close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

1446.Учебно-методическое пособие по работе с темой

код для вставкиСкачать
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации
Омский государственный университет им. Ф.М. Достоевского
УДК 20я7
ББК 81.2
У 912
Рекомендовано к изданию редакционно-издательским советом ОмГУ
2 июля 2004 г.
Рецензенты:
канд. филол. наук, доц. ОмА МВД России В.Г. Болотюк;
доц., зав. кафедрой англ. языка ОмГУ О.С. Дворжец
У 912
УЧЕБНО-МЕТОДИЧЕСКОЕ ПОСОБИЕ
ПО РАБОТЕ С ТЕМОЙ
«COUNTRY PROFILE»
Учебно-методическое пособие по работе с темой
«COUNTRY PROFILE» (для студентов гуманитарных специальностей, изучающих английский язык) / Сост. С.А. Дедова. – Омск: Омск. гос. ун-т, 2004. – 100 с.
ISBN 5-7779-0499-8
Предназначено для использования на занятиях по курсу
«Практикум по культуре речи» студентами разных уровней языковой подготовки (среднего и продвинутого). Содержит текстовые материалы страноведческого содержания и упражнения,
обеспечивающие знакомство с особенностями разных стран и совершенствование навыков владения английским языком.
Для студентов старших курсов гуманитарных специальностей,
изучающих английский язык.
(для студентов гуманитарных специальностей,
изучающих английский язык)
УДК 20я7
ББК 81.2
Изд-во
ОмГУ
Омск
2004
1
© Омский госуниверситет, 2004
ISBN 5-7779-0499-8
2
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
CONTENTS
ВВЕДЕНИЕ
ВВЕДЕНИЕ.......................................................................................................4
I. NAMES OF COUNTRIES AND NATIONALITIES ....................................5
II. GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION/ CLIMATE/ WEATHER ..........................11
III. LANGUAGES............................................................................................17
IV. POPULATION...........................................................................................24
V. ETHNIC GROUPS......................................................................................27
VI. RELIGIONS...............................................................................................31
VII. BUSINESS/ INDUSTRY/ AGRICULTURE ...........................................58
VIII. GOVERNMENT TYPE/ POLITICS.......................................................72
IX. INTERESTING FACTS.............................................................................84
Учебно-методическое пособие «Country Рrofile» предназначено
для использования на занятиях по курсу «Практикум по культуре речи» студентами старших курсов гуманитарных специальностей.
Целью издания является развитие навыков устной формы иноязычного общения по заявленной теме. Модель пособия построена на
основе определенных блоков текстов разнообразной тематики, связанной с политикой, экономикой, религией и другими сферами жизни
современных стран. Использован оригинальный материал, интересный
как с точки зрения языка, так и с культурологической точки зрения.
Учебные тексты снабжены разнообразными тренировочными
упражнениями, дотекстовыми и послетекстовыми заданиями творческого характера с выходом в монологическую и диалогическую речь,
а также в практику двустороннего перевода.
Каждый раздел пособия является по-своему автономным и законченным, что позволяет использовать материал книги в любой последовательности и в любом объеме.
3
4
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
I. NAMES OF COUNTRIES AND NATIONALITIES
Quiz
Below is a series of competitions for you to try in groups. Its main
aim is not to test your geography, but to help you study and practise your
English. Only look at the left-hand column. Cover the words on the right.
Try to answer the questions. Then check your answers by looking at the
words in the right-hand column.
1. Which countries have borders with the following groups of countries
given below?
I. Guatemala
El Salvador
Nicaragua
II. Algeria
Niger
Chad
Sudan
Egypt
III. Colombia
Costa Rica
Honduras
Libya
Israeli
Lebanes
Syrian
Turkish
Afghan
Pakistani
Indian
Nepalese
Romanian
Hungarian
Czech (oslovakian)
East German
Zambian
Zairean
Tanzanian
Ugandan
4. Which countries have the currencies listed below? And what nationality are most of the people who have that kind of money in their pockets?
Panama
2. Now the reverse; which countries border those on the left below? And
what nationality are most of the people in them?
Switzerland (five)
Israel
The Lebanon
Syria
Turkey
Afghanistan
Pakistan
2. From Kabul to Katmandu
India
Nepal
Romania
Hungary
Czechoslovakia
3. From Bucharest to Dresden East Germany
Zambia
Zaire
4. From Lusaka to Entebbe
Tanzania
Uganda
1. From Tel Aviv to Ankara
Bolivia (five)
England (two)
rand
South Africa
South African
yen
Japan
Japanese
renminbi
China
Chinese
rial
Iran
Iranian
I. Italy, Liechtenstein, France, Austria, West Germany, Brazil, Peru,
Argentina, Paraguay, Chile, Scotland, Wales.
II. Swiss, Italian, Liechtensteiner, French, Austrian, German, Bolivian, Brazilian, Peruvian, Argentinian, Paraguayan, Chilean, English, Scottish, Welsh.
markka
Finland
Finnish
zloty
Poland
Polish
drachma
Greece
Greek
baht
Thailand
Thai
3. Travelling between the cities below, by the shortest possible land route,
which countries would you pass through? And what nationality of
people would you see most of? Name four countries for each journey.
guilder
Holland
(The Netherlands)
Dutch
5
rouble
Russia
(The Soviet Union)
(The USSR)
6
Russian
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
5. Don't worry if you're finding them difficult; the idea is not to get them
all right. I had the advantage of an atlas and encyclopedia. Which countries have these cities as the capital? And what nationality are most of
the people living in them?
Caracas
Venezuela
Venezuelan
Sofia
Bulgaria
Bulgarian
Nairobi
Kenya
Kenyan
Seoul
South Korea
South Korean
Montevideo
Uruguay
Uruguayan
Lagos
Nigeria
Nigerian
Addis Ababa
Ethiopia
Ethiopian
Amman
Jordan
Jordanian
Harare
Zimbabwe
Zimbabwean
Riyadh
Saudi Arabia
Saudi (Arabian)
Baghdad
Iraq
Iraqi
Reykjavic
Iceland
Icelandic
6. English is an easy language, so mast of the words in the third columns
above, except those ending -ish or -ese can be used as an adjective or
as a noun: She's Italian or She's an Italian – He's Israeli or He's an
Israeli. This is always true of those words ending -an or -i. But there
are some special cases, such as the form a Dutchman, an Irishman, an
Englishmen, a Frenchman, a Welshman. People from Scotland can be
rather complicated. We can call them Scottish or Scotsmen. If you
want to make them angry, you can call them Scotch. Alternatively, we
can say He's (She's) a Scot. Using He's a .., see if you can give the nationality of the following people:
1. Alan Wells, sprinter
2. Lasse Viren, long-distance runner
3. Bjorn Borg, tennis player
4. Hans Christian Andersen, story-teller
5. Lech Walesa, trade union leader
6. Kemal Ataturk, national hero
7. Pablo Picasso, artist
7
a Scot
a Finn
a Swede
a Dane
a Pole
a Turk
a Spaniard
8. Alexander Dubcek, one-time party leader
9. John Walker, middle-distance runner
a Czech
a New Zealander
7. To Finish, a word-association game. What do you think of when you
hear the word Danish? Danish bacon? Danish butter? Danish cheese?
Write or say the word you think, of first to go with each of the words
below. Possible answers are given on the right. See how often you
think of the same word as the one printed in the book.
1. Danish
2. German
3. French
4. Irish
5. Japanese
6. American
7. Greek
8. New Zealand
9. English
10. Russian
11. Argentinian
12. Egyptian
bacon
beer
perfume
whiskey
motor bike
football
islands
butter
weather
dolls
beef
pyramids
8. Read a joke. What other associations do you have in mind about different nationalities?
Paradise is where cooks are French,
Hell is where cooks are British,
Mechanics are German,
Policemen are British,
Lovers are Italian,
and it is all organized by the Swiss.
policemen are German,
lovers are Swiss,
mechanics are French,
and it is all organized by Italians.
9. Fill in the gaps using the following adjectives: American, French,
German, Greek, Russian, Japanese, English, Irish, Dutch, Chinese,
Swiss:
take ____leave to leave your job without permission
_____ bean a bean with a long green case that is picked when it is young
and soft
_____ polish a clear liquid put on wooden furniture to protect it and make
it shine
8
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
_____ windows a pair of light doors made of glass in a frame, usually
opening out on to a garden or balcony
go _____ (with sb) to share the cost of a meal in a restaurant
talk (to sb) like a ______ uncle to tell someone severely that you
disapprove of what they have done
_____ auction a public sale at which the price is gradually reduced until
someone will pay it
_____ fry a long thin piece of potato cooked in fat
_____ loaf a long thin white loaf of bread
_____ dressing a mixture of oil and vinegar that is put on raw vegetables
_____ breakfast BrE a large cooked breakfast consisting of bacon, eggs,
toast1
_____ muffin AmE a round flat piece of bread that you toast before eating
it
_____ toast pieces of bread put into a mixture of egg and milk and then
cooked in hot oil
_____ god informal a very attractive man
_____ chequers a game in which you move small balls from hole to hole
on a board in the shape of a star
_____ bread white bread in the shape of a thick stick
_____ roulette a game in which you risk killing yourself by shooting at
your head with a gun that has a bullet in only one of six chambers
_____ lantern a paper decoration, usually with a light inside
_____ roll BrE a long thin cake that is rolled up with jam1 (1) or cream
inside
_____ whispers the passing of information from one person to another, and
then others, when the information gets slightly changed each time
_____ football BrE a game played by two teams of eleven players, who
carry, throw, or kick an oval (=egg shaped) ball
_____ coffee coffee with cream and whisky added
_____ Setter a type of large dog with long hair
_____ steak AmE a thick flat piece of beef covered in flour and cooked in
a sauce
_____ leaves a type of cabbage eaten especially in East Asia
_____ measles an infectious disease that causes red spots on your body,
and can damage an unborn child; rubella
_____ courage courage or confidence that you get when you drink alcohol
_____ medicine a kind of medicine that uses herbs (=dried plants) and
acupuncture
_____ shepherd a large dog rather like a wolf that is often used by the police, for guarding property etc; alsatian BrE
_____ stew a dish of meat, potatoes, and onions boiled together
_____ fire drill AmE informal a very confusing situation
9
10
10. Name the countries that are most preferable for visiting:
a) for economic cooperation with Russia
b) to emigrate to
c) to start business.
Prove your choice.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
II. GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION/ CLIMATE/ WEATHER
1. There follows a selection of words describing a range of geographical
features.
Read each set of notes and see if you can guess which country is being
described. The answers are given below.
1) a peninsula bounded by a large mountain range in the North –
a wide plateau extending to the ocean in the South – unpredictable
monsoon climate – population (approximately 720,000,000) concentrated
in the northern plains;
2) enormous forest areas in the interior – coastal mountains in the
West – numerous islands off the north coast – lowlands in the North –
continental climate, severe inland, more moderate by the sea – total
area: 3,851309 square miles;
3) a wide variety of land and climate – a huge river basin in the
North – thickly forested – a vast plateau in the South – densely populated
in coastal belt to the East – relatively underdeveloped in central areas
beyond the highlands in the South-East – lies on the Equator;
4) consists of four main islands – mountainous and hilly – many
active volcanoes – subject to earthquakes, typhoons and tidal waves –
extends through many degrees of latitude – the climate, therefore, is very
diverse;
5) located round the mouth of the Rhine and opposite the Thames
estuary – a long coastline – most of the country flat and low-lying – large
areas in the West and North below sea level – subject to floods – complex
network of canals;
6) mountainous with numerous lakes – varied climate according to
altitude, ranging from tropical to temperate to cold – highest point over
18,000 feet (nearly 6,000 metres) – desert in the West – half of the country lies inside the Tropic of Cancer;
7) to the North the southern slopes of a gigantic mountain chaintropical forests and jungle – highest peak 8,845 metres – fertile valleys
for agriculture in central zone;
8) most highly developed country in its continent – rich in mineral
deposits and other natural resources – large industrialised urban areas
round coasts – rural in the interior – rich vegetation, good irrigation;
11
Answers: 1. India, 2. Canada, 3. Brazil, 4. Japan, 5. Holland, 6. Mexico,
7. Nepal, 8. South Africa.
Note the following rather tricky uses of the words north, south, east, west
and the more general terms northern, southern, eastern, and western.
The South of France
South Africa (a country)
The North Pole
West Berlin
East Germany
South-East Asia
South America
South / North Korea
the south bank of the river
southern France
southern Africa (a region)
the southern hemisphere
western Europe
eastern culture
southern Europe
the southern States of America
Northern Ireland
Eastern block countries
2. Make or find an outline map of your country or a country you know
well and describe its physical geography, drawing in the key features.
3. Write or discuss the answers to the following questions.
a) Which country or countries might you choose to live in if you had
to emigrate? Give the reasons for your choice.
b) What influence can a country’s physical geography have on the
lifestyle? Standard of living and quality of life of the population?
c) Write out a page or two from the diary you kept during your traveling.
4. Study the picture (p. 12). What kind of weather is usual in the region
you live in? Is there any type of weather you have never experienced?
What are abnormal weather conditions that usually happen on different continents?
12
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
of mid-Wales’ lakes and the south’s lush valleys. With three stunning National Parks and over 750 miles of coast, Wales is an exhilarating choice
for activities.
Walk long distance paths like Offa's Dyke, the centuries-old border
with England; scale the heights of Cader Idris (home of a mythical giant!);
cycle along country lanes, golf, and fish or indulge in watersports along
some of the best beaches in Europe. Or simply get away from it all on
Pembrokeshire’s wide golden sands and finish off with a traditional tea of
Welsh cakes in picture-postcard Tenby.
The history and myths of one of the world's oldest civilisations have
created an unforgettable range of sights to explore: ancient burial chambers, Roman forts and more than 400 castles, including World Heritage
sites at Conwy and Harlech. Follow legendary King Arthur to Caerleon
Amphitheatre, Merlin the magician to Carmarthen and relish Wales' rich
culture in museums and galleries everywhere.
Charming market towns and quaint villages pepper the countryside,
while cities like Swansea and the capital, Cardiff, are vibrantly cosmopolitan and forward-looking, with a fabulous collection of Impressionist paintings at the National Museum and Gallery of Wales.
Visit the official website of the Wales Tourist Board at www.visitwales.com. Using this text as a model write down a similar one about the
place you know well.
6. Render the text into English.
Wales captivates visitors with its rich character and landscapes. The
Welsh speak their own Celtic language as well as English and have their
own culture, poetry and song, which they celebrate in concerts and unique
summer festivals known as 'eisteddfodau'.
Renowned as Britain's 'Great Outdoors', breathe the fresh air of
Snowdonia’s magnificent mountains in the north or discover the tranquility
В Перу и сегодня можно сделать столько поразительных открытий, что невольно проникаешься магией неповторимости этого удивительного края, который в старину так манил к себе авантюристов всех
мастей.
Эта страна – одна из самых экзотических на земле. За сотни лет
местные жители внешне практически не изменились. По количеству
исторических памятников, разнообразию природы Перу занимает чуть
ли не первое место в мире. Неудивительно, что многие богатые американцы и европейцы платят большие деньги, чтобы окунуться в атмосферу тайны, коей окутана вся стране. И, безусловно, делают это не
зря. Но, как говорится, не только они лыком шиты...
Знаете, с чего начинается Перу для перуанца? Оказывается, тоже с картинки в букваре. Но это был не мой случай. Свое знакомство с
Перу я начал с восемнадцати миллионного латиноамериканского мегаполиса – Лимы – столицы Перу. Основана Лима в 1535 г. испанским
конкистадором Франциско Писарро.
13
14
5. Read the text and say where you can come across with a text of this
kind?
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Неприветливой поначалу показались мне Лима: дожди редки,
оттого, наверное, и чувствуешь себя словно кузнечик на сковороде.
Зато землетрясения, если и прекращаются, то только потому, что и
вулканам нужен отдых. Зимой солнца не разглядеть из-за смога и вечно серых облаков, затягивающих небо сплошной мрачной пеленой. А
еще туманы, туманы…
Но завоевателям, в отличие от меня, это место пришлось по
нраву. И не случайно – при нападении индейцев отсюда легко можно
было выйти к морю и спрятаться на корабле. Мало кто из тогдашних
сорвиголов мог предположить, что открытая равнина станет местом
рождения политического и военного центра Нового Света. Затем переживет правление аж сорока вице-королей, прежде чем в 1821 г. Лима будет объявлена столицей независимого Перу.
Приблизительный маршрут путешествия (включая сплав по притокам реки Амазонки) готовился заранее – в Москве. А дальше, как
только я сошел с трапа и ступил на землю инков, начался экспромт.
Лима явилась передо мной во всей красе и многообразии. Европейского вида деловые костюмы перемежались с вычурными народными
перуанскими нарядами – в общем, настоящий винегрет стилей. Перед
глазами, словно в калейдоскопе, чередовались то трухлявые и побитые временем сараи, то ультрасовременные деловые центры, то поражающие своим изяществом памятники архитектуры колониального
периода. И вокруг – настоящее пальмовое безумие.
lar north; winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia;
summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic coast
Terrain: broad plain with low hills west of Urals; vast coniferous forest and
tundra in Siberia; uplands and mountains along southern border regions
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caspian Sea – 28 m, highest point: Gora
El'brus 5,633 m
Natural resources: wide natural resource base including major deposits of
oil, natural gas, coal, and many strategic minerals, timber
Natural hazards: permafrost over much of Siberia is a major impediment to
development; volcanic activity in the Kuril Islands; volcanoes and earthquakes on the Kamchatka Peninsula
Environment – current issues: air pollution from heavy industry, emissions
of coal-fired electric plants, and transportation in major cities; industrial,
municipal, and agricultural pollution of inland waterways and sea coasts;
deforestation; soil erosion; soil contamination from improper application of
agricultural chemicals; scattered areas of sometimes intense radioactive
contamination; ground water contamination from toxic waste
Geography – note: largest country in the world in terms of area but unfavorably located in relation to major sea lanes of the world; despite its size,
much of the country lacks proper soils and climates (either too cold or too
dry) for agriculture
Speak about advantages and disadvantages of Russia’s geographic
position.
7. Look through the chart concerning Russia’s geography and prepare
an overview of Russia’s geographical position using the map.
8. Read a short text about international disputes of Russia. What are
their reasons and what solutions can you suggest?
Location: Northern Asia (that part west of the Urals is sometimes included
with Europe), bordering the Arctic Ocean, between Europe and the North
Pacific Ocean
Area: total: 17,075,200 sq km, land: 16,995,800 sq km, water: 79,400 sq km
Land boundaries: total: 19,961 km; border countries: Azerbaijan 284 km,
Belarus 959 km, China (southeast) 3,605 km, China (south) 40 km, Estonia
294 km, Finland 1,313 km, Georgia 723 km, Kazakhstan 6,846 km, North
Korea 19 km, Latvia 217 km, Lithuania (Kaliningrad Oblast) 227 km,
Mongolia 3,485 km, Norway 167 km, Poland (Kaliningrad Oblast) 206 km,
Ukraine 1,576 km
Coastline: 37,653 km
Climate: ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in
much of European Russia; subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the po-
Dispute over at least two small sections of the boundary with China remains to be settled, despite 1997 boundary agreement; islands of Etorofu,
Kunashiri, and Shikotan and the Habomai group occupied by the Soviet
Union in 1945, now administered by Russia, claimed by Japan; Caspian
Sea boundaries are not yet determined among Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkmenistan; Estonian and Russian negotiators reached
a technical border agreement in December 1996, which has not been signed
or ratified by Russia as of February 2001; draft treaty delimiting the
boundary with Latvia has not been signed; 1997 border agreement with
Lithuania not yet ratified; has made no territorial claim in Antarctica (but
has reserved the right to do so) and does not recognize the claims of any
other nation; Svalbard is the focus of a maritime boundary dispute between
Norway and Russia.
15
16
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
III. LANGUAGES
1. Before reading the text try to explain the meaning of the title.
ENGLISH AS AN ASIAN LANGUAGE
It is impossible to identify and isolate an «English» culture that is
common to all speakers of English. The cultures represented by Nigerian,
Singaporean, Indian, Scottish, Filipino or Australian Aboriginal English are
all very different. So, while a language must be linked to a culture, a language is not inextricably tied to one specific culture. Specific cultural identities can be represented by new varieties of English.
In East and Southeast Asia English plays a major role in the region
as a lingua franca of the political elite and the Association of Southeast
Asian Nations. It is also used as a lingua franca between professionals and
the business community.
But what variety of English will serve as the region's lingua franca?
I suggest that a variety which reflects local cultural conventions and pragmatic norms is developing to serve this role. I further suggest that it is this
regional variety that will be taught in schools, rather than an external «native speaker» variety.
The vast majority of people who are learning English are doing so to
be able to use this lingua franca. They are not learning English with the
express purpose of communicating with native speakers of English. English
is being used by non-native speakers with other non-native speakers. The
English that they use need not therefore reflect any «Anglo» cultural values. This emerging role of English was identified by Gordon Wu of Hong
Kong's Hopewell Holdings, who told the Far Eastern Economic Review:
«English is no longer some colonial language. It is the means [by which]
we in Asia communicate with the world and one another».
So regional users of English who are learning English in order to
speak to Thais, Koreans, Vietnamese or Japanese do not need teaching materials that promote or discuss «Anglo» cultures. What they need are materials that provide some knowledge of the culture of the people they are
dealing with. They also need to be aware of their own cultural norms. The
cultural values and daily lives of the people in the region who are using
English as a regional lingua franca become more important than the cultural values associated with native speakers.
This has important implications for English language teaching in the
region's schools. It is a regional variety of English, not an external model
17
that needs to be promoted, because it is a regional variety of English that
people in the region will want to use. People will be able to maintain their
identity while speaking their variety of English. As Tommy Koh, a senior
minister in the Singapore government, put it recently, «When I speak English I want the world to know I'm a Singaporean».
The curriculum of a new variety of English should reflect the lives,
cultures and values of the learners. Speakers of this new variety will want
to preserve their identity by reflecting that identity in the local variety of
English they use.
English language teaching materials are needed that promote the local or regional variety and represent the cultures of the speakers of these
newly developing varieties. These materials also need to contrast regional
cultures, so making the English language curriculum more a curriculum of
regional cultures.
This will not only liberate generations of Asian children who have
had to learn how to ask what time the next train to Liverpool Street leaves,
but will also alter the nature of what represents an authentic text. Japan's
current English teaching goals are that learners should become American
English speakers. This is unrealistic and damaging to the cause of ELT.
Students are fearful of speaking, because they falsely consider themselves
to be poor speakers unless they sound like Americans. However, if students
were given a regional variety of English to learn, educated speakers of the
regional variety could provide the models. Suitably qualified and trained
speakers of the regional variety could be the teachers. External models
could, of course, be introduced into the classroom, but as examples of external models, not as the model that the learners are expected to acquire.
More research into the development of varieties of English is urgently needed. In particular we need to know what cultural and discourse
conventions are being reflected in these new varieties. For example, are
compliments being given and received, or requests made, following local
cultural values, or following «Anglo» values? Are topics in conversation
being broached directly or indirectly? The worldwide domination of an
«Anglo» variety of English is not inevitable.
A regional variety of English can reflect local or regional cultures.
Governments need not fear that the learning of English will necessarily
imbue the learners with inappropriate cultural values or ways of thinking.
The best option for regional governments is to promote local varieties of
English. Instead of spending large sums of money on importing nativespeaking teachers and externally developed materials, funding should be
18
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
set aside for the professional development of local teachers and for the development of developing regionally appropriate ELT curricula.
I. Make a list of items discussed in the text.
II. Do you agree that specific cultural identities can be represented
by new varieties of English?
III. What is a lingua franca?
IV. What is your opinion concerning the matter that various regional varieties of English might be taught in schools, rather than an external «native speaker» variety?
V. What is the aim of learning foreign language in the author’s and
your viewpoint?
VI. Should a non-native English speaker stick to «Anglo» values
when speaking English? Why / why not?
VII. Render the text.
2. Read the article and formulate what a Canadian’s language problems
are.
A CANADIAN'S LANGUAGE PROBLEMS
«Perplexed» is the word which best describes the scale of the Canadian in Britain. As a Canadian staying in London, I'm only too aware of
this state of perplexity. A Canadian is neither one thing nor the other. The
English, for instance, think he is an American, while the Americans think
he is English. He himself is confused and uncertain, and nowhere is this
more evident than in his speech. He has been brought up to speak English
with an American accent, but at the same time, he has been taught to admire the way English is spoken in England. In other words, he's torn between the way be speaks English and the way he thinks English should be
spoken. And this conflict makes him wonder who and what he is.
Is there anything more galling for a Canadian than to be introduced
as «from America» at an English party, or to be asked «What part of the
States do you come from?» So Canadians abroad festoon themselves with
flags and maple leaves in the hope of preventing the inevitable misinterpretation of their accent.
The problem is more acute for the Canadian living in Britain. Daily
he is faced with decisions which call his speech and his identity into question.
19
Do I buy my groceries in a store as I would at home or in a shop as
the English do? Do I ask for a package of cookies like the Americans or a
packet of biscuits like the English? Do I eat candies or sweets when I am
hungry? It's like trying to speak another language. Of course the English
often help him out, so that when he asks for a can of corn, they reply, «Oh,
you mean a tin of sweet-corn».
And what does he say if he steps on someone's toe? Now if an Englishman steps on your toe, he says «Sorry», I'd say «Excuse me». If he
doesn't understand you and wants you to repeat what you've said (which
often happens when he's speaking to North Americans), he still says
«Sorry». I'd say «I beg your pardon». The English, in fact, say «Sorry» at
every opportunity. Yet, they say absolutely nothing in reply to «Thank
you» whereas North Americans always reply «You arc welcome».
What does it matter which word you use as long as your meaning is
clear? I reply that it does matter, if you are in London.
Such decisions have far-reaching consequences. You have to decide
whether to maintain your own accent and vocabulary in the face of the way
the English speak, or to abandon your own language, the very words you
learned at your mother's knee.
Some Canadians completely collapse under the strain. One Canadian
friend who become fed up with being mistaken for an American, feeling
inferior to the English, and weighing up every word he spoke, decided to
opt wholeheartedly for an English accent. He hoped that this would put an
end to his perplexity. He learned to say «Sorry» for everything and to call a
cookie a biscuit. But even he was defeated in the end. Once, when an old
lady asked him to help her across the street, he uttered the single word
«Sure». «Oh», said the Englishwoman, «surely you’re from America».
I. Why do you think Canadians are so worried being wrongly identified?
II. Match the following words to the definitions: uncertain, confused,
strain, perplexed.
a. unable to understand clearly what someone is saying or what is
happening
b. confused and worried by something that you do not understand
c. showing the effects of worry or too much work
d. not sure or feeling doubt
III. What language peculiarities can show a Canadian up?
20
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
3. Read the article and put the passages into the correct order.
4. Read and render the text. Can you give examples that can prove other
languages you know being «crazy» as well?
FUTURE OF AFRIKANERS' LANGUAGE IN DOUBT
By Pant Taylor «The Washington post»
OUR CRAZY LANGUAGE
Bу Richard Lederer
1) After the election South Africa became a country with 11 official
languages, spoken by the nine different groups of South Africa's 30 million
blacks. The language bargain struck by the drafted of South Africa's new
constitution, approved by the white-minority parliament assures that no
language will suffer a diminution of status in the post-apartheid era.
2) The answer is almost certainly yes. But the question is more interesting for it illustrates how touchy Afrikaners are these days about their
language – an Africanized derivative from Dutch as it was spoken in the
17th century, when South Africa's earliest – and mostly Dutch – white settlers arrived.
3) CAPE TOWN – The Afrikaans language survived British colonization. It seems likely to survive black liberation. Question is can it survive
de-Coca-Colaization?
4) That means that Afrikaans and English are supposed to remain the
languages of record in high functions of the new national government, such
as courts and legislative records. The worry among Afrikaners is that over
time, these agreements won't he fully honored.
5) They fear that the 11-language policy will turn out to be a backhanded ploy to reduce Afrikaans to just another regional tongue. Although
many Afrikaners fear their language will wither away if it becomes one
among 11 equals, some think that is the way to guarantee it thrives – by
depoliticizing the issue.
6) Afrikaans-speakers comprise about 3 million whites and 3 million
mixed-race Coloreds in a nation of 38 million. South Africa's other 2 million whites, of British descent, speak English, South Africa's other official
language.
I. What is the main idea of the article?
II. Why do the governments in every country try to protect their
language? Why is it important?
III. Is the language problem connected with the issue of the world as
«a global village»?
21
English is the most widely used language in the history of our
planet. One in every seven human beings can speak it. More than half of
the world's books and three quarters of international mail are in English. Of
all languages, English has the largest vocabulary – perhaps as many as two
million words – and one of the noblest bodies of literature.
Nonetheless, let's face it: English is a crazy language. There is no
egg in eggplant, neither pine nor apple in pineapple and no ham in a hamburger. English muffins weren't invented in England, or French fries in
France. Sweetmeats are candy, while sweetbreads, which aren't sweet, are
meat.
We take English for granted. But when exploring its paradoxes, we
find that quicksand can work slowly, boxing rings are square, public bathrooms have no baths and a guinea pig is not a pig or from Guinea.
And why is it that a writer writes, but fingers don't fing, grocers
don't groce, humdingers don't hum and hammers don't ham? If the plural of
tooth is teeth, shouldn't the plural of booth be beeth? One goose, two geese
– so one mооsе, two meese? One index, two indices – one Kleenex, two
Kleenices?
Doesn't it seem loopy that you can make amends but not just one
amend, that we comb through the annals of history, but not just one annal?
If you have a bunch of odds and ends and you get rid of all but one of them,
what do you call it?
If the teacher taught, why isn't it true that the preacher praught? If a
horsehair mat is made from the hair of horses and a camel’s-hair coat from
the hair of camels, from what is a mohair coal made? If you wrote a letter,
perhaps you also bote your tongue?
Sometimes I wonder if all English speakers should be committed to
an asylum for the verbally insane. In what other language can we ask: Why
do we drive on a parkway and park in a driveway? Or recite at a play and
play at a recital?
If a vegetarian eats vegetables, what does a humanitarian eat? Ship
by truck and send cargo by ship? Have noses that run and feel that smell?
How can it slim chance and a fat chance be the same, while a wise
man and a wise guy are opposites? How can overlook and oversee be oppo22
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
sites, while quite a lot and quite a few are alike? How can the weather be
hot as hell one day and cold as hell the next?
Did yon ever notice that we can talk about certain things only when
they are absent? Have you ever seen a horseful carriage or a strapful gown,
met a sung hero or experienced requited love? Have you ever run into
someone who was combobulated, gruntled, ruly or peccable? And where
are the people who are spring chickens or who who would fly? I meet individuals who can cut the mustard, and whom I would touch with a ten-foot
pole, but I cannot talk about them in English.
You have to marvel at the unique lunacy of a language in which
your house can simultaneously burn up and burn down, in which you fill in
a form by filling it out and in which your alarm clock goes off by going on.
English was invented by people, not computers, and it reflects the
creativity and fearful asymmetry of the human race (which, of course, isn't
really a race at all). That's why when the stars are out, they are visible, but
when the lights are out, they are invisible. And why when I wind up my
watch, I start it, but when I wind up this essay, I end it.
5. Choose one quotation and give two-minutes speech based on it.
o Language is the dress of thought. (Samuel Johnson)
o The true use of speech is not so much to ехрress our wants as to
conceal them. (Goldsmith)
o A thing well said will be wit in all languages. (Dryden)
o A word to the wise is enough. (Franklin)
o Speaking much is a sign of vanity, for he that is lavish with
words is niggard indeed. (Raleigh)
o Think as a wise man but communicate in the language of the
people. (Yeats)
o There is a great power in words, if you don't hitch too many of
them together. (Billings)
o Fair words, never hurt the tongue. (Anonymous)
23
IV. POPULATION
1. Read the text showing the statistics, study and translate the underlined
word combinations.
SNAPSHOT OF THE UK’S POPULATION
The population of the United Kingdom on Census Day 2001 was
58,789,194 it has been revealed by the Registrars General for England and
Wales, for Scotland and for Northern Ireland.
The populations of individual countries were: England 49,138,831
(83.6 per cent of the total population); Scotland 5,062,011 (8.6 per cent);
Wales 2,903,085 (4.9 per cent); Northern Ireland 1,685,267 (2.9 per cent).
The UK population has grown by 17 per cent overall since 1951, but
compared with many other developed countries over the same period, the
UK population is growing more slowly. It is smaller than the average
growth for EU Europe (23 per cent) and considerably smaller than some
countries – for example USA 80 per cent; and Australia 133 per cent.
For the first time, people 60 and over form a larger part of the population than children under 16–21 per cent compared to 20 per cent. There
has also been a big increase in the number of people aged 85 and over –
now over 1.1 million, or 1.9 per cent of the population.
Overall, the population of England has grown by 2,318,000 (5 per
cent) in the past 20 years but there have been big variations in the English
regions with the North East and North West regions experiencing a decline
in population while the South West, East and South East have seen population growth of 10 per cent or more.
In Wales the population has grown by 89,600 (3 per cent) in the past
20 years with Ceredigion (23.2 per cent) seeing the greatest population
growth while Merthyr Tydfil lost 7.5 per cent of its population.
The results in Scotland show a 2 per cent decline over 20 years but
that Scotland's overall share of the UK population has not fallen below that
shown in the most recent population estimates.
In Northern Ireland, compared with the UK, the population has
shown the greatest increase of 9 per cent over 20 years and has increased
by 82,000 (5 per cent) in the past ten years. Northern Ireland has the
youngest population in the UK with children under-16 representing 24 per
cent of the population compared with 20 per cent in the UK as a whole.
24
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
1) When was the last census in Russia? What figures does it show?
2) What is the current tendency in terms of the population in Russia?
(Use the following words: a dramatic increase/ a steady decrease/ a constant rise/ a sharp fall/ a growth/ a decline/ a cut in/ a drop in/ an upward
trend in terms of/ a downward trend in terms of).
3) What are the root causes of the situation, to your mind? What policy would you carry out to improve the situation, if you were an MP?
2. Read the text and compare the situation in the UK to that of other multinational countries. Try to explain the wish for of each nation for selfidentity.
Being English used to be so easy. They were one of the most easily
identified peoples on earth, recognized by their language, their manners,
their clothes and the fact that they drank tea by the bucketload.
It is so much complicated now. When, occasionally, we come across
someone whose stiff upper lip, sensible shoes or tweedy manner identifies
them as English, we react in amusement: the conventions that defined the
English are dead and the country’s ambassadors are more likely to be singers or writers than diplomats or politicians.
The imperial English may have carried British passports – as did the
Scots, Welsh, and some of the Irish – but they really didn’t need to think
too hard about whether being ‘English’ was the same as being ‘British’: the
terms were virtually interchangeable. Nowadays, nothing will so infuriate a
Scot as to confuse the terms English and British, for England’s Celtic
neighbours are increasingly striking out on their own.
The language has begun to reflect this changed relationship. Where
several years ago events in Scotland were talked of as regional, they are
increasingly spoken about as ‘national’. The BBC has even issued instructions to its staff on the unacceptability of any longer talking of Wales as a
«Principality».
15–64 years: 69.78 % (male 49,183,000; female 52,320,962)
65 years and over: 12.81 % (male 5,941,944; female 12,703,924) (2001
est.)
Population growth rate: –0.35 % (2001)
Birth rate: 9.35 births/1,000 population (2001)
Death rate: 13.85 deaths/1,000 population (2001)
Net migration rate: 0.98 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15–64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.47 male(s)/female
total population: 0.88 male(s)/female (2001)
Life expectancy:
total population: 67.34 years
male: 62.12 years
female: 72.83 years (2001)
HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS: 130,000 (1999)
HIV/AIDS – deaths: 850 (1999)
Ethnic groups: Russian 81.5 %, Tatar 3.8 %, Ukrainian 3 %, Chuvash
1.2 %, Bashkir 0.9 %, Byelorussian 0.8 %, Moldavian 0.7 %, other 8.1 %
Religions: Russian Orthodox, Muslim, other
3. Look through the chart concerning Russia’s population. Why is it important to know these figures for the country? Do you think this data is
still valid? How do you evaluate the population issue? If negatively,
what initiative would you suggest to improve the situation?
Population: 145,470,197 (July 2001)
Age structure:
0–14 years: 17.41 % (male 12,915,026; female 12,405,341)
25
26
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
V. ETHNIC GROUPS
1. Before reading the text discuss the things you know about Canada,
Canadians, their culture and style of living. Then read the text and say
if there is anything you haven’t heard of. Explain the meaning of the
underlined word combinations.
CANADIAN CULTURE
of government will be Inuitituk with secondary services available in English as required.
2. Have a look at the census data provided by Office for National Statistics in 2001.
What is ethnicity and religious identity? How do you identify yourself?
Does it influence your life somehow?
ETHNIC AND RELIGIOUS GROUPS IN ENGLAND AND WALES
I was recently asked about Canadian Culture – things people would
want to know before visiting Canada. Simple enough question if you come
from a country with a cultural history, but what about Canada?
Italy, Germany, Japan, India and many other countries all have well
defined cultures steeped in hundreds if not thousands of years of traditions,
customs and language. For most adults, just mentioning Chinese culture
brings to mind any number of mental images, which clearly define for the
person what Chinese culture means to them.
But what about Canadian Culture? Our original settlers still maintain
their culture as they have known it for over 5,000 years, but the Inuit culture didn’t really catch on in the southern regions of the country.
We have French-Canadians, the only identifiable ethno-hyphenated
Canadians who mark their culture with their language and traditions based
largely in Quebec and New Brunswick. Traditions and language are based
on the 19th century French and form an integral part of the entire Canadian
culture experience.
All together the French-Canadian population represents about 20 %
of the population of Canada. So what about the other 80 %? Does Canada
Have an identifiable culture?
In search of a Canadian identity, I called a sociology professor at our
local University. He advised me that Canadians do indeed have a culture,
but it is the combination of most other cultures from around the world. To
draw a parallel, the United States has been characterized as ‘the great melting pot of humanity’, where people of all nations are invited to join the nation to form ‘a more perfect nation’. Everybody is expected to comply with
common community standards to make the nation strong.
Canada, on the other hand, has been compared to a mosaic, where
each individual people are invited to join the nation and still retain their
cultural identities, complete with traditions, language and customs. In British Columbia for instance, a person may write their driving license in English, French, Chinese, and Punjabi, and in Nunavut, the primary language
The 2001 Census collected information about ethnicity and religious
identity. Combining these results shows that while the population is more
culturally diverse than ever before, White Christians remain the largest single group by far. In England and Wales, 36 million people (nearly 7 out of
10) described their ethnicity as White and their religion as Christian.
Majorities of Black people and those from Mixed ethnic backgrounds also identified as Christian (71 and 52 per cent respectively). In
total there were 810 thousand Black Christians and 347 thousand Christians
from Mixed ethnic backgrounds.
Among other faiths the largest groups were Pakistani Muslims (658
thousand) and Indian Hindus (467 thousand) followed by Indian Sikhs (301
thousand), Bangladeshi Muslims (260 thousand) and White Jews (252
thousand).
The Indian group was religiously diverse. 45 per cent of Indians
were Hindu, 29 per cent Sikh and a further 13 per cent Muslim. By contrast
the Pakistani and Bangladeshi groups were more homogenous, Muslims
accounting for 92 per cent of each ethnic group.
Some faith communities were concentrated in particular ethnic
groups. For example, 91 per cent of Sikhs were Indian and 97 per cent of
Jews described their ethnicity as White. Others faiths were more widely
dispersed; significant proportions of Buddhists were found in the White,
Chinese, other Asian and other Ethnic groups.
Overall, 15 per cent of the English and Welsh population reported
having no religion although variation by ethnicity was marked. Just over
half of all Chinese people, and one quarter of people from Mixed ethnic
backgrounds, stated they had no religion. Asian, Black African and Irish
people were least likely to have no religious affiliation. Fewer than 1 in 200
Pakistanis and Bangladeshis reported having no religion.
27
28
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
14 per cent of people in the other Black group chose not to answer
the religion question, almost twice the average for England and Wales as a
whole. Similar proportions of people in the Black Caribbean and Mixed
ethnic groups also gave no answer.
1) What is the current state of population in England and Wales?
2) What are the main ethnic groups?
3) What religious groups you can come across in England and
Wales?
4) Tell about ethnic and religious groups in Russia and Omsk region. Mind the underlined word combinations.
3. Read the text and formulate its main idea.
CHANGING PATTERNS OF AMERICAN SOCIETY
The face of America is constantly and very rapidly changing. These
changing patterns do affect, and have affected, what America is today and
how Americans view the rest of the world.
Between 1861 and 1960, the majority of immigrants came from
Europe. But during the past 25 years the share of immigrants has come
from Latin America and Asia.
What is very clear is that the so-called European heritage of America
is undergoing a major change as more and more people from Latin America and from Asian countries enter U.S. society. Growing number of
Americans will be able to say that they, or their parents or grandparents,
came from these regions. As a consequence, the American view of the
world is more likely to be towards the south and west.
Major changes in the pattern of immigration have been caused by
wars, revolutions, periods of starvation, persecution, religious intolerance,
and, in short, by any number of disasters which led people to believe that
America was a better place to be in. More than a million Irish, for instance,
emigrated to America between 1846 and 1851 in order to escape starvation
and disease in Ireland. During the same period, large numbers of other
Europeans fled political persecution. And in the 1870s another wave of
refugees left the political turmoil of eastern and southern Europe to seek
freedom and a future in America. The largest streams of European immigrants came between 1900 and 1920, that is, before, after, and during
World War I. At other times, for example, during the Depression and during World War II, smaller numbers of immigrants came to the U.S. Since
29
the 1960s, more and more people have fled the poverty and wars in Asia
and Latin America in the hope of finding a better life in the United States.
All in all, the heritage of immigrants and immigration has brought
enormous benefits to America. German intellectuals who fled Germany
after the failed revolutions: of 1830 and 1848, for example, brought with
them a liberal tradition that did much to change their newly adopted land.
Again, a hundred years later, America was enriched by Jewish immigrants
who, seen by many as the «refuse» of the world at the time, have added
their brilliance to American culture, education, and science. Many other
ethnic groups have, of course, also added their contributions to America's
well-being.
1) The United States was often described as a nation of immigrants
and American society likened to «melting pot», a «salad bowl» and a
«pizza». What do all the descriptions have in common and why, do you
think, there exists more than one metaphor for American society?
2) How would you describe the stages and phases of assimilation or
integration into a society?
3) What are the possible ways of preserving one's national identity
in a foreign culture environment?
4) How has the pattern of immigration into the U.S. been changing
since the U.S. became an independent slate and why?
5) Many people were and still are thinking of the U.S. as the Promised Land. Do you think such attitude is justified?
6) What strains does mass immigration bring about on a nation and
what may the benefits resulting from it be?
30
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
VI. RELIGIONS
Study the words you need to discuss religious matters.
to believe in God
religious faith
religious convictions
atheistic views
secular
to perceive
perception
misperception
theology
верить в Бога
религиозная вера
религиозные убеждения
атеистические взгляды
светский
воспринимать, понимать
понимание
ошибочное понимание
теология
Christianity
Catholicism (Roman Catholicism)
a catholic
Protestantism
a protestant
Orthodox Church
Islam
a Muslim (a Moslem)
Hinduism
a Hindu
Buddhism
a Buddhist
Judaism
a Jew
Shinto, Shintoism
Mormonism
a Mormon
христианство
католицизм
католик
протестантизм
протестант
православная церковь
ислам
мусульманин
индуизм
индус
буддизм
буддист
иудаизм
иудей, еврей
синто, синтоизм
мормонизм
мормон
Holy books
the scriptures / the Holy Scripture
Genesis
the Bible / the Book
the Veda(s)
the Koran
Sharia
Torah
Talmud
Ten Commandments
Священные книги
Священное Писание
Книга Бытия
Библия
Веды (книга индусов)
Коран
Шариат
Тора, Пятикнижие
Талмуд
10 заповедей
31
Eightfold Path of Buddha
Five Pillars of Islam
to practice religion
to realize righteousness
Parish
Parishioner
Service / liturgy
Ritual / rite
to pray
Prayer
Sermon
Confession
To worship
Taboo
To fast
Lent, fast
Fasting
Christmas
Easter
Holy Week
Ramadan
Pilgrim
pilgrimage
God (Almighty)
Allah
Messiah
Prophet
Deity
Virtue
Mortal sin
Heaven / Paradise / Eden
Hell
Afterlife
Better world
Reincarnation
Crucifix
to be crucified
Eternal life
The Holy Trinity (God Father, Son
of God, holy Spirit)
32
Великий путь Будды
Пять столпов ислама
соблюдать религиозные обряды
жить согласно заповедям
приход
прихожанин
церковная служба
обряд
молиться
молитва
проповедь
исповедь
поклоняться, почитать
запрет
соблюдать пост
Великий пост, пост
соблюдение поста
Рождество
Пасха
Страстная неделя перед Пасхой
Рамадан
паломник
паломничество
Бог (всемогущий)
Аллах
Мессия
пророк
божество
добродетель
смертный грех
рай
ад
загробная жизнь
лучший мир
Новое воплощение
Распятие
быть распятым
вечная жизнь
Святая Троица (Отец, Сын, Святой Дух)
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
1. Match up the word and the definition.
I. communion
II. fundamentalism
III. scripture
a) a collection of writings that is regarded as
sacred in a particular religion
XII. minister
k) a clergyman Protestant church
XIII. Messiah
l) the belief that after death the soul of a person
passes into the body of another living creature
XIV. reincarnation
m) in Christianity the Father, the Son and Holy
Spirit in one God
XV. prophet
n) in Hindu and Buddhist religious the ultimate
state of spiritual enlightenment
XVI. the Trinity
o) a person who is believed to be chosen by God
to say what God wants to say to people
XVII. nirvana
p) a person who promises to rescue and succeeds in rescuing people from very difficult
situations
b) Catholics who regularly attend a church
c) restraining from eating all or certain food for
a religious reason
IV. the Vedas
d) Speaking to the God that one believes ill
V. the Koran
e) the belief in an old and literal, sometimes extreme form of a religion as set out in holy books
VI. congregation
f) the ancient sacred literature of Hinduism
VII. parish
g) an area which has its own church including
the priest and people who live there and attend
the church
2. Now look at various positions you can have in the following places.
There are several gaps. Read items 1–4 and write the appropriate number
in each.
VIII. lent
h) a particular form of religious service
IX. liturgy
i) a church rite or ceremony during a Christian
church service at which people eat bread and
drink wine
X. prayer
j) the sacred book of the Muslims, containing
revelations made to Muhammad by Allah
33
1. Vicar. 2. Friar. 3. Cardinal. 4. Novice.
Priory: Abbot, Prior, ______, Canon, Monk
Convent: Mother Superior, Abbess, Sister, _______
Catholic Church: Pope, _______, Bishop, Deacon, Priest
Protestant Church: Archbishop, Dean, Canon, ______, Parson, Curate
34
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
3. Read a brief review of religions worldwide.
ROLE OF RELIGION
whelmingly in India and Nepal today. It represents beliefs in the importance of karma, reincarnation, and many gods. Temples are a vision of the
world in miniature. Hindus numbered 747 million in 1997 (12.8 % of the
world).
Judaism.
It originated with Semitic seminomads in the Middle East about
33 000 BCE. About 1300 BCE the earliest texts of the Old Testament appeared. Jerusalem was destroyed in 70 A.D. Persecuted by the Romans, they
departed creating a Jewish Diaspora. Jews are widely scattered, with almost
six million in North America, four million in Israel and three million in
Russia. They are monotheistic and strongly ethnic. Judaism is based on
beliefs in Torah consisting of five books plus commentary. Zionist movement led to the establishment of Israel in 1948. Jews numbered 15 million
in 1997 (0.25 % of the world). In the US there are almost 6 million Jews (2
million live in New York City), compared with under 5 million in Israel.
Buddhism.
Founded about 525 BCE by Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha) near the
Ganges River, it is a reformation of Hinduism. It was spread by missionaries and trade caravans. It is found overwhelmingly in Asia, especially in Sri
Lanka, Tibet, and Indochina, with relatively few in India. Buddhism is
combined with traditional Chinese beliefs in China and Shintoism in Japan.
Suffering is caused by the desire for material goods. Buddhists believe in
the sanctity of all life and importance of meditation to end the cycle of reincarnation. They numbered 353 million in 1997 (6.0 % of the world).
Christianity.
Our world view originates in our culture. And one of the predominant elements of culture that gives us our world view is religion. Al religions imply in one way or another that human beings do not and cannot stand
alone. For well over four thousands years, people have concluded that
they depend on powers in nature or elsewhere that are external to themselves.
Religion has helped people explain things that they could not otherwise understand or explain. Whether it be conceptions of a first cause of
all things or natural occurrences such as comets, floods, lighting, thunder, drought, disease, or abundance, people have relied on religious explanations for understanding.
Religion has also helped people recognize where they from, why
they die, and what happens when they die. The diversity of human behaviour in these circumstances depends upon the religious view that has developed and prevailed in a culture. According to the Koran, death is like entering the original Garden of Eden, with abundant fruits and many maidens.
Religion teaches values, in part, through taboos. The eating of pork,
for instance, is a Jewish social taboo; the Jain of India prohibits the eating
of all meat. And among the taboos of Islam is a prohibition against the consumption of alcohol.
The teaching of taboos serves a useful social function in giving direction for socially acceptable behaviour. Knowing about religions can
provide insight into values and behaviour or at least offer explanations for
perceived behaviour.
People in Ireland, the United States and Spain have strong beliefs in
the devil, but people in France, Denmark, and Sweden do not. People in the
United States tend to believe in heaven; Hindus in India believe in reincarnation. These belief differences have some impact on the behaviour of the
people.
Although there are literally thousands of religions, they can he set into
a few major categories, each of which has a view of God, a founder, sacred writings, holy places, holy days, sacred symbols, and the like.
Hinduism.
Founded in Indus Valley about 3 500 BCE within Dravidian Civilization, it later incorporated the religion brought by Aryan invaders from
1500 BCE onwards. The Aryans came with oral histories in Sanskrit, including Vedas with over a thousand hymns. Hinduism is located over-
Founded in the Middle East by Jesus Christ (4 BCE – 29 A.D.), it
developed as an European religious system. Its beliefs include eternal life.
It was spread by Roman Empire after Emperor’s conversion (313), by later
colonial empires, and migration. Its major divisions are Roman Catholic,
Eastern Orthodox (split in 1066 A.D.), Protestant and Anglican (Luther
1519, etc). New denominations in America include Mormon (1830) with
4.4 million. Christians numbered 1,930 million in 1997 (33.0 % of the
world).
35
36
‘Christianity started out in Palestine as a fellowship;
it moved to Greece and became a philosophy;
it moved to Italy and became an institution;
it moved to Europe and became a culture;
it came to America and became an enterprise’.
Sam Pascoe, American Scholar.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Christianity in North America is a severely divided faith consisting
of over 1,000 denominations, which are often categorized into conservative, mainline and liberal wings:
Many Fundamentalists and other Evangelical Christians regard
saved individuals as the only true Christians. They maintain separate religious denominations, radio stations, publishing houses, local ministerial
associations, etc. – even exercise videos. They tend to look upon Christianity as a living relationship with their Savior.
Mainline Christians tend to be much more inclusive. They accept as
a Christian anyone who follows the teachings of and about Jesus Christ.
Liberal Christians agree with mainline Christians and are even more
inclusive. Some theologians, particularly those who are members of the
Jesus Seminar, have abandoned or completely reinterpreted most traditional
Christian beliefs.
Islam.
Founded on the Arabian Peninsula by Mohammed (570 – 632 A.D.),
it extends Judeo-Christian theology and may be thought of as a major reformation. Islam is monotheistic and represents the beliefs in the Koran. Its
practices include five prayers a day facing Mecca, a pilgrimage, almsgiving, and fasting during Ramadan. It was spread by jihad and Arab traders.
It numbered 1,147 million in 1997. Major divisions of Islam are Sunni and
Shia.
1) Why do people need religion? What does religion teach us?
2) Make a list of concepts unique for each particular faith. Do you
know their meanings? Discuss it in pairs.
3) What are the main books in each religion? Have you read the
book of your faith? What does it teach?
4) What are the common features of all religions? What shows their
uniqueness?
5) Comment on the quotation about Christianity. Do you share Sam
Pascoe’s opinion? Why? / Why not? Do you think the similar statements
concerning other religions are possible?
6) Tell a story from your religion or a religion you know about.
4. You are writing a book about religions of the world. Interview a representative of a religious faith. Ask the following questions:
a) whether there is an after-life,
b) what happens if you behave well / badly,
37
c) what kind of holy people there are,
d) how strong the religion is today.
5. Read the texts about religions in Britain. How do they correspond to
each other? What conclusions can you make having read the texts?
RELIGIONS IN BRITAIN (I)
In 2001 the Census collected information about religious identity.
The topic was new to the Census in England, Wales and Scotland although
the subject had been included in previous Censuses in Northern Ireland.
Just over three-quarters of the UK population reported having a religion. More than seven out of ten people said that their religion was Christian (72 per cent). After Christianity, Islam was the most common faith
with nearly 3 per cent describing their religion as Muslim (1.6 million).
The next largest religious groups were Hindus (559 thousand), followed by Sikhs (336 thousand), Jews (267 thousand), Buddhists (152 thousand), and people from other religions (179 thousand). These groups each
accounted for less than 1 per cent and together accounted for a further 3 per
cent of the UK population.
People in Northern Ireland were most likely to say that they identified with a religion (86 %) compared with those in England and Wales
(77 %) and Scotland (67 %). About sixteen per cent of the UK population
stated that they had no religion. This category included agnostics, atheists,
heathens and those who wrote Jedi Knight.
The Census religion question was a voluntary question. Nevertheless, over 92 per cent of people chose to answer it.
Census Religion Questions: Different versions of the religious identity question were asked in England and Wales, in Scotland and in Northern
Ireland, to reflect local differences in the requirement for information.
However, results are comparable across the UK as a whole. The information provided will be used to supplement ethnicity data, identify areas of
disadvantage and monitor policies on equality. It will also support resource
allocation and the provision of services. As with all Census data, information about an individual’s religion is safeguarded and protected by law.
RELIGIONS IN BRITAIN (II)
Ask most foreigners – and, indeed, many British people – about religion in Britain and you’ll get a simple answer: «The British belong to the
38
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Church of England». There is some truth in this statement, but it is by no
means the whole story. Let us start by looking at some of the numerous
groups practicing their faith in Britain.
The Church of England.
The Church of England is a Protestant church and the official state
religion of England (although membership is not, of course, compulsory).
The Queen is the Head of the Church of England and she, with the advice
of the Prime Minister and others, appoints the senior members of the clergy
– the archbishops, bishops and deans.
The Church is divided into two provinces – Canterbury and York –
each with its own archbishop and the Archbishop of Canterbury is the most
senior official in the Church of England. The two provinces are divided
into a number of dioceses, each with its won bishop; and the dioceses are
further split into parishes. There are 13,250 parishes in England alone, and
every parish has its won church, all except for the very smallest with its
won priest or vicar. The Church of England does not yet allow women to
become vicars. This is the cause of a major argument raging in the Church
at the moment, but it is possible that the situation will change within the
next few years.
The Church of Scotland.
The Church of Scotland is recognized as the official religion of Scotland. It is a Protestant church and is a Presbyterian organization. This
means that there is no hierarchy of archbishops and bishops. The Church of
Scotland is governed by its ministers (parish priests) and elders (elected
representatives), all of whom are considered to hold equal rank. Women are
allowed to become ministers in the Presbyterian Church.
The Roman Catholic Church.
About 10 per cent of the population of Britain are Roman Catholics
including more than one third of the population of Northern Ireland. Recent
years have seen attempts to create some form of unity between the Catholic
Church and the Church of England, but there are many problems, not least
of which is that whereas the Church of England appears to be gradually
accepting the idea of admitting woman to the priesthood, this is totally unacceptable to the Roman Catholic Church.
The Free Churches.
There are several Protestant churches in Britain which, unlike the
churches of England and Scotland, are not officially recognized as state
religions. There are called the Free Churches, the most important of which
are the Methodists, Baptists, and the United Reform Church. These
churches are particularly strong in the old Celtic areas of Northern Ireland,
Wales, Scotland and south-west England. Most of them allow women to
become ministers.
As well as these churches there are various other Christian communities such as Orthodox and Armenian Christians, but the picture is further
complicated by meny eastern religions.
Non-Christian Religions.
There are large numbers of Commonwealth citizens in Britain whose
ancestors came from such countries as India, Pakistan and Bangladesh.
Many of these people are Sikhs, Muslims, Hindus and Buddhists. There are
100 Muslim mosques and centres, 300 Sikh and Hindu temples and 200
Buddhist groups. There are also about 400,000 Jews living in Britain.
So can Britain really be called a ‘Christian society’?
39
40
1) Parish – province – diocese. Which is the largest and which is the
smallest?
2) Roman Catholic – Church of England – Church of Scotland. In
which of these churches can women become priest?
3) Wales – Scotland – Northern Ireland. In which of these countries
are you least likely to meet a Roman Catholic?
4) Using these texts as an example tell about religions in Russia.
6. Read the text and compare the relationship between state and church
in the U.S. and in your country. Ask your group mates to tell you what
they know of such relationship in other countries.
U.S.: STATE AND CHURCH
Looking at religion in the U.S., we are faced with a typically American contradiction. From its vary beginnings as a nation, Americans have
been extremely careful to separate church and state, religion and government.
The Constitution, specifically the First Amendment, forbids the government to give special favors to any religion or to hinder me free practice
of any religion. As a result, there are no church taxes in the United States,
nor is there an official state church or a state-supported religion.
There are no legal or official religions holidays. Christmas, for example, is an important religious holiday for Christians. However, Congress
cannot proclaim it, or any other religious observance, to be an official or
legal holiday. To do so would violate the Constitution.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
There are no political parties in the United States that have «Christian» in their names.
There is no longer even the assumption that America is, or should
be, «a white, Anglo-Saxon, Protestant» (WASP) nation.
Yet, surveys show that religion continues to be quite important to many Americans, especially when compared with people in other countries.
7. Read the text and answer the following questions:
9 Comment on the title of the text.
9 What are «fundamentalist» denominations?
9 What is the recent trend concerning «mainline» churches?
9 Why is the membership in «fundamentalist» Christian groups
increased?
9 Render the text.
RETURN TO RELIGION?
While 58 percent of Americans feel that religion is «very important»
in their own lives, it is hard to say to what extend religious beliefs affect
their daily lives. However, a study done by Gallup International in 1986
seems to show that attention to religion is increasing in the United States.
Some 48 percent of those surveyed felt that the influence of religion on
American life was greater than it was five years before (but, of course, 52
percent did not think it was greater). Also, about half said they were more
interested in «spiritual and religious matters» than they were five years earlier. Throughout American history, there have been periods of religious
revivals which have come and gone. If there is in fact «return to religion»
at present, then it is associated with the more «fundamentalists» denominations. These church groups are usually more conservative and orthodox in
their religious beliefs and practices.
Membership in the less conservative, so-called «mainline» Protestant churches in the U.S. has actually fallen in the last ten years by about 8
percent. Furthermore, church attendance by (Roman) Catholics has
dropped by about a third during the same period. By contrast, membership
in the fundamentalist Christian churches has gone up by 35 percent, and
orthodox Jewish congregations have increased by as much as 100 percent.
The increase in the fundamentalist Christian groups has attracted much
public attention. One reason is that many of these groups actively publicize
their beliefs and try to influence public life and political processes. Many
41
have their own radio or television stations, which they and their members
finance. Yet overall fundamentalist churches still represent a minority, even
if a very active one, of all American church groups and members.
8. Discuss with your group mates:
9 predominant religions in the world;
9 religions, denominations, and churches existing in their countries;
9 whether for most people of their countries religion is a part of
their world view, or pattern of behaviour, or both.
9. Read the text and do the following exercises.
BUDDHA’S BIRTHDAY
In May each year, Buddha’s birthday is celebrated with candlelit
processions, the hanging of lanterns in temples and the day-long chanting
of prayers. It is a day when Buddhists take time to think of and pray for the
less fortunate in the world.
1) What do you know about Buddhism? Can you answer the questions?
a. How old is Buddhism?
b. In which countries is Buddhism practised?
c. How many Buddhists are there in the world today?
d. Do you know any celebrities who are Buddhists?
e. Why is Buddhism not considered a religion?
f. How did Buddhism originate?
g. What is the Middle Way?
h. What does the word ‘Buddha’ mean?
i. What is karma?
j. What is nirvana?
k. What is every Buddhist’s aim?
l. What is the eight-fold path?
2) Read the information below to find the answers to the questions in 1.
Introduction
The many forms of Buddhism have helped to shape the lives and
outlooks of its followers for over two-and-a-half thousand years. Most of
today’s 500 million Buddhists live in eastern Asian countries such as Thailand, Tibet, India, Japan and Korea, but in recent years, Buddhism has be42
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
come fashionable in the west, where it is seen as a spiritual contrast to the
materialistic lifestyle.
Celebrities such as the singer Tina Turner, the actor Richard Gere
and the golfer Tiger Woods are all advocates of Buddhism. Buddhism is
not technically a religion as it is not centred on a god, but a system of philosophy and a code of morality.
How it began
Buddhism was originated in northern India when Siddhartha Gautama, an Indian prince born around 560 BC, achieved enlightenment.
When, as a young man, Siddhartha went outside the palace walls for the
first time, he was shocked by four things that he saw: an old man, a sick
man, a dead man and a holy man. He started to ponder the meaning of life
and, renouncing his riches, he set out to find an answer to why people suffer. Believing that most human suffering was caused by people’s attachment to their desires, he developed a way of life in which he looked after
the basic needs of his body, but did not seek any extra comforts or luxuries.
He called this the Middle Way. Siddhartha became a Buddha, or ‘Enlightened One’. For the rest of his life he travelled around India on foot, teaching and helping others to free themselves from the suffering. Siddhartha
died around 480 BC when he was 80 years old.
Karma and nirvana
There are three fundamental beliefs at the heart of Buddhism:
9 When people die, they are reborn into another life time after time.
9 People cause their own suffering through their attachment to
their desires, resulting in greed, jealousy, anger, hatred and other negative
feelings. This creates a force called karma.
9 If individuals can reduce these feelings, the force of karma becomes less strong and eventually disappears completely. When this happens, the individual is freed from the endless cycle of birth, death and
rebirth. This freedom is called nirvana. It is every Buddhist’s aim to
reach nirvana, even if it takes a thousand lifetimes.
NIRVANA
Right views –
have a positive
mind and focus
on the good in
yourself and in
others.
Right thoughts –
care for others
and be understanding and sympathetic.
Right speech –
never lie or say
hurtful things.
Right livelihood – do
work which
does not cheat
or harm anyone.
Right effort –
work hard to
follow
the
eightfold path.
Right mindfulness
– be aware at all
times of how your
thoughts and actions will affect
others.
Right concentration – have a
peaceful state of
mind as you
follow the eightfold path.
Right action –
never
kill,
cause injury
or steal.
3) In pairs or small groups, discuss the following questions.
a. Which of the ideas of Buddhism are similar to those of your religion, or the religions of your country? If you are Buddhist, can you
explain more about it?
b. Which ideas of the eight-fold path do you feel are the most important?
c. How did your religion, or the religions of your country, originate?
For more information about Buddhism, visit the following websites:
home.earthlink.net/~srama/
www.religioustolerance.org/buddhism.htm
www.buddhanet.net/budnetp.htm
10. Work in pairs. Student A: You know that Student B is interested in
Buddhism. Which questions would you ask him/her about this religion? Student B: Read some additional information about Buddhism.
THE EIGHTFOLD PATH OF BUDDHISM
Buddha taught that there was a path that anybody could follow
which would help them overcome suffering and be freed from endless reincarnation. This forms the basis of Buddhism today.
Buddhism – a religion and philosophic system of central and eastern
Asia, founded in India in the 6th century B.C by Buddha, a religious philosopher and teacher who supposedly lived in India in 563–483 B.C. Buddhism teaches that right living, right thinking and self-denial will enable
one to reach Nirvana, a divine state of release from earthly and bodily pain,
43
44
The eight-fold path
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
suffering, sorrow and desire. The name, Buddha, is title, applied by Buddhists to someone regarded as embodying divine wisdom and virtue. It bas
been given to other religious leaders in Asia.
To help overcome desire and to achieve enlightenment, Buddha
taught an Eightfold Path.
1) Right view is understanding and accepting the reality and origins
of suffering, and the ways leading to the cessation of suffering
2) Right thought is being free from ill-will, cruelty, and untruthfulness towards self and others.
3) Right speech is abstaining from lying, tale-bearing, and harsh language.
4) Right conduct is abstaining from the taking of life, from stealing,
and from sexual misconduct.
5) Right livelihood is not harming any living thing, and being free
from luxury at the expense of others.
6) Right effort is avoiding and overcoming evil, and promoting und
maintaining good.
7) Right mindfulness is the contemplation of transitoriness of the
body, of one’s own and others' feeling, of the mind, and of phenomena.
8) Right meditation is complete concentration on a single object and
the achievement of purity of thought, free from all hindrances and distractions and eventually beyond sensation.
11. RAMADAN AND THE FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM
1) During November and December, Muslims around the world observe the
Fast of Ramadan. What do you know about this and other aspects of Islam?
Work in small groups and discuss the questions below.
a. What happens during Ramadan?
b. How did Islam begin?
c. What does the word Islam mean?
d. Who was Mohammed?
e. What is the significance of Mecca?
f. What is the Koran?
g. What are the Five Pillars of Islam?
h. What do Muslims not eat or drink?
i. When and how do Muslims pray?
j. What do Muslims traditionally wear?
45
2) Check your answers and match the questions to the passages. The first
one has been done for you.
What are the Five Pillars of Islam?
The Five Pillars of Islam are the fundamental principles or duties of the
religion. They must be performed by all Muslims.
_________________________________?
Mohammed was born in Mecca, in what is now Saudi Arabia, in 570AD.
Muslims believe he was the final prophet sent to the earth by God. When
Mohammed was 40 years old, he heard the voice of God while meditating
in a cave. He had been called upon to become God’s messenger and to
spread the word of Islam.
_________________________________?
Before Islam, the Arabic peoples had many different beliefs and gods. Mohammed taught them that there was only one god, Allah in Arabic. This
was not well-received and Mohammed and his fellow-believers were
forced to flee from Mecca to Medina, where they founded the first Muslim
community in the year 622 A.D. After a few years, Mohammed returned to
Mecca, having defeated its army, and from there Islam quickly spread to
many countries. After Mohammed’s death, people disagreed about who
should be their new leader and which path they should follow. Consequently, they split into two main groups, each developing slightly different
traditions and interpretations of the religion. The largest group became
known as the Sunnis and the smaller group became the Shi’as. Today,
about ninety percent of the world’s one-and-a-half billion Muslims are
Sunnis. There are over fifty independent Muslim countries in the world
today, the largest, in terms of population, being Indonesia.
The Five Pillars of Islam
To try to
visit the
holy Ka’ba
in Mecca
at least
once in
your lifetime.
To pray
five
times a
day.
To fast in the
Hours of daylight
during the month
of Ramadan.
46
To give
Zakat, part
of one’s
personal
wealth, to a
charity
once a year.
To believe
in only one
God and that
Mohammed
was his
prophet.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
_________________________________?
The Koran is the Islamic holy book. Throughout his life, Mohammed received messages from God. Unable to read or write, Mohammed learned
them by heart before passing them on to other Muslims so they could be
written down. After his death in 632A.D, all these written passages were
gathered together in one book. The fundamental message of the Koran is
that God is the creator of the world and that he controls everything in it.
The Koran forbids the use of images of living things, hence there is no
physical representation of God. Images representing the religion are based
on geometric shapes and calligraphy.
_________________________________?
The Arabic word Islam means ‘submission’ reflecting the Koran’s instruction that Muslims are required to surrender to the will of God.
_________________________________?
The city of Mecca is important as the birthplace of Mohammed and because it is where he first preached God’s message. In the centre of Mecca is
the Ka’ba, a large square building, which is kept covered in black cloth
richly embroidered in gold. In one wall is a black stone believed to be a
meteorite placed there by Ibrahim when he first built the Ka’ba. All Muslims try to visit the holy Ka’ba in Mecca, and walk round it seven times, at
least once in their lifetime.
_________________________________?
Muslims pray five times a day from first thing in the morning to last thing
at night. Wherever they are in the world, they face towards the Ka’ba in
Mecca as they pray. The original movements of prayer, which were taught
by Mohammed, are still practised today: stand, bow, kneel and then kneel
with one’s face towards the floor. On Fridays, the most holy day, Muslim
men meet in the mosque to pray together.
_________________________________?
The Koran gives guidance to all aspects of life, including eating and drinking. It forbids the drinking of alcohol as it encourages aggressive behaviour
and distracts people from the principles of the religion. All meats must be
halal, which means the animals are slaughtered in a way that gives the least
pain, and ‘In the name of God’ is recited as each animal is killed. It is forbidden to eat anything from a pig, which is considered an unclean animal.
_________________________________?
Traditional Muslim clothing covers as much of the body as possible, particularly for women. This is done to varying degrees, but in some Muslim
societies, women cover their entire bodies, including their faces, when they
are in public.
47
_________________________________?
Ramadan is the ninth month of the Muslim calendar. It is a time of fasting
for Muslims and eating, drinking and smoking during the hours of daylight
is strictly forbidden. The fast is broken at the end of each day with a prayer
and a meal called the iftar.
Muslims observe the Fast of Ramadan as they believe it allows them to
concentrate on their faith and spend less time on the concerns of their everyday lives. It also enables them to develop their powers of self-control and
through the hunger it causes to have sympathy for the less fortunate in the
world. During Ramadan, some Muslims may spend several hours at the
mosque praying and studying the Koran. Some will spend the entire night
in prayer. On the evening of the 27th day of Ramadan, Muslims celebrate
the Laylat-al-Qadr (the Night of Power). It is believed that on this night the
prophet Mohammed received the first messages from God. According to
the Koran, it is on this day that God determines the course of the world for
the following year. When the Fast of Ramadan ends, on the first day of the
month of Shawwal, there is a three-day holiday called Id-al-Fitr (the Feast
of Fast Breaking). Friends and family eat, exchange gifts and pray together.
3) Write six questions about the text for a classmate to answer.
For example, How many times a day do Muslims pray?
To find out more about Ramadan and Islam, visit the following sites:
www.islaam.com
www.submission.org/ramadan.html
www.holidays.net/ramadan/
www.al-muslim.org
12. Exchange views with your group mates on global challenges caused
by Muslim fundamentalists. Recall the World Trade Center bombing
by militant Muslim fanatics, acts of terrorism in Israel, etc. What are
the root causes of religious intolerance and fanaticism? For additional information read the following text.
BEWARE OF RELIGIOUS FANATICS
The leading Islamic historian, Bernard Lewis, has pointed out that
the Muslim has suffered successive stages of defeat: first, his loss of domination of others. A Muslim world dominant for a thousand years was surpassed by the West, whose systems proved more powerful; in organization,
48
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
science, industry and military technology. Then, the undermining of his
authority in his own country through an invasion of foreign ideas, laws and
ways of life, sometimes even been stressful enough if Muslim governments
had been wise and just; but many were corrupt. Repression and poverty
became the lot of their subjects. On top of all this, the traditional Muslim
has had to contend with the challenge to the mastery in his own home
from the emancipation of women and a rebellion of children. For many it
has been too much.
One can understand why Muslim fundamentalists should want to purify Islamic society by returning to its origins in the hope that Muhammad',
message, unchanged by time and thought, dress and education, would provide the answers today as it did in the golden era. One can understand why
this might appeal to people frustrated by the failure of their own systems
and their leaders. But in the Muslim world, this nostalgia has smoothed
the way for something no Western society has endured – the radicalism of
«God's fanatics» whose doctrines guarantee backwardness and self-destruction and war between the «good» Muslim world and the «evil» West.
2) Which of the following words from the text do you associate with the
Muslim religion, which with the Christian religion and which with the Jewish religion?
1. headscarves
2. Yom Kippur
3. crosses
4. skullcaps
5. Eid
Now read the text.
FRANCE TO BAN PUPILS’ RELIGIOUS DRESS
Secular, neutrality, conspicuous, ombudsman, commission, outlaw
(vb), headscarf, absurd
1. If something is ____________________, it is very noticeable or
easy to see.
2. France is a ____________________ country. In other words,
there is no official state religion.
3. If you ____________________ something, you prohibit it or
make it illegal.
4. A ____________________ is a piece of cloth that a woman or girl
wears on her head and ties under her chin.
5. ____________________ is behaviour that does not show strong
feelings or opinions and, for example, does not support either side in a war
or a disagreement.
6. If something is ____________________, it is completely stupid.
7. A ____________________ is a group of people who are officially
asked to investigate something.
8. An ____________________ is a person whose job is to deal with
complaints made by people about official organizations.
Muslim headscarves and other religious symbols are almost certain
to be banned from French schools and public buildings after a special
commission told the government recently that legislation was needed to
defend the secular nature of the state. The 20-member group, appointed by
President Jacques Chirac and headed by the national ombudsman, Bernard
Stasi, recommended that all «conspicuous» signs of religious belief – including Jewish skullcaps, oversized Christian crosses and Islamic headscarves – be outlawed in state-approved schools.
The report, compiled after six months of study, also recommended
that the laws should include a clause requiring «the strict neutrality of all
public service employees». Some Muslim women had reportedly been insisting that their husbands accompany them at all times in hospital and
would accept only female doctors. The report said the legislation must remind all health service users that «it is forbidden to reject a healthcare
worker, and that the rules of hygiene must be respected».
In a gesture of respect to «all spiritual options», the report said the
Jewish and Muslim holy days of Yom Kippur and Eid should be made official school holidays, and companies should consider ways of allowing their
employees to take off the religious holiday of their choice. Mr Chirac said
that he favoured a law protecting France's secular republic, «I will be
guided by republican principles and the demands of national unity and the
solidarity of the French people», he said. The question of whether a «secularism law» is desirable or necessary – particularly to deal with the increasing number of Muslim girls wanting to wear headscarves at school – may
seem abstract, or even absurd, to those used to British or U.S. notions of
multiculturalism. In France, where secularism is a constitutional guarantee
and everyone, in the eyes of the republic, is supposed to be equally French
49
50
13. Before reading the text France to ban pupils’ religious dress do the
following tasks.
1) Key Vocabulary. Fill the gaps using these key words from the text:
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
regardless of ethnic or religious differences, the issue has dominated media
and political debate for several months. Mr Stasi said the proposed law
aimed to preserve constitutional secularism and counter «forces trying to
destabilise the republic, a clear reference to Islamic fundamentalism». But
he stressed that the law was not directed at the mainly moderate Muslim
community of 5 million. «Muslims must understand that secularism is a
chance for Islam», Mr Stasi said. «Secularism is the separation of church
and state, but it is also the respect of differences». The main teachers' union, the SNES, said that the proposals did not go far enough to promote
secularism in schools.
3) Comprehension Check. Choose the best answer:
1. The Stasi commission has recommended that the wearing of headscarves
in French schools be banned because ...
a. they are conspicuous
b. they represent forces trying to destabilise the republic
c. the commission wants to defend the secular nature of the French
state
2. The commission recommended a clause requiring the strict neutrality of
all public service employees because ...
a. they wanted to remind people that it is forbidden to reject a healthcare worker
b. some people only accept female doctors
c. it took six months to compile the report
3. The commission recommended the introduction of new public holidays...
a. in order to allow workers to choose their holidays
b. as a gesture of respect to all religions
c. in order to ensure the strict neutrality of all public service employees
4. The constitutional guarantee of secularism under French law means...
a. that people cannot wear headscarves to school
b. that everyone is regarded as equally French whatever their religion or ethnic background
c. that the issue has dominated media and political debate for several
months
5. The main teachers’ union criticised the proposals because...
a. they were too radical
b. they were not radical enough
c. they promoted secularism in schools
51
4) Find the following from the text.
1. A verb which means ‘to prepare by bringing together information from
different sources’.
2. An adverb which is used to suggest that something may have happened.
Possible synonyms are ‘apparently’ and ‘allegedly’.
3. A verb which is the opposite of ‘to accept’.
4. An adjective which means ‘very large’.
5. A noun which means ‘an idea or understanding of something’.
6. A noun which means ‘the belief and practice of giving equal importance
to each of the different cultures in a society’.
7. A verb which means ‘to emphasise’.
8. A noun which means ‘the belief that original religious laws should be
followed very strictly’.
5) Discussion: What are the arguments for and against the wearing of religious symbols in public? Do you think that girls should be free to wear
headscarves to school?
14. Before reading the text do the following tasks:
1) The article which follows contains the words «racial profiling is
one of the hottest hot-button issues in contemporary America».
What do you understand by «racial profiling»? What is a «hotbutton issue»?
2) The article is about the case of Walied Shater, an Arab-American
who was refused permission to board a flight from Baltimore to
Dallas-Fort Worth on Christmas Day. Which of the following reasons do you think may have been responsible for this refusal:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Mr Shater had a gun
He was carrying a book on
Arab history
He was nervous and agitated
agent
He was of Middle-Eastern
appearance
He behaved in a confrontational manner
f.
g.
He had an Arabic name
He was sweating profusely
h.
He pretended to be a secret
service
He had weapons in his luggage
He filled in a form incorrectly
i.
j.
3) Now read the article and check your answers.
52
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
AIRLINE SECURITY: DISHONEST WORDS ON RACIAL PROFILING
MUDDY DEBATE ON AIRLINE SECURITY
It was a scene that a Hollywood scriptwriter might have dreamt up
for one of those earnest television dramas that explore contemporary issues.
But in this real-life scenario there has been no sex or romance.
It is Christmas Day, three months after the trauma of September 11,
and a planeload of exhausted, slightly nervous passengers are heading
home at the last minute for the holidays, on American Airlines flight 363
from Baltimore Washington International airport to Dallas-Fort Worth. As
has happened on many commercial flights since the terrorist attacks, an
Arab-American undergoes scrutiny.
He objects, but is ultimately left at the gate. Such situations have become a fact of life on domestic flights in the United States, but this time it
is different. It turns out that the Arab-American, Walied Shater, is a secret
serviceman on his way to guard President George Bush at the «Western
White House» in Crawford, Texas. Big trouble ensues.
The Christmas incident was doomed to degenerate into a rhetoricladen mess as soon as the first lawyer or television pundit used the two
words «racial profiling» – one of the hottest of hot-button issues in contemporary America. The President himself threatened he would be «madder than heck» if it turned out that Shater was a victim of such a practice, in
which citizens are picked out for special attention because of skin colour,
name or religion. American Airlines denied Shater had been kicked off the
flight because of his Arab-American identity. Instead, the troubled airline
(which lost two planes on September 11) published critical accounts of his
behaviour, describing him as irate and confrontational. He had filled in a
form allowing government security officers to carry guns on planes, but
had filled it in wrongly twice. His identity was eventually confirmed by the
Secret Service, but he had become so truculent by then it was judged best
to leave him behind.
Shater has hired lawyers to demand an apology and force a change
in the airline's security measures. The lawyers have gone on television to
deny the claims that the presidential bodyguard had behaved unprofessionally. It was the pilot, the lawyers insist, who was confrontational. They say
that there had been no problem with the gun-carrying forms until the pilot
became aware of the passenger's Arab-American identity and a flight attendant discovered a book on Arab history among his possessions. It looks like
one of those simmering affairs that will run and run on the radio talk-
shows. Furthermore the whole discussion is handicapped, from the President down, by a fundamental dishonesty about the issues in play.
It is a fact that Arab-Americans and people with Muslim names have
been subjected to much more scrutiny than fellow passengers on flights
since September 11. There have been multiple cases of people being left off
planes because the flight crew and the passengers felt queasy about their
Middle Eastern appearance. A commercial airline pilot I know told me in
blunt terms that one of the key items on the «new security» checklist is
scanning the passenger manifest for Islamic names. American Airlines'
claim that Shater's Arab-American identity and his book on Arab history
had nothing to do with the pilot's decision looks dubious, to say the least. It
is hard to imagine the same situation arising with a blond secret serviceman
possessing a book about the American civil war, but the airline insists it
would have acted in an identical manner.
So, because ethnicity is supposed to have nothing to do with the incident, the airline has resorted to pushing out damaging accounts of the
secret serviceman's behaviour, possibly endangering his career prospects. It
is a recipe for anger. The refusal to acknowledge the issue of ethnicity has
just driven it underground, with the result that neither the effectiveness of
ethnic screening nor its civil rights implications can be properly addressed.
The fact that all 19 of the hijackers involved in the September 11 attacks were Muslim Arabs has inevitably had an effect on the perceptions of
airline pilots and crews. It would be extraordinary if it had not. The overwhelming majority of trainees who went through al-Qaida's Afghan camps
were Muslims from the Middle East or South Asia. It is possible to argue,
then, that there might be a significant security benefit in giving particular
attention to passengers who fit that profile. On the other hand, the role of a
Briton, Richard Reid, a Muslim with a non-Muslim name, in the shoebomb attempt on an
American Airlines flight before Christmas was a clear reminder that
the assailants in the next attack may not conform to the stereotype. AlQaida has shown itself adept at varying its line of attack. This is a debate
worth having. If it was decided that there was a significant benefit to using
elements of ethnic profiling in security screening, there could be further
discussion of how to minimise the trade-off between security and the civil
rights of those targeted. For example, confirming that a passenger was a
secret serviceman with one of the highest security levels in the land should
have been more than sufficient to outweigh the fact that he was of Arab
descent. These issues are currently being ducked because the phrase «racial
53
54
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
profiling», associated with redneck cops arbitrarily stopping black motorists for questioning, is politically radioactive. But the consequences of this
national queasiness are bad for both air safety and civil rights.
4) Find words in paragraphs 1-3 of the text that mean the following:
a.
very tired
f.
b.
c.
d.
e.
happens afterwards
careful investigation
in the end/finally
follows
g.
h.
i.
j.
certain to happen (with a negative
outcome)
expert
extremely angry (2 expressions)
ejected
bad-tempered and aggressive (2 expressions)
5) Look at the paragraph. Find phrasal verbs which mean the following:
a.
b.
to complete
to select
c.
d.
to eject
to prove to be the case
The Christmas incident was doomed to degenerate into a rhetoricladen mess as soon as the first lawyer or television pundit used the two
words «racial profiling» – one of the hottest of hot-button issues in contemporary America. The President himself threatened he would be «madder than heck» if it turned out that Shater was a victim of such a practice, in
which citizens are picked out for special attention because of skin colour,
name or religion. American Airlines denied Shater had been kicked off the
flight because of his Arab-American identity. Instead, the troubled airline
(which lost two planes on September 11) published critical accounts of his
behaviour, describing him as irate and confrontational. He had filled in a
form allowing government security officers to carry guns on planes, but
had filled it in wrongly twice. His identity was eventually confirmed by the
Secret Service, but he had become so truculent by then it was judged best
to leave him behind.
6) Complete these sentences using vocabulary (in an appropriate form)
from the text:
a. The claim that Mr Shater behaved unprofessionally has been
________________ by his lawyers.
b. A fundamental dishonesty about the issues in play is
________________ the whole discussion.
55
c. Since September 11th there has been much more _____________
of passengers with Muslim names.
d. Passenger manifests are routinely ________________ for Islamic
names.
e. Mr Shater’s career prospects may have been ________________
by the incident.
f. The line of attack may be ________________ next time.
g. Further discussion may mean that the trade-off between security
and the civil rights of those targeted may be ________________
h. For many people the phrase «racial profiling» has
________________ with redneck cops.
7) Discussion:
Do you think that racial profiling is justified in the case of airline security?
Which is more important: passenger security or the civil rights of passengers?
What is the best way for airlines to maintain security?
15. Work in pairs. You were churchless but now you feel the necessity of
appealing to God, so you want to be converted. As there are many
religions, you are at a loss. That’s why you ask a theologian to tell you
the main characteristic features of the biggest religious groups (the
structure of the church, holy temples, rules, etc.).
16. Render the text into English.
МИР БУДДЫ
Шри-Ланка – страна удивительно терпимая к любым религиозным взглядам и обычаям: здесь мирно соседствуют буддийские и индуистские храмы, христианские церкви и мусульманские мечети. Но
все же дух Будды словно витает в воздухе. Его образы, высеченные из
серого камня или воплощенные в покрытых золотом металлических
изваяниях, повсюду.
Недалеко от скалы Сигирии находится сокровищница храмовой
живописи – пещерный храм Дамбулла. Здесь же – самая большая коллекция статуй Будды. Некоторым уже более 2000 лет. Храм выстроен
в скале, на головокружительной высоте – 350 метров. В наскальной
живописи древнего монастыря – история Цейлона. Когда в XII веке
56
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
храм реставрировали, то 73 статуи покрыли золотом. С тех пор его и
стали называть «Золотым Пещерным Храмом».
Храмов на Ланке пруд пруди. Неподалеку от Золотого Пещерного Храма – Храм Далада Малигава, где хранится Священный Зуб
Будды. Увидеть Зуб простые смертные могут только раз в году – в
лунный месяц Азала (10 дней и ночей на стыке июля и августа). В это
время происходит великое таинство – драгоценность выносят из храма. Несметные полчища зевак благоговеют. В обычные дни посмотреть святыню могут только монахи.
17. Write an essay on one of the following topics.
9 What should be the role of religion for an individual and for a nation?
9 Describe some religious ritual or ceremony that you find impressive.
9 Are religious wars inevitable?
VII. BUSINESS/ INDUSTRY/ AGRICULTURE
1. See how many of the words and expressions highlighted below you can
have ready for your future economic or financial discussions. Find the
Russian equivalents of the words printed in bold type.
An A to Z of Economics: A Layman's Guide
• A is for automation bringing widespread, full-scale unemployment as the need for manual labour decreases.
• B is for balance of payments: the discrepancy between the
amount of money paid for imports and the amount of money
received for exports.
• C is for cost of living index: the system of measuring the annual rate of inflation. An index-linked pension scheme is not a
bad thing to have on your side.
• D is for devaluation: (The last resort? A panic measure?) an attempt, by reducing the value of one's currency, to increase the
volume of exports compared to imports.
• E is for expansionist policy: reflationary, pumping money
into the economy, boosting investment and employment.
• F is for fiscal matters: anything to do with the Treasury, particularly its revenue, especially through taxation.
• G is for GNP or gross national product: the sum total of the
money earned through a nation's goods and services.
• H is for health, hospitals, housing: three outlets for government expenditure on public services. Other large items
of public expenditure include defence, roads and communications, industry and trade, environmental services and
social security benefits.
• I is for interest rates: a weapon in the Government's armoury,
used to deflate, stimulate or stabilise the economy.
• J is for jobs: a key ball in the economist's juggling act. Are full
employment and a low inflation rate mutually exclusive?
The labour force in Britain can be divided into three categories:
o primary industries (agriculture, fishing, mining, quarrying, forestry)
o production industries (construction, gas, electricity, water, transport and manufacturing, etc)
57
58
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
o services (distributive trades, financial, business, professional and scientific, catering and tourism, national
and local government).
• K is for key industries: those essential to the economic welfare of a nation, such as oil in OPEC countries, precision
engineering in Germany, grain in Canada, textiles in South
East Asia, electronic goods in Japan.
• L is for liquidity: gold and foreign exchange reserves are known
as international liquidity, supervised to some extent by the
IMF (International Monetary Fund).
• M is for monetarism: Professor Milton Friedman's brainchild,
concentrating on the control of money supply to conquer inflation.
• N is for nationalised industries: state-owned corporations,
struggling in Britain to break even and cover their costs, often having to be propped up by the Exchequer. Though often
natural monopolies, they sometimes face competition from
the private sector. During the eighties, several nationalised
industries in Britain were privatised.
• O is for output: the output per employee multiplied by the
number of employees gives a company or a nation’s productivity. Britain’s low rate of increase in this respect (often hardly
any growth) used to be blamed on many things: poor industrial
relations, the Common Market (EEC), world recession, and,
most of all, on old capital equipment that the too slowly expanding workforce had to use. There was some improvement
in the eighties, however.
• P is for protectionism: a policy restricting free trade, encouraging the purchase of domestic products by imposing some form
of import control or duty (tariffs).
• Q is for import quotas: import restrictions. This is one way to
reduce the deficit on current account, and regulating the volume of imports allowed in.
• R is for pay restrain: some kind of incomes policy attempting to
limit the size of wage increases or, in a wage freeze, to stop
them completely. Which is fairer: a percentage increase across
the board or a fixed sum for everyone?
• S is for Stock Exchange: the source of most long-term credit in
Britain, as it is the centre for the buying and selling of stocks and
59
•
•
•
•
shares. Some of these are fixed interest loans with dividends,
some are gilt-edged securities. This can be a risky way to save if
there is a stock market crash.
T is for taxation: the Government’s main means of regulating its
budget. Direct taxation concerns people’s income; indirect
taxes are levied on goods and services.
U is for underemployment: the overmanning of a plant, the result of restrictive labour practices still common today. Higher
efficiency means fewer jobs.
V is for visible trade, as opposed to invisible trade. Visible exports are goods: invisible exports are services which are the basis of an international transaction.
W is for: Why bother about X,Y and Z?
2. Read short passages about economic difficulties and negative practices
and trade and cooperation. Pay close attention to the bold-typed words.
I. If an economy if badly affected by war, we may refer to it as a war-torn
economy. Economies in a bad state are often referred to as ailing economies. Devaluation / revaluation of the currency may be necessary (reduction / increase in value against other currencies). Economies may go into
recession and not come out of / emerge from recession for several years.
A country may suffer from a slump in prices for its goods (serious
fall/collapse in prices). Fiscal measures (measures concerning taxes, etc.)
may be used to boost the economy (give the economy a lift) when it is in
recession.
II. Free trade agreement often cause disputes between countries, especially when one country thinks the other is engaged in restrictive practices. Occasionally, trade wars erupt, and sanctions or embargoes are
imposed on countries, and may not be lifted for long periods. On the other
hand European countries closely related economically and enjoying good
relations have entered into monetary union and have a single currency.
Now try to do this vocabulary quiz.
1) What kind of war can break out between countries concerning
imports and exports?
2) Which two verbs are used with sanctions and embargoes to mean
(a) ‘placing’ and (b) ‘removing’?
60
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
3) What is the name for activities which make free trade difficult or
impossible between countries?
4) What kind of union is it when two or more countries decide to
share a single currency?
5) What do we call sums of money given to poor regions to assist
development?
6) What can we call an economy that is devastated by war?
7) What adjective beginning with the letter ‘a’ can be used to describe an economy in a bad state?
3. Study word collocations concerning international aid, debt and development in the following passage.
Question: Are the UK and Europe trued of trying to encourage real
and lasting development projects in Africa?
Answer: It may surprise you to learn that are many encouraging
signs in Africa. Over the last three years, 31 African countries
achieved economic growth of more than 3% per year. Foreign direct investment, although still too small, has been rising. Africa’s
share in world trade has shown signs of recovering from its long
decline. Some countries, such as Mozambique, Côte d’Ivoire,
Uganda and Mauritius, have done much better than this.
But some 250 million people in Africa still live in deep poverty and
we must do better. With other development agencies we are committed to supporting those African governments which are following
policies to reduce poverty and improve access to better health,
education and clean water.
Useful collocations for debt:
to repay
to cancel
burden
DEBT
to case
debtor countries
to alleviate
to incur
Development grants are often given to poor regions.
Sustainable development is the most important goal for most countries.
61
4. Try to recall from memory the collocations highlighted in ex. 3. Fill
the gaps in these sentences.
1) Development is important, but it should be _______ development,
not the kind that destroys the environment and social structure.
2) The government is _________ a policy of giving aid only where it
is used to ________ poverty.
3) There have been some _________ signs that development aid is
working in many countries.
4) Millions of people still live in _________ poverty. (give two answers)
5) The economy has ______ from its decline and is now doing well.
6) The struggle to _______ economic growth in developing countries is a constant one.
7) It is important to encourage ________ development projects, not
just short-term ones.
8) The goal should be to improve _________ to better health and
education for the poor.
5. Rewrite these sentences about international debt using more appropriate language from the opposite page to replace the underlined words.
1. Over a period of five years, the country got huge debts which it
could not pay back.
2. Countries in debt are so great in some countries that their economies
are collapsing.
3. The weight of debt is so great in some countries that their economies
are collapsing.
4. Richer countries could do a lot to make the debt of poor countries
less heavy (give two answers), and indeed, in some cases, could forget the debt altogether.
6. Discuss these issues.
– What are the key industries in your country?
– Are they declining or growing?
– An expert economist is giving a talk this evening. What are the
five questions you will want to ask him: five things you have never
really understood about economics?
– What would you write in a letter to your MP, attacking the government’s handling of either the current or a recent economic crisis.
62
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
7. Read the text. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of German
economic model.
EUROPEAN LOCOMOTIVE
Today’s Germany is one of the poles of the world economy, the
world’s third largest after the United States and Japan and the No. 2 exporter of industrial products. In many senses, Germans owe these achievements to the German economic model and to the key principles of socioeconomic development that began in the late 1940s an attempt to restore a
country ravaged by war.
This model has allowed Germany not only to provide a high standard of living to its citizens, but also to become one of the world leaders by
the end on the 20th century.
Contemporary Germany rests on the principles of a social market
economy, elaborated by Ludwig Erhardt, a professor at Frairburg University. In 1945, American and British occupation authorities offered him a
position in the economy office of the occupied territory. This nomination
was the impetus for a process that later called «the German economic miracle».
Erhard suggested building an economic system that would marry the
free market with state control. From classical liberalism, the social market
economy borrowed the idea that market mechanisms are the most efficient
method to organize business activities. The role of the state, it held, was to
provide conditions for the market’s development. Therefore, the short-term
fiscal measures to stimulate economic growth were completely out of the
question. Priority was given to price stability and investment.
At the same time, Erhard pinned great importance on state control
over market competition, which was introduced to undermine monopolies,
until that time, a German tradition. Another important aspect of a social
market economy was focusing on the formation and numeral growth of the
middle class, viewed as the pillar of the economy. Thus, all citizens received equal access to old-age pension schemes, health care and education
regardless of wealth or origin.
The realization of Erhard’s program as well as help from overseas
under the U.S. Marshall’s Plan made the German economic miracle possible. West Germany was gaining momentum at an inconceivable rate – 8.5
percent growth of GDP per annum, while prices stayed stable. Unemployment dropped from 8.2 percent in the 50s to 1 percent in the early 60s. It
63
was the first time that notions such as «German quality», «German working
capacity», and «German responsibility» appeared.
In the same period, the modern structure of the German economy
took shape. The major emphasis was put on industry, especially production
of goods with a substantial share of added value. Cars, machines, airplanes,
chemical and pharmaceutical products all secured the growth of exports,
which became the driving force of the West German economy. In the late
60s, economic growth began to slow. As a means of further development,
West Germany opened its borders and invited thousands of economic migrants from Spain, Portugal, Italy, Yugoslavia and Turkey to come work
for decent wages. The low and stable cost labour maintained against the
new technological background ensured the high efficiency of the economy.
Thus, the government could afford to increase spending on social programs. As a result, the philosophy of a social market economy remained
popular not only in Germany, but also outside the country. It is this economic model to which political stability, sustained development, a low inflation rate and high living standards are attributed.
1) Translate the underlined word combinations. Use them in the sentences
of your own.
2) Match the words to their definitions.
a) ravaged
b) impetus
c) short-term
d) pillar
e) driving force
f) sustained
1. very important part of a system of beliefs
2. someone or something that produces a strong effect on people or situations
3. to destroy, ruin, or damage something very badly;
devastate
4. something that for a long time
5. continuing for only a short time, or concerned
only with the period that is not very far into the future
6. feeling an influence that makes people or helps
something to develop or continue doing something
3) Answer the questions.
1. What is «the German economic miracle»?
2. What are the basic features of German economic model?
3. What do you know about current situation in German economy?
64
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
4) Read the translation of the text «European Locomotive» and prepare its
reverse translation.
ЕВРОПЕЙСКИЙ ЛОКОМОТИВ
Сегодня Германия – это один из полюсов мирового хозяйства,
страна, занимающая третье место в мире по уровню развития экономика (после США и Японии), второй крупнейший экспортер промышленной продукции. Этими достижениями немцы во многом обязаны
«германской экономической модели», ключевым принципам социально-экономического развития, взятым на вооружение в конце 40-х гг.
для того, чтобы восстановить полностью разрушенную Второй мировой войной страну. «Германская модель» позволила ФРГ не только
создать высочайший уровень жизни для своего населения, но и стать в
конце ХХ столетия одним из мировых лидеров.
Современная экономика Германии базируется на принципах социального рыночного хозяйства, разработанных профессором Фрайбургского университета Людвигом Эрхардом. В 1945 г. американские
и британские оккупационные власти предложили ему занять должность в экономической администрации подконтрольных им оккупационных зон. Это удачное кадровое решение стало толчком для многолетнего процесса, названного позже «немецким экономическим чудом».
Эрхард предложил построить систему, которая стала бы компромиссом между свободным рынком и государственным вмешательством. Из классического либерализма социальное рыночное хозяйство
позаимствовало представления о том, что рыночный механизм – наиболее эффективное средство для организации экономической активности; роль государства заключается в обеспечении условий для развития рынка. Таким образом, краткосрочные меры по фискальному и
эмиссионному стимулированию роста полностью исключались. Приоритет был отдан стабильности цен и стимулированию инвестиций. В
то же время Эрхард отводил важную роль контролю со стороны государства за конкуренцией на рынке, что должно было разрушить традиционную для Германии систему монополий. Еще одним важным
аспектом социального рыночного хозяйства оказалась ставка на формирование и рост среднего класса как основы экономики. Так, все жители страны вне зависимости от благосостояния и происхождения получили равный доступ к пенсионным схемам, здравоохранению и образованию.
65
Благодаря реализации программы Людвига Эрхарда, а также широкомасштабной помощи из-за океана по плану Маршалла в 1950-е гг.
стало возможным «немецкое экономическое чудо». Экономика Западной Германии росла невероятными темпами – 8,5 % прироста ВВП в
год, в то время как цены оставались стабильными. Безработица упала
с 8,2 % в 1950 г. до 1 % в начале 1960-х гг. Именно в те далекие 50–
60-е гг. сформировались такие понятия, как «немецкое качество», «немецкая работоспособность» и «немецкая ответственность». В тот период сложилась современная структура германской экономики, в которой приоритетную роль играет промышленность, особенно производство товаров с высокой долей добавленной стоимости. Производство автомобилей, станков, самолетов, химическая и фармацевтическая промышленность обеспечили рост экспорта, который стал движущей силой западногерманской экономики.
По мере того как в 60-е гг. была достигнута полная занятость,
экономический рост в ФРГ замедлился. Для обеспечения дальнейшего
развития была открыта массовая трудовая миграция – «гастарбайтеры» из Испании, Италии, Португалии, Югославии и Турции десятками
тысяч отправлялись в Западную Германию на заработки. Сохраняющаяся дешевизна рабочей силы на фоне применения новых технологий обеспечивала высокую эффективность экономики, благодаря чему
правительство могло увеличить расходы на социальные программы. В
результате философия социального рыночного хозяйства осталась
популярной не только в Германии, но и за ее пределами. Это та экономическая модель, которая предполагает политическую стабильность, непрерывное развитие, низкий уровень инфляции и высокий
уровень жизни населения.
8. Read the article.
SWEDEN: SHAKY POLITICS BUT ECONOMIC SUCCESS
In recent weeks, politics have dominated the scene in Sweden. The
market has been subjected to all sorts of arguments about EMU risks, the
unpopularity of the present SDP government, high unemployment and
policy risks. Invariably, both the bond market and the krona have been in
a state of free fall, and the consensus is increasingly pointing in the direction of worse things to come. We disagree. While we note that important
risks lie ahead, we believe that the main objective of fiscal policy, namely
66
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
balancing the budget in 1998, will not be compromised and that the excellent fundamentals will eventually re-assert themselves.
Let's start with a bit of history. The currency and bond relative
weakness since the beginning of the year began when PM Persson announced that new calculations by the ministry of finance suggest that there
will be a budget surplus of around SKr 10 billion in 1998. The PM then
stated that it is his government's intention to spend this surplus on education, health-care and welfare. These comments came as a shock to the
market. Until then, Mr. Persson's name had been associated with fiscal rectitude. As a prime minister, however, he left fiscal rectitude in the hands of
his finance minister, Mr. Åsbrink. Mr. Persson's efforts are now focused on
improving the fortunes of the SDP. Hence, when taken against the backdrop of an election in September 1998, these comments should not have
come as a surprise. The SDP is lagging in the opinion polls, with traditional SDP voters deserting the party in favour of the far left, and the autumn has been marked by popular demonstrations.
Looking ahead, a key risk on the horizon is the upcoming spring bill
on 15 April. Under the new budget regime, the April budget statement
should contain all the key guidelines and expenditure ceilings for 1998.
The September budget will only serve to fill in the gaps. Given the political
calendar over the next 18 months, the 15 April presentation is likely to be
an election budget. Hence, market participants should not have high expectations. At the end of the day, the SDP's commitment to welfare should
never be put in doubt. In our view, as long as the finance minister does not
compromise the objective of budget balance in 1998, there should be little
damage to confidence in policy-making. In relative terms, Sweden's public
finances remain far better than most of Europe's, including all EMU firstround aspirants.
Looking beyond the spring bill, we believe that the economic fundamentals will eventually reassert themselves. As we highlighted before,
in our view Sweden's economic prospects are among the best in Europe:
Growth: The latest GDP report showed fourth-quarter GDP growth
of 1.1 % QoQ. For the year as a whole, GDP expanded 1.1 % in 1996. Although this final result was well below our forecast of 2.0 %, the shortfall
is accounted for by a big inventory drawdown to the tune of 1.0 % of GDP.
Hence, it may be useful to point out that 1996 final sales, defined as GDP
less inventory changes, were up 2.1 %. The GDP data were consistent with
our expectations of acceleration in growth to 3.3 % in 1997. We are looking for strong growth in exports and investment to continue. Furthermore,
we believe that the inventory cycle came to an end in the fourth quarter and
that inventories are likely to lend support to growth in 1997. Our strongest
dissension with the consensus remains in the area of private consumption,
where we are looking for an expansion of 2.5 %, led by a strong gains in
real disposable income and stronger household balance sheets.
Inflation: The outlook is the best in Europe. Following the January
and February results, we are revising down the 1997 CPI average to 0.5 %
from 1.3 %. Although inflation will be drifting higher in the course of this
year and next, CPI inflation is unlikely to pose a threat to the Riksbank's
inflation target of 2.0 %. More importantly, the upcoming wage negotiations should be marked by a considerable downward shift in inflationary
expectations. In fact, the 2.6 % agreement in the forestry sector was a step
in the right direction and, more importantly, a good benchmark for future
wage negotiations. Although some participants are already warning about
the inflationary consequences of the weak krona, we believe that risks so
far are likely to be limited to 0.3 % in the long-run if the krona remains at
current levels. Given our expectation of a krona recovery, this is not our
base case scenario.
Current Account: The rise is accounted for by a favourable trade
performance. The trade surplus reached SKr 120 billion in 1996 led by a
continued favourable competitiveness and a relatively strong growth in
the global economy. With Europe witnessing a cyclical snapback, we believe that Swedish external balances will continue to rise this year. We estimate the current account to reach SKr 55 billion this year (3.2 % of GDP)
and SKr 65 billion in 1998 (3.6 % of GDP).
In summary, public finances are important for the credibility of
overall economic policies. Ideally, a stringent budget bill on 15 April
would restore the lost credibility. Realistically, given the political calendar,
we would settle for a budget that respects the original objective of budget
balance in 1998. We believe that the fundamentals always win in the end.
Hence, once the spring bill is out of the way, we believe that the krona will
stabilise and retrace its lost territory. A stronger krona could open the way
for further rate cuts.
67
68
1) Look up in the dictionary the Russian equivalents of the word written in
a bold type.
2) Answer the following questions:
a) What is the general idea of Sweden economy? Does it differ from
the author’s understanding?
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
b) How is the budget surplus going to be spent?
c) Why is the 1998 budget called an election one?
d) What is the economic forecast for exports and investment?
e) What does the inflation outlook say?
f) What is meant by a favourable trade performance?
g) What does the author expect in terms of Sweden economic development?
3) Comment on the title.
4) Find the synonyms to the underlined word combinations in the article.
Continue the list of words with the meaning of ‘rise’ and ‘decrease’.
9. Read the text «China in the World» and compare economic situation
and growth in your country with that in China. Among other aspects
compare the state of and the prospects for your nation’s economy and
that of China along the following lines:
o The program of economic reforms;
o GNP growth rate; current rate of economic development;
o Purchasing power of the nation and its currency’s purchasing
power;
o Competitiveness of national products;
o Per capita income;
o Telecommunications and information development.
CHINA IN THE WORLD
KEY TO CHINA'S ECONOMIC SUCCESS
Key to China's current economic success is the country's gradual
lowering of barriers to entry. Overseas Chinese, especially the Hong Kong
Chinese, have been the first to take advantage of this. There is a natural
synergy between China, Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan. The combination
of Hong Kong and southern China offers enormous global competitive advantage in terms of quality, price, volume, and delivery. It is estimated that
Hong Kong entrepreneurs alone have opened as many as forty thousand
factories in southern China. The border village of Shenzhen has emerged as
a thriving city of two million with China's highest per capita income.
Not to be outdone, Shanghai has launched itself on a massive revitalization effort aimed at reclaiming the role it had before the Second
World War – that of Asia's leading business center
China is rushing at a phenomenal rate, not merely in growth terms,
but conceptually as well. «China is leapfrogging into both the industrial
and information ages», explained Mei-Wei Cheng, president of AT&T
China, which signed a wide-ranging memorandum of understanding with
the Chinese authorities on telecommunications development.
«China is telescoping the development of its economic infrastructure
and telecommunications / information highways into a single process. This
has profound implications for the country's current rate of economic development and will shape China's potential for economic expansion into the
next century».
10. Look through an overview of Russia’s economy. Translate the words
printed in bold type. Prepare a short presentation of the current situation in any sector of Russia’s economy.
The most significant economic development of the last quarter of
the 20th century is the opening of China.
Effectively walled out of western economic consciousness for almost 40 years, the return of China is rapidly being recognized as the most
crucial defining factor of future world economic growth.
Since 1979 when China launched its program of economic reform,
its GNP has more than doubled. Exports have boomed as China grabbed
world market share from Asia's more developed economics. For example,
China now commands 25 % of the world footwear market, compared to
10 % in 1980; and 10 % of the audiovisual equipment market, compared to
virtually none in the early '80s.
In 1993 China's real growth rate was around 13,4 %. By comparison,
U.S. growth did not to exceed 3,0 %. The World Bank already calls China
the world's third largest economy in terms of purchasing power.
A decade after the implosion of the Soviet Union in 1991, Russia is
still struggling to establish a modern market economy and achieve strong
economic growth. In contrast to its trading partners in Central Europe –
which were able to overcome the initial production declines that accompanied the launch of market reforms within three to five years – Russia
saw its economy contract for five years, as the executive and legislature
dithered over the implementation of many of the basic foundations of a
market economy. Russia achieved a slight recovery in 1997, but the government's stubborn budget deficits and the country's poor business climate made it vulnerable when the global financial crisis swept through in
1998. The crisis culminated in the August depreciation of the ruble, a
debt default by the government, and a sharp deterioration in living stan-
69
70
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
dards for most of the population. The economy rebounded in 1999 and
2000, buoyed by the competitive boost from the weak ruble and a surging
trade surplus fueled by rising world oil prices. This recovery, along with
a renewed government effort in 2000 to advance lagging structural reforms,
have raised business and investor confidence over Russia's prospects in its
second decade of transition. Yet serious problems persist. Russia remains
heavily dependent on exports of commodities, particularly oil, natural gas,
metals, and timber, which account for over 80 % of exports, leaving the
country vulnerable to swings in world prices. Russia's agricultural sector
remains beset by uncertainty over land ownership rights, which has discouraged needed investment and restructuring. Another threat is negative
demographic trends, fueled by low birth rates and a deteriorating
health situation – including an alarming rise in AIDS cases – that have
contributed to a nearly 2 % drop in the population since 1992. Russia's industrial base is increasingly dilapidated and must be replaced or modernized if the country is to achieve sustainable economic growth. Other problems include widespread corruption, capital flight, and brain drain.
GDP – composition by sector: agriculture: 7 %, industry: 34 %, services: 59 %.
Labor force – by occupation: agriculture 15 %, industry 30 %, services 55 % (1999).
Industries: complete range of mining and extractive industries producing coal, oil, gas, chemicals, and metals; all forms of machine building
from rolling mills to high-performance aircraft and space vehicles; shipbuilding; road and rail transportation equipment; communications equipment; agricultural machinery, tractors, and construction equipment; electric
power generating and transmitting equipment; medical and scientific instruments; consumer durables, textiles, foodstuffs, handicrafts.
Exports – commodities: petroleum and petroleum products, natural
gas, wood and wood products, metals, chemicals, and a wide variety of
civilian and military manufactures.
Exports – partners: U.S. 8.8 %, Germany 8.5 %, Ukraine 6.5 %, Belarus 5.1 %, Italy 5 %, Netherlands 4.8 % (1999).
Imports – commodities: machinery and equipment, consumer goods,
medicines, meat, grain, sugar, semifinished metal products.
Imports – partners: Germany 13.8 %, Belarus 10.7 %, Ukraine 8.3 %,
US 7.9 %, Kazakhstan 4.6 %, Italy 3.8 % (1999).
Currency: Russian ruble (RUR).
Currency code: RUR.
Fiscal year: calendar year.
71
VIII. GOVERNMENT TYPE/ POLITICS
1. 1) Read the text and choose the most suitable heading from the list 1–
13 for each part (I–XIII) of the text.
GOVERNMENT IN CANADA
I.
Canada is a federation. The federal system of government means
that powers and responsibilities are divided between the federal government and the 10 Canadian provincial governments. Canada also has territorial jurisdictions in the far north of the country.
The federal government includes the Prime Minister and Cabinet.
Government members are members of parliament. The Parliament buildings are located in Ottawa. The laws passed in parliament are implemented
by different federal departments.
II.
Queen Elizabeth II is Canada's official head of state. She is represented in this country by the Governor General at the federal level and the
Lieutenant Governors at the provincial level. All federal legislation must
receive the assent of the Governor General, within the parameters of the
Canadian constitution. This is what makes Canada a constitutional monarchy.
III.
Parliament consists of the House of Commons, the Senate and the
Governor General.
The House of Commons is the national legislature elected by Canadian citizens. It is made up of 301 members. Members of parliament are
usually associated with a political party, although some members do sit
independently.
The Senate is the Upper House of Parliament. Members of the Senate are appointed by the Governor General upon recommendation by the
Prime Minister. In addition to its consideration of parliamentary legislation,
the Senate is also asked to investigate important economic and social issues.
With specific exceptions, all parliamentary legislation must be approved by the House of Commons, the Senate and the Governor General
before it can become law. Most parliamentary legislation is introduced by
the government.
72
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
IV.
By convention, the political party with the most elected members in
the House of Commons will take the leading role in forming the government. If it has a majority of seats (151), then it automatically forms a majority government. If it has fewer than 151 seats, the leading party will seek
the cooperation of other parties. The leader of this party becomes the Prime
Minister. The party with the second highest number of seats usually becomes the Official Opposition. Its leader becomes the Leader of the Opposition. Since the federal election of 2 June 1997, there are five official parties in the House of Commons.
The Prime Minister chooses a Cabinet from members of the leading
party in the House of Commons. The Prime Minister and Cabinet must
maintain the confidence of the House of Commons, a practice known as
'responsible government'.
Each member of Cabinet is responsible for the management of certain aspects of the federal government. To this end, most Cabinet members
oversee the operations of one or more federal departments or agencies. The
most senior officials in departments are called Deputy Ministers. They are
not elected, and are, generally career public servants, directly responsible to
the Cabinet Minister.
V.
According to the practice of their federal counterparts, each provincial government is drawn from the elected members of the provincial assembly. The provincial leader, however, is called the Premier.
The provincial legislatures do not have a Senate. In order for provincial legislation to become law, it needs approval of the provincial assembly
and the Queen's provincial representative, the Lieutenant Governor.
VI.
The territories are not sovereign units. Their powers are delegated by
Parliament, and thus they are subordinate bodies. The territories also have
elected assemblies that follow many of the same practices as the provincial
and federal governments.
VII.
Local governments are elected regularly to manage municipalities,
cities, towns and regions. Local governments do not have constitutional
powers, but rather have functions delegated to them by other levels of government. Mayors, councillors and school board officials, for example, are
73
elected to their positions directly. Usually, they do not formally represent
political parties.
VIII.
In accordance largely with the Constitution Act of 1867, the federal
government handles such matters as: defence, criminal law, banking, postal
system, foreign relations. The federal government is also involved in many
other areas including transportation, communication, immigration, health,
and environmental matters.
Provincial governments are constitutionally responsible for such
matters as: civil justice, property, municipal institutions. In practice, the
provinces share responsibility with the federal government for such matters
as: health services, agriculture, immigration, social assistance, transportation.
Local governments are responsible for services within a city or region including: schools, police and fire protection, water and sewage services, recreation, local public transportation.
IX.
By law, federal and provincial elections must be held at least every
five years, although they can be called earlier. If a minority government has
a bill defeated in the House of Commons, an election must take place. In all
cases, the decision to call an election is taken by the Prime Minister. All
voting is by secret ballot. At the local levels of government, elections are
usually held every two or three years.
X.
To vote in a federal election, you must be a Canadian citizen and at
least 18 years old. For provincial or municipal elections, the age and citizenship requirements may vary.
XI.
All individuals and organizations in Canada, including Parliament,
are bound by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. All individuals
and organizations are also bound by the laws of Parliament. Law enforcement agencies throughout the country, including the Royal Canadian
Mounted Police, have the responsibility of ensuring universal compliance
with the laws of Parliament.
74
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
XII.
The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms is part of the Constitution Act, 1982, and enshrines the basic principles and values by which
Canadians live and govern themselves. It also defines and guarantees personal rights and fundamental freedoms including freedom of conscience
and religion, freedom of thought, belief, opinion and expression, freedom
of peaceful assembly and freedom of association.
XIII.
Canadians are proud of their democracy, and see government as a
body responsible to them. Canadians value principles of fair and equal access and the open exchange of ideas. Bribery and corruption at any level of
government are not tolerated. The majority of Canadians votes regularly in
government elections, and, indeed, sees voting as a responsibility in a democratic society.
1. What role does the Queen play?
2. How is law enforced?
3. What are the responsibilities of the levels of government in Canada?
4. How are the provincial and territorial governments formed?
5. Who can vote?
6. Local Governments.
7. How is Parliament chosen?
8. What is the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms?
9. Territorial Governments.
10. How do Canadians view government?
11. How is the federal government formed?
12. How and when are elections held?
13. How is Canada governed?
2) Fill in the gaps in the chart below.
Government
Federal government
Prime Minister
_________
Parliament
___________
(chosen by PM)
The house of The Senate
The Governor General
___________ appointed by______
75
3) Answer the following questions:
1. What does the federal system of government mean?
2. Who is Canada’s official head of state?
3. Who are Queen Elizabeth’s representatives at the provincial
level?
4. Who takes the leading role in forming the Parliament?
5. Who are Deputy Ministers?
6. What is the procedure for provincial legislation to become law?
7. What does the federal government handle and what is left to provincial and local governments?
8. What is the procedure of elections in Canada?
9. What is the role of Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms?
10. What do Canadians think about their government? What is your
opinion?
4) Compare the government in Canada with that of another country.
2. Have a look at the government structure in Germany and fill in the
gaps.
Официальное название: Федеративная Республика Германия
Official name: __________
________: федеративная республика
Government type: ________
Административное деление:_____
_______________: 16 states
________________:
глава государства – ___________
_______________ – канцлер
кабинет министров: президент назначает ________ , кандидатуры
которых предлагает ___________;
президент
избирается
сроком
________бундестагом и ________,
выбранными земельными парламентами;
________ избирается абсолютным
большинством депутатов _______
сроком на четыре года
Executive branch: _____ –
president head of government
– _________: Cabinet or Federal Ministers appointed by
the ____ on the recommendation of the chancellor;
________elected for a fiveyear term by the _____ and an
equal number of delegates
elected by the___________;
chancellor elected by an ___
of the Bundestag for _______
76
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Законодательная власть:_______
Депутаты бундестага избираются
______ и косвенным голосованием
сроком на четыре года; для того
чтобы получить представительство
в бундестаге, партиям необходимо
получить 5% _________ или три
прямых мандата.
Состав ______ зависит от результатов голосования в землях; каждая
____ в зависимости от населения
имеет от 3 до 6 голосов.
______: bicameral Parliament
The Bundestag is elected by
popular vote under a system
combining direct and proportional representation; members serve_______; a party
must win 5% of the national
vote or three _______to gain
representation.
____ governments are directly
represented in the Bundesrat
by votes; each state has 3 to 6
votes depending on________.
__________________: федеральный
конституционный суд;
_______ избирается бундестагом,
_____________ – бундесратом.
Judicial branch:__________;
Half the judges are elected by
_________ and ________ by
the Bundesrat.
3. Have a look at some facts concerning Sweden and compare them to the
similar ones concerning any other country. Do you know organizations
that stand by the abbreviations? If no, find them in a dictionary. Is
Russia a member of any of them?
Administrative divisions: 21 counties
Capital city: Stockholm
Constitution: 1 January 1975
Executive branch (cabinet): Cabinet appointed by the prime minister
Executive branch (chief of state): King CARL XVI GUSTAF (since 19 September 1973); Heir Apparent Princess VICTORIA Ingrid Alice Desiree,
daughter of the monarch (born 14 July 1977)
Executive branch (elections): the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the prime minister is elected by the Parliament
Executive branch (head of government): Prime Minister
Sweden is a member of the European Union.
Female ministers: 17.6 % [45th of 132]
Female parliamentarians: 42.7 [1st of 161]
First female parliamentarian: 1921 (elected)
Flag description: blue with a golden yellow cross extending to the edges of
the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style
of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)
77
Government type: constitutional monarchy
Independence: 6 June 1523
International organization participation: AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group,
BIS, CBSS, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 6,
G- 9, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO,
ITU, MONUC, NAM (guest), NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer),
OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNDOF,
UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIBH,
UNMIK, UNMISET, UNMOGIP, UNOMIG, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WEU
(observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Hogsta Domstolen (judges are appointed by the prime minister and the cabinet)
Legal system: civil law system influenced by customary law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Riksdag (349 seats; members
are elected by popular vote on a proportional representation basis to serve
four-year terms)
National holiday: Flag Day, 6 June
Political parties: Center Party, Christian Democratic Party, Green Party,
Left Party or VP (formerly Communist), Liberal People's Party, Moderate
Party (conservative), Social Democratic Party
Status: democracy
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
UN membership date: 19 Nov. 1946
4. The relationship between any country and the rest of the world can
reveal a great deal about that country. Read the text about the UK relations with the rest of the world and say what facts concerning the UK
you find interesting.
THE END OF EMPIRE
The map below shows the British Empire in 1519, at the time of us
greatest extent by this time, however, it was already becoming less of an
empire and more of a confederation. At the same international conference
at which Britain acquired new possessions (Formerly German) under the
Treaty of Versailles, Australia, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa
were all represented separately from Britain.
78
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
The real dismantling of the empire took place in the twenty-five
years following the Second World War and with the loss of empire went a
loss of power and status. These days, Britain's armed Forces can no longer
act unilaterally, without reference to the international community. Two events
illustrate this. First, Suez. In 1956, Egypt, without prior agreement, took
over the Suez canal from the international company owned by Britain and
France. British and French military action lo stop this was a diplomatic disaster. The USA did not support them and their troops were forced to withdraw. Second, Cyprus. When this country left the British empire, Britain
became one of the guarantors of its independence from any other country.
However, when Turkey invaded the island in 1974, British military activity
was restricted to airlifting the personnel of its military base there to safety.
After the Second World War and throughout the 1950s, it was understood that a conference of the world's great powers involved the USA, the
Soviet Union and Britain. However, in 1962, the Cuban missile crisis, one of
the greatest threats to global peace since the war, was resolved without reference to Britain. By the 1970s it was generally accepted that a 'superpower'
conference involved only the USA and the Soviet Union.
Despite Britain's loss of power and status on the world stage, some
small remnants of the empire remain. Whatever their racial origins, some
inhabitants of Gibraltar, St Helena, the Ascension Islands, the Falklands/
Malvinas and Belize have all wished to continue with the imperial arrangement (they are afraid of being swallowed up by their nearest neighbours).
For British governments, on the one hand this is a source of pride, but on
the other hand it causes embarrassment and irritation: pride, because it
suggests how beneficial the British imperial administration must have
been; embarrassment, because the possession of colonial territories does
not fit with the image of a modern democratic state; and irritation because
it costs the British taxpayer money.
The old imperial spirit is not quite dead. In 1982 the British government spent hundreds of millions of pounds to recapture the Falklands/Malvinas Islands from the invading Argentinians. We cannot know if
it would have done so if the inhabitants had not been in favour of remaining
British and if Argentina had not had a military dictatorship at the time. But
what we do know is that the government’s action received enormous
popular support at home. Before the 'Falkland's War', opinion polls
showed that the government was extremely unpopular; afterwards, it suddenly became extremely popular and easily won the general election early
in the following year.
79
80
TRANSATLANTIC RELATIONS
Since the Second World War, British governments have often referred to the 'special relationship' which exists between Britain and the
USA. There have been occasional low points, such as Suez and when the
USA invaded the Caribbean island of Grenada (a member of the British
Commonwealth). But generally speaking it has persisted. It survived the
Falklands War, when the USA offered Britain important material help, but
little public support, and regained its strength in 1991 during the Gulf
War against Iraq, when Britain gave more active material support to the
Americans than any other European country.
Public feeling about the relationship is ambiguous. On the one hand,
it is reassuring to be so diplomatically close to the most powerful nation in
the world, and the shared language gives people some sense of brotherhood
with Americans. On the other hand, there is mild bitterness about the sheer
power of the USA. There is no distrust, but remarks are often made about
Britain being nothing more than the fifty-first state of the USA. Similarly,
while some older people remember with gratitude the Americans who
came to their aid in two world wars, others resent the fact that it took them
so long to get involved!
In any case, the special relationship has inevitably declined in significance since Britain joined the European Community. In the world trade
negotiations of the early 1990s, there was nothing special about Britain's
position with regard to the USA – it was just part of the European trading
bloc. The opening of the Channel tunnel in 1994 has emphasized that Britain's links are now mainly with Europe. Tourist statistics also point this
way. In 1993, for the first time, it was not American visitors who arrived in
the greatest numbers, it was the French, and there were almost as many
German visitors as Americans. The majority of visitors to Britain are now
from Europe.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
THE SOVEREIGNTY OF THE UNION: EUROPE
When the European Coal and Steel Community was formed in 1951,
Britain thought it was an excellent idea, but nothing to do with Britain!
Long years of an empire based on sea power meant that the traditional attitude to Europe had been to encourage stability there, to discourage any expansionist powers there, but otherwise to leave it well alone.
As the empire disappeared, and the role of 'the world's policeman'
was taken over by the USA, the British government decided to ask for
membership of the newly-formed European Communities. It took more
than ten years for this to be achieved (in 1973). From the very start, the
British attitude to membership has been ambiguous. On the one hand, it is
seen as an economic necessity and a political advantage (increasing Britain's status as a regional power). The referendum on continued membership
in 1975 (the first in British history) produced a two-to-one majority in favour. On the other hand, acceptance does not mean enthusiasm. The underlying attitude – that Britain is somehow special – has not really changed
and there are fears that Britain is gradually giving up its autonomy.
Answer thee following questions:
1) What caused the dismantling of the British empire?
2) What do Suez and Cyprus illustrate?
3) Why is the desire of some ex-British islands a source of pride,
embarrassment and irritation for Britain?
4) What caused the ‘Falklands War’?
5) Why is public feeling about British-American relationship ambiguous?
6) What is to your mind the role of Britain on the global political
stage?
5. Look through the chart about Russia. Give the Russian equivalents of
the terms printed in bold type.
place name with an adjectival ending 'skaya' or 'skiy,' the word Oblast' or
Avonomnyy Okrug or Kray should be added to the place name.
Independence: 24 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday: Russia Day, 12 June (1990)
Constitution: adopted 12 December 1993
Legal system: based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Chief of state: President
Head of government: Premier
First Deputy Premier, Deputy Premiers
Cabinet: Ministries of the Government or «Government» composed of the
premier and his deputies, ministers, and other agency heads; all are appointed by the president
Note: there is also a Presidential Administration (PA) that provides staff
and policy support to the president, drafts presidential decrees, and coordinates policy among government agencies; a Security Council also reports directly to the president
Elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term; note – no
vice president; if the president dies in office, cannot exercise his powers
because of ill health, is impeached, or resigns, the premier succeeds him;
the premier serves as acting president until a new presidential election is
held, which must be within three months; premier appointed by the president with the approval of the Duma
Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly or Federalnoye Sobraniye consists of the Federation Council or Sovet Federatsii (178 seats)
and the State Duma or Gosudarstvennaya Duma (450 seats)
Judicial branch: Constitutional Court; Supreme Court; Superior Court
of Arbitration; judges for all courts are appointed for life by the Federation Council on the recommendation of the president
Conventional long country name: Russian Federation
Conventional short form: Russia
Former: Russian Empire, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
Government type: federation
Capital: Moscow
Administrative divisions: 49 oblasts, 21 republics, 10 autonomous okrugs,
6 krays, 2 federal cities and 1 autonomous oblast; note – when using a
Political parties: Agrarian Party; Communist Party of the Russian Federation or KPRF; Fatherland-All Russia or OVR; Liberal Democratic Party of
Russia or LDPR; Union of Right Forces; Unity; Yabloko Bloc
81
82
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
International organization participation: APEC, ASEAN (dialogue partner),
BIS, BSEC, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN (observer), CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE,
ESCAP, G- 8, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC,
IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MINURSO, MONUC, NAM (guest),
NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UN Security Council, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM,
UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNOMIG, UNTAET,
UNTSO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer),
ZC
Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red
IX. INTERESTING FACTS
1. Read the texts and do the exercises.
1) What is Stan? Read the article and say what else you know about the
countries that are called Stans? What are their roles in the world arena
currently and in the future? Discuss these issues in pairs and then compare your viewpoints.
-stan suffix \stan, stän\ [Per.] 1: place, place of; 2: land. Adopted into several languages fromi Parsian, the court language employed in antique
kingdoms of Central Asia. Thus the place or land of the Afghans is Afghanistan, the place of the Tajiks, Tajikistan.
Toothy borders carve up a region shaped by centuries of sociopolitical upheaval. Covering an area more than two-thirds larger than
the European Union, the «Stans» weave an Asian carpet of many colors: blue of the Caspian Sea, gold of desert sands, and red of blood
spilled in conflict. Their collective population of almost 230 million
people exceeds Russia's by more than half. Yet prior to 1991 the map
showed only Afghanistan and Pakistan. Then came the Soviet breakup
and the birth of five independent nations. A decade later they're all
struggling with drought, poverty, and internal strife. With Afghanistan
in turmoil, the world has turned a curious eye on these enigmatic countries. Who are the Stans?
They are a diverse lot, these seven Stans. Only Kazakhstan, one of
the five Stan born ten years ago in the breakup of the Soviet Union, seems
likely to enjoy a prosperous future, thanks to enormous oil reserves. Someday Turkmenistan may also be rich – it has abundant natural gas – but for
now it stagnates in one-man rule. Pakistan must be reckoned the most formidable Stan, possessing a large army and nuclear weapons to boot. It is
also volatile and violent. Two of the ex-Soviet slates, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, seem likely to become welfare nations, depending on the largesse
of international lenders. After 23 years of conflict Afghanistan is the neediest of all, a gutted shell of a state with millions of land mines embedded in
its earth.
The Stans' common denominator is the harshness of their shared
landscape, sweeps of desert and near desert riven by soaring mountain
chains: the Hindu Kush, the Pamirs, the Safed Koh. Mountains mean life.
Snowmelt feeds the rivers that support cities and farms; in Pakistan the In-
83
84
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
dus nourishes one of the most intensely irrigated regions on Earth. Engineers in the Soviet Stans harnessed the Amu Darya and Syr Darya to grow
cotton on huge farms. The new nations still grapple with the aftereffects,
land poisoned by agricultural chemicals and transformed into barren salt
marshes.
In ancient times, the British historian Arnold Toynbee has written,
Afghanistan was a «roundabout», a traffic circle, with routes converging
«from all quarters of the compass and from which routes radiate out to all
quarters of the compass again». Those routes – silk roads and spice roads
arcing across mountain passes, leaping from spring to well to river valley –
knitted Afghanistan and the other Stans into a single skein. Mighty conquerors strode these routs: Cyrus and Darius of Persia, Alexander, Attila,
Mahmud, Tamerlane, Babur. The number of dynasties domestic and foreign grew to more than a score. From India in the third century B.C. came
Buddhism with Asoka, bloody conqueror who became an evangelist of
peace, renouncing the killing of any living thing. Buddhism endured for
hundreds of years, time enough and more for artisans to carve soaring
Buddhas in the rock of Bamian – statues gone forever, the last two destroyed by Taliban dynamite in March of last year.
In turn, the Buddhists were engulfed by Islam, first brought eastward
to Iran by Arabs, then to the Stans beginning about A.D. 700. Through still
mainly Islamic, the Stans practice markedly different versions of faith. In
Pakistan conservative mullahs exhort street crowds with strident anti-U.S.
rhetoric. Islam in the ex-Soviet Stans is mostly moderate, even lax. Uzbekistan, applying harsh Soviet-era rules, has jailed thousands of Muslims out
of fear of an Islamic uprising aimed at supplanting the secular government.
The Stans are shot through with such issues of human rights and
governance. Pakistan is again under military rule. Rigid Soviet ways (oneparty rule, a smothered press) have not vanished from the former Soviet
regions. For most of the Stans the road to democracy looks long and uphill.
Security may be no closer. Nor peace.
2) Pair work. Student A is to read the text Strong Roots, student B – Wild
Card. Then exchange your ideas about two Stans, covering the following
points: politics, economy, social life, prospects.
STRONG ROOTS
Under the Soviets the epic was banned in schools, except for parts
rewritten to conform to Soviel ideology; in Kyrgyzslan as elsewhere Moscow suppressed ethnic tradition and pride. But Soviet authority did not easily penetrate the soaring Pamir and Tian Shan mountain ranges, and the
Kyrgyz who lived there clung to their roots. Shepherds sang of Manas
around their campfires and parents handed down verses to their children.
Annexed to Russia in 1876 as part of Russian Turkistan, the territory
of the Kyrgyz became a Soviet republic in 1936. The Soviets renamed the
capital Frunze, for a general of the Russian Revolution. After 1991 the
Kyrgyz took back the city's original name Bishkek, which is said to mean
«five knights». Legend holds that the knights fought one another to possess
the enticing site, a valley beneath shimmering mountains.
Today it’s hard to imagine knights squabbling over a raffish city of
Soviet-style apartment blocks, the home of many of the 603,000 Russians
who remain in Kyrgyzstan.
All told, Russians are 13 percent of the population. Another 300,000
have departed, often complaining that jobs were being «Kyrgyz-fied». To
encourage skilled technitians to remain, the post-Soviet government in
1996 recognized Russian as an official language alongside Kyrgyz, which,
like Uzbek and Turkmen, is a Turkic tongue.
Kyrgyzstan’s mountains haven’t insulated the nation from the turmoil afflicting its neighbors. Bands of guerrillas, part of a radical movement that aspires to create Islamic states, have infiltrated from neighboring
Tajikistan, taking hostages and battling Kyrgyz troops.
President Akayev has sometimes used Soviet methods, muzzling
critical newspapers and harassing and arresting political opponents or disqualifying them from seeking office. Akayev’s own reelection in 2000 was
tarnished by stuffed ballot boxes and voter intimidation. Despite state restrictions, an independent press and opposition parties survive.
Trying to shift to a market economy, Akayev government Soviet-era
factories and other enterprises into share-holder companies. But few have
been able to find markets, and the government needs cash as it grapples
with high unemployment, inflation, and potholed roads.
Central Asian experts say that Kyrgyzstan, already a debtor nation,
will need continual shoring up by international lending agences. The Manas
legend may indeed be the country’s spiritual foundation; unfortunately, it
doesn’t pay the bills.
Under Soviet rule religion was suppressed. But Muslims displayed
crude sickles that also evoke the crescent moon – symbol of Islam.
85
86
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
What information can you get from the following chart?
Kyrgyzstan:
Population: 4.8 million
Capital: Bishkek
Languages: Kyrgyz and Russian (no breakdown available)
Ethnic groups: Kyrgyz – 65 %, Uzbek – 14 %, Russian – 13 %, other – 8 %
Religions: Muslim – 75 %, Russian Orthodox – 20 %, other – 5 %
Life expectancy: 63.5 years
Infant mortality: 77 per 1,000 births
Total area: 76,641 square miles
In brief: The Epic of Manas recounts the tale of a medieval tribal leader’s
adventures conquering land for the Turkic people and of feasts where
guests «ate mountains of meat and drank lakes of kumiss», still a favored
beverage of fermented mare’s milk. Says one expert, «The Kyrgyz think of
themselves as the poets and artists of Central Asia».
WILD CARD
Power broker – or powder keg for a region in chaos? Set up by the
British in 1347, Pakistan blends East and West.
It's been called a powder keg and a failing state – «a cat that has
used up several of its lives», in the words of one U.S. expert.
The economy is flagging, education is a shambles. For the fourth
time since Pakistan came into existence 54 years ago, the army in 1999
ousted the elected government and took control. Afghanistan's wars have
flooded Pakistan with weapons, spawning a «Kalashnikov culture», a propensity to settle disputes with modern weaponry, even grenade launchers.
Shoot-outs between political parties, or between civilians and police or soldiers, are common in the port city of Karachi, now swollen to 12 million
people.
In 1947 Pakistan was created as a Muslim homeland in the partition
of British India. The name is an acronym, coined from some of the new
land's regions: Punjab, Afghania (the North-West Frontier), Kashmir, and
Indus-Sind. Pak happens to mean «pure» in Urdu, the official language.
Thus Pakistan is «land of the pure».
Punjab Province, with 59 percent of the population, is so dominant
in politics that Baluchi and Pashtun, the peoples of the North-West Frontier, bristle at the «Punjabization» of the nation and demand autonomy. The
Pashtun intensify the difficulties, for their homeland is divided by an artificial boundary drawn by the British in 1893. About 11 million live in Paki87
stan and perhaps the same number in Afghanistan, where they are the major
population group. Over the years Pashtun on both sides have raised the
«Pashtunistan» issue, as it's called, demanding a merger of all Pashtun or at
least a plebiscite to decide what nation they will be part of. As Afghanistan
stirred this issue in the 1960s, Pakistani officials concluded their nation was
boxed in by enemies – on the east by India (with whom Pakistan has fought
two wars over Kashmir) and on the west by Afghanistan.
Whatever the future regime in Kabul, Pakistan probably will try to
dominate it.
Pakistan has the means to dominate; its military, 620,000 strong, is
by far the largest in the Stans. And it has the bomb, as it proved in test explosions in 1998, answering India's nuclear tests.
Defense gets about 30 percent of the government budget. Education
receives less than a tenth as much – even though almost half the nation’s
145 million citizens are under the age of 15. Few rural girls receive any
education at all. More and more, families send their sons to thousands of
schools called madrasahs that may dispense an ultraconservative version of
Islam and little else. Many madrasahs also foment hatred of the U.S., calling the attack on the Taliban and Osama bin Laden one of a long list of
U.S. offenses against Islam.
The U.S. was once Pakistan’s closest ally and many Pakistanis
probably still respect their old friend. But the relationship could become
problematic as Pakistan stumbles toward its uncertain future, carrying its
nuclear baggage.
Read the following brief information to get additional facts about Pakistan.
Population: 144.6 million
Capital: Islamabad
Languages: Punjabi, variants – 58 %, Sindhi – 12 %, Pashtu – 8 %, Urdu –
8 %, other – 14 %
Ethnic groups: Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtun, Baluchi, Muhajir
Religions: Sunni Muslim – 77 %, Shiite Muslim – 20 %, other – 3 %
Life expectancy: 61.5 years
Infant mortality: 81 per 1,000 births
Total area: 307,374 square miles
In brief: Nearly two-thirds of the population of all the Stans lives in Pakistan, the world’s second most populous Muslim country, after Indonesia.
3) Using the previous texts as the sample, make up a profile of any country.
88
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
2. Render the text into English.
ТУР ПО ИОРДАНИИ: ПЯТЬ В ОДНОМ
течение дня. Дорога к древнему городу по дну гигантской теснины
бесконечна, как путь в мир из утробы матери. И заканчивается она
сходным с рождением потрясением и восторгом, когда высеченный в
горах город вдруг открывает свое каменное лицо.
Иордания пока лежит в стороне от наезженных российскими
туристами дорог. Мало кто из них рассматривает эту страну как «туристическую державу». Однако если способность потрясать воображение – одно из главных условий для этого, то Иордания имеет все
шансы выйти в лидеры. Дело не только в новизне маршрута и пресыщенности россиян привычными местами зарубежного отдыха. Иордании предлагает на выбор ни много ни мало пять видов туризма при
бесконечном многообразии сочетаний.
Для любителей просто полежать на пляже есть бесподобное
Красное море. Причем уже готов проект увеличения береговой линии
в Акабе за счет создании искусственного залива.
В распоряжении путешественников и уникальное Мертвое море, благотворную соль которого мечтает ощутить на своей коже любая
женщина. Лечебный туризм в Иордании имеет самые благоприятные
перспективы.
Иордания притягивает паломников со всего мира. Христианам,
отправляющимся в Иорданию по святым местам, надо знать, что в
этой мусульманской стране есть целые христианские города. Православная община насчитывает 200 тысяч человек. Люди любой веры
здесь мирно уживаются друг с другом, а к россиянам отношение не
просто дружеское – сердечное, в этом мы убеждались повсюду.
Для любителей исторического туризма Иордания являет собой
рай на земле, ибо трудно где-либо еще найти место столь большой
концентрации бесценных памятников важнейший исторических эпох.
Среди них прекрасно сохранившийся город Римской эпохи Джераш,
который называют «Помпеями Востока», город фресок Мадаба, древности Пеллы, Керака, Шобака... Перечислять можно бесконечно.
Немало здесь и неповторимых памятников природы. Лунная
долина пустыни Вади Рам, наверное, одно из красивейших мест на
земле. Уникальная жемчужина Петра – драгоценность среди древних
скал. Старинная столица царства набатеев вправе называться «восьмым чудом света». Только ради одной Петры стоит приехать в Иорданию, а не повидав Петры, нельзя уезжать из страны. Реальность здесь
фантастична, как сон Сальвадора Дали. Рассматривая окружающие
горные панорамы, без конца ловишь себя на желании прикоснуться к
холсту, на котором они написаны. Горы-хамелеоны меняют окраску в
Если вы представляете далекую Индию сказкой, то это совсем
не так. Неужели вы всерьез думаете, что будете разъезжать по Индии
на слонах, а местная красавица осыпет вас бриллиантами, брошеенными с балкона магараджи? Ошибаетесь. Ни слонов, ни бриллиантов,
ни магараджей вы, скорее всего, не увидите – за этим отправляйтесь в
кино.
Зато есть другие, более интересные вещи, ради которых тысячи
европейцев и американцев путешествуют по Индии на поездах, джипах, верблюдах и крышах автобусов. «Матрасный» отпуск на КанароСейшело-Мальдивах они называют уделом престарелых зануд, а все
пляжи мира считают однообразно-глянцевыми картинками настенного календаря. Эти люди понимают: дорожные приключения – единственное, что не покупается ни за какие деньги.
Я попал в Индию вместе с небольшой группой российских туристов. Программа включала только пребывание в Гималаях, но мне
было обидно оказаться здесь и не увидеть хотя бы Тадж-Махала. Хочу
напомнить, что общая площадь Индии – 3,3 млн кв. километров.
Мне предстояло преодолеть около тысячи километров через
штаты Химачал-Прадеш, Пенджаб и Харьяна.
Дороги в Гималаях узки и извилисты, но машины несутся так,
что их разделяют всего несколько сантиметров. На каждом повороте
светящейся краской нарисован клаксон. Он напоминает, что водитель
обязан подать предупреждающий сигнал: за выступом скалы встречные машины друг друга не видят.
С языком общения в Индии проблем не существует, на ломаном
английском можно объясниться всегда. «Ломаном» – это с моей стороны. Для индийцев же он – второй государственный. Здесь перемешано более 800 языков и наречий, принадлежащих к трем разным
семьям. Так что без хорошего английского не может обойтись ни чиновник, ни рикша, ни продавец – надо же им как-то понимать друг
друга.
89
90
3. Render the text into English.
СКАЗ О ЗЕМЛЕ ИНДИЙСКОЙ
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
4. I. Work in groups of three. You are expecting foreign guests. Discuss
their preferences in eating and reach the consensus in planning the
menu.
II. Render one of the texts.
ФРАНЦИЯ
Главное отличие французской кулинарии от всех остальных –
ее многообразие, тонкие вкусовые и ароматические качества блюд.
Французские повара-кудесники применяют бесчисленное количество
пряностей, приправ, хороших вин, коньяков и ликеров для приготовления соусов, тушения мяса, жарки рыбы и дичи. Они утверждают,
что сахар (его добавляют в мясные блюда) придает мясу особенно тонкий аромат и вкус. Наличие сока в готовом мясе обязательно. Принимая гостей из Франции, необходимо учитывать, что у них на стол обязательно подается белое или красное столовые вина. Многие французы после второго блюда привыкли лакомиться сыром, а десерт запивать черным кофе. Ко второму горячему блюду принято подавать отдельно столовый салат, салат из белокочанной капусты, помидоров,
редиса, огурцов и других овощей.
ИТАЛИЯ
Для этой кухни характерно обилие острых закусок, которые
принято подавать как к обеду, так и к довольно плотному ужину. Особенно в почете – соленые и маринованные овощи, заправленные, как
правило, оливковым маслом, перцем, уксусом и горчицей. Кроме
овощей, итальянцы употребляют в качестве закуски различную морскую рыбу под красным маринадом, сельдь, крабы, сардины, а также
холодные блюда из птицы.
Многие мясные и рыбные блюда этой кухни обязательно сдабриваются вином и заливаются острыми соусами. Для обжаривания в
дело идет оливковое масло. Мясо подают с кабачками, баклажанами,
зеленым горошком, помидорами и тертым сыром. Любимые блюда –
спагетти и ризотто – блюдо из риса со всевозможными добавками.
На десерт – свежие или консервированные фрукты, фруктовые
салаты, сыры. Обед обычно заканчивается небольшой чашечкой крепкого кофе по-восточному или милым сердцу итальянцев кофе «капуччино» – натуральным кофе с горячим молоком или не менее горячими
сливками.
91
ЮЖНАЯ АМЕРИКА И КУБА
Национальные кухни Аргентины, Чили, Бразилии, Перу и других южноамериканский стран на редкость схожи. А что вы хотите?
Одинаковые климатические и природные условия тому причина. Значительное влияние на формирование кухни оказало и трехвековое испано-португальское владычество. Этнический состав в этом регионе
был соответствующий – итальянцы, испанцы, португальцы. Неудивительно, что многие местные блюда имеют заморское происхождение.
Однако особую любовь в этих странах снискали блюда коренного населения: креольские, негритянские, индейские.
В южноамериканской кухне преобладают блюда из натурального, жаренного на решетках-грилях или тушенного в керамических
горшках мяса. Далее – овощи, без которых не бывает ни обеда, ни плотного ужина. И, само собой, рыба – естественно, океанических пород,
жаренная на углях, а также изделия из теста. Отварная лапша с сыром
или тушеным мясом с помидорами — одно из самых распространенных блюд.
К обеду у многих народов Южной Америки принято подавать
столовое вино.
Кофе можно подавать без заказа – его южноамериканцы потребляют в неограниченных количествах.
Принимая гостей из Южной Америки, следует учесть и такие
особенности: в основном они едят белый хлеб, для заправки салатов
лучше использовать только растительное, желательно оливковое, масло и масляно-уксусные заправки. И еще: южноамериканская пища
острая, со всевозможными приправами и соусами, поэтому ее лучше
недосолить, чем пересолить.
5. Render the text. And then prepare the reverse translation of it.
UKRAINE: ADOPTED CHILDREN OF EUROPE
Ukraine resembles a piece of overly fat sausage. Ukraine – windswept fields of corn. Ukraine – a female old beggar with gold teeth.
Ukraine – a beautiful blonde in a tight miniskirt, a nuclear power plant explosion, a closed coal mine, a steel mill, a horse driven carriage in the Carpathians, a piece of the Black Sea coast and a dacha on an endless plain.
In August 1991 Ukraine became a free, independent and democratic
state that ceded from the defunct USSR. To Ukraine, the end of the Soviet
92
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Union meant not only the collapse of a totalitarian regime but also the
emergence of countless new problems typical of capitalism at the stage of
initial accumulation – blatant corruption, organized crime and the like.
The explosion at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant is a heavy burden on Ukraine. A large part of the national treasury is used up annually to
remove the disaster’s effects. For those who had to be evacuated from the
radioactive zone, new villages and towns were built elsewhere in Ukraine.
Ukraine means the forest-clad Carpathians, mountains in a Godforsaken corner between the East and the West. A brown bear stands by the
roadside in the scorching sun. It is 47 degrees 58 minutes north of the equator and 24 degrees 12 minutes east of the meridian of Greenwich. «This is
the geographic center of Europe» reads a plaque on its back.
Ukraine can be regarded as a border country between East and West,
between Orthodoxy and Catholicism. Here, in the southwest of the country,
the population is particularly diverse in cultural, ethnic and religious terms.
Here, among the Carpathian Mountains, in an area flanked by Romania,
Hungary, Slovakia and Poland, there are some one million «adopted children of Europe» representing thirty different ethnic groups.
УКРАИНА. ПРИЕМНЫЕ ДЕТИ ЕВРОПЫ
Украина – это лесные Карпаты. Они расположены в глухом уголке между Востоком и Западом. На обочине под палящем солнцем стоит
бурый медведь. 47 градусов 58 минут к северу от экватора, 24 градуса
12 минут к востоку от Гринвича. «Здесь находится географический
центр Европы», – гласит надпись на табличке, висящей у него на спине.
Украину можно считать пограничной страной, расположенной
между Западом и Востоком, между католичеством и православием.
Здесь, на юго-западе страны, проживает самое разнообразное в культурном, национальном и религиозном отношении население. Здесь,
между карпатскими горными вершинами, между Румынией, Венгрией, Словакией и Польшей, проживает примерно миллион «приемных
детей Европы» тридцати разных национальностей.
6. Read and render the text. Speak about other interesting religious or
ethnic traditions.
EPYPHANY RUSSIAN-STYLE. THE COLDER THE BETTER
On January 19 all Orthodox believers in Russia mark the Baptism of
Christ.
Украина похожа на слишком жирную колбасу. Украина – это
колышущееся под ветром кукурузное поле. Украина – это нищая бабушка с золотыми зубами. Украина – это красивая блондинка в обтягивающей мини-юбке, это взорвавшаяся атомная электростанция, это
закрытая угольная шахта, это сталеплавильный завод, это конная повозка в Карпатах, это побережье Черного моря, это дача на безбрежной равнине.
С августа 1991 года Украина стала свободным, независимым,
демократическим государством, которое отделилось от рухнувшего
Советского Союза. Конец СССР означал для нее не только крах тоталитарного режима, но и появление множества новых проблем, характерных для капитализма в период первоначального накопления: открытой коррупции, организованной преступности и так далее…
Взрыв на Чернобыльской АЭС – тяжелое бремя для Украины.
Большая часть государственного бюджета ежегодно уходит на устранение последствий катастрофы. Для людей, которых пришлось выселить из радиоактивной зоны, построили новые деревни в других районах Украины.
On this day the faithful recall that at the age of 30 Jesus came to the
Jordan River from the province of Galilee and was baptized by John in the
river. Church scripture says that when Jesus came up out of the water?
Heaven was opened to him, and he saw the Spirit coming down on him in
the image of a dove. «And a voice came from heaven: ‘You are my own
dear Son. I am pleased with you’», says the Gospel according to Mark.
Thus the holy Trinity appeared in the world: God the Son, who had not
been known before, God the Spirit who came down on Jesus in the image
of a dove, and God the Father who announced from heaven the appearance
of Christ. Therefore, the Baptism of Jesus is also called the epiphany.
According to time-honoured Russian tradition, on this day many people bathe in ice holes, braving severe frosts. It is believed that by submerging
three times into the icy water you wash off all your sins. According to strict
church rules, you must dip into the water so that it covers your head. Among
the bathers were both grownups and children. Many said they do not feel
the cold because the bathing took place on such a very special night.
On the eve of the Epiphany thousands of people form long lines near
churches where they are given holy water. The faithful keep this water for
the rest of the year, drinking it in tiny portions for the health of soul and
body. Believers also sprinkle their homes with it, asking for God’s blessing.
93
94
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
7. Try the Canadian quiz.
1) A good many Canadians own the house in which they live. What
was the proportion in 1997?
a) about a quarter
b) about a half
c) about two-thirds
2) The services sector is employing more and more people. What percentage of Canadians are now working in this sector?
a) 45 %
b) 55 %
c) 60 %
d) 70 %
3) Self-employment is becoming increasingly common in Canada. In
1997, how many people worked for themselves?
a) 1 000 000
b) 1 800 000
c) 2 500 000
d) 5 000 000
4) Each year, many workers die while at work, or because of their
work. Which are the three most dangerous industries or activities?
a) trapping and fishing, logging and mining
b) firefighting, policing and mining
c) policing, construction and the chemical industry
d) policing, hydro line installation and repair, and lab technician
5) What proportion of Canada’s territory is used for agriculture?
a) 7 %
b) 27 %
c) 47 %
d) 67 %
6) Which of the following is not a primary industry?
a) farming
b) steel-making
c) mining
d) logging
7) Which of the following is not a city in Canada?
a) Kamloops
95
b) Thunder Bay
c) Seattle
d) Moncton
8) English is the only official language in Canada. French continues to
be spoken, however, especially in Quebec.
a) True
b) False
9) What is the capital of Canada?
a) Montréal
b) Toronto
c) Ottawa
d) Edmonton
10) The oldest evidence of Europeans in North America is a thousand
year old settlement at L'Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland and
Labrador. Who built the settlement?
a) the Vikings
b) the Romans
c) the Spanish
d) the English
11) What was the first city in North America to be designated a
UNESCO World Heritage Site?
a) St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador
b) Halifax, Nova Scotia
c) Quebec, Quebec
d) Dawson, Yukon Territory
12) Canada’s two official languages are
a) English and Spanish
b) English and French
c) English and Chinese
d) None
13) What Is Canada’s only officially-bilingual province?
a) Ontario
b) Quebec
c) Manitoba
d) New Brunswick
96
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
14) There are over 100 ethnic groups in Canada. At the time of Confederation, about 90 % of the population were of British or French
origin. In 1991, what percentage were of British or French origin?
a) 55 %
b) 60 %
c) 75 %
d) 80 %
15) In 1996, immigrants made up 17.4 % of Canada’s population. In
which province were a majority of them located?
a) British Columbia
b) Alberta
c) Ontario
d) Quebec
16) Among the 48 First Nations languages of Canada, which is the
most numerous?
a) Cree
b) Haida
c) Inuit
d) Huron
17) How many deaths are thought to be caused by cigarettes in Canada?
a) one death in 20
b) one death in 15
c) one death in 10
d) one death in 5
18) These days, there are more divorces than marriages.
a) True
b) False
19) The Yukon Territory is the only province or territory in Canada
that borders on Alaska.
a) True
b) False
20) What is the largest land animal native to Canada?
a) polar bear
b) moose
c) grizzly bear
d) bison
97
21) Now that the Soviet Union has broken up, Canada is the largest
country (in area) in the world.
a) True
b) False
22) Niagara Falls is the highest waterfall in Canada.
a) True
b) False
23) How many time zones are there in Canada?
a) 2
b) 4
c) 6
d) 8
24) Which of the following is Canada’s largest province?
a) Quebec
b) Ontario
c) British Columbia
d) Newfoundland and Labrador
Answers:
1. c) about two-thirds;
2. d) 70 %;
3. c) 2 500 000;
4. a) trapping and fishing, logging and mining;
5. a) Farming is practised on 68 million hectares, which is 7 % of Canada’s
territory; 80 % of the farmland is in Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba;
6. b) steel-making;
7. c) Seattle is not in Canada. It is in the American state of Washington;
8. b) False. English and French are both official languages in Canada;
9. c) Ottawa is the capital of Canada;
10. a) The Vikings, led by Leif Erikkson, landed in Vinland (Newfoundland)
around the year 1000 AD;
11. c) Quebec, founded in 1608 and the only walled city in North America,
was granted World Heritage Site status in July 1986;
12. b) English and French;
13. d) New Brunswick;
14. a) In 1991, 55 % of Canadians claimed British, French or both British
and French origin;
98
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
15. c) In 1996, over half of all immigrants were in Ontario, while 21 % were
in British Columbia and 15 % in Quebec;
16. a) Cree;
17. d) One death in five, which is more than the total deaths caused by suicide, car accidents, AIDS and murder taken together;
18 b) False. In 1996, the year of the last census, there were 157 000 marriages and 71 000 divorces in Canada;
19. b) False. Although the Yukon Territory does border on Alaska, it is not
alone. British Columbia has a substantial border with Alaska;
20. d) The bison, or North American buffalo, is the largest land animal native to Canada. A mature male can be 3.8 metres long, 1.8 metres
tall at the shoulder, and weigh up to 720 kg;
21. b) False. Canada is still the second largest country in the world, with
almost 10 million square kilometres. Russia is the largest country
with about 17 million square kilometers;
22. b) False. The Horseshoe Falls on the Canadian side of Niagara Falls,
are 57 metres high. There are many waterfalls in Canada that,
though less impressive than Niagara, are much higher. The highest is
Della Falls in British Columbia at 440 metres;
23. c) 6;
24. a) Quebec.
Учебное издание
Светлана Александровна Дедова
УЧЕБНО-МЕТОДИЧЕСКОЕ ПОСОБИЕ
ПО РАБОТЕ С ТЕМОЙ
«COUNTRY PROFILE»
(для студентов гуманитарных специальностей,
изучающих английский язык)
Now it is your turn to make up a quiz about the country you know or like
best and test the knowledge of your group mates.
Технический редактор Н.В. Москвичёва
Редактор Е.В. Коськина
Подписано в печать 05.10.04. Формат бумаги 60х84 1/16.
Печ. л. 6,25. Уч.-изд. л. 7,25. Тираж 100 экз. Заказ 546.
Издательство Омского государственного университета
644077, г. Омск-77, пр. Мира, 55а, госуниверситет
99
100
Документ
Категория
Социология
Просмотров
298
Размер файла
922 Кб
Теги
1446, методические, работа, учебно, пособие, темою
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа