close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

1840.Учебно-методическое пособие по развитию навыков профессионального общения. Ч

код для вставкиСкачать
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации
Омский государственный университет им. Ф.М. Достоевского
УДК 802.0
ББК 81.2Англ.я73
У912
Рекомендовано к изданию редакционно-издательским советом ОмГУ
Рецензенты:
ст. преподаватель каф. иностранных языков Омского государственного
университета С.Б. Невежина;
канд. пед. наук, преподаватель Банковской школы
Банка России К.С. Пахомова
У912
Учебно-методическое пособие
по развитию навыков
профессионального общения
Учебно-методическое пособие по развитию навыков профессионального общения. В 2 ч. Ч. 2: Marketing /
сост. Т.П. Руденко. – Омск: Изд-во ОмГУ, 2005. – 67 с.
ISBN 5-7779-0560-9
Вторая часть учебно-методического пособия представляет
собой сборник аутентичных текстов с системой различных заданий и упражнений по теме «Маркетинг», направленных на развитие навыков чтения и понимания оригинальной литературы, а также устного и письменного общения профессиональной направленности у студентов экономических специальностей.
Рекомендуется для работы с аспирантами и студентами I–II
курсов экономического факультета и факультета международного бизнеса, выборочно на отделении «Регионоведение» исторического факультета в рамках курса «Практика устной речи» и других факультетах в группах с углубленным изучением английского языка, а также на IV курсе факультетов иностранных языков в
рамках курса «Межкультурная коммуникация в сфере делового
общения».
В двух частях
Часть 2
MARKETING
УДК 802.0
ББК 81.2Англ.я73
Изд-во
ОмГУ
Омск
2005
ISBN 5-7779-0560-9
© Омский госуниверситет, 2005
2
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
CONTENTS
ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ
Introduction ............................................................................................4
Warm-up ...............................................................................................5
Reading ..................................................................................................6
Text 1.................................................................................................6
Text 2...............................................................................................11
Text 3...............................................................................................16
Text 4...............................................................................................19
Discussion ............................................................................................40
Summary and review..........................................................................41
Listening ..............................................................................................43
Information transfer...........................................................................45
Additional reading ..............................................................................47
Text 1...............................................................................................48
Text 2...............................................................................................51
Practice ................................................................................................53
Bibliography........................................................................................66
Учебно-методическое пособие имеет целью развитие навыков устного и письменного общения профессиональной направленности у студентов экономических специальностей и состоит из
двух частей. Его вторая часть, «Маркетинг», как и первая, «Менеджмент», разбита на разделы, содержащие тексты, задания и упражнения как репродуктивного, так и продуктивного характера.
В оригинальных текстах пособия, ориентированных на студентов разного уровня языковой подготовки, рассматриваются
различные профессиональные проблемы, отражающие реалии сегодняшнего дня в сфере бизнеса, включая деловой этикет и межкультурную коммуникацию.
Система разнообразных заданий и упражнений способствует
развитию не только речевых умений и навыков студентов в сфере
деловой коммуникации, но и их оценочного мышления. Личностно-ориентированные задания, кейсы (анализ конкретных ситуаций)
и деловые игры призваны помочь обучающимся проверить усвоенные теоретические знания и сформированные навыки при решении практических задач, а наличие схем и таблиц способствует
систематизации материала и лучшему его усвоению.
Благодаря гибкости представления материала пособие рекомендуется как для работы в аудитории под руководством преподавателя, так и для самостоятельной работы (для чтения в рамках
указанной темы).
Пособие может быть использовано для работы с аспирантами и студентами I–II курсов экономического факультета и факультета международного бизнеса, выборочно на отделении «Регионоведение» исторического факультета в рамках курса «Практика устной речи» и других факультетах в группах с углубленным изучением английского языка, а также на IV курсе факультетов иностранных языков в рамках курса «Межкультурная коммуникация в
сфере делового общения».
3
4
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
WARM – UP
READING
Discuss the following questions:
1. What do you think of when you see the term ‘marketing’?
Write down your ideas.
buyer, competition, .....__________________________________
_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
2. Can you list the various steps or actions that are involved in
the marketing process? (Think of all the steps that must take place to
get goods and services to the customer.)
3. Marketing includes all activities that bring the buyer of a
product and the seller of that product together. Working with a partner,
list those activities that a manufacturer must perform in order to:
Notes: The texts with asterisks (*) can be either given for scanning and doing the corresponding quiz or altogether missed out if
Text 4 is taken up for reading for detailed information.
1. produce a product that the public will want to buy;
2. give the public access to the product;
3. motivate the public to buy the product.
Compare your list with two other students’ ones. Then share this
information with the whole class.
4. Now write a definition of marketing using some of the ideas
and steps listed in Questions 1 to 3.
Marketing is .... ________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
Compare your definition with the ones written by your classmates. Add to your definition if you find any new information.
T E X T 1*
VOCABULARY
Below is a list of terms that you will find in Text 1. As you read
"The Four P's", see if you understand each term. Use this as a working list and add other terms that you do not know.
NOUNS
marketing
objective
customer
the four P's
option
competitor
price leader
wholesaler
retailer
channel of distribution
promotion
VERBS
satisfy
achieve
ensure
charge
price
establish
ADJECTIVES
complex
vital
average
personal
major
OTHERS
popularly
generally
The Four P's
Buying, selling, market research, transportation, storage, advertising – these are all part of the complex area of business known as marketing. In simple terms, marketing means the movement of goods and
services from manufacturer to customer in order to satisfy the customer
and to achieve the company's objectives.
Marketing can be divided into four main elements that are popularly known as the four P's:
* product * price * placement * promotion.
Each one plays a vital role in the success or failure of the marketing operation.
5
6
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
The product element of marketing refers to the good or service
that a company wants to sell. This often involves research and development (R & D) of a new product, research of potential market, testing
of the product to ensure quality, and then introduction to the market.
A company next considers the price to charge for its product.
There are three pricing options the company may take: above, with or
below the prices that its competitors are charging. For example, if the
average price of a pair of women's leather shoes is $47, a company that
charges $43 has priced below the market; a company that charges $47 has
priced with the market; and a company that charges $53 has priced above
the market. Most companies price with the market, selling their goods or
services for average prices established by major producers in the industry. The producers who establish these prices are known as price leaders.
The third element of the marketing process – placement – involves getting the product to the customer. This takes place through the
channels of distribution. A common channel of distribution is:
manufacturer -----> wholesaler -----> retailer -----> customer.
Wholesalers generally sell large quantities of a product to retailers, and retailers usually sell smaller quantities to customers. Finally,
communication about the product takes place between buyer and seller.
This communication between buyer and seller is known as promotion.
There are two major ways promotion occurs: through personal selling,
as in a department store; and through advertising, as in a newspaper or
magazine.
The four elements of marketing – product, price, placement, and
promotion – work together to develop a successful marketing operation
that satisfies customers and achieves the company's objectives.
СOMPREHENSION CHECK
I. Answer the following questions about marketing. Questions
with asterisks (*) cannot be answered directly from the text.
1. What is marketing?
2. How does the definition of marketing that is given in the reading differ from the one that you wrote?
3. What are the four main elements of marketing?
4. What is involved in the product element of marketing?
5. What are the three pricing options that a company may take?
7
6. *Using $275 as an average price for word processing software,
what are examples of pricing above, with and below the market?
7. What does placement involve?
8. *Do you think McDonald's provide food on a wholesale or retail basis?
9. *What are some advertising media besides magazines and
newspapers?
10. *If you were to specialize in one of the marketing elements,
which one would you choose? *Why?
II. Various problems that might occur in the marketing processes are listed below. Determine which of the four P's each problem
is most closely related to. Mark the appropriate category of PRODUCT,
PRICE, PLACEMENT, or PROMOTION with an X.
PROBLEM
PRODUCT PRICE PLACEMENT PROMOTION
1. The advertising gives
false information.
2. The product is
dangerous.
3. The product is not
available in enough stores.
4. The product is too expensive.
5. A salesclerk is rude.
6. The product is sold during the wrong season.
7. The product is of poor
quality.
8. The advertising is
offensive.
9. The price of a product
increases faster than the
rate of inflation.
10. The product is not
available in your favourite
stores.
8
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
III. Think of the other problems. Then discuss whether they are
related to product, price, placement, or promotion.
QUIZ I
I. Circle the letter of the answer that best completes each of the
sentences below.
1. The four elements of marketing are popularly known as:
a. the movement of goods and services
b. the four P's
c. buying, selling, market research, and storage
d. the four M's
2. The product element refers to:
a. the four P's
b. testing of a product to ensure quality
c. the good or service that a company wants to sell
d. getting the product to the customer
3. Most companies price:
a. with the market
c. beyond the market
b. below the market
d. above the market
4. A common channel of distribution is:
a. wholesaler ----> retailer ----> manufacturer ----> customer
b. manufacturer ----> retailer ----> wholesaler ----> customer
c. retailer ----> manufacturer ----> wholesaler ----> customer
d. manufacturer ----> wholesaler ----> retailer ----> customer
1. ___ ensure
a. choice
2. ___ retailer
b. set as a price
3. ___ price with the market c. one who sells in small amounts
to customers
4. ___ option
d. please
5. ___ competitor
e. guarantee
6. ___ personal
f. the path goods take when moving
from manufacturer to customer
7. ___ objective
g. private; relating to an individual
8. ___ satisfy
h. accomplish
9. ___take place
i. charge an average price
10. ___channel of distribution j. occur; happen
11. ___charge
k. rival; opponent
12. ___achieve
l. goal
III. Fill in the blanks with the most appropriate terms from the
list:
vital, wholesaler, price, leader, retailer, charge, ensure, placement, take place, prices, channel of distribution.
The most common 1 is manufacturer ---> wholesaler ---> 2
---> consumer. Distribution can, however, 3 through slightly modified channels. For example, products are sometimes sold directly by the
4 or the manufacturer, rather than by the retailer. Generally, wholesalers 5 lower 6 than retailers and sell in larger quantities. Together, these channels of distribution play a 7 role in the 8 element
of marketing.
5. The two major forms of promotion are:
a. radio and television
b. personal selling and advertising
c. personal selling and newspapers
d. selling advertisements
II. Look at the terms in the left-hand column and find the correct synonyms or definitions in the right-hand column. Copy
the corresponding letters in the blanks.
9
10
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
TEXT2 *
the four P's is known as the marketing mix. The elements of the marketing mix focus on the consumer. In order to develop a successful marketing mix, researchers first ask two important questions:
PREREADING ACTIVITY
Discuss the following questions.
a) In a successful marketing operation, do the 4 elements of
product, price, placement, and promotion work together or in
isolation? Give reasons to support your answer.
b) If you were a market researcher, what questions would you
ask before introducing a product to the market? These
examples are given in the reading: "Who is going to buy the
product? "What is the potential to sell this product?" Think
of the other questions that might be asked using WHAT,
WHERE, WHEN and WHY?
For example ‘ WHY will a customer want to buy the product?’
VOCABULARY
Below is a list of terms that you will find in the text. As you read
‘The Target Market’, see if you understand each term. Use this as a
working list and add other terms that you do not know.
NOUNS
VERBS
ADJECTIVES
OTHERS
strategy
isolation
combination
marketing mix
target market
market
research(er)
habit
identification
consumer
determine
focus on
direct
appeal to
attempt
match
mold
depend on
blend
reach
potential
correct
successful
appropriate
middle-class
in order to
once
The Target Market
The marketing strategies of determining product, price, placement, and promotion are not planned in isolation. Marketing analysts
often look at a combination of these four factors. This combination of
11
* Who is going to buy the product?
* What is the potential to sell this product?
The group of customers or consumers who will probably buy the
product is known as the target market. The company directs its marketing efforts toward this group of potential customers who form the target
market. Once market researchers have determined the target market
they wish to appeal to, the company can develop an appropriate mix of
product, price, placement, and promotion. The company attempts to
match consumer needs or mold consumer desires to the product being
offered.
For example, if the target market is middle-class teenagers, the
marketing mix might consist of the following:
Product: blue jeans.
Price: with the market.
Placement: department store.
Promotion: advertisements on a "pop music" radio station.
A successful marketing mix depends on the knowledge about
consumers and their buying habits, gained through market research as
well as correct identification of the target market. Strategies of product,
price, placement, and promotion are blended in order to reach a chosen
group of consumers.
COMPREHENSION CHECK
Answer the following questions about the target market. Questions with asterisks (*) cannot be answered directly from the text.
1. What is the marketing mix?
2. What do the elements of the marketing mix focus on?
3. What is the group of customers who will probably buy the
product known as?
4. *Why are the customers who make up the target market for a
product referred to as ‘potential’ customers?
5. What does a successful marketing mix depend on?
12
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
6. Complete Figure 1 below with the elements of the marketing mix:
____________
-------------- <------> CONSUMERS <-------> --------------____________
7. *Why are the arrows in the figure two-way rather than just
one-way?
8. *Why are consumers at the center of the diagram?
9. Consider the example of middle-class teenagers as the target
market for blue jeans. *In what places besides department stores could
the product be sold? *What other types of promotion could be used?
10.*If the target market for blue jeans were factory workers, how
would the marketing mix change?
2. TARGET MARKET: small restaurants
PRODUCT: microwave ovens
PRICE:
PLACEMENT:
PROMOTION:
3. TARGET MARKET: teenagers
PRODUCT: tennis shoes
PRICE:
PLACEMENT:
PROMOTION:
VOCABULARY AND TEXT ANALYSIS
III. Choose a target market (for example, elementary school
children) and develop the four P's in a marketing mix that
you think will reach your chosen group of consumers.
I. Discuss the following questions with a partner. In giving your
answers, try to use italicized terms.
QUIZ II
1. Which type of promotion appeals to you the most – radio,
television, magazine, or newspaper advertising?
2. How are the buying habits of consumers influenced by promotion?
3. What do you think the target market would be for a Rolls
Royce? For microwave ovens? For tennis shoes?
4. What are some of the factors that the market price of a product
depends on?
II. In the following exercise, determine the marketing mix that you
think would be successful for this particular group of customers
(target market). First, look back at the example in the reading.
Then fill in the price, placement, and promotion you think
would be most effective for the target market that is listed.
1. TARGET MARKET: upper-income, middle-aged adults
PRODUCT: Rolls-Royce
PRICE:
PLACEMENT:
PROMOTION:
I. Determine which of the following statements are True (T)
and which are False (F) and write corresponding letters on the lines
provided.
____1. Knowledge about consumer buying habits is essential in
developing a successful marketing mix.
____2. The company focuses on production in its marketing
strategy.
____3. Product and promotion combine to form the complete
marketing mix.
____4. The company directs its marketing efforts toward the target market.
____5. The marketing strategies of product, price, placement, and
promotion are planned separately.
II. Substitute appropriate terms for the italicized words or
phrases in the sentences below.
attempt
matches
13
potential
strategies
habits
reaches
14
focus on
depends on
isolation
in order to
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
1. Market researchers determine possible customers for a product
– those customers whom they think will buy it.
2. A successful company relies on good promotion to communicate with customers.
3. Today television comes into the homes of millions of people
every day.
4. The elements of the marketing mix concentrate on the consumer.
5. Companies try to meet the needs and desires of the individuals
who ultimately buy and use their products.
6. A successful marketing operation puts together the product
with customer’s needs and desires.
7. Marketing plans of action are developed after thorough research into each of the four P's.
8. A company engages in market research to develop the most
appropriate marketing mix.
III. Complete the sentences with the noun and verb forms provided.
1. identification / identify
a. Market researchers ____ the target market for particular
product.
b. When an employee joins a large company, he or she is given
an ____ card.
2. promotion / promoted
a. Advertising agencies are concerned with the____ of a product.
b. Last week the boss ____ John because of his outstanding work
in the accounting department.
3. competitor / compete
a. In the marketplace, businesses ____ with each other.
b. Sony is a major ____of General Motors.
4. determination / determines
a. The combination of four P's____ the marketing mix.
15
b. An accountant makes an accurate____ of the expenses of a
company.
5. isolation / isolated
a. Strategies of product, price, placement, and promotion are not
planned in ____ .
b. The company doctor _____ the sick employee in the room at
the end of the hall.
GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY REVISION
Before reading the text look through the grammar section
‘infinitive’ and try to translate the following sentences.
1. To undertake these processes elaborate systems involving numerous organizations are required.
2. To be legitimate the exchange must be mutually satisfying.
3. For exchange to take place consumers have to be aware that
these products meet their needs.
4. A price has to be fixed for the exchange to be finalized.
5. Marketing was thought of as being largely concerned with selling.
6. It is characterised by a strong recognition of the fundamental
importance of the consumer and the need to base all marketing plans,
including those to do with what products to offer.
TEXT3
Scan the text and do the comprehension tasks that follow.
Marketing
Marketing is the most evident business activity because it links
the two basic economic functions of production and consumption. It is a
conspicuous and integral part of modern societies, and the consequences of marketing processes are reflected quite universally in daily
life. To undertake these processes elaborate systems involving numerous organisations are required. They involve the uncovering of consumer requirements, translation of them into products and services, an16
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
nouncement of availability, transportation to convenient location, display at retail outlets and after-sales care.
Understanding the operation of the system requires knowledge
about the behaviour of buyers and sellers, and of the increasingly significant intermediaries in the connecting channels. However, the system
doesn’t operate in isolation: it is but a part of the wider economic and
social systems.
Marketing concerns voluntary, mutually satisfying exchange relationships.
Exchange is at the heart of marketing; without exchange marketing is redundant. To be legitimate the exchange must be mutually satisfying. Abuse and deceit are by definition illegitimate. Equally well it
must be voluntary, if one of the parties knowingly dupes the other, or if
there is any form of coercion, then the activity is illegitimate.
Market concerns market exchange processes and organisation’s
marketing efforts are designed to facilitate these exchanges. One very
apparent aspect of these efforts is the physical movement of goods, and
considerable resources are devoted to the operation of the channels linking producer to consumer. But prior to distribution the manufacturer
needs to make a decision about what products to offer. Such decisions
could be solely conditioned by the firm’s ability to produce, but there is
no in-built mechanism that ensures that this ability matches a consumer
requirement. Some early warning and direction-finding, through market
research, could reduce the risk of a mismatch between what the firm
offers and what the market requires.
For exchange to take place consumers have to be aware that
products exist and persuaded that these products meet their needs. In
historical times relatively local production for local consumption meant
that communication between the two was not a major problem. The increasing separation of producer from consumer has necessitated mass
media advertising and presents complicated issues in the determination
of the volume of communication, the choice of communication medium, and the messages to be transmitted. A price has to be fixed for the
exchange to be finalized. While the market mechanism operates, its
working in an advanced economy is made cumbersome by the (geographical and time) distance between producer and consumer. Firms set
pricing policies in advance and decisions about these form another important marketing activity.
17
COMPREHENSION CHECK
I. Try to translate the words using your knowledge of the rules
of word building.
countless
mismatch
necessitate
finalize
equate
insufficient
chiefly
II. Say whether the statements are true (T) or false (F) according to the text.
____ 1. Marketing is the most evident business activity because
it links the four basic economic functions.
____ 2. The consequences of marketing processes are reflected
quite universally in daily life.
____ 3. Understanding the operation of the system doesn’t require anything else but knowledge about the behaviour of buyers and
sellers.
____ 4. To be illegitimate the exchange need not be mutually satisfying.
____ 5. The physical movement of goods is done through the
channels linking producer to consumer.
____ 6. In manufacturer’s making a decision about what products
to offer there is no in-built mechanism that ensures against a mismatch
between what the firm offers and what the market requires.
18
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
TEXT4
Read the text for detailed information and do the following
tasks.
Marketing Principles
Introduction
A vital part of any business undertaking, marketing is a group of
activities designed to expedite transactions by creating, distributing,
promoting, and pricing goods, services, and ideas. Marketing activities
ensure that the products consumers want to purchase are available at a
price they are willing to pay and provide consumers with information
about product features and availability. Both individuals and organizations engage in marketing activities in the pursuit of business objectives. They occur in a dynamic environment – that is, an environment of
constantly changing laws, regulations, social pressures and opinions,
economic conditions, and technological advances.
This text focuses on the basic principles of marketing. First, we
define and examine the nature of marketing. Then we look at how marketers develop marketing strategies to satisfy the needs and wants of
their customers. Next we discuss buying behavior and the ways marketers use research to determine what consumers want to buy and why.
Finally, we explore the impact of the environment on marketing activities and evaluate their importance.
Nature of Marketing
According to the American Marketing Association, marketing involves planning and executing the development, pricing, promotion,
and distribution of ideas, goods and services to create exchanges that
satisfy individual and organizational goals. This process creates value
by allowing individuals and organizations to obtain what they need and
want. A business cannot achieve its objectives unless it provides something that customers value.
It is important to note what marketing is not: Marketing is not
manipulating consumers to get them to buy products they don’t want. It
is not just selling and advertising; it is a systematic approach to satisfying consumers. Marketing focuses on the many activities – planning,
pricing, promoting, and distributing products – that foster exchanges.
19
An exchange is the act of giving up one thing in return for something else. If you want the latest CD by R.E.M. or Hammer, for example, you must give up something in return – in this case, about $15. An
exchange is the transfer of a product for something of equal value, such
as money, credit, labor, or goods. Businesses exchange their goods, services, or ideas for money or credit supplied by buyers in a voluntary
exchange relationship. The customer must feel good about the purchase,
or the exchange will not continue. For example, if Federal Express delivers your package safely and on time, you will probably feel good
about using its services. But if your package is damaged or late, you
will probably use another delivery-service provider next time you need
overnight-delivery service. Satisfied customers who provide repeat
sales help make Federal Express a profitable business.
When you think of marketing products, you may think of tangible
things – cars, stereo systems, or books, for example. What most consumers want, however, is a way to get a job done, solve a problem, or
gain some enjoyment. You may purchase a Hoover vacuum cleaner not
because you want a vacuum cleaner but because you want clean carpets
in your apartment or dorm room. Therefore, the tangible product itself
may not be as important as the image or the benefits associated with it.
This intangible “something of value” may be capability gained from
using a product or the image evoked by it, such as a designer shirt by
Ralph Lauren.
A product can be a good, a service, or an idea. Goods are physical, concrete things you can touch. Services are as real as goods, but
you can’t actually see them and touch them: you have to experience
them. They are the result of applying human and mechanical efforts to
people or objects – photograph processing, air travel, medical care, education, for example. Ideas include philosophies, images, issues, and
ways of accomplishing objectives. Greenpeace, for example, provides
ideas on how to live and use products in a way that does not harm the
planet.
Marketing is not limited to for-profit businesses. Individuals and
nonprofit organizations also engage in product development, distribution, pricing, and promotion to achieve objectives. However, the products
these non-business organizations market are usually services and ideas
rather than tangible goods. Political candidates and parties “market”
20
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
issues and solutions to social problems. For a presidential election, for
example, candidates for presidency develop campaign platforms (their
product) consisting of issues they believe important. They employ promotion (television and print advertisements, mass mailings, publicity,
and personal campaign appearances) to inform voters about their ideas
and philosophies.
Other organizations also use marketing activities to sell their
ideas and services. The Red Cross and Special Olympics use marketing
to raise funds for their projects and to increase public awareness about
the needs of disaster victims and the physically and mentally handicapped.
Form utility is created through the production process rather
than through marketing activities. An Acura automobile on display in
the dealer’s showroom possesses form utility: this product would not be
available unless it had gone through a series of production steps, from
the manufacture of sheet steel to the final assembly of finished parts.
Marketers participate in the creation of form utility by researching what
features – air bags, antilock brakes, stereos, and so on – consumers want
so that the product is manufactured to satisfy their needs.
A key role of marketers is to create place, time, and possession
utility to ensure that human needs and wants are met. To satisfy customers’ needs and wants, marketers must carry out certain functions.
Marketing Creates Utility
Functions of Marketing
The central focus of marketing is to satisfy needs. Utility is the
ability of a product to satisfy human needs and wants. A Chilito at Taco
Bell, a three-day vacation at Disney World, a new home – all satisfy
human needs and wants. Businesses attempt to provide four kinds of
utility: form, place, time, and possession. Three of the four kinds (place
utility, time utility, and possession utility) are created directly by marketing.
Place utility is created by making the product available where
the buyer wishes to buy it. Most Americans do not want to travel to
Germany to purchase a Mercedes, to Japan to buy a Sony television, or
to Mexico to purchase enchiladas for lunch. Thus, marketers create
place utility by making products available at convenient locations.
Time utility is created by making a product available when customers wish to purchase it. Because some shoppers have time to shop
for a new automobile only on Saturdays, auto dealers may miss a sale
unless they open for business on Saturdays. Similarly, due to seasonal
changes, more convertibles may be desired in April, May, and June and
more four-wheel-drive automobiles in December, January, and February.
Possession utility is created by transferring ownership of a product
to the buyer. Regardless of whether a product is a good, a service, or an
idea, there is a point when ownership is legally transferred by means of
a sales receipt or other formal transaction from one party to another.
The transfer of product possession guarantees the right of the buyer to
use that product to satisfy a need.
Marketing focuses on a complex set of activities that must be performed to accomplish objectives and generate exchanges. These activities, or functions, of marketing include buying, selling, transporting,
storing, grading, financing, marketing research, and risk taking. They
can be performed by a manufacturer, wholesaler, retailer, or some other
company such as an advertising agency. Each helps accomplish marketing objectives.
Buying. Everyone who shops for products (consumers, stores,
businesses, governments) decides whether and what to buy. A marketer
must understand buyers’ needs and desires to determine what products
to make available.
Selling. The exchange process is expedited through selling. Marketers usually view selling as a persuasive activity that is accomplished
through promotion (advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, publicity, and packaging).
Transporting. Transporting is the process of moving products
from the seller to the buyer. Marketers focus on transportation costs and
services.
Storing. Like transporting, storing is part of the physical distribution of products. Storing includes warehousing goods. Warehouses hold
some products for lengthy periods to create time utility. Consumers
want frozen orange juice year-round, for example, although the production season for oranges is only a few months out of the year. This means
21
22
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
that sellers must arrange cold storage for frozen orange juice concentrate all year.
Grading. Grading refers to standardizing products and displaying
and labeling them so that consumers clearly understand their nature and
quality. Many products, such as meat, steel, and fruit, are graded according to a set of standards, which often are established by the state of
federal government.
Financing. For many products, especially large items such as
automobiles, refrigerators, and new homes, the marketer provides credit
to expedite the purchase.
Marketing Research. Through research, marketers ascertain the
need for new goods and services. By gathering information regularly,
marketers can detect new trends and changes in consumer tastes.
Risk Taking. Risk is the chance of loss associated with marketing
decisions. Developing a new product creates a chance of loss if consumers do not like it enough to buy it. Spending money to hire a sales
force or to conduct marketing research also involves risk. Risk means
that most marketing decisions result in either success or failure.
The Marketing Concept
The marketing concept is the principle that an organization
should try to satisfy customers’ needs through coordinated activities
that also allow it to achieve its own goals. It is the basic philosophy that
guides all marketing activities, and each business must determine how
best to implement the marketing concept, given its own goals and resources.
According to the marketing concept, a business must find out what
consumers need and then develop the good, service, or idea that fulfills
their needs or wants. The business must then get the product to the customer. In addition, the business must continually alter, adapt, and develop products to keep pace with changing consumer needs and wants.
Although customer satisfaction is the goal of the marketing concept, a business must also achieve its own objectives, such as boosting
productivity, reducing costs, or achieving a percentage of a specific
market. If it does not, it will not survive. Obviously, a company should
strike a balance between achieving organizational objectives and satisfying customer needs and wants.
23
Trying to determine buyers’ true needs is increasingly difficult
because no one fully understands what motivates people to buy things.
Porsche, for example, views psychological satisfaction as an important
part of its automobiles.
To implement the marketing concept, a firm must have good information about what customers want, adopt a consumer orientation,
and coordinate its efforts throughout the entire organization, otherwise,
it may be awash with goods, services, and ideas that consumers do not
want or need. Everyone in the organization who interacts with customers – down to the shipping department and the truck driver – must know
what customers want. They are selling ideas, benefits, philosophies, and
experiences – not just goods and services.
Companies are striving for a team effort to deliver the right good
or service to customers. A breakdown at any point in the organization –
whether in production, purchasing, sales, distribution, or advertising –
can result in lost sales, lost revenue, and dissatisfied customers.
Vocabulary and comprehension check tasks
I. Find in the text synonyms to the following words:
To execute –
Goal –
To accomplish –
Customers –
To foster –
To purchase –
To occur –
To use –
II. Using a dictionary write down and try to memorize some
collocations with the following verbs:
To execute
To fulfill
To implement
To accomplish
III. Find in the text different forms of the following words and
define the part of speech they belong to. Mind that some words, while
performing different functions, keep their form unchanged.
Satisfy –
24
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Product –
Achieve –
Marketing –
Organization –
Need –
Good –
raise funds for something / somebody, to increase public awareness
about something / somebody.
To provide four kinds of utility, place utility, time utility, possession utility, form utility, to shop for something, due to seasonal changes,
to transfer something to somebody, regardless of something, a formal
transaction from one party to another, to be created through some
process, rather than, a key role, to meet / satisfy needs and wants.
IV. Work with your partner(s) and suggest the English for the
following collocations and phrases from the text.
Деловое предприятие; предназначенные для ускорения сделок; деятельность в сфере маркетинга обеспечивает / гарантирует;
быть доступными по цене; заниматься маркетингом; сбытовики /
рыночные производители разрабатывают маркетинговую стратегию; удовлетворять потребности и желания; воздействие окружения на что-либо.
Порождать / стимулировать обмен; идти на риск / рисковать;
сделать доступными; рассматривать что-либо как; содержание товаров на складе; круглый год; относить(ся) к; сортировка, маркировка и стандартизация продуктов; предоставлять кредит; уловить
новые тенденции / направления; вероятность убытков; проводить
маркетинговое исследование.
Осуществлять маркетинговую концепцию; с учетом своих
целей и ресурсов; кроме того; успевать за меняющимися требованиями; наращивание производственных мощностей; процентное
(со)отношение определенного рынка; подводить баланс; принимать ориентацию клиента / покупателя; иначе / в ином случае;
быть перенасыщенным товарами; иметь дело с клиентами / покупателями; стремиться добиться совместных усилий; приводить к
снижению объема продаж и дохода.
V. Work with your partner(s). Suggest the Russian for the following collocations and phrases from the text and use them in sentences of your own.
To execute the development of ideas, to achieve objectives, to
foster exchanges, in return for something else, a voluntary exchange
relationship, to provide repeat sales, to have something of value,
(in)tangible things, for-profit businesses, non-profit organizations, to
25
VI. Discuss the following questions:
1. What do marketing activities ensure?
2. Why do people and organizations engage in marketing activities?
3. What are products of marketing?
4. Why is marketing called a systematic approach to satisfying
consumers?
5. What are tangible and intangible things? Give examples.
6. Describe goods, services and ideas. Tell in which way they differ from one another.
7. Compare marketing carried out by for-profit and non-profit organizations.
8. Which utilities are created by marketing?
9. Describe each kind of utility and illustrate it with your own example.
10. What does marketing focus on?
11. List the functions of marketing. Illustrate each of them with
your own example.
12. Which are the parts of the physical distribution?
13. What is the role of marketing research?
14. Is risk taking an inevitable part of business? Why?
15. Give the definition to the marketing concept.
16. Is business a static notion? Prove your point of view.
17. Why is it important for a company to strike a balance between
achieving organizational objectives and satisfying customer’s needs and
wants?
18. What is required of a firm to implement the marketing concept?
26
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Developing a Marketing Strategy
To implement the marketing concept, a business needs to develop
and maintain a marketing strategy, the plan of action for using the
firm’s resources and advantages to meet its objectives. A marketing
strategy consists of two major steps: selecting a target market and developing, pricing, promoting, and distributing a product to that target
market.
appeal to varied tastes, needs, and desires. Identifying a target market is
a very important marketing function.
In a total-market approach, a marketer tries to appeal to the entire market and assumes that all buyers have similar needs and wants.
Sellers of salt, sugar, and many agricultural products use a total-market
approach because everyone is a potential consumer of these products.
A market is a group of people who have a need, purchasing
power, and the desire and authority to spend money on goods, services,
and ideas. Anytime a specific market can be delineated, the potential
for a target market exists. A target market is a group of buyers for
whom the organization tailors a marketing strategy; it is a group of
consumers on whose needs and wants the organization wishes to focus.
IBM, for example, markets its PS/1 line of personal computers to a target market that includes families in which members bring work home
from the office. Tandy, on the other hand, targets its 1000RL computer
at computer novices who want a household appliance for developing
grocery lists, balancing checkbooks, and helping their children with
schoolwork. The 1000RL provides more programming and operating
assistance for novices than does the PS/1, which is targeted to more
computer-literate users.
When choosing a target market, a firm first evaluates its own resources and unique abilities. After analyzing potential sales, costs, and
profits, it identifies an appropriate target market. Actions taken to satisfy
the needs of the target market must be consistent with the organization’s
overall objectives. Obviously, in selecting a target market, market size
and the number of competitors already serving the market are prime
considerations.
Marketing managers may define a target market as a relatively
small number of people, or they may define it as the total market. For
example, Rolls Royce aims its products at a small, very exclusive, highincome market – people who want the ultimate in prestige in an automobile. General Motors, on the other hand, manufactures vehicles ranging from Chevrolet Sprints to GMC trucks to Cadillacs in an attempt to
Market segmentation. Market segmentation is the process of
dividing the total market into groups of people with relatively similar
product needs. A market segment is a collection of individuals, groups,
or organizations that share at least one characteristic and have relatively similar product needs and desires. Companies use market segmentation to zero in on specific target markets so that they can develop
a satisfactory marketing strategy. Two common approaches to segmenting markets are the concentration approach and the multi-segment approach.
In the concentration approach, a marketer directs one marketing
strategy toward a single market segment. The concentration approach
allows a firm to specialize, focusing all its efforts on one market segment. A firm can generate a large sales volume by penetrating a single
market segment deeply. Johnson Product, Inc., for example, targets its
hair-care products to black consumers; Goya Foods, Inc., targets its ice
cream products to Hispanics by providing flavors they desire. The concentration approach may be especially effective when a firm can identify and develop products for a particular segment ignored by other
companies in the industry.
In the multi-segment approach, the marketer aims its marketing
efforts at two or more segments, developing a marketing strategy for
each. Many firms use a multicultural approach that includes different
advertising messages and promotional efforts for different segments.
The Gitano Group, for example, uses one set of television and print advertisements for its blue jeans to target teenaged girls and another set –
featuring movie stars – to appeal to older women. The company also
uses different advertising to target men, boys, and families.
Companies also develop product variations to appeal to different
market segments. The manufacturer of Raleigh bicycles uses a multisegment approach and has designed separate marketing strategies for
27
28
Selecting a Target Market
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
races, tourers, commuters, and children. Because there are so many different kinds of riders, Raleigh builds many different kinds of bicycles.
Many other firms also use a multi-segment approach to market segmentation.
For a firm to successfully use the concentration or multi-segment
approach to market segmentation, several requirements must be met:
1. Consumers’ needs for the product must be heterogeneous.
2. The segments must be identifiable and divisible.
3. The total market must be divided in a way that allows estimated
sales potential, costs, and profits of the segments to be compared.
4. At least one segment must have enough profit potential to justify developing and maintaining a special marketing strategy.
5. The firm must be able to reach the chosen market segment
with a particular market strategy.
Some segments may be difficult, if not impossible, to reach. For
example, it might be difficult to reach a market segment of 30 – to 40year-old males who are introverted and drive subcompact cars. No statistics are available on the market, and thus there is no way to reach it
Bases for Segmenting Markets. Businesses segment markets on
the basis of several variables:
1. Demographics – includes age, sex, race, ethnicity, income,
education, occupation, family size, family life cycle, religion, and social
class. These readily measured characteristics are often closely related to
customers’ product needs and purchasing behavior. For example, deodorants are often segmented by sex: Secret and Soft n’Dry for women;
Old Spice and Mennen for men.
2. Geographic factors – climate, terrain, natural resources, population density, and subcultural values influence consumers’ needs and
product usage. Climate, for example, influences purchases of automobiles, heating and air conditioning equipment, and leisure activity
equipment.
3. Psychographics – personality characteristics, motives and lifestyles. Soft-drink marketers provide their products in several packages,
including two-liter bottles and case of cans, to satisfy different lifestyles and motives.
29
4. Behavioristic characteristics – how the consumer’s behavior
toward the product affects its use. For example, airline like Delta offer
frequent-flyer programs that reward customers who regularly fly on
their airlines with free trips and discounts on rental cars and lodging.
Developing a Marketing Mix
The second step in developing a marketing strategy is to create
and maintain a satisfying marketing mix. The marketing mix involves
four variables – product, promotion, price, and distribution – that the
marketer can manipulate to achieve specific goals within a dynamic
marketing environment. The buyer or the market is the central focus of
all marketing activities.
Product. A product – whether a good, a service, an idea, or some
combination – is a complex mix of tangible and intangible attributes
that provide satisfaction and benefits. A product has emotional and psychological as well as physical characteristics and includes everything
that the buyer receives from an exchange. This definition includes supporting services such as installation, guarantees, product information,
and promises of repair.
Products usually have both favorable and unfavorable attributes;
therefore, almost every purchase or exchange involves trade-offs as
consumers try to maximize their benefits and satisfaction and minimize
unfavorable attributes. A person concerned with quality and style may
decide a Mercedes Benz is the best car to buy. High standards of quality
and European styling are the positive attributes maximized. The cost of
repair and the limited supply of qualified mechanics may be unfavorable attributes. In view of the high quality of Mercedes, the consumer
may feel that the negative concerns are minimal and thus trade the
negative aspects of hard-to-find service for quality and style.
Price. Price represents the value placed on an object in an exchange. Almost anything of value can be assessed by a price. Because
financial price is the measure of value commonly used in an exchange,
it quantifies value and is the basis of most market exchanges.
Marketers view price as much more than a way of assessing value,
however. Price is a key element of the marketing mix because it relates
directly to the generation of revenue and is important in determining
profits. Additionally, the economic role of price is to allocate products
to market opportunities caused by increases or decreases in demand.
30
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Price can be changed quickly to respond to changes in demand
and to competitors’ actions. Price has a psychological impact on customers, and marketers can therefore use it symbolically. If Coach House
suddenly dropped the price of its purses to $19.95 and began making
them available in most discount stores, consumers’ image of Coach
House would change radically. This example illustrates the psychological impact that price can have on consumers. By raising price, an organization can emphasize a product’s quality and try to increase the
status associated with owning it. By lowering price, an organization can
imply the existence of a bargain and attract customers who go out of
their way to save a small amount.
Distribution. Distribution is making products available in the
quantities desired to as many customers as possible while holding total
inventory, transportation, and storage costs as low as possible. Middlemen, usually wholesalers and retailers, perform many of the activities required to move products efficiently from producers to consumers
or industrial buyers. These activities involve transporting, warehousing,
materials handling, and inventory control, as well as packaging and
communication.
Critics who suggest that eliminating wholesalers and other middlemen would lower prices for consumers do not recognize that eliminating middlemen would not do away with the need for their services.
Other institutions would have to perform those services, and consumers
would still have to pay for them. In addition, in the absence of wholesalers, all producers would have to deal directly with retailers or customers, keeping voluminous records and hiring people to deal with customers.
Promotion. Promotion is a persuasive form of communication
that attempts to facilitate a marketing exchange by influencing individuals, groups, or organizations to accept an organization’s products.
Promotion includes personal selling, advertising, publicity, and sales
promotion.
Advertising – probably the most visible component of promotion –
is any paid form of non-personal communication transmitted through a
mass medium, such as television or newspapers. Personal selling, in
contrast, is direct, personal communication with customers and potential customers.
Advertising may inform potential customers about various
products, but by itself it is not sufficient to move many products in today’s competitive marketplace. Buyers want to examine the product and
any supporting materials, they want information, and they want a salesperson to answer their questions. Of course, personal selling is not the
most important promotional variable for all products. The target market
for toothpaste, for example, is much too large and inaccessible to rely
on personal selling. Establishing personal contact with all users of
toothpaste would not be cost-effective; advertising is more appropriate
for that type of product.
Publicity is non-personal communication presented as a news
story and transmitted through a mass medium. The difference between
publicity and advertising lies in cost and form. A firm does not pay the
media for providing publicity; the firm is not identified as the originator
of the story. For example, when Coca-Cola Company donated 20,000
cases of Coca-Cola to American troops serving in the Persian Gulf War,
it received publicity in the form of stories on Cable News Network
(CNN) and in newspapers about the gesture.
Sales promotion is activities (such as demonstrations, sweepstakes, and contests) and materials (such as free samples, displays, and
coupons) that persuade customers to make purchases. Sales promotion
acts as a direct inducement, offering added value or some other incentive to resellers, salespersons, or consumers.
The aim of promotion is to communicate directly or indirectly
with individuals, groups, and organizations to facilitate exchanges.
When marketers use advertising, personal selling, publicity, and sales
promotion, they must effectively manage their promotional resources
and understand product and target market characteristics to ensure that
these promotional activities contribute to the firms’ objectives.
A major component of the marketing concept is that a firm
should create a marketing strategy that satisfies its customers. Carrying
out the marketing concept is impossible unless marketers know what,
where, when, and how consumers buy; understanding the factors that
influence buyer behavior helps marketers develop effective marketing
strategies. Buyer behavior is the decision processes and actions of people who purchase and use products. It includes the behavior of both
consumers purchasing products for personal or household use and or-
31
32
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
ganizations purchasing products for business use. Marketers analyze
buyer behavior because a firm’s marketing strategy should be guided by
an understanding of buyers.
Both psychological and social variables are important to understand buyer behavior.
Psychological Variables of Buying Behavior
Psychological factors include the following:
• Perception is the process by which a person selects, organizes,
and interprets information received from his or her senses, as when
hearing an advertisement on the radio or touching a product to better
understand it.
• Motivation is an internal force that directs an individual to
achieve a goal. A buyer’s behavior is influenced by a set of motives
rather than a single motive. A person buying a home computer may be
motivated by ease of use, ability to communicate with the office, and
price.
• Learning is change in a person’s behavior caused by information and experience. If a person’s actions bring about a reward, the person is likely to behave the same way in similar situations. If a person’s
actions bring about a negative result, however – such as feeling ill after
eating at a certain restaurant – the person will probably not repeat that
action.
• Attitude is knowledge and positive or negative feelings about
something. For example, a person who feels strongly about protecting
the environment may refuse to buy products that harm the earth and its
inhabitants.
• Personality is the organization of the individual’s distinguishing character traits, attitudes, or habits. Although market research on
the relationship between personality and buying behavior has been inconclusive, some marketers believe that the type of car or clothing a
person buys reflects his or her personality.
33
Vocabulary and comprehension check tasks
I. Work with your partner(s) and suggest the English for the
following collocations and phrases from the text.
План действий; достигать цели; покупательская способность;
тратить деньги на что-либо; намечать; подгонять / подстраивать
маркетинговую стратегию под кого-то; определять соответствующий целевой рынок; соответствовать чему-либо; нуждаться в рассмотрении в первую очередь; выпускать продукцию на рынок для
покупателей с высоким доходом; удовлетворять различным запросам / вкусам; целостный подход к рынку; иметь одну общую характеристику; сосредотачиваться на одном сегменте рынка; внедряться в один сегмент рынка; разрабатывать различные варианты
продукции; (не)однородный потребительский спрос; ожидаемый
объем сбыта; потенциал прибыли; добиваться успеха /признания в
выбранном сегменте рынка; комплекс маркетинга / составляющие
формулы маркетинга; сбытовая деятельность; давать удовлетворение и преимущества / выгоды; (не)желательные качества продукта;
компромисс; извлекать максимальную пользу из / полностью использовать / максимально увеличивать; сводить к минимуму; обмен (2 варианта); цена и стоимость; количественно определять
стоимость; иметь непосредственное отношение к созданию дохода;
отвечать на изменения спроса; посредники, оптовики и розничные
торговцы; покончить с / исключить необходимость в услугах; неличное общение, достигаемое / осуществляемое посредством средств
массовой информации; продвижение товара на рынок; потенциальные клиенты; продвигать продукцию на конкурентоспособный рынок; прямое побуждение; предлагать добавочную стоимость или
другой стимул; рекламщики; не один, а ряд мотивов; приносить
выгоду; приводить к негативному результату.
II. Discuss the following questions:
1. What does the marketing strategy consist of?
2. Give the definition to the target market. How does it differ
from the market?
3. List the steps a firm should take when choosing a target market.
4. What is the reason for segmenting the market?
34
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
5. Name the two common approaches to segmenting markets.
Describe each of them.
6. What is buyer behavior? Why is it important for marketers to
know it?
7. Which psychological factors can influence buying behavior?
Give examples to each of them.
Marketing research
Marketing research is a systematic and objective effort to get information about potential customers to guide marketing decisions. (The
marketing concept cannot be implemented without information about
buyers.) Marketing research gathers information not available to decision makers in any other form. It is conducted on a special-project basis, and research methods vary with the problems studied and with
changes in the environment. Marketing research is a five-step process:
1. Defining and locating problems.
2. Developing assumptions or ideas about the probable causes of
events.
3. Collecting data.
4. Analyzing and interpreting data.
5. Reporting research findings in a way that makes them understandable to the decision makers who have to read the reports and solve
the problems.
A marketing information system is a framework for day-to-day
managing and structuring of information gathered regularly from
sources both inside and outside the organisation. The marketing information system, which is often computerized, provides a flow of information about costs, sales, profits, and consumer satisfaction.
Two types of data are usually available to decision makers. Primary data are information observed and recorded or collected directly
from respondents. Primary data must be gathered by researchers, who
develop a method to observe phenomena or survey respondents. Marketing firms such as Nielsen collect primary data on customer purchases
and evaluate the effectiveness of advertising and promotional activity.
Secondary data are information compiled inside or outside the organisation for some purpose other than changing the current situation. This
type of data is already available in private or public reports and has
been collected or stored within the organisation. Examples include re35
ports supplied by data services or by the U.S. Bureau of the Census or
other government bodies, as well as sales and other information recorded by the firm.
Marketing research and information systems are important to an
organisation’s planning and strategy development. Smith & Wesson, for
example, learned in focus group sessions that women who buy guns for
personal protecting do not want “cute guns” with purple handles and
engraved roses. Based on its research, the company introduced the Lady
Smith line of handguns, which are designed to fit into women’s hands
and have rounded edges that are less likely to tear purse linings. Research and information systems make possible a systematic approach to
decision making in marketing. Even though many decisions may be
based on experience and intuition, decision making that uses the information generated by marketing research is orderly and logical. Experienced-based solutions to many minor and recurring problems may be
successful, but as the number of possible solutions to a problem increases, the value of marketing research and information systems likewise increases.
The Marketing Environment
The following external forces directly or indirectly influence
marketing strategy making up the marketing environment:
• Political, legal, and regulatory forces: laws and regulators’ interpretation of laws, law enforcement and regulatory activities, regulatory bodies, legislators and legislation, and political actions of interest
groups. Special laws, for example, require that advertisements be truthful and that health claims be documented.
• Social forces: the public’s opinions and attitudes toward issues
such as living standards, ethics, life-styles, and quality of life. For example, social concerns have led marketers to design and market safer
toys for children.
• Competitive and economic forces: competitive relationships,
unemployment, purchasing power, and general economic conditions
(prosperity, recession, depression, recovery, product shortages, and inflation). During the 1991 recession, for example, Taco Bell and other
fast-food restaurants introduced value menus with items priced below
one dollar to satisfy consumers’ desire for good value.
36
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
• Technological forces: computers and advances in communications and transportation that improve distribution, promotion, and new
product development. For example, many companies now use computer
systems to monitor their inventory and to manage their warehouse facilities.
The forces in the marketing environment are sometimes called
uncontrollables, yet they are not totally uncontrollable. For example,
businesses can lobby legislators to dissuade them from passing unfavorable legislation.
Vocabulary and comprehension check tasks
I. Work with your partner(s) and make a list of internationalisms which you can find in this part of the text. Suggest the Russian
for them according to the model.
Systematic – систематический
II. With your partner(s) discuss the following questions.
1. Why is marketing research important? Give several reasons
and examples to illustrate your answer.
1. Can any firm do marketing research? Why? Why not?
2. Dwell upon the steps involved in marketing research.
3. What role does a marketing information system play in marketing research?
4. What are primary and secondary data?
5. What does the notion of the marketing environment involve?
Give examples to each of them based on Russian businesses activities.
QUIZ III
4. ________data are compiled inside or outside the firm for some
purpose other than changing the current situation.
5. Marketing ________ is a systematic and objective effort to get
information about potential customers.
6. A(n)_________is a group of people who have needs for products and who have the ability, willingness, and authority to buy such
products.
7. A(n) _________ market is a group of buyers for whom an organisation tailors a marketing strategy.
8. Market__________ is the process of dividing the total market
into groups with relatively similar product needs.
9. The marketing _________ involves four variables: product,
price, promotion, and distribution.
10. A marketing _________ is the core of a successful marketing
plan because it provides the plan for action.
II. Fill the gaps in the sentences, using the words from the list
in the box.
creative process
design
distribution
end users
first
hire purchase
image
labels
mail order
need
opportunities
outlets
patterns
place
posters
price
product
production-oriented
profitably
promotion
range
rival
satisfy
strengths
threats
weaknesses
I. After reading Text 4 you are supposed to know the key terms
and expressions. Fill in the blanks below with a suitable word from
the text.
1. A(n)_____ is giving up one thing in return for something else.
2. ________ is the ability of a product to satisfy human needs and
wants.
3. A market _________ is a collection of individuals, groups, or
organisations that share at least one similar characteristic and have relatively similar product needs.
1. What is marketing? Marketing is the _____ of satisfying customer needs ____ .
2. What is ‘the marketing mix? It consists of ‘the four P’s’: providing the customer with the right P____ at the right P____, presented
in the most attractive way (P____) and available in the easiest way
(P_____).
3. What is ‘a product’? A product is not just an assembled set of
components: it is something customers buy to _____ a _____ they feel
37
38
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
they have. The ____ and the _____ of the product are as important as its
specification.
4. What is ‘price’? The product must be priced so that it competes effectively with _____ products in the same market.
5. What is ‘promotion’? The product is presented to customers
through advertising (TV commercials, _____, etc), packaging (design,
______, etc), publicity, P.R. and personal selling.
6. What is ‘place’? Your product must be available to customers
through the most cost-effective channels of ______. A consumer
product must be offered to ______ in suitable retail _____, or available
on ______ or by ______.
7. What is meant by ‘S.W.O.T.’? A firm should be aware of its
S______ and W_____ and the O______ and T_____ it faces in the
market place.
8. Why are firms becoming more customer-oriented and less
______? Because new products must be created to meet the changing
______ of customers’ needs and wants – a firm can’t rely on the success
of its existing ______ of products. The customer and his or her needs
must come _____!
39
DISCUSSION
To review the material covered, in small groups discuss the following topics:
1. What is marketing? How does it aid exchanges?
2. Name the functions of marketing. How does an organization
use marketing activities to achieve its objectives?
3. What is the marketing concept?
4. What is a marketing strategy? What is market segmentation?
Describe two approaches to segmentation.
5. List the variables in the marketing mix. How is each used in a
marketing strategy?
6. Briefly describe the factors that influence buying behavior.
7. Why are marketing research and information systems important to an organization’s planning and development of strategy?
8. List the steps involved in the marketing research process.
9. Why is marketing gaining in importance today? What benefits
does it provide to consumers?
10. Discuss the impact of technological, political, and legal forces
on the market.
40
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
SUMMARY AND REVIEW
I. Using the statements below as a plan try to reconstruct the
gist of the text.
a) Define marketing and describe its relationship to the exchange
process.
b) Identify the functions of marketing.
c) State the marketing concept and its implications for developing
marketing strategies.
d) Define marketing strategy and explain why marketing strategy
decisions, such as market segmentation and ways to develop a marketing mix, are made.
e) Discuss buyer behavior and describe how marketers conduct
market research.
II. Now look through the draft of the Model Summary. Try to
make it more cohesive using some of the phrases on the right.
The text deals with…
To begin with I’d like to say
that…
The point is that …
The author thinks that ….
First of all / firstly, (it should be
noted that)…
Secondly / next / finally, ...
On the one hand…, on the other
hand…
I can’t but mention that …
I suppose / believe / assume that
…
What matters is that …
In addition / moreover, …
Because /as /since…
Nevertheless, …
As a matter of fact …
In fact …
Generally speaking …
As for (to) me, I think that …
As far as I know / can judge…
Marketing is a group of activities
designed to aid and expedite exchanges by creating, distributing,
promoting, and pricing goods, services, and ideas. An exchange is the
act of giving up one thing in return
for something else.
Marketing focuses on satisfying
human needs. Marketing creates
three kinds of utility (the ability to
satisfy needs or wants): place utility,
time utility, and possession utility; it
also contributes to form utility.
Marketing consists of several different, interrelated functions: buying,
selling, transporting, storing, grading, financing, marketing research,
and risk taking.
The marketing concept is the basic
philosophy that guides all marketing
activities. In essence, the marketing
concept states that an organization
41
… and so on
… and others
On the whole …
… in particular …
Summing up I’d like to stress …
To sum up, it should be pointed
out that …
Finally, a few words should be
said about …
should try to satisfy customers’
needs through a set of coordinated
activities that also allow it to
achieve its goals.
A marketing strategy provides the
plan of actions for using the firm’s
resources to meet its objectives. The
steps to develop a strategy are selecting a target market and developing and maintaining a marketing
mix that satisfies the target market.
A target market is a group of buyers
for whom the organization tailors a
marketing strategy; it is a group of
consumers on whose needs and
wants the organization wishes to
focus. The marketing mix is composed of four elements: products,
price, distribution, and promotion.
Marketing strategy decisions guide
an organization’s activities.
Buyer behavior is the decision processes and actions of people who
purchase and use products. It includes the behavior of both consumers purchasing products for personal
or household use and organizations
purchasing products for business
use. Marketing research is a systematic and objective effort to get information about potential customers
to guide marketing decisions. The
five steps of marketing research are
(1) defining and locating problems,
(2) developing assumptions or ideas
about the probable causes of events,
(3) collecting data, (4) analyzing
and interpreting data, and (5) reporting research findings in an understandable way so that decision makers can use them to solve problems.
42
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
LISTENING
4. Complete a marketing system chart that works in the case of
coffee (starting with Juan).
Listen to the lecture where the lecturer defines marketing and the
ways in which the system operates. While listening take notes which you
will need later to answer your teacher’s questions and do assignments.
Model questions:
1. Is marketing expensive? How much money out of every dollar
spent on retail goods in the USA goes to pay for marketing expense?
For advertising expense?
2. What are the other areas of expense besides advertising?
3. In the introduction the lecturer mentions three important terms
to be discussed. What are they?
4. How many utilities does the marketing system create? Name
them and give examples of each.
5. What is the purpose of the marketing system?
6. How important is the consumer in the marketing system?
7. Illustrate interdependence among the utilities by an example.
QUIZ
While listening do the assignments:
1. Possession utility …
a) always relates to the price or financing
b) never relates to the price or financing
c) typically relates to the price or financing
2. If exchange takes place …
a) all the utilities will be present in a different amount
b) all the utilities will be present in a similar amount
c) not all the utilities will be present
3. Which statement is wrong?
a) Juan earns 35 times less per pound for the coffee that the grocery store does
b) The grocery store sells a pound of coffee for $3.50
c) Instant coffee drinkers pay $3.50 for coffee
43
5. Which is not true? The form utility changes….
a) from Maxwell House to customers
b) from Juan to Maxwell House
c) from raw material to finished goods
KEY TERMS AND CONCEPTS
After having done the above texts and assignments you will get
to know and be able to explain the following terms:
marketing
exchange
utility
place utility
time utility
possession utility
form utility
perception
motivation
market
target market
total-market approach
market segmentation
market segment
concentration approach
multisegment approach
marketing research
marketing information
marketing concepts
marketing strategy
learning
attitude
44
personality
social roles
reference groups
social classes
marketing mix
culture
buyer behavior
system
primary data
secondary data
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
INFORMATION TRANSFER
Changing patterns of business orientation, 1700 to present.
PeriodOrientation
1700–1850 Production, finance,
and transportation
Selling
and promotion
1850–1945 Production, finance, Selling and
and transportation
→ Customers
→→ Customers
3. How does the position of selling and promotion change from
the 1850–1945 period to the present?
4. Why has market research been included in the third time period?
5. In general, how have the patterns of business orientation
changed? What are some reasons for these changes? Consider such factors as economics, technology, and politics.
6. What do you predict the pattern of business orientation will
look like from 2000 to 2050? Draw a diagram to present this.
promotion
Marketing
1945 – Production, finance,
Present and transportation Selling & Market
→→→ Customers
↓
↓
↑__________↑________↑_______ Feedback ←
promotion research
Figure 1
I. Scan Fig. 1 to answer these questions.
1. What category of business orientation is the largest in the period 1700–1850? From 1850 to 1945?
2. In which time period do customers have the greatest presentation?
3. Which time period has the greatest variety of orientations?
What are they?
4. Which two time periods have basically the same orientations?
5. Which period of time is the longest? Which is the shortest?
II. Refer to Fig. 1 to answer these questions.
1. Why do you think the first time period ends in 1850? Why
does the second time period end in 1945?
2. In which direction do the arrows point in the periods 1700–
1850 and 1850–1945? In which direction do the arrows point for the
period 1945–present? Why is this feedback loop important?
45
46
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
ADDITIONAL READING
VOCABULARY STUDY
I. The italicized words in the sentences below appear in Text 1
(p. 48). Study the sentences. Then write the word class and your own
definition for the word in the space provided.
1. With accessories such as a CD player, radio and a rear
windshield wiper, the car will be considerably more expensive than
the list price.
accessory ( ) ____________________________________
2. He attributes his success to the support he received from his
wife.
attribute ( )
3. An important component of the computer is its disc drive.
component ( ) ____________________________________
4. The new features on next year's model are in conformance with
industry guidelines.
conformance ( ) ____________________________________
5. The car was not working well because its fuel injection system was defective.
defective ( ) ____________________________________
6. Children often fantasize about the future and imagine a
life more similar to a fairy tale or a Hollywood movie.
fantasize ( ) ____________________________________
7. Divorce rates have increased greatly in recent years and
the longevity of any marriage is uncertain.
longevity ( ) ____________________________________
8. If people perceive the quality of a product to be poor, they
will not buy it.
perceive ( ) ____________________________________
9. Movies like "ET", "Indiana Jones" and "Jurassic Park" have enjoyed phenomenal success.
phenomenal ( ) ____________________________________
10. Olympic athletes were featured in Nike's sales promotion of its new l i n e of sports shoes.
promotion ( ) ____________________________________
47
11. Airlines build a good reputation by providing good service, on-time arrivals and safe flying.
reputation ( ) ____________________________________
12. Living in a big city may be exciting, but the trade-off is
the high cost of living and crime.
trade-off ( ) _____________________________________
Use each of the twelve words above in an original sentence
of your own.
II. Before you read the article, join with a partner to consider
the following questions. Then share your ideas with the whole class.
1. How would you answer the question asked in the title of
the article?
2. When you think of quality items, what brand names come
to your mind? Why?
3. What are some quality items that your country produces?
TEXT 1
III. Read the article and discuss the questions that follow.
What is Quality?
(1) In recent years the Japanese have demonstrated to the world
that one of the best ways to improve productivity is to improve product
quality. Adopting the philosophy and ideas of an American, W. Edwards Deming, the Japanese have proven that "doing it right the first
time" improves product quality, lowers production costs and maintains
their competitive position in the market.
(2) In a famous study in 1980, a manager of Hewlett-Packard's
Data Systems Division tested 300,000 computer chips from six manufacturers, three from Japan and three from the U.S. The failure rate per
1000 was zero for the Japanese chips and between 11 and 19 for the
U.S. chips. After 1000 hours of use, the failure rate was two per 1000
for the Japanese chips and 27 for the U.S. chips. Is there any doubt that
attention to "quality" has helped the Japanese enter and become a major
force in the computer chip market? The Japanese have had similar suc48
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
cesses in other industries. In fact, fewer than one percent of products
produced by Japanese manufacturing firms are discarded as defective.
The American average is four percent.
(3) The Japanese experience has proven that management strategies can contribute to improving quality and productivity. HewlettPackard reports that their decision to reduce product failure rates by
tenfold during the 1980s was the key starting point in their effort to increase productivity and lower costs. The Hewlett-Packard management
discovered that productivity increased when their employees had the
latest information and when they were able to participate in production
decisions.
(4) David Garvin, a professor at the Harvard Business School,
has identified eight dimensions of quality.
(5) Performance. The quietness of a car's ride; the resistance of
cosmetics to smudging; the clarity of the picture, sound and color for a
TV set; low energy consumption of appliances; the sound from a stereo
system.
(6) Features. The colors, patterns and fabrics that are available
in furniture, towels, sheets, drapes, etc.; the different cycles and options
available on washers, dryers, microwaves, refrigerators, etc.; the adjustments available on a stereo to improve the sound or on a camera to
allow for different types of shots, lenses and tripods.
(7) Reliability. Dependability of a product or service to perform
properly over time. How often does the photocopy machine need repairs
and what does it cost? Automobile reliability is one of the most desired
attributes for anyone purchasing his or her own car.
(8) Conformance. How the product meets desired standards and
tolerances such as size, consistency of color, etc. Does the product
reach its customers on time? This is particularly important for businesses whose products are used in the assembly of other larger products. Automobile suppliers who provide parts for automobiles rolling
off an assembly line must meet certain standards, quality and tolerances
to sell their parts to the manufacturers.
(9) Durability. How long a product will last under various conditions. Light bulbs and batteries are sold and advertised on their longevity. How many hours will the light burn? In some cases companies will
provide a lifetime guarantee.
(10) Serviceability. The ease of repair or maintenance of a product. Many firms now have toll free "hot lines" for consumers to use if
they have questions or need repairs. These hotlines are designed to reduce dissatisfaction and maintain good customer relations. "Downtime"
for a copier or computer must be minimized. Can the company guarantee service in six hours? Farmers cannot afford downtime during harvest season. Can the manufacturer guarantee delivery of any part in 24
or 48 hours?
(11) Aesthetics. How a product looks, feels, sounds, tastes and
smells. The design of the product is important, Consider the Timex
"lronman" watch designed for athletes competing in the triathlon. It has
a "macho" look with oversized buttons and large logos that are attractive to more than just the triathlon athlete. The Ironman is one of the
hottest selling watches around. Timex is now coming out with a Victory
watch for sailors and anyone else who wishes to fantasize about sailing.
Is fantasy part of aesthetics?
(12) Perceived Quality. The reputation of the product, its name
and label. Japanese products now have a general aura of high quality.
Yet how many of the products are fully made and assembled in Japan?
Could some of the component parts come from South Korea, Taiwan or
Singapore? The Japanese product could actually be made in America,
such as Honda in Ohio and Mitsubishi televisions in California. Is the
quality as high for an American-made Honda as a Japanese-made
Honda? J.D. Power & Associates, who conducts market research on
customer satisfaction with automobiles, has reported a difference in
perceived quality between Japanese-made Hondas and American-made
Hondas.
(13) Trade-offs exist among these eight dimensions of quality. In
addition, companies can seldom pursue all eight quality dimensions at
the same time. Management has to make decisions based on a strategy
for marketing its product in a competitive environment.
49
50
IV. In groups of four, discuss the following questions and share
your answers with the whole class.
1. Think about the last major purchase you or a member of your
family made. How much were you influenced by the "Attributes of
Quality" described above? Which attributes were most important?
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
2. Quality is not just a concern for the manufacturing sector. What
are the attributes of high quality service?
3. Watch for television commercials that emphasize quality.
What attributes of quality are usually advertised? Are the advertisements
believable?
TEXT 2
(4) Americans spent over US$4 billion for athletic shoes in 1989,
and the experts predict the trend will continue in future. What's interesting is that most of these shoes were purchased by people who will
never slam-dunk or run a marathon. Nike, Reebok and the other companies are selling fashionable and comfortable shoes to thousands of
young people in America and around the world who think the shoes
and the other apparel make them look good and feel great.
I. Scan the following article to answer the questions below.
1. What are the leading American manufacturers of sports shoes?
2. What people make up the market for sports shoes?
Competing for Your Feet
or "Defeeting" the Competition
(1) At a recent Sporting Goods Manufacturers' Association trade
show, Reebok International, Ltd. presented its newest line of athletic
shoes. Amid blaring rock music, bright lights and video productions,
Reebok displayed shoes with plastic tubes in the sole that "return energy
to the wearer," shoes that can be inflated to increase ankle support,
and shoes with a special "honeycomb padding" used in the seats of the
space shuttle.
(2) Reebok entered the athletic shoe business in the early 1980s
and had such phenomenal success selling fashionable athletic shoes that
today its revenues exceed US$1.79 billion. Reebok's main competition
in the sprint for your "sneaker" dollar is Nike. Each controls approximately a quarter of the market with the remainder divided among wellknown companies like L.A. Gear, Converse, Adidas, and Keds.
(3) Nike built its reputation among athletes by providing quality
shoes for specific sports like basketball, tennis and running. It continues to market to serious athletes with ads that show Michael Jordan in
Nike shoes hanging in the air above a basketball hoop and an exhausted marathon runner wearing Nike shoes. But Nike and the other
athletic shoe manufacturers are concentrating just as much on accessories like neoprene windsurfing suits, jogging outfits and colorcoordinated tennis shorts and tops. Nike even changes the colors of its
products with the seasons to attract fashion-conscious buyers.
II. In groups of four, discuss the questions below; then share
your ideas with the whole class.
51
52
1. Based on the information above, what is the structure of the athletic shoe market? Explain your answer.
2. In the 1950s a pair of canvas sneakers or tennis shoes were inexpensive "play shoes" for children. Fashion-conscious teens or adults
would not have worn athletic shoes unless they were playing basketball,
tennis or some other sport. What strategies have Nike, Reebok, and the
other companies developed to change this?
3. Some critics argue that it is unethical for companies like Nike
or Reebok to advertise expensive athletic shoes to young people who
cannot afford such luxuries. What do you think? Why?
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
PRACTICE
Activity 2.
I. Scan the text and say which of the points in this text you
agree or disagree with?
Activity 1.
Work in groups. Think of eight products (goods and services)
that are produced or provided in your city or region and answer the
questions below:
1. a brand of beer or a soft drink
2. a grocery product (breakfast cereal, health food, etc)
3. an industrial product (machines, consumer goods, vehicles,
etc)
4. a service (cleaning, temporary employment bureaus, etc)
5. a place of entertainment (theatre, cinema, etc)
6. a public service (telephones, mail, transport, etc)
7. an educational service (maybe the course you're doing now?)
8. a financial service (bank, insurance company, etc)
9. another well-known local product:
– What competition does each product face? (This may not be
another brand, but another type of product: people may prefer to buy
clothes instead of going to the cinema, for example.)
– What is the image of each product?
– What is the image of the company that produces it?
– How strongly or weakly is each of the products marketed?
– Where is each product advertised?
‘Hard sell’ versus ‘soft sell’ approach
Anyone who has contact with customers is a sales person – that
includes the telephonist who answers the phone and the service engineer who calls to repair a machine. So that probably includes you!
The relationship between a sales person and a client is important:
both parties want to feel satisfied with their deal and neither wants to feel
cheated. A friendly, respectful relationship is more effective than an
aggressive, competitive one.
Sales people should believe that their product has certain advantages over the competition. Customers want to be sure that they are
buying a product that is good value and of high quality.
No one in business is going to spend his or her company's
money on something they don't really need (unlike consumers, who
can sometimes be persuaded to buy 'useless' products like fur coats and
solid gold watches!). Some sales people prefer a direct 'hard sell' approach, while others prefer a more indirect 'soft sell' approach. Whichever approach is used, a good sales person is someone who knows
how to deal with different kinds of people and who can point out how
his or her product will benefit each individual customer in special
ways. A successful sales meeting depends on both the sales person
and the customer asking each other the right sort of questions.
II. What sort of questions are most useful in a sales meeting?
– What answer is each of these questions likely to provide?
– Which of the questions are likely to give more useful information?
'Do you think the product is too expensive?'
'What are your reactions to the prices I've quoted you?'
'Is the machine designed to operate 24 hours a day?'
'Tell me about the operation of the machine.'
'Are you worried about the question of reliability?'
'Are there any particular points you're worried about?'
53
54
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
II. Write some more, similar sentences about the information in
the pie charts given below.
Activity 3.
I. Look at these sentences and the pie chart below. On their basis give a short presentation on the situation with cars a) in Great
Britain and b) in Russia.
• White is the most popular colour for cars in Britain.
• Red is the second most popular colour for cars in Britain.
• White is a (much/far) more popular colour than blue.
or Blue is a (much/far) less popular colour than white.
or Blue isn't as popular a colour as white.
• Gold cars are not (quite) as popular as yellow ones.
or Yellow cars are a bit/little more popular than gold ones.
• Yellow cars are (just) as popular as brown ones.
• Green seems to be the least popular colour for cars in Britain.
or Green is the most unpopular colour for cars in Britain.
• About twice as many brown cars are sold as black cars in Britain.
or Half as many black cars are sold as brown cars.
• More/far more red cars are sold than green cars.
or Fewer/far fewer green cars are sold than red ones.
or Not as many green cars are sold as red ones.
• Most British people would never dream of buying a green car.
55
56
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Activity 4.
Divide into three groups. Group A should look at File 1, Group B
at 2 and Group C at 3.
1. Each group will have to design a questionnaire about the region
and its competitors and then conduct interviews with consumers (i.e.
potential visitors).
2. When your group has designed its questionnaire, each member
of the group should stand up and go round the class finding 'members of
the public' (from other groups) to interview. Ask each of them the questions in your questionnaire.
3. Report back to your group. Make a simple table using the information you have collected.
4. Each group reports its results to the whole class.
Make notes on the important points made by the other groups.
Ask questions on any points they haven't made clear.
or
Form new groups of three or four, consisting of one member from
each of the original groups. Find out what each of the groups discovered.
5. Draft a report summarizing your group's findings, including a
table or chart. Show this to a member of another group and ask for
comments.
6. Work in groups, consisting of one member of each of the original groups. Decide together:
Who are your (potential) customers?
What are the main attractions of your product?
What are the main attractions of the competition?
What is the 'unique selling proposition' that makes your
product special?
How can you inform customers about your product?
What positive points about your region should you stress?
What misconceptions about your product should you try to
correct?
For example, if people think your region is 'flat and boring'
or 'hot and dusty', how can you persuade them they're wrong?
57
7. Work as a whole class or in two large groups. Devise a marketing strategy for your product. How can you improve your product's image
and promote it to the customers?
8. Think of a good slogan for your product. Draft a short text for
an advertisement in a British / American newspaper or magazine.
FILE 1
Make a list of five or more regions or countries that are in competition with yours. Design a questionnaire to find out about people’s
attitudes to your region and to its competitors. The people you ask
should rate each destination for its qualities on a scale 1 to 10 (or 1
to 5 – if you prefer):
good value for money
good entertainment
friendliness
culture
climate
easy to get to
health and sport
hospitality
beautiful scenery
landscape
good facilities
peace and quiet
wilderness
uniqueness
sights
Ask them to describe each place in one sentence like this:
When I think of ______, I think of / imagine ______ .
FILE 2
Design a questionnaire to find out the importance of various factors
in choosing a holiday destination. The people you ask should decide
how important these factors are on a scale 1 to 10 (or 1 to 5 – if you
prefer) for a main holiday and for a second holiday:
different way of life
historic places
learn new things
summer sports
outdoor activities
part of longer trip
night life
beautiful scenery
bargain prices
winter sports
visiting friends/relations
no language problems
good food
meeting people
gifts and souvenirs
relaxation
climate
Ask them to describe each place in one sentence like this:
If I were to choose a place to go on a holiday (vacation – Am.) first of
all I’d like to ______, then I’d consider _______ .
58
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
FILE 3
Make a list of five or more regions or countries that are in competition with yours.
Design a questionnaire to find out people’s attitudes to the less attractive features of these regions and your own region. Ask people
which of these phrases describe each destination:
no package tours available
bad weather
language problems
too crowded
unfriendly, gloomy people
no beaches
nothing for children to do
bad food
other: _____________ (please specify)
hard to reach
too far away
too quiet
too expensive
Ask them to describe each place in one sentence like this:
I think that the less attractive features about _______ are firstly,
_______ and then that (there are) ______.
II. Look at the three products compared here. Discuss the 'features and benefits' of each product, like this:
The Acme 77B is available in bright colours, which means that
it will be an attractive feature of your room.
The Acme 77B isn't as powerful as the other fans, which means
that it won't keep you so cool.
Rolac 241
Samco Airblast
Acme 77B
24 cm
17.5 cm
35 cm
power consumption
20 watt
30 watt
75 watt
mosquito/fly killing
yes
yes
no
3
600/1000
2
1000/1500
4
200/750
45
beige only
25
white or black
40
5 bright colours
Italy
France
Taiwan
retail price
£17.99
£24.50
£14.99
wholesale price per 100
£104.55
£152.00
£85.00
fan diameter
settings
speeds (r.p.m.)
air output (m3/minute)
colours available
country of manufacture
Activity 5.
I. Any product gives various 'benefits' to the customer: these
may be functional or practical (speed, power, efficiency, etc.) or psychological (attractive appearance, making the customer feel happy or
proud, etc.):
Feature=>- Benefit
A is more.....than B, which means that…….
B isn't as…as A, which means that…….
59
Positive benefits
Negative benefits
III. Work in groups. Ask your partners these questions:
What benefits does your firm's product give?
What will it do for the customer? How is it different to or better
than the competition?
60
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
II. Predicting the effect of price increase on market demand.
Activity 6.
You learned that the demand for a product or service is described
as elastic if a price increase results in a drop in sales. A product or service
has inelastic demand when a change in price has no effect upon sales.
Look at the list of consumer goods and services below. In the
blank on the left, indicate whether the item has essentially an elastic demand (E) or an inelastic demand (I). Indicate the most important reason for your classification from the list below in the
blank on the right.
A. Necessity
B. Luxury
C. Many available substitutes
Analyzing Market Variables
I. Each of the events listed below will affect the market for particular goods or services. Working with a partner, match the letter of
the "effect" (A–D) with the events listed (a–d).
A.
B.
C.
D.
Supply will increase
Supply will decrease
Demand will increase
Demand will decrease
a. Cost of obtaining oil for making plastics decreases.
b. The yo-yo fad comes to an end.
c. An advertising campaign for basketball shoes is effective.
d. Personal income tax increase reduces available income for
purchasing stereos, TV's and other major appliances.
e. Government subsidy helps local carpet manufacturers.
f. New robots lower production costs for automobiles.
g. Drought ruins the rice crop.
61
D. Few available substitutes
E. Easy to delay purchase
F. Difficult to delay purchase
Elasticity
____ Automobile repair
____ Pack of cola
____ Pizza
____ 10-speed bicycle
____ Cosmetic plastic surgery
____ Loaf of bread
____ Bus service
____ Surfer T-shirt
____ Air conditioning
____ Fried Chicken (fast food)
____ Computer
____ Dental service
Reason
_____
_____
_____
_____
_____
_____
_____
_____
_____
_____
_____
_____
In groups of four, compare your answers and try to come
up with a group concensus. Then share your group's answers
with the whole class.
62
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
MARKET RESEARCH AND PRODUCT DESIGN
Activity 7.
I. Look at the bottle of shampoo and draw lines to match the
words with the parts of the bottle.
MARKET RESEARCH SURVEY
Name of store ________ Address _____________________
Brand of shampoo Price/oz. (grams) Color Slogan
1.______________________________________________________
2.______________________________________________________
3.______________________________________________________
4.______________________________________________________
5.______________________________________________________
Total number of different brands of shampoo ________
Description of containers or packages. (Draw several designs below)
Target market for each of the five brands of shampoo listed above
1.______________________________________________________
2.______________________________________________________
3.______________________________________________________
4.______________________________________________________
5.______________________________________________________
II. Bring in an ad and analyse it with regard to its intended target market. Decide what type of appeal is being made (to the senses, to
economy, etc.) Also analyse the ad for its factual representations and
its implications. Compare your observations with those of your classmates.
III. Develop a questionnaire and interview someone about his or
her favourite kind of automobile. Try to determine why this particular
car has more appeal than the others.
IV. Walk around the town and write down five advertisements.
Discuss and share these ads with the class.
V. Carry out market research according to the following format.
63
Description of shampoo that appeals to you most
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
Reasons you like it
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
VI. Working in small groups, discuss the results of your market
research.
64
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
VII. Design your own shampoo or other product. Include the
following information:
Name of Product
Price / Ounce (grams)
Shape of Container
Color of Container
Slogan
Size (in ounces / grams)
Color of Product
On another piece of paper, draw the container and label for
your product. Include the name, price, number of ounces/grams and
slogan. If you use a product other than shampoo, revise this exercise
to include what is necessary in designing this product.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Dowling, Barbara T.; McDougal, Arden Marianne. Business
Concepts For English Practice. Boston: Heinle & Heinle Publishers,
1993.
2. Jones, Leo; Alexander, Richard. International Business English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
3. Kral, Thomas. Economic Considerations. English Through
Content: Applied Economics // Materials Development and Review
Branch English Language Programs Division, US Information Agency,
Washington, D.C., 1996.
4. Revell, Rod; Sweeney, Simon. In Print. Reading Business English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.
5. Ruetten, Mary K. Comprehending Academic Lectures. N.Y.:
Macmillan Publishing Company, 1986.
VIII. Determine the marketing mix that you think will be successful for your product. Be as specific as possible.
Target market:
Placement:
Product:
Promotion:
Price:
65
66
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Учебное издание
Учебно-методическое пособие
по развитию навыков
профессионального общения
В двух частях
Часть 2
MARKETING
Составитель
Руденко Татьяна Павловна
Технический редактор Н.В. Москвичёва
Редактор Е.В. Коськина
Подписано в печать 04.04.05. Формат бумаги 60х84 1/16.
Печ. л. 4,1. Уч.-изд. л. 4,4. Тираж 200 экз. Заказ 124.
Издательство Омского государственного университета
644077, г. Омск-77, пр. Мира, 55а, госуниверситет
67
68
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа