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3.Обучение чтению литературы на английском языке по специальности «Гусеничные и колесные машины»

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Московский государственный технический университет
имени Н.Э. Баумана
Е.А. Смелкова
ОБУЧЕНИЕ ЧТЕНИЮ ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ
НА АНГЛИЙСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ
ПО СПЕЦИАЛЬНОСТИ
«ГУСЕНИЧНЫЕ И КОЛЕСНЫЕ МАШИНЫ»
Учебно-методическое пособие
Москва
Издательство МГТУ им. Н.Э. Баумана
2008
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УДК 802.0
ББК 81.2 Англ-923
С501
С501
Рецензент И.В. Стасенко
Смелкова Е.А.
Обучение чтению литературы на английском языке по
специальности «Гусеничные и колесные машины»: Учеб.метод. пособие. — М.: Изд-во МГТУ им. Н.Э. Баумана,
2008. — 34 с.
В учебно-методическое пособие включены тексты из
оригинальной научно-технической английской и американской
литературы по специальности «Гусеничные и колесные машины»
для аудиторной и самостоятельной работы студентов. Каждый урок
включает задания по развитию навыков перевода с английского
языка на русский и с русского на английский, ведению беседы по
основным проблемам, затронутым в пособии, а также лексические и
грамматические упражнения.
Учебно-методическое пособие предназначено для студентов
старших курсов, обучающихся по специальности «Гусеничные и
колесные машины».
УДК 802.0
ББК 81.2 Англ-923
© МГТУ им. Н.Э. Баумана, 2008
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UNIT 1
1. New words and word combinations.
take place
combustion n
occur v
arrange v
converge v
slide up and down v
piston
n
joint n
crank n
bearing n
clamp v
transmission n
rotate v
ignition
n
head n
throttle n
require v
lean a
valve n
manifold n
pipe n
water-cooled a
быть, происходить
сгорание
возникать, происходить
располагать, организовывать
пересекать, пересекаться
скользить вверх-вниз
поршень
шарнир, палец
колено (коленвала)
подшипник
закреплять, закрепляться, защелкиваться
трансмиссия
вращать, вращаться
воспламенение, зажигание
головка блока цилиндров
дроссельная заслонка
требовать
бедный, ненасыщенный
клапан
коллектор
трубопровод
водоохлаждаемый
2. Pay attention to the translation of the following terms and learn
them.
To convert energy of gasoline combustion into motion —
преобразовать энергию горения бензина в механическую энергию.
Internal combustion engine (ICE) — двигатель внутреннего
сгорания (ДВС).
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Opposite cylinders — противоположно расположенные цилиндры.
Reciprocating (up-and-down) motions — возвратно-поступательные движения.
In-line engine — рядный двигатель.
V-engine — v-образный двигатель (индукторный двигатель).
W-engine — w-образный двигатель (трехрядный индукторный
двигатель).
Opposed, pancake, flat, or boxer engine — двигатель с противоположным расположением цилиндров (оппозитный двигатель).
Connecting rod — шатун.
Crankshaft — коленчатый вал.
Drive wheel — ведущее колесо.
Engine speed — частота вращений.
Spark plug — свеча зажигания.
Threaded aperture — резьбовое отверстие.
Intake port — впускной патрубок.
Exhaust pipe — выхлопная труба.
Noise muffler — глушитель.
Coil spring — винтовая пружина.
Camshaft — кулачковый вал (распределительный вал).
Carburetor — карбюратор.
Fuel injector — топливный инжектор.
Exhaust port — выпускной патрубок.
Idling speed — холостой ход.
Diesel engine — дизельный двигатель.
Diesel fuel — дизельное топливо.
Compression ratio — степень сжатия.
Wide open throttle — широко открытая дроссельная заслонка.
Partly open throttle — частично открытая дроссельная заслонка.
Closed throttle — закрытая дроссельная заслонка.
3. Translate the following word combinations.
The most common internal combustion engine.
A single row with the centerlines of the cylinders vertical.
A double row with the centerlines of opposite cylinders converging
in a V.
Two horizontal opposed rows.
The mixture is rich at idling speed.
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Combustion chamber of the cylinder.
Heavier petroleum oil.
Air-gasoline mixture.
The piston-type gasoline engine.
Four-stroke cycle.
Heavy truck.
Tracked vehicle.
Revolutions per minute.
4. Find in text 1A the equivalents for the following Russian terms.
Бензиновый двигатель поршневого типа, двигатель с
противоположным
расположением
цилиндров,
воздушнотопливная смесь (свежий заряд, рабочая смесь), камера сгорания
цилиндра, грузовик, гусеничная машина, степень сжатия, частота
вращений.
5. Read and translate the text.
TEXT 1A
Engine structure
Almost all cars currently use what is called a four-stroke cycle
to convert energy of gasoline combustion into motion, so that the car
can move. The easiest way to create motion from gasoline is to burn the
gasoline inside an engine. Combustion taking place internally, a car
engine is called an internal combustion engine (ICE).
The most common internal combustion engine is the piston-type
gasoline engine, used in most automobiles. The confined space in
which combustion occurs is a combustion chamber that can be inside
a cylinder. The cylinders are usually arranged in one of four ways:
a single row with the centerlines of the cylinders vertical (in-line
engine); a double row with the centerlines of opposite cylinders
converging in a V (V-engine); a double zigzag row somewhat similar
to that of the V-engine but with alternate pairs of opposite cylinders
converging in two Vs (W-engine); or two horizontal, opposed rows
(opposed, pancake, flat, or boxer engine). In each cylinder a piston
slides up and down. One end of a connecting rod is attached to the
bottom of the piston by a joint; the other end of the rod clamping
around a bearing on one of the cranks. The reciprocating (up-and5
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down) motions of the piston rotate the crankshaft, which is connected
to the drive wheels of the automobile by transmission. The number
of crankshaft revolutions per minute is called the engine speed. The top
of the cylinder is closed by a metal cover (called the head) bolted onto
it. Into a threaded aperture in the head is screwed the spark plug, which
provides ignition.
Two other openings in the cylinder are called ports. The intake port
admits the air-gasoline mixture; the exhaust port lets out the products
of combustion. A valve is held tightly over each port by a coil spring,
and a camshaft rotating at one-half engine speed opens the valves in
correct sequence. A pipe runs from each intake port to a carburetor
or injector, the pipes from all the cylinders joining to form a manifold.
A similar manifold connects the exhaust ports with an exhaust pipe and
noise muffler. A carburetor or fuel injector mixes air with gasoline
in proportions of weight varying from 11 to 1 at the richest to a little
over 16 to 1 at the leanest. The composition of the mixture is
regulated by the throttle and an air valve in the intake manifold that
varies the flow of fuel to the combustion chambers of the cylinders.
The mixture is rich at idling speed (closed throttle) and at high speeds
(wide-open throttle) and is lean at medium and slow speeds (partly
open throttle).
The other main type of reciprocating engine is known to be the
diesel engine invented by Rudolf Diesel and patented in 1892. The
diesel uses the heat produced by compression rather than the spark from
a plug to ignite an injected mixture of air and diesel fuel (heavier
petroleum oil) instead of gasoline. Diesel engines are heavier than
gasoline engines because of the extra strength required to contain the
higher temperatures and compression ratios. Because of the high
temperatures of operation, a diesel engine must be water-cooled. Diesel
engines are most widely used where large amounts of power are
required: heavy trucks, locomotives, tracked vehicles and ships.
6. Answer the following questions to the text.
1. What makes any car move?
2. What engine is used in most automobiles nowadays?
3. What is the principle of operation of piston-type gasoline engine?
4. How can cylinders be arranged in internal combustion engine?
5. What is called the engine speed?
6. What provides ignition?
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7. What do intake and exhaust ports do?
8. What regulates air-gasoline mixture?
9. What is the difference in operation of gasoline and diesel
engines?
10. Why must a diesel engine be water-cooled?
11. Why is diesel engine used in heavy trucks and tracked vehicles?
7. Compare Participle I and Participle II:
using — used
clamping — clamped
converging — converged
varying — varied
opposing — opposed
regulating — regulated
connecting — connected
producing — produced
reciprocating — reciprocated
injecting — injected
8. Translate the text paying attention to the highlighted words.
Although diesel engine was designed to use coal dust as fuel, it
now burns low-cost fuel oil. The diesel engine does not require a large
water supply or a long warming-up period and is highly efficient in
converting heat energy into work. The diesel engine differs from the
gasoline engine in that the ignition of fuel is caused by compression of
air in its cylinders instead of by a spark: the high compression ratio
allows the air in the cylinder to become hot enough to ignite the fuel.
Diesel engine is sure to be water-cooled because of the high
temperatures of operation.
The construction of the diesel engine is heavier than that of the
gasoline engine; there are usually three or more cylinders, which are
supported on a framework and bedplate and a heavy flywheel. The
cylinders are set to work alternately to give a smooth-turning effect,
and the flywheel contributes further to smooth action. The speed and
power of the diesel are known to be controlled by varying the amount
of fuel injected into the cylinder rather than the amount of air
admitted as in the gasoline engine.
9. Translate the sentences paying attention to Passive Voice.
1. Tank classification can be done in a variety of ways: usually
either by intended role, or by weight.
2. Heavy tanks have usually been deployed to fulfill the need for a
breakthrough tank, though in practice they have been more useful in the
defensive role than in the attack.
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3. Cruise tank were designed to move fast, break through enemy
lines, assault from the rear and destroy enemy tanks.
4. It is generally accepted that battle tanks should be tracked and
not wheeled.
5. Tanks are often referred to by weight-based classification, such
as “light”, “medium” or “heavy”.
6. An entirely different approach to steering is represented by
articulated tracked vehicles.
7. The widely used M113 armoured carriers are fitted with what are
variously called geared differential.
8. Currently, when military budgets are being reduced everywhere,
modernization is considered to be the most cost-efficient way towards
extending the service life and improving the combat capability of
military vehicles.
10. Translate the sentences paying attention to the Absolute
Participle construction.
1. Combustion taking place internally, a car engine is called an
internal combustion engine ICE.
2. One end of a connecting rod is attached to the bottom of the
piston by a joint; the other end of the rod clamping around a bearing on
one of the cranks.
3. A pipe runs from each intake port to a carburetor or injector, the
pipes from all the cylinders joining to form a manifold
4. With a supercharger attached directly to the engine, it spins the
compressor.
5. Engine being developed by the German engineer Felix Wankel in
1965, it is called Wankel engine.
11. Agree or disagree with the statement.
1. The diesel uses the heat produced by compression rather than the
spark from a plug to ignite an injected mixture of air and diesel fuel
instead of gasoline.
2. Gasoline engines are heavier than diesel ones because of the
extra strength required to contain the higher temperatures and
compression ratios.
3. It is generally accepted that battle tanks should be wheeled and
not tracked.
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4. Almost all cars currently use what is called a four-stroke cycle to
convert energy of gasoline combustion into motion, so that the car can move.
5. The easiest way to create motion from gasoline is to burn the
gasoline outside an engine.
6. The most common internal-combustion engine is the piston-type
gasoline engine, used in most tanks.
7. Because of the high temperatures of operation, a diesel engine
mustn’t be water-cooled.
8. Gasoline engines are most widely used where large amounts
of power are required: heavy trucks, locomotives, tracked vehicles and ships.
12. Translate the text with a dictionary, paying attention to the
highlighted word combinations.
TEXT 1B
Engines for military trucks
The engines for military trucks are nowadays characterized by
constantly increasing specific power values (power output/swept
volume ratio of around 35–40 hp/dm3), mostly thanks to sophisticated
solutions for turbocharging/inter-cooling and injection control injection
pressures in excess of 1200 bar. Needless to say, these solutions were
originally developed for commercial applications. The combination of
high power densities with relatively small swept volumes produces high
thermal loads, which demand high-efficiency cooling and heat
dissipation systems. Furthermore, high performance must be
accompanied by low specific consumption because of the increasingly
severe emission control norms.
Electronic control systems (EDC) are increasingly popular
to monitor the working conditions of engine and exactly tailor the
amount of fuel to be injected in order to obtain the required power
output. In addition to traditional solutions such as fuel injection pumps
and pump-injectors, it is to be expected that the new “Common Rail”
technology will soon be adopted for military vehicle engines. In this
system, fuel is pumped at very high pressure into a common chamber,
from which tubes lead to the single injectors (electric valves). This
allows for optimal control of all working parameters of engine, with
significant fuel efficiency gains particularly under conditions of low
rotation speeds and high torque.
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13. Translate the sentences from Russian into English.
1. Основными характеристиками любых двигателей являются
степень сжатия, мощность и экономичность.
2. Автомобильный двигатель — устройство, в котором
химическая энергия топлива превращается в механическую работу.
Это происходит благодаря сгоранию топлива внутри цилиндров
двигателя.
3, Современные гусеничные транспортные средства оснащаются
либо дизельными, либо газотурбинными двигателями, но ни один
серийный танк никогда не выпускался с роторным двигателем.
4. Независимо от вида, легкие бронированные транспортные
средства имеют достаточно малый вес, чтобы оснащаться
двигателями массового производства для грузовиков и танков.
5. У карбюраторного двигателя топливо и воздух поступают в
цилиндр одновременно через открытый впускной клапан в виде
горючей смеси, приготовленной карбюратором.
14. Read and translate the following sentences paying attention to
the Emphatic construction.
1. It is the diesel engine, the main type of reciprocating engine that
was invented by Rudolf Diesel and patented in 1892.
2. It is a four-stroke cycle that converts energy of gasoline
combustion into motion, so that the car can move.
3. It is Wankel-type rotary engine that continues to be developed in
the United States, but there is no evidence of further interest in using them
in light armoured vehicles.
4. It is academician E.A. Chudakov who was the founder of the
“wheeled vehicles” department and who can be considered to be a father
of Russian automotive engineering in Russia.
5. It is a battle tank that should be tracked not wheeled.
15. Translate the text without a dictionary and highlight
terminological word combinations.
TEXT 1C
Engines for light armourd vehicles
Whatever their form, light armoured vehicles1 are generally light
enough to be powered by engines mass produced by the automotive
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industry for trucks and other non-military purposes. The economic
advantages of using such engines are so strong that it turned out to be
difficult to justify the development of special engines. This is
particularly true when it comes to light armoured vehicles at the bottom
and in the middle of their weight range, where engines of 100 to 350hp
are generally required. But even at the upper end of the weight range
light armoured vehicles can be powered by militarized versions of
standard commercial engines. Good examples of this are the US Army/
FMC M2 IFV which is powered by the 500hp, Cummins VTA-903T
diesel and the Cadillac Gage Stingray light tank which is powered by
the 535hp Detroit Diesel Allison 8V92TA engine.
Some light armoured vehicles are still powered by spark-ignition
gasoline engines but, following the general trend in tank and truck
design, most are now powered by the more economical and less
flammable diesels. In keeping with automotive industry practice,
most of the engines are also water-cooled. The few exceptions to
this include the Japanese SU 60 and Type 73 armoured carriers,
which are powered by Mitsubishi air-cooled diesels and the new
Chinese NVH-1 armoured carrier, which is powered by a 320hp V-8
Deutz air-cooled diesel.
During the 1960s there was some work in Britain on the application
of rotary. Wankel-type engines to armoured vehicles and interest in
spark-ignition engines2 of this type built by Curtis-Wright persisted in
the United States into the early 1980s, mainly because they were
favoured by the US Marine Corps for its future landing vehicles.
Wankel-type rotary engines3 continue to be developed in the United
States by John Deere, but there is no evidence of further interest in
using them in light armoured vehicles.
1
Light armoured vehicles — легкие бронированные машины.
Spark-ignition engine — двигатель с искровым зажиганием.
3
Wankel-type rotary engine — роторный двигатель.
2
16. Speak on the topics.
1. Principle of operation of diesel and gasoline engine.
2. Modern engines for military trucks.
3. Engines for light armoured vehicles.
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UNIT 2
1. New words and word combinations.
thrust n
тяга
slew v
поворачивать
swivel n
поворот управляемого колеса,
поворачивать
swivel v
поворачивать
steer v
управлять
crude a
грубый
carrier n
транспортер, транспортировщик
pivot n
шарнир
spot n
место, точка
thereby a
таким образом, в связи с этим
vary v
различать
fit v
подходить, встраивать,
устанавливать
hull n
корпус
rely on v
опираться
principle n
работа
adapt v
приспосабливать, внедрять
steering systems
рулевое управление
clutch-and-brake steering system система управления с помощью
бортовых фрикционов и тормозов
skid-steering system
противозаносная система
double-differential system
система двойного дифференциала
hydrostatic steering drive
гидростатический привод
standard mass-produced
стандартная трансмиссия
transmission
массового производства
infinitely variable
непрерывно изменяемый
integrated triple-differential
встроенный тройной дифференциал
sophisticated transmission
сложная трансмиссия
2. Translate the following word combinations and phrases.
Tracks are laterally rigid.
To steer on weak soils.
Geared differential.
Controlled differential.
Armoured carriers are fitted with.
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One minimum radius of turn.
Large radius turns at high speeds.
Tight radius turns at low speeds.
Infinitely variable hydrostatic steering drive.
System of this kind
3. Translate the sentences from English into Russian paying
attention to the highlighted words.
1. Since tracks are laterally rigid tracked vehicles have to be
steered in an entirely different way than wheeled vehicles.
2. These are more efficient than the basically crude clutch-andbrake systems but they provide only one minimum radius of turn which
has to be a compromise between the requirements of large radius turns
at high speeds and tight turns at low speeds.
3. However, specially developed transmissions with integrated
steering systems are inevitably more compact.
4. The needs of heavier vehicles are being met by other but
equally sophisticated transmissions with integrated steering systems.
4. Read and translate the text.
TEXT 2A
Steering systems
Since tracks are laterally rigid tracked vehicles have to be steered
in an entirely different way than wheeled vehicles namely by creating
a difference between the thrust of their two tracks and thereby slewing
them round. Nowadays much attention is paid to steering and skidsteering systems of wheeled and tracked vehicles. Any skid-steered
wheeled vehicle suffers from the same basic disadvantage as tracked
vehicles, which is a high risk of when it attempts to steer on weak soils.
The mechanism by which tracked vehicles are actually steered vary
considerably. Some including the Swedish Pbv 302 and the Russian
BMP still rely on simple clutch-and-brake steering systems which were
once used on the great majority of light tracked vehicles. Most others
including the widely used M113 armoured carriers are fitted with what
are variously palled geared differential, controlled differential or
Cletrac steering systems. These are more efficient than the basically
crude clutch-and-brake systems but they provide only one minimum
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radius of turn which has to be a compromise between the requirements
of large radius turns at high speeds and tight turns at low speeds.
No such limitations exist with the much more effective doubledifferential systems with infinitely variable hydrostatic steering drives
which are fitted in the SK-105 Kurassier and other light armoured
vehicles built by Steyr-Daimler-Puch and which have also been
developed by Commercial Hydraulics (Gloucester) for retrofitting
the British Army’s FV 432 carriers. Steering systems of this type
provide infinitely variable control down to a minimum radius of turn
which depends on the gear that the transmission is in and which
increases consequently with vehicle speed as required. Systems of this
kind also provide true: pivot turns which enable vehicles to turn on the
spot and not merely to skid about one track.
The above systems have a common economic advantage in their
ability to work with standard mass-produced transmissions. However,
specially developed transmissions with integrated steering systems are
inevitably more compact. Transmissions of this kind have been used for
a long time in battle tanks but they are still relatively uncommon in
light armoured vehicles. One type is exemplified by the T-15 and T-320
all-mechanical transmissions with integrated triple-differential steering
systems which have been produced in Britain by Self-Changing Gears.
The most recently produced is the Allison X-200, which incorporates a
double-differential steering system with hydrostatic control and is as
sophisticated as any battle tank transmission, although it is designed for
use in vehicles weighing not more than 1.4t.
The needs of heavier vehicles are being met by other but equally
sophisticated transmissions with integrated steering systems. One
of them is the Allison X-300, which is very similar in principle
to the X-200 and which has been adapted for the MCV-80. Another is
the General Electric HMPT-500 hydro-mechanical transmission, which
also provides infinitely variable steering and pivot turns and which is
used in the US Army’s M2 Bradley IFV.
5. Answer the following questions to the text.
1. How do tracked vehicles have to be steered?
2. Which steering system was once used on the great majority of
light tracked vehicles?
3. What steering systems are more efficient than crude clutch-andbrake systems?
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4. Do all modern steering systems have a common economic
advantage in their ability to work with standard mass-produced
transmissions?
5. What kinds of transmissions are still relatively uncommon in
light armoured vehicles?
6. Which transmission is designed for use in vehicles weighing not
more than 1.4t?
7. What transmissions with integrated steering systems can you name?
6. Complete each sentence with an appropriate ending.
1. Since tracks are laterally rigid
tracked vehicles have to be
steered in an entirely different
way than wheeled vehicles
2. These are more efficient than
the basically crude clutch-andbrake systems
3. One type is exemplified by
the T-15 and T-320 allmechanical transmissions with
integrated triple-differential
steering systems
4. Another is the General Electric
HMPT-500 hydro-mechanical
transmission
5. Transmissions of this kind
have been used for a long time
in battle tanks
6. Specially developed
transmissions
A. which have been produced
in Britain by Self-Changing
Gears
B. which is used in the US
Army’s M2 Bradley IFV
C. by creating a difference
between the thrust of their two
tracks and thereby slewing them
round
D. are inevitably more compact
E. but they provide only one
minimum radius of turn which
has to be a compromise between
the requirements of large radius
turns at high speeds and tight
turns at low speeds
F. but they are still relatively
uncommon in light armoured
vehicles
7. Agree or disagree with the statement.
1. Since tracks are laterally rigid tracked vehicles have to be steered
in the same way as wheeled vehicles.
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2. The Swedish Pbv 302 and the Russian BMP rely on specially
developed transmissions with integrated steering systems which were
once used on the great majority of light tracked vehicles.
3. Specially developed transmissions with integrated steering
systems have been used for a long time in battle tanks but they are still
relatively uncommon in light armoured vehicles.
4. The needs of heavier vehicles are being met by other but equally
sophisticated transmissions with integrated steering systems.
5. The General Electric HMPT-500 hydro-mechanical transmission
doesn’t provide infinitely variable steering and pivot turns and it isn’t
used in the US Army’s M2 Bradley IFV.
8. Translate the text with a dictionary paying attention to the
highlighted words.
TEXT 2B
Wheels or tracks?
It is generally accepted that battle tanks should be tracked and not
wheeled. But when it comes to light armoured vehicles there is no lack
of arguments for them having wheels instead of tracks.
The reasons for this change of attitude stem from the fact that the
relative cross-country performance of wheeled and tracked vehicles
varies with their weight. The difference increasing to the detriment of
wheeled vehicles. Thus, wheeled armoured vehicles as heavy as battle
tanks would not be competitive, even if they were practicable. On the
other hand, light wheeled armoured vehicles can compete with tracked
vehicles under most circumstances and are superior to them in many
cases.
The root cause of the difference in the performance of wheeled
and tracked vehicles is their different ground contact areas. In both
cases the contact areas increase as vehicles get bigger, but they do not
increase in proportion to their weight. Moreover, they increase to a
lesser extent with wheels than with tracks. In consequence, stresses
imposed on the ground rise more rapidly with their weight when the
vehicles are wheeled. This manifests itself in the greater sinkage of
wheels into soft soils and greater resistance to motion or in the extreme,
in the immobilization of wheeled vehicles where tracked vehicles of the
same weight are able to keep going.
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Wheeled armored vehicles used to be cheaper than their tracked
counterparts. They were simpler and made more use of relatively
inexpensive parts or sub-systems (such as engines and tires) from largeseries civilian production. Things have changed. Wheeled armored
vehicles, especially the large, multi-wheeled ones, have become more
sophisticated and “militarized”. As a result, the former advantage with
respect to procurement costs has disappeared with the notable exception
of some very light and compact wheeled armored carriers.
Wheeled vehicles enjoy another cost advantage, however they tend
to be less expensive to operate. They travel farther than tracked
vehicles for the same quantity of fuel. And maintenance requirements
also are less burdensome, provided that most of the vehicles’ travel is
on roads and not over soft or rugged ground.
9. Retell Text 2B using the highlighted words.
10. Translate from Russian into English.
1. Рулевое управление служит для изменения направления
движения автомобиля посредством (by means of) поворота
управляемых колес. На грузовых автомобилях управляемыми
являются передние колеса.
2. Рулевое управление состоит из рулевого механизма и
рулевого привода.
3. На автомобилях средней и большой грузоподъемности
применяют рулевое управление с гидроусилителем (hydraulic
actuator).
4. Гидроусилитель служит для снижения давления водителя на
рулевое колесо при повороте передних колес, смягчает удары,
возникающие из-за неровностей на дороге.
5. Трансмиссия автомобиля — это ряд взаимодействующих
механизмов и агрегатов (assembly), передающих вращающий момент
(torque) от двигателя к ведущим колесам и изменяющих его частоту
вращений (rotating frequency) по величине и направлению.
11. Translate the sentences from English into Russian paying
attention to the Complex Object.
1. The designers wanted battle tanks to be tracked not wheeled.
2. We know diesel engine to have been invented by Rudolf Diesel
and patented in 1892.
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3. We know the widely used M113 armoured carriers to be fitted
with what are variously called geared differential.
4. We know the department of tracked vehicles and mobile robots
to have been founded by the eminent scientist Mikhail K. Cristy.
5. The manufacturers believe wheeled vehicles to be less expensive
to operate.
6. Engineers suppose wheeled armored vehicles to be cheaper than
their tracked counterparts.
12. Translate the sentences from English into Russian paying
attention to the Complex Subject.
1. Tracked vehicles are sure to be steered in an entirely different
way than wheeled ones.
2. Wheeled vehicles are certain to travel farther than their tracked
counterparts for the same quantity of fuel.
3. Wankel-type rotary engines are likely to be developed in the
United States, but there is no evidence of further interest in using them
in light armoured vehicles.
4. The most common internal-combustion engine is known to be the
piston-type gasoline engine, used in most automobiles.
5. Nowadays military operations seem to be impossible without
tracked vehicles.
6. The department of tracked vehicles and mobile robots is known
to have been established in 1936 in order to provide training of highly
skilled engineers specialized in special tracked vehicles design.
13. Translate the text paying attention to the Complex Object and
the Complex Subject.
TEXT 2C
E.A. Chudakov
Academician E.A. Chudakov is acknowledged to be the founder of
the “wheeled vehicles” department. We know the department to have
been established in 1936. We know Chudakov to have been its head
until 1953. Great achievements in Russian automotive engineering are
connected with Chudakov’s name, he can be considered to be its father.
We also consider him to be a great organizer of education, and we
know him to have worked much on the problems of automobile
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industry. Lecture courses and textbooks on design and theory of
automobiles were created under Chudakov’s guidance. These lectures
were given to many generations of students. The students and the
followers of the outstanding scientist and organizer continued to
develop his ideas. Many of them became famous scientists, designers,
chiefs of university and institute departments. Among them is
academician K.S. Kolesnikov, whose research on rolling of a wheel and
oscillations of steered wheels contributed greatly to the theory of
automobile road stability; B.L. Shaposhnik, the Minsk truck factory
Special Design Office Designer-in-Chief; professors A.A. Lapin,
N.K. Kulikov, A.K. Frumkin and many others.
E.A. Chudakov is recognized to have been a great scientist who did
as much as he could for the good of automobile industry. He is sure to
be one of the broadest as well as one of the most creative minds of
MSTU after Bauman.
14. Use text 2C when speaking on a topic “My Department
Wheeled Vehicles”.
15. Speak on the topics:
Steering system of tracked vehicles.
The difference in the performance of wheeled and tracked vehicles.
Academician E.A. Chudakov.
UNIT 3
1. New words and word combinations.
linkage n
шарнир
hull n
корпус
handling n
управление
braking n
торможение
bump n
удар
vibration n
вибрация
cargo (luggage) n
груз
whatsoever adv
вообще (вообще никакого)
rear suspension
задняя подвеска, подвеска задних колес
front suspension
передняя подвеска,
подвеска передних колес
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rough ground
неровный грунт
fixed suspension
жесткая подвеска
leaf spring suspension
подвеска на листовых рессорах
agricultural machinery
сельскохозяйственные машины
Christie suspension
подвеска Кристи
bell crank
косой рычаг
Horstmann suspension
подвеска Хорстмана
torsion-bar suspension
торсионная подвеска
wheel travel
ход подвески
suspension system
система подвески
system of springs
система пружин
shock absorber
амортизатор
armoured fighting vehicle suspension подвеска бронемашины
2. Translate the following word combinations and phrases.
Suspension systems must serve a dual purpose.
Good active safety and driving pleasure.
To keep vehicle occupants comfortable and reasonably well
isolated.
Speeds increased due to more powerful engines.
To move at high speed over very rough ground.
Quality of ride.
By redirecting the direction of travel.
Leaf spring suspensions adopted from agricultural machinery.
3. Read and translate the text.
TEXT 3A
Armoured fighting vehicle suspension
Suspension is the term given to the system of springs, shock
absorbers and linkages that connects a vehicle to its wheels. Suspension
systems must serve a dual purpose — contributing to the car’s handling
and braking for good active safety and driving pleasure, and keeping
vehicle occupants comfortable and reasonably well isolated from road
noise, bumps, and vibrations. These goals are generally at odds, so the
tuning of suspensions involves finding the right compromise. The
suspension must also protect the vehicle itself and any cargo or luggage
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from damage and wear. The design of front and rear suspension of any
vehicle may be different.
Military AFVs (armoured fighting vehicle), including tanks, have
specialized suspension requirements. They can weigh more than
seventy tons and are required to move at high speed over very rough
ground. Their suspension components must be protected from land
mines and antitank weapons. Tracked AFVs can have as many as nine
road wheels on each side. Many wheeled AFVs have six or eight
wheels, to help them ride over rough and soft ground. The earliest tanks
of the Great War had fixed suspensions—with no movement
whatsoever. This unsatisfactory situation was improved with leaf spring
suspensions adopted from agricultural machinery, but even these had
very limited travel. Speeds increased due to more powerful engines,
and the quality of ride had to be improved. In the 1930s, the Christie
suspension was developed, which allowed the use of coil springs inside
a vehicle’s armoured hull, by redirecting the direction of travel using a
bell crank. Horstmann suspension was a variation which used a
combination of bell crank and exterior coil springs, in use from the
1930s to the 1990s.
By the Second World War the other common type was torsion-bar
suspension, getting spring force from twisting bars inside the hull—this
had less travel than the Christie type, but was significantly more
compact. Torsion bar suspensions have been the dominant heavy
armored vehicle suspension since the Second World War, sometimes
but not always including shock absorbers.
4. Answer the following questions to the text.
1. What system was given a term “suspension”?
2. What must suspension system serve?
3. May the design of front and rear suspension of any vehicle be
different?
4. What suspension requirements do Military AFVs (armoured
fighting vehicle) have?
5. How much can AFVs weight to move at high speed over very
rough ground?
6. How many wheels can AFVs have to ride over rough and soft
ground?
7. What suspension did the earliest tanks have?
8. What did Christie suspension allow to use?
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9. What suspension was in use from the 1930s to the 1990s?
10. What type of suspension was developed by the Second World
War?
5. Agree or disagree with the statement.
1. Suspension is the term given to the system of springs, shock
absorbers and linkages that connects a vehicle to its wheels.
2. Suspension systems must serve a dual purpose — contributing to
the car’s handling and braking for good active safety and driving
pleasure, but not keeping vehicle occupants comfortable and reasonably
well isolated from road noise, bumps, and vibrations.
3. The suspension doesn’t protect the vehicle itself and any cargo or
luggage from damage and wear.
4. The design of front and rear suspension of any vehicle may be
the same.
5. Tracked AFVs can have as many as nine road wheels on each
side. Many wheeled AFVs have six or eight wheels, to help them ride
over rough and soft ground.
6. The earliest tanks of the Great War had independent suspensions.
7. In the 1930s, the torsion-bar suspension was developed, which
allowed the use of coil springs inside a vehicle’s armoured hull, by
redirecting the direction of travel using a bell crank.
8. Horstmann suspension was a variation which used a combination
of bell crank and exterior coil springs, in use from the 1930s to the
1990s.
9. Christie suspension was significantly more compact.
10. Torsion bar suspensions have been the dominant heavy armored
vehicle suspension since the Second World War, sometimes but not
always including shock absorbers.
6. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the
equivalents of the modal verbs.
1. During the 1950s the Soviets had to put the bulk of their infantry
on wheeled armored carriers.
2. The wheeled force is to be able to conduct American-style
“decisive operations” across the mission spectrum.
3. General Shinseki’s vision of a rapidly deployable,
multifunctional ground force should grab the attention of armies the
world over.
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4. Today’s tracked armored vehicles can weigh between 3.5 and 65
metric tones.
5. The advantage of wheeled vehicles can disappear when they
move off roads. Their fuel consumption may be at least as high as that
of tracked vehicles of equal weight.
6. Even in the context of typical war fighting scenarios, off-the-road
activities constitute less than 50 percent of overall travel. This is because,
within a sizeable theater (поле военных действий), many movements
have to be devoted to marching the troops to the combat areas in a timely
fashion, rather than to maneuvering in the thick of a battle.
7. The fact that a wheeled armor can cover longer distances faster
than a tracked vehicle is complemented by yet another advantage: there
is much less fatigue for their occupants because the wheeled platforms
do not suffer the vibrations generated by tracks.
8. Relevant to off-road mobility, wheeled vehicles must have a
ground pressure considerably higher than that of their tracked
counterparts.
9. In the cases of France, Germany, and some other nations, military
planners and designers appear to have deliberately down-rated softterrain capabilities. This probably has to do with increased emphasis on
peace support and peace enforcement missions, which also put a
premium on operational mobility for vehicles of relatively high payload.
10. Without proper protection even the most agile and crosscountry capable vehicle could not move forward in harm’s way.
7. Translate the text without a dictionary paying attention to the
highlighted words.
TEXT 3B
Tracked vehicle suspensions1
By comparison with wheeled vehicles, the suspensions and drives2
of tracked vehicles are simple. They are also lighter and more compact,
which makes tracked armoured vehicles basically lighter and smaller
than their comparable wheeled counterparts.
The road wheels of all light tracked armoured vehicles are mounted
independently on trailing arms or, in some cases, on leading arms
which amounts to much the same thing. Almost all are sprung by
transversely located torsion bars which are lighter than other metallic
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springs and which lend themselves to a neat combination with trailing
or leading arms3. In developing the AIFV from its M113 armoured
carriers FMC improved on the original type of torsion bar by using a
torsion tube over bar combination. But more recently comparable or
even greater improvements have been made more simply by the use of
torsion bars of new high strength steels. As a result, wheel travel has
increased over rough ground. Thus, the M113A1 with its original
torsion bar springs has a vertical road-wheel travel of 150mm from the
static laden to the full bump positions. But the Ml 1 3A2 which is fitted
with new high strength torsion bars has a considerably greater wheel
travel of 230mm. Larger vehicles such as the MCV-80 developed by
GKN have even greater wheel travel.
Hydropneumatic suspensions4 offer more wheel travel. This has
been demonstrated by the suspension developed by Teledyne
Continental Motors for its XM-4 Armoured Gun System, which
provides the road wheel travel with a vertical travel of as much as 380
mm from the static to the full bump position.
1
Tracked vehicle suspension — подвеска гусеничной машины.
Drive — привод.
3
Trailing arm — продольный рычаг подвески.
4
Hydropneumatic suspension — гидропневматическая подвеска.
2
8. Complete each sentence with an appropriate ending.
1. Suspensions and drives of
tracked vehicles are simple, they
are also lighter and more compact
2. The M113A1 with its original
torsion bar springs
3. Comparable or even greater
improvements have been made
more simply
4. Hydropneumatic suspensions
offer
5. Larger vehicles such as the
MCV-80 developed by GKN
24
A. by the use of torsion bars of
new high strength steels.
B. more wheel travel
C. have even greater wheel
travel.
D. has a vertical road-wheel
travel of 150mm from the static
laden to the full bump positions.
E. are mounted independently
on trailing arms.
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6. Wheel travel has increased
7. The road wheels of all light
tracked armoured vehicles
F. which makes tracked
armoured vehicles basically
lighter and smaller then wheeled
vehicles.
G. over rough ground.
9. Retell Text 3B using the underlined words.
10. Fill in the blanks with the correct comparative and superlative
forms.
hard
early
slowly
fast
good/well
bad/badly
many/a lot of
little
far
quick
dangerous
heavy
harder
the hardest
11. Translate the text using a dictionary and a useful vocabulary.
Useful vocabulary: sprung weight; to be supported on spring;
frame; to cushion the shocks imparted to the wheels by road obstacles;
to cut in half; coil spring; pneumatic cushioning; chassis; rigid axel.
TEXT 3C
Система подвески
В транспортном средстве термин «подрессоренная масса»
относится к части автомобиля, опирающейся на упругие элементы
подвески. Кузов и части автомобиля, связанные с кузовом,
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подрессорены, так как их масса опирается на упругие элементы
подвески. Кузов опирается на упругие элементы через кронштейны.
Рама автомобиля опирается на оси или их эквиваленты через
упругие элементы, главное назначение которых — смягчать
удары, передаваемые на колеса неровностями дороги. Первые
автомобили в качестве упругих элементов имели листовые
рессоры. Винтовые пружины начали применяться, когда жесткие
передние оси были заменены независимой передней подвеской.
Главное достоинство винтовой пружины — линейная упругость и
бесшумность. Кроме того, для изготовления винтовых пружин
используется вдвое меньше материалов, чем для рессор.
Третий тип упругого элемента — торсион.
Пневматическая подвеска также используется в современном
автомобилестроении, заменяя механический упругий элемент
подушкой со сжатым воздухом. В независимой подвеске, в отличие
от зависимой, упругое соединение подрессоренной массы с
колесами реализовано без использования жестких осей (мостов). В
независимой подвеске любые вертикальные перемещения одного
колеса могут сопровождаться перемещениями противоположного
колеса, но эти перемещения независимы друг от друга.
Появление передней независимой подвески на легковых
автомобилях благоприятно сказалось на комфорте при езде.
12. Speak on the topics.
1. Types of suspensions and springs.
2. Torsion-bar suspension.
3. Increasing of wheel travel.
ADDITIONAL TEXTS
The M1 Tank Engine
The M1 uses a 1,500-horsepower gas turbine engine to achieve high
mobility. Gas turbine engines have a much better power-to-weight ratio
than reciprocating engines. That is, they provide a lot more power
without adding a lot of weight. Turbine engines are also a lot smaller
than comparable reciprocating engines, so you can do more with the
available space on the tank.
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The low-weight, high-power turbine engine lets the M1 move faster
and maneuver better than most comparable tanks. According to General
Dynamics Land Systems, the tank can accelerate from 0 to 20 miles per
hour in 7.2 seconds, and it can safely travel 30 miles per hour crosscountry. The high speed and agility do come at a price, however: Even
with an advanced digital fuel control system, the tank gets less than a
gallon per mile!
To give the tank decent traveling range, General Dynamics had to
give it some mammoth fuel tanks. The most recent M1 model holds 490
gallons (1,850 L), allowing the tank to go about 265 miles (426 km)
without refueling. The turbine engine works with a range of fuels,
including ordinary gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel.
The engine provides power to a six-speed automatic hydrokinetic
transmission (that’s four forward gears and two reverse gears). The
transmission turns sprockets on either side of the tank. The sprockets
pull the track along.
So why does the M 1 tank use a 1,500 horsepower gas turbine
engine instead of a diesel engine? It turns out that there are two big
advantages of the turbine over the diesel: gas turbine engines have a
great power-to-weight ratio compared to reciprocating engines. That is,
the amount of power you get out of the engine compared to the weight
of the engine itself is very big. Gas turbine engines are smaller than
their reciprocating counterparts of the same power.
The main disadvantage of gas turbines is that, compared to a
reciprocating engine of the same size, they are expensive. Because they
spin at such high speeds and because of the high operating
temperatures, designing and manufacturing gas turbines is a tough
problem from both the engineering and materials standpoint. Gas
turbines also tend to use more fuel when they are idling, and they prefer
a constant rather than a fluctuating load. That makes gas turbines great
for things like transcontinental jet aircrafts and power plants, but
explains why you don’t have one under the hood of your car.
Tracks and Steering
Snowmobile tracks are like tank tracks, with some key differences.
They are made of light materials like rubber for added mobility and
speed, while tank tracks are made of rigid materials because they must
withstand concussions and explosions while carrying heavy weights.
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Tank tracks usually serve to steer as well as propel the vehicle, while a
handlebar/ski mechanism steers snowmobiles.
In both cases, tracks succeed where wheels often fail — they spread
the vehicle weight over a greater surface area, allowing it to move on
soft, slippery or unstable terrain where wheeled vehicles are unable to
gain traction. Tracks keep a heavy snowmobile from sinking in soft
snow, just as long, flat skis and wide, flat snowshoes spread a person’s
weight over a larger area.
Snowmobile tracks also provide traction on slippery surfaces like
snow and ice, where regular wheels would slip and slide. The large
surface area and the roughness of the treads create friction between the
snowmobile and the surface, giving the snowmobile a better grip. Most
snowmobilers add sharp studs to their tracks; these act like cleats on
athletic shoes and sink a short distance into the ice or hard snow,
gouging small holes that enable the tracks to grip the ice even tighter on
particularly slippery terrain.
You steer a snowmobile by turning the handlebars, in much the
same way as you steer a bicycle or motorcycle. The handlebars connect
to a stem mounted near the front of the snowmobile, which in turn
connects to skis mounted on a bracket at the bottom of the snowmobile.
Turning the handlebars turns the skis in the same direction.
Snowmobile skis come in varying widths and sizes for different
terrain, as well as single or double-ski models. Wider skis displace the
snowmobile’s weight over a larger area, enabling it to «float» higher
over the snow, while narrower skis allow for sharper turns.
Shock absorbers play a large part in providing a comfortable and
stable ride. Springs and dampers are used in a manner similar to
mountain bikes, enabling the rider to pilot his vehicle with the mobility
of skis, but the stability of a tracked vehicle.
REVISION
Translate from English into Russian.
1. To give the tank decent traveling range, General Dynamics had
to give it some mammoth fuel tanks.
2. Gas turbines tend to use more fuel when they are idling, and they
prefer a constant rather than a fluctuating load.
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3. It turns out that there are two big advantages of the turbine over
the diesel: gas turbine engines have a great power-to-weight ratio
compared to reciprocating engines.
4. Turbine engines are much smaller than comparable reciprocating
engines, so you can do more with the available space on the tank.
5. Snowmobile tracks are made of light materials like rubber for
added mobility and speed, while tank tracks are made of rigid materials
because they must withstand concussions and explosions while carrying
heavy weights.
6. Snowmobile tracks also provide traction on slippery surfaces like
snow and ice, where regular wheels would slip and slide.
7. Suspension is the term given to the system of springs, shock
absorbers and linkages that connects a vehicle to its wheels.
8. The road wheels of all light tracked armoured vehicles are
mounted independently on trailing arms or, in some cases, on leading
arms which amounts to much the same thing.
9. E.A. Chudakov is recognized to have been a great scientist who
did as much as he could for the good of automobile industry.
10. We consider E.A. Chudakov to be a great organizer of
education, and we know him to have worked much on the problems of
automobile industry.
11. It is generally accepted that battle tanks should be tracked and
not wheeled. But when it comes to light armoured vehicles there is no
lack of arguments for them having wheels instead of tracks.
12. Since tracks are laterally rigid tracked vehicles have to be
steered in an entirely different way than wheeled vehicles namely by
creating a difference between the thrust of their two tracks and thereby
slewing them round.
13. The needs of heavier vehicles are being met by other but
equally sophisticated transmissions with integrated steering systems.
14. Cletrac steering systems are more efficient than the basically
crude clutch-and-brake systems but they provide only one minimum
radius of turn which has to be a compromise between the requirements
of large radius turns at high speeds and tight turns at low speeds.
15. Some light armoured vehicles are still powered by sparkignition gasoline engines but, following the general trend in tank and
truck design, most are now powered by the more economical and less
flammable diesels.
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16. Wankel-type rotary engines continue to be developed in the
United States by John Deere, but there is no evidence of further interest
in using them in light armoured vehicles.
17. The speed and power of the diesel are known to be controlled
by varying the amount of fuel injected into the cylinder rather than the
amount of air admitted as in the gasoline engine.
18. Most cars being normally aspirated, air flows through an air
filter and directly to the cylinders.
19. Comparisons between wheeled and tracked vehicles are
complicated by the fact that the running gear of the former varies in its
configuration and effectiveness.
20. The other main type of reciprocating engine is known to be the
diesel engine invented by Rudolf Diesel and patented in 1892.
Translate from Russian into English.
1. Основными показателями любых двигателей являются
степень сжатия, мощность и экономичность.
2. Автомобильный двигатель — устройство, в котором
химическая энергия топлива превращается в механическую
работу. Это происходит благодаря сгоранию топлива внутри
цилиндров двигателя.
3. Современные гусеничные транспортные средства оснащаются
либо дизельными, либо газотурбинными двигателями, но ни один
серийный танк никогда не выпускался с роторным двигателем.
4. Независимо от вида легкие бронированные транспортные
средства имеют достаточно малый вес, чтобы оснащаться
двигателями массового производства для грузовиков и танков.
5. У карбюраторного двигателя топливо и воздух поступают в
цилиндр одновременно через открытый впускной клапан в виде
горючей смеси, приготовленной карбюратором.
6. Рулевое управление служит для изменения направления
движения автомобиля посредством (by means of) поворота
управляемых колес. На грузовых автомобилях управляемыми
являются передние колеса.
7. Рулевое управление состоит из рулевого механизма и
рулевого привода.
8. На автомобилях средней и большой грузоподъемности
применяют рулевое управление с гидроусилителем (hydraulic
actuator).
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9. Гидроусилитель служит для снижения давления водителя на
рулевое колесо при повороте передних колес, смягчает удары,
возникающие из-за неровностей на дороге.
10. Трансмиссия автомобиля — это ряд взаимодействующих
механизмов и агрегатов (assembly), передающих вращающий
момент (torque) от двигателя к ведущим колесам, изменяя его
частоту вращений (rotating frequency) по величине и направлению.
11. Появление передней независимой подвески на легковых
автомобилях очень благоприятно сказалось на комфорте при езде.
12. Рессора с пневматической подушкой также используется в
современном
автомобилестроении,
заменяя
механическую
подвеску подушкой со сжатым воздухом.
13. Винтовые пружины начали применяться, когда появилось
независимое переднее подрессоривание и исчезли жесткие
передние оси.
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СПИСОК ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ
Учебная литература
Родичев В.А. Грузовые автомобили: Учеб. для 10–11-х классов.
М.: Издат. центр «Академия», 2002.
Рубцова М.Г. Чтение и перевод английской научнотехнической литературы: Лексико-грамматический справочник.
М.: Астрель, 2002.
Bonsinore E. Russian Tank Active Defence Detailed // Military
Technology. 1993. 8 January.
Hilmes R. Gepanzerte Radfahrzeuge im Aufwind // Soldat und
Technik. 2000. March.
Kosar F. Wheeled Armoured Reconnaissance Vehicle // Armada
International Special. 1984. February.
Meyer T.J. Active Protective Systems // Armor. 1998. May — June.
Ogorkiewicz R.M. Wheels or Tracks. Jane’s International Defense
Review. 1986. August.
Ogorkiewicz R.M. In Search of, Lighter, Smaller Electric Guns for
the Future Tanks. Jane’s International Defense Review. 1998. June.
Schwartz W. Explosive Reactive Armor // Military Technology.
1991. August.
Sharoni A.H., Bacon L.D. The Future Combat System (FCS) //
Armor. 1997. July — August.
Словари
Гинзбург Ю.В. Современный англо-руcский автомобильный
словарь. М.: ЗАО КЖИ «За рулем», «Иврус», 2003.
Электронный словарь MultiTran.
Электронный словарь ABBY Lingvo 11.
Сайты
http://www.geeklife.ru
http://www.howstuffworks.com
http://www.militarytechnology.com
http://www.waronline.org
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CONTENTS
Unit 1 .......................................................................................................... 3
Text 1A. Engine structure ............................................................................. 5
Text 1B. Engines for military trucks ............................................................. 9
Text 1C. Engines for light armourd vehicles ............................................... 10
Unit 2 ........................................................................................................ 12
Text 2A. Steering systems .......................................................................... 13
Text 2B. Wheels or tracks? ......................................................................... 16
Text 2C. E.A. Shudakov ............................................................................. 18
Unit 3 ........................................................................................................ 19
Text 3A. Armoured fighting vehicle suspension .......................................... 20
Text 3B. Tracked vehicle suspensions ........................................................ 23
Text 3C. Система подвески .......................................................................25
Additional Texts ....................................................................................... 26
The M1 Tank Engine ................................................................................. 26
Tracks and Steering .................................................................................... 27
Revision .................................................................................................... 28
Список литературы ............................................................................... 32
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Учебное издание
Смелкова Елизавета Андреевна
ОБУЧЕНИЕ ЧТЕНИЮ ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ
НА АНГЛИЙСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ
ПО СПЕЦИАЛЬНОСТИ
«ГУСЕНИЧНЫЕ И КОЛЕСНЫЕ МАШИНЫ»
Корректор Е.К. Кошелева
Компьютерная верстка С.А. Серебряковой
Подписано в печать 30.10.2008. Формат 60×84/16. Бумага офсетная.
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