Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНТСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ ВОРОНЕЖСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ ESSAY WRITING Учебно‐методическое пособие для вузов Составитель: В.В. Юмашева Воронеж 2014 1 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Утверждено научно‐методическим советом факультета РГФ 2 июня 2014 года (протокол №6 от 10.06.2014) Рецензент канд. филолог. наук, доцент Л.Г. Кузьмина Учебно‐методическое пособие подготовлено на кафедре английского языка гуманитарных факультетов факультета РГФ Воронежского государственного университета Рекомендовано для студентов 2 курса дневного отделения факультета журналистики Для специальности 031300 «Журналистика» 2 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Пояснительная записка Учебно‐методическое пособие Essay Writing предназначено для студентов 2 курса дневного отделения, обучающихся по специальности 031300 «Журналистика». Пособие обеспечивает развитие профессионально значимых для журналистов умений письменной иноязычной речи. Целью данного учебно‐методического пособия является совершенствование умения написания эссе на английском языке на уровне достаточном для профессиональной коммуникации. В процессе работы с данным учебно‐методическим пособием решаются следующие задачи: − развитие умений устного и письменного комментария по заявленной теме − актуализация навыков работы с авторской лексикой, использованной в эссе − актуализация навыка написания эссе Пособие состоит из 6 частей, каждая из которых включает аутентичный текст эссе и блок упражнений, направленных на понимание, извлечение информации из текста, выражение мнения и личной оценки, которые способствуют развитию устных коммуникативных умений студентов и обеспечивают подготовку к написанию эссе. В приложении приводится список тем для написания эссе. Задания построены в логике когнитивно‐ коммуникативного подхода и носят творческий, деятельностный характер. Работа с каждой частью требует 4‐6 академических часов. Пособие позволяет организовать аудиторную и самостоятельную работу студентов и будет способствовать реализации целей и задач обучения иностранному языку. 3 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» INTRODUCTION Types of Essays Let us first agree on terms, or what we call an essay. An essay is a short prose composition that focuses on a single subject. As its name implies, an informal essay expresses the observations and opinions of the author in a personal, conversational way. The informal essay is sometimes called a familiar essay, a personal essay, or, when printed in a magazine or newspaper, a periodical essay. The informal essay is less rigid than the formal essay. The views stated can be highly individual, even outrageous. The familiar essay has its origins of Michel de Montaigne, a French author of the 16th century. It was Montaigne who first used the term essai – French for “attempt” – to describe the somewhat rambling, often amusing compositions in which he communicated highly personal thoughts to his readers. The 18th century was a time in which the informal essay flourished. Modern Essay or Feature Story An author always has a purpose in writing an essay; he or she writes to communicate a particular idea or opinion on a particular topic. The essayist uses facts, details, incidents, and reasons to develop that idea or support that opinion. We can learn more about the purpose of any essay by looking at the essay’s title, its topic, its language, and the particular facts, details, incidents, and reasons the author brings to the essay. An author’s purpose determines whether an essay will be formal or informal. Formal essays are serious and impersonal. Informal essays are more personal and entertaining. In fulfilling their various purposes, authors of essays use and often mix different kinds of writing: narration, description, persuasion, and exposition. A narrative essay tells a true story, usually to express some larger idea about life. Writers of factual narratives often heighten readers’ interest by taking advantage of the story telling techniques used by writers of fiction. 4 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» A descriptive essay makes its point by creating a verbal picture of a person, place, and object. The use of vivid sensory language and figures of speech helps the reader to form a mental image of the essay’s subject. A persuasive essay tries to convince the reader of the author’s opinion and sometimes to move the reader to action. This type of essay demonstrates how a skillful author can arrange and interpret facts to influence the ideas of the reader. An expository essay seeks to explain an idea. Logical organization is an important skill for the author of expository essays. Narrative Essay A narrative essay is a nonfiction work that tells a true story, presenting actual events in chronological order. The chronological organization of a narrative essay is similar to the plot of a story. Writers of essay thus build reader interest much as short story writers do. In addition, writers of narrative essays use skillfully chosen details to draw their readers into the experience being narrated. Narrative essays relate facts, but they go beyond the objective reporting of these facts. Writers of narrative essays often offer their personal comments and reflections on the events they relate. Just as a short story has a theme, a narrative essay relates an experience for a particular purpose: to illustrate an idea or to find within the incident some truth about life in general. Descriptive Essay A descriptive essay re‐creates a person, an object, a place, or a scene in the reader’s imagination. Good descriptive writing creates a strong impression of its subject for a purpose: to illustrate vividly a general idea or observation about life. A descriptive essay leads the reader to such observations by presenting specific details and concrete language that add up to an overall idea about language, or words that appeal to our senses of sight, hearing, taste, smell, touch, and motion. The Persuasive Essay In a persuasive essay the author expresses an opinion on a particular matter and tries to convince the reader of that opinion. By noting the opinion and the action called for, the reader can determine the author’s purpose. In order to persuade their readers, writers of persuasive essays marshal objective evidence such as facts, incidents, and examples in support of their opinions. Persuasive writers also 5 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» present ideas, reasons, and logical arguments showing why readers should agree with their opinions on the matter. In addition, many writers make their essay especially persuasive by mentioning alternative opinions and explaining why they find these opinions unsatisfactory. By recognizing and disposing of alternative views, a persuasive writer can convince readers that the opinion stated in the essay has been formed only after careful and objective thought. Expository Essay An expository essay explains a term, process, or idea to the reader. The writer of an expository essay often indicates the essay’s purpose by means of a thesis statement, which directly tells the reader what the essay will explain. This statement usually occurs toward the beginning of the essay; the body of the essay develops this statement with explanations and examples; the conclusion of the essay may restate the thesis in different words. Sometimes, however, the thesis is not directly stated but is implied in the essay. An implied thesis is one that the readers infer from the author’s arguments and examples. An expository essay on winter sports may begin with a thesis statement such as “Skiing offers a combination of fun and exercise to a wide range of people.” The remainder of the essay would support this statement. On the other hand, the essay might imply rather than directly state its thesis. By describing each winter sport and its relative popularity, the essay might clearly show the special benefits and wide appeal of skiing without including a specific, direct statement to that effect. Rather than announcing the author’s purpose in a thesis statement, the essay with an implied thesis gives readers enough information to recognize that purpose on their own. Exposition means explanation of facts. At the beginning of a short story, novel, or play, exposition provides information that is necessary to follow the action. The expository essay presents facts or explains an idea. The essayist seeks to inform the reader. Most expository essays follow a pattern. The author states the central idea, or the purpose for writing the essay. Then the author presents support in the form of examples, reasons, statistics, and anecdotes. The clear statement of the central idea of the essay is the thesis statement. The thesis statement is often the first sentence of an expository essay or falls within the first paragraph. It is often repeated in other words in or near the last paragraph. 6 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» In addition, each paragraph of an expository essay generally contains a topic sentence which states the central point of that paragraph. This pattern of thesis statement and topic sentences presents the explanation in a logical, straightforward manner. Comparative Essay One effective technique in expository writing is the use of comparison and contrast. Comparison points out similarities between one or more subjects; contrast examines the differences between them. Very often writers develop comparison and contrast by using parallel structure; they discuss the same points in the same order for each subject. As a result, the various similarities and differences between the subjects stand out more sharply. A comparison and contrast that uses a parallel development can build from simple, obvious points to more subtle ones. UNIT 1 Lead‐in 1. What do you think is in the text? 2. Can you name the main types of essays mentioned in the introduction? Make a list and put at least three key words which go with each type of essay (for example, narration: descriptive, strong impression, observations). On Essays By Edward Hoagland We sometimes hear that essays are an old‐fashioned form, that so‐and‐so is the “last essayist”, but the facts of the marketplace argue quite otherwise. Essays of nearly any kind are so much easier than short stories for a writer to sell, so many more see print, it’s strange that though two fine anthologies remain that publish the year’s best stories, no comparable collection exists for essays. Such changes in the reading public’s taste aren’t always to the good, needless to say. The art of telling stories predated even cave painting, surely; and if we ever find ourselves living in caves again, it (with painting and drumming) will be the only art left, after 7 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» movies, novels, photography, essays, biography, and all the rest have gone down the drain – the art to build form. One has the sense with the short story as a form that while everything may have been done, nothing has been overdone; it has permanence. Essays, if a comparison is to be made, although they go back four hundred years to Montaigne, seem a mercurial, newfangled, sometimes hokey affair that has lent itself to many of the excesses of the age, from spurious autobiography to spurious hallucination, as well as to the shabby careerism of traditional journalism. It’s a greased pig. Essays are associated with the way young writers fashion a name – on plain, crowded newsprint in hybrid vehicles like the Village Voice, Rolling Stone, the New York Review of Books, instead of the thick paper stock and thin readership of Partisan Review. Essays, however, hang somewhere on a line between two sturdy poles: this is what I think, and this is what I am. Autobiographies which aren’t novels are generally extended essays, indeed. A personal essay is like the human voice talking, its order the mind’s natural flow, instead of a systematized outline of ideas. Though more wayward or informal than an article or treatise, somewhere it contains a point which is its real centre, even if the point couldn’t be uttered in fewer words than the essayist has used. Essays don’t usually boil down to a summary, as articles do, and the style of the writer has a “nap” to it, a combination of personality and originality and energetic loose ends that stand up like the nap on a piece of wool and can’t be brushed flat. Essays belong to the animal kingdom, with a surface that generates sparks, like a coat of fur, compared with the flat, conventional cotton of the magazine article writer, who works in the vegetable kingdom, instead. But, essays, on the other hand, may have fewer “levels” than fiction, because we are not supposed to argue much about their meaning. In the old distinction between teaching and storytelling, the essayist, however, cleverly he camouflages his intentions, is a bit of a teacher or reformer, and an essay is intended to convey the same point to each of us. This emphasis upon mind speaking to mind is what makes essays less universal in their appeal than stories. They are addressed to an educated, perhaps a middle‐ class, reader, with certain presuppositions, a frame of reference, even a commitment to civility that is shared – not the grand and golden empathy inherent in every man or woman that a storyteller has a chance to tap. 8 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nevertheless, the artful “I” of an essay can be as any narrator in fiction; and essays do tell a story quite as often as a short story stakes a claim to a particular viewpoint. Mark Twain’s piece called “Corn‐pone Opinions”, for example, which is about public opinion, begins with a vignette as vivid as any in Huckleberry Finn. Twain says that when he was a boy of fifteen, he used to hang out a back window and listen to the sermons preached by a neighbour’s slave standing on top of a woodpile: “He imitated the pulpit style of the several clergyman of the village, and did it well and with fine passion and energy. To me he was a wonder. I believed he was the greatest orator in the United States and would some day be heard from. But it didn’t happen; in the distribution of rewards he was overlooked… He interrupted his preaching now and then to saw a stick of wood/ but the sewing was a pretense – he did it with his mouth, exactly imitating the sound the bucksaw makes in shrieking its way through the wood. But it served its purpose, it kept his master from coming out to see how the work was getting along.” A novel would go on and tell us what happened next in the life of the slave – and we miss that. But the extraordinary flexibility of essays is what has enabled them to ride out rough weather and hybridize into forms that suit the times. And just as one of the first things a fiction writer learns is that he needn’t actually be writing fiction to write a short story – that he can tell his own history or anybody else’s as exactly as he remembers it and it will be “fiction” if it remains primarily a story – an essayist soon discovers that he doesn’t have to tell the whole truth and nothing but the truth; he can shape or shave his memories, as long as the purpose is served of elucidating a truthful point. A personal essay frequently is not autobiographical at all, but what it does keep in common with autobiography is that, though its tone and tumbling progression, it conveys the quality of the author’s mind. Nothing gets in the way. Because essays are directly concerned with the mind and the mind’s idiosyncrasy, the very freedom the mind possesses is bestowed on this branch of literature that does honour to it, and the fascination of the mind is the fascination of the essay. Questions for Discussion 1. What does the author mean by the following statements: (a) “A personal essay is like the human voice talking, it orders the mind’s natural flow, instead of a systematized outline of ideas.” (Paragraph 3) 9 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» (b) “But, essays on the other hand, may have fewer “levels” than fiction, because we are not supposed to argue much about their meaning.” (Paragraph 3) (c) “… an essayist soon discovers that he doesn’t have to tell the whole truth and nothing but the truth; he can shape or shave his memories.” (Paragraph 6) 2. How does the author distinguish between essays and works of fiction? 3. According to Hoagland, what is the main purpose of all essays? 4. What advantages, if any, does the essayist have over the short story writer? Exploring Ideas (please, answer in writing) 1. Do you agree with the author that essays can’t be reduced to a summary, as in a single sentence? Give reasons for your answer. 2. How would you define the essay? What makes an essay good or bad? 3. The author says that “essays are directly concerned with the mind and the mind’s idiosyncrasy.” How have you found this to be true in your reading of essays? 4. Agree or disagree with the statements discussed in question one of “Questions for Discussion.” Activity 1. Make a list of vocabulary items or expressions that you feel contribute in a positive way to the style of the author. 2. Write an essay of your own in which you expand upon Hoagland’s closing statement in Paragraph 6. 10 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» UNIT 2 Lead‐in 1. What do you think is in the text? 2. You are going to read an essay about man’s ownership. Before you read, make a list of five valuable possessions that belong to you. How did you get them? Is there anything you would like to own badly? Mine, All Mine By William Ryan How do you get to own something? Well, you usually buy it. But how did the fellow you bought it from get to own it? Where did the idea of owning come from? Or was it always there, perhaps in the mind of God? No one really knows, of course. The idea of owning and property emerged in the mists of unrecorded history. One can try to imagine the scene. Some Cro‐Magnon innovator, seized with a fit of entrepreneurial passion, took his club and drew a line in the earth and called out, “Okay, you guys! Everything inside this line is mine. It belongs to me. I own it.” Now, very likely, this first would‐be landowner was a skinny, little, near‐sighted Cro‐Magnon who couldn’t throw a spear straight and was able to drag by the hair only the homeliest girls of the tribe. A couple of his fellow cavemen may have kicked sand in his face, but most of the others probably laughed indulgently, kidding him about his intellectual pretensions, his ways of using big words like “belong” and “own” that nobody else knew the meaning of. “That Herman! A regular walking dictionary!” And they rubbed out Herman’s line on the ground. (I am counting on a fair amount of good humour among the Cro‐Magnons; another telling of the story might assume more malevolence and end with their rubbing out Herman himself.) But, as we know, a good idea never dies, and sooner or later a hefty, well‐ respected caveman who carried a big club picked up Herman’s notion, drew his own line in the earth, and made his claim stick. Others drew their lines, taking possession of the land merely by outlining its boundaries, and then talked about what they owned and what belonged to them. The forcible seizure of what had been until then common property, if property at all, led first to emulation, as 11 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» others also seized portions of land, and ultimately to the development of ideas and relationships that could be thought to coincide with the new reality. Rather than having men who had the muscle power to seize and men who had not, we had landowners and the landless; instead of loot from the seizure, we had “property”, then property laws by the chapter, and finally the revelation that the institution of private had been ordained by God. These concepts – landowners, property, and property rights – became currency, unquestioned and unquestionable ideas, as natural and expected as the sunrise or as water following downhill, which we take for granted and don’t give another thought. And that is the central nature of ideology. If you do not stop and think about it, it’s quite remarkable. An individual human being, occupying a blip on the screen of time, has the incredible gall to stand up and say,” I own this land; this land is mine.” He is talking about an acre or a hundred acres of the earth, a piece of the planet! And he says it’s his! Isn’t that really an incredible claim to make? And he doesn’t just say he owns the earth, he also says that he owns what comes out of it and what is buried beneath it. The owner of the land lays claims to the grain and the grass that spring up from it and to the cattle that feed on the grain and the grass. He lays claim to the oil and the iron that lie beneath the ground and then to the steel made from the iron and to the automobile made from the steel and to the gasoline made from the oil. He counts as his property the tree that grows on the land and the wood of the tree and the buildings of the land made from the wood. He owns those things, he says; they belong to him. And we all act as if it were true, so it must be true. But behind all these claims, supporting and upholding them – and our willingness to believe them – is the big club of the hefty Cro‐Magnon who made the first claim and dared his fellows to oppose him. The club is smaller and neater now, hanging from the belt of the policeman, but the principle remains the same. Is it possible that the ideas we have today about ownership and property rights have been so universal in the human mind that it is truly as if they had sprung from the mind of God? By no means. The ancient Jews, for one, had a very different outlook on property and ownership, viewing it as something much more temporary and tentative than we do. Mosaic law with respect to ownership of land (the only significant productive property of the time) is unambiguous: 12 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» And the land shall not be sold in perpetuity; for the land is Mine; for ye are strangers and settlers with Me. And in all the land of your possession ye shall grant a redemption for the land. (Lev. 25:23‐24) The buying and selling of land was based on principles very different from those we know. It was not, in fact, the land itself that changed hands, but rather the right to use the land to cultivate crops. The price of the land was determined by the number of the land reverted to the family that originally possessed it. Under such a law, buying land is similar to the process we call leasing. The institution of the jubilee year was a specific mechanism for rectifying the inequities that had accumulated, for simultaneously restoring liberty and equality for all: And ye shall hallow the fiftieth year, and proclaim liberty throughout the land unto all the inhabitants thereof; it shall be a jubilee unto you; and ye shall return every man unto his possession, and ye shall return every man unto his family. (Lev. 25‐10) There is no doubt that these laws were violated. Prophet after prophet condemned as violations efforts to accumulate wealth unjustly: Woe unto them that join house to house, that lay field to field, till there be no place, that they may be placed alone in the midst of the earth! (Isaiah, 5:8) But the law was violated and the violation condemned is a demonstration of its existence and applicability. Although the law of jubilee was evaded more and more and ultimately fell into disuse, there can be no doubt that it was adhered to for many generations. Similarly, the tenure of land in the agrarian feudal ages was hedged all about with restrictions and accompanied by specific obligations that the landowner owned to his tenants. These restrictions and obligations, too, were frequently evaded and violated – perhaps more often than they were honoured – but they were unquestionably part of the structure of law and custom until the dawn of the modern era, when the very idea of land began to change and when land began to be equated with capital, as the new commercial classes began to impose their own view of private property as something with which one could do more or less what one pleased. 13 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» A bit later, Europeans invented a new method of earning riches, that of “discovery”’ and they came to America and claimed the land – on the grounds that they had never seen it before – and they went through the arduous labour of possessing by bounding. To most of the Native American tribes, the land was not subject to “ownership” by individuals. Their thinking was expressed eloquently by a Blackfeet chief: As long as the sun shines and the waters flow, this land will be here to give life to man and animals. We cannot sell the lives of men and animals, therefore we cannot sell this land. It was put here by the Great Spirit and we cannot sell it because it does not belong to us. The Europeans’ peculiar ideas about individuals’ claiming exclusive ownership of specific portions of God’s earth seemed strange, at first incomprehensible and then irksomely eccentric. The Indians eventually learned to their sorrow that it was no eccentricity, but rather a murderous mania. In modern times, of course, we have the example of ex‐socialist countries where private ownership of productive property as a natural and universal right of mankind, perhaps of divine origin, were by no means universal and had to be viewed as an invention of man rather than a decree of God. Of course, we are completely trained to accept the idea of ownership of the earth and its products, raw and transformed. It seems not at all strange; in fact, it is quite difficult to imagine a society without such arrangements. Of someone, some individual, didn’t own that plot of land, that house, that factory, that machine, that tower of wheat, how would we function? What would the rules be? How would we know how to act? Whom would we buy from and how would we sell? It is important to acknowledge a significant difference between achieving ownership simply by taking or claiming property and owning what we tend to call the “fruit of labour”. If I, alone or together with my family, work on the land and raise crops, or if I make something useful out of natural material, it seems reasonable and fair to claim that the crops or the objects belong to me or my family, are my property, at least in the sense that I have first claim on them. Hardly anyone would dispute that. In fact, some of the early radical workingmen’s movements made claim on that very grounds. As industrial organization became more complex, however, such issues became vastly more intricate. It must be clear that in modern society the social heritage of knowledge and technology and the social organization of manufacture and exchange account for far more of the 14 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» productivity of industry and the value of what is produced that can be accounted for by the labour of any number of individuals. Hardly any person can now point and say, “That – that right there – is the fruit of my labour.” We can say, as a society, as a nation – as a world, really – that what is produced is the fruit of our labour, the product of the whole society as a collectivity… No one man could conceivably build a house with only twelve times the amount of time and effort that twelve men expend in building the same house. Yet we ignore this evident reality. Even the workmen, though their experience makes them aware of it, have no way of thinking and talking about it. So, when the man who bought the land, the lumber, the nails, and the wire comes around at the end and gives them each a check for the “value of their labour” – and then even has the chutzpah to bestow upon himself the title “builder” – no one doubts that he, that individual, now is the rightful owner of that house. It became his property. With all this distortion and overemphasis on individual action, the idea of private property and ownership of pieces of the earth is still pretty much limited to that portion of the earth that is actually land. We cannot readily imagine buying a piece of air or seeking a mortgage on a segment of ocean. The idea of owning the air and the seas seems as incomprehensible to us as the idea of owning his own factory must seem to a Russian (although we are beginning to see a rapidly growing interest in extending the idea of ownership to these elements, particularly as the oceans come to be seen more clearly as a means of production, not only of fish, but of other food, of oil, and perhaps of minerals). We would have a similar feeling if we watched someone sailing out into the Atlantic and marking out a line of buoys to the north, east, south, and west and then proclaiming to whoever might listen, “These waves are mine. I own this piece of ocean. This water and the fish therein and the plankton and the salt and the seaweed belong to me. The water is mine and the fullness thereof.” Hardly anyone would agree with him or honour his claim, no matter how much he might talk about the divine rights of man to own the ocean. We have to recognize that the right of private individual ownership of property is man‐made and constantly dependent on the extent to which those without property believe that the owner can make his claim stick. One way of making the claim stick is to remove it from the realm of human agreements, to mystify it, to clothe it in myths, of which the most important with 15 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» respect to the so‐called right of private ownership of social product and the things than make this product possible is the myth of the lone “supernormal” individual. It is only by saying – louder and louder, over and over again – “I! I! I!” that we can get away with saying “my” and “mine”. Questions for Discussion 1. To what extent does the author’s use of the anecdote about cavemen help to illustrate the origin of private property? Is it oversimplification? 2. According to paragraph 5, upon what does the principle of ownership rest? 3. How did the Mosaic law treat the ownership of land? 4. How did ownership of land function during the agrarian feudal ages? 5. What was the attitude of North American Indian tribes toward land ownership? How did Europeans circumvent the thinking of the Indians? 6. How does the author differentiate between ownership of property and ownership of the “fruits of labour?” 7. The author says in paragraph 12: “It must be clear that in modern society the social heritage of knowledge and technology and the social organization of manufacture and exchange account for far more of the productivity of industry and the value of what is produced that can be accounted for by the labour of any number of individuals.” Express the author’s thought in your own words in writing to make the sentence easier to understand. 8. What is the main means by which modern society supports the concept of private ownership of property? Is it different from concepts in the past? Exploring Ideas (please, answer in writing) 1. How do you react to the author’s explanations of the concept of ownership of property? What are your own beliefs in this regard? 2. Discuss what the author says in paragraph 16. Is it a totally true statement? Activity Imagine that you have been appointed to design a perfect or utopian society. How would you deal with the matter of private ownership of property and of the “fruits of labour?” Write an essay of 250‐300 words setting forth your plan or design. 16 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» UNIT 3 Lead‐in 1. What do you think is in the text? 2. You are going to read an essay about the language we speak. Would you say that the way we speak tells a lot about the sort of person we are? Do men and women speak the same language or do they speak differently? You Are What You Say By Robin Lakoff “Women’s language” is that pleasant (dainty?), euphemistic never‐aggressive way of talking we learned as little girls. Cultural bias was built into the language we were allowed to speak, the subjects we were allowed to speak about, and the ways we were spoken of. Having learned our linguistic lesson well, we go out in the world, only to discover that we are communicative cripples – damned if we do, and damned if we don’t. If we refuse to talk “like a baby”, we are ridiculed and criticized for being unfeminine. (“She thinks like a man” is, at best, a left‐handed compliment.) If we do learn all the fuzzy‐headed, unassertive language of our sex, we are ridiculed for being unable to think clearly, unable to take part in a serious discussion, and therefore unfit to hold a position of power. It doesn’t take much of this for a woman to being feeling she deserves such treatment because of inadequacies in her own intelligence and education. “Women’s language” shows up in all levels of English. For example, women are encouraged and allowed to make far more precise discriminations in naming colours than men do. Words like mauve, beige, ecru, aquamarine, lavender, and so on, are unremarkable in a woman’s active vocabulary, but largely absent from that of most men. I know of no evidence suggesting that women actually see a wider range of colours than men do. It is simply that fine discriminations of this sort are relevant to women’s vocabularies, but not to men’s; to men, who control most of the interesting affairs of the world, such distinctions are trivial – irrelevant. 17 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» In the area of syntax, we find similar gender‐related peculiarities of speech. There is one construction, in particular, that women use conversationally far more than men: the tag question. A tag midway between an outright statement and a yes‐no question; it is less assertive than the former, but more confident than the latter. A flat statement indicates confidence in the speaker’s knowledge and is fairly certain to be believed; a question indicates a lack of knowledge on some point and implies that the gap in the speaker’s knowledge can and will be remedied by an answer. For example, if, at a Little League game, I have had my glasses off, I can legitimately ask someone else: “Was the player out at third?” A tag question, being intermediate between statement and question, is used when the speaker is stating a claim, but lacks full confidence in the truth of that claim. So if I say, “Is Joan there?” I will probably not be surprised if my respondent answers “no”; but if I say, “Joan is here, isn’t she?” instead, chances are I am already biased in favour of a positive answer, waiting only confirmation. I still want a response, but I have enough knowledge (or think I have) to predict that response. A tag question, then, might be thought of as a statement that does not demand to be believed by anyone but the speaker, way of giving leeway, of not forcing the addressee to go along with the views of the speaker. Another common use of the tag question is in small talk when the speaker is trying to elicit conversation: “Sure is not here, isn’t it?” But in discussing personal feelings or opinions, only the speaker normally has any way of knowing the correct answer. Sentences such as “I have a headache, don’t I?” are clearly ridiculous. But there are other examples when it is the speaker’s opinions, rather than perceptions, for which corroboration is sought, as in “The situation in Southeast Asia is terrible, isn’t it?” While there are, of course, other possible interpretations of a sentence like this, one possibility is that the speaker has a particular answer in mind – “yes” or “no” – but is reluctant to state it baldly. This sort of tag question is much more apt to be used by women than by men in conversation. Why is this the case? The tag question allows a speaker to avoid commitment, and thereby avoid conflict with the addressee. The problem is that, by so doing, speakers may also give the impression of not really being sure of themselves, or looking to the addressee for confirmation of their views. This uncertainty is reinforced in more subliminal ways, too. There is a peculiar sentence‐intonation pattern, used almost 18 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» exclusively by women, as far as I know, which changes a declarative answer into a question. The effect of using the rising inflection typical of a yes‐no question is to imply that the speaker is seeking confirmation, even though the speaker is clearly the only one who has the requisite information, which is why the question was put to her in the first place: (Q) When will dinner be ready? (A) Oh… around six o’clock…? It is as though the second speaker were saying, ”Six o’clock – if that’s okay with you, if you agree.” The person being addressed is put in the question of having to provide confirmation. One likely consequence of this sort of speech pattern in a woman is that, often unbeknown to herself, the speaker builds a reputation of tentativeness, and others will refrain from taking her seriously or trusting her with any real responsibilities, since she “can’t make up her mind,” and “isn’t sure of herself.” Such idiosyncrasies may explain why women’s language sounds much more “polite” than men’s. it is polite to leave a decision open, not impose your mind, or views, or claims, on anyone else. So a tag question is a kind of polite statement, in that it does not force agreement or belief on the addressee. In the same way a request is a polite command, in that it does not force obedience on the addressee, but rather suggests something be done as a favour to the speaker. A clearly stated order implies a threat of certain consequences if it is not followed, and – even more impolite – implies that the speaker is in a superior position and able to enforce the order. By couching wishes in the form of request, on the other hand, a speaker implies that if the request is not carried out, only the speaker will suffer; noncompliance cannot harm the addressee. So the decision is really left up to the addressee. The distinction becomes clear in these examples: Close the door. Please close the door. Will you close the door? Will you please close the door? Won’t you close the door? 19 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» In the same way as words and speech patterns used by women undermine her image, those used to describe women make matters even worse. Often a word may be used of both men and women (and perhaps of things as well); but when it is applied to women, it assumes a special meaning that, by implication rather than outright assertion, is derogatory to women as a group. The use of euphemisms has this effect. A euphemism is a substitute for a word that has acquired a bad connotation by association with something unpleasant or embarrassing. But almost as soon as the new word comes into common usage, in takes on the same old bad connotations, since feelings about the things or people referred to are not altered by a change of name; thus new euphemisms must be constantly found. There is one euphemism for woman still very much alive. The word, of course, is lady. Lady has a masculine counterpart, namely gentleman, occasionally shortened to gent. But for some reason lady is very much commoner than gent (lemen). The decision to use lady rather than woman, or vice versa, may considerably alter the sense of a sentence, as the following examples show: (a) A woman (lady) I know is a dean at Berkeley. (b) A woman (lady) I know makes amazing things out of shoelaces and old boxes. The use of lady in (a) implies a frivolous, or nonserious, tone to the sentence: the matter under discussion is not one of great moment. Similarly, in (b), using lady here would suggest that the speaker considered the “amazing things” not to be serious art, but merely a hobby or an aberration. If woman is used, she might be a serious sculptor. To say lady doctor is very condescending, since no one ever says gentleman doctor or even man doctor. Many women argue that, on the other hand, lady carries with it overtones recalling the age of chivalry: conferring exalted stature on the person so referred to. This makes the term seem polite at first, but we must also remember that these implications are perilous: they suggest that a “lady” is helpless, and cannot do things by herself. Lady can also be used to infer frivolousness, as in titles of organizations. Those that have a serious purpose (not merely that of enabling “the ladies” to spend 20 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» time with one another) cannot use the word lady in their titles, but less serious ones may. Compare the Ladies’ Auxiliary of a men’s group, or the Thursday Evening Ladies’ Browning and Garden Society with Ladies’ Liberation and Ladies’ Strike for Peace. What is curious about this split is that lady is in origin a euphemism – a substitute that puts a better face on something people find uncomfortable – for woman. What kind of euphemism is it that subtly denigrates the people to whom it refers? Perhaps lady functions as a euphemism for woman because it does not contain the sexual implications present in woman: it is not “embarrassing” in that way. If this is so, we may expect that, in the future, lady will replace woman as the primary word for the human female, since woman will have become too blatantly sexual. That this distinction is already made some contexts at least is shown in the following examples, where you can try replacing woman with lady: (a) She’s only twelve, but she’s already a woman. (b) After ten years in jail, Harry wanted to find a woman. (c) She’s my woman, see, so don’t mess around with her. Another common substitute for woman is girl. One seldom hears a man past the age of adolescence referred to as a boy, save in expressions like “going out with the boys,” which are meant to suggest an air of adolescent frivolity and irresponsibility. But women of all ages are “girls”: one can have a man – not a boy – Friday, but only a girl – never a woman or even a lady – Friday; women have girlfriends, but men do not – in a nonsexual sense – have boyfriends. It may be that this use of girl is euphemistic in the same way the use of lady is: in stressing the idea of immaturity, it removes the sexual connotations lurking in woman. Girl brings to mind irresponsibility: you don’t send a girl to do a woman’s errand (or even, for that matter, a boy’s errand). She is a person who is both too immature and too far from real life to be entrusted with responsibilities or with decisions of any serious or important nature. Now let’s take a pair of words which, in terms of the possible relationships in an earlier society, were simple male‐female equivalents, analogous to bull: cow. Suppose we find that, for independent reasons, society has changed in such a way that the original meanings are now irrelevant. Yet the words have not been discarded, but have acquired new meanings, metaphorically related to their original senses. But suppose these new metaphorical uses are no longer parallel to 21 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» each other. By seeing where the parallelism breaks down, we discover something about the different roles played by men and women in this culture. One good example of such a divergence through time is found in the pair, master – mistress. Once used with reference to one’s power over servants, these words have become usable today in their original matter‐servant sense as the relationship has become less prevalent in our society. But the words are still common. Unless used with reference to animals, master now generally refers to a man who has acquired consummate ability in some field, normally nonsexual. But its feminine counterpart cannot be used this way. It is practically restricted to its sexual sense of “paramour.” We start out with two terms, both roughly paraphrasable as “one who has power over another.” But the masculine form, once one person is no longer able to have absolute power over something.” Master requires as its object only the name of some activity, something inanimate and abstract. But mistress requires a masculine noun in the possessive to precede it. One cannot say: “Rhonda is a mistress.” One must be someones’s mistress. A man is defined by what he does, a woman by her sexuality, that is, in terms of one particular aspect of her relationship to men. It is one thing to be an old master like Hans Holbein a German painter of the 16th century, famous for his portraits of English nobility at the court of Henry VIII), and another to be an old mistress. The same is true of the words spinster and bachelor – gender words for “one who is not married.” The resemblance ends with the definition. While bachelor is a neuter terms, often used as a compliment, spinster normally is used pejoratively, with connotations of prissiness, fussiness, and so on. To be a bachelor implies that one has a choice of marrying or not, and this is what makes the idea of a bachelor existence attractive, in the popular literature. He has been pursued and has successfully eluded his pursuers. But a spinster is one who has been pursued, or at least not seriously. She is old, unwanted goods. The metaphorical connotations of bachelor generally suggest sexual freedom; of spinster – puritanism or celibacy. These examples could be multiplied. It is generally considered a faux pas, in society, to congratulate a woman on her engagement, while it is correct to congratulate her fiancé. Why is this? The reason seems to be that it is impolite to remind people of things that may be uncomfortable to them. To congratulate a woman on her engagement is really to say, “Thanks goodness! You had a close call!” For the man, on the other hand, there was no such danger. His choosing to marry is viewed as a good thing, but not something essential. 22 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» The linguistic double standard holds throughout the life of the relationship. After marriage, bachelor and spinster become man and wife, not man and woman. The woman whose husband dies remains “John’s widow;” John, however, is never “Mary’s widower.” Finally, why is it that salesclerks and others are so quick to call women customers “dear,” “honey,” and other terms of endearment they really have no business using? A male customer would never put up with it. But women, like children, are supposed to enjoy these endearments, rather than being offended by them. In more ways than one, it’s time to speak up. Questions for Discussion 1. In the first paragraph, Lakoff states: “Cultural bias was built into the language we were allowed to speak, the subjects we were allowed to speak about, and the ways we were spoken of.” How does the author support this statement? 2. What does the author mean by calling women “communicative cripples?” Is her argument convincing? 3. Why is the tag question more common among women than among men, according to Professor Lakoff? 4. How does women’s language sound more “polite” than that of men? 5. What is the effect of using the term, lady, to refer to women? How is it denigrating in impact? 6. What is the linguistic double standard involved with master/mistress and bachelor/spinster? 7. In this essay, is the author endeavouring to explain, to inform, or to persuade? Give your reasons. Exploring Ideas 1. How valid would Professor Lakoff’s observations about “women’s language” be in society of your country? 2. What is “men’s language” in your opinion? 23 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» 3. Can you think of any advantages or disadvantages for talking like a woman? Like a man? 4. According to Lakoff, women’s language sounds more polite than that of men. Is it, as she observes, really sign of weakness or uncertainty? 5. Do you think that a person’s language frequently defines his/her role in society? Can you give illustrations? Activity 1. Make a list of vocabulary items or expressions that you feel contribute in a positive way to the style of the author. 2. Write an essay of your own in which you expand upon Lakoff’s statement in Paragraph 1. UNIT 4 Judith Viorst Friends, Good Friends – and Such Good Friends Lead‐in 1. How many friends can a person have? 2. What types of friends can you name? Make a list. Women are friends, I once would have said, when they totally love and support and trust each other, and bare to each other the secrets of their souls, and run – no questions asked – to help each other (no, you can’t wear that dress unless you lose ten pounds first)when harsh truths must be told. Women are friends, I once would have said, when they share the same affection for Ingmar Bergman, plus train rides, cats, warm rains, charades, Camus, and hate with equal ardor Newark Brussels sprouts Lawrence Welk and camping. 24 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» In other words, I once would have said that a friend is a friend all the way, but now I believe that’s a narrow point of view. For the friendships I have and the friendships I see are conducted at many levels of intensity, serve many different functions, meet different needs and range from those as all‐the‐way as the friendship of the soul sisters mentioned above to that of the most nonchalant and casual playmates. Consider these varieties of friendship: 1. Convenience friends. These are women with whom, if our paths weren’t crossing all the time, we’d have no particular reason to be friends: a next‐ door neighbor, a woman in our car pool, the mother of one of our children’s closest friends or maybe some mommy with whom we serve juice and cookies each week at the Glenwood Co‐op Nursery. Convenience friends are convenient indeed. They’ll lend us their cups and silverware for a party. They’ll drive our kids to soccer when we’re sick. They’ll take us to pick up our car when we need a lift to the garage. They’ll even take our cats when we go on vacation. As we will for them. But we don’t, with convenience friends, ever come too close or tell too much; we maintain our public face and emotional distance. “Which means,” says Elaine, “that I’ll talk about being overweight but not about being depressed. Which means I’ll admit being mad but not blind with rage. Which means that I might say that we’re pinched this month but never that I’m worried sick over money.” But which doesn’t mean that there isn’t sufficient value to be found in these friendships of mutual aids, in convenience friends. 2. Special‐interest friends. These friendships aren’t intimate, and they needn’t involve kids or silverware or cats. Their value lies in some interest jointly shared. And so we may have an office friend or a yoga friend or a tennis friend or a friend from the Women’s Democratic Club. “I’ve got one woman friend,” says Joyce, “who likes, as I do, to take psychology courses. Which makes it nice for me – and nice for her. It’s fun to go with someone you know and it’s fun to discuss what you’ve learned, driving back to the classes.” And for the most part, she says, that’s all they discuss. 25 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» “I’d say that what we’re doing is doing together, not being together, “ Suzanne says of her Tuesday‐doubles friends. “it’s mainly a tennis relationship, but we play together well. And I guess we all need to have a couple of playmates.” I agree. My playmate is a shopping friend, a woman of marvelous taste, a woman who knows exactly where to buy what, and furthermore is a woman who always knows beyond a doubt what one ought to be buying. I don’t have the time to keep up with what’s new in eyeshadow, hemlines and shoes and weather the smock look is in or finished already. But since (oh, shame!)I care a lot about eyeshdows, hemlines and shoes, and since I don’t want to wear smocks if the smock look is finished, I’m very glad to have a shopping friend. 3. Historical friends. We all have a friend who knew us when…maybe way back in Miss Meltzer’s second grade, when our family lived in that three‐room flat in Brooklyn, when our dad was out of work for seven months, when our brother Aliie got in that fight where they had to call the police, when our sister married endodontist from Yonkers an when, the morning after we lost our virginity, she was the first, the only friend we told. The years have gone by and we’ve gone separate ways and we’ve little in common now, but we’re still an intimate part of each other’s past. And so whenever we go to Detroit we always go to visit this friend of our girlhood. Who knows how we looked before our teeth were straightened. Who knows how we talked before our voice unBrooklyned. Who knows what we ate before we learned about artichokes. And who, by her presence, puts us in touch with an earlier part of ourself, a part of ourselfit’s important never to lose. “What these friend means to me and what I mean to her,” says Grace, “is having a sister without sibling rivalry. We know the texture of each other’s lives. She remembers my grandmother’s cabbage soup. I remember the way her uncle played the piano. There’s simply no other friend who remembers those things.” 4. Crossroads friends. Like historical friends, our crossroads friends are important for what was– for the friendship we share at a crucial, now past, 26 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» time of life. A time, perhaps, we roomed in college together; or worked as eager young singles in the Big City together; or went together, as my friend Elizabeth and I did, through pregnancy, birth and that scary first year of new motherhood. Crossroads friends forge powerful links, links strong enough to endure not too much more contact than once‐a‐year letter at Christmas. And out of respect for those crossroads years, for those dramas and dreams we once shared, we will always be friends. 5. Cross‐generational friends. Historical friends and crossroads friends seem to maintain a special kind of intimacy – dormant but always ready to be revived – and though we may rarely meet, whenever we do connect, it’s personal and intense. Another kind of intimacy exists in the friendships that form across generations in what one woman calls her daughter‐mother and her mother‐daughter relationships. Evelyn’s friend is her mother’s age – “but I share so much more than I ever could with mother” – a woman she talks to of music, of books and of life. “What I get from her is the benefit of her experience. What she gets – and enjoys – from me is a youthful perspective. It’s a pleasure for both of us.” I have in my own life a precious friend, a woman of 65 who has lived very hard, who is wise, who listens well; who has been where I am and can help me understand it; and who represents not only an ultimate ideal mother to me but also the person I’d like to be when I grow up. In our daughter role we tend to do more than our share of self‐revelation; in our mother role we tend to receive what’s revealed. It’s another kind of pleasure – playing wise mother to a questing younger person. It’s another very lovely kind of friendship. 6. Part‐of‐a‐couple friends. Some of the women we call our friends we never see alone – we see them as part of a couple at couple’s parties. And though we share interests in many things and respect each other’s views, we aren’t moved to deepen the relationship. Whatever the reason, a lack of time or – and this is more likely – a lack of chemistry, our friendship remains in the context of a group. But the fact that our feelings on seeing each other is always, “I’m so glad she’s here” and the fact that we spend half the evening talking together says that this too, in its own way, counts as a friendship. 27 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» (Other part‐of‐a‐couple friends are the friends that came with the marriage, and some of these are friends that we could live without. But sometimes, alas, she married our husband’s best friend; and sometimes, alas, she is our husband’s best friend. And so we find ourselves dealing with her, somewhat against our will, in a spirit of what I’ll call reluctant friendship.) 7. Men who are friends. I wanted to write just of women friends, but the women I’ve talked to won’t let me – they say I must mention man‐woman friendships too. For these friendships can be just as close and as dear as those that we form with women. Listen to Lucy’s description of one such friendship: “We’ve found we have things to talk about that are different from what he talks about with my husband and different from what I talk about with his wife. So sometimes we call on the phone or meet for lunch. There are similar intellectual interests – we always pass to each other the book that we love – but there’s also something tender and caring too.” In a couple of crisis, Lucy says, “he offered himself for talking and for helping. And when someone died in his family he wanted me there. The sexual, flirty part of our friendship is very small – but some – just enough to make it fun and different.” She thinks – and I agree – that the sexual part, though small, is always some, is always there when a man and a woman are friends. It’s only in the past few years that I’ve made friends with men, in the sense of a friendship that’s mine, not just part of two couples. And achieving with them the ease and the trust I’ve found with women friends has value indeed. Under the dryer at home last week, putting on mascara and rouge, I comfortably sat and talked with a fellow named Peter. Peter, I finally decided, could handle the shock of me minus mascara under the dryer. Because we care for each other. Because we’re friends. There are medium friends, and pretty good friends, and very good friends indeed, and these friendships are defined by their level of intimacy. And what we’ll reveal at each of these levels of intimacy is calibrated with care. We might tell a medium friend, for example, that yesterday we had a fight with our husband. And we might tell a pretty good friend that this fight with our husband made us so mad that we slept on the coach. And we might tell 28 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» a very good friend that the reason we got so mad in that fight that we slept on the coach had something to do with that girl who works in his office. But it’s only to our very best friends that we’re willing to tell all, tell what’s going on with that girl in his office. The best of friends, I still believe, totally love and support and trust each other, and bare to each other the secrets of their souls, and run – no questions asked – to help each other, and tell harsh truths to each other when they must be told. But we needn’t agree about everything (only 12‐year‐old girl friends agree about everything) to tolerate each other’s point of view. To accept without judgment. To give and to take without even keeping score. And to be there, as I am for them and as they are for me, to comfort our sorrows, to celebrate our joys. Questions for Discussion 1. How many types of friends does the author suggest? 2. Who could become a convenience friend according to the author? 3. Summarize the first paragraph of the text and give the essence of the notion “convenience friends”. 4. What do we share with special‐interests friends? 5. Why are historical friends important? 6. “What these friend means to me and what I mean to her,” says Grace, “is having a sister without sibling rivalry”. What does this idea imply? 7. What is the difference and the similarity between historical and crossroads friends? 8. Why do we need cross‐generational friends according to the author’s idea? 9. Are part‐of‐a‐couple friends necessary from the author’s point of view? 10. Is a man‐woman friendship possible? What can the basis of such friendship be? Exploring Ideas 29 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» 1. Do you agree that all these types of relations are friendships or they have different names? If they do, what are they in your language? 2. What are the differences between woman‐woman and man‐woman friendships? Is there anything special in a man‐woman friendship that a woman can’t find being friends with another woman? Activity 1. Find out examples of a cross‐generational friendship among your own friends and acquaintances. Examine and list the reasons for each example. 2. Write an essay about this kind of friendship based on the facts you’ve found and your own opinion. Unit 5 Security by Hunter S. Thompson Lead‐in 1. What is security to your mind? 2. The secure man, what is he like? Can you describe him? Security ... what does this word mean in relation to life as we know it today? For the most part, it means safety and freedom from worry. It is said to be the end that all men strive for; but is security a utopian goal or is it another word for rut? Let us visualize the secure man; and by this term, I mean a man who has settled for financial and personal security for his goal in life. In general, he is a man who has pushed ambition and initiative aside and settled down, so to speak, in a boring, but safe and comfortable rut for the rest of his life. His future is but an extension of his present, and he accepts it as such with a complacent shrug of his shoulders. His ideas and ideals are those of society in general and he is accepted 30 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» as a respectable, but average and prosaic man. But is he a man? has he any self‐ respect or pride in himself? How could he, when he has risked nothing and gained nothing? What does he think when he sees his youthful dreams of adventure, accomplishment, travel and romance buried under the cloak of conformity? How does he feel when he realizes that he has barely tasted the meal of life; when he sees the prison he has made for himself in pursuit of the almighty dollar? If he thinks this is all well and good, fine, but think of the tragedy of a man who has sacrificed his freedom on the altar of security, and wishes he could turn back the hands of time. A man is to be pitied who lacked the courage to accept the challenge of freedom and depart from the cushion of security and see life as it is instead of living it second‐hand. Life has by‐passed this man and he has watched from a secure place, afraid to seek anything better What has he done except to sit and wait for the tomorrow which never comes? Turn back the pages of history and see the men who have shaped the destiny of the world. Security was never theirs, but they lived rather than existed. Where would the world be if all men had sought security and not taken risks or gambled with their lives on the chance that, if they won, life would be different and richer? It is from the bystanders (who are in the vast majority) that we receive the propaganda that life is not worth living, that life is drudgery, that the ambitions of youth must he laid aside for a life which is but a painful wait for death. These are the ones who squeeze what excitement they can from life out of the imaginations and experiences of others through books and movies. These are the insignificant and forgotten men who preach conformity because it is all they know. These are the men who dream at night of what could have been, but who wake at dawn to take their places at the now‐familiar rut and to merely exist through another day. For them, the romance of life is long dead and they are forced to go through the years on a treadmill, cursing their existence, yet afraid to die because of the unknown which faces them after death. They lacked the only true courage: the kind which enables men to face the unknown regardless of the consequences. As an afterthought, it seems hardly proper to write of life without once mentioning happiness; so we shall let the reader answer this question for himself: who is the happier man, he who has braved the storm of life and lived or he who has stayed securely on shore and merely existed? 31 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Questions for Discussions 1. What is the main problem that the author offers to think about? 2. How is security defined in the text? What is your opinion? 3. What image of the secure man is presented in the text? List all characteristics. 4. The author compares security with rut. Do you agree? Can “routine” be a synonym of security here? 5. How does the author name the secure men? What is his attitude to the secure men and security? Prove your answer by the text. 6. Answer the final question of the essay. Exploring Ideas 1. “Where would the world be if all men had sought security and not taken risks or gambled with their lives on the chance that, if they won, life would be different and richer?”, says the author. Develop his idea. Give examples of risky men who gambled their lives to change the world or break the routine. You can use any examples from history. 2. What type of a person can go far beyond the security? Activity Write an essay explaining your point of view on the second question in Exploring Ideas. UNIT 6 32 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» From "Kingdom Of Fear " By Hunter S. Thompson, 2003 Lead‐in 1. In your opinion, what is this text going to be about? 2. Scan the text and say if you are right. Let's face it, the yo‐yo president of the U.S.A. knows nothing. He is a dunce. He does what he is told to do, says what he is told to say, poses the way he is told to pose. He is a fool. No. Nonsense. The president cannot be a Fool. Not at this moment in time, when the last living vestiges of the American Dream are on the line. This is not the time to have a bogus rich kid in charge of the White House. Which is, after all, our house. That is our headquarters, it is where the heart of America lives. So if the president lies and acts giddy about other people's lives, if he wantonly and stupidly endorses mass murder by definition, a loud and meaningless animal with no functional intelligence and no balls. To say this goofy child president is looking more and more like Richard Nixon in the summer of 1974 would be a flagrant insult to Nixon. Whoops! Did I say that? Is it even vaguely possible that some New Age Republican whore‐beast of a false president could actually make Richard Nixon look like a Liberal? The capacity of these vicious assholes we elected to be in charge of our lives for four years to commit terminal damage to our lives and our souls and our loved ones is far beyond Nixon's. Shit! Nixon was the creator of many of the once‐proud historical landmarks that these dumb bastards are savagely destroying now: the Clean Air Act of 1970; Campaign Finance Reform; the endangered species act; a Real‐Politik dialogue with China; and on and on. The prevailing quality of life in America‐by any accepted methods of measuring‐was inarguably freer and more politically open under Nixon than it is today in this evil year of our Lord 2002. The Boss was a certified monster who deserved to be impeached and 33 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» banished. He was a truthless creature of former FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover, a foul human monument to corruption and depravity on a scale that dwarfs any other public official in American history. But Nixon was at least smart enough to understand why so many honorable patriotic U.S. citizens despised him. He was a Liar. The truth was not in him. Nixon believed, as he said many times, that if the president of the United States does it, it can't be illegal. But Nixon never understood the much higher and meaner truth of Bob Dylan's warning that "To live outside the law you must be honest." The difference between an outlaw and a war criminal is the difference between a pedophile and a Pederast: The pedophile is a person who thinks about sexual behavior with children, and the Pederast does these things. He lays hands on innocent children, he penetrates them and changes their lives forever. Being the object of a pedophile's warped affections is a Routine feature of growing up in America, and being a victim of a Pederast's crazed "love" is part of dying. Innocence is no longer an option. Once penetrated, the child becomes a Queer in his own mind, and that is not much different than murder. Richard Nixon crossed the line when he began murdering foreigners in the name of "family values"‐ and George Bush crossed it when he sneaked into office and began killing brown skinned children in the name of Jesus and the American people. When Muhammad Ali declined to be drafted and forced to kill "gooks" in Vietnam he said, "I ain't got nothin' against them Viet Cong. No Cong ever called me Nigger." I agreed with him, according to my own personal ethics and values. He was right. If we all had a dash of Muhammad Ali's eloquent courage, this country and the world would be a better place today because of it. Okay. That's it for now. Read it and weep....See you tomorrow, folks. You haven't heard the last of me. I am the one who speaks for the spirit of freedom and 34 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» decency in you. Shit. Somebody has to do it. We have become a Nazi monster in the eyes of the whole world‐a nation of bullies and bastards who would rather kill than live peacefully. We are not just Whores for power and oil, but killer whores with hate and fear in our hearts. We are human scum, and that is how history will judge us... No redeeming social value. Just whores. Get out of our way, or we'll kill you. Well, shit on that dumbness. George W. Bush does not speak for me or my son or my mother or my friends or the people I respect in this world. We didn't vote for these cheap, greedy little killers who speak for America today ‐ and we will not vote for them again in 2002. Or 2004. Or ever. Who does vote for these dishonest shitheads? Who among us can be happy and proud of having all this innocent blood on our hands? Who are these swine? These flag‐sucking half‐wits who get fleeced and fooled by stupid little rich kids like George Bush? They are the same ones who wanted to have Muhammad Ali locked up for refusing to kill "gooks". They speak for all that is cruel and stupid and vicious in the American character. They are racists and hate mongers among us‐they are the Ku Klux Klan. I piss down the throats of these Nazis. And I am too old to worry about whether they like it or not. Fuck them. Questions for Discussion 1. What problems does the author rise in his essay? List them. 2. What is his attitude to the presidents? Prove your opinion by the text. 3. What does he criticize about the presidents most of all? 4. How do people in the world think of Americans in the writer’s opinion? 5. What does the author want to say remembering the words of Mohammad Ali? 6. What type of essay is it? 35 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» 7. Who does the writer address his ideas to? 8. What is the manner of the author’s writing here? Why do you think he chose such manner for his text? Do you think this manner of writing has more effect on the reader? Activity 1. List all the words from the text characterizing the presidents and showing the author’s attitudes. 2. Based on this analysis describe the author as a person and a citizen. E.g. his social position (active, passive), purpose, etc. 50 Argument Essay Topics For Your Essay, Speech, or Debate These topics are sure to spark some interest. 1. Is global climate change man‐made? 2. Is the death penalty effective? 3. Is our election process fair? 36 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» 4. Do colleges put too much stock in standardized test scores? 5. Is torture ever acceptable? 6. Should men get paternity leave from work? 7. Is a lottery a good idea? 8. Do we have a fair taxation system? 9. Do curfews keep teens out of trouble? 10. Is cheating out of control? 11. Are we too dependent on computers? 12. Are parents clueless about child predators on the Internet? 13. Should animals be used for research? 14. Should cigarette smoking be banned? 15. Are cell phones dangerous? 16. Are law enforcement cameras an invasion of privacy? 17. Are test scores a good indication of a school's competency? 18. Do we have a throw‐away society? 19. Is child behavior better or worse than it was years ago? 20. Should companies market to children? 21. Should the government have a say in our diets? 22. Does access to condoms prevent teen pregnancy? 23. Does access to condoms lead to irresponsible, dangerous, or bad behavior? 24. Are actors and professional athletes paid too much? 37 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» 25. Are CEOs paid too much? 26. Do violent video games cause behavior problems? 27. Should creationism be taught in public schools? 28. Are beauty pageants exploitive? 29. Should English be the official language in the United States? 30. Should the racing industry be forced to use biofuels? 31. When should parents let teens make their own decisions? 33. Should the military be allowed to recruit at high schools? 34. Should the alcoholic drinking age be increased or decreased? 35. Does age matter in relationships? 36. What age is appropriate for dating? 37. Should gay couples be able to marry? 38. Are there benefits to attending a single‐sex school? 39. Does boredom lead to trouble? 40. Does participation in sports keep teens out of trouble? 41. Is competition good? 42. Does religion cause war? 43. Should the government provide health care? 44. Should girls ask boys out? 45. Is fashion important? 46. Are girls too mean to each other? 38 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» 47. Is homework harmful or helpful? 48. Should students be allowed to grade their teachers? 49. Is the cost of college too high? 50. Is college admission too competitive? Summary This essay tutorial has outlined a general approach to essay writing, the stages of which are summarised below. As you look over the diagram and read the accompanying commentary, think about the way you presently go about writing and whether there is anything in the suggested approach that you could usefully adopt. Use the links on the left to revisit relevant sections in the tutorial. Commentary You will notice that the approach is divided into two broad phases – researching and drafting. 39 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Researching In the researching phase, you should begin by carefully analysing the essay topic to be sure you understand exactly what you are required to do (Interpreting an essay topic). Next, we suggest you spend some time thinking about the topic area and try to draft a very provisional plan for the essay (Developing a provisional essay plan). Your thinking and planning around the topic will then assist you in working out what types of readings will be relevant to the task (Selecting relevant readings). When you are engaging with reading material for the essay, we suggest that you adopt a critical approach and also attempt to record key ideas in your own words(Taking notes from texts). The various stages in the researching phase will tend to be of a cyclical nature ‐ that is, your reading will help you to develop your plan, which in turn will point you in the direction of additional readings, leading to further refinement of the plan. Drafting After you feel you have done adequate research, you will be ready to move on to the drafting phase (Drafting the essay). We have suggested that you begin by drafting an introduction and then outlining the essay's subsequent sections. The tutorial provides some guidance for the remaining stages of the drafting process. Revisit the following sections for help: Analysing citations, The conclusion, Essay references. The following points are also worth keeping in mind: ι. It is advisable during the drafting phase to refer back regularly to the essay topic to ensure that you are on track and to make sure that you have not embarked on a task that is different from the one prescribed. ιι. Although the researching and drafting phases are shown separately in the diagram, these processes are never entirely independent. While you are drafting your essay, you will probably need to refer back to some of the references you read during the research phase; you may also need to seek out additional references to cover gaps that emerge in your draft. ιιι. Ideally, after the first draft has been completed, you will leave the essay to lie for several days. The benefit of having a break is that when you pick it up again you will have established just a little 'distance' from your work. This will enable you to view your work more from the perspective of a reader, which will make it easier for you to pick up on any problems in it (e.g., ideas 40 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» that are poorly expressed, sections that do not follow on clearly from preceding ones, grammatical errors, etc). When you are doing a final review of your work prior to submitting it, read it aloud to yourself. You will find that your ear is more efficient at picking up problems in your writing than your eyes. ιϖ. Finally keep in mind that essay writing should never be regarded as a mere sequence of skills to be mastered. Your success as a writer will be determined ultimately by what you say to your reader: that is whether your writing is able to present an informed and coherent account of your subject matter. This requires a good deal of intensive reading, drafting and redrafting, and above all a good deal of hard thinking. Original Essay Topics How many times have you faced the problem of choosing original essay topics? What topic will be interesting for you, but will attract the attention of your supervisor? What essay topic will make your research process easier and better? Read the answers to all these questions in our article. Look through our list of the most controversial and original essay topics, which were gathered just for you and select the one that suits you best. Original Essay Topics: Problem Solution Essay The writer’s aim is to choose a problem and discuss it in the writing process, for example, talk about: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Food labeling. Cheating. Drunk‐driving. Internet spam. Loneliness. Parent education. Illegal immigration. Original EssayTopics: Process Essay 41 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» The aim of a process essay is to provide readers with some instructions for completing a particular task. The writer should describe the plan of action and their functions. It is possible totalk about: • Clock repair. • Carving. • Floral design. • Magic tricks. • Dance instruction. • Funeral traditions. • Making soap. • Photography. • Lock picking. Original EssayTopics: Expository Essay The process of choosing a topic on this essay type is extremely important for the writer, as it sets the tone of writing and its style. You may choose from among the following examples: 1. Describe the consequences of drug taking. 2. Describe non‐material things that make you happy. 3. Describe your activities at home. 4. Describe the influence of music on your life. 5. Describe the consequences of nationalism. 6. What does poverty mean to you? 7. What does loneliness mean to you? 8. Why do teens wear makeup? Original Essay Topics: Descriptive Essay To write really good descriptive essay, choose an idea, which is interesting to discuss and present, for example: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 42 A person you’d like to look like. A scary place. My first kiss. The house of your dreams. Wedding ceremony. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» 6. 43 A wonderful view.