close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

3115.Сельскохозяйственная техника

код для вставкиСкачать
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
СЕЛЬСКОХОЗЯЙСТВЕННАЯ
ТЕХНИКА
Учебное пособие
Ставрополь
«АГРУС»
2013
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
УДК 631.3 : 811.111
ББК 40. 721 я 7 :81.2Англ
С29
Рецензенты:
доктор филологических наук, профессор СПбГУ
Е. Г. Хомякова;
кандидат технических наук, доцент кафедры ПРиМА СтГАУ
М. В. Данилов;
доктор филологических наук, профессор,
зав. кафедрой «Иностранные языки» Саратовского ГАУ
М. А. Ярмашевич
Сельскохозяйственная техника : учебное пособие / сост.
С29 Н. Я. Козловская. – Ставрополь : АГРУС Ставропольского
гос. аграрного ун-та, 2013. – 148 с.
Пособие ставит целью расширение знаний и совершенствование умений и навыков в области современного английского языка. Содержит оригинальные тексты по механизации сельского
хозяйства, которые отражают достижения науки и техники и представляют познавательный интерес для студентов. Данное пособие
снабжено серией упражнений и терминологическим словарём.
Предназначено для студентов факультета механизации сельского хозяйства аграрных вузов, обучающихся по направлениям: 110800.62 «Агроинженерия» и 190600.62 «Эксплуатация
транспортно-технологических машин и комплексов»,
Рекомендовано к изданию учебно-методической комиссией
факультета Механизации сельского хозяйства (протокол № 1 от
27.08.2013 г.)
УДК 631.3 : 811.111
ББК 40.721 я 7 : 81.2Англ
© ФГБОУ ВПО Ставропольский государственный
аграрный университет, 2013
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ
Данное учебное пособие предназначено для студентов факультета механизации сельского хозяйства, усвоивших нормативный курс
грамматики английского языка, имеющих соответствующий запас
лексики. Материал пособия можно использовать как для работы в аудитории с преподавателем, так и для самостоятельной работы.
Согласно федеральному государственному образовательному
стандарту высшего профессионального образования (ФГОС ВПО)
студент должен:
знать:
– лексический минимум в объеме 4000 учебных лексических
единиц общего и терминологического характера;
владеть:
– иностранным языком в объеме, необходимым для получения
информации из зарубежных источников;
– навыками письменного аргументированного изложения собственной точке зрения.
Поэтому учебное пособие преследует следующие практические
цели:
1) научить студентов читать литературу по специальности;
2) познакомить с наиболее часто встречающейся в технической
литературе терминологией;
3) развить навыки устной речи (монологической, диалогической);
4) систематизировать и расширить словарный запас;
5) закрепить грамматические структуры;
6) ознакомить с образцами современной научной литературы по
специальности по английскому языку.
Развитие навыков монологической речи – способность констатировать факт, высказать своё мнение, сделать краткое сообщение – осуществляется на базе тематических текстов, которые дают большую
возможность для стимулирования высказывания.
Лексико-грамматические упражнения состоят из:
а) упражнений на закрепление активной лексики по специальности;
б) лексических упражнений творческого характера на базе текста
и активного словаря.
Задача так называемых творческих упражнений – побудить студентов к высказыванию на английском языке: описание ситуации с
использованием известной лексики; умение задавать вопросы и отве3
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
чать на них. Задания к упражнениям составлены таким образом, что
они вызывают у студентов необходимость сосредоточить своё внимание на смысловом содержании ответов.
Вместе с речевыми упражнениями включены некоторые виды традиционных упражнений, которые необходимы для более прочного
усвоения материала. Эти упражнения также помогут совершенствовать навыки чтения и письма.
Учебное пособие состоит из трёх разделов. Первый раздел включает в себя 11 уроков, построенных по тематическому принципу, и
охватывает следующие темы: 1) двигатели внутреннего сгорания;
2) сельскохозяйственные орудия и инструменты; 3) тракторы; 4) комбайны. В каждом уроке имеется тематический текст, упражнения, а
также тексты для развития навыков письма и усвоения лексического
минимума.
Второй раздел охватывает тексты для творческой работы студентов.
В третий раздел вошли тексты для самостоятельной работы студентов во время внеаудиторных занятий.
В пособие также включены иллюстрации, словарь наиболее часто
употребляемых слов и терминов, список сокращений, фразеологические сочетания фразовые глаголы, идиомы.
В пособие использованы оригинальные тексты из английских книг
и журналов. Материал частично адаптирован применительно к уровню требований, предусмотренных программой английского языка для
высших учебных заведений.
Автор выражает глубокую благодарность коллективу факультета
механизации сельского хозяйства Ставропольского государственного
аграрного университета, а также Грибановой В. В., оказавшим содействие и помощь в работе над данным учебным пособием.
4
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
UNIT 1
SURVEY OF FARM POWER
The first kind of power used in agriculture was human power, and
all operations from land preparation through cultivation, harvesting, and
processing of the final product were performed by hand. Many centuries
passed before the power of animals was used. The transition from hand
farming to modern power-farming was at first slow, but with the development of the steel plough, the internal combustion engine, the farm tractor,
and other modern farm machines, the movement has accelerated. Heavier
and larger ploughs, harrows, planters, cultivators, and harvesting devices,
threshers, grain reapers, mowers were designed before 1850.
Designers of farm machinery have tried to design machinery adoptable to a wide variety of situations, and the success of their efforts has
resulted in greater use of farm machinery. The quality of farm machinery
has also been improved by its having greater resistance resulting in reduced
replacement and adjustment of parts.
A machine is a device that gives a mechanical advantage, facilitates the
doing of work; thus the term “farm machinery” includes the mechanical
equipment of field and farmstead from water pumps to tractors.
Evolution of the tractor has accompanied changes in farm technology
and sizes of farms. The tractor has progressed from its original primary use
as a substitute for animal power to the present units designed for multiple
uses. Traction power, belt power, power take-off drives, mounted tools,
and hydraulic remote control units, as well as power steering, greater range
of power sizes, improved engine design including smaller diesel engines,
improved transmissions including more operating speeds, differential lock,
rubber tires, electric starting and lighting, improved operator comfort and
safety all serve to extend the usefulness and efficiency of the modern tractor.
The term «tractor» appears in the USA in 1890 for a track-laying steam
traction engine. A tractor is defined as a self-propelled machine that can be
used for supplying power for
1. pulling machines,
2. operating the mechanism by means of a belt pulley or a power takeoff.
There were two types, namely, a steam tractor, in which an externalcombustion or steam engine supplied the power, and a gas tractor, in which
an internal-combustion engine was as the source of power. The steam engines came into use about 1870. They were mounted on wheels and pulled
by horses. Later on they were made self-propelling.
5
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
The steam tractor for field work had its limitations. It was very heavy
and slow moving, the fuel was bulky and difficult to handle. They became
obsolete as a source of farm power.
The first gas tractors were equipped with large slow-speed engines with
one or two cylinders. They required a strong frame, large wheels. They
were also heavy and were difficult to start and handle.
Next step was the design of a light-weight, low-priced, all-purpose tractor that could do any kind of field and stationary work, including ploughing, harrowing, planting, cultivating, threshing.
The first tractors supplying power directly to the mechanism of a field
machine by means of a power take-off attachment appeared in 1927. Tractors equipped with diesel engine were introduced in 1931. Low-pressure
pneumatic tires first appeared on farm tractors in 1932.
Power is required on the farm for doing two kinds of work, namely,
tractive work, requiring pulling or drawing effort, and stationary work,
usually accomplished by means of a belt, gears, power take-off, or direct
drive. Tractive jobs include 1) ploughing and land preparation, 2) planting
and seeding, 3) crop cultivation, 4) harvesting, and 5) hauling. Stationary
jobs include 1) water pumping, 2) processing, 3) ensilage cutting.
There are five possible sources of power for doing the various kinds of
work. They are: 1) domestic animals, 2) wind, 3) flowing water, 4) electricity, 5) engine of tractors.
Engines
Engine is a machine that converts energy into power or motion. This
word was taken from old French engin, from Latin ingenium which means
“talent, device”. The original sense was “ingenuity, cunning”, hence ‘the
product of ingenuity, a plot or snare”, also “tool, weapon” whence a machine, used later on combinations such as steam engine, internal combustion engine.
The history of invention of engines was long. In 1678, Abbe Jean de
Haute-feuille proposed to use an explosive powder to obtain power. He
was the first man to design an engine using heat as a motive force. Christian Huyghens was the first man to construct an engine having a cylinder
and a piston. Later on a great number of engines were constructed but
they were not successful. Only in 1876 N. A. Otto patented the first successful engine operating on four-stroke cycle principle. Two years later
D. Clerk invented two-stroke-cycle engine, producing one power stroke
for every revolution instead of for every two revolutions.
Another invention was the work of R. Diesel. He proposed to utilize
the heat produced by high compression for igniting the fuel charge in the
cylinder.
6
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Problems and Questions
1. Explain briefly what has happened with respect to the types of farm
power and their relation to farming.
2. Name developments which have contributed to the popularity of
tractor power for farming.
3. What contribution to the development of the internal-combustion engine was connected with the name of R. Diesel?
4. Enumerate the possible sources of power for doing farm work and
state their relative value and use in agriculture today.
I. Work in pairs. Can you guess when each of these things was invented?
engine, low-pressure pneumatic tires, four-stroke cycle engine, powertake off attachment
1678
1876
1927
1932
II. Five of these sentences contain errors. If a sentence is correct,
beside it. If there are any mistakes in a sentence, underput a tick
line them and write the correction.
1. The term «tractor» appears in England.
2. The steam tractor had no its limitations.
3. Farm machines have been improved in quality.
4. The first gas tractor was equipped with small slow-speed engines.
5. A tractor is defined as a stationary machine.
6. The history of invention of engines was long.
7. R. Diesel patented the first four-stroke cycle engine.
8. A tractor is used only to pull machines.
III. Fill the gaps in the sentences with a suitable word:
ploughing
frame piston
pulled
cylinder
1. The first gas tractors required a strong ... .
2. The steam engines were ... by a horse.
3. Tractors are used for ... .
4. C. Huyghens constructed an engine with a ... .and a ... .
IV. Choose the best alternative to fill the gaps in these sentences.
1. An internal-combustion engine was the source of ... .
a) strength
b) power
c) force
2. R. Diesel proposed to use ... produced by high compression.
a) the vapour
b) the oil
c) the heat
3. The first gas tractors were difficult .... .
a) to start
b) to equip
c) to design
7
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
4. All-purpose tractor may be used for ... .
a) mounting
b) cultivating c) processing
5. Stationary work is accomplished by ... .
a) gears
b) brakes
c) tires
V. Add more examples of the nouns formed from the verbs listed:
develop, produce, plant, cultivate, prepare, require, equip, thresh, till,
resist, transmit
-ment arrangement .................... ................. ..................
-tion expansion
.................... ................. .................. ..............
-er
farmer
.................... ................. ..................
-or
doctor
....................
-age passage
...................
-ance performance ...................
VI. What are the differences between the sentences in each pair?
1. The farmers require power on the farms.
2. Power is required by the farmers on the farms.
3. If something does not work properly, it should be repaired by an
expert.
4. If something does not work properly, it should be repaired.
VII. Using a passive each time, give an example of where they grow,
produce or make each of the items below.
Example:
Wine is produced in many parts of France.
VW cars are made in Germany.
oil tea
rice
coffee tractor combine
VIII. In pairs. Ask and say where in our country we do the following:
1. grow wheat or potatoes
2. rear cattle
3. manufacture farm machinery
4. grow fruit and vegetables
Example:
A: Where is oats grown in Russia?
B: It’s grown in the North of Russia, I think.
IX. Do a complete run-through of the text and write an article for a
magazine describing the main points of farm mechanization.
8
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Farm mechanization
Agricultural mechanization dates from the early 1800s. Steel mouldboard ploughs were invented in 1837. George Washington took part in designing a grain seeding machine. One of the first farm machines was a
grain reaper.
Early field machines were powered quite well by animals. Animals
were used to produce stationary rotary power.
By 1850, steam power was introduced, and it remained an important
powered source for the next seventy-five years. Production of steam-powered machines stopped in the 1920s.
Internal combustion engines were developed about 1900 and have become the power source for mobile machinery.
Most of the internal combustion engine mechanisms were adapted from
earlier steam engines.
The early steam engines were furnished with belt power but had to be
pulled from place to place by horses or oxen. The next step in the evolution
in farm power was the conversion of the steam engine into a self-propelled
traction engine. Successful steam engines appeared in the 1850s.The development of track-type agricultural tractors began about 1900.
Early attempts to develop gasoline tractors were stimulated by the need
to reduce the number of workers required to attend the steam tractors, both
when ploughing and when operating threshing machines. Early gasoline
tractors resembled steam tractors. The internal-combustion engine became
important when Otto patented his four-stroke cycle engine.
UNIT 2
ENGINE CYCLE AND PRINCIPLES
OF OPERATION
A mechanical device or machine that converts heat and other forms of
energy such as wind, flowing water, and electricity into useful power is
called an engine or a motor. Since the fuel is ignited and burned inside the
cylinder, the engine is called internal combustion engine.
Four distinct types of internal combustion engines have been developed
and are being utilized. These are 1) the rotary engine, 2) the jet engine,
3) the gas turbine engine, and 4) the reciprocating or piston-type engine.
Let us consider the last one.
9
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Cycle of operations. Any piston-type internal-combustion engine is
known as the four-stroke-cycle type and the two-stroke-cycle type. A cycle
consists of the strokes taking place in each cylinder of an engine between
two successive explosions in that cylinder. These strokes are: 1) the intake
of a combustible mixture, 2) the compression of this mixture, 3) the ignition of the compressed mixture, and the expansion of the burned gases
producing the power, and 4) the exhaust of the products of combustion.
In the two-stroke-cycle engine, two strokes of the piston or one revolution
of the crankshaft is required to complete this cycle. In the four-stroke-cycle
type, four strokes of the piston or two complete revolutions of the crankshaft
are needed, and the four strokes are called intake, compression, power, and
exhaust. It must be kept in mind that, in engines of more than one cylinder,
this cycle of stokes must be carried out in each of the cylinders.
Two-stroke-cycle operation. Two important characteristics of twostroke-cycle construction must be kept in mind: 1) that ports or openings
in the cylinder walls at some distance below the head serve as intake and
exhaust valves and 2) that the crank end of the engine cylinder is enclosed.
The piston in its upward motion has closed the ports e and h and is compressing the charge. At the same time the crankcase volume is being increased and the fuel mixture is drawn into the crankcase through an opening d, to be compressed on the next downward stroke of the piston and
forced through a connecting passage f into the combustion space when the
intake port e is uncovered.
Near the end of the compression stroke the spark is produced and the
compressed charge is fired. The explosion and resulting expansion send
the piston downward on its power stroke, the two ports are uncovered.
Considerable pressure remains in the cylinder, thus forcing the burned
gases out through the exhaust port h. At the same time, the fresh mixture
in the crankcase has been compressed on the downward stroke and passes
upward through the intake port to the combustion chamber. The piston has
now completed two strokes, and the crankshaft has made one revolution,
thus completing the cycle.
10
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Characteristics. Two-stroke-cycle engines have the following distinguishing mechanical characteristics:
1. The crankcase is enclosed and must be as airtight as possible.
2. Ports or openings in the side of the cylinder, opened and closed by the
piston, take the place of valves.
3. No valve-operating mechanism of any kind is necessary.
4. The fuel mixture usually enters and passes through the crankcase on
its way to the cylinder.
Some of the important advantages of two-stroke-cycle engines are as
follows:
1. They are lighter in weight per horsepower.
2. They are simpler in construction.
3. They have a greater frequency of working strokes.
Some disadvantages are as follows:
1. Their fuel mixture is controlled with difficulty.
2. They are inefficient in fuel consumption.
3. They do not operate satisfactorily under fluctuating loads.
They frequently give considerable troubles in starting and during operation because complete exhaust of the burned gases is extremely difficult.
Some diesel engines utilize the two-stroke-cycle principle very successfully. Since they use fuel injection rather than carburetion, certain disadvantages and difficulties are not encountered.
Four-stroke-cycle operation. Figure shows the usual four-strokecycle construction and operation. Valves located in the cylinder head are
used instead of ports. Starting with the piston at the top of the cylinder, it
moves toward the bottom, drawing in a fuel mixture through the open intake valve. Soon after the end of this stroke, the intake valve closes and the
mixture is compressed as the piston returns to the head end of the cylinder.
Near the end of the stroke, a spark is produced that ignites the charge, causing an explosion, which, in turn, sends the piston on the power stroke. Near
the end of this stroke the exhaust valve is opened, and the burned gases are
completely removed from the cylinder as the piston moves backward to11
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
ward the cylinder head. It is the exhaust stroke. The piston has now passed
through four complete strokes, the crankshaft has made two revolutions,
and a cycle has been completed.
The two-stroke-cycle single-cylinder engine has a power impulse for
each revolution of the crankshaft, and the four-stroke-cycle single-cylinder
engine gives one power impulse in two revolutions. This explains why
heavy flywheels are necessary on one-cylinder engines. These flywheels,
owing to their inertia, carry the piston through these so-called idle strokes
in spite of the resistance offered by the load and thus maintain uniformity
of speed. A one-cylinder two-stroke-cycle engine will not require a heavy
flywheel as the four-stroke, because it fires twice as frequently.
Problems and Questions
1. Compare two- and four-stroke cycle engines as to simplicity of design, efficiency, power, and general adaptability to various power applications.
2. What is the basic principle of operation of four-stroke-cycle and twostroke-cycle engines?
3. Name the advantages and disadvantages of two-stroke-cycle engines.
4. Explain why a flywheel is necessary.
I. Work in pairs. Find as many verbs as you can from the text concerning the engine’s operation.
II. Which of the words on the right are answers to the questions on the
left? Choose the answer that matches each question and explain the reason
for your choice.
1. Where do the strokes take place?
two revolutions
2. What does a cycle consist of?
in the cylinder
3. Where is the fuel mixture delivered?
strokes
4. What are used instead of ports
in four-stroke engines?
flywheel
5. What is necessary on one-cylinder engines? valves
6. How many revolutions does
the crankshaft make?
into the crankcase
III. Which of the following words and expressions are used to describe the engine’s parts?
crankcase, stroke, tire, valve, harvest, combustion chamber, fuel, mixture, crankshaft, power, piston, revolution, flywheel, camshaft, burned
gases, ignition
12
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
IV. Find the words or expressions in the text which have a similar
meaning to the following:
to remember simultaneously to occur to finish to suggest often design
V. In these sentences one alternative is correct and two are wrong.
Choose the best.
1. Internal combustion engines are ... into two types.
a) separated
b) shared
c) divided
2. Burned gases are ... through the valve.
a) avoided
b) exhausted c) escaped
3. Mixture is ... into the cylinder.
a) drawn
b) pulled
c) dragged
4. The piston has ... two strokes.
a) ended
b) concluded c) completed
5. A spark is ... .
a) manufactured b) produced c) done
VI. Write the comparative.
1. high.................................... 2. good.....................................
3. low..................................... 4. simple...................................
5. hot...................................... 6. powerful...............................
7. efficient.............................. 8. bad.......................................
VII. Only two of these comparative sentences are correct. Correct
the mistakes where necessary.
1. My tractor is moderner than your tractor.
2. He paid less for such engine than you did.
3. The temperature is more high in the cylinder.
4. This flywheel is not as heavier as that one.
5. A new engine is quieter.
6. They use fuel much economically
VIII. Do a complete run-through of the text and write down new
information you have learned.
A Stirling engine
In 1816, a Scottish inventor Robert Stirling patented a new engine for
pumping water of mines. It could run on any fuel, including whisky. He
died in 1878 and his engine was still unperfected. Soon everybody forgot
about his engine, because a newer gasoline-powered internal combustion
engine was designed.
13
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Now, as Detroit seeks fuel-saving, less-polluting alternatives to
the modern auto engine, Stirling’s
machine has taken on new life. The
Dutch electronics firm, Philips, has
tested Stirling prototypes in boats,
large pumps and buses.
Unlike typical internal combustion engines, the Stirling engine is
powered by heat from an external
source. Hydrogen gas is heated
by a burner, which can run on any
kind of fuel. The sealed-in hydrogen then expands, enters one cylinder and pushes a sliding piston. As
the piston moves, it forces gas out
of the other end of the cylinder; the
gas is cooled and then moves toward a cylinder, where heat is used once more and the process is repeated.
As the gas shuttles between interconnected cylinders, the pistons move
back and forth and piston rods push against a so-called swash plate, or disk.
The disk, in turn, forces a drive shaft to rotate.
Engineers point out that a Stirling engine would be quieter than an
equivalent internal combustion engine, would exhaust less harmful fumes,
and would use fuel more economically.
ENGINE CONSTRUCTION –
TRACTOR ENGINE TYPES
All piston-type internal-combustion engines, regardless of size,
type, and number of cylinders, are
made up of certain basic parts and
assemblies.
Principal Engine Parts. The
main parts and systems of a simple
internal-combustion engine are as
follows:
1. cylinder
2. cylinder head
3. piston
14
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
4. piston rings
5. piston pin
6. connecting rod
7. crankshaft
8. flywheel
9. valve system
a) valves – intake and exhaust
b) cam or camshaft and cam gear
10. fuel-supply and carburetion system
11. ignition and electrical system
12. cooling system
13. lubrication system.
Cylinder. It is a cylinder-shaped part in which a piston moves. The
cylinder and cylinder block of an engine are the principal and supporting
part of the engine power unit. Their major function is to provide the space
in which the piston operates to draw in the fuel mixture, compress it, and
allow it to expand and generate power. The design and construction of the
cylinder depend upon such factors as power required, exact purpose of
engine, compression ratio, valve arrangement, method of cooling, arrangement of cylinders, and production operations.
Cylinder head. It is a detachable metal casting that fits onto the top of
a cylinder block with a number of bolts. All engines have removable cylinder heads. The cylinder head contains the space above the cylinder and
piston known as the combustion chamber.
Crankcase and oil pan. The crankcase is that part of the engine, which supports and encloses the crankshaft and camshaft, provides a reservoir for the lubricating oil. The lower part of the crankcase is commonly called the oil pan.
Piston. The piston of an engine is the first part to begin movement and to
transmit power to the crankshaft as a result of the pressure and energy released
by the combustion of the fuel. It is attached by a connecting rod to a crankshaft
or flywheel, thus converting reciprocating motion into rotary motion.
Piston ring. It is a ring on a piston sealing the gap between the piston
and cylinder wall. The primary function is to retain compression and, at
the same time, reduce the cylinder-wall and piston-wall contact area to a
minimum, thus preventing friction losses and excessive wear. Other important functions are the control of the oil and cylinder lubrication and the
transmission of heat away from the piston.
Piston rings are classed as compression rings and oil rings, depending
upon their specific function and location on the piston.
Piston pin. The function of the piston pin is to join the connecting rod
to the piston and, at the same time, provide a flexible connection between
the two.
15
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Connecting rod. It is a rod that connects the piston to the crankshaft in
an internal combustion engine. A connecting rod, attached to the piston by
means of the piston pin, converts the reciprocating motion of the piston to
a rotary motion of a crankshaft.
Crankshaft. It is the main shaft of an internal combustion engine to
which the connecting rods are attached.
The size of the crankshaft, the number of main bearings, and the number
and arrangement of the cranks depend upon the type, size, and the speed
of the engine.
Flywheel. Flywheel is a heavy wheel in some engines, and its primary
function is to regulate the engine’s rotation making it operate at a steady
speed when it is not receiving energy from a piston. The size of the flywheel varies with the number of cylinders and the type and size of engine.
Valves. Engine has two valves. The intake valve allows the fuel mixture
to enter the combustion chamber on the intake stroke. The exhaust valve
allows the products of combustion to escape.
Camshaft. It is a shaft with one or more cams attached to it and is used
to operate the valve in an internal combustion engine. A camshaft opens the
valves against the tension of the valve springs at the proper time and holds
them open for the required interval. A separate cam is provided on the camshaft
for the operation of each valve. The camshaft is driven from the crankshaft.
Tractor-engine types. All tractor engines are either of the four-strokecycle, heavy-duty, carburetting type or of the diesel type. Gasoline, gas,
and diesel fuels are the predominating fuels.
The vertical four-cylinder type of engine predominates in the tractor at
the present time. Some of the reasons for this are:
1. Good weight distribution is secured.
2. Fuel mixture distribution is simplified.
3. Uniform cylinder and bearing lubrication is facilitated.
4. Valve mechanisms, ignition devices, and other parts are made more
accessible.
5. The clutch and transmission parts can be assembled in such a way as
to give the entire machine a balanced construction.
Compression ratio. The compression ratio of an engine is the ratio of
the cylinder volume existing when the piston is on the bottom dead centre
and the volume remaining above the piston when it reaches top dead centre. For example, if the total cylinder volume with the piston on the bottom
dead centre is 120in 3 and this is reduced to 20in 3 when the piston reaches
the top dead centre, the compression ratio is the relationship of 120:20 or
6:1. The power and overall operating efficiency of an engine depend on
its compression ratio. High compression ratios give better fuel utilization
and thermal efficiency. However, the fuel type and characteristics, the type
16
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
of ignition system used, and other design factors determine the maximum
practical compression ratio which can be used in an engine. Compression
ratios depend on fuel type and quality.
Problems and Questions
1. Name the principal parts of engines and explain the application of
each.
2. Why does a vertical four-cylinder type of engine predominate in the
tractor?
3. Explain what compression ratio is.
I. Work in pairs. Answer True or False.
1. All engines have removable cylinder heads.
2. The main function of the piston rings is to control piston motion.
3. Flywheel is used to smooth out the flow of power from the engine.
4. A crankshaft opens each valve at the proper time.
5. The cylinder block, together with connecting rod, form the main
body of the engine.
6. The crankcase supports the crankshaft and camshaft by means of
bearings.
II. Do you agree or disagree with the following statements? Give your
reason.
1. The greater the number of cylinders, the shorter the distance moved by
the crankshaft between two successive explosions in the engine.
2. The exhaust valve is never given more clearance than the intake
valve.
3. The power output of an engine is largely determined by its piston
displacement and crankshaft speed.
4. Engines cannot be made to perform under the ideal cycle conditions.
III. Write down the opposites of the following words:
1. exhaust....................
4. efficient.....................
2. common...................
5. rigid..........................
3. low...........................
6. disadvantage.............
IV. Choose the best alternative to complete these sentences.
1. All valves are ... in the head.
a) fixed
b) mounted c) put
2. The cylinder is .... .
a) vacant b) blank
c) empty
17
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
3. The piston ... the top dead centre.
a) reaches b) achieves c) gets
4. ... is transmitted to the crankshaft.
a) might
b) strength c) power
5. The temperature of the fuel mixture ... .
a) enlarges b) multiplies c) increases
6. The different parts of the engine ... the different functions.
a) perform b) do
c) fulfil
V. Which of the following verbs are used to describe the engine’s
operation:
to rotate to burn to harrow to ignite to cut to include to move to
exhaust to improve to combust to harvest to spray to handle to revolve
to require to heat
VI. Complete the sentences. Use the superlative.
1. The method of transmitting power from its source to the point of use
is one of ……….. problems. (great)
2. The…………. compression ratio is 15:1. (common)
3. The carburetor mixes fuel for the………combustion. (efficient)
4. It was the……… design of the engines. (good)
VII. Choose some makes of cars. Discuss them using these adjectives in the superlative (oldest / the most interesting):
powerful old expensive economical noisy slow good small quiet
comfortable efficient bad fast
VIII. Do a complete run-through of the text and find the information: 1) the function of cams; 2) the types and purpose of lubricants; 3)
the principle of carburettor operation.
The main parts of the engine
Cam is a mechanical device which, on rotating, transmits to another
member (the follower) a regular, repetitive motion. There are two main
types of cams: disk cams and cylindrical cams. On rotation, the cam pushes
the follower in a direction perpendicular to the shaft. Many engines use one
or more camshafts. In some forms of internal combustion engines camshafts are used to regulate and actuate the cylinder valves.
Bearings are components of machines which support and direct loads
while reducing friction where moving parts are in contact. The simplest
type is the journal bearing in which a rotating shaft is supported in a hole
in a fixed frame.
18
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Friction and wear are also reduced by suitable lubrication. Lubricants
which include grease, oils, water and even air form a thin fluid film between
the moving parts. Usually the motion itself is sufficient to form the film but
sometimes the lubricants must be applied under pressure. For many applications roller bearings and ball bearings are used.
In recent years dry (unlubricated) plastic bearing and self-lubricating
bearings have been developed for applications where lubrication is difficult
or undesirable.
Carburettor is an important element in most automobile engines, the
carburettor mixes air and gasoline in the correct ration for the most efficient combustion (usually about 15:1, air, gasoline, by weight). In practice,
carburettors incorporate various means of ensuring constancy of mixture
strength during running. High-performance engines may use more than
one carburettor.
UNIT 3
DIESEL ENGINE –
CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION
Diesel engines. A diesel engine is that type of an internal-combustion
engine which injects fuel oil in a finely divided state into a cylinder within
which air has been compressed to a high pressure and temperature. First
engines were heavy, slow-speed, single- or multiple-cylinder units of either
the two- or four-stroke-cycle type.
Lighter weight, higher speed diesel engines appeared about 1925, but
development was slow. However, by 1930 reliable and well-designed multiple-cylinder, high-speed diesel engines were being used for some makes
of heavy-duty farm tractors. Now diesel tractors are available in all sizes
from about 20 to 200 hp or more and have largely displaced gasoline and
gas-burning tractors.
Tractor engine characteristics and design. The diesel tractor engine
may be considered as a heavy-duty automotive type engine. The operating
principles are identical with those of the auto engine, with the possible exception of the fuel handling and ignition process. The principal difference
is that all diesel engines are designed and built heavier and stronger and,
in most cases, operate at lower speeds than the conventional automobile
engine. Tractors use the in-line cylinder arrangement, with the number of
19
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
cylinders varying from two to eight, depending on the tractor type and
power requirements.
Principles of operation. The diesel engine differs from a carburettingtype engine primarily in two ways, namely, 1) only air is taken in on the
intake stroke of the piston, the liquid fuel being injected directly into the
combustion chamber at the end of the compression stroke and 2) the fuel
mixture is ignited by high compression, and no special ignition device or
mechanism is needed. On the other hand, all diesel engines operate on
either the two- or the four-stroke-cycle principle like other internal-combustion engines.
Two-stroke-cycle diesel. The cycle begins with the upward movement
of the piston from its TDC position. The intake and exhaust ports are closed
and the charge of fresh air is compressed. When the piston reaches BDC, a
charge of fuel is injected into the combustion space. The high temperature
ignites the mixture of fuel and air, and combustion takes place. Expansion continues until the exhaust port is opened and the burned gases are
exhausted. The intake port is uncovered after the exhaust port. The cycle
is repeated.
Four-stroke-cycle diesel. The strokes take place in the same manner
as in the ordinary four-stroke-cycle carburetting-type engine, with the exception that air alone is drawn in on the intake stroke and the liquid fuel is
injected into the cylinder at or near the end of the compression stroke. Two
valves, intake and exhaust, operated by a gear and camshaft are necessary.
Fuel-injection systems. The proper injection of the fuel into the combustion chamber against the high pressure is one of the most difficult problems. The mechanism must supply a fuel charge sufficient only for a single
explosion. The principal requirements of a diesel fuel supply and injection
mechanism are: 1) that it supply a correct fuel charge to each cylinder according to the engine load and speed, 2) that it inject the fuel at the correct
time in the cycle, 3) that it facilitate efficient fuel utilization by atomizing
the charge at the time of injection, and 4) that it not be subject to undue
wear or require frequent adjustment or servicing.
20
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
All modern high-speed engines inject each fuel charge mechanically
into the compressed hot air. This is known as direct injection. A diesel fuelinjection system consists of certain main parts: 1) fuel tank, 2) fuel transfer pump, 3) primary fuel filter, 4) two-stage secondary filter, 5) injection
pump, 6) injection nozzles, and 7) governing mechanism.
The low-pressure transfer pump pushes the fuel through the filters
to the high-pressure injection pump which, in turn, forces the necessary
fuel charges to the nozzle, and then into the combustion chamber.
Diesel engine governing. The control of the power output and speed
of a gasoline engine is simple because the proper fuel mixture is created
before it enters the combustion chamber. It is impossible in a diesel engine,
for the proper air-fuel mixture cannot be produced in the same way and
fed into the cylinder under the high pressure and temperature conditions.
Controlling the diesel engine speed and load must involve control of the
charge of injected fuel. For this reason, the mechanism must be connected
to and become a part of the injected pump.
Turbocharger. Superchargers are used in gasoline engines for forcing
a great amount of fuel mixture into the cylinder than would be drawn in
and thereby increasing the power output. Diesel engines are equipped with
turbochargers that perform the same function. Since the fuel and air are not
mixed in the diesel engine until they enter the cylinder, any similar increase
in power must be dependent only upon increasing the amount of air combining with the fuel charge. Another difference between supercharges and turbochargers is that the former uses a gear-driven blower, while the latter uses
the exhaust-gas pressure to operate the blower.
Diesel starting methods. One of the disadvantages of a diesel engine is
the amount of energy required to crank it when starting because of the very
high compression pressure. Some mechanical starting arrangements are
needed. They are: 1) compressed air system, 2) hydraulic system, 3) electric motor, 4) small gasoline engine.
21
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
It is difficult to start an engine if the temperature is rather low. Some
methods provide effective starting:
1) heating the coolant and lubricating oil,
2) using more volatile fuels.
Problems and Questions
1. What are the specific differences between gasoline and diesel engines?
2. Explain the general operation of fuel-injection systems.
3. Discuss the difference between the superchargers and turbochargers.
4. What is the difference in the starting procedure for a diesel under
summer and winter conditions?
I. Work in pairs. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the
diesel engine.
II. Four of these sentences contain errors. If a sentence is correct,
put a tick beside it. If there are any mistakes in a sentence, underline
them and write the correction.
1. Higher speed diesel engines appeared in the 19-th century.
2. There is no difference between diesel and gasoline engines.
3. To ignite fuel mixture special ignition devices are not needed in diesel engines.
4. Diesel engines are equipped with superchargers.
5. There is no problem in starting a diesel engine at low temperatures.
6. Diesel engines may be the two- or four-stroke cycle engines.
III. Choose the best alternative to fill the gaps in these sentences.
1. Burning is the process of ... a fuel with the oxygen in the air.
a) uniting
b) combining
2. The oil is heated to a ... temperature.
a) tall
b) high
3. The flywheel returns some of the power to the piston by first ... up a
little extra speed.
a) collecting
b) picking
4. The engine is ready to ... in a charge of air.
a) draw
b) drag
VI. Match a verb from the list A with a noun from the list B:
A
B
to move
power
to rotate
piston
22
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
to exhaust
to ignite
to open
to transmit
shaft
valves
mixture
gases
V. Which is the odd word out?
1. to mix to compress to burn to plough
2. bearing head harrow flywheel
3. heavy light slow angry
4. known impossible incorrect irregular
VI. Look at the diagram in the text and write an explanation of how
the diesel engine operates.
TRANSMISSION
Transmission is a system of gears and shafts by which the power from
the engine reaches and turns the wheels.
A tractor transmission must serve the following purposes:
1. It must provide a means of self-propulsion and the proper speed
reduction between the engine crankshaft and the traction members to give
the required travel speeds.
2. It must provide an equalization of the power transmission to the traction members.
3. It must provide a means of reversing the direction of travel.
4. It must provide brakes for controlling the movement of the tractor in
special situations or holding it stationary for certain operations.
The mechanism involved in transmitting the engine power to the drive
wheels or tracks of a tractor includes four main parts: 1) the clutch, 2) the
gearbox, 3) the differential, 4) the final-drive mechanism.
Clutch. It is a device that provides connecting and disconnecting two revolving shafts as required. It transmits the drive from the engine to the gearbox,
which provides a range of ratios of crankshaft speed and tractor wheel speed.
Gearbox. It is a set of gear with its casing. The function of the gearbox
is to gear down and provide different ratios between the engine crankshaft
speed and tractor wheel speed.
Differential. A differential is a special arrangement of gears. It permits
one driving member to rotate slower or faster than the other.
Final drive. It is a means by which the power is transmitted finally to
the rear axle and wheels.
Tractor power take-off. The power take-off is a special gear-driven
shaft.
23
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Shaft is attached to the clutch and transmission. It is designed to power integral mounted or trailed implements. There are three types of PTO
systems used on tractors. They are 1) transmission-driven, 2) continuousrunning, 3) independent.
Tractor brakes. Transmission brakes are important on a tractor to
control it on steep hills, to hold it stationary in doing belt work, and
for making quick short turns. They are sometimes called differential
brakes because they are located on each side of the differential gear and
shaft assembly. They are operated by individual foot levers that can be
locked independently or interlocked to hold the tractor stationary.
A row-crop tractor has to be able to make a short, quick turn with ease
in row-crop operations in order to save time at the ends. So they are provided with two foot-operated differential brakes.
Problems and Questions
1. What are the important purposes of a tractor transmission?
2. What devices does transmission consist of?
3. Explain the term “power take-off”.
4. What is a purpose of the tractor brakes?
I. Fill the gaps in the sentences with a suitable compound preposition from the list.
according to because of instead of owing to
1. A tractor does not work........................the breakdown.
2. You should repair this device.....................the instructions.
3. .......................the knowledge you should be a good specialist.
4. Diesel engines use turbochargers.....................superchargers.
II. Prefixes can be used to change the meaning of the words. Look at the
words in italic with prefixes. What do they mean? Translate these sentences.
1. It is necessary to disconnect the drive from the engine.
2. There are some disadvantages in this system.
3. Knocking may occur due to irregular burning.
4. I’m afraid that I misunderstand you.
5. It is impossible to repair the clutch.
6. It is an unknown fact.
III. Which of the sentences are true about transmission? Pay attention to the modal verbs.
1. Transmission cannot be a device for going round the corner.
2. Tractor must have differential brakes to hold it stationary.
24
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
3. Differential may be a gear allowing vehicle’s driven wheels to revolve at different speed.
4. A row crop tractor does not have to be able to make a short turn performing row crop operations.
IV. Do a complete run-through of the text. What new ideas have
you learned? Write down how an engine was developed. First of all,
make notes of the main points you want to make in the composition.
History and development of engine
Engine is a machine that converts energy into power or motion. Internal
combustion engine is a type of engine in which the fuel is burned inside the
engine and expansion of the combustion gases is used to provide the power.
The first working internal combustion engine was a piston engine made by
Huygens (1680) that burned gunpowder. In 1794 Robert Street patented a
practicable though inefficient engine into which the air had to be pumped by
hand. In 1876 N. Otto built the first four - stroke engine, using the principles
stated earlier by Alphonse Beau de Rochas. The cycle is: 1) intake of fuel air
mixture, 2) compression of mixture, 3) ignition and expansion of burned gases, 4) exhaust of the burned gases. Only the third stroke is powered, but engine is highly efficient, and modern gasoline engines are basically the same.
At the beginning of the twentieth century, some steam-operated automobiles were used. The steam engine can be stopped and started or reversed, no clutch or transmission was required. But there were troubles in
the operation of the steam engine. The development of internal combustion engines and storage batteries resulted in the gradual elimination of
the steam-propelled automobile. The development of the automobile in the
1890s did much to further development of the internal combustion engine.
The first internal combustion engine used in automobiles had few cylinders, low compression pressures, approximately 60psi, and developed little
power. Top engine speed seldom exceeded 2,000rpm. They were large and
had considerable weight, were noisy and rough in operation.
Improvements in fuels – originally coal, gas and even powdered coal
were used as fuel – permitted higher compression pressures, resulting in
increased in power and engine speeds. Higher engine speeds required,
in turn, changed the combustion chamber design. The valves had to be
held open for longer periods of time to allow the fuel charge to enter the
cylinder and the burned gases to be exhausted.
In other words, the engine has undergone numerous changes in design
and construction, but its basic principle of operation has not changed. The
main changes that have been made in these engines are: 1) increased compression ratios, 2) improved valve timing, 3) better balance of moving
25
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
parts, 4) better mixing and distribution of fuel, 5) more accurate timing of
fuel charge ignition.
These changes have resulted in compact, powerful, highly efficient engines of light weight that can operate at extremely high speeds.
The dawn of the modern automobiles began in 1880s when Karl Benz and
Gottlieb Daimber began to build gasoline-powered carriages. At the end of
the 19-th century Henry Ford and many other automobile manufacturers had
started into business.
UNIT 4
FUEL SYSTEM – IGNITION SYSTEM
The fuel system consists of 1) fuel tank, 2) fuel pump, 3) carburettor,
4) fuel- mixture supply control mechanism, 5) manifold, 6) fuel-injection
pump and nozzle, filters.
One disadvantage of the internal-combustion engine is that the fuels required for its successful operation must be of a specific nature and may be
limited with respect to source and supply. Under certain conditions these
fuels may be difficult to secure. Some of the essential characteristics of
such fuels are:
1. They must have a reasonably high energy value.
2. They must vaporize at comparatively low temperatures.
3. The fuel vapours must ignite and burn readily when mixed in the
proper proportions with oxygen.
4. Such fuels and their combustion products should not be harmful or
dangerous to human health or life.
5. They must be of such a nature that they can be handled and transported with comparative ease and safety.
The most common fuels are gasoline and diesel. They are heavier products resulting from the distillation and refining of cruel oil. The tendency
of designers to obtain more power and increase efficiency has resulted in
fuel-knocking effect termed detonation.
Detonation occurs during the process of combustion of the mixture in
the cylinder after ignition has taken place. Certain chemicals may be added
to gasoline to reduce detonation. The fuel is given an octane rating value.
Carburetion. The functions of a carburettor are:
1. to assist in properly vaporizing the fuel;
2. to mix the vaporized fuel in the correct proportions with air;
26
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
3. to supply the engine with the proper quantity of this mixture depending on the load, speed, temperature, and other conditions.
All carburettors operate on the same basic principles. The carburettor is
attached to the cylinder block by the intake manifold and, in turn, is connected to the combustion chamber by the intake valve.
The following conditions are necessary in the proper functioning of any
carburettor:
1. A constant and specific fuel level must be maintained in the nozzle.
2. There must be at least partial if not complete vaporization of the liquid fuel, regardless of surrounding temperatures.
3. The correct mixture of vaporized fuel and air must be maintained at
all times, regardless of engine load, speed, temperature, atmospheric pressure, and other operating conditions.
Superchargers. The more air and fuel we burn in the cylinder, the more
power we get. It is easy to put much fuel, but if we want the fuel to burn
fully, we have to put in more air but it is not easy to do. For this purpose a
supercharger is used. A supercharger is a device that forces more fuel mixture into the cylinders that would be drawn in under normal atmospheric
conditions, thus making possible a greater power output with the same piston displacement. It is a kind of air pump.
Air cleaner. Under most field conditions dust finds its way into the
cylinder through the carburettor and causes rapid wear. Air cleaner must be
used. There are dry or oil types.
Engine governing and speed control. Any engine must operate at
some relatively uniform speed for any given operation. For this reason
all tractor power units are equipped with some type of mechanical speedgoverning control.
The control of the speed of a tractor engine also might be held fairly
constant by the manual operation of a convenient hand lever, but a mechanical governor provides better performance.
Problems and Questions
1. Under what conditions are superchargers desirable for internal-combustion engines?
2. Explain why air cleaners are used.
3. Discuss the main characteristics of fuels.
4. How can you explain the term “detonation”?
5. Describe briefly the construction of fuel system.
6. Why is a carburettor necessary?
I. Work in pairs. These sentences summarise paragraphs of the
text. Choose the summary from the list A-F for each paragraph.
27
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
A. By putting in more air, a supercharger increases the engine power.
B. A device for mixing air with fuel is a carburettor.
C. The fuel required for operation has special characteristics.
D. Detonation is explosion or noise of explosion.
E. In order to avoid rapid wear of engine one should use air cleaner.
F. Governor is a regulator automatically controlling speed or the intake
of gas, steam, etc.
II. Highlight the words or phrases in the text which mean the same
as the following:
to deliver, wrong, to involve, to demand, without paying attention to,
with the help of
III. Choose the correct answer.
1. When does detonation occur?
a) Detonation occurs when mixture is drawn into the cylinder.
b) Detonation occurs during the process of mixture cooling.
c) Detonation occurs during the process of combustion of mixture.
2. Are there the most common fuels for gasoline and diesel engines?
a) No, there are not.
b) Yes, there are.
c) There is no different what fuel to use.
3. What temperature must be for fuel vaporization?
a) It does not matter what temperature is.
b) Fuels must vaporize at high temperature.
c) Fuels must vaporize at low temperature.
4. Why is a supercharger used in engines?
a) A supercharger is a device that converts reciprocating motion of the
piston into rotary motion of the crankshaft.
b) A supercharger is a device to slow down the speed of engines.
c) A supercharger is used in an internal combustion engine to force extra oxygen into the cylinder.
IV. Find the mistakes in these sentences and correct them.
1. In order to reduce detonation you may add some water to gasoline.
2. Speed must be uniform, so tractor power units are equipped with
speedometer.
3. The carburettor is attached to the cylinder block by the lever.
4. The fuel system consists of a frame, a water jacket, a fuel pump.
V. Write 5 sentences beginning with If ... about fuel system. Example:
If an air cleaner is not used, the cylinders will wear very quickly.
28
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
VI. Write sentences with as...as... or not as...as...
1. This fuel/is / good / that one /.
2. The old tractors / work / fast / new models.
3. Diesel fuel/is / expensive / gasoline now.
4. To work in fields /is / difficult / it was many years ago.
VII. Translate these sentences into Russian.
1. The more uses to which a machine can be adapted, the less initial
investment in equipment.
2. The more mixture we burn, the more power we get.
3. The older a tractor is, the more troubles we have.
4. The less harmful fume, the better ecological situation.
VIII. Change each of the following words by adding negative prefix:
advantage efficient correct regular possible dependent necessary
desirable
ir irresponsible ................
dis discomfort ..................
in inappropriate .............. ................ .................
un unknown ..................... .................
im improbable ..................
IX. Do a complete run-through of the text and note down the fuel system
and the methods which are recommended for maintenance of fuel system.
Fuel System
The function of the fuel system is to store and supply the engine with
clean fuel, in the correct ration over a wide range of engine speeds and
loads. The fuel system on spark ignition engines differs from the fuel system on the diesel engines, as the important mechanism in the former is the
carburettor and in the latter is the fuel injection pump.
Although fuel injection is sometimes employed on spark ignition engines, its primary use is on diesel engines. Its application to spark ignition
engines has been limited.
All fuel pumps that produce the high pressure necessary for fuel injection are of the piston type. There are many variations of fuel-injection
systems used on diesel engines. The three systems most commonly used
on tractors are:
I. Individual or in-line injection pumps of the metered type.
2. The distributor system in which one injection pump serves all the
injection nozzles by delivering a metered fuel charge at the correct instant
through a distributor.
29
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
3. The unit injector system in which the fuel-injection pump is combined with the injection nozzle in one assembly on the cylinder head.
The pump is operated by a cam. Fuel enters the pump from the supply
system through the inlet connection and fills the fuel sump.
Maintenance of the Fuel System
I. The air cleaner should be checked weekly on most tractors and in
dusty conditions more frequently.
II. The sediment bowl should receive regular attention to remove sediment and water which collects in it.
III. With diesel tractors, the fuel filter has to be changed periodically,
and normal interval of attention is 200-400 h.
IGNITION SYSTEMS
The ignition system consists of 1) battery or magneto, 2) coil, 3) condenser, 4) sparking device, 5) timing mechanism, 6) generator, 7) starter
motor, 8) switch and wire connections.
All electric systems for internal combustion engines are 1) the conventional breaker-point system and 2) the electronic systems. The current may
be generated chemically, that is, by means of a battery, or mechanically, by
means of a magneto or and electric generator.
The main functions of electric ignition systems are: 1) the generation of
a large, hot spark in the cylinder, 2) the production of this spark at the right
time in the motion of the piston. If a good spark is produced in the cylinder
at the right time, the combustible mixture of fuel and air must be ignited.
Battery ignition. The battery is an electrochemical device for converting chemical energy into electrical energy. There are several types of battery ignition systems used on tractors, but all these systems use the principles of electromagnetic induction to increase the battery voltage required
to jump the spark-plug gap in the cylinder.
The spark plug is a device used in spark-ignition systems that provides the gap
for high voltage electric surge to jump and ignite the charge in the cylinders.
Ignition timing. One of the more important factors in the correct
operation of any internal-combustion engine is the time ignition takes
place. The combustible mixture of air and fuel must be ignited so that the
piston will get the pressure of the burning fuel-air mixture as it completes
the compression stroke and is ready to start on the power stroke.
Magneto ignition. Mechanical devices for generating electric energy
are called magnetos. Such devices require a magnetic field. The principal
use of magnetos is the mechanical generation of electricity for spark ignition in internal-combustion engines. For many years magnetos served as
30
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
the means of tractor engine ignition.
Diesel engines use compression ignition type where the heat of
compressed air is utilized to ignite the fuel as it enters the combustion
chamber. The temperature of this air must be 1000°F or higher.
Modern tractors are equipped with electronic system of ignition.
Problems and Questions
1. Name the ignition systems.
2. Explain the function of the spark-plug.
3. Explain the difference between the compression and spark methods
of ignition.
4. What method of ignition is used by modern tractors?
I. Work in pairs. Discuss these questions and make notes:
1. What information does this text not give you which you would need?
2. What questions would you ask the manufacturers of tractor about the
tendency of the electronic system of ignition?
II. Answer True or False.
1. The compression ignition uses the heat of compressed air to ignite
the fuel.
2. Preignition would not take place if fuel were mixed with air before
compression.
3. The purpose of the spark-ignition system is to deliver a perfectly
timed surge of the electricity across a spark-plug gap in each cylinder.
4. Diesel engines use spark-ignition system.
III. Complete the sentences with one of the prepositions:
with
by
in
on
1. The current may be generated ... means of battery.
2. One of the functions of ignition is to produce spark ... the right time.
3. The piston is ready to move downward ... the power stroke.
4. Tractors must be equipped ... a modern system of ignition.
IV. Which of these sentences on the right are answers to the questions on the left. Choose the answer that matches each question and
explain the reason for your choice.
1. Why were dry-cell batteries used?
a) Compression ignition
type.
2. What do all battery ignition systems
b) Magnetos.
use to increase the battery voltage?
31
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
3. How do we call mechanical
devices for generating electric energy?
4. What system of ignition is used in
diesel engines?
c) To furnish the electric
power.
d) The principles of electromagnetic induction
V. Match the words with their correct explanation:
1. Spark plug is
a) an automatic device for stopping the flow of
current in an electric circuit as a safety measure.
2. Magneto is
b) a device for storing electrical energy in the form
of chemical energy.
3. Battery is
c) an electric apparatus for producing spark in the
ignition system of an internal combustion engine.
4. Breaker-point is
d) a device for firing the explosive mixture in an
internal combustion engine.
UNIT 5
COOLING SYSTEM –
LUBRICATING SYSTEM
The cooling system consists of 1) radiator, 2) pump, 3) water jacket, 4)
fan, 5) thermostat, 6) pipes and connections.
An internal-combustion engine converts only a limited portion of the
total heat energy of the fuel into useful power. The losses include 1) friction and mechanical losses, 2) cooling system losses, 3) exhaust heat losses, 4) losses due to radiation.
The cylinder, cylinder head, piston, piston rings, valves and other parts
must absorb and transmit a considerable quantity of heat.
If an engine were not equipped with some means of cooling, at least
three troubles would arise as follows:
1. The piston and cylinder would expand to such an extent that the
piston would seize in the cylinder, injuring the latter and stopping the engine.
32
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
2. The lubrication qualities of the oil supplied to the bearings, cylinder,
and piston walls would be destroyed by the high temperatures existing.
3. Preignition of the fuel mixture would take place, resulting in knocking and loss of power.
All internal-combustion engines must operate at a certain temperature
to produce the best results, and they seldom give the greatest efficiency unless the temperature around the cylinder is between 76.6 and 96.3°C.
The following is a classification of the common methods and systems
of engine cooling: l) air, 2) liquid.
Air cooling. Cooling by air alone is not used extensively but is satisfactory for certain types of engines and under certain conditions.
Common examples of air-cooled engines are the power units used for
lawn mowers, garden tractors, the small and medium diesel tractors. Aircooled engines have the following advantages:
1. lighter in weight,
2. simpler in construction,
3. more convenient and less troublesome,
4. no danger of freezing in cold weather.
The principal disadvantages of air-cooling are that it is difficult to maintain proper cooling under all conditions and that it is almost impossible to
fully control cylinder temperature. Air-cooled engines usually run a little
hotter than water-cooled engines and require the use of heavier lubricating
oil.
Liquid cooling. Cooling systems using liquids, usually water, are employed for all types of engines.
Water is the universal cooling liquid for tractors, trucks and automobiles. It has certain important advantages:
1. It is available nearly everywhere.
2. It absorbs heat well.
3. It circulates freely at all temperatures between the freezing and boiling
points.
4. It is not dangerous or harmful.
The principal disadvantages of water for cooling are:
1. It has a high freezing point.
2. It may cause excessive corrosion of the radiator and certain metal
parts of the engine. Clean, pure water such as rain water gives the best
results.
3. It may cause troublesome deposits in the cylinder jackets.
4. Evaporation and boiling require frequent replenishing.
The cooling system used on most tractors, automobiles, and trucks is a
combination of liquid and air cooling. The pump and fan are mounted on
the same shaft and driven by a V belt from the crankshaft. The fan draws
33
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
cool air through the radiator, cooling the liquid rapidly, and also sends a
blast of air past the cylinders, driving the heat away from the engine.
Problems and Questions
1. What does the cooling system consist of?
2. Name the heat losses in an internal combustion engine.
3. What could be if an engine were not equipped with some means of
cooling?
4. Discuss advantages and disadvantages of air and liquid cooling.
I. Work in pairs. How do you think if there is an ideal system of
cooling? Give your explanation.
II. Work in pairs. What do you think “preignition” means?
III. Fill the gaps in the sentences with a suitable word from the
list.
fans water temperature weight
1. The function of the cooling system is to maintain... of the engine.
2. One of the advantages of air-cooled engines is that they are lighter
in ... .
3. ... is the best cooling liquid for tractors.
4. In order to move a large volume of air ... are necessary.
IV. Sort the following words into two groups under the heading
Verb and Noun:
combust vapour ignition expand lose mix ignite expansion loss
mixture require combustion requirement vaporize
Verb
Noun
V. Match an adjective from list A with a noun from list B:
A
B
high
water
pure
engine
powerful
temperature
heavy
lubricating oil
freezing
point
VI. Complete these sentences. Use can or can’t +one of these verbs:
be operate
find
weigh
1. Air-cooled engines................................. lighter.
2. All engines...............................................without cooling.
34
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
3. You........................................................water nearly everywhere.
4. Water.......................................................dangerous.
VII. Put in must or should.
1. It is a new car. You.................see it.
2. This part of engine is broken. You..................repair it.
3. Check the system. It.............be repaired.
4. An engine..............be cooled, otherwise it will become overheated.
VIII. Do a complete run-through of the text and write down the answers to these questions. 1. What are the functions of the cooling system?
2. What problems may happen with the respect to the cooling system? 3.
What are your recommendations to solve these problems?
The cooling system
The burning of the fuel-air mixture in the combustion chamber subjects
the surrounding parts of the engine, the cylinders, pistons and valves to
high temperatures.
So the main functions of the cooling system of an internal-combustion
engine are to maintain an optimum engine operating temperature, proper
lubrication, to prevent overheating of the engine parts, and to ensure proper combustion. On the other hand, the engine temperatures must be high
enough to ensure vaporization of the fuel and prevent dilution of the oil.
Direct cooling by air is used on some farm tractors, but the majority is
cooled by liquids.
Water is often used as the coolant in farm tractors. Clean soft water or
clean rain water must be used, if possible. Cold water should never be put
in a hot engine; nor should hot water be put in a cold engine, because of the
danger of sudden expansion of parts resulting in cracking a cylinder head.
You should control the level of water in the radiator every day and keep
the supply at the recommended level. Pressure radiators should never be
completely filled. If they are filled, the excess hot water will go out through
the pipe and the system will be subjected to unnecessary pressure.
You can prevent the cooling liquid from freezing by draining off the
liquid or by using a recommended anti-freeze solution.
LUBRICATION SYSTEMS
Lubrication system consists of 1) oil pump, 2) oil lines, 3) oil gauge, 4)
oil filter, 5) oil pan, 6) grease fittings.
Lubrication plays an important part in the design and operation of any
type of automotive machine. The fundamental purpose of lubrication of any
35
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
mechanical device is to eliminate friction and the resulting wear and loss of
power. Other important functions of lubrication of an internal-combustion
engine are: 1) to absorb and dissipate heat, 2) to serve as a piston seal, 3) to
act as a cushion to deaden the noise of moving parts, and absorb shock, and
4) to assist in keeping the engine working parts clean and free of dirt, gum,
corrosive acids, and other contaminants.
Engine lubrication system
The lubrication of an engine may be considered under two distinct
heads, namely, 1) the choice and use of the correct kind and grade of lubricant and 2) the choice, design, construction, and operation of the lubrication system with which the engine is equipped. A good lubricating system
must be efficient in operation, reliable, and simple. Even though it has
all these important features, if a poor-quality lubricant or one of incorrect
grades is used, unsatisfactory service is likely to result.
Parts lubricated by lubrication system. The most important parts of
an engine requiring lubrication are as follows:
1. cylinder walls, pistons, and piston rings;
2. piston pin;
3. crankshaft and connecting-rod bearing;
4. camshaft bearings;
5. valves and valve-operating mechanism.
Engine lubrication systems may be classified as 1) splash, 2) pressurefeed and splash, 3) full pressure feed.
Splash system. In the splash system, the lubrication of all the principal
engine parts is depended directly upon the splashing of the oil by a dipper
on the bottom side of the connecting rod cap that dips into the crankcase oil
each time when the piston reaches BDC.
Pressure-feed and splash system. In this system the oil is forced directly to the main crankshaft, connecting rod, and camshaft bearings. The
oil oozing out of these bearings creates a spray that lubricates the cylinder
walls, pistons, and piston pins. A pressure indicator shows where the pump
is working and pressure is being maintained.
Full-pressure system. This system forces the oil not only to the main
crankshaft, connecting rod, and camshaft bearings, but also to the piston
pin bearings through tubes that lead from the connecting rod bearings up
to the piston pin. The cylinders and pistons receive their oil from the piston
pins.
Oil filter. All tractors are equipped with an oil filter. The purpose of
the oil filter is to remove foreign matters from the engine oil during operation.
36
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Problems and Questions
1. Why does lubrication play an important part in the engine’s operation?
2. Name the parts of engine which require lubrication.
3. Discuss the different systems of lubrication.
I. Work in pairs. Discuss which two of the following are the most important to proper lubrication. Explain the reason for your choice.
1. Selecting the kinds of lubricants recommended by the manufacturer.
2. Applying these in correct amounts at recommended intervals.
3. Maintaining proper quantities within the tractor.
4. Changing lubricants as required.
5. Keeping these lubricants clean and free from contamination and
dilution.
II. Work in pairs. Write down questions you’d like to ask, beginning with each of these words:
Do... ? Why... ? What functions... ? How often... ? What purpose... ?
When... ?
III. Do you agree or disagree with the following statements?
Why “yes” or “no” ?
1. First of all you should understand the construction of the engine lubrication system and know how it circulates oil to all parts of the engine.
2. The purpose of the oil filter is to remove foreign matters from the oil
and other substances which may damage the engine.
3. The different lubricants perform different functions.
4. Because tractor work is rather severe – long hours, heavy loads,
dusty field, rough ground, all kinds of weather – you have to be very careful about lubrication.
VI. You are asking a friend. Make questions with Do you think I
should…
1. You want to buy lubricants for wheel bearings, but you don’t know
which lubricants are the best: solids or fluid oils.
……………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………….........……….
……………………………………………………………………………..
2. You don’t know how often it is necessary to change lubricants.
……………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………..
……………………………………………………………………………..
37
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
3. You have run out of lubricant oil. Your car is equipped with a spark
ignition engine. But there is only oil for diesel engines in stock.
……………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………..
……………………………………………………………………………..
V. Do a complete run-through of the text and enumerate kinds,
forms, and sources of lubricants.
Lubrication
The primary functions of lubrication are to reduce friction and resulting wear between bearing surfaces, to cool surfaces, such as the pistons,
by picking up heat and dissipating it through the crankcase and to reduce
compression losses by acting as a seal between the cylinder walls and the
piston rings.
Types of lubricants
Lubricants commonly used in engines are available in three forms: fluid
oils, semisolids, and solids. Lubricants have three general sources: animal,
vegetable, and mineral. Mineral oils are oils obtained by refining crude petroleum. They are the universally used, because they can withstand higher
temperature without breaking up.
There are a large number and variety of lubricants available for many
different lubrication requirements. Each particular kind, quality, or type of
lubricant has a limited use.
Tractors normally require three general types of lubricants, namely, 1)
relatively thin, free-flowing oil for the engine, 2) heavier high-viscosity
oil for the transmission gears and bearings, and 3) various types of slow
or non flowing materials termed “grease” for wheel bearings, universal
joints, etc.
UNIT 6
SOIL – TILLAGE
Soil is the uppermost surface layer of the earth in which plants grow
and on which directly, all life on earth depends. Soil consists, in the upper layers, of organic material mixed with inorganic matter resulting from
weathering. Soil depth may reach many meters. Between the soil and the
bedrock is a layer called the subsoil.
38
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
There is a very wide range of soils, namely, heavy clays, light sands, acid
peats, alkaline chalks, blackland and every possible mixture in between. The
bulk of soil is rock that has been ground up into particles over many centuries
by actions of sun, frost, wind and water. Sand is coarsely ground rock – like
the sand of the seaside. Clay is finely ground rock – like fine flour and intermediate sized particles are called silt. Most soils contain a mixture of all
three particles. The amount of sand, silt and clay varies, the amount of each
determines the soil texture.
The texture determines its nature. A clayey soil is sticky when wet and
hard when dry; this makes cultivation difficult and is referred to as a heavy
soil.
A sandy soil which is free draining and easy to cultivate is called a light soil.
Any soil can be made fertile; a fertile soil is one which grows a good crop.
In a fertile soil many of the rock particles are bonded into crumbs by
organic matter. The crumbs contain many fine pores that hold water; this
water is released gradually as fine root hairs extract it. Soil crumbs have
spaces in between which allows easy root penetration and the space between them is filled with air – essential for roots to breathe as plants cannot pass oxygen down from the leaves. The crumbs in a soil are called
its structure. A layer of crumbs on the surface of a well-structured soil is
called a tilth. Tilth is a depth of soil affected by cultivation. Farmers cannot change the texture of their soil but they can maintain and improve its
structure. The aim should be to create and conserve a good soil structure.
Loams with rough equal proportions of sand, silt and clay, together with
humus, are among the richest agricultural soils. Soil provides plants with:
1) physical support, 2) a constant supply of water, 3) a supply of air to the
roots, 4) a supply of mineral salts.
Soils in many conditions do not provide a suitable environment for agricultural crops, and one of the main uses of cultivation implements is to
restore to such soils as “tilth” favourable to crop development.
Tillage
Tillage is the preparation of the soil for planting and the process of
keeping it loose and free from weeds during the growth of crops. The main
purposes of tillage are divided into three phases: 1) to prepare a suitable
seedbed; 2) to control pests and weeds; 3) to improve the physical condition of soil, namely, to control soil moisture, to clean rubbish and to incorporate fertilizers with the soil.
Tillage also improves the aeration and temperature conditions, produces a firm soil. Tillage practices vary with soil and climatic conditions and
the crop that is to be grown. Tillage includes ploughing, harrowing and
rolling the soil.
39
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Tillage equipment can be divided into two general classes: 1) primary
tillage equipment, and 2) secondary tillage equipment.
Equipment that is used to break deeply and loosen the soil to prepare a
suitable seedbed may be called as primary tillage equipment. They are the
various types of mouldboard, disk, and chisel ploughs. Secondary tillage
equipment includes harrows, pulverisers, cultivators, weeders and special
tools for surface tillage to conserve moisture and control weeds.
A standard pattern of tillage operations includes: turning of the furrow
slice, stubble cleaning, autumn harrowing, presowing cultivation, rolling
of seedbed.
Problems and Questions
l. Give the definition of “soil”.
2. Name the common types of soil.
3. What should farmers do to improve the soil conditions?
4. What influences the soil quality?
5. Under what soil conditions will crop growth be the best?
6. Explain the meaning of “texture” and “structure”.
7. What operations does tillage include?
8. What implements can be used to till the soil?
I. Work in pairs. Discuss these questions and make notes.
1. Which soils are difficult or easy to cultivate? Why?
2. What classes can tillage equipment be divided into?
II. Translate the following pairs of words.
clay – clayey fine – finely
deep – depth
grow – growth
sand – sandy
till – tillage
cover – coverage
prepare – preparation
fertile – fertility
III. Highlight the words or phrases in the text which mean the same
as the following:
1. very small parts of soils
2. food elements needed for plant growth
3. intermediate sized particles
4. trash composed of particles whose diameters range from 1/256 to
1/16 mm.
IV. Write the correct answer.
1. A sandy soil is called a heavy / light soil.
2. Farmers can / cannot change the texture of the soil.
3. Tillage includes ploughing / planting.
4. Tillage improves / does not improve the aeration.
40
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
V. Complete these sentences using the following words:
provide sandy conditions texture invert cover
1. A ............. soil is called a light soil.
2. It is impossible to change the.............. of soil.
3. Mouldboard ploughs ................ the furrow slice.
4.Tillage improves temperature ................ .
5. There are coulters to ................. the stubble and weeds
6. Soils ................ plants with water.
VI. Add more items to each list:
Soil
sandy ……… ……… ……… ……....
Operation rolling ……… ……… ……… ………
Implement tiller ……… ……… ……… ……….
VII. Look at the words bellow and sort them into two groups according to whether they carry a positive or negative meaning:
salty hard fertile clay light rough blackland poor rich
Positive
Negative
VIII. Do a complete run-through of the text. What do you think the
benefits of soil tillage are? Enumerate and write them down.
Tillage technology that improves soil management
Tillage is a low-cost way to control weeds. Weeds not only rob soil
moisture, but they also steal nutrients from crops. If left unchecked, they
make harvesting more difficult and lower grain quality. Preplant tillage
eliminates early season weed growth.
Insects and plant diseases can damage crop yields. Tillage reduces
many insect and plant disease problems by incorporating the residue in
which these insects and diseases thrive.
Tillage is a reliable means of incorporating herbicides, nutrients, and
animal waste into soil. Incorporation reduces pesticide runoff, chemical
and fertilizer losses.
Minimizing crop’s yield potential starts with creating a good seedbed.
A secondary tillage pass prepares seedbed to make it easier for a planter or
grain drill to pass through.
Tillage eliminates compaction that restricts root growth, and increases
soil pore space for air and water to move. It also helps prevent erosion and
standing water by improving infiltration.
41
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Tillage is also responsible for managing heavy residue levels in fields. Residue slow down the erosive forces of wind and water.
UNIT 7
PRIMARY TILLAGE EQUIPMENT
PLOUGHS
Plough is an implement used
for initial cultivation of soil
to sow seeds or to plant. It has
been a basic instrument for most
of recorded history. A forkedstick plough was used in Egypt
about 6000 B.C. That prehistoric
plough was pulled by man then
by animals. Ploughs were first
made of wood, next from cast
iron, and then from steel. The
first mechanical means of pulling a plough used steam-power.
Two-wheel ploughs were introduced in 1865, later three-wheel
ploughs appeared.
Ploughing is the basic tillage
operation. The primary purpose
of ploughing is to turn over the
upper layer of the soil, to bring
fresh nutrients to the surface, to
cover trash and mix with the soil. It also pulverizes, aerates the soil, and allows it to hold moisture better. In modern use, a ploughed field is typically
left to dry out, and is then harrowed before planting. The ploughed land is
laid up in furrow slices, the type of slice depending on the type of plough
and the nature of soil.
The plough has the longest work life of all the farmer’s tools, about 180
days.
A major advance in plough design was the mouldboard plough. There are six
main parts of a mouldboard plough.
42
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Plough components
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
share
mouldboard
tailpiece
landside heel
landside
frog
The beam. The beam is the part to which the power is applied, and the
share, the landside, and the mouldboard are attached. The beam is attached
to the frog.
The share. The share is the blade of a plough which makes the horizontal cut separating the furrow slice from the soil below, fits on the front
of the frame. Shares may be divided into groups according to their shape,
and the width of cut they will make. The width of cut depends on the length
of the share.
A narrow-cut share cuts about 3 to 4 inches less than the bottom width. The
regular-cut share cuts 2 inches less than the bottom width; the full-cut share leaves
the entire bottom width. The full-cut shares are used in sod and rooty soils.
Where penetration is difficult, special narrow shares are needed.
The mouldboard. The mouldboard turns the slice to the right or to the
left and pulverizes it. It is bolted to the frame. There are hundreds of different types of mouldboards, each designed to do a particular job. We know
such types of mouldboards as: stubble bottom, general-purpose bottom,
blackland bottom, sod bottom and others.
The landside. The landside is the part that receives the side thrust due
to the turning of the furrow slice and slides along the face of the furrow
wall. It is bolted to the left side of the frame.
43
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
The coulter. The coulter is the iron blade fixed vertically in front of
a plough share to cut the soil before it is lifted and turned by the share.
The coulter makes the vertical cut separating the furrow slice from the unploughed land. The knife coulter is fastened to the beam. It acts as a knife.
The disk coulter is used on most tractor ploughs.
The plough bottom. The basic unit of a mouldboard plough is the
plough bottom. The primary functions of the plough bottom are to cut the
furrow slice, loosen or pulverize the soil, and invert the furrow slice to
cover trash.
The size of a mouldboard plough bottom is the width of a furrow that it
is designed to cut. With the standard length of share, the size is the perpendicular distance from the landside to the share wing tip.
The most common sizes are 12-, 14-, 16-in., although both larger and
smaller widths are available.
Plough Types
The equipment used by the farmer to break and loosen the soil for a
depth of 6 to 36 inches is called primary tillage equipment. It includes the
mouldboard, disk, rotary, chisel, and subsoil ploughs.
The mouldboard plough is adapted to
break many types of soils and is well suited
to turn and cover crop residues. These types
of ploughs may be grouped into two types:
trailed and mounted. Mouldboard ploughs
can also be divided into one-way and twoway ploughs. One-way ploughs throw the
soil only in one direction, usually to the
right. Two-way ploughs have the bottom so
arranged that the right-turning bottoms can
be quickly replaced with a set that turns the
soil to the left. Thus, when you reach the
end of the furrow, you raise the plough, turn
44
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
around, and return across the field ploughing into the furrows you have just made.
The traditional place of the mouldboard
plough as a basic tillage implement has remained very important. But at the present
time there is a tendency to think of the necessity of mouldboard ploughing. In districts
with light soil and low rainfall, there are
problems of soil and moisture conservation.
Here the mouldboard plough is not always
used because after mouldboard ploughing
little organic matter is left on the surface of
the land. And this organic matter helps to stop
the dry soil from being blown away and from washing away the soil when it
rains.
Draft of ploughs. The draft of a plough is very important because
ploughing is usually the hardest work a tractor has to do. About 18% of
the power required is used for pulling, 48% for cutting the furrow slice, and
34% for turning the slice over. It usually requires from 10 to 12 horsepower
to pull one bottom. You should keep your plough draft light by:
1. selecting a bottom suitable to your soil,
2. eliminating troubles that cause heavy draft,
3. making the adjustment needed for greater efficiency.
The draft of a plough may depend on such factors as soil condition, topography, adjustment of the plough, the hitch to the tractor, depth and rate
of ploughing and the sharpness of coulter, jointers, and especially shares
because they do most of the cutting. The deeper the plough, the greater the
pull required. An average depth is six inches.
Problems and Questions
1. Which agricultural tool is the oldest one?
2. Name the main tillage operations.
3. Discuss the main plough components.
4. Compare the work of share and mouldboard.
5. Why is the draft of a plough so important?
6. What factors affect the draft of ploughs?
7. Define primary tillage and list the types of equipment used.
I. Work in pairs. What details, if any, have you learnt about:
1. the classification of ploughs?
2. the history of ploughs?
45
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
II. Choose the correct form of the adjectives.
1. Plough is one of the oldest / older agricultural implements.
2. The plough has the longest / longer work life of all farmers’ tools.
3. The regular-cut share cuts 2 inches little / less than the bottom
width.
4. Ploughing is harder / the hardest work a tractor has to do.
III. Choose the right words from the list.
1. A layer of soil is separated from ... .
a) furrow slice b) subsoil c) silt
2. The width of cut depends on the ... of the share.
a) shape
b) length c) size
3. The knife coulter is bolted to the ... .
a) landside
b) beam c) frame
4. Special narrow shares are used for ... .
a) cultivation
b) penetration c) planting
IV. Complete the list with the correct form of the words.
Verb
Noun
1. mix
...
2. …
coverage
3. …
penetration
4. attach
…
5. revolve
…
6. …
weight
V. Match the words with their correct explanation.
1. Share is
a) a vertical cutting blade fixed in front of
a plough.
2. Mouldboard is b) the main cutting blade of plough, behind
the coulter.
3. Landside is
c) a curved metal blade in a plough that turns
the earth.
4. Coulter is
d) the part of a plough that slides along
the face of the furrow wall on the opposite side
to the mouldboard.
VI. Agree or disagree with following statements. Why “yes” or “no”?
Use such expressions as I think it is right.... To my mind it is wrong....
1. We can use the plough to prevent and control weeds.
2. Some soil types are not adaptable to no-tillage farming.
3. Under humid conditions insects and plant diseases do not reduce yields.
46
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
4. The frog is the most important part of the plough.
5. Steel share can be used much longer without sharpening.
6. Bottom helps to steady the plough while it is being operated.
VII. Imagine you are writing an article about plough development.
Develop these topic sentences into short paragraphs using the prompts
in brackets.
1. Plough has a long history of its development.
(Mention the place and time of origin).
2. Plough is rather complicated implement.
(Mention its components and the way of operation).
3. Plough types depend on many factors.
(Mention what types you know and how they can be used).
4. Draft of a plough is an important aspect.
(Mention what draft means and factors which affect the draft).
Standard Disk Ploughs
The disk plough is adapted to conditions where the mouldboard will
not work:
1. sticky, waxy soils;
2. dry, hard soils that cannot be penetrated with a mouldboard plough;
3. rough, stony, and rooty ground where the disk will ride over the
rocks;
4. peaty soils where the mouldboard plough will not turn the slice;
5. deep ploughing.
The two main types of disk ploughs are the standard and the vertical.
The standard disk plough has one to seven disk blades, each with its own
bearings; and in some designs the disk plough can be adjusted to suit different soil conditions. In the vertical disk plough disks are placed on a fixed
distance apart on a common axle. They rotate as a unit at an angle of 35 –
50 degrees from the line of travel.
Principles of operation. The disk plough blade creates no suction as
the regular mouldboard plough does. Disk ploughs depend on weight and
disk angle for penetration. They are heavily built.
The disk plough is just one or more rolling cutters. The soil and trash
are cut and moved with a rolling action. If they are used without scrapers,
the disks produce a mixing action. If scrapers are used, the plough will turn
the soil like the regular mouldboard type.
The disk will not plough sod at high speed. A slow speed is necessary
for cutting action.
Maintenance cost is low because there are no shares to replace or resharpen. Plough disk lasts for years.
47
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Types of disk ploughs
The three main types are direct-mounted, semi-mounted and trailed.
Direct-mounted ploughs are attached to the tractor by one, two or
three-point hitch linkages. They can be raised or lowered by the hydraulic
system. They are usually rear-mounted and have a rear wheel.
Semi-mounted disk ploughs are pulled by regular tractor drawbar or
by a special drawbar. They are raised by moving a lever at the front of
the plough. The rear wheel is automatically controlled from the steering
mechanism at the front of the tractor. Depth of ploughing is adjusted by the
lever at the rear.
Trailed disk ploughs are units attached to the tractors by a hitch that
can be adjusted both vertically and horizontally. They have three wheels
for support: two front wheels and a land wheel. They can be pulled by any
model of tractor having sufficient power. The land wheel may furnish the
power to raise the plough, if a hydraulic lift is not used. The front furrow
wheel helps to lift the plough. The rear furrow wheel is non-steering, but it
absorbs thrusts and lifts the rear part of the plough.
The disk plough is often heavier, and this may increase the draft.
Depth of cut. Typical ranges of cutting depths are 4 to 14- inches, 3 to
14-inches, and 4 to 15-inches. The depth depends on the diameter of the
blade, the angle of blade to the direction of travel, the depth of the cut.
Width of cut of disk blades are different. It depends on the angle of the
blade to the direction of travel, the depth of cut, and the diameters of the
blade. A typical 26-inch blade will cut a furrow of 2- inches wide and 8 to
9- inches deep.
Problems and Questions
1. Discuss the conditions under which it may be advantageous to use a disk
plough.
2. Name the difference between the vertical and the standard disk
plough.
3. Explain why the maintenance cost of disk ploughs is low.
I. Work in pairs. Ask questions to find out the information about
purposes and principles of standard disk ploughs. Compare your answers.
II. Write down the opposites of these words:
1. to raise ................
5. high speed....................
2. heavy...................
6. wet soil.........................
3. different...............
7. front wheel...................
4. soft......................
8. narrow........................
48
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
III. Which of the following sentences are wrong? Find the mistakes
and correct them. Give your explanation.
1. A typical 26-inch blade will not cut a furrow of 2-inch width.
2. The depth of cut depends on the diameter of the blade.
3. The rear furrow wheel is steering.
4. The disk plough is often heavier and this cannot increase the draft.
5. The disk will not plough sod at high speed.
6. Plough disks are used for a few days a year.
IV. Which of the following words and expressions are used to describe the plough:
rear-mounted wheel farm gang to adjust stony to heat clutch to
invert corn to harrow disk bottom condition share to burn fuel to attach hilly landside
V. In pairs. Use the phrases below to make and respond to requests.
Example:
A: Could you help me with my project this week?
B: I’m afraid I can’t this week but I might be able to help you next
week.
request
to help me buy a new
GPS for the tractor
to help me repair the
plough
to cover the seeds
to translate a manual
time
this week
alternative
next week
on Tuesday
on Wednesday
this weekend
this evening
next weekend
tomorrow evening
VI. Do a complete run-through of the text and find the information
about the practical application of this plough.
Chisel plough
The chisel plough is a common tool to get deep tillage (prepared land)
with limited soil disruption. The main function of this plough is to loosen
and aerate the soils while leaving crop residue at the top of the soil. This
plough can be used to reduce the effect of compaction. The chisel plough
will not invert the soil. It is useful to no-till and limited-tillage farming
practice which helps to keep organic matter in the soil. The use of a chisel
plough is considered to be more sustainable than other types of ploughs,
such as the mouldboard plough.
49
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
The chisel plough is typically set to run up to a depth of eight to twelve
inches. However some models may run much deeper. Such ploughs can
encounter great drag, consequently a tractor of sufficient power and good
traction is required. When planning to plough with a chisel plough it is
important to remember that 10 to 15 horsepower (7 to 11 kW) per shank
will be required.
As the soil is broken by stirring, it is not inverted and pulverized to the
extent that mouldboard and disk ploughs crush the soil. So the chisel plough
is often used to loosen hard, dry soils before using the regular plough. The
chiselling and stirring operations do not throw enough soil to completely
cover trash. The chisel plough is used for stubble-mulch or subsurface tillage operations. This type of plough is also used to break up hard layers of
soil just below the regular ploughing depth.
UNIT 8
SECONDARY TILLAGE EQUIPMENT
HARROWS – TILLERS
The secondary tillage means
stirring the soil at comparatively
shallow depths. The main purposes of secondary tillage are:
1. to improve the seedbed by
greater pulverization of the soil;
2. to conserve moisture by
summer-autumn operations to kill
weeds and reduce evaporation;
3. to cut up residue and cover crops and mix it with the top soil;
4. to break up clods, firm the topsoil and put it in better tilth for seeding
and germination of seeds;
5. to kill weeds on fallow lands.
There are many types of machines that may be used for secondary tillage,
namely, harrows, rollers, pulverisers, cultivators and tools for mulching and
fallowing.
The harrow is the heavy frame with metal teeth or disks for breaking
up ground after ploughing, for stirring the soil, and for preventing and kill50
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
ing weeds. Under some conditions they may be used to cover seeds. There
are some kinds of harrows: the disk, the spike-tooth, the spring-tooth and
others.
The cultivator is a machine for breaking up ground, destroying weeds.
There is no great difference between cultivators and harrows. Cultivators
are used to deal with heavy work and large clods. Harrows are used to continue the work of preparing a fine tilth.
Disk harrow. The disk harrow is one of the most widely used machines on farms. The disk harrow breaks up clods by means of steel disks.
It mixes and aerates the soil, levels the land, kills weeds, prepares the
ground for seeding or ploughing, and may be used to make a seedbed.
The disk harrow works like the mouldboard plough: both turn the soil in
furrow. But the disk harrow turns small furrows; its blades are usually
less than 10inches apart. The front edge of the concave disk cuts soil and
stalks. The trailed edge acts as a rolling mouldboard, it raises the earth
and pushes it to one side. In the disk harrows the side forces are balanced.
The disk blades are placed with their concave cutting face in one direction, the other half in opposite direction. So the disk harrow throws soil
in two directions.
Control of penetration. There are many factors that influence the depth
to which it penetrates. It is possible to control the depth of penetration by:
1. using a heavy or light harrow,
2. adding weight to the harrow,
3. using few or many disks per harrow,
4. using dull or sharp disk,
5. using smaller or larger disks.
A heavy harrow may penetrate too deep. If you decrease the cutting
angle, it will penetrate less. Lessening the area of the disk blade in contact
with soil will increase cutting and penetration. The more weight per unit of
disk area in contact with the ground, the greater the penetration.
Other factors that influence the depth of penetration have nothing to do
with the harrow, such as the condition of the soil, the amount of moisture,
the amount of trash on the soil, and the amount of organic matter that may
be in the soil.
Types of disk harrows. Disk harrows are available in sizes suitable
for any size of tractors. There are many types of disk harrows, but they
may be divided into two general classes, trailed and mounted. There
are several types under each of these classes. We know such types as
the regular and the offset harrows. The regular harrow may consist of a
single section (single action) or of a double section (tandem).
Single action. The single-action disk harrow usually consists of two
gangs of disks placed end to end which throw the soil in opposite directions.
51
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
A gang is an assembly of disks all rotating together with a common shaft or
bolt through their centres.
single-disk harrow
tandem-disk harrow
offset disk harrow
Tandem disk harrow. The double action disk harrow is often called a
tandem type because a set of two gangs follow behind the front gang and
is arranged so that disks on the front gangs throw the soil in one direction,
and the disks on the rear gangs throw the soil in the opposite direction.
Offset disk harrow. This type of harrow can be operated in offset positions in relation to the tractor. A change in the hitch can cause the harrow to
operate either to the right or left of the tractor. Thus, it is possible to operate
under the trees.
Disk harrow sizes. Most harrows are measured by the width of the cut
they make. Regular disk harrows vary in cut from about 3 feet 9inches to
12 feet. The working ability of a harrow is often indicated by its weight.
They are specified as standard weight or heavy duty weight.
Harrow disk. The disks are similar to those of the tiller and the disk
plough. There are two main types – plain and notched. The concavity affects the penetrating, pulverizing, inverting ability of the disk. The notched
disk is used for trashy conditions.
Mounted disk harrows. This type of disk harrow is design to be
used with tractors equipped with three-point hitch and hydraulic lift
systems. As the mounted disk harrow is generally a unit assembly with
52
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
fixed-angle construction, it can be lifts with hydraulic power lifts and
backed into corners, used close to fences and along ditches or borders.
The hydraulic control permits adjustment of the disks to desired depths.
Most of the regular two-gang single-action mounted disk harrows are
of the heavy-duty type. The conventional four-gang tandem power-lift
disk harrow has a fixed-angle construction. It is available in widths
ranging from 5 to 6 feet.
The offset double-action mounted disk harrow consists of two gangs
of disks arranged in a fixed-angle frame so that one gang runs behind the
other. The rear gang may be set to run directly behind the front gang, giving
a double disking to the soil, or it can be adjusted to run in an offset position
to the right or the left as desired.
Problems and Questions
1. Define and give the objectives of secondary tillage.
2. List the equipment used for secondary tillage.
3. Give the various uses of disk harrows, and enumerate the types of disk
harrows.
4. What are the likeness and the difference between the disk harrow and
the moldboard plough?
5. Explain how the various forces acting on a disk harrow gang can be
balanced to obtain even penetration.
6. Discuss the work of the tandem harrow.
I. Work in pairs. These sentences summarise the paragraphs of the
text. Choose the summary from the list A -G for the paragraph.
A. The objectives of secondary tillage.
B. The construction of the tandem harrows.
C. Disk harrow operations.
D. Harrows are farm implements for breaking up clods.
E. It is necessary to control the depth of penetration.
F. There are several types of the disk harrows.
G. Offset disk harrows are used to run under trees.
I. This harrow is designed as a unit assembly.
II. Translate the following pairs of words without dictionary. Pay
attention to the suffix.
1. deep – depth
6. arrange – arrangement
2. back – backward
7. usual – usually
3. vary – various
8. use – useful
4. part – partly
9. suit – suitable
5. replace – replacement
10. differ – difference
53
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
III. Rewrite these sentences in the passive form.
1. We divide the disk harrows into several types.
2. The disk harrow breaks up the furrow.
3. One should control the width of the cut.
4. He has located one gang behind the other.
5. The regular harrow will use modified disks.
IV. Fill the gaps in the sentences below with a suitable word from the
text.
1. The disk harrows ... the soil using steel disks.
2. A heavy harrow ... too deep.
3. ... may be used as well as a single section.
4. When the ground is very ... a sharp blade is used.
5. ... is an assembly of disks.
V. Work in pairs. Which of the following sentences are wrong? Find
the mistakes and correct them. Give your explanation.
1. It is impossible to control the depth to which the disk blades penetrate.
2. If we add weight to the light harrow, one can get deeper penetration.
3. The area in contact with the soil is the same as for small and large disk
blades.
4. The regular harrows have only single section.
5. An offset disk harrow consists of two gangs of disks.
VI. Read the text “Subsoil tillage tools” and complete the notes.
Subject:
Place:
Equipment:
Advantages:
Objective:
Disadvantages
Subsoil tillage tools
The need for control of wind and water erosion and conservation of
moisture in the Middle West of the USA has resulted in the development of
new farming practices and new farm tools. The objective is to till the soil in
such a manner that the crop residue will be left on the surface. The method
of the farming is known as subsurface tillage.
The advantages of this method of farming are:
1. increase in the capacity of soil to absorb water,
2. reduction of runoff,
3. reduction of water and wind erosion,
4. reduction of rate of surface evaporation.
54
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
On the other hand, many farmers say that the stubble mulch is hard to handle
because it makes it difficult to destroy undesirable vegetation, to develop a good
seedbed, and to plant, and under some conditions it increases operation cost.
Certain areas and soils are not suited to this system of farming. For example, in
the more moist areas, there is the danger of increased insect population.
Implements that operate under and do not materially disturb the trash
on or near the surface are the most effective for subsurface tillage. The
tools that meet these requirements are sweeps and rod weeders.
Spring – Tooth Harrows
This type came into general use
in the 1860s.
Purpose. The spring-tooth harrow is used to prepare land for seed.
It levels and smoothes the ground
and works well in rough, stony soils
and removes plants from the soil
without cutting it up. It breaks the
soil crust and penetrates as deep as
7 inches. It pulls weed roots to the
surface where the sun dries and destroys them. It mixes trash and stubble, preventing soil from blowing
and helping to catch and hold snow
and rain. The harrow is used for pasture, orchard and vineyard renovation
and cultivation. This type of harrow is a general-practice machine.
Types of spring-tooth harrows. There are two main types – the lift and
the trailed type.
The lift type is available in assembly units that can be lifted by hydraulic power. The lift harrows may have one, two or three sections. The width
of sections may be from 3 to 9 feet per section. The wide section harrow
usually has four tooth bars.
The trailed spring-tooth harrows are also made in sections. The sections
vary in width from 3 to 6 feet. The sections may have from eight to twelve
teeth. A single section may be used alone or several sections may be hitched
together and used as a unit. The number of sections used together depends
on the power available. The teeth are raised for transport purposes.
Most spring-tooth harrows use levers to raise and lower the teeth. One
lever is provided for each section, either at the front or at the rear.
The teeth are spaced so that they will cover most of the ground. The
teeth must cut at a uniform depth.
55
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
The biggest field trouble is that the teeth pick up and hold straw, weeds
and trash. Using a high-clearance harrow will avoid or reduce snagging the
frame with trash. Power-lift types are better for trashy conditions.
Problems and Questions
1. Explain the different functions of the spring-tooth harrow.
2. How many sections may the lift harrows have?
3. What is the biggest field trouble?
4. What types of harrows are more satisfactory for trashy conditions?
I. Work in pairs. Discuss these questions:
1. What influences the reduction of clogging?
2. Do you know anything about the advantages of this type of harrows?
II. Translate the following sentences, paying attention to the different meanings of such words as:
it that one so
1. It was difficult to adjust the depth.
2. One should plough that part of the field.
3. The teeth are spaced so that they will cover most of the ground.
4. One type of this runner is attached by rivets.
5. This is a new harrow. It breaks and pulverizes clods.
6. The tool that you are examining is quite new one.
7. It is he who repaired this harrow.
8. The problem is rather difficult, so we are to discuss it.
III. Translate these words. Pay attention to the suffix.
to use – useful – used – usable – using – useless – user
to adjust – adjustable – adjustment – adjuster – adjusted – adjusting
to grow – growth – grower – growing – grown
to mix – mixture – mixer – mixing – mixed
IV. Match a verb from the list A with a noun from the list B.
A
B
to break
weeds
to mix
teeth
to raise
crust
to prepare
trash
to dry
land
V. Write down the opposites of the following words:
1. to lower .................
5. heavy .................
2. to reduce ................
6.hard ...................
56
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
3. to warm ..................
4. to destroy …………
7.wide....................
8.with ……………
VI. Which of the words on the right are answers to the questions on
the left? Choose the answer that matches each question.
1. Why is it necessary to pull
To use a high clearance harrow.
weeds roots on the surface?
2. Which type of harrow is a
It holds straw.
general practice-type?
3. What is the biggest field
A spring-tooth harrow.
problem about spring-tooth harrow?
4. How can this problem be solved? To dry and destroy on the sun.
Spike-Tooth Harrows
The
spike-tooth
harrow
smoothes and compacts the topsoil,
fills up large air spaces left from
ploughing and breaks up clods. It
is a finishing tool used just before
planting. It is also used to cover
small seeds broadcast over the
surface, to break the rain-formed
crust and destroy small weeds, to
cultivate corn, cotton, row crops
in early stages of growth,
Types. Sizes. Weight. The two
main types are the rigid and the flexible harrow. In rigid harrows all the teeth
cut the same depth. In flexible harrows all individual tooth bars raise vertically. Both tractor-mounted and tractor-trailed types are available. Spike-tooth
harrows, like spring-tooth harrows come in sections. The number used varies
with the power available. A very large harrow might have 6 sections, 240
teeth, and be 30 feet wide. The six-section harrow may weigh 679 pounds.
Tooth bars. Five horizontal bars hold the teeth at definite spacing.
The tooth bars are moved by a lever mechanism to change the angle of
the teeth. The number of teeth per section varies because of a difference
in the width of various sections and the spacing of the teeth.
Frames. The flexible harrow frame consists only of jointed side rails
which are attached to the drawbar. The flexible side permits independent
vertical movement of each tooth bar.
When you cultivate with the flexible harrow, it is pulled from one end
and the teeth take a vertical position. When you use it for smoothing, it is
57
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
pulled from the other end and the teeth automatically assume a 45-degree
angle.
The spike-tooth sections are not usually fastened to each other. All are
attached to a common drawbar which is pulled by the tractor, and sometimes they are raised by the tractor-lifting mechanism.
Problems and Questions
1. Give the various uses of the spike-tooth-harrow.
2. Compare the purpose of application of spike-tooth and spring-tooth
harrows.
I. Work in pairs. Discuss these questions and make notes:
1. Which type of harrows is more popular now? Why?
2. Are there any tendencies in designing modern harrows? Why “yes”
or “no”?
II. Rewrite the sentences in the passive.
1. All teeth cut the same depth.
2. A lever mechanism will move the tooth bars.
3. When we cultivate with the flexible harrow, we pull it from one end.
4. Manufacturers offered a wide range of harrows.
III. Choose the best alternative to complete these sentences.
1. ... and repair of a spike-tooth harrow is very important.
a) care
b) worry
2. Pull the harrow onto a ... surface.
a) flat
b) smooth
3. A spike-tooth harrow ... some sections.
a) consists of
b) comprises
4. Set ... of the teeth for the degree of the desired cultivation.
a) the corner
b) the angle
IV. Write your own explanation of the following expressions:
1. rain-formed crust 2. heavy-duty section
V. Look at the words below and sort them as antonyms:
rigid to raise heavy indefinite to destroy dependent to lower flexible
independent definite light to create
VI. Read the text “Cultivators and cultivation” without dictionary.
Summarize the main details in some words, write them down.
58
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Cultivators and cultivation
It is well known that weeds are robbers: they rob the farmers of their
profits by reducing yield; by lowering the quality of their crop; by harbouring insects that damage their crop; by reducing the land value. The farmers
must control weeds. The farmers’ primary tools to control weeds are 1) cultivation by stirring the soil, 2) the use of flame, 3) the use of chemicals.
The primary objectives of cultivation are 1) retain moisture by a) killing weeds b) loose mulching on surface, c) retaining rainfall; 2) develop
plant food; 3) aerate the soil to allow oxygen to penetrate soil; 4) promote
activity of microorganisms.
Cultivation is an operation that requires some kind of tool that will stir
the surface of the soil to a shallow depth in such a manner that young
weeds will be destroyed and the crop growth promoted. Cultivation to control weeds by stirring the soil may start on the prepared seedbed before
planting. After planting, the soil may be cultivated before emergence of the
plants, for some crops. Cultivation usually begins soon after emergence of
young crop seedlings, as weeds generally emerge about the same time as
the crop.
The type of machine required may depend on the cultivation task. Traditionally there is a distinction between “primary” or deep and “secondary”
or shallow cultivation.
Deep cultivation means initial breaking-down the soil. Shallow cultivation means further action to produce a tilth. Deep cultivation requires a
relatively heavy machine. Shallow cultivation requires a relatively light
machine.
Many types of cultivators are in use, ranging from the small handpushed garden cultivator suitable for the family garden to large four-row
tractor-mounted cultivators capable of cultivating many acres per day. The
type and size needed will also depend on the acreage, the kind of crop, soil
type and conditions, rainfall, type of farming practised, and the kind of
power available.
59
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
DISK TILLERS
The disk tiller is between the standard disk plough and the disk harrow
in its action. It carries the disks at approximately a 45-degree angle, cutting
and throwing all the soil in the same direction. The disks are smaller than
on a disk plough – usually 14 to 24 inches in diameter – and have no scrapers to help to invert the soil.
They cut shallower and narrower, usually making a cut approximately
4 inches in width. They mix the soil with the trash instead of inverting the
furrow slice and covering the trash. Because the disk tiller is a mixing tool,
the draft is lower per foot than with the disk plough.
Disk tillers vary in the flexibility of the disk cylinder. The rigid type has
a single axle. Some tillers have several independent disk cylinders. They
all operate at the same angle, but each cylinder can move up and down
separately.
Two methods are used to support the disk cylinder, from the side or
from the top. The different models vary in size and spacing of the disks.
Disks must be raised for going over grass ways and for turning and transportation. There are four main methods of raising them. A few tillers rotate
the beam. Others raise the entire tiller on its wheels. Some use the tractor
hitch and one tiller wheel. And with small tillers, the hydraulic tractor hitch
alone may be used. The disk tiller is not a universal tool like the mouldboard plough.
Three-wheeled trailing tillers. This type is pulled from the tractor
drawbar. It is supported by its own three wheels. On this tiller the land
wheel is at the left; it runs on the untilled ground. It may have lugs so it
will not slip when raising the tiller. The land wheel must travel parallel to
the line of travel.
60
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Semi-mounted tillers. The semi-mounted tiller has a two-point rigid
attachment to tractor drawbar. The load is partly on the drawbar and partly
on a rear furrow caster wheel. The rear wheel is the only wheel on this
type. It is connected to the tractor so that steering the tractor steers this rear
wheel also. When you change the direction of the tractor the vertical axle
of the tiller wheel rotates slightly. This changes the direction of the tiller.
Mounted tillers. The mounted three-point suspended tiller is carried
entirely by the tractor. Because this type can be completely raised or lowered by the hydraulic system, the wheel on this machine has the only minor
function. It can be adjusted to lead to the right for greater stability. On some
machines it remains in contact with the ground when the tiller is raised.
Problems and Questions
1. Name the functions of the disk tillers.
2. Why is the draft lower than with the disk plough?
6. Is the disk tiller a universal tool? If not, why?
I. Write down the opposites of these words.
1. different.................
5. to raise..................
2. short .......................
6. tilled......................
3. wide........................
7. deep.......................
4. flexible...................
8. rear.......................
II. Fill the gaps in the sentences below with a suitable word from
the text:
weigh, spacing, clearance, rear wheel, scrapers, direction
1. The disks have no ... to assist in inverting the soil.
2. The non-trash type uses a 7-to-8 inch ....
3. The side draft is in one ....
4. Short spools provide little ....
5. We may ... the land-wheel.
6. The ... is the only wheel on semi-mounted tillers.
III. Use the vocabulary in the text to write sentences describing:
– what the width of a cut is.
– what some of the similarities and differences between disk tillers and
disk ploughs are.
IV. Highlight the words or phrase in the text which mean the same
as the following:
– a field with rubbish
– all-purpose implement
61
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
– to turn the furrow slice
– to run at the same angle
– to give something to make up
– to become powder or dust
– space between something
V. Choose the correct answer.
1. How is the load distributed?
a) The load is distributed only on the drawbar.
b) Both on the drawbar and on the rear furrow wheel.
2. The disk tiller is a mixing tool, isn’t it?
a) Yes, that’s true.
b) No, it isn’t.
3. Why do some machines use pressure springs?
a) In order to compensate the low suction.
b) In order to increase drawbar.
4. What effect do we have using a narrow spacing?
a) We have better penetration.
b) It gives greater pulverization.
VI. Do a complete run-through of the text “Phoenix Rotary Harrow” and write a short note to the manufacturer of the farm implements giving your opinion on this harrow. Use the following guide:
Dear sir,
Paragraph 1
Introduction: Why are you writing? Have you read anything that has
surprised you?
Paragraph 2
Say what you are interested in the harrow.
Paragraph 3
Say what additional information you’d like to have.
Yours faithfully
The Phoenix rotary harrow is a good tool to prepare the seedbed and
to level ridges, to leave a smooth field ideal for seeding. When used in
spring the surface residue and soil are distributed, allowing more effective
warming by working the top 1-2 inches of soil and making earlier planting
possible. It allows the farmers to seed 3 to 7 days earlier.
It creates an ideal seedbed by removing buried residue from soil, more
nitrogen is left for crops. This rotary harrow incorporates up to 95% of
chemicals on the first pass. It allows for better herbicide to soil contact, and
is also effective for incorporating manure.
62
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
The harrow brings residue to the surface to prevent moisture loss and
soil erosion. It is perfect for drying up wet areas and it works the top of
the soil aerating it, leaving dry mulch on the surface and sealing moisture
below. The interlocking tools clean themselves, preventing clogging.
The rotary harrow levels out ridges left by openers spreading the heaviest stubble evenly, and allows even germination. Level surfaces reduce
wear on equipment used during later passes.
This harrow is good for killing weeds. Weeds are brought to the surface
where the sun dried them. The Phoenix is extremely effective at knocking
down cornstalks and sunflowers. It also can be used on frozen corn stalks,
extending working season.
The Phoenix is excellent for reseeding or rejuvenating pasture ground
in the spring. It can work seed and fertilizer to 1-11/2 deep.
The harrow is excellent for direct application of small seed crops such
as flax and various grass seed. In wet years the Phoenix has been used to
seed wheat, barley, soy beans and many other crops.
UNITE 9
PLANTING EQUIPMENT
PLANTERS – DRILLS
Planting equipment is any power-operated device used to place
seed, seed pieces, or plant parts in
or on the soil for germination and
production of food or feed crops.
The first planters were used for
two main crops – corn and cotton.
The main difference between them
is the seeding mechanism. Planters are an American invention. The planter
is a universal tool. The first cotton planter was patented in 1825; the first
corn planter, fourteen years later.
They are classified as follows:
1. row-crop planters – trailed, front or rear tractor-mounted,
2. broadcast-crop planters,
3. grain drills,
4. planting attachments for other equipment.
63
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Row-crop planters. Planters designed and constructed to plant seeds
in rows far enough apart to permit cultivation of crop are called row-crop
planters. Many row-crop planters are designed to plant seeds of only one
certain crop, while others may be adapted to plant more than one crop by
simply changing the type of plate in the hopper. The corn-planter plants
seeds varying in size from a small tomato seed to a large bean seed. The
trailed type can be drawn by any tractor, it is a universal type. The mounted
type may be placed ahead or in back of the tractor rear wheels. It takes
about 10 minutes to mount the planter. Planters can be of one-four- or sixrow types. Four is the maximum used with cotton and corn planters. Rowcrop planters have the following main units: hopper, seeding mechanisms,
driving and checking devices, fertilizer and other attachments.
There are two kinds of fertilizer attachments – only for planters and for
cultivators. It is better to apply fertilizer at intervals – once at seeding time and
again during cultivation. The planter-fertilizer attachment is very popular. It
can be driven from the PTO shaft, the main axle sprocket on the tractor.
Trailed check-row planters is equipped with valves, check heads, and
wires to permit the operator to drop hills of corn in checks or squares so
cultivation can be made both with the rows and across the rows.
The sequence of operations for the various parts of a trailed checkrow planter is as follows: traction power is furnished by the wheels. The
wheel turns the axle from which the power is transmitted to the feed shaft
by sprockets and the chains. The sprocket on the feed shaft works in the
conjunction with a clutch which permits the feed shaft to be revolved intermittently, in order to turn the seed plates sufficiently to collect two or three
kernels of corn on the top valve of the boot. As the planter moves forward
across the field, buttons on a wire trip the top and bottom valves located in
the boot, thus dropping the kernels of corn into the soil.
Central-mounted planters. The central-mounted planter consists of
two assembly units which can be quickly attached to, or removed from, the
tractor. The frames of the two units are connected together underneath the
tractor so the planter can be used as a check-row planter. The large-sized
open-center press furnishes power for driving the planting mechanism.
Corn can be either drilled, dropped in the hills, or check-row planted.
Rear-mounted corn planters. This type of planter has the same planting mechanism as the trailed-type corn planter. It is directly connected to
the tractor and raised and lowered hydraulically. The planting mechanism
may be driven from the power-take-off or a power sprocket on the tractor
axle. The planter may be used as a drill, or a check-row planter.
Broadcast crop planter. Broadcasting is the oldest and simplest method of sowing seed. Broadcast planters drop the seed on the surface of the
soil and do not have any covering attachment. If covering is desired, the
seeds are usually covered by harrowing.
64
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
GRAIN DRILLS
A drill is a sowing device
designed to place small grains
in the soil in narrow-spaced
rows at a uniform depth and
then to cover them. Multitube iron seed drills were
invented by the Chinese in
the 2-th century BC. The first
known European seed drill
was patented in 1566.
J. Tull made the first drill-like machine in England in 1731. But only in
1869 it began to manufacture. Over the years drills have become more advanced but the technology has remained nearly the same. Recent improvements to drill allow seed-drilling without prior tilling. This means that soils
subject to erosion or moisture losses are protected until the seed germinates
and grows enough to keep the soil in place. This also helps prevent soil loss
by avoiding erosion after tilling.
The principal parts are the main frame, transport and drive wheels, a
box for seeds, a device to feed the seeds out of the hopper in uniform
amount, furrow openers to open the furrows for the seeds, and covering
devices.
Purpose. A grain drill is used not only to sow grains and other seeds,
but also to pulverize and firm the soil. It covers the seed and may leave the
soil ridged to protect the seed and to prevent soil erosion. An attachment to
the regular drill and also a fertilizer-grain drill will sow various kinds and
amounts of fertilizers.
The grain drill cannot deposit the seeds in hills. Seed must have enough
heat and moisture to germinate. It is necessary to select the right type of drill
and then adjust it so it will place the seeds properly for good germination and
growth. When good seed is metered accurately and sown at the proper depth
the stand will be uniform.
Drill types. They can be classified as plain and fertilizer drills. A plain
drill has a hopper and is used to drill only seeds. A fertilizer drill has a large
seedbox which is divided into two compartments, one for seeds and one for
fertilizer so it sows all the seeds that can be sown by the plain drill and also
drills or broadcasts fertilizers.
Drill sizes. The size of drills is expressed by the width in feet, the
number of furrow openers, and spacing between the runs. A run is the opening through which the seed passes to the furrow opener. The spacing is the
distance between each run. The usual run spacing is 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 14 and
65
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
16 inches. The wider spacing is used for winter wheat because it prevents
seed blowing, soil drifting, frost killing and saves moisture for the crop.
Problems and Questions
1. Explain the following: a) drilling, b) check-rowing, c) broadcasting.
2. Enumerate factors that influence the germination of seed.
3. Discuss the differences in planters.
4. Name the main functions of grain drills.
5. How are seed and fertilizer metered from the hopper?
6. What is meant by a runner and a run?
I. Which definition is for a drill as one of the farm machines?
1. heavy, strong linen or cotton cloth
2. instrument with a pointed end or cutting edges for making holes in
hard surfaces
3. training in handling of weapon
4. routine procedure to be followed
5. machine for making furrows, sowing seeds in them, and covering
the seeds
II. Which is the odd word out?
1. hopper hill opener frame
2. to harvest to grow to plant to force
3. depth beet potato bean
4. crop vegetable fruit drill
III. Write the questions to these answers.
1. Grain crops and other seeds are sown by grain drills.
2. No, the grain drill cannot deposit the seeds in hills.
3. Wider spacing is used for winter wheat.
4. In America in 1825.
IV. Complete the list with the correct form of the word.
Noun
Verb
Noun
Verb
width
…
…
operate
…
vary
motion
…
…
cover
adjustment
…
fitness
…
…
germinate
V. Choose the correct words to complete each sentence.
1. The seed hopper is rigidly/flexibly attached to the main frame.
2. Seed firming wheels on planters firm/loosen soil around seed.
66
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
3. The press wheel compacts soil directly under/over seed.
4. Proper seed and soil contact is/is not important for maximum germination.
VI. Write a short summary of the text “Grain drills”. You may use
the following sentence openers as a guide.
This is a text about …
At the beginning the author describes …
The main point is …
The article goes on to say …
In the conclusion, the author …
VII. Look through of the text and write down the answers: 1. Does
the text carry fresh information about planter attachments? 2. Do you
find the text is too hard to understand?
Planter attachments
Seed should be placed in
positive contact with firm soil
for maximum germination. So
a special V-seed opener has
been designed. This opener
delivers it by slicing out an
almost perfect V-shaped seed
trench that traps seed in positive contact with firm soil because sharply-angled disks cut
a very narrow V in the soil.
The trench holds its shape
because the depth-gauging wheels are hugged against the hopper. They
firmly mould the shoulders of the V-trench, preventing soil from being
torn away from the seed trench walls. Seed settles to the bottom of trench.
Germination-stealing air pockets are eliminated.
Special attachments assure maximum performance even soil conditions
are not perfect.
V-wing. This attachment is good for sweeping
clods out of the way of the seed opener, for skimming off the top layer of a bed. Trashy or sticky
soils are the conditions where the V-wing is not
recommended.
67
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Disk furrower. This attachment can be used for
pushing clods aside, and is also very popular with
farmers who want to remove dry topsoil and plant
where moisture is abundant. Both disk furrower and
V-wing are attached to the parallel arms of the planting unit. As a result, depth is gauged by both the
planter frame and planting unit. The disk furrower
fits planters, drawn or integral.
Minimum-till coulter. The attachment is designed for use in minimum tillage planting, after
primary tillage has been performed. There are a
fluted coulter and a ripple coulter. The choice depends on conditions. Both types of the coulters
may be located ahead of the opener to reduce misalignment.
Tine tooth. The tine-tooth tillage attachment
stirs up and smoothes the area in front of the seed
opener. It is used for rough, trashy soil conditions.
It is mounted so that it moves with the planting unit
if row spacing is changed.
Row-lever. The row-lever chain mounts behind
the seed firming wheels. It reduces the crushing
tendency of some soils, and can be easily removed
when not required.
Pre-emerge bracket. This handy pre-emerge
spray bracket can be used as a planter attachment to
make mounting spray nozzles neat and easy.
68
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Down-pressure spring. The down-pressure
spring attachment increases opener penetration in
heavy soil and prevents the unit from bouncing on
rough seedbeds.
Trailer. It is the transport attachment for wide
planters. Its can be used for other transport tasks
when planting is completed.
VIII. What do these common abbreviations mean? Look up the
ones you do not know in a dictionary.
in
lb
cu
ft
IX. Do a complete run-through of the text. Think of some good reasons why you may give an advice to buy this super drill. Write down
these reasons.
The super drill
The 3D, 15-row drill is designed for the direct-drilling of seed and fertilizer in uncultivated land. It can also be used as a conventional seed and or
fertilizer drill after minimal or traditional seedbed cultivations.
There are three disks (hence the term 3D) to each row at 7in spacing.
One disk cuts through vegetation and soil to produce a slot that is widened
by two following disks mounted in V formation which allow seed to drop
into the slot.
Pressure on the individual cutting disks can be varied from zero to
about 270lb with standard equipment or up to 500lb when concrete blocks
are carried as ballast. This pressure, and therefore the working depth, is
varied by raising or lowering the two main wheels hydraulically so that
more or less of the drill’s weight is applied on conical rubber springs situated between the main frame and the disk arms.
The hopper has movable centre departments which separate fertilizer
from seed. They can be located to give four different seed-to-fertilizer ratios. They can also be removed to combine the two hoppers into one with a
total capacity of 45cu ft holding about one ton of seed wheat or 1-25 tons
of fertilizer.
Seed and fertilizer is metered from the hopper(s). All sizes of seed are
delivered into glass fibre collecting trays which are quickly detachable for
easy cleaning. From these trays the material is delivered to the disks by
neoprene tubes. Fifteen heavy-duty polythene seed boxes are available for
small seed. They are placed in the seed hoppers and can be used to sow
69
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
different seeds at the same time for intermixed row crops. There are 16 different sowing rates of seed and fertilizer, but it may be doubled.
The weight of the drill is 4,620lb. It is a trailed machine and the two
carrier wheels are fitted with 10-28 tyres. Standard equipment includes automatic clutch, parking jack, acre-meter, calibrating control, a hopper sight
glass and small-seed boxes. Tines can be fitted in place of the disks if soil
disturbance is required.
UNIT 10
TYPES OF FARM TRACTOR
Tractor is a farm vehicle that is used to pull farm machinery and to provide the energy needed for the machinery to work. The word “tractor” was
taken from the Latin verb “trahere” which means “to pull”.
The tractor is the usual present-day source of farm power. The tractor is
in fact not a farm machine, but a source of power to operate farm machines.
However, tractors are generally considered as farm machines.
Farming conditions and requirements vary considerably, which necessitates power units adapted to specific needs. As a result, there are many
types and kinds of tractors.
Classification of tractor types. Tractors can be classified as follows:
A. according to method of securing traction and self-propulsion:
1. wheeled tractors,
a. tricycle with single or double front wheels,
b. four wheels with single or dual rear-drive wheels and standard- or
high-clearance front axle,
c. heavy-duty two- or four-wheel drive,
2. track-type tractors,
B. according to utility:
1. general purpose,
2. all-purpose or row-crop type,
3. orchard,
4. industrial,
5. garden and lawn.
The most widely used tractor is the all-purpose type because it can be used for
a great variety of jobs including planting, cultivating and harvesting row crops.
All types of tractors are alike in many ways. They have: 1) an internalcombustion engine as a source of power, 2) a clutch to connect and discon70
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
nect the engine power and driven parts, 3) a transmission system for conveying power to the driving members or to the other points where power is
applied. Nearly all types are available with spark-ignition engines and are
designed to use gasoline, kerosene or distillate as fuel.
Method of attachment.Today’s agricultural tractor is a complex vehicle used to propel and power a large variety of implements for agricultural
production. Implement applications, therefore, have considerable effect on
tractor design.
Implements are generally attached to and operated by tractors in one of
four ways:
1. trailed, single-point hitch,
2. mounted, three-point hitch,
3. semi-mounted, three-point hitch,
4. frame mounted.
Power may be transmitted to the implement by a power-take off shaft.
Wheel tractors. The wheel-type tractor is the predominating type of machine
in agriculture.
The four-wheel tractor with an adjustable front axle for both wheel tread and
clearance height is available for the more
popular tractor sizes and has displaced
tricycle types. Most wheel tractors are
equipped with low pressure rubber tires.
Rubber tires decrease wheel slippage under most conditions, increase operating efficiency, and reduce wear and tear.
Track-type tractors. The traction
mechanism in the track-type tractor consists of two heavy, endless, metal-linked
iron devices known as tracks. The long
tracks distribute the tractor weight and
provide small pressure on soil. Steering
is done through the tracks themselves by
reducing the movement of one track below
the speed of the other.
Track-type tractors have a limited use in
agriculture. They are often used for many heavy-duty, earth-moving, and
industrial jobs requiring tractor power. They are well adapted for swampy,
sandy soils, orchard cultivation, for grain and other crop-production operations in some hilly sections, on large farms, particularly in irrigated areas;
and for land clearing.
71
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
General-purpose tractor. A general-purpose tractor is one of more or
less conventional designs such as an ordinary four-wheel machine. It is
made to perform practically all tractor jobs such as ploughing, harrowing,
road grading, combining, hay baling.
Orchard tractors. Orchard tractors are
small- or medium-size, general-purpose
machines of either the wheel or crawler
type, so it is constructed and equipped to
be operated around trees. Such tractors are
often built lower.
Аll-purpose tractors. An all-purpose or
row-crop type tractor is a tractor designed
to handle practically all the field jobs on the
average farm, including the planting and row
crop tillage. The most important requirements
of such tractors are 1) greater clearance, both
vertical and horizontal, 2) adaptation to the
usual row widths, 3) quick, short-turning ability, 4) convenient and easy handling, 5) quick
and easy attachment and removal of field
implements, and 6) hydraulic controls and
power take-off. All-purpose tractors are made
in several types and sizes.
Steering and control. Ease of handling and control of an all-purpose
tractor and its attached field equipment are important. The steering mechanism should 1) permit short, quick turning; 2) require the minimum of
effort in its operation, regardless of whether the machine is moving or stationary; and 3) permit accurate control of the attached units, particularly
planters and cultivators. Tractors equipped with a hydraulically operated
steering mechanism have a definite advantage in these respects.
Power take-off and hydraulic controls. A power take-off drive and
shaft, hydraulic controls, lifts for the various attachments and machine are
needed to operate such field machines as ploughs, harrows, cultivators,
planters, and other similar machines.
Small tractors. Garden tractors. For many years the smallest tractors
were largely light-weight, two-wheel machines powered by a 2- to 5-hp
engine utilized for garden and vegetable production. Today the only available machine resembling these early garden tractors is the rotary tiller. The
modern tractor is a four-wheel riding machine also adapted to such field
operations as ploughing, harrowing, planting, cultivating, and so on.
Selecting a tractor as a power plant. A tractor should be selected only
after considering the advantages and disadvantages of the different types
72
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
available. Original cost, adaptability, soil conditions, farming program,
economy, and timeliness of operations are factors to consider in selecting a
tractor. The ability of an operator to operate, maintain, and adjust the tractor selected is also important.
Common tractor troubles. A modern tractor causes very little trouble
especially if it is given proper care and is checked periodically. The largest
percentage of tractor troubles is referred to the engine. An engine needs
three things to make it run: fuel, compression, and spark.
Engine will not start, if: a) empty fuel tank; b) poor quality of fuel; c)
foreign material in fuel tanks; d) carburettor out of adjustment; e) too much
fuel, “flooding” cylinder; f) poor compression; g) engine too cold.
Problems and Questions
1. There are many types of tractors with respect to size and utility. How
would you classify them?
2. Under what conditions would the purchase and use of a track-type
tractor by a farmer be desirable?
3. Name what you consider as important changes and improvements
that have taken place with respect to overall designs and operations between the earliest and the latest types of tractors.
4. Trace the trend in the development of tractors and tractor-mounted
units. What are the reasons, if any, for this trend?
I. Work in pairs. Imagine that your friend wants to buy a tractor.
What information would you give? Discuss these questions:
1. Which is the best local shop for agricultural machinery?
2. What type of tractor is he going to buy?
3. How should a tractor be selected?
4. What causes common tractor troubles?
5. How much does a tractor cost?
Add your own questions.
II. Write down the opposites of these adjectives:
1.heavy............
5. endless............
2.high..............
6. full.................
3.old................
7. rich................
4.slow..............
8. hot.................
III. Choose the best alternative to fill the gaps in these sentences.
1. Steering ... through the tracks themselves.
a) is done b) is performed
c) is operated
2. We ... the power take-off to operate mowers.
a) want
b) need
c) have
73
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
3. This tractor is adapted to sandy ... .
a) ground
b) earth
c) soil
4. The track-type tractor is used where ... traction conditions are encountered.
a) firm
b) hard
c) difficult
5. An implement is ... to the three-point linkage.
a) attached b) fixed
c) fastened
IV. Fill the gaps in these sentences with a suitable preposition from
the list:
with to for by through
1. Tractor troubles are referred ... the engine.
2. The row-crop tractor has advantages ... working some crops.
3. The horse was replaced ... the tractor.
4. The tractor supplies power ... a power take-off shaft.
5. Details of tractor design differ ... make and size.
V. Write sentences from the words in brackets (…). Use the active or
passive.
1. (the tractor / equip / with tires)………………………….
2. (tracks /distribute / weight)……………………………...
3. (when / invent / the tractor)……………………………..?
4. (tractor / need /fuel / to run)……………………………..
VI. Complete the sentences using one of these verbs in the correct form:
increase do design adapt develop make
1. Farm machines………..for many operations.
2. The number of tractors………………………
3. In the past all farm operations…………….by animals.
4. Combines………………….. for wheat harvesting.
5. Plant breeders…recently… new types of cotton planters.
6. Cheese………..from milk.
VII. Look at these pictures. Which one would be your preferred
tractors? Explain your choice. Use the following expressions:
I think / consider / hope……
As for me……
74
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
It seems to me……
From my point of view…...
In my opinion……
To my mind……
VIII. Do a complete run-through of the text and write down some
of the differences between these tractors.
British Levland 2100 tractor
This type of tractor is designed to provide increased power, improved
field economy, low smoke levels and low oil consumption. Features include detachable wet cylinder liners, improved combustion, bigger valves
with new port design, better cooling and injection characteristics and modified piston ring arrangement.
Driver comfort is given top priority in these tractors with a spacious
safety cab, hydraulic suspension seat and hydrostatic steering. Ten forward and two reverse gears are provided. Maximum horse power from
the independent two-speed PTO is 74 or 85 hp tractors, 88 or 100 hp
tractors.
Power for the driven front axle of the four-wheel models is taken independently from bevel gears on each side of the rear axle. Telescopic shafts
connect to a spiral bevel crown wheel and gear driving each front wheel.
This system gives braking and differential lock action on all four wheels.
Ploughs and heavy implements may be used with this type of tractors.
The model Harvall
The model Harvall is a 140 hp self-propelled power unit which has been
developed in Holland.
The prototype unit was used with a front-mounted 16-ft rotary mower
and a two-row 80 ph maize harvester. The Harvall may be also used to
power sprayers and spreader.
The Harvall is not a tractor. It has not sufficient power at the wheels to
pull soil-working implements. About 40 hp is available for tractor, 100 hp
is directed along the machine’s five PTO shafts. There are two at the front
and three at rear, all running at 1,300 rpm. Hydraulic linkages are also fitted
to both ends of the machine.
The front of the tractor is the ideal place to mount a machine. The driver
can see exactly what he is doing, and is able to drive straight in the crop.
The tractor is powered by a six-cylinder truck engine. Power is taken to
the wheels via a three-speed gear box and hydrostatic transmission. Speed
is variable in the three forward ranges. The Harvall is 13ft long, 6ft wide,
and weighs 55cwt.
75
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
UNIT 11
COMBINES
Combine is an agricultural machine that cuts, threshes, and cleans a
grain crop in one operation. It was invented in the USA by Hiram Moore
in 1834 and early versions were pulled by animals.
Functional elements of a combine. The five basic operations performed by a combine are:
1. cutting the standing grain,
2. conveying and feeding the cut material to the threshing mechanism,
3. threshing or removal of the seed from the head,
4. separating the seed and chaff from the straw,
5. cleaning the chaff and other debris from the seed.
In direct combining, the reel pushes the standing stalks against the cutter bar and then delivers the cut material back onto the header platform.
The platform cross-conveyer delivers the material from the header platform to the feeder conveyer. The feeder canvas or feeder conveyer elevates
the material and feeds it into the cylinder- and-concave assembly where the
threshing and much of the separation take place. The seed and chaff separated by the concave grate fall directly onto the oscillating grain pan.
The cylinder beater is used to strip the threshed material from the cylinder,
aids in further separation at this point, and directs the straw and remaining
seed onto the straw carrier. The check curtains prevent threshed seed from
being thrown out of the rear of the machine by the beater or the cylinder. The
straw carrier agitates the material to separate out any remaining seed as the
straw is moved rearward to be discharged from the machine. The material
separated from the straw is collected by the grain return pans (or a conveyer)
and delivered to the grain pan at the front of the chaffer sieve.
The mixture of threshed seed, unthreshed heads, chaff, and other small
debris is moved from the grain pan onto the front of the oscillating chaffer
sieve. As the mixture is moved rearward over the chaffer sieve, an air blast
directed upward through the sieves helps in separating out the threshed
seed and unthreshed heads and blows the light chaff out the rear of the
machine. Most of the unthreshed heads ride over the chaffer sieve and drop
through the larger openings of the chaffer extension into the tailings auger.
The tailings are then returned to the cylinder for rethreshing.
The free seed falls through the chaffer sieve and is further cleaned by
passing through the shoe sieve, which has smaller openings. The cleaned
seed is then delivered to the grain tank by means of grain auger and elevator.
76
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Cutting and conveying. The cutting and conveying assembly is a
header. It consists of the reel, the cutter bar, a platform for receiving the
cut material, and conveyers for delivering the material to the cylinder. The
most common type of reel has several slats (bats) mounted rigidly on radial
arms. The position of the reel with respect to cutter bar is adjustable both
vertically and horizontally to accommodate different crop conditions.
Most self-propelled machines have platforms across the front of the
combine. Large augers are generally used to convey the cut material to the
end or center of the platform. A separate feeder conveyer is provided to
elevate the material from the platform to the cylinder. Some combines have
a beater mounted above or behind the upper end of the elevating conveyor
to help in feeding the material into the restricted area between the cylinder
and concave.
Types of threshing cylinders. Removal of seeds from the heads is done
with rotating cylinders whose threshing action depends on impact. When
the relatively slow-moving material comes in contact with the high-speed
cylinder, the impact shatters seeds from the head and frees a portion of the
seed from the straw. Then threshing is obtained by the rubbing action as the
material is accelerated and passes through the restricted clearance space
between the cylinder and the concave.
The arrangement of the spike-tooth cylinder and concave is such that
the cylinder teeth pass midway between staggered teeth on the concave,
thus producing a combing action. The teeth in the concave are mounted on
removable sections. The total number of rows of teeth depends on the crop
and the threshing conditions.
In a rasp-bar cylinder, threshing is done between corrugated cylinder
bars and stationary bars of the concave grate.
Separating. Under normal operating conditions, a large portion of
the threshed seed is separated from the straw at the threshing unit, fall77
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
ing through openings in the concave-and-grate assembly or through the
concave-extension grate. Separation of the remaining free seed takes place
on the straw carrier as the straw is agitated and moved to the rear of the
machine.
The most common types of straw carriers are the multiple-section straw
walker. The action of the straw walkers is to accelerate the straw in a rearward and upward direction. While returning to the forward position, they
leave the straw in midair. The material then falls onto a section of the walker nearer to the discharge end and is moved another step toward the rear by
the next stroke of the walker.
Cleaning. After the seed has been separated from the straw, it is still mixed
with large quantities of chaff and other plant residue that have passed through
the grates. The functions of the cleaning unit (shoe) are to separate and clean the
threshed seed, return unthreshed heads to the cylinder to thresh once more, and
dispose of the remaining debris.
The main components of a cleaning shoe are oscillating sieves, a fan, a
chaffer extension at the rear of the upper sieve, and augers for conveying
the tailings and the clean seed to elevators.
The air blast from the fan is directed upward and rearward through the
sieves, agitating the mixture on the chaffer (upper) sieve to help in separation
of the seed as the material is moved rearward. The air blast also blows out
most of the light, chaffy material as the seeds fall through the large openings
of the chaffer sieve and then through the smaller openings of the shoe sieve.
Small pieces of unthreshed heads and other heavy material that pass
through the chaffer sieve but do not fall through the openings of the shoe
sieve are discharged into the tailings auger. Most of the unthreshed heads
pass over the chaffer sieve onto the chaffer extension, which has openings
large enough for them to fall through into the tailings auger. Since the shoe
sieve is primarily for size separation, the openings should be just large
enough to permit free passage of the seed.
Problems and questions
1. Name and describe the basic operations of a combine.
2. Where does the threshing take place?
3. What is the action of straw walkers?
4. Why is a header used?
5. What function does a beater have?
6. What is the basic principle of operation of rotating cylinders?
7. Compare the operation of a spike-tooth cylinder and a rasp-bar cylinder.
8. Explain the functions of a cleaning unit.
9. What are the main components of a cleaning unit?
78
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
I. Work in pairs. Discuss these questions and make notes:
1. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of direct combining
2. What information does this text not give you which you would need?
3. What questions would you ask the manufacturers of modern combines?
4. What trends have been in the design of combines recently? What are
reasons, if any, for these trends?
II. Which definition is for a combine as one of the farm machines?
1. group of persons, trading companies, etc. joined for a purpose
2. machine that both reaps and threshes (grain)
III. Guess the meaning proceeding from the agricultural vocabulary.
1. Head of the plants is ….
a) mass of leaves or flowers at the top of a stem or stalk.
b) unit of a flock or herd.
2. Cylinder beater is probably ….
a) man employed to drive birds, animals to those waiting with guns
to shoot them.
b) tool for beating.
3. Chaff is ….
a) good-humoured joking.
b) outer covering of grain, removed before the grain is used as human food.
IV. Which is the odd word out?
1. beater, operator, header, thresher
2. corn, wheat, barley, debris
3. cutting, cleaning, remaining, separating
V. Sort the words in Exercise IV into the following categories:
a) cereals
b) operations
c) elements of a combine
VI. Put each word in the box in its correct group.
dried
auger harvester by
chaffy
hilly
1. reel platform cutter bar ………
2. combine harrow plough ………
3. cut threshed delivered ………
4. heavy clean light ………
5. onto out through ………
6. flat mountainous swampy ………
79
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
VII. Highlight the words or phrase in the text which mean the same as
the following.
hole to allow with the help of to include as for rubbish
VIII. Work in pairs. Answer True, False or I don’t know.
1. Cutting is the most difficult function of a combine.
2. The threshing takes place in the cylinder and concave assembly.
3. The tailings are not returned to the cylinder.
4. The free seed is cleaned by passing through the chaffer sieve.
5. The main components of a cleaning shoe are oscillating sieves, a fan,
a chaffer extension and augers.
6. The widely spread type of straw carriers are multi-section straw
walkers.
Small grain combine
This small grain combine is a combine specially designed for harvesting small grain. There are no straw walkers because they have been replaced by the tine-separator system. So when the crop enters the separator
module, heavy-duty tines penetrate the crop mat, pulling it through the
housing when the crop mat spins backward, tines release the straw near the
top of the housing, freeing trapped grain.
The extra-wide feeder house delivers a thin uniform crop mat to the cylinder /
concave area. A concave nose design promotes a smooth, quick flow into the cylinder / concave area, thus reducing the possibility of repeated cylinder impact.
The large, slow-moving cylinder has rasp bars. The larger cylinder lets a
farmer slow the cylinder speed.
The large beater has eight segmented wings for constant contact with
the crop. This keeps material flowing smoothly from the threshing area into
the tine separator module. The tine separator provides a wide, unrestricted
opening for the large amount of incoming material. Since the crop is divided between the two tine separators, the crop mat is thinner than what
straw walkers or single rotors must handle.
Fixed-direction vanes help move
the material through large separator
grates several times. The combined
action of the spinning tines provides
good separation. Free grain falls
onto the large grain conveyer located under the tine separator grates.
This conveyer carries the grain to
the cleaning system for final cleaning. This system has a precleaner,
80
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
chaffer, sieve, high velocity cleaning fans. The precleaner improves cleaning
efficiency. Chaff and debris are immediately suspended, while some of the
grain can move on right to the grain tank. The heavier grain falls onto the
precleaner away from the trash, before reaching the chaffer.
The precleaner, chaffer and sieve are modular. So one man can easily
remove, service, or adjust the smaller sections. When grain and residue
reach the chaffer and sieve, the heaviest straw and debris have already been
removed. The separated grain easily filters through the chaffer and sieve.
There are some powerful fans on this combine. Air flow is strong, constant and evenly distributed. The constant stream of air is sent in two directions: to the precleaner where chaff and debris are suspended and through
the chaffer and sieve to complete the cleaning process. Because of the different crop conditions, the cleaning-fan speed control is inside the cab.
The combine is equipped with a new pickup platform. Stainless-steel
feed plates provide a smooth crop flow to the cross auger. They do not rust,
so feeding is smooth.
Pickup reels are standard on flexible or rigid platforms.
Pickup platform performance may be increased by the header-height
control and automatic belt speed control.
The combine must work under difficult conditions, for example, moisture,
weedy crops, with a full grain tank, so it uses a powerful engine. It is the 6-cylinder turbocharged, air-cooled diesel engine. The power is 260hp. Engines are
known for constant power, good lugging ability, and fuel efficiency. The engine
gearbox is massive. Gear drives and smooth hydrostatic drives replace most
high-power belts found on other combines. All hydrostatic and most hydraulic
pumps are gear driven for positive engagement and greater reliability.
Hillside combine
It is a combine especially designed for slope operations. Wide
wheel tread and positive braking
systems provide excellent stability
and control.
The 404-cubic inch, turbocharged diesel engine develops 135
horsepower. Durable band belts
transmit power efficiently from engine to separator.
Hydrostatic ground drive provides good manoeuvrability. Hydrostatic
ground drive is standard equipment. The transmission has four ranges.
There is no clutch and an operator can go forward or back in each range as
needed, without shifting gears and losing power or control.
81
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
When the shift lever is in neutral position with engine running, the combine is hydraulically braked.
Crop feeding to the cylinder is direct and smooth, because the feeder
house angle is shallow and the front of the concave is low, so there are no
abrupt changes in direction of flow.
A dump-type stone trap is positioned ahead of the cylinder. Crop, entering the threshing area, passes over the trap. The cleanout door is located
under the feeder house.
The cylinder is 22inches in diameter and 44inches wide. Hardened
rasp-bars prolong service life.
Cylinder speeds are adjustable from 350 to 1,058 rpm. An operator can
set cylinder speed and concave spacing from the seat.
Straw walkers are 130inches long. Straight walker sides help keep long
straws on the move. Each straw walker has five steps for aggressive tumbling
action. Walker risers help retard and break up the material effectively.
Auger conveyer system delivers grain more evenly across the width of
the cleaning shoe. Front auger sections convey threshed grain from under
the concave to the cleaning shoe. Reverse flight on the rear portion of the
augers below the walkers carries separated grain forward to the cleaning
shoe. Movement is uniform in both directions for steady grain flow.
Cleaner grain is ensured by opposed-motion shoe action and powerful
fan. Chaffer and sieve move in opposite directions. This motion reduces
the chance of material build-up between chaffer and sieve. Shoe action is
carefully calibrated and turned to the rest of the separator so cleaning efficiency is good.
Both chaffer and sieve are mounted on rubber bushings to reduce wear
and for quiet running. Chaffer and sieve openings are adjustable.
The fan operates as on ensilage blowers. Fan blades are placed closer to
the top and sides of the housing. The delivery duct directs air to the front of
the chaffer and sieve, where loads are heaviest. Fan speed is variable.
This combine is equipped with a new lighting system which permits to
work at night. There are four headlights, three header lamps, and two grain
tank lights. The direction of each lamp is adjustable.
Problems and questions
1. Describe briefly the operations and construction of hillside combines.
2. What provides good manoeuvrability?
3. Why are there no straw walkers?
4. What is meant by a pickup platform?
5. Why is it used for?
6. How can its performance be increased?
82
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
7. Discuss under what conditions these combines must work.
8. What new information, if any, have you learnt about these combines?
I. Work in pairs. Do you think it is a good idea to design special
combines for slope operations and for harvesting small grain? What
are some of the similarities, if any, and differences between these combines? List and justify the arguments and the counter-arguments for
the design of these combines.
Consider the following aspects and make notes:
Size design fan engine cylinder
II. Match two halves of the sentences.
1.Straw is
a. device for reducing speed or stopping motion of a car,
tractors, etc.
2. Crop is b. set of toothed wheels working together in a machine.
3. Brake is c. agricultural plants in the fields.
4. Gear is d. dry cut stalks of wheat, barley, rice and other grains.
5. Sieve is e. device in a machine or engine for connecting and
disconnecting working parts.
6. Clutch is f. utensil with wire network or gauze for separating
finer grains from coarse grains.
III. Choose the words or phrases which best completes each sentence.
1. This grain combine is … for harvesting small grains.
a) careful
b) efficient
c) thorough
2. In hard threshing crops, the concave zero adjustment should ….
a) be watched out b) be looked after c) be checked
3. The speed of a combine … many conditions.
a) depends on
b) relies on
c) counts on
4. The combine is equipped with a (an) … straw chopper.
a) second-hand
b) ancient
c) old
IV. Complete the list with the correct form of the word.
Adjective
Noun
1. adjustable
…
2. …
aggression
3. different
…
4. …
reliability
5.powerful
…
6. …
separation
83
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
V. Choose the correct form.
1. Rotor speed is less important/more important to control material.
2. This sieve uses more/the most air than other sieves.
3. The more/many the chaffer sieve is opened, the faster/fast the fan
speed should be set.
4. Straw walkers are 130inches long/longest.
VI. Do a complete run-through of the text and write a paragraph
describing the new combine.
Rotary design versus conventional design of combines
The combine harvester or combine is a machine that harvests grain
crops. It combines into one operation what previously has taken three separate operations (reaping, binding, threshing). Among the crops harvested
with a combine are grain crops and other small seeds. The waste straw left
behind on the field is remaining dried stems and leaves of the crop with
limited nutrients which is either chopped and spread on the field or baled
for feed and bedding for livestock. There are two general types of combines: conventional and rotary.
For some time, combines used the conventional design, which used a
rotating cylinder at the front-end which knocked the seeds out of the heads,
and then used the rest of a machine to separate the straw from the chaff, and
the chaff from the grain. The TR70 from Sperry-New Holland was the first
rotary combine in 1975. Several inventors had pioneered designs which
relied more on centrifugal force for grain separation and less on gravity
alone. Then most manufacturers had settled on a “walkerless” design with
much larger threshing cylinders to do most of the work.
Advantages were faster grain harvesting and gentler treatment of fragile
seeds, which were often cracked by the faster rotational speeds of conventional combine threshing cylinders.
It was disadvantages of the rotary combine (increased power requirements and over-pulverization of the straw by-product) which promoted
a resurgence of conventional combine in the late nineties. Large engines
that powered the rotary machines were employed in the conventional machines, the two types of machines delivered similar production capacities.
Research showed that incorporating above-ground crop residue (straw)
into the soil was less useful for rebuilding soil fertility than previously
believed. This meant that pulverized straw into the soil became more of a
problem than a benefit. An increase in feedlot beef production also created
a higher demand for straw as fodder. Conventional combines, which use
straw walkers, preserve the quality of straw and allow it to be baled and
removed from the field.
84
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
VII. Translate into English the following parts of the combine.
1 – двигатель; 2 – мотовило; 3 – режущий аппарат; 4 – корпус жатки; 5 – шнек; 6 – копирующий башмак; 7 – цепочно-планчатый плавающий транспортёр; 8 – центральный шарнир подвески корпуса жатки; 9 – наклонный корпус жатки; 10 – гидроцилиндр подъема жатки;
11 – ведущее колесо;
12 – коробка передач моста ведущих колес;
13 – вал провода транспортной доски; 14 – вентилятор; 15 – зерновой
шнек; 16 – решетный стан; 17 – нижнее жалюзийное решето; 18 –
верхнее жалюзийное решето; 19 – колосовой шнек ; 20 – управляемое
колесо; 21 – половонабиватель копнителя; 22 – копнитель; 23 – соломонабиватель; 24 – клавишный сепаратор; 25 - двигатель; 26 – бункер
для зерна; 27 – выгрузной шнек; 28 – верхний колосовой шнек; 29 –
отбойный битер; 30 – молотильный аппарат; 31 – приемный битер;
32 – транспортная доска
85
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
TEXTS FOR READING AND DISCUSSING
CONSERVATION TILLAGE SYSTEM
Tillage is the mechanical manipulation of soil. A tillage system is the
sequence of operations that manipulate the soil to produce a crop. It includes:
– tillage
– planting
– harvesting
– chopping or shredding residue
– applying pesticides and fertilizers
There are two methods of tillage, such as conventional and conservation
tillage. Generations of farmers have developed their practices of ploughing,
smoothing, pulverizing, stirring and levelling soil before planting. A wide
variety of tillage implements have been developed. All farmers, equipment
designers considered that complete tillage was necessary. This level of
tillage is generally called “conventional tillage”. Usually ploughing and
disking are used to prepare soil for planting, then harrowing sometimes
is performed during or after ploughing. Application of fertilizers is also a
tillage operation. When using conventional method, farmers often till soil
in excess of needs, and soil structure is seriously damaged. Most tilled
soil is left susceptible to water runoff, and wind and water erosion. When
these conventional tillage conditions are present, weeds begin to grow very
quickly. Moreover these operations are expensive. So it is profitable to use
86
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
conservation tillage. This system is defined as a tillage system that leaves
enough residue to protect the soil from erosion caused by wind and water.
The percent of cover required varies by field according to soil type, slope,
crop rotation and other factors. Conservation tillage systems are: 1) no-till,
2) ridge-till, 3) mulch-till.
The effectiveness of a conservation tillage system depends on the percentage of the soil surface covered with residue. Surface roughness, roots
and buried residue also reduce erosion.
No-till. No-till is planting crops in previously unprepared soil by opening a narrow slot created by coulters, disk or runner seed furrow openers,
or hoe openers attached to the planter or drill. No-till planters and drills
must be able to cut residue and penetrate undisturbed soil. No other soil
preparation is done. Cultivation is made unnecessary by using herbicides
to control weeds and grasses.
This method offers advantages of higher yields, reduced production
costs, better soil moisture retention, reduced rainfall runoff, less wind and
water erosion, less soil damage from machinery, better timing in planting
and harvesting, savings in labour, and reduction of some weather risks.
Mulch-tillage. With mulch-tillage, all plants, residues are left on or
near the soil surface, and the land is prepared for planting with underground
sweeps, chisels or rotary-type implements which loosen the soil to a depth
of 7 or 8 inches. The loosening operation is often preceded by disking or
stalk chopping. The surface mulch keeps the soil cooler in early spring, a
major factor in slowing down early growth. Since nitrogen and potassium
available in soil may be lower, sometimes applying larger amounts of fertilizer is desirable. This method is best adapted to medium and coarse soils
that are well drained.
Ridge-tillage. Ridge-tillage leaves the soil undisturbed from harvest
to planting except for fertilizer application. Crops are planted and grown
on ridges formed in the previous growing season. Ridges are built and reformed at cultivation, or with furrow irrigation. They may be formed after
harvest or when wet soil prevents forming ridges at cultivation.
A planter equipped with sweeps, disk row cleaners, coulters or horizontal disks is used in most ridge-tillage systems. Row-cleaning attachments
remove 1”-2” of soil, surface residue and weed seeds from the row area.
Seeds are planted into moist soil on top of a ridge. Dry fertilizer may be
broadcast in autumn or banded by the planter in spring.
Machinery for no-tillage
Conservation tillage does not require new equipment. Most conventional farm implements can be used if they have sufficient clearance for
handling residue.
87
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Chisel Plough. A chisel plough is a primary tillage implement that
breaks or shatters the soil, leaving it rough and with residue on or near the
surface. Operating depth generally ranges from 6”-12”. The basic frame
has two to four cross-members to which shanks are attached. In heavy or
wet residue, the chisel plough may clog. It is a common practice to shred
the residue or disk before chiselling. Some chisel ploughs are equipped
with a gang of coulters or disk blades mounted in front to cut the residue.
This gang reduces the need for an operation before chiselling and when
used as a single operation leaves more residue on the surface than disking
before chiselling. A gang of coulters in front of the chisel plough leaves
more residue on the surface than a gang of disks.
Subsoiler. A subsoiler is a primary tillage tool similar to a chisel plough.
It is designed to operate 12”-22” deep. They are used to alleviate soil compaction when the soil is dry. Most subsoilers are three-point hitch mounted
with three to 18 standards or shanks attached to a toolbar. Spacing between
standards ranges from 20”-40”.
Residue coverage depends on the shape and type of standards, operating
speed and depth. Coulters are used in front of standards to cut residue. A
subsoiler is operated in any direction, relative to the previous crop rows.
Rotary tiller. A PTO powered rotary tiller tills the soil and incorporates
fertilizers and pesticides. Planting units are attached to the rotary tiller,
making tillage and planting as one-pass system. The depth of tiller operation determines fuel and labour requirements. Some rotary tillers till only
10”-15” wide strips into which a row crop is planted. Residue remains on
the surface between the strips for erosion control. Herbicides can be incorporated within the strip.
Disk. A disk is used as a primary or secondary tillage implement. Concave cutting blades are mounted on a common shaft to form a gang. A disk
consists of some gangs attached to a frame. There are two types of disks,
such as the offset disk harrow and the tandem disk harrow. An offset disk
harrow has a right-hand gang followed by a left-hand gang. A tandem disk
harrow has two opposed gangs which till the soil twice. This type of harrows
is lighter than offset disk harrows. Tandem disk harrows are used for primary
and secondary tillage, while offset harrows are often used for primary tillage.
Operating depth can be varied by adjusting the angle of the gangs.
If blades are widely spaced, soil penetration is better, because of more
weight per blade, more residue clearance and a greater ability to work in
heavy, sticky soils without plugging. Closely spaced blades offer finer cutting
of crop residue, greater soil pulverization and shallower operating depth.
Harrow. Harrows are used to level the soil surface, pulverize clods, and
disturb germination of weeds. The harrow frame may be rigid or flexible.
Harrows are often attached to the rear of disk harrows, field cultivators or
88
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
drills. They smooth and firm the soil surface and redistribute residue.
Roller and roller harrow. Rollers and roller harrows are secondary
tillage implements which are used as a final pass in preparing a fine seedbed for small seeded crops. They break soil clods, firm and smooth the soil
surface. Rollers have one or two in-line gangs of rollers. Roller harrows
have a roller gang, followed by one or more rows of staggered spring field
cultivator teeth, followed by a second roller gang.
Non-till planting equipment
A nоn-till planter must fulfil some basic requirements. It must:
– be heavy and strong enough to plant under adverse soil conditions and
cut through previous crop residues.
– provide a narrow band of tillage for receiving the seed.
– plant seed at different depth. Depth of seed placement depends on
seed size, soil temperature.
– cover and firm soil around seed. Soil for seed coverage is prepared by
the row opener. Coverage is important to assure germination and provide
protection from birds. Firming is needed to reduce air pockets and to maintain desirable moisture conditions around seeds.
There are many no-till planters, each of them has advantages and disadvantages. Success of planting depends on planter weight and appropriate
down pressure springs to transfer weight to the planting unit and coulter to
cut residue and achieve soil penetration.
Seed furrow openers. Seed furrow openers create a well-defined
groove in the soil where seed is placed at the proper depth, but double-disk
opener provides better residue cutting action and reduces clogging. It has
better depth control.
Coulters. Coulters are for cutting residue, shattering soil to provide
better seed depth control and coverage. Heavy clay soils or dry soils require deep coulter penetration to have good seed coverage. Wet soils require shallow coulter operation because the soil may not crumble and fall
back into the furrow.
Seed covering. Good seed-to-soil contact is important for seed germination. A seed covering device, press wheel, or combination of these, are
used to provide the necessary seed-to-soil contact. Seed covering devices
include disks, knives and angled wheels.
Seed covering devices and press wheels should:
– cover the seed with soil, not residue
– firm the soil around the seed, but avoid excessive compaction
– provide a soil surface that is not vulnerable to crusting after planting.
Weight and down pressure springs. To achieve uniform soil penetration, planters may require more weight. Down pressure springs transfer
89
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
weight from the toolbar to the row units. They are located on the parallel
linkage supporting the row units.
Crop Cultivator
Crop cultivation is a good method of weed control. Conservation tillage
cultivators differ greatly from conventional cultivators. Single shank having a wide sweep or horizontal disk is used. A coulter, mounted in front of
the shank, cuts residue and reduces plugging.
Some cultivators have disks to control weed adjacent to the crop rows.
The coulter, disks and sweep are positioned so that residue easily flows
through the cultivator.
The cultivator must carry enough weight to penetrate untilled soil and
cut through large quantities of residue. Weight is provided by heavy shanks,
frame members and tool bars. Cultivators usually have flexible row units
with independent depth control, e.g. a coulter to control the operating depth
of each row unit. To maintain proper operating angle of the sweep and to
allow operation through uneven surface conditions, individual row units
are attached to the tool bar by a wide, stable parallel linkage. Some cultivators are equipped with rolling spiders or disk gangs. The gang angle can be
changed with respect to both the vertical and horizontal planes.
Problems and Questions
1. What does conservation tillage mean?
2. Name some advantages in the past years which have contributed to
the popularity of the conservation tillage system.
90
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
3. If you were growing field crops, namely, wheat, corn, would you use
conventional or conservation tillage, or both? Explain.
4. What does the effectiveness of the conservation tillage system depend on?
5. Distinguish conventional and conservation tillage.
6. Explain main functions and principal operations of a chisel plough.
7. Why do wet soils require deep coulter penetration?
8. What is meant by ridge-till?
9. Discuss basic requirements of nоn-till planters.
10. What do seed covering devices include?
11. Discuss their main functions.
12. Explain why the cultivators must carry enough weight.
AXIAL FLOW COMBINE
4
1. Cutting and feeding
components
2. Threshing and separating components
3. Grain cleaning compo-nents
4. Grain handling and ma-terial
distribution compo-nents
1
3
The main components of this
combine are:
– Cutting and feeing components;
– Threshing and separating components;
– Grain cleaning components;
– Grain handling and material distribution components.
2
Cutting and feeding
Cutting parts. There are different knife sections for different crops.
They may be with fine or coarse serrations. Fine serrations offer clean
cutting in tough, green stemmed crops. Coarse serrated sections offer aggressive cutting and improved durability and are recommended for dry
stemmed crops and soybeans.
Feeder chain. Feeder chain tension should be adjusted so there is 0.8 to
3.2 mm clearance between the slat tips and feeder bottom with the feeder
in the operating position. Three lower-drum stop positions may be utilized
to help achieve the desired feeding throughout. If the machine is equipped
with a stone retarder drum, maximum rock protection is obtained with the
91
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
upper stop of the drum in its
lower position. Most crops utilize the mid position, although
heavier crops such as corn will
require raising the drum to the
upper position. A rock trap is
available for most crops and offers maximum rock protection.
Feeder chain slats are bolted to
the feeder chain. New hardware
provided with the slat must be
installed when the slat is replaced. The lower stop for the
conveyor drum can be adjusted
to keep the drum in a raised
position. The stone retarder
adjusting blocks limits the upward movement of the conveyer
drum to help keep stones out of
the separator. The stone retarder
has four positions.
Threshing and separating
The threshing and separating functions of the combines
are performed in the rotor cage
area. Material is fed from the
feeder to the impeller blade area
of the rotor and flows rearward
through the machine. The two
most important components to
the threshing and separating
processes are the rotor and the
concaves. The rotor threshes the
grain and assists in the rearward
travel of the material through the
machine. The sooner the grain
is threshed out of the heads, the
more opportunity the grain has
to separate from the material.
The function of the three-section concave is twofold. First,
92
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
the concaves must hold the material long enough to insure complete threshing. Second, the concaves must have enough capacity to permit the grain to
separate into the cleaning system once the grain has been threshed. Rotor
speed is important to the control of material throughput in the rotor cage.
The two adjustments available to the concaves are their clearance from the
rotor rasp bars and/or the removal or addition of wires, filler bars or interrupter bars.
Concave clearance is determined by the threshing difficulty of the crop.
For harder threshing conditions a close setting is preferred and for easier
threshing conditions, a wider setting is recommended. The wider selections
should be used only as cleanout positions. In hard threshing crops, the concave zero adjustment should be checked.
Rotor speeds and concave clearances must be matched to crop and
conditions for the most efficient and productive operation. One common
mistake is running the rotor too slow and concave set too open for the
crop. This results in slow movement of the material, inefficient threshing
and separation and a loss in machine capacity. Kernel damage is greatly
decreased. Movement of material through the rotor cage area is controlled
by transport cage vanes. Relocating the vanes by pivoting them into a more
vertical position (rearward position) results in additional spiraling of crop
material for increased threshing and separation. A more horizontal position (forward position) increases crop material flow rearward. Separation
is completed in the rear half of the cage area by using grates between the
rotor and cleaning system.
Separating and Cleaning Losses
Separation. Most of the separation of the crop from the straw or husks
occurs in the concave area during the threshing cycle. Crop not separated
in either the concave area or the grate area will be lost out of the rear of
the combine. These losses are referred to as rotor losses. Rotor losses
should be kept as low as possible. Opening the concave by removing concave wires and excessive rotor speeds and/or too tight concave settings can
overload the cleaning system.
Concave. The right to left position of the concave under the rotor can
affect the threshing results of the combine. The concave support pipe and
plates are equipped with drawbolts to adjust the concave position. When
unthreshed heads become a problem, the concave position should be
checked and adjusted.
Concaves are available with large holes for 6 mm wires and small holes
for 5 mm wires. Different wire sizes are recommended for different crops.
Concaves with 6 mm wires can be used to thresh most small grains. Concaves
with 5 mm wires can be used to harvest low acreage amounts of corn, edible
93
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
beans or soybean type crops. The increased distance between wires helps to
reduce rotor loss and crop damage. The front, middle and rear concave sections and concave extensions are available separately to change the concave
for different crops and crop conditions.
Concave filler bars. Concave filler bars are available for both the 5 mm
and 6 mm wires concaves. Filler bars are used to hold the crop over the
concaves for a longer time to improve threshing. When the crop distribution to the cleaning system is too heavy on the right side, filler bars can be
installed on the right side of the concave for better distribution. Concave
interrupter bars are available for the 5 mm wire concaves. Interrupter bars
are used for additional threshing capacity in hard threshing conditions.
Grates. The grate area is at the rear of the rotor cage assembly. Access to
the grates is through the opening behind the rear left side panel. The grates
are stationary and cannot be moved close to or farther away from the rotor
assembly. The grates are in three sections that are held together with retaining bolts. The grates are installed on the bottom of the rotor cage with mounting bolts on the left side. Either slotted grates, 10 mm square bar grates or
solid grates can be used. Slotted grates are recommended for edible beans,
most small grain crops and can also be used for corn. To reduce the amount
of chaff that goes through the grates to the cleaning system, up to seven
channels can be installed on the outside of the grates. Installing the channels
in the middle of the slots gives the minimum opening for grain. Up to seven
channels can be installed on the inside of the grates for corn. Installing the
channels between the slots gives the maximum opening for corn.
10 mm square bar grates. 10 mm square bar grates are recommended
for corn, maize, and rice. The square bar grates help reduce rotor losses in
low moisture corn and high yield corn. The grates also help to reduce plugging in damp conditions in other crops. The grates are also very effective
at reducing rotor loss in cereal grains as well and may be necessary in high
yielding crops.
Solid grates. Solid grates are recommended for sunflowers and some
grasses. The solid grate helps to keep stalks and large stem/straw particles
out of the cleaning system.
Grain cleaning
The cleaning activity of the combine is the final separation of grain
from material that has been distributed through the concaves and separator
grates. Material is separated by the chaffer and shoe sieves to remove unwanted foreign material. Chaff and other unwanted material is suspended
by air and discharged out of the rear of the combine. Too much wind blast
on light crops will contribute to cleaning system losses. For extremely light
seeded crops, such as grass, the cleaning fan air volume must be reduced
94
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
by adjusting the fan cutoff plate. To
ensure optimum efficiency of the
cleaning system, the threshed material should be distributed evenly
across the chaffer sieve. Uneven
distribution will be improved by use
of the auger bed paddles. Side hill
divider attachments will prevent the
drift of material to the lower side of
the chaffer in a side hill grain operation.
Auger bed. The augers move
the threshed grain to the rear of
the auger bed grain pan, onto the
chaffer sieve and cleaning system.
Grain auger distribution paddle can
be installed on the left augers if
straw buildup is a problem. When
the combine is equipped for operating in small grains, a grain auger
distribution paddle can be installed toward the rear end of the left auger
shaft.
Cleaning fan. The speed of the cleaning fan can be adjusted from 450
to 1250 rpm. The separator switch must be in the ON position with the
engine running to change the fan speed. And operator operates with the
cleaning fan at a speed fast enough to provide as much air as possible to the
cleaning sieves without blowing clean grain out of the back of the machine.
The maximum air volume for the cleaning fan is obtained when the fan
cutoff plate is positioned in the horizontal position. The volume of air must
be reduced for light crops such as grasses.
There are many chaffer sieve types for small grains, rice, flax or small
seed, grasses.
Grain handling and material distribution
The final functions of the combine are conveying cleaned grain and
discharging threshed crop residue. Cleaned grain from Axial-Flow combine is elevated from the clean grain auger to the grain tank. Crop residue
is discharged from the rear of the rotor by a discharge beater and over the
rear axle to straw spreaders. Elevator capacity may be improved by using
steel elevator flights when green or juicy crop conditions are experienced.
Steel elevator flight helps clean sides of the elevator walls. Two or four
flights can be installed, equally spaced, on the elevator chain. If additional
95
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
grain cleaning at the elevator is desired, perforated elevator troughs,
doors and unloader tube assemblies
are available.
The straw chopper attachment
breaks up crop residues to assist in
tillage and pest control. The straw
chopper attachment effectively
shreds material for more even field
distribution by the straw spreaders.
The chopper is installed in place of
the standard discharge beater. The
chopper rotor is dynamically balanced to provide smooth vibration
free operation. When straw or stem
conditions dictate the utilization of
a straw chopper, the straw spreaders
can also be utilized to ensure even
distribution of residue. Spreader bats
on the straw spreader and the angles on the straw/chaff spreader can be adjusted to several positions depending on the pattern and aggressiveness of
residue distribution desired by the operator. Positioning the bats with outer
end turned up and angled in the direction of their rotation, will result in the
widest, most aggressive distribution pattern.
Elevators. Both the tailings and clean grain elevators have a clean outdoor for inspecting the conveyer chains and for cleaning out the elevator.
Steel flight assemblies can be installed on the conveyer chains. They are
used for heavy crops such as corn and for operation in wet and muddy
conditions. The steel flight assemblies help to keep dirt from caking in the
grain and tailings elevators.
Straw spreader and straw chopper. They distribute the straw from the
beater evenly over the ground. This helps to prevent bunching and windrowing, ploughing and tillage operations easier. When the straw spreader
is used with the straw chopper, spreader disk angles are installed on the
disk assemblies. Six angles are installed on the top of each straw spreader
disk. For better windrowing, when the straw is to be baled, the spreaders
are removed. The straw chopper operates at a speed of approximately 3500
rpm with the drive belt in the high speed position and at a speed of approximately 7500 rpm with the drive belt in the low speed position. The concave
blade assembly can be inserted. When the straw is to be baled, the straw
chopper is operated at the corn setting. With the corn settings the straw
chopper will not chop too fine and windrowing will be better.
96
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Grain tank and unloader. The covers on the unloader augers can be
adjusted to maintain even unloading of the grain tank. The covers can also
be used to adjust the volume of material being unloaded, to vary unloading
times and to prevent overloading the unloader drive and shearing the drive
shear pin in heavy crop conditions. In certain crop conditions, such as grass
seeds, it can be necessary to remove the covers completely to improve
the unloading of the grain tank. These crop conditions can also cause the
material to hesitate during the unloading process. If agitation of the material is necessary it must be done from the operator’s platform using a pole
or broom. If it becomes necessary to agitate the material at the rear of the
grain tank it must be done by a second person from the engine service area
using a pole or broom. One person must remain in the operator’s cab to
stop the engine if necessary.
Seed loss
It is important to note that no combine will save every seed. Combines
can be operated at speeds and settings which range from almost zero loss to
extremely heavy losses. Each operator must determine what loss to accept
for the field condition and time available for harvest. He must adjust the
combine and travel speed accordingly. When checking loss it is important
to determine the source of the loss. The formula has three major areas of
loss:
Preharvest Loss + Header Loss + Separator Loss = Total Loss
Pre-harvest losses. This is loss that is present before an operator harvests the crop. This loss is kernels or seeds on the ground due to weather,
insect damage, etc. These losses cannot be recovered no matter how efficient the combine is.
Header losses. Header loss is due to cutting too high, reel shatter, snapping roll loss, etc. This can be measured by comparing the kernels on the
ground in Area “B” to Area “A”. The difference would be due to header
losses.
Loss in Area “B” – Loss in Area “A” = Header Loss
Separator losses. This is loss from the rotor and cleaning system such
as unthreshed heads, etc. which is a result of improper adjustments. To
obtain this loss, check Area “C” which is windrowed directly behind the
separator. The grain in this area would be all losses. Subtract the preharvest
(Area “A”) and the header losses (Area “B”) from this measurement to
determine the separator loss. To determine whether the separator loss is
due to the rotor or cleaning system, fully open the shoe and chaffer sieve.
Sieve settings are essentially the same with Axial-Flow combine as in the
past with conventional combines. Too heavy tailings could result in rotor
losses. There are three basic adjustments for the cleaning system:
97
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
• opening and closing the chaffer,
• opening and closing the shoe,
• cleaning fan rpm changes.
The main air blast is directed to the front part of the chaffer. Air speed
should be sufficient to lift material and suspend it in the air, letting heavier
particles (grain) down. If underblown material will be ride on the chaffer, grain will be sloughed off the end of the chaffer. If overblown, grain
will be picked up and blown beyond the end of the chaffer. The need for
cleaning shoe adjustments can be easily determined by monitoring grain
tank samples, tailings and losses on the ground. If tailings are excessive,
open the shoe slightly. If a grain tank sample is trashy, close the shoe and/
or increase the fan speed. An overloaded shoe sieve and high tailings can
also be the result of too low fan speed setting instead of too open chaffer
setting. It is important to remember that the air velocity through the chaffer
sieve will change by changing the sieve opening (with constant fan speed).
Therefore, the more the chaffer sieve is opened, the faster the fan speed
should be set in order to continue to lift the lighter chaff material and blow
it out the rear. For side hill operations, chaffer dividers are available.
Grain scan monitor. The grain scan monitor consists of a control console and four grain sensors. They indicate the amount of grain loss during
the harvesting operation. This information is indicated on the console meter. The operator uses the grain loss information to operate the combine at
the most efficient speed with an acceptable amount of grain loss.
Meter. The meter pointer indicates an increase or decrease in grain loss
from the acceptable level for which the monitor has been adjusted. The
change in the meter indication is used by the operator as a guide on how
to change the harvesting operation, i.e. to speed up, slow down or make
adjustments.
Problems and questions
1. Name main operations performed by a combine.
2. In general, what is the operating principle of the feeder conveyor and
cylinder beater?
3. Explain how cutting and conveying take place.
4. What does the cutting assembly consist of?
5. What factors may affect the proper seed cleaning?
6. What are the main components of the cleaning shoe?
7. Explain the functions of the cleaning unit.
8. Discuss the main types of the threshing cylinders and their difference.
9. What attention and service should be given to a combine to ensure
proper operations?
10. Under what conditions would the use of this combine be desirable?
98
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
11. Name what you consider as important changes and improvements
which have taken place with respect to the design and operation between
the new and old types of combines.
HAY AND FORAGE HARVESTING EQUIPMENT
Hay is grass cut and dried for use as animal feed. Hay is a more important source of energy for dairy cows than for any other farm animal. But it
is also an important feed source for beef cattle and horses. Hay harvesting
equipment consists of machines necessary in the various steps of hay making, while forage harvesting equipment consists of machines required for
placing green succulent material onto silos.
Hay is as old as farming itself. Farmers have been improving hay
making methods for centuries. But by 1850 “modern” haying tools consisted only of scythes and forks.
Mechanization started with hinged cutter bar mowers. The harpoontype hay fork for unloading in the barn came in 1864, followed by the hay
loader in 1874 and the side delivery rake in 1893. But haymaking was still
a time-consuming job.
New age of haymaking. Perhaps the greatest milestone in haymaking
was the automatic pickup baler in 1940. This machine replaced the tiresome job of forking hay into the wagon and into storage.
Harvesting practices. Early and frequent harvest is the most important
single factor affecting quality. Harvesting methods and equipment have
three goals: 1) to reduce moisture to a safe storage level, 2) to conserve all
possible leaves and green colour, and 3) to reduce the man-hours necessary
to handle the crop.
About 80% of all harvested forage is now baled. Only 10% is stored as
hay crop silage and the remaining 10% as loose hay. Baling is the predominate method of storing hay.
99
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Baling advantages. Baling is the fastest harvesting method to store dry
matter. It has the lowest harvest power requirements per ton of dry feed,
and one man can handle the job.
Handling Hay. Machines that have been developed for handling hay
include the mower-conditioner-wind-rower, bale thrower, self-propelled
automatic bale wagon, loose hay stacker, large round baler, and wafering
or cubing machines.
Haying Machinery
Mowers. Simplicity, high speeds and greater widths keep the cutter
bar mower popular. Improvements include cutter bar assemblies with more
durable sections and carbon steel guards, and easy one-man hook-up on all
standard three-point hitch tractors.
Mower-conditioner. Mower-conditioners combined cutting and conditioning into one operation. The main feature of these machines is fullwidth conditioning. After conditioning the crop can either be laid back in a
swath for raking later or put down as a windrow for later pickup. A variable
speed reel keeps the cutter bar clear and provides smooth continuous flow
of material to the rolls. A hinged swath deflector enables you to direct the
crop into a swath or windrow, depending on drying needs and hay harvesting methods.
Windrowers. Multi-purpose self-propelled windrowers offer up to 16
feet of cutting capacity. Most models have hay conditioners. And hydrostatic drive on some models offers infinite speed ranges to match crop conditions. Many models have a 4-wheel chassis to provide a smooth stable
ride. Either a steering wheel or control levers steer the machines.
Rakes. While self-propelled and pull type windrowers and mower-conditioners can mow, condition, and windrow in one operation, side-delivery
rakes are still widely used to make hay crop windrows. They may be trailed
or mounted.
Balers. Today’s balers are available with twine or wire-tie, PTO or engine-drive, pull-type or self-propelled.
Large round balers. Conventional square balers are still the popular
method of storing hay. Large round balers have been introduced and are
becoming popular among some types of operations. Bales need no indoor
storage. Balers can make 12 to 20 bales an hour depending on crop and
field conditions.
Here are some features of round balers:
1) Wide pickup follows wide windrows.
2) Steel apron chains give good rolling action of material.
3) Automatic controls enable the operator to make twine wrap and eject
a bale without leaving the tractor seat.
100
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Bale throwers. Bale throwers have 4 advantages where small and medium- size bales are preferred: 1) less manpower needed. 2) faster haymaking. 3) less weather risk, 4) better quality feed.
They are available in PTO and engine-operated models. Bale throwers
contact both the top and bottom of bales, can be regulated for both distance
and direction of throw, have variable drive speeds and allow handling of a
wide variety of bale densities.
Self-unloading wagons. From bale throwers, bales can be shot into
versatile self-unloading forage wagons.
Bale conveyors. Versatile lightweight conveyors put bales where you
want. Bale conveyor systems can also be used to take bales out of storage
for winter feeding.
Automatic bale wagons. Although dropping bales on the ground during baling means fast baling, bales must be picked up later. Automatic bale
wagons are made two ways: self-propelled for large operators, and pulltype for smaller operations. All models pick up bales from the field, load,
and transport. Some automatic bale wagons can also unload a bale into a
truck or an elevator for mow.
Round bale silage
Silage is a green fodder stored in a silo or a pit without drying to feed
cattle in winter.
The method of preserving forage as s bale silage (baleage) is relatively a new one. It is a combination of any hay and silage making. Round
bale silage is simply forage of a relatively high moisture content that is
baled with a round baler and then stored in a sealed container, usually a
plastic bag.
Advantages and disadvantages. Round baleage has some advantages
over haymaking or conventional silage making. When compared to hay,
round baleage offers an alternative forage conservation system that decreases the amount of time spent drying the forage before storage. The
benefits of this system include reduced rain damage and field losses, and
increased flexibility in scheduling. This system allows farmers to harvest
for optimum forage quality and yield.
When compared with chopped silage, the benefits of round baleage
include excellent dry matter recovery, decreased energy costs and lowered initial capital investment. Depending on weather and labour factors, a farmer can choose to make large either bale hay or round bale
silage.
But round bale silage has some problems. Main disadvantages include
potentially large storage losses, high short term costs, high short term labour requirements, and increased pollution.
101
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Research has found that between 15 and 25% of round baleage can be
damaged during storage. This is higher than the 5% storage losses compared with traditional silos.
The second disadvantage is cost. Round bale silage must be kept in an
oxygen-free environment; therefore, high quality plastic must be used.
The third disadvantage is increased labour requirement. At least one
more person is needed to put the bales in the bags.
The fourth major disadvantage is the potential pollution. Wrapping
requires considerable amount of plastic. Certain types of plastic will not
burn. Many countries have laws restricting outside burning.
Conclusions. Round bale silage is a flexible, low capital cost method of
preserving forage; however, variable costs and spoilage losses can be high.
This system might be the most practical for smaller farms and be used late
in the growing season.
Forage harvesters
Beef and dairy cattle and other types of livestock will remain in better condition during the winter months if they receive a succulent feed.
As there no green pastures in the winter, such feed must be grown, harvested, processed, and preserved in a silo, so that it will be available when
needed.
Many different combinations of operations are employed in harvesting
hay. The first and oldest method required a row binder to cut and bind the
crop into bundles. Nearly all methods include mowing and raking. First,
the hay is cut close to the ground with a mower. After drying in the sun,
most hay is baled. Baling is done in the field by automatic-type machines,
called pickup balers. The pickup baler lifts the hay to a conveyor that carries it to a baling chamber, which compresses the hay into bales weighting
up to 57kg or more and ties each bale with heavy twine or wire. A machine
called a field chopper cuts down green hay or field-cured hay for use as
animal feed. After being cut down, the hay is stored in a silo and allowed
to ferment.
Some forage harvesters are designed for simultaneous harvesting, chopping and loading grass and silo crops including wax maize. They are used
for picking up witted grass out of swathes. Harvester insures: obtaining
quality shredded mass with high level of maize corn crushing (96-98%);
minimizing of losses when loading the mass into vehicles; reduction of
number of engaged depositories and vehicles; reduction of costs for tamping the silage in trenches; increasing the resistibility of silage against mould
fungi. Attachments include 4.0m wide rotor header for harvesting maize,
5m wide grass header, 3m wide platform-pickup.
102
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Self-Propelled Forage Harvesters
There are many enterprises producing agricultural machinery. New
Holland is one of them. It produces a wide range of farm equipment
and responds to farmer’s need and anticipates new requirements. One of
the latest achievements is a powerful, reliable self-propelled forage harvester with a compact and efficient hydrostatic drive. If any material is
detected, the feed roll drive is stopped and the powerful reversing system
allows rocking for fast and easy crop evacuation. This drive for feed roll
and crop attachments provide the ultimate in “length of cut” flexibility.
The ability to change the speed of the feed rolls from the operator’s seat
allows instant adjustment of the chop length to meet changing crop conditions. For increased silage quality, a more consistent chop length is
achieved by the uniform alignment of the crop over the shear bar, resulting from the speed synchronization between the attachment auger and
feed roll. A more consistent chop length gives a better crop compaction
and improves fermentation.
For high and low feed roll speed operations, and the consequently high
or low attachment speeds, correct header operation is assured by the easy,
independent adjustment of the attachment drive speed.
With a maximum of 12 knives on the cutter head, chop length can be
set between 4 and 12mm. This is done in two overlapping ranges chosen
through a speed range selector on the feed roll drive gearbox. In each of
the two ranges, adjustments are made using the monitor in the cab. Quick
and easy settings provide good chop length in different crops and crops
conditions.
The radial blower has good shape and position to transfer the chopped
material in a powerful and continuous flow. Depending on the crop, a
choice can be made between two blower speeds.
Harvesters may be powered by caterpillar engines or new generation
Iveco engine with fuel injection profiles. These engines are equipped with
unit injectors and are electronically governed. The engine provides an immediate power response of 25% torque back-up over a 300 rpm reduction.
Problems and questions
1. Discuss advantages and disadvantages of round bale silage
2. If you were a farmer, which method of preserving forage would you
use? Why yes or no? Give your reasons.
103
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT FOR OVERALL MECHANIZATION OF LIVESTOCK BREEDING AND POULTRY FARMING
The modern livestock breeding
farm is a big industrial farm equipped
with a great number of machinery, production lines and automatic
equipment. There is a trend towards
engineering and marketing complete
production lines or even machine
complexes which can mechanize
and automate production processes
on a livestock or poultry breeding
farm. There are egg-producing machine complexes, pig feeding systems,
feed preparation plants, sheep shearing pens, milking units. Such unit is
a milking machine of modern design which milks the cows, filters and
cools milk and delivers it along a pipeline into a tank, yielding first quality produce. The milk lines are automatically lifted to the clear way for a
forage unloader.
There is a range of automatic mixed provender plants. They are supplied
with all the equipment and lines which cater for the reception, processing
and production of nutritional mixed provender for livestock and poultry of
all kind on the farm.
It is worth mentioning the fodder unloader was designed to meet the
requirements of dairy farms in roughage and succulent food under the conditions of both stall barn and loose-housing systems, the hammer mills for
grain, the new hatchers, the all-plastic automatic drinkers for cattle. The
use of this equipment on livestock and poultry breeding farms saves labour
and reduces the cost of livestock production.
There are many various unloaders on the farms.
Multi-purpose tractor-mounted forage undloaders serve for hauling and
distributing chopped stalks and leaves alone or in a mixture with free-flowing fodder arranged at one side or both sides. They may handle silage, beet
bagasse and other fodder. The unloaders are useful as a means of hauling a
variety of farm loads which can be discharged at the rear.
Mobile forage unloaders transport and distribute on one side or both
sides chopped roughage and succulent feed on a dairy farm where the passage between mangers is only 1400 to 1900 mm wide.
Feed lorries are used to handle chopped stalks and leaves, silage,
ground bagasse and roughage for the delivery of fodder to mangers or into
hoppers of stationary feeding systems on livestock and dairy farms and at
pastures.
104
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Forage unloaders for livestock breeding farms haul and distribute forage in a cow-house, they also distribute both dry and wet food in fattening
pig houses.
Silage loaders separate silage from a clamp or straw, loosen the feed
load and dump it for transportation or dispensing. They are capable of loading silage from superficial storage and from trenches.
Various root crop mills and feed mincer are used to wash and chop root
and bulb crops. They serve the purpose of mincing both roughage and succulent feed, including silage, any stalks and leaves.
Dairy farms are equipped with milking machines and automatic drinkers.
Automatic drinkers comprise a self-contained open drinking bowl connected to the water mains and are intended for installation on a cattle breeding farm. Milking machines provide a means of milking cows and primary
processing of the milk in a parlour. Milking machines with pipeline serve
the purpose of mechanizing the milking and primary treatment of milk
under the conditions of stall barn housing systems, and portable milk cans
are employed.
Milking installations with milking units find application on the farm
under the conditions of the stall barn housing system. The milk is collected
into portable milk cans, the installation may serve a herd of 100 heads.
There is special equipment for poultry farming. Battery cages serve the
purpose of rearing chicks between the age of 61 and 150 days intended for
maintaining the laying flock on a poultry farm. Hatchers are used to incubate eggs of all kinds, they comprise three hatching cabinets and a brooder
cabinet. For automatic temperature control, the unit uses electrical contact
thermometers.
Automatically-controlled plants for mixed provender prepare mixed
provender of high nutritional value from farm-produced grain forage and
nutrients of industrial origin for feeding livestock and poultry.
Straw and silo cutter. The machine is designed for preparing fodder
ensilage and processing feeds on the farm for immediate feeding.
The machine cuts haulm, hay and straw and transports the cut product
to a tower, trench or the place where feed is distributed in the preparation
section of the cattle farm.
The straw and silo cutter consists of the main units: a feeding mechanism for feeding the fodder to the cutter head; a cutter head for cutting
the fodder; a cutter head trough for moving the cut product; transmission;
transporting ducts for conveying the product to the silo tower and a deflector for loading it into trenches.
The length of cut is adjusted over a wide range. The machine is equipped
with three pairs of change gears which adjust the speed of the transporter of
the feeding mechanism.
105
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Feed mixer. A steamer-mixer is used to steam roots and tubers, to mix
them with concentrated fodder, to mash the steamed feeds and to deliver
them into container.
The roots and tubers are charged into the steamer drum through the
throat.
Steam to the steamer is supplied from a boiler through a hose coupled to
the inlet connection provided at the bottom of the drum. Steam admission
is adjustable by means of condensate cocks.
Discharge of the steamed feed is affected through the discharge auger
throat. The auger and drum, driven by an electric motor, deliver the feed
into containers.
To mash the steamed feed, a special cover is placed on the discharge
auger shaft. The feed delivered by the auger is being mashed when it passes
through the clearance left between the body and cover.
To the steamed feed are added other feeds at the required rate, then the
drum is allowed to rotate to mix the mass, and the ready feed mixture is
discharged.
When farmers want to mix two or more ground feeds of known feeding
value to obtain a balanced-ration feed, a feed-mixing machine is needed.
Many feed plants have equipment where the feed is ground, steamed, and
squeezed through holes in a plate to make pelleted feed.
Universal fodder crusher. The universal fodder crusher is designed
for crushing grain and coarse fodder, for cutting of forage grass, roots and
corn cobs. Operated in conjunction with mixing machines the crusher may
be used for the preparation of various types of mixed fodders.
The crusher consists of the following units and mechanisms: a feeder conveyer for green mass and coarse forage, a cutter disk with knives
and crushing hammers, a crushing chamber with replaceable screens, a
hopper-feeder for grain products with a shutter transmission mechanism,
a cyclone, a fan and an electric motor. All these parts are mounted on a
common frame. The crushed grain and coarse fodder are dumped through
the screens and passed along the pipe lines into the cyclone, gathered into
sacks and hung up for drying.
The cut grass is dumped directly into the pipe line, avoiding the screens
and the cyclone. Instead of the cyclone there is a deflector connected to the
pipeline for this purpose.
The electric motor shaft is coupled to the working shaft so as to form a
straight line with it, using a special nut, which can be used as a pulley for
mechanical driving in places, where there is no electricity.
Automatic water bowl. The automatic water bowl is used to water
cows. Its main units are a water bowl, shoe and saddle-shaped pipe union
pieces.
106
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
The water automatically flows into the water bowl as soon as the animal
presses its muzzle against the valve pedal. The shoe union piece serves to
join two water bowls into a unit and to attach it to the upright of the feeding
trough. The saddle union piece serves to connect the vertical pipe of the
automatic water bowl with the water main.
Three-phase mechanical milker. The machine is designed for the mechanical milking of cows. The milking is done in three phases: suction,
compression and release.
The machine consists of the following units: an electric motor, a rotary
vacuum pump, a vacuum cylinder, a vacuum regulator, a milking, a pail
with a pulsator, a collector and teat cups.
The pump, with the aid of the electric motor, creates a constant vacuum,
the pulsator alternates the constant vacuum into suction and release, the
collector reduces the compression phase and ensures the release phase. The
teat cup performs the periodic sucking of the milk from the teat. The milk
is collected in the milking pail.
Milk purifier and cooler. The machine is designed for centrifugal purification and cooling of milk as well as for separation of milk and cooling
of cream. It consists of a milk container, a separator drive, milk purifying
and cream separating disk bowls, a centrifugal water pump with an electric
motor and a push-button starting device, two cooler sections and drainage
arrangement with faucet.
All its units are mounted in a special casing with translucent plastic
doors. A refrigerator box for ice and water is attached.
Sheep shearing outfit. The outfit is designed for shearing fine and
coarse fleece sheep with several shearing machines simultaneously.
The unit is portable and may be installed anywhere. It consists of an
electric power unit with an internal combustion engine, electric motors for
transportable network with knife-switches, flexible shafts, shearing machines, grinding apparatus, a set of spare parts and tools.
Problems and questions
1. What is the basic principle of the operation of the straw and silo cutter?
2. Name the main parts of the cutter.
3. Why is the steamer-mixer used for?
4. Discuss the operation of the steamer-mixer.
5. Explain how the universal fodder crusher operates.
6. Explain three phases in milking.
7. Discuss the construction and operation of the milker.
8. Enumerate the parts of this unit.
9. Make a complete list of the parts involved for centrifugal purification
and cooling of milk.
107
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
TEXTS FOR SUPPLEMENTARY READING
TRACTORS
Mechanisation of agriculture
has two main objectives:
1. to increase the productivity per agricultural worker
2. to change the character of
farm work.
The machinery needed on
farms depends on the type of
farming, on the soil and climate,
and on the size of the farm. The
value of machines depends on
the source of power used for
working them. The tractor is the
main source of power. A tractor
is a vehicle designed to deliver
a high tractive effort at slow
speed, for the purpose of hauling a trailer or machinery used
in agriculture. Agricultural implements may be trailed behind
or mounted on the tractor.
The word tractor was first
used in 1856 in England as a
synonym for traction engine.
The term tractor appeared in 1890 in the USA. The first farm tractor was
powered by a steam engine on wheels that could be used to drive mechanical farm machines by means of a flexible belt. The internal combustion
engine came later. The first tractors were large and suited for ploughing and
threshing. Later the tractors were developed for many purposes.
In 1892 the first practical gasoline-powered tractor was built in the
USA. In Britain, the first recorded tractor sale was the oil-burning engine in
1897. However, the first commercially successful design was three-wheel
tractor of 1908. A four-wheel design was introduced in the USA in 1908.
By the 1920s, tractors with a gasoline-powered internal combustion engine
had become the norm.
Tractors can be generally classified as two-wheel drive, two-wheel
drive with wheel assist, four-wheel drive, or track tractors (with either two
or four powered rubber tracks).
108
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
The classic farm tractor is a simple open vehicle with two large driving wheels on an axle below and slightly behind a single seat, and the
engine in front of the driver, with two steerable wheels below the engine
compartment. The basic design has remained unchanged for many years,
but enclosed cabs are fitted on almost all modern models for an operator’s
safety and comfort.
In some locations with heavy and wet soils crawler type of tractor
became popular in the 1930s. They were maneuvered through the use of
turning pedals and separate track clutches operated by levers rather than a
steering wheel.
Four-wheel drive tractors began to appear in the 1960s. Some fourwheel drive tractors have the standard “two large, two small” configuration
typical of smaller tractors, while some have four large powered wheels.
The larger tractors are typically an articulated center-hinged design steered
by hydraulic cylinders.
In the early 20st century, articulated or non-articulated, steerable multitrack “tractors” have largely supplanted the crawler type for farm use.
Larger type of modern farm tractors include articulated four wheel or eight
wheel drive units with one or two power units which are hinged in the
middle and steered by hydraulic clutches or pumps. A relatively recent development is the replacement of wheels or steel crawler-type tracks with
flexible steel-reinforced rubber tracks, usually powered by hydrostatic or
completely hydraulic driving mechanisms.
There are four main types of tractors, namely, crawler or track-laying,
standard, row-crop and orchard.
The crawler tractor is less important today in agriculture. It is used on
very soft soil or where stability of a wheel tractor is a problem.
The standard tractor was developed for traction and is probably the
most used at present. It is characterized by a drive through the two rear
wheels, with a centre of gravity located at one-third the wheel base ahead
of the rear axles. It is used for many operations. In many cases, it does not
differ from a row-crop tractor.
Row-crop tractors are adapted for use on row crops. It is easy to attach
various tillage and cultivation tools and implements for mowing and handling
forage. This group includes two types: “the general-purpose tractors” with four
wheels and true “row-crop” with a single front or two placed close together.
A track of the wheels should be easily adjustable to suit the row-widths
of various crops. The turning circle should be small so the tractor can work
with a narrow head land. The driver should be able to see as much as possible of any implement mounted ahead of him.
Garden tractors are designed for the care of large lawns and for horticultural work. They can pull or carry a lawn mower, a sweeper, and many
109
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
other attachments for light hoeing, drilling, planting, field spraying. Because these tractors have very low clearance and are designed for lightduty use, they are not used for farm production.
Today’s agricultural tractor is a complete vehicle used to power a large
variety of implements. Implements are generally attached to and operated
by tractors in one of four ways: 1. single-point hitch; 2. mounted-threepoint hitch; 3. semi-mounted, three-point hitch; 1. frame-mounted.
Power may be transmitted to the implement by a power-take off shaft
or by oil-hydraulic hoses.
SEED DRILL
A seed drill is a sowing device that precisely positions seeds in the soil
and then covers them. Before the introduction of the seed drill, the common practice was to “broadcast” seeds by hand. Besides being wasteful,
broadcasting was very imprecise and led to a poor distribution of seeds,
and low productivity. The use of a seed drill can improve the ratio of crop
yield by as much as eight times.
Broadcasting. In older methods of planting, a field is initially prepared
with a plough to expose and break up the topsoil. This produces a series
of linear cuts known as furrows. The field is then seeded by throwing the
seeds over the field, a method known as broadcasting. Seeds that landed in
the furrows had improved protection from the elements, and natural erosion or manual raking would preferentially cover them while leaving other
exposed. The result was a field planted roughly in rows, but containing a
large number of plants outside the furrow lanes.
There are several downsides to this approach. The most obvious is that
seeds that land outside the furrows are generally unwanted and are normally lost to the elements. Since the furrows represent only a portion of
the field’s area, and broadcasting distributes seeds fairly evenly, this results
in considerably wastage. Less obvious are the effects of overseeding; all
crops grow best at a certain density, which varies depending on the soil and
weather conditions. Additional seeding over this limit will actually reduce
crop yield in spite of more plant being sown.
Drilling. “Drilling” is the term for the mechanized sowing of an agricultural crop. A typical seed drill consists of a hopper of seeds arranged
above a series of tubes that can be set at selected distances from each other
to allow optimum growth of the plants. Arranged in front of the tubes are
a series of knife blades known as coulters. In operation, the seed drill is
dragged forward to allow the coulters to cut open soil, with a metering
mechanism on the hopper periodically allowing a number of seeds to fall
110
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
into the tubes, and through them into the freshly cut soil. The result is a set
of spaced seeding locations, which can be then covered by a built-in rake.
The seed drill allows farmers to sow seeds in well-spaced rows at special depth at a specific seed rate; each tube creates a hole of a specific
depth, drops in one or more seeds, and covers it over. This invention gave
farmers much greater control over the depth that the seed was planted and
the ability to cover the seeds without back-tracking. It meant that seeds
germinated consistently and in a good soil. The result was an increased rate
of germination, and a much-improved crop yield.
A further important consideration was weed control. Broadcast seeding
results in a random array of growing crops, making it difficult to control
weeds using any method other than hand weeding. A field planted using a
seed drill is much more uniform, typically in rows, allowing weeding with
the hoe during the growing season. Weeding by hand is laborious and poor
weeding limits yield.
SPRAYING EQUIPMENT
The problem of controlling insect pests and plant diseases make
it necessary for farmers to include
equipment for application insecticides and fungicides. It is important
to select the proper equipment to
control a certain insect pest or plant
diseases. Sprayers were probably
first developed and used to apply
fungicides for controlling diseases
of grapes in vineyards in France.
The main function of a sprayer is to break the liquid into droplets of effective size and distribute them uniformly over the surface to be protected.
Another function is to regulate the amount of insecticide to avoid excessive
application that might be harmful or wasteful.
A sprayer that delivers droplets large enough to wet the surface readily
should be used for proper application of surface residual sprays. Extremely
fine droplets are diverted by air current and are wasted.
Types of sprayers. There are sprayers for every use, in the home,
garden, and field. There are special types suited for the spraying of livestock, buildings, and poultry. Sprayers may be classified as household,
compressed-air, knapsack, hand, wheelbarrow, traction, power, and airplane.
111
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Controlling the spray application. The gallons per acre applied on a
field will depend on 1) the forward speed of the sprayer and 2) the number
of nozzles and their rate of discharge. The forward speed is very important.
If it is suddenly changed from 5 to 10m.p.h. or doubled, then the nozzles
will have only half the time to deliver their spray in traveling a given distance, and the gallons applied in that distance will, therefore, be cut in half.
So constant speed is very important in applying sprays at high concentrations, that is, low gallonage rates.
Effective spraying cannot be done when the wind velocity is above
10m.p.h.
Assuming a fixed number of nozzles on a sprayer, the rate of discharge
can be changed by increasing or decreasing the sprayer pressure within
certain limits or by replacing the nozzles, nozzle tips or disks with similar
units of a higher or lower capacity.
FERTILIZER EQUIPMENT
Fertilizers are required where soils are poor in nutrients. When land
is planted to crops over a long period of years, the plant food elements
are reduced and yields of crops are lower. Sandy soils lose plant food
elements quickly because they are leached out by heavy rainfall or applications of irrigation water. Some clay soils, in low-rainfall areas, lose
plant elements much slowly than the sandy soils. Now higher yields may
be obtained from most soils in all areas, if the right type of fertilizer is
properly applied.
Fertilizer may be applied to the soil in several forms, such as barnyard manure, granular (dry) fertilizers of various formulae, and fertilizers in liquid and gaseous form. Special equipment is required for the
handling of these types of fertilizers, which are applied to the soil and
crop in various ways at different stages of culture. For example, manure is usually broadcast over the land with a manure spreader before
seedbed preparation. It is then worked into the soil, either by plough or
disk harrow.
Fertilizer application equipment may be classified as following:
1. Broadcast – spreads the fertilizer evenly over the soil surface.
2. Seed placed or side-banded – placed the fertilizer with the seed either
in a band near the seed or growing plant.
3. Deep band – places the fertilizer in distinct rows below the soil surface prior to seeding.
4. Fertigation – applies the fertilizer through irrigation systems.
5. Foliar application – sprays the fertilizer onto growing plants.
112
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
MISCELLANEOUS HARVESTING EQUIPMENT
Such crops as potatoes, beets, peanuts, sugar cane require harvesting
machinery designed especially to suit them. They are grown in smaller
regional areas than corn, grain crops. Potatoes, beets, and peanuts must
be removed from the ground. Other crops are borne on plants above the
ground.
Potato harvester. In general, harvesters (diggers) may be classified
as one-row and two-row tractor-drawn machines. The two-row machines
may be subdivided into three types, namely, the two-unit or separate apron,
the two-row connected apron, and the combination digger-sacker, which is
termed potato combines. This machine is drawn along the row by a tractor, but the elevator and carrier belts are operated by an auxiliary engine
mounted on the top of the framework. The potatoes can be delivered directly to sacks or barrels. If desired, the potatoes can be delivered in bulk
to a truck or trailer driven along beside the machine, by attaching a loaderelevator to the harvester.
Sugar-beet harvester. Sugar beets are grown under a wide variety of
soil and climatic conditions. These factors cause the roots and tops to develop differently in different areas, making it difficult to adapt machines
to varied types of growth, soil, and weed conditions. Beet-diggers may be
classed as beet lifters and automatic topper-lifter-loaders. The latter type of
a machine usually performs a series of operations:
1. The tops are removed from the beets and thrown aside.
2. The soil is loosened around the beets.
3. The beets are lifted out of the soil and deposited on a conveyer-cleaner.
4. The beets are partially cleaned as they are conveyed and elevated.
5. The beets are delivered to a truck or trailer.
Peanut harvesting. The harvesting of peanuts is generally a three-stage
operation:
1 The tap root is cut and the soil loosened around the peanuts.
2. The vines and nuts are lifted from the soil, passed over a shaker to
shake off loose soil, and collected in windrows.
3. The windrows of peanuts and vines are picked up and passed through
a picker or thresher to separate the nuts from the vines.
Stages one and two are usually done as a single operation, as equipment
to dig and shake the vines is operated by the same tractor. The vines are
left in the windrows from three to ten days before stage three, or threshing
is done.
113
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
CROP-PROCESSING EQUIPMENT
Crop-processing equipment includes machines that are used to dispose
of the crops residue after harvest and machines to process harvested material and put it in a more usable form. Machines that perform such operations are stalk-cutter-shredders, shellers, grinders, and crop dryers.
The plants of corn and cotton are left in the field after the ears and bolls
have been harvested. The stubble and straw of grain crops remain in the
field. This residue of one crop must be disposed before seedbed preparation
begins for the next crop. Burning of the residue has long been a thorough
way of disposing of crop residue. This method is now in disfavour because
soil-improving practices show the need of returning all crop residue to the
soil. Crop-residue disposal machines may be divided into several types.
Farm crop dryer. This machine may be any structure which includes
the facilities for drying or curing of farm crop products with forced, heated
or unheated, air.
The drying of fruits by exposure to the sunshine is an ancient practice.
The damp climate of England prompted the people to investigate artificial
drying methods many years ago. Heated air for curing of sweet potatoes
was used in the early 1930’s. Forced air drying of hay came in use in the
late 1930’s and early 1940’s.
The drying of farm products is now an essential phase of agricultural
storage and marketing requirements. Many farm products, when harvested,
contain too much moisture for safe storage so they have to be dried.
The use of heated air increases the rate of drying as heated air has a
greater moisture-carrying capacity. The heat causes the moisture from inside the hay stem or grain kernel to diffuse to the surface where it can be
absorbed by the heated air flowing through the mass. The use of heated air,
however, requires air-heating equipment, fuel, safety controls, and close
attention.
The unheated air is often used in connection with the barn drying of
hay. Grain, rice, and other crop products have been successfully dried with
unheated air. The time required is much longer than that required when
heated air is used. The humidity of the natural air must be fairly low to permit drying of the product. It is also important that the depth of the product
being dried be limited to prevent moisture collecting in the exhaust area
and causing spoilage. An increase in the volume of air will also permit an
increase in the depth of the product being dried.
Feed grinder and mill. In the feeding livestock, it has been found that
more animal nutrition and food constituents can be assimilated and put into
flesh on an animal if the feed is ground rather than left whole.
114
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Vocabulary
A
Access
Adjacent
Adjust (-ment)
Advantage
Adverse
Affect
Agitate (-tion)
Align
Alkaline
Alleviate
All-purpose tractor
Amount
Angle
Apply (application)
Arable
Arm
Arrange (-ment)
Assembly
Attach (-ment)
Auger
Available
Axle
доступ, проход
прилегающий, смежный
регулировать, устанавливать
преимущество
неблагоприятный, вредный
влиять на
встряхивать
спрямлять, устанавливать (с осью)
щелочной
уменьшать
универсальный трактор
1) количество 2) составлять, равняться
угол
применять, (применение)
пахотный
рычаг
устанавливать, располагать
комплект, узел, сборка, агрегат
прикреплять
шнек
пригодный, имеющийся
ось (колеса)
B
Bag
Baggase
Bale
fork ~
Baler
hand- tie ~
Band
Bar
Bat
Bean
Beam
Beater
cylinder ~
1) мешок 2) насыпать в мешок
багасса, жом сахарного тростника
1) тюк, кипа 2) прессовать
захват для тюков
пресс-подборщик
пресс-подборщик с ручной вязкой
лента, полоса
стержень, брус, бич (молотильного барабана)
планка (мотовила)
боб
грядиль (плуга), балка, брус
битер, молотильный барабан
отбойный битер
115
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
feeder ~
Bearing
Be subjected to
Bed
Bedrock
Belt
Belt-drive
Belt-driven
Belt pulley
Bin
Binder
Blade
Blast
Blow
Blower
Body
Boot
Bottom
Brake
Break up
Broadcast
Brooder
Broom
Build up
Bunch
Burn
Bury
Bush
Bushing
приемный битер
подшипник
подвергаться
основание, гребень, почва для посева
коренная порода, скальное основание
ремень, приводной ремень; лента (транспортера)
ременная передача, приводной ремень
с ременным приводом
ременный шкив, приводной шкив
1) бункер 2) ссыпать в бункер
сноповязалка
лезвие, лопасть; нож
поток воздуха
дуть, выдувать
вентилятор; пневмопогрузчик; швырялка
остов, корпус, кузов, плужный корпус
башмак, сошник
1) корпус плуга 2) дно
1) тормоз 2) тормозить
разбивать
разбросной посев
брудер (аппарат для обогрева цыплят)
щётка
1) повышать 2) сгруживание почвы
1) вязать, копнить 2) гнездо ( при посеве)
гореть, сжигать
заделывать, запахивать
1) куст 2) зарастать кустарником 3) втулка
многочисленные заросли кустарника
C
Cage
Cake
Call
Can
решётчатый барабан; клеть
жмых, брикет
называть (ся)
фляга, бидон
Cam
Camshaft
Canvas
Capacity
кулачок
кулачковый вал
брезент; (pl) брезентовый транспортёр
мощность; ёмкость
116
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Carrier
Cause
Cast
Chaff (y)
Chaffer sieve
~ extension
Channel
Charge
Check curtain
Checking device
Checkrow
Chain
Chalk
Change
Chisel
Choke
Chop
Chopper
Clamp
Clean out door
Cleaner
disk-row ~
Cleaning
Clearance
Clod
Clog
Clutch
Coarse
Coil
Combust (tion)
Combustion chamber
Common
Compact
Complete
Compress
Compression ratio
Compression stroke
Concave
транспортёр; тележка
1) причина 2) быть причиной, заставлять
1) вспашка вразвал 2) разбрасывать
мякина, полова; (измельчённый)
решето тонкой очистки, мякинное решето
удлинитель верхнего решета
канал, борозда; ручей уборочной машины
1) заряд 2) заряжать, загружать
фартук (комбайна)
выверяющий аппарат, контролер
квадратно-гнездовой посев
цепь
мел
1) замена 2) менять(ся)
чизель-культиватор; резец, нож
1) дроссель 2) засорять, забивать
крошить, нарезать
измельчитель; силосорезка
зажим, скоба
дверца для очистки
очиститель
дисковый очиститель рядов от растительных
остатков; колтер
прореживание; сортировка; чистка
зазор, просвет
ком (земли), глыба
засорять, забивать
сцепление, муфта (сцепления)
грубый, шероховатый
катушка
гореть
камера сгорание
общий, простой
уплотнять
1) полный 2) завершать
сжимать
степень сжатия
такт сжатия
1) вогнутый 2) подбарабанье
117
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Concave-extension grate
~grate
~setting
Сonnect (tion)
Connecting rod
Condition
under condition
Conditioner-windrow
Conditioner
Conditioning
Consist of
Conventional
Convert (tion)
Conveyer
cross-conveyer
Coolant liquid
Corrugated cylinder bar
Coulter
knife~
fluted ~
Cover (age)
Crank
Crank arm
Crankcase
Crankshaft
Create
Creep
Crop
Crop rotation
Cross-checking
Cross row
Crumble
Crumb
Crust
Crush
Crusher
Crushing hammer
Curved
Cubing machine
118
удлинитель решетки подбарабанья
решетка подбарабанья
регулятор подбарабанья
соединять
шатун
условие, состояние
при условии
валковая косилка-плющилка
1) сенная плющилка 2) вспушиватель сена
кондиционирование
состоять из
обычный, традиционный
превращать
транспортёр
поперечный транспортёр
охлаждающая жидкость
рифлёный бич барабана; барабан с насечками
нож плуга
черенковый нож
рифлёный дисковый нож
заделывать, покрывать
1) колено, кривошип 2) заводить рукояткой
плечо кривошипа
картер (двигателя)
коленчатый вал
создавать
1) ползучесть 2) стлаться (о растениях)
сельскохозяйственная культура
севооборот
квадратно-гнездовой сев
поперечный ряд
крошить
комок
1) корка 2) покрываться коркой
дробить
измельчитель; плющилка
молотковая дробилка
изогнутый
прессовщик
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Cut
Cutter bar
Cutter bar mower
резать
режущий аппарат
косилка с режущим аппаратом
поступательного движения
Cutting angle
угол резания
Cylinder
цилиндр; молотильный барабан
Cylinder-and-concave assem- молотильный аппарат
bly
Cylinder head
головка цилиндра
Cylinder tooth
палец барабанного подборщика
D
Damage
Dangerous
Debris
Decrease
Deep (depth)
Deliver
Deflector
Deposit
Depth of cut
Depend on
Develop (ment)
Device
Dial control
Differ (ence)
Dig
Discharge
Disk placing
Disk tiller plough
Dispose
Dissipate
Distributor
Divide into
Divider
Dip
Dipper
Draft
Drag
возвратно-
1) повреждение 2) повреждать
опасный
растительные остатки
уменьшать
глубокий (глубина)
подавать, снабжать, питать
направитель; отражатель; фартук
класть, вносить (удобрение)
глубина захвата
зависеть от
развивать
прибор, устройство
диск управление
отличать
копать
1) разгрузка 2) разгружать, выпускать
расстояние между дисками
дисковый лущильник
удалять, смывать
рассеивать
высевающий аппарат, дозатор
делить
делитель
погружение, погружать
купочная ванна (для обработки скота)
тяга, тяговое усилие
1) тащить, 2) тяжелая борона
119
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Draw
Drawbar
Drawbar pull
Drill
Drinking bowl
Drive
ground~
final~
Driving
Driven
Driver
Drop
Drop arm
Drum
Duct
Dry
Dull
Dump
тянуть, втягивать, всасывать
сцепное устройство
сила тяги, тяговое сопротивление
высевающий аппарат, рядовая сеялка
поилка
1) привод, передача 2) приводить в движение
трансмиссия ходового хода; редуктор
конечная передача
ведущий; вождение
ведомый
ведущее колес; водитель
1) капля; высевающий аппарат 2) падать, опускаться
рулевая сошка
молотильный барабан; цилиндр
труба, трубопровод
1) сухой 2) высушивать
тупой
1) опрокидывание 2) опрокидывать, разгружать
E
Ear
Edible
Efficiency
Eject
Elevator
Elevating conveyer
Employ
Engine
internal combustion ~
steam ~
Engage
Evaporate(ion)
Exhaust
~ stroke
Expand (sion)
Explosive
Extension
External
колос, початок
съедобный
эффективность, КПД
выделить, выпустить
элеватор, транспортёр
подъемный транспортёр
употреблять
двигатель
двигатель внутреннего сгорания
паровой двигатель
сцеплять, вводить в зацепление
испаряться
1) выпуск 2) выпускать
выпускной ход
расширяться
взрывчатый
удлинитель (у комбайна)
внешний
120
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Equip (ment)
оборудовать
F
Fallow (ing)
Fan
Fasten
Fat
Faucet
Feed
Feeder
conveyor~
Feeder canvases
Feeding
Fertilize
Fertility
Field
Fill
Filler
Film
Fine
Firm
Fix
Flail
chopper ~
threshing ~
Flexible
Flight
Float
Fluid
Flywheel
Fodder
Follower
Forage
Forage harvester
Force
Forced
Fork
Frame
Fuel
пар, залежь (парование)
вентилятор; веялка
прикреплять
1) жир, сало 2) откармливать
вентиль, втулка, раструб
1) подача, питание, корм 2) подавать, питать
приемный транспортёр; дозирующее устройство
транспортёрный питатель
приемный полотенный транспортёр
питание, подача; загрузка
удобрение
плодородие
поле
заполнять
загрузочное устройство, загрузчик
пленка
тонкий, мелкий
1) плотный 2) уплотнять
фиксировать, закреплять
1) цепь, бич 2) молотить
измельчающий бич
молотильный цеп
гибкий
виток шнека; скребок элеватора
1) шлейф-борона 2) плавать
жидкий
маховик
1) корм 2) кормить скот
ведомый механизм; раздаточная муфта
грубые корма, фураж
силосоуборочный комбайн
1) сила 2) нагнетать, заставлять
принудительный
1) вилы 2) копать или брать вилами
рама
топливо
121
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
~ charge
Furnish
Furrow
~ slice
Frog
Friction
Furrower
заряд топлива
обеспечивать, снабжать
1) борозда 2) нарезать борозды
почвенный пласт
башмак, стойка рабочего органа
трение
сошник
G
Gang
Gap
Gate
Gasket
Gauge
Gear
Gear box
General-purpose
Germinate (ion)
Governor
Grain
~ auger
~pan
~ return pan
~ tank
trapped~
~ unloading auger
Grate
Grease
Grind
Groove
Grow (th)
Guard
батарея, секция
1) зазор, промежуток 2) прореживать
заслонка, клапан, дверь
прокладка, сальник
измерительный прибор
зубчатое колесо, передача, привод
коробка передач
универсальный
прорастать
регулятор
зерно
зерновой шнек
стрястная доска
колосовая доска
бункер для зерна
захваченное зерно
загрузочный шнек
решето
1) густая смазка 2) смазывать
измельчать
борозда, углубление
выращивать
1) предохранительное устройство 2) охранять
H
Hair
Handle
Hard
Harrow
regular ~
волосок
обходиться, обрабатывать, ухаживать
твердый, крепкий, жесткий
1) борона 2) бороновать
обычная борона
122
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
tandem disk ~
spike-tooth ~
spring-tooth ~
Harvest
Harmful
Hatcher
Haul
Haulm
Hay
Head
check~
Header
Heat
Heel
Hesitate
Heavy-duty
Helical
High
Hill
Hinge
Hitch
Hoe
Hoop up
Hopper
~ feeder
Housing
Husk
двухследная дисковая борона
зубовая борона
пружинная борона
1) урожай 2) собирать урожай
вредный
выводной инкубатор
тянуть, перевозить
стебель, ботва, солома
1) сено 2) заготавливать сено
головка; колос; поголовье
сенсорный датчик
жатка (комбайна), хедер
1) теплота 2) нагревать
пятка (полевой доски)
колебаться
(высоко)мощный, предназначенный для тяжелого
режима работ
винтовой, спиральный
высокий
1) холм, гнездо 2) окучивать
шарнир
1) сцепление, сцепка 2) сцеплять
1) мотыга, культиватор 2) мотыжить
навесное устройство, сцепка, присоединение
бункер для семян, удобрений
приемный бункер
корпус; стойловое содержание скота
1) шелуха, пленка 2) лущить, снимать кожицу
I
Idle
Ignite (tion)
Impact
Implement
Impeller blade
Inclined
Inject (ion)
Incorporate
Increase
холостой (ход)
зажигать, воспламенять
удар, толчок
орудие
лопатка швырялки
наклонный
впрыскивать
вносить удобрение, заделывать
увеличивать
123
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Insert
Install
Intake
~ stroke
Internal
Interrupter
Invert (ion)
Include
Involve
1) втулка 2) вставлять
устанавливать, монтировать
впуск, впускное отверстие
впускной такт
внутренний
прерыватель
переворачивать (почвенный пласт)
заключать, включать
включать в себя
J
Jacket
Jet
Joint
Jointer
рубашка, кожух
форсунка, жиклер
1) соединение 2) соединять
предплужник
K
Kernel
Knife
Knock
Kind
зерно
нож; режущий аппарат
1) удар, стук 2) стучать
род, сорт, разновидность
L
Landside
Layer
Leak
Length
Level
Lever
Light
Lime
Linkage
Lister
Liquid
Load
Loader
Long
Loose housing
Loosen
полевая доска
слой
протекать
длина
1) уровень 2) ровный 3) выравнивать
рычаг
1) свет, освещение 2) светлый 3) освещать
известь
сцепление, связь; тяга; навесное устройство
листер, (плуг-) бороздоделатель
1) жидкость, раствор 2) жидкий
1) груз 2) загружать
погрузчик
длинный
свободное содержание скота в помещение
рыхлить
124
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Loss
Low
Lower
Lubricant
Lubricate
Lug
sidehill ~
M
Mains
Make
Manger
Mat
Maintain
Manifold
Manure
Mash
Mesh
Meter
Metering device
Midair
Mill
hammer~
Milker
Mincer
Mix (ture)
Mould
Mouldboard
Moisture
~ retention
Mount
Move (tion, ment)
Mow
Mower
cutterbar ~
Mulch
Mulcher
Muzzle
потеря
низкий
опускать
смазка
смазывать
зацеп, грунтозацеп
грунтозацеп крутосклонный
сеть (электрическая)
делать, заставлять
кормушка
подстилка, покрытие, мат; дернина
содержать в исправности, сохранять
трубопровод, патрубок
навоз, удобрение
1) кормовая смесь 2) разминать, дробить
сито, решето
1) счетчик 2) дозировать
высевное устройство
пространство над поверхностью земли
мельница
молотковая дробилка
доильный аппарат
измельчитель
смешивать
1) отвал 2) взрыхленная почва
1) отвал (плуга) 2) отвальный
влажность, влага
влагозадержание
навешивать, монтировать
двигаться
1) стог 2) косить
(сено)косилка
косилка с пальцево-ножевым режущим аппаратом
1) мульча 2) мульчировать
машина для поверхностного рыхления почвы
морда, рыло
125
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
N
Narrow
Neck
Need
Nose
Notch
Notched
Nozzle
Number
Nutrient
узкий
шея, горловина
1) нужда, потребность 2) нуждаться
нос, носовая часть
1) вырез 2) надрезать
зазубренный, с пазом
форсунка
количество, число
1) питательное вещество 2) питательный
O
Oats
Oil
~ pan
One-piece
Opener
furrow ~
double disk ~
hoe ~
Opening
Operate (tion)
Obtain
Oscillate
овес
нефть, масло, жидкая смазка
масляный поддон
цельный, неразъемный
сошник
сошник
двухдисковый сошник
анкерный сошник
отверстие, горловина
работать
получать
колебаться, качать
P
Pack
Packer
Paddle
Pan
Parlor
Pass
Pen
Penetrate (ion)
Picker
Pick up
Pin
Piston
уплотнять
каток, уплотнитель
шибер; лопасть; затвор (в бункере для зерна)
скатная доска; поддон
доильный зал
1) проход, заезд 2) проходить
1) загон, секция 2) содержать (скот) в загонах
проникать
початкособиратель; уборочная машина
1) подборщик 2) подбирать, собирать
палец
поршень
126
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Pivot
Place (take place)
Plain
Plane
Plant
Planter
non-till ~
Plate
feed~
Plough
blade ~
chisel ~
mouldboard ~
mounted ~
one-way ~
semi-mounted ~
trailed ~
Plug
Plugging
Pole
Powder
Poultry
Power
~ stroke
Power-take-off (PTO)
Power drive
Precleaner
Pre-emergence cultivation
Prepare (tion)
Pressure
Processing
Provide
Provider
Provender
Pull
Pulley
Pulsator
Purpose
1) точка опоры, стержень 2) вращаться
1) место 2) размещать (иметь место, происходить)
1) равнина 2) ровный
1) плоскость 2) плоский
1) растение 2) сажать
сеялка
сеялка-культиватор
высевающий диск; пластина
дисковый высевающий аппарат
1) плуг 2) пахать
плоскорежущая лапа; культиватор-плоскорез
глубокорыхлитель
отвальный плуг
навесной плуг
оборотный плуг
полунавесной плуг
прицепной плуг
свеча зажигания; пробка
закупорка, забивание
дышло; столб, опора
порошок
домашняя птица
мощность, сила; силовая передача
рабочий ход
отбор мощности
механический привод
машина предварительной очистки
культивация, проводимая до появления всходов
подготавливать
давление
переработка
обеспечивать, заготавливать, запасать
поставщик
корм, фураж
тянуть
шкив, блок; барабан
пульсатор (доильной машины)
цель
127
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Purifier
Push
Put down
очиститель
толкать
снижать
R
Radial arm
Rail
Raise
Rake
side-deliver~
Raker
Range
Rasp-bar
~ cylinder
Reaper
Rear
Reception
Reciprocating motion
Reduce
Reel
Release
Remote
Replace
Resharpen
Residue
Resistance
Retain
Retard
Retention
Reverse
Revolve
Revolution
Ride
Ridge
Rigid
Rim
Ring
Rock
Rock trap
луч (мотовила)
перекладина, брус
поднимать
1) грабли, вилы, соломотряс 2) грести
боковые грабли
подборочный ковш к погрузчику
1) ряд, предел, диапазон 2) колебаться
рифлёный бич молотильного барабана
бичевой молотильный барабан
жатка
задний
получение, прием
возврато-поступательное движение
уменьшать
мотовило; барабан
1) освобождение 2) расцеплять, разобщать
отдаленный, дальний
заменять
заострять
остатки, отходы
сопротивление
удерживать
замедлять, задерживать
задержание
1) противоположный 2) давать обратный ход
вращаться
оборот
проходить; отделять
гребень
жесткий, неподвижный
обод колеса
кольцо
горная порода
камнеуловитель
128
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Roll
Roller
Rotate(ion)
Rotor
Rotor cage
Rough(age)
Row
Row-crop
Row-crop planter
Row-crop unit
Runner
Runoff
Rubbish
Rust
Root
Rooty
1) каток; барабан 2) прикатывать
барабан; каток
вращать
барабан, битер, ротор
соломотряс, барабанный грохот
грубый, неровный (грубый корм)
ряд
пропашная культура
сеялка для пропашных культур
приспособление для обработки пропашных культур
междурядье
рядковая (валковая) сеялка, валкоукладчик
трение, шелушение
резиновая шина
прочный
1) вибрация, шум 2) грохотать
1) проход, заезд (машины); длина(борозды) 2) работать
полозовидный сошник; башмак
поверхностный сток
мусор
1) ржавчина, коррозия 2) ржаветь
корень
с развитой корневой системой
S
Saddle
Sand
Screen
Scythe
Seed
Seedbed
Seed plate
Seedling
Sediment
Self-propelled
Separator
Serration
седло; седловидная опора
песок
сетка, сито; грохот; сетчатый фильтр
1) коса 2) косить
1) семя 2) засевать, сеять
пашня, почва, подготовленная к посеву
высевающий диск
побег, росток
осадок, отстой
самоходный
молотилка, соломотряс
зубец, зубчатость
Row-spacing
Rower
Rubbing
Rubber tire
Rugged
Rumble
Run
129
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Shaft
feed ~
Shallow
Shank
Shape
Share
Shatter
Shear
Shift
Shoe
~ sieve
Shred
Shredder
Silt
Skip
Slat
Slice
Slip-clutch
Slippage
Slope
Slot
Slug (=slog)
Smooth
Snap
Sod
Soil
arable ~
clay ~
cultivated ~
dry ~
fertile ~
light ~
lime ~
loam~
peat~
sandy ~
sticky ~
stony ~
undisturbed ~
130
вал
привод дозирующего устройства
мелкий
стойка почвообразующего орудия; сошник
1) форма 2) формировать
лемех плуга
выбивать, осыпаться (о зерне); крошить
1) срез 2) резать, стричь
1) сдвиг 2) сдвигать, перемещать
башмак (косилки), решетный стан
нижнее решето, решётный стан
резать, размельчать
измельчитель
1) тина, осадок 2) заиливать
самосвальный бункер
планка (транспортёра)
1) тонкий слой, срез 2) нарезать
предохранительная фрикционная муфта
скольжение, буксование
откос, склон
1) щель прорезь 2) прорезь
1) cильный удар 2) сильно ударять
1) гладкий 2) выравнивать
открывать (початки кукурузы и т.д.)
дёрн, дернина
почва
пахотная почва
глинистая почва
пахотная почва, старопахотная почва
сухая почва
плодородная почва
легкая почва
известковая почва
суглинистая почва
торфяная почва
песчаная почва
липкая почва
каменистая почва
почва с ненарушенным строением
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
wet ~
soil blowing
Source
Sow
Spacing
Spark
~ plug
Spider
Spike
Spike tooth cylinder
Spin
Spinner
Splash
Spool
Spread
Spreader
Spring
Sprocket
Stack
Stacker
Staggered
Stalk
Stall-barn
Stand
Standard
Stationary bar
Steering
Stem
Stir
Straight-through combine
Steam
Strip
Stone
~ retarder
Store
Straw
~walker
~ carrier
влажная почва
выдувание почвы, ветровая эрозия
источник
сеять
расстояние, установка на определенное расстояние
искра
свеча зажигания
игольчатый диск; крестовина
зуб бороны
штифтовый молотильный барабан
1) вращение 2) вращаться
1) битер-распределитель 2) швырялка
брызгать
катушка, намоточный барабан
распространяться, разбрасывать
разбрасыватель
пружина
звездочка
1) стог, скирда 2) скирдовать
стогометатель; копнитель
расположенный в шахматном порядке
стебель
коровник со стойловым содержанием скота
травостой; урожай на корню
стойка (рабочего органа)
неподвижная часть барабана
рулевое управление
ствол, стебель
перемешивать, рыхлить
прямое комбайнирование; прямоточный комбайн
1) пар 2) запаривать
1) полоса 2) снимать, очёсывать
камень
камнеотделитель
хранить
солома
клавишный соломотряс
соломотранспортёр
131
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Stroke
Stubble
Subsoil
Subsoiler
Suction
Suit (able)
Supply
Support
Succulent
Susceptible
Superficial
Surface
Suspend
Swath
Sweep
T
Tailings
Tailing auger
Tailpiece
Teat cup
Tear
Tension
Thresh
Thresher
Thicken
Thickness
Throttle
Throughput
Throw
Thrower
bale ~
Tight
Till
Tillage
ridge ~
mulch ~
primary ~
132
такт, ход
стерня, жнивье
подпочва, подпахотный слой
почвоуглубитель
всасывание; самозаглубление
соответствовать, подходить
1) подача, питание, запас 2) снабжать, питать
1) опора 2) поддерживать
сочный
восприимчивый
неглубокий, внешний, поверхностный
поверхность
подвешивать
1) валок 2) укладывать в валки
волокуша, стрельчатая лапа
недомолот
колосовой шнек
перо отвала
доильный стакан
1) разрыв 2) разрывать
натяжение
молотить
молотилка
загустевать, густеть
толщина
дроссель
производительность
кидать, бросать
разбрасыватель
метатель тюков
непроницаемый, герметичный
обрабатывать почву, культивировать
обработка почвы, пахота
гребневая обработка почвы
обработка почвы с образованием мульчирующего
слоя
первичная обработка почвы, лущение стерни
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
secondary ~
Tiller
rotary ~
Tilth
Tine
Timing
Tool
bar ~
Tooth bar
Top soil
Torque
Tough
Tracklaying (crawler) tractor
Traction
Translucent
Trail
Trap
Trash
Tray
Tread
Tricycle tractor
Trough
Tumbling
Turn
Twine
предпосевная обработка почвы
культиватор
почвофреза
обработка почвы, вспашка; глубина вспашки
зуб, нож, стойка культиватора
синхронизация, регулирование (во времени)
инструмент, орудие
брус, навесной брус
грабельный брус; планка зубовой бороны
верхний (пахотный) слой почвы
крутящий момент
вязкий, жесткий, плотный
гусеничный трактор
тяга, тяговое усилие, сила сцепления
просвечивающий, полупрозрачный
прицеплять
1) уловитель 2) отделять
мусор, растительные остатки
лоток, жёлоб, поддон
колея, ширина колеи
трёхколесный трактор
лоток, кормушка
вымолачивание
1) поворот, оборот 2) крутить, переворачивать
бечёвка, шпагат, кручение
U
Uneven
Unit
Unloader (drive)
неровный
прибор, узел, устройство, единица
разгрузчик
V
Valve
Vane
Vaporize
Vapour
Vegetation
Velocity
Versatile
клапан
лопасть, крыло
испаряться
пар
рост, растительность
скорость
многосторонний, гибкий
133
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Visibility
Volatility
Vulnerable
~ to erosion
видимость, обзор
летучесть
уязвимый
подверженный эрозии
W
Wafering machine
Wagon
Walker
прессовщик тюков
прицепная тележка, прицеп
клавиша соломотряса, платформенный соломотряс
Wear
износ
Weathering
выветривание
Wedge
1) клин 2) закреплять клином
Weed
1) сорняк 2) пропалывать
~ control
борьба с сорняками
Weeder
полольник, прополочный культиватор
rod ~
пропашной культиватор; штанговый культиватор
Weigh
взвешивать, утяжелять
Weight
вес
Wheat
пшеница
Wheel
колесо
press ~
прикатывающий каток
Windrow
1) валок 2) убирать в валки
Windrower
валкоукладчик; рядовая жатка
Windrow-field-chopper meth- раздельный способ уборки хлеба валкоукладчиod
ком и прессоподборщиком
Windrowing
укладка сжатого хлеба в валки
Windrow pickup
подборщик
Wing
пятка лемеха; крыло
Wire-tie
вязальная проволока
Wrapper
обёрточная машина
Y
Yield
1)урожай 2) собирать урожай
Idioms in English
To burn up
134
сгорать, сжигать (дотла)
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
To break down
To grow out of
To slow down (up)
To stir up
To take apart
To pick up the tab
To loose one’s cool
To cover a lot of ground
To land on one’s feet
To back up
To be mixed up
To blow out
To change one’s mind
To keep in mind
To chop up
To cut in
To drive up to
On purpose
To put out
To put together
To soup up
The apple of discord
The apple of another tree
The apple of one’s eye
The rotten apple injures its
neighbours
Every bean has its black
Not to have a bean
To spill the beans
At the bottom of one’s heart
To stand on one’s own bottom
At the bottom
Bread and butter
Bread and circuses
Half of a loaf is better than no
bread
Don’t count your chickens before they are hatched
To cut like a knife
ломаться
отвыкать от чего-либо
снижать, сбрасывать скорость
раздувать (ссору)
разобрать (двигатель)
брать на себя расходы
терять хладнокровие
охватывать широкий диапазон вопросов
выйти сухим из воды
давать задний ход
быть запутанным
лопнуть (о шине)
передумать
помнить
нарубить, разрубить (на куски)
вынырнуть перед (автомобилем)
подъехать к чему-либо (на автомобиле)
нарочно, преднамеренно
(по)тушить (свет, фары)
собрать (механизм)
увеличить мощность (двигателя)
яблоко раздора
совсем другое дело
зеница ока
паршивая овца все стадо портит
и на солнце есть пятна
не иметь ни гроша
выдать секрет, проговориться
в глубине души
быть независимым, полагаться только на себя
по существу, по сути дела
хлеб насущный, источник существования
хлеба и зрелищ
на безрыбье и рак рыба
цыплят по осени считают
резать, как ножом
135
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
To cut the ground from under
somebody
To cut up rough
To have a cylinder missing
Fair field and no favour
Between grass and hay
Grass does not grow under
one’s feet
To go against the grain
To hold one’s ground
To run into the ground
To cover ground
To break one’s head
From head to foot
To have a head like a sieve
Head over heel
On one’s own head
Two heads are better than one
Play a good knife and fork
See how the land lies
To fall one’s length
At length
Take a load from one’s mind
It’s as broad as it’s long
A strong man
Strong meat
Milk and honey
There’s no use crying over
spilt milk
To milk the bull
Neck or nothing
To burn the midnight oil
To buy a pig in a poke
To be on pins and needles
Keep one’ powder dry
To pull oneself together
To pull well (together)
To be in purpose
Beam in one’s eye
136
сорвать чьи-л. планы; выбить почву из-под ног
у кого-л.
рассердиться, разозлиться, возмущаться
не все дома, винтика не хватает
равные шансы для всех; на равных условиях
в юношеском возрасте
не терять времени даром; действовать проворно
идти вразрез с чем-л.; раздражать
не сдавать позиций, стоять на своём
хватить через край; переусердствовать
изучать вопрос
ломать себе голову над чем-то
с головы до пят
иметь “дырявую” голову; голова, как решето
вверх ногами, кубарем, кувырком
на свой страх и риск
ум хорошо, в два лучше
уплетать за обе щёки; есть с аппетитом
понимать положение вещей
растянуться во всю длину
детально, подробно
снять тяжесть с души; от сердца отлегло
что в лоб, что по лбу; одно и тоже
властный, решительный человек
орех не по зубам
молочные реки, кисельные берега
слезами горю не поможешь; что с возу упало, то
пропало
заниматься бесполезным делом
либо пан, либо пропал
работать по ночам
купить кота в мешке
сидеть, как на иголках
держать порох сухим; быть наготове, начеку
взять себя в руки, собраться с духом
хорошо сработаться
намереваться (сделать или сказать что-л.)
“бревно” в собственном глазу
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Out of one’s range
The rough and the smooth
To hoe one’s row
To run in one’s head
To sow the good seed
To sow discord
As you sow you will mow
To throw a stone at somebody
To catch at a straw
The last straw
To make bricks without straw
Be on the stroke
Come it strong
To show one’s teeth
From top to bottom
At the top of one’s speed
To take a turn for the better
Be of use
To see into a wall
One can’t see through a brick
wall
To pull one’s weight
Go on wheels
Grease the wheels
See the wheels go round
Wheels without wheels
Love cannot be forced
The best fish swim near the
bottom
The more haste, the less
speed
To add fuel to the fire
To call a spade a spade
To look for a needle in a haystack
To measure other people’s
corn by one’s own bushel
To plough the sand
To pull the devil by the tail
вне чьих-либо интересов
превратности судьбы
идти своим путем, действовать самостоятельно
вертеться в голове (о мыслях, мелодии)
сеять доброе
сеять семена раздора
что посеешь, то и пожнешь
бросать камень в кого-либо, клеветать
хвататься за соломинку
последняя капля, предел терпения
биться над невыполнимым делом
явится точно, вовремя, минута в минуту
хватить через край, перегнуть палку
говорить угрожающе, огрызаться
сверху донизу
полным ходом; во весь опор; во всю прыть
измениться к лучшему; поправиться
быть полезным
обладать необычайной проницательностью
нельзя сделать невозможное
выполнить свою долю работы
идти, как по мослу
уладить дело
знать, как обстоят дела
сложный механизм; игра интересов
сердцу не прикажешь
хорошо дешево не бывает
тише едешь, дальше будешь
подлить масла в огонь
называть вещи своими именами
искать иголку в стоге сена
мерить на свой аршин
толочь воду в ступе
биться, как рыба об лёд
137
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
To use a steam-hammer to
crack nuts
While the grass grows the
horse starves
To burn the candle at both
ends
Grain of wheat in a bushel of
chaff
To mount the high horse
Move the crop
To plough a lonely furrow
To put one’s hand to plough
To sow one’s wild oats
To stand on one’s own bottom
To touch bottom
To turn out to grass
To be under the harrow
To get one’s bearing
The root of evil
As like as two peas
The still sow eats up all the
draft
To put on steam
On the surface
To turn the tables on smb.
Wear and tear
Not worth a bean
138
стрелять из пушки по воробьям
пока солнце взойдет, роса очи выест
прожигать жизнь
ничтожный результат после больших усилий (гора
родила мышь)
важничать
займись делом
действовать одному
начать работать
прожигать свою молодость
быть независимым
допить чашу до дна
отстраниться от выполнения важных дел
быть в бедственном положении
ориентироваться, знать свое положение
корень зла
как две капли воды
в тихом омуте черти водятся
поторопиться, прибавить шагу
на первый взгляд
поменяться ролями
износ; жизненный предел
гроша медного не стоит
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Appedix
139
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
140
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
141
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
142
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
143
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
144
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
145
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Abbreviations used
B. C.
BDC
C
cm
cu
cwt
e. g.
etc
ft
F
hp
in
hr
km/hr
kW
lb
m
mm
mph
psi
PTO
rpm
sq
TDC
tph
146
before Christ
bottom dead center
Centigrade
centimeter
cubic
hundred weight
exampli gratia (L)
et cetera (L)
foot
Fahrenheit
house power
inch
hour
kilometer per hour
kilowatt
libra (L) pound
1) mass 2) mile
millimeter
miles per hour
pounds per square inch
power-take-off
revolutions per minute
square
top dead center
tons per hour
до нашей эры
нижняя мёртвая точка
по Цельсию
сантиметр
кубический
центнер (в Англии 50,8 кг)
например
и так далее
фут (30,5 см)
по Фаренгейту
лошадиная сила
дюйм (2,54 см)
час
километров в час
киловатт
фунт (453,6 ч)
1) масса 2) миля
миллиметр
миль в час
фунтов на квадратный дюйм
отбор мощности
оборотов в минуту
квадрат, квадратный
верхняя мертвая точка
тонн в час
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Bibliography
1. Aldred, W. H. Farm Power and Tractors. / W. H. Aldred,
F. R. Jones. – New York : Mc Graw – Hill Company, 1980. –
466 c.
2. Hornby, A. S. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current
English. / A. S. Hornby, A. P. Cowie. – Oxford : Oxford University
Press, 1982. – 1036 c.
3. Phillips, S. H. Non – tillage Farming. / S. H. Phillips, H. M. Young. –
Wisconsin : Reiman Associates. Milwaukee, 1973. – 224 c.
4. Reeder, R. C. Conservation Tillage Systems and Management. / R.
C. Reeder. – Iowa: Iowa State University, 1995. – 119c.
5. Salt, B. Sow and Grow Vegetable. / B. Salt. – England: MPC Production, 1995. – 126 c.
6. Weiss, B. Round Bale Silage. / B. Weiss. – Ohio: Ohio State University, Columbus, 2002. – 4 c.
7. Smith H.P. Farm Machinery and Equipment./ H.P. Smith – McGrawHill Book Company, INC. New York, 1955. – 514 c.
8. Dixson R.J. Essential idioms in English. / R.J. Dixson – Regents
Publishing Company, INC.,1971. – 240 c.
9. Кунин А.В. Англо-русский фразеологический словарь / А. В. Кунин. Изд. 3-е, испр., в двух книгах. М., «Сов. Энциклопедия»,
1967. – 1264 c.
147
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Contents
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit 1. Survey of farm power . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit 2. Engine cycle and principles of operations . .
Unit 3. Diesel engine – construction and operation .
Unit 4. Fuel systems – Ignition system. . . . . . . .
Unit 5. Cooling system – Lubricating system . . . .
Unit 6. Soil – Tillage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit 7. Primary tillage equipment . . . . . . . . . .
Unit 8. Secondary tillage equipment . . . . . . . .
Unit 9. Planting equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit 10. Types of farm tractors. . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit 11. Combines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Texts for reading and discussing . . . . . . . . . . .
Conservation tillage system . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Axial flow combine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hay and forage harvesting equipment . . . . . . . .
Machinery and equipment for overall mechanization
of livestock breeding and poultry farming . . . . . .
Texts for supplementary reading . . . . . . . . . . .
Tractors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Seed drill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Spraying equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fertilizer equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Miscellaneous harvesting equipment. . . . . . . . .
Crop processing equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Idioms in English… . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Abbreviations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.3
.5
.9
19
26
32
38
42
50
69
70
76
86
86
91
99
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
104
108
108
110
.111
112
113
114
115
134
139
146
148
Подписано в печать 30.08.2013. Формат 60х84 1/8. Бумага мелованная. Печать офсетная.
Гарнитура «Times». Усл. печ. л. 8,6. Тираж 80 экз. Заказ № 423.
Налоговая льгота – Общероссийский классификатор продукции ОК 005–93–53000.
Издательство СтГАУ «АГРУС», г. Ставрополь, ул. Пушкина, 15.
Тел/факс (8652) 35-06-94. E-mail: agrus2007@mail.ru.
Отпечатано в типографии издательско-полиграфического комплекса СтГАУ «АГРУС»,
г. Ставрополь, ул. Пушкина, 15.
Документ
Категория
Информатика
Просмотров
166
Размер файла
24 433 Кб
Теги
сельскохозяйственных, техника, 3115
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа