju-jitsu used judo instead. One of the reasons for choosing a
different name for his school was that with the ordinance of 1871
forbidding Samurai to carry swords the martial arts fell into decline
and then disrepute. Some ju-jitsu experts of Kano's time were rogues
and bullies and ju-jitsu acquired a low reputation. Kano, not wishing
to inherit this, began his school with a new name. Kodokan judo was
not just a rehash of ju-jitsu techniques. Kano selected the good points
of each ju-jitsu school and with his own fresh ideas and innovations
turned an old martial art into a new system of physical culture and
mental training. There was much rivalry between the new Kodokan
school and the ju-jitsu men and four years after its foundation the
Kodokan had a public match with the top ju-jitsu school. It was an
overwhelming victory for judo with the Kodokan winning nearly every
match. The techniques of judo have slowly been streamlined and
modified over the years with some new ones being added and old ones
on account of their inefficiency or danger being eliminated. With judo
becoming an international sport during the last ten years rules governing
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less, the essence of judo – throws, strangles, joint-locks and holddowns – makes it an excellent system of self-defence and attack.
The Kodokan was founded in 1882 by the late Prof. Kano who
himself had established Judo. Judo was derived from Jujitsu which had
many names and schools. Jujitsu is an art for either attacking others or
defending oneself with nothing but one's own body. Prof. Kano adopted
the superlative parts of all the Jujitsu schools, got rid of precarious parts,
and established the new Kodokan Judo based on his own insight and
arrangement. It started with only nine disciples and a twelve-mat dojo.
The Kodokan Judo was recognized in a few years to be excellent since
its students overwhelmed the Jujitsu athletes at the Police Bujitsu
Contest. This really was the first step for its future rapid progress.
Prof. Kano promoted judo as a physical exercise from a wide
national point of view. Proceeding with the organization of the
Kodokan and enacting the regulations of Judo, he became the first
Asian member of the International Olympic Committee in 1909 and
worked for the spread of Judo world-wide. Judo became an official
event in the Olympic Games of 1964, backed by Judo fans and sport
promoters all over the world. It is now a very popular sport almost
anywhere in the world.
Judo", which is now exercised in many countries of the world, is
the very Kodokan Judo, created in 1882 by Prof. Jigoro Kano. It is
clearly stated in the Article 1 of International Judo Federation (IJF)
statutes, «IJF recognizes 'Judo' which was created by Jigoro Kano».
The religious disagreements in teaching Eastern fighting arts.
By George Etherege, James Thomson.
The world view of an eastern master is based on one of the dominating Buddhism branches. The most important part of preparing a
fighter is the psychological training, namely teaching the ways of
controlling one's psychics. And in this important part of training the
main contradictions are found. The East has undoubtedly achieved
great results in self-control and hypnosis. And the whole technique of
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psychoregulation either was taken from or was itself the religious
practice. How does it concern us?
The Portuguese were the first Europeans to come to Japan. Being
the Pope missionaries, they were actively turning Japanese pagans into
Catholics. And what is interesting, in the beginning of the process the
Portugal emissaries were given a favourable reception by the local
princes. But then, in no time for history, the Christianity in Japan was
almost completely destroyed by the fire of local wars, and the traditional
Buddhism recovered its dominating position. Why had the samurais
taken the Christianity and then let it go away so easily? The fact is that
the stereotype of religiosity of Japanese samurais is not quite right. The
real samurai honoured his ancestors more than he honoured Buddha, and
respected his family sword more than he respected the temple. While
reading «The Hagakure» one can realize the reasons for that. The whole
life of a samurai was filled with striving for an honest death, and the
duty and courage of a soldier weho the se-stylr in Japan built on
Buddhism, not on Catholicism, dictated people to return to their
ancestors' beliefs. Moreover, the generations of warlike samurais were
the visual ps above everything: «If gods have not heard my prayers only
because there is my enemy's blood on me, I have nothing to do with it
and I will pray in spite of this blood». («The Hagakure»)
This well-balanced attitude towards religion gave the chance to
the Japanese Catholic experiment, but the whole life-style in Japan
built on Buddhism, not on Catholicism, dictated people to return to
their ancestors' beliefs. Moreover, the generations of warlike samurais
were the visual personification of the attitudes of a real Japanese.
Since that time the mankind has not invented any cold steel more
effective than the samurai sword, and there have not been more
effective warriors than samurais. This is a result of strong connection
between generations, of sound moral attitudes, and of ethical and
religious views. To summarize, the historical unity of the nation is the
guarantee of its further development.
TOPIC: HOCKEY. Ice hockey. By Edward Young.
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Ice hockey, referred to simply as «hockey» in Canada and the
United States, is a team sport played on ice. It is one of the world's
fastest sports, with players on skates capable of going high speeds on
natural or artificial ice surfaces. The most prominent ice hockey
nations are Canada, Czech Republic, Finland, Russia, Slovakia,
Sweden and the United States. While there are 64 total members of
the International Ice Hockey Federation, those seven nations have
traditionally dominated the field for decades. Of the sixty medals
awarded in men's competition at the Olympic level from 1920 on, only
six did not go to one of those countries (or a former entity thereof,
such as Czechoslovakia or the Soviet Union) and only one such medal
was awarded above bronze.
Unsurprisingly, ice hockey's worldwide popularity is concentrated
primarily in locales cold enough for natural, long-term seasonal ice
cover. It is one of the four major North American professional sports,
represented by the National Hockey League (NHL) at the highest
level. It is the official national winter sport of Canada, where the game
enjoys immense popularity (lacrosse is Canada's national summer
sport). Tellingly, six of the thirty NHL franchises are based in Canada,
which has only a combined two teams in the three other professional
sports. Despite Canada having only about one-tenth of the population
of the United States, Canadians currently outnumber Americans in the
league by a ratio of almost three to one. Nevertheless, the sport is
comparably popular in certain regions of the United States, notably
the Northeast, the Upper Midwest, and Alaska.
While most of the countries mentioned above have their own
professional ice hockey league, the NHL is considered the world's
premier professional ice hockey league and attracts almost all of the
world's elite players. While Canadians and Americans rank first and
second, respectively, in NHL representation, about thirty percent of the
league's players are non-North Americans. The other five major hockey
powers occupy the third through seventh ranks of NHL representation.
History. By Edward Young.
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The etymology of the word hockey is unknown. It may derive
from the Old French word hoquet, shepherd's crook, but it may also
derive from the Middle Dutch word hokkie which is the diminutive
of hok, meaning literally shack or doghouse but in popular use
meant goal.
The Scottish sport of shinty, and the closely-related Irish sport of
hurling are predecessors of ice hockey, played on a large field as
opposed to ice.
Proponents of Windsor, Nova Scotia, Canada, as the birthplace of
hockey claim the game was named after an individual, as in 'Colonel
Hockey's game', and it is known that Scottish emigrants played shinty
in this area. Proponents of this theory point out that the surname
Hockey exists in the district surrounding Windsor.
The history of ice hockey is one of the most contested in all of
sports. The city of Montreal had been traditionally credited with being
the birthplace of hockey, but early paintings contest this claim; 16thcentury Dutch paintings show a number of townsfolk playing a
hockey-like game on a frozen canal.
Kingston, Ontario, and Windsor, Nova Scotia, also lay claim to its
origins for similar reasons. And many think that hockey began in
Virginia, the evidence of this was a post on a Williamsburg
Newspaper in colonial time that recorded a snow storm and recorded
hockey being played in Virginia.
By 1893, Winnipeg hockey players incorporated cricket pads to
better protect the goaltender's legs. They also introduced the «scoop»
shot, later known as the wrist shot.
When Great Britain conquered New France from France in 1763
(much of which would later become part of Canada), Scottish and
English soldiers used their knowledge of shinty and field hockey,
combining it with the physically aggressive aspects of what the
Mi'kmaq Aboriginal First Nation in Nova Scotia called
dehuntshigwa'es (lacrosse). As Canadian winters are long and harsh,
new winter sports were always welcomed. Using cheese cutters
strapped to their boots, both English- and French-speaking Canadians
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played the game on frozen rivers, lakes, and ponds. Early paintings
show hockey being played in Nova Scotia, as well as in the state of
Virginia in the United States.
On March 3, 1875, the first organized indoor game was played in
Montreal, as recorded in the Montreal Gazette. In 1877, in order to
make some sense of the game, McGill students, James Creighton,
Henry Joseph, Richard F. Smith, W. F. Robertson and W. L. Murray,
invented seven ice hockey rules. Having an organized system in place,
the game became so popular that it was featured for the first time in
Montreal's annual Winter Carnival in 1883. In 1888, the governor
general of Canada, Lord Stanley of Preston (whose sons and daughter
were hockey enthusiasts), attended the Carnival and was so impressed
with the hockey spectacle that he thought there should be a
championship trophy for the best team. The Stanley Cup was first
awarded then to the champion amateur team in Canada, and continues
to be awarded today to the National Hockey League's championship
team. As an interesting historical footnote, one of Lord Stanley's sons
was instrumental in introducing ice hockey to the United Kingdom
and from there, to Europe at large.
Houghton, MI, located in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, was
the birthplace of professional ice hockey in the United States when the
Portage Lakers were formed in 1899.
The National Hockey League was formed in November of 1917,
when members of the former National Hockey Association were
engaged in a dispute with one of their fellow owners over insurance
proceeds. The NHA disbanded, and the new league began play in
December of that year.
On February 16, 2005, the NHL became the first major
professional team sport in North America to cancel an entire season
because of a labor dispute. Play resumed again in the fall of 2005.
One of the best places to learn about the history of ice hockey is
at the Hockey Hall of Fame in Toronto Canada. It is the official
museum for the NHL.
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Hockey – an evolving game. When hockey began in the mid-1800's
it was very different from the game we know today. The seven players,
who won the Stanley Cup in 1905, would not recognize the game that
Pittsburgh and Detroit played in the 2009 finals. First they'd probably
wonder, what the 14 guys sitting on the bench are doing and why only six
players are on the ice. Then they'd likely ask, who, how, and why
someone has been painting lines on the ice. Finally, they'd like to know,
why Gonchar lifts his stick before shooting, why Guerin runs right into
his opponents, and how the puck magnet on Crosby's stick works.
Almost two hundred years of hockey have seen rule changes, new
skills, and more effective training methods revolutionize the game, in an
evolution that still continues. The latest contributions are the composite
sticks, the zero tolerance, and the removal of the red line. For every
change, there's been a visionary, who understood how to adjust the game
to benefit from the changes. Scotty Bowman's adjustments to the introduction of TV time outs – which allowed him to play his top players
more – are legendary. More recently, did MacTavish's and Laviolette's
shot-blocking tactics – when the NHL increased the distance between
the net and the blue line – change the defensive zone play. In similar
ways, does every alteration lead to adjustments, which over time leads to
an entirely different game. The ones who understand the evolution will
better foresee the next change, and are more likely to become the game's
next revolutionary visionaries.
TOPIC: Football Pools. By Thomas Gray, Robert Blair.
A system of sports betting based around the prediction of a
football game’s outcome. Although most professional football clubs
now run their own pools companies, most gamblers place their stakes
with one of three major companies: Littlewoods, Vernons and Zetters.
Littlewoods is the oldest of these, and the formation of their business
in 1923 became the cornerstone of the Littlewoods empire, which
went on to encompass high street shops and mail order catalogues.
Littlewoods became pools innovators, being the first company to
introduce a collector service in 1959, the Pools Panel (convened in
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January 1963 to compensate for the number of matches postponed due
to bad weather) and the Australian pools in 1951. Dividends were at
first rather small, the first million pound pools winners being a
hospital syndicate in 1984, but payouts had been creeping up since the
1950s. The pools companies banded together in 1973 to introduce a
new game, ‘spot-the-ball’. This competition paid lower dividends than
the main pool, but 15 percent of the total raised was paid to the
Football Trust, an organization set up by the government and the
footballing authorities to fund the game at all levels. The pools
funding came to an end in 1996, when the companies complained of
lost earnings due to the introduction of the National Lottery.
The introduction of the Lottery affected the pools companies
greatly. Unhindered by prohibitive betting laws, the Lottery soon took
profits from the companies. Pleas were made to the Heritage Secretary
in November 1994, and within two months the pools companies had
won vital concessions: the minimum entry age was lowered to sixteen,
promotion and advertising on television and radio was allowed for the
first time, and first dividend payouts are allowed to ‘roll-over’, all in
line with legislation relating to the National Lottery. 1765
Further inequalities were removed in 1995, when the pools
betting duty was lowered from 37.5 percent to 32.5 percent. The pools
companies still felt aggrieved, as the Lottery only paid a duty of 12
percent, but in November 1995 Kenneth Clarke, then Chancellor of
the Exchequer, lowered the rate again to 27.5 percent, with a further
decrease of 1 percent if the pools companies paid this further amount
to both the Football Trust and the Foundation for Sport and the Arts.
Half-time betting was added to the pools companies arsenal against
the Lottery in 1996.
TOPIC: Sports acrobatic. By James Macpherson.
Sports acrobatics goes back a long way in China. Archaeological
finds show that handstands, somersaults, dives, rolls and pyramids
were popular among the people more than two thousand years ago. As
the movements were passed from generation to generation, they
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gradually developed, then were adapted for stage performance,
creating a performing art with Chinese characteristics.
As an independent competitive sport, modern sports acrobatics is
still comparatively new in China. When the first national exhibition
was held in Beijing in 1956, there were only men's and women's
individual events, men's pairs and mixed pairs. National
championships have been held annually since 1957, and the sport is
now included in the official competition programme. The number of
competitive events has gradually been increased to match international
standards. Now the official programme includes men's and women's
individual exercises, men's and women's pairs, mixed pairs, women's
threesomes and men's foursomes, as in international competitions.
Through hard work and daring Chinese sports acrobats have
developed exercises with a high degree of difficulty, some of a type
rarely seen among acrobats in other countries. They include: for men's
individual events, double somersault with triple turn, straight body;
triple forward somersault; triple backward somersault; for men's pairs,
bottom man, kneeling, backward bend, arms wide apart and arm stand;
and top man, slow fall with legs apart and horizontal hang; for women's
pairs, handstand, pushup, half turn and pushup with body flat; for mixed
pairs, handstand, pushup, somersault and handstand; for women's
threesome, vertical column and horizontal hang; for men's foursome,
half vertical column on the shoulder, right-angle one-arm hang on the
head, slow rise, handstand and back to side horizontal hang.
The dance movements and musical accompaniment have also
been improved and developed in recent years. Along with ballet,
modern dance and foreign folk dance movements and corresponding
musical accompaniment, the Chinese acrobats have introduced
Chinese dance movements and music. A women's manoeuvre
executed by a Guangdong team is based on the flying apsarases in
the Dunhuang cave murals. Chinese classical dance movements and
music have also been used in the exercises. A men's manoeuvre
executed by a Shanghai team, for example, uses fighting stances
from traditional Beijing opera and musical accompaniment of gongs
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and drums. These innovations are opening up new paths for the
development of sports acrobatics in China.
China joined the International Sports Acrobatics Federation in 1979.
The Chinese acrobats have acquired experience in international
competition, assimilated the strong points of their foreign counterparts
and made good progress. The Chinese sports acrobatic team made its
debut at the Fourth World Sports Acrobatics Championships held in
Poland in 1980 and won eleven bronze medals in the overall and
individual events. Chinese acrobats won four gold's, seven silvers and
eight bronzes at the Third World Cup Tournament the following year. At
the 1982 World Championships they took one gold medal, five silver
medals and six bronze medals. China reaped ten gold medals, eight
silver medals and one bronze medal at the Fourth World Cup
Tournament in 1983. By then the Chinese five-starred red flag had been
raised sixty-one times during world championships and tournaments.
Chinese sports acrobatics is now in the top ranks at international
level and is practiced as a mass sport in many provinces and cities.
TOPIC: Gymnastics. History. By Thomas Chatterton.
The origin of gymnastics can be traced back to the ancient
civilisations of China, Persia, India and Greece.
Most of the current competitive exercises may be attributed to the
German, Jahn, but the ancient civilisations practised the sport. The
Chinese had mass displays of free exercises, as they do at present, and
both the Persians and the Indians followed a strict code of physical
exercise. But it was the Greeks who really started to modernise the sport.
The distinguished physician, Galen, provided some of the earliest
literature on the sport and showed how knowledgeable the Greeks
were about its fundamentals. Activities like rope-climbing were
included in the ancient Olympic Games and, with the rise of the
Roman Empire, the Greek method of physical culture spread.
Among the events the Romans introduced was the wooden horse on
which they practised mounting and dismounting. Most of the exercises
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were used for military preparation, but when the ancient Olympic Games
were abolished the sport fell into decline for nearly 1,500 years.
It was revived initially by men like Muth, Salzman, and Ling. (1)
Muth’s book, «Gymnastics for Youth», is the first major work on the
subject, and Ling, a Swede, regulated a series of free exercises which
a number of countries adopted. But the man who made the major
contribution to the sport was Jahn. His invention of events like the
parallel bars and the rings and his routines for the horizontal bars
helped greatly with the modernisation of gymnastics. There was a
clash of views between Ling and Jahn, since the Swede felt that
gymnastics was an educational system while Jahn viewed it as a club
activity. Ling’s movements were more rhythmic and fluent while Jahn
gave more emphasis to strength movements.
Modern gymnastics is a mixture of both schools – the beauty of
the floor exercises routines being balanced by the rugged power
needed for the rings and parallel bars. But it is fair to say that Jahn
was the more influential of the pair, for his Turnplatz, opened in
Berlin in 1811, was an open-air gymnasium which started the spread
of the sport throughout Europe. Clubs were founded in Britain and a
number of schools included physical training in their curriculum. A
major event in British gymnastics occurred in 1860 when the army
selected 12 NCO's (National Committee officials) and formed them
into the Army Gymnastic Staff, later the Army Physical Training
Corps. The Army, realising after the Crimean War that soldiers
needed to be fit, were in the forefront of the expansion of the sport in
Britain. The leading clubs joined in 1890 to form the Amateur
Gymnastic Association and the first championship was in 1896 – the
year of the first modern Olympic Games.
After World War II, and especially since the early 1960s,
gymnastics has grown phenomenally in the United States. Much of
this growth has been due to the greatly increased coverage of
gymnastics on television, and especially to the Olympic performances
of Olga Korbut in 1972 and Nadia Comaneci in 1976.
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International gymnastics competition before World War II was
dominated by Western European countries. Except for the anomalous
1904 Games in St. Louis, Americans did not participate in Olympic
gymnastics until 1920. With the entrance of the Soviet Union into
Olympic competition in 1952 and the rise of Japan as a gymnastics
power, the picture changed radically. Over this period, men’s team
medals were won by the Soviet Union (10), Japan (9), East Germany
(5), China (2), Finland (2), and one each by the United States, Germany,
Hungary, Italy, and Switzerland. Fewer countries participated in
women’s gymnastics during this period and the Soviet Union was even
more dominant, winning the team gold medal in all ten Olympic Games
in which they participated (Romania won in 1984). Most individual
medals were won by the Soviet Union (39.4 per cent) and Japan (30.5
per cent), with others going to China (6.1 per cent), East Germany (4.5
per cent), the United States (3.7 per cent), and 13 other countries (all
European except for three medals to the two Koreas, for a total of 15.8
per cent). In the 1996 Olympics Russia won the overall team gold and 5
individual medals; Belarus took 4.
In the 1984 Olympic Games 19 countries were represented (2 entries
are allowed per country), and Canada, Romania, and West Germany won
the gold, silver, and bronze all-around medals. In both 1988 and 1992, 23
countries were represented, and the Soviet Union (called the Unified
Team in 1992) won both the gold and bronze. In 1996 Spain won the
team gold, Bulgaria the silver, and Russia the bronze. Modern
Gymnastics World Championships have been held since 1963.
Rumba. By James Macpherson, Thomas Chatterton.
This had its origin with the African Negro slaves imported into
Cuba, whose dances emphasized the movements of the body rather
than the feet. The tune was considered less important than the
complex cross rhythms, being provided by a percussion of pots,
spoons, bottles, etc. (Raffe, 1964, 431).
It evolved in Havanna in the 19th century by combination with
the Contradanza (Sadie, 1980, 5/86). The name 'Rumba' possibly
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derives from the term 'rumboso orquestra' which was used for a dance
band in 1807 (Sadie, 1980, 5/88), although in Spanish, the word
'rumbo' means 'route', 'rumba' means 'heap pile', and 'rhum' is of
course an intoxicating liquor popular in the Caribbean (Smith, 1971,
502), any of which might have been used descriptively when the
dance was being formed. The name has also been claimed to be
derived from the Spanish word for 'Carousel' (Morris, 1969, 1134).
The rural form of the Rumba in Cuba was described as a
pantomime of barnyard animals, and was an exhibition rather than a
participation dance (Ellfeldt, 1974, 59). The maintenance of steady
level shoulders while dancing was possibly derived from the way the
slaves moved while carrying heavy burdens (Rust, 1969, 105). The
step called the 'Cucaracha' was stomping on cockroaches. The 'Spot
Turn' was walking around the rim of a cartwheel (Rust, 1969, 105).
The popular Rumba tune 'La Paloma' was known in Cuba in 1866
(Sadie, 1980, 10/530).
The Rumba was introduced into the U.S.A. in the 1930's as a
composite of this rural Rumba with the Guaracha, the Son, and the Cuban
Bolero (unrelated to the Spanish Bolero) (Ellfeldt, 1974, 59). It was
particularly popularised in 1935 by George Raft, who played the part of a
suave dancer who wins the heart of an heiress through dance, in the movie
'Rumba', although the male dancing was done mainly by Frank Veloz.
The British dance teacher Pierre Margolie visited Havanna in
1947 and decided that the Rumba was danced with the break step on
beat 2 of the bar, rather than on beat 1 as in the American Rumba.
This is not entirely true, as the 'beat' of the music is traditionally
determined by the rhythm of the Claves (two sticks being hit
together). The Claves are hit on half-beats numbers 1,4,7 in the first
bar of a two-bar phrase, and half-beats 3,5 of the second bar.
Counting full beats, these correspond to beat 1, the half beat before 3,
and beat 4 of the first bar, and beats 2 and 3 of the second bar. Ideally
one might dance 5 steps over the two bars to match the Clave beats.
But instead it was decided to dance only on one of the bars of the
Clave sequence. The American Rumba is danced on the first bar
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Clave beat. Pierre decided to use the second bar, stepping on beats 2
and 3, and he added an extra step on beat 4 for no obvious reason. He
brought this back to Britain, together with many steps he learned
from Pepe Rivera in Havanna. These steps together with dancing the
break on beat 2 rather than beat 1, after many years of heated debate
in the 1940's and 1950's, became part of the standard International
Cuban Rumba. (Lavelle, 1975, 1).
With only a transfer of weight from one foot to the other on beat 1
of each bar, and the absence of an actual step on this beat, the dance
has developed a very sensual character. Beat 1 is a strong beat of the
music, but all that moves on that beat are the hips, so the music
emphasises the dancing of the hips. This together with the slow tempo
of the music (116 beats/minute) makes the dance very romantic. Steps
are actually taken on beats 2, 3, and 4. Weight tranfer and turns are
performed on the intervening half beats. Again, as in the Samba, the
weight is kept forward, with forward steps taken toe-flat, and with
minimal movement of the upper torso throughout.
TOPIC: SWIMMING. Techniques of sports ways of
swimming. By William Cowper.
Now in sports navigation next ways are applied: a crawl on
breasts, a crawl on a back, a breast stroke and a butterfly. These ways
conditionally share on two groups: ways with alternate movements by
hands and legs (a crawl on breasts and a crawl on a back) and with
simultaneous movements by hands and legs (a breast stroke and a
butterfly-dolphin). The way on one side, lost the sports value, is
applied during elementary education. It with success is used also in
applied navigation, in game in water polo.
The crawl on a breast is characterized by alternate and symmetric
movements of hands and legs. It is the fastest sports way of swimming
and the most popular. Heats of masters, especially on short distances,
are always looked with greater interest. Popularity of a crawl speaks a
breast also that it is mainly used at game in water polo, figured
swimming and at swimming in natural reservoirs. The certain value
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has a crawl on a breast and in applied navigation. It is used for
overcoming water barrier, at rescuing drowning and in other cases.
The crawl on a breast is applied in competitions on navigation on
all distances of a freestyle: on 100, 200, 400, 800 and 1500 m, in relay
races 4XI00 and 4Х200 m a freestyle, in complex swimming on
distances of 200 and 400 m (the fourth piece 50 or 100), and also at
last stage of the combined relay race.
More often three variants of techniques of swimming by a crawl
on a breast are applied. In the first variant each cycle of movements
consists of two alternate movements of the hands, two alternate
movements of the legs, one breath and one exhalation in water. In the
second and third variants the quantity of movements of hands and
techniques of breath are kept, and the quantity of movements of legs
increases up to four or six. These variants have received the name of a
four-shock and six-shock crawl on a breast.
Position of a body. The body of the swimmer is located at a surface of water and is in well flowed round, is close to horizontal, position (a corner of "attack" 2–6). The head is lowered in water (the
person downwards) so that the water level was approximately at the
top part of a forehead. The trunk makes turnaround of a longitudinal
axis of a body on 35–50. The greatest inclination is necessary at the
moment of a breath. Fluctuation of a trunk strengthens rowed and
helps a carry by of a hand and performance of a breath.
Movement of legs. Legs carry out continuously counter
movements from top to down and from below upwards with small
amplitude. Movements of legs provide steady horizontal position of a
body and support speed of promotion. Movement of a leg downwards
refers to as worker (it promotes some promotion of a body forward),
and movement of a leg upwards-preparatory (it does not influence
promotion of a body forward). As movements of both legs are
absolutely identical, it is possible to consider technics on an example
of movement of one leg.
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The techniques of diving at length and depth. By William
Cowper.
Techniques of diving composes of several independent
components -performances of special exercises before start,
techniques of immersing in water, change of depth of immersing and a
direction of movement and ways of movement under water.
Special exercises before start provide and facilitate a long delay
of breath. Before immersing in water during approximately 1 mine it
is necessary to do hyperventilation easy-execute some deep breaths
and full quiet exhalations. It promotes allocation from an organism of
carbonic acid and by that limits its excessive accumulation in blood
during muscular work under water at a delay of breath. Directly ahead
of start diving carries out not too deep breath. Moving ahead under
water, the swimmer after a while after a delay of breath starts to desire
to make a breath. To facilitate this condition, it is necessary to execute
at the closed mouth two-rub deglutitory movements and right after it a
small exhalation. These actions reduce intrapulmonary pressure and
deduce surpluses of carbonic acid from an organism.
Techniques of immersing in water. Immersing in water is carried
out by legs or a head downwards from basic or unsupported positions.
Immersing in water downwards with use of a support is carried out by
a head as a usual starting jump. If the jump is connected with the
subsequent diving in depth the body should enter into water under a
greater corner. The simplest way of immersing in water on greater
depth is the jump in water legs downwards with the hands lifted
upwards. There are two basic ways of immersing on depth from a
surface of water: a head and legs downwards. At immersing by a head
downwards in the beginning it is necessary to rise from water due to
row hands downwards and to execute a deep breath, then to make a
grouping and half turnover forward due to fast movement of hands
forward, and heads downwards. Having given thus to a trunk vertical
position by a head downwards, it is necessary to straighten sharply
legs, having lifted them as it is possible above water, and to plunge
into water, if necessary carrying out then movements depending on
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the selected way of diving. At immersing by legs downwards it is
necessary to make a start simultaneously from water hands and legs,
to jump out above, to lift hands upwards, and to make a deep breath,
to straighten and connect legs. After the body will plunge into water,
leaving legs straightened and connected to bend hands and to do
vigorous rows from below through the parties upwards. This way is
used at diving on small depth. For deeper immersing other way is
used. After the body from a surface of water will lower under water, it
is necessary to be grouped and carry out quickly the further immersing
by a head downwards, helping itself movements by hands by the selected way. Change of depth of immersing and a direction of movement. Following receptions of change of depth of immersing are most
simple: movement of a head (downwards and upwards), bending in a
waist, and change of position of brushes of hands.
For maintenance of orientation under water it is necessary to hold
during diving eyes opened. It is recommended also before immersing
in water to plan well visible reference points - bright lines at the bottom, stones, piles, etc.
TOPIC: DISABILITY. By Edmund Burke.
Disability is often defined as what a person cannot do because of a
medical condition. For example, it might be said that 'she cannot use the
fitness equipment room because she is in a wheelchair. This guidance,
however, is written from the viewpoint that it is the design and
management of a facility that create the barriers and limitations to its
use. Consequently, the view would be that 'she cannot use the fitness
equipment room because the equipment is inappropriate and the room is
located on an inaccessible mezzanine floor. Or 'she cannot use the
fitness equipment room because the staff has not had adequate training.
Organized sport for athletes with a disability is generally divided into
three broad disability groups: the deaf, people with physical disabilities,
and people with intellectual disabilities. Each group has a distinct history,
organization, competition program, and approach to sport.
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Formal international competition in deaf sport began with the 1924
Paris Silent Games, organized by the Comité International des Sports des
Sourds, CISS (The International Committee of Sports for the Deaf).
These games evolved into the modern Deaflympics, governed by the
CISS. The CISS maintains separate games for deaf athletes based on their
numbers, their special communication needs on the sports field, and the
social interaction that is a vital part of sports [1].
Organized sport for persons with physical disabilities developed
out of rehabilitation programs. Following the Second World War, in
response to the needs of large numbers of injured ex-service members
and civilians, sport was introduced as a key part of rehabilitation.
Sport for rehabilitation grew into recreational sport and then into
competitive sport. The pioneer of this approach was Sir Ludwig
Guttmann of the Stoke Mandeville Hospital in England. In 1948,
while the Olympic Games were being held in London, he organized a
sports competition for wheelchair athletes at Stoke Mandeville. This
was the origin of the Stoke Mandeville Games, which evolved into the
modern Paralympic Games. Currently, Paralympic sport is governed
by the International Paralympic Committee, in conjunction with a
wide range of other international sport organizations.
Sport for persons with intellectual disabilities began to be organized in the 1960s through the Special Olympics movement. This
grew out of a series of summer camps organized by Eunice Kennedy
Shriver, beginning in 1962. In 1968 the first international Special
Olympics were held, in Chicago. Today, Special Olympics provides
training and competition in a variety of sports for persons with
intellectual disabilities.
In 1986, the International Sports Federation for Persons with
Intellectual Disability (INAS-FID) was formed to support elite
competition for athletes with intellectual disabilities. This was established
in contrast to the more participative, "sport for all" approach of Special
Olympics. For a time, athletes with intellectual disabilities were included
in the Paralympic Games. After a cheating scandal at the 2000 Summer
Paralympics, where a number of athletes participating in intellectual
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disability events were revealed to not be disabled, INAS-FID athletes
were banned from Paralympic competition, but the ban on intellectually
disabled athletes has since been lifted.
In 2006, the Extremity Games was formed for people with limb
loss or limb difference to compete in extreme sports. The College Park
Industries, a manufacturer of prosthetic feet, organized this event to
give amputee athletes a venue to compete in this increasingly popular
sports genre also referred to as action sports. This annual event held in
the summer in Orlando, FL includes competitions in skateboarding,
wakeboarding, rock climbing, mountain biking, surfing, moto-x and
kayaking. Various organizations, such as Paradox Sports, have arisen
to help empower and inspire disabled people through equipping and
welcoming them into the extreme sports community.
In 2007, a group of San Diego, California-based athletes, coaches,
volunteers, and parents split from Special Olympics Southern
California to gain local control over disabled athletics programs. This
group SPORTS for Exceptional Athletes (S4EA) – serves people with
developmental disabilities within the age range of 5 years old through
adults. By combining people with and without disabilities, S4EA
hopes that participating athletes will interact and form lasting bonds of
friendship through shared sports and recreational activities in S4EA's
served communities. Although the organization's focus is
primarily San Diego County, S4EA has grown from this base to
satellite programs in Ventura and Temecula, California.
Since 1988, the International Olympic Committee have chosen to
validate Disabled Sports (physical disabilities) and incorporate it as a
part of the Games: the staging of the Paralympic Games immediately
follows the Olympic Games. This scheduling helps to foster greater
interest in disabled sports. As an investigation on the Swiss wheelchair
website has shown, more and more International Sports Federations list
disabled athletes as any other sportsmen or sportswomen.
A wide range of sports have been adapted to be played by people
with various disabilities, as well as several that are unique to disabled
athletes. Within each movement, different sports are practiced at
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different levels; for example, not all sports in the Paralympics
movement are part of the Paralympics Games. In addition, many
sports are practiced by persons with a disability outside the formal
sports movements.
TOPIC: PHYSIOLOGY. Weight Management. By Dylan
Thomas.
Generally, programs designed to assist individuals to lose weight or
to maintain a desired body weight. Americans who diet to lose weight
frequently participate in weight management programs for many
reasons. Statistics show that meeting external expectations motivates
most dieters. Current American images of attractiveness and success
place a premium on being slender, especially for women. A second
motivation to manage weight is an awareness of the ramifications of
being excessively overweight. Obesity defined as having a body mass
index of 25 or higher, carries increased risks for diabetes, hypertension,
and CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE. Certain people tend to gain
excess fat on their upper body, and upper body fat increases the waist to
hip ratio, which correlates with a greater risk of heart disease.
Strategies for Weight Loss. Short-term weight loss readily can
be attained by extreme measures: a drastic reduction in caloric intake
(semi-starvation); crash dieting; unbalanced diets emphasizing high
fat and high protein with little or no CARBOHYDRATE. However,
most of this lost weight represents WATER and muscle protein loss
rather than fat loss. Without a commitment to changing long-term
behavior, pounds lost will be rapidly regained; frequently lost muscle
is replaced by fat at the termination of the weight loss program.
Several popular, doctor-supervised, very low-calorie programs are
available. There is little published data on the success rates of most
weight management programs. The limited information available
suggests that only 2 percent to 10 percent of people who have enrolled
in such programs successfully keep off lost pounds for a year or more.
These strategies can lead to weight losses of several pounds per week
and often employ liquid protein meal replacements. Current liquid
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formula diets are much improved over 1970s versions. Regular food
allotments plus three meal replacements can bring the total calories up
to 1,200 per day, and with supervision they are often safe for several
weeks. A major disadvantage: They often reinforce the unhealthy
pattern of eating lightly at breakfast and lunch, and eating heavily at
dinner or later. Under starvation or semi-starvation conditions, usually
less than 1,200 calories per day, the body’s metabolism compensates
for decreased caloric intake by gearing down the rate at which calories
are burned. In other words the basal metabolic rate declines as a
protective adaptation. Furthermore, the body preferentially breaks
down protein in the early stages of semi-starvation to meet energy
requirements; paradoxically, the body can therefore become
proportionately fatter during this period. Programs that incorporate
medications to curb craving as well as increased exercise and
restricted caloric intake have been recommended for obese people.
PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES DURING BADMINTON
AND TABLE TENNIS GAMES. P. Antoniou, S. Athanassiou, T.
Pilianidis, K. Laparidis Department of Physical Education and Sport
Science, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece
Badminton and table tennis are characterised as aerobic
activities. During the games, there are intense work periods
followed by periods of rest. The ration for playing time and rest periods for badminton was found 5.1 sec. work and 9.3 sec. rest (Coad, Rasmussen and Mikkelson, 1979). The percentage of participation of aerobic and anaerobic mechanisms in women was found 55
%–45 % in badminton with a VO2max 3.2ml/kg/min and 48 %–52
% in table tennis with VO2max2.8ml/kg/min, respectively
(Omosegaard, 1996). These two sports have high demands in
technical ability and good physical condition. In table tennis the
technique is of greater importance than physical condition because
you have to react quick and precise in a very small area. In
badminton the area of movement and the duration of plays are
greater, so it demands good physical condition and good technique.
Also the distance covered in each set in badminton found that it can
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reach 1–1.8 km (Omosegaard, 1996). In Greece these two sports are
not popular enough and there are missing elements that could help
the organisation of training, so the purpose of this study was to
record and evaluate physiological parameters between the two
sports and consequently incorporate these findings for a better
training planning.
The participants were 42 students of Democritus University, 22
boys and 20 girls at age 21.2 ± 2.7 years, 20.8 ± 1.8 years, weight
74.2 ± 16.5 kg, 60.35 ± 8.6 and height 1.78 ± 8.5 cm, 1.68 ± 9.3 cm
respectively which were taking courses of badminton and table tennis.
The participants tested in games of total time 10 min for each sport
and physiological parameters as heart rate (HR), lactic acid (LAC) and
total clear time (TIME) recorded.
To examine the probable difference between the physiological
parameters of the two sports we used the statistical analysis of one tale
(ANOVA). The homogeneous of the values cleared up with the
Cochrans and Bartlet -Box method. The analysis showed that there is
a statistical difference between the two sports in heart rate
(F40.1=136.249, p<0.001) and in lactic acid (F40.1=20.403, p<0.001)
with badminton players having higher values. In total clear time there
weren't any important differences, with mean time in badminton
241.38 ± 24.38 sec and in table tennis 254 ± 30.58 sec.
The results show that there are differences in the physiological
parameters we measured. These differences indicate much higher
workload in the game of badminton and it's something we can
understand from the values of heart rate (F40.1=136.249, p<0.001) and
lactic acid (F40.1=20.403, p<0.001). From the technical analysis and the
relation of the total clear time between the game we can assume that
workload in badminton is higher because of the higher playing intensity
in comparison with table tennis. This is due to the fact that the area
covered in badminton is much bigger, the technical demands are very
high, the muscle groups that take part in the movements are bigger
because of the greater range of movement and footwork. In table tennis
the intensity is lower because players cover a smaller distance, use less
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muscle groups, especially of the upper part of the body. International
references indicate values for badminton HR=142-162 b/min in junior
players in a 10 min game (Bartuncova et al., 1979), 175± 6 b/min
(Rittell and Watehold,1975) and LAC=3-6mmol/l (Majumdar,1997). In
table tennis it was found that HR should not be higher than 160-170
b/min and LAC total level 4-5mmol/l (Leso,1982). According to these
findings from the international references, the planing of training should
be different in these two racquet sports at least for their physical
conditioning demands.
15th annual ECSS Congress Antalya/Turkey, June 23–26 2010
PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF VARIOUS TRAINING
SESSIONS IN MALAYSIAN JUNIOR BADMINTON PLAYERS.
Lee Ming, C., Shi-Wei, L., Siti Musyrifah, Cheong Hwa, O. National
Sports Institute of Malaysia
Introduction. There have been quite a number of studies on the
physiological characteristics of badminton during training and
competitive match play (Majumdar et al, 1997; Cabello et al, 2004;
Faude et al, 2007). However, studies on comparisons between training
and competition in badminton are still scarce. Thus, the purpose of
this study is to evaluate the physiological responses in different types
of badminton training program (on-court training, CT; physical
training, PT; and simulated match play, MP).
Method. A total of 12 Malaysian junior boys’ developmental
badminton players participated in this study. There were 12
monitoring sessions carried out which consist of 5 CT sessions (basic
drills, multi-shuttle, match practice), 3 PT sessions and 4 MP sessions
(friendly match and ranking matches). The duration of the monitoring
period was ~3 months. Each training content were documented with
body mass changes (BMC), heart rates (HR), blood lactate
concentration (Bla) from capillary samples and rating of perceived
exertion (RPE) were collected.
Results. Based on BMC, results showed that players elicits higher
sweats during MP (0.8 ± 0.7 %) compared to CT (0.4 ± 0.6 %). Mean65
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while, the cardiovascular demand during MP was significantly higher
than CT and PT with percentage of maximum HR during CT, PT and MP
was 74 ± 9 %, 77 ± 6 % and 90 ± 6 % respectively. However, the
metabolic demand in all three types of training as shown in post-training
Bla appears to be similar with mean values of 2.9 mmol/L. Besides,
players also perceived similar exertion during CT, PT and MP.
Discussions. We found that the HR during CT and PT does not
match the intensity of the MP; this shows that cardiovascular demand
of the player was obviously higher during MP. Contrarily, the Bla
responses remained more stable and showed similar responses in CT,
PT and MP and values were corresponding to other studies (Majumdar
et al, 1997; Cabello et al, 2004; Faude et al, 2007). The HR responses
during CT and MP could be well explained if we divide the CT into
sub-sessions. Such findings may help coaches to plan and monitor
training in order to optimize the capabilities of individual player to
meet the physical demands of competition in badminton and other
racquet Supported by SporTools GmbH
European Database of Sport Science (EDSS)
TRAINING TIME AND ADAPTATION TO LACK OF DAY
LIGHT – A PILOT STUDY. Siti Musyrifah, Cheong Hwa, O.
National Sports Institute of Malaysia
It is found that training done at different times synchronizes the
HR circadian rhythm. Athletes in Northern Norway claim it is hard to
achieve an optimal training effect during the darkness period.
Knowledge about the effect of light conditions upon training response
seems to be missing. As a start we did a pilot study to describe the
reaction to lack of daylight and different training-time on circadian
rhythms and nocturnal sleep in a 26 year old healthy, trained female
arriving Northern Norway from Italy in the darkness period.
Monitoring Sessions (MS) were carried out in four experimental
conditions: MS1) no-training in light-darkness periodicity (Italy);
MS2) no-training in lack of daylight (Norway); MS3) evening training
(18.00–19.30) in daylight-lack; MS4) morning training (9.00–10.30)
in daylight-lack. Each monitoring session (that started in the last
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training-day) was composed by: questionnaire (analogue scale) to fill
in every morning during the sessions, three-days continuous
monitoring by heart rate (HR) monitor (S810, Polar) and actigraph
(Actiwatch, Cambridge Neurotecnology). Each training period was
four consecutives session of outdoor fast-walking (63 % HRmax,
43 % VO2max) with back-pack (1/4 of the body weight).
The Circadian Rhythms of HR and Rest Activity (RA) were
compared with sleep analysis results and subjective perception
expressed in the questionnaire. The HR and RA circadian rhythms
were statistically significant (p<.0001): MESOR values were lower in
MS 2 than in MS 1, 3 and 4 for the Activity, while it was progressively lower for the HR; Acrophase was advanced in MS 2 and 4 compared to MS 1 and 3 for both Activity and HR. Sleep Analyses show
higher values of Sleep Efficiency in MS 2, 3 and, especially, 4 than in
MS 1, that correspond to low values in Mean Activity Score and
Movement and Fragmentation Index. The questionnaires showed that
the subjective perception of sleep and concentration ability were
pretty close to the normality. It was also observed that the rest-HR
decreased through the 3 monitoring weeks, even if the subject was
already well trained. It seems as if the light-lack condition induced a
bradicardial stimulus in addition to the training.
This pilot study suggests that lack of daylight and no training
condition induce an activity decrease, advance Acrophase (2,5h for
the activity and 3h for HR), and enhance sleep. The training increased
the activity MESOR, but influenced the circadian structure in different
way according to the time in which it was carried out. The training
time influenced the circadian parameters for both HR and RA: after
the evening session the Acrophase e was postponed, whilst it was
advanced after the morning session. The sleep quality seems to benefit
the best from the morning training.
TOPIC: track-and-field sports. By James Joyce.
American athletes in track-and-field sports have been able to
maintain their dominance as a result of the emphasis colleges and uni67
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versities place on the sport. Backed by the NCAA and an elaborate
system of sports scholarships, colleges and universities have been able
to offer opportunities to athletes to compensate for the sport’s amateur
status (a status that no longer remains). The significance of the
college-based system on the lives of athletes has been explored in
numerous movies from Personal Best (1982) to Without Limits
(1998). The pressure to succeed created by this system has given rise
to the widespread use of performance-enhancing drugs.
The widespread attention given to track and field derived in large
part from its association with the Olympic movement, which provided
a forum for the expression of nationalist sentiments. As such, the
efforts of athletes competing against countries with which the United
States is in competition (economically and ideologically) have often
taken on considerable significance. During the Cold War, therefore,
considerable attention would be paid to Americans competing against
athletes from the Soviet Union and East Germany. Owing to the
prominence of African American athletes in many track-and-field
events, the possibilities of harnessing patriotic fervor to racial
advancement were commonly acknowledged. Jesse Owens’ success at
the 1936 Berlin Olympics, winning four gold medals in front of a
furious Hitler (who would have been more furious still had the
Americans included their Jewish sprinters on their relay team), was
just one example of this. Owens (1913–80) became a nationally
recognized and celebrated athlete and, along with Joe Louis, helped
pave the way for Jackie Robinson’s desegregation of baseball.
Wilma Rudolph (1940–84), the first American to win three gold
medals in the 1960 Rome Olympics (100m, 200m and 400m relay),
continued this tradition. Her achievement, a triumph also over
childhood polio, made her one of the most celebrated female athletes
of all time. Her celebrity also helped to begin the process of breaking
down gender barriers in previously all-male track-and-field events
prior to the passage of Title IX.
The identification between athletes and their country opening up
opportunities to black athletes that might otherwise have been closed,
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remained in place at least until the end of the Cold War. President
Carter’s boycott of the 1980 Moscow Olympics, in the aftermath of
the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, was considered by many a major
blow to African American athletes, not merely on the grounds of their
pursuit of gold medals. But African American track-and-field athletes
also used this spotlight to make comments about racial conditions in
the United States. Tommie Smith and John Carlos at the 1968 Mexico
Olympics raised their fists in the Black Power salute during the medal
ceremony to make the point that while they were representing their
country, that country discriminated against them (both were
suspended from the US team).
The 1968 Olympics also witnessed major trackand-field landmarks: Bob Beamon won the gold medal in the long jump with a
world record (29ft, 2½ in), shattering the old mark by nearly 2 feet
(unlike most records, this one remained unbroken until 1991 when
Mike Powell jumped 2 inches further); and Dick Fosbury fundamentally altered the high jump with his «Fosbury Flop».
Two other track-and-field stars deserve mention. Florence Griffith
Joyner (1959–98), known as «FloJo,» was a triple gold medalist at the
1988 Seoul Olympics. She was recognized around the world for both
her colorful and asymmetrical running outfits and her long, painted
fingernails. Smashing the world records for the 100- and 200-meter
runs in Seoul and also winning a gold medal in the 4×100 relay, she
later served as cochairperson of President Clinton’s Council on
Physical Fitness, before suffering a heart attack and dying in 1998. As
with Rudolph before her, Griffith Joyner’s performances challenged
assumptions about the relationship between sport and gender. Carl
Lewis (1961–) dominated track-and-field events throughout much of
the 1980s and early 1990s. Unable to run in Moscow because of the
boycott, Lewis amassed a record in sprints and long jump equaled by
no other athlete. Widely regarded as the greatest track-and-field
athlete of all time, he matched Jesse Owen’s record in 1984, won three
medals in 1988 (two gold and one silver) and another two gold medals
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in 1992. At the 1991 World Championships in Tokyo he also set the
world record for the 100m (9.86 seconds).
TOPIC:
MARKETING.
Preparing
Your
Marketing
Communications Plan. By Joseph Conrad.
Your marketing communications plan is your road map. It
establishes where you are, where you want to go, and how you will
get there. It estimates your time in transit, the cost of making the trip,
and the congestion from other travelers taking the same route.
Your plan is a guide for action in a dynamic marketplace, and you
cannot cast it in cement. Competitors act in unexpected ways; new
product availabilities are delayed; a successful breakthrough with a
prestigious customer gives you valuable credentials. As you progress
through the time covered by the plan, you want to be able to modify it
in response to changes in the marketplace.
Experienced domestic marketing communicators will find many
similarities between a domestic marketing communications plan and
an international one; the differences are in environment, and a failure
to understand and appreciate the foreign environment is one of the
most common factors at the heart of overseas marketing errors.
Maartin Van Veen, European director of marketing communications
for Texas Instruments Incorporated, has considered the qualifications
of a successful international marketing communications manager.
The really essential element, in my view, is a willingness to
immerse oneself in the local conditions. Definitely to be avoided as a
foreigner is looking at the local operation in any country as if it were
something under a microscope. It's striking a balance, of course. On
one side you must always maintain an overview of the international
elements and, on the other side, comprehend how local conditions
could affect the international approach.
As you develop an international marketing communications
plan, heed Van Veen's advice to maintain an overview of the
international elements and comprehend how local conditions
affect an international approach.
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In international planning, you must work with nationals in local
subsidiaries or branches who will stress the differences in their local
markets, while world headquarters staff will tend to discount them.
Your job is to find the right balance between the two, and the planning
task is complex. But your experience in planning programs for the
domestic market will serve you well abroad.
The principal task of international marketing communications
planning is setting priorities. No company takes advantage of all its
opportunities in all foreign markets, and planning is very much a matter of selecting those opportunities which will have the greatest impact
on the growth of your business. This calls for careful selection of
target geographic markets and target vertical-market sectors. It means
selecting the right products to introduce in a foreign market and
targeting messages to the most influential groups through the most
cost-efficient channels of communication.
This chapter describes a logical sequence of marketing
communications projects to support major foreign-market
development programs. At first you may see hundreds of countries
multiplied by the several vertical-market sectors your company serves
multiplied by the different target groups that influence purchasing. A
marketing communications plan helps you concentrate your efforts
and resources on attainable goals for priority projects. With a written
marketing plan and a written marketing communications plan based
upon internal and external marketing audits, you can steer your
company away from a hit-or-miss course.
The diagnostics of thinking. The dependence of the type of
thinking on the functional asymmetry of cerebral hemispheres. By
Thomas Pynchon.
The active studies of the dependence of the type of thinking on
the functional asymmetry of cerebral hemispheres began not so long
ago. First of all it is connected with the name of the American psychoneurologist R. Sperry, who made an operation on disconnecting the
links between the cerebral hemispheres with the aim of treating a
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complicated form of epilepsy at the end of 60-s. During the
observations of his patients R. Sperry discovered that the two
hemispheres of a uniform brain act as two completely different brains.
A man, whose right hemisphere was disconnected, but the left
hemisphere worked, conserved his ability to speak, adequately reacted
to the words, numbers and other signs, but he was often helpless when
he was supposed to do something with material things or their
pictures. When the left hemisphere was disconnected, the patient
could easily manage with such tasks, he understood some pieces of
art, melodies and speech intonations, he could orient in space, but he
lost his ability to understand complicated verbal constructions and
could not speak coherently at all.
The explanation of reasons, which led to the hemisphere
specialization in the process of evolution, suggested by Doreen
Kimura and her colleagues (1973) is rather interesting. Basing on the
fact that the speech function of left hemisphere is connected with the
leading right hand movements, she supposes that the specialization of
left hemisphere for speech is not so much the consequence of
asymmetric development of symbolical functions as the development
of some particular motive skills, which help in the process of
communication. The language appeared, because the left hemisphere
was more suitable for some kinds of motive activity.
The link between the left hemisphere and some particular type of
movement is well known in clinic. The hand corresponding to the
hemisphere with speech center (the right hand of right-handed people)
shows more abilities to make delicate movements than the hand
connected with non-dominating hemisphere. The patients with left
hemisphere dysfunction, but having no right-side paralysis, find it
difficult to reproduce a composite sequence of motions and composite
finger positions. The left hemisphere dysfunction of deaf-mutes is
accompanied by the decay of sign language, which is similar to the
speech decay of normally speaking people.
D. Kimura suggests (1973) that in the process of evolution it was the
development of the hand as a sign language organ and the development of
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its manipulative abilities that led to the development of the left
hemisphere. Later this function was acquired by voice muscles.
Probably the functional asymmetry, which appeared due to the evolution, allowed using the space for information procession more economically, avoiding double functions. So the dominance of one
hemisphere in speech function prevents a possible competition between
the hemispheres for the tongue, upper and lower lips and mouth. The
process of evolution is characterized not only by the quantitative
accumulation of asymmetry elements, but also by a qualitative saltus –
the development of a deep specialization of the left and right hemisphere
function saving certain potential abilities of compensating one
hemisphere by another one (N.L.Bianki, 1985; M.Gazaniga, 1974).
The formation of individual style of activity. By Christopher
Marlowe.
Only those people can achieve the effective results in any activity
whose individual style of activity is properly formed, i.e. who have a
style of activity adequate to a person’s individual peculiarities,
particularly to such important characteristics as a type of thinking.
Otherwise the individual style of activity is non-adequate and it results
in the low effectiveness of activity, it also causes psychological
discomfort, monotony and other undesirable consequences.
Quite often you may observe a teacher or a master of industrial training realizing the principle «do as I do it» and thus forming the individual
style of activity, which is harmful for a pupil. A pupil in this situation
reminds a cucumber seed of which they try to grow an orange by all
means. The effect of such «development» is just a great waste of time.
In this connection you should take into account the correlation
between individually typological and activity-stereotyped indexes
of FAH.
The indexes of individually typological peculiarities of thinking
show the ways of forming the individual style of activity. If people
with abstract-logical type of thinking prefer to operate with symbols,
abstract things, schemes, structures, etc., then the people of emotional73
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figurative thinking operate with spatial images of a picture type,
which are distinguished by their dynamics and emotional coloring.
In order to define the correspondence of individually typological
peculiarities of thinking to the chosen individual style of activity you
should compare the indexes of individually typological and activitystereotyped thinking with each other. In case there are essential
discrepancies between them you should pay attention to the necessity
of the individual activity style correction to raise its productivity.
It is important to note that you can judge about the inaccurate
style of thinking activity not by the fact of thinking deviation into the
side of logic in emotional-figurative thinking, but the fact that the
indexes of thinking essentially differ between individually typological
and activity-stereotyped characteristics. So, the abstract-logical type
of thinking of a musician is not the index of his professional
unsuitability. There are cases when such people achieve great results
in musical activity. The fact of
abstract-logical thinking
predominance in emotional-figurative activity should be understood
not as a signal of failure, but as advice to change thinking activity, as a
necessity of a different – in comparison with a traditional one –
individual approach in education.
The manifestations of different types of thinking of musicians and
the methods of correct work with them were described earlier (Yu. A.
Tsagarelly, 1986). An individual approach with due account for
individually typological peculiarities of FAH of people of other
professions is becoming more and more popular and is described in
literature as it is extremely important for the optimization of
educational process.
The diagnostics of thinking peculiarities has a wide range of
usage both for psychological-pedagogical investigations and for
practical work with people. It is so because this factor of FAH makes
an essential influence on all the processes of perception and
processing the information by a person, including the peculiarities of
memory, attention, and perception. That is why the results of the
diagnostics may be of great use in promoting these questions.
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The formation of individual style of activity presupposes the
correction of the thinking activity process. Correcting the process of
these or those tasks solution, directing the thinking into a necessary
channel you should periodically control this process diagnosing the
situational index of thinking. The results of such diagnostics allow
clearing up the correcting influence to avoid some erratic judgements,
to pay attention to the correct ones. So, there takes place a feedback
that is necessary in any correction process.
Forming professional groups. By Thomas Dekker.
Selecting people into optimal groups for making a collateral
activity you should take into account the factors of psychological
compatibility and complementarity. In this connection you should
base on a general law according to which the identical poles are
repelled and the different ones are attracted.
People with different types of thinking mutually complement each
other and they do not have competitive relations. For this reason
people of emotional-figurative type of thinking are well compatible
with people of abstract-logical type of thinking and they are hardly
compatible with people of identical type of thinking.
People distinguished by a mixed type of thinking are compatible
with the representatives of both extreme types. But the degree of
compatibility in such cases is less than that between the antipodes.
When forming the groups working under the condition of high
tenseness and lack of time (which is especially characteristic of
special subdivisions of MIA, MES, FSB and others) you should take
into account that special requirements are made to the speed and
accuracy of task solution.
The advantage of abstract-logical thinking is its accuracy
provided by operational logic of thinking processes. However, the
operation requires a considerable waste of time and causes the
sluggishness of this type of thinking. Emotional-figurative and spatial
thinking are deprived of this disadvantage and surpass greatly the
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abstract-logical thinking by their speed. At the same time quick
reactions made on the emotional level can often be incorrect.
So that this or that professional group could solve the given tasks as
quickly and accurately as possible and meet the requirements of
psychological compatibility it is necessary to form the group consisting of
a proportional number of people having different types of thinking.
The psychological characteristics of personality are: needs which
stipulate a person’s activity, personality orientation which determines
the way this activity is oriented on, motivation which is connected
with a person’s interests, self-consciousness closely connected with
self-appraisal and also such characteristics as psycho-emotional
steadiness, reliability in extreme situations, emotional reactivity,
stability, anxiety, etc.
Being stable psychological characteristics, many of them are
conditioned by frequent repetitions of the corresponding psychic states
and processes typical of this personality.
So, frequent states of anxiety form personality anxiety, typical
emotional manifestations form emotional reaction and so on. In its
turn, personality characteristics cause corresponding psychic states.
For example, people with high emotional reactivity are more sensitive
to some irritants than those with low emotional reactivity, etc.
The diagnostics of psychological characteristics of personality can
be performed by the apparatus ATS-6 using both instrumental and
non-instrumental methods. The present chapter will contain
instrumental methods of the diagnostics of psychological
characteristics of personality and the Following one will describe noninstrumental methods – together with the methods of the diagnostics
of socio-psychological and social characteristics.
TOPIC: PUBLIC RELATIONS. By John Fletcher.
Guidelines and procedures for investigating infringements of press
freedom The United Nations Office of Legal Affairs in New York and the
United Nations Centre for Human Rights in Geneva are among the international bodies that have best defined guidelines and procedures for accu76
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rately reporting human rights violations. Some material in this chapter is
also taken from the Human Rights Handbook published by the University
of Essex Human Rights Centre in 1995.
1. General guidelines.
• Any investigation must be followed by a written report. The
facts must be put down in writing to ensure that the information is
accurate, to avoid rumours and to keep a record of the details
gathered. If the case is serious or urgent, information may be passed
on by radio or telephone – as long as it remains confidential - but it
must later be put into writing as well.
• The investigator must keep the information he or she gathers
confidential. Failure to observe this requirement may have serious
consequences for the victim, witnesses or the investigator. Witnesses
should be asked explicitly if their comments may be used and if they
may be quoted. The witness must be told that the investigator is
working for an independent organisation and not for the police or
other official body, and that the investigator’s work does not replace
that of a national or international legal inquiry.
• Visual images are subject to specific guidelines. Photographing
or filming a scene may provoke unexpected reactions, especially
hostile reactions, and should be kept to a minimum. As far as possible,
photographs of victims of cruelty should be taken in complete privacy.
In cases of torture or ill-treatment, it is better not to photograph the
victim’s face so that he or she will be harder to identify should the
pictures fall into the wrong hands.
The four stages of the inquiry.
• The first stage is to collect evidence and allegations. When
circumstances allow, investigators should say who they represent and
introduce themselves so that victims know to whom they are speaking.
Victims should always be told the exact status of investigators, who
should be sure to organise a follow-up meeting, or at least find out
where victims may be contacted. Investigators should also tell victims
who to get in touch with to pass on further information or to alert the
organization to threats or intimidation they receive after giving
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evidence. Before starting the research, investigators should draw up a
list of priorities. The most serious infringements of press freedom are
those aimed specifically at journalists and their families:
(a) Extrajudicial or arbitrary killings, attempted killings of this
nature, murder threats and kidnappings. Article 6 of the International
Covenant on Civil and Political Rights states that everyone has the right
to life and that this right is protected by law. Moreover, no-one should
be arbitrarily deprived of life (see also Article 3 of the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights, 1948).Investigations carried out by
independent organisations should in no way release governments from
their duty under international law to investigate violations of the right to
life. The obligations of governments in this respect are set out in the
«Principles for the Effective Prevention of Extrajudicial, Arbitrary and
Summary Killings and on Ways of Effectively Investigating Such Killings» which form part of Resolution 1989/65 of the United Nations
Economic and Social Council.
(b) Cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, and
torture. Article 5 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights recognizes the right to personal integrity: «No-one shall be subjected to
torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment». A
violation of personal integrity occurs when the state, through its employees or any other person acting in an official capacity or at the behest of the state or with its express or tacit consent, inflicts torture or
cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment by causing physical, psychological or moral suffering.
(c) Illegal arrest or detention. A violation of the right to personal
integrity occurs when the state, through its employees or any other person
acting in an official capacity or at the behest of the state or with its
express or tacit consent, deprives a person of his or her freedom without a
valid reason, by imprisonment, detention in another place or by placing
them under house arrest. Such practices are contrary to the right to the
freedom and security of the individual recognised in Article 9 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which states that: «No-one shall be
subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile». These provisions are also
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set out in Article 9–1 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political
Rights. Moreover, in a report published in 1992, the United Nations
Commission on Human Rights said that «detention as a means of punishing the peaceful expression of an opinion is one of the most reprehensible
methods used to impose silence, and therefore a serious violation of human rights».
(d) Attacks and threats carried out because people have used their
right to freedom of opinion, freedom of expression or freedom of association. Other infringements of the right to inform which concern
the media are:
- attacks on premises (editorial offices, printing works)
- legal, administrative and economic pressure
- obstacles to the domestic free flow of information
- obstacles to the international free flow of information.
The drafting of the final report depends to a large extent on this
classification.
It should also be recalled that while investigators should record all
matters attributable to a state, through its employees or any other person
acting in an official capacity or at the behest of the state or with its
express or tacit consent, they should give equal attention to matters
attributable to armed opposition groups, or to anyone acting at the
behest of or with the express or tacit consent of these armed groups.
• During the second stage, investigators should check the
information given to them by victims. They should also collect
complementary evidence, then question the authorities that have been
accused whenever possible. The method that should be used for
collecting evidence is given below.
• The third stage is drafting the final report.
• During their research, investigators make recommendations and
take appropriate measures with the overriding concern of protecting
the lives and security of victims and their families. This is the fourth
stage. Investigators ensure that all cases are followed up and that
witnesses have not been threatened.
3. Collecting evidence from individual witnesses
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• This is an essential stage in the investigation process. When
circumstances allow, investigators conduct a preliminary interview
during which they collect neutral data about witnesses, such as names,
win their trust and attempt to assess their views, contradictions,
prejudices and ulterior motives. At this stage investigators should
decide whether the person being questioned is a victim, a witness or
the supposed perpetrator of a violation.
• Witnesses should agree to be questioned of their own free will,
preferably by someone of the same sex. The report written after the
meeting should mention how the witness behaved (gestures,
nervousness, anxiety). It should also be stated whether audio or video
recordings were made or photographs taken during the interview.
Ideally there should be at least two investigators present. The witness
may also ask for a friend or relative to be present.
• Interpreters should be fluent in the languages of both
investigator and witnesses. They should not alter the evidence, either
by summarising what a witness says, filling in gaps in the evidence
with information obtained elsewhere, or trying to «improve» the evidence by «correcting» uncertainties or contradictions.
• Whenever circumstances allow, standard questionnaires should be
used to collect evidence. This helps investigators to conduct the
interview and sort out the information obtained, and ensures that
important information is not forgotten. Nonetheless, such questionnaires
should not be an obstacle to the investigation and interviews may be
carried out in a less structured manner when this seems appropriate. The
questionnaires given below are from the United Nations (Document 1)
and Reporters Sans Frontières (Document 2).
They give an idea of the nature and degree of accuracy of the
information to be collected. Investigators should, however, bear in
mind that possession of such questionnaires may prove dangerous
for themselves or for victims. In all cases, these documents should
be kept strictly confidential.
• The circumstances in which the interview took place should be
recorded in writing or by some other means. The investigator should:
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- record the names of all those present during the interview and
what part they played in it,
- ask the person questioned to state explicitly that he or she agreed
to be interviewed,
- ask the person questioned if he or she agrees with the way the
interview was conducted,
- point out the limitations to the confidential nature of the interview (presence of a third party obligatory),
- ask the person questioned whether he or she understands the interpreter and is satisfied with the way his or her replies are being interpreted.
• The investigator should conduct the interview in an assertive
manner and should:
- ask only one question at a time,
- avoid biased questions,
- ask simple questions,
- ask questions that require a detailed reply (as opposed to those
that can be answered with «yes» or «no»),
- put questions in a positive way (e. g.: «Where were you that
day?» rather than
«You were at the scene of the event, weren’t you?»
The Role of Sport and Adapted Physical Activity for People with
Disabilities.
Sport can play a key role in the lives and communities of people
with disabilities, the same as it can for people without a disability.
Sport encompasses all forms of physical activity and includes play,
exercise, recreation, organised, casual or competitive sport and
indigenous sport or games that contribute to physical fitness, mental
well-being and social interaction. There is a wealth of evidence to
support participation in sport and physical activity for people with a
disability concerning trends, barriers and benefits of participation.
Over the past three decades, research efforts have developed
significantly in the area of disability sport and adapted physical
activity. Numerous studies have revealed that physical activity and
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sport participation result in improved functional status and quality of
life among people with selected disabilities.
Scientific research has been conducted across disability groups
that reveal participation in sport and physical activity leads to
improved levels of physical health and well-being.
Sport and physical activity has also been shown to improve physical
fitness and general mood in psychiatric patients with depressive and
anxiety disorders. Additionally, sport and physical activity has been
linked to improvements in self-confidence, social awareness and selfesteem and can contribute to empowerment of people with disabilities.
In developing countries, people with a disability often face additional
barriers to participation in sport and society and these may include for example, complex issues including attitudes towards disability, traditional
and religious beliefs, physical education systems, and access to sporting
infrastructure including services, facilities and equipment.
Integration and inclusion of people with disabilities in mainstream
sport has been a key focus in recent decades and has created new
opportunities for participation and competition. On a larger scale,
participation in disability sport also contributes to nation building and
national identity and can also promote rehabilitation of people with
disabilities following natural and man-made disasters.
People with a disability in developing countries face major barriers
that limit their access to and participation in sport and physical activity.
Within a development context, these barriers impact on both: (i) building
activity pathways for people with disabilities and (ii) using sport and
physical activity programs to reach wider development goals.
The World Health Organisation estimates that 650 million people
live with disabilities of various types, and the number is increasing due to
the rise of chronic diseases, injuries, car crashes, falls, violence and other
causes such as ageing. Of this total, 80 % live in low-income countries;
most are poor and have limited or no access to basic services, including
rehabilitation facilities.This rising incidence of disability, particularly in
developing countries has the potential to place further burdens on governments and health care systems. Sport can be a low-cost and effective
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means to foster positive health and well-being, social inclusion and community building for people with a disability.
Themes in Disability Sport and Development. By Francis
Beaumon.
The earliest international competition that still exists today was
the first International Silent Games held in Paris in 1924. Two men
are credited with pioneering the first
International Silent Games, Mr Eugene Rubens-Alcais of France
and Mr Antoine Dresse of Belgium. Although the name of the games
changed periodically, a world games for the deaf was held every fours
since that time, except during World War II. Immediately at the end of
the war, however, deaf sport quickly resumed and the first winter
games took place in 1949 in Seefeld, Austria.
World War II had a significant impact on the development of
disability sport and during the rehabilitation of injured war veterans,
the Paralympic Games were born. In 1944, Sir
Ludwig Guttmann organised a sports competition for World War
II veterans with spinal cord injury in Stoke Mandeville, England. By
1948 this had quickly developed into the first Stoke Mandeville
Games, which were the precursor to the Paralympic Games. In 1976,
the games expanded to include other disability groups and the first
Paralympic winter games were held in Sweden.
In June, 1962 Eunice Kennedy-Shriver started a summer day
camp for children and adults with intellectual disabilities at her home.
This rapidly developed into the first Special Olympics World Games
that took place in 1968 at Soldier Field in Chicago, USA.
The first winter games followed in Colorado, USA in 1977.
Since the 1970s the concept of organised multi-sport and multidisability games became popular and a number of regional games for
people with a disability also emerged. These include games such as
the Parapan American Games and the Far East and South Pacific
Games. Whilst there is limited historical and statistical evidence of the
participation of people with a disability in developing countries, in the
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three largest international competitions – Deaflympics, Paralympic
Games and Special Olympics World Games, participation by
developing countries has seen the greatest improvement since 1990.
The language of disability sport differs in some parts of the world
and an overview of the latest definitions and terminology is provided.
Disability. Anyone in the community may experience disability at
some point in their lifetime. Disability is a normal part of the human
experience, and people with disabilities are part of all sectors of the
community: men, women, and children; indigenous and nonindigenous;
employers and employees; students and teachers; consumers and citizens.
There are numerous definitions of disability and the debate
surrounding appropriate definitions of disability have evolved over time.
The World Health Organisation states that «disability (resulting from impairment) is a restriction or lack of ability to perform an activity in the
manner or within the range considered normal for a human being.»
The United Nations defines persons with disabilities (PWD) as
persons who have longterm physical, mental, intellectual or sensory
impairments, which, in interaction with various barriers may hinder their
full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others.
Statistics on disability are difficult to compare internationally and
also disability statistics do not always include the same definitions, types
or categories of disability. The length of time a person is deemed
‘disabled’ affects the way the statistical data is measured and interpreted.
Disability Sport. Disability sport is a term that refers to sport
designed for, or specifically practiced, by people with disabilities.
People with disabilities are also referred to as athletes with
disabilities. Deaf sport is distinguished from other groups of people
with disabilities and in some countries deaf people prefer not to label
deafness as a disability. The rules of deaf sport are not altered, only
instead of whistles and start guns, athletes and officials communicate
through signs, flags and lights. In many developing countries deafness
is still considered a disability.
Adapted Physical Activity (APA)
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Adapted physical activity is the profession, the scholarly
discipline or field of knowledge, and the service delivery, advocacy
and empowerment systems that have been created specifically to make
healthy, enjoyable physical activity accessible to all and to assure
equal rights to sport instruction, coaching, medicine, recreation,
competition and performance of persons with disabilities. According
to the International Federation of Adapted Physical Activity (IFAPA),
Adapted Physical Activity (APA) means:
• A service-oriented profession.
• An academic specialisation or field of study.
• A cross disciplinary body of knowledge.
• An emerging discipline or subdiscipline.
• A philosophy or set of beliefs that guides practices.
• An attitude of acceptance that predisposes behaviours.
• A dynamic system of interwoven theories and practices.
• A process and a product (i. e. programmes in which adaptation
occurs). Sport and Disability thematic profile (print version).
• An advocacy network for disability rights to physical activity of
participants with disability.
Terminology
The language that is used to describe people with disabilities has
an impact on impressions and attitudes. The consensus is to always
refer to the person first rather than the disability. For example, ‘person
with cerebral palsy’, ‘person with downs syndrome.’
It is widely recognised that using words such as ‘tragic,’
‘afflicted,’ ‘victim’ or ‘confined to a wheelchair’ should be avoided.
Words such as ‘uses a wheelchair’ are widely considered more
appropriate. It is important to use normal language and to recognise
that some terms are more accepted than others and the language of
disability can differ between countries.
TOPIC: Cycling – Tour de France. By Robert Herrick.
The Tour de France cycle race is the largest annual sporting event
in the world. Stretching to approximately 4,000 kilometers (2,500
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miles) – the precise itinerary and distance vary from year to year – but
always including a voyage round France taking in the Pyrenees and
the Alps, it lasts for three weeks in July. The success of Irish and Colombian riders and of American Greg Lemond (c. 1960 –) as well as
several Australians and East Europeans has recently given the Tour a
remarkable global appeal, enhanced by live television film taken
mostly by camerapersons perched on the back of motorcycles close to
the riders. The best riders must be able to sprint, race against the
clock, and climb, day after day,week after week. The greatest of them
have become probably the most widely known sporting heroes in
20th-century continental Europe.
The development of the modern bicycle in the 1890s led to classic
races, such as the Paris-Bordeaux and the Paris- Roubaix. These were
promoted by the new sporting press, especially the daily sports and
cycling paper, Le Vélo, which alienated one of its main backers, the
conservative Baron de Dion.He founded a rival paper, L’Auto, whose
first editor, Henri Desgranges, backed an idea to organize a race
around France. The magnitude and daring of the project captured
public attention. The first Tour was only two-thirds the length of later
races and was run day and night in six stages.Desgranges decided to
abandon the night stages and lengthen the race itself to go round the
whole country, taking in Alpine passes and what were little more than
rough tracks in the high Pyrenees 1644.
It was more than a race; it was an epic, a kind of heroic story through
which France would come to know itself. The «giants of the road,» as
they were known, passed through historic sites and scenes of great deeds
in the French past. As many as a third of the country would actually see
the race go by, organizing local festivities to coincide with it. Perhaps
more than any other great sporting event, the Tour is rooted in the
landscape and culture of its host country. As a showcase for France it is
superb, and tourist towns now pay vast sums to feature in the race.
The Tour is run in teams. The teams were originally sponsored by
bicycle manufacturers but are becoming increasingly beverage- and
fashion-based. Despite complex deals within and between teams, the
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Tour is primarily about individual achievement.The main riding group (le
peleton) is preceded by a massive advertising caravan. The winner, supported by his «servants» (the domestiques or supporting riders), is the
best overall performer with the lowest aggregate time. There is a prize for
the best climber (the «King of the Mountains») and a coveted points prize
for the best sprinter as well as a host of other minor awards.
TOPIC: The Meaning of Alternative Tourism. By Richard
Lovelace.
In a paper that looked at the evolution of alternative tourism as a
concept, Gonsalves (1987) charted its beginnings as a defined concept
from the Manila International Workshop in 1980, although he noted
that concern over tourism had become public at the World Council of
Churches in 1969. In 1984 in Chiangmai, Thailand, the 44 participants
of The Ecumenical Coalition on Third World Tourism (ECTWT)
agreed that it was seen as a process that promotes a just form of travel
between members of different communities. It seeks to achieve mutual
understanding, solidarity, and equality amongst participants.
The ECTWT produced a resource book on alternative tourism and
promoted models and programs. Such models included.
• Brief contacts with local people
• Longer visits with host families and the community, and an insight into local life
• Noncommercial learning options (study tours, work camps, exchange visits)
• Organisations or community groups in various countries concerned about third world tourism, and
• Alternative tourist travel agents in host and sending nations
seeking to share rather than shield visitors from the destination’s
culture andproblems.
Gonsalves (1987) sees the ultimate test of these alternatives in
their ability to influence mainstream tourism. He cites an encouraging
sign, that of the adoption of the Tourism Bill of Rights and Tourism
Code by the World Tourism Organization in 1985 in response to the
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Penang Code of Ethics. He concludes that, ‘travel, throughout history,
has been a means of education, cross-cultural communication and the
development of meaningful relationships. 1654
Alternative tourism considers these objectives still valid and
works towards these ends.’ He ended on an optimistic note, and was
positive about the course and intentions of alternative tourism, a
position that has more recently been subject to sceptical criticism by
other writers. For Cohen (1987), alternative tourism is not even a
single general concept, but composed of two principal conceptions.
First, it is seen as a reaction to modern consumerism, a countercultural response to mass tourism composed of such characters as the
adventurer, drifter, traveller, or those looking for spontaneity or
romantically searching for a lost paradise. He suggests that these types
occasionally create their own cultural enclaves involving drugs and
sex, treating local people as oddities, and initiating a diminution of the
culture of hospitality amongst the host community.
There is also the incipient creation of an alternative tourism
‘establishment,’ which leads to a further reduction in difference between
alternative and mass tourism. Second, it is conceived as ‘concerned
alternative tourism,’ which is in essence a reaction to the exploitation of
the third world in which the notion of a ‘just’ tourism arises, furthering
mutual understanding and preventing environmental or cultural
degradation and exploitation. In this type of tourism small groups interact
with local people, and smallscale projects involving local consultation
and participation are the principal means of promotion.
Cazes (1989) was well aware of the ambiguity of the concept
‘alternative tourism’ and he likened it to the notion ‘integrated,’ which
has been described as a ‘miracle-word, a panacea concept and a
mythical term.’ However, he eventually provided guidelines that may
be applied to six different sectorial fields: 1. The tourist as an
individual: motivated through original aspiration, which may include
active tourism (rambling, trekking), exploring, encounter travel,
committed tourism (voluntary service overseas, archaeological digs),
and other self-sacrificing work. 2. The practitioners: they do not want
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to be regarded as clients or consumers, and include backpackers,
drifters, long-distance travelers; overall a varied group. 3. The
journey’s destination: this may be an unexplored ‘virgin’ location and
often rests on an idealised vision of peasant societies that represent
‘authentic’ cultures. 4. The type of accommodation: ‘supplementary’
including camping, small local family hotels, holiday centres, village
inns, private rented homes, paying guests; the dominant theme is
microfacilities as opposed to massive hotels. 5. Travel organisers and
partners: especially the nonlucrative organisations (nongovernmental
organisations,
mutual
benefit
societies), individual travel
organisations; marginal or underground. 6. The mode of insertion in
the host community: this involves a concerted effort to develop the
reception of tourists wherein discourse centres on integration
(economic, social, spatial, ecological, urban), local control, and auto
development. A crucial factor is the prominence of the local system in
overseeing the tourism.1699.
Having critically analysed the sectorial fields, Cazes went on to
deconstruct the concept of mass tourism, seeing it as a myth that
represents the ‘other’ or ‘anti-other,’ a seat of harmful potentialities.
Thus, alternative tourism is in actuality a discourse on difference and
is fundamentally elitist. In fact, it becomes a total subversion of the
dominant models on three levels:
1. Values: the conditions of aspiration and motivations for the
journey.
2. Process: the quality of collaboration and partnership, cooperation and synergy between external operation and local system at different stages of the phenomenon.
3. Forms: social, spatial, ecological, and architectural forms are
all faithful to the guiding principles of integration based on local traditional patterns and workforce.
According to Cazes, there is no perfect example that epitomises
alternative tourism as described above, although the development of
Lower Casamance in Senegal comes close. Further, he admits that
there are dangers in idealising the concept and points to the risks of
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‘ghettoizing’ areas and the ‘museumification’ of sites of interest based
on an elitist interpretation.
The Scope of Ecotourism. By Thomas Carew.
Ecotourism is the sector of the international tourism industry that
has shown the fastest growth since the mid-1990s. The value of this
sector to the economy of a developing country like Ecuador is
significant, but difficult to measure with any precision. According to
the Travel Industry Association of America, 83 per cent of US tourists
are prepared to spend more with environmentally responsible
companies (Szuchman, 2001). Tour operators in South America are
only too ready to add the eco-label to their products to attract tourists
concerned about environmental issues, but in practice few hotels meet
recognized eco-certification standards. There is no generally accepted
definition of ecotourism, but it is more than just naturebased travel,
and most destinations are far from being uninhabited wilderness.
Wherever there are local communities, the indigenous people
should gain longterm economic benefits from such tourism rather than
being excluded, as has too often been the case in the national parks and
game reserves of Africa, for example. Ecotourism should accept the
resource as it is, with the understanding that this may limit the number of
visits over a given period, and promote ethical responsibilities and
behaviour in the actions of all those involved. If we apply ecotourism to
Leiper´s model of a tourism system, the touristgenerating area – for
example, the UK – has a deficit of wildlife resources and accounts for
much of the demand, whereas Ecuador has an abundant supply,
including many unique species of plants and animals. 1548.
In the generating area the ecotourist will be motivated by attitudes
of ‘responsible consumption’ towards nature-based products and will
be educated to an above-average level. Many individual tourists will
be far from wealthy (although they may be perceived as such by the
host community), and for them it is likely to be the ‘holiday of a
lifetime’, involving months of preparation – the anticipation phase of
the trip – as well as recollection of the experience to other potential
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tourists long after their return to their country of origin. In the
destination area, nature will be the main attraction, while the ancillary
services (accommodation, catering and guiding) should be well
managed and ‘environmentally friendly’. Participation in a learning
experience is the primary objective of the trip, while shopping, nighttime entertainment and recreation facilities are of less concern than is
the case for other types of tourism. In the transit zone, where the
tourists’ journeys take place, the ecotourist would ideally seek locally
owned transport operators and non-polluting modes of transport. This
might be an option for internal travel, from, say, the tourist’s base on
arrival in the destination country to the national park or other
protected areas that are to be visited.
APPENDIX
ГЛОССАРИЙ
a few
несколько
a great deal of
много
a little
немного
a lot of
много
a number of
несколько; ряд
a. m. (ante meridiem)
(во столько-то часов) до полудня
about
около, приблизительно
above
выше, над, сверх, вышеописанный
according to
согласно
accordingly
таким образом, соответственно, поэтому
account for
отвечать, объяснить
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acutely adv.
остро, резко
advance v.
выдвигать, вносить
aforementioned
вышеупомянутый
after a while
через некоторое время
after the manner
по способу
again
снова, опять
against
против, к
agenda n.
план, программа, повестка дня
ahead of time
заблаговременно
alarmed by
обеспокоенный
all at once
неожиданно
allegiance n.
верность, преданность, лояльность
along with
одновременно; наряду; вместе с
amendment n.
исправление, корректирование, поправка
and in particular
и в частности
and so forth,
and so on
и так далее
and the like
и тому подобное
anticipate v.
предвидеть, предугадывать
any longer
уже; больше не
apart
на расстоянии; врозь
apart from
помимо; кроме
apparent a.
вероятный, видимый, очевидный
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appeal v.
привлекать, притягивать; влечь, нравиться
applicable a.
применимый, подходящий, пригодный
applied а.
прикладной
approve v.
оценка, понимание, восприятие, признательность
одобрять, утверждать
aptitude n.
способность, склонность к чему-либо
argue in favor of
приводить доводы в пользу
as
как; так как; когда; тогда когда; по мере того
как; в качестве
appreciation n.
as a matter of fact
на самом деле; фактически, собственно
говоря
as a result
в результате
as a rule
как правило
as a whole
в целом
as an alternative
вместо
as appropriate
соответственно
as close as possible
как можно точнее
as compared with
по сравнению
as early as
уже; еще
as far as ... is concerned что касается
as for
что касается; относительно; вплоть до
as high as
так же высоко, как
as if
как будто
as in the case
как в случае с; как обстоит дело
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as long as
поскольку; до тех пор, пока
as many as as much as
сколько; столько ... сколько; в количестве
as regards
что касается
as short as possible
как можно короче
as soon as
как только
as soon as possible
как можно скорее
as to
что касается
as well
также
as well as
так же как; а также и
as yet
до сих пор
as ... as
так же, как и
aside from
помимо; кроме
assess v.
оценивать, определять величину
assessment n.
оценка
at
при; в, на
at a glance
сразу; с первого взгляда
at a time
одновременно
at all
вообще; совсем
at all events
при всех условиях; во всяком случае
at any rate
по крайней мере; во всяком случае
at first
сначала
at first glance
на первый взгляд
at issue
рассматриваемый
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at last
наконец
at least
по крайней мере
at once
тут же; сразу же
at present
в настоящее время
at random
наугад; произвольно
at the cost
за счет
at the request
по просьбе
at the same time
в то же самое время
at will
по желанию; произвольно
attempt n.
попытка
authoritative a.
влиятельный,
властный
available a.
доступный, имеющийся в наличии
aware of
отдавая себе отчет
back and forth
взад и вперед
be alike
быть похожим
be concerned with
касаться; иметь дело
be due to
обусловливаться
be like
быть подобным
be likely
вероятно
be of (no)use
быть (бес)полезным
be of the opinion
выражать мнение
be responsible for
объяснять; являться причиной
bear in mind
иметь в виду; помнить
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надежный,
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bearing in mind
принимая во внимание, учитывая
because
потому что; так как
because of
вследствие; из-за; по причине
become effective
входить в силу
before long
вскоре; скоро
besides
кроме того; помимо
beyond
вне; выше, сверх
beyond doubt
несомненно
beyond question
вне сомнения
biased a.
необъективный, тенденциозный,
пристрастный
both
оба
both ... and
как ..., так и; и ... и
brainstorm v.
искать решение какой-либо задачи с помощью техники «мозгового штурма»
briefing n.
информационное сообщение, инструктаж
browse v.
пролистать, проглядеть; небрежно рассматривать
but
кроме; но; только
but for
если бы не
by all means
непременно; обязательно
by chance
случайно
by correspondence
путем переписки
by far
непосредственно; немного
by hand
вручную
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by means of
при помощи; посредством; путем
by no means
никоим образом; ни в коем случае
by reason of
вследствие; из-за
by reference to
ссылаясь на; относительно; что касается
by some means
or other
тем или иным способом
by the way
между прочим
by then
к тому времени
by turns
по очереди
by virtue of
в силу; благодаря; посредством
by way of
посредством; с целью
capture v.
завладеть, захватить, увлечь; завоевать
case study n.
метод изучения конкретных ситуаций
cater v.
обеспечивать, обслуживать, угождать
challenge v.
оспаривать, ставить под сомнение
chi square n.
хи-квадрат
clarify v.
пролить свет на, выяснить, сделать ясным
coherent a.
логически последовательный,
согласованный
cohesive a.
связный
collation n.
сравнение, сопоставление
come to term with
прийти к соглашению с кем-либо
commence on v.
приступать к чему-либо, начинать
commitment n.
приверженность, взгляды, обязательства
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compatible with
совместимый
compilation n.
компиляция, объединение, составление
compile v.
собирать, компилировать, составлять
complain v.
жаловаться
complete v.
завершать, закачивать, заполнять (анкету)
complexity n.
сложность, трудность
conceal v.
скрывать, утаивать, умалчивать
concerned at
озабоченный
concerning
относительно
conform with
соответствовать
confrontation n.
противостояние, противоречие
consequently
поэтому; следовательно
consideration should be
следует обратить внимание на
given to
considered а.
продуманный, обоснованный
considered а.
обоснованный, продуманный
consistent a.
совместимый, согласующийся,
непротиворечивый
constitutive а.
образующий, конструктивный
constraint n.
ограничение, ограничивающее условие
contradict v.
противоречить, отрицать
controversy n
разногласие
convincing a.
убедительный, доказательный
cover v.
покрывать, включать, содержать,
охватывать, ос вещать (в печати)
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cross-sectional a.
поперечно-рассеченный, поперечный
currently adv.
в настоящее время, теперь
deal with
иметь дело; рассматривать
dealership n.
фирма, продающая товар
для данного предприятия
death penalty n.
смертный приговор
deduce v.
выводить, сделать вывод, прийти
к заключению
depending on
зависящий; в зависимости от
despite
несмотря на
deviate v.
отклонять, вызывать отклонение,
менять направление
disappointed f.
разочарованный, обескураженный
discredit v.
опровергнуть, показать несостоятельность
disputation n.
спор, дискуссия
distinct а.
отдельный, отчетливый, особый
distinguish v.
различать, проводить различие
down to
вплоть до
draw out v.
набрасывать, составлять (документ),
извлекать
due
должный; надлежащий
due to
вследствие; по причине; благодаря:
из-за: в силу
either
любой, каждый (из двух)
either ... or
или ... или, либо ... либо
elaborate v.
разрабатывать, обдумывать, конкретизировать
emanate v.
происходить, исходить, истекать
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embark v.
начинать, приступать
emergence n.
выход; появление
emphasise v.
подчеркивать, придавать особое значение,
делать особое ударение (на слове, факте)
emphasizing
подчеркивая
end to end
непрерывный
enhance v.
увеличивать, усиливать, улучшать,
повышать
entry into force
вступление в силу
estimate v.
оценивать, приблизительно подсчитывать
evaluate v.
оценивать; давать оценку; составлять
мнение; определять качество
even
даже, ровный, четный
even if
если даже
evenly adv.
равномерно
eventual а.
конечный, окончательный
ever since
с того времени, с тех пор
every bit
во всех отношениях, во всяком случае
every now and then
то и дело, время от времени
every so often
время от времени
evidence n.
признак, симптом; факты, данные;
доказательство, подтверждение, свидетельство
except
кроме, кроме как
except for
за исключением, кроме
except that
кроме того, что; за исключением того, что
exceptionally
в виде исключения
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exclusive of
не считая, исключая
exercise v.
использовать, осуществлять, упражнять(ся)
experience v.
испытывать
explicit a.
явный, точный, ясный
exploratory a.
исследующий; исследовательский
external adj.
внешний, наружный, поверхностный
facilitate v.
облегчать, содействовать,
способствовать, помогать
far less
гораздо меньше
far more
значительно больше
fault n.
feature v.
дефект, ошибка, неисправность,
повреждение
являться характерной чертой, отличительным
признаком; отличать, характеризовать
few
мало
figure of merit
коэффициент качества
find out v.
выяснить, разузнать, добраться до истины
first
первый, сначала, во-первых
first of all
прежде всего
first rate
первоклассный
for
для, за, в течение, так как
for all that
несмотря на все то
for consideration
для рассмотрения
for example
например
for instance
например
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for lack of
из-за отсутствия
for once
на этот раз, в виде исключения
for preference
предпочтительно
for short
короче, для краткости
for that purpose
для этой цели
for the first time
впервые
for the rest
в остальном
for the sake of
ради, во имя
for the time being
на время, пока
for this reason
по этой причине
for want of
из-за недостатка
forceful a.
убедительный, сильный, влиятельный
foresee v.
предвидеть
forever
навсегда, вечно
former
первый
frame n.
строение, структура, схема, система
frame v.
создавать, вырабатывать, составлять
from time to time
время от времени
further
дальше, еще, следующий, кроме того
further on
дальше
furthermore
более того
general
общий, главный
generally speaking
вообще говоря
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get rid of
освобождаться от
give rise to
вызывать, иметь результатом
go into operation
вступать в действие
grab v.
завладевать, захватывать
greatly
очень, в значительной степени
half and half
пополам
half as much
в два раза меньше
hatchback n.
автомобиль с открывающейся вверх
задней дверью
have nothing to do with не касаться; не иметь никакого отношения
having considered
приняв во внимание
having endorsed
одобрив
having examined
рассмотрев
having expressed
выразив
having regard to
принимая во внимание
having taken note
приняв к сведению
hence
следовательно
hereafter
в будущем
hereat
при этом
herein
в этом; здесь
hereinafter
ниже; в дальнейшем
hereof
отсюда; из этого
hereto
к этому
hereupon
вслед за этим; после этого
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herewith
посредством этого; настоящим
hierarchy n.
иерархия
highly
весьма
histogram n.
гистограмма (графическое представление статистических данных),
столбиковая диаграмма
however
однако
humility n.
сдержанность, умеренность, скромность
if any
если таковые вообще встречаются
if at all
если это вообще будет
if ever
если когда-либо это бывает
if everything
если что-либо и бывает
if only
если бы только
impact n.
влияние, воздействие, удар
implicitly adv.
неявно, имплицитно; полностью, всецело
in accordance with
в соответствии с;согласно
in addition to
кроме того; в дополнение к
in advance
заранее; вперед
in any event
так или иначе; в любом случае
in behalf of
для; ради
in case
в случае, если
in certain respect
в некотором отношении
in common with
совместно
in comparison to (with)
по сравнению с
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in compliance with
в соответствии с
in conformity with
в соответствии с
in conjunction with
в связи с
in connection with
в связи с
in consequence of
в результате; вследствие
in contrast
в противоположность (этому)
in detail
подробно
in due time
в свое время
in effect
в действительности; в сущности
in evidence
заметный
in excess of
больше, чем
in fact
действительно; на самом деле
in favour (of)
в пользу
in force
(находиться) в силе
in front of
перед; впереди
in general
вообще
in honour of
в честь кого-либо
in its entirety
полностью
in its turn
в свою очередь
in line with
в соответствии
in many respects
во многих отношениях
in mind
помнить; иметь в виду
in my eyes
по-моему; на мой взгляд
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in no case
ни в коем случае
in no time
моментально
in order
в порядке; для того, чтобы
in other words
другими словами
in outline
в общих чертах
in part
частично
in particular
в особенности; в частности
in place of
вместо
in point
рассматриваемый
in proportion to
пропорционально
in pursuance of
согласно чему-либо; выполняя что-либо
in quantity
в большом количестве
in question
о котором идет речь; рассматриваемый;
обсуждаемый
in reference to
ссылаясь на; относительно
in regard to
относительно; в отношении
in relation to
относительно
in respect of
что касается; в отношении
in response to
в ответ на
in sequence in series
последовательный, подряд
in short
короче говоря
in spite of
несмотря на
in step
синхронно
in succession
последовательно
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in such a way
таким способом
in terms of
в виде; на основе; в единицах; в выражениях
in the connection with
в связи с этим
in the course of
в процессе; в ходе
in the event of
в случае
in the limit of
в пределах; ограниченно
in the long run
в конце концов
in the main
в основном
in this way
таким образом
in time
вовремя
in turn
в свою очередь; по очереди
in use
используемый
in view of
ввиду; принимая во внимание; с целью
in virtue of
посредством; благодаря
inasmuch
ввиду того, что
incessantly adv.
непрерывно, постоянно, бесконечно
incidence n.
сфера действия, охват,
степень; процент, доля
indent v.
делать абзац, отступ
index n.
inherent а.
указатель (предметный, алфавитный),
каталог; показатель, признак, индекс
свойственный, присущий, собственный,
неотделимый, неотъемлемый, связанный
inquire into v.
исследовать, выяснять, разузнавать
inquiry n.
исследование, изучение
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instead of
вместо того, чтобы
intelligence gathering n. сбор сведений
intermediate а.
промежуточный, переходный; средний,
занимающий промежуточное положение
irrespective of
безотносительно
it follows
отсюда (следует)
it goes without saying
само собой разумеется
it is high time
давно пора
it is necessary
необходимо
it is no wonder
неудивительно
it is of interest
интересно
it is safe to say
можно с уверенностью сказать
it is to be noted
необходимо заметить
it is unlikely
маловероятно
it stands to reason
ясно; очевидно
it will be noted
следует отметить
judgement n.
суждение, утверждение, оценка
just in time
как раз вовремя
just the same
все равно; одно и то же
keep in mind
помнить; иметь в виду
keeping in mind
имея в виду; принимая во внимание
kind of
своего рода
last
последний; прошлый
last but one
предпоследний
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lay out v.
планировать, разбивать, выставлять
least
наименьший; в наименьшей степени;
менее всего
liable
подверженный; подлежащий
like
похожий; одинаковый; подобный
likely
вероятно; вероятный
little
маленький; мало
locate v.
обнаруживать, определять
местонахождение, размещать; классифицировать, систематизировать
longitudinal a.
продольный
make terms with
прийти к соглашению
matter
вопрос; дело
mean
средний; означать
means
средство; означает
meet demand
отвечать требованиям;
удовлетворять нужды
mere а.
простой, не более чем, всего лишь
merely
только; единственно
merit n.
достоинство, положительное качество,
заслуга
messy a.
беспорядочный, безнравственный
minute
мельчайший
minutes n.
протокол
misleading a.
вводящий в заблуждение, обманчивый
more or less
более или менее
much
много
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multiple a.
multiple а.
разнообразный, разнородный;
многочисленный
множественный, многократный,
составной; сложный, со сложной структурой
namely
а именно; то есть
needless to say
нечего и говорить
neglect v.
отрицать, пренебрегать
neither
ни один из
neither ... nor
ни ... ни
nevertheless
тем не менее
newsworthy a.
достойный освещения в печати, важный
no longer
больше не; уже не
no matter (how)
безразлично; независимо от
no sooner... than
едва; как только
no wonder
неудивительно
none the less
нисколько не меньше
not only ... but also
не только ... но также
not so ... as
не такой ... как
notably
исключительно; особенно; весьма
notwithstanding
невзирая на
numerous
многочисленный
occurrence n.
появление, распространение;
случай, событие, явление
of course
конечно
of principle
принципиальный
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of value
ценный
off the point
не по существу
offender n.
правонарушитель
on a par
в среднем; наравне
on account
из-за; вследствие
on behalf of
от имени; во имя
on no account
ни в коем случае
on record
зарегистрированный
on the basis of
на основании; на основе
on the contrary
наоборот; напротив
on the one hand
с одной стороны
on the other hand
с другой стороны
on the part of
со стороны
on the strength of
на основании
on the
that
на том условии, что
understanding
on the whole
в целом
on this evidence
в свете этого
once
как только; после того, как; однажды
once and again
неоднократно
once and for all
раз и навсегда
once more
еще раз
one and the same thing
одно и то же
only
только
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only just
только что
only that
за исключением того, что
or so
кроме; помимо; приблизительно
other than
кроме; помимо
otherwise
иначе
out of date
устаревший
out of place
не на месте
outcome n.
исход, итог, последствие, результат
over
над; через; по
over a period
на протяжении
overlap v.
перекрывать, частично совпадать
overlook v.
не заметить, пропустить, просмотреть
owe v.
быть обязанным, приписывать
(открытие и т. д.)
owing to
из-за; вследствие; благодаря
p. m. (post meridiem)
(во столько-то часов) пополудни
p. p./ per pro./ per prop. по поручению
parsing n.
анализ, грамматический разбор
partially
частично
particular
особый
partly
частично
pay attention
обращать внимание
penal system
система наказания
pending
вплоть до; в ожидании; в течение
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per annum
в год; ежегодно
per day
в день
per mensem
в месяц
per mille
на тысячу
per se
по существу
per unit
на единицу
perceive v.
perceptible a.
воспринимать, понимать,
осознавать; постигать
заметный, ощутимый, понятный,
постижимый
perpetrator n.
преступник, правонарушитель
perspective n.
проекция, вид, ракурс, аспект
pertaining to
относящийся к...
plagiarism n.
плагиат
plausible a.
правдоподобный, приемлемый, вероятный
point of departure
отправная точка
point of interest
интересующий вопрос
practitioner n.
практик, профессионал
predetermined
предопределенный, заранее
установленный
predict v.
предсказывать, пророчить; прогнозировать
predominantly adv.
особенно, преимущественно
presently
теперь; сейчас; вскоре
prevalent а.
превалирующий, преобладающий
prior to
до
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profess v.
заявлять, утверждать, открыто признавать
proposition n.
предложение, утверждение, суждение
propound v.
предлагать на обсуждение
provide
обеспечивать; предусматривать
provide for
обеспечивать
providing
при условии, если
purposive а.
служащий определенной цели, целевой
pursuant to
соответственно; согласно чему-либо
pursue v.
рассматривать, заниматься чем-либо
put into operation,
put into use
ввести в действие
puzzle n.
вопрос, ставящий в тупик; загадка, проблема
qualitative а.
качественный
quantifiable а.
измеримый количественно, поддающийся
количественному определению
quantitative а.
количественный
quite a few
много
quite a number
много; целый ряд
ranking n.
ранжирование, упорядоченность,
упорядочивание
rather
скорее; довольно
rather than
а не; скорее чем
reasoned а.
обоснованный, разумный,
мотивированный
recalling
напоминая; вспоминая
recognizing
признавая
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recognizing and
appreciating
признавая и высоко ценя
reduce v.
сокращать, преобразовывать; приводить к более простому виду, к общему
знаменателю и т. п.
reference n.
ссылка, сноска, отсылка, упоминание, отношение
reflect v.
размышлять, раздумывать
refute v.
опровергать, доказывать ложность
regarding
относительно
regardless
независимо
reject v.
отвергать, отклонять
relative to
относительно; что касается
relevance n.
относимость, значимость, важность,
уместность
relevance tree n.
дерево относительной важности
replication n.
копирование, дублирование,
повторение опыта
resolve further
решать далее
responsive а.
отзывчивый, чуткий, поддающийся
(влиянию)
result from
получаться в результате
result in
review v.
иметь результатом; приводить к;
выражаться в
обозревать, рецензировать,
пересматривать
rigorous а.
доскональный, тщательный; точный
rigorous а.
доскональный, скрупулезный, тщательный
rigour n.
точность, строгость
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roughly
приблизительно; в общих чертах
rule of a thumb
эмпирический метод; приблизительный
same
тот же самый; одинаковый; такой же
say
скажем
scarcely
едва; вряд ли
scatter n., v.
разброс, рассеивание; разбрасывать,
рассеивать
scope n.
область действия, охват, рамки
secondly
во-вторых
seek v.
добиваться, стремиться, искать
set v.
устанавливать
similar to
подобный
since
с; с тех пор, как; так как; поскольку
since then
с тех пор
snapshot n.
so
моментальный снимок,
мгновенная фотография
так; так, что; такой; таким образом;
около этого
so as
так, чтобы
so far
до сих пор; до тех пор, пока
so far as possible
по мере возможности
so long as
поскольку; пока
so that
так, чтобы; при этом
so to say
так сказать
some time or other
когда-нибудь
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somewhat
в некоторой степени
sooner or later
рано или поздно
spark off v.
вызывать, порождать
specify v.
точно определять, устанавливать, уточнять
spring up v.
возникать, появляться
step by step
постепенно
straightforward a.
прямой, непосредственный, простой
subject n.
предмет, тема, субъект
subject to
при условии; если
subject v.
подвергать (воздействию, влиянию и т. п.)
subsequent а.
дальнейший, последующий
succinct а.
краткий, сжатый, лаконичный
such
такой (же)
such as
как например
such is the case
так обстоит дело
such that
такой (такие), что
such ... as
такой ... как
survey n.
опрос, обзор, обозрение
take account of
учитывать; принимать в расчет
take advantage of
воспользоваться; использовать
take all steps
принять все меры
take care of
заботиться
take into account
учитывать; принимать во внимание
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take part
принимать участие
take place
происходить; иметь дело
take precedence of
превосходить; предшествовать;
преобладать
take steps
принимать меры
taken aback а.
захваченный врасплох
tentative а.
предварительный, пробный,
ориентировочный
относящийся к третьему рангу,
классу; третичный
tertiary а.
thanks to
благодаря, вследствие
that is
то есть
that is to say
иными словами
that is why
вот почему
the former
первый (из двух названных)
the latter
последний (из двух названных)
the number of
количество; число
the only
единственный
the same
тот же самый
the two
оба; как тот, так и другой
the very
тот самый; как раз тот
the ... the
чем ... тем
then
тогда; затем
thereby
посредством чего
thereof
об этом; о том; тем самым; из этого;
из того
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these
эти; они; замена существительного
three times as long as
в три раза длиннее
throughout
по всему, повсеместно
thrust n.
суть, сущность, главный вопрос,
главная тема
thus
таким образом
thus far
до сих пор
times
(во столько-то) раз
to a great extent
в значительной степени
to advantage
с успехом; в пользу
to be a success
иметь успех
to be in force
быть в силе
to evolve a plan
наметить план
to some extent
до некоторой степени
to the last
до конца
to this effect
для этой цели; в этом смысле
to this end
с этой целью; для этого
together with
наряду с, вместе с
too
слишком; также
topical а.
актуальный
transcript n.
дубликат, копия, расшифровка
(стенограммы)
trap n.
ловушка
triangulation n.
триангуляция
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turn out
оказываться
twice
дважды
twice as high (as)
в два раза выше (чем)
under
под; при
under consideration
рассматриваемый
under way
в процессе осуществления
undertake v.
предпринимать, совершать
unfairness n.
справедливость
unless
если ... не
unlike
в отличие от; непохожий на; не такой, как
unlikely
маловероятно; едва ли
until
пока не; до тех пор, пока
until then
до того времени
up to
вплоть до
urgency n.
настоятельность, крайняя необходимость
variable n.
переменная (величина)
verify v.
проверять, подтверждать, верифицировать
vice versa
наоборот
wary а.
осторожный
whatever
какой бы ни; любой
whenever
когда бы ни; всякий раз как
whereas
тогда как; в то время как
whereby
тем самым; посредством чего
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wherein
в чем
wherever
whether
whether ... or
где бы ни; куда бы ни
ли
или ... или
while
в то время как; пока
with a view to
с целью; с намерением
with every good wish
с лучшими пожеланиями
with reference to
ссылаясь на, относительно; что касается
with regard to
с намерением, относительно; с учетом
with respect to
по отношению к, относительно
with the exception of
за исключением
within
внутри; в пределах
within a factor often
в пределах одного порядка
within the limits
of the power
в пределах прав
without
без; (так чтобы) не
without question
бесспорно
without reservation
безоговорочно
worth-while
заслуживающий внимания
yet
однако, до сих пор, еще
zero
нуль (главным образом на шкалах)
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БИБЛИОГРАФИЧЕСКИЙ СПИСОК
1. Белякова, Е. И. Английский язык для аспирантов : учебное пособие. – СПб. : Антология, 2007. – 224с.
2. Колодяжная, Ж. А. Основные понятия об аннотировании и реферировании научных документов // Источники науч.-техн. информации и их
аналитико-синтетическая обработка. – М., 2002.
3. Кондратюкова, Л. К. Аннотирование и реферирование английской
научно-технической литературы: учеб. пособие / Кондратюкова Л. К., Ткачева Л. Б. Акулинина Т. В. – Омск : Изд-во ОмГТУ, 2001. – 184 с.
4. Проблемы современной науки: Методические указания. – Волгоград, 1996.
5. Программа по иностранным языкам для вузов неязыковых специальностей. Методические указания к программе. Учебно-методическое
объединение по лингвистическому образованию. М., 1995.
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6. Сафроненко О.И. Английский язык для магистров и аспирантов
естественных факультетов университетов: учеб. пособ. – М. : Высшая
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английскому языку / Славина Г., Харьковский З., Антонова Е. – М. : Высшая школа, 2006.
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Дополнительная литература
1. Learn to Read Science. Курс английского языка для аспирантов :
учеб. пособ. / Руков. Н. И. Шахова. – М. : Флинта: Наука, 2005. – 360 с.
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литературы: Лексико-грамматический справочник / М.Г. Рубцова. – М. :
ООО «Издательство Астрель», 2002. – 384 с.
3. Пумпянский, А. Л. Чтение и перевод английской научной и технической литературы: Лексика, грамматика, фонетика, упражнения. –
Минск : ООО «Попурри», 1997. – 608 с.
Интернет-ресурсы
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http://www.englishforum.com
http://www.alemeln.narod.ru
http://www.eleaston.com
http://www.lessons.ru
http://www.bbc.co.uk
http://www.eslpartyland.com/default.htm
http://www.grammar.ccc.comnet.edu/grammar/index.htm
http://www.esl-lab.com/index.htm
http://www.ucl.ac.uk/internet-grammar/home.htm
http://www. rsf .org
http://www.brianmac.co.uk/ethics.htm
Учебное издание
ОСНОВЫ РЕФЕРИРОВАНИЯ И АННОТИРОВАНИЯ
НАУЧНОЙ АНГЛИЙСКОЙ ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ
Часть 1
Учебно-методическое пособие
Симонова Ксения Юрьевна
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