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1807.История английского языка в таблицах

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
I. IVANOVA
Yu. KARYPKINA
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РФ
ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ БЮДЖЕТНОЕ
ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ ВЫСШЕГО
ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ
«ИРКУТСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ
ЛИНГВИСТИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»
И.Е. Иванова
Ю.Н. Карыпкина
История
английского языка
в таблицах
Учебно-методическое пособие
Рекомендовано Учебно-методическим объединением
по образованию в области лингвистики
Министерства образования и науки Российской Федерации
в качестве учебно-методического пособия
Иркутск 2012
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
ББК 81.432.1-923.0
И 18
Печатается по решению редакционно-издательского совета Иркутского
государственного лингвистического университета
Иванова И.Е., Карыпкина Ю.Н.
И 18 История английского языка в таблицах (На английском языке)
[Текст] : Учебное пособие. Изд. 4-е, испр. и доп. / И.Е. Иванова,
Ю.Н. Карыпкина. – Иркутск: ИГЛУ, 2012. – 127 с.
ISBN 978-5-88267-324-5
Настоящее комплексное учебное пособие способствует фундаментальной
полноте изучения истории английского языка бакалаврами и магистрами
обучающихся по направлениям «Лингвистика и межкультурная коммуникация»,
«Филологическое образование» и «Лингвистика», изучающих английский язык с
целью использования его в сфере профессиональной деятельности, поскольку
позволяет свободно ориентироваться в текстах различных исторических периодов
английского языка, так как языковые эволюционные процессы рассматриваются в
единстве всех языковых уровней и в совокупности с экстралингвистическими
факторами.
Данное учебное пособие может также использоваться аспирантами для
подготовки к сдаче экзамена кандидатского минимума по специальностям 10.02.04 –
германские языки, 10.02.19 – теория языка, 10.02.20 – сравнительно-историческое
языкознание.
Рецензенты:
С.Г. Проскурин, доктор филологических наук, профессор
заведующий кафедрой истории и типологии языков
и культур Новосибирского Государственного Университета
Т.Ю. Казанцева, кандидат филологических наук,
заведующая кафедрой иностранных языков Северского
технологического института – филиал Федерального
государственного
бюджетного
образовательного
учреждения высшего профессионального образования
«Национальный исследовательский ядерный университет
«МИФИ»
ББК 81.432.1-923.0
ISBN 978-5-88267-324-5
©Иванова Ирина Емельяновна, 2005
©Карыпкина Юлия Николаевна, 2007
© Иркутский государственный лингвистический
университет, 2011
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
CONTENTS
FOREWORD……………………………………………………...7
Periodisation of the history of English……………………....11
Chronology of the historical events………………………….12
Anglo-Saxon futhorc …………………………………………..18
Old English alphabet…………………………………………..18
Old English phonetics……………………...………………….19
vowels……………………………………………………….19
vowel changes……………………………………….……..20
consonants……………………………...…………………...22
consonant changes………………………………………....23
Old English noun…….…………………………………………24
vocalic stems…..…………………………...……………….24
consonantal stems………………………………………….31
plural inflections of nouns………………………………...35
Old English word-formation for nouns.…………………37
Old English pronoun……...…………………………………...38
personal pronouns…………………………………………38
demonstrative pronouns.………………………………….39
interrogative pronouns……………………………………39
other kinds of pronouns…………………………………...39
Old English adjective………………………………………..…40
strong declension……………………………………….….40
weak declension.…………………………………………...42
degrees of comparison…………………………………….43
Old English word-formation for adjectives……………..44
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Old English verb ………...……………………………………..45
strong verbs………………………………………………...45
weak verbs………………………………………………….59
preterite-present verbs…………………………………….64
anomalous verbs…………………………………………...70
suppletive verbs …………………………………………...71
Old English affixation for verbs…………………………..72
Old English adverb…………………………………………….73
primary adverbs...…………………………………………73
secondary adverbs…………………………………………73
Old English word-formation for adverbs..………………73
degrees of comparison…………………………………….74
Old English numeral………………….………………………..75
cardinal numerals………………………………………….75
ordinal numerals…………………………………………...77
Old English auxiliary words…………………………………..78
Principal Old English written records……………………….79
MIDDLE ENGLISH & EARLY NEW ENGLISH
Main Historical Sources of Modern Spellings……………..81
vowels ………………………………………………………81
consonants ………………………………………………….83
Phonetics……………………...…………………………………84
vowels……………………………………………………….84
development of Old English diphthongs
in Early Middle English…………………………………84
growth of new diphthongs in Middle English……….84
Great Vowel Shift in XV-XVIII centuries...……………85
principle quantitative vowel changes
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in Middle English and Early New English……………86
consonants………………………………………………….88
development of sibilants and affricates ………………88
voicing of consonants in Early New English…………89
simplification of consonant clusters…………………...90
vocalisation of r and associated vowel change……….91
Middle English noun…………………………………………..92
noun declension …………………………………………...92
general table of plural endings…………………………...93
Middle & Early New English pronoun……………………...94
personal & possessive pronouns………………………....94
interrogative pronouns……………………………………95
demonstrative pronouns…………………………………..95
Middle & Early New English adjective.……………………..96
declension of adjectives in Late Middle English………..96
degrees of comparison…………………………………….96
Middle English & Early New English verb………………....97
strong verbs in XII-XIV centuries………………………...97
transition of strong verbs into weak…...……………….101
strong verbs in XVI-XVIII centuries…………………….102
conjugation of strong verbs …………………………......105
weak verbs……………………….………………………..106
formation of unchangeable weak verbs………………..106
some cases of transition…………...……………………..107
conjugation of weak verbs …………………………........107
weak verbs after the Great Vowel Shift……………......108
preterite-present verbs…………………………………...109
anomalous verbs………………………………………….113
suppletive verbs ………………………………………….114
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Middle English &
Early New English Derivational affixes……………………115
prefixes…………………………………………………….115
suffixes………...............………….………………………..117
Principal Middle English written records…………………119
Great Literary Men of the Elizabethan Age……………….121
Diacritic Marks………………………………………………..122
Special Letters………………………………………………....122
References……………………………………………………...123
Internet resources……………………………………………..127
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History is not what you thought.
It is what you can remember.
W.C. Sellar & R.J. Yeatman
FOREWORD
Languages are in constant synchronic and diachronic change, they
are in constant movement. Movement to the perfect consummation. But
where should we look for it: back or forward? The further back in our
researching we go, the more beneficial our comprehension of the present
may be.
Throughout history the English language has changed greatly, albeit
imperceptibly. And Modern English hardly resembles Old English.
Considerable changes have taken place concomitantly in spelling, in
pronunciation - phonetic changes were subsequently reflected in
phonology; and in the grammar - on morphological and syntactical levels.
But you should have a sense of the broad historical development of
English – the changing of the language type. Old English, being synthetic
and inflectional, has been moving toward analytical and agglutinative
predominant types with the traces of inflections and root isolations. The
number of languages with the similar diachronic similarities is limited.
Isn’t it fascinating to know such a unique language and to know its
captivating history? History of nations that were made to speak alien
languages and then made the whole world speak the language cultivated
by this nation out of these strange languages. It sounds like a revenge.
So, find the roots in the past and you will be rewarded!
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The history of the English Language is an unalienable and
essential part of studying the language. This subject leads to
understanding and comprehension of diverse language processes,
reveals the causes and the ways of formation of those specific
language phenomena that are typical of the present day English.
This book on the history of the English language is intended
for students of Linguistic Universities; also this book is of a rather
wide practical application: it may be used by post-graduators and
professors of Universities while translating Old and Middle English
texts for research purposes.
The Old, Middle and New English language data is
represented in the form of tables. The book is initiated by the
periodisation of the History of the English language which is
followed by a Chronology of historical events which are of great
assistance to the orientation in the historical field.
Anglo-Saxon Futhorc & Old English Alphabet open the Old
English Period. Old English Phonetics is represented by the tables
of vowels and consonants that are subsequently followed by the
basic changes. All parts of speech are provided with the
morphological classifications and possible grammatical categories.
Old English noun, adjective, verb and adverb are supplied
with the word-formation affixations. Old English numeral is
represented with the examples of correct counting. Principal Old
English written records according to the dialectal diversity
complete the book. Also the book provides a bibliography of
printed and of internet sources.
Old English suffered great changes during the whole period
from the 5th to the 11th century. Anglo-Saxons did not live in
isolation from the world - they contacted with other continental
tribes, and all these contacts could not but influence the language
somehow. More over, the internal development of the English
language after the merging of Jutes, Saxons and Angles languages
was rather fast, and sometimes it took only half a century to change
some form of the language or replace it with another one.
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O. Emerson in his book THE HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH
LANGUAGE singles out several general inflectional changes which
took place from Old English to Modern English:
one of the earliest changes in inflections was the weakening of
final m and n in the dative plural of nouns, and the dative singular
and plural of the strong adjectives. It is possible this weakening
was brought about by analogy of the many inflectional forms in –
an;
the weakening of the unstressed vowels: every unaccented a, o, or
u became e, a change affecting the cases of nouns and adjectives,
the infinitive and preterits of verbs, and other unaccented syllables
with these vowels;
another important change concerns the Old English distinction of
long and short stems. The original distinction which was
important for Old English was obliterated by the lengthening and
shortening of vowels that took place in Middle English. As a
result, the two varieties if inflection became one;
a fourth change in Middle English times was the breaking of the
Old English grammatical gender which was replaced by natural
gender;
a fifth change, coming later in Middle English times, was the loss
of final n in the inflectional forms of nouns, adjectives, and verbs
which broke down the weak declension of nouns and adjectives,
and finally n was also lost in the infinitive and preterit plural of
verbs;
the last change was the syncopation of e in certain endings, -es of
the genitive singular, the plural of nouns, and the third singular
present of verbs, -ed of the preterit and perfect participle, and –en
of the perfect participle of certain strong verbs.
Middle English is the name given to the diverse forms of the
English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and
the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form
of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process
aided by the introduction of the printing press into England by
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William Caxton in the 1470s. The language of England as spoken
after this time, up to 1650, is known as Early Modern English.
Unlike Old English, Middle English as a written language
displays a wide variety of scribal (presumably dialectal) forms. It
should be noted, though, that the diversity of forms in written
Middle English signifies neither greater variety of spoken forms of
English than could be found in pre-Conquest England, nor a
faithful representation of contemporary spoken English.
Middle English was one of the five languages current in
England. Though never the language of the Roman Catholic
Church, which was always Latin, it lost status as a language of
courtly life, literature and documentation, being largely supplanted
by Anglo-Norman French. It remained, though, the spoken
language of the majority, and may be regarded as the only true
vernacular language of most English people after about the mid12th century, with Anglo-Norman becoming, like Latin, a learned
tongue of the court. Welsh and Cornish were also used as spoken
vernaculars in the far west. English did not cease to be used in the
court: it retained a cartulary function (being the language used in
royal charters); nor did it disappear as a language of literary
production. Even during what has been called the “lost” period of
English literary history, the late 11th to mid-12th century, Old
English texts, especially homilies, saints’ lives and grammatical
texts, continued to be copied, used and adapted by scribes. From
the later 12th and 13th century there survive huge amounts of
written material of various forms, from lyrics to saints’ lives,
devotional manuals to histories, encyclopedias to poems of moral
discussion and debate. Middle English is more familiar to us as the
language of Ricardian Poetry and its followers, the 14th - and 15th
century literature cultures clustered around the West Midlands and
around London and East Anglia. This includes the works of
William Langland, the Gawain Poet, Geoffrey Chaucer, John
Lydgate, John Gower, Thomas Malory, William Caxton, and
Thomas
Hoccleve.
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PERIODISATION
OF THE HISTORY OF ENGLISH
OLD ENGLISH
I.
Early OE
450 - 700
(Pre-written OE)
II.
Classical OE (Written OE)
700 - 1066
MIDDLE ENGLISH
III.
Early MidE
1066 - 1350
IV.
Classical MidE
1350 - 1475
EARLY NEW ENGLISH
V.
Early NE
1475 - 1660
NEW ENGLISH or MODERN NEW ENGLISH
VI.
Normalisation period
1660 - 1800
(The Age of Correctness,
Normalisation,
Standardisation and
Fixing Pronunciation)
VII.
Late NE or ModE
1800 - 1945
PRESENT-DAY ENGLISH
VIII.
Present-day English
1945 -…
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CHRONOLOGY OF THE HISTORICAL EVENTS
PRE-ENGLISH PERIOD
3000 B.C.
Proto-Indo-European is spoken in Baltic area
1000 B.C.
After many migrations, the various branches of IndoEuropean have become distinct. Celtic becomes the most
widespread branch of I.E. in Europe; Celtic tribes inhabit the
territory of modern Spain, France, Germany and England
55 B.C.
Roman invasion of Britain under Julius Caesar
43 A.D.
Roman invasion and occupation under Emperor Claudius.
Roman colony of "Britannia" was established. Beginning of
Roman rule of Britain
200 B.C.200 A.D.
Germanic tribes move down from Scandinavia and spread
over Central Europe in successive waves
Early 5th
century.
Roman Empire collapses. Romans pull out of Britain and
other colonies, attempting to shore up defense on the home
front; but it's useless. Rome was conquered by Goths
CRUCIAL EVENTS OF THE OLD ENGLISH PERIOD
410 A.D.
First Germanic tribes arrive in England
436
Roman withdrawal from Britain
449
Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain begins
Celtic tribes, most of whom are Christianized, are pushed
increasingly (despite occasional violent uprisings) into the
marginal areas of Britain: Ireland, Scotland, Wales. AngloSaxons, originally sea-farers, settle down as farmers,
exploiting rich English farmland
By 600 A.D., the Germanic speech of England comprises
dialects of a language distinct from the continental Germanic
languages
450-480
Earliest Old English inscriptions date from this period
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600-800
Rise of three great kingdoms politically unifying large areas:
Northumbria, Mercia, and Wessex. Supremacy passes from
one kingdom to another in that order
597
Christianity was introduced among Anglo-Saxons by
St.Augustine, missionary from Rome. Irish missionaries also
spread Celtic form of Christianity to mainland Britain
731
The Venerable Bede writes The Ecclesiastical History of the
English People in Latin
792
Viking raids and settlements begin
800
Charlemagne, king of the Franks, crowned Holy Roman
Emperor; height of Frankish power in Europe. Wessex kings
aspire to similar glory; want to unite all England, and if
possible the rest of mainland Britain, under one crown
840s-870s
Viking incursions grow worse and worse. Large organized
groups set up permanent encampments on English soil. Slay
kings of Northumbria and East Anglia, subjugate king of
Mercia. Storm York (Anglo-Saxon Eoforwic) and set up a
Viking kingdom (Jorvik). Wessex stands alone as the last
Anglo-Saxon kingdom in Britain
865
The Danes occupy Northumbria
871
Vikings move against Wessex. In six pitched battles, the
English hold their own, but fail to repel attackers decisively.
In the last battle, the English king is mortally wounded. His
younger brother, Ælfred, who had distinguished himself
during the battles, becomes king of Wessex
Ælfred translates Latin works into English and begins practice
of English prose. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle began
871-876
Ælfred builds a navy. The kings of Denmark and Norway
have come to view England as ripe for the plucking and begin
to prepare an attack
876
Three Danish kings attack Wessex. Ælfred prevails, only to be
attacked again a few months later. His cause looks hopeless
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878
Decisive battle at Edington; Ælfred and a large contingent of
desperate Anglo-Saxons make a last stand. Ælfred leads the
Anglo-Saxons to decisive victory; blockades a large Viking
camp nearby, starving them into submission; and exacts
homage from the kings of Denmark and an oath that the
Danes will leave Wessex forever
Under Ælfred's terms of victory, England is partitioned into a
part governed by the Anglo-Saxons (under the house of
Wessex) and a part governed by the Scandinavians (some of
whom become underlords of Ælfred), divided by Watling
Street. 15 years of peace follow; Ælfred reigns over peaceful
and prosperous kingdom. First called "Ælfred the Great"
911
Charles II of France grants Normandy to the Viking chief
Harolf the Ganger. The beginning of Norman French
925
Æthelstan is crowned the king. Height of Anglo-Saxon power.
Æthelstan reconquers York from the Vikings, and even
conquers Scotland and Wales, heretofore ruled by Celts.
Continues Ælfred's mission of making improvements in
government, education, defense, and other social institutions
10 th
century
Danes and English continue to mix peacefully and ultimately
become indistinguishable. Many Scandinavian loanwords
enter the language; English even borrows pronouns like them,
their, they
978
Æthelred becomes king at the age of 11
991
Æthelred has proved to be a weak king, who does not repel
minor Viking attacks. Vikings experiment with a major
incursion at Maldon in Essex. After losing battle, Æthelred
bribes them to depart with 10,000 pounds of silver
994-1014
After 20 years of continuous battles and bribings, and
incompetent and cowardly military leadership and
governance, the English capitulate to king Sveinn of Denmark
(later also of Norway). Æthelred flees to Normandy, across
the channel
1000
The oldest surviving manuscript of Beowulf dates from this
period
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1014
Sveinn's young son Cnut (or Canute) crowned king of
England. Cnut decides to follow in Alfred's footsteps, aiming
for a peaceful and prosperous kingdom. Encourages AngloSaxon culture and literature
After Cnut's death his sons bicker over the kingdom. When
they die without issue, the kingdom passes back to the house
of Wessex, to young Edward, son of Æthelred and Emma,
who had been raised in exile in Normandy.
Edward is a pious, monkish man called "The Confessor"
Edward has strong partiality for his birthplace, Normandy, a
duchy populated by the descendents of Romanized Vikings.
Especially fond of young Duke William of Normandy.
Edward is dominated by his Anglo-Saxon earls, especially
powerful earl Godwin. Godwin's son, Harold Godwinson,
becomes de facto ruler as Edward takes less and less interest
in governing
1066
January. Edward dies childless, apparently recommending
Harold Godwinson as successor. Harold duly chosen by
Wessex earls, as nearest of kin to the crown is only an infant.
Mercian and Northumbrian earls are hesitant to go along with
choice of Harold
William of Normandy claims that Harold once promised to
support him as successor to Edward. Harold denies it.
William prepares to mount an invasion. Ready by summer,
but the winds are unfavorable for sailing
September. Harald Hardradi of Norway decides this is a good
time to attack England. Harold Godwinson rushes north and
crushes Hardradi's army at Stamford Bridge
The winds change, and William puts to sea. Harold rushes
back down to the south coast to try to repel William's attack.
Mercians and Northumbrians are supposed to march down to
help him, but never do. They don't realize what's in store for
them.
October. Harold is defeated and killed at the battle of Hastings.
December. William of Normandy crowned king of England in
Westminster Abbey on Christmas Day
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CRUCIAL EVENTS
OF THE MIDDLE ENGLISH PERIOD
1066
English becomes the language of the lower classes (peasants
and slaves). Norman French becomes the language of the
court and propertied classes. The legal system is conducted in
French. Churches, monasteries gradually filled with Frenchspeaking functionaries, who used French for record-keeping.
Authors write literature in French, not English. For all
practical purposes English is no longer a written language.
Bilingualism gradually becomes more common, especially
among those who deal with both upper and lower classes
1204
The English kings lose the duchy of Normandy to French
kings. England is now the only home of the Norman English
1205
First book in English appears since the conquest
1258
English proclamation of Henry III (first royal proclamation
issued in English since the conquest). Increasing feeling on the
part of even noblemen that they are English, not French
Nobility begin to educate their children in English. French is
about 1350 taught to children as a foreign language rather than used as a
medium of instruction
1362
Pleadings first conducted in English, though recorded in Latin
J. Chaucer writes the Canterbury Tales in Middle English. The
language shows French influence in thousands of French
borrowings. The London dialect, for the first time, begins to be
about 1380
recognized as the "Standard", or variety of English taken as a
norm, for all England. Other dialects are relegated to as a less
prestigious position
1474
W. Caxton brings a printing press to England form Germany.
He published the first printed book in England. Beginning of
the long process of standardization of spelling
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CRUCIAL EVENTS
OF THE EARLY NEW ENGLISH PERIOD
1600s
The Age of Bibles
1525
William Tyndale’s New Testament first printed
1539
The Great Bible printed
1540
Sir John Cheke teaches Greek at Cambridge. There is a large
influx of Latin and Greek borrowings and neologisms
1611
Authorized version of the Bible (or King James Bible)
published, which has influenced English writing down to the
present day
1700s
Classical period of the English literature
New coinages of borrowed Latin and Greek words enlarge the
English vocabulary
The rise of prescriptive Grammar. The rise of English purists,
like J. Swift, who decried the "degeneration" of English and
sought to "purify" it and fix it forever in unchanging form
1623
First folio edition of W. Shakespeare, who is recognized even
as a genius of the English language. Wove native and
borrowed words together in amazing and pleading
combinations
1640
Samuel Johnson writes "An English Grammar"
1653
John Wallis publishes "Grammatica
(Grammar of the English Language)
Lingae
Anglicanae"
CRUCIAL EVENTS
OF THE NEW ENGLISH PERIOD
1730
Proceedings at law first recorded in English
1755
Samuel Johnson publishes his dictionary
1762
Robert Lowth writes "Short Introduction to English Grammar"
1794
Lindley Murrey publishes "English Grammar"
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OLD ENGLISH
ANGLO-SAXON FUTHORC
OLD ENGLISH ALPHABET
a æ b с d e f ʒ h i l m
n o œ p r s t þ u
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
OLD ENGLISH PHONETICS
VOWELS
OE
a
ā
æ
æ
e
ē
i
ī
Monophthongs
Diphthongs
Short
i, e, æ, a, å, o, u, y
ea, eo, io, ie
Long
ī, ē, æ, ā, ō, ū, ў
ēa, ēo, īo, īe
Description; Position; Pronunciation
Examples
Short back vowel; mainly in open syllables, when the macian (to make),
following one contains a back vowel; English cup
habban (to have)
Long back [a] vowel; in any kind of syllables;
stān (a stone),
English star
hātan (to call)
dæʒ (a day),
Short back vowel; English bad
wæter (water)
stælon (stolen),
Long back vowel
hælan (to cure)
brekan
Short front vowel; English bed
(to break)
Long front [e] vowel; resulted from the i-mutation of
dēman (to judge)
ō
Short front vowel; can be either stable or unstable, the bindan (to bind),
niht / nyht
unstable sound can interchange with ie and y;
(a night)
English still
Long front [i] vowel; also stable and unstable wrītan (to write),
(mutating to ý); English steal
hī / hў (they)
o Short back vowel; English cost
coren (chosen)
ō Long back [o] vowel; English store
scōc (divided)
u
Short back vowel; used only when the next syllable
contains another back vowel; English book
curon
(they chose)
ū Long back [u] vowel; English stool
lūcan (to look)
y Short front vowel; i-mutation of u
ʒylden (golden)
ў Long front [y] vowel; i-mutation of ū
å
mўs (mice)
A special short sound; only before nasals in closed
månn (a man)
syllables
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VOWEL CHANGES
1. BREAKING
æ > ea
before
"r+consonant"
before
"l+ consonant"
before
"h+ consonant"
before h final
ærm > earm
æld > eald
æhta > eahta
sæh > seah
before
"r+ consonant"
e > eo
before
"lc, lh, h + consonant"
before
h final
herte > heorte
melcan > meolcan
feh > feoh
2. PALATALIZATION
e > ie
(ʒefan > ʒiefan)
æ > ea
(cæster > ceaster)
æ > ēā
(ʒæfon > ʒēafon)
a > ea
(scacan > sceacan)
o > eo
(scort > sceort)
3. BACK MUTATION
before liquids and labial consonants (i.e. r, l; p, b, f, m)
i > io
(hira > hiora)
e > eo
(herot > heorot)
a > ea
(saru > searu)
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4. CONTRACTION OF VOWELS due to a dropped h.
ah + vowel
ēā
(slahan > slēāhan > slēān)
eh,ih + vowel
ēō
(sehan > sēōhan > sēōn)
oh + vowel
ō
(fōhan > fōn)
5. I-MUTATION (also known as "I/J Mutation" or “front mutation”).
a>e
(framian > fremman)
æ>e
(tælian > tellan)
ā>æ
(lārian>læran)
o>e
(ofstian > efstan)
ō>ē
(dōmian > dēman)
u>y
(fullian > fyllan)
ū>ў
(cūþian > cўþan)
ea > ie
(earmiþu > iermþu)
ēā > īē
(ʒelēāfian > ʒelīēfan)
eo > ie
(afeorrian > afierran, afyrran)
ēō > īē
(ʒetrēōwi > ʒetrīēwe)
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CONSONANTS
Labials
Dentals
p, b, f, v
d, t, s, þ (English [th] in thin),
ð (English [th] in this)
Velars
c [k], g, h
Liquids
r, l
Nasals
n, m
Letter
[g]
as in English gift
ʒ
after
any consonant or
initially before back
vowels a, o, u
[j]
before and after any
as in English yellow front vowel e, i, y
[ ]
as Ukranian [г]
[g’]
after r, l
between back vowels
a, o, u
after c
ʒān
sinʒan
ʒiefan
weʒ
draʒan
folʒian
secʒan
brycʒ
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CONSONANT CHANGES
1. VOICING OF FRICATIVE
wīf
wīfes
wearþ
weorðan
was
wesaþ
2. PALATALIZATION
cild
cild [child]
scip
scip [ship]
bricʒ
bricʒ [briʤ]
3. OTHER CHANGES
any velar consonant+ t
-ht-:
sōcte > sōhte
any labial consonant+ t
-ft-:
sceapt > sceaft
any dental consonant+ t
-ss-:
witte > wisse
bronhte > brōhte,
sonfte > sōfte
n was lost before
h, f, s, p
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OLD ENGLISH NOUN
Vocalic stem
Consonantal stem
Strong declensions
Weak declensions
a-stems
ō-stems
ja-stem
wa-stem
jō -stem
wō -stem
i-stems
u-stems
n-stems
other
minor
stems
rootstems
r-, s-, ndDivision according to gender
MN
F
MNF
MF
MNF
MF
MNF
a-stems
Masculine
Neuter
Neuter
short syllable
long syllable
Singular
Nominative
stān (stone)
scip (ship)
bān (bone)
Genetive
stānes
scipes
bānes
Dative
stāne
scipe
bāne
Accusative
stān
scip
bān
Plural
Nominative
stānas
scipu
bān
Genetive
stāna
scipa
bāna
Dative
stānum
scipum
bānum
Accusative
stānas
scipu
bān
Examples of a-stems:
Masculine:
Neuter:
earm (an arm), helm (a helmet), hrinʒ (a ring),
mūþ (a mouth)
dor (a gate), hof (a courtyard), ʒeoc (a yoke),
word (word), reced (house), dēōr (an animal),
bearn (a child), nīeten (ox), ʒēār (a year)
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Masculine
Neuter
Singular
Nominative
dæʒ (day)
fæt (vessel)
Genetive
dæʒes
fætes
Dative
dæʒe
fæte
Accusative
dæʒ
fæt
Plural
Nominative
daʒas
fatu
Genetive
daʒa
fata
Dative
daʒum
fatum
Accusative
daʒas
fatu
Masculine
Neuter
ja-stems
Singular
Nominative
here (army)
cynn (king)
Genetive
her(i)es
cynnes
Dative
her(i)e
cynne
Accusative
here
cynn
Plural
Nominative
her(i)es
cynnu
Genetive
her(i)a
cynna
Dative
her(i)um
cynnum
Accusative
her(i)as
cynnu
Examples of ja-stems:
Masculine:
wecʒ (a wedge), bōcere (a scholar), hrycʒ (back),
fiscere (a fisherman)
Neuter: net (net), bed (bed), ende (end), rīce (realm), wīte (a punishment)
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wa-stems
Masculine
Neuter
Singular
Nominative
bearu (wood)
bealu (evil)
Genetive
bearwes
bealwes
Dative
bearwe
bealwe
Accusative
bearu (-o)
bealu (-o)
Plural
Nominative
bearwas
bealwu (-o)
Genetive
bearwa
bealwa
Dative
bearwum
bealwum
Accusative
bearwas
bealu (-o)
Examples of wa-stems:
Masculine:
Neuter:
snāw (snow), þēaw (a custom)
searu (armour), trēow (a tree), cnēw (a knee)
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ō-stems
Feminine
Singular
Nominative
lufu (love)
tiʒol (brick)
Genetive
lufe
tiʒole
Dative
lufe
tiʒole
Accusative
lufe
tiʒole
Plural
Nominative
lufa
tiʒola
Genetive
lufa
tiʒola
Dative
lufum
tiʒolum
Accusative
lufa
tiʒola
Examples of ō-stems:
caru (care), sceamu (shame), ondswaru (worry), fōr (journey), lār
(instruction), sorʒ (sorrow), þrāʒ (season), ides (woman), swaþu (trace)
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jō-stems
Feminine
Singular
Nominative
æx (axe)
brycʒ (bridge)
Genetive
æxe
brycʒe
Dative
æxe
brycʒe
Accusative
æxe
brycʒe
Plural
Nominative
æxa
brycʒa
Genetive
æxa
brycʒa
Dative
æxum
brycʒum
Accusative
æxa
brycʒa
Examples of jō-stems:
sibb (peace), ecʒ (a blade), secʒ (a sword), hild (fight)
wō-stems
Feminine
Singular
Nominative
nearu (need)
sceadu (shadow)
Genetive
nearwe
sceadwe
Dative
nearwe
sceadwe
Accusative
nearwe
sceadwe
Plural
Nominative
nearwa
sceadwa
Genetive
nearwa
sceadwa
Dative
nearuwum
sceadwum
Accusative
nearuwa
sceadwa
Examples of wō-stems:
beadu (battle), læs (beam)
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i-stems
Masculine
Neuter
Feminine
Singular
Nominative
siʒe (victory)
hyll (hill)
sife (sieve)
hyd (hide)
Genetive
siʒes
hylles
sifes
hyde
Dative
siʒe
hylle
sife
hyde
Accusative
siʒe
hyll
sife
hyde
Plural
Nominative
siʒeas
hyllu
sifu
hyda
Genetive
siʒea
hylla
sifa
hyda
Dative
siʒum
hyllum
sifum
hydum
Accusative
siʒeas
hyllu
sifu
hyda
The tribes and nations were usually of this very type, and were used
always in plural: Enʒle (the Angles), Seaxe (the Saxons), Mierce (the
Mercians), Norþymbre (the Northumbrians), Dene (the Danish)
Plural
Nominative
Dene
Mierce
Seaxe
Enʒle
Genetive
Dena
Miercna
Seaxna
Enʒla
Dative
Denum
Miercum
Seaxum
Enʒlum
Accusative
Dene
Mierce
Seaxe
Enʒle
Examples of i-stems:
Masculine:
mere (sea), mete (food), dæl (part), ʒiest (guest),
Neuter:
Feminine:
drync (drink)
spere (spear); flask (flesh)
cwēn (woman), wiht (thing)
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u-stems
Masculine
Feminine
Singular
Nominative
sunu (son)
duru (door)
Genetive
suna
dura
Dative
suna
dura
Accusative
sunu
duru
Plural
Nominative
suna
dura
Genetive
suna
dura
Dative
sunum
durum
Accusative
suna
dura
Examples of u-stems:
Masculine:
wudu (wood), medu (honey), weald (forest),
sumor (summer), feld (field)
Feminine:
nosu (nose), flōr (floor), hand (hand)
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n-stems
Masculine
Feminine
Neuter
Singular
Nominative
nama (name)
cwene (woman)
ēāʒe (eye)
Genetive
naman
cwenan
ēāʒan
Dative
naman
cwenan
ēāʒan
Accusative
naman
cwenan
ēāʒe
Plural
Nominative
naman
cwenan
ēāʒan
Genetive
namena
cwenena
ēāʒena
Dative
namum
cwenum
ēāʒum
Accusative
naman
cwenan
ēāʒan
Examples of n-stems:
Masculine:
Feminine:
Neuter:
guma (man), wita (wizard), steorra (star),
mōna (moon), dēma (judge)
eorþe (earth), heorte (heart), sunne (sun)
ēāre (ear)
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root-stems
Masculine
Singular
(man)
(foot)
Feminine
(tooth) | (book)
| bōc
(goose)
(mouse) (burg)
ʒōs
mūs
burʒ
N.
mann
fōt
tōþ
G.
mannes
fōtes
tōþes | bōce
ʒōse
mūse
burʒe
D.
menn
fēt
tēþ
| bēc
ʒēs
mўs
byriʒ
A.
mann
fōt
tōþ
| bōk
ʒōs
mūs
burʒ
N.
Plural
menn
fēt
tēþ
| bēc
ʒēs
mўs
byriʒ
G.
manna
fōta
tōþa | bōca
ʒōsa
mūsa
burʒa
D.
mannum
fōtum
tōþum| bōcum ʒōsum
A.
menn
fēt
tēþ
| bēc
ʒēs
mūsum burʒum
mўs
byriʒ
Neuter
Singular
(clothes)
(ale)
N.
scrūd
ealu
G.
scrūdes
ealoþes
D.
scrўd
ealoþ
A.
scrūd
ealu
Plural
N.
scrūd
ealu
G.
scrūda
ealeþa
D.
scrūdum
ealum
A.
scrūd
ealu
Examples of root-stems:
Feminine: āc (oak), brōc (breeches), cū (cow), dunʒ (dungeon), ēa
(water), furh (furrow), ʒāt (goat), ʒrut (gruel), hnutu (nut), lūs (a louse),
mæʒþ (girl), niht (night), sulh (plough), turf (turf), þrul (a basket),
wīfman, wimman (woman), wlōh (seam)
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R-stems
Masculine
Feminine
Singular
Nominative
fæder
(father)
brōþor
(brother)
mōdor
(mother)
sweostor
(sister)
Genetive
fæder (es)
brōþor
mōdor
sweostor
Dative
fæder
brēþer
mēder
sweostor
Accusative
fæder
brōþor
mōdor
sweostor
Plural
Nominative
fæderas
brōþor
mōdru
sweostor
Genetive
fædera
brōþra
mōdra
sweostra
Dative
fæderum
brōþrum
mōdrum
sweostrum
Accusative
fæderas
brōþor
mōdru, -a
sweostor
S-stems
Singular
Nominative
cild (child)
cealf (calf)
Genetive
cildes
cealfes
Dative
cilde
cealfe
Accusative
cild
cealf
Plural
Nominative
cildru
cealfru
Genetive
cildra
cealfra
Dative
cildrum
cealfrum
Accusative
cildru
cealfru
Examples of s-stems: lamb (lamb), æʒ (egg)
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GENERAL TABLE OF OLD ENGLISH NOUN ENDINGS
Strong declension (a, ja, wa, ō, jō, wō, i -stems)
Masculine
Singular
Neuter
Plural Singular
Feminine
Plural
Singular
Plural
Nominative
-
-as
-
-u (-)
-
-a
Genetive
-es
-a
-es
-a
-e
-a
Dative
-e
-um
-e
-um
-e
-um
Accusative
-
-as
-
-u (-)
-e
-a
Weak declension
Singular
Nominative
u-stems
Plural
Singular
Plural
-an
-u
-a
-a (Masculine)
-e (Feminine)
-e (Neuter)
Genetive
-an
-ena
-a
-a
Dative
-an
-um
-a
-um
Accusative
-an (Masculine)
-an
-u
-a
-an (Feminine)
-e (Neuter)
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PLURAL INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS
Flexion
–AS
–U
(later
variants –
O, –A)
ZERO
–A
(Angl. –E)
–E / –A
–AN
Grammatical
categories
Nominative,
Masculine,
a-stem
Examples
earm (an arm), helm (a helmet),
hrin (a ring), mūþ (a mouth), etc.
Nominative / scip (ship), hēafod (head), bæð (bath),
Accusative,
blæd (blade), cliff (cliff), col (coal), fæt (vat),
Neuter,
lim (limb), (ʒe)writ (writ), etc.
a-stem
weorc (work), land (land), scēp (sheep),
Nominative / hors (horse), swīn (swine), wīf (wife),
þinʒ (thing), bān (bone), wundor (wonder),
Accusative,
hūs (house), sweord (sword), wæpen
Neuter,
(weapon), net(t) (net), ʒēar (year), bed(d)
a-stem
(bed), etc.
Nominative /
Accusative,
Feminine,
ō-stem
syn(n) (sin), healf (half), glōf (glove), heall
(hall), nædl/nēdl (needle), mīl (mile), sāwol
(soul), stræt/ strēt (street), wund (wound),
lagu (law), hen(n) (hen), brycʒ (bridge), etc.
Nominative / dæd/dēd (deed), bryd (bride), cwēn
Accusative,
(queen), tīd (tide), etc.
Feminine,
i-stem
masculine: nama (name), oxa (ox), bera
Nominative / (bear), crabba (crab), frogga (frog), snaca
Accusative,
(snake), cnapa/cnafa (knave), boga (bow),
consonantal mona (moon), steorra (star), þūma (thumb)
stem
neuter: ēāʒe (eye), ēāre (ear)
(n-nouns)
feminine: čyr(i)če (church), tunʒe (tongue),
heorte (heart), eorðe (earth), sunne (sun),
wid(e)we (widow), bēō (bee), nædre
(adder), swealwe (swallow)
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Nominative /
ZERO
Accusative,
(or –U/–O)
(r-nouns)
Nominative /
–RU
Accusative,
original
–iz/-uz nouns
brōþor (brother), mōdor (mother),
dohtor (daughter), sweostor (sister)
čild (child),
cealf/cælf (calf),
æʒ (egg), etc.
masculine : man(n) (man) - menn,
fōt (foot) - fæt/fēt, tōð (tooth) - tæð/ tēð,
Nominative / wīfman (woman) - wīfmen
UMLAUT
Accusative,
feminine: neaht/niht (night) - nўht ,
root class
bōk (book) - bēc, ʒōs (goose) - ʒæs/ʒēs,
lūs (louse) - lўs, mūs (mouse) - mўs,
cū (cow) - cў/cўe, ʒāt (goat) - ʒæt,
hnutu (nut) - hnyte
BORROWED WORDS
formular – formulæ, curriculum – curricula, etc.
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OLD ENGLISH WORD-FORMATION
FOR NOUNS
PREFIXES
mis–
mis– + dæd (action)
misdæd (misdeed)
un-
un- +frīþ (peace)
unfrīþ (war)
SUFFIXES
–en
ʒyden (goddess)
–nis, –nes
þrēnes (trinity)
–þ, –uþ, –oþ
trēowþ (truth)
–unʒ, –inʒ
leornunʒ (learning)
–dōm
wisdōm (wisdom)
–hād
cildhād (childhood)
–lāc
rēoflāс (robbery)
–ræden
frēondræden
(friendship)
–scipe
frēondscipe (friendship)
-estre
bæcestre (she-baker)
WORD-COMPOSITION
folc (people) + toʒa (the one who leads )
folctoʒa (leader)
hēafod (head) + mann (man)
hēafodmann (leader)
tunʒol (star) + witeʒa (scientist)
tunʒolwiteʒa (astrologist)
sæ (sea) + wudu (wood)
sæwudu (ship)
yþ (sea) + henʒest (horse)
yþhenʒest (ship)
wītena (wiseman, Gen., sg.) +
ʒemōt (meeting)
37
wītenaʒemōt
(council of Elders)
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
OLD ENGLISN PRONOUN
PERSONAL PRONOUNS
1st Person
Case
Singular
Plural
Dual
Nominative
ic
wē
wit
Genetive
mīn
ūre
uncer
Dative
mē
ūs
unc
Accusative
mec, mē
usic, ūs
uncit, unc
2nd Person
Case
Singular
Plural
Dual
Nominative
þū
ʒē
ʒit
Genetive
þīn
ēower
incer
Dative
þē
ēow
inc
Accusative
þēc, þē
ēowic, ēow
incit, inc
3rd Person
Case
Singular
Plural
Nominative
hē (m.), hēo (f.)
hit (n.)
hīe (m.) hēo (f.)
Genetive
his (m.), hire (f.)
his (n.)
hīora (m.), heora (f.)
Dative
him (m.), hire (f.)
him (n.)
him
Accusative
hine (m.), hīē (f.)
hit (n.)
hīe (m.), hīo (f.)
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS
sē (that)
Nominative
Genetive
Dative
Accusative
Instrumental
Masculine
Feminine
Neuter
Plural
sē
þæs
þæm
þone
þў/þon
sēo
þære
þære
þā
þære
þæt
þæs
þæm
þæt
þy/þon
þā
þāra
þām
þā
-
þis
þisses
þissum
þis
þys/þis
þās
þissa
þissum
þās
-
þēs (this)
Nominative
Genetive
Dative
Accusative
Instrumental
þās/þes
þisses
þissum/þeossum
þisne, þysne
þis/þys
þēos/þīos
þisse
þisse
þās
-
INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS
Nominative
hwā
hwæt
Genetive
hwæs
hwæs
Dative
hwæm
hwæm
Accusative
hwone
hwæt
Instrumental
hwў, hwī
OTHER KINDS OF PRONOUNS
Definite
Indefinite
Negative
ʒehwā (every)
ʒehwilc (each)
æʒþer (either)
sum (some)
nān (no)
æniʒ (any)
næniʒ (none)
ælc (each)
swilc (such)
sē ylca (the same)
39
Relative
þe (which, that)
sē þe
(which, that)
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
OLD ENGLISH ADJECTIVE
STRONG DECLENSION
a, ō-stems
Monosyllabic
Singular
Masculine
Neuter
Nominative
Genetive
Dative
Accusative
Instrumental
blæc (black)
blaces
blacum
blæcne
blace
Feminine
blæc
blaces
blacum
blæc
blace
blacu
blæcre
blæcre
blace
-
blacu
blacra
blacum
blacu
blaca
blacra
blacum
blaca
Plural
Nominative
Genetive
Dative
Accusative
blace
blacra
blacum
blace
Disyllabic
Singular
Masculine
Feminine
Neuter
Nominative
ēādiʒ (happy)
ēādiʒ
ēādiʒu
Genetive
ēādiʒes
ēādiʒes
ēādiʒre
Dative
ēādiʒum
ēādiʒum
ēādiʒre
Accusative
ēādiʒne
ēādiʒ
Instrumental
ēādiʒe
ēādiʒe
ēādiʒe
-
Plural
Nominative
ēādiʒe
ēādiʒu
ēādiʒa
Genetive
ēādiʒra
ēādiʒra
ēādiʒra
Dative
ēādiʒum
ēādiʒum
ēādiʒum
Accusative
ēādiʒe
ēādiʒu
ēādiʒu
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
ja, jō-stems
Singular
Masculine
Feminine
Neuter
Nominative
swēte (sweet)
swēte
swētu
Genetive
swētes
swētes
swētre
Dative
swētum
swētum
swētre
Accusative
swētne
swēte
swēte
Instrumental
swēte
swēte
-
Plural
Nominative
swēte
swētu
swēta
Genetive
swētra
swētra
swētra
Dative
swētum
swētum
swētum
Accusative
swēte
swētu
swēta
wa, wō-stems
Singular
Masculine
Feminine
Neuter
Nominative
nearu (narrow)
nearu
nearu
Genetive
nearwes
nearwes
nearore
Dative
nearwum
nearwum
nearore
Accusative
nearone
nearu
nearwe
Instrumental
nearwe
nearwe
Plural
Nominative
nearwe
nearu
nearwa
Genetive
nearora
nearora
nearora
Dative
nearwum
nearwum
nearwum
Accusative
nearwe
nearu
nearwa
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
GENERAL TABLE
FOR STRONG DECLENSION
Masculine
Feminine
Neuter
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular
Plural
Nominative
-
-e
-u
-a
-
-u
Genetive
-es
-ra
-re
-ra
-es
-ra
Dative
-um
-um
-re
-um
-um
-um
Accusative
-ne
-e
-e
-a
-
-u
Instrumental
-e
-e
WEAK DECLENSION
Singular
Masculine
Neuter
Feminine
Nominative
blaca
blace
blace
Genetive
blacan
blacan
blacan
Dative.
blacan
blacan
blacan
Accusative
blacan
blace
blacan
Plural
Nominative
blacan
Genetive
blæcra
Dative.
blacum
Accusative
blacan
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
DEGREES OF COMPARISON
Absolutive
Comparative
Superlative
earm (poor)
earmra
earmost
blæc (black)
blæcra
blacost
based on ABLAUT
Absolutive
Comparative
Superlative
eald (old)
ieldra
ieldest
stronʒ
strenʒra
strenʒest
lonʒ
lenʒra
lenʒest
ʒeonʒ (young)
ʒinʒra
ʒinʒest
fear (far)
fierra
fierrest/fyrrest
SUPPLETIVE FORMS
Absolutive
Comparative
Superlative
ʒōd (good)
betera (or sēlra)
betst (or sēlest)
yfel (bad)
wiersa
wierest
micel (much)
māra
māest
lytel (little)
læssa
læst
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
OLD ENGLISH WORD-FORMATION
FOR ADJECTIVES
SUFFIXES
-ede
micelhēāfdede
(large-headed)
-ihte
stænihte (stony)
-iʒ
hāliʒ (holy)
-en, -in
ʒylden (golden)
-isc
Enʒlisc (English)
-sum
sibbsum (peaceful)
-feald
þrīēfeald (threefold)
-full
synnfull (sinful)
–lēās
reccelēas (reckless)
-līc
ʒodlic (pleasant)
-weard
hāmweard (homeward)
WORD-COMPOSITION
īs (ice) + ceald (cold)
īsceald (icecold)
stip (strong) + mōd (spirit, mood)
stipmōd (brave)
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
OLD ENGLISH VERB
Strong verbs
Weak verbs
Minor group
Preterite-present
7 classes
3 classes
Suppletive
Anomalous
OLD ENGLISH STRONG VERBS
Class I
i: + 1 consonant
Class II
eo or u: + 1 consonant
Class III
Class III a)
Class III b)
Class III c)
Class III d)
Class III e)
Class III f)
i + a nasal consonant + a consonant
i + a nasal consonant
ie + two consonants
e + l + a consonant
e + two consonants
eo+r, h + a consonant
Class III g) u +r + a consonant
Class IV
e + 1 consonant (l or r, plus the verb brecan 'to break')
Class V
e + 1 consonant (usually a stop or a fricative)
Class VI
a + 1 consonant
Class VII
No specific rule. The infinitive and the past participle have
the same stem
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Stem Changes in Strong Verbs
Class
Infinitive Past Singular Past Plural
Past Participle
Class I
i:
a:
i
i
Class II
eo
ea
u
o
see table below
Class III
Class IV
e
æ
æ:
o
Class V
e
æ
æ:
e
Class VI
a
o:
o:
a
see table below
Class VII
Stem Changes in Class III
Subclass
Infinitive
Past Singular
Past Plural
Participle II
Subclass a)
i
a
u
u
Subclass b)
i
æ
ū
u
Subclass c)
ie
o
u
u
Subclass d)
e
ea
u
o
Subclass e)
e
æ
u
o
Subclass f)
u
ea
u
o
Stem Changes in Class VII
Subclass
Infinitive
Past Singular
Past Plural
Participle II
Subclass a)
o or ā
æ or a
e
e
o or ā
æ or a
Subclass b)
ea
eo
eo
ea
ēō
ēō
Subclass c)
ā or ō
ēā or ē
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ā or ō
ēā or ē
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
CLASS I
Infinitive
Past Singular
Past Plural
Participle II
drīfan (to drive)
drāf
drifon
drifen
snīþan (to cut)
snāþ
snidon
sniden
Infinitive
Past Singular
Past Plural
Participle II
teon (to convict)
tāh
tiʒon
tiʒen
þēon (to prosper)
bāh
þiʒon
þiʒen
wrēon (to cover)
wrāh
wriʒon
wriʒen
Other examples: ārīsan (to arise), abidan (to wait), bīdan (to bide), belīfan (to
stay), besmītan (to dirty), beswican (to betray), blīcan (to glitter), bītan (to
bite), clīfan (to cling), ʒlīdan (to glide), ʒrīpan (to clutch), ʒewītan (to go),
līþan (to go), rīdan (to ride), rīsan (to rise), scīnan (to shine), sīcan (to sigh),
slīdan (to slide), slītan (to slit), smitan (to dirt), stīʒan (to mount), strīdan (to
stride)
Class I strong: wrītan (to write)
Present
Indicative
Singular
1 wrīte
2 wrītest
3 wrīteþ
Plural
wrītaþ
Past
Subjunctive
Imperative ¦ Indicative
wrīte
wrīt
¦wrāt
¦wrīte
¦wrāt
wrīten
2 wrītaþ
¦writon
Infinitive
Participle
wrītan
I wrītende II ʒewriten
47
Subjunctive
wrīte
writen
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
CLASS II
Infinitive
Past Singular
Past Plural
Participle II
bēodan (to oder)
bēad
budon
boden
frēosan (to freeze)
frēas
fruson
frosen
Infinitive
Past Singular
Past Plural
Participle II
dūfan (to dive)
dēaf
dufon
dofen
lūtan (to bend)
lēat
luton
loten
Infinitive
Past Singular
Past Plural
Participle II
tēon (to draw)
tēah
tuʒon
toʒen
flēon (to flee)
flēah
fluʒon
floʒen
Other examples: brēowan (to brew), brūcan (to bear), cēosan (to choose),
clēofan (to cleave), cēowan (to chew), drēosan (to fall), flēotan (to fleet),
forlēosan (to lose), ʒēotan (to pour), ʒrēotan (to weep), lēoʒan (to lie), nēotan
(to enjoy), scēotan (to shoot), sēoþan (to seethe); brūcan (to need), būʒan (to
bend), scūfan (to shove), slūfan (to sleep), sūpan (to try)
Class II strong: crēopan (to creep)
Present
Indicative
Singular
1 crēope
2 crēopest
3 crēopeþ
Plural
crēopaþ
Past
Subjunctive
Imperative ¦ Indicative
Subjunctive
crēope
crēopa
¦crēap
¦crēape
¦crēap
crēape
crēopen
2 crēopaþ ¦crupon
crupen
Infinitive
Participle
crēopan
I crēopende
48
II ʒecropen
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
CLASS III
Class III a)
i + a nasal consonant + a consonant
Infinitive
Past Singular
Past Plural
Participle II
drincan (to drink)
dranc
druncon
druncen
ʒelimpan (to happen)
ʒelamp
ʒelumpon
ʒelumpen
Other examples: bindan (to bind), climban (to climb), findan (to find),
onʒinnan (to begin), rindan (to grind), scrincan (to dry out), sinʒan (to sing),
sinnan (to reflect), swindan (to vanish), swimman (to swim), winnan (to
work), windan (to wind)
Class III b) i + a nasal consonant
Infinitive
Past Singular
Past Plural
Participle II
fri(ʒ)nan (to ask)
fræʒn
frūnon
frunen
Class III c) ie + two consonants
Infinitive
Past Singular
Past Plural
Participle II
biernan (to burn)
born
burnon
burnen
iernan (to run)
orn
urnon
urnen
Class III d) e + l + a consonant
Infinitive
Past Singular
Past Plural
Participle II
helpan (to help)
healp
hulpon
holpen
melcan (milk)
mealc
mulcon
molcen
Other examples: bellan (to bark), delfan (to delve), meltan (to melt), swelʒan
(to swallow), sweltan (to die)
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Class III e) e + two consonants
Infinitive
Past Singular
Past Plural
Participle II
berstan (to burst)
bærst
burston
borsten
þerscan (to thrash)
þærsc
þurscon
þorscen
Other examples: streʒdan (to sow)
Class III f) eo+r, h + a consonant
Infinitive
Past Singular
Past Plural
Participle II
feohtan (to fight)
feaht
fuhton
fohten
weorpan (to throw)
wearp
wurpon
worpen
Other examples: beorcan (to bark), beorʒan (to conceal), ceorfan (to carve),
hweorfan (to turn), steorfan (to die)
Class III g) u +r + a consonant
Infinitive
Past Singular
Past Plural
Participle II
spurnan (to spur)
spearn
spurnon
spornen
murnan (to murn)
mearn
murnon
-
Class III (a) strong - bindan (to bind)
Present
Indicative
Singular
1 binde
2 bindest
3 bindeþ
Plural
bindaþ
Infinitive
bindan
Past
Subjunctive
Imperative ¦ Indicative
binde
bind
¦ band
¦ bunde
¦ band, bond
bunde
bindaþ
¦ bundon
bunden
binden
Participle
I bindende II ʒebunden
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Subjunctive
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Class III (b) strong - beʒinnan (to begin)
Present
Indicative
Singular
1 beʒine
2 beʒinest
3 beʒineþ
Plural
beʒinaþ
Past
Subjunctive
Imperative ¦ Indicative
beʒine
-
beʒin
¦ beʒæn
¦ beʒune
¦ beʒæn
beʒinen
beʒinaþ
¦ beʒunon
Infinitive
Subjunctive
beʒune
beʒunen
Participle
I beʒinende II ʒebeʒinen
beʒinan
Class III (c) strong - iernan (to run)
Present
Indicative
Singular
1 ierne
2 iernest
3 ierneþ
Plural
iernaþ
Past
Subjunctive
ierne
iernen
Subjunctive
iern
¦ orn
¦ urne
¦ orn
urne
iernaþ
¦ urnon
urnen
-
Infinitive
iernan
Imperative ¦ Indicative
Participle
I iernende II ʒeurnen
Class III (d) strong - swelʒan (to swallow)
Present
Indicative
Singular
1 swelʒe
2 swelʒest
3 swelʒeþ
Plural
swelʒaþ
Infinitive
swelʒan
Past
Subjunctive
Imperative ¦ Indicative
swelʒe
-
swelʒ
¦swealʒ
¦ swulʒe
¦ swealʒ
swelʒen
swelʒaþ
¦ swulʒon
Participle
I swelʒende II ʒeswolʒen
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Subjunctive
swulʒe
swulʒen
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Class III (e) strong - breʒnan (to wield)
Present
Indicative
Singular
1 breʒne
2 breʒnest
3 breʒneþ
Plural
breʒnaþ
Past
Subjunctive
breʒne
-
breʒn
¦ bræʒn
¦ bruʒne
¦ bræʒn
breʒnen
breʒnaþ
¦ bruʒnon
Infinitive
breʒnan
Imperative ¦ Indicative
Subjunctive
bruʒne
bruʒnen
Participle
I breʒnende II ʒebroʒnen
Class III (f) strong - weorþan (to become)
Present
Indicative
Singular
1 weorþe
2 weorþest
3 weorþeþ
Plural
weorþaþ
Past
Subjunctive
weorþe
-
weorþ
¦ wearþ
¦ wurþe
¦ wearþ
weorþen
weorþaþ
¦ wurdon
Infinitive
weorþan
Imperative ¦ Indicative
Singular
1 spurne
2 spurnest
3 spurneþ
Plural
spurnaþ
Infinitive
spurnan
wurþe
wurden
Participle
I weorþende II ʒeworden
Class III (g) strong - spurnan (to spur)
Present
Indicative
Subjunctive
Subjunctive
Past
Imperative ¦ Indicative
spurne
-
spurn
¦ spearn
¦ spurne
¦ spearn
spurnen
spurnaþ
¦ spurnon
Participle
I spurnende II ʒespornen
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Subjunctive
spurne
spurnen
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
CLASS IV
Infinitive
Past Singular
Past Plural
Participle II
stelan (to steal)
stæl
stælon
stolen
teran (to tear)
tær
tæron
turen
Infinitive
Past Singular
Past Plural
Participle II
niman (to take)
nom
nomon
numen
cuman (to come)
com
cōmon
cumen
Other examples: brecan (to break), cwelan (to die), helan (to conceal)
Class IV strong - beran (to bear)
Present
Indicative
Singular
1 bere
2 berest
3 bereþ
Plural
beraþ
Infinitive
beran
Subjunctive
Past
Imperative ¦ Indicative
bere
ber
¦ bær
¦ bære
¦ bær
bære
beraþ
¦ bæron
bæren
beren
Participle
I berende II ʒeboren
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Subjunctive
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
CLASS V
Infinitive
Past Singular
Past Plural
Participle II
cweþan (to say)
cwæþ
cwædon
cweden
sprecan (to speak)
spræc
spræcon
sprecen
Infinitive
Past Singular
Past Plural
Participle II
biddan (to beg)
bæd
bæddon
bidden
licʒan (to lie)
læʒ
læʒon
leʒen
sittan (to sit)
s æt
sætton
sitten
Infinitive
Past Singular
Past Plural
Participle II
ʒiefan (to give)
ʒeaf
ʒēafon
ʒiefen
ʒietan (to get)
ʒiat
ʒēaton
ʒieten
Other examples: cnedan (to knead), drepan (to kill), etan (to eat), lesan (to
gather), metan to (measure), swefan (to sleep), tredan (to tread), wefan (to
weave), wesan (to be), wrecan (to persecute)
Class V strong - sēon (to see)
Present
Indicative
Singular
1 sēo
2 sīehst
3 sīehþ
Plural
sēoþ
Infinitive
sēon
Subjunctive
Past
Imperative ¦ Indicative
sēo
-
seoh
seah
¦ seah
¦ sāwe
¦ sæʒe
sēon
2 sēoþ
¦ sāwon
Participle
I sēonde II ʒesewen, ʒeseʒen
54
Subjunctive
sāwe
sāwen
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
CLASS VI
Infinitive
Past Singular
Past Plural
Participle II
faran (to go)
fōr
fōron
faren
wascan (to wash)
wōsc
wōscon
wascen
Infinitive
Past Singular
Past Plural
Participle II
hebban (to heave)
hōf
hōfon
hafen
hliehhan (to laugh)
hlōʒ
hlōʒon
hlæʒen
sceþþan (to harm)
scōþ
scōdon
sceaden
scie(y)pan (to shape)
scōp
scōpon
sceapen
stæppan (to step)
stōp
stōpon
stapen
swerian (to swear)
swōr
swōron
swaren
flēan (to flay)
flōʒ
flōʒon
flæʒen
lēan (to blame)
lōʒ
lōʒon
laʒen
hon (to hang)
henʒ
henʒon
hanʒen
þwēan (to wash)
þwōʒ
þwōʒon
þwæʒen
slean (to kill)
slōʒ
slōʒon
slāʒen
standan (to stand)
stōd
stōdon
standen
wæcnan (to awake)
wōc
wōcon
wōcen
Other examples: awakan (to awake), bacan (to bake), draʒan (to drag), hladan
(to lade), ʒalan (to sing), ʒnaʒan (to gnaw), ʒrafan (to dig), wadan (to walk)
Class VI strong: scacan (to shake)
Present
Indicative
Singular
1 scace
2 scacest
3 scaceþ
Plural
scacaþ
Infinitive
scacan
Subjunctive
Past
Imperative ¦ Indicative
scace
scac
¦scōc
¦scōce
¦scōc
scacen
2 scacaþ
¦scōcon
Participle
I scacende II ʒescacen
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Subjunctive
scōce
scōcen
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CLASS VII
Class VII a)
Infinitive
Past Singular
Past Plural
Participle II
blondan (to blend)
blend
blendon
blonden
lācan (to jump)
lecan
lecon
lācen
rædan (to read)
red
redon
ræden
scadan (to divide)
sced
scedon
scaden
Other examples: ondrædan (to fear), lætan to (let), slæpan (to sleep)
Class VII b)
Infinitive
Past Singular
Past Plural
Participle II
healdan (to hold)
hēold
hēoldon
healden
feallan (to fall)
feoll
feollon
feallen
Other examples: fealdan (to fold), healdan (to hold), sealtan (to salt),
sponnan (to span), wealcan (to roll)
Class VII c)
Infinitive
Past Singular
Past Plural
Participle II
cnāwan (to know)
cnēow
cnēowon
cnāwen
flōwan (to flow)
flēow
flēowon
flowen
hlēapan (to leap)
hlēop
hlēopon
hlēapen
wēpan (to weep)
wēop
wēopon
wēpen
Other examples: bēatan (to beat), blōwan (to flourish), crāwan (to crow),
ʒrōwan (to grow), hēawan (to hew), hlōwan (to low), māwan (to mow),
rāwan (to urn), rōwan (to row), sāwan (to sow), spōwan (to flourish)
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Class VII (a) strong - fōn (to catch)
Present
Indicative
Singular
1 fō
2 fēhst
3 fēhþ
Plural
fōþ
Infinitive
fōn
Subjunctive
fō
fōn
Imperative ¦ Indicative
Singular
1 wealde
2 wealdest
3 wealdeþ
Plural
wealdaþ
Infinitive
wealdan
fōh
fenʒe
2 fōþ
¦ fenʒon
fenʒen
Participle
I fōnde
II ʒefanʒen, ʒefonʒen
Subjunctive
Singular
1 blāwe
2 blāwest
3 blāweþ
Plural
blāwaþ
Infinitive
blāwan
Past
Imperative ¦ Indicative
wealde
-
weald
wealden
2 wealdaþ ¦ weoldon
¦ weold
¦ weolde
¦ weold
Subjunctive
weolde
weolden
Participle
I wealdende
II ʒewealden
Class VII (c) strong - blāwan (to blow)
Present
Indicative
Subjunctive
¦ fenʒ
¦ fenʒe
¦ fenʒ
Class VII (b) strong - wealdan (to wield)
Present
Indicative
Past
Subjunctive
blāwe
blāwen
Past
Imperative ¦ Indicative
blāw
¦ blēow
¦ blēowe
¦ blēow
blēowe
2 blāwaþ
¦ blēowon
blēowen
Participle
I blāwende
II ʒeblāwen
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Subjunctive
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GENERAL TABLE OF OLD ENGLISH VERB ENDINGS
Present
Past
Singular
(infinitive stem
+)
Plural
(infinitive
stem +)
Singular
-e
-aþ
Past singular
stem
-on
-est
-aþ
Past plural stem
+ -e
-on
-eþ
-aþ
Past singular
stem
-on
Subjunctive
-e
-en
Past plural stem
+ -e
-en
Imperative
infinitive
stem
-aþ
1st person
(past plural
stem +)
(I, we)
2nd person
(thou, you)
3rd person
Plural
(he, she,
they)
FORMATION OF PARTICIPLES:
Participle I:
Infinitive stem
Participle II:
ʒe-
+
+
-ende
Past Plural stem +
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-en
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OLD ENGLISH WEAK VERBS
CLASS I
Regular weak verbs
Infinitive
Past Singular
Past Plural
Participle II
dēman (to judge)
dēmde
hīerde
dēmdon
hīerdon
dēmed
hīeran (to hear)
Infinitive
Past Singular
hīered
Past Plural
Participle II
When the suffix is preceded by a voiceless consonant the ending changes
cēpan (to keep)
cēpte
cēpton
cēpt / cēped
ʒrētan (to greet)
ʒrētte
ʒrētton
ʒrēt / ʒrēted
Infinitive
Past Singular
Past Plural
Participle II
If the verb stem ends in consonant plus d or t:
sendan (to send)
sende
sendon
send / sended
restan (to rest)
reste
reston
rest / rested
Other examples: berian (beat), byldan (build), clynnan (sound), cnyssan (to
push), dræfan (drive), derian (harm), dynnan (resound), dryʒean (dry), efstan
(hurry), erian (plough), fēran (go), ferian (go), fysan (hurry), fremman (to
commit), hīepan (heap), herian (praise), hrissan (tremble), hlynnan (roar),
ʒremman (be angry), læran (teach), mētan (to meet), nerian (to save),
sceþþan (harm), styrian (to stir), wecʒean (move), wendan (turn), wennan
(accustom), wyscean (wish)
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Irregular weak verbs
Infinitive
Past Singular
Past Plural
Participle II
brinʒan (to bring)
bycʒan (to buy)
cwellan (to kill)
sēcan (to seek)
sellan (to give)
ræcan (to reach)
tæcan (to teach)
tellan (to tell)
þencan (to think)
wyrcan (to work)
brōhte
bohte
cwealde
sōhte
sealde
rāhte
tāhte
tealde
þōhte
worhte
brōhton
bohton
cwealdon
sōhton
sealdon
rāhton
tāhton
tealdon
þōhton
worhton
brōht
boht
cweald
sōht
seald
rāht
tāht
teald
þōht
worht
Class I weak regular - styrian (stir)
Present
Indicative
Singular
1 styrie
2 styrest
3 styreþ
Plural
styriaþ
Subjunctive
Imperative ¦ Indicative
styrie
styre
¦styrede
¦styredest
¦styrede
styrien
2 styriaþ
¦styredon
Infinitive
styrian
Singular
1 telle
2 tellest
3 telleþ
Plural
tellaþ
Infinitive
tellan
Subjunctive
styrede
styreden
Participle
I styriende II ʒestyred
Class I weak irregular - tellan (tell)
Present
Indicative
Past
Subjunctive
Past
Imperative ¦ Indicative
telle
tele, tell
¦ tealde
¦ tealdest
¦ tealde
tellen
2 tellaþ
¦ tealdon
Participle
I tellende II ʒeteald
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Subjunctive
tealde
tealden
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CLASS II
Infinitive
Past Singular
Past Plural
Participle II
hopian (to hope)
hopode
hopodon
hopod
lufian (to love)
lufode
lufodon
lufod
macian (to make)
macode
macodon
macod
Other examples: lofian (praise), stician (pierce), eardian (dwell), scēawian
(look), weorþian (honour), wundrian (wonder), fæstnian (fasten), mærsian
(glorify)
Class II weak - lufian (love)
Present
Indicative
Singular
Sg. 1 lufie
2 lufast
3 lufaþ
Plural
lufiaþ
Infinitive
lufian
Past
Subjunctive
Imperative ¦ Indicative
lufie
lufa
¦ lufode
¦ lufodest
¦ lufode
lufien
2 lufiaþ
¦ lufodon
Participle
I lufiende II ʒelufod
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Subjunctive
lufode
lufoden
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CLASS III
Infinitive
Past Singular
Past Plural
Participle II
fēoʒ (e)an (to hate)
fēode
fēodon
fēod
frēoʒ (e)an (to free)
frēode
frēodon
frēod
habban (to have)
hæfde
hæfdon
hæfd
hycʒ (e)an (to think)
hoʒde
hoʒdon
hoʒod
libban (to live)
lifde
lifdon
lifd
secʒ (e)an (to say)
sæʒde
sæʒdon
sæʒd
smēaʒ (e)an (to think)
smēade
smēadon
smēad
þrēaʒ (e)an (to threaten)
þrēade
þrēadon
þrēad
Class III weak - habban (have)
Present
Indicative
Singular
1 hæbbe
2 hafast
3 hafaþ
Plural
habbaþ
Infinitive
habban
Past
Subjunctive
Imperative ¦ Indicative
hæbbe
hafa
¦ hæfde
¦ hæfdest
¦ hæfde
2 habbaþ
hæfdon
¦ hæfden
Subjunctive
hæfden
Participle
I hæbbende
II ʒehæfd
Negative particle ne coalesces with verb forms:
ne habban = nabban, ne hafde = næfde
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Class III weak - secʒan (say)
Present
Indicative
Singular
1 secʒe
2 sæʒst
3 sæʒþ
Plural
secʒaþ
Past
Subjunctive
Imperative ¦ Indicative
secʒe
sæʒe
¦ sæʒde
¦ sæʒdest
¦ sæʒde
secʒen
2 secʒaþ
¦ sæʒdon
Infinitive
secʒan
Subjunctive
sæʒde
sæʒden
Participle
I secʒende II ʒesæʒd
Class III weak - libban (live)
Present
Indicative
Singular
1 libbe
2 liofast
3 liofaþ
Plural
libbaþ
Infinitive
libban
Past
Subjunctive
Imperative ¦ Indicative
libbe
liofa
¦ lifde
¦ lifdest
¦ lifde
2 libben
libbaþ
¦lifdon
Participle
I libbende II ʒelifd
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Subjunctive
lifde
lifden
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OLD ENGLISH PRETERITE - PRESENT VERBS
Present Tense
Past Tense
generated from the Past Tense of
Strong verbs
generated from the Past Tense of
Weak verbs
Present
Infinitive
Past
Participle II
Ablaut pattern
(class of strong
verbs)
Singular
Plural
aʒan
āʒ
āʒon
āhte
āʒen
1
witan
wāt
witon
wiste (wisse)
witen /
ʒewiten
1
duʒan
dēaʒ
duʒon
–
–
2
cunnan
can(n)
cunnon
cūðe
cunnen / cūþ
3
Modern
English
forms
owe, own
(from part.II,
āgen), ought
to wit
can / could
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Present
Infinitive
Past
Participle II
Ablaut pattern
(class of strong
verbs)
Modern
English
forms
dare / durst
Singular
Plural
durran
dear(r)
durron
dorste
–
3
þurfan
þearf
þurfon
þorfte
–
3
unnan
ann
unnon
ūðe
unnen
3
munan
man
munen
munde
munen
4
sculan
sceal
sculon
sceolde
–
4
shall / should
*–
ʒeneah
ʒenuʒon
ʒenuʒe
–
5
enough
maʒan
mæʒ
maʒon
meahte
–
5
may / might
*–
mōt
mōton
mōste
–
6
must
*
(infinitive was not registered)
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CLASS I
āʒan (have)
Present
Indicative
Singular 1 āʒ
2 āhst
3 āʒ
Plural
āʒon
Participles:
II āʒen
Past
Subjunctive
āʒe
āʒen
Indicative
āhte
āhtest
āhte
āhton
Subjunctive
āhte
āhtеn
witan (know)
Present
Singular
Plural
Indicative
1 wāt
2 wast
3 wāt
witon
Subjunctive
wite
2 witen
Imperative
wite
witaþ
Past
Indicative
Subjunctive
Singular 1 wisse,
wiste
2 wissest, wistest
wisse, wiste
3 wisse, wiste
Plural
wisson, wiston
wissen, wisten
Participles: I witende,
II witen, ʒewiten
Negative particle ne coalesces with verb forms:
ne wāt = nāt, ne wisse = nysse
CLASS II
dūʒan (to prosper, be of worth)
Present
Indicative
Subjunctive
Singular 1 dēaʒ
2
duʒe
3 dēaʒ
Plural
duʒon
duʒen
Participles:
I duʒende
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CLASS III
cunnan (know, can)
Present
Indicative
Subjunctive
Singular 1 cann
2 canst
cunne
3 cann
Plural
cunnon
cunnen
Participles:
II cunnen, cūþ
Past
Indicative
cūþe
cūþest
cūþe
cūþon
Subjunctive
cūþe
cūþen
durran (dare)
Singular
Plural
Present
Indicative
1 dear
2 dearst
3 dear
durron
Past
Subjunctive
durre
durren
Indicative
dorste
dorstest
dorste
dorston
Subjunctive
dorste
dorsten
þurfan (need)
Present
Indicative
Subjunctive
Singular 1 þearf
2 þearft
þurfe
3 þearf
Plural
þurfon
þurfen
Participles:
þearfende
Past
Indicative
þorfte
þorftest
þorfte
þorfton
Subjunctive
þorfte
þorften
unnan (grant, to give, to do a favour)
Present
Indicative
Singular 1 ann
2
3 ann
Plural
unnon
Participles:
II unnen
Past
Subjunctive
unne
unnen
67
Indicative
ūþe
ūþest
ūþe
ūþon
Subjunctive
ūþe
ūþen
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CLASS IV
munan (remember)
Present
Indicative
Subjunctive
Singular 1 man
2 manst
mune
3 man
Plural
munon
munen
Participles:
I munden, munende
Past
Indicative
munde
mundest
munde
mundon
Subjunctive
munde
sculan (shall)
Singular
Plural
Present
Indicative
1 sceal
2 scealt
3 sceall
sculon
Past
Subjunctive
scule
Indicative
sceolde
sceoldost
sceolde
sceoldon
Subjunctive
sceolde
sceolden
CLASS V
*(can, may, to be allowed, to have the possibility)
(the infinitive was not registered)
Singular
Plural
Present
Indicative
1 mōt
2 mōst
3 mōt
mōton
Past
Subjunctive
mōte
mōten
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Indicative
mōste
mōstest
mōste
mōston
Subjunctive
mōste
mōsten
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IRREGULAR
maʒan (may)
Singular
Present
Indicative
1 mæʒ
2 meaht
Past
Subjunctive
mæʒe
3 mæʒ
Plural
maʒon
mæʒen
Participles:
I maʒende
Indicative
Subjunctive
meahte (mihte)
meahtest
mihte, mihten
(mihtest)
meahte
(mihton)
meahton
* (be enough)
(the infinitive was not registered)
Present
Past
Indicative
Indicative
Singular 3 ʒeneah
ʒenuʒe, ʒenohte
Plural
ʒenuʒon
ʒenuʒon
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OLD ENGLISH ANOMALOUS VERBS
dōn (to do)
Present
Indicative
Subjunctive
Singular
1 dō
2 dēst
3 dēþ
Plural
dōþ
Participles:
Past
Imperative ¦ Indicative
dō
dō
dōn
2 dōþ
Subjunctive
¦ dyde
¦ dydest
¦ dyde
dyde
¦ dydon
dyden
I dōnde, II ʒedōn
willan (will)
Present
Indicative
Singular
1 wille
2 wilt
3 wile
Plural
willaþ
Past
Subjunctive
¦ Indicative
Subjunctive
wille
¦ wolde
¦ woldest
¦ wolde
wolde
willen
¦ woldon
wolden
Participle I willende
Negative particle ne coalesces with verb forms:
ne wille=nylle, nelle; ne wolde = nolde.
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OLD ENGLISH SUPPLETIVE VERBS
wesan (be)
has got only the Present tense forms, uses the verb bēon in the Past.
Present
Indicative
Subjunctive
Imperative
Singular 1 eom
2 eart
sīe, sý, sī,
wes,
3 is
Plural
sind
sīen, sýn
2 wesaþ
bēon (be)
Present
Indicative
Subjunctive
Singular
1. bēo
2 bist
3 biþ
Plural
bēoþ
Participle I:
Past
Imperative ¦ Indicative
bēo
bēo
¦wæs
¦wære
¦wæs
bēon
2 bēoþ
¦ wæron
Subjunctive
wære
wæren
bēonde (being)
Negative particle ne coalesces with verb forms:
ne is=nis, ne wæs = næs, ne wæron = næron
ʒān (go)
Present
Indicative
Singular
1 ʒā
2 ʒǽst
3 ʒǽþ
Plural
ʒāþ
Participles:
Past
Subjunctive
Imperative ¦ Indicative
ʒā
ʒā
¦ ēode
¦ ēodest
¦ ēode
2 ʒān
ʒāþ
¦ ēodon
I ʒānde, ʒanʒende
II ʒeʒān
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Subjunctive
ēode
ēoden
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OLD ENGLISH AFFIXATION FOR VERBS
PREFIXES
ā-
out of, from
ārīsan (arise)
be-
over, around, by
beþencan (think over)
for-
destruction or loss
fordōn (destroy)
mis-
negation or bad quality
mislīcian (displease)
of-
reinforce
ofslēan (kill)
on-
change or separation
onlūcan (unlock)
tō-
destruction
tōbrecan (break)
SUFFIXES
-s-
mærsian (to announce;
from mære - famous)
-læc-
nēalæcan (to approach)
-ett-
bliccettan (to sparkle)
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OLD ENGLISH ADVERB
Secondary adverbs
Primary adverbs
(Derivational)
þā (then)
þonne (then)
þær (there)
hwonne (when)
hwær (where)
nū (now)
hēr (here)
swā (so)
hwīlum (sometimes)
sōna (soon)
oft (often)
eft (again)
hwōnan (whence)
wide (widely)
dēope (deeply)
fæste (fast)
hearde (hard)
bealdlīce (boldly)
freondlīce (in a friendly way)
OLD ENGLISH WORD-FORMATION
FOR ADVERBS
SUFFIXES
-e
sweotule (clearly)
-līce
frēondlīce (friendly)
-es
willes (willingly)
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DEGREES OF COMPARISON
Absolutive
Comparative
Superlative
wīde (widely)
wīdor
wīdost
hearde (hardly)
heardor
heardost
based on ABLAUT
Absolutive
Comparative
lonʒ (long)
lenʒ
feorr (far)
fierr
ēaþe (easily)
īeþe
SUPPLETIVE FORMS
Absolutive
Comparative
Superlative
wel (well)
betre
best
yfele (badly)
wiers, wyrs
wierst
micele (much)
māre
mæst
lytle (little)
læsse
læst
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OLD ENGLISH NUMERAL
OLD ENGLISH CARDINAL NUMERALS
1 ān
20 twentiʒ
2 twā
21 twentiʒ ond ān
3 þrīe
30 þrītiʒ
4 fēower
40 fēowertiʒ
5 fīf
50 fīftiʒ
6 six, syx, siex
60 siextiʒ
7 seofon, syofn
70 hundsiofontiʒ
8 eahta
80 hundeahtatiʒ
9 niʒon
90 hundniʒontiʒ
10 tīen, tyn, tēn
100 hundtēontiʒ, hund, hundred
11 endlefan
110 hundælleftiʒ
12 twelf
120 hundtwelftiʒ
13 þrīotīene, - tyne
200 tū hund
14 fēowertīene
1000 þūsend
15. fīftīene
2000 tū þūsendu
16 siextīene
17 siofontīene
18 eahtatīene
19 niʒontīene
49
niʒon and fēowertiʒ
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ān (one)
Singular
Masculine
Neuter
Feminine
Nominative
ān
ān
ānu
Genetive
ānes
ānes
ānre
Dative
ānum
ānum
ānre
Accusative
ānne
ān
āne
Instrumental
āne
āne
-
twá (two)
Singular
Masculine
Neuter
Feminine
Nominative
tweʒen
tū, twā
twā
Genetive
-
twēʒea, twēʒra
-
Dative
-
twæm, twām
-
Accusative
tweʒen
tū, twā
twā
þrīe (three)
Singular
Masculine
Neuter
Feminine
Nominative
þrīe, þrī, þry
þrīo, þrēo
þrīo, þrēo
Genetive
-
þrīora, þrēora
-
Dative
-
þrīm
-
Accusative
þrīe, þrī, þry
þrīō, þrēō
þrīō, þrēō
The numeral beʒen, bū, bā (both) is declined the same way as twā and is also
dual.
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OLD ENGLISH ORDINAL NUMERALS
1 forma, fyresta
20 twentiʒoþa
2 ōþer, æfterra
30 þrittiʒoþa
3 þridda, þirda
40 fēowertiʒoþa
4 fēorþa
50 fīftiʒoþa
5 fīfta
60 siextiʒoþa
6 siexta, syxta
70 hundsiofontiʒoþa
7 siofoþa
80 hundeahtatiʒoþa
8 eahtoþa
90 hundniʒontiʒoþa
9 niʒoþa
100 hundtēontioʒoþa
10 tēoþa
110 hundælleftiʒoþa
11 endlefta
120 hundtwelftiʒoþa
12 twelfta
13 þreotēōþa
14 fēowertēoþa
15 fīftēoþa
16 siextēoþa
17 siofontēoþa
18 eahtatēoþa
19 niʒontēoþa
49
niʒon and fēowertiʒoþa
niʒoþa ēac fēowertiʒum
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OLD ENGLISH AUXILIARY WORDS
PREPOSITIONS (POSTPOSITIONS)
of
æt
fram
tō
wiþ
in, of, mid
on
be
þurh
under, ofer
æfter
bufan
ūt
beforan
būtan
benorþan
besūþan
of, out of
to
from
to
against
with
on, at
by, near, to, because of, about
through
over
after
above
out
before
without
north of
south of
CONJUNCTIONS
and / ond
ac
ʒif
ær
æʒþer ʒe... ʒe
hwonne
þa
þonne
þēahþe
þætte
swā... swā...
and
but
if
before
both... and..., either ... or...
when
when
when
though
that
so... as...
INTERJECTIONS:
īa (yes),
wā (woe!, wow!),
hwæt (there! what!).
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PRINCIPAL OLD ENGLISH
WRITTEN RECORDS
Kentish
dialect
West-saxon
dialect
Mercian
dialect
Northumbrian
dialect
8th century
Charters;
Charters
Glosses
to
Bede’s
Ecclesiastical
History of the
English People
Charters;
Glosses
Runic Inscriptions:
The Ruthwell Cross
The Franks Casket;
Cædmon:
Hymn,
Genesis, Exodus;
Cynnewulf: Christ,
Fate of the Apostles,
Elene;
Beowulf;
Elegiac
poems:
Traveller’s
songs,
Seafarer, Wanderer
9th century
Charters
Charters of Riddles
Charters
King
Alfred: Mercian King
translation
of
Gregory’s pastoral
Care;
Orosius:
World’s History;
Boethius
Consolation of
Philosophy ;
Bede’s
Ecclesiastical
History ;
The earliest part of
the
Anglo-Saxon
Chronicle;
Charters;
Royal Writs
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10-11th centuries
Kentish
West saxon
Mercian
Kentish Hymn;
Kentish Psalm;
Glosses
to
proverbs
Ælfric’s creations:
Gospels, Homilies,
Lives of Saints,
Latin
Grammar,
Colloquium,
Old
Testament;
The
Anglo-Saxon
Chronicle continued;
Wulfstan’s Homilies
80
Northumbrian
Glosses
in
the
Lindisfarne Gospel;
The
Rushworth
Gospel;
The Durham Ritual
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MIDDLE ENGLISH &
EARLY NEW ENGLISH
Main Historical Sources of Modern Spellings
VOWELS
Sound
Spelling
Examples
Sound changes accounting
for the spelling
Middle
English
New
English
Monophthongs
Short
æ
a
cat, man
a > æ
ɔ
a after w
was, want
wa > wɔ
e
ea before d, th
head, death
ε: > e: > e
u
oo before t, k
foot, book
o: > u: >u
Λ
o, u
oo before d
come, nut
flood
u > Λ
o: > u: > u >
ə
er, -re, -or
reader, centre,
tutor
r > ə
ər > ə
Long
meet, field,
he,meat
i:
ee, ie, e, ea
a:
ar
arm
a before st, nt, ft blast, plant, after
ɔ:
or, oar, ar
after w, au, aw
ə:
u:
for, board,
warm
cause, draw
e:
ε:
ar
a
>
>
>
>
i:
i:
a:
a:
or > ɔ:
war > wɔ:
au > ɔ:
ir > ə:
er, ir, ur
oo
her, bird, turn
ur > ə:
moon
er > ə:
o: > u:
81
Λ
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Diphthongs
Sound
Spelling
Examples
Sound changes
accounting for the
spelling
Middle
English
ai, ei, ay
rain, rein, day
New
English
a in open syllables
make, late
ai > eı
ei > eı
a: > eı
i, y in open syllables
time, my
mild, kind, climb
sigh, night
i: > aı
i: > aı
ix’ > i: > aı
u: > au
eı
aı
i before ld, nd, mb
i before gh, ght
au
ou, ow
sound, now
rode, no, oak
ɔ:
> ou
ou
o in open syllables,
oa
ou, ow, o before ld
soul, row, old
ɔ:
> ou
ere, eer, ear
here, beer, ear
e:r > ıə
ear, ere, are
bear, there, hare
e:r > εə
a:r > εə
ıə
εə
oə, o:
ore
more
ɔr
uə
oor
poor
o:r > uə
>
ɔə
Thriphthongs
aıə
ire
auə
our, ower
shire
i:r > aıə
our, power
u:r > auə
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CONSONANTS
Sound
Spelling
Examples
Sound changes
accounting for
the spelling
Middle
English
New
English
bathe
ð - ð
ð
th between
vowels
th initially
in form-words
the
θ > ð
choose, easy
z > z
z
s between
vowels
s finally (unless
preceded by
voiceless
consonants)
is, days
s > z
∫
sh
ssi, ti
ship, flesh
passion, action
∫ - ∫
sj - ∫
t∫
ch, tch
ture
chin, watch
nature
t∫ - t∫
tj > t ∫
g
g
si, se
bourgeois
vision
g -g
zj > g
dg
g
gender
dg - dg
s
c
certain
s - s
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PHONETICS
VOWELS
DEVELOPMENT OF OLD ENGLISH DIPHTHONGS
IN EARLY MIDDLE ENGLISH
Change illustrated
Old
English
Middle
English
ea:
ε:
Cf. æ:
eo:
ε:
e:
Cf. e:
ie:
e:
i:
e:
i:
e:
a
a
e
e
i
e
i
e
Cf. i:
e:
ea
Cf. æ
eo
Cf. e
ie
Cf. i
e
Examples
Old
English
Middle
English
New
English
ēast
rēad
strǽt
dēop
cēosan
hē
līehtan
hīeran
rīsan
cēpan
earm
bæc
heorte
bedd
nieht, niht
hierde, hyrde
hit
eest [ε:st]
reed [rε:d]
street [strε:t]
deep [de:p]
chesen [‘t∫e:zən]
he [he:]
lighten [‘li:xtən]
heren [‘he:rən]
risen [‘ri:zən]
kepen [‘ke:pən]
arm [arm]
back [bak]
herte [‘hertə]
bed [bed]
night [‘nixt]
herd [herd]
it [it]
east
red
street
deep
choose
he
lighten
hear
rise
keep
arm
back
heart
bed
night
shepherd
it
(see ‘bedd’ above)
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GROWTH OF NEW DIPHTHONGS
IN MIDDLE ENGLISH
Change illustrated
Old
English
Examples
Middle
English
Old
English
Middle
English
New
English
e+j
ei
weʒ
wey [wei]
way
e: + j
ei
grēʒ
grey [grei]
grey
æ+j
ai
mæʒ
may [‘mai]
may
a+γ
au
laʒu
lawe [‘lauə]
law
o+γ
ou
boʒa
bowe [‘bouə]
bow
a: + w
ou
cnāwan
knowen [‘knouən]
know
brāhte
braughte [‘brauxtə]
brought
a: + x
au + x
THE GREAT VOWEL SHIFT IN XV-XVIII centuries
XVcentury
1400
i:
1500
→ ei
u:
→ ou
e:
→ i:
a: → æ:
ɔ:
XVII century XVIII century
1600
→
æi
1700
1800
→ ai
→ ai
→ au
→ au
→ i:
ε:
o:
XVI century
→ ε:
→ e:
→ i:
→ e:
→ ei → ei
→u
→ i:
→ u:
→ o:
85
→ ou →ou
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PRINCIPLE QUANTITATIVE VOWEL CHANGES
IN MIDDLE ENGLISH AND EARLY NEW ENGLISH
GENERAL TABLE
Early Middle English
Lengthening
Shortening
Early New English
before ld, nd, mb in
open syllables
before ss, st, nt, ft
before other consonants
before [θ, d, t, k]
clusters
Examples
Phonetic
conditions
Before
homorganic
consonant
sequences:
sonorant plus
plosive
(ld, nd, mb)
Before other
consonant
sequences
In open
syllables
Change
illustrated
Vowels
become
long
Vowels
become
short
Old
English
Middle
English
cild
findan
climban
cold
feld
fundon
child [t∫i:ld]
finden [fi:ndən]
climben [kli:mbən]
cold [ko:ld]
field [fe:ld]
founden [fu:ndən]
ʒold
gold [go:ld]
fīftiʒ
fēdde
mētte
wīsdōm
fifty [fifti]
fedde [feddə]
mette [metə]
wisdom [wizdəm]
mete
Vowels stelan
become macian
long
talu
and more nosu
open
stolen
yfel
duru
mete [mε:tə]
stelen [stε:lən]
maken [ma:kən]
tale [ta:lə]
nose [nɔ:zə]
stolen [stɔlən]
yvel, evel [i:], [e:]
doore [do:rə]
86
New
English
child
find
climb
cold
field
found
(Past of find)
gold
fifty
fed
met
wisdom
meat
steal
make
tale
nose
stolen
evil
door
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Examples
Phonetic
conditions
Change
illustrated
Middle
English
New
English
Before
ss, st, nt, ft
[a] > [æ] > [æ:]
pass [pæs] > [pæ:s]
after [æftər] > [æ:ftər]
craft [kræft] > [kræ:ft]
[a:]
pass
after
craft
Before
lm, lf
[a] > [au]
calm [kaulm] > [kaum]
half [haulf] > [hauf]
[a:]
calm
half
Before nasal
Vowels
become
long
Before
ll, lk, lt
branch [brant∫]
plant [plant]
command [kə’mand]
example [i’gzampl]
branch
plant
command
example
[a] > [au]
all [aul]
talk(e) [taulk] > [tauk]
salt [sault]
[ɔ:]
all
talk
salt
[ɔ] > [ou] > [au]
thoghte [θɔxtə] > [θouxtə] >
[θaut]
Before x
Before
d, th, v, n, t, k
Vowels
become
short
[ɔ:]
thought
boghte [bɔxtə] > [bouxtə] >
[baut]
bought
blood [blo:d] > [blu:d] > [blud]
mother [mo:ðər] >
[mu: ðər] > [mu ðər]
glove [glo:v] > [glu:v] > [gluv]
doon [do:n] > [du:n] > [dun]
deed [dε:d]
book [bo:k] > [bu:k]
foot [fo:t] > [fu:t]
blood
mother
87
glove
done
dead
book
foot
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CONSONANTS
DEVELOPMENT OF SIBILANTS AND AFFRICATES
EARLY MIDDLE ENGLISH
Change illustrated
Old
English
Middle
English
Examples
Old
English
Middle
English
New
English
k’
→
t∫
cild
tæcan
child [t∫i:ld]
techen [tε:t∫ən]
child
teach
g’
→
dg
ecʒe
brycʒe
edge [edgə]
bridge [bridgə]
edge
bridge
sk’
→
∫
fisc
scēap
fish [fi∫]
sheep [∫ε:p]
fish
sheep
EARLY NEW ENGLISH
Change illustrated
Middle
English
Examples
New
English
Middle
English
New
English
sj
→
∫
condicioun [kondi’sju:n]
commissioun [komi’sju:n]
condition
commission
zj
→
g
pleasure [ple’zju:r]
visioun [vi’zju:n]
pleasure
vision
tj
→
t∫
nature [na’tju:rə]
culture [kul’tju:rə]
nature
culture
dj
→
dg
souldier [soul’djər]
procedure [prose’dju:r]
soldier
procedure
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VOICING OF CONSONANTS
EARLY NEW ENGLISH
Change illustrated
Middle
E nglish
f
New
English
Late Middle
English
New
English
z
resemblen [re’semblən]
foxes [fokses]
was [was]
is [is]
his [his]
resemble
foxes
was
is
his
pensif [pensif]
of [of]
pensive
off
there
they
that
with
→
s
→
Examples
v
θ
→
ð
there [θε:rə]
they [θei]
that [θat]
with [wiθ]
ks
→
gz
anxietie [aŋ’ksi:əti]
luxurious [li’ksjuriu:s]
anxiety
luxurious
dg
knowleche [knoulət∫]
Greenwich [gre:nwit∫]
knowledge
Greenwich
t∫
→
89
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
SIMPLIFICATION OF CONSONANT CLUSTERS
Change illustrated
OE Middle New
English English
xl
l
Examples
Middle
English
New
English
leene [lε:nə]
lean
bt
t
doubt [du:bt]
debt [debt]
doubt
debt
ftn
fn
often [ɔftn]
often
gn
n
sign [si:gn]
foreign [fo:rign]
sign
foreign
hw
w
when [hwen]
when
kn
n
knowen [knouən]
kneden [knε:dən]
know
knead
mb
m
climben [kli:mbən]
climb
mn
m
autumne [ɔ:’tumn]
solemn [sɔ’lemn]
autumn
solemn
stl
sl
whistlen [hwistlən]
whistle
stn
sn
fastnen [fastnən]
listnen [listnən]
fasten
listen
skl
sl
muscle [muskl]
muscle
wr
r
wrappen [wrapən]
written [wri:tən]
wrap
write
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VOCALISATION OF R
AND ASSOCIATED VOWEL CHANGE
Change illustrated
Middle
English
Examples
New
English
Middle
English
New
English
o+r
ɔ:
for [fɔr]
thorn [θɔrn]
for
thorn
After
a+r
short
vowels
a:
bar [bar]
dark [dark]
bar
dark
ə:
first [first]
serven [servən]
first
serve
u+r}
ə+r
ə
fur [fur]
brother [brɔðər]
fur
brother
i: + r
aiə
shire [∫i:re]
shire
e: + r
iə
beer [be:r]
beer
ε: + r
iə
ere [ε:r(ə)]
ear
εə
there [θε:r(ə)]
beren [berən]
there
bear
εə
hare [ha:rə]
hare
floor [flɔ:r]
floor
moor [mɔ:r]
moor
i+r}
e + r}
After
ε: + r
long
vowels
a: + r
ɔ: + r
ɔə/ ɔ:
o: + r
uə
u: + r
auə flour [flu:r]
91
flower
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
MIDDLE ENGLISH NOUN
NOUN DECLENSION
a-stem
Singular
XII century
XIV century
Nominative
ring
ring
Genetive
ringes
ringes
Dative
ringe
ring
Accusative
ring
ring
Plural
Nominative
ringes
ringes
Genetive
ringe
ringes
Dative
ringen
ringes
Accusative
ringes
ringes
ō-stem
Singular
XII century
XIV century
Nominative
care
care
Genetive
cares
cares
Dative
care
care
Accusative
care
care
Plural
Nominative
caren
cares
Genetive
caren(e)
cares
Dative
caren
cares
Accusative
caren
cares
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n-stem
CASE
Singular
XII century
XIV century
Nominative
name
name
Genetive
namen
names
Dative
namen
name
Accusative
namen
name
Plural
Nominative
namen
names
Genetive
namen(e)
names
Dative
namen
names
Accusative
namen
names
GENERAL TABLE OF PLURAL ENDINGS
Period
a-stem
ō-stem
u-stem
n-stem
s-stem
Old
English
-as
-u
-a
-a
-an
-u
Middle
English
-es
-e
-e
-e
-en
-e
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MIDDLE & EARLY NEW ENGLISH PRONOUN
PERSONAL & POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS
1st Person
Case
Singular
Plural
Middle
English
Early New
English
Middle
English
Early New
English
Nominative
ich / I
I
we
we
Objective
(from OE
Accusative
+ Dative)
me
me
us
us
Possessive
(from OE
Genetive)
myn(e)/my
my/mine
our(e) / ours
our, ours
2nd Person
Case
Singular
Plural
Middle
English
Early New
English
Middle
English
Early New
English
Nominative
thou / thow
thou / ye
ye
you / ye
Objective
(from OE
Accusative
+ Dative)
thee
thee / you
you
you
thyn(e) / thy
thy / your /
thine /
yours
your(e) /
yours
your, yours
Possessive
(from OE
Genetive)
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3rd Person
Case
Singular
Plural
Middle
English
Early New
English
Middle
English
Early New
English
Nominative
he (m.)
he / she (f.)
hit / it (n.)
he (m.)
he /she (f.)
hit /it (n.)
hie /they
they
Objective
(from OE
Accusative
+ Dative)
him (m.)
hir(e)/him/her(f.)
it (n.)
him (m.)
her (f.)
it (n.)
hem /
them
them
Possessive
(from OE
Genetive)
his (m.)
her(e) / his (f.)
hir (n.)
his (m.)
her (f.)
his/its (n.)
her(e) /
their(e)
their, theirs
INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS
Case
Nominative who
Objective
whom
Genetive
whose
DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS
Period
OE
Early
MidE
MidE
(14thc)
Singular
Masculine
Feminine
þēs
↓
þēos
↓
Neuter
þis
↓
Plural
Singular
þās
↓
þæt
↓
Plural
þā
↓
thēs
this
thos [θɔ:s] that
tho
↓
↓
↓
↓
↓
↓
----------------------------------------------------------------------↓
↓
↓
↓
↓
↓
this
thes [θe:s]
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that
thos [θɔ:s]
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MIDDLE & EARLY NEW ENGLISH
ADJECTIVE
DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES IN
LATE MIDDLE ENGLISH
Singular
Plural
Strong
blind
blinde
Weak
blinde
blinde
DEGREES OF COMPARISON
Absolutive
Comparative
Superlative
old
elder
eldest
long
lenger
longest
strong
strenger
strengest
SUPPLETIVE FORMS
Absolutive
Comparative
Superlative
Old
English
Middle
English
Old
English
Middle
English
Old
English
Middle
English
ʒōd
good
betera
bett(e)re
betst
best
yfel
veil
wiersa
werse
wiersta
werst
micel
muchel/
much
māra
mōre
mæst
meast/
moost
lўtel
litel
læssa
lasse
læst
leest
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MIDDLE ENGLISH &
EARLY NEW ENGLISH VERB
STRONG VERBS IN XII-XIVcenturies
I CLASS
Past
Infinitive,
Participle I
Present
Singular
Plural
Participle II
[i:]
[ɔ:]
[i]
[i]
driven
sliden
risen
writen
drov
slod
ros
wrot
driven
sliden
risen
writen
driven
sliden
risen
writen
II CLASS
Past
Infinitive,
Participle I
Present
Singular
Plural
Participle II
[e:]
[ε:]
[ɔ:]
[ɔ:]
chesen
ches
chosen
chosen
fresen
fres
frozen
frozen
sheten
shet
shoten
shoten
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III CLASS
Past
Infinitive,
Participle I
Present
Singular
Plural
Participle II
[e]
[a]
[u]
[o]
helpen
halp
hulpen
holpen
swellen
swall
swullen
swollen
sterven
starf
sturven
storven
smerten
smart
smurten
smorten
Past
Infinitive,
Participle I
Present
Singular
Plural
Participle II
[i:]
[a:]
[u:]
[u:]
finden
fand / fond
founden
founden
binden
band / bond
bounden
bounden
climben
clomb
cloumben
cloumben
IV CLASS
Past
Infinitive,
Participle I
Present
Singular
Plural
Participle II
[ε:]
[a]
[ε:]
[ɔ:]
beren
bar
beren
boren
stelen
stal
stelen
stolen
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V CLASS
Past
Infinitive,
Participle I
Present
Singular
Plural
Participle II
[ε:] / [i]
[a]
[ε:]
[ε:] / [i]
speken
spak
speken
speken
yiven
yav
yeven
yiven
sitten
sat
seten
seten
VI CLASS
Past
Infinitive,
Participle I
Present
Singular
Plural
Participle II
[a:]
[o:]
[o:]
[a:]
shaken
shok
shoken
shaken
taken
tok
token
taken
VII CLASS
Infinitive,
Participle I
Present
Past
Singular
Plural
Participle II
[ɔu]
[eu]
[eu]
[ɔu]
blowen
blew
blewen
blowen
knowen
knew
knewen
knowen
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Past
Infinitive,
Participle I
Present
Singular
Plural
Participle II
[a]
[e:] > [e]
[e:] > [e]
[a]
fallen
fell
fellen
fallen
Past
Infinitive,
Participle I
Present
Singular
Plural
Participle II
[ɔ:]
[e:]
[e:]
[ɔ:]
holden
held
helden
holden
folden
feld
felden
folden
Past
Infinitive,
Participle I
Present
Singular
Plural
Participle II
[ε:]
[e:]
[e:]
[ε:]
beten
bet
beten
beten
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TRANSITION OF STRONG VERBS INTO WEAK
Old English
Class
Early New English
Past
Infinitive
Singular
Plural
Participle II
Infinitive
Past
Participle II
I
grīpan
glīdan
grāp
glād
gripon
glidon
gripen
gliden
to grip
to glide
gripped
glided
gripped
glided
II
būgan
lūcan
crēopan
lēogan
bēag
lēac
crēap
lēag
bugon
lucon
crupon
lugen
bogen
locen
cropen
logen
to bow
to lock
to creep
to lie
bowed
locked
crept
lied
bowed
locked
crept
lied
III
climban
helpan
steorfan
beorcan
ceorfan
clomb
healp
stearf
bearc
cearf
clumbon
hulpon
sturfon
burcon
curfon
clumben
holpen
storfen
borcen
corfen
to climb
to help
to starve
to bark
to carve
climbed
helped
starved
barked
carved
climbed
helped
starved
barked
carved
IV
cnedan
cnæd
cnǽdon
cneden
to knead
kneaded
kneaded
VI
bacan
wascan
bōc
wōsc
bōcon
wōscon
bacen
wascen
to bake
to wash
baked
washed
baked
washed
VII
crāwan
fēaldan
walkan
hlēapan
crēow
fēold
wēolk
hlēop
crēowon
fēoldon
wēolkon
hlēopon
crāwan
fēalden
wealken
hlēapen
to crow
to fold
to walk
to leap
crowed
folded
walked
leaped
crowed
folded
walked
leaped
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
STRONG VERBS
IN XVI-XVIII centuries
CLASS I
Infinitive
[i:] > [ai]
to drive
to rise
Infinitive
[i:] > [ai]
to bite
to slide
Past
Singular
Plural
[o:] > [ou]
[ou]
drove → drove
rose → rose
Past
Singular
Plural
[i]
[i]
bit ← bit
slid ← slid
Participle II
[i]
driven
risen
Participle II
[i]
bitten
slid
CLASS II
Infinitive
[o:] > [u:]
to choose
Infinitive
[e:] > [i:]
to freeze
Past
Singular
Plural
[ou]
[ou]
chose ←--------chose ←
Past
Singular
Plural
[ou]
[ou]
froze ←------------froze ←
Participle II
[ɔ:] > [ou]
chosen
Participle II
[ou]
frozen
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
CLASS III (a)
Infinitive
[i]
to begin
to drink
Past
Singular
Plural
[a] > [æ]
[æ]
began → began
drank → drank
Participle II
[u] > [Λ]
begun
drunk
CLASS III (b)
Infinitive
[i]
to cling
to win
Past
Singular
Plural
[ Λ]
[u] > [Λ]
clung ← clung
won ← won
Participle II
[u] > [Λ]
clung
won
CLASS III (c)
Infinitive
[i:] > [ai]
to bind
to find
Past
Singular
Plural
[au]
[u:] > [au]
bound
found
←
←
bound
found
Participle II
[u:] > [au]
bound
found
CLASS IV
Infinitive
Past
Participle II
Singular
Plural
[εə] / [i:]
[ei] / [εə]
[ei] / [εə]
[ɔ:] / [ou]
to bear
to steal
bare
stale
bare
stale
bor(e)n
stolen
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CLASS V (a)
Infinitive
[i] / [i:]
to give
to eat
Past
Participle II
Singular
Plural
[ei] / [e]
[ei] / [e]
[i] / [i:]
gave
ate [et]
given
eaten
gave
ate
←
←
CLASS V (b)
Infinitive
Past
Participle II
Singular
Plural
[i]
[æ]
[æ]
[æ]
to sit
sat
sat
sat
→
CLASS VI
Infinitive
Past
Participle II
Singular
Plural
[a:] > [ei]
[o:] > [u]
[o:] > [u]
[a:] > [ei]
to shake
to take
shook
took
shook
took
shaken
taken
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CONJUGATION OF STRONG VERBS
Infinitive
MidE
Early NE
finde(n)
find
Present Tense
Indicative
Singular
1st
2nd
3rd
Plural
finde
findest/findes
findeth/findes
finde(n)/findeth/findes
find
findest
finds/findeth
find
Subjunctive
Singular
Plural
finde
finde(n)
find
find
find(e)
findeth/finde
find
finding(e)/-ende
/findind(e)/findand (e)
finding
Imperative
Participle I
Past Tense
Indicative
Singular
fand
1st
founde/fand/fandes
2nd
fand
3rd
founde(n)
Plural
Subjunctive
found
found
found
found
Singular
Plural
founde
founde(n)
found
found
founden
found
Participle II
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WEAK VERBS
XII century
Class
XIV century
Infinitive Past plural Infinitive
Past plural
I
beleven
belevden
beleeve
beleev(e)de
II
loken
lokeden
looke
look(e)de
III
liven
livden
live
liv(e)de
GENERAL TABLE OF ENDINGS
XII century
XIV century
Class
Infinitive
Past
I
-en
-den
-(e)d
II
-en
-eden
III
-en
-den
Participle Infinitive
II
Past
Participle
II
-e
-(e)de
-(e)d
-ed
-e
-(e)de
-(e)d
-d
-e
-(e)de
-(e)d
FORMATION OF UNCHANGEABLE WEAK VERBS
Infinitive
Past
Participle II
XIII century
setten
sette
set(t)
XIV century
sette
sette
set(t)
XV century
set(t)
set(t)
set(t)
XVI century
set
set
set
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SOME CASES OF TRANSITION
Middle English
Early New English
Infinitive
Past
Participle II Infinitive
Past
Participle II
chiden
chidde
chidd
to chide
chid
chidden
hidden
hidde
hidd
to hide
hid
hidden
diggen
diggede
digged
to dig
dug
dug
CONJUGATION OF WEAK VERBS
Infinitive
MidE
Early NE
looke(n)
look
Present Tense
Indicative
Singular 1st
2nd
3rd
Plural
looke
looke
looketh/lookes
looke(n)/looketh/lookes
look
lookest
looks/ looketh
look
Subjunctive
Singular
Plural
looke
looke(n)
look
look
look(e)/looketh/looke
look
looking(e)/-ende/-ind(e)/-ande
looking
Imperative
Participle I
Past Tense
Indicative
Singular 1st
2nd
3rd
Plural
looked(e)
lookedest
looked(e)
looked(en)
looked
looked
looked
looked
looked(e)
looked(en)
looked
looked
looked
looked
Subjunctive
Singular
Plural
Participle II
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WEAK VERBS AFTER THE GREAT VOWEL SHIFT
Infinitive
Past
Participle II
XII
XIII-XIV
XV-XX
XII
XIII
XIV-XX
XII
XIII
XIV-XX
century
centuries
centuries
century
century
centuries
century
century
centuries
[e:]
[e:]
[e:] > [i:]
[e:]
[e:] > [e]
[e]
[e:]
[e:] > [e]
[e]
feden
fede(n)
feed
fedde
fedde
fed
fedd
fedd
fed
felen
fele(n)
feel
felte
felte
felt
felt
felt
felt
kepen
kepe(n)
keep
kepte
kepte
kept
kept
kept
kept
meten
mete(n)
meet
mette
mette
met
mett
mett
met
slepen
slepe(n)
sleep
slepte
slepte
slept
slept
slept
slept
Past singular
Participle II
XII
XIII-XIV
XV-XX
XII
XIII-XIV
XV-XX
century
centuries
centuries
century
centuries
centuries
[o:x]
[ɔux]
[ɔ:]
[o:x]
[ɔux]
[ɔ:]
brohte
bohte
þohte
broughte
boughte
thoughte
brought
bought
thought
broht
boht
þoht
brought
bought
thought
brought
bought
thought
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
PRETERITE - PRESENT VERBS
Pay attention: OE preterite-present verbs were preserved in MidE except the verb ƺeneah, which was
lost. Their forms underwent changes due to the general tendencies of the period.
Present
Infinitive
Past
Modern
English
forms
to wit
owe / own
Singular
Plural
witen
owen
wot
ough
witen
owen
wiste
oughte
dowen
deh / dow
dowen
doughte
–
an
unnen
outhe
cunnen
can
cunnen
couthe
–
tharf
thurven
thurfte
durren
dar
durren
dorste
dare
–
shal
shulen
sholde
shall / should
–
man
munen
–
mowen
may
mowen
mighte
may
–
mot
moten
moste
must
109
can / could
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
witen (know)
Present
Indicative
1 wōt
2 wōst
3 wōt
witen, wōt
Singular
Plural
Subjunctive
Imperative
wite
wite
2 witen
wite(th)
Past
Indicative
Singular
Plural
Participles:
1 wiste
2 wistest
3 wiste
wisten
I witende
Subjunctive
wiste
wisten
II witen
owen (ought)
Present
Indicative
Subjunctive
1 ouh
2 owest
3 ouh/oweth
Plural
owen
Participles:
II owen
Singular
owe
owen
Past
Indicative
oughte
oughtest
oughte
oughten
Subjunctive
oughte
oughten
dowen (ought)
Singular
Present
Indicative
Subjunctive
1 deh/dow
2
3 deh/dow
Plural
dowen
Participles:
II owen
dowe
dowen
110
Past
Indicative
doughte
doughtest
doughte
doughten
Subjunctive
doughte
dughten
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* (to grant, to give, to do a favour)
(the infinitive was not registered)
Present
Indicative
Subjunctive
Singular
Plural
1 an, on
2
3 an, on
unnen
unne
unnen
Past
Indicative
Subjunctive
outhe
outhest
outhe
outhen
outhen
Past
Indicative
Subjunctive
outhe
cunnen (know, can)
Present
Indicative
Subjunctive
Singular
Plural
1 can/con
2 canst/ const
3 cann
cunnon, can
Participles:
cunne
cennen
cuthe/ coude
cuthest/coudest
cuthe/ coude
couthen/ coude
courhe
courde
couthen
couden
II couth
* (need)
(the infinitive was not registered)
Present
Indicative
Subjunctive
Singular
Plural
1 tharf, thar
2 tharst
3 tharf, thar
thurven
tharve
Past
Indicative
Subjunctive
thurfte
thurfest
thurfte
thurfte
thurven
thurften
durren (dare)
Present
Indicative
Subjunctive
Singular
Plural
1 dar
2 darst
3 dar
durren
durre
durren
111
Past
Indicative
Subjunctive
dorste/ durst
dorstest/ durste
dorste/durste
dorsten
dorste/
durste
dorsten
dursten
dursten
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
* (shall)
(the infinitive was not registered)
Present
Indicative
Subjunctive
Singular
Plural
1 shal
2 shalt
3 shal
shulen
Past
Indicative
Subjunctive
sholde
sholdest
sholde
sholde
sholden sholden
scule
shulen
* (remember)
(the infinitive was not registered)
Present
Indicative
Subjunctive
Singular
Plural
1 man
23 man
munon
mune
munen
mowen (may)
Present
Indicative
Subjunctive
Singular
Plural
1 may
2 mayst
3 may
mowen
Past
Indicative
mighte
mightest
mighte
mighten
mowe
mowen
Subjunctive
mighten
mighten
* (can, may, to be allowed, to have the possibility)
(the infinitive was not registered)
Present
Indicative
Subjunctive
Singular
Plural
Past
Indicative
Subjunctive
1 mot
2 most
3 mot
mote
¦ mostest
moste
moten
moten
¦ moste
¦ mosten
mosten
¦ moste
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ANOMALOUS VERBS
dōn (do)
Present
Indicative
Past
Subjunctive
Imperative ¦ Indicative
Singular
1 dō
2 dōst (Northern dōs)
dō
dō
3 dōth (Northern dōs)
Plural
dōn
dōn
2 dōth
(Northern dōs,
Southern dōth)
Participles:
I dōinge,
II dō
(Northern dōande)
Subjunctive
¦ dide, dude, dede
¦ didest
¦ dide
¦ diden
willen (will)
Present
Indicative
Past
Subjunctive
¦ Indicative
Subjunctive
Singular
1 will, woll
¦ wolde
2 wilt, wolt
wille, wolle
¦ woldest
wolde
3 wil, wol
¦ wolde
Plural
wollen
willen
¦ woldon
wolden
(Northern willes,
Southern willeth)
Participle I, II wold
Negative particle ne coalesces with verb forms:
ne wille=nylle, nelle; ne wolde = nolde
113
dide
diden
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
SUPPLETIVE VERBS
ben (be) ( in Middle English)
Indicative
Singular
Present
Subjunctive
1 am
2 art
3 is
Imperative
Past
Indicative
¦
bē
be
Subjunctive
was
¦ wēre
wēre
¦ wās
Plural
bēn
bēn
bēth
¦wēren
wēren
(Northern art, Southern beth)
Participle I:
beinge (being)
Participle II: bēn
(Northern beand)
Negative particle ne coalesces with verb forms:
ne am>nam, ne is>nis, ne was>nas, ne were>nere, etc.
be (be) ( in New English)
Indicative
Singular
Present
Subjunctive
1 am
23 is
Imperative
Past
Indicative
¦
bē
be
Subjunctive
was
¦ -
were
¦ was
Plural
are
be
Participle I:
be
¦ were
being
weren
Participle II: been
gōn, gān (go) ( in Middle English)
Present
Subjunctive
Indicative
Singular
1 gō (ga)
2 gōst (gast)
3 gōth (gas)
Plural
gōn (gōs)
Participle I:
gō (gā)
Imperative
gō (gā)
gōn (gān) gōth, gāth
gōinge (gānde)
Past
Indicative
¦ yede/wente
¦ yedest/wentest yede/
¦yede/wente
wente
¦yeden
¦wenten
Participle II: gōn (gān)
114
Subjunctive
yeden/
wenten
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
MIDDLE ENGLISH & EARLY NEW ENGLISH
DERIVATIONAL AFFIXES
Prefixes
adisinnonundedisunmalmispseudoarchcohypermegaminioutoversubsupersurultraunderviceantiautocontracounterpro-
Meaning
Examples
negation
-theist, -moral
-obey, -believe
-complete, -decisive
-smoker, -medical
-wise, -helpful
reversal
-frost, -fraud
-connect, -infect
-do, -mask
disparaging
-treat, -function
-hear, -lead
-intellectual
-duke, -enemy
-habit, -pilot
-market, -card
-loan, -merger
-skirt, -bus
-class, -run
-worked, -flow
-normal, -conscious
-market, -man
-tax, -charge
-modern, -sound
-charge, -play
-chair, -president
size or degree
-clockwise, -social
-suggestion, -biography
-indicate, -flow
-clockwise, -act
socialist, -consul
orientation
115
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Prefixes
extraforeinterintrapansuperteletransexforeneopaleopostpreprotorebidemidimonomultipolysemitriuni-
Meaning
Examples
location
and
distance
time and order
-terrestrial, -mural
-shore, -leg
-marry, -play
-venous, -national
-African, -American
-script, -structure
-scope, -phone
-plant, -atlantic
-husband, -president
-warn, -shadow
-Gothic, -classic
-lithic, -botany
-war, -modern
-school, -marital
-type, -European
-cycle, -new
-cycle, -lingual
-god, -tasse
-oxide, -graph
-rail, -plane
-racial, -purpose
--technic, -gamy
-circle, -detached
-maran, -pod
-sex, -cycle
number
Prefixes
Meaning
Examples
a-
grammatical conversion
Verb to Adjective
-stride, -board
been-
grammatical conversion
Noun to Verb
-friend, -witch
-flame, -danger
116
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Suffixes
-age
-dom
-ery
-ful
-hood
-ing
-ism
-ocracy
-ship
-eer
-er
-ess
-ette
-let
-ling
-ster
-ly
-ward(s)
-wise
-ate
-en
-ify
-ize / ise
-ese
-(i)an
-ist
-ite
-age
-al
-ant
-ation
-ee
-er
-ing
-ment
-or
Meaning
abstract
noun
markers
concrete
noun
markers
adverb
markers
verb markers
adjective / noun
markers
nouns from
verbs
117
Examples
frontage, mileage
officialdom, stardom
drudgery, slavery
cupful, spoonful
brotherhood, girlhood
farming, paneling
idealism, racism
aristocracy
friendship, membership
engineer, racketeer
teenager, cooker
waitress, lioness
kitchenette, usherette
booklet, piglet
duckling, underling
gangster, gamester
quickly, happily
northwards, onwards
clockwise, lengthwise
orchestrate, chlorinate
deafen, ripen
beautify, certify
modernize, advertise
Chinese, Portuguese
republican, Parisian
socialist, loyalist
socialite, Luddite
breakage, wastage
refusal, revival
informant, lubricant
exploration, education
payee, absentee
writer, driver
building, clothing
amazement, equipment
actor, supervisor
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Suffixes
Meaning
Examples
-ity
-ness
nouns from
adjectives
rapidity, falsity
happiness, kindness
-able
-ive
adjectives from
verbs
drinkable, washable
attractive, explosive
adjectives from
nouns
pointed, blue-eyed
Kafkaesque
useful, successful
atomic, Celtic
editorial, accidental
foolish, Swedish
careless, childless
friendly, cowardly
ambitious, desirous
sandy, hairy
-ed
-esque
-ful
-ic
-(i)al
-ish
-less
-ly
-ous
-y
Suffixes
Examples
-ance,
-ence
ignorance, arrogance
dependence, excellence
-ment
government
-ess
shepherdess, murderess
-et
coronet, cabinet
-1
islet, circlet
-let
leaflet, booklet
-age
courage, marriage, luggage,
*-e
lessee, employee, trustee
-ard
coward, bastard, wizard, niggard,
drunkard, dullard
-al
(from French - aille)
funeral, refusal, arrival, proposal
-able, -ible
admirable, tolerable, legible, flexible,
readable, unbearable
118
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PRINCIPAL MIDDLE ENGLISH WRITTEN RECORDS
Kentish
dialect
South, Western of West
Midland
dialect
London
dialect
Midland or
East Midland
dialect
Northern
dialect
Scottish
dialect
12th century
THE
PERTERBOROUGH
CHRONICLE
13th century
Kentish
Sermons
POEMA
MORALE
ANCRENE
RIWLE
(THE
RULE
OF
ANCHORITIES);
Layamon: BRUT
THE
PROSE
of Henry III;
RULE OF
ORMULUM;
EVIL TIMES OF poem
HAVELOK ST. BENEDICT
EDWARD II
THE DANE;
poem KING HORN
PROCLAMATION monk ORM: poem
14th century
Dan Michael: Robert of Gloucester, a
AY ENBITE versified CHRONICLE;
OF INWIT
SIR GAWAINE AND
THE GREEN KNIGHT
and other poems by the
same author
R.Higden: translation of
POLYCHRONICON
Romances
Chivalry:
of Adam Davy’s poems
Romances
of
RICHARD
Chivalry;
COEUR DE LION
Miracle Plays
and others;
John
Wyclif’s
BIBLE, pamphlet;
William Langland:
PIERS
THE
PLOWMAN;
poem CURSOR John Barbour:
MUNDI;
BRUCE;
the
Richard Rolle of Henry
Minstrel:
Hampole:
THE PRICK OF WALLACE
CONSCIENCE
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Geoffrey Chaucer:
CANTERBURY
TALES ;
John Gower: THE
VOICE OF THE
CRYING IN THE
WILDERNESS,
THE
LOVER’S
CONFESSION
15th century
Thomas Hoccleve; York Plays
John Lydgate;
Thomas Malory:
MORTE
D’ARTHUR
King James I of
Scotland:
KING’S
QUHAIR
(KING’S
BOOK)
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
GREAT LITERARY MEN OF THE ELIZABETHAN AGE
HOUSE OF
YORK
1485
THE TUDORS
Henry
VII
Henry
VIII
1509
Edward
VI
1547
Mary
I
Elizabeth
I
1553
1558
HOUSE OF
STUART
1603
William Shakespeare 1564-1616
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
Christopher Marlow 1564-1593
XXXXX
Edmund Spenser 1552?-1599
Francis Bacon 1561-1626
Richard Hakluyt 1552?-1616
James Shirley 1596-1666
Philip Sidney 1554-1586
John Webster 1580?-1625?
Ben Johnson 1573?-1637
Michael Drayton 1563-1631
William Warner 1558?-1609
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXXXX
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
DIACRITIC MARKS
Åå bolle/angstrom
Ąą hook
Èè grave accent
Çç cedilla
Îî
Øø streg/slash
circumflex accent
Öö umlaut/diaeresis
Ňň tilde
Úú acute accent
Żż dot
Űű double acute
Šš háček/wedge
Āā macron (indicates historically long vowels)
SPECIAL LETTERS
122
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REFERENCES
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INTERNET RESOURCES
1. www.indoeuro.bizland.com
2. www.fordham.edu
3. www.georgetown.edu
4. www.krysstal.com
5. www.lonestar.texas.net
6. www.sunsite.berkeley.edu
7. www.utexas.edu
8. www.wikipedia.org
127
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Учебное издание
Иванова Ирина Емельяновна
кандидат филологических наук, доцент
Карыпкина Юлия Николаевна
кандидат филологических наук, доцент
История английского языка в таблицах. (На английском языке)
Учебное пособие
Компьютерная верстка и оформление:
И.Е. Иванова, Ю.Н.Карыпкина
e-mail:
ivanova_ira@mail.ru
karypa@mail.ru
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