close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

2637.Grammar for students to understand business English. Ч

код для вставкиСкачать
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
ЛИПЕЦКИЙ КООПЕРАТИВНЫЙ ИНСТИТУТ (ФИЛИАЛ)
ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОГО УЧРЕЖДЕНИЯ ВЫСШЕГО
ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ ЦЕНТРОСОЮЗА
РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ "БЕЛГОРОДСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ
ПОТРЕБИТЕЛЬСКОЙ КООПЕРАЦИИ"
Л.Л. Курченко
О.В. Ермолова
ENGLISH
FOR BUSINESS COMMUNICATION
Учебное пособие для экономических специальностей
Часть II
Рекомендовано к изданию Научно-методическим советом института
Липецк 2007
1
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
ББК 81.2 Англ.я 73
К 93
Рекомендовано к изданию кафедрой
гуманитарно- социальных
дисциплин Липецкого кооперативного
института (филиала) БУПК
Протокол № 5 от 19.01.2007г.
Составители:
Курченко Лидия Леонидовна, старший преподаватель кафедры
гуманитарно-социальных дисциплин Липецкого кооперативного
института
Ермолова Ольга Викторовна, к.п.н., старший преподаватель
кафедры
гуманитарно-социальных
дисциплин
Липецкого
кооперативного института
Рецензент:
Кузовлев Владимир Петрович, к.п.н., профессор, начальник
отдела АСУП издательства «Просвещение»
К 93
Курченко Л.Л., Ермолова О.В.,
English for business communication.
Учебное пособие для экономических
специальностей. Часть 2./ Л.Л.
Курченко, О.В.Ермолова,
- Липецкий кооперативный институт
(филиал) БУПК, Липецк 2007 – с.
Учебное пособие содержит тексты, лексические и функциональносмысловые таблицы, лексико-грамматические упражнения для
самостоятельной работы студентов с текстами, ситуативные
упражнения.
Пособие
предназначено
для
студентов
экономических
специальностей факультета экономики и товароведения.
© Липецкий кооперативный институт, 2007
2
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
CONTENTS
3
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
ВВЕДЕНИЕ
Цель данного пособия – способствовать овладению студентами
современным экономическим мышлением, представить разнообразные
формы работы с оригинальной, адаптированной литературой для
извлечения полной, основной и частичной информации для
расширения экономического кругозора, приобщения студентов к
другим культурам.
Важной задачей пособия является расширение использования
индивидуальных возможностей студентов, как в условиях аудиторной,
так и внеаудиторной самостоятельной работы. Таким образом,
индивидуализация и дифференциация обучения составляет основу
методики обучения студентов, так как студент предстает перед
преподавателем как индивид с определенным уровнем развития
способностей, как субъект учебной деятельности, характеризующийся
разной степенью рациональности приемов выполнения задач, как
личность со своим опытом, интересами, эмоциями и чувствами.
Пособие состоит из 6 циклов (Unit). Каждый цикл включает различные
формы индивидуализации и дифференциации обучения студентов:
тексты для работы в аудитории с преподавателем с извлечением
полной информации («Read, say and discuss»), тексты, содержащие
лексико-грамматические упражнения для самостоятельной работы в
аудитории с целью извлечения основной или частичной информации
(«Read the text and do exercises on it in writing»), тексты, содержащие
упражнения переводного характера, помогающие студентам
реферировать, читать, аннотировать тексты по специальности («Read
and do exercises in translation»). Выполнение упражнений в переводе
предусматривает наличие знаний по грамматике в рамках
обозначенных программой тем, а именно знание и умение
распознавать и использовать:
- конструкции, выражающие субъектно-предикативные отношения
(с глаголами-связками, с глаголами, выражающими принадлежность);
- грамматические явления, выражающие действие (в настоящем,
прошлом, будущем) и характер его протекания;
- средства определенности - неопределенности (артикль,
местоимение), единичности - множественности предметов; интенсивности качества, порядка и количества предметов;
- средства выражения определительных и определительнообстоятельственных отношений (конструкции с инфинитивом,
причастием, герундием).
4
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Тексты имеют информационно-повествовательный характер и
разработаны на основе тем, предусмотренных программой; включают
упражнения, развивающие у студентов навыки работы со словарем.
Данное пособие включает лексические, функционально-смысловые
таблицы, которые дают возможность каждому студенту в силу своих
индивидуальных способностей изъясняться на английском языке,
систематизировать и обобщать информацию по различным проблемам
в
повседневных
ситуациях
общения,
профессиональной
коммуникации. На основе таблиц организуется как индивидуальная,
так и парная работа со студентами. Ролевые игры, дискуссии,
творческие задания по созданию проектов компаний организуются
после работы над текстом. Для работы с мотивированными студентами
в пособие включены тексты и задания повышенной сложности со
значком (  ). Работа каждого цикла завершается разделом, содержащим
упражнения по обогащению словарного запаса, развитию навыков
самостоятельной
работы
у
студентов,
расширению
культурологического и экономического кругозора.
5
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
UNIT I. FIRST INSIGHT INTO BUSINESS
‘It is all one to me if a man comes from Sing Sing or Harvard. We hire a
man, not his history.’
I. Starting – up.
1. In your opinion, which factors below are important for getting a job?
Choose the seven most important. Is there anything missing from the list?
age
sex
appearance
astrological sing
contacts and connections
experience
family
background
handwriting hobbies intelligence
marital status personality
qualifications
references
sickness record
blood group
2. Think about jobs your relatives had and interviews they attented. Ask
them questions about their worst
a) boss
b) jod
c) colleague
d) interview
II.Preparing for a career.
1. Read the text and say what career you are going to choose.
Now is one of the most exciting times to study business because
changes are occurring faster then they ever have in history.
A business is any activity that seeks profit by providing needed goods
and services to others. Businesses provide us with food, clothing, medical
care, transportation and almost everything else that makes life easier and
better.
Not everything that makes life easier and better is provided by
businesses. Nonprofit organizations such as government agencies, public
schools, associations, charities are organizations whose goals do not include
making a personal profit for their owners.
Nonprofit organizations do strive to make a profit, but such profit is
used to meet the stated social or educational goals of the organization, not to
enrich the owners.
The knowledge and skills you will learn in your business courses will
be useful for you in any organization. A person’s career is likely to consist
of many jobs in many industries. But not only you are likely to have jobs
but are also likely to have many different careers. A job is the specific
assignment one has with a specific company. A career is a job or a series of
jobs in an occupation or profession. For example, you may start off in a
bank with a job as a teller and move up to various jobs such as loan officer
and branch manager during your career in the banking profession. In the
future, you are likely to have careers in various occupations. To prepare for
6
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
a varied career or careers, you must become skilled and in what you do and
be prepared to do it for different employers. You may work for several years
in banking and then move to selling and then maybe start your own
business.
You may work in the goods-producing sector of society, the part of
society that produces tangible products (products you can see, touch,
inspect) such as automobiles, furniture and so forth. You may go into the
service sector, the part of society that provides intangible product such as
health services, financial services, business services, recreation services,
repair services. Most new jobs in the service sector are now in
communications – computers, media, phone systems and the like.
2. Look at the survey below, and say what factors are important for
you.
Compare them with a partner.
Factors considered when choosing your first job:
I want to:
% of
I want to:
% of
graduate
graduates
s
I don’t want to
 enjoy my job
I will
I would like to
I will be able to
72
30
I prefer to
I am going to
 be passionate about
the industry I work in
 like the people I work
 have job security
70
30
with
 have enough money to
 be in control of what
64
27
afford the things
I do
 receive training
 have a lot of freedom
63
21
at work
 find
the
work
 work for a well57
18
stimulating
known company
 have an inspirational
boss
 have a good social life
41
 have the opportunity to
39
 work overtime or at
weekends
 have a job that will
take me abroad
 have an excellent
40
7
17
16
15
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
take professional
qualifications
 work for a respected
company
 have a position of
responsibility
salary
35
30
3. Work
Put each of the following words or phrases in its correct place in the
passage below.
a) Applying for a job
references short-list experience vacancy qualifications
fill in
interview applicants apply
application forms
In times of high unemployment there are usually very many
(a)_____when a (b) ______________________ is advertised. Sometimes
large numbers of people (c) ________________ , and send off (d)______for
a single job. It is not unusual, in fact, for hundreds of people to (e)_____ to
a firm for one post. This number is reduced to a (f)_____ of perhaps six or
eight, from whom a final choice is made when they all attend an
(g)_______. Very possibly the people interviewing will be interested in the
(h)__________ he candidates gained at school or university and what
(i)_________ they have had in previous jobs. They will probably ask for (j)
__________ written by the candidates' teachers and employers.
b) Choosing the right job
commute
salary
prospects
Promotion
retire
pension
ambitious
perks
Increments commission
Job satisfaction is important but I have a wife and baby so I have to
think about money too. If a job interests me, I need to know what (a)_____
it offers and also whether there are regular annual increases, called
(b)________. I want to know if I will receive a (c)______________ when I
(d) ____________ at the age of 60 or 65. If the job is selling a product, I ask
if I'll receive a percentage of the value of what I sell, called
(e) ___________. It is also important to know if there are extra advantages,
like free meals or transport, or the free use of a car. These are called (f)
___________ or fringe benefits. Are the future (g) ___________ good? For
example, is there a good chance of (h) __________ to a better job, with
more money and responsibility? Is the job near my home? If it isn't, I'll have
to (i) _________ every day and this can be expensive. I am very keen to be
8
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
successful. I am very (j) __________. I don't want to stay in the same job all
my life.
c) at
in
for
to
as
off
of
a) I’m interested _____________ this job.
b) What did you study ___________ university?
c) He has applied _________ Lufthansa _______ a job _____ an
application form.
d) This job advertisement looks interesting. I’ll send _______ an
application form.
e) Have you filled ________ the form yet?
f) You must send _________ the form by 20 May.
g) He’s been _____________ that job for two tears.
h) She retired ____________ the ago of 60.
i) A commission means you get a percentage _________ what you
sell.
j) The use ______ a company car is a nice perk to have.
k) The sixty applicants were reduced __________ a short-list of four.
4. Preparing for a job: CV and interviews. You want a job. Answer
the following questions.
How do you give yourself competitive edge?
Have you decided what sort of job you really want? Yes/No
Have you spoken to anyone who does the sort of job you would like to
do?
Yes/No
Have you found out about the companies you would like to work for?
Yes/No
Have you spoken to anyone who works for these companies? Yes/No
Do you know what skills you have gained and the skills you have lost in
recent years?
Yes/No
Have you done anything in the last year which has developed your
skills?
Yes/No
Do you regularly read the business pages of newspapers or professional
journals?
Yes/No
Have you talked to a recruitment agency that specialises in your area of
work?
Yes/No
Have you written or updated your Curriculum Vitae in the last six
months?
Yes/No
Score
9
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Yes = 1 point No = 0 points
0-3 You need to spend more time on preparing yourself for a new job.
4-6 You have made a good start, but you still need to do more work to
stand out from the competition.
7-9 You are in a strong position to get a new job.
Whatever your score in the quiz, your CV can put you in a strong
position.
III. Types of Business
Read the text and say what each type of business offers to
customers.
1) Types of business:
a. Service businesses;
There are services provided by dry cleaners, travel agencies, lawn-care
firms, beauty parlours, and other businesses that cater to people. There are
also such service businesses as hotels/motels; health clubs; amusement
parks; income tax preparation organizations; employment agencies;
accounting firms; rental firms of all kinds; management consultants; repair
services (computers, robots, VCRs); insurance agencies; real estate firms,
stockbrokers; ect. There are many exciting careers available in such firms.
b. Retail businesses;
There are stores selling shoes, clothes, hats, skis, gloves, sporting
goods, ice cream; groceries, and more.
c. Construction firms;
These firms are building bridges, roads, homes, schools, establishments,
dams.
d. Wholesalers businesses;
There are a lot of wholesale food warehouses, wholesale jewellry
centres, wholesale firms. Wholesale representatives often make more
money, have more fringe benefits, and enjoy their jobs more than similar
people in retailing.
e. Manufacturing.
It's still an attractive career for graduates. There are careers for
designers, machinists, mechanics, engineers, supervisors, and safety
inspectors.
There are also thousands of small farmers who enjoy the rural life and
the place of farming. Small farms are usually not very profitable, but some
that specialize in exotic crops do quite well.
2) Functions of business.
1. Planning business.
10
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
2.
3.
4.
5.
Financing business.
Knowing customers.
Managing employees (human resource development).
Keeping records (accounting).
IV. Business Plan
1. Read the text and say what a business plan includes.
First of all the entrepreneur needs a business plan. A business ' plan is a
detailed written statement that describes the nature of the business, the target
market, the advantages the business will have over competitors, and the
resources and qualifications of the owners. A business plan forces potential
owners of small businesses to be quite specific about the products or
services they intend to offer. A business plan is also mandatory for talking
with bankers or other investors. To prepare a thorough plan, a person would
need the assistance of a good accountant.
A business plan should include the following:
1) A cover letter summarizing the major facts of your proposed
business.
2) A brief in scription of the industry and a detailed explanation of the
products or services to be offered.
3) A thorough market analysis that discusses the size of the market, the
need for the new product (service), and the nature of the competition.
4) A marketing plan that includes location, signs, advertising, display.
5) An operating plan that includes a sales forecast, financial projections,
accounting procedures, human resource requirements.
6) A comprehensive capitalization plan describing how much money the
owner(s) is committing. Few banks or investors will support a new firm
unless the owner(s) has a substantial financial commitment.
7) A description of the experience and expertise of the owner(s). This
may include a resume, letters of recommendation, financial statements.
2. Find in the text sentences containing ing-forms, modals,
Participle II, noun + noun phrase. Translate these sentences into
Russian.
*
3. Discussion.
You are the managers of companies. Make up your own business
plans.
11
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
V. Forms of Business Ownership
1. Read the text and fill in a table using it. Consult a dictionary
Business is a commercial enterprise performing all those functions that
govern the production, distribution, and sale of goods and services for the
benefit of the buyer and the profit of the seller. Since the beginning of the
era of economic progress old ways of running business have been modified,
and new forms of business organization have been introduced. This has
enabled various branches of industry to adapt to changing conditions and to
function more easily, efficiently and profitably; sole proprietorship,
partnership, and corporation being the main three forms of business
ownership.
A sole proprietorship is a business owned by one person, in which all
the profits belong to the owner, the latter being fully responsible for the
success and the failure of the business. Unless an activity is specifically
prohibited by law, no field of business is closed to an owner. Although
advantages for the small business exist in this form, certain drawbacks make
it undesirable for larger concerns. In the first place, the single owner is
seldom able to invest as much capital as can be obtained by a partnership or
a corporation. If single owners are able to invest large amounts of capital,
they run great risk of losing it all because they are personally liable for all
the debts of their businesses. It is due to unlimited liability that all the
personal assets of the owner, including his home and car, can be sold to
settle the debts of the business. Unless the owner has much personal wealth,
the business may have difficulty borrowing money in critical times. A sole
proprietorship may also have difficulty hiring and keeping good employees,
because the business will dissolve when the owner retires or dies.
A partnership is an association of two or more persons who have agreed
to combine their financial assets, labour, property, and other resources as
well as their abilities and who carry on a business jointly for the purpose of
profit. The agreement the partners usually sign to form an association is
known as a partnership contract and may include general policies,
distribution of profits, responsibilities.
Like the sole proprietorship, the partnership is easy to establish, and its
profits are not subjected to federal corporation taxes. Financing is generally
easier to obtain because the personal assets of the group are usually larger
and the chances of success are higher. The major disadvantage of the
partnership is unlimited liability of each partner for the debts of the
business, that is, complete financial responsibility for losses. Furthermore,
partners who wish to retire may find it difficult to recover their investments
without dissolving the partnership and ending the business.
12
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
A business corporation is an organization created by law that allows
people to associate together for the purpose of making profit. Corporations
are also known as joint-stock companies because they are jointly owned by
different persons who receive shares of stock in exchange for an investment
of money in the company. Shares represent fractions of the company's assets
such as cash, equipment, real estate, manufactured goods, etc.
Though the corporation is more difficult and expensive to organize than
other business forms, it has a number of advantages. First, investors can
limit their personal liability to the amount of money they have invested,
thus, if the corporation goes bankrupt, they can lose no more than they have
put in. Second, money to operate the business is obtained by the sale of
stocks to the general public and this enables the corporation to exist
independently of its owners. The corporation also finds it easier to borrow
money from banks and it is also a successful means for attracting large
amounts of capital and investing the latter in plants, modern equipment and
expensive research. Salaries, large corporations can offer to managers and
specialists, are high and that allows corporations to hire professional and
talented employees.
The great drawback of the corporate form of ownership is double
taxation of profits, which means that business corporations must pay taxes
on their net income, and then the shareholders are to pay taxes on the
income they receive as dividends on their stock. Different kinds of reports to
be filed to federal and state regulatory agencies about the corporation
activity can also be considered as another disadvantage of this business
form. However, in terms of size and influence it is the corporation that has
become the dominant business form existing in most countries with free
market economy.
Forms of Ownership
Features
You may use these phrases to write features:
is owned by …
carries on …
receive …
can (can’t) invest …
can borrow …
is responsible for
13
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
2. Corporation
1) Fist the text read and understand the confesist. Consult a
dictionary.
1. A corporation is a business organization authorized by the state to
conduct business and is a separate legal entity from its owners. It is the
dominant form of American business because it makes it possible to gather
large amounts of capital.
2. Before a corporation may do business, it must apply for and receive a
charter from the state. The state must approve the articles of incorporation,
which describe the basic purpose and structure of the proposed corporation.
3. The stockholders usually meet once a year to elect directors and to
carry on other important business. Each share of stock entitles its owner to
vote. A stockholder who cannot attend the meeting can legally authorize
another to vote his or her shares by proxy.
4. Management of a corporation consists of the board of directors, who
decide corporate policy, and the officers, who carry on the daily operations.
The board is elected by the stockholders, and the officers are appointed by
the board.
5. Some specific duties of the board of directors are to declare
dividends, authorize contracts, decide on executive salaries, and arrange IR
ajar loans with banks. Management’s main means of reporting the financial
position and results of operations is its annual report.
6. The corporation form of business has several advantages over the sole
proprietorship and partnership. It is separate legal entity and offers limited
liability to the owners, ease of capital generation and ease of transfer of
ownership. In addition, it allows centralized authority and responsibility and
professional management.
7. The corporation form of business also has several disadvantages. It is
subject to greater government regulation and double taxation. In addition,
separation of ownership and control may allow management to take harmful
decisions.
2)
a) Complete sentences. Fill in «is, are» or «have, has» where
necessary.
- The corporation form of business also ________ several
disadvantages.
- It ________ a separate legal entity and offers limited liability to the
owners.
- The board ________ elected by the stockholders.
14
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
- A corporation _______ a business organization authorized by the state
to conduct business.
- Some specific duties of the board of directors ______ to declare
dividends, authorize contracts.
b) Underline a noun, put a verb into the necessary tense form in
sentences:
- It (to make) it possible to gather large amounts of capital.
- Management of a corporation (to consist) of the board of directors,
officers.
- The state (must / approve) the articles of incorporation.
- Management’s main means of reporting (to be) its annual report.
c) Choose the necessary modal verb.
- Before a corporation may/can do business, it should/must apply for
and receive a charter from the state.
- Separation of ownership and control may/must allow management to
make harmful decisions.
- A stockholder who can/ought to not attend the meeting must/can
legally authorize another to vote his or her shares by proxy.
- The state may/must approve the articles of incorporation.
d) Make up a sentence connecting with who, which.
- The state must approve articles of the incorporation. The articles
describe the basic purpose and the structure of the corporation.
- Management of a corporation consists of the board of directors. Board
of directors decide corporate policy.
- Management of a corporation consists of the board of officers.
Officers carry on the daily operations.
e) Write down infinitive with «to» from §1, 3, 5. Translate these
sentences into Russian.
f) Choose one of the verbs to complete a sentence.
- The board _______ by the stockholders (elects/is elected).
- Officers ________ by the board (appoint/are appointed).
- It _________ centralized authority and responsibility and professional
management (allows/is allowed).
- Each share of stock _______ its owner to one vote (is entitled/entitles).
15
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
g) Form new words from the words given with the help of suffixes
and prefixes: er, tion, ness, in, ful, sion, dis, al, or, ing, ment, ly, ship.
Translate the new words.
separate
manage
owner
own
finance
add
busy
operate
profession
corporation
report
advantage
direct
partner
regulate
meet
proper
decide
harm
h) Write down Participle II from §1, 6. Translate these sentences
into Russian.
i) Complete sentences with what, who, how often, whom.
- … are the specific duties of the board of directors?
- … decides corporate policy?
- … do stockholders meet to elect directors?
- … is the board of directors elected?
- … is a corporation?
VI. Company Structure
1. Read and translate the text. Translate into your language not
word for word. Consult a dictionary.
1) When the company is organized, the structure is developed that
relates all workers, task and resources. This frame-work is called the
organization chart.
Top management is the highest level of management and consists of
president, economist and other key company executives who develop
strategic plans. Two terms you often see are chief executive officer (CEO)
and chief operating officer (COO). The CEO is often the president of the
firm and he is responsible for all the level decisions in the firm. The COO is
responsible for putting those changes into life. His tasks include structuring,
controlling and rewarding.
Middle management includes branch and plant managers, deans and
department heads who are responsible for tactical plans.
Supervisory first-line management includes people directly responsible
for assigning specific jobs to workers.
2. Introducing a company.
16
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Study the company structure.
The Board
Managing Director or Chief Executive
Sales and Marketing Director
SALES AND
MARKETING
DEPARTMENT
Financial Director
FINANCE
DEPARTMENT
SALES
MARKETING
HEADS OF
SALES
ADMINISTRATION
Personnel Director
RESEARCH AND
DEVELOPMENT
DEPARTMENT
Research Assistants
MARKETING
EXECUTIVE
Sales
Executives
Assistants
Complete sentences.
… consists of …
… is involved in …
…is engaged in …
…deals with …
…has …
… reports to …
…organizes …
… is based on …
…is responsible for…
17
PERSONNEL
DEPARTMENT
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
1. Have a look at the chart showing some qualities making a
good manager.
Being efficient: doing
things quickly, not
leaving tasks unfinished
Being decisive:
make quick
decisions
Being friendly and
sociable
Being logical, rational
and analytical
Being able to
communicate with
people
Being able to motive,
inspire and lead people
Being authoritative:
able to give orders
Say:
Being persuasive:
able to convince
people to do things
a MANAGER
Being competent:
knowing his job
perfectly as well as the
work of his
subordinates
Having good ideas
- which of these qualities seems to be most important;
- which of these qualities can be taught;
5. New ways of working
VII. Company Activities
1. Read the three descriptions structures. Then answer the
questions. Use a dictionary to help you.
Sole trader
One person sets up and runs the company. The person provides all the
capital and has unlimited liability for business debts, even if this means
selling personal assets.
Limited company
In a limited company (AmE corporation), the capital is divided into
shares, which are held by shareholders. Shareholders have limited
liability, but they can vote at the Annual General Meeting to elect the
Board of Directors. There are two types of limited company:
1) In a private limited company, all shareholders must agree before
any shares can be bought or sold.
2) In a public limited company, shares are bought and sold freely, for
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
example on the stock exchange.
Partnership
A group of people provide the capital, set up the company and
manage it together. There are two types of partnership:
1) Partners in an unlimited partnership are like sole traders – if the
business fails they are fully liable for all debts, and may even have to sell
personal assets.
2) In a limited partnership there can be sleeping partners who do not
participate in the management of the company. Sleeping partners have
limited liability – in the event of bankruptcy, they only lose their
investment, not their personal assets.
1. What are most people's main personal assets?
2. How can a sole trader get the capital to set up a business?
Think of five methods.
3. If a limited company has 5000 shares and each share is worth
£2.50, what is the capital of the company?
4. What are the advantages and disadvantages of being a sleeping
partner?
5. What is the difference between a sleeping partner and a
shareholder?
6. If a private limited company goes bankrupt, do the shareholders
lose their personal assets? Why?
7. What must you do to sell your shares in a private limited
company?
8. What are the advantages of a public limited company? Think of
three.
Make ten common business expressions with the words below, rcr
example, sleeping partner, annual general meeting. Use some words
more than once.
annual company exchange meeting private stock
assets unlimited general
board
debts
of
public trader
liability partner sleeping
business directors limited personal
21
sole
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Discuss these questions
Which of the words below can describe:
a) good qualities of an organization?
b) bad qualities of an organization?
professional impersonal
cold
Caring
disciplined
democratic decentralized
paternal Hierarchical welcoming
centralised slow-to-respond flat
market-driven bureaucratic
Which words could you use to describe your own organization or an
organization you know well?
2. Read, say and discuss.
Part I
Companies need customers. Some companies provide goods such as
clothes, cars and food. Other companies provide services, for example
insurance, banking, information technology or training.
Companies want repeat business, in other words, they want
customers to buy from them again and again. To win customer loyalty,
many companies have a code of practice, or set of rules, for customer
care. The code of practice explains what the customer can expect of the
company. Customers can complain about the service, or help, they
receive and the goods they buy.
Companies are involved in many activities, for example buying,
selling, marketing and production, in a range of different industries,
such as information technology, telecommunications, film, and car
manufacture. Many well-known companies are multinationals, these are
companies which operate in a number of countries. Multinationals often
have a complicated structure. There is usually a parent or holding
company. This company owns other companies or parts of other
companies. These other companies are called subsidiaries.
Business today is international. Business people often have to travel a
lot. They have to plan an Itinerary for a foreign business trip to make
good use of their time. On a business trip people may meet colleagues
and business partners for the first time. It is usual for colleagues from
different countries to experience cultural differences.
Sometimes companies realise that they are not achieving their goals
or objectives effectively, that is, they are not getting the results they need.
In this case they have to re-plan their strategy. It can be useful to get an
outsider, e.g. a management consultant, to analyse the company's
performance and recommend changes to make it more efficient. A SWOT
analysis can be useful, that is, an analysis of the company's strengths (S)
22
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
and weaknesses (W) and also of the opportunities (0) and threats (T), that
face the company. Troubleshooting, or solving problems, is a necessary
part of running a company.
Companies often include details about their history in their marketing
literature, their annual reports and company presentations, in order to
show that they are established, and have experience in their field. This
can include information about the founder or person who started the
company, and key dates and events in the company history.
Retailing is the provision of goods or services to the customer.
Retailers buy goods directly from the manufacturer or from a wholesaler,
(the middleman), and make their income from the margin, or difference,
between the price they pay for the goods and the price they sell the goods
at to the consumer. A retail outlet is the place where customers can
purchase goods, for example, a supermarket or a department store.
Nowadays, many customers are shopping from home: shopping by
Internet, TV channels, or mail-order catalogues is becoming very popular.
Part II
For nearly every type of product there are many similar goods on the
market. The Unique selling points (USPs) of a product are the things that
make it special and different from other similar products. A good
advertisement, which brings the product to the public's attention, should
describe these USP. The marketing department should have a customer
profile in mind that is the sort of person who will buy the product. When
trying to sell a product, it's important to give information about the
product's feature characteristics, and to emphasise the benefits or
advantages of the product to the customer.
Most people work because they need to earn a salary, but money is
not the only motivation or reason why people work. People get Job
satisfaction from different factors, such as social Interaction with
colleagues. Status, that is your professional position, and achievement,
doing something well, can be important. Some companies really value
their employees and see them as the company's main asset. Managing
people well can lead to better results and higher productivity for the
company, but this can be difficult to do. People respond differently to
different styles of management. Some organizations give their workers
freedom to develop their roles and others don't.
Companies and individuals often borrow money, and it is important
to find a favourable interest rate. Rates are variable, and can rise or fall
depending on the market. Many investors, (people who use their money
to earn more money), choose foreign or offshore bank accounts because
23
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
they are tax-free. Anyone can buy shares in a public company and
become a shareholder. All public companies in the UK are obliged by
law to publish their financial results at the end of the tax year. They do
this in their annual report to shareholders. Annual reports include profit
and loss accounts which show turnover, or the total sum of money
which is coming into the company.
In an open market any number of sellers or competitors can offer
goods for sale. An efficient producer, who keeps costs low, can set a low
price for goods that other companies find it difficult to compete with. All
companies try to gain the biggest market share possible, and compete
aggressively with their main competitors to do this. Companies with the
biggest market share for a product, the market leaders, may compete
with their rivals on quality, image, brand loyalty or price. Major
companies compete across borders in the global market place to try to
enter new markets in countries where they do not have a presence.
2. Continue a dialogue. Pairwork.
Prepare a list of things you would like to show to a visitor (e.g. their
company’s products, pictures or works of art in their company or place of
study, buildings in their town etc.).
A is the host and B the visitors.
A: This is our …
B: It’s very nice /very interesting/. It looks beautiful etc.
3. Read the text. Use each word once to complete the paragraph.
raw
labour
features
materials
salary
social
interaction
customer
profile
status
labour
costs
benefits advertisement
taxes
styles of management
A company’s marketing department should decide what type of
person will buy their product and have a1 ______ _______ or description
of the consumer in mind. Then they can design their advertisements. A
good2 ____________ should describe the3 __________ or characteristics
of the product as well as the4 ___________ or advantages of buying the
product.
The price of a product depends on various factors. Productions cost
are affected by the availability of5 ___________ or workers and the
availability of6 __________ or the things needed to make the goods. How
much the company has to pay the workers, or7_________ is another
24
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
factor, and also the amount the government charges the company in 8
_________.
The people who work for a company, or the company’s labour force
are the company’s most important assets. Many different things motivate
people to work, such as9____________, or money, 10 __________ or the
position they have in the company and society and the opportunity for 11
___________ _____________ and to meet other people. Different people
like different things, and the way managers treat employees, i.e. their 12
___________ _____ ___________ can be very important.
4. 1) The fashion model agency IMG solves a problem through
successful troubleshooting strategies. Read the text and complete the
notes after it.
A model manager
Company
History
The problem
The solution
The strategy
The result
IMG
One of the best-known model agencies in the industry
for many years with an excellent reputation as a
fashionable, forward-looking company.
The company loses its reputation as one of the best
and needs a new strategy.
The board appoints a new Managing Director,
Jonathan Phang. He has over fifteen years of
experience in the model industry.
Jonathan's main tasks are to find new models; to
generate more awareness of what the agency is all
about, and to encourage girls from other agencies to
switch to IMG. He also has to cut costs to make the
agency more profitable and stop representing models
who aren't making money.
IMG is now attracting excellent models which means
they are also attracting more clients and doing well
financially.
Past problem: The company's 1__________ was in danger
Solution: Recruit __________.
The strategy:
• Make the agency well-known.
• Persuade 3_________ to join the agency
• Reduce 4_________ and improve 5____
• Not represent models 6__________________
25
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
The results:
• 7__________ join the company.
• The company has more 8_________ .
• The company makes more9 __________.
2) Use the points below to complete a SWOT analysis for IMG at
the time Jonathan Phang joined the company.
• In the past - one of the best known companies.
• Model agency business is very competitive. A lot of other agencies
are looking for good models too.
• IMC no longer has a reputation for being fashionable or forwardlooking.
• New MD has a lot of experience.
• IMG is looking for new models.
• IMG has models who are not earning money for the company.
• MD has ability to make good financial decisions.
• All model agencies are looking for new models.
• Models switch to good agencies quickly.
• Profits can be excellent for a successful company.
STRENGHTS
WEAKNESSES
THREATS
OPPORTUNITIES
*3. Role play. Decide what people say in these situations.
a) A shop manager and a customer.
The customer returns a silk shirt to the shop – a button is missing.
b) A supplier and a customer.
The supplier invites the customer to dinner.
c) A marketing assistant and marketing manager.
The assistant offers to phone customers to find out their opinions
on a new product.
26
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
VIII. ACTIVITY
1. Groupwork
Interviewing
Prepare a list of about ten questions that you can ask another group.
The questions can be about their company, place of study, home town or
country of origin. Try to use many different question words as you can
(what, why, where, when, how many).
2. Complete each sentence with the present perfect of the verb in
brackets and a time marker - for or since.
1) Coca-Cola (have) ________ bottling plants outside the US World
War II.
2) Pepsi (be) ________ successful in Eastern Europe ________ 1959.
3) Pepsi (have) ________ an exclusive franchise in the Soviet Union
_________1972.
4) Coca-Cola and Pepsi (be) ________ in competition ________
many years.
5) Coca-Cola (outsell) _________ Pepsi in many Eastern European
countries _________ the collapse of the Berlin Wall.
6) Supermarkets (produce) ________ their own brands of cola
________ the last decade.
7) The Coca-Cola recipe (not change)____________ 1886.
3. Cable & Wireless is one of the world's leading suppliers of
telecommunications services. Use the prompts to write a paragraph
about the company.
• C&W - maintain a presence in the Arabian Gulf - 1870, and today
views the region as one of top growth potential
• C&W - operate - Asia - over 100 years
• In the Caribbean C&W - supply international connections - over a
century. They - run - domestic as well as international systems - 1980s
• C&W - operate in the UK - the 1980s
4. Work in pairs and take it in turns to find out more about your
partner. Complete the dialogue.
A.
Are you working at the moment as well as studying?
B.
Yes, I am. I work for ...
A.
How long have you worked there?
B.
For about three months/since January.
……………………………………………………
Ask about:
• work (where? how long?)
• where he/she lives (where? how long?)
• hobbies he/she has (what? how long?)
27
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
• study English (how long?).
5. Read the texts about two different companies and answer the
questions.
1. What does each company offer the customer?
2. What other examples of good customer care can you think of?
1) British Airways employees who make customers unhappy must
apologies in person. The company also has a number of items that it can
give to customers who are dissatisfied with their service. These range
from food hampers and calculators to soft toys and chocolates.
2) First Direct is the UK's leading 24 hour personal telephone bank.
Our personal service lets you take care of all your banking needs by
telephone, at a time and place to suit you, 24 hours a day, 365 days a year.
You can call to check your balance, pay a bill, discuss a personal loan or
increase your Visa Card 'limit. All calls from within the UK are charged
at local rates.
6. Match the information about these multinational companies to
the correct company logo.
Company activities
The company says
Company logo
REUTERS
EMI
___DHL___
WOLDWIDE
EXPRESS
MCKDONALD’S
1. The third largest record a 'We are committed to
company in the world. It providing high quality food'
is also the world's
largestpublisher of songs
and music.
2.The world's largest
hamburger restaurant
company. It has over
19,000 restaurants in 100
countries.
3. This company provides
news and financial data to
the business community.
4. This company is an
international air-express
carrier. It delivers
packages and documents
all over the world.
b '(We) lead the world in the
provision of news and financial
information to broadcasters,
newspapers, financial markets
and on-line services.'
c 'We aim to be the world's
premier music company in all
aspects of our business.'
d 'We keep your promises.'
7. ENTREPRENEURS
1) Read the text and do exercises on it in writing. Consult a
28
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
dictionary.
Entrepreneurs come in all shapes and sizes the dynamic, the cautious
and the greedy. But all of them hold an equal fascination for us. How do
they do it? What's their secret? Some of the world's biggest corporations
would like to know too. For entrepreneurism is in. And these days
everyone wants to be an entrepreneur.
But an entrepreneur is not what you are, it's what you become, and
real entrepreneurs exist only retrospect. At first, nobody takes them
seriously. They're crackpots dreamers, unemployables. And by the time
they've finally earned the respect of the business community they've
already made it. So cancel the classes on entrepreneurship and throw out
your business plan. For the road to entrepreneurial success can be mapped
out in advance. You get there one sale at a time.
In the beginning only the entrepreneur needs to see the goal, nobody
else. And the goal is quite simple: you get an idea; you identify your
customer; you make a sale. Then you make another and another and
another until your office in the spare bedroom has turned into the tower
block in Manhattan you always wanted. Forget about marketing strategy
at this Stage. What you need first is a steady cashflow. Bide your time.
Focus on the little things. That's how it works. Big companies are just
small companies that got bigger.
Take Richard Branson, for instance. For the founder of Virgin, the
first ten years were a struggle, with his company suffering some cashflow
problems until as late as 1980. By then the virgin Group was running 80
different operations, none of them making large amounts of money and
some of them losing money hand over fist. Yet in 1992 Branson's music
business alone sold for 560 million.
Or take Nicolas Hayek, the man who invented the Swatch and
brought the Swiss watch-making industry back from the dead. Hayek took
on Japanese market leaders, Seiko and Citizen, and beat them on quality
and price. Today he sells 28 million Swatches a year and has built a 21,6
bn company in the process. The Swatch is a 20th century icon. And,
incredibly, though the price of a new one has never increased, some of the
highly collectable early designs are now classed as art and fetch more
than 20,000 – not bad for a plastic watch!
So what is it that makes a good entrepreneur? Clearly, not the same
thing that makes a good manager. For good managers tend to come from
fairly conventional backgrounds. They’re the bright kids everyone knew
would do well, born organizers, who rise through the ranks to reach the
top of large corporations. But the budding entrepreneur is more likely to
be an outsider, a troublemaker, a rebel, who drops out of college to get a
29
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
job, discovers a flair for building companies from nothing, gets bored
quickly and moves on. Most of all, they’ll be a muster of riskmanagement. For risk doesn’t mean the same thing to the entrepreneur as
it does to the rest of us. The king of corporate raiders, Sir James
Goldsmith, sums it up best: «The ultimate risk», he says, «Is not taking a
risk». And that’s probably how he got to be a dollar billionaire.
2) Put the following entrepreneurial qualities into what you
consider to be their order of importance.
To be an entrepreneur you need:
1. drive
6. initiative
2. intuition
7. dedication
3. determination
8. guts
4. ingenuity
9. faith
5. dynamism
10. the killer instinct.
3) Which five of the above can you express by using an adjective?
To be an entrepreneur you need to be:
1.
………………………
2.
………………………
3.
………………………
4.
………………………
5.
………………………
4) Now match the other five with the definitions below:
1. To be an entrepreneur you need to have energy and motivation.
2. To be an entrepreneur you need to have courage.
3. To be an entrepreneur you need to come up with ideas and make
decisions on you own.
4. To be an entrepreneur you need to be prepared to destroy your
competitors if necessary.
5. To be an entrepreneur you need to believe in yourself.
*5) Without referring back to the article, put the following advice
on how to become an entrepreneur into the right order by numbering
the 16 parts below. The first and the last parts are in the correct
order.
О If you want to make it to
О sale at a time. You will, of course, need to take many calculated
О the top, forget about putting in a 18-hour
О biggest cause of business failure. Make sure you clearly identify
you
О established. That’s not how to beat
О risks on the way to making
О cashflow. For money problems in the early years are the single
30
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
О target customers and settle for making one
О your time and focus
О market leaders until you’re well
О for success, so throw out you business plan, bide
О strategy at this stage and should concentrate instead on achieving a
steady
О day or carefully mapping out you career in advance. There’s no
simple recipe
О your first million, but there’s no point in thinking you can take on
the
О on the little things to begin with. You can do without marketing
О the system.
*6) Discussion
These days a lot of companies try to encourage the entrepreneurial
spirit inside their organizations. They talk about the ‘entrepreneur’ or
enterprising manager with the intuition and nerve to take their company
into the 21st century. Do you think entrepreneurism can work within a
corporation? Can a manager ever be an entrepreneur?
*7) Read the story and characterize the relations between
entrepreneurs and the government nowadays.
The first part of the Russian Civil Code was recently enacted. This is
the document that is often referred to as the economic constitution.
Irina Dyomina,
…………………………………………………………………………
………………………Moscow News, 1996
After the second part is passed the main law of business will be
completed.
The legal fundamentals of private enterprise in Russia are often
contradictory. Many of the old laws, regulations and decrees are still valid
while the new once, devoted to the same issues, are increasing in number
and do not bother to agree with each other. The change of the main legal
acts regulating the economy that were enacted in 1991-1993 has begun.
The rules of economic trade are reconciled in the Civil Code, which is
to lay the scheme for all civic legislation.
It is for the first time in Russian history that the following
fundamentals of economic relations are legally confirmed: the equality of
participants in economic relations, the inviolability of property, freedom
of contract, noninterference in private affairs, unimpeded exercise of right
and the right to defend them in court.
Entrepreneur’s Property
Uncertainty for entrepreneurs often means the danger of a
31
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
redistribution of property. And there are grounds for these fears. In the
course of privatization and other reforms state interference is noticeable.
The state was usually an owner of controlling blocks of shares while the
final date of privatization was not stated in the law. This makes many
people fear that their property will be redistributed and that other
innovations will appear.
From now on all the legal grounds to retrieve property from an owner
are defined in the Civil Code. And no additional reasons could be
imposed by any other legal act including a federal law. There is no legal
ground for an arbitrary redistribution of what is already private property.
Naturally, there some kinds of property that could only be state
owned, like nuclear weapons for example.
32
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
33
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
1. Employees complain of being overworked and …….
2. Unions have imposed a ban on ………
3. Reports should be handed in to your …….. by the end of the
week.
4. A famous Italian car ….. firm has received a lot of profits thanks
to its brand.
5. We provide a first-class …….. of service.
10. The rising level of ……. leads people to poverty.
2. Globalisation
1) Read the text and understand the contents.
2) Read the text again and choose the best answer A,B,C or D
that best fits each space.
 Could you tell me about the advantages and disadvantages of
globalisation?
 The great advantage of globalisation in my view is that it
increases competition. Companies and firms have to be careful and have
to order their affairs so that they compete in a global market. But I think
that is outweighed by a large number of disadvantages.
 The first one is that it does hurt the local government’s ability to
deal with issues like welfare benefits, wages and taxes mainly because the
corporation is able to say to the British Government or the French
Government or the American government, “Look unless you lower your
taxes on us, we’ll be moving off to South East Asia or Latin America”,
and so on. And so it takes out of the hands of government the ability to
control their own welfare systems and provide a decent infrastructure for
their people. Now this is not so bad as long as there is some negotiation
between governments and companies. But more and more in recent years,
companies have started to rule the roost. The corporation … some
commentator said the other day, “The corporation is the most important
institution in our lives,” and I think there’s a lot of truth in that. They can
now dictate to governments and I want to see some kind of give-and-take
between governments and corporations. Now that’s the first problem.
 The other problem that I see, of course, is one of unemployment
in the Western world. As companies want to improve their profitability,
they’re going to be looking for the low-cost, low-wage centers. And we’re
just about to see a major change in the global economy, because of the
addition of China and India to the global labour market. There are
advantages in this but there’s a lot of problems as well because China and
India are going to provide a skilled population. Also, they’re going to
provide fairly good infrastructures for the companies that are going to go
34
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
out there. So we’re going to see a flight of capital from the West which is
going to be sudden and dramatic. If this is too sudden and is not managed
properly we could find very severe employment problems in the Western
world. So that is, I think, the kind of issue we’ve got to deal with as this
process of globalisation gathers pace.
2)1 It is quite clear from the text that globalisation
a) lowers taxes
b) enlarges competition
c) improves welfare benefits
d) provides a decent infrastructure
2)2 It is said in the article that globalisation has both
a) important institutions
b) governments and corporations
c) cross – cultural problems
d) advantages and disadvantages
2)3 The main drawback of globalisation is that it creates
a) profitability
b) corporation
c) unemployment
d) global labour market
2)4 Major changes take place in the global economy because of
a) the French and American governments
b) a large number of disadvantages
c) the addition of China and India to the global labour market
d) the give – and – take relations between countries
2)5 Globalisation has a lot of advantages but there are a lot of
problems because China and India are going
a) to increase competition among countries
b) to provide a skilled population
c) to leave a global labour market
d) to control welfare of the global market
2)6 To improve the profitability companies must
a) Influence governments, actions
b) rule the roost
c) develop global economy
d) look for the low-cost, low-wages centers
2)7 If China and India provide fairly good infrastructures for the
companies we will certainly see
a) a flight of capital from the west
b) some negotiations between governments and companies
c) the loss of the control out of the hands of governments
35
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
d) a major change in the global economy
3) a) Discuss these questions.
 What do you think globalisation means?
 Do you think globalisation is a recent trend?
 What global companies can you think of?
What industries are they in?
 Do global companies do more harm than good?
b) Match the words below with their definitions?
1. infrastructure
2. issues
a) important subjects that people discuss
b) money paid by the government to people in
need, for example, the unemployed
3 .profitability
c) basic facilities and services of a country, for
example: water, power, roads
4.
welfare d) a movement of large sums of money out of a
benefits
country
5
.flight
of e) the ability of a business to make money
capital
4) Answer these questions on the text.
1) Are you generally in favour of globalisation or against it?
2) Which of the points below do you agree?
Advantages
 Globalisation increases the power of governments.
 Globalisation increases competition among companies.
 Globalisation between China, India and the West will increase
employment everywhere.
Disadvantages
 Globalisation could lead to big employment problems in the West.
 Globalisation lowers people’s living standards.
 Globalisation prevents governments from controlling their welfare
systems.
 Globalisation creates cross-cultural problems, for example,
between India, China and West.
5) Complete the text below with these phrases from the interview.
Use a good dictionary to help you.
give-and-take
the roost
gather pace
36
rule
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
In some countries, international companies ………….1 and strongly
influence governments’ actions. Stephen Haseler thinks there should
be
………..2 between companies and governments. In the future, the
process
of globalisation will ………3 and the power of companies could
increase.
3. Going Global
a) Answer these questions after reading the text.
2. 1.What do you know about Boeing?
3. 2.Where is its head office?
3.What do you think in-plant and out-plant mean?
b) Which of these statements are true? Correct the false ones.
1. Boeing employees seem to be rather conservative and inwardlooking.
2. The chairman of Boeing believes the company must make changes.
3. Boeing used to be the train business.
4. The chairman thinks that Boeing is the most global
company in
the world.
5. The chairman wants people to identify Boeing a US company.
“Flight plan from Seattle”
By Michael Skinner
In the last thirty years, Philip Condit says, not much has changed. The
problem, he says, is not just that employees at Boeing think of other
countries as being exotic. They take the same attitude to anywhere in the
US outside Seattle, where the company has its head-quarters and its most
important factories. Boeing staff talk about something as being ‘in-plant’
or ‘out-plant’. In-plant means Seattle. Out-plant means one of the group’s
other locations, such as Wichita, Kansas.
Condit, who became Boeing’s chairman in February, wants to
change all that. Over the next 20 years, he wants Boeing to become a
global rather that a US company. Boeing employees could be forgiven for
thinking that being a Seattle company has served them well enough.
Boeing is the world’s most successful aircraft maker.
Condit believes, however, that Boeing cannot stand still. There are
too many examples in aviation and other sectors of what has happened to
countries that have tried to do that.
Last year, in a speech to managers, he described his vision of what
the group would look like in 2016, its centenary year. He told them that
37
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Boeing would be an aerospace company. It would not repeat earlier
mistakes such as attempting to enter the train or boat-building business.
Second, he said, Boeing would be a ‘global enterprise’. This would
mean increasing the number of countries of operation. He is impressed,
he says, by the way in which oil companies have benefited from losing
national images. ‘BP is probably the most global company in the world. It
is interesting to see that in the US its nationality has begun to disappear.
Almost everybody in the US says BP and not British Petroleum. It is a
local kind of company’. Royal Dutch/ Shell is another group which
manages to present itself as a local company in the countries in which it
operates.
Would he be happy if 20 years from now people did not think of
Boeing as being a US company? ‘Yes,’ Condit says. ‘I believe we are
moving towards an era of global markets and global companies.’
From the Financial Times
FINANCIAL TIMES
World business newspaper.
4. Entering new markets
A) When a company globalises, it tries to choose the best method to
enter its overseas markets. Match the methods below to the
definitions. Use a good dictionary to help you.
1 acquisition
2 joint venture
3 consortium
4 franchising
5 licensing
6 local partner
7 subsidiary
a) a company party or wholly by a parent company
b) giving someone the exclusive right to sell products
in a certain area
c) selling the right to a manufacturer’s trademark,
usually in a foreign market
d) buying or taking over another company
e) a person or company who cooperates with a foreign
company who wishes to enter the market
f) two or more companies join temporarily to carry
out a large project
g) a group of companies in similar businesses
working together
B) Complete these sentences with some of the methods listed
above.
1. Wal-Mart, a US retail chain, entered the Mexican market by setting
up a 50-50 ………………. with a local Mexican retailer.
38
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
2. When the Japanese tyre group Bridgestone entered the US market,
it made an ………………. , buying the local production base of Firestone.
3. If a company wishes to enter the Chinese market, it usually looks
for a …………… who will cooperate in setting up a joint venture.
4. If a company is short of capital to expand overseas, it may prefer to
have …………… or ………….. agreements with local businesses.
C) Correct the grammatical mistakes in these sentences.
1. Prague has become central Europe’s most glamorous city.
2. Most tallest office towers in the most cleanest cities in Kuala
Lumpur.
3. Cleveland is now one of the most cleanest cities in North
America.
4. In Buenos Aires foreign bankers are as common that coffee house
poets.
5. The London Underground is worst than the Tokyo Underground
system.
6. Ireland is not as larger as Sweden.
7. The London Stock Exchange is very older than the Singapore
Exchange.
8. Their prices are very high in compared to ours.
5. Fortune Garments
1 Read the text and say what the text is about.
1) This week, the international fashion group Fortune Garments is
holding its first global conference in Barcelona, Spain, Fortune Garments,
one of Hong Kong’s oldest trading groups, makes high quality, clothing.
It has become a global company: it has over 3000 suppliers in 17
countries, and employs staff from all over the world in its head office and
factories. It is expanding rapidly in foreign markets with sales of over $
US 1.8bn.
Fast delivery, innovative design, and reliable quality essential for
success in the fashion business. Fortune Garments’ Chairman, Michael
Chau, is proud that his company can usually accept a major order and
deliver the goods to a customer within four weeks. However,
globalisation has brought problems in the company’s overseas plants, and
this is having a bad effect on its share price. A journalist from the Eastern
Economist Review suggested recently that the company could become the
target of a takeover if it didn’t sort out problems soon.
Managers from all the overseas plants are attending the conference.
Michael Chau has asked them to consider the problems outlined in the
discussion document below.
39
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
2) Many subsidiaries make clothing from materials supplied by
several of the company’s plants. Although this helps to lower costs, the
materials are often of poor quality. This has resulted in cancelled orders.
Recently, a German distributor refused a consignment of 50,000 blouses.
The goods simply did not meet its quality standards. Cancellation of the
order cost Fortune Garments half a million dollars in lost sales.
3) Orders have also been cancelled because Fortune Garments’
subsidiaries are not responding quickly to customers’ needs. When
customers want last-minute changes to clothing the plants cannot meet
customers’ tight deadlines. For example, an Australian fashion chain
cancelled an order because the US plant was not able to make minor
changes to some silk jackets in time for their summer sale. The lost sale
cost Fortune Garments over $US 400,000.
4) When the company was smaller, it had the same low-pricing
strategy, but the design of its clothing was outstanding. However,
nowadays, the company seems to have lost its creative energy. Its latest
collection were described by a famous fashion expert as boring, behind
the times and with no appeal to a fashion-conscious buyer’. Other experts
agreed with this opinion. The problem is that ideas are not shared between
the company’s designers. According to one designer, “There’s not enough
contact between designers at the different production centers. The
designers never meet or phone each other, and they rarely travel abroad.”
Michael Chau is aware that morale is low among managers and
lower-level staff. He has asked a business consultant to investigate the
reason for this. Here are the consultant’s main findings.
5) 1. Managers of subsidiaries say they are underpaid. They are
demotivated and feel their contribution to the group’s profits is
undervalued.
2. The majority of managers say they should have a share in the
profits of their subsidiary (5%-10% was the figure most commonly
mentioned).
3. All managers reported that they did not have enough freedom of
action. They want more autonomy and less control from head office over
finance, pay, and sources of materials.
4. Managers need more advice on quality control, and would like
more contract with staff from other subsidiaries.
6) 1. Staff turnover is high in most factories. Industrial accidents are
common, mainly because health and safety regulations are not being
properly observed.
40
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
2. Factory workers complain about their wages. They are paid
according to local rates, which in some countries are very low. They are
often expected to work overtime without extra pay.
3. Administrative staff said their offices are overcrowded and
badly ventilated (e.g. too hot in summer, too cold in winter).
4. Supervisors from head office are often of different nationality
from their staff. This causes communication problems. Many factory
workers said they did not always understand their supervisors’
instructions.
2 Look at the list of headings A –G/and then read the text again.
After each paragraph look down the list and choose the heading that fits
best. There is one extra heading you don’t need.
A Quality Control
B Design
C Management
D Background
E Responding to customer needs
F Factory workers and administrative staff
G Profitability
3 Group work. Produce an action plan to solve Fortune Garment’s
problem.
6. * Read the text and say why Russian businessmen try to
penetrate into Bahvein.
What Awaits Russian Businessmen in Bahvein
Bahrein, a small island country in the Persian Gulf with population of
650,000, begins to play a particular role in the plans of Russian
businessmen. Owing to its rich oil reserves, Bahrein has turned, over the
trading in pearls into a center of commercial and banking activity for the
whole region.
Today, with oil reserves running thin, the country’s leadership has
switched to the policy of diversifying the economic pattern. As a result of
it, 47 off-shore banks with the gross assets totaling $60 billion are
operating in Bahrein at present. Apart from that, many leading American
and West European companies have transferred their region offices there.
Russian businessmen have recently started “settling” Bahrein. The
Russian embassy opened in Manama three years ago, and Aeroflot planes
land in Bahrein once a week. Russian businessmen pay episodic and
short-term visits to Bahrein. Unfortunately for the time being only
adventuristic private companies or weak state-run structures with limited
41
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
financial resources display interest in developing cooperation with Arab
country.
Among Bahrein companies actively seeking to cooperate with
Russian special mention should be of Zayani. This group, headed by the
director of the National Bank of Bahrein, had already proposed several
interesting projects to Russian, for instance, the construction of paid
covered parking lost in Moscow. However, none of the projects have been
implemented because of red tape delays on the Russian side.
At the same time Russian tourism to Bahrein is steadily growing in
scope at the rate of seventy to eighty tourists per week. These are mainly
so-called shuttle-traders who buy in Bahrein its cheap TV and radio
devices, computers and consumer goods. Russians also go to Bahrein on
vacation. Not too expensive but comfortable hotels, sea beach, swimming
and burning, shopping- all this make the vacation a real pleasure.
According to V. Kashirsky, head of the Russian trade mission in
Bahrein, nearly 800 Russian businessmen visited the country in 1993,
though only a few of them achieved tangible results. Local companies
which actively cooperate with Chinese, South African or British firms
have a rather vague idea of the possibilities of Russian businessmen.
That is why, Kashirsky believes, the best way for a Russian firm to
penetrate the local market is to be presented by the Bahreini Chamber of
Commerce and Industry. This will provide the firm, free of charge, with
the possibility to establish contacts with the interested business circles of
the region, sign important contracts and examine commodities offered by
the Bahreini side.
Today Russian companies which seek to place roots in Bahrein offer
their services in prospecting oil and drilling oil wells (in particular,
Hermes), and also in construction a large tanker sea port. In great demand
are Russian metal structures, time and saw-timber.
Officials of the Bahreini Chamber of Commerce and Industry told
your correspondent about their willingness to buy Russian gold, diamonds
and other precious stones for the firms which specialize in manufacturing
jewellery.
Prospects of Russian banks for penetrating Bahrein’s banking market
are also promising. Since the terms for opening and functioning of foreign
banks’ divisions in Bahrein are more favorable than in other Persian Gulf
countries, Russian banks could use their offices in Bahrein to conduct
financial and commercial transactions in the whole region (for instance,
Mezhcombank intends to open its division in Bahrein in the near future).
In general, there are quite good possibilities for Russian businessmen to
consolidate their presence in Bahrein today: these include a favorable visa
42
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
regime (as distinct from neighboring Qatar, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait),
the desire of the Bahreini Chamber of Commerce and Industry to
cooperate with Russian businessmen and number of spheres where
bilateral contacts may be useful to both countries.
43
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Unit 3.Consumer cooperation.
I. Starting – up.
1. Match the words (1-15) connected with consumer cooperation with their
meanings (a-o).
1. consumer
5. procurement
a) a feeling of pleasure because one has sth or
has achieved smth
b) the
action of manufacturing, growing, extracting
things esp in large quantities
c) the job or work of providing food etc. for
social events
d) the practice of selling goods in small
quantities to the general public
e) an owner of shares in a business company
6. production
f) a person who buys goods or uses services
7. catering
g) involving acting or working together with
one another or others for a common purpose
h) the process of obtaining
2. cooperation
3. purchase
4. satisfaction
8. retail
9. wholesale
14.partnership
i) doing sth or working together for a common
purpose
j) the selling of goods in large quantities to
shopkeepers for them to sell to the public
k) work done or duties performed for a
government, company
l) a group of two or more people working
together as partners
m) the process of cooking smth by dry heat in
an oven
n) the people living together in a house
15. household
o) to buy smth
10. shareholder
11. cooperative
12. baking
13. services
2. Fill each of the gaps in the following sentences with one of the words
listed.
44
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Households, service, cooperative, cooperation, procumbent, catering,
wholesale, consumers, satisfaction, production, retail, shareholders,
being baked, partnership, purchase.
1………..are encouraged to complain about faulty goods.
2. A report is produced by the government in……….. with the chemical
industry.
3. She can look back at her career with great …………. .
4. He is charge of weapons ………… .
5. We can observe a fall in industrial ………… .
6. Who did the ………….for your son’s wedding?
7. The manufactures recommended………….price $900.
8. The………….market is worth developing.
9. ……………were pleased with their profits.
10. The………….movement started in Britain in the 19th century.
11. The bread is………….
12. The food is good in this hotel but………….is poor.
13. She worked in ………….with her sister.
14. Most ………….now own a television set.
15. The receipt is your proof of a…………….
2. Business Activities of Consumer Cooperation.
1) Read the text. For statements below the text choose the answer a, b,c or
d which you think best according to the text.
Consumer cooperation is a large multipurpose business system of
Russia. The law on consumer cooperation states the main goal of
consumer cooperation system in the following way: satisfaction of
shareholders' and general public needs in
goods and services. Consumer cooperation in the interests of shareholders
is engaged in trade, procurement and production activities as well as in
different kinds of services including paid ones.
The main sector of consumer cooperation is trade. The concrete
provider of trade services is retail trade, which possesses a broad network
of retail trade enterprises: stores, stalls, kiosks, moving shops and so on.
Consumer societies including district consumer societies are mainly
engaged in retail trade. To supply retail trade units with food and nonfood
goods consumer cooperation is engaged in wholesale trade.
45
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
The enterprises of wholesale trade include wholesale trade
warehouses and bases, which on a contract basis purchase goods from
production enterprises belonging to consumer cooperation (own
production) as well as from enterprises of other forms of ownership, from
worker cooperatives and citizens.
The main index of retail trade is retail turnover. The retail turnover is
sales of goods for individual consumption. Retail trade units and public
catering units are mainly those companies, which are engaged in retail
trade.
Public catering is of great importance in meeting the needs of
shareholders and general public in goods and services. This system
includes different enterprises: cafeterias, restaurants, snack bars and so
on. This system on has its own peculiar features, which are expressed
in the combination of production function while cooking food and its
sales (trade function).
Consumer cooperation is a large multipurpose procurement system. It
is engaged in purchases of more than 60 types of agricultural products and
raw materials: meat, milk, eggs, honey, potatoes, vegetables, fruits,
berries, and so on. Consumer cooperation enterprises purchase goods
from agricultural companies belonging to different forms of ownership:
associations, partnerships, agricultural cooperatives, and farmers
households.
Industrial production is an important sector of consumer cooperation.
Consumer cooperation is engaged in bread baking, processing of
agricultural produce and raw materials, production of different types of
consumer goods, construction materials, and equipment for trade system.
Baking of bread is a leading sector of a cooperative industry.
Consumer cooperation organizations provide to population both paid
and free services mainly trade and production. Here belongs services on
providing information to the clients on certain goods and services,
organization of cafeterias at large retail stores, hauling of big size goods
to consumers' homes, small repairs of technically complicated equipment
and so on.
1.1 It is quite clear from the text that consumer cooperation presents:
a) the enterprises of wholesale trade.
b) a large multipurpose procurement system.
c) information to the clients.
d) a large multipurpose system of Russia.
46
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
1.2 Trade is divided into:
a) cafeterias and restaurants.
b) moving shops and stalls.
c) cooking food and its sales.
d) retail trade and wholesale trade.
1.3 Wholesalers buy goods from:
a) production enterprises, cooperatives, citizens.
b) production enterprises, shareholders and cafes.
c) agricultural companies, cooperatives.
d) partnerships, farmers.
1.4 Consumer cooperation is based on:
a) interests of shareholders.
b) consumer societies.
c) industrial production.
d) small repairs of complicated equipment.
1.5 Procurement is the main sector of:
a) general public.
b) consumer cooperation.
c) public catering.
d) trade enterprises.
1.6 The main objective of consumer cooperation is:
a) to express peculiar features.
b) to produce raw materials.
c) satisfaction of consumers in goods and services.
d) to haul big size goods to consumers.
3. International Cooperative Movement.
Read the text and do exercises on it in writing. Consult a dictionary.
1) Pre-reading. Check the meaning of the following words in your
dictionary:
47
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Movement global unite research characterize possess distinguish
acquire
agrarian gain momentum credit insurance irrigation
pharmaceutical veterinary funeral managerial machinery steady
International cooperative movement is a global social and economic
movement, which unites national cooperative movements.
The international cooperative movement is a mass social and
economic movement of the present day, which unites more then 800
million people-members of cooperatives of different types supported by
governments and international organizations, research workers, public and
political leaders.
Cooperative movement is characterized by various types of
cooperatives a lot of many of which possess a lot of common features
according to which they can be classified.
Agricultural processing cooperatives are distinguished according to
the type of raw materials they process: milk, coffee, rice, and others.
These cooperatives buy, process, and sell commodity goods produced by
agricultural producers.
Consumer cooperatives sell consumer goods. They distinguish
consumer cooperatives, which are engaged in retail trade, wholesale trade,
and public catering. At present consumer cooperatives acquire more and
more features of multipurpose cooperatives.
Sales cooperatives are distinguished according to the type of
commodity goods they sell. These cooperatives are the most numerous
ones in the agrarian sector of economy. Supply cooperatives buy means of
production and trade and supply them to their members -producers of
goods and private traders. Supply and sales cooperatives are gaining more
and more momentum.
Construction cooperatives are engaged in construction of houses,
industrial buildings and roads.
Credit cooperatives provide production and consumer credits. They
distinguish credit cooperatives of goods producers and credit cooperatives
of citizens (credit unions). Credit cooperatives can e their members both
financial and non financial services.
Service cooperatives provide services to the population and
enterprises. Among them we can name such as cooperative insurance
associations, irrigation cooperatives, medical and pharmaceutical,
veterinary, project, funeral cooperatives, cooperatives, which provide
48
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
managerial services. At present service cooperatives have gained a
considerable development, especially those cooperatives, which provide
social services to the population.
Multifunctional cooperatives are also known as mixed, multipurpose
or general purpose cooperatives. They are distinguished according to the
sphere of their activity.
For example: multipurpose cooperatives in agriculture are engaged
in sales, processing, supplies, transport, storing, trade, insurance services,
repair of machinery and others.
The growing number of multipurpose cooperatives is a steady trend
in the cooperative movement.
2) While reading. Answer the questions on the text.
a) What idea does the text present?
b) How is cooperative movement characterized?
c) What are cooperatives divided into?
3) Post reading
Find sentences which don’t correspondent to the contents of the text.
a) agricultural processing cooperatives are distinguished according to
the type of raw materials they produce: milk, coffee, rice;
b) sales cooperatives are distinguished according to the type of
commodity goods they sell;
c) construction cooperatives are engaged in services;
d) credit cooperatives provide production and consumer credit.
4) Choose the word A-D that fits best each gap (1-4)
a) International cooperative movement is a … movement.
1. processing
2. national
3. social and economic
4. holding
b) Credit cooperatives provide their members…
1. construction of houses raw materials
49
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
2. financial and non financial services
3. raw materials
4. public catering
1.
2.
3.
4.
1.
2.
3.
4.
c) Construction cooperatives are engaged in…
small repairs of equipment
industrial building
retail trade
insurance services
d) Cooperative movement is characterized by…
international organizations
agricultural processing
a steady trend
various types of cooperatives
5.1
Complete the sentences 1-8 using the most appropriate words (a-h).
1. Credit cooperatives provide
2. Consumer cooperatives sell
3. Sales cooperatives are
distinguished
4. There are cooperatives
5. The international cooperative
movement unites
6. Service cooperatives provide
a) according to the type of
commodity they sell.
b) which provide managerial
services.
c) production and consumer credit.
d) commodity goods.
e) according to the sphere of their
activity.
f) service to the population and
enterprises.
g) consumer goods.
7) Agricultural cooperatives buy
process and sell
8) Multifunctional cooperatives are h) more then 800 million peopledistinguished
members of cooperatives of
different types.
50
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
5.2 Fill in the table
The name of the cooperative.
Its functions.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
5.3 Read story again and say what types of activities different
cooperatives are engaged in.
Use the following words:
…is/are distinguished…
…is/are engaged in…
…provide…
…is based on…
…process, sell, supply…
…is/are divided…
4.The development of cooperative movement in Russia.
1. Read the text paying no attention to gaps and say how cooperation
with Alliance influence on Russian cooperative movement.
The first cooperative in Russia was set up by Decembrists in 1831.
The whole history of Centrosoyuz is the 1_________ of consumer
cooperative movement in Russia, which witnessed the periods of
growth and crisis. In the conditions of market economy consumer
2_________
movement faced the problem of survival. Centrosoyuz of the Russian
federation is constantly working to protect the interests of the movement,
defines the 3_________ and tactics of its development. The main goals
of the Centrosoyuz are the following: strengthening of democratic basis of
51
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
the cooperative movement, complying with cooperative principles and
values, broadening ties with ICA.
The consumer cooperative system was created by the service the 4
_________ of the people. Today it is a unitied business structure which
possesses developed material and technical basis and 5 __________
practically all rural population. More than 14.5 million shareholders are
members of the cooperative and their number is constantly growing.
Russia’s consumer cooperative system has been a 6 __________ of
International Cooperative Alliance since 1903. It is facing many
problems at present but it will be able to 7 __________ many mistakes in
this development. The Alliance is providing Russia’s cooperatives with
real 8__________, giving the opportunities to get acquainted with the
experience of cooperative movements in different countries of the world.
The cooperation with Alliance will be strengthening and broadening. This
awareness is supported by the fact that the consumer cooperative system
of our country is 9 ___________ on the international arena.
Russia is a 10 ____________ country. Its enormous area, federative
structure, mentality of its people make it different from other countries of
the world. But 11 __________ in the international cooperative movement
unites us with the rest of the world. Cooperative movement of Russia
remains alive proving its adherence to cooperative principles: free will, 12
_________, independence, equality, self–help and self–responsibility,
justice and solidarity. The existing problems are of temporary character
and they will be overcome. Russia’s consumer cooperative system will
take its adequate 13 _________ in the international cooperative
movement.
2. Read the text again and choose the word that fits best each gap.
help, special, participation, cooperative, interest, member, serves,
recognized,
democracy, history, strategy, avoid, place
Trade
I. Starting – up
1. Mach the words (1-10) connected with trade with their meanings (a-j).
52
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
1 trade
2 brand
3 quality
4 merchandise
5 invent
6 counterfeit
7 logo
8 network
9 promotion
10 discount
a) to make or design sth that has not existed before
b) goods bought and sold
c) a closely linked group of people, companies
d) a type of product manufactured by a particular
company; trade mark
e) the amount of money taken off the usual cost of sth
f) how good or bad sth
g) the process of raising sb or being raised to a higher
position or more important job
h) the exchange of goods and services for money or
other goods; buying and selling
i) to copy coins, writing in order to deceive
j) a printed symbol designed for and used by a
company or society as its special sign eg. In
advertising
2. Fill each of the gaps in the following sentences with one of the
words listed.
discount, network, invented, quality, trade, brand, merchandise,
counterfeit, promotion
1. In the past ten years Japan’s ___________ with Europe has greatly
increased.
2. Our product is the __________ leader.
3. This paper is very poor ___________ .
4. Over 200 stalls offer a wide choice of __________ .
5. Laszlo Biro __________ the ballpoint pen.
6. This ten – dollar bill is __________ .
7. They set up a __________ of financial advice centers.
8. He has just got a job with excellent ___________ prospects.
9. We offer a 10% __________ for cash.
II Retailing
53
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
1.1 Read the text and answer the following questions bellow the text
paying no attention to the gaps.
The retailer performs the last stage of the production process for it is he
who puts the goods in the hands of the actual customers. 3
._______________________________________________ .
There are four types of retail institutions: 1) speciality stores; 2)
supermarkets; 3) general merchandise stores; 4) nonstore retailing.
5.
___________________________________________________________
___. These stores having a better feeling of their market compete against
giant department stores. They can adjust more quickly to market
conditions. Big supermarkets are usually well located. All the goods are
arranged on trays and shelves. All the prices are clearly marked. The
goods are ready -weighed and beautifully packed. There you can find
everything you need.1. _______________________.
General merchandise stores (QMS) carry a wide variety of products.
There are three types of GMS: a) department stores; b) discount stores; c)
hypermarkets.
Big department stores started in America more than 50 years ago, and
then idea was brought to European countries. These stores are wonderful
places.6. _____________________________. All the things for sale are
displayed so that they can be easily seen, and the customers walk around
and choose what they want.
The store is divided into departments: women’s clothes, men’s clothes,
shoes,
toys,
sports
goods,
china
and
glass
etc.2._______________________________________________. You will
also find a room where you can rest if you are tired. There’s an office
where you can book seats for the theatre or arrange to travel anywhere in
the world. Low price is the major attraction of the discount stores.4.
________________________________________. The stores keep long
hours and usually open on Sundays .Hypermarket is a type of discount
store that was developed in Germany. They are very large stores with
low-price and high-turnover products. Hypermarkets achieve cost savings
by simplifying their unpacking and display.
There are three major types of nonstore retailing: a) vending machines;
b) door-to-door sales; c) catalogue sales.
1. How many types of GMS are there?
2. What is the department store like?
54
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
3. How are goods arranged in supermarkets?
4. What is the main characteristic of discount stores?
2. Read the missing sentences A-F and then read the text again. Choose
the sentences which best fits each gap (1-6).
a) The prices are reasonable.
b) There may be a restaurant with an orchestra and sometimes a tea –
room as well.
c) His work is «to have the right goods in the right place at the right
time».
d) These stores sell the most popular items, colors and size.
e) Often speciality stores sell one type of product, such as clothing,
jewelry, furniture, books.
f) People can do all their shopping under one roof.
III WHOLESALING
2.1) First read the text paying no attention to gaps. Then read the text
and use the word given in capitals at the end of each line to form a
word that fits in the space in the same lane.
Wholesalers are the institutions, which stand between the _________
Manufacture
and the retailer. A wholesaler buys goods in bulk from producers and
sells them in small quantities to retailers. In doing so, he helps the
_______
Product
process. If you had an intention to be a successful manufacturer, you
would make high quality products at a reasonable price for selected
markets. If you intended to be a wholesaler, you would learn how to
serve the market.
Wholesaler economizes the distribution. The most _______ function
Important
of a wholesaler is to contract manufacturers and potential customers.
Thus, nine contracts and deliveries are necessary if three firms supply
directly three retailers, where each producer deals only with a wholesaler,
reducing the total number of transactions to six.
55
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Wholesalers are used for information and advice. ________that customers
Suggest
make to the retailer are passed to the wholesaler who conveys them to
the manufacturer. Thus, the latter can ______his product.
Improvement
A wholesaler keeps stocks. Shoppers like to obtain goods immediately.
This requires stocks. Often, however, neither the producer nor the
_______
Retail
has extensive storage facilities and responsibility falls on the wholesaler.
Moreover, he arranges imports from abroad. Foreign manufacturers can
rarely bother to ship small parcels to individual retailers abroad. They
prefer to deal with a wholesaler, an important merchant with established
trade _______ .
Connect
Wholesalers may be classified into three groups: manufacturerowned________ Operate
merchant wholesalers, merchandise agents and brokers. Manufacturers
can establish their own wholesaling office or branch, the latter
providing more services to its customers. Depending on the industry
or _______ location, merchant wholesalers are called distributors,
Geography
jobbers, or dealers. Among merchandise agents there are ________
Sell
agents, brokers, commission agents and action companies. They are
all compensated by either a commission or a ________ fee.
Broker
2.2) Rewrite these questions beginning with the given words
a) Does a wholesaler buy goods in bulk from a producer?
Could you tell me ____________ .
b) Who economizes the distribution?
Could you let me know ____________ .
c) What does a wholesaler keep?
I’d like to know ____________ .
d) Where does a wholesaler arrange imports?
I wonder ___________ .
e) How are the wholesalers classified?
Can you find out ____________
56
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
2.3) Compare the two texts “Retailing” and “wholesaling” and make up a
chart to present trade in the best way.
3) a) Describe the store: age, location, size and say what type of retail
outlet it is.
Selfridges is department store which began trading over 85 years ago.
It is based in Oxford Street and is London’s second largest department
store after Harrods, with 150,000 m2 of retail space. In the 1990s the
store experienced some problems with its image because people
thought it was old-fashioned. To solve the problem, Selfridges invested
£50m to re-establish the business as one of the capital’s main shopping
attractions. They decided to offer a wide choice of products to attract
more customers. They built a huge central ‘atrium’ entrance hall and a
series of new stores. Some of the stores are re-designed and others,
such as children’s World, have their own restaurant.
Why we don’t like
shopping
b) Work in pairs. Look at the bar chart
which
shows reasons why people don’t like
shopping.
-Discuss these questions
Queues
428
Crowds
18
Finding products
1. What are the two main reasons people don’t
like shopping?
57
8Parking
7
Not enough time
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
2. What can retailers do about these two
problems in your opinion?
-Do you like shopping? Why?
-What do you think about catalogue
shopping, Internet shopping and 24 hour
shopping?
5
Carrying it
4
Inconvenient
opening hours
3
Cost/pricing
2
Packing/unpacking
1
c) Shopping
1. Kinds of shop.
What would you buy in the following shops?
florist’s
butcher’s
grocer’s
stationer’s
2. Going shopping.
greengrocer’s
tobacconist’s
newsagent’s
baker’s
pet shop
antique shop
Put each of the following words or phrases in its correct place in the
passage bellow.
cash desk
refund
mail order
sales
try on
bargain
tag
fit
bill
label
receipt
cashier
off-the-peg
assistant
exchange
If you to buy a ready-made (or we sometimes say (a)……….) jacket, first
find the jackets in the shop and look at the (b) ……….inside to see the
size, material and make. For the price, look at the price-(c)……….. .To
see if it will (d)………..you, you can (e) ……….the jacket in front of a
mirror. If necessary an (f) ………will help you. You pay the (g) ………,
who you will find at the (h)………He or she will take your money, put it
in the (i) ………..and give you your change. Make sure you also get a (j)
....…... which you should keep and bring back to the shop with the jacket.
If something is wrong with it and you want to (k)……….it or ask for a
58
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
(l)………of your money. In clothes shops you pay the fixed price, of
course. You don’t (m) ……….. Or you can wait until the (n) ……..,when
many goods are reduced in price. If you don’t like shops, you can stay at
home, look at catalogues and newspaper advertisements and do your
shopping by (o)……
3. Explain the difference between…
(a)to overcharge and to undercharge
(b)
a shopkeeper and a shoplifter
(c)shopping and window- shopping
(d)
a wholesaler and retailer
4. Put one the following words in each space in the sentences below.
in
on
for
with
at
by
inside
back
(a)These jackets are reduced ……….price.
(b)
The assistant advised me to try the coat……..
(c)I want to look ………..the animals ………the pet shop.
(d)
He bought many things ……….mail order.
(e)There is normally a label ………..a jacket.
(f) I took it ……….to the shop to complain.
(g)
‘Is something wrong ………..it? ’he said.
(h)
I asked ……….a refund.
d) The consumer often buys a product or service from a retail outlet.
Match the types of retail outlet with the correct definition.
Retail outlet
1 supermarket
2 hypermarket
3 shopping
centre/mail
4 department store
5 specialist retailer
Definition
a) a very large supermarket often
located on the edge of a town or city
b) one of the groups of shops owned by
the same company
c) a large shop with many departments
or sections-each department sells a
different type of goods
d) a large sell-service shop selling food
and drink and also small household
items
e) a covered area with shops,
supermarkets and restaurants
59
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
6 chain store
f) a shop which only sells one type of
product, usually of high quality
e) Work in groups and discuss retailing in your country.
1. Do the types of retail outlet above exist in your country?
Can you name a well – known shop/outlet in each category?
2. Which shops are popular with local people and which are more
popular with tourists?
3. Which shops have a reputation for quality? For reasonable
prices?
For exclusive or up market products?
Now ask which retail outlets students in your group buy the following
goods from:
food
clothes
drink
jewellery
stereo equipment
computers
f) Other methods of selling are direct and do not use retail outlets.
Match a definition to each example of direct sales.
Direct sales
1 mail order
2 door-to-door sales
3 TV sales
4 the Internet (ecommerce)
5 cash and carry
Definition
f) customers can buy from the
manufacture’s warehouse
g) a company sends goods by post from
its warehouse
h) customers see product adverts on the
screen and place their orders by
phone/fax/the Internet
i) an agent for the company sells the
product or service to the customer at
home
j) electronic shopping from
companies’ websites
60
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
g) Work in pairs. Role play either the fashion designer or the
general manager.
Fashion Designer
You are a self-employed young fashion designer at the start of your
career. A large store is selling T-shirts which look exactly the same as
some of your new designs which you haven’t sold yet. You meet the
general manager of the store to make your complaint and ask for financial
compensation.
General Manager
You are going to meet a young designer who thinks you have stolen their
designs. It is quite common for the store’s design team to get ideas for
products from student fashion shows and art school exhibitions. Be
sympathetic, but admit nothing.
h) Match the country, the thing, the name of the inventor and the
year of the invention. Years, countries may be mentioned more than
once.
Inventions
Inventors
Countries
Years
telephone
John Logie Bairds
the USA
1908
television
Ian Wilmat
Germany
1905
first car assemly S.Korolyev
Russia
1997
line
R.Diesel
Hungary
1885
ballpoint pen
A.Graham Bell
Switzerland
1939
cloning
Karl Benz
Scotland
1957
artificial satellite Nicephore Niepce
Demark
1829
vacuum cleaner
Bill Gates
Japan
1837
telegraph
L. Biro
America
1876
petrol-driven
O.K.Christansen
France
1892
motor car
Henry Ford
1981
photography
S.F.B. Morse
1955
diesel
James M.Spangler
1908
Microsoft-Disk- Sony
1939
Operation
Nestle
1975
61
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
System
helicopter
Lego bricks
instant coffee
video cassette
recorder
I.Sikorsky
62
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Brands
Brand management.
Brand
Classic
Awareness
Manager
Image
Stretching
mage
Luxury
Leader
Loyalty
a) Look at the eight word partnerships with the word brand. Match
them to the definitions below. Use a good dictionary to help you.
1. A brand associated with expensive, high quality products
2. The person responsible for planning and managing a branded
product
3. The brand with the largest market share
4. A famous brand with a long history
5. the ideas and beliefs which consumers have about a brand
6. The tendency of a customer to continue buying a particular product
7. Using a successful brand name to launch a product in a new
category
8. The knowledge which consumers have of a brand
I Fashion piracy
1) Discuss these questions before you read the article.
▪ Do you own a product which I can be illegal copy of a well – known
brand?
If so, what is it? Where did you buy it? How much did it cost?
▪ How can manufactures protect their brands from piracy (illegal
copying)?
2) Mach these words and phrases with the definitions.
1 global offensive
objectives
a) plans of a company to achieve its
63
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
2 counterfeiter
b) agreements which allow a company to
Calvin Klein is tired of piracy, says Alice Rawsthorn, and has started a
global offensive against counterfeiters
make and sell a registered product locally
3 copyright abuse
c) taking strong action all over the world
4 a network
d) a person who copies goods in order to
trick people
5 merchandise
e) to copy someone else’s work, for
example their designs, without permission
6 corporate strategy
f) a large number of people or
organisations working together as a system
7 logo
g) goods for sale
8 licensing rights
h) to change the way something is
organised
9 to rip of
I) the symbol of a company or other
organisation
10 restructure
j) to sell illegal copies of a brand as if they
are the real thing
3) Read the article quickly to find out:
1.
which Calvin Klein products are commonly copied.
2.
why the problem is getting worse
3.
how the company is dealing wit hit
4) Read the article again and answer these questions.
1. Why was Calvin Klein’s attitude to counterfeiting in the past?
2. Why has the company changed its way of dealing with
counterfeiters?
3. Why has the company done to change the way its business operates
and to increase its
size?
64
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Fashion victim fights back
Walk into a street market anywhere from Manila to Manchester,
and someone will be selling T-shirts branded with the distinctive
CK logo of Calvin Klein, the New York fashion designer.
If the price is very low, the T-shirts are probably fakes. Calvin
Klein, like most other internationally-known fashion designers, has,
for a long time, had problems with counterfeiters selling poorquality merchandise bearing his brand name. Now he is doing
something about it. Ass the Calvin Klein brand has become wellknown, we've seen a big increase in counterfeit activity,' says
Gabriella Forte, chief executive of Calvin Klein. The betterknown the brand name, the more people want to rip it off.' In the past
Calvin Klein took a relatively passive approach to the counterfeit
problem. The company has now got tougher by establishing a
network of employees and external specialists to uncover copyright
abuse. The move began with a general change in corporate strategy
whereby Calvin Klein has aggressively expanded its interests outside North America. Calvin Klein has been one of the leading
fashion designers in the North American market since the mid1970s. Now Calvin Klein is building up his fashion business in other
countries. It has increased its investment in advertising, and
restructured its licensing arrangements by signing long-term deals
with partners for entire regions such as Europe or Asia, rather
than giving licensing rights to
individual countries. But as sales
and brand awareness have risen, Calvin Klein has become an
increasingly popular target for Asian and European counterfeiters
alongside other luxury brands such as Gucci, Chanel and Ralph
Lauren.
The fake goods, mostly T-shirts, jeans and baseball caps, not
only reduce the company's own sales but damage its brand image by
linking it to poor quality merchandise. You'd be amazed at how
many people pay $5 for a T-shirt without realizing it's counterfeit,'
said one executive.
FINANCIAL TIMES
World business newspaper.
65
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
5. Complete the memo with the past simple or present perfect forms of the
verbs in brackets.
Memo
TO:
Peter Schofield
FROM: Jaqueline Delacroix
DATE: 5 July
RE: Counterfeiting
I’m worried about the sales of the range of fragrances we
…………….1(launch)
two years ago. In the first year, sales ………………2 (increase) steadily.
However, since the beginning of this, sales ……………..3(fall) by almost
10%.
The reason for this is clear. Several firms in SE Asia
………………4(copy) our designs and are now flooding the French
market with them. This ……………5(become) a serious problem.
Last month, I ……………6(organise) a team of investigators. Up to
now, they………….7(find) many counterfeit goods, which the police
…………..8(seize) and impounded. Yesterday, I …………….9(contact)
several firms who …………….10(inform) me that they
…………….11(have) similar problems. This all ……………12 (lose) sales
because of counterfeiting.
6. Three promotions
Read the three case studies
below.
Read the three case studies below.
Then discuss the questions that
follow each one.
McDonald’s
The famous fast food
company,
McDonald's,
66
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
launched Campaign 55 to
help it compete against
rivals like Burger King
and Wendy's. They had a
six-week
promotion
costing $320 million.
McDonald's offered a
Big Mac (a type of
hamburger) for 55 cents
instead of $1.90. When
customers were at the
cash register, they found
that they had to buy
french fries and a drink at
the full price to get the
cheap burger.
-Why do you think this promotion was unpopular with
McDonald's customers?
-How do you think McDonald's dealt with the situation?
Pepsi
The Pepsi Cola company had the
idea of offering a Harrier jump
jet (see picture) as a 'joke'
promotion. The advertisement
was first shown in the Seattle area
in the US. It showed a teenager
67
Irish Tourist Board
modelling some merchandise
available as part of the Pepsi
Stuff promotion. At the end, a
Harrier jet landed outside the
school and the boy came out of
the cockpit saying, 'It sure beats
taking the bus to school.'
The promotion rules allowed
customers to save up Pepsi Stuff
points by collecting labels from
Pepsi drinks or buying them
directly for 10 cents each. The
advert stated - jokingly - that 7
million points were needed for
someone to claim the jet. A
business student, John Leonard,
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
campaign to promote Ireland as a
modern country offering good
food and company. It was put on
all
the
Tourist
Board's
promotional
material.
The
television
and
advertising
campaign included music by the
well-known
group
The
Cranberries and showed pictures
of a romantic, fun-loving Ireland.
It was very successful abroad.
Tourism increased by 14% in four
months.
Unfortunately the Irish people
didn't like the new logo. The
Minister of Tourism ordered the
Tourist Board to get rid of the
logo and bring back the shamrock
- or something similar.
• What prize do you think
john Leonard is claiming
from Pepsi Cola?
•What to
did take
he doPepsi
to claim
the to
intends
Cola
prize?regarding the promotion
court
•Why doheyou
think Pepsi
because
thinks
they should
Colahim
havethe
described
give
prize. his claim
as frivolous (not serious)?
The Irish Tourist Board used to
have the shamrock (see picture)
as its symbol. Recently it spent
£100,000 developing a new
logo to attract tourists to
Ireland. The logo showed two
people
with their arms
outstretched in welcome. A tiny
shamrock can be seen between
the two bodies.
The new logo was part of a
•Why do you think the Irish
people disliked -the logo so
much?
•Was the Minister right to get
rid of the logo? •Which logo
do you prefer?
7. Taking part in meetings
Questionnaire
a) You work for a marketing agency representing a well-known chain of
book shops. Answer the questionnaire below, inventing the
information you need.
What is the name of your client’s company?
Who are their target customers (age, social, class, etc.)?
Do they specialise in any particular type of book?
Do they sell any other products?
Do they offer discounts or other special services?
What is their brand image?
68
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
What is their share of the market?
Who is their main competitors?
Where are their shops located (city centers, suburbs, train stations and
airports, etc.)?
b) Recently sales have fallen. Hold a meeting to discuss the possible
reasons. Make suggestions to improve your client's sales and its brand
awareness amongst its target consumers. Use phrases from the Useful
language box
Decline in book sales over four quarters
1st quarter
Useful language
Interrupting
Asking for opinions
Agreeing
Making suggestions
How do you feel about…? That’s true.
Hold on…
I think we should…
Could I just
What do you think?
How about…?
Something?
What’s your opinion?
agree.
Why don’t we…?
Sorry, but…
Giving opinions
suggestions
I think…
think it’s a good idea.
I agree.
I
totally
Disagreeing
Rejecting
I’m sorry, I’ don’t agree.
I don’t
69
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
In my opinion…
I’m afraid I don’t agree. I’m not keen on
it.
Maybe, but
70
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Quality
Quality is the elimination of variation
Starting-up
a) Which of the words and phrases below best represents the
idea of quality?
reliable
value for money
longlasting
well-known
expensive
well-made
b) Give examples of high quality products or services.
Explain your choices.
c) There is a saying ‘You get what you pay for.’ What does it
mean? Do you agree with this idea?
1. Quality control and customer service.
a) Use the words in the box to complete the flow chart
re-launched
reliability
1.
А
modified
durability
)
tested
failed
recalled
U
launched
s
e
A DEFECTIVE
PRODUCT
identified
duct was launched two years ago.
T
he
pr
o
Shortly after that, complaints were received about its
............ and............. .
25
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
B
e
c
a
u
s
e
o
f
as .............. so that any faults could be
investigated. At the same time, it was withdrawn from
sale.
After extensive tests, a fault was . ……...by
engineers.
As a result, they were able to correct the fault and the
product was.............
It was then ...........……..under controlled
conditions.
m
a
Finally, the redesigned product was ..............in the
r
market.
k
e
Unfortunately, it..............due to lack of consumer
t
confidence
caused by bad publicity
f
e
e
d
b
a
c
k
,
i
t
B) Match the words and phrases in the box to the correct
headings. Use a
dictionary to help
you
w
after sales care consumer satisfaction
questionnaire compensation
faults
monitoring
defects routine checks
flaws
inspection
minimum standard
goodwill payment
warranty
zero defects
26
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
PROBLEMS
Routine checks
QUALITY
CONTROL
CUSTOMER
SERVICE
2. Defining quality
A) Read the first paragraph of the article. Then complete the
sentence below.
In the past, quality meant .. ; nowadays, business people
believe that quality means .. .
B) Read the article. Then correct the five factual mistakes in the
summary.
New – style quality
27
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Old – style excellence got a bad name, says
Tony Jackson
The aim should be to provide a product
consistently and make
it the best you can
balance sheets.
The company's
executives
seemed
honestly
puzzled. They
did not see the
point of all
this, they said.
Their
products were
the finest in
the
world.
Why all these
detailed
questions
about
numbers?
Rolls Royce,
the company
in
question,
duly went bust
in 1973. The
trouble
with
old-style
quality,
it
seemed, was
that
it
encouraged
supply-driven
management.
The term 'quality' is
one of the most misused
in the business world.
What exactly does it
mean?
Our
grandparents
would
have, been in no doubt.
Quality meant excellence: a thing was the
best of its kind, and that
was that. A Stradivarius
violin had quality; a
tinker's fiddle did not.
In business, however,
the word has acquired a
very different meaning.
As defined by the
American
statistician
Edward Deming some
50 years ago, quality
means consistency, a
lack of defects. Around
1970, it is said, a group
of investment analysts
visited a world-famous
UK
engineering
company. They asked
the questions of their
trade: about profit margins, stock control and
28
The engineers
would
make
the product to
the
highest
possible
standard and
price
it
accordingly. If
the public was
so uncultured
that
they
turned it down,
so much the
worse for the
public. And so
old-style
quality got a
bad name in
business harder.
circles. It was all
very well for
artists to
produce
masterpieces.
The job of
companies was
to please the
market.
Further damage
to
old-style
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
quality was done by the
rise of Japan. When
Japanese cars, toys and
television
sets
first
reached the market in
the US and UK, local
manufactures considered
them cheap trash. In the
beginning, they were.
But under the teaching of
Edward Deming, the
Japanese were learning
about
the
second
definition of quality.
Western customers then
began to realise that
while Japanese cars
might be tin cans, they
did not keep breaking
down, as did British and
American cars.
In time of course,
Japanese cars stopped
being tin cans, and
became stylish and comfortable vehicles instead.
That is, they achieved oldstyle quality as well. As
western
manufacturers
discovered to their cost,
that was in some respects
the easy bit.
New-style
quality
was
harder.
Quality has a
third meaning;
that of value for
money.
To
qualify for that
meaning,
a
product must be
of
certain
standard; and it
should convey a
sense, not of
outright
cheapness, but
of being sold at
a fair price.
The US fast
foods
group
McDonald's,
for
instance,
talks of its
'high
quality
food'. But at
99c or 99p, its
hamburgers are
as close to
absolute
cheapness
as
any person in
the developed
world
could
desire. They are
also
highly
consistent. Eat a
McDonald's
anywhere around
the world and
the results will
be
roughly
similar. But as
anyone who has
eaten a really
good American
hamburger
knows,
a
McDonald's
is
also a long way
from quality in
its original sense.
From the
Financial
Times
FINANCIAL
TIMES
World
business
newspaper.
New-style quality, summary
According to the article, quality used to mean that a product
was well-made and high-priced. Nowadays, quality has a
different meaning for business people. It means a product is
reliable and does not have things wrong with it. In 1980, a
group of analysts visited Rolls Royce. They asked many
29
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
questions about finance, but few about quality. It is not
surprising that Roils Royce-went bankrupt; they sold their cars
too cheaply in their markets.
The old-style idea of quality became popular with business
people because it emphasised the importance of good
production methods. The Japanese learned a lot from Edward
Deming. Their products sell well in western markets because
they are low-priced. The US company, McDonald's, sells
products which are cheap and excellent value for money.
According to the writer of the article, McDonald's hamburgers
are the best in the world.
С) Discuss these questions.
1 Why were the Rolls Royce executives 'puzzled' when the
analysts asked
their questions?
2 According to the writer, what mistake caused Rolls Royce to go
bankrupt?
3 What advantage did Japanese cars have compared with British
and American cars?
D) Complete the definition below.
Nowadays, high quality products have three essential features:
1
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………
2
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………
3
……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………
30
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
E) Match these phrases from paragraph two to the
definitions.
1 profit margins
2 balance sheets
cost and
3 stock control
company has,
a) checking supplies of goods
b) the difference between manufacturing
selling price
c) statements of the amount of money a
including money it owes or is
owed
F) Find words or phrases in the article which mean:
1 reliability
2 went bankrupt
3 management focus on production
4 refused to buy the product
5 badly-made goods sold at low prices
G) Which sentence means the same as these quotations from the article?
1 And so old-style quality got a bad name in business circles.
a) Business people did not try to produce well-made products.
b) Business people no longer accepted this idea of quality.
c) Business people tried to find another name for quality.
2 It was all very well for artists to produce masterpieces,
a)It was right that artists should try to produce masterpieces.
b)Artists don't have to produce masterpieces.
c) All artists produce masterpieces at some time.
H) Can you think of products that are made according to: a)
old- style quality? b) new-style quality? Make two lists.
Then compare lists with a partner.
31
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
3. Telephone complaints
a) Useful language
COMPLAINING
DEALING WITH
COMPLAINTS
Making the
complaint
I’m ringing to complain
about...
'm sorry, but I'm not
satisfied with ...
Unfortunately there's a
problem with
Showing
understanding
Oh dear! Sorry to hear
that. Mmm, I see what
you mean. I'm sorry
about the problem
/delay.
Explaining the
problem
The CD player doesn't
work. There seems to
be a problem ... We
haven't received the ...
Getting the facts
Could you give me some
details please?
What happened
exactly? What's the
problem exactly?
Insisting
It really isn't good
enough. I'd like to
know why ...
Threatening
If you don't replace
the product, I'll
complain to the
manager.
If you can’t deliver
on time, we’ll have
to contact other
suppliers
Making excuses
It's not our policy to
replace items. It's not our
fault that it hasn't arrived.
I'm afraid that's not quite
right.
Promising action
OK, I’ll look into it right
away
I promise you I'll check
the details and get back to
you.
b) Study the Useful language in the box above. Then complete
the dialogue below with appropriate phrases.
29
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Salesperson
Hello. Electrical goods department.
Customer
Oh, hello. I'm
1
..................................... the video
recorder I bought from your store six months
ago.
Salesperson Oh, ...................................... 2 . Could
you give me
some details, please?
Customer
There ..................................... 3 when
you try to take
the video out of the machine. I want to
exchange it for a new video
recorder.
Salesperson
I'm afraid it's not .. ...................................
4
. We'll send
it to the manufacturer for repair.
Customer
It really ..................................... 5 . It's
the second time
it's happened ...................................... 6
exchange it
for a new machine, ..................................... 7
have to
take further action.
c) One of you is Production Manager for a power tools
manufacturer. The other is a supplier of components.
Role play the following telephone call.
Production Manager
Ring your supplier to complain about some electric motors
(order No PV205) which have a number of defects (don't fit, not
up to usual standard, etc.).
Supplier
• Deal tactfully with the
complaint.
• Show understanding.
• Get the facts.
• Promise action.
30
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
3. Western Airport
1) Read the text and find out why this company has a lot of
problems.
Background
Western Airport, in the British Midlands, is operated by Unf
the Western Airport Authority (WAA). In the last five ortu
years the number of passengers it handles has greatly natel
increased. Many airlines now use the airport for long- y the
haul flights to North America and the Far East.
grow
th in
30
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
business has brought problems. A recent survey
showed that passengers had many complaints about the
terminal. Several airlines have threatened to route
their aircraft through other airports unless WAA take
action to improve the situation.
WAA must decide how to deal with the complaints
and consider what action should be taken. Changes
should not require great expenditure as
WAA have cash flow problems at present.
Complaints about the terminal
31
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
1 The terminal is hot and noisy. Queues at check-in
are
long,
and
delays
are common.
2 Some of the gates are a long way from the
Departure
Area.
‘We
walked
..miles to get to our plane.’
3 After disembarking, passengers couldn't find the
luggage
collection
hall.
'We wandered around for ages,’
4 The baggage conveyor system often breaks down,
'When
this
happens,
the staff just look worried and shout into their
mobile phones.’
5 The ground staff don't know enough about the
terminal. 'They can't
answer a simple question like, "Where's the BA
check-in?".’
6 Some passengers say the security officers are too
strict. Because they are so
thorough, flights are sometimes delayed. Also,
when they search passengers and luggage the
scanning equipment does not work properly. 'One
officer thought the' Christmas pudding in my
hand luggage was a bomb!’
2. Read the text and decide which statement A, B,
C or D fits best.
2.1 The Western Airport Authority comes across
serious problems because of the
a) baggage conveyor
b) dissatisfaction of clients
c) security officers
d) growth in business
33
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
2.2 It follows from the text that Western Airport
has problems with
a) complaints about terminal
b) the restaurant
c) bars
d) all of these
2.3 The customer is displeased with
a) servicing
b) long – haul flights to North America
c) great expenditure
d) Christmas pudding
2.4 To improve the situation the company should
a) require great expenditure
b) increase the number of flights
c) not delay flights
d) consider what actions to undertake
2.5 It is quite clear from the text that the staff
a) are incompetent and inefficient
b) look strict
c) feel unimaginative
d) can’t relax
2.6 Other companies warned WAA that they
should
a) take actions to improve situation
b) know much about the terminal
c) search passengers
d) route their aircraft through other airports
2.7 Changes should not be connected with great
expenditure
a) as WAA face cash flow problems
b) use the airport to the Far East
34
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
c)
d)
expect a tip after servicing
decide how to deal with flights
3. Read the text again and make up a new
strategy using a SWOT analysis of the company.
Take into account all components of the analysis:
▪ strengths
▪ weaknesses
▪ opportunities
▪ threats
Complaints about the restaurant and bars
Tin restaurant and bars are run by
Airfare, a food company which has a
five – year contract with the airport.
They are used by four types of
customers: business people, tourists,
airport-employees; and groups (sports
teams, clubs, associations, etc.).
Complaints made by customers were as
follows:
1 'The restaurant menu is unimaginative.
The main dishes are either steak,
ham or chicken. Surely the airport can do
better?
2 Airport staff, who use the restaurant
frequently, say the meals are
too expensive.
3 Smoking areas are not large enough, and
there is no clear division from
non-smoking areas.
4 Passengers can't relax because they don't
know when they have to board
their planes.
5 There is nowhere for passengers to put
35
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
their hand luggage. 'I was afraid
someone would steal it, so I couldn't enjoy
my drink.'
6 The bar staff look unhappy and
overworked. Some are rude to
passengers. 'Bar staff seem to expect a
tip after serving every drink.'
4) a) Task 1 Role play the situation.
You are a representative of one of the
following:
• The Customer Relations Department of
WAA • A major airline • Airfare
1 Consider the complaints and come up with
ideas for dealing with them.
2 Hold a meeting of all three groups. Decide
what action to take to improve customer
service. The meeting should be led by the
Manager of the Customer Relations
Department.
b) Task 2 Role play the situation.
You are either
• The Manager of the Customer Relations
Department • A dissatisfied customer
The Customer Services Department Manager
telephones an important customer who often
uses the airport to tell them about the plans for
improvements. The customer is very unhappy
with the poor customer care at the terminal.
They are tired of listening to excuses for the
delays, noise, poor food, etc. This time, they
expect to receive more than promises. An
expensive free offer is the least they expect.
36
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
c) Writing
You attended the meeting as a
representative of either the Customer
Relations Department, an airline or Airfare.
Write a memo to the General Manager of
your company. Inform them of the
decisions that were taken to improve the
service at the airport.
Memo:
To:
From:
Date:
Subject:
5. You own a wine business in Slovenia. You decide to write
to Connoisseur because you want to become a distributor for
them in your country. Match the halves of the sentences
below. Then use them to write the letter. Describe the
benefits your company can offer, and give references.
1 Our company is a
2 We specialise in
7 We would appreciate it if
8 If you are interested in our
offer
3 We have contacts 4 Our sales network
9 We can supply references
10 We hope you will
5 We
have
four
warehouses6 We would be willing to
37
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
a)distributing
high
quality wines.
b)we could discuss
the
rate
of
commission
and
your terms of
payment later.
e) is one of the biggest in
the country.
d) well-known and
reputable firm with
many
years'
expedience.
e)
we
could
be
appointed your sole
distributor.
f) from a bank and our
local
Chamber
of Commerce.
g)accept our offer: and
we
look
forward to hearing
from you soon.
h)share the costs of an
advertising campaign
to promote your wines.
i) with major retail
outlets throughout the
country.
j) Located
in
Slovenia’s
major
cities.
38
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Activity
1. Now complete the sentences using words from the box.
barcode
counter
till display
packaging
manufacturer
checkout
stock
supplier
price
1) A…………..is the pay desk in a self- service shop.
2) A…………...is a pattern of thick and thin lines that represents
information.
3) A……………is a film which makes or produces goods.
4) A……………is an electronic screen which shows you how much
to pay.
5) A…………… is an agent who provides goods or services.
6) The………….is used to protect goods and to present an image for
them.
7) The………….is the amount the goods cost.
8) The………….is all the goods a retail outlet keeps to sell to its
customers.
2. Think of a product to match a package.
a carton of
a bag of
a packet of
a can of
a bottle of
a tin of
a box of
a tub of
a jar of
a bar of
1
2
3
4 cola
5
6
7
8
9
10
a) Which nouns are uncountable?
34
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
3. Describe any product you have bought recently using this chart.
OPINIO FAC
N
T
size
/
leng
th
stylish
colo wher what
ur
e it's it's
from mad
e of
leath briefcas
e
er
beautiful
glass handle
briefcas
e
straps
trim
briefcas
e
4.
strap
briefcas
e
locks
briefcas
e
locks
Which of the above verbs also have noun forms? What are they?
For example, to increase-an increase.
DECLINE
INCREAS
sha
pe/
widt
h
GAIN
ROCKET
DROP
PLUMMET
35
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
DOUBLE
LEVEL OFF
DECREASE
PEAK
FALL
TRIPLE
FLUCTUARE
RISE
HALVE
RECOVER
IMPROVE
5. Complete these sentences about the graphs below with
appropriate prepositions.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Sales have increased ………..f5m ………..f7m.
Sales have increased ………f2m .
There has been an increase………….f2m in our sales.
Sales now stand………..f7 million.
Sales reached a peak……………..f7 million in July.
Sales reached a low point…………..f1 million in April.
6. Read this newspaper report and put the verbs into the most
suitable form.
SHOP ROBBERY
In Paxham yesterday a shop assistant
(1)______________(force) to hand over £500 after
(2)_______________ (threaten) by a man with a knife. The man
escaped in a car which (3)_______________ (steal) earlier in the
day. The car (4)_______________(later/find) in a car park where
it (5)__________________ (abandon) by the thief. A man
(6)________________ (arrest) in connection with the robbery and
(7)________________
(still/question) by the police.
Unit 4. Marketing.
I. Buyers, sellers and the market
1) Study these notions.
a) Customers and clients
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Company
Products/services
Autocomp
car
Customer / client products:
base
Best Travel components
services: package
holidays
Digby and
professional
Charles
services:
architecture
Digitco
products:
cheap
computers
customer base
customer base
client base or
clientele
customer base
People who buy 'everyday' services such as train
travel or telephone services are called customers.
You can also talk about the users or end-users of a
product or service not be the people who actually
buy it.
People who buy products or services for their own
use are consumers.
b) Buyers and sellers
A person or organization that buys something is a
buyer or purchaser. These words also describe
someone in a company who is responsible for buying
goods that the company uses or sells. These people
are also buying managers or purchasing managers.
A person or organization that sells something is a seller. In some
contexts, for example selling property, they are referred to as the
vendor. People selling things in the street are street vendors.
Street vendors
c) The market
The market, the free market and market economy describe an
economic system prices, jobs, wages, etc. are not controlled by the
government, but depend on want to buy and how much they are
willing to pay.
d) Word combinations with 'market'
forces
pressu
the way a market economy
makes sellers production people
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
res
market
place
prices
reform
s
want, at prices they are willing
to pay
producers and buyers in a
particular market and the way
they behave
prices that people are willing to
pay, rather that fixed by a
government
changes a government makes to
an economy, becomes more like
a market economy
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
II. Marketing and market orientation
1) Study these notions and say what marketing includes.
a) Marketing
Marketing is the process of planning, designing, pricing, promoting
and distributing ideas, goods and services, in order to satisfy customer
needs, so as to make a profit.
Companies point out how the special characteristics or features of their
products and services possess particular benefits that satisfy the needs
of the people who buy them.
Non-profit organizations have other, social, goals, such as persuading
people not to smoke, or to give money to people in poor countries, but
these organizations also use the techniques of marketing.
In some places, even organizations such as government departments are
starting to talk about, or at least think about their activities in terms of
the marketing concept.
b) The four Ps
The four Ps are
product: deciding what to
sell
price: deciding what prices to
charge
place: deciding how it will be
distributed and where people
will buy it
promotion: deciding how the
product will be supported
with advertising, special
activities, etc.
A fifth P which is sometimes added
is packaging: all the materials used to protect and present a product
before it is sold.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
The four Ps are a useful summary of the marketing mix, the activities
that you have to combine successfully in order to sell. The next four
Promotion
units look at these activities in detail.
To market a product is to make a plan based on this combination
and put it into action. A marketer or marketeer is someone who
works in this area.
(Marketer can also be used to describe an organization that sells
particular goods or services.)
c) Market orientation
Marketers often talk about market orientation: the fact that
everything they do is designed to meet the needs of the market. They
may describe themselves as market-driven, market-led or marketoriented.
2) a) Choose the best word or phrase to fill each gap. Put a
circle around the letter, A, B or C of the answer you choose.
Our company makes wooden garden furniture - mainly tables and chairs.
Sales are much higher this year because we have spent a lot on (1)…… .
First we did a survey to find out about customer (2)……… . Then we
redesigned all our (3)……… to include the special (4)…… that people
want. Our (5)……….included a competition in all the major gardening
magazines where the prize was a set of our furniture. Most importantly,
we've made sure all our (6) ………are very competitive because our
customers want value for money.
1
2
3
4
5
6
A
A
A
A
A
A
selling
wants
products
goods
presenting
prices
B
distributing
B needs
B benefits
B profits
B
promotion
B costs
C
marketing
C uses
C services
C features
C
persuasion
C charges
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
b) Complete each sentence by writing the correct word in each gap.
Some letters have been given to help you.
1 We advertise on TV, but that's not enough. We need a whole new
marketing con .
2 We need to tell customers about the special ben
that our service
provides.
3 Our company is market-ori . Everything we do is about giving
buyers what they want.
4 The pac
doesn't only protect the goods - it advertises them too.
5 I've been a m k r for ten years and I know how to promote any
product.
6 People in different parts of the country buy different things, so
'p______' is one of the four Ps of marketing.
c) Choose the best word from the brackets () to fill the gap.
1 You can't maximize sales unless you get the marketing
……….
right. (mix/change)
2 Our company is market-………..and so we regularly talk to focus
groups.
(promoted/driven)
3 The new model has lots of new including air-conditioning,
(services/features)
4 Jim Scott is in charge of our new range mobile phones,
(promoting/orienting5 Our travel service offers customers many including free
insurance.
(characteristics/benefits)
6 If your business is not market- , you may find that your product doesn't
sell.
(fed/led)
III Products and brands
1) Study these notions.
a) Word combinations with 'product'
catalogue
a company's products, as a group
(BrE)
catalog (AmE)
mix portfolio
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
product
line
range
lifecycle
positioning
placement
a company's products of a particular
type
the stages in the life of a product, and
the number of people who buy it at
how
company would like a product
each astage
to be seen in relation to its other
when
a company
pays for its
products,
or to competing
products
products to be seen in films and TV
programmes
b) Goods
Goods can refer to the materials
and
components used to make
products,
or the products that are made.
Here are some examples of these
different types of goods:
Consumer goods that last a long
time, such as cars and washing
machines, are consumer durables.
Consumer goods such as food
products that sell quickly are
fast-moving
consumer goods, or FMCG.
Raw
Finished goods
c) Brands and branding
A brand is a name a company gives to its products so they can
be easily recognized. This may be the name of the company
itself: the make of the product. For products like cars, you refer
to the make and model, the particular type of car, for example,
the Ford (make) Ka (model).
Brand awareness or brand recognition is how much people
recognize a brand. The ideas people have about a brand is its
brand image. Many companies have a brand manager.
materials
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Branding is creating brands and keeping them in customer's minds
through advertising, packaging, etc. A brand should have a clear
brand identity so that people think of it in a particular way in
relation to other brands.
A product with the retailer's own name on it is an own-brand
product (BrE) or own-label product (AmE).
Products that are not branded, those that do not have a brand
name, are generic products or generics.
d) Read the article and answer the questions.
Most people and many managers do not understand the role of
marketing in modern business. Marketing is two things. First it is a
strategy and set of techniques to sell an organization's products or
services. This involves choosing target customers and designing a
persuasive marketing mix to get them to buy. The mix may include a
range of brands, tempting prices, convenient sales outlets and a battery of
advertising and promotions. This concept of marketing as selling and
persuasion is by far the most popular idea among both managers and the
public.
The second, and by far more important concept of marketing, focuses
on improving the reality of what is on offer. It is based on understanding
customers' needs and developing new solutions which are better than
those currently available. Doing this is not a marketing department
problem, but one which involves the whole organization. For example,
for Rover to beat Mercedes for the consumer's choice involves
engineering new models, developing lean manufacturing processes, and
restructuring its dealer network.
Creating company-wide focus on the customer requires the continual
acquisition of new skills and technology. Marketing is rarely effective as
a business function. As the chief executive of Hewlett Packard put it:
'Marketing is too important to leave to the marketing department.' Such
companies understand that everybody's task is marketing. This concept of
marketing offering real customer value is what business is all about.
1. Which of the four Ps are mentioned here?
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
2. Does the author think the four Ps are a complete definition of
marketing?
3. Does the author think that marketing is only for markets?
e) Match the sentence beginnings (1 – 5) with the correct
endings (a – e).
1) Farms are now more market-oriented
a) such as Microsoft
and Sony, are in several
2) Since the 1980s, Britain has had a much
markets at once.
more market-led
b)
and the audience decides the
direction
3) Many market-led growth businesses,
it takes.
4) Lack of investment and market orientation c)
led to falling
sales and profits.
5) American TV is a market-driven industry, d) and less dependent
on government money.
e) approach to economics.
IV Price
Study these notions.
a) Pricing
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
b) Word combinations with ‘price’
a good period for sellers, when prices are rising
boom
quickly
controls government efforts to limit price increases
a reduction in price
cut
an increase in price
hike
price
when competing companies reduce prices in
war
response to each other
a company that is first to reduce or increase prices
leader
label attached to goods, showing the price; also
tag
means 'price'
c) Upmarket and downmarket
Products, for example skis, exist in different models. Some are basic,
some more sophisticated. The cheapest skis are low-end or bottom-end.
The most expensive ones are high-end or top-end products, designed for
experienced users (or people with a lot of money!). The cheapest entrylevel skis are for beginners who have never bought BrE: upmarket,
skis before. Those in between are mid-rang. If you downmarket
buy sophisticated skis to replace basic ones, you
AmE: upscale,
trade up and move upmarket. If you buy cheaper
downscale
skis after buying more expensive ones, you trade
down and move downmarket.
Downmarket can show disapproval. If a publisher
takes a newspaper downmarket, they make it more
popular, but less cultural, to increase sales.
d) Mass markets and niches
Mass market describes goods that sell in large quantities and the
people who buy them. For example, family cars are a mass market
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
product. A niche or niche market is a small group of buyers with
special needs, which may be profitable to sell to. For example, sports
cars are a niche in the car industry.
V. Place
Study these notions.
a) Distribution: wholesalers, retailers and customers
distribution channel
A distribution network
Wholesalers
PRODUCERS
DISTRIBUTOR
Retailers
COSTUMERS
A wholesaler or shop selling a particular product, such as cars, is a
dealer. A reseller sells computers. Wholesalers and retailers are
distributors. Wholesalers are sometimes disapprovingly called
middlemen.
b) Shops
A shop (BrE) or store (AmE) is where people buy things. Companies
may call it a retail outlet or sales outlet. Here are some types of shop:
• chain store: part of a group of shops, all with the same name.
• convenience store: small shop in a residential area and open long
hours.
• deep discounter: a supermarket with very low prices.
• department store: very large shop with a wide variety of goods,
usually in a town centre.
• drugstore: shop in a town centre in the US which sells medicines;
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
you can also have coffee and meals there.
• hypermarket: very large shop with a wide variety of goods, usually
outside a town.
• supermarket: very large shop, selling mainly food.
In Britain, a shopping centre or shopping precinct is a purpose-built
area or building in a town centre with a number of shops. Outside towns,
there are shopping malls, where it is easy to park.
Franchises are owned by the people that run them (franchisees), but they
only sell the goods of one company. That company (the franchisor)
provides goods, organizes advertising, and offers help and support. In
return it takes a percentage of the profits of each franchisee. Many
restaurants are also run like this.
c) Direct marketing
Hi, I'm Beatrice and I work in a direct marketing company in Brussels.
We organize mailings for many different products and services. This is
direct mail but people often call it junk mail. We target our mailing
lists very carefully: for example, we don't send mailshots for garden
tools to people who live in apartments! We also do telemarketing, selling
by telephone, including cold calls to people who have had no contact with
us before. People are often rude to the workers in our call centres when
they do this.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
VI Promotion
Study these notions.
a) Advertising
The Internet is a new advertising medium. Product endorsements are
when famous people recommend a product.
A series of advertisements for a particular company or product is an
advertising campaign. A person or business that advertises is an
advertiser. An organization that designs and
BrE: ad, advert,
manages advertising campaigns is an advertising
advertisement
agency.
AmE: ad,
Sponsorship is where companies sponsor (pay
advertisement
some of the costs of) events like concerts and
sports events.
b) The sales force
A company's salespeople (its salesmen and saleswomen) visit customers
and persuade them to buy its products. Each member of this salesforce
may be responsible for a particular region: his or her sales area or sales
territory.
The head of the sales force is the sales manager.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
c) Promotional activities
Promotion (uncountable) is all the activities supporting the sale of a
product, including advertising. A promotion (countable) describes:
• a special offer such as a discount
• a free gift: given
with the product.
or reduced price.
• a free sample: a small amount of
• competitions with
prizes.
the product to try or taste.
Supermarkets and airlines give loyalty cards to customers: the more
you spend, the more points you get, and you can exchange these
points for free goods or flights.
Cross-promotion is where you buy one product, and you are
recommended to buy another product that may go with it.
VII Sales and costs
1) Study these notions.
a) Sales 1
Sales describe what a business sells and the money
it
receives for it. Denise van Beek of Nordsee
Marine
is having a sales meeting with her sales team:
'Our sales figures and turnover (money received
from sales)
in the last year are good, with revenue (money
from sales)
of 14.5 million euros, on volume of 49 boats. This is above
our target of 13 million euros. We estimate our sales growth
next year at ten per cent, as the world economy looks good
and there is demand for our products, so my sales forecast
is nearly 16 million euros for next year. I'm relying on you!'
A sales meeting
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
b) Sales 2
here are some more uses of the word ‘sale’:
a) Make a sale: sell something
b) Be on sale: be available to buy
c) Unit sales: the number of things sold
d) Sales: a company department
e) A sale: a period when a shop is charging less than usual for goods
f) The sales: a period when a lot of shops are having a sale
c) Costs
The money that a business spends are its costs:
• direct costs are directly related to providing the product (e.g.
salaries).
• fixed costs do not change when production goes up or down (e.g.
rent, heating, etc.).
• variable costs change when production goes up or down (e.g.
materials).
• cost of goods sold (COGS): the variable costs in making
particular goods
(e.g. materials and salaries).
• indirect costs, overhead costs or overheads are not directly
related to production
(e.g. administration).
Some costs, especially indirect ones, are also called expenses.
Costing is the activity of calculating costs. Amounts calculated for
particular things are costings
d) Margins and mark-ups
Here are the calculations for one of Nordsee's boats:
• selling price - 50,000 euros
• direct production costs - 35,000 euros
• selling price minus direct production costs = gross margin 15,000 euros
• total costs = 40,000 euros
• selling price minus total costs = net margin, profit margin or
mark-up = 10,000 euros
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
The net margin or profit margin is usually given as a percentage of
the selling price, in this case 20 per cent.
The mark-up is usually given as a percentage of the total costs, in this
case 25 per cent.
2) a) Choose the best word from the brackets () to fill the gap.
1 ...................................... The new - model will be
sale in July,
(at/on/in)
2 ...................................... The shop was having a
so I got these shoes
at half price, (sale/sales/sell)
3 It's easy to ........ a sale if the product's good and the price is right.
(do/make/give)
4 Last month,........ sales reached nearly 1500. (unit/piece/number)
5 Sales last month were below our
of €120,000. (gross/target/share)
6 Staff salaries are included in our
costs. (direct/indirect/overhead)
7 Our basic model has a selling of £28. (cost/margin/price)
8 We estimate that sales . next year will be about 5%.
(growth/forecast/volume)
b) Choose the best word to fill each gap from the alternatives
given in the box below. There are some words that you don’t
have to use.
'I've just finished……. the new computer we are launching next year.
Direct
……….. costs will be $480. I estimate our …….. to be about $20. That
gives
…………. costs of $500. -We want a……….. -up of about 20% so the
sale price
will be $600. That gives a ……….. margin of nearly 17%. Not bad.'
forecast production costing total profit mark revenue overheads
c) Find the answer to each clue. The
first and last letters are given in
each case.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
1) Selling price minus total costs:
_____margin
2) Abbreviation for the variable
costs in making goods _____
3) Selling price minus direct
costs: margin _____
4) Number of things sold: sales
_____
5) Money received from sales
_____
6) Money received from sales
(another word) _____
7) Another word for indirect
costs _____
8) Estimate of next year's sales
_____
VIII Marketing strategy
1) Read the text with the help of a dictionary and answer
questions on it below the text.
After his management training course at Smallcrown-Liverpool Ltd.
Alexander Kuznetsov realized the important role of marketing in a
commercial company's activity and the necessity of having a marketing
department in the structure of an enterprise. Having had a preliminary
discussion with a marketing agency specialist, he decided to make up a
report for Smallcrown-St. Petersburg Ltd. management. He titled his
report "Marketing Strategies Nowadays". Some fragments of this report
are given below.
***
Originally marketing was meant to help avoid overproduction, now
marketing is considered to be a system of all business activities of a
company in respect of coordinating supply and demand for the goods
produced.
Before producing and selling the goods, one must do a lot of market
research. Useful information for this purpose can be obtained from
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
embassies, consulates and foreign trade representatives, from trade
magazines or from specialized consultant agencies which will do a
professional market research job a certain fee.
The information needed is whether there is any demand for your
goods, what is the market potential, what sort of competition is to be met
(that is what price of the goods, including those produced locally.
Seasonal factors should be taken into account.
Actually, marketing covers not only market research, but also
planning the assortment of goods, price policy, advertising and promotion
of sales, controlling the sales and post-sales servicing. So nowadays
general marketing strategy includes such essential elements as planning,
market research, new product development, sales, communications and
advertising. "
Planning. While speaking of marketing planning, one should think
first of all of the
so-called controllable and uncontrollable factors.
The controllable factors are the following: product, price, place and
promotion; the uncontrollable ones - environmental factors. Both these
types are very important when one starts analyzing the market situation.
Research. Market research is concerned first of all with product
choice study and the study of competitors’ interests and their claims.
The most popular methods of conducting marketing research are
observation, survey, experiment and public opinion polls through different
channels.
Production. Attitudinal research should affect the product to be
produced, so production is inevitably based on marketing intelligence
study. Marketing investigates stages before, during and after production
and also the stage following sales.
Sales. Sales are always involved with customers service of all kinds.
Markets for consumer products are segmented on the basis of
demographic and psychographic data research.
Communications and advertising. The communications mix
comprises advertising, public relations, direct mail and special events such
as product shows, conferences and exhibitions. Advertising is an
important means of promoting the goods that have been produced already,
as well as new lines in business. Nowadays there are special departments
and agencies dealing with advertising. Different kinds of mass media —
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
cinema, magazines, posters are used for advertising aims. Special leaflets,
booklets and other printed matter with the information about goods may
be published for the same purpose. The choice of media for advertising
depends on the kind of goods and on the local conditions and people's
habits.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
What was marketing originally meant?
What aspects does marketing cover?
What is planning based on?
What does research include?
What do sales comprise?
What are the main sources of communications and advertising?
2. Read the text again and find in the text words which have
the following meaning
1)
advertising of something sold
2)
an activity such as special advertisements or free gifts
intended to sell a product or service
3)
a public notice offering or asking for goods
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
the theory and practice of presenting, advertising and
selling things
an industry that produces advertisements to be shown on
television, printed in magazines, newspapers
a plan or series of plans for achieving an aim, relating to
the best way for an organization to develop
careful study or investigation in order to discover new
facts or information
the means of communicating roads, railways, telephone
lines between places, radio or television
a particular area or position
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
10)
an object or objects wrapped in paper or packed in a
box: a parcel
11)
a thing that is grown or produced usually for sale
12)
a person who buys
13)
an amount of money for which something may be
bought or sold
14)
a person who sells something
15)
the giving of something to a number of people
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
What was marketing originally meant?
What aspects does marketing cover?
What is planning based on?
What does research include?
What do sales comprise?
What are the main sources of communications and advertising?
2. Read the text again and find in the text words which have
the following meaning
16)
the advertising of something sold
17)
an activity such as special advertisements or free gifts
intended to sell a product or service
18)
a public notice offering or asking for goods
19)
20)
21)
the theory and practice of presenting, advertising and
selling things
an industry that produces advertisements to be shown on
television, printed in magazines, newspapers
a plan or series of plans for achieving an aim, relating to
the best way for an organization to develop
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
22)
23)
careful study or investigation in order to discover new
facts or information
the means of communicating roads, railways, telephone
lines between places, radio or television
24)
a particular area or position
25)
an object or objects wrapped in paper or packed in a
box: a parcel
26)
a thing that is grown or produced usually for sale
27)
a person who buys
28)
an amount of money for which something may be
bought or sold
29)
a person who sells something
30)
the giving of something to a number of people
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
3. Fill each of the blanks in the following sentences with one of
the words listed.
strategy, place, product, buyer, communications, sales, research,
marketing, seller, promotion, advertisement, price, package, advertising
1) Pharmaceutical ______________ are very expensive in this
region.
2) The _________ of cigarettes is set to rise again.
3) This would be a good _________ for picnic.
4) Their products are always attractively ______.
5) Have you found a _______ for you house?
6) The ________ is required to carry out repairs before competition
of the sale.
7) Cigarette ______________ has been banned.
8) It is necessary for us to work out ___________ to gain promotion.
9) She is responsible for sales ___________.
10) Telephone ___________ between the two cities have been
restored.
11) What do their ____________ show?
12) Thanks to effective ____________ strategy the company has
become global.
4) Spread up the following statements
1) Marketing is the philosophy of business.
2) The integral parts of an effective marketing are planning.
3) The specific objective of advertising is the promotion of goods.
5) Prove the following statements.
Model
a) While speaking of marketing strategy we should think of the market
research as the most important element (planning, new product
development, sales, communications, advertising).
b) Exactly, but there some other elements, such as planning, new product
development, sales, communications and advertising which should also be
taken into account.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
1) While speaking of conducting market research, we should think of
observation as the most important method (survey, experiment,
public opinion polls).
2) While speaking of communications mix we should think of
advertising as the most powerful device (public relations, direct
mail, product shows, exhibitions).
3) While speaking of advertising we should think of mass media as the
most effective means (trading fairs, exhibitions, special
conferences).
4) While speaking of market research we should think of TV as the
most powerful tool (radio, newspaper, magazines, posters, leaflets,
booklets, other printed matter).
5) While speaking of market research we should think of market
potential as its most essential part (competition, domestic conditions
and preferences, local trading customs, seasonal factors).
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
IX Marketing functions
1) Read and say what marketing functions are
After scanning the environment, the company’s marketing tasks
begin. Most of the tasks are summarized in the eight basic functions.
1. Marketing research.
5. Transportation.
2.Buying.
6. Storage.
3.Selling
7. Risk bearing.
4.Financing (credit)
8. Standardization (grading)
All the marketing's functions are performed to move goods from
producers to consumers. During this process, marketing adds utility
(value) to goods and services.
There are five types of utility: (l) form, (2) time, (3) place,
(4) possession, and (5) information.
Form utility refers to the changing, of raw materials into a finished
product.
Form utility is usually considered a production function rather than
a marketing function. The four major marketing utilities are follows:
Time utility helps consumers by making products available the
consumer wishes or during convenient hours. Making fresh fruit
available in the winter is a form of time utility.
Place utility makes sure that goods and services are conveniently
located where consumers want them. Possession utility helps make
the exchange of goods between ' buyers and sellers easy. Anything
that helps complete the sale-delivery, installation, warranties,
credit -is considered part of possession utility.
Information utility informs buyers of the product's existence
how to use it, the price, and other facts. Such information is provided
through advertising, salespeople and packaging.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
X Marketing and management
1) Read the text and understand the contents
1) Marketing is ah integral part of the business operations. It is the
fundamental means by which industry sells its products. To curtail
marketing or to eliminate it altogether would be like suggesting that
industry should stop selling — a process that would remove the dynamic
element in the national economy. In some industries, such as office
equipment and data processing, it would be more than the growth rate that
would suffer. In new industries selling to new markets is essential, and in
modernized production plans of the established industries marketing effort
is necessery to achieve the volume essential in maintaining low unit costs
and remaining competition internationally.
2) The most criticized activity of marketing is advertising. Advertising is
intended to inform in order to sell. The advertiser describes his product as
being the best because he believes this to be true. He has spent time
researching the place and finding out people's needs and then developed a
product accordingly. Following this he goes into the market place and
promotes the product he has specially developed for the market he has
selected. So the manufacturer will not normally give information
damaging the product. Nor should he be expected to.
3) Management is not the same as planning, although the two ideas have
much in common. When people argue nowadays in favour of economic
planning they usually have in mind long-term structural changes in the
economy calculated to accelerate the rate of economic growth.
1) Read §1 again and find gerund and infinitive. Translate sentences
containing them into Russian.
2) Read §2 and find participle I, II. Translate sentences having them.
3) Read §3 and answer the question: What do people have in mind when
they discuss the problem of economic planning?
XI Activity
1) Translate into English: Reproduce the dialogue.
А: Кто занимается изучением конъюнктуры рынка и маркетингом в
вашей фирме?
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
К: Данные по конъюнктуре рынка дает нам один из наших отделов, а
также специализированное консультативное агентство, которое
проводит профессиональные исследования потенциала рынка по
нашему запросу. Что касается маркетинга, то пока у нас этим
вопросом всерьез не занимается никто.
А: Это очень плохо, так как всегда нужно знать, какой ассортимент
товаров требуется в данный момент, чтобы скоординировать план
производства и план продажи продукции.
К: Вы совершенно правы. Правильное проведение маркетинга
позволило бы также более точно проводить политику цен и
контроль за сбытом товара.
А: Несомненно, маркетинг является неотъемлемой частью успешного
бизнеса. Вы ведь знаете, что в зарубежных компаниях имеются
специальные отделы маркетинга во главе с менеджером?
К: Да, я познакомился с работой такого отдела, когда был на
стажировке в Ливерпуле. Насколько мне известно, основной
задачей этого отдела является анализ факторов, содействующих
сбыту товаров. Я считаю, что и в нашей фирме необходимо
создать специальный отдел по маркетингу.
А: Вы совершенно правы. Отдел маркетинга сможет не только
способствовать успешной продаже вашей продукции, но и
контролировать необходимую реконструкцию предприятия,
освоение новой продукции, а также организовать комплекс
мероприятий по рекламированию продукции.
2) Translate the text and make up a dialogue using it.
—Какие основные элементы включает в себя в наши дни стратегия
маркетинга? — Это прежде всего исследование конъюнктуры рынка,
планирование, разработка новой продукции, организация контактов
с потребителями, а также реклама.
— Что вы можете сказать о гарантийном обслуживании,
выполняемом вашей фирмой? — Оно соответствует всем требованиям заказчика: быстрое, дешевое и эффективное.
— Какие демографические и психографические факторы были
учтены при создании рынка для вашего нового товара? — Мы
исследовали мнения потенциальных потребителей и учли местные
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
торговые обычаи, а также некоторые особенности окружающей
среды.
— Для чего вы провели исследования по сегментации рынка? —
Мы решили, что ряд рынков, отобранных с учетом местных условий,
помогут нам быстрее продавать наши продукты и лучше
организовать гарантийное обслуживание
3) Give a free translation of the following text:
Каждый год у нас в стране производиться свыше 150 международных
выставок. Участию российских предприятий и внешнеторговых
фирм в международных ярмарках и выставках способствует (to
promote) торгово-промышленная палата России (Russian Chamber of
Commerce and industry). Она организует российские национальные
торгово-промышленные выставки за границей и создает
информационные центры для тех, кто хочет ознакомиться с нашей
торгово-экономической деятельностью (trade and economic activity). В
Москве при торгово-промышленной палате создан Центр по
внешнеторговому сотрудничеству (foreign trade) и научнотехническому (scientific and technological) сотрудничеству с другими
странами. Под эгидой (under the aegis) этого центра работает
Международный торговый центр, где размещены офисы
иностранных фирм и различных ассоциаций. Ежегодно его услугами
пользуется свыше 50 000 представителей деловых кругов. Центр
занимается организацией конгрессов и конференций, семинаров и
симпозиумов, а также оказывает помощь российским экспортерам в
освоении рынков других стран. На этих встречах и презентациях
руководители предприятий и внешнеторговых фирм встречаются с
представителями иностранных деловых кругов и знакомят их с
нашими новыми экспортными товарами
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
UNIT 5. MANAGEMENT
I Starting - up
1. People and workplaces
Employees and management
The people who work for a company, all the people on its payroll, are its
employees, personnel, staff, workers or workforce. But these words can
mean just the people carrying out the work of a company, rather than those
leading it and organizing it: the management. Note: Workforce, workforce and work force are all possible.
Management and administration
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
A company's activities may be spread over different sites. A company's
most senior managers usually work in its head office or headquarters (HQ).
Some managers have their own individual offices, but in many
businesses, most employees work in open-plan offices: large areas where
many people work together. Administration or, informally, admin, the
everyday work supporting a company's activities, is often done in offices
like these by administrative staff or support staff. For example, those
giving technical help to buyers of the company's products are in technical
support.
Labour
i
Labour is spelled labor in AmE. Labor unions, organizations defending
the interests of workers
(AmE) are called trade unions in BrE.
When workers are not happy with pay or conditions, they may take
industrial action:
• a strike, stoppage or walk-out: workers stop working for a time.
• a go-slow: workers continue to work, but more slowly than usual.
• an overtime ban: workers refuse to work more than the normal
number of hours. Personnel and human resources
In larger organizations there is a human resources department (HRD)
that deals with pay, recruitment, etc. This area is called human
resources (HR) or human resource management (HRM). Another
name for this department is the personnel department.
2. The career ladder
A job for life
Many people used to work for the same organization until they reached
retirement: the age at which people retire, or end their working life. Career
paths were clear: you could work your \\ up the career ladder, getting
promotion to jobs that were more senior, with greater responsibi: You
would probably not be demoted: moved to a less senior job. To leave the
company, you could resign or hand in your notice.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
A job for now
Modco has downsized and delayered. The number of management levels
in the company hierarchy has been reduced from five to three, and many
managers have lost their jobs. Modco has reorganized and restructured in
order to become flatter (with fewer layers of management) and leaner
(with fewer, more productive employees).
They did this to reduce costs, and increase efficiency and profits.
Employees said the company used words like 'restructure' to make the
situation sound positive and acceptable.
In-house staff or freelancers?
Modco has outsourced many jobs previously done by in-house personnel:
outside companies clean the offices, transport goods and collect money
from customers. This allows Modco to concentrate on its main business
activities. Modco uses more freelancers, independent people who may
work for several different companies, and they employ people for short
periods On temporary contracts. Modco expects flexibility, with people
moving to different jobs when necessary, but for many employees, this
means job insecurity, the feeling that they may not be in their job for long.
The way that they are doing their job is discussed at performance reviews:
regular meetings with their manager.
Note: You say freelancers or freelances.
Losing your job
If you do something wrong, you are ...
• dismissed
• fired
• sacked
• terminated
If you've done nothing wrong, you are ...
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
• laid off
• made redundant
• offered early retirement
Employees who are made redundant may get advice about finding another
job, retraining, etc. This is called outplacement advice.
II.Management
Pre-reading.
1. Check the meaning of the following words in your dictionary.
reve
concept broad evalua opportuni strategic volume
select
al
direct te
ty
profitability
cycle stag deat maturit declin den representat volum objectiv achieve
es h
ye
y ion
e
es
coordinate
While reading.с
2. Read the text and answer questions below the text.
1. Management is a function of planning, organizing, coordinating,
directing and control ling.
2. Management is revealed in a variety of specific activities. Marketing
Management refers to a broad concept covering organization of
production and sales of products, which is based on consumer
requirements research. All companies must look beyond their present
situation and develop a long-term strategy to meet changing conditions in
their industry. Marketing management consists of evaluating market
opportunities, selecting markets, developing market strategies, planning
marketing tactics and controlling marketing results.
3. Strategic planning includes defining the company's long-term as well as
specific objectives such as sales volume, market share, profitability and
innovation, and deciding on financial, material and other resources
necessary to achieve those objectives.
4. In problems of market selection and product planning one of the key
concepts is that of the Product Life Cycle. That product passes through
various stages between life and death (introduction - growth - maturity -
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
decline) is hard to deny. Equally excepted is the understanding that a
company should have a mix of products with representation in each of
these stages. Companies can make far more effective marketing decisions
if they take time to find out where each of their products stands in its life
cycle.
A)What is management?
B)What specific activities does management cover?
C)What stages does Product Life Cycle pass through?
3. Match the words (1-8) from the text with their meanings (a-h)
1.
a) fully grown or developed in mind or
managemen body
t
2. concept b) the control and making of decisions
in a business or similar organisation
3. selection c) a thing aimed at or wished for; a
purpose
4. evaluate d) a plan or method used to achieve smth,
often against opponent
5. objective e) an idea or principle relating to smth
abstract
6. tactics
f) choosing smth /smb carefully as
being the best or most suitable
7. mature
g) to make changes, to introduce new
ideas, methods
8. innovate h) to assess or form an idea of the
amount, quality or value smth
4.Substitute the underlined words with words which mean the
same as the following:
troubles, goals, special, applies, stare, lucky chances.
a) Management refers to a broad concept covering organisations and
sales of products
b) All companies must look beyond their present situation.
c) Strategic planning includes defining the companigs long-term as
well as specific objectives.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
d) Management is revealed in a variety of specific activities.
e) In problems of market selection and product planning one of the key
concepts is that of the Product Life Cycle.
f) Marketing management consist of evaluating market opportunities,
selecting markets, developing market strategies etc.
5.Match the first part of each sentense (1-6) with the most
appropriate ending (a-f).
1. Management refers
to
2. Strategic planning
includes
3. Marketing
management
consists of
4. Management is
revealed
5. Product Life Cycle
passes
6. Management is
a) evaluating market
opportunities,
selecting markets,
developing
marketing strategy, planning,
controlling marketing results
b) in a variety of specific
activities
c) through various stages
(introductiongrouth -maturity -decline)
d) organisation of production
and
sales of products
e) defining company's longterm,
specific objectives
f) a function of planning,
organizing
coodinating, directing,
controlling.
III Planning
Read the text and dicide which answer А, В, С or D fits best each
space.
A plan is a design for 1 __________________________ some specific
objectives. Plans can relate 2 _____________________ short, medium
or
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
long-term intentions. Short-term plans are more likely 3 precise
objectives and can be more
detailed schemes than long-term plans (often called «strategic plans»);
the further it looks into
the future, the 4
certain it can be. However, there is little point in
pursuing activities if the
business 5 not know what the intended outcome is. «If you don't know
where you are going,
how do you know when you've got there?»
The first step in planning is to state 6 _ clearly possible the desired
outcome -that is, the
objective. A fundamental skill of managing is the abillity to set and
communicate objectives.
Next, it is usual to look at the period over 7
the plan is to take effect
and to set specific,
measurable targets for quality, time and costs. This is to allow the plan 8
____________________________________________ .
In any 9 activity, the managers never have all the information they need
to 10 __ decisions.
The Business Environment title in this series looks at some of the
external pressures that affect
the prosperity of a business. They cannot be ignored at the planning stage.
Managers 11
_____________________________________________________ mak
e
forecasts about the effects that factors outside their control may have on
their objectives. During this stage of the planning process, some decisions
may be made about how the plan is to
be executed, but only in the broadest terms - the 12 activities are the
next stage.
Plan on its own is a sterile thing. Nothing happens until the plan 13
_________________________________________ into actions.
a
1. to achieve
b
achieving
с
being
achieved
d
achieved
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
2. to
3. have
contained
4. little
5. do
6. as...as
7. what
8. will be
monitored
9. planning
for
being
contained
a little
does
so...as
which
to have
monitored
planned
at
to contain
in
containing
do
may
detailed
least
is
the some...as
who
to be
monitored
having
planned
require
should
detail
turns
is turned
less
has
like...as
whose
is
monitored
being
planned
comprise
are to
being
detailed
will be
turned
10. make
11. have to
12. detailing
13. having
turned
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
IV Communicating
1)Read the text, understand contents, answer questions below the
text.
In all aspects of managing, and in all functions of the organization, the
degree of success is directly related to the quality of communication.
Communication is the "nervous system" of managing.
It is both formal and informal. Management Information Systems
meetings, instructions, notice-boards, memos and so on are examples of
formal communication. They are usually planned and specific.
2. Informal communications can be planned to some degree. If it is
important that certain people speak to each other regularly, it may be
arranged that their offices are close to one another. In this way, the
people concerned will meet in the corridor or in the offices and chat.
3. The "grapevine" (the channel for gossip) is the sort of informal
ccommunication that managers should try to keep to a minimum as it is
almost certainly inaccurate and can even be mischievous. It often arises
through lack of proper communication. We are information - seeking
animals. We have only partial information, we still constantly make
decisions about what is going on around us, only we "make up" the
information we are lacking.
4. Communication can be verbal, written, drawn or non-verbal. It can
take many forms: letters, reports, memos, news-sheets, charts, graphs,
blueprints, forms (invoices, orders); meetings, discussions, interviews,
chats, presentations; smiles, frowns, relaxed or tense posture, stressed or
anxious behaviour.
5. When thinking about communication, we should remember that it is
impossible to divorce meanings from feelings. Whatever is written or
said has a meaning that the communicator intended to transmit. But the
choice of words, the tone and the timing, together with facial expressions
and body posture, will generate feelings in the person receiving the
message.
1. What is the degree of success in business directly related to?
2. What are examples of formal communication?
3. What is the "grapevine"?
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
4. What types of communication can you name?
5. What forms can communication take?
2)Make a chart or table to represent communicating in the best way.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
V Control and management
1. First Read the text and understand the contents.
The job itself has never been thought through -at least not so far. And the
century of patient analysis of managerial, inside phenomena, events and
data the century of patient, skillful work on the individual operations and
tasks within the business, has no counterpart with respect to the
entrepreneurial job.
We can easily record and therefore quantify effects, that is, efforts. We
have very few instruments to record and quantify effects, that is, the
outside. But even the most efficient buggy-whip manufacturer would no
longer be in business. It is of little value to have the most efficient
engineering department if it designs the wrong product. The Cuban
subsidiaries of U.S. companies were by far the best run and, apparently,
the most profitable - let alone the least «troublesome» - of all U.S.
operations in Latin America. This was, however, irrelevant to their
expropriation. And it mattered little, during the period of IBM's great
expansion in the fifties and sixties how «efficient» its operations were;
its basic entrepreneurial idea was the right, the effective one.
The outside, the area of results, is much less accessible than the inside.
The central problem of the executive in the large organisation is his necessary- insulation from the outside. This applies to the president of
the United States as well as to the president of United States Steel. What
today's organisation therefore needs are synthetic sense organs for the
outside. If modern controls are to make a contribution; it would be,
above all, here. Controls are needed for measurable and nonmeasurable
events. Business, like any other institution, has important results that are
incapable of being measured. Any experienced executive knows
companies or industries which are bound for extinction because they
cannot attract or hold able people. This, every experienced executive also
knows, is a more important fact about a company or industry than last
year's profit statement.
2. Then find words in it which mean the following:
1. a person or group working in administration or management, in a
business organization, trade union.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
to reach the standard of ability, knowledge.
a thing the especially money that is given to a person or organization.
taking away property from its owner for public use without payment.
power or auftority to direct, order or manage
giving trouble: causing annoyance, pain
a person who starts or organizes a commercial enterprise, especially
one involving financial risk.
8. a business company controlled by another company.
9. facts or information used in deciding or discussing smth
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
1
VI Scientific Management
3. Read and do exercises in the translation. Consulta a dictionary.
Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915) F.W. Taylor, called the Father of
Scientific Management was an. engineer by trainning. Taylor believed that
management's principal object should be to secure the maximum prosperity
for the employer, coupled with the maximum prosperity of each employee.
The mutual interdependence of management and workers was a common
message he expressed.
Taylor's view of «science» insisted upon the systematic observation and
measurement of worker activities. He was driven by the notion of applying
science to answer questions about efficiency, cooperation, and motivation.
Taylor believed that inefficient rules of management inevitably lead
inefficiency,"low productivity, and low-quality work. He recommended
developing a science of management, the scientific selection and
development of human resources, and personal cooperation between
management and workers. Taylor believed that conflict among employees
would obstruct productivity and so should be eliminated.
Taylor advocated maximum specialization of labour. He believed the
person should become a specialist and master of specific tasks. Also, he
assumed that increased efficiency would result from specialization. Taylor
was unhappy with anything short of the one best way. He searched
through the use of scientific methods for the one best way to manage.
Taylor tried to find a way to combine the interests of both management and
labour to avoid the necessity for sweatshop management. He believed that
the key to harmony was seeking to discover the one best way to do a job,
determine the optimum work, pace, train people to do the job properly, and
reward successful performance by using an incentive pay system.
Taylorbelieved that cooperation would replace conflict if workers and
managers knew what was expected and saw the positive benefits of
achieving mutual expectations.
1. Form verbs from these words. Translate them.
management employer observation measurement cooperation
developing selection worker specialization performance
achieving expectations
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
2. Arrange words according to the parts of speech.
posperity management employer observation interdependence
inevitably inefficiency productivity inefficient specialist specific
unhappy successful
существительное
прилагательное
наречие
3. Give the English equivalents of the following words.
Научное управление, деятельность рабочего, система оплаты,
рабочий темп, низкая производительность, награждать за успешную
деятельность, ключ к гармонии, найти лучший путь, поощрительная
система оплаты, сочетание интереса.
4. Use the word in brackets to form a word that fits in the space
in the same line.
1. Taylor's view "science" insisted upon (system) observation
and ____(measure) of worker activities
2. Taylor was ___ (happy) with anything short of the one best way.
3. The mutual (depend) of management and workers was a
he
common message
______ (expres
s).
5. Decide what kind of verbal it is. Find sentences containing
them and translate into Russian.
0. Example: Reading is
way
useful
3. of applying science
1. by using an incenive
4.recommended
pay system
developing
2.to discover the one best
5. to combine interests
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
6. increased efficiency
- Герундий. Чтение
полезно.
6. Complete sentences with the following
words.
become believe result lead would
should
a) Taylor
_ that inefficient rules of
management inevitably
low productivity and low -guality work..
b) ... the person __ a specialist and master of
specific tasks.
c) ... increased efficiency from specialization.
7. Transform newspaper headings into
sentences.
F. W. Taylor to be
called the father of
scientific management.
Taylor to be driven
by the
notion of applying
science
in management. __
Conflict be
eliminated
among
employees
Taylor to be
seeking the key
to harmony
Cooperation to
replace Conflict if
both to know
positive benefits
inefficie
ncy,
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Leadership and management styles.
1. Study these notions.
A.
Leadership
Ken Monnersis an expert on leadership and
management styles. Can leadership be taught? Or are
the only real leaders born leaders?
Traditionally, the model for leadership in business has
been the army. Managers and army officers give orders
and their subordinates (the people working below them)
carry them out. Managers, like army officers, may be
sent on leadership courses to develop their leadership
skills, their ability to lead. But they still need a basic
flair or talent for leadship.
What, makes a great leader?
\
The greatest leaders have charisma, an atrracrive quality
that makes other people admire them
and want to follow them. A leader may be described as a
visionary, someone with the power to
see clearly how thing sare going to be in the future. People
often say leaders have drive,
dynamism and energy.
B.Modern management styles
How have management styles changed in the last few
years?
Before, leaders were distant and remote, not easy to get to
know or communicate with. Today, managers are more
open and approachable: you can talk to them easily. There
is more management by consensus, where decisions are
not imposed from above in a top-down approach, but
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
arrived at by asking employees to contribute in a process of
consultation.
Do you think this trend will continue?
Yes. There are more women managers now, who are
often more able to build consensus than traditional
military-style authoritarian male managers.
C. Empowerment
What, exactly ,is empowerment?
Encouraging employees to use their own initiative, to take
decisions on their own without asking managers first, is
empowerment. Decision-making becomes more
decentralized and less bureaucratic, less dependent on
managers and systems This is often necessary where the
number of manegement levels is reduced.
To empower employees, managers need the ability to
delegate, to give other people responsibility for work rather
than doing it all themselves. Of course, with empowerment
and delegation, the problem is keeping control of your
operations: a key issue of modern management.
2. a) Choose the best word to fill each gap from the
alternatives given below. Put a circle around the letter,
А, В, С, or D, of the word you choose.
'My name is Laura Garcia and I train people in modern
management techniques. Old style
managers were (1) ..... They took all the decisions and told
their (2) ..................... what to do
withour talking to them. They were often very (3)
........................................................................ from their
employees. They (4)
...........their decisions from above and their whole
approach was (5) ..................................................................... and
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
(6) ......... A modern manager has to be more (7) .................... and (8)...... Decision
making needs to be (9) .. so everyone should be involved in
the process of (10) .........
1 A authority В aurhorized
С authoritarian D
authorizing
2 A subordinates В superiors
С sponsors D
speculators
3 A above
В further
С long
D remote
4 A imported В imposed С stressed
D pressured
5 A bottom-up
В upside-down С inside-out D
top-down
6 A closed
В administrative С organized
D
restructured
7 A closed
В shut
С over
D open
8 A advanced В relaxing С approachable D distant
9 A decentralized В unfocused
С depreciated D
restructured
10
A talking
В consultation С
speaking
D discussing
b) Complete each sentence by writing in the gap a
word formed from the verb given in
brackets( ).
1 I like people in this company to use their ..... (Initiate)
2 We believe in.................so we let people control their own
work. (Delegate)
3 ..................... means letting people make their own
decisions, (empower)
4 We discuss things and even argue but then we reach a
(Consent)
5 I'm going on a course to develop my ....... skills. (Lead)
c)Find the words that match the clues. The first and last
letters of the answers are given.
1 Talent
2 Energy and drive
3 Attractive quality that good leaders have
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
4 Leader who can see what the future will be like
T
r
_
d
_"
с
v
m
a
3. Describing character
a) Which adjectives below describe positive
aspects of someone's character? Which
describe negative aspects?
decisive open
energet balanced
passionate
ic
charisma ruthless
straight careful
tic
impulsive
motivatin informal
accessi thoughtful
g
flexible
ble
adventur uncaring lunatic
aggressiv
ous
moderate
e
b) Can you think of adjectives with opposite meanings
to the ones above?
c)JackWetch is Chief Executive Officer of
General Electric. In the extracts
below he talks about leadership. Before you read
what he says, try to predict which of
the adjectives above describe his idea of a good
leader.
d)Read what Jack Welch thinks and check your
answers. Do you agree with
him?
У
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
I simply dislike the traits that have come to be
associated with "managing" - controlling, stifling people,
keeping them in the dark, wasting their time on trivia and
reports. Breathing down their necks. You can't manage selfconfidence into people. You have to get out of their way and
let it grow in them by allowing them to win, and then
rewarding them when they do. The word "manager" has too
often, come to be synonymous with control - cold,
uncaring, passionless. I never associate passion with the
word «manager» and .I've never .seen a leader without it.
Above all else good leaders are open. They go up,
down and around their organisations to reach people. They
don't stick to established channels. They're informal.
They're straight with people. They make a religion out of
being accessible.
One of the things about leadership is that you cannot be
a moderate, balanced, thoughtful, careful articulator of
policy. You've got to be on the lunatic fringe.
(The.future) will not belong to "managers" or those who
can make the numbers dance. The world will belong to
passionate, driven leaders - people who not only have
enormous amounts of energy but who can energize those
whom they lead.
4. Running a large company
a) Discuss these questions. Imagine you are the
leader of a large company.
1. What qualities do you need to run a large company
effectively?
2. Which business leaders do you admire? Why?
3. What do business leaders actually do?
4. As a leader, how do you motivate your employees?
5. Do you think leaders are born or made?
5. Honesty and dishonesty
a) The sets of words and phrases below are
related either to honesty or to dishonesty. Which
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
word is different from the others in each set?
Use a dictionary to help you.
1 trustworthy
.
2 a slush fund
.
3 insider
. trading
4a
. whistleblowe
r
5 a bribe
.
6 fraud
.
law -abiding
crooked
a sweetener
compensat
ion
disclosure
industrial
espionage
a swindler
a bonus
deceit
a conman
a
commissio
n
integrity
b) Complete these sentences with words and
phrases from the sets above.Choose from the
first set to complete sentence 1, from the second
set to complete sentence 2, and so on.
1. Our company does nothing illegal. We are very
2. We've got ......... which is used in countries where it is
difficult to do business
without offering bribes.
3. Their car looked so much like our new model. We
suspect ............................................................................
4. They fired him because he was .. He informed the
press that the company was
using under-age workers in the factory.
5.He denied accepting..:.. when he gave the contract to
the most expensive supplier.
6.1 admire our chairman. He's a man of his word and is
greatly respected for his..........................................................................
6. Doing the right thing.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
a) Work in groups. Discuss the ethical
questions below.A different person
should lead the discussion of each issue.
1. You have a shortlist of people for the post of Sales
Manager. One of the female candidates is clearly the best
qualified person for the job. However, you know that
some of your best customers would prefer a man. If you
appoint a woman you will probably lose some sales, What
should you do?
2. Your company, a large multinational, has a new
advertising campaign which stresses its honesty, fairness
and ethical business behaviour. It has factories in several
countries where wages are very low. At present it is paying
workers the local market rate. Should you increase their
wages?
3. A colleague in a company which tests medical equipment
has been making bad mistakes recently at work. This is
because she has a serious illness. You are her friend and the
only person at work who knows this. She has asked you to
keep it a secret. What should you do?
4. You are directors of a potato snack manufacturing
company. Research has shown that any price increase
causes an immediate dip in sales (although sales recover
within six months). It has been suggested that you could
maximise your profits by simply reducing the weight of the
product in the packets and maintaining the current price.
What should you do?
b)Do you agree with this statement? Give your
reasons.
If we face a recession we should not lay off employees.
The company should sacrifice a profit, It's management's
risk and management's responsibility. Employees are not
guilty; why should they suffer?
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Acio Morita (1921 1999), со - founder of
Sony
7. Choosing the right candidate.
a) Discuss this question: Do people change during their
working lives? If so, how?
b) Now read the article again. What does it say about
the question above? Find the answer as quickly as you
can.
How to select the best candidates - and avoid the worst.
By Adrian Furnham
Investing thousands of pounds in the recruitment and
training of each new graduate recruit may be just the
beginning. Choosing the wrong candidate may leave an
organisation paying for years to come.
Few companies will have escaped all of the following
failures: people who panic at the first sign of stress; those
with long, impressive qualifications who seem incapable
of learning; hypochondriacs whose absentee record
becomes astonishing; and the unstable person later
discovered to be a thief or worse.
Less dramatic, but just as much a problem is the
person who simply does not come up to expectations,
who does not quite deliver; who never becomes a highflyer or even a steady performer; the employee with a
fine future behind them.
The first point to bear in mind at the recruitment stage is
that people don't change. Intelligence levels decline
modestly, but change little over their working life. The
same is true of abilities, such as learning languages and
handing numbers.
Most people like to think that personality can change,
particularly the more negative features such as anxiety,
low esteem, impulsiveness or a lack of emotional warmth.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
But data collected over 50 years gives a clear message:
still stable after all these years. Extroverts become slightly
less extroverted; the acutely shy appear a little less so, but
the fundamentals remain much the same. Personal crises
can affect the way we cope with things: we might take up
or drop drink, drugs, religion or relaxation techniques,
which can have pretty dramatic effects. Skills can be
improved, and new ones introduced, but at rather
different rates. People can be groomed for a job. Just as
politicians are carefully repackaged through dress,
hairstyle and speech specialists, so people can be sent on
training courses, diplomas or experimental weekends. But
there is a cost to all this which may be more than the price
of the course. Better to select for what you actually see
rather than attempt to change it.
c)Read the article again and answer these questions.
1 What types of failures do companies experience,
according to the article?
2 What does a fine future behind them mean?
3 What advice does the article give to managers?
d) The writer suggests that selectors should look for
three qualities:
a) Intelligence and ability b) emotional stability c)
conscientiousness.
1 Do you agree? Explain your opinion.
2 Complete the table with the adjectives below. What other
words can you add?
astute bright calm clever easy-going
hard-working moody neurotic punctual
quick-tempered reliable responsible
sharp slow
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Intelligence and ability Emotional stability Conscientiousness
8. Women in management
Read the text and decide which statement А, В, С or D
best fits each gap.
Though women make up over 40% of the - western
workforce, the firms, they work for promote very few of
them far. In America and Britain alike, women hold about
2% of big-company board seats. Where women do get to
run big companies,- it is not by climbing the ordinary
corporate ladder. The lone female chief executive of a
Fortune 500 company, Marion Sandler, of Golden West
Financial, a Californian savings bank, shares the post with
her husband. They bought the bank together. Katharine
Graham, chief executive of The Washington Post Company
until taking the chairmanship last year, inherited the firm
from her father. A 1990 survey of women quitting large
companies, carried out by Wicljf, a Delaware consultancy,
found that only 7% wanted to stop working altogether. The
rest planned to join other firms, to work as freelance
consultants, or to start with their own businesses. When BP
carried out a similar exercise among graduate trainees
recently, the leading reason women gave for going was not
marriage or motherhood, but dissatisfaction with their
career prospects. At one Johnson and Johnson unit,
departing female managers complained that they had felt
isolated from their male colleagues.
People who work in large organizations have an innate
tendency to hire and promote those who resemble
themselves. «Our managers are all white, middle-aged
men, and they promote to their own image» says one
woman.
If looking odd in positions of power is women's first big
barrier to top jobs, feeling odd in them is the second.
«People come up to you at a party, and say «Aren't you
bright? » It isn't a compliments», says a female director at a
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
London investment bank. Men are expected to be assertive.
Women are not, and often do not feel happy being so. Made
to choose between being thought pushy and being actually
self-effacing*, women tend to choose the latter. Within
mixed groups, even highly qualified women put their views
less forcefully than men, and listen much more than they
talk. Strident counter-examples - Margaret Thatcher is an
obvious one * leap to mind just because they are so rare.
If a firm does genuinely want to use the talents of women
more effectively, how should it go about it? The watershed
dividing different employers' approaches is positive
discrimination. Some use quota schemes. At Pitney Bowes,
an American office-equipment manufacturer, 35% of all
promotions must go to women, 15% to non-whites. Some
companies even tie managers' pay to their fulfilment of
such schemes.
Positive discrimination can hurt the women it is designed to
help. Bosses compelled to hire women to fulfil some quota
are unlikely to take them seriously. «If you feel people are
just there because you had to have them, then you work
around them, not with them. Then they feel underutilised,
because they probably are», says Nancy Gheen, a personnel
manager at Monsanto. The real change in the way
companies think about women managers will come when
they change the way they think about jobs.
Most women want to have children. Raising a family
requires time off, and shorter working hours, for somebody,
either husband or wife. To keep good women, firms need to
find ways of giving them those things, yet using them
efficiently. That normally involves letting women with
small children work flexible hours, not requiring them to
relocate or travel at a moment's notice, or even letting them
share their jobs with someone else. In exchange, women
may have to accept lower pay, or slower promotion, until
they return to full-time work. Such programmes have been
dubbed «mommy-tracks».
Companies exist to make their shareholders money, not to
engineer social change. Though mommy-tracks are to firms'
ultimate advantage, since they help keep good staff, in the
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
short term they will sometimes prove to be inconvenient
and expensive. In the irritation of having to change their
ways, employers should not forget to take into account the
costs of turnover among employees. Part of the money
spent training those who leave has gone down the drain.
And back-of-the-envelope calculation of the costs of
replacing a manager often years' standing, earning $70,000,
suggests that the time it takes the new manager to get fully
on top of the job is worth $25,000. If a replacement has
been thought from outside, headhunters' fees, advertising
and interviewing could double that.
* Self-effacing - держащийся в тени.
1. The article says that in the western workforce...
a)40% of women hold senior posts.
b)most women are not promoted to senior posts.
c)women share high positions with men.
d)2% of women have a chance to work in big companies.
2.According to the BP survey, what were reasons why
women quit their work?
a)They planned to get married.
b)They were going to have children.
c)They felt isolated from their colleagues.
d)They were displeased with their career prospects.
3. Employers in large organizations usually hire and
promote...
a)bright people
c) white people
b)people like them
d) middle-aged people
4.It's a rare case when women in business...
a) are highly qualified.
b)are assertive.
c)stay in the background.
d)get compliments on the work.
5. Why does quota scheme employment do women harm?
a)Bosses refuse to fulfil quota schemes.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
b)Bosses do not take seriously the women they have to hire.
c)Women employed according to these schemes are
underpaid.
d)Women employed according to these schemes feel
discriminated.
6. Why do many companies mind using «mommy tracks»
programmes?
a)The employers do not understand the advantages of these
programmes.
b)The employers do not know how to use women
employees efficiently.
c)A new employee is more profitable than having a
«mommy-track».
d)«Mommy-tracks» are inconvenient for a company in the
long term.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
VIII Activity
1. Read the text and choose the best option a, b, с or d.
Take Nicolas Hayek the man who 1 ........................... the Swatch and 2
..................................................... the Swiss watch -making
industry back from the dead. Hayek took on Japanese market 3
Seiko
and Citizen, and
beat them on quality and 4 Today he sells 28 million watches a year and
has built a
1.6bn company in the process. The Swatch is a 20th century icon. And,
incredibly, though the
price of a new one 5 .. never ....... , some of the highly collectable early
designs are now
classed as art and fetch more than $20,000 -not bad for a plastic 6
1) a) was invented 2) a) has brought 3) a) customers 4) a) image
b)invented
b) brought
b) research
b) place
c)invents
c) is brougth
c) leaders
c) presence
d)inventing
d) will have brought d) management
d) price 5) a) had ... increased 6) a) can
b)has ... been increasing b)company
c)increased
c) watch
d)increases
d) eyes
2. Match each headline to a statement. Write the number of the
starement you choose in
the box next to the headline. (There is one statement that you do
not have to use.)
a)Fat cats get more
b)Board faces demutualization fury
c)Northern Enterprise Zone opens
d)Western Steel shock: 500 jobs to go
e)Skills shortage hits construction targets
f) Rail overtime ban to cause travel chaos
1. Members of saxon National turned out in force today to vote
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
against the controversial proposal to change the status of one of
England's oldest buildine societies.
2. Trained people are srarting to come into the industry but there aren't
enough of them and they have little on-site experience.
3. The idea is to attract businesses to the area by offering low
commercial taxes and by lifting many of the legal restrictions
on the import and export of goods.
4. Union spokesperson Harry Evans said that many of his members
wanted a coral stoppage but this action would send a strong
message to the employers.
5. Liberty Homes PLC announced annual profits of. 1.1 million
yesterday - an increase of 2.2% on the previous year.
6. Workers, who on Monday were offered 1.2%, were furious to learn
that directors had voted themselves a huge 11.6%.
7. Restructuring was necessary to save the plant but the scale of the
redundancies came as a
terrible blow to the workforce.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
3. Complete the sentences in the job advertisement below with
who or which.
Chief (Executive
Highly successful quoted company
London Area с 300.000+Bonus+Benefits
Our client is a medium-sized publicly-quoted group of businesses 1
...................................................................................................are
engaged in distrbution and engineering. The group,2 had a record
turnover last year is looking to continue its expansion. The
outgoing Chief
Executive 3 ......... has led the company successfully for the last 10
years, is
due to retire at the end of the year.The new Chief Executive4
....................................................................................... will have an
excellent track record in the industry, will need to fulfill a role 5
.......................................................................................... requires a
variety of leadership skills. Our client is looking for an
outstanding leader
6 ............ will drive the group forward using a mix of strategic,
financial and
commercial skills.
Send a fall CV ia confidence quoting reference number
315J.
_________ Execnttvc Recrnitment, 23-25 Hill Street, London WIX
7BB.______
4. Use the relative pronouns below to complete these quotations.
Which gap does not need a relative pronoun?
who which that where
The job for big companies, the challenge we all face as bureaucrats, is
to create an
environment ......... people can reach their dreams.Jack Welch (U8
business leader)
He ............. has never learned to obey cannot be a good commander.
Aristotle (Greek
philosopher)
A leader shapes and shares a vision, gives point to the work of others.
Charles
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Handy (British writer and philosopher)
A leader should be humble. A leader should be able to communicate
with his people. A
leader is someone .....walks out in front of his people, but he doesn't
get too far out in
front, to where he can't hear their footsteps. Tommy Lasorda (US
sportspersonality)
A leader is someone ... knows what they want to achieve and can
communicate that.
Margarett Hatcher (British politician)
■
5. Match the verbs below to the correct prepositions.
l.biuld
a) to
2. respond a) to
3. focus
a) to
4.
a) to
incorporate
b)up
b) on
c)of
c)
at
b)with c)o
n
b) into c)at
6. Complete these sentences with a verb and a preposition from each
box.
agree
apologise
think hear
refer
for about
about with
to
1 The CEO thinks a joint venture is the best way to break into the
Russia market, but I
don't ............ him.
2. Did you ........... the alliance between Lufthansa and SI A?
3. If you ............the annual report it clearly sets out the facts.
4. What do you ......... the latest news on the proposed merger?
5. The Chairman had to.... misleading the shareholders at the AGM.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
7.Think of the endings to complete the sentences below.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
The Sales Director apologised ...
The R&D department succeeded ...
We all agree ...
The safety inspector insists ...
You can never rely...
The Board's job is to focus...
We are looking forward ...
Several managers don't approve ...
8.Complete this letter to shareholders. Use appropriate forms of
these verbs.
rely on
combine with
consist of advise on
succeed in
budget for spend on account for compete with invest in
\
Dear Shareholder. I write to inform you that the Board has
received information of a takeover bid for
your company. This 1 . : an attempt by Thor Engineering to acquire a
controlling
interest by offering to purchase shares at a price of 650 pence. We
have brought in a team of
consultants to 2 ......the tactics we should use to resist the bid.
Although the offer seems attractive, it does not reflect the true value of
the company or take
into account our future prospects. We have 3 a major programme of
expansion.
During the next two years we plan to 4 new plant and equipment.
We have also
allocated funds to 5 ... a new computerised stock control system which
will allow us to
6 ............. our much larger rivals. Furthermore, we plan to 7
a
machine tool
company in a joint venture in China. We are confident this will allow
the company to
8 ............. opening up new markets in Asia.
Policies like these 9 ...... our success to date and contribute to our
vision of the
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
future.Therefore, we strongly advise you not to accept Thor
Engineering's offer. You can
10 .......... the Board to keep you fully informed of any future,
developments, but for the
present we advise you to take no action in
relation to the offer. Yours faithfully.
9. Skills and qualifications
Education and training
Margareta: The trouble with graduates, people who've just left university
is that their paper qualifications are good, but they have no work
experience. They just don't know how business works.
Nils: I disagree. Education should teach people how to think, not prepar
them for a particular job. One of last year's recruits had graduated from
Oxford in philosophy and she's doing very well! Margareta: Philosophy's
an interesting subject, but for our company, it's more useful if you train
as a scientist and qualify as a biologist or chemis - training for a specific
job is better. Nils: Yes, but we don't just need scientists. We also need
good manager which we can achieve through in-house training courses
within the company. You know we have put a lot of money into
management development and management training because they are
very important. You need to have some management experience for that.
It's not the sor of thing you can learn when you're 20!
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Skilled and unskilled
A skill is the ability to do something well, especially because you have
learned how to do it and
practised it.
Jobs, and the people who do them, can be described as:
highly skilled skilled
semi-skilled unskilled
(e.g. car designer) (e.g. car production manager) (e.g. taxi driver)
(e.g. car cleaner)
You can say that someone is:
skilled at,
or skille
+ noun
customer care
electronics
You can also say that someone
is:
computer software
+ ing
computers
communicating
good with...
figures
using PCs
people
working with large groups
The right person
These words are often used in job advertisements. Companies look for
people who are:
• self-starters, proactive, self-motivated, or self-driven: good at working
on their own.
• methodical, systematic and organized: can work in a planned, orderly
way.
• computer-literate: good with computers.
• numerate: good with numbers.
• motivated: very keen to do well in their job.
• talented: naturally very good at what they do.
• team players: people who work well with other people.
10. Oral Activity You are interviewing people for a position
within your company. Look at the information below and make
comparisons using the adjectives and adverbs in the list, as in the
example.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
qualified, fluently, experienced, reliable, friendly, fast
e.g. Miss Houston is more qualified than
Mr Spencer. Mrs Thompson is the
most qualified of all.
Qualifications: Bachelor of Arts
Experience: 3 years in similar position
Languages: fluent French Skills: types 100
words per minute Personality: very reliable,
quite friend Miss Houston
Qualifications: 4 A-levels
Experience: 1 year in similar
position Languages: a little
French Skills: types 80 words per
minute Personality: not very
friendly, quite reliable Mr
Spencer
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Qualifications: Bachelor of Arts,
Master of Arts
Experience: 2 years in similar
position Languages: working
knowledge of French Skills: types
120 words per minute Personality:
very friendly, not very reliable Mrs
Thompson
Writing Activity
You now have to write a report for your boss, comparing the three
candidates. Look at the Oral
Activity again and complete the report below.
TO: Mrs K. Athow
FROM: Miss R. Allchin
DATE: 3rd June
I interviewed three candidates for the position of Personal Assistant to Head
of Sales in France:
Miss Houston, Mr Spencer and Mrs Thompson. Miss Houston is . more
qualified than Mr
Spencer, but Mrs Thompson is the most qualified of all as she has a
Bachelor of Arts and a
Master of Arts Degree ..................................
I personally believe that Miss Houston is the best candidate for the job,
as she has all the necessary qualifications.
11. Pay and benefits
1. Wages, salary and benefits
My name's Luigi and I'm a hotel manager in Venice. I get paid a salary every
month. In summer we're very bus'y, so we work a lot of extra hours, or
overtime; the money for this is quite good. Working in a hotel, we also get
nice perks, for example free meals!
I'm Ivan and I work as a waiter in Prague. I like my job even if I don't earn
very much: I get paid wages every week by the restaurant. We get the
minimum wage: the lowest amount allowed by law. But we also get tips,
money that customers leave for us in addition to the bill. Some tourists are
very generous!
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
I'm Catherine and I'm a saleswoman based in Paris. I get a basic salary, plus
commission: a percentage on everything I sell. If I sell more than a particular
amount in a year, I also get extra money - a bonus, which is nice. There are
some good fringe benefits with this job: I get a company car, and they make
payments for my pension, money that I'll get regularly after I stop working.
All that makes a good benefits package.
Compensation 1
My name's Alan. I'm a specialist in pay and benefits. Compensation and
remuneration are formal words used to talk about pay and benefits, especially
those of senior managers. Compensation package and remuneration package
are used especially in the US to talk about all the pay and benefits that
employees receive. For a senior executive, this may include share options
(BrE) or stock options (AmE): the right to buy the company's shares at low
prices. (See Unit 36) There may be performance-related bonuses if the
manager reaches particular objectives for the company.
Compensation 2
Compensation is also used to talk about money and other benefits that a
senior manager (or any employee) receives if they are forced to leave the
organization, perhaps after a boardroom row. This money is in the form of a
compensation payment, or severance payment. If the manager also receives
benefits, the payment and the benefits form a severance package.
In Britain, executives with very high pay and good benefits may be
referred to as fat cats, implying that they do not deserve this level of
remuneration.
2.1. Xavier and Yvonne are talking about Xavier's new job as a
photocopier salesman.
Complete the conversation, using words from A opposite.
1 X: I get paid every month.
Y: I see. You get a Salary, not wages.
2 X: I usually have to work late: I don't get paid for it, but I get a
percentage for every
photocopier I sell.
Y: So you don't get ............ , but you do get ...............That's good.
3 X: The people in production get a ...... if they reach their targets.
Y: Oh right. They get an extra payment for producing a certain amount.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
4 X: The company pays for medical treatment too, and the company
restaurant is fantastic. Y: Wow! The sound very nice.
5 X: And they've given me a .............................. to go and visit clients.
Y: So you don't have to buy a car, then.
6 X: What's more, the company pays in money for us to get when we
don't work any more. Y: Yes, it's important to get a good
7 X: The total .......................... , ....... is brilliant.
Y: Yes, all that extra stuff is really worth having.
2.2. Which expressions from В and С opposite could be used to
continue each of these
newspaper extracts?
FAILED AIRLINE BOSS GETS MASSIVE PAYOUT
Shareholders are angry that despite very poor results, Blighty Airlines' CEO,
Mr Rob Herring, is leaving with £3 million in his pocket. They say it is
ridiculous to 'reward bad performance with this sort of... (2 possible
expressions)
MULTILEVER'S EXECUTIVE PAY
It was today revealed that Mr Carl Lang, head of consumer foods giant
Multilever, earns a basic salary of $22 million with stock options potentially
worth an additional $ 10 million. Other payments bring to $35 million his
total... (2 possible expressions)
MEGAFONE CEO GETS £10 MILLION THANK YOU' AFTER
TAKEOVER
The directors of Megnfone, the worlds largest mobile phone company,
yesterday voted to give Mr Chris Ladyman, its chief executive, a special
payment of £10 million for negotiating the company's takeover of
Minnemann. The directors referred to this as a ... (1 possible expression)
ANGRY SHAREHOLDERS ATTACK EXECUTIVE PAY
National Energy's shareholders yesterday attacked the directors of the
company for paying themselves too much. Profits fell by 30 per cent last
year, but directors are being paid 30 per cent more. "They should be paid 30
per cent less", said one shareholder. "These people .are just..." (1 possible
expression)
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
UNIT 6. ADVERTISING
“Advertising is the greatest art form of the twentieth century.”
Marshall McLuhan (1911-1980), Canadian author
I. STARTING UP
1. Express your opinion and understanding of the following sayings:
Advertising makes people buy things they don’t need with money they
haven’t got (William Rogers). The function of advertising is to make the
worse appear better.
2. Good and bad advertisements.
1) What makes a good advertisement? Use some of the words below.
clever interesting funny inspiring eye
catching powerful humorous shocking informative sexy
2) What are good and bad points of advertising? If necessary use
these expressions.
give true information; do not talk about the products' defects; make you
buy one thing instead of another; (are) misleading (дезинформируют); show
life unrealistically; put pressure on consumers (оказывают давление на
покупателей); famous people endorse (рекламируют) products; teach you
how to get the best value for your money; (are) truthful; help you choose best
products; help improve your taste; (are) impossible to check; people seem to
be happy consumers; (are) creative/informative/silly/annoying/ clever/funny;
full of humour/fantasy; convince people to buy things they don't need;
present an honest, realistic image of a product.
3. Advertising media and methods.
1) Newspapers and TV are two advertising media. Can you think of
others?
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
2) Complete the table with the words in the box. Can you think of
other words? Use a good dictionary to help you.
directories persuade
promote
cinema
run
mailshots
place
free samples
commercials public transport
launch
leaflets
exhibition billboards/hoardings word-of-mouth radio
point-of-sale posters
research
sponsor
target
endorsement
slogans
television
press
jingles
sponsorship
publicise
Media
radio
ADVERTISING
Methods
Verbs
jingles
persuade
II ADVERTISEMENT
1. Read the text and understand the contents. Consult vocabulary
notes below the text. Read §1 again and use the word given in capitals at
the end of each line to form a word that fits in the space in the same line.
1. Advertising is the act of 1________ a product, a service,
a job vacancy, an event, etc. 2 ________ known. It is a
nonpersonal form of' communication through means of 1. Make
Public
information 3________. The advertising has many 4________. 2.
3. Distribute
A corporate image advertising is used to form a lasting image. A 4. Applicate
product advertising is 5________ to distinguish a certain brand 5. Use
Compare
of products 6________ to other brands of the same trade class. 6.
7. Inform
Rubric advertising is used to distribute 7________ about 8. Clear
services, events or some sale. 8________ advertising is used to 9. Explain
Advertise
announce of some clearance sale. 9________ advertising is used 10.
11. Getting
to uphold some idea. Companies with strong 10________ 12. Count
department often resort to the services of advertising agencies.
The
agencies
11
________
a
commission,
usually
a
15%
12 ________ of the value of the purchased advertising space.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
2. Read § 2 again and decide which word a, b, c or d best fits each
gap.
2. 1________ advertisement is a five-stage process includes such stages
as: setting the objectives; drawing up a budget; the appeal; the choice of
2________ of information distribution; assessment of the results. The
objectives should 3________ clearly 4________ .
Informing 5________ on the stage of introducing a new product on the
market. Persuading forms a special demand for a certain brand of products.
Reminding is important 6________ the consumer remember the product but
not to persuade or inform.
The budget can be drawn up 7________ to such principles as "on the
level of competitors," "out of certain objectives and goals" etc. The appeal
presupposes the 8________ of the idea, choice of forms of appeal and
implementation. 9________ advertiser should keep in mind the four AIDA
points: attention, interest, desire, action consequent stages of the consumer's
response before buying.
The choice of the means of information distribution depends on setting
10________ following questions: stating the range of frequency and the
impact of the advert-choosing a specific advertising means. 11________ of
the companies, prefer a pulsing schedule. Assessment of the results
presupposes the evaluation of the commercial effectivity before, during and
after the publicity campaign.
a
b
C
d
making
makes
made
1 make
a mean
means
meanses
2 a means
be…stating is…stated
3 be… state be…stated
prevailed
prevails
4 to prevail prevailing
having made
make
making
5 to make
6 accordance accordance with according accordingly
forming
formed
forms
7 to form
any
a
the
8 some
an
the
a
9 the most
most
mostly
10 a most
3. Read §3 and translate it into Russian
3. There are two major types of advertisements: classified and
commercial. Classified adverts are short advertisements in a newspaper or
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
magazine. Commercial adverts are advertisements on television, radio or in a
cinema.
Vocabulary Notes
advertising
реклама
application
применение
corporate image
представление о товаре
brand
торговая марка
clearance sale
распродажа
to uphold the idea
отстаивать идею
advertisement = advert
рекламное объявление
advertising agency
рекламное агентство
commission
комиссионное вознаграждение
discount
скидка
to draw up an invoice
выписать счет
to keep back
удерживать
to draw up the budget
составить бюджет
appeal
обращение, призыв
assessment
оценка
implementation
выполнение
to elaborate
разработать
publicity campaign
рекламная компания
4. Read the text again and complete questions not changing the
meaning of the first one.
1) ─ Are there two major types of advertisements?
─ Could you tell me_____________________.
2) ─ What do classified adverts comprise?
─ Do you know__________________.
3) ─ Where are commercial adverts used?
─ I wonder____________________.
4) ─ What does making advertisement include?
─ I’d like to find out__________________?
5) ─ What is the aim of public advertising?
─ Can you tell me__________________.
III. OUTDOOR ADVERTISING
1. What do you understand by outdoor advertising? Give examples.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
2. Before
definitions.
1) segments
2) soaring
3) mass
market
4) TV slot
5) kiosks
you read the article below, match these words to their
a) a place in a television schedule
b) rising quickly
c) small open-fronted shop in the street for selling
newspapers, etc.
d) concerned with non-luxury goods that are sold in large
quantities
e) parts of a larger market or category of customers
3. Complete this statement with four of the words above.
The cost of prime-time ………………1 is……………………2.
However, Advertising on…………….3 is cheap. Outdoor advertising is one
of the fastest growing……………...4 in the market.
4. Read the article. Then answer the questions below the article.
Outdoor advertising – A breath of fresh air
The world of outdoor advertising
More, and plastic poster skins have
billboards, transport and 'street
vastly improved colour and contrast.
furniture' (things like bus shelters
Movement is possible too. Smirnoff
and public toilets) - is worth about
used new multi-image printing to
$18 billion a year, just 6% of all the make a spider seen through a vodka
world's spending on advertising. But bottle appear to crawl up a man's
it is one of the fastest-growing
back. And Disney advertised its '101
segments, having doubled its market Dalmatians video on bus shelters with
share in recent years.
the sound of puppies barking.
Outdoor advertising's appeal is
This sort of innovation has attracted a
growing as TV and print are losing
new class of advertiser. Recent data
theirs. The soaring costs of TV are
from Concord, a poster buyer, shows
prompting clients to consider
that in Britain, alcohol and tobacco
alternatives. Dennis Sullivan, boss of have been replaced by entertainment,
Portland Group, a media buyer, calls clothing and financial services as the
outdoor advertising the last true
big outdoor advertisers, like car
mass-market medium. It is also
makers, are using it in new ways.
cheap. In Britain, a 30-second prime- BMW ran a 'teasers' campaign in
time TV slot costs over £60,000
Britain exclusively on bus shelters.
($100,000); placing an ad on a bus
Particularly attractive to the new
shelter for two weeks works out at
advertisers is street furniture, the
about £90.
fastest growing segment of the
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Adding to its attractions has been a
revolution in the quality of outdoor
displays. Famous architects such as
Britain's Sir Norman Foster are
designing arty bus shelters and
kiosks with backlit displays.
Backlighting, introduced in Europe
by Decaux and
outdoor market. It accounts for some
20% in Europe and about 5% in
America.
Discuss these questions:
1) Outdoor advertising is increasing in many countries. Is this a good
thing?
2) What products do you think are suitable for outdoor advertising?
1) Complete the table using information from the article.
Outdoor Advertising
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Street Furniture
2) What do these numbers in the article refer to?
18 6 30 60,000 100,000 90 20 5
3) Why has outdoor advertising become more popular? List the reasons.
4) Which industries are becoming more involved in outdoor advertising?
5. Choose one of the advertising media below. Make a short
presentation on its advantages and disadvantages.
television
billboards
newspapers
street furniture
6. Match words from each box to form word partnerships. Then
make up a sentence for each word partnership.
advertising
techniques
marketing
promotions
public
outlets
retail
campaign
price
relations
promotional
mix
7. Put each of the following words or phrases in its correct place in
the passage.
hoardings classified advertisements publicise
commercials
posters advertising agencies
persuade
eye-catching
Advertisements are everywhere, from columns of small (a)______for
houses, jobs, cars etc. in newspapers to big (b)______on walls and enormous
advertisements on (c) ______by the side of the road. The job of the
(d)______is to (e)_________the products of the firms who employ them.
They design (f)______advertisements and make television (g)________to
(h)________us to buy, buy, buy
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
8. Complete the story below with the correct tenses of the verbs in
brackets.
That reminds me of the problem we ……..had…….. 1 (have) with our
new milk carton. We………….2 (introduce) it a few months earlier and
it…………..3 (become) popular with customers. People …………4 (buy)
it,………..5 (talk) about it and…………6 (recommend) it to their friends, and
so on. Then we………….7(change) to a new supplier who…………8 (be)
cheaper and we …………….9 (start) to get lots of complaints.
People…………10 (can not) open the cartons any more. We were surprised
about the problem because we………….11 (test) it on some of our workers.
They …………..12 (say) it was fine.
In the end, we …………..13 (decide) to go back to our original supplier.
We……………14 (look) really stupid. In the meantime, we…………..15
(lose) a lot of customers. We…………….16 (be) very careful about choosing
suppliers for packaging ever since.
IV. STARTING PRESENTATIONS
1. Study the useful language.
Introducing yourself
• On behalf of myself and Focus Advertising, I'd like to welcome you.
My name's Sven Larsen.
• Hi, I'm Dominique Lagrange. Good to see you all.
Introducing the topic
• This morning, I'd like to outline the campaign concept we've developed
for you.
• I'm going to tell you about the ideas we've come up with for the ad
campaign.
Giving background information
• I'll give you the background and talk you through the results of the
market study.
• I've divided my presentation into three parts.
Inviting questions
• If you have any questions, please don't hesitate to interrupt me.
• If you're not clear about anything, go ahead and ask any questions you
want.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
2. Presenters can use different techniques to get their audience's
attention at the start of a presentation. Match the techniques below to
the examples.
a) tell a personal story
c) ask a question
b) offer an amazing fact
d) state a problem
1) I wonder if any of you here know the answer to this question: What's
the most popular holiday destination in Europe for people under the age of
25?
2) When I was on holiday a few years ago in Greece, the owner of a
taverna told me that in 20 years' time, the little village where he lived would
be a popular tourist resort.
3) Let me give you a statistic: 92% of Americans do not own a passport.
Consider the opportunities this presents to the travel industry.
4) We're facing a crisis with our market share. What are we going to do
about it?
3. The sentences below describe stages in an unsuccessful product
launch. Put them in a logical order.
a) The newspapers asked questions.
b) The product was recalled.
c) The company lost a lot of money.
d)The product was launched.
e) The product was tested.
f) The number of complaints doubled.
g) People started to complain.
h) The product sold well.
V. ADVERTISING IN THE USA.
1. To start with read the text with the help of a dictionary and
understand the main idea.
The influence of advertising in the mass media market has both
advantages and disadvantages. On the plus side is the fact that people get an
incredible variety of information, entertainment and culture at minimal cost.
The disadvantage is that nearly all of America's mass communications are
heavily overloaded with commercial or persuasive messages.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
All advertising contains both information and persuasion. The classified
advertisements in the daily newspapers are almost pure information. So are
most of the supermarket specials.
In Latin ad vertere means "to turn the mind towards something". The
American Marketing Association (AMA) points out that advertising is a tool
of marketing along with the product price, distribution and personal selling.
It also reminds us that advertising can be used to promote ideologies and
services. This kind of promotion is "non-personal" — it is directed "to whom
it may concern" — and therefore it is effective because the audience is very
receptive to it.
The first function of advertising is to distinguish among identical
products. This attempt was exercised at the end of the 19-th century by
means of brand name identification. It seemed that the brand name would
become synonymous with the product or its quality. Today when we ask for
Coca-Cola, Kleenex or Xerox — it's due to this particular function of
advertising.
While brand names were an effective advertising technique, something
more was required to establish the product difference in the public mind.
From the realm of political campaigning advertisers borrowed the slogan —
a catchy summary of the product. Thus, the company "Pears' Soap" updated
itself instantly with a catchy "Good morning, have you used Pears' today?"
The slogan gave way to the jingle, which was set to music and rhyme.
"Winston tastes good, like a cigarette should" is an evident though an
ungrammatical example.
The next technique applied to advertising was brand image. Its aim was
to create an image for a product that puts it a little above the competition and
hence makes it a little more desirable. Since the late 1960s, a new concept
has come to national advertising called positioning". Positioning consists of
segmenting a market by persuading the customer that the new product will
meet the needs of a selective group. Positioning recognizes the differences in
people as individuals and the impossibility of any product capturing the
entire potential market.
2. Read the text again and match the words (1-8) with their
definitions (a-h).
1) advantage
a) facts told, heard or discovered about sb/sth
2) message
b) a large shop selling food, drink, household goods.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
3) information
c) the action of persuading sb or being persuaded.
4) supermarket
d) a written or spoken request, a piece of information
that is passed from one person to another directly.
e) a word phrase that is easy to remember used in
advertising to attract people’s attention.
f) a condition or circumstance that puts one in a
favourable position compared to other people.
g) a type of product manufactured by a particular
company; a trade mark.
h) a group of people who have gathered together to
hear or watch sb/sth.
5) persuasion
6) brand
7) audience
8) slogan
3. Fill each of the gaps with the words listed. There is one extra word
which you needn’t use.
Brand, information, audience, advantage, supermarket, persuasion,
message, slogan, flag.
1) He has the ____________ of a steady job.
2) The ship sent for a radio ____________ asking for help.
3) A copy of the report is enclosed for your ____________.
4) People choose what they want from the shelves and pay for it as they
leave a ____________
5) She has a great power of _____________.
6) The _____________ was enthusiastic on the opening of a new shop.
7) “Power to the people” is their campaign _____________.
8) Which ____________ of toothpaste do you prefer?
4. Without referring back to the article , put the following parts of
sentences in to the right order by numbering the 22 parts below. The
first and the last parts are in the correct order.
1) The influence of advertising in the some
● all advertising
● the first function of advertising is
● while brand names were on
● since the late 1960’s a new concept
● the classified advertisements in the daily
● it seemed that the brand name
● to establish the product difference has both
● contains both information and persuasion
● to distinguish among identical products
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
● would become synonymous
● has come
● effective advertising technique
● in the public mind
● to advertising was brand image
● advantages and disadvantages
● the next technique applied
● newspapers are almost pure information
● with the product or its quality
● something more has required
2) to national advertising called positioning.
VI. THE HISTORY OF ADVERTISEMENTS
Read and do exercises on the text in writing.
1. Pre-reading. Find the meaning of the words in a box in your
dictionary.
Papyrus, tablet, slave, noble, excavations, shell, dragon, Cyprus,
cement, Cairo, inspect, fragments, archaeologist, conservative, architect,
ancestor, establish, rock, carve, contain, announcement.
2. While reading. Answer the following questions.
1) When did the first advertisement appear?
2) What forms did the advertisement appear in?
3) What did the first newspaper contain?
How and what our ancestors (предки) advertised? It isn't easy to
establish when the first advertisement appeared, and it is not surprising since
it goes back to very ancient times. A papyrus in the collection of the British
museum, in London, advertises the sale of a slave. Rock drawings and
inscriptions along the roads were also an excellent way to advertise things.
Probably the oldest advertisement was found in the excavations of the
ancient Egyptian town of Memphis. It says: "1, Rhinos from Cyprus, live
here. Gods gave me the gift of the true telling of dreams." This advertisement
is 2,500 years old. It is carved in stone and visitors to one of the Cairo
museums can inspect it.
In the excavations of one of the towns of ancient Greece archaeologists
found about 300 stone fragments with letters of the Greek alphabet When
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
they put the fragments together they found it was a tablet for a shop window
with a list of goods and their prices.
The first newspaper in the world that put in an advertisement was a
hand written Roman newspaper "Daily Happenings". It contained
announcements of meetings, births, and marriages in the noble families of
Rome.
To attract customers bright signs with the name of the owner and his
goods painted on them appeared above shops. Fruit, vegetables, sheep,
shoes, hats were painted by "naive painters". Some of these painters were
really outstanding masters, such as Niko Pirosmanishvili.
One of the houses built in Kiev early in this century may also be
considered as an advertisement. It is decorated by figures of sea monsters,
shells and sea dragons. The story of the house is unusual. The owner of a
cement plant couldn't sell his product as it was a new material and
construction firms were quite conservative. So, when he learnt that a wellknown architect was going to build a new house for himself he offered
cement free of charge on the condition that the house would be decorated by
sculptures made of cement. The unusual building attracted everybody's
attention and served as an excellent advertisement of the new building
material. Today advertising uses all media — press, radio, television and
cinema. (From a newspaper report)
3. Choose a, b, c, or d that best fits each sentence.
1) The first advertisements
appeared in…
a. the British Museum
b. Cyprus
c. “Daily Happenings”
d. Kiev
3) The first newspaper was
issued in…
a. Rome
b. Greece
c. Memphis
d. Cairo
2) To attract customers attention bright
sings contained…
a. a papyrus
b. inscription
c. fruit, vegetables, sheep, dragons
d. a list of goods
4) One of the houses in Kiev is
decorated by…
a. figures of sea monsters, shells, dragons
b. the Greek alphabet
c. 300 stone fragments
d. Rock drawings
4. Which sentences do not correspond to the contents of the story
1) As the story says the first advertisements appeared in different ways
in various countries.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
2) Bright signs of sea monsters, shells, sea dragons were painted by
"naive painters"
3) The oldest advertisement/was published in the excavations of the
ancient Egyptian town
4) The first newspaper in the world contained announcements of
meetings, births and marriages in the noble families of Rome.
5. Fill in the table using words from the text. First write contents of
advertisements and then their forms.
place
Rome Kiev The British Museum Memphis
contents
forms
*6. Say what you have learned about the history of advertisements?
VII. ACTIVITY
1. Warning cigarette advertising.
1) Read the text and understand the contents.
Warning-cigarette advertising is dangerous to health. More than 252
million dollars was spent last year persuading people to buy a product which
is known to be extremely bad, even fatal, for health. This is the most
widespread and dangerous case of deception in advertising today.
Young, healthy, handsome people still splash in pools with Salem
cigarettes between their pearl-white teeth (something few heavy smokers
have).
It was typical for cigarette advertising of the 20s and 30s often to use
celebrities to prove that smoking was good for digestion, or some such
nonsense. We laugh at such balderdash (вздор) now. But today's cigarette
advertising is just as dishonest.
In one ad a handsome businessman smiles his best businessman's smile
and barks: "Don't ask me why I smoke. Ask me why I smoke Winston. ” And
one should certainly ask, because he is supposed to be so smart, since. Below
is the warning: "The Surgeon General Has Determined That Cigarette
Smoking is Dangerous to Your Health." Like the average smoker, he pays as
much attention to that warning as the average ten-year-old pays to the sign
on the escalator telling him to hold on to the handrail
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Cigarette smoking has been proved to be a contributing factor in lung
cancer, heart disease and a number of other serious and often fatal illnesses.
Perhaps in some Utopian world advertising agencies would refuse to work
on cigarette advertisements and newspapers and magazines would refuse to
accept cigarette advertising. But this can hardly happen in the near future.
2) Choose A, B, C, or D that best fits each sentence.
2.1 The author of the story states that cigarette advertising:
a) hurts people’s health
b) brings businessmen 252 million dollars
c) is such balderdash now c) is a dangerous case of deception
2.2 It is quite clear from the story that cigarette advertising of the 20s
and 30s deceived people that smoking:
a) was good for digestion b) is known to be extremely bad, even fatal
for health
c) is just as dishonest
d) is supposed to be smart
2.3 One can’t but pay attention to the fact that cigarette smoking has
been turned out to be:
a) a widespread factor in serious and fatal illnesses
b) a good means for digestion
c) a contributing factor in lung cancer , heart decease
2.4 As one ad says ________ has determined that cigarette smoking is
dangerous for health
a) the average ten-year-old
b) advertising agency
c) a celebrity
d) the surgeon general
2.5 It was typical for cigarette advertising to use ________ to prove that
smoking was good from some illnesses.
a) a businessman
b) newspapers and magazines
c) celebrities
d) young, healthy, handsome people
2.6 It is clear from the text that average smokers do not make up their
mind about:
a) warning
b) Salem cigarettes
c) dangerous case of deception
d) handsome people
2.7 Is it true that smoking is considered:
a) to be widespread
b) to be popular
c) to hold on to the handrail
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
d) to be contributing factor in a number of serious illnesses
2. Read and translate the following text. What is your opinion of the
problems.
Modern methods of gathering and using information raise some
important questions about privacy. Does one have legal rights to personal
privacy? And if he does, at what point are his rights invaded?
One of the first cases involving rights of personal privacy had to do with
advertising. In 1903, a New York woman named Roberson discovered that
her photo was being used to advertise a brand of flour.
She sued the milling company, but she lost the case, because at that time,
there were no laws protecting personal privacy from such advertising
practices. Shortly afterwards, the state of New York passed one of the first
personal privacy laws. According to these laws it was considered illegal to
use information about a person to advertise a product unless a person gave
permission. Soon other states passed similar laws.
However, even today the law cannot tell exactly where one’s rights of
privacy begin and end. Very often it takes a court case to decide whether a
particular invasion of privacy is illegal or not.
LITERATURE
1.Market Leader.Intermediate Business Course.D.Cotton, D.Kent,2001.
2.Countdown. To First Certificate. Oxford. M.Duckworth and
K.Gude. 2004.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
3.Business Vocabulary in Use. Professional English. Bill Mascull, 2004.
Cambridge.
4.Test your Business Vocabulary in Use. Tricia Aspinall and G.Bethell.
Cambridge University, 2004.
5.А.Д.Пароятникова,
М.Ю.Полевая.
Английский
язык
для
гуманитарных вузов.
6.Right Word, Wrong Word. L.G.Alexander,2001.
7.Intermediate Vocabulary. B.J.Thomas,2000.
8.В.П.Кузовлев, Н.А.Лана. English Student’s book, 2000.
9.Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary,1998.
10.English Grammar: reference and practice. Н.И.Петряева, Г.А.Глебова,
Белгород, 2006.
11.Английский язык. Методические указания для студентов-заочников
неязыковых специальностей. Белгород, 1998.
12.Шевелева С.А., Стогов В.Е. Основы экономики и бизнеса: Учебное
пособие по англ. языку.- М.: Культура и спорт, ЮНИТИ, 2002.
Документ
Категория
Информатика
Просмотров
2 768
Размер файла
2 363 Кб
Теги
understand, business, 2637, students, grammar, English
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа