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2249.Практический курс английского языка

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации
Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
«Оренбургский государственный университет»
Е.И. Соловей
ПРАКТИЧЕСКИЙ КУРС АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА
Рекомендовано Ученым советом федерального государственного бюджетного
образовательного учреждения высшего профессионального образования
«Оренбургский государственный университет» в качестве учебного пособия
для студентов, обучающихся по программам высшего профессионального
образования по направлению подготовки 100700.62 Торговое дело
Оренбург
2014
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
УДК 811.111(075.8)
ББК 81.432.1я73
С60
Рецензент – доцент, кандидат педагогических наук М.Ю. Крапивина
С60
Соловей, Е.И.
Практический курс английского языка: учебное пособие /
Е.И. Соловей; Оренбургский гос. ун-т. - Оренбург: ОГУ,
2014.- 139c.
ISBN
Данное учебное пособие составлено на основе аутентичного текстового
материала, оригинальных текстов по экономике и бизнесу, взятых из специальных
журналов и сайтов сети Интернет.
Пособие состоит из 9 разделов, каждый из которых предназначен для
самостоятельного изучения дисциплины «Иностранный язык». Учебное пособие
также включает в себя ряд приложений, содержащих грамматический и лексический
материал по данному курсу.
Учебное пособие предназначено для студентовпо направлению 100700.62
Торговое дело, профиль«Коммерция», получающихвысшее профессиональное
образование.
УДК 811.111(075.8)
ББК 81.432.1я73
ISBNддддддддддддддддддддддллллллллллль


Соловей Е.И. 2014
ОГУ, 2014
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Содержание
Введение… ........................................................................................................ ………...4
1 Unit 1 The business environment……………………………..……….………………..5
2 Unit 2 The company…………………………………………………..........................13
3Unit3 Trade fairs
……………………………………………………………….…...23
4 Unit 4 Advertising
…………………………………………………………………....32
5 Unit 5Job satisfaction……………………………………………………………….….44
6 Unit 6 Bright business ideas…………………………………………………………....56
7 Unit 7 Buying and selling……………………………………………………………....66
8 Unit 8 Ethical trading……………………………………………………………….…78
9 Unit 9 Big business……………………………………………………………….……..91
Список использованных источников………………………………………………..…107
Приложение А Speaking activity…………………………………………………….…108
Приложение Б Grammar reference……………………………………………….……..120
Приложение В The plan for rendering the text……………………………………...…126
Приложение Г Home-reading texts………………………………..……………….….129
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Введение
Предлагаемое
пособие
предназначено
для
студентов,
обучающихсяпо
направлению 100700.62 Торговое дело, профиль «Коммерция», получающих высшее
профессиональное образование.
Основная цель пособия – создать у студентов устойчивую лексикограмматическую языковую базу и на этой основе сформировать коммуникативную
компетенцию в сфере экономики, а также привить навыки, необходимые для
понимания и перевода оригинальной англоязычной литературы.
Учебное пособие разработано на основе оригинальных текстов по экономике и
бизнесу, взятых из специальных журналов и сайтов сети Интернет. Эти тексты
представляют практический интерес для студентов экономических специальностей.
Пособие состоит из 9 разделов. Каждый раздел включает текст, список
лексики по специальности, предтекстовые и послетекстовые задания.Лексические
упражнения помогают студентам закрепить базовую и дополнительную лексику по
специальности. Ряд упражнений направлен на развитие навыков говорения по
заданной тематике и умений передать основное содержание экономического текста.
Данное учебное пособие содержит приложения: Приложение А включает
дополнительный текстовый материал и упражнения на развитие коммуникативной
компетентности студентов; Приложение Б содержит грамматический справочник,
расширяющий базовые знания по грамматике английского языка; в Приложении В
дан алгоритм-шаблон, содержащий опорные фразы для передачи основного
содержания экономических текстов; Приложение Г содержит аутентичные тексты
экономической направленности для самостоятельной работы студентов.
Пособие может быть использовано как для аудиторной, так и для
самостоятельной работы студентов.
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1
Unit 1. The business environment
1.1
Start up
1.1.1 Do the questionnaire. Put a tick () for “yes” or a cross (X) for
“no”:
What’s your style? What kind of person are you? What’s the right job for you? Find out
with the questionnaire.
I am good at
I like using
I like being
problem-solving
technology
independent
I am good at
I like dealing with
I don’t like working
I like travelling and
research
people
under pressure
meeting new people
I enjoy team work
I am good at dealing
with money
I am not very good
at organizing
I like being creative
I don’t mind doing
information
routine activities
1.1.2 Compare your answers with your partner.
EXAMPLE:
A: I enjoy teamwork. What about you?
B: No, I don’t actually. I like being independent.
1.1.3 Read the texts below about Chloe and Markus, and answer the questionnaire
for them. Put a question mark (?) when there isn't enough information.
Markus, buyer of luxury leather goods
I work for a department store. My
Chloe,exhibition organizer
I really enjoy my job. I love working
office isn’t in New York, but I travel a lot. I under pressure and I like dealing with
like travelling and I spend a lot of time in people.The other thing I really enjoy is
Italy and Morocco. I enjoy meeting new problem-solving. And when you organize
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people and seeing the new styles. I love the an exhibition, there are always lots of
challenge of getting a good contract for my problems to sort out! I enjoy working as a
company, negotiating a good deal. I spend a team, but I hate dealing with money. I
lot of time on my own, but that’s not a wasn't good at maths at school, but it's a
problem as I enjoy being independent in part of the job, and I have to do it.
fact. I’m not a great team worker. I don’t Sometimes I work in the office, but I'm
really like the routine paperwork when get really not an office sort of person. I hate the
back to the office – but it need to be done.
1.2
routine!
Grammar
We use certain verbs in the Present Simple (e.g. like, love, enjoy, be good at, don’t
mind, hate) with an –ing form
Read about Chloe again and find phrases with like / love enjoy /hate + -ing.
a)
Choose three jobs from A. Use phrases from B to write 5 sentences about
each job.
EXAMPLE:
A bank clerk deals with money and meets people.
A
database administrator bank clerk
secretary
sales representative
personal assistant
computer operator
market researcher
B
ask people questions
do research
use a computer
arrange meeting
organize information
attend meetings
deal with money
travel
write reports
meet people
make phone calls
sell products
send emails and letters
b)
In pairs, compare your answers.
EXAMPLE:
A: What does a personal assistant do?
B: He makes phone calls, arranges meetings, and sends emails
and letters.
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c)
Now write sentences as in the example (☺ - likes, ☻ - doesn’t).
EXAMPLE: Jacob/☺ travel /☻ organize information
Jacob likes travelling, but he doesn’t enjoy organizing information.
1
George/☺ work in a team /☻do routine activities
2
Stephanie/☻ deal with people /☺ deal with money
3
Lauren /☺ do research /☻ solve problems
4
Andy/☺ use technology/☻ be creative
5
Rachel /☻ meet new people /☺ work under pressure
1.3
Vocabulary
Form jobs from these words.
bay
administrate
control
operate
research
train
design
manage
EXAMPLES
1.4
organize
buyer
administrator
Reading
1.4.1 Work in groups. Discuss the questions.
DO YOU EVER…

send private emails?

sleep?

text your friends?

listen to music?

do homework for another

look out the window

eat?

flirt?

Shop online?
lesson?

gossip?

surf the Net?

read books or magazines?

doodle?
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1.4.2 Read the text and answer the questions.
1How much time each day do UK
office workersspend not working?
4 What percentage of Italian office
workers flirt inthe office?
2What's their most popular non-work
activity?
5 What do some employers do to
duce absenteeism in the office?
3 How much time each day do they
6 What do some employers do to
spend using the computer for non-work make their staff happier at work?
activities?
1.4.3 Workinpairs.Discussthequestions.
• Didanything inthearticlesurpriseyou?
• Do you consider these activities to be 'time-wasting'?
Imagine you are the manager of a company. Whatwould you do about these
activities?
Don’t disturb me – I’m not working!
HOW do office workers spend their day?Well, they work of course, but they
alsofind time for other things. A recent reportreveals that UK office workers spendabout
an hour and a half a day on personal business.
They spend 54 minutes gossiping, 16 minutesflirting, 14 minutes surfing the Net, 9
minutese-mailing friends and family, and 3 minutesshopping online.
Surfing the Net in office time for personalreasons is common throughout Europe.
Nearly half of workers in Italy, the UKand Germany confess tovisiting sites for holidays
and finance when they should be working.
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In Italy, 4 out of 10 office workersflirt in the workplace and l out of 3 employees
sendreceives text messages on their mobile duringtheir working day.
Unsurprisingly employers are not happy withthis 'absenteeism in the office'. Many
companies usefilters to prevent surfing, and even turn off coffeemachines to prevent
gossip.In Milan, a worker whoregularly surfed unsuitable sites was suspended forten days.
But is the best solution to stop workers socializingand surfing the Net? After all, you
don't stop thinkingabout work when you go home, and your private lifedoesn't stop when
you go to work. A study of the bestemployers in the UK says that laughing
withcolleagues, socializing, and having fun creates aworkplace where staff work the
hardest!
Onesuccessful company has a room with perfumed oilsand music, where staff can
relax. Another offersgames rooms and satellite TV. It seems that onlymotivated workers
give 100% attention to their jobs.
1.4.4 Read about acustomersales assistant Maria’s typical day at work on page
107.Tick theactivities she mentions.
□ write letters
□ key in data
□ send emails
□ write minutes
□ do filing
□ fill in forms
□ surf the Net
□ send faxes
□ have meetings
□ gossip
□ write reports
□ make coffee
□ speak to customers
□ book meeting rooms
□ arrange travel
□ distribute the post
□ fill intime sheets
1.4.5 Read again and decide if the sentences are true (T) or false (F)

Maria makes a coffee before her morning meeting.

In the morning she meets people from all over the world.

She has to make a lot of phone calls in her job.
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
She doesn't like sending faxes because it's boring.

She surfs the Net five or six times during the day.

She has to fill in a time sheet at the end of her day.
1.5
Company profile
Amazon.com
1.5.1 Discuss the following questions with a partner.
•
Where does your family buy books, computers,flights, food?
•
DoyoubuythingsontheNet?
•
What are the advantages and disadvantagesof e-shopping?
1.5.2 Now read about Amazon com. Student A reads the texton this page, and
Student В reads the text on page 107.Then cover the information and askyour
partnerthesequestions.
Student A's questions:
•
How many people work for Amazon?
•
Whataresomeof Amazon's key features?
•
Howdoes itmanageallthedata?
•
Doesanythingevergo wrong?
Amazon.com
Amazon.com is a website where millions of customersin over 200 countries can buy
a wide range of goodsonline. They sell both products and services. Theseinclude books,
CDs, DVDs and computer games,clothes, computers, mobile phones, cameras, and travel
services. You can also rent DVDs. This amounts to tensof millions of items. The company
is based in Seattle,in the United States, but it has aninternational division withlocalized
languages, products,and customer service. Amazondoesn't have just one website, butsix
global websites.
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1.5.3 With your partner, read the two texts again andtranslate the following key
terms into Russian. If necessary, use a dictionary:
1)
range
____________________________
2)
customer service
____________________________
3)
secure payment
____________________________
4)
product flow
____________________________
5)
to update
____________________________
1.6
Project
a)
With your partner, write five questions about awell-known company.
EXAMPLE
b)
Go online and research the answers to your questions
EXAMPLE
1.7
Apple Mac: What type of company is it?
It's one ofthe world's leading computer manufacturers.
Vocabulary
1.7.1 With your partner decide how to read these numbersin English.
513 2.892 2/3 956
1.7.2 Write out the numbers.
a)
numbers: 250 _________________
5.789 ______________________
b)
fractions: 1/2_____________
c)
decimal points: 3.5_____________15.06________________________
3/4_____________
1/3____________
7.96___________________________________________
1.7.2 Work in pairs. Each student writes
a) two fractions
b)two decimals
c)two numbers containing 11-19
d)twonumbers containing 20, 30, etc.
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d)two very big numbers
Dictate your numbers to your partner. Write yourpartner's numbers.
1.8
Business know-how (Speaking)
1 Which of these are the three most important for you in your situation?
Getting on in business
•
Learn more than one language.
•
Get a business qualification.
•
Network with family and friends.
•
Read business magazines and business sectionsin newspapers.
•
Try toget work experience in an office.
Discuss your opinions with a partner. With yourpartner, add two or three of your
own suggestions.
1.9
Writing
A friend is looking for a job in your field (complete the following email. Explain to
him/her about your Job (you can choose one), the company you work for andthe essential
qualities needed for the job.
“Hi!
I got your email this morning. Great to hear from you again, and congratulations on
finishing your diploma at last!!
You wanted some Info on my job. I work for... I'm a… I start work at… My main
responsibilities are... The best thing about this job is...
Good luck!”
1.10 Checklist
Assess your progress in this unit. Tick (✓) the statements which are true.
•
I can talk about my strengths and weaknesses
•
I can describe what people do as part of their jobs
•
I can ask for and give basic information about a company
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1.11 Key words
Verbs
Jobs
Nouns
attend
bank clerk
customer service
deal with
database administrator
database
employ
market researcher
manufacturer
fill in
sales representative
product
key in
range
research
Look back through this unit. Find rive morewords or expressions that you think are
useful.
2
Unit 2. The company
2.1
Start up
Work in pairs. You want to set up a company to develop and produce a new type of
MP3 player. What different people do you need to employ. Make a list.
EXAMPLE:
You need people to buy raw materials.
You need people to sell the product.
2.2
Vocabulary
2.2.1 Work in pairs. Discuss what you think these people departments do.
EXAMPLE:
I think the Purchasing department buys things the company
needs.
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2.2.2 Match thedepartments (A-G) and descriptions (1-7).
a)
It deals with billing, salaries, taxes, investment,and budgets_D__
b)
It is responsible for advertising and marketresearch. It organizes the selling of
theproducts ___
c)
It produces the finished products ___
d)
It deals with staff and is responsible for recruiting and training ___
e)
It organizes the maintenance of the buildings, including office space ___
f)
It is responsible for the computer systems, andtrains staff in computer use___
g)
It is responsible for buying the materials thecompany needs to make its
products___
2.2.3 Follow the page 108.Montse and Kenichiro talking about the jobs and
complete the sentences.
Montse
Kenichiro
Where do you work?
What line of work are you in?
I’m training to be a Human Resource officer I'm _____1 to be a fashion buyer for a chain
for a car manufacturer.
store. I work in the Purchasing department.
What are you working on?
I've only been in the job a few weeks.
I’m__________1to prepare an advert for a What are you doing at the moment?
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vacancy in the Sales department. I'm writing I'm doing a bit of ________2 I'm working in
the_________2so that we ___________3the a ___3 with other more experienced buyers.
right candidates. My manager________4 my There's a lot to ______4 but I'm enjoying it.
work of course. I only started a few months. We're ________5 buying for next year's
spring season – it's great knowing what next
year's _________6 are going to be!
2.2.4 Work in pairs. Discuss the jobs of Montse and Kenichiro.Which one would
you prefer to do? Why?
2.3
Reading
2.3.1 Read the text in which Bernard Levesque describes the organization of MTS
Paris and complete the organization chart (figure 1).
“My name is Bernard Levesqueand I’m the Technical and Quality Manager at MTS
in Paris and work within the MTD – the Material Testing Division, which makes
equipment used by industrial firms to test the strength and durability of materials like
plastics, metals and so forth. We’re a subsidiary of MTS System Corp., an American firm
based in Minnepolis. MTS employs roughly 2.200 people worldwide and is a leading
supplier of mechanical testing and simulation equipment. Our major development and
manufacturing operations are located in the US, France and Germany, and we have sales
and service offices around the world.
Before I discuss the organization of my department, I’ll outline the structure from
the top, starting with Werner Ongyert, our CEO, who oversees all aspects of our activities
here. Just below him is the General Manager, Jacques Mordelet, who is my immediate
superior. Then there’s SylvianVillaret, the Human Resources Derector, and Genevieve
Cornetti, the GM’s Secretary, who also report directly to him. We have a management
team that includes myself, Dominique Faurieux, the Sales Manager, Jean-Francois
Reinold, the Finance Manager, and of course, Jacques Mordelet, who is also the Marketing
Manager. There are also two new departments – Customer Service and NVD, the Noise
and Vibration Division – headed by Louise Regnier and Patrick Dhommee respectively.
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Now, getting back to the way my department is organized, I’m responsible for
operations, so I’m in charge of Purchasing and planning, R&D and Quality. The
Purchasing and planning department schedules production based on orders provided by the
sales team and forecast from the Marketing Department. In R&D there are three subdepartments – Mechanical Engineering, Electronics and Software Engineering – which are
involved in developing new products and modifying existing products to meet customer
demands. They receive technical specifications from the Marketing Department and
provide drawings, a parts list and assembly instructions. Natalie Launay works closely
with me on Quality – an area that takes up nearly a third of my time. And finally there’s
the head of Shipping, as well as the person in charge of Assembly, who also report to me.”
1
2
3
4
5
6
Technical
andQualityMan
ager
Purchasing and
Planning
10
11
Mechanical
Engineering
14
15
7
8
12
9
13
Figure 1
2.3.2 Circle the word that does not belong in each horizontal group
1) firm
company
society
subsidiary
2) salary
manager
engineer
Employee
3) finance
product
planning
Marketing
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4) ship
assemble
customer
Purchase
5) plant
facility
patent
factory
2.3.3 Match the following definitions to the groups of three words that
youidentified above.
A
manufacturing sites
_______________
B
stages in the manufacturing process _______________
C
people who work in a company _______________
D
types of business organization_______________
E
different departments in a company _______________
2.3.4 Match each of the word that you circled with the following definitions.
1
_______________payment for work, usually monthly
2
_______________an item that has been made
3
_______________anorganization
or
club
with
members
who
share
similarinterests
4
_______________a document that gives the exclusive right to make or sell a
newproduct
5
_______________a person who buys goods or services
2.3.5 a)
Read the introduction to the article. Then with your partner, discuss
how we use the Internet in business.
EXAMPLES:emails booking flights advertising
E-commerce
You probably use the Internet to send emails, download music andfilms, or look for
information. But did you know that the Internet istransforming the business world?
Electronic commerce(e-commerce) is the buyingand selling of products andservices
on the Internetinstead of using shops, phones, faxesand letters.It creates opportunities
forcompanies to sell more and toimprove customer service. Italso gives customers
greaterchoice.
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There are three main typesof e-commerce. The first isBusiness to Consumer (B2C):
the consumer buys goods orservices from a company onthe Internet. Manyconsumers now
buy books,musk, or tickets on theInternet.The second type of e-commerce is Consumer
toConsumer (C2C): people selland buy directly on sites suchas eBay. The third type is
Business to Business (B2S): commerce betweencompanies. They use theInternet to order
goods, getservices, and manage their business. It isfast and efficient.
In the past, the car manufacturers Ford orderedthousands of parts fromhundreds of
different companies. They told thesuppliers which parts theywanted and the supplier sent a
proposal to supply them. Itwas a long and expensiveprocess These days. Ford usesspecial
B2B electronicexchanges to order theirparts and then the suppliersput in electronic bids for
thejob. This process is muchquicker and cuts costs.Companies don't need largePurchasing
departments andsuppliers have to cut theirprices to be competitive.
So which parts of the worldare most “e-active”? Europe is number one,the US
comessecond, while Hong Kong isthe biggest in Asia-Pacific, particularly in ebusinessservices. In fact, In 2006,Europe's three major markets: the UK,Germany,
andFrancecarried out around25% of their sales online.Thisfigure is increasing from yearto
year.
b)
Read the article and match the definitions to the terms.
Order
a)
buying
Supplier
b)
a price that a company offers to do
work or supply parts for if it wins the order
Bid
c)
to request goods from acompany
Costs
d)
a person or organization that provides
goods or services
Purchasing
e)
the amount of moneyspent on
runninga business
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c)
3 Read the article again and decide if the sentences aretrue t (T) or false (F).
1
Electronic commerce uses phones and faxes to dobusiness__
2
B2C is when a consumer and a company do businesstogether__
3
B2B is when private individuals sell or buy things onthe Internet__
4
Ford used B2B in the past but didn't get good results__
5
When a company uses B2B they save money andtime__
6
A quarter of all European business is done online__
d)
Complete the sentences with the words from b.
1
David, the budget is only €12.000 for this project.Please be careful with
the______
2
I'd like to________ fifteen office desks and chairsfrom the New Dawn range.
3
AGD Construction put in a __________of6120 million to build the stadium.
4
We have found an excellent___________.inSpain for our engine parts.
5
Beamish
Electronics
have
appointed
a
new
buyer
totheir
__________department.
e)
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages ofe-commerce.
EXAMPLES:
advantages
You access thousands of buyers.
disadvantages
It needs a big IT department
2.3.6 Read and discuss the article about Daniel Deroche.
a)
Before you read, discuss these questions withyour partner.
• What are the biggest supermarket chains in Russia?
• What do they sell apart from food?
b)
Read about Daniel and answer the questions.
1 What did he do in China?
2 What did he do during the induction periodin Spain?
3 What department did he work in after that?
4 What did he learn from his work experience?
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It’s my job.
Age: 23
Nationality: French
Occupation; Marketing student
Work experience: the hypermarket chain, Carrefoui
What was the first company you worked for?
I worked for a Carrefour hypermarket in China doing three -month work experience.
I was a shelf supervisor. It was extremely interesting so I signed up for a second
internship.
Where was that?
This time it was in Spain, near Madrid. I had a onemonth induction period and I
helped to set up thewine section. Then I joined the Wine department.
c)
Work in pairs. Discuss these questions.
• Would you like to work in supermarket management? Why? Why not?
• Would you like to work in the food and drinkindustry? Why? Why not?
2.4
Business know-how
Before you read Business know-how work in pairsand discuss these questions.
•
Do you find enough time for your work?
•
Do you ever complete tasks late?
•
Do you wish you had more free time?
How to manage your time
• Make a list of all the tasks. Then decide if theirdeadline is urgent or not.
• Prioritize the most important task.
• As you finish a task, cross it off your list.
• When you complete a task, move on. Don't bea perfectionist.
• Concentrate on the task you are doing. Don'tbe distracted by emails and text
messages!
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• Find a place to work that suits yourworking style.
Work in pairs. Discuss the suggestions. Which do you think is the best one? Do you
do any of these thingsalready? Do you have any other ideas?
2.5
Pronunciation
2.5.1 Listen to your teacher and repeat the telephone numbers.
1
07488 750812
2
03589 552647
3
0044 208 8943326
4
0039 055 292647
Answerthe questions.
1
How do you say two numbers that are the same,e.g. SS?
2
There are two ways to say 0- what are they?
3
How do you group six-figure numbers? And seven figure numbers?
Work in pairs. Invent five phone numbers and dictatethem to your partner.
2.6
Writing.
2.6.1 Read the web page and answer these questions.
1 What is this page of the website for?
2 What does the company do?
3 Which departments do you find in most companies?
4 Which departments are specific to this sort ofbusiness?
Pretty Print
We are a medium-sized local printer. We do all sorts of printing jobs - large and
small. We aim to deliver a quality product on time at competitive prices. We provide a
personalized service to all our clients.
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• Customer Care department we talk to clients and take the orders
• Purchasing department we buy paper, equipment, machinery, and supplies
• Design department we provide a design service
• Printing department we print materials and bind books
• IT department we look after the computers
• Delivery department we deliver the final product to the customer
2.6.2 Now write a web page for your university or company.Include:
• a short description of the university/company andwhat it does;
• a list of departments with a short description ofwhat each one does.
2.7
Project
Work in pairs. Goto the internet site of some mobilephone company and find out
what you can tell the class about its departmental structure. Make notes.
2.8
Checklist
Assess your progress in this unit. Tick (✓) the statements which are true.

I can describe what the differentdepartments of a company do

I can say and write phone numbers correctly

I can write a description of a company fora web page
2.9
Key words
Departments
Production
supplier
Customer Care
Purchasing
vacancy
Facilities
Sales and Marketing
Verbs
Finance
Nouns
manage
Human Resources
chain store
negotiate
Technology/IT
internship
organize
Look back through this unit. Find five morewords or expressions that you think are
useful.
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3
Unit 3. Trade fairs
3.1
Start up
3.1.1 Work in pairs. Look at the objects in the picture anddiscuss the questions.
• Haveyougotany freebiesathome or withyou today?
• Which five freebies would you like to receive?
• Which one wouldn't you want to receive?
• What are the advantages and disadvantagesof freebies?
3.1.2 The Manager and Sales Director of a companycalled Liberation are choosing
which promotionalfreebies to offer at their next trade fair. Tick (✓) theitems they choose
and cross (X) the ones they reject (follow the page 108).
3.1.3 Read again and note the reasons for and againstthe freebies they discussed.
Item
conference older
+
practical
–
not original
expensive
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stress bolls
pocket radio
mouse mat
biro
conference bag
3.2
Reading
3.2.1 Read the article and answer the questions.
1
Why are trade fairs useful for businesses?
2
Why do you think planning is important?
3
What tasks does staff do when they are on a stand?
4
What actions are important after a trade fair?
3.2.2 Read the article again and list three reasons for attending a trade fair.
Trade fairs and exhibitions
Trade fairs are an effectiveway for businesses to makeface-to-face contacts
withpotential suppliers andcustomers. They provide achance to demonstrate andlaunch
products,test newmarkets, and find out whatcustomers want. You can alsofind out about
newcompetition, and get newideas.
There are trade fairs for everybusiness sector, so make sureyou attend the right one.
Youshould make a profile of thecustomers you want to attractand the products and
servicesthey want to know about, somuch. You should look at atrade fair's statistics.
Howmany people attend? How bigis the exhibition space? Whoare the major exhibitors?
Planning is the secret ofsuccess. You should book wellin advance to get a
goodposition
for
your
stand.
Thenmaterials
and
stand
furniture,and
book
accommodationand transport. There is a lot todo at a trade fair, so make sureenough staff
attend.
Your staff should be well-prepared and ask appropriatequestions so they can
identifypotential clients. It's useful toshow samples to visitors orgive short presentations
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toillustrate the product.Theyshouldn't forget to take arecord of each visitor, andgive out
leaflets and businesscards.
After the fair, it is importantto have a meeting and discusswhat worked well and
whatcould be improved on. Youshouldn't neglect thecontacts you made, so followup each
one with a phone can,an email,or a letter. Finally, ifyou don't have time or thestaff to plan
and man a tradefair,you can use professionalevent organizers.They canarrange everything
for youand know how to help abusiness make a goodimpression.
3.2.3 According to the article what should/shouldn't youor staff do at trade fairs?
Write sentences in yournotebook.
EXAMPLE: You should make a profile of the customers you wantto attract.
Staff shouldn'tforget to take a record of each visitor.
3.2.4 Read and translate the article.
Setting up a Business
New Kids on the Business Block: Thatcher's Enterprise Babes are Taking the
Tycoon's World by Storm
Dylan Wilk runs his own multimillion-pound business and could afford to retire. He
draws a six-figure salary and drives a bright yellow BMW M3. Holidays are spent in
California or skiing in Austria.
But Wilk is only 23 years old. He set up his company “Gameplay” at the age of 20
and in just 3 years it has become Britain’s second-largest mail-order supplier of computer
games with 35 staff and a turnover of £7,5 million in 1997, set to double this year. He is
one of Thatcher’s babes – the children born or brought up since 1979 when she swept to
power and started the enterprise revolution.
Now as “young adults” they are taking the business world by storm. One in eight of
all startup businesses is founded by an entrepreneur aged 16 to 24 and there is a growing
band of teenage and twenty-something tycoons They Include 14-year-old Tom Hartley,
who recently hit the headlines after becoming Britain's youngest self-made millionaire by
selling Porsches.
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Andrew Collins, 21, stared Firemagic Fireworks, at the age of 19 He is turning over
£l00,000 a year and has just taken on a new partner, his former chemistry teacher, Pete
Tischimowitz, who encouraged his interest in pyrotechnics.
Collins loves his work but admits success has come at a price. “Starting, a business
at that age is not easy. I have to work seven days a week and my social life is out of the
window My girlfriend doesn't even like fireworks”.
Several organizations have been set up to help young entrepreneurs; including the
Prince's Youth Business Trust, a charity that offers loans and advice, and Oil company
Shell's lifeWIRE scheme, which provides free guidance. But young hopefuls face greater
barriers than their mature counterparts and run a high risk to failure.
In spite of some undeniable success stories, two thirds of startups by under-25s end
in failure within four years, a far higher rate than for older people. Eighties' entrepreneur
Alan Sugar who set up his first business at 10.believes starting too young can be
damaging. Sugar says: “They need to have some experience of work and real life”. Many
also face a daunting hurdle trying to raise finance, since banks are often unwilling to lend
to someone without a financial record. GulamKadir, 21, had to overcome his bank
manager's opposition to found the Ruhani Moslem Funeral Service at the age of 19. It now
has a turnover of nearly £100,000. Kadir says: “I was turned down for a loan because they
said I was too young for the funeral business. People do not expect a young person in this
area. I knew it wouldn't be easy, but I was determined”.
Youngsters may also experience prejudice from customers and suppliers who see
them as naive and inexperienced. Victoria Goodwin, 22, set up her own decorative finishes
business based in Sheffield when she was 20, and has recently worked on the set of a TV
soap opera. She says: “Being young can be a drawback, but it can also be an advantage
because some customers believe you don't have preconceived ideas and will do what they
want.”
Richard Street, chief executive of the Prince's Youth Business Trust, believes future
generations must learn the lessons of Thatcher's children or risk losing out in the
employment market. He says: “Business education would certainly benefit young people:
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not all will become entrepreneurs, but they need to be prepared because they will have
flexible careers with periods in jobs and periods of self-employment”.
3.2.5 Read the following statements about the article and indicate whether theyare
true (T) or false (f).
1
Dylan Wilk, who founded Gameplay at the age of 20, retired three years later
after becoming a millionaire.
2
Gameplay is the largest British retail chain specializing in computer games.
3
Over ten percent of new businesses are started by people under the age of 25.
4
Tom Hartley inherited most of his money.
5
Andrew Collins set up his company with his chemistry teacher.
6
Shell offers loans to young entrepreneurs.
7
Entrepreneurs in their early 20s are more likely to succeed than older people
who go into business for themselves.
8
Many banks are reluctant to provide financing to youngsters.
9
The bank accepted GulamKadir's loan application because his business
concept was unusual for a young person.
10
Some customers like doing business with young entrepreneurs as they are
more flexible.
3.2.6 Combine a word or expression from A with one from B to complete the gaps
in the passage below. You may need to change the form of some of the words. Definitions
are given in brackets to help you.
A
B
overcome
a partner
set up
finance
raise
a business
take on
hurdles
take on
a request
turn down
a risk
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run
the challenge
Half a million people 1______________ (start a company) each year in the UK,
even though they 2___________ (face the danger) of failing. Statistics have shown that
within three years, 45% of them go out of business, many losing all their money. What
sort of people want to be entrepreneurs when there is such a high failure rate? They tend to
be motivated, creative and eager to 3____________ (accept something that is difficult but
interesting) of being their own boss. They are resilient and able to 4___________(find
ways around problems) when, for example, the bank
5
____________ (reject an
application) for a loan. Instead of giving up, they will look for other ways to 6________
(obtain capital) such as 7____________ (engaging a business associate).
3.3
Grammar
should or shouldn't
a)
can’t):

Complete the rules using two of the following words (ask your teacher if
advice
order
stronger
Should is _________ than must or have to.
weaker
1
I should invite my boss to the party – but I'm notgoing to!

We use should to give an opinion or2________ .
You should look at a trade fair's statistics.
You shouldn't neglect the contacts you make.
b)
Complete these tips for attending a trade fair withshould or shouldn't.

You ________ get there early to set up the stand.

You ________ wear your badge at all times.

You ________ leave your bags and coats around.

You ________ wear smart clothes and bewell presented.

You ________ be well-informed about yourcompany.

You ________ eat or drink on the stand.

You ________ carry a note book with you.

You ________ have plenty of promotionalmaterials.
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
You ________ gossip with your colleagues.

You ________ get interested visitors to leavetheir details.
c)
Read the problem and write you advice.
I'm finding it very difficult to work because my office mate is always talking on the
phone to friends or wants to gossip with me. What should I do?
3.4
Company profile
Yo!
3.4.1 Read about Yo! and answer the questions.
1
Who is Simon Woodroffe?
2
What was his big idea?
3
When did he start his business?
4
What does he believe makes a successful business?
5
What are his other companies? Do you think they will be successful?
6
Do you find anything about Simon and his business ideas surprising?
Yo! is a series of successful businesses using the name Yo!, founded by
entrepreneur Simon Woodroffe in 1997.
A Japanese friend suggested he opened conveyor-belt sushi restaurants in the UK.
Inspired, he invested his life savings of £150 and borrowed another £150 to start up Yo!
Sushi. He started with one restaurant but went on to open restaurants all over the UK and
abroad. The company now has a turnover of £17m and 10% growth per annum.
After leaving school at 16 with hardly any qualifications, Simon worked for over 20
years in the musk business as a stage designer. He wanted to be millionaireeven whenhe
was 20, and at 40 decided it was getting a bit late!He believes that the key to success is a
positive attitude, enthusiasm, realism and the ability to handle failure.Woodroffe has won
many awards, and is an inspiringpublic speaker.
He is developing a hi-tech, reasonably-priced hotel chain called Yotellbased on
Japanese capsule hotels. He has created the fashion chain Yo! Japan in over seven
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countries,and he is building new Yo!Sushi restaurants around theworld. He also sells sushi
meals to a famous UK supermarketchain.
Yo! is one of those empires like Google or Virgin that wants to be a way of life
rather than a business.
3.4.2 With a partner, read the text again and translate these words and expressions
into Russia:
1)
conveyor belt
_____________________
2)
loan
_____________________
3)
turnover
_____________________
4)
growth
_____________________
5)
key to success
_____________________
6)
getting a bit late
_____________________
3.5
Business know-how
Read about careers fairs. Then work in pairs. What sort of companies would be at
your ideal careers fair?Read the tips and decide which three you think are themost
important Why?
Careers fairs A careers fair is an opportunity for graduates to meet potential
employers. They often take place at universities. You can explore career options, develop
a network of contacts, or even getan interview
☺Attending a careers fair

Introduce yourself. Don't be shy.

Dress appropriately. First impressionsare important.

Research the companies in advance on the Internet.

Be prepared to ask questions.

Take notes-of names, telephone numbers, etc.

Leave an up-to-date CV with potential employers.

After the fair, write to the companies thatinterest you.
3.6
Project
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a)
With your partner research one of the following entrepreneurs:
Richard Branson
Alan Sugar
Calvin Klein
OR a famous entrepreneur from Russia.
b)
Write a report with questions and answers like the article above.
3.7
Writing.
3.5.1 Work in pairs. Read the email and choose the bestdescriptionofPaola:
a)
Managing Director of RDG;
b)
visitor to the trade fair;
c)
junior member of staff at RDG;
d)
an RDG customer.
Hi Duncan.
I was at a trade fair all last week. There were thousands ofpeople. I was manning the
RDG stand – it was a lot of responsibility. It was exhausting! I had to talk to potential
customers and give out catalogues and freebies. The best thing was meeting people. The
worst thing was answering questions.I've got one piece of service – you should learn
everything you can about your company's products before you go!
Anyway, how are you and Kelly?
See you soon
Paola
3.7.2 You went to a trade fair last week and manned a standfor the first time. Your
companymanufactures the marketing gifts on p.23. Write anemail to afriend describing
your experience. Include:

what you did

the best thing

the worst thing

a piece of advice
3.8
Checklist
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Assess your progress in this unit. Tick (✓) the statements which are true.

I can ask about a menu and order food

can give advice to work colleagues

I can write an email describing an experience
3.9
Key words
Trade fairs
freebies
badge
leaflets
(the)competition
business card
promotional materials
entrepreneur
client
retailer
invest
contact
samples
loan
exhibitor
stand
Business
Look back through this unit. Find five morewords or expressions that you think are
useful.
4
Unit 4. Advertising
4.1
Start up
4.1.1 Work in groups. Discuss the questions.
1
What are your favourite adverts on TV orin magazines?
2
Why do you think they are successful?
4.1.2 Look at the extracts from adverts and match them withthe products.
a holiday destination_______________
pet food_______________
washing powder__________________
ferries_________________
fridge__________________________
beds___________________
furniture________________________
bathrooms______________
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4.1.3 Find these adjectives in the adverts. Translate them into Russian. Complete
the table 1with the adjectives.
Table 1
1 Adjective
2 Translation
3 Describing
Complete
целый/полный
range of entertainment
Good/best
хороший/лучший
facilities
Crunchy
Free
Bright
Cool
Tasty
Close
International
Popular
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Table 1 (continuation)
1 Adjective
2 Translation
3 Describing
Easy
clean
4.2
Grammar
4.2.1 Comparatives and superlatives. Complete the rules with these words and
expressions.
more
most
1
one of the most/least
superlatives
comparatives
We use __________ to say how two or more thingsor people are different.
People sleep better on our beds than on otherleading brands.
Our cat food is meatier than our main competitor's.
2
We use ___________ like this.
We have the most complete bathroom service.
3
What is being compared is not always mentioned,if it is understood.
Get brighter whites (than the competition).
4
We use ____________ to express a less specificsuperlative.
One of the most beautiful cities in the world is Rome.
5
We can use ____________ with a noun to talk aboutquantity.
More people use email more than letters tocommunicate.
6
We can use ____________ with a noun to talk aboutlarge proportion of
something.
Most companies advertise their products.

Go to Grammar reference p.119
4.2.2 Complete the text using these words and phrases. Addthe if necessary.
lower prices
larger
smaller
most expensive
cheaper
more people
easiestways
better than
less
best
most suitable
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Advertising space
Companies have to choose1the best
way to advertise based on budget and
suitability. TV adverts are2____________ form of advertising, and only largercompanies
can afford them. A radio advert is 3__________ to produce, and is often more effective
for4________ companies with a limited budget. Localradio reaches5__________ and its
message can bemore direct.
Print ads in magazines, newspapers, and on billboards are one of 6________ to reach
people. Advertisingspace in local newspapers costs7____________ than innational papers
and is often very effective. Even bigstores place adverts in local papers, although they
have8___________ adverts than the local shops. Nationalnewspapers often carry adverts
for computer or mobilephone companies offering9________ than theircompetitors.
Advertisers
spend
time
selecting10___________
publication.
Forshampoo
manufacturers, women'smagazines are11__________ sports magazines, because they are
seen by the biggest audience of consumers.
4.2.3 Work in groups. Discuss products you know using theadjectives.
safe
delicious
fresh
innovative
big
advanced
stylish
comfortable
healthy
relaxing
refreshing
EXAMPLE: I think Landrovers are one of the safest cars to drive.
4.2.4 Work in pairs. Write a mini-advertisement for one ofthese products. Create a
name for your product. Write ashort description and an eye-catching slogan.
• a car
• an MP3 player
• a breakfast cereal
• a shampoo
• a perfume
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4.3
Reading
4.3.1 Work in groups. What kinds of products do the followinggroups of people
usually advertise?
young men
young women
children
housewives
business people
teenagers
families
secretaries
old people
EXAMPLE: Children often advertise sweets.
4.3.2 Read the article and match the headings to theparagraphs.
Scientific authority___
Negative feelings_____
Association of ideas___
Repetition____
Hype____
Emotional appealE
The Persuaders
We all know that buying a product won't really get us that great jobor give us a
perfect life. But we are still influenced by advertising.Advertisers use a variety of
techniques to persuade us to buy things.
A
Onesimplewaytoadvertiseisrepetition. The name of the product ora slogan is
repeated so we end upremembering it.Theaim is to get the message into our brains – many
radioadverts use this technique.
B
Adverts use both short phrases andlong explanations. In both caseslanguage is
extremely important. Hype – or exaggeration – is very common vague termsare usedsuch
as “thegreatest” or “themostadvanced”. In order to impress us and stop us askingtoo many
questions.
C
Advertisers play on the universalfeelings of fear and anxiety tomanipulate our
feelings. They suggestthat we may not make friends,do enough for our families or
beattractive enough unless we use theirproducts. Think of how many mobilephone adverts
link their use to havingmore friends ora better social life.
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D
Scientific ‘endorsement’ is common,particularly for cosmetics, medicine,
ortoothpaste. A scientist tells us aboutthe product and uses difficult words toimpress us. A
related strategy is the use of glamorous celebrities – we feel reassured or aspire to belike
them.
E
Emotional appeal is fundamental toadvertising. Maternal feelings,familylife,
sex, femininity, and manliness allappeal to us subconsciously, forexample, they showa
woman huggingher children,or a macho man using arazor blade. Nostalgic images are
alsoimportant, such as a happyMediterranean family eating a mealoutside. It may be a
sentimentalversion of family life, but it appeals tous.
F
Thinkof summerandyou probablythink of ice cream and the beach – we often
associate ideas together in ourminds. Advertisers also want to create association. For
example, technologyis often presented in a modernminimalist living space to suggest arich
lifestyle.And although today'sdriving means traffic jams and parkingproblems, car adverts
link their car tothe concept of freedom on desertedroads!
4.3.3 Read the following article and choose the best sentence (A – I) from the list
below to fill the gaps.
You pick up the telephone, dial thenumber and before it rings a cheerful voice says,
“Hello! This call is sponsoredby…”
1
_____ .We've come to tolerate (maybe)TV ads that cut into movies just at
thedramatic moment, or intrude on soccermatches right when a crucial play begins.In
American football, referees even haltplay for commercials. But how manypeople would be
willing to have a phonecall repeatedly interrupted for “a brief word from our sponsor”?
Answer: plenty.
That's the verdict from Sweden, where anoutfit called Gratistelefon is offering
free,advertising-supported calls in a two-month trial. Lines are overloaded.2___ . They are
not, it seems.
A caller dials a toll-free number, thendials any other number in Sweden.3______ .
There's no charge for as long as the caller – or the person called – wants to talk, or is
willing to have conversation punctuated by chirpy jingles.
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4
____. But giveaways know no age by barrier, says Broden. “We were a bit amazed,
but we're getting lots of middle-aged and older people. For them it’s no bother.” He
wouldn't confirm published intoreports that the system is getting 30,000 callers a day, but
did say it is so popularthat on some evenings the circuits are jammed.
And what's in it for advertisers in thisbrave new medium?5____ . “Because thead is
only 10 seconds long and your friendis waiting on the line, you can't really go to the
bathroom,” says Broden. “It's very cost-efficient” A handful oforganizations, including a
movie theaterchain, a radio station, a snacks companyand a charity, are already running
ads,which cost about 13 cents per spot, anddozens more have expressed interest.
Gratistelefon has bigger, not to mentionBig Brother-like plans.
6
_____ .
Then,different callers might hear different ads,tailored to the advertisers' needs.
There'seven the technology to play separate ads to each person on the line – the callerfrom
the rural north might hear a pickup truck pitch, while the recipient inStockholm could
listen to one for a localrestaurant. The company plans to extendthe service nationwide in
Sweden in thenext few months, and it has been delugedby inquiries from other countries.
If the(READ TIME!) idea catches on and(READ TIME!) consumers elsewhereprove
tolerant (READ TIME!) of suchinterruptions, who knows where it maylead?
By Jay Branegan
A
Each ad has a very small – but equally captive – audience.
B
Gratistelefon leases capacity from other telephone operators at bulk rates.
C
“We were afraid consumers would be annoyed by the breaks,” says
PeterBroden, the marketing director.
D
Future customers will have to provide a telephone number and all-important
demographic data – age, sex, marital status, address and so on.
E
We put up with commercials between songs on the radio.
F
They hope to make profits by charging advertisers for the chance to reachthe
world's most narrowly targeted audience.
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G
Not surprisingly, young people and students have been the biggest users inthe
H
Although Sweden's telephone market has been competitive for some
test.
time,long-distance charges can still be high.
I
The caller hears one 10-second ad while the connection is made, another in a
minute, and then one spot every three minutes.
4.3.4 Combine a word from A with one from B to match each of the
definitionsbelow.
A
B
target
sell
celebrity
logo
hard
audience
company
endorsements
ad
launch
publicity
event
public relations
agency
product
stunt
1
____________________ an aggressive, persuasive way of selling a product.
2
___________________ the marketing and advertising effort that isorganized
to promote a new item when it goes onthe market.
3
__________________ a printed symbol that stands for a business ortheir
4
_________________ an organized gathering to get media coverage fora
brand.
brand, product or store opening.
5
________________ the demographic group that an advertisingcampaign is
aimed at.
6
_______________ well-known people promoting a particularproduct.
7
_______________ a firm that specializes in creating advertising campaigns
for businesses.
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8
_______________an unusual, sometimes shocking action intendedto attract
people's attention in order to promote a brand or product.
4.3.5 Read Who's who in advertising and decide if thesentences are true (T) or false
(F).
1
Account managers are only responsible for thebudget. F
2
Art directors are responsible for creating the basicidea for the advert__.
3
Copywriters work on the visual side of theadvertising campaign__.
4
People in the Media department have to negotiate tobuy advertising space__.
5
The print production manager is the person whorecords commercials__.
6
Art directors are responsible for filming TVcommercials___.
Who's who in advertising.
Account managers
They oversee the advertisingprocess, and liaise betweenthe client and the
agency.They keep the project onbudget, brief their team, andpresent the results to the
client.Account managers need strong interpersonal, negotiation, andcommunication skills.
Media department
They create a media plan forthe client, and buy
advertising space in magazines, newspapers, the
Internet, or on radio and TV. They choosethe right
medium for theproduct, and negotiate onbehalf of the
client. Mediapeople are analytical,logical, and have a
strongcommercial awareness.
Creatives
All advertising campaigns start from an ideadeveloped by the 'creatives'. Art
directors come up with the ideas and 'look', copywriters writeand edit the words, and
graphic designers create the final visual result. Copywriters need goodlanguage skills,
while designers have strongvisual skills.
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Print production and television /radio production
The print production manager supervises theproduction of printed materials, the TV
producer filmscommercials and the radio producer recordscommercials. They ensure that
the product is on time,on budget, and that it delivers the original concept.
4.3.6 Read about Anna Blume and answer the questions.
1
How long has she been a copywriter?
2
What does she do in her job?
3
What qualities do you need to work in advertising?
It's my job
Anna Blume
Age: 22
Job: copy writer
How did you get started in advertising?
I loved writing stories at school, so it was great to finda job where I could use words
creatively. I've been withmy present company for just over two years now.I started on a
six-month internship and they offeredme a job.
What exactly do you do?
I'm a copywriter, which means that I'm responsiblefor any of the 'copy', or words,
that appear in theadvertisement. I write the words you see in a magazinead, or hear on TV
or radio.
Do you work a lot on your own?
Not at all.Iwork in a small team. It's a very intense joband we spend a lot of time
together brainstormingideas. We also work closely with the Art Director,because an ad is a
combination of words and pictures.
What special qualities should a copywriter have?
You have to be creative, but be ableto accept criticism, too. For everyten ideas I
have, maybe only onewill be accepted. And you haveto get on well with people.
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Is it a stressful job?
There's a lot of pressurehere, but the job's greatfun. Sometimes I don't want to go
home!
4.4
Business know-how
Work in pairs. Read the tips below and discuss the questions.Being creative is a skill
that you can develop.Improve your creativity:
•
Make sure you get some regular quiet time to think.
•
Stop the inner voice that says ‘this idea is stupid’.
•
Look around you and really notice yourenvironment.
•
Learn a new skill – it makes you think in a new way.
•
When you brainstorm in groups, say all your ideas,even the strangest ones!
•
Have fun – play word games, do puzzles.
1
Which of these do you do already?
2
Would you be interested in a job in advertising?
3
Whatsortof jobwouldyouchoose? Why?
4.5
Project
Work in groups. Imagine you are a creative teamworking in an advertising agency.
A large corporation isworried that not enough young people want to buy its trainers. It has
asked you to create an advert to promote the product.
•
Allocate roles to people in your group: copywriter,art director, etc.
•
You must use both words and images to get yourmessage across.
•
Think about the target audience (young people yourage).
•
You can either create the advert, or write a one-pagesummary of the ideas
behind your ad.
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4.6
Writing
4.6.1 When you sell on sites like QXL or eBay, you send adescription and a photo
of the object. You have toprovide an accurate description. Read this entry andanswerthe
questions.
1
What is it?
2
What is it like?
3
Why is the seller selling it?
LEATHER JACKET
Almost new brown leather Gucci jacket. It's got metal zipper and three pockets, one
inside. It'sin good condition and very fashionable. I bought it three months ago and have
only worn it twice.I'm selling it because it's a size too small.
Time listed: 31 July 17.08
Price: £35
Time left: 2h 30m
4.6.2 You want to sell something you own online, forexample: a lamp, a moped, a
small piece of furniture,etc. Write a short description similar to the one above.Include
•
how old is it
•
what does it look like
•
who would like it
•
why are you selling
4.7
Checklist
Assess your progress in this unit.Tick ()the statements which are true.

I can compare things

I can read and understand adverts

I can write simple descriptions to describe products online
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4.8
Key words
Advertising terms
Work skills
Verbs
campaign
analytical
brainstorm
commercial
communication skills
influence
consumers
interpersonal skills
impress
message
logical
liaise
slogan
negotiation skills
persuade
Look back through this unit. Find five morewords or expressions that you think are
useful.
5
Unit 5. Job satisfaction
5.1
Start up
5.1.1 Work in pairs. Discuss what makes you happy.
EXAMPLE:
I'm happy when I go out with my friends.
5.1.2 Choose the ten factors below that you consider mostimportant for a happy
working life.Work in pairs. Compare your answers.
Keys to a happy working life
Having a social life with colleagues
Using your skills and talents
A nice working environment
Expressing your opinions and ideas
Being treated as an individual
Enough free time
A job that reflects your personal value
A secure job
Being trusted
Finding the work challenging
Responsibility
Regular hours
Getting on with people
Having fun
Being respected
A flexible working week
A good salary
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5.2
Grammar
5.2.1 Talking about obligation. Match these examples with the rules.
I must send that email tomorrow.
You don't have to come to the meeting.
You mustn't smoke in this meeting room.
I have to do a lot of research in my job.
You must show your passport at the gate.
must
• We use must in rules
1_______________________________________________________
or to say when things are necessary
We must work harder.
We use must to talk about obligation in the future
2________________________________________________________
• We use you must to recommend something
You must visit their website.
have to
• We use have toto talk about things that peopleoblige us to do
3__________________________________________________________
mustn't
• We use mustn't to say it is necessary that youdo not do something
4___________________________________________________________
don't have to
• We use don't have toto say something is notnecessary
5___________________________________________________________
Note: Use must + verb not must to + verb

Go to Grammar reference p.120
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5.2.2 Complete the sentences with must, mustn't, don't/doesn't have to. Use the
verbs below.
call
wear
finish
miss
go
open
buy
1
We _________ a new DVD player. This one'suseless.
2
You ________ that attachment. There's a virus.
3
My computer is going really slowly. I _______ the IT department.
4
David _______ the report today He can deliverit tomorrow.
5
There's an excellent staff restaurant Staff ________ out for lunch.
6
Students __________ silent in the library.
7
We __________ the Managing Director’spresentation.
8
It isn't a formal event. You _________ ajacket and tie.
be
5.2.3 Work in pairs. Talk about rules in your workplaceor university.
EXAMPLES:
You must arrive on time.
You mustn't smoke in the building.
5.3
Reading
5.3.1 1 Read the list of companies below. Which ones areshops? Which one has
factories? Which ones workmainly with money?
SUNDAY TIMES: Best big companies to work for in the UK
1
4
Nationwide
financial services
The Carphone Warehouse
mobile telecoms retailer
2
5
Asda
supermarket
Mothercare
retailer
3
6
KPMC
CadburySchweppes
food and drink manufacturer
audit, tax, and advisory services
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5.3.2 Read the article and make notes about the companies.
EXAMPLE: Nationwide – gives bonuses, has good managers, works with the
community
5.3.3 Find these verbs in the article and match them with the words and phrases:
1)
make
a)
in company values
2)
offers
b)
their training path
3)
express
c)
their colleagues are helpful
4)
feel
d)
suggestions
5)
choose
e)
career breaks
6)
believe
f)
appreciation
I’m proud to work here
Every year the Sunday Times newspaper analyses employees' opinions to find out
the best companies to work for in the UK. What are the eight success factors they identify?
1
Leadership– the most influential factor.
Leaders and senior managershave to inspire trust. Asdarunsa scheme where staff
canmake suggestions to their MD – good ideas win a holiday. Itsdirectors also visit stores
andtalk to staff.
2
Wellbeing – the balance between workand home
Flexibility about holidays isessential in a good workplace.AtKPMG staff can ‘buy’
extradays holiday. Both Asda andMothercare are family-friendly.Mothercare offers
careerbreaks of up to two years.
3
Fair deal – pay and benefits
Although
Asda
salaries
aren'thigh,
staff like
the
benefitsscheme.
Both
Nationwideand The Carphone Warehousegive bonuses. And at CadburySchweppesstaff
even get freechocolate!
4
My manager – your immediate day-to-day boss
The best managers trust your judgement and express appreciation. 76% of staff at
Nationwide rate their managers highly. At The CarphoneWarehousethere are forums for
staff totalk with their managers.
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5
My team – your immediate colleagues
At Asda there are daily bonding sessions, and most staff feeltheir colleagues are
helpful.There are also national sportstournaments, parties, andtheatre trips.
6
Personal growth – new skills and new challenges
At KPMC there is an e-learningweb site where staff canchoose their training path.
Promotion is important forcareer development – 70% ofAsda managers come from
theworkforce.
7
Giving something back – charity and community work
Nationwide has a special daywhen staff work for the localcommunity. And workers
atCadburysSchweppes rate theircompany as very charitable.
8
My company – a belief in your company
Most of The CarphoneWarehouse staff believe incompany values and feel theycan
contribute to its success.
5.3.4 Work in groups. Create your own perfect company. Think about the
conditions, benefits, etc. Completethe table with your notes. Present your ideas to the
class.
OUR IDEAL COMPANY
Name of the company
Product/service
Company beliefs
Managers
Working hours
Salary
Working style (teamwork, etc.)
Business trips
Sporting facilities
Eating areas
Holidays
5.3.5 Read the text below and number the events in the correct order.
Start with(1) for the first event.
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A
Mr. Pischetsrieder becomes chairman.___
B
Joachim Milberg begins his new job.___
C
BMW buys Rover.___
D
BMW holds an extraordinary meeting.___
E
Mr. Pischetsrieder's resignation is announced.___
F
BMW agrees to keep the Longbridge factory open.___
Board Ousts* BMW Chief and His Heir
Frankfurt – the maker of BMW autosannounced the departures of its two
topexecutives. Friday in a rare German boardroomrevolt that analysts said was triggered
by heavylosses at the company's British Rover auto-making subsidiary.
Persistent problems at Rover forced the exit ofBayerischeMotorenWorke AG's
Chief Executive Bernd Pischetsneder, 50, and hisheir apparent on the company board,
Wolfgang Reitzle, 49. The two men were long-time rivals,and both had worked at BMW
for more thantwo decades.
Although Mr. Pischetsneder’s job has been thesubject of intense speculation, the
developmentshocked the auto industry because of Mr.Reitzle’s reputation as a talented and
visionarymanager whose skills have been crucial inrecent years in polishing BMW's
sporty andyouthful image.
The shake-up leaves a relatively unknownBMW board member, Joachim Milberg,
56, as the head of one of Europe’s most prestigiousauto-makersBMW's supervisory board
made the decisionsat an extraordinary meeting** at its Munichheadquarters. In a sign of
possible dissent, themeeting lasted into the evening. BMW stockclosed. Friday at 682
Euros ($770), up 23, onhopes Pischetsneder would be ousted.
In a brief statement, BMW said that both Mr. Pischetsneder and Mr. Reitzle had
resignedwithout giving reasons. The board meeting hadbeen called to discuss Rover, the
company said.
"It's a very rare situation when board members,especially the chairman, are kicked
out whenthey still have a contract,"said JurgenRoethig,an analyst in Frankfurt at
B.Metxler&Co.Bank.
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From the moment Mr. Milberg begins his job,his most pressing task will be a
turnaround atthe unprofitable Rover operations.Rover's fate threatened Friday to become
aheated political issue in Britain where auto-makers are concerned that MunichbasedBMW might consider shutting down Rover'sflagship production plant in
Longbridge, nearBirmingham.
British government officials joined trade unionofficials in demanding that BMW
honor acommitment made in December that wouldkeep the plant open.
Autoworkers said they feared that newmanagement could bring an eventual
shutdown of Longbridge, the largest of Rover's threefactories and the oldest auto plant
inGreat Britain.
Rovers 1998 losses are estimated to have beenas high as 15 million Deutshe marks
($869.3million), greater than last year's entire BMWgroup net profit. The German parent
has notyet released profit figures for last year.
Analysts said the supervisory board had lostpatience with Mr. Pischetsrieder
becauseRover's poor performance had overshadowed arecord year at BMW's German
operations.BMW sold a record 699,378 cars last year butits profit dropped for the first
time since 1993 because of Rover.
Longbridge assembles most of the line ofRover passenger cars, which plunged in
saleslast year by 17 percent to 303.800. By contrast, Rover's popular Land Rover sportutilityvehicles – which are built at the Solihull plantnear Oxford – had a 20 percent jump
in 1998demand to 153,500.
The companywas slow to recognize Rover's 30 percentproductivity gap with BMWs
Bavarian plants.Mr. Pischetsrieder led the 1994 acquisition ofRover as one of his first
actions as chiefexecutive. His mistake, analysts say, was tomanage Rover at arms-length.
An Anglophilewho speaks fluent English, Mr. Pischetsriederwas worried about antiGerman feelings,andhe maintained Rover as a separate company.
By John Schmid
International Herald Tribune
*oust = force someone from power
**extraordinary meeting = an extra meeting to deal with matters which can't wait
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5.3.6 Read the text again and decide if the following statements are true (T) or false
(F).
1
BMW
announced
that
Mr.
Pischetsrieder
and
Mr.
Reitzle
were
leavingbecause of losses at Rover.___
2
The auto industry had expected that both Mr. Pischetsrieder andMr. Reitzle
would resign.___
3
In German companies it is common for several board members to resignwhen
a company has serious problems.___
4
The British government is prepared to allow BMW to close the Rover factory
at Longbridge.___
5
BMW made more than $870 million in profit last year.___
6
Last year BMW sold more vehicles than ever before.___
7
All divisions of the Rover group have been performing badly.___
8
The problems at Rover are more serious than expected.___
9
Rover and BMW factories are equally efficient.___
10
One of Mr. Pischetsrtcder's main mistakes was that he intervened too directly
in the management of Rover.___
5.3.7 Circle the word which does not belong in each horizontal group and write the
words in the spaces provided in (6) to form another group.
1) figures
supplies
calculation
ratio
fractions
digits
2) auditor
accountant
overheads
CFO
analyst
chairperson
3) rent
vehicles
premises
patents
equipment
trademarks
4) dividends
bills
bonds
equities
securities
shares
5 earnings
profit
loss
insurance
income
revenue
6) ________
_________
_________
_________
_________
_________
5.3.8 Match the following general headings to the groups of five words that you
identified above.
a) assets;
b) professionals;
c) performance;
d) costs;
e) numbers;
f) stock market;
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5.3.9 Complete the following passage with suitable prepositions.
A report 1___ the future of the European vending machine industry shows that
companies will have to invest heavilyin the coming years in order to prepare for the
introduction 2____ the new Euro money. As European nationalcurrencies gradually
disappear to make room for the Euro coins and banknotes, the vending industry has
beendiscretely conducting research 3____ the best way to prepare for its future. The results
4
_____this work reveal that most operators will face two major dilemmas. The first
problem is whether or not to join in the movement 5_____ electronic money, and to equip
machines with card readers. Some companies have already opted to do this and onemajor
European operator forecasts that 70% 6_____ his machines will be converted to electronic
cash over the next two years. But the trouble 7_____ this approach is that it involves heavy
expenditure 8______ new systems. The alternativeis to retrofit existing machines with new
electronic chips that can recognize the new coins. Another worry is whetherthe national
authorities will make enough of the new coins available for customers to use While
nationalgovernments will have responsibility 9______ minting the coinage, it seems that in
some cases they do not have thecapacity to produce the millions of coins that will be
necessary for a smooth transition 10_____ the new currency.
5.4
Business know-how
Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. Job satisfaction is also important if you are a
student. Answer the questions truthfully.
a)
How is studying and being in a classroom like beingat work?How is it
different?
b)
Are you getting job/study satisfaction?
Are you well organized?
Do you take enough breaks?
Do you feel in control of your work/study?
Do you have fun with your workmates/classmates?
Do you feel respected and valued?
Does your current work/study fit your long-term plan?
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Are you developing new skills?
Do you ever ask for new challenges?
c)
Now look at the questions you said ‘no’ to. What is youradvice to yourself?
Are you well organized?No, I'm not. I should spend a quarter of
EXAMPLE:
an hour each morning planning my day.
5.5
Company profile
5.5.1 Work in pairs. What are you looking for when you buycosmetics and
toiletries?
price
brand name
reliability
natural
not tested on animals
scientifically proven results
smells nice
keeps a long time
does what it promises
doesn't cause allergies
feels nice
5.5.2 Read about Lush and answer the questions.
1
What does Lush make?
2
Who started Lush and what is their history?
3
How do staff feel about working for Lush?
4
What are their core beliefs about their products andcustomers?
Lush
Lush is a family-run, ethical
company
and
that
sells
invents,manufactures,
organic,
vegetarian
cosmetics.The company headquarters
look like a farm kitchen!Lush believes
in making fresh products out of
fruit,vegetables, herbs, and oils.
They buy from companiesthat don't test on animals or people. Lush products
aremade by hand and have basic packaging in line with thecompany's ecological ideals.
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They only make productsfor their own shops- the company owns all 192 Lushshops
around the world including shops in Australia,Iceland, Japan, Russia, Korea, Sweden, and
the US.
Lush was started by Mark Constantine, his wifeMo, and Helen Anbrosen. Twenty
years ago the teamstarted by making products for the Body Shop. In 1990they launched a
company called Cosmetics to Go whichwent bankrupt, owing £1 million.
After that, in 1995, theyset up Lush laboratories in Mark and Mo's home in theSouth
of England. The company now has over 2,000employees and profits exceeding £1.S
million in 2005.
Lush gives its staff a lot of support, responsibility, and training (it is number 39 on
the Sunday Times list).Staff says they have a laugh at work. The companyalso consults its
customers in a chatroom and gets feedback. Lush declares: “We believe that our
productsshould be good value, that we should make a profit, andthat the customer is
always right”.
5.6
Writing
5.6.1 Read this description written by somebody who loves his/her job. Then close
your book and tell your partner what you can remember.
I’m an event organizer – I organize social events for business. I have to talk to different people
and be very organized. I enjoy going out and visiting new places. My office is small and open-plan. I
like new gadgets and I use a Blackberry, so I can stay in touch when I’m out.
My colleagues are my friends and I love going out with them. The company arranges trips to
sporting events. The things I like best about the job are variety and the problem-solving.
5.6.2 It's important to visualize your future career to helpyou find out what you
want. Write two paragraphs about a job you would like.
Paragraph 1
your role and responsibilities, your workingenvironment
Paragraph 2
colleagues and social life, the best aspects
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5.7
Project
These three companies are in the Sunday Times bestcompanies list. Go online and
find out why these threeare included. Write a short report about one of them.Explain why
you think it is a good employer.
•
The Childbase Partnership
•
Avis Rent A Car
•
Adecco UK
5.8
Checklist
Assess your progress in this unit.Tick ()the statements which are true.

I can read and understand an article about working conditions

I can talk about a working environment

I can reassure people

I can write a description of my ideal job
5.9
Key words
Nouns
Companies
Adjectives
atmosphere
bonus
challenging
factor
overtime
essential
flexibility
promotion
financial
responsibility
workforce
flexible
support
relaxed
training
Look back through this unit. Find five morewords or expressions that you think are
useful.
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6
Unit 6.Bright business ideas
6.1
Start up
6.1.1 Discuss each of the
inventions oppositein groups.
•
Is it a good idea?
•
Is thereaneed
fortheproduct?
•
Who would buy it?
•
Would it be expensive
tomanufacture?
•
How would you market it?
6.1.2 Work in groups. Which four of the inventionsdo you think became successful
products?
6.2
Reading
6.2.1 Work in pairs. What do you think are the best inventions ever in the office?
6.2.2 Read the article and complete the table.
QWERTY keyboard
Correction fluid
Post-it notes
Inventor
Date
How the invention
happened
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The QWERTY keyboard
Why aren't letters on a keyboard in alphabetical order?
Well, when theAmerican, Christopher LathamSholes,invented
the typewriter in1866 they were. Unfortunately the early
mechanical letters got stuck together. So Sholes invented the QWERTY keyboard to speed
uptyping. This spaced out commonly- linked letters such as ‘th’ so they didn't stick. The
English language keyboard is still the same today and other language keyboards are also
not in alphabetical order.
Correction fluid
Bette Nesmith Graham was a secretary and an artist. One day,
in1951, she was typing at work when she made a mistake. She
thought “When I'm painting I just cover over mistakes. Couldn't I do
this on my letters?” She made some special white paint at home, and took it to work. Soon
everyone was asking for her invention. So she left her job, made her new product at home,
and sold it door todoor. In 1956 she setup her correction fluid business. And by 1976 her
company was worth millions of dollars.
Post-it notes
Post-it notes are useful, aren't they? They were invented by
Art Fry, a scientist at the company 3M in the 1970s. While he was
using bits of paper to mark pages in his song book, he thought of a
great idea.Sticky paper wouldn't fall out! A colleague had made an adhesive that didn't
stick very well. So Art tried it on paper and it was perfect – it stuck but you could take it
off. Hisco-workers started asking him for his magic ‘bookmarks’ and 3M realized that
they had a new product!
6.2.3 Work in groups. Discuss the questions
•
Whatsortof vacuum cleaner does yourfamilyhave?
•
Doyoulikevacuuming? Why?/Why not?
•
What are the qualities of a good vacuum cleaner?
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6.2.4 Read the article and match the headings with theparagraphs.
1
Dyson's R&D centre__
2
Five years product development__
3
Turning an idea into a product__
4
Thousands of prototypes__
5
Business success at last__
The Business of Invention
It isn't enough for inventors to have a good idea. In fact, many inventions never
make it into the shops. To transform an invention into a product needs years of hard work,
persistence, and a good business mind!
A
First, inventors hove to protect their ideas by
paying toregister a patent. It's expensive, but it stops other
people from stealing their ideas. Then they have to decide
whether to manufacture their product themselves or find a
manufacturer to do it for them. This process can takeyears.
B
1A horse-drawn vacuum cleaner
Industrial designerJames Dyson wasvacuuming his
house whenhe realized that the bag reduced the strength of
thesuction. He decided toinvent a morepowerful vacuumcleaner.
He started experimenting andbuilt 5,127prototypes in thenext
five years! Finally, in 1978 he came up with the idea of a
2James Dyson with his 'cleaner with a dust container, which he called a ‘cyclone’. It did
Dual Cyclone
not lose suction.
C
He then spent a further five years developing the product, and two years going
to leading companies with his new idea. But the companies weren't interested. They
wanted to continue selling bags (worth over $500 million a year) and they didn't like
thetransparent cylinder which showed the dust and dirt.
D
His first machineswere sold in Japan at$2,000 each and won aninternational
design award.After this success he started manufacturing under hisown name in the UK,
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sellingaffordable,
top-of-the-rangecleaners.
Soon
his
DualCyclone
became
the
fastestselling vacuum cleaner inthe UK and he became ahousehold name. Dyson isnow the
best-selling vacuumcleaner in Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand, and the USA.
E
Dyson never stopsthinking about newways to improve householdmachines. In
his Research and Development centre, he has 350 engineers, alltrained in design, working
on developing new ideas.
6.2.5 Read the article again and answer the questions.
Paragraph A
Why do you think many inventors give up?
Paragraph B
Do you think you have the persistence of Dyson?
Have you ever done several different versions ofhomework or a project?
Paragraph C
A manager at Hoover now wishes he had accepted Dyson’s
invention. Why?
Paragraph D Why do you think the first Dyson cleaners were moreexpensive than
they are now?
Paragraph E
Why do you think Dyson’s engineers are trained indesign?
6.2.6 Read the article and answer the questions.
1
What are Trevor Baylis’ inventions?
2
What makes him anxious?
3
What does he offer?
British inventor: Trevor Baylis calls for schools
to teach importance of invention. The inventor of the
wind-up radio is calling on young people to consider the
so-called
“oily
rag”
trade.
“Britain
needs
more
engineers,” says Trevor Baylis.You don’t have to be a
genius to be an inventor,” according to the serial
entrepreneur and founder of Trevor Baylis Brands, which
has helped over 9,000 inventors bring products to market.
“I don’t wake up every morning thinking, ‘I’m going to invent something today’.”
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Mr. Baylis, 76, developed the world’s first wind-up radio in the early nineties. More
recently, he has invented a mobile phone that is charged by a special pair of shoes as you
walk. “Unfortunately, people are a bit nervous of the shoes because they look a bit like a
bomb,” he admits.
He has also developed a self-weighing briefcase – “perfect for those trips where you
don’t want to pay a fine for being half a kilo over” – and about 250 products for disabled
people.
“I used to be a stunt man in the circus,” he explains. “I was in love with an aerial
ballet dancer who fell off a rope and was crushed. It was then that I knew disability was
only a banana skin away.”
Innovation, according to Mr. Baylis, is key to the future prosperity of the UK. A fact
that is being largely ignored by Government and the education policy makers.
“Kids today need to put down their mobile phones and start tinkering,” he says.
“Schools just aren’t teaching them enough about the importance of invention. Kids are so
computer and mobile obsessed these days that they don’t know how to drive a nail into a
piece of wood.
“You should know how to light a fire and build a tent by the age of 10. Instead, kids
are becoming obese by spending all their time in front of screens, large and small.”
Mr. Baylis has called on education groups to start championing the achievements of
inventors across the ages.
“I bet most people have never heard of Frank Whittle, the 21-year old who invented
the jet engine, or Stephanie Kwolek, the chemist who invented Kevlar in 1965,” he says.
“If I had my way I would make it mandatory for every school to have a framed
picture of an inventor and teach the children about their invention. You don’t have to have
a Viennese accent and broken glasses to be an inventor.”
By Rebecca Burn-Callander
The Telegraph
6.2.7 Match these words with theirdefinitions.
1)
wind up
a serious illness
2)
clockwork
adevice inside a radio, etc thatproduces electricity
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3)
disabled
a person who does dangerousthings in place of an
actor ina movie
4
battery
powered by turning a key or ahandle by hand
5
stuntman
to turn a key or a handle tomake a machine work
6
disease
unable to use part of your bodybecause of illness,
injury, etc.
6.2.8 Go to p.109, read about the inventorTrevor Baylis and decide if the sentences
are true (T)or false (F).
1
Trevor Baylis was a car and motorbike stuntman.___
2
He saw a programme about AIDS in Africa anddecided to invent a radio.___
3
His idea was to use clockwork so that you couldwind up the radio.___
4
The manufacturers he approached were interested in his radio.___
5
In 1993 Trevor gave up and became a TV presenter.___
6
A businessman invested in the Freeplay radio tohelp the rural poor in
Africa.__
7
The improved radio could play for an hour after a30-second wind.___
8
Trevor is now working on a CD player that usessolar power.___
6.3
Grammar
Past Continuous
1
We use the Past Continuous to talk about an action or situation that was in
progress at a specific time in the past.
One day, in 1951. she was typing at work when she made a mistake.
Find and underline three sentences using the PastContinuous in 6.2.2, then read the
rule.
2
We often use when or while before the Past Continuous and when before the
Past Simple.

Go to Grammar reference p 121
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Jerry works for Alicia's company. QIP. Look atthe information and complete
sentences about them using the Past Simple or Past Continuous.
1
Inl990Alicia________ at university.
2
While Jerry __________at university, he __________ in London.
3
Alicia __________ university in 1991.
4
In 1994 Alicia ___________ round the world.
5
Inl997Alicia __________.
6
While Alicia __________in New York, Jerry ________for a computer
company.
7
When Alicia ___________ her own company, Jerry ______as an IT
consultant.
8
Jerry __________to work for Alicia's companyin 2006.
Jerry
Alicia
1990-93 studied at university
1990-91 studied at university
1990-93lived in London
1994 did a business course
1991 left university
1995-2000lived In Paris
1990-92 lived in Madrid
1996-2000 worked for a computer company
1993-96 travelled around the world
2001moved back to London
2001-2006worked as an IT consultant
2006started to work for QIP
1997 got married
1997-2001 lived In New York
1999-2004 worked for a film company
2004 moved to London
2005 started QIP, her own company
6.4
Company profile
Apple Computer Inc.
6.4.1 Work in groups. Discuss the questions.
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1
What make of computerdoyou have, or does your university have?
2
What do you like/not like about it?
6.4.2 Read about Apple and answer the questions.

Whatarethe mostfamous Apple products?

Why do you think they have been successful?

What was special about the Apple 1 and Apple II computers?

When was the worst time for the company?

What changes did Steve lobs make in the 1990s?

What contribution do you think Apple has made to your life today?
Apple Computer Inc.
Apple Computer Inc. is famous for itsuserfriendly hardware such as iPod and iMac, iTunes and
iLife suite. Itsapple logo is now one of the
mostrecognized brand symbols in theworld. But did
you
know
that
Applehelped
start
the
computerrevolution with its first computers inthe
1970s?
Apple's founders, Steve Jobs and Stephen Wozniak, met at a computerclub in
California in the 1970s. Atthat time you had to buildyourowncomputer from parts. But
they realized many more people woulduse home computers if they were simple and easy
to use.They raised$1,300 and built a prototype.Theyhad invented PCs as we know them!
In 1976 they formed the Apple Computer Company. Wozniakbecame the Vice
President and alsowrote most of the software. They sold their first computer, Apple I, for
$666.66, and it earned the company a million dollars Their second generation computer,
Apple II,hadon-screen graphics for the first time,andafloppydiskdrive. At that time Apple
weren't sure that the public even wanted the graphics!
In 1980 the company developedand marketed the Macintosh. Applewent through a
bad time in the 1990s, when it didn't keep up withthe marketplace. Wozniak and Jobsboth
left Apple,but Jobs returned in 1997 to take control again.Hedecided to focus on invention
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and innovation, aiming to make greatproducts. With their best-selling iPodand iTunes.
Apple moved into consumer electronics. By the end ofthe first year, more than 20
millionsongs had been purchased fromApple's site.
6.4.3 Steve Jobs admires Einstein and once said: “You can tella lot about a person
by who his or her heroes are.” Workin pairs and talk about your heroes. What do they
sayabout you?
EXAMPLE:
6.5
My hero is Nelson Mandela. He fought for what hebelieves in.
Project
Find out about the inventors of the board game TrivialPursuit. Write a short project
outlining
•
how and why they invented the game
•
how they developed the prototype
•
the problems they had at the beginning
•
how they became millionaires
Here are a few websites for you to try:
www.trivialpursuit.com
6.6
www.inventorsabout.com
www.ideafinder.com
Business know-how
How inventive are you? Work in pairs. Answer thequestions.

Have you ever invented something?

Do you often think of a better way to do something?

Do you have the ability to visualize things?

Do you often ask ‘Why’?
Inventiveness is a skill that can be developed. The keyaccording to psychology
professor Richard Wiseman, isto have lots of novel experiences. Read the ideas belowand
discuss the advice with your partner.
Become more inventive
•
Go into shops you don't usually visit
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•
Look at books you don't usually read
•
Speak to people with different interests from you
•
Walk a different way to university/job
•
Listen to different music
•
Go to a museum or gallery and really look at things
•
Make friends with different sorts of people
•
Do a drawing of a problem that is worrying you
6.7
Writing
Write a paragraph for a chat room about one of your heroes in business or another
field, such as sport ormusic. Include
•
what he or she is famous for
•
his or her main qualities.
My hero
The British entrepreneur Richard Branson started his first businessin the 1970s when
he opened a record shop in Oxford Street, London. Later he created Virgin Records,
and signed many famousartists including Phil Collins and the Sex Pistols. Nowadays
hisbusinesses include music and media stores, airlines, traincompanies, and internet
services. He is very adventurous and hastravelled around the world by boat and hot-air
balloon. I admire himbecause he is a successful businessman who works hard, but
alsohas fun. He is an inspiring leader with a good sense of humour.
6.8
Checklist
Assess your progress in this unit.Tick ()the statements which are true.

I can talk about the past

I can talk about business innovations
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
I can give an opinion about something
6.9
Key words
Inventions
The office
patent
build
calculator
prototype
come up with
correction fluid
Research and Development
develop
Post-it notes
(R&D)
experiment
improve
unconventional
innovation
inspiration
inventor
Look back through this unit. Find five more words or expressions that you think are
useful.
7
Unit 7. Buying and Selling
7.1
Start up
Work in groups. Discuss whether thegoods below are essential for our dailylives.
Choose the five items that youbelieve are the most necessary.
Hairdryer
TV
mobile phone
vacuum cleaner
radio
tap water
paper
soap
bottled water
perfume
computer
CDs or downloadablemusic
car
refrigerator
bicycle
fast food
books
sweets
jewellery
trainers
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Discuss what other goods or services areessential for our daily lives.
7.2
Grammar
Past Simple v Past Continuous
a)
Put these examples under the correct rule.
Hi, Sonia. I just got your message. I wasn't at my desk when you called.
I met my friend Brian when/while I was studying Business at college.
Hussein was working for an import-export company when he moved to Italy in
2006.
A: What were you doing?

1
We use the Past Simple to talk about a complete event in the past.
___________________________________________________________________

2
B: I was reading a report.
We use the Past Continuous to talk about an action that was in progress.
___________________________________________________________________

We use the Past Simple for an action that interrupts a Past Continuous action
in progress.
Javier was surfing the net when his manager came into the office.
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
3
___________________________________________________________________

4
We use while / when in front of the Past Continuous.
We use when not while in front of the Past Simple.
___________________________________________________________________

We use the Past Continuous to set the scene in a story.
In the 1980s James was living in London. All his friends were earning lots of money.

Stative verbs are not usually used in continuous tenses.
I was in a meeting when the CEO arrived.
NOT I was being in a meeting when the CEO arrived.

Go to Grammar reference p.122
b)
complete the text with the Past Simple or PastContinuous of the verbs in
brackets.
This happened when I 1___________ (surf) the net in the office.I2__________ (not
do) this in work time – this3___________ (be)during my lunch hour. While I4_________
(look) on eBay.I5_________ (notice) a designer jacket. It6__________ (look)brilliant.
I7__________ (plan) to ask my boss for a promotion, and I 8____________ (think) this
jacket would create the perfect image.So I 9___________ (place) a bid. Then while
I10___________ (work) during the afternoon, I11__________ (check) thewebsite several
times. Somebody12________ (bid)against me! Anyway, the jacket13__________ (become)
too expensive, and I14___________ (not buy) it.
A week later, I15_________ (have) the meeting with myboss. We16________(talk)
about my promotion when I 17___________ (start)laughing. My boss18__________ (wear)
thedesigner jacket!
c)
Work in pairs. Tell your partner about something that happened to you in the
past. Remember to set the scene.
•
work experience
•
getting a job
•
a coincidence
•
an trip abroad
•
winning a competition
•
a strange event
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7.3
Reading
7.3.1 Read the article and answerthe questions.
1
What's the difference between 'wanting' something and ‘needing’ something?
2
What things do we all need to survive? (e.g. a home)
3
How are the basic needs met in your life?
4
How many of the things you own do you reallyneed?
5
How many of the things you buy are necessary?
You want it – but do you need it?
You were watching TV when you sawthe ad for a new
soft drink, or whileyou were sitting in a bar you heard that
amazing song. Perhaps you werewalking down the street when
yousaw a fabulous T-shirt in the shop window,or did you see
the latest MP3player while were you surfingthe net? Whatever
the situation, youdecided you wanted it. You deservedit. And so you bought it! But did
youneed it?
‘Needs’ are common to all humans; thefive basic needs are food, water,
shelter,clothes, and warmth. Manyeconomists also add health andsanitation to this list.
‘Wants’ are goods and services that aren't necessary butwe would like to have. However,
it'svery easy for people in the developedworld to turn a want into a need. Forexample, we
all need food but we don'thave to have ice-cream or caviar,or weneed clothes but they
don't have to bethe latest fashions.
7.3.2 Read the article and answer the questions.
1
What are the different aims of buyers and sellers?
2
When you are buying a new product, which of the buyer's questions do you
ask? Do you ask any others?
3
Why do sellers have to consider the price other sellers are charging?
4
What determines the price of goods and services?
5
Why will producers lower their prices?
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6
Why will producers raise their prices?
Market forces
You probably buy things every day ofyour life. Maybe you go to shops
andsupermarkets, get your magazines froma newsstand, or purchase things on theInternet.
Or maybe you've bought anold bike from a friend. What all thesesituations have in
common is that thereis a buyer and a seller in a ‘marketplace’ and a businesstransaction
takes place.
People who want to sell have differentaims from those who want to buy. If youare
selling your house, you will wantthe best price possible. But if you arebuying, then you
will look for thecheapest price.
You make many decisions when you want to buy something – some of
themconscious and others unconscious.
What products are available? How desperately do you need it? Is the priceOK? Can
you afford it? Is there a betterbargain elsewhere? Have you got timeto ‘shop around’?
Sellers have to consider, among otherthings, the value of the goods and theprice
they are prepared to accept; whatother sellers are charging far similarproducts; the profit
they will make;what it cost to produce and the cost ofselling and delivering the
goods.Theyalso have to be aware of the economy ingeneral and know if people
haveenough money to spend.
Market forces influence the price ofgoods and services. Their price dependson the
quantity available (supply) andhow many buyers want them (demand).If the supply is
greater than thedemand, prices will fall.This oftenhappens seasonally with fruit
andvegetables. If the demand is greaterthan the supply, prices will go up andproducers will
increase production.This often happens with raw materialssuch as oil.
We can see these market forces at workin house sales. If there's no interestfrom
potential buyers, then you willhave to drop your price. But if there is alot of interest, you
can sit back andwatch your profits rise.
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7.3.3 Read the article again and make notes about thefactors that affect buyers and
sellers.
Buyers
Sellers
what I can afford
what it cost to produce
7.3.4 Read about Jamie Hughes.What are the main duties of a music store
manager?What qualities do you need? Why do you think a store manager has to put
‘customers first’?
It’s my job
Age: 24
Job: Trainee music store manager
Nationality: British
Tell me about your job
I'm learning to be a store manager for a company thatsells music and DVDs. It's a
well-known high streetstore, so you're always busy and there's quite a lot ofpressure. But
I'm enjoying it!
What are the responsibilities of a retail store manager?
I'm a trainee, so I don't have full responsibility yet. Butstore managers have to make
sure that sales targets arereached and that profits increase. They interview andrecruit new
staff. They deal with any complaints orqueries that customers have. They also check
stocklevels and make sure the store has everything it needs.
What qualities do you need?
Well, you need lots of self-motivation. You have to beable to think quickly and
make decisions underpressure. You've got to be able to communicate clearlyto people, too.
And you must be committed to the needsof your customers.
What do you like about the job?
This is a great environment. I lovemusic. It's the passion of my life. Sowhat job
could be better?
What's the most important thing you've learned?
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The most important thing I'velearned isn't very original. It's anold saying, but it's
true. Thecustomer always comes first!
7.3.5 The following sentences are from the first paragraph of the text below.
Readthe sentences and decide where they fit in the text.
A
The 150 sweaters she sent off last week to Saks Fifth Avenue was the last
order onthe company's books.
B
As a result, Robertson has laid off* her first worker in her production plant in
theScottish borders town of Hawick, where more than half of Europe's cashmere**goods
are produced.
C
With the spring shows just around the corner, this is normally a busy time of
yearfor Belinda Robertson, an Edinburgh-based producer of cashmere clothing forfashion
houses, boutiques and department stores.
Casualties of the Trade Wars
If you think fashion is unpredictable, try world trade. 1____. Last year she did
60%of her $2.5 million annual sales in the United States, but this year is
startingdifferently.2______. “We're low on work at the moment’, she says, because the
merethreat of US trade sanctions has put American buyers in wait-and-see mode.3______.
Officials fear the loss there of as many as 700 further jobs.
Hawick's fate is tied, bizarrely, to bananas. Because the US believes EU trade
policyunfairly favors crops from ex-colonies in the Caribbean and Africa over those
ownedby US firms like Chiquita and Dole, it threatens more than $500 million in “crosssanctions” against unrelated European exports from almost 20 product categories like
plastics, sweet biscuits and cashmere.
Washington won't introduce the 100% punitive tariffs until March at the
earliest,depending on the outcome of negotiations at the World Trade Organization in
Geneva.But the threat alone is enough to damage Hawick's cashmere industry. Clan
DouglasLtd., for instance, landed a $1.65 million order from an American department
storejust before Christmas. That price included normal duties of $100,000, but if
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thesanctions kick in theywill rise to almost $800,000. “Our commitment to our
contractcould force us into bankruptcy”, says finance director Jeff Gutteridge.
There's no American cashmere to fill the gap. Top-grade weaves come from
Scotlandand from Northern Italy, whose industry faces the same US sanctions; next in line
isChina with whom the US already has an immense trade deficit. “If this goes through”,
says Gutteridge, “the Americans will be handing over our business to China anddestroying
the economic base of this town”.
Little wonder that the weavers of Hawick, like Belgian biscuit makers and
Germanplastics manufacturers, hope sanctions can be avoided. But with serious issues
ofprocedure and precedent on the line at WTO for both Washington and
Brussels,negotiators were pessimistic on prospects of a compromise. In trade as in
fashion,reason isn't necessarily the highest good.
By James Graff/Brussels
Time magazine (adapted)
*to lay (someone) off – to stop employing someone
**cashmere = a type of fine soft wool
7.3.6 2 Choose the correct answer to complete the following statements about
thetext.
1
Belinda Robertson's company ____:
a)
sold more than 60% of its production last year to department stores,
b)
is usually very busy during the first few months of the year,
c)
produces more than 50% of Europe's cashmere.
2
Belinda Robertson has had to make some of her staff redundant because of
a)
the competition from China.
b)
the introduction of US sanctions.
c)
a shortage of US orders.
3
If the EU doesn't change its trade policy, the US will ____:
a)
apply restrictions on the imports of fruit to America,
____:
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b)
import more cashmere from Italy.
c)
import certain goods from non-European sources instead.
4
If sanctions are imposed ______:
a)
some British companies could go out of business if they respect their
existingexport contracts with the US.
b)
all European exporters will have to pay higher duties on their exports.
c)
some businesses will move to other countries.
5
The US _____:
a)
exports more to China than it imports.
b)
importsmore from China than it exports.
c)
imports as much as it exports to China.
6
The negotiations _______:
a)
will determine which goods are subject to sanctions.
b)
are not expected to be difficult.
c)
involve some complex questions.
7.3.7 Use the letters in brackets to form a word to complete each sentence.
1
Companies will be penalised if they exceed the_______ (SAOQTU) that have
been imposed on imports of certain categories of goods.
2
When you export to India, you must conform to the administrative
proceduresthat are required by the government____________ (CUBCAUREARY).
3
We have decided to appoint Mr. Carver who will represent us as our sole
_______ (GATEN) for the South African market.
4
All goods coming into the country are subject to customs __________
(IDESTU).
5
The EU has agreed that__________ (CISNATNOS) will only belifted when
the country has agreed to respect the international trade agreementthat it signed two years
ago.
6
We have agreed to allow two Taiwanese companies to manufacture our
productsunder________ (CELNICE).
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7
The________ (NOTRCATC) contains several clauses referring tothe
conditions concerning the transfer of technology.
8
The goods were delivered two months ago but we are still waiting for
ourcustomer to pay the__________ (CONIVEI).
7.4
Vocabulary
Economic terms.Match the words with the definitions
goods
supply
demand
services
transaction
value
a)
business done between people, often involving abuyer and a seller
b)
doing something for customers but not producinggoods
c)
how much something is worth in money or other goods
d)
physical things that are produced to be sold
e)
the desire or need of customers for goods or services
f)
the amount of something that is offered for sale
7.5
Speaking
a)
Go to p.111,readthe three situations and note what Karenwants to know. What
excuse does the person give whocan't help? Write out expressions for
Interrupting
Polite requests
Agreeing to a request
Refusing a request
b)
Pronunciation.
Polite requests

When you make a polite request, your voice stays low at the end of the
sentence.
Could I possibly borrow your file?

When you agree to a request, your voice also stays low at the end of the
sentence.
Yes, of course.
Go to p.111 and respond to the requests. Agree to thepolite requests, refuse the rude
request.
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c)
Put these requests in order of how much trouble theyrequire or disturbance
they cause.
□ use your mobile phone
□ buy stamps for me
□ finish my report for me
□ get me a glass of water
□ borrow £10
□ borrow your bike
□ open the window
□ turn down your radio
□ explain how to get to the
□ borrow yourmeeting dictionary
Choose an expression for each request. Role playthesituations with your partner.
Work in pairs. Student A and Student B go top.112.
7.6
Project
Work in pairs. Think of the last three things you bought, e.g. a newspaper, petrol,
food, a T-shirt, a phone card. Tell your partner about your purchases.

What made you buy it?

Was it a need or a want?

Did you buy it for long term or short term use?

Was it a service or goods?

Did you buy it for your personal use?

Did you think it was good value?
Write a short report together about your six purchases. Think about the factors that
influenced the availability of the product and its price.
7.7
Business know-how
Work in pairs. Discuss what makes you tired and whatgives you energy.
Read the tips below and discuss them with yourpartner.
How to get energized at work
•
Focus on what you want to achieve. Think “Afterthis I can...”
•
Tidy up your desk and room – clutter reduces yourenergy levels.
•
Work at a steady pace, don't start very fast, or youwill run out of energy.
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•
Don't be distracted by other jobs, stay focused onthe task you are doing.
•
Don't work against the clock, just concentrate onthe job in hand.
•
Stretch and move your body – it increases theblood flow to your brain.
•
Take a break – go outside, take a walk in the park.
7.8
Writing
7.8.1 You are in a new job as an administrative assistant for asmall company. Write
emails to a colleague for two ofthe following situations. Offer explanations.
•
Ask your colleague to email you the office phone list(you have lost it).
•
Ask how to access the client database (your boss hasasked you to update it).
•
Ask when the next group meeting is (you are new).
•
Ask to read your colleague's marketing report (youneed the information for a
project you are doing).
7.8.2 Work in pairs. Take your partner’s emails. Writeanswers to the emails.
Apologize and explain why youcan't help.
7.9
Checklist
Assess your progress in this unit.Tick ()the statements which are true.

I can talk about the past

I can interrupt politely

I can make polite requests, agree to themand refuse them

I can talk about marketing
7.10 Key words
Needs
Wants
clothes
buyer
food
demand
health
goods
sanitation
seller
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shelter
services
warmth
supply
water
target
transaction
Look back through this unit. Find five more words or expressions that you think are
useful.
8
Unit 8. Ethical trading
8.1
Start up
8.1.1 Do the questionnaire and check your score.Work in pairs. Compare your
answers with your partner.
1
You would like a new T-shirt.
a)
You'd get an organic cotton one from asmall family business in India.
b)
You’d buy one from a local shop – youlike to support the community.
c)
You've seen one in town, it's just yourcolour and it's good value.
2
You want to buy some chocolate.
a)
You'd choose organic chocolate that thegrowers got a fair price for.
b)
You'd buy organic chocolate but youaren't worried about who grew it.
c)
You'd choose your favourite chocolate,with a famous brand name.
3
Your printer manufacturer provides an envelope for you to send back
theink cartridge for recycling.
a)
You always send the ink cartridge backin the envelope. It's a good idea.
b)
You like the idea but you always end upforgetting to do it.
c)
You never bother, you haven't got timefor things like that.
4
What do you have in your supermarket basket?
a)
Products that growers got a fair pricefor. organic food, local food
environmentally-friendly products.
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b)
Famous brand products, packages andfood from other countries, but
someorganic food and products.
c)
You never read packets and containers,you just buy the things you like and
trust,such as famous brands.
5
You have a favourite brand of biscuits. But you find out that they treat
their workers badly and exploit people in the developing world.
a)
You choose not to buy the products that the manufacturer makes.
b)
You avoid thatmanufacturer but onlywhen you remember. And you reallylike
those biscuits!
c)
You don't worry. There should be apolitical solution to that sort of problem.
Score
Mostly As: You think about howproducts have reached the shopsand you want to
make less impacton the environment.
Mostly Bs: You have a lot of goodintentions, but in the end you want aproduct that's
easy to use and suitsyou.
Mostly Cs: You don't worry aboutthe effect your purchases have onthe world. You
feel manufacturersshould do that for you.
8.2
Grammar
The Passive
Read the rules and add some examples from the article.

We use the Passive when it is not important to say who did an action.
Fair tradeproducts are made in the developing world.

We use by to say who did something.
The handicrafts were made by poor producers.

Here are some Passive forms:
Present Simple
...a percentage of the profits is given to Global Fund...
___________________________________________________________________1
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Past Simple
The first Fairtrade label was started in 1988.
The current Fairtrade mark was designed to...
___________________________________________________________________2
___________________________________________________________________3
Present Continuous
The brand is being licensed to companies…
Present Perfect
…the lives of the farmers involved have been transformed.
Now we have been empowered….
__________________________________________________________________4
will, can, must etc.
... a special premium which must be invested in development
__________________________________________________________________5

Go to grammar reference p.123
8.3
Reading
8.3.1 Read the article and answer these questions.
1
What is Fairtrade?
2
How did it start?
3
How does it work?
4
What are typical Fairtrade products?
5
What is Product Red?
Fairtrade
When you drink a cup of coffee do you think about how it got to you? Would you
pay extra if you knew the producers got a reasonable price?
Fairtrade is a movement that promotes fair standards for international labour. It
started in the 1960s with shops in European countries selling handicrafts which were made
by poor producers. The first Fair trade label was started in 1988 inthe Netherlands and
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helped coffee farmers. In 2002 the current Fairtrade mark
was designed to create a recognizable symbol.
Fairtrade works with thousands of producers and the
lives ofthe farmers involved have been transformed. It
helps organize farmers into co-operatives, or works with
producers to improve workers’ conditions. Producers are paid a fair price for their goods
plus a special premium which must be invested in development. A worker on a plantation
said, "Before Fairtrade, the owners did not listen to us. Now we have been empowered to
discuss matters."
In Europe alone, sales are increasing by 20 % a year. And more and more Fairtrade
products will be bought every year. Everyday European consumers are starting the
morning with a Fairtrade coffee, tea or fruit juice, or snacking on Fairtrade bananas,
chocolate, dried fruit and nuts. It is big business.
Fairtrade products are also helping fight diseases. In 2006 anew Fairtrade global
brand, Product Red, was launched by the rock star Bono. The brand is being licensed to
companies such as American Express, Apple Computer, Converse, Motorola, Gap and
Giorgio Armani. Special products with the Product Red logo have been created, and a
percentage of the profits is given to the Global Fund to fight AIDS, tuberculosis and
malaria. Among other products, Motorola sells a Redmobile phone and Apple Computers
released a Product RediPod. Bono and Giorgio Armani were invited by the British
newspaper. The Independent to edit the paper for a day and gave a proportion of its profits
to the charity. The fund has sofar raised over $5 billion.
1
Have you ever bought Fairtrade products?
2
Do you think they are a good idea?
3
Are there other ways to help workers in the developing world?
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8.3.2 Go to p.112 and match the people’s opinions (1-5) with the summaries of
what they say (A-E).
Do businesses do good or bad in the world?
A
Businesses get a competitive advantage from helping the environment – they
respond to consumer pressure.
B
Even if businesses know a product can cause harm,they still promote it to
children.
C
Although some companies damage the world, they also do good by giving to
charities and changing the way they do things
D
There are many ethical companies who do good in the world.
E
Big companies are very powerful – they damage the environment and harm
lives.
Read again and make notes of examples the speakers give.
EXAMPLE: Many manufacturers help the environment and charities.
8.3.3 Read the article and decide if the sentences are true (T)or false (F).
1
Scandals involving multinational companies have made investors more
cautious.___
2
Enron executives made money by selling stock at $0.30 a share.___
3
Kenneth Lay and Jeffrey Skilling were found not guilty by the courts.___
4
WorldCom was the biggest telecommunications company in the US.___
5
WorldCom lied about its assets because it was in trouble financially.___
6
Parmalat's accountants said they didn't know about the fraud.___
Business Scandals
Some people steal paperclips and notepads from their employers. Some people
claim money for imaginary expenses.But sometimes a whole business can start to steal
money from its customers. A series of scandals involving multinational companies
occurred in the early 2000s. The business world has never been the same since. Any
suggestion of a scandal now has major consequences for companies. If they lose the
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confidence of the public, investors will immediately sell off their shares. This means that
companies benefit from conducting their business ethically.
Enron
Enron was an American energy company, which went
bankrupt in 2001. Although it seemed successful, Enron was in
big financial trouble, and its accountants invented figures to fool
investors. Its executives illegally provided their family and
Jeff Skilling, Ken Lay,
Enron ex-chiefs
friends with hundreds of millions of dollars. Then they
encouraged shareholders to buy stock, when the company was
in trouble, but they sold their own stock just before the company went bankrupt. As the
scandal emerged, share prices dropped from $ 90 to $ 0.30 – it was a disaster for the
financial world. The CEOs Kenneth Lay and Jeffrey Skilling went on trial in 2006
claiming they were innocent but were convicted.
WorldCom
WorldCom
was
the
second
largest
telecommunications businessin the US. In the late 1990s, the
company had financial problems. Its accountants started to
cover up the problems by changing the accounts. They
Bernard Ebbers, CEO
pretended that WorldCom had more capital so as not to
worry its shareholders, and by the end of 2003, the
company's assets were inflated by $11 billion. Itwent bankrupt and its CEO Bernard
Ebbers was found guilty of fraud and conspiracy and sent to prison for 25 years. It was the
biggest bankruptcy in American history.
Parmalat
It was thought that a massive fraud couldn't happen in Europe.But the Italian
company Parmalat created one of the world's largest corporate scandals. Managers of the
family-controlled company of the dairy and food giant invented assets to cover $ 6.2
billion in liabilities and falsified accounts over a 15 year period. Their accountants claimed
that they didn't know what was going on. Parmalat went into bankruptcy in late 2003 and,
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among others, 135,000 Italian investors lost their money. Its financial officer, Fausto
Tonna, and other individuals were tried for fraud.
Keen to avoid another situation like Enron, business schools and companies are now
teaching business ethics. With consumers increasingly demanding honest, authentic goods
and services,businesses are economically motivated to do the right thing.
8.3.4 Read the article and information below and make notes about:
WorldCom: 85,000 workers in 65countries. $42 billion
of debts after bankruptcy.
Enron: 21,000 workers
in 40countries. Executives
got
$55million just before bankruptcy.
Parmalat: 34,000 employees in 30 countries. Accountants ‘lost’
€14 billion
•
Type of business
•
Where company was based
•
Number of employees
•
Number of countries it operated in
•
The fraud and its result
Work in groups. Discuss which scandal you think was
the worst and why.
8.3.5 Read and translate the text
Born-Again Bosses Dogged By Failure
1
The business community finds it difficult to forgive a failure. Those whose
ventures go under often find it impossible to start up again in the UK. This contrasts with
the US, where failure is often seen as a valuable learning experience and certainly no
barrier to starting again. Now the government wants to see hostility in the UK replaced by
the more relaxed US attitude. In arecent speech in New York, trade secretary Peter
Mandelson said: “This has to change as we build a new, enterprising, dynamic economy in
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Britain”. He wants banks and other funding institutions to be more sympathetic to people
who have failed but would a policy shift create a more entrepreneurial economy, or could
it turn into a rogues’ charter for the people behind dishonest businesses?
2
John Webster runs the Nottingham-based Chief Executive's Office, which
helps businesspeople find new funding for business ventures. He feels that a more
compassionate approach could help thousands who feel overwhelmed by shame and even
driven to contemplate suicide when their firms go under and they are barred from making
a fresh start. “If you have a blip on your record, the attitude of banks is often to ask why
they should take the risk”, saysWebster. Professor David Storey, head of the Small- and
Medium- Enterprise Centre at Warwick University Business School, says there is no
evidence to support the view that second time ventures are riskier than first time
businesses. “Studies have shown that the success or failure of any previous business has
no influence over how a new one will perform”, he says, “Americans believe that being an
entrepreneur is something that you learn and that failure is part of that process. We
somehow believe that we can train entrepreneurs and that failure is not a part of that
training”.
3
Simply being associated with a business failure can be a problem. Lou Denne,
27, and Perry Joseph, 36, worked in a music-video production company that went bust two
years ago. Six months later, they launched Bug UK, another music-video production
company, in West London. “We were not owners of the previous company, but initially it
was difficult to persuade suppliers and even delivery companies to work with us”, says
Denne, the company secretary. Now, however, Bug has broken through that barrier and
built up a £2 million turnover. Its clients include big name groups Oasis and Manic Street
Preachers. Denne adds: “I believe we are stronger now because we learned from some of
the management mistakes of the previous company”.
4
Leaders of the small business community don't want Mandelson to make it
easier for bankrupts to walk away from their debts. They argue that this would undermine
many small business suppliers but Nick Goulding, head of policy at the Forum of Private
Business, would like to see clear explanations from banks when they reject previous
business failures who want funding. “People need to know why they have failed to meet a
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bank's criteria so that they can do something about it”, says. However, banks argue that
they do not have a negative attitude to those who have previously failed in business. “Not
at all”, says David Singleton, managing director of Lloyd's TSB business banking.
“Someone who has been in business before and who has learned from the experience of
falling might be less of a risk. However, it is important that such people understand why
they failed”.
8.3.6 For each paragraph in the text (1-4) choose from the list A-G the best title. Do
not use any letter more than once.
A
Learning to lose
Paragraph 1__
B
Give them a second chance
Paragraph 2__
C
Knowing where you went wrong
Paragraph 3__
D
Once a failure, always a failure
Paragraph 4__
E
Doing things the American way
F
Losers become winners
G
Getting it right first time
8.3.7 Using the information in the text, complete each sentence (1-4) with a phrase
(A-G) from the list below. Do not use any letter more than once.
1
Banks do not always provide____.
2
In the US, failure is perceived as___
3
Research findings do not show that___.
4
Some business leaders are opposed to___.
A)
a more compassionate approach to business failure;
B)
explanations to businesses whose funding has been rejected;
C)
successful entrepreneurs have experienced failure;
D)
something to be ashamed of;
E)
a beneficial learning experience;
F)
the services that suppliers require;
G)
going out of business has an effect on future endeavours;
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8.4
Vocabulary
Find out what these words mean in Russian. Give examples.
fraud
bankrupt
conspiracy
shareholder
assets
liabilities
stock
falsify
8.5
Project
Work in pairs. Research a large multinational company such as Coca Cola, BP,
Microsoft, Walmart, Nike, etc.Find out:

what they are doing to improve their relationship with the environment and
workers' conditions.

what critics say about their business behaviour.
Write a report. Divide it into three sections:
1
What is the company doing?
2
What do the critics say?
3
What do we think?
8.6
Speaking
8.6.1 Go to p.113. Read and answer the questions.
1
Why has Laura asked to see Kim?
2
What two problems does Laura mention?
3
What explanations does Kim give?
8.6.2 Read again and number the expressions in the order, they occur in the text.
Explaining
Concession
□ The reason why...
□ I admitthat...
□ That's why...
□ I grant (you) that...
□ That's because...
□ It's true that...
□ You're right...
8.6.3 Work in pairs. Student A go to p.114. Student B go to p.115.
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8.7
Company profile
Innocent
We take our product seriously but not ourselves. We want
to show that capitalism can be trained to be part of the solution,
not just a continual source of the problem.We promise that
anything Innocent does will always taste good and do you good.
Richard Reed
Innocent
8.7.1 Read the company profile. Match the questions and the paragraphs that
answer them.
1
How big is the business?
2
How did they start?
3
How will the company grow?
4
What is their attitude to ethical issues?
5
What is it?
6
What is different about their drinks?
7
Where are they like to work for?
Innocent
A
Innocent is an ethical British company that makes smoothies —fresh fruit
drinks. Three young friends, Richard Reed, AdamBalon and Jon Wright, decided to sell
healthy fruit drinks, instead of drinks with sugar and chemicals.
B
In 1998 they bought £ 500 worth of fruit and sold drinks at a music festival.
They put up a sign saying: “Should we give up our day jobs to make these smoothies?”
People threw empty bottles into the ‘yes’ bin or a ‘no’ bin. The ‘yes’ bin filled up and the
rest is history.
C
They are 100 % natural and don't contain fruit concentrates,preservatives or
other additives. Each bottle has at least two portions of fruit. Innocent finds the besttasting fruit and has won many awards.
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D
Innocent's ‘Fruit Towers’ offices in London are very relaxed.Regular Monday
staff meetings have a video-conference with their international staff. Their website is
entertaining, and their delivery vans are in the
shape of cows.
E
Innocent has grown very fast. In 1998
their turnover was£400,000 with 20 drinks sold on
their first day. And in 2006 it was £75 million,
with I million drinks sold a week.
F
They believe in protecting the environment and giving workers a fair deal.
They use bio-degradable bottles,and they don't import fruit by plane. 10% of the
company's profits go to the Innocent Foundation which supports charitable projects.
G
They intend to expand across Europe and into other markets. They want to
stay true to their founding principles,and they don't want to sell out to a multinational
giant.
8.8
Business know-how
8.8.1 Work in pairs. Discuss the question. Read the tips. Which ones do you do
already? Which ones could you start doing?
What do you do in your daily life to help the environment?
Green office tips
•
turn off the lights when you leave offices
•
re-use paper for printing and notes
•
make electronic back-ups not paper copies, don't print every email
•
switch off your monitor every time you are away from your desk
•
turn off computers when not in use, don't leave them on standby
•
re-use your storage devices
•
recycle paper, and use printer ink manufacturer's recycling schemes
•
take fewer flights, use video conferencing instead
•
put on more clothes instead of turning up the heating
•
photocopy on both sides of the paper when possible
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8.9
Writing
You received the following email from your boss, who is in another part of the
country. Write an email back explaining why you are having problems and suggesting
when you could meet.
I'm writing because I'm worried about your recent performance. I understand that
you have arrived late for work every day this week. You have also missed a deadline for
a report this week and failed to attend the video conference group meeting. If you are
having problems I am quite happy to discuss them with you. Please let me know when
it would be convenient to talk.
Best wishes, Raul
8.10 Checklist
Assess your progress in this unit. Tick () the statements which are true.

I can listen and make notes

I can talk about processes

I can explain and concede in a discussion

I can read and understand an article about business scandals
8.11 Key words
Low and crime
Business ethics
Verbs
arrest
charitable projects
give a fair deal
bankrupt
child labour
inspect
conspiracy
decent wages
pretend
convict
developing world
source
fraud
environmentally friendly
shareholder
fairtrade
trial
workers' conditions
Look back through this unit. Find five more words or expressions that you think are
useful.
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9
Unit 9. Big business
9.1
Start up
9.1.1 Look at the information and answer the questions.
1
Why do businesses do a SWOT analysis?
2
How do you think it helps them plan the future?
Business Factbox
SWOT Companies have to know what is happening both in their own business and
in the rest of the world. To measure their performance and plan future strategies, they
often use a technique called a SWOT analysis.
SWOT stands for:
S Strengths (e.g. how well they respond to customer complaints)
W Weaknesses (e.g. high prices)
O Opportunities (e.g. a growing demand for their products)
T Threats (e.g. increased competition from new producers)
9.1.2 Answer the questions below to make a SWOT analysis for yourself. Now
work in pairs. Talk about it with yourpartner.
EXAMPLE :
I'm good at planning and organizing my work.
I find speaking in public very difficult.
SWOT analysis
•What education do you have?
Strengths
• What skills and experience do you have?
•What do you do very well?
•What do other people see as your strengths?
•What could you improve?
Weaknesses
•What is more difficult to change?
•What do other people see as your weaknesses?
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•What are the good opportunities facing you in
your work or education?
Opportunities
•What future trends interest you?
•Do you have any hobbies or interests that
could help your career?
• What obstacles do you face?
Threats
• What is changing around you that might affect
you?
• Could any of your weaknesses affect your
career?
9.1.3 Go to p.115.Carlos Olivera da Silva and Isabel Moyer run an online business
selling MP3 players and related products. Read to their SWOT analysis and make notes.
Good product knowledge
Strengths
Limited to regional market
Weaknesses
Can get access to new customers
Opportunities
Threats
9.2
Strong competition from other websites
Grammar
Verb + to or verb + -ing

We use to + infinitive after certain verbs.
We plan to open 20 new stores.
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afford
dare
decide
deserve
have
mean
offer
pretend
refuse
seem

learn
We use an -ing form after certain verbs.
They have given up trying to expand abroad.
admit
avoid
consider
dislike
enjoy
finish
give up
imagine
keep
miss
practise
risk
stop
suggest

We usually use to+infinitive or - ing after these verbs.
The company started to grow /growing more quickly
Begin
continue
hate
Intend
Like
love
prefer
start

Go to Grammar reference p.124.
9.2.1 Complete the news items below with the followingverbs.
to expand
to freeze
to create
to provide
to walk out
to withdraw
to open
Business news update
Telecom tycoon buys into cafes
The telecoms billionaire Denis 0'Brian has become a major shareholder in the fast
growing BBs, a chain of shopping centre cafe. The chain has 123 outlets and
plans1__________ about 23 new cafes before the end of the year.
Geek squad
The giant American electronics retailer, Best Buy, has teamed up with the Carphone
Warehouse 2__________ an army of computer specialists. It promises3_________ support
for consumers who need IT support at home.
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Spinvox receives injection of cash
Several wealthy backers are providing funding for Spinvoxwhich converts voice
mail messages to text. The investment will allow the company 4__________ into America
and Spain.
Car giants threaten5_________ on Formula One
Formula One's ruling body intends 6________ engine development which has
angered top car manufacturers. They are prepared7___________ their investment from
FormulaOne if the plan is not changed.
9.2.2 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb in brackets.
1
I've given up_______(try) to talk to him. He's never available.
2
Angela shouldn't avoid_______(give) presentations.
3
We keep________ (think of) more threats than opportunities!
4
Would you prefer________ (meet) later in the day?
5
I'm afraid we aren't expected_________(achieve) our sales targets this month.
6
We've decided_________ (attend) this year's tradefair.
7
Xavier suggests________ (delay) the planning meeting by a week.
8
He really didn't deserve________ (get) his promotion.
9.2.3 Complete the sentences about you.
1
In the next five years, I imagine_____________________________________
2
I miss_________________________________________________________
3
I avoid_________________________________________________________
4
I can't afford____________________________________________________
5
By the end of this year, I intend_____________________________________
9.3
Reading
9.3.1 Read the first paragraph below and answer the questions.

What does 'limited' refer to in relation to companies?
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
Who manages a limited company?

What happens to shares when a company is doing well or badly?

How do investors earn money from shares?
9.3.2 Read the rest of the article and decide if the sentences are true (T) or false (F).
1
Private limited companies advertise their shares for sale.F
2
All plc companies are listed on the Stock Exchange.__
3
Big investors own most of the shares in plcs.___
4
Big investors have a lot of power over how a plc company is run.___
5
The Chief Executive Officer represents the firm to the outside world.___
6
Multinationals are big groups of companies operating in many countries.___
7
Multinationals are responsible for the income of small countries.___
8
The parent company of a multinational controls its foreign subsidiaries.___
Behind Big Business
Limited companies
Most larger firms are limited companies(or corporations in the USA). They are
called ‘limited’ because people can invest in the company without having unlimited
responsibility for its debts. If a company goes bankrupt, they would only lose the money
they invested in the company. Limited companies are managed by a board of directors,
which is responsible for making major business decisions. The capital which is invested in
the company is divided into shares of equal value. The value of the shares rises or fall
depending on the success of the firm. The profits are distributed to the shareholders.
Private limited companies (ltd)
These are owned by at least two shareholders, usually the people who setup the
business. Their business associates, and employees – shares are not advertised publicly for
sale.
Public limited companies (plc)
These have shares which can be bought and sold by the public through firms that
deal with the stock market. To become a plc a company must have a minimum of £50,000
invested in shares. However, most plcs are worth much more than this. If the company is
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large enough it will belisted on the stock exchange. A private shareholder has very little
influence, but most shares are owned by big investors such as banks who are involved in
how the company is run. They decide who should be on the board, and if a company is
doing badly they can force directors to resign. The two most important jobs are the
chairperson, who represents the firm to the outside world, and the chief executive officer
(CEO), who is responsible for running the company.
Multinationals
Multinationals are massive groups of companies which operate in many countries.
There are over 60,000 in the world and they are responsible for about one third of world
production; their turnover can be larger than the income of small countries. They have
global access to capital, and can avoid duties by choosing where to manufacture. The
parent company keeps control over its global operations through its foreign subsidiaries
(firms which produce or market its products). Multinationals are very powerful and can
influence economic policies.
9.3.3 Work in pairs. Match these definitions with the words in gray in the article
‘Behind Big Business’.
1
Someone who invests money in order to make a profit.
2
The total value of what a company owns, minus its debts.
3
Taxes that you pay on things you import.
4
The group of people which controls a company and decides its policies.
5
A plan of action chosen by a business, organization or political party.
6
An amount of money that a person, company or country owes.
7
A place where shares in companies are bought and sold.
8
Units of equal value into which a company is divided and sold to raise money.
9
Total value of goods and services sold by a company over a certain period.
10
A person or group that owns shares in a company.
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9.3.4 Read and translate the article. What are perspectives of Sumsung?
SWOT analysis of Samsung
Figure 2
Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. (figure 2) is the largest world’s technology company
in terms of revenues. It is the largest mobile phone maker and television manufacturer and
second largest semiconductor chip producer (figure 3).
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Figure 3
Strength
1
Hardware integration with many open source OS and software. Samsung
is focused on producing devices which can be integrated with most of the software and
OS. This gives Samsung products an edge over Apple’s (its arch rival) devices, especially
as Android and other OS are gaining market share when iOS and OS X are losing it.
2
Excellence in engineering and producing hardware parts and consumer
electronics. Samsung is the number 1 by market share in televisions and mobile phones
sales and some of the hardware parts (processors, memory chips, etc.). This was largely
achieved due to excellence in engineering and both efficient and effective production.
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3
Innovation and design. In 2011, Samsung ranked second on the list of US
top patent assignees. More patents strengthen Samsung position among its competitors.
The firm also won many awards for the design of its products, proving the superior
advantage over the competitors.
4
Focus on environment. Samsung focuses on producing environment friendly
products that are free from PVC and BFRs (currently only MP3 and mobile phones). It
also develops various recycling programs that are awarded for their success. Thus,
Samsung’s focus on environment gives it an edge over its competitors in the eyes of its
customers.
5
Low production costs. The company has set up its production facilities in
low cost countries. This allows producing goods with low production cost and benefit
Samsung as it can offer lower price and earn higher margins.
6
Largest share in mobile phones and 2 place in smartphones sales in the
world. Samsung Electronics have achieved large market share in many products they sell,
especially in mobile phones, smartphones, semiconductors and television sets. Large
market share has its advantage, bargaining power, that Samsung can use to further reduce
costs and demand for better contract conditions.
7
Ability to market the brand. Samsung is named as top rising brand by
Interbrand and is the 9th most valuable brand with value nearly $33 billion. It has risen by
40% from 2011 to 2012. This was mainly achieved due to company’s ability to market the
brand in sporting events and social contributions.
Weaknesses
1
Patent infringement. Samsung is infringing Apple’s and some other firms’
patents, thus, damaging its reputation and having to pay a huge amount of money in
damages.
2
Too low profit margin. Samsung Electronics is the largest technology
business in the world in terms of revenues but it has a low gross profit and net profit
margins. Although its smartphones business is quite profitable, Samsung’s profit margin is
low due to its semiconductors sales and aggressive price cuts.
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3
Main competitors are also largest buyers. Apple, Sony, Dell, HP are the
main buyers of Samsung Electronics products as well as the firm’s main competitors. Such
situation would be favorable to Samsung (if competitors could not find complementary
products and would form a relatively low share Samsung’s revenues) because it could use
its bargaining power over competitors. Due to reverse conditions (competitors can find
complements and they form a relatively high share of firm’s revenues) Samsung cannot
use its bargaining power over competitors as it can easily lose its customers and sales.
4
Lack its own OS and software. Software and OS production has a high
profit margin, can increase integration of company’s products and brand loyalty. Without
strong software and OS Samsung is at disadvantage over its competitors.
5
Focus on too many products. Samsung Electronics serves 4 different
industries with many different products in them. Samsung is at disadvantage over its
competitors because it loses a focus when competing in too many industries and too many
products.
Opportunities
1
Growing India’s smartphone market. India’s smartphone market is one of
the least penetrated among Asia/Pacific countries. Samsung has a strong presence in
India’s market and could use this opportunity to expand its sales.
2
Growing mobile advertising industry. The company could develop
advertising platform for its mobile devices and significantly benefit from this lucrative
market.
3
Growing demand for quality application processors. Samsung is one of the
key manufacturers of application processors for smartphones and tablets. The growing
demand for these products requires more best quality application processors that only
Samsung provide.
4
Growth of tablets market. Tablets market is expected to grow in double
digits over the next few years. Samsung business has a strong position in tablets market
and could expand it by introducing newer, better quality tablet models, such as its current
galaxy line.
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5
Obtaining patents through acquisitions. The key to Samsung’s competitive
advantage is the large portfolio of patents. Patents can be discovered by engaging in costly
R&D or through acquisitions of other firms.
Threats
1
Saturated smartphone markets in developed countries. Smartphones
market in the developed economies is saturated and the sales will not be growing at a high
rate.
2
Rapid technological change. The serious threat that Samsung and the other
tech companies are facing is a rapid technological change. Companies are under the
pressure to release the new products faster and faster. The one that cannot keep up with the
competition soon fails. This is especially hard when the business wants to introduce
something new, innovative and successful.
3
Declining margins on hardware production. Samsung is the second largest
semiconductors producer where the profit margins are very thin, thus weakening the whole
company's figures.
4
Breached patents. Samsung Electronics has many patents which are often
used by its many competitors. Such situation makes it hard to find out which companies
benefit from Samsung’s technology but do not pay for the rights to use it.
5
Apple’s iTV launch. Apple’s iTV is the next big lunch from Apple, which
may hurt Samsung’s TV sales.
6
Price wars. Samsung has a very low gross margin on many of its products
and is already selling some of them with significant price cuts. Competitors could follow
price cutting strategy too and induce price wars, which would erode Samsung’s profit
margin to 0%!
9.3.5 Go to the following site and represent your SWOT analyses.
http://www.strategicmanagementinsight.com
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9.4
Speaking
9.4.1 Work in groups. Guess the famous multinationalcompanies.
Student A:
I think that A could be Microsoft.
Student B:
Microsoft is big, but I don't think that somany people visit its
website. I think thismust be a search engine. What are themost famous search engines?
Student C:
Well,there's Google, Yahoo.
Student A:
Google! That must be the biggest. Let's putGoogle.
Which company…?
A The most visited website on the Internet
E
It is the largest engine maker in the
with 412 million users._________________ world -14 million engines each year. Its
B The largest manufacturer and marketer of slogan is The Power of Dreams.It has made
nonalcoholic drinks in the world. There are
a robot, ASIMO._________________
50 billion drinks drunk a day in the world.
F It is the world's largest semiconductor
One point three billion of them carry this
business. Its name comes from Integrated
company's trademark._________________
Electronics. It has a famous four note tune
C Some of its brands include Walkman,
in its adverts.________________
Playstation, and Vaio._________________
G
D It employs over 70,000 people. Its
mobile phones with a 34 % global market
website receives more than 100 million hits
share._________________
a day. Its owner is the richest person in the
H The world's largest chain of fast food
world.___________________
restaurants. Found in 119 countries. Serves
The world's largest manufacturer of
nearly 50 million customers a day._______
9.4.2 Work in pairs. Describe a famous multinationalcompany. Your partner can
ask questions and mustguess its name.
EXAMPLE: It manufactures cosmetics. I think it's French. Their products are not
very expensive. It advertises in magazines and on TV.
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9.4.3 Look at the Expressions then go to p.116and read the dialogue.
1
Are they S (sure).FS (fairly sure) or NVS (not very sure)about their sales
targets.
Laura____
2
Jamie____
Yusuf____
Do they think themagazine will not be taken over? (Write S (sure), FS (fairly
sure) or NVS (not very sure) after each name).
Laura____
Jamie____
Kim____
Yusuf____
Expressing certainty, probability, and possibility
Sure
I'm (absolutely)sure...
We definitely will/won't...
We're bound to...
Fairly sure
We're(not) likely to...
I expect...
We probably will/won't...
I doubt...
Idon't think...
Not very sure
We may/might (not)...
It could be ...
9.4.4 Work in groups of four. Go to p.118.
9.5
Company profile
Honda
9.5.1 Work in pairs. Discuss the following questions.
•
What do you know about Honda?
•
What do they make?
•
Where is the company based?
•
Where do theymanufacture?
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9.5.2 Now read about Honda. Student A reads the text onthis page, and Student B
reads the text on p.118. Thenask your partner your questions and answer yourpartner's
questions.
•
What products does Honda develop?
•
How successful is Honda?
•
Why is Honda successful?
•
What is Honda's philosophy?
Honda is a Japanese company which manufacturescars, trucks, motorcycles,
scooters, and watercraftworldwide. It also makes engines, garden equipment,and
aeronautical and mobile technologies.
Honda's
headquarters
are
in
Tokyo. The Americanbranch is based in
California. It also has a big companyin
Canada, and other countries.
Honda was founded in Japan in 1948 by SoichiroHondato meet a demand for basic
transport. Although it had an important sounding name. Honda Research InstituteCo. Ltd.,
at first it was based in a wooden building wherethey fitted engines to bicycles. Later it
started making arange of scooters and motorcycles.
By the 1970s Honda had became the largest producer of motorcycles in the world. It
began producing cars in1960 for the Japanese market. These small cars weren'tliked in the
USA, but in the 1970s it introduced a newrange of cars which were economical and fun to
drive. Infact, Honda became the first Japanese car manufacturerto build plants in the USA.
9.6
Business know-how
9.6.1 Work in pairs.
Your teacher has asked for two projectsto be finished by Friday. You hadn't realized
there weretwo to finish in the same week. How will you meet thedeadlines? Discuss how
you would solve this problem.
9.6.2 Read the tips on task management and discuss which ones you do already.
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•
Clarify and define the task - know what you haveto do and why.
•
Plan out all the steps you need to take.
•
Divide the task up into smaller achievable jobs.
•
Make a timetable of these tasks.
•
But give yourself tight time limits - tasks expandto fill the time available!
•
Develop a regular routine to help you manageyour time.
•
Evaluate your performance afterwards. Howcould you improve next time?
9.7
Project
Investigate a large company. Think about what youknow about the company and
then research it on theInternet. Perform a SWOT analysis on it.
Strengths Research what the company says aboutitself on its website.
Weaknesses Read news reports about the company.
Opportunities and Threats Research what ishappening in the sector, the company's
maincompetitors, any changes in the economy, consumerhabits, etc
9.8
Writing
Write a SWOT report for the company you studied foryour Project. Write four
paragraphs based on the SWOTanalysis and a final paragraph with conclusions
andrecommendations.
9.9
Checklist
Assess your progress in this unit.Tick () the statements which are true.

I can perform a SWOT analyses

I can talk about companies

I can explain and concede in a discussion

I can express certainty, probability, and possibility

I can understand news reports
9.10 Key words
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Verbs
Finance
liquidation
expand
board of directors
multinational
freeze
capital
shareholders
withdraw
debts
stock exchange
dividends
subsidiary
duty
turnover
investor
Look back through this unit. Find five more words or expressions that you think are
useful.
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Список использованных источников
1
Bakker, Marie-ReneeDevelopment of Non-Bank Financial Institutions and
Capital Markets in European Union Accession Countries (World Bank Working Papers) /
Marie-Renee Bakker. – UK: Cambridge University Press, 2004. – 120c. – ISBN 0-82135788-3.
2
Tullis, G.New Insight into Business; Student’s book / Graham Tullis, Tonya
Trappe. – Harlow: Longman, 2000. – 176 p. – ISBN 0-87652-564-7.
3
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Getting to Know the
World Bank. A guide for Young People. – Washington D.C., 2005. – 98c. – ISBN 0-82135914-2.
4
Jakeman, VanessaStep Up to IELTS Teacher's Book (Step Up to IELTS) /
Vanessa Jakeman, Clare McDowell. – Italy: Longman, 2004. – 80 с. – ISBN 0- 52153301-5.
5
Жданова, И.Ф.Англо-русский экономический словарь / И.Ф. Жданова,
Э.Л. Вартумян. – М.: Рус. яз., 2001. – 880с. – ISBN 5-200-02988-0.
6
Коваленко, Е.Г.Англо-русский словарь банковской терминологии / Е.Г.
Коваленко; под ред. чл.-корр. РИА Тимофеева Н.И. – М.: Центр, 1994. – 464с. –
ISBN 5-900359-17-4.
7
Мюллер, В.К.Большой англо-русский словарь / В.К. Мюллер. – М.:
Цитадель-Трейд, 2005. – 832с. – ISBN 5-9564-0009-9.
8
The Telegraph – UK news, world news and opinion : [сайт].–Режимдоступа:
www.telegraph.co.uk
9
Strategic management – some specific features of management: [сайт].–
Режимдоступа: www.strategicmanagementinsight.com
10
The Sunday Times – UK online news, world news and opinion : [сайт].–
Режимдоступа:www.thesundaytimes.co.uk
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ПриложениеА
(обязательное)
Speaking activity
Unit 1 ex. 1.4.4 p.9
I arrive at the office at about half eight andmake a coffee, then go into my
regularmorning meeting with my team and manager.It's only a short meeting, but we get a
briefingfor the day’s work and we discuss anyproblems or issues that may be coming
up.Then I go to my desk and 1 check my emails.They come in overnight because we
haveoffices all over the world. Then I make phonecalls and send emails to get the
information Ineed to answer any queries.
I work at my desk most of the day I speak tocustomers a lot on the phone - and I
quite likethat I like helping them and givinginformation I also make phone calls to
thewarehouse and to our Sales departmentsaround the world. I talk to lots of people
thatI've never met!I get a bit tired at my desk so I like getting up tosend faxes It's a bit of
exercise! And I oftenhave a chat and a gossip with my colleagues atthe coffee machine.
In the afternoon I do the same sort of work, butI usually find time to surf the Net for
five or tenminutes. It breaks the routine of the day I oftenhave to key in data. It's a bit
boring, but it's partof the job. At 5 o'clock. I fill in a time sheet Andthat's a typical day!
Unit 1 ex. 1.5.2 p.10
Student B
Student B's questions
• WhatisAmazon.com?
• What sort of things does it sell?
• How many products does it have?
• Where is Amazon based?
• How many websites does it have?
Amazon does not say precisely how many it employs,but it is probably over 5,000
people. It also offerstailored services, product reviews, a secure paymentsystem, and the
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opportunity to 'look inside' over250,000 books. Amazon's incredibly powerful
database(data warehouse) manages product flow, interactswith consumers, offers a fast
service, and gets businessintelligence. It doubles in size every year, and isupdated six
times a day. However Amazon does makemistakes. It once offered pocket computers for
£7instead of £192. Some people ordered 50 computersbefore Amazon temporarily closed
its website!
Unit 2 ex. 2.2.3 p.14
I=Interviewer, M=Montse, K=Kenichiro
I:
Where do you work ?
M:
I'm training to be a Human Resourcesofficer for a car manufacturer.
I:
What are you working on ?
M:
I'm helping to prepare an advert for avacancy in the Sales department.
I'mwriting the copy so that we get the rightcandidates. My manager checks my work, of
course. I only started a few months ago.
I:
What line of work are you in?
K:
I'm training to be a fashion buyer for achain store. I work in the
Purchasingdepartment. I've only been in the job a fewweeks.
I:
What are you doing at the moment?
K:
I'm doing a bit of everything. I'm workingin a team with other more
experiencedbuyers. There's a lot to learn but I'menjoying it. We're currently buying for
nextyear's spring season - it's great knowingwhat next year's colours are going to be!
Unit 3 ex. 3.1.2 p.23
L=Liam,K=Kim
L:
OK, Kim. So what do you think?
K:
Well, a conference folder is always a good idea -I mean, it's really practical...
L:
Yeah... but not very original.
K:
That's true. What's the price on that one?£4.90? We’d need hundreds of them.
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L:
Right. That's far too expensive. You know,I quite like the idea of the stress
balls -they're a good price - and I like the humour.It's a fun item.
K:
Yeah - and there can be a lot of pressure at atrade fair. People need to relax
somehow!
L:
And they'll use the stress ball - and they'llthink of us.
K:
Beating the stress!
L:
Exactly. And I was also thinking of thepocket radio...
K:
Uh-huh...
L:
It's a nice little gadget - you can tune in tothe latest news...
K:
But would people really use one?Everybody's got their iPods and laptops. I
don't think they'd use it.
L:
Point taken. So, what about a mouse mat?
K:
We've all got lots of mouse mats already.Who needs another one?
L:
A biro?
K:
You just lose them. Or leave them in yourhotel room. But we could go for a
conferencebag - yeah, I know it's not original - but justthink, we can have our logo on it –
ourcontact details - and it's practical. People canput all their freebies in it.
L:
That's brilliant!
Unit 6 ex. 6.2.8 p.61
P=Presenter, C=Chris
P:
Welcome to Business Futures. Today we'regoing to talk about the inventor
TrevorBaylis. Trevor is famous for inventing theclockwork radio - a radio that you can
windup and that doesn't need batteries. And Ihave in the studio with me Chris Bonner,
theauthor of the new book Brilliant Ideas.
C:
Hello.
P:
So, Chris. Can you tell us something aboutTrevor?
C:
Well. Trevor owned a successful swimmingpool company. He was also an
underwaterstuntman for films. But in his free time heloved inventing - he still has a
workshop inhis home where he works on his inventions.
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P:
How did Trevor come to invent theclockwork radio?
C:
Well, in 1993 he was watching a programmeon TV. It was about the spread of
AIDS inAfrica. He heard that because radios weretoo expensive, many people in
villagesnever got educational and healthinformation.
P:
I see. So. Trevor decided to invent a cheapersort of radio.
C:
Exactly. He started experimenting in hisworkshop. He remembered that in the
olddays people didn't use electricity to listen tomusic. They used to wind up the
recordplayer manually using clockwork.
P:
So. How successful was his prototype?
C:
Well, his first prototype ran for fourteenminutes on a two-minute wind. He
called itFreeplay technology.
P:
So what did he do next?
C:
He took his invention to Marconi andPhillips, and to other large
organizations,but they all turned it down. They didn'tthink that the people in poor
countrieswould be able to pay for the product.
P:
Then how did he get it manufactured?
C:
Well, by the end of 1993 Baylis was going togive up. He was tired of all the
rejections. Butin April 1994 he went on a TV programmeabout innovation and inventions.
A SouthAfrican business man.HyltonAppelbaumsaw the programme and decided to
invest.Hylton realized that the radio had greatpotential for the rural poor in Africa.
P:
End of story?
C:
No. not really. They encountered lots oftechnical problems. The prototype
wasn'tloud enough and they had to make a lot ofadjustments to improve the radio
beforethey could manufacture it. Eventually, theradio could play for an hour on a 30secondwind.
P:
What a saving on batteries' Where was theradio manufactured?
C:
They set up a company called Baygen inSouth Africa. Trevor kept control of
thepatents.The company employed 250disabled people to work in the factory. Todaythe
radios are manufactured in China.
P:
What's next for Trevor?
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C:
Well. Trevor never stops inventing. He is currently developing electric shoes.
P:
Electric shoes!?
C:
Yes, he realized that walking can make.
Unit 7 ex. 7.5 a p.75
K=Karen, T=Tim, P=Pia, D=Daniel
1
2
3
K:
Excuse me.
T:
Oh, hello.
K:
Could you possibly tell me where the bluemeeting room is?
T:
Yes, of course. It's on the second floor, justnext to the lift.
K:
Thanks very much.
P:
Yes, that's right... Yes, I did... OK, see youthen.
K:
Sorry, but would you mind telling me thenumber of the IT department?
P:
Not at all. It's... wait a moment... 2020.
K:
Thank you.
P:
That's OK.
K:
Excuse me. Do you think you could tell methe name of the Human
Resourcesmanager?
D:
Er... I'm very sorry, but I only started workhere last week and I can't
remember it!
Unit 7 ex. 7.5 b p.75
1
2
1
Would you mind if I closed the door?
2
Could you possibly pass me that book?
3
Would you mind telling me where the coffeemachine is?
4
Do you think you could help me?
1
Could I possibly open the window? (polite)
2
Would you mind helping me with mycomputer? (polite)
3
Do you think you could read this? (impolitetone)
4
Would you mind if I borrowed your stapler?(polite)
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Unit 7 ex. 7.5 c p.76
Student A
Take it in turns to interrupt your partner and ask politequestions. Use the
Expressions on p.73. Remember to bepolite!
You want to:
• know where the restaurant is
• use your colleague's dictionary
• make a private phone call
• know where the manager/director's office is
Student B
Take it in turns to interrupt your partner and ask politequestions. Use the
Expressions on p.73. Remember to bepolite!
You want to:
• open the window
•know where the drinks dispenser is
•borrow your colleague's dictionary
• know where the toilets are
Unit 8 ex. 8.3.2 p.82
1
Actually I think that many businesses todaytry to make a positive impact on
theenvironment. Obviously this is due tocampaigns and consumer pressure. But, youknow,
many manufacturers get a competitiveadvantage to help the environment andcharities
because they give themselves a betterpublic image. They can promote themselves asethical
and make more profits too!
2
I know that all companies do some damage tothe world, but they can also do a
lot of good.They give money to charity and helpcampaigns to improve the environment.
Lookat Bill Gates and all the good his charities do.They also have to respond to
consumerpressure, and then there's the negativepublicity — it makes them clean up their
act,change their strategies. We can't thinkindustry will go away. Our future depends
onbusinesses finding solutions to the world'sproblems.
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3
You know, big businesses can be a bit cynical. Imean, look at the way they
advertise sweetsand sweet foods to children. They targetchildren directly with, er,
advertising andattractive products although they know thattheir products actually harm
them.
4
Well, there are many businesses today that areethical. If you want, you can
buy Fairtrade foodand drink, wear organic clothes and, um,choose transport that's less
polluting. You caneven buy computers and phones from moreethical companies. They try
to limit thedamage they do and recycle whatever theycan.
5
I um, I believe that many large corporations doa lot of harm to the
environment. Becausethey're powerful, they think they can doanything they want. I mean,
in India, big drinksmanufacturers are polluting the watersupplies for people. And, um, lots
of theingredients used by industry are destroyinghabitats such as the rainforest.
Unit 8 ex. 8.6.1 p.87
K=Kim, L=Laura
K:
Hello, Laura.
L:
Oh hi, Kim.
K:
You wanted to see me.
L:
That's right. Please, take a seat.
K:
Thanks.
L:
Erm... well, you've made excellent progresssince you started here, and done
someexcellent work...
K:
Thank you.
L:
I wanted to talk to you because over the pastfew weeks you seem to have had
one or twoproblems...
K:
Yes...I understand that several articles you'veworked on have been late.Well, I
admit that I've missed a couple ofdeadlines, but I don't think it was my fault.The reason
why those articles were late isthat the writers didn't deliver them to me onschedule. And
that's why I didn't edit themin time.
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L:
I grant that writers can be a big problem...but there were mistakes in the
articles. Ithink there was a wrong date in one ofthem, and the manager of a company
wasgiven the wrong surname.
K:
That's because I didn't have time to check allthe facts. I had to check their
grammar,spelling... everything. The articles werereally badly written! And we can't
publishbad writing.
L:
It's true that we should never publish poorwriting. One of the reasons why our
readersbuy our magazine is because they expecthigh quality writing. But they also buy
itbecause they can rely on the accuracy of theinformation. We must never publish
factualerrors. Every fact has to be checked anddouble checked.
K:
You're right... I know that...
L:
So when you have very little time to edit anarticle, always check the
information first.That's your top priority. We have to get thatright. And if we publish an
ungrammaticalsentence, well, nobody's going to take us tocourt for that.
K:
es... I'm sorry.
L:
Don't worry, Kim. You're still doing a goodjob. And you're still learning.
K:
Thanks.
L:
OK, let's talk about something else. What doyou think about this for a cover
image?...
K:
Oh, that's brilliant.
Unit 8 ex. 8.6.3 p.87
Student A
1
You haven't made a phone call to Mr. Clark, animportant customer. Student B
isn't very happy aboutit. Think of a good reason why you haven't made the call. Use the
Expressions on p.85. Student B will startthe conversation.
2
Student B didn't get to an important meeting with youthis morning. You want
to know why. When Student Btries to explain, make concessions, but try to get abetter
explanation. Use the Expressions on p.85. Youstart: Why didn't you come to the meeting
thismorning?
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3
You didn't visit one of your suppliers yesterday.Student B isn't very happy
about it. Think of a goodreason why you didn't made the visit. Student B willstart the
conversation.
4
Student B used your computer yesterday withoutasking you. Student B seems
to have deleted some ofyour files. You want to know why. When Student B triesto
explain, make concessions, but try to get a betterexplanation. You start: you used
mycomputer yesterday.
Unit 8 ex. 8.6.3 p.87
Student B
1
Student A hasn't made a phone call to Mr. Clark, animportant customer. You
want to know why. WhenStudent A tries to explain, make concessions, but try toget a
better explanation. Use the Expressions on p.85.You start: Why haven't you called Mr.
Clark?
2
You didn't get to an important meeting with Student Athis morning. Student
A isn't very happy about it.Think of a good reason why you were late. Use theExpressions
on p.85. Student A will start theconversation.
3
Student A didn't visit one of your suppliers yesterday. You want to know
why. When Student A tries toexplain, make concessions, but try to get a betterexplanation.
You start: I understand you didn't visit oneof our suppliers yesterday.
4
You used Student A's computer yesterday. You didn'task him, and
unfortunately you seem to have deletedsome of his files. Student A is not at all happy
about it.Think of a good reason why you didn't ask him andwhat happened to the files.
Student A will start.
Unit 9 ex. 9.1.3 p.92
C=Carlos, I=Isabel, G=Gilberto
C:
Right, to wind up this meeting, let's just gothrough the points again we
identified inour SWOT analysis. Isabel?
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I:
OK. So we have four main strengths. Wehave a good knowledge of the
productswe're selling. We also hold stocks ofspecialist goods so, if they come to us,
mostcustomers will find what they're looking for.We also have good sources of supply, so
ourdelivery is fast and efficient. And, of course,we have a strong commitment to our
onlineoperation.
C:
OK, so we know we have our strengths, whatdid we identify as our
weaknesses?
I:
First of all, we're still only really known andused regionally. We haven't
broken into awider market. And that's another problem.We don't have a good enough
knowledge ofthe market in other countries.
C:
Was that everything?
I:
No. We think we'd also find it difficult todeliver orders if demand was high.
C:
OK, passing on to opportunities and threats.Would you like to take over,
Gilberto?
G:
Sure. We identified two main opportunities.One: we think we can get access
to newcustomers. And two: we have the ability tobuild our brand name, so that's a top.
I:
Actually, we'd suggested a thirdopportunity. We can also offer new
productsand services, such as music downloads.
G:
That's right. But we came up with only twomain threats, didn't we?
I:
Yes.
G:
The
first
threat
was
we
face
strongcompetition
from
other
establishedcompany websites. And the second was thatour competitors may offer a better,
fasterservice.
C:
Thanks very much. We certainly have a lot tothink about.
Unit 9 ex. 9.4.3 p.102
L=Laura, K=Kim, J=Jamie, Y=Yusuf
1
L:
OK, taking a look at our sales figures for thepast five months, you can
see that weperformed very well in January andFebruary, but there was a real decline in
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thenext two months. But the situation isimproving. We saw a real improvement lastmonth,
and I'm sure that next month we'llachieve our target.
K:
But what about for the rest of the year?
L:
I expect that we'll continue to see animprovement in our sales and we
probablywill be very close to our target. Yes, I thinkwe're likely to be very close.
J:
I agree. In fact, with the changes we putthrough last month, and with our
improveddistribution, I'd go a step further and saywe're bound to achieve our figures!
L:
You don't look convinced, Yusuf.
Y:
Oh well, we may achieve them, we mightnot, I don't know... I mean, I know
we haddistribution problems earlier in the year,and that problem's been sorted out now.
Butit's a competitive market.
L:
Is that your only concern?
Y:
Er... no, it isn't. Have you seen this?
2
Y I came across this on the Web.
L:
What is it?
Y:
People are talking about a possible takeover.There's at least one major
publisher who'sinterested in buying the business.
J:
Oh, Yusuf, that's just gossip.
Y:
You can say that, but I think we're likely toface an aggressive takeover bid.
L:
I'm absolutely sure that won't happen. Ihaven't heard anything about this –
haveyou, Jamie?
J:
No.
L:
Kim?
K:
Well, I have heard something – I have somefriends who work for the
competition, andthey mentioned it to me - but as Jamie said,it's just rumours. I doubt it
will happen.
J:
That's right. I don't think that's a problemwe'll have to face.
Y:
Well, I'm not so sure. There's no smokewithout fire...
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Unit 9 ex. 9.4.4 p.103
Work in groups. Look at the topics below. What do youthink will happen in these
areas in the next ten years?Discuss your ideas with your group, giving reasons. Use the
Expressions on p.100.
• communications
•the office environment
• air travel
•shopping
•the global economy
•computers
Unit 9 ex. 9.5.2 p.103
Read about Honda. Then ask your partner yourquestions and answer your partner's
questions.Student B's questions
• What does Honda make?
• Where is Honda based?
• How did Honda start?
• How did it develop into a multinational company?
Honda
Honda develops racing motorcyclesand participates in motorcycle racesaround the
world. It also builds carsfor Formula One and won theHungarian Grand Prix in
2006.Honda's robotics program has beenbuilding robots since 1986.Honda is not as big as
its rival Toyotabut its revenue and profits aregrowing annually. Its profits in 2007were
about $5 billion due in part tothe popularity of its small cars inNorth America, which
areeconomical to run. Sales revenuesare also growing in other marketssuch as Asia, and
Europe. It is technically innovative. Hasaflexible approach, and benefits from
lowproduction costs due to the quantitiesthey manufacture. Honda also has verysuccessful
marketing strategies, andmemorable advertising campaigns.It believes in sharing its
'dream'around the world. It aims to make itsworkplace safe, fair and diverse, and to
conduct business ethically. It hasabout 140,000 employeesworldwide. It invests in
research anddevelopment and also invests inmany projects to help the widercommunity.
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ПриложениеБ
(справочное)
Grammar reference
Unit 4 ex. 4.2.1 p.34
Comparatives and Superlatives (table Б.1)
Table Б.1
Adjective
Comparative
Superlative
One syllable
+ -er
+ -est
cheap
cheaper
the cheapest
One syllable
+ -r
+ -st
large
larger
the largest
One syllable ending in one double consonant + -er
double consonant + -est
vowel + consonant
big
bigger
the biggest
Two syllables-y
y -> i + -er
y -> i + -est
easy
easier
the easiest
Two syllables
+ more
+ the most
famous
more famous
the most famous
good
better
the best
bad
worse
the worst
Irregular adjectives
Comparatives
We use comparative adjectives to describe how twothings are different.
We offer a higher interest rate (than other banks).
Their products are more expensive (than ours).
TV adverts are better (than radio adverts).
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Superlatives
We use superlative adjectives to describe how morethan two things are different.
They sell the cheapest models in the world.
We offer the most competitive prices.
This shop has the best reputation.
We can use one of the most / least + adjective to make amore general comparison
between several things.
bmi is one of the most successful airlines.
It is one of the worst hotels I've stayed in.
We can use more or most before the subject of thesentence to talk about relative
amounts.
More people are shopping online than a year ago.
Most people shop online these days.
Unit 5 ex. 5.2.1 p.45
must, have to/don't have to
must
We use must / mustn't and don't have toto talk aboutobligation.
Positive
We must find ways to increase revenue.
= subject + must + infinitive
Negative
Staff must not (mustn't) send personal emails.
= subject + must + not + infinitive
We do not usually use must in questions. We usedo/does... have toto ask if
something is obligatoryor important.
Do we have to attend the conference?
We do not use do / does to form the negative.
I mustn't be late, not I don't must be late.
We use must / mustn't when giving rules or tellingsomeone what to do.
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You must hand over the report by Friday.
Guests mustn't park their cars on the grass.
We also use you must to recommend something.
You must meet Keith. He's a really interesting person.
have to
have to in the positive and interrogative is formed inthe same way as regular verbs.
In the positive, have tohas a similar meaning to must.
We have to go to the Managing Director's presentation.
She has to deliver the report this afternoon.
In questions, have tois more common than must.
Does the candidate for the job have to have experience?
don't have to
We do not (don't) have to go if we don't want to.
He does not (doesn't) have to go if he doesn't want to.
= subject + do/does + not + have to + infinitive
We use don't have to/doesn't have to + infinitive to talkabout things that are not
necessary.
You don't have to hand over the report today. We don't need it until tomorrow.
Unit 6 ex. 6.3 p.61
Past Continuous
We use the Past Continuous to talk about a situation inprogress at a specific time in
the past.
Positive
We were waiting for the train.
= subject + was I were + -ing form
Negative
She was not (wasn't)working here then.
= subject + was I were + not + -ing form
Questions
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Were you listening to him?
= Was I Were + subject + -ing form
We use the Past Continuous to talk about an action thatwas happening at a particular
point in the past. It isoften used in a sentence with when + Past Simple.
He was getting off the bus when he had a brilliant idea.
We can change the order of the sentence. It is possibleto use either when or while
before the Past Continuous.
He fell when / while he was getting off the bus.
When / While he was getting off the bus, he fell.
If a sentence begins with When / While + Past Continuous, we usually put a comma
between the firstand second parts of the sentence.
Unit 7 ex. 7.2 p.68
Past Simple vs Past Continuous
Past Simple
We use the Past Simple to talk about an event thatfinished in the past. It may be the
recent past, but theaction is always a completed one.
I received your message five minutes ago.
I joined this company in 2002.
Past Continuous
We use the Past Continuous to talk about an action that continued for some time in
the past. This can be at afixed point in the past.
A:
What were you doing at three o'clock yesterday?
B:
I was probably surfing the net
We also use the Past Continuous as background for an action in the Past Simple
which interrupts it.
I was surfing the net when my manager came in.
or
When my manager came in, I was surfing the net
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Note that we can use either when or while before thePast Continuous, but we can
only use when before thePast Simple.
notWhile my manager came in ...
The Past Continuous is also used to set the scene for astory.
I was working in London, and John was living upstairs. That's how we met.
Remember that certain non-action verbs cannot beused in the continuous form.
I was on the train when my phone rang.
notI was being on the train when my phone rang.
Unit 8 ex. 8.2 p.80
Passive
We use the Passive when we do not know who did anaction or when it is not
important to say who did it.
Bono was invited to the reception.
When we want to say who did something, we can eitheruse an Active or a Passive
form. In the Passive, we use by.
Active
The British Ambassador invited Bono to the reception.
Passive
Bono was invited to the reception by the British Ambassador.
Note that the Passive always focuses more on theaction than on who did it.
Form
The Passive has several forms:
Present Simple Passive
Producers are paid a fair price for their goods.
= Present Simple of be + past participle
Past Simple Passive
The first Fairtrade label was started in 1988.
= Past Simple of be + past participle
Present Continuous Passive
The brand is being licensed to several major companies.
= Present Continuous of be + past participle
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Present Perfect Passive
People's lives have been transformed by this fund.
= Present Perfect of have + past participle
Modal verbs in the Passive: will, can, must, etc.
We use be + past participle after will, be going to, can,must, have to, should, and
other modal verbs.
More and more Fairtrade products will be bought.
In future, a broader range of products may be created.
Unit 9 ex. 9.2 p.93
Verb + to or verb + -ing
We use to + infinitive after certain verbs. These include:afford, dare, decide,
deserve, expect, hope, intend, learn, mean, offer, prepare, pretend, promise, refuse, seem,
try, want.
We have decided to expand our operations in Germany.
Some verbs are followed by object + to. These include:advise, allow, ask, enable,
encourage, forbid, force, help, persuade, remind, teach, tell.
This restructuring will allow us to be more competitive.
We use verb + -ing form after certain verbs. Theseinclude:admit, avoid, consider,
dislike, enjoy, finish, give up, imagine, keep, miss, practice, prefer, risk, stop, suggest.
We are going to consider making changes to our customer support service.
Some verbs can be followed either by to or -ing,without any change in meaning.
These include: begin, continue, hate, intend, like, love, prefer, start.
The company has begun exploring/to explore new markets.
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ПриложениеВ
(справочное)
The plan for rendering the text
The plan for rendering the text Some expressions to be used while rendering
1 The title of the article
The article is headlined…
The headline of the article I have read is…
2 The author of the article, The author of the article is …
where and when the article was The article is written by …
published
It is (was) published in …
It is (was) printed in …
3 The main idea of the article
The main idea of the article is …
The article is about …
The article is devoted to …
The article deals with …
The article touches upon …
The article puts forward the idea / attempts to
discuss…
The object / purpose of the article is to show / give the
reader some information on …
The article / paper deals with some aspects of …
The article discusses some problems relating to …
The article presents the basic theory …
The article provides information on …
The article is concerned with …
4 Contents of the article (some Thearticle begins with a short discussion on …
facts, names, figures)
The article deals firstly with the problem of …
The author points out / notes / describes that …
The author starts by telling the reader that …
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The author writes / states / stresses / thinks that …
Further the author reports / says …
Then the author goes on to the problem of …
After discussing … the author turns to …
The article goes on to say that …
Then follows a discussion on …
The next / following paragraph deals with / presents /
discusses …
Next / then the author tries to indicate / indicates /
explains that …
It must be emphasized / should be noted / is clear / is
evident that …
5 Conclusion
The author comes to the conclusion that …
The final paragraph states / describes that …
The final paragraph ends with …
The conclusion is …
The author concludes / summarizes / admits that …
Finally / in the end the author admits / emphasizes
that…
6
Article
assessment
opinion of the article)
(your I found the article interesting / important / dull / of no
value / (too) hard to understand
The article is of some certain importance
The article is interesting / important /dull /of no value
/ (too) hard to understand / up-to-date / out-of-date /
useful / boring
Active vocabulary
All in all…
As a whole / generally…
It goes without saying…
As far as I know…
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As a matter-of-fact…
According to …
In according with …
In respect to …
With regard to…
Regarding to …
The vital problem…
The first thing to maintain is …
It is started in details / in a chronological sequences …
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ПриложениеГ
(рекомендуемое)
Home-readingtexts
Text 1.World Bank
The World Bank is the world's foremost intergovernmental organization concerned
with the external financing of the economic growth of developing countries. The official
title of the institution is the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
(IBRD).
Before recommending a Bank loan, the staff of the Bank must be reasonably
satisfied that the productivity of the borrowing country will be increased and that the
prospects for repayment are good. A country must be judged creditworthy. Engineering
investigations are frequently carried out to determine the probable relation of a proposed
project to benefits and costs. Increasingly, however, the Bank has shifted somewhat away
from project lending (e.g., for a dam or a highway or a port); it has become concerned with
education and other human services, the environment, and, through structural adjustment
loans, the modification of governmental policies that are thought to have impeded longrun growth. The Bank has also paid increasing attention to the evaluation of previous
lending. Recently, moreover, it has acceded to the requests of the American secretary of
the treasury to help to ease the huge, outstanding, largely commercial bank debt.
Voting power in the Bank (as well as in the Fund) is determined by the size of each
member nation's subscription. Subscriptions, in turn, are based on a formula that takes into
account such variables as the value of each nation's foreign trade and its total output.
Ultimate power, through weighted voting, rests with the Board of Governors of the Bank
(and the Fund). The governors meet annually in September. The day-to-day affairs of the
Bank are determined, however, by executive directors who live permanently in
Washington, D.C. They hire a president, who, in turn, hires a staff. By tradition, rather
than law, the president of the Bank is an American, usually a banker, proposed by the
President of the United States.
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Because of the size of their subscriptions, five nations — the United States, Japan,
Germany, the United. Kingdom, and France — are entitled to appoint executive directors;
the remaining seventeen directors are elected by some combination of the votes of the
other nations. There are 156 member nations, but, with the independence of the Baltic
states and the devolution of the Soviet Union into separate republics, the membership
could increase to over 170, thereby including all the independent nations in the world.
The Soviet Union was one of the forty-four governments whose representatives
signed the original Bretton Woods agreements, but along with the other members of the
Warsaw Pact, it chose not to join the Bank or the Fund when these organizations were
formally incorporated in 1946. Poland and Czechoslovakia joined the Bank and the Fund
initially but withdrew when the cold war began in earnest
Text 2. World Bank Group
In 1954 an International Finance Corporation was established to supplement the
World Bank by participating in equity financing in member countries, and in 1960, a third
organization, the International Development Association (IDA), was created. These three
organizations constitute the World Bank Group. The IDA has the same officers and staff
as the World Bank, but its separate charter enables it to offer loans to low-income member
countries repayable at 0.75 percent interest over 50 years (including 10 years’ grace).
Soft or concessionary assistance is
made possible by contributions to
(replenishments of) the IDA by the governments of high-income (industrial) countries.
The management of the World Bank Group is thus enabled to offer rates of interest and
loan maturities which take into account the nature of the projects financed and the
presumed ability of borrowing governments to service their debt. The initial capitalization
of IDA for the 5 years 1960 to 1964 was less than $1 billion in hard currencies. By 1992,
the ninth replenishment for 3 years will be over $11 billion. I
Today, the World Bank Group is a far cry from what it was when the World Bank
began in 1946 §under President Eugene Meyer—with three floors of rented office space at
1818 H Street NW and a few dozen employees. Even in the final days of the presidency of
George Woods, in 1968, the group had fewer than 1500 employees and four buildings. As
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of August 31, 1991, however, on the eve of the accession to the presidency of Lewis
Preston, former chairman of the board of J. P. Morgan & Co., the World Bank Group had
3 senior vice presidents, 14 vice presidents, and 6500 employees scattered through 18
separate buildings in Washington, D.C.; 2 large offices in Paris and Tokyo; and 50
regional offices. The World Bank Group has had a significant positive effect on the flow
of capital to the poorer countries of the world, both directly and indirectly, and knowledge
of Third World problems has increased enormously. Still, the record of growth is spotty.
In much of East Asia, per capita income is rising rapidly, but in Africa south of the Sahara,
in South Asia, and in much of Latin America, the growth of per capita income has been
discouragingly slow.
Text 3. International Finance Corporation
The International Finance Corporation (IFC) promotes sustainable private sector
investment in developing countries as a way to reduce poverty and improve people's lives.
IFC is a member of the World Bank Group and is headquartered in Washington, DC. It
shares the primary objective of all World Bank Group institutions: to improve the quality
of the lives of people in its developing member countries.
Established in 1956, IFC is the largest multilateral source of loan and equity
financing for private sector projects in the developing world. It promotes sustainable
private sector development primarily by: Financing private sector projects and companies
located in the developing world. Helping private companies in the developing world
mobilize financing in international financial markets. Providing advice and technical
assistance to businesses and governments.
IFC has 181 member countries, which collectively determine its policies and
approve investments. To join IFC, a country must first be a member of the International
Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD). IFC's corporate powers are vested in
its Board of Governors, to which member countries appoint representatives. IFC's share
capital, which is paid in, is provided by its member countries, and voting is in proportion
to the number of shares held. IFC's authorized capital (the sums contributed by its
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members over the years) is $2.45 billion; IFC's net worth (which includes authorized
capital and retained earnings) was $9.8 billion as of June 2005.
The Board of Governors delegates many of its powers to the Board of Directors,
which is composed of the Executive Directors of the IBRD, and which represents IFC's
member countries. The Board of Directors reviews all projects. The President of the World
Bank Group, Robert Zoellick, also serves as IFC's president. IFC's CEO and Executive
Vice President, Lars Thunell, is responsible for the overall management of day-to-day
operations. He was appointed on January 15, 2006. Although IFC coordinates its activities
in many areas with the other institutions in the World Bank Group, IFC generally operates
independently as it is legally and financially autonomous with its own Articles of
Agreement, share capital, management and staff.
The IFC's equity and quasi-equity investments are funded out of its paid-in capital
and retained earnings (which comprise its net worth). Strong shareholder support, triple-A
ratings, and a substantial capital base allow the IFC to raise funds on favorable terms in
international capital markets. As of June 30, 2006, retained earnings represented almost
three-quarters of the IFC's $9.8 billion net worth.
Within the World Bank Group, the World Bank finances projects with sovereign
guarantees, while the IFC finances projects without sovereign guarantees. This means that
the IFC is primarily active in private sector projects, although some projects in the public
sector (at the municipal or sub-national level) have recently been funded.
Private sector financing is IFC's main activity, and in this respect is a profit-oriented
financial institution (and has never had an annual loss in its 50-year history). Like a bank,
IFC lends or invests its own funds and borrowed funds to its customers and expects to
make a sufficient risk-adjusted return on its global portfolio of projects.
Apart from its core investment activities, IFC also carries out technical cooperation
projects in many countries to improve the investment climate. These activities may be
linked to a specific investment project, or, increasingly, to broader goals such as
improving the legislative environment for a specific industry. IFC's technical cooperation
projects are generally funded by donor countries or from IFC's own budget.
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Critics have questioned the sustainability of some IFC-funded projects. The IFC
recently invested $9 million in the upgrading of a slaughterhouse facility in the Amazon
region owned by Brazil's biggest beef producer, despite opposition from local NGOs and
the Sierra Club.
Text 4. International Development Association
The International Development Association (IDA) created on September 24, 1960,
is the part of the World Bank that helps the world's poorest countries. It complements the
World Bank's other lending arm — the International Bank for Reconstruction and
Development (IBRD) — which serves middle-income countries with capital investment
and advisory services.
IDA is responsible for providing long-term, interest-free loans to the world's 80
poorest countries, 39 of which are in Africa. IDA provides grants and credits (subject to
general conditions), with repayment periods of 35 to 40 years. Since its inception, IDA
credits and grants have totaled $161 billion, averaging $7-$9 billion a year in recent years
and directing the largest share, about 50%, to Africa. While the IBRD raises most of its
funds on the world's financial markets, IDA is funded largely by contributions from the
governments of the richer member countries. Additional funds come from IBRD income
and repayment of IDA credits.
IDA loans address primary education, basic health services, clean water supply and
sanitation, environmental safeguards, business-climate improvements, infrastructure and
institutional reforms. These projects are intended to pave the way toward economic
growth, job creation, higher incomes and better living conditions.
IDA critics allege the improper use of financial resources, and object to a voting
structure based on financial contributions (the largest being from the U.S. until 2007, when
it was overtaken by the United Kingdom). Others criticize the IDA for its promotion of
free trade, which some see as a means of oppression by the World Bank Group.
The International Development Association (IDA) is the part of the World Bank that
helps the earth's poorest countries reduce poverty by providing no- interest loans and
grants for programs aimed at boosting economic growth and improving living conditions.
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IDA funds help these countries deal with the complex challenges they face in striving to
meet the Millennium Development Goals. They must, for example, respond to the
competitive pressures as well as the opportunities of globalization; arrest the spread of
HIV/AIDS; and prevent conflict or deal with its aftermath.
IDA's long-term (streched over 35 to 40 years), no-interest loans pay for programs
that build the policies, institutions, infrastructure and human capital needed for equitable
and environmentally sustainable development. IDA's goal is to reduce inequalities both
across and within countries by allowing more people to participate in the mainstream
economy, reducing poverty and promoting more equal access to the opportunities created
by economic growth.IDA also provides grants to countries at risk of debt distress.
Text 5. The Bank of Finland is Finland's central bank and a member of the
Eurosystem.
The Bank of Finland acts as Finland's central bank, national monetary authority and
member of the European System of central banks and the Eurosystem.
The Eurosystem covers the European Central Bank and the euro area central banks.
It administers the world's second largest currency, the euro. There are over 300 million
people living in the euro area and from the beginning of 2008 the area covers 15 countries.
Therefore, the Bank of Finland's strategies are related to both domestic and Eurosystem
objectives.
The main objective of the Eurosystem and Bank of Finland alike is price stability,
which means maintaining a moderate rise in consumer prices. Price stability creates the
prerequisites for a sound economy. In order to meet this objective, the Bank of Finland
participates in the preparation and decision-making process of the Eurosystem's monetary
policy as well as implementing the policy in Finland. A broad research base provides a
solid background to the Bank's expertise in these tasks.
In addition to monetary policy and research, the Bank of Finland has three other
core functions: financial markets and statistics, banking operations and the maintenance of
currency supply. There are a little under 500 persons working at the Bank of Finland and
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an additional 210 in association with it at the Financial = Supervision Authority (FINFSA).
In line with the Finnish Constitution, the Bank of Finland operates under the
guarantee and supervision of the Parliament. The Bank's operations are supervised by the
nine-member Parliamentary Supervisory Council, appointed by the Parliament.
The Bank's executive is its Board, composed of the chairman - the Governor -and a
maximum of five other Board members. The Governor is nominated by the President of
the Republic upon the recommendation of the Parliamentary Supervisory Council, while
the other members of the board are nominated directly by the Parliamentary Supervisory
Council. A prerequisite of Board membership is the appropriate expertise.
The office of Governor of the Bank is for a seven-year term. Other members of the
Board have five-year terms. The same person may be selected as Board member for a
maximum of three terms. However, the Governor may be selected for two terms, even if
he previously served as member of the Board. The Governor is a member of the
Governing Council of the European Central, which therefore means that he is one of those
who decide on the monetary policy of the euro area
The present Board has four members: the Governor of the Bank of Finland; Deputy
Governor and two other Board members. Each of the Members of the Board has their own
Web presentation pages, including CV and photographs.
Text 6. Central bank resources and their use for specific budget purposes
The volume of quasi-fiscal operations conducted by central banks (credit subsidies,
actions in support of the government bond market, etc) depends on the specific monetary
situation and usually increases when this situation becomes slightly destabilised. The
volume of Bank of Russia quasi-fiscal operations expanded significantly after the banking
crisis of 1998. Although Article 22 of the Law on the Central Bank of the Russian
Federation and Article 93 of the Budget Code prohibit the Bank of Russia from extending
loans to finance the budget deficit by buying government securities at the time of their
initial placement, the 1998/99 federal budget laws permitted using for this purpose the
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income federal bonds. Although officially this was done through the Savings Bank
(Sberbank), it did not change the essence of the transaction. In addition, in that period the
Bank of Russia provided foreign currency to the Ministry of Finance through the
Vnesheconombank (Bank for Foreign Economic Affairs) for government debt payment
and service and restructured Bank of Russia-owned Finance Ministry bills and other
securities, including accrued interest. As a result, the Finance Ministry's debt to the Bank
of Russia amounted to RUB 655 billion (USD 21 billion) as of 1 January 2003, of which
RUB 385 billion, or 57% of Russia's domestic government debt, were denominated in the
national currency.
The structure of Russia's domestic government debt and securities market, as at the
start of 2002, will not allow the Finance Ministry to increase domestic borrowings in 2002
and the subsequent years or expand the range of debt instruments without increasing
interest expenditures (with regard to domestic debt), because a large part of domestic
government debt is now owned by the Bank of Russia. It should be noted that 94% of the
Finance Ministry's rouble-denominated debt to the Bank of Russia is non-marketable and
illiquid owing to a low coupon interest rate (from 0 % to 2%) and long maturity (up to 30
years). This debt is a drag on the Bank of Russia's balance sheet, depriving the Bank of
considerable resources and restricting the range of instruments it could otherwise have
used to enhance the efficiency of its monetary policy.
Text 7. Medium-term budget and tax positions of emerging market economies
The most widely used indicator of the position of the budget, and the efficiency of
the budget policy as a whole, is the ratio of the fiscal deficit or surplus to GDP. It should
be noted, however, that if it is necessary to determine more precisely the credibility of the
fiscal policy pursued, the analysis of this ratio should be complemented by information on
the structural aspects of government revenue and expenditure. In Russia, the size of a
budget deficit or surplus is calculated on a cash basis or by financing method. The Central
Bank of the Russian Federation (Bank of Russia) believes that one of the major
preconditions for the implementation of an efficient monetary policy today is the pursuit
by the federal government of a budget surplus policy, which creates conditions for optimal
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government debt management and makes enterprises competitive in the domestic market.
In the last few years Russia has had a budget surplus: calculated according to the cash
basis method, it was 1.1% of GDP in 2000, 2.6% in 2001 and 1.4% in 2002. Calculated on
the basis of liabilities, the surplus has been considerably smaller owing to the constant
accumulation of balances in the accounts of recipients of budget funds. The kernel of the
matter is that the Federal Treasury has not yet created a single account for day-to-day
management of budget resources. Budget-financed organisations are unable to gain instant
access to funds to fulfil their obligations and therefore they have to keep considerable
positive balances in their budget accounts. However, the main factor contributing to the
budget surplus is the persistent efforts made by the federal government to reduce the
country's domestic and foreign debt and create a financial reserve to compensate for peak
government debt payments. As a result, such fiscal tactics of the government have a
significant effect on the money supply and the monetary policy pursued by the Bank of
Russia.
Owing to the country's three-tier budget structure, the federal government's budget
surplus does not preclude budget deficits at the regional level. In 2000-02, the Russian
government implemented a policy of centralising tax revenues at the federal level while
simultaneously passing a part of regional and municipal budget liabilities to the federal
budget. Specifically, it made the decision to include all value added tax revenues in the
federal budget (previously 15-25% of VAT revenues went to regional budgets) and to cut
the profit tax from 35% to 24%. At the same time, regional budget obligations to finance
child and disability allowances have been transferred to the federal budget and transfers
have been increased for regions with budget deficits. Nevertheless, a number of regions
still have budget deficits.
Although under the Constitution the Russian regions are independent in managing
their budgets, Russia must have a single budget concept, which should be implemented on
the basis of effective budget interaction at all levels. It should be emphasised that a budget
deficit is not always a bad thing. Its nature and role should be evaluated taking into
consideration the causes, areas and uses of the additional financial resources mobilised and
the sources and methods of financing. In recent years the government has increasingly
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used budget reserves as a precaution against a possible budget deficit, even though this
method is not written down in the Budget Code. The 2002 Federal Budget Law provided
for creating a financial reserve from the budget surplus of RUB 110 billion and free
federal budget funds in the Federal Treasury accounts as of 1 January 2002. This fund can
only be used as a substitute for internal and external sources of financing the federal
budget deficit and government debt repayment. The Ministry of Finance manages the
financial reserve in accordance with the procedures set by the federal government.
(Oleg Vyugin)
Text 8. The central bank and cyclically adjusted budget positions
The Bank of Russia takes into account cyclical factors when forecasting the state of
government finances. It is clear that the budget surpluses of the last few years are the
result of economic growth (which is no longer restricted to export sectors) and that Russia
may see its budget position weaken as economic growth eases. To evaluate the budget
position from the viewpoint of its structural and cyclical aspects, calculations are made on
the basis of the prices of raw materials sold by Russian companies in world commodities
markets. These calculations are taken into consideration in drafting the budget for the next
year. It is the realisation of the difference between the structural and cyclical deficit that
lies at the base of the concept of creating a federal budget financial reserve. At the same
time, significant growth in budget revenues in 1999-2001, brought about by an economic
upswing, allowed the Russian authorities to continue reforms aimed at alleviating the debt
burden on economic agents. The government hopes that this will encourage further
economic growth and allow it to preserve the budget surplus.
The inherent automatic stabilizers of the Russian budget system play too small a
role today. Theoretically, the revenue side of the budget may dampen cyclical fluctuations.
Budget expenditures are normally approved beforehand and hardly increase at all during
the budget year, including expenditures on the socially vulnerable population groups,
although the 2001 and 2002 budgets provided for contingent expenditure items that would
only be implemented if more revenue was collected than planned. Moreover, a tax on the
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development of mineral resources was introduced, which partly protected the revenue part
of the budget from oil market fluctuations.
A large budget deficit or rapidly growing government debt makes it impossible to
increase budget expenditure and cut taxes in order to maintain economic growth during a
recession. In the upswing, for example, the opposite measures are impossible to implement
in order to suppress inflation, because such measures are not supported by the electorate.
As the public may consider a cut in taxes to be a temporary measure, its more far-sighted
representatives will be in no hurry to change their spending, so the deficit may increase
while aggregate demand will remain unchanged. The authorities responsible for the budget
may take such a long time to react (making amendments to tax and budget laws is a long
process, as has been noted above) that budget measures alone may not suffice to stabilize
the situation.
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