close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

2.Обучение чтению экономической литературы на английском языке. в 4-х частях. Часть 3.

код для вставкиСкачать
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Московский государственный технический университет
имени Н.Э. Баумана
Л.А. Иванова, Т.И. Кузнецова, Т.Т. Савина
ОБУЧЕНИЕ ЧТЕНИЮ
ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКОЙ ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ
НА АНГЛИЙСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ
В четырех частях
Часть 3
Учебно-методическое пособие
Москва
Издательство МГТУ им. Н.Э. Баумана
2009
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
УДК 802.0
ББК 81.2 Англ.-923
И204
И204
Иванова Л.А.
Обучение чтению экономической литературы на английском языке : учеб.-метод. пособие: в 4 ч. ? ч. 3 / Л.А. Иванова,
Т.И. Кузнецова, Т.Т. Савина. ? М.: Изд?во МГТУ им. Н.Э. Баумана, 2009. ? 47 [1] с.
Пособие состоит из трех разделов ? уроков. Каждый урок содержит основной текст, дополнительные тексты для поискового чтения,
упражнения на активизацию лексического и грамматического материала, англо-русский словарь.
Для студентов младших курсов факультета «Инженерный бизнес и менеджмент».
УДК 802.0
ББК 81.2 Англ.-923
© МГТУ им. Н.Э. Баумана, 2009
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ
Пособие, составленное на материале оригинальной британской
экономической литературы, состоит из трех разделов. Каждый раздел содержит словарь, основной текст, грамматические и лексические упражнения, дополнительные тексты. Грамматические упражнения, охватывающие наиболее функциональные разделы грамматики современного английского языка, предусмотренные программой
для студентов 1?2-го курсов неязыковых вузов, составлены в соответствии с требованиями отечественной и зарубежной методики преподавания и контроля языковых знаний. В пособие также включены
упражнения, направленные на развитие навыков устного и письменного перевода экономической литературы как с английского языка на
русский, так и с русского языка на английский.
Основные и дополнительные тексты служат развитию навыков
чтения и понимания оригинальной литературы.
Работа с текстами помогает студентам не только получать необходимую информацию по своей специальности, но также усваивать
необходимый лексический и грамматический материал.
Пособие рассчитано на один семестр аудиторной (под руководством преподавателя) и самостоятельной работы студентов 1?2-го
курсов факультета «Инженерный бизнес и менеджмент».
3
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
UNIT 7
Participles. Absolute Participle Construction
Phrasal verbs: be concerned with; carry out; steal a match (on); regard
sb /sth as; be engaged in; beat sb to sth; wait around (for); associate with;
slow down
Exercises
1. Translate the sentences into Russian paying attention to the forms
and functions of Participles.
a) 1. Industries producing steel, paper and chemicals require very large
quantities of water and tend to be found near rivers. 2. The information
obtained is very valuable. 3. The company sells appliances ranging from
dishwashers to coffee machines. 4. Ovens are tested using machines that
open and shut their doors 60.000 times to simulate the use they will have in
their owners? kitchens. 5. Having finished explaining the material, the
teacher began to answer the students? questions. 6. Being unemployed
Mr Brown couldn?t afford to buy a good present for his friend. 7. Not having
time to consider the suggestion the CEO put off the meeting. 8. Managers
joining Gillette should expect to be geographically relocated three or four
times in their first dozen years. 9. Generally speaking our best business
comes via our website. 10. Having been repaired the device began working
much better. 11. Exhausted after his business trip he decided not to go to the
conference. 12. Having established a reasonable level of profit the company
went all out for sales growth and decided to come back to the stock market.
13. While reading the text of the contract I noticed some misprints.
14. Depending on their size and needs there are several organizational
structures companies can choose from. 15. Commercial Textiles service
4
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
orders faster than many similar companies, giving the company an important
competitive edge. 16. Developing countries, including such giants as India
and China, have insisted they need financial and technological help.
17. Insurance also covers personal effects required during travel on company
business. 18. Free trade can be a powerful engine for economic development,
creating new jobs and opening new markets. 19. A bill of exchange is an
unconditional order in writing, addressed by one person to another, signed by
the person giving it, requiring the person to whom it is addressed to pay on
demand or at a fixed or determinable future time, a sum certain in money to or
to the order of a specified person, or to bearer.
b) 1. All the problems having been solved, they signed the contract.
2. The chairman coming in time, the meeting will start. 3. The letter to our
business partner being written, our courier went to post it. 4. Delayering
saw a change in the traditional hierarchical structures, with layers of middle
management being removed. 5. When selling the bill the drawer endorses
it, that is, he writes his name across the back of the bill, which then becomes
a negotiable document, and may be passed from one person to another, each
one endorsing it in turn, until it is presented. 6. With both these factors
removed, there would have been a fall of over 3 % in public spending. 7. It
was a time of great economic distress, with thousands of houses failing and
millions of people out of work. 8. Some companies are now organizing
product teams around individual products carrying out all activities, from
research and development right through to selling, with information from
the team?s direct contact with the market place feeding back into research
and development.
2. Shorten these sentences using Participles instead of subordinate
clauses.
1. While he was looking through the document, he found several
errors. 2. As the sales representative of our company knew the town very
well, he was an excellent guide. 3. As we didn?t know the instructions, we
couldn?t use the equipment. 4. As he was very busy, he couldn?t attend the
annual meeting. 5. It was a film about some researchers who were making
interesting experiments in the sphere of science which was unknown to
most of the meeting. 6. The warehouse that was damaged by the flood
should be rebuilt. 7. When the speaker was congratulating the Marketing
Director on his success, he said that his marketing strategy was a great
achievement for the whole teem. 8. When you plan you daily routine, don?t
5
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
forget to leave time for outdoor exercise. 9. He declined to name the lender
and said that he did not want to draw undue attention to the deal. 10. After
they had finished the discussion, the participants of the negotiations were
allowed to have a break. 11. After he had paid the rent, Henry found that he
had only some small change left till the end of the week. 12. When stores
place items in wide aisles to allow for consideration by the customer, they
manipulate their retail psychology. 13. The conference which takes place
next week could change the future of the company. 14. Most of the people
who were invited to the presentation came to it.
3. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form using Participles.
1. When (to fill in) a form you must write your name and address
clearly. 2. We would like to contact someone in your office (to interest) in
our program and sharing our ideas. 3. (to feel) very tired he cancelled all
his appointments. 4. (to think) the letter was very urgent the secretary
immediately informed her boss. 5. (to lose) my wallet I was very grateful to
my colleague who brought it back to me. 6. (to be) very strict the professor
never allowed his students to miss classes. 7. The corporation closed down
the plant, (to leave) many workers unemployed. 8. Yolanda is rich (to own)
five homes. 9. The company has opened a new factory (to create) many
new jobs. 10. The government?s argument is that (to break) into several
private companies, each of the system?s smaller parts will be better able to
attract new investments. 11. The value of the currency fell, (to make)
foreign holidays more expensive. 12. Chemical exports recovered a little,
(to rise) by 1.5 % in both value and volume.
4. Match the sentences on the left with the sentences on the right
using participle phrases.
1. Hilary got a job in a cafй.
2. I left my keys at the office.
3. William hasn?t got a visa.
4. Dave and Maria decided to share
the same job in the same
company.
5. The presentation of an
advertising campaign was so
boring.
6
(a) They are not made with
polyester.
(b) They felt it could help them
solve childcare problems.
(c) She was such a perfectionist.
(d) They grow it organically.
(e) I couldn?t get into my flat last
night.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
6. My brother is having a lot of
trouble finding a decent job.
7. Sophie was a demanding boss.
8. A memo is a written note sent
between people.
9. This company produces juice
from fruit.
10. The department store sells
shirts.
(f) She was able to make lots of
friends.
(g) People work in the same
organization.
(h) He can?t travel to the USA.
(i) He hasn?t got a college
education.
(j) The audience began clapping.
5. Translate into English using participle constructions.
1. Он не согласился вести переговоры с нашей компанией, сказав,
что наши предложения непродуктивны. 2. Я не сомневаюсь, что информация, полученная по факсу, будет очень интересна для нашего
исполнительного директора. 3. Опубликованные исследования показали прочную связь между прибылью и долей рынка. 4. Совет директоров ? это группа лиц, играющих основную роль в деятельности организации. 5. Проведя опрос покупателей, администрация магазина
узнала, какие товары будут пользоваться спросом. 6. Используя
внешние ресурсы (outsourcing), мы смогли сэкономить деньги на оплату труда постоянных работников. 7. При управлении фирмой необходимо стимулировать сотрудников на достижение определенных
целей. 8. Пропустив начало презентации, стажер не смог понять основные принципы работы устройства. 9. Мы прилагаем список товаров, поврежденных в пути. 10. Осуществляя контроль за состоянием
и развитием экономики, правительство принимает следующие меры:
фискальные, монетарные и прямое вмешательство. 11. Отмененное
на прошлой неделе собрание cостоится в следующую пятницу. 12. Не
найдя своего коллегу в офисе, я оставил ему записку у секретаря.
13. Проанализировав экономическую ситуацию, президент компании принял необходимые решения. 14. Прогресс в информационных
технологиях идет семимильными шагами (advance with gigantic
strides) и затрагивает все отрасли, не оставляя никаких шансов устаревшим методам и способам работы.
Read and translate the text using essential vocabulary and any
necessary dictionary.
7
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Text 7A. Research and Development
A strong argument in favour of large firms is that their substantial
resources allow them to engage in researching new products and ideas.
This is an important source of the new goods and services continually
entering the market.
Research and development (R&D) is concerned with discovering new
products and bringing these to the marketplace, as well as making
technical improvement to old ones. Although businesses in most industries
spend money on R&D, the sums are much greater in technologically based
industries such as pharmaceuticals and electronics. Businesses can have
their own research and development department, with many large firms
doing that. Alternatively, they may pay for others (universities, for
example) to undertake the research on their behalf. This latter policy
means that the business can avoid some of the heavy overhead costs
associated with research. The idea having been generated and assessed,
most development takes place within the company.
Research and development cannot be carried out in isolation from the
rest of the business. Big companies spending enormous sums on research
and development recognize the importance of carefully structured research
teams as a means of motivation. It favours small work or ?discovery?
groups to develop the human relationships needed for successful research.
But it also encourages maximum interaction between staff so as to
discourage isolation.
Links with the marketing department are essential to discover what it
is that consumers want. Equally, the production department has to be kept
informed. After all, with the product being designed, it is they who will
have to produce it. A change in product line requires a great deal of
preparation.
Research and development budgets have grown in size over recent
years as companies have recognized that failing to invest in new ideas and
techniques can lead to competitors stealing a march. However, expenditure
in R&D varies according to the type of company. The R&D budget now
attracts considerable attention from potential investors as one indicator of
the business?s future prosperity. It can be argued that a large budget is
likely to result in more innovative goods and services and greater future
profits. However, on occasions, the size of the R&D budget can become
too large and threaten the company?s immediate future.
8
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
In business, nobody can wait around for that ?good idea? to arise
suddenly by chance. Idea generation must be planned, and opportunities
for new business must be scanned frequently. If we regard idea generation
as the ?seed corn?, then the environment for growing it must also be
planned and controlled. The new opportunity has to be developing into a
profitable product or service.
Many ideas will fail during this development period for a variety of
reasons. None the less, a large number of ideas need to be proposed for
there are a few winners. These successful products must also generate
sufficient funds covering the costs of all the unsuccessful ideas.
Sometimes a firm is beaten to the marketplace by a competitor: at other
times a firm merely copies the idea of another and enjoys the benefits
without all the research and development costs. It may be that the product
is too expensive to produce in quantity; or that technological advances
have made the product obsolete overnight.
New products passing the various stages in product development also
have to meet a number of safety and environmental standards. Such
restrictions can slow down the rate of product development as well as
impose additional development costs.
In order to avoid the risks in developing a new product or a new
version of an existing product, it would be better to make something which
already exist and which has been thoroughly tested. This may be a foreign
product being unavailable in this country for which you obtain a licence to
make and / or sell.
Alternatively, you may be given specific territorial rights to sell the
product by means of an agency being a franchise.
Exercises
1. Answer the questions to the text.
1. Why is it easier for a large company to carry out research and
development? 2. What is R&D concerned with? 3. Do businesses always
undertake research themselves? 4. What encourages maximum interaction
between the staff doing research? 5. Why are links with marketing and
production departments essential? 6. Why have R&D budgets grown in
size over recent years? 7. Why is it necessary to propose many ideas?
8. What is important for idea generation? 9. What can slow down the rate
9
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
of product development? 10. What can be done to avoid the risks in
developing a new product or a new version of an existing product?
2. Choose the correct phrasal verb and complete the gaps with a
suitable form. Translate the sentences.
(to be concerned with; to carry out; to steal a march (on); to wait
around (for); to associate with; to engage in; to slow down; to beat sb to sth;
to regard sb/smt as)
1. Consumer borrowings ____________ since January. 2. The report
____________ the relationship between politics and law. 3. We
____________ extensive tests of new equipment and are going to make
some modifications. 4. By advertising our sale a week ahead of the other
firm we ______________ them. 5. We got our product onto the market as
fast as we could, but the other firm still ____________ it. 6. I don?t feel like
____________ our marketing manager to take his decision. 7. He (currently) ____________ a dispute with his former business partner. 8. His
occupation ____________ nanotechnology. 9. She (widely) ____________
the current leader?s natural successor.
3. Match each word with its definition.
1) substantial
(a) to estimate.
2) to undertake
(b) to give sb support, courage or
hope.
3) to assess
(c) a state of being successful
especially in making money.
4) enormous
(d) to include sth; to deal with sth.
5) to encourage
(e) extremely large.
6) to require
(f) to make yourself responsible for
sth and start doing it.
7) prosperity
(g) a rule or law that limits what you
can do or what can happen.
8) to cover
(h) able to be obtained, taken, or
used.
9) restriction
(i) to need.
10) available
(j) large in amount, value or
importance.
10
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
4. Choose the proper participle forms to fit into the sentences.
Translate the sentences.
(Having been designed, having calculated, having copied, slowing
down, obtaining, not having, being, placed, having, wishing, having
recognized)
1. Businesses ____________ research and development departments
often spend great sums of money. 2. ____________ the importance of
generating new ideas, the company created research teams. 3. Product
____________, they started producing it. 4. ____________ the programme, he paid attention to possible changes. 5. ____________ the idea
of another firm, that company enjoyed the benefits without all the research
and development cost. 6. ____________ the rate of product development,
such restrictions impose additional development costs. 7. ____________
a licence you can make or sell a foreign product. 8. A country
____________ to limit its population may discourage immigration and
encourage emigration. 9. ____________ a manager he has to make
decisions. 10. ____________ time to discuss the problem the chief
designer put off the meeting. 11. Taxes ____________ on goods and
services are known as indirect taxes as opposed to direct taxes which are
placed on income and wealth.
5.Translate the sentences into English using participle constructions.
1. Информация, полученная в результате маркетингового исследования, имеет большое значение для компании. 2. Предприятия могут иметь собственные научно-технические отделы, причем на многих крупных фирмах они работают довольно успешно. 3. Определив
отношение потенциального покупателя к товару, можно изменить
продвижение этого товара на рынок. 4. Понимая важность новой
идеи, ученые решили провести исследования. 5. Проработав в этой
компании десять лет в качестве менеджера, она смогла оценить ее
маркетинговую стратегию. 6. Расходы, необходимые для проведения
исследования и разработок, зависят от типа компании. 7. После модификации первоначального варианта продукт получил лицензию.
8. После испытания этой модели автомобиля инженеры обнаружили
недостатки, связанные с работой двигателя. 9. Проведя исследование
качества работы новой модели устройства, менеджер проекта пришел к выводу, что она не намного лучше предыдущей. 10. Страны,
11
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
которые были привлечены для статистического анализа, начали инвестировать средства в высокие технологии еще в 80-х годах ХХ века.
11. Наименее проблемными в сфере малого бизнеса являются в настоящее время предприятия, связанные со сферой услуг и научными
разработками. 12. В настоящее время многие только создающиеся
инновационные предприятия сталкиваются с целым рядом сложнейших проблем, преодолев которые они смогут выжить. 13. После того
как в России будет сформировано соответствующее правовое поле,
инновационный продукт unit-linked (программа накопительного
страхования жизни параллельно с инвестированием) будет выведен
на российский рынок. 14. Разработав новое устройство, компания
смогла выйти на рынок.
Read the text and answer the questions.
1. Where was Strollers launched? 2. What was the strategy of the
company based on? 3. What are the stages of product development? 4. In
what ways does Cadbury?s style of ideas generation reflect the size and
importance of the company? 5. What type of leaders do you think would
encourage creativity within their organizations? Why?
Text 7B. Product Development at Cadbury
Thinking up new products is creative stuff, but there is nothing magical
about it. Creativity can be managed. It is above all a matter of knowing how
to go about it and being prepared to put in the work. Cadbury?s new
product ? Strollers ? is a good example of the process.
Cadbury began by calling in Craton Lodge & Knight, the new-product
development agency which is a master of the art. The key to its success has been
the way it provides a team of people to work very closely with a client on new
products ranging from confectionery to financial services.
Past Cadbury-CLK successes have been Biarritz and Whisper.
Strollers ? too early to declare a success, although take-up by the trade is
reportedly excellent ? is a bag of biscuit, caramel and raisins coated in
chocolate. Launched in the South-East and London in January, Strollers
was the result of strategic planning, market analysis and hard work.
The strategy began to form in 1987. It was based on changing
consumer eating habits, which have been moving steadily away from proper
meals towards ?grazing?, and on noting an area of the confectionery market
12
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
with growth potential where rival Mars was strong, but where Cadbury had
no product at all. This is what Cadbury chocolate professionals call
?profusion lines? ? bags of sweets to you and me.
?You start with information.You wallow in it,? says Chris Wood, CLK
managing director. ?That prepares a fertile mulch from which to grow ideas.
You use it to create a blueprint, which describes the market, potential
turnover, and distribution needs.?
Next, the team had an away day ?hothousing? with Cadbury. The point
of this exercise, according to Sue Swalwell, research director at CLK, is to
get away from the office environment, with its hierarchy and interruptions
people need to be able to argue and feel safe to come out with unfinished
ideas. ?Humour is important,? she says, ?it means you can get around
nervousness and worrying about what people will think, which can kill
ideas.?
?The first step is producing a prototype. The product is the most
important thing, but also there?s the packaging and positioning, because
people buy those first,? says Ms Swalwell. But it is only if they like the
product that they will keep on buying. Regular meetings and brainstorming
sessions are backed by market research, trying out different products and
packages. Researching the potential for a very chewy product, Ms Swalwell
recalls a seven year old who said, rather unusually, that the product was for
older children. (Children usually think the product is too young for them.)
Involving the client ? Cadbury ? was essential. ?You can?t develop a
new product in isolation,? says Ms Swalwell. ?You have to come up with a
brand that the company likes and believes in. That way, when the brand
goes on the market, they will support it in a way that will hopefully turn it
into an established, viable brand.? In other words, the image has to fit.
In a speech on managing creativity, given at training company Video
Arts? conference two weeks ago, John Cleese described this process neatly. He
listed space, time to think and refine, confidence and some humour, as
essential ingredients.
The techniques have changed little. But the re-emergence of creativity
as a key ingredient in business has brought the issue back into the
limelight.
Any company can apply them in its business. But Mr Cleese also listed
the surest ways he knew of stamping out creativity. ?Allow your
subordinates no humour, undermine your employees' confidence, and
demand that people should always be actively doing things,? he said.
13
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?Demand urgency at all times, use lots of fighting talk, establish a
permanent atmosphere of stress and crisis,? he added. That way you can be
sure they will not come up with any bright ideas.
Read the text and answer the questions.
1. What jobs did Colonel Harland use to do? 2. What did Sanders
perfect working at his restaurant? 3. Why did Sanders start traveling?
4. What became part of the brand ?Kentucky Fried Chicken?. 5. What did
Sanders do in 1964?
Text 7C. By the bucket
Much as he might resemble the inspired figment of an advertising man?s
imagination, Colonel Harland Sanders, the face of Kentucky Fried Chicken,
really did exist, and really was a colonel-though the title was an honorary one
conferred by the governor of Kentucky, not a military rank.
Born in Indiana in 1890, Sanders left school at ten and for the next 30 years
pursued a fine American life as a farmhand, street-car conductor, soldier in
Cuba, railway fireman, lawyer, insurance salesman, ferry-man, tyre salesman
and petrol-station operator. When the petrol station, in Corbin, Kentucky, did
well, he opened a motel and restaurant, where he perfected his fried-chicken
recipe. The state governor, the gloriously named Ruby Laffoon, so enjoyed
eating there that he named Sanders a Kentucky Colonel in 1935.
When a new interstate highway killed the motel in the early 1950s, Sanders started travelling the country frying seasoned chicken for restaurants and
offering them his recipe for a royalty. The first to agree, a Utah restaurateur
called Leon Harrrian, suggested the paper ?bucket? which soon became part of
the brand. In 1964, when Sanders had 600 franchisees, he sold the business for
$2m to private investors who resold it in 1971 for $28m to Heublein, a drinks
company, which in turn was bought in 1982 by RJ. Reynolds. The tobacco
company sold Kentucky Fried Chicken to PepsiCo four years later.
Sanders died in 1980, a rich man, but not nearly as rich as if he had
taken shares instead of cash for his business. Still, he seemed happy
enough. He called his autobiography ?Life as I Have Known It Has Been
Finger Lickin? Good?.
Read the text and answer the questions.
1. Are telecommunications and information technology the preserve of
Europe and America? Why? 2. What can development of medical biotechnology
14
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
in Brazil, China, Cuba, Egypt, India and South Africa provide? 3. How can
biotechnology from poor countries tackle local problems? 4. Is biotech industry in
the developing world mostly based on innovation or on copying western
innovation? Why?
Text 7D. Southern Comfort, Eastern Promise
The future belongs to science and those who make friends with science,
Jawaharlar Nehru, India?s prime minister, observed. But cutting-edge
research ? is seen largely as the preserve of Europe and America, not something to be found in poor places such as India. Yet India, China and several other
developing countries have shown they can move beyond western imitation
to homegrown innovation in certain fields, such as telecommunications and
information technology. The same is increasingly true of biotechnology,
argues a report just published in Nature Biotechnology by a group at the
University of Toronto. The study looks at the state of medical biotechnology in
six developing countries-Brazil, China, Cuba, Egypt, India and South Africa ?
and one recently industrialised one, South Korea, to understand what it takes to
build a healthy biotech sector. Not only is such development good for
domestic economies, says Peter Singer, director of the Joint Centre for Bioethics
at the University of Toronto, but it can also provide more appropriate and
affordable solutions to health-care problems in poor countries-diseases and
regions which are not as attractive, or accessible, to western researchers.
Many of the countries studied, which began investing in biotech in the 1980s,
are starting to see the fruits of their labour. The number of scientific papers on
health biotechnology published by researchers in Brazil and Cuba, for
example, more than tripled between 1991 and 2002.
China?s output grew seven-fold. Some of these research is very
advanced indeed .China is making a name for itself in genomics, gene
therapy and stem self research, luring back emigre researchers with the
promise of funding, facilities and fewer qualms about such research than,
say, America. Such high-tech research may seem remote from needs of
poor people dying for lack of vaccines and other basic advances. But the
report finds that the countries surveyed are also taking the lead in research
into local problems. Brazilian scientists, for example, publish extensively
on tropical afflictions, such as Chagas disease. Beyond pure research, and
into development, China and India are increasingly successful at patenting
their biotech discoveries in America, a measure of how innovative, and
15
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
commercialisable, their work has become since the early 1990s, when such
awards were almost non-existent. That this is still a far cry from the
thousands of health-biotech patents awarded to Americans each year is
hardly surprising. Much of the biotech industry in the developing world is
based on copying western innovation. But such generic manufacturing can
be a springboard to more innovative activities.
Essential Vocabulary to Text 7A
although conj
argument n
argue v
assess v
to associate with
available a
to beat to
on behalf IDM
benefit n
to carry out
to be concerned with
cover v
discourage v
encourage v
to engage in
enormous а
favour v
in favour of IDM
meet v
pharmaceutical n
product line n
16
не смотря на то, что; хотя
довод, доказательство
убеждать, утверждать, приводить доводы, доказывать
оценивать
соединять, связывать
имеющийся в наличии
обгонять, перегонять, оказаться быстрее
от лица, от имени
преимущество, привилегия, польза
выполнять
касаться, иметь отношение, затрагивать
покрывать, охватывать
мешать, препятствовать
поощрять, поддерживать
заниматься
огромный
благоприятствовать, содействовать
в пользу
удовлетворять, отвечать, соответствовать
фармацевтический препарат
ассортимент изделий
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
prosperity n
to regard as
require v
restriction n
to slow down
to steal a march
substantial a
undertake v
to wait around (for)
процветание, успех
рассматривать, считать
требовать, нуждаться, испытывать необходимость
ограничение
снизить темп, уменьшить, замедлить
перехватить приоритет, добиться преимущества
значительный, большой
предпринимать, брать на себя
поджидать
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
UNIT 8
Infinitive. Forms and functions
Too+adjective + infinitive; adjective + enough + infinitive
Phrasal verbs: come up with; fill in; look at; take on; turn down; turn out
Exercises
1. Translate the sentences paying attention to the use of the
Infinitive.
1. To increase productivity in manufacturing usually means
decreasing man-hours, energy and capital. 2. It is rare to find a British
manager fluent in a foreign language. 3. To improve communication
between companies and their clients means to give to the clients access to
any work that is in progress. 4. To raise capital requires extensive analysis
of the market and competitors. 5. One of the first tasks will be to issue
shares and place them on the stock market. 6. The basic requirement is to
calculate the costs for producing these components. 7. One way to get
information about customers is to stop people in the street and ask
questions. 8. The purpose of the meeting this morning is to discuss some
important issues. 9. The aim of market researchers is to find true
information about customers? needs. 10. To become a consultant one must
have many years of experience in this field. 11. Mr. C. was the first
chairman of the company to lead it to bankruptcy (разорение). 12. One of
the most crucial (очень важный) problems to be solved by the PR
department is how to handle (справиться) negative publicity. 13. Teletext
was the first product of the information technology revolution to have a
mass market. 14. An important thing to determine in marketing is that
18
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
demand is not the same as desire or need. 15. The topics to be discussed at
the conference to be held in London will include the mortgage (ипотека)
crisis and financial difficulty. 16. In order to remain competitive the
company didn?t raise prices. 17. In order to keep wage levels low firms
dismiss their older workers and hire younger, healthier people. 18. To
analyze the piles of experimental materials big staffs of researchers have
become necessary.
2. Translate the sentences which contain various forms of the
Infinitive.
1. It is important for a company to offer and to be offered new
prospects on the market. 2. Some developing countries hoped to have done
high-tech research, but they didn?t have enough investment. 3. We didn?t
mean to have taken significant risks, but we had to. 4. We intended to have
produced this new device, but our competitors were the first to come up
with it. 5. The staff meeting is to be held in September. 6. We expected to
have progressed on the market, but couldn?t do that. 7. Our firm feels
happy to have been awarded with the prize.
3. Choose the correct forms of the Gerund or the Infinitive.
1. They advised the company setting/ to set up an online auction.
2. Can we meet in order speaking/ to speak about distribution? 3. We need
to be good at innovating/ to innovate to retain customers. 4. It?s essential
investing/ to invest in new projects. 5. I suggest evaluating/ to evaluate our
website immediately.6. The product is so popular that it?s difficult
meeting/ to meet the demand.7. I?ve managed negotiating/ to negotiate a
better deal. 8. Have you decided taking over/ to take over another
business? 9. We look forward to buying/ buy services on line.
10. Customers do not always expect paying/ to pay for online services.
11. People are used to getting/ to get advice free over the internet.
12. Being/ to be successful, internet service markets have to overcome
cultural barriers.
4. Match the sentences on the left with the sentences on the right.
1. The first priority of the company
2. At Deltefone staff are
encouraged
a) to improve management and
employ qualified staff.
b) in order to survive in the
future.
19
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
3. Customers expects
4. We have to solve these issues
quickly
5. To be successful on the market is
6. Your intention needs a lot of
advertising
c) to put themselves into
customer?s shoes.
d) is to ensure that customers
receive bills on time.
e) to be answered in a matter of
hours.
f) to help promote sales.
5. Translate into English paying attention to the Infinitive in
different functions.
1. Эта фирма тратит весь свой доход на рекламу, чтобы привлечь
новых покупателей. 2. Эти проблемы слишком сложны, чтобы обсуждать их сейчас. 3. Мексика начала переговоры, чтобы стать членом
таможенного союза. 4. Чтобы получить ответы на эти вопросы, были
проведены специальные исследования. 5. Увеличение двусторонней
торговли выгодно для обеих сторон. 6. Стало популярным сравнивать достижения двух крупнейших стран в мире. 7. Интересно наблюдать, как люди используют интернет для того, чтобы сделать покупки. 8. Иметь знания о потребностях покупателя ? значит иметь
преимущество для развития продаж. 9. Цель модернизации производства ? сделать работу более легкой. 10. Одна из главных задач этого
года состоит в том, чтобы увеличить производительность труда.
11. Первым шагом в управлении является планирование того, что необходимо сделать. 12. Конечной задачей любого промышленного
предприятия является получение прибыли. 13. Обязанность менеджера ? оценить разные варианты и выбрать подходящий. 14. Моя
функция состояла в том, чтобы создать лучшие условия для тех, кто
работает в нашей организации.
6. Translate into English.
1. Если вы хотите вернуть свои затраты, конкуренты не должны
иметь продукт, подобный вашему. 2. Рассмотрев технические характеристики этого изделия, можно сказать, что оно является новейшим
достижением компьютерной технологии. 3. Новое устройство оказалось очень успешным. Его использование в промышленности решит
многие проблемы. 4. Легко предвидеть, какие факторы следует принять во внимание, говоря о защите компьютерной технологии.
5. Продавая совершенно новый товар, вы берете на себя значитель20
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
ные риски, так как не знаете, хорошо или плохо он будет продаваться.
6. Мое заявление в патентное бюро было отклонено. Мне придется
предоставить доказательства, что я первым изобрел данный прибор.
7. Я не уверен, хотим ли мы продолжать продавать этот товар, когда
нам грозит судебный иск. 8. Разные законы иностранных государств
затрудняют защиту изобретений. Кроме того, гонорары адвокатов
очень высоки.
Read and translate the text using Essential Vocabulary and any
necessary dictionary.
Text 8A. Protection of Ideas
If a business or an individual generates a new type of business
activity, it is commonly agreed that there should be some method for
preventing others copying the activity for a period of time.
This will allow the innovator to recover his or her costs and to be
rewarded for a good idea. Quite often, the idea does not result in a
profitable activity, but at least the opportunity has been given. In many
cases, protection is sought to prevent a competitor from developing a
design along similar lines and not to enable the innovator to gain a reward
from it. Obtaining protection is often too expensive and the legal costs
involved in stopping imitators are even more expensive.
Protecting Designs
In this section we will examine methods to be used for protecting
workable ideas which are produced for commercial exploitation rather
than works by artists or craftsmen, which are produced in very limited
quantity. The idea could be a new invention, or a new way of designing an
item in terms of shape.
The general principle regarding protection is that designers who have
spent time in developing something which is new and valuable, and who
have also taken significant risks, should be given protection from illegal
copying for a reasonable time period. Laws have existed for many years in
most industrialized countries to give this protection. However, different
countries have different ways of sorting out problems interpreting and
applying the laws, which makes international protection extremely
difficult and very costly.
21
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
The rapid rise of technology, especially in the area of computer
technology, has resulted in designs which were not envisaged and taken
into account when the laws were formulated. For example, the protection
of computer programs is not clearly stated in many countries.
The European Community members are working closely with each
other to standardize protection systems, but even within this trading group
significant differences exist.
Patent Protection
A patent may be granted to an inventor of a new idea which relates to a
specified method of manufacture or a workable product.
Let us assume that you have invented a new type of thin tubular
plastic ladder which obtains its rigidity by being inflated using an ordinary
bicycle pump. You feel that there is a commercial opportunity in this idea
and after you have made a successful working model you want to obtain
the benefit of any sales, either by making the product yourself, or by selling
the ?rights? to an existing manufacturer. You want to prevent anyone else
from exploiting the idea without your consent.
Initially you must apply to the Patent Office for a patent, before any
details of the invention are made public. Normally the services of a
professional patent agent will be used to help prepare the design details and
drawings for the patent application. The Patent Office carries out a
preliminary search to see if you have come with a new idea. This will allow
interested people to see what it is you have invented, and to comment on
the validity of the application. If there is no objection and you want to
proceed further, you will then instruct the Patent Office to undertake a
major examination. This will look at all the technical features of the
application, and if this is successful, a patent will be granted. It could take
up to two years or more to reach this stage from the initial date of
application.
The patent gives you a monopoly right to the design for a maximum
period of twenty years, during which time no-one else may produce the
design without your permission.
If your inflatable ladder turns out to be a commercial success, there is
little doubt that others will try to copy your idea, by making something
which is very near, but not identical, to your product. Your best course of
action would be to try to reach commercial relationship with the imitator if
it is a large, well-known organization. This is because the cost of defending
22
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
your patent would be extremely expensive even if you were to win your
legal action.
Registered Design
Let us assume that your inflatable ladder was not the great innovative
idea you imagined. Say your patent application was turned down because
someone produced evidence to show that an inflatable ladder similar to
yours was exhibited at a trade exhibition in the early 1920s.
However, all is not lost. You realize that your ladder has a very
distinctive shape, not dictated by the basic function of being a ladder. For
example, your ladder has holes cut into a long, thin rectangular shape to
provide foot and hand holds, rather than cross ties. You may be able to
apply for a Design Registration.
In order to register your design you have to go through some
procedures, the same procedure as a patent application, although you now
apply to the Designs Registry in London. If the design is confirmed to be
?novel?, a certificate is issued to protect your design from being copied for
a period of up to fifteen years.
Copyright
Assume that your inflatable ladder needs quite a lot of advertising to
help promote sales, and that you produce a video film to show how the
ladder is transported, inflated and used, Your video, being an original
?work of art?, is automatically copyright.
This also applies to any catalogue information, or any other product of
your own creation, such as photographs of the ladder. There are no fees to
pay or forms to fill in.
Copyright protection applies at once, whether you make one or many
copies. Although copyright of literary works lasts for fifty years after the
death of the author, engineering drawings have a lower protection period
with a minimum of fifteen years from the date of publication.
Exercises
1. Answer the questions to the text.
1. Why is it necessary to protect inventions? 2. What kind of ideas
needs to be protected? 3. What is the general principle of protecting
23
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
designs? 4. What are the difficulties concerning protection of new
workable ideas? 5. What is meant by standardizing protection systems?
6. Who is the patent granted to? 7. What is the Patent Office responsible
for? 8. How long does it usually take to investigate technical feature of the
application? 9. For how many years will the patent be valid? 10. Why is it
recommended that the inventor reach agreement with the firm-imitator?
11. What should you do if your application is turned down? 12. What is
copyright? Give examples.
2. Which of the following sentences are not true according to
Text 8A?
1. Protecting a new design won?t require from the inventor a lot of
costs. 2. Artists and craftsmen will need the same amount of time and
money as designers to protect their ideas. 3. New and valuable designs
usually get protection for a definite period of time. 4. Every country has its
own laws of giving patents to inventors, which makes it difficult to apply
such laws internationally. 5.The first examination of a new product is
performed in the Design Registration Office. 6. If a person holds the
copyright on his/her invention, that doesn?t mean that other people must
ask their permission to use it. 7. New engineering designs have the same
protection period as literary works. 8. Defending your patent may cost you
a lot of money.
3. Match the verb with its definition.
1. look at
2. take into account
3. turn out
4. fill in
5. turn down
6. take on
7. sort out
8. come up with
9. recover costs
10. gain
24
(a) complete a form by writing.
(b) obtain or win smth.
(c) find or produce smth.
(d) consider facts when making a decision.
(e) study, examine closely.
(f) to organize smth in a satisfactory way.
(g) get back the amount of money you have
spent.
(h) refuse to consider a proposal.
(i) to have a particular quality, appearance
etc.
(j) happen in a particular way.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
4. Combine each of the following pairs of sentences into one
sentence using too/ enough with Infinitive.
1. Our company is very small. We won?t be able to make much profit.
2. The risks are significant. We can?t take them. 3. The productivity is very
high. We are going to expand our business. 4. Don?t open a bank account
now. It is difficult. 5. Becky is clever. She imports and sells model houses.
It is profitable. 6. Our business isn?t successful. We can?t employ four
more members of staff. 7. The competition is intense. It is hard to find new
markets. 8. She is wealthy. She is willing to help us financially. 9. The
lighting in the office is low. It is impossible to work hard.
5. Translate sentences with phrasal verbs.
1. There is a crisis at the office and they need me to sort it out. 2. The
system has broken down. It will take days to sort it out. 3. We need to sort
out these papers. 4. Our manager sorted out our problems and everything is
fine now. 5. She turned down the job offer because she didn?t want to work
shifts. 6. The sales manager came up with a new idea for increasing sales.
7. We took on extra staff last summer. 8. At the meeting we looked at the
problem of copyright protection. 9. Our new product turned out to be very
successful. 10. A patent is granted to an inventor who comes out with a
new product.
Read the text and answer the questions.
1. What kind of store is Harrods? 2. Do you know where Benidorm
is? Is it a big town? 3. Why do you think that Harrods of Knightsbrige is
particularly concerned to take legal action in this case? 4. What are the
advantages and disadvantages for the Spanish disco in adopting the
Harrods name?
Text 8B. The Harrods Case
Harrods of Knightsbridge, the top people?s store, has been enraged by
a favourite nightspot (ночной клуб) for Britons on holiday on the Spanish
Costa Blanca. Harrods of Benidorm has not only taken on the
world-famous name of the exclusive London store where the Queen is a
customer. It has also ?borrowed? the colours of the classic green and gold
logo and the same lettering. The sign flashes in bright yellow lights
between the high-rise budget holiday hotels of Benidorm dirty and
25
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
unpleasant Bincon de Loix area. The district has none of the gentility of
noisy Knightsbridge. It is where noisy tourists gather for cut price beer and
all-night happy hours, fish and chips.
Harrods of London is not amused. The large store jealously guards its
symbol. In the past the store has restrained various offenders, including a
Harrods mail-order firm in Colchester, a Harrods furniture dealer in
Clapham and even a Harrods restaurant 12,000 miles away in New
Zealand. Michael Cole, a spokesman for Harrods, said: ?We are taking
legal steps through our lawyers in Madrid to prevent this place infringing
our copyright.? Pedro Jurado, Spanish manager of the Benidom Harrods,
is unconcerned. ?I?ve heard nothing about it,? he said, ?why should
Harrods worry us? We are good publicity for them.?
Read Text 8C and answer the questions.
Text 8C. Failure is Glorious
Alberto Alessi transformed his family?s housewares business into a
trendsetting (модный) design giant. His secret: walking the borderline
between success and failure. Because that?s where your next big
breakthrough will come from.
Alessi, 54, has followed that very advice ever since he took the reins
of the family business in 1970. His partnerships with some of the world?s
best designers have transformed this 80-year-old company from
housewares supplier to design leader. But Alessi is just proud of his flops.
It?s the duds that enjoy centre stage in the company?s private museum,
where Alessi?s designers meet weekly to discuss new projects. He has even
published a book of prototypes that never made it to production.
Fortunately, most of the products created by Alessi?s 200 designers
are winners. The Alessi ?dream factory? of 500 workers, which Alberto
runs with brothers Michele and Alessio, has over the past decade raised
sales by around 15 per cent a year, to $100 million today.
Now, having conquered our kitchens, Alessi is looking at our cell
phones, watches and maybe even our cars. How will he do it? By walking
along the border between the ?possible and the not possible?. In an
interview at the Alessi factory he explained how to fail in style.
The area of the ?possible? is the area in which we develop products
that the customer will love and buy. The area of the ?not possible? is
26
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
represented by the new projects that people are not yet ready to understand
or accept. At Alessi, we work as close as we can to the borderline. Because
when we succeed, we give birth to a new product that surprises people and
because it is completely unknown, it doesn?t have any competition ? which
means we can enjoy big margins.
Our industrial organization is very flexible. We have a few
best-sellers that sell more than 100,000 pieces a year, while others sell in
much smaller numbers. In any case, Alessi is not a mass-production
company. It?s a research lab for the applied arts. And that means we have to
experiment a lot. But doing experiments doesn?t just mean doing the
research and making a prototype. It means putting a finished product into
the marketplace.
Our most beautiful fiasco was the Philippe Starck Hot kettle. I didn?t
realise that we had gone too far. Inside the kettle was some complicated but
very intelligent engineering. On the prototypes, it worked well, but when
we produced thousands and thousands, it didn?t work so well. Our
customers seem happy to take risks with us. Customers are much more
progressive than marketing people or retailers think. Society is much more
exciting than just a target market. A target market is a cage where people
try to put society. It bears no relation to what people feel and want.
1. When did Alessi use to sell? 2. What was the advice that Alberto
Alessi followed when he took the reins of the family business? 3. Is Alessi
a mass-production company? What kind of company is it now? 4. Where
is the borderline between success and failure according to Mr. Alessi?
5. How does Mr. Alessi explain their success? 6. What was their favorite
fiasco? 7. How can failure be glorious? 8. How does the company view
their customers? 9. What kind of sell phones, watches and cars could they
produce? 10. Do you agree with the ideas of the last two sentences?
Being an Alessi?s designer what can you say about your company?
Essential Vocabulary
apply v
apply for
come up with
применять
подать заявление
создать
27
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
commonly ad
consent n
copyright n
enable v
enrage v
envisage v
evidence n
inflate v
infringe v
involved a
issue v
fee n
fill in
gain v
gentility n
legal action
look at smth
margin n
preliminary a
proceed v
recover v
restrain v
rigidity n
seek (sought) v
significant a
specify v
sort out
specify v
28
обычно
согласие
авторское право
иметь возможность
злить
предусматривать
доказательство
надувать
нарушать
связанный с чем-л.
выдавать, выпускать
плата, гонорар
заполнить (анкету, бланк)
получить
благовоспитанность
судебный иск
рассматривать, изучать что-л.
прибыль
предварительный
продолжить, пойти дальше
получить обратно, вернуть
выдерживать, сдерживать
жестокость, крепость
искать, добиваться
значительный
точно определить, установить
рассортировывать, улаживать (проблемы), выяснить (вопрос), дисциплинировать (кого-л.)
точно определять, устанавливать
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
stage n
standardize v
take on
tubular a
turn down
turn out
validity n
уровень, стадия, этап
нормализовать
заимствовать, нанимать персонал
трубчатый, полый
отклонить, отказать
отказаться
обоснованность, действительность
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
UNIT 9
Infinitive Constructions. Complex Object, Complex Subject and
For-to-Infinitive Construction
Phrasal verbs: heat up; be aware of; be accused of; succeed in; work up
to; be in competition with; having nothing to do; build up
Exercises
1. Translate the sentences. Comment on the use of Infinitive and
Infinitive Constructions.
1. Many organizations are known to be still exploring the ways of
better using intranets and portals to their full potential. 2. Supporting
events-based processing requires the intranet or portal to provide access to
a number of applications, such as publishing capabilities, database
management and others. 3. It is important for any manager to understand
how to best use a new technology as a potential source of competitive edge.
4. Many organizations are likely to have started to shift the role of their
corporative portal from the communication means to an access point for
business tools and applications. 5. Responsibility for introducing every
new application is unlikely to link with a single group or team. 6. The
productivity benefits are likely to come from the new system to be
implemented. 7. It is for a manager or work flow expert to map out the
impact of different events to the further development of the company.
8. The Employee for Self-Services (ESS) started in 1998 and aimed at
transforming personal management proved to be a hit from the start.
9. This approach is sure to enable employees to select options for flexible
benefits. 10. Allowing people to take charge of their own careers seem to
fit well with the corporate-wide knowledge management goal to ?apply
everywhere what we learn anywhere?. 11. At last a date for negotiations
30
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
was chosen, which proved to be the right one. 12. He found a company he
happens to like and a place where he happens to like living. 13. It can be
cheaper for the company to get certain kinds of service by outsourcing.
14. Economics is likely to be less important than the influence of
non-economic factors. 15. He believed himself to be more intelligent than
his chief and expected everyone to think so.
2. Use Infinitive Constructions instead of subordinate clauses.
1. It is believed that the company will derive numerous benefits from
the project and that the company?s image will probably increase. 2. It is
expected that the close relationship with other companies will have a
positive effect on strategic areas of their development. 3. It is supposed that
the taxes will have increased by the end of the following year. 4. It is
unlikely that the companies will get a lot of offers. 5. It appeared that after a
number of expensive transfer deals small firms had failed to meet the
financial goals. 6. It seems that the competitors will put their prices up.
7. The manager considered that a new operator was unfit for the job
connected with the computer-aided activity. 8. Everybody expected that
the sales department will get the bonus as they had already done a good
deal of job. 9. Most customers in the past believed that design teams were
isolated from financial and manufacturing problems and were not creative
enough. 10. It is known that at last he has found a job in the Civil Service
and understood that it was probably the one he was interested in.
3. Practise the following according to the model.
Model 1. Do you want to attend the conference? No, I want you to
attend it.
Do you want to?
1) organize the reception? ? (he)
2) make the arrangements for the negotiations? ? (they)
3) introduce the speakers? ? (she)
4) speak at the conference first? ? (our top manager)
5) fix a date for the next meeting? ? (you)
Translate the sentences using Model 2.
Model 2. See/hear/feel smb. do smth. ? I saw her cross the street.
1. Вчера на собрании я слышал, как менеджер фирмы несколько
раз упоминал ваше имя среди лучших сотрудников. 2. Я чувствовала,
31
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
что кто-то стоит за моей спиной, но боялась обернуться. 3. Персонал
внимательно следил, как директор фирмы представлял новый проект,
который предстояло выполнить в кратчайшие сроки. 4. Проходя мимо дома моего друга, я увидела, как подъехала машина и из нее вышли двое мужчин и одна женщина. 5. Мы слышали, как кто-то громко
разговаривал в соседней комнате и не слышали, как объявили наш
рейс.
Model 3. It seems that he knows the staff well. He seems to know the
staff well.
1. It happened that the manager was there at that time and was
informed about the accident. 2. It turned out that the results of the audit
were not satisfactory. 3. It seems that they have quite forgotten about their
promises. 4. They say that a newcomer knows some foreign languages.
5. It?s been proven that girls tend to be better at languages than boys.
Model 4. It is important for smb. to do smth.
1. Don?t be late for work. It is important. 2. Don?t waste time. Time is
money. It is recommended. 3. You should learn to set goals. It is necessary.
4. You should ask your supervisor if you need his help. It is useful. 5. You
should not have a romantic relationship with a co-worker. It is advisable.
4. Translate into English, using Infinitive Constructions.
1. Несомненно, что проблема качественной упаковки товара сегодня очень важна. 2. Очевидно, что многие люди испытывают неудобство (suffer) от плохой упаковки, из-за неровной поверхности (wrap
rage). 3. Вряд ли администрации приятно выслушивать критику со стороны покупателей. 4. Оказалось, что управляющий фирмой не будет
принимать участия в конференции. 5. Он, похоже, пользовался устаревшими сведениями, и вопрос был слишком неожиданным, чтобы он
мог на него ответить. 6. Ему ничего не оставалось делать, как передать
решение вопроса заведующему отделом «Упаковочные товары».
7. Считается, что фирма отвечает за людей, работающих на нее, но по
контракту с фирмой ты сам ответствен за создание своей карьеры внутри организации. 8. Журнал «Экономист» предполагает, что внутренние цены во Франции побили рекордный уровень. 9. Все ожидали, что
биржи стран ослабят (loose) законодательные акты, чтобы привлечь заграничный капитал. 10. Вряд ли мы встретим нашего директора на
конференции. Похоже, он еще не вернулся из командировки.
32
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Read and Translate the text using Essential Vocabulary and any
necessary dictionary.
Text 9A. The Competitive Structure of the Industry
A major external influence on businesses is the other firms that
comprise their industry and are in direct competition with them. This might
be the one-person business down the road or the enormous multinational
which dominates the market for particular goods or service.
There is a system of classification for market structures, broadly
according to the number of firms within the market, but also influenced by
other factors. The main classifications are:
? рerfect competition,
? оligopoly,
? monopoly.
The term perfect competition is used to describe a market structure
where competition is supposedly to be ?perfectly fair?. That is, no single
firm has a competitive advantage. Consider the case of vegetable
producers. Vegetables are pretty similar and prices tend to ?bunch? around
a given level. For such competition to be fair, business would all have to be
quite small and unable to dominate the market by setting a price which all
other firms have to follow. In such circumstances, the interaction of supply
and demand sets the price and all firms set their own prices approximately
equal to this. Such firs are said to be price takers.
Firms in perfectly competitive markets sell similar, if not identical,
products and this further limits their freedom in setting prices.
If their product is similar to that of their rivals, then a price rise is likely
to result in a very high proportion of sales being lost. Indeed, in the extreme
case where the products are identical, and the customer has full knowledge
of this, all sales could be lost following an independent price rise.
This type of market is supposed to have a large number of buyers of
whom few, if any, purchase large quantities of the product. Most of the
competing businesses are aware of one another?s prices and products,
which enables them to match their rival?s products and compete on an
even basis.
In some situations, many small firms might compete but by selling
significantly different products. This type of market is classified as being
33
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
monopolistically competitive. This title is rather confusing. It has nothing
to do with monopoly, which entails just one producer in a market.
The monopolistically competitive market has most of the features of a
competitive market, except that the product is differentiated which allows
more freedom in setting prices. Examples of monopolistically competitive
industries might be the fashion industry, with many small design firms
producing differentiated and leisure facilities through sports centres and
clubs.
Competition in these types of market can be very fierce. Firms seek to
build up a group of satisfied customers who they hope will continue to
patronize their business. Word of mouth and reputation play a critical
competitive role in these markets. Because of this, the quality of the good
or service that they provide has to be consistently good. One poor product
or piece of work can ruin years of quality provision.
In many cases, the firms are aiming at just a local market and their
promotional work reflects that. A small promotional budget restricts their
ability to advertise and the possibilities of gaining additional customers.
Oligopoly
An oligopolistic market structure exists when there are few, relatively
large suppliers within an industry. Indeed, the word ?oligopoly? derives
from the Greek term ?oligoi?, meaning ?a few?. In these circumstances,
they are very conscious of one another and shape their actions towards the
likely resposes of their rivals. Thus, before an oligopolistic firm settles
upon a price rise it will have considered carefully, amongst other factors,
how its competitors may react. Will they also raise their prices or are they
likely to hold their prices down and strongly advertise the price
differentiation? This likely reaction will be an important factor shaping the
final decision on the price rise.
This type of market structure is becoming increasingly common in
developed economies as product and services become more technical and
complex to research, design and produce, and require larger business to
produce them and compete in the market-place.
Markets with a few large producers can be highly competitive, but are
not always so. Such competitive oligopolistic markets are characterized by
some or all of the following:
34
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
? frequent price changes,
? high levels of promotion,
? substantial investment in research and development, leading to a
high rate of technical innovation of products.
By looking at adverts in the media you should be able to see that
industries such as tobacco, daily newspapers and household detergents fall
into this category.
However, another type of oligopolistic market exists ? one that is less
competitive. Many oligopolistic firms fear a price war. Firms who engage
in such wars cannot be sure that they will win. They do not know the exact
resources that their rivals possess. Nor do they know the level of
commitment of the opposing management team to winning such a war.
Such uncertainty can kill competition in these markets. As a result, prices
in some industries move together as competitors seek to avoid starting a
price war. Prices tend to be stable with competition confined to quality and
promotional issues. It is because of this that the petrol retail industry is
frequently accused of lacking a competitive edge. Similar charges have, at
times, been levied at the high street banks.
The trend towards oligopoly has significant implications. It can lead
to intense competition, which is in the consumer?s interest since it
promotes lower prices and encourages technical innovation. Such competitive firms may also succeed in international markets, offering
employment and prosperity to the areas in which they are sited. However,
not all firms will be successful and, inevitably, some firms in a competitive
market will go to the wall.
Alternatively, a less competitive oligopolistic market offers the
consumer a less attractive deal s i n c e prices may be higher and products
less advanced. However, the less competitive market may protect jobs and
generally provide more certa inty.
Monopoly
Theoretically, a firm is a monopoly if it has no competition ? that is, if
it is the only firm in the industry.
There are a few examples of monopolies in the UK. Some, like British
Gas, are privately owned public limited companies following privatization.
Others remain in the public sector ? the Post Office is an example. The law
gives it the sole right to deal with certain categories of mail.
35
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Initially, it may appear that monopolies do not have to bother to
compete since they are, in effect, the industry. However, this is not true.
If we consider further the example of British Gas it has to compete
against firms in other industries. Thus British Gas competes against
electricity and coal in the domestic heating market. Interestingly, both of
these industries are also monopolies! Consumers and producers can
substitute either of these two fuels for gas and so British Gas must ensure
that it remains competitive against such close rivals. Most goods and
services have substitutes ? these are products to which consumers switch
when the price of the original product rises, its quality falls or some other
similar factor reduces demand. British Gas advertises so as to attract
customers away from other fuels. Imagine a builder about to construct an
estate of one hundred houses. This would represent a significant market
for, say, the local electricity board and oil suppliers as well as British
Gas. It is the market made up of new houses, offices and factories that
coal, electricity and oil provide the sharpest competition for British Gas.
They all compete fiercely for this business. Existing users are unlikely to
switch to new systems without major cause because of the high costs
involved.
Exercises
1. Answer the questions to the text.
1. What factors influence the system of classification for market
structures? List them. 2. How could you describe a market with ?perfect
competition?? 3. In what circumstances are firms known to be
price-takers? 4. What will happen if the products of firms are similar?
5. What enables a business to match their products and compete on the
even basis with their rivals? 6. What does the term ?monopolistically
competitive market? mean? 7. What is the most important factor a
competitive market should follow? 8. What is the word ?oligopoly? derived
from? 9. What does an oligopolic firm do before setting upon a price rise?
10. In what economics is oligopoly mostly common? Give examples.
11. Why does the trend to oligopoly have significant applications?
12. When is a firm considered to be a monopoly? Give some examples of
monopolistic firms.
36
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
2. Choose the correct phrasal verb in an appropriate form to
complete each sentence. Translate the sentences into Russian.
(to heat up; to be aware of; to build up; to be accused of; to succeed in;
to work up to; to be in competition with; to have nothing to do)
1. Some oligopolistic firms may ? international markets, but they
are less competitive in the local ones. 2. The petrol retail industry ?
frequently ? lacking a competitive edge (острие, накал). 3. Even the
one person business which comprises its own industry can ? others.
4. A small firm should ? constantly ? prices and products of other
firms to match them. 5. Such small firms are always laying ? reliable
customs to patronize their business. 6. Not all firms can be successful,
some of them are inevitably forced ? seeking new technologies to stay
on the market. 7. Every businessman knows that monopolistically
competitive market ? nothing ? with monopoly where just one
producer is in the market. 8. In some countries, notably America, France,
Sweden, the property market is still building up small family firms into
multinational companies.
3. Match the parts of the sentences in column A with those in
column B to produce true sentences according to the text. Translate
them.
1. The term perfect competition
describes ?
2. Businesses would all have to be
unable to dominate the market
by setting a price ?
3. When firms set their own
prices, approximately equal to
the interaction and demands ?
4. In the case when the product is
identical to that of their
rivals ?
5. In situations when small firms
can compete selling a different
product ?
(a) ? they can be considered
to be monopolistically
competition.
(b) ? which is in consumer?s
interest since it is likely to
promote lower prices and
technical innovation.
(c) ? so the British Gas is sure
to attract customers from
other fuels by advertising or
other means.
(d) ? because they are not sure
to win it.
(e) ? a market structure where
competition is supposedly to
be ?perfectly fair?.
37
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
6. Many oligopolistic firms fear a
price war ?
7. Oligopoly can lead to
increasing competition ?
8. A firm is considered to be a
monopoly ?
9. Most goods and services have
substitutes ?
10. When the customer has full
knowledge of goods identity ?
(f) ? all sales are supposed to
follow an independent price
rise.
(g) ? they are said to be price
takers.
(h) ? for the competition to be
fair.
(i) ? if it is the only firm in the
industry and has no
competition.
(j) ? then a price rise is likely to
result in a very high losses of
sales.
4. Give the definitions to the following expressions.
1) to be unable to dominate
(a) to compete with energy and
strong feelings.
2) competitive market
(b) to fail because of financial
difficulties.
3) monopolistically competitive
(c) impossibility to control smth.
or smb. or to have more
importance.
4) word of mouth and reputation
(d) firms with equal opportunity
to set their own prices similar
to others.
5) oligopoly means
(e) selling similar and sometimes
identical products.
6) the likely responses of the
rivals
(f) the similar actions (reaction)
of the competitors.
7) the level of commitment
(g) to have products similar to or
related in some way used
instead of usual ones.
8) to offer a less attractive deal
(h) is one of the last ways of
getting business.
9) to bother to compete
(i) is used to describe situations
in which businesses are trying
very hard to be more
successful than others.
38
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
10) to have substitutes
(j) the control of all or most of
a business activity by very
few companies.
11) to compete fiercely
(k) the measured amount of
something that you have
promised you will do or have
to do.
12) to go to the wall
(l) to feel worried, to be
frightened, to be upset to do
something.
5. Translate into English using Infinitive Constructions.
1. Честная конкурентоспособность, вероятно, возможна там, где
одна фирма не устанавливает собственную цену, которой другие
фирмы вынуждены следовать. 2. Чтобы небольшая фирма могла соперничать, ей необходимо продавать совершенно другой продукт.
Такая фирма известна как монополистически конкурирующая. 3. Такая фирма (монополистически конкурирующая), несомненно, имеет
большую свободу в установлении цен. 4. Что касается фирм-олигополий, они внимательно следят за своими соперниками, прежде чем
повысить цену. 5. Считают, что не все олигополии успешны, некоторые из них, оказывается, разоряются из-за финансовых трудностей.
6. Случилось так, что олигополистический рынок стал привлекательным в развитых странах благодаря внедрению инноваций в оборудование и техническое обслуживание. 7. Маловероятно, что фирмы с
малым бюджетом имеют большие возможности начать широкую рекламную кампанию. 8. Потребители любой продукции хотят, чтобы
цены падали. 9. Для того чтобы цены падали, необходима тщательно
выработанная долгосрочная стратегия увеличения продукции и усовершенствования технологии. 10. Оказалось, что фирмы-соперники
стремятся устанавливать общие со своими конкурентами цены, боясь
ценовых войн. 11. Кажется, что монополии не должны бояться конкуренции. 12. Теоретически считается, что монополия ? это фирма, которая полностью управляет бизнес-деятельностью, и другие фирмы
не могут конкурировать с ней. 13. Известно, что британская фирма
British Gas конкурирует с электро-, а также угольной промышленностью, которые считаются монополиями в промышленности. 14. По39
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
требители хотят, чтобы появились заменители топлива, так как цена
на естественную продукцию повышается. 15. Они рассчитывают, что
British Gas обеспечит их такими товарами и услугами.
Read the text and answer the questions. Guess the meanings of the
following terms: over-capacity, recession, seat-only deals.
1. Why do you think that Mr. Newbold considers chasing market
share to be ?folly?? 2. Why might oligopolistic firms fear a price war?
3. What does a great holiday over-capacity mean for the holiday
companies?
Text 9B. Holiday Price War
Thomson Holidays has stepped up the holiday price war with a
declaration yesterday that it is prepared to sell Mediterranean packages from
Ј99 throughout the peak summer period.
The continuing recession and an estimated overcapacity of one million
package holidays has meant that holiday companies have all had to make
large price cuts in order to maintain sales.
Charles Newbold, Thomson managing director, described it as ?an
undignified scramble? for the late-booking holidaymaker.
Thomson, Britain?s biggest operator, has been offering European
packages from Ј99 and holidays to Florida from Ј199 rather than cut
capacity. With a one-third share of the package holiday business, the
company is anxious to maintain its lead over its rivals, Airtours and
Owners Abroad.
The present over-capacity follows the collapse last year of ILG, which
was the second-biggest operator. The major operators, including Thomson,
increased the number of holidays they offered this year in the hope of picking
up former ILG customers. To sell all the extra holidays made available, the
package holiday market would this summer have to increase by 20 per cent.
But at the moment it looks as if demand will remain the same as last year.
As a result tour operators are desperately cutting prices. Seat-only deals
to Palma, Malaga and other Mediterranean destinations are widely available
during May from Thomson and other operators from as little as Ј59.
Mr. Newbold said that the battle for business this summer is certain to
result in casualties: ?This is the folly of operators chasing market share. It is
the return of the lemming syndrome.?
40
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Read the text and answer the questions. Guess the meanings of the
following words: health-conscious, over-the-counter drug, psychological addition.
1. What company is known to be one of the major players in the nicotine
market and why? 2. What company is an Elan?s distributer in the USA?
3. Where (list the companies) has Elan product been doing great business?
Text 9C. Smokeless Elan Steams on
While tobacco stocks continue to prosper as the smoking habit
spreads through developing countries, a new class of stock is booming as
health-conscious westerners turn to pharmaceutical aids in their battle to
give up smoking.
One commentator suggested recently that a system to satisfy the
physical craving for nicotine while the smoker fights the psychological
addiction could become the fastest-growing pharmaceutical product
ever.
Industry sources think the prediction is a little over the top, but it still
suggests plenty of excitement ahead for Elan Corporation, a little-known
Irish company which, with its nicotine patches, is one of the major players
in the market.
Elan is much smaller than its rivals, which are giant US
corporations. So its success could have a much greater impact on future
profitability.
An unusual feature of the market is that three nicotine-delivery
products have won approval and been launched in the US in close
succession.
After Ciba Geigy came Marion Merrill Dow in December and then
Elan in February.
It would be a mistake to imagine that Elan is a long-odds outsider,
despite the power of the opposition.
Its distributor in the US is a company called Lederle, which is a
subsidiary of a mighty US corporation called American Cyanamid.
Sales arc already off to a flying start, with shipments to date of more
than four million 24-hour patches in weekly packages of seven with a sales
value of over $12m.
Like its rivals. Elan is also addressing the global market. The product
has been doing great business in Ireland for 18 months and is now on sale
41
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
in South Korea and Italy, where it is sold without prescription as an
over-the-counter drug. Approval has recently been received for Germany,
Denmark and Greece, with others expected shortly, though no date has vet
been set for the UK.
Read the text and answer the questions. Guess the meanings of the
following words: tracking device, car-theft victims, electronic-trip wire,
length and breadth.
1. How can a computer chip installed in the car help the police?
2. How will a control center monitor a car position? 3. What is the
necessity of installing the system caused by?
Text 9D. Aspirin-Sized Bug Gives Car Thieves a Headache
The James-Bond-style tracking device that distraught car-theft
victims have always dreamed of can now finally be theirs. A computer chip
available to French motorists for installation in their cars will alert police to
its location anywhere in the country ? should it ever have the misfortune of
being driven away illegally.
The device is a revolution in the war against car crime, now at
epidemic levels throughout Europe. From May, when the system goes live,
an electronic tripwire will stretch the length and breadth of France,
enabling monitors in a control centre to fix a ?hot? car?s position as it
crosses its beam. Eventually, say the system?s backers there is no reason
why the network should not extend across the continent.
All an owner has to do is secrete the transmitter, no bigger than an
aspirin, somewhere about the vehicle: in the roof lining, under the carpet or
in the bodywork. The chip carries encoded details of the car?s identity,
which are only activated once the owner reports the car stolen. Then it
squawks like an airliner transponder, enabling the car?s progress to be
monitored.
Electronic beacons have been installed at secret strategic points along
France?s autoroutes, near frontier crossings, ports and airports. Some
270,000 cars were stolen in France last year and 15,000 of those were
?exported?. The pattern is disturbingly similar in other countries.
The chip costs Ffr250 ($45) to install with a yearly Ffr530 ($96)
premium to the firm which developed it.
42
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Essential Vocabulary to Text 9A
addiction n
alert v
beacon n
bother v
bunch v
capacity n
competence n
comprise v
confine v
destination
enormous
entail v
estate n
estimate v
except
facilities n
fierce ad
inevitably adv
lack n
levy v
match v
particular adv (good, service)
pretty adv
prediction n
склонность к чему-л.
предупреждать об опасности
предостережение, сигнал
беспокоить, надоедать
группироваться, сбиваться в кучу
емкость, вместимость
компетентность, умение
вмещать, охватывать
ограничивать, придерживаться
чего-л.
место назначения, цель
громадный, огромный
отдавать себе полный отчет в
чем-л.
имущество, поместье, имение
оценивать, составлять смету
за исключением, исключая
льготы, благоприятные условия,
оборудование, средства обслуживания
свирепый, неистовый
неизбежно
недостаток, отсутствие
взимать налог, облагать налогом
сочетать, соответствовать
данный, особый, частный
довольно, достаточно
прогноз, предсказание
43
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
promotional (issues)
recession n
restrict v
rival n
seek v
sole adj
substitute v
содействие в продвижении товара, продвижение по службе
перерыв; период времени, когда
дела в бизнесе идут плохо
ограничивать
конкурент, соперник
искать, разузнавать
единственный, исключительный
замещать, делать что-то новое
взамен
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
ЛИТЕРАТУРА
Аникин А.В. Англо-русский словарь по экономике и финансам.
СПб.: Эконом. шк., 1993.
Courtney R. Longman Dictionary of Phrasal Verbs. Harlow: Londman Group Limited, 1998.
Gadsby A. Longman Business English Dictionary. Harlow: Pearson
Education Limited, 2001.
Hornby A.S. Oxford Advanced Learner?s Dictionary. Oxford
University Press, 2005.
Surridge M., Bushell T., Gunn P. The Business Environment. London:
Collins Educational Ltd, 1994.
Периодические издания
The Economist. London, 2004?2005.
45
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
CONTENTS
Предисловие . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3
Unit 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4
Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Text 7A. Research and Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Text 7B. Product Development at Cafbury . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Text 7C. By the Bucket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Text 7D. Southern Comfort, Eastern Promise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Essenfial Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4
8
9
12
14
15
16
Unit 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18
Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Text 8A. Protection of Ideas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exersises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Text 8B. The Harrods Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Text 8C. Failure in Glorious . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Essential Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18
21
23
25
26
27
Unit 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
30
Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Text 9A. The Competitive Structure of the Industry . . . . . . . . . .
Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Text 9B. Holiday Price War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Text 9C. Smokelen Elan steam on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Text 9D. Aspirin-sized Bug Gives Car Thieves a Headache . . . .
30
33
36
40
41
42
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Учебное издание
Иванова Людмила Андреевна
Кузнецова Тамара Ильинична
Савина Татьяна Тихоновна
Обучение чтению
экономической литературы
на английском языке
Часть 3
Корректор Л.Н. Петрова
Компьютерная верстка И.А. Марковой
Подписано в печать 25.09.2009. Формат 60ґ 84/16.
Усл. печ. л. 2,79. Тираж 300 экз. Изд № 29. Заказ
Издательство МГТУ им. Н.Э. Баумана.
Типография МГТУ им. Н.Э. Баумана.
105005, Москва, 2-я Бауманская ул., д. 5.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Для заметок
papers on
health biotechnology published by researchers in Brazil and Cuba, for
example, more than tripled between 1991 and 2002.
China?s output grew seven-fold. Some of these research is very
advanced indeed .China is making a name for itself in genomics, gene
therapy and stem self research, luring back emigre researchers with the
promise of funding, facilities and fewer qualms about such research than,
say, America. Such high-tech research may seem remote from needs of
poor people dying for lack of vaccines and other basic advances. But the
report finds that the countries surveyed are also taking the lead in research
into local problems. Brazilian scientists, for example, publish extensively
on tropical afflictions, such as Chagas disease. Beyond pure research, and
into development, China and India are increasingly successful at patenting
their biotech discoveries in America, a measure of how innovative, and
15
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
commercialisable, their work has become since the early 1990s, when such
awards were almost non-existent. That this is still a far cry from the
thousands of health-biotech patents awarded to Americans each year is
hardly surprising. Much of the biotech industry in the developing world is
based on copying western innovation. But such generic manufacturing can
be a springboard to more innovative activities.
Essential Vocabulary to Text 7A
although conj
argument n
argue v
assess v
to associate with
available a
to beat to
on behalf IDM
benefit n
to carry out
to be concerned with
cover v
discourage v
encourage v
to engage in
enormous а
favour v
in favour of IDM
meet v
pharmaceutical n
product line n
16
не смотря на то, что; хотя
довод, доказательство
убеждать, утверждать, приводить доводы, доказывать
оценивать
соединять, связывать
имеющийся в наличии
обгонять, перегонять, оказаться быстрее
от лица, от имени
преимущество, привилегия, польза
выполнять
касаться, иметь отношение, затрагивать
покрывать, охватывать
мешать, препятствовать
поощрять, поддерживать
заниматься
огромный
благоприятствовать, содействовать
в пользу
удовлетворять, отвечать, соответствовать
фармацевтический препарат
ассортимент изделий
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
prosperity n
to regard as
require v
restriction n
to slow down
to steal a march
substantial a
undertake v
to wait around (for)
процветание, успех
рассматривать, считать
требовать, нуждаться, испытывать необходимость
ограничение
снизить темп, уменьшить, замедлить
перехватить приоритет, добиться преимущества
значительный, большой
предпринимать, брать на себя
поджидать
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
UNIT 8
Infinitive. Forms and functions
Too+adjective + infinitive; adjective + enough + infinitive
Phrasal verbs: come up with; fill in; look at; take on; turn down; turn out
Exercises
1. Translate the sentences paying attention to the use of the
Infinitive.
1. To increase productivity in manufacturing usually means
decreasing man-hours, energy and capital. 2. It is rare to find a British
manager fluent in a foreign language. 3. To improve communication
between companies and their clients means to give to the clients access to
any work that is in progress. 4. To raise capital requires extensive analysis
of the market and competitors. 5. One of the first tasks will be to issue
shares and place them on the stock market. 6. The basic requirement is to
calculate the costs for producing these components. 7. One way to get
information about customers is to stop people in the street and ask
questions. 8. The purpose of the meeting this morning is to discuss some
important issues. 9. The aim of market researchers is to find true
information about customers? needs. 10. To become a consultant one must
have many years of experience in this field. 11. Mr. C. was the first
chairman of the company to lead it to bankruptcy (разорение). 12. One of
the most crucial (очень важный) problems to be solved by the PR
department is how to handle (справиться) negative publicity. 13. Teletext
was the first product of the information technology revolution to have a
mass market. 14. An important thing to determine in marketing is that
18
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
demand is not the same as desire or need. 15. The topics to be discussed at
the conference to be held in London will include the mortgage (ипотека)
crisis and financial difficulty. 16. In order to remain competitive the
company didn?t raise prices. 17. In order to keep wage levels low firms
dismiss their older workers and hire younger, healthier people. 18. To
analyze the piles of experimental materials big staffs of researchers have
become necessary.
2. Translate the sentences which contain various forms of the
Infinitive.
1. It is important for a company to offer and to be offered new
prospects on the market. 2. Some developing countries hoped to have done
high-tech research, but they didn?t have enough investment. 3. We didn?t
mean to have taken significant risks, but we had to. 4. We intended to have
produced this new device, but our competitors were the first to come up
with it. 5. The staff meeting is to be held in September. 6. We expected to
have progressed on the market, but couldn?t do that. 7. Our firm feels
happy to have been awarded with the prize.
3. Choose the correct forms of the Gerund or the Infinitive.
1. They advised the company setting/ to set up an online auction.
2. Can we meet in order speaking/ to speak about distribution? 3. We need
to be good at innovating/ to innovate to retain customers. 4. It?s essential
investing/ to invest in new projects. 5. I suggest evaluating/ to evaluate our
website immediately.6. The product is so popular that it?s difficult
meeting/ to meet the demand.7. I?ve managed negotiating/ to negotiate a
better deal. 8. Have you decided taking over/ to take over another
business? 9. We look forward to buying/ buy services on line.
10. Customers do not always expect paying/ to pay for online services.
11. People are used to getting/ to get advice free over the internet.
12. Being/ to be successful, internet service markets have to overcome
cultural barriers.
4. Match the sentences on the left with the sentences on the right.
1. The first priority of the company
2. At Deltefone staff are
encouraged
a) to improve management and
employ qualified staff.
b) in order to survive in the
future.
19
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
3. Customers expects
4. We have to solve these issues
quickly
5. To be successful on the market is
6. Your intention needs a lot of
advertising
c) to put themselves into
customer?s shoes.
d) is to ensure that customers
receive bills on time.
e) to be answered in a matter of
hours.
f) to help promote sales.
5. Translate into English paying attention to the Infinitive in
different functions.
1. Эта фирма тратит весь свой доход на рекламу, чтобы привлечь
новых покупателей. 2. Эти проблемы слишком сложны, чтобы обсуждать их сейчас. 3. Мексика начала переговоры, чтобы стать членом
таможенного союза. 4. Чтобы получить ответы на эти вопросы, были
проведены специальные исследования. 5. Увеличение двусторонней
торговли выгодно для обеих сторон. 6. Стало популярным сравнивать достижения двух крупнейших стран в мире. 7. Интересно наблюдать, как люди используют интернет для того, чтобы сделать покупки. 8. Иметь знания о потребностях покупателя ? значит иметь
преимущество для развития продаж. 9. Цель модернизации производства ? сделать работу более легкой. 10. Одна из главных задач этого
года состоит в том, чтобы увеличить производительность труда.
11. Первым шагом в управлении является планирование того, что необходимо сделать. 12. Конечной задачей любого промышленного
предприятия является получение прибыли. 13. Обязанность менеджера ? оценить разные варианты и выбрать подходящий. 14. Моя
функция состояла в том, чтобы создать лучшие условия для тех, кто
работает в нашей организации.
6. Translate into English.
1. Если вы хотите вернуть свои затраты, конкуренты не должны
иметь продукт, подобный вашему. 2. Рассмотрев технические характеристики этого изделия, можно сказать, что оно является новейшим
достижением компьютерной технологии. 3. Новое устройство оказалось очень успешным. Его использование в промышленности решит
многие проблемы. 4. Легко предвидеть, какие факторы следует принять во внимание, говоря о защите компьютерной технологии.
5. Продавая совершенно новый товар, вы берете на себя значитель20
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
ные риски, так как не знаете, хорошо или плохо он будет продаваться.
6. Мое заявление в патентное бюро было отклонено. Мне придется
предоставить доказательства, что я первым изобрел данный прибор.
7. Я не уверен, хотим ли мы продолжать продавать этот товар, когда
нам грозит судебный иск. 8. Разные законы иностранных государств
затрудняют защиту изобретений. Кроме того, гонорары адвокатов
очень высоки.
Read and translate the text using Essential Vocabulary and any
necessary dictionary.
Text 8A. Protection of Ideas
If a business or an individual generates a new type of business
activity, it is commonly agreed that there should be some method for
preventing others copying the activity for a period of time.
This will allow the innovator to recover his or her costs and to be
rewarded for a good idea. Quite often, the idea does not result in a
profitable activity, but at least the opportunity has been given. In many
cases, protection is sought to prevent a competitor from developing a
design along similar lines and not to enable the innovator to gain a reward
from it. Obtaining protection is often too expensive and the legal costs
involved in stopping imitators are even more expensive.
Protecting Designs
In this section we will examine methods to be used for protecting
workable ideas which are produced for commercial exploitation rather
than works by artists or craftsmen, which are produced in very limited
quantity. The idea could be a new invention, or a new way of designing an
item in terms of shape.
The general principle regarding protection is that designers who have
spent time in developing something which is new and valuable, and who
have also taken significant risks, should be given protection from illegal
copying for a reasonable time period. Laws have existed for many years in
most industrialized countries to give this protection. However, different
countries have different ways of sorting out problems interpreting and
applying the laws, which makes international protection extremely
difficult and very costly.
21
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
The rapid rise of technology, especially in the area of computer
technology, has resulted in designs which were not envisaged and taken
into account when the laws were formulated. For example, the protection
of computer programs is not clearly stated in many countries.
The European Community members are working closely with each
other to standardize protection systems, but even within this trading group
significant differences exist.
Patent Protection
A patent may be granted to an inventor of a new idea which relates to a
specified method of manufacture or a workable product.
Let us assume that you have invented a new type of thin tubular
plastic ladder which obtains its rigidity by being inflated using an ordinary
bicycle pump. You feel that there is a commercial opportunity in this idea
and after you have made a successful working model you want to obtain
the benefit of any sales, either by making the product yourself, or by selling
the ?rights? to an existing manufacturer. You want to prevent anyone else
from exploiting the idea without your consent.
Initially you must apply to the Patent Office for a patent, before any
details of the invention are made public. Normally the services of a
professional patent agent will be used to help prepare the design details and
drawings for the patent application. The Patent Office carries out a
preliminary search to see if you have come with a new idea. This will allow
interested people to see what it is you have invented, and to comment on
the validity of the application. If there is no objection and you want to
proceed further, you will then instruct the Patent Office to undertake a
major examination. This will look at all the technical features of the
application, and if this is successful, a patent will be granted. It could take
up to two years or more to reach this stage from the initial date of
application.
The patent gives you a monopoly right to the design for a maximum
period of twenty years, during which time no-one else may produce the
design without your permission.
If your inflatable ladder turns out to be a commercial success, there is
little doubt that others will try to copy your idea, by making something
which is very near, but not identical, to your product. Your best course of
action would be to try to reach commercial relationship with the imitator if
it is a large, well-known organization. This is because the cost of defending
22
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
your patent would be extremely expensive even if you were to win your
legal action.
Registered Design
Let us assume that your inflatable ladder was not the great innovative
idea you imagined. Say your patent application was turned down because
someone produced evidence to show that an inflatable ladder similar to
yours was exhibited at a trade exhibition in the early 1920s.
However, all is not lost. You realize that your ladder has a very
distinctive shape, not dictated by the basic function of being a ladder. For
example, your ladder has holes cut into a long, thin rectangular shape to
provide foot and hand holds, rather than cross ties. You may be able to
apply for a Design Registration.
In order to register your design you have to go through some
procedures, the same procedure as a patent application, although you now
apply to the Designs Registry in London. If the design is confirmed to be
?novel?, a certificate is issued to protect your design from being copied for
a period of up to fifteen years.
Copyright
Assume that your inflatable ladder needs quite a lot of advertising to
help promote sales, and that you produce a video film to show how the
ladder is transported, inflated and used, Your video, being an original
?work of art?, is automatically copyright.
This also applies to any catalogue information, or any other product of
your own creation, such as photographs of the ladder. There are no fees to
pay or forms to fill in.
Copyright protection applies at once, whether you make one or many
copies. Although copyright of literary works lasts for fifty years after the
death of the author, engineering drawings have a lower protection period
with a minimum of fifteen years from the date of publication.
Exercises
1. Answer the questions to the text.
1. Why is it necessary to protect inventions? 2. What kind of ideas
needs to be protected? 3. What is the general principle of protecting
23
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
designs? 4. What are the difficulties concerning protection of new
workable ideas? 5. What is meant by standardizing protection systems?
6. Who is the patent granted to? 7. What is the Patent Office responsible
for? 8. How long does it usually take to investigate technical feature of the
application? 9. For how many years will the patent be valid? 10. Why is it
recommended that the inventor reach agreement with the firm-imitator?
11. What should you do if your application is turned down? 12. What is
copyright? Give examples.
2. Which of the following sentences are not true according to
Text 8A?
1. Protecting a new design won?t require from the inventor a lot of
costs. 2. Artists and craftsmen will need the same amount of time and
money as designers to protect their ideas. 3. New and valuable designs
usually get protection for a definite period of time. 4. Every country has its
own laws of giving patents to inventors, which makes it difficult to apply
such laws internationally. 5.The first examination of a new product is
performed in the Design Registration Office. 6. If a person holds the
copyright on his/her invention, that doesn?t mean that other people must
ask their permission to use it. 7. New engineering designs have the same
protection period as literary works. 8. Defending your patent may cost you
a lot of money.
3. Match the verb with its definition.
1. look at
2. take into account
3. turn out
4. fill in
5. turn down
6. take on
7. sort out
8. come up with
9. recover costs
10. gain
24
(a) complete a form by writing.
(b) obtain or win smth.
(c) find or produce smth.
(d) consider facts when making a decision.
(e) study, examine closely.
(f) to organize smth in a satisfactory way.
(g) get back the amount of money you have
spent.
(h) refuse to consider a proposal.
(i) to have a particular quality, appearance
etc.
(j) happen in a particular way.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
4. Combine each of the following pairs of sentences into one
sentence using too/ enough with Infinitive.
1. Our company is very small. We won?t be able to make much profit.
2. The risks are significant. We can?t take them. 3. The productivity is very
high. We are going to expand our business. 4. Don?t open a bank account
now. It is difficult. 5. Becky is clever. She imports and sells model houses.
It is profitable. 6. Our business isn?t successful. We can?t employ four
more members of staff. 7. The competition is intense. It is hard to find new
markets. 8. She is wealthy. She is willing to help us financially. 9. The
lighting in the office is low. It is impossible to work hard.
5. Translate sentences with phrasal verbs.
1. There is a crisis at the office and they need me to sort it out. 2. The
system has broken down. It will take days to sort it out. 3. We need to sort
out these papers. 4. Our manager sorted out our problems and everything is
fine now. 5. She turned down the job offer because she didn?t want to work
shifts. 6. The sales manager came up with a new idea for increasing sales.
7. We took on extra staff last summer. 8. At the meeting we looked at the
problem of copyright protection. 9. Our new product turned out to be very
successful. 10. A patent is granted to an inventor who comes out with a
new product.
Read the text and answer the questions.
1. What kind of store is Harrods? 2. Do you know where Benidorm
is? Is it a big town? 3. Why do you think that Harrods of Knightsbrige is
particularly concerned to take legal action in this case? 4. What are the
advantages and disadvantages for the Spanish disco in adopting the
Harrods name?
Text 8B. The Harrods Case
Harrods of Knightsbridge, the top people?s store, has been enraged by
a favourite nightspot (ночной клуб) for Britons on holiday on the Spanish
Costa Blanca. Harrods of Benidorm has not only taken on the
world-famous name of the exclusive London store where the Queen is a
customer. It has also ?borrowed? the colours of the classic green and gold
logo and the same lettering. The sign flashes in bright yellow lights
between the high-rise budget holiday hotels of Benidorm dirty and
25
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
unpleasant Bincon de Loix area. The district has none of the gentility of
noisy Knightsbridge. It is where noisy tourists gather for cut price beer and
all-night happy hours, fish and chips.
Harrods of London is not amused. The large store jealously guards its
symbol. In the past the store has restrained various offenders, including a
Harrods mail-order firm in Colchester, a Harrods furniture dealer in
Clapham and even a Harrods restaurant 12,000 miles away in New
Zealand. Michael Cole, a spokesman for Harrods, said: ?We are taking
legal steps through our lawyers in Madrid to prevent this place infringing
our copyright.? Pedro Jurado, Spanish manager of the Benidom Harrods,
is unconcerned. ?I?ve heard nothing about it,? he said, ?why should
Harrods worry us? We are good publicity for them.?
Read Text 8C and answer the questions.
Text 8C. Failure is Glorious
Alberto Alessi transformed his family?s housewares business into a
trendsetting (модный) design giant. His secret: walking the borderline
between success and failure. Because that?s where your next big
breakthrough will come from.
Alessi, 54, has followed that very advice ever since he took the reins
of the family business in 1970. His partnerships with some of the world?s
best designers have transformed this 80-year-old company from
housewares supplier to design leader. But Alessi is just proud of his flops.
It?s the duds that enjoy centre stage in the company?s private museum,
where Alessi?s designers meet weekly to discuss new projects. He has even
published a book of prototypes that never made it to production.
Fortunately, most of the products created by Alessi?s 200 designers
are winners. The Alessi ?dream factory? of 500 workers, which Alberto
runs with brothers Michele and Alessio, has over the past decade raised
sales by around 15 per cent a year, to $100 million today.
Now, having conquered our kitchens, Alessi is looking at our cell
phones, watches and maybe even our cars. How will he do it? By walking
along the border between the ?possible and the not possible?. In an
interview at the Alessi factory he explained how to fail in style.
The area of the ?possible? is the area in which we develop products
that the customer will love and buy. The area of the ?not possible? is
26
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
represented by the new projects that people are not yet ready to understand
or accept. At Alessi, we work as close as we can to the borderline. Because
when we succeed, we give birth to a new product that surprises people and
because it is completely unknown, it doesn?t have any competition ? which
means we can enjoy big margins.
Our industrial organization is very flexible. We have a few
best-sellers that sell more than 100,000 pieces a year, while others sell in
much smaller numbers. In any case, Alessi is not a mass-production
company. It?s a research lab for the applied arts. And that means we have to
experiment a lot. But doing experiments doesn?t just mean doing the
research and making a prototype. It means putting a finished product into
the marketplace.
Our most beautiful fiasco was the Philippe Starck Hot kettle. I didn?t
realise that we had gone too far. Inside the kettle was some complicated but
very intelligent engineering. On the prototypes, it worked well, but when
we produced thousands and thousands, it didn?t work so well. Our
customers seem happy to take risks with us. Customers are much more
progressive than marketing people or retailers think. Society is much more
exciting than just a target market. A target market is a cage where people
try to put society. It bears no relation to what people feel and want.
1. When did Alessi use to sell? 2. What was the advice that Alberto
Alessi followed when he took the reins of the family business? 3. Is Alessi
a mass-production company? What kind of company is it now? 4. Where
is the borderline between success and failure according to Mr. Alessi?
5. How does Mr. Alessi explain their success? 6. What was their favorite
fiasco? 7. How can failure be glorious? 8. How does the company view
their customers? 9. What kind of sell phones, watches and cars could they
produce? 10. Do you agree with the ideas of the last two sentences?
Being an Alessi?s designer what can you say about your company?
Essential Vocabulary
apply v
apply for
come up with
применять
подать заявление
создать
27
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
commonly ad
consent n
copyright n
enable v
enrage v
envisage v
evidence n
inflate v
infringe v
involved a
issue v
fee n
fill in
gain v
gentility n
legal action
look at smth
margin n
preliminary a
proceed v
recover v
restrain v
rigidity n
seek (sought) v
significant a
specify v
sort out
specify v
28
обычно
согласие
авторское право
иметь возможность
злить
предусматривать
доказательство
надувать
нарушать
связанный с чем-л.
выдавать, выпускать
плата, гонорар
заполнить (анкету, бланк)
получить
благовоспитанность
судебный иск
рассматривать, изучать что-л.
прибыль
предварительный
продолжить, пойти дальше
получить обратно, вернуть
выдерживать, сдерживать
жестокость, крепость
искать, добиваться
значительный
точно определить, установить
рассортировывать, улаживать (проблемы), выяснить (вопрос), дисциплинировать (кого-л.)
точно определять, устанавливать
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
stage n
standardize v
take on
tubular a
turn down
turn out
validity n
уровень, стадия, этап
нормализовать
заимствовать, нанимать персонал
трубчатый, полый
отклонить, отказать
отказаться
обоснованность, действительность
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
UNIT 9
Infinitive Constructions. Complex Object, Complex Subject and
For-to-Infinitive Construction
Phrasal verbs: heat up; be aware of; be accused of; succeed in; work up
to; be in competition with; having nothing to do; build up
Exercises
1. Translate the sentences. Comment on the use of Infinitive and
Infinitive Constructions.
1. Many organizations are known to be still exploring the ways of
better using intranets and portals to their full potential. 2. Supporting
events-based processing requires the intranet or portal to provide access to
a number of applications, such as publishing capabilities, database
management and others. 3. It is important for any manager to understand
how to best use a new technology as a potential source of competitive edge.
4. Many organizations are likely to have started to shift the role of their
corporative portal from the communication means to an access point for
business tools and applications. 5. Responsibility for introducing every
new application is unlikely to link with a single group or team. 6. The
productivity benefits are likely to come from the new system to be
implemented. 7. It is for a manager or work flow expert to map out the
impact of different events to the further development of the company.
8. The Employee for Self-Services (ESS) started in 1998 and aimed at
transforming personal management proved to be a hit from the start.
9. This approach is sure to enable employees to select options for flexible
benefits. 10. Allowing people to take charge of their own careers seem to
fit well with the corporate-wide knowledge management goal to ?apply
everywhere what we learn anywhere?. 11. At last a date for negotiations
30
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
was chosen, which proved to be the right one. 12. He found a company he
happens to like and a place where he happens to like living. 13. It can be
cheaper for the company to get certain kinds of service by outsourcing.
14. Economics is likely to be less important than the influence of
non-economic factors. 15. He believed himself to be more intelligent than
his chief and expected everyone to think so.
2. Use Infinitive Constructions instead of subordinate clauses.
1. It is believed that the company will derive numerous benefits from
the project and that the company?s image will probably increase. 2. It is
expected that the close relationship with other companies will have a
positive effect on strategic areas of their development. 3. It is supposed that
the taxes will have increased by the end of the following year. 4. It is
unlikely that the companies will get a lot of offers. 5. It appeared that after a
number of expensive transfer deals small firms had failed to meet the
financial goals. 6. It seems that the competitors will put their prices up.
7. The manager considered that a new operator was unfit for the job
connected with the computer-aided activity. 8. Everybody expected that
the sales department will get the bonus as they had already done a good
deal of job. 9. Most customers in the past believed that design teams were
isolated from financial and manufacturing problems and were not creative
enough. 10. It is known that at last he has found a job in the Civil Service
and u
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа