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31.MODAL VERBS IN ENGLISH

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Л. Э. БЕЗМЕНОВА
Е Л Ь
С Т В О
И З Д А
Т
MODAL VERBS IN ENGLISH
ОГПУ
УЧЕБНОЕ ПОСОБИЕ
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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ
РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ
ФГБОУ ВПО «ОРЕНБУРГСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ
ПЕДАГОГИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»
Л. Э. Безменова
MODAL VERBS IN ENGLISH
Учебное пособие
Оренбург
Издательство ОГПУ
2014
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УДК 811 (075.8)
ББК 81.2Англ-1я73
Б39
Рецензенты
А. В. Степанова, кандидат филологических наук, доцент
В. Ю. Хартунг, кандидат филологических наук, доцент
Безменова, Л. Э.
Б39
Modal verbs in English : учебное пособие / Л. Э. Безменова ;
Мин-во образования и науки РФ, ФГБОУ ВПО «Оренб. гос. пед.
ун-т». — Оренбург : Изд-во ОГПУ, 2014. — 80 с.
ISBN 978-5-85859-589-2
УДК 811 (075.8)
ББК 81.2Англ-1я73
ISBN 978-5-85859-589-2
© Безменова Л. Э., 2014
© Оформление. Изд-во ОГПУ, 2014
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ
Предисловие.....................................................................................4
MODAL VERBS. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS ..........................5
CAN....................................................................................................6
Revision of Can............................................................................17
MAY..................................................................................................19
Revision of Can, May...................................................................27
MUST...............................................................................................30
Revision of Can, May, Must. ........................................................38
TO HAVE .........................................................................................42
Revision of Must, to Have ...........................................................44
TO BE...............................................................................................45
Revision of Must, to Have, to Be .................................................49
NEED................................................................................................52
Revision of Need, Have, Must, to Be...........................................55
SHOULD. OUGHT............................................................................57
Revision.......................................................................................61
SHALL..............................................................................................64
WILL.................................................................................................65
Revision of Shall, Will, Should, Would.........................................69
DARE................................................................................................70
GENERAL REVISION......................................................................73
СПИСОК ИСПОЛЬЗОВАННОЙ ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ............................80
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ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ
Учебное пособие «Modal Verbs in English» написано
в соответствии с программой по грамматике английского
языка для педагогических вузов и посвящено употреблению модальных глаголов в английском языке.
Во время общения собеседники не только обмениваются информацией, но также высказывают свое отношение к
тому, о чем говорят. Одним из средств, с помощью которых говорящий выражает свое отношение к действию или
состоянию, являются модальные глаголы. Они обозначают
возможность, вероятность, предположение, неуверенность,
пожелание, распоряжение и т. д. Сложность употребления
модальных глаголов состоит в том, что одно и то же значение может быть передано разными глаголами. Именно многофункциональность модальных глаголов и разнообразие
оттенков значений вызывают у обучаемых значительные
затруднения в приобретении практических навыков в использовании этих глаголов в речи.
Пособие представляет собой сборник упражнений по
практической грамматике английского языка. Материал построен следующим образом: сначала предлагается теоретическая информация о значении и употреблении каждого
модального глагола, далее приводятся упражнения для анализа значений модальных глаголов и формирования навыка их употребления. Каждый раздел завершается сводными
упражнениями по всему пройденному материалу.
Пособие помогает практически овладеть употреблением модальных глаголов и представляет собой тренировочный материал, расположенный по принципу нарастания
трудностей.
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MODAL VERBS. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS
There are twelve modal verbs in English. They are: can
(could), may (might), must, should, ought, need, shall, will,
would, dare. Here also belong to have to (to have got to), to
be to.
Modal verbs, unlike other verbs, do not denote actions or
states, but only show the attitude of the speaker towards the
action expressed by the infinitive. Thus, they may show that
the action (or state, or process) is considered by the speaker
as possible, impossible, probable, improbable, obligatory,
necessary, advisable, doubtful, certain, prohibited, ordered, etc.
Ten of them (that is all but to be and to have) are also called
defective verbs as they lack some features characteristic of
other verbs. Modal verbs have the following peculiarities:
1. They are always used in combination with the infinitive.
2. They are followed (except for ought and sometimes dare
and need) by a bare infinitive.
3. They need no auxiliary verb to build up the interrogative
and negative forms.
4. They do not take -s in the third person singular.
5. They have no verbals, and they have no analytical forms
(i.e. compound tenses, the Passive Voice).
6. They have two negative forms, full and contracted:
full form
cannot
must not
will not
would not
should not
ought not to
shall not
need not
dare not
contracted form
can’t
mustn’t
won’t
wouldn’t
shouldn’t
oughtn’t to
shan’t
needn’t
daren’t
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CAN
The modal verb can has two tense forms of the indicative
mood: the present tense can and the past tense could.
The verb can has the following meanings:
1. Mental, physical or circumstantial ability to do something.
E. g. She can do sums in her head.
He can lift this suitcase.
We can see Yalta from here in clear weather.
Note: When could is used with reference to the past, it denotes only the ability or possibility of performing an action but
not the realisation of the action.
To indicate the achievement in the past we use was/were
able to do smth, managed to do sth or succeeded in doing sth
(the latter is used in literary style):
E. g. I’m happy I was able to help you.
They will be able to do it next year.
He managed to do everything he wanted.
If an action was not realised in a particular situation in
the past it is expressed with the help of failed to do smth, wasn’t
able to do smth, didn’t manage to do smth, didn’t succeed in
doing.
E. g. We didn’t succeed in translating the text. — Мы не
смогли перевести текст.
2. Permission (informal).
E. g. You can take my book.
3. Request (informal).
E. g. Can I go out?
Could expresses a more polite request.
E. g. Could you help us?
4. Prohibition (informal).
E. g. You can’t cross the street here. — Здесь нельзя
переходить улицу.
5. Uncertainty, strong doubt, astonishment (in interrogative sentences). In these meanings can is used with all forms of
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the infinitive. Could expresses greater doubt. Thus, the timereference is indicated by the form of the infinitive.
E. g. Can/Could it be true? — Неужели это правда?
Can/Could she be sleeping now? — Неужели она спит?
The Perfect Infinitive refers the action to the past.
E. g. Can/Could he have said it? — Неужели он это сказал?
Can with a perfect continuous infinitive expresses actions
which began in the past and continued up or into the present
moment:
E. g. Can (could) she have been talking on the telephone
so long?
6. Improbability, strong doubt (in negative sentences).
E. g. It can’t/couldn’t be true. – Не может быть, чтобы
это была правда.
The Perfect Infinitive is used to refer the action to the past.
E. g. My wife can’t/couldn’t have sent such a letter.
Set-phrases with the verb can:
He couldn’t help laughing. — Он не мог не рассмеяться.
I can’t but ask him about it. — Мне ничего не остается,
как спросить его.
— Просто не могу сделать
I can’t possibly do it.
это.
— Они очень (страшно)
They are as pleased
довольны.
as can be.
— Это необычайно уродливо.
It’s as ugly as can be.
Ex. 1. Comment on the meaning of the modal verb can
(could). Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. He can’t read well. 2. And now can I walk through your
beautiful house? 3. I could not go to your place yesterday, as
I was busy. 4. We can choose our profession according to our
taste. 5. Could you give me your notes on phonetics for a day
or two? 6. I don’t believe him. It can’t be so! 7. She can take
her examination next June. 8. You can’t understand — you have
never been poor. 9. You cannot have done it. I don’t believe
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it. 10. I wonder where she is. She cannot have been sleeping
all this time! 11. Could you let me know about the meeting?
12. You can’t be serious.
Ex. 2. Comment on the meaning of the modal verb can
(could). Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. She can’t be a good teacher. 2. You can stay here if you
like. 3. There is much snow. We can ski. 4. Can I use your
phone? 5. She was so tired, she could hardly speak. 6. She
couldn’t have changed her mind. 7. Tom can’t have left without
saying good-buy. 8. She could get better results if she worked
hard. 9. Can they have been working since morning? 10. You
can stay here if you like. 11. She could not help noticing how
frequently Mr Darcy looked at her.
Ability
can do sth (может)
could do sth (мог)
could do sth (мог бы) could have done sth (мог бы тогда)
E.g. 1. Baby can walk now. 2. Baby could walk when she
was ten months old. 3. Baby could walk perfectly well. She’s
just lazy. 4. Baby could have walked across the room but she
was afraid to.
Ex. 3. Analyse the form could in the following sentences.
State whether it denotes the past action or the unreality of
the action. Pay attention to whether it means «мог», «мог
бы сейчас» или «мог бы тогда»:
1. Не could reel off line after line of poetry when he was
a child. 2. He told us that the place could be reached by car.
3. I could see through the window that the room was empty.
4. I could tell you many things if you would only care to listen.
5. She’s as tall as you are. She could wear your things. 6. You
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simply did not care. Why, you could have lent him the money.
7. The game was as good as lost. Nothing could have saved “the
Ramblers”. 8. By the evening I had gone through the pile of
papers. It was no use. I could not find any mention of the case.
9. Don’t try to find excuses for her. She could at least offer to
help you put the house to rights after the party. But she won’t,
not she. 10. The last copy was sold. I could have cried. 11. We
had to tell him everything. We could not have managed without
his help. 12. So you walked the whole way, carrying that heavy
suitcase. Why couldn’t you ask somebody for a lift?
Ex. 4. In the following sentences could denotes unreality. Refer the situation to the past by changing the form of
the infinitive.
MODEL
Could you do anything for her? (now) — Could you have
done anything for her? (then)
1. Only an immediate operation could save her now.
2. I could get there in less than two hours in my car. 3. I could
not make a cake without eggs anyway. 4. Could you translate
this without a dictionary? 5. How could you get in touch with
her? You don’t know where she is. 6. I could refuse her nothing.
7. Don’t do that. A better way out could be found. 8. Of course
I could ask Father to post it for me. 9. Jackie could stay with
Edna. She would love to have him. 10. You could take it to the
cleaner’s on the way to town and I’d get it back in time for the
party.
Ex. 5. Fill in the gaps with can, can’t, could, couldn’t or
was/wasn’t able to.
1. I had my hands full, so I ... open the door. 2. When
I was young, I … stand on my head. 3. Although he felt ill,
he … finish all the paperwork. 4. Tony is clever. He … speak
three languages. 5. I … afford that bag. It’s too expensive.
6. Although it was dark, he … find his way through the woods.
7. I heard his voice calling me, but I … see him. 8. We’re busy
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tonight, so we … come to the party. 9. When I entered the
house, I … smell fresh bread baking. 10. I … drive a car. I
learnt when I was eighteen. 11. I’m really disappointed that we
... not contact her when we arrived in the city.
Ex. 6. Translate the following sentences into English.
1. Мой брат не умеет водить машину. 2. Он не смог запомнить мой адрес. 3. Старые люди не могут забыть вой­
ну. 4. Вы говорите по-французски? Сможете перевести эту
надпись? 5. Я думаю, что смогу прийти. 6. Я смогла бы
прийти, если бы меня предупредили заранее. 7. Она сможет
проводить тебя до вокзала. 8. Вы сможете это сделать сейчас? 9. Она не смогла написать диктант, он был достаточно
трудным. 10. Джейн хорошо рисует. Она умеет рисовать с
семи лет. 11. Мальчик не может читать быстро. 12. Они не
смогут купить билеты на матч на завтра. 13. Лена смогла
выполнить задание, так как у нее был словарь. 14. Студенты нашей группы говорят, что смогут принять участие в
конференции. 15. Она не умеет танцевать. 16. Я уверен, он
умеет играть в баскетбол.
Ex. 7. Translate into English.
1. Вы не могли бы дать мне еще один пример? 2. Нельзя давать примеры из учебника. 3. Можно, я вам это объясню после урока? 4. Можете сдать работу, если вы ее уже
закончили. 5. Можно, я вам помогу? 6. Вы не могли бы мне
помочь? 7. Нельзя говорить по-русски на уроке. 8. В этой
модели герундий употребить нельзя. 9. Можно, я позвоню
маме и скажу, чтобы меня не ждали к обеду? 10. Вы не могли бы зайти попозже? 11. Нельзя обсуждать этот вопрос с
вашими друзьями.
Ex. 8. Translate into English.
1. Из моего окна я мог видеть только часть двора.
2. В темноте я не могла разобрать, сколько там людей.
3. Ночь была такая темная, что я не смогла бы найти до10
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рогу без фонарика. 4. Я могла бы ему это сразу сказать, но
мне не хотелось портить ему настроение. 5. Никто не мог
бы сделать для него больше, чем это сделали вы, доктор.
6. Девочка только еле-еле могла дотянуться до верхней полки. 7. Как ты могла оставить ее одну? Ведь она могла бы
заблудиться. 8. Задачу он решить не смог. 9. Один он задачу
не решил бы.10. Я могу всем все рассказать.
Uncertainty, strong doubt, astonishment
Can
Could
smb
be?
know?
be doing?
NOTE: There is practically no difference in meaning
between can and could when they express uncertainty, doubt.
Could makes the sentence a little more emphatic.
E.g. 1. Can (could) it be so late? 2. Can (could) she really
mean it? 3. Can (could) they be waiting for us?
Can
Could
smb
have been?
have known?
have been doing?
E.g. 1. Can (could) it have been so cold? 2. Can (could) he
have known about it all the time? 3. Can (could) they have been
waiting for us so long?
Ex. 9. Refer the situation to the past by changing the
form of the infinitive.
MODEL
Can (could) it be so late? Неужели сейчас так поздно? —
Can (could) it have been so late? Неужели было так поздно?
1. Can she be only five? 2. Can she be telling the truth?
3. Can it be raining? 4. Can the cake be burning? 5. Can he be
trying to tell us something? 6. Can she be fond of them? 7. Can
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it be dangerous? 8. Can they recognize us? 9. Can they get lost?
10. Can you forget about it?
Ex. 10. Express your astonishment or doubt about the
statements in these sentences.
MODEL
He is a good singer. — Can (could) he be a good singer.
1. I am invited to the wedding. 2. He has been missing
school for a week now. 3. They reached the island by boat.
4. The swimming pool was closed all day yesterday. 5. The
girl is speaking the truth. 6. He travelled a lot last year. 7. My
brother won the first prize in the state lottery. 8. It’s my bag. 9.
Alice was given an excellent mark for her English test. 10. The
pump has broken down again.
Ex. 11. Translate into English.
1. Неужели я потеряла карту? 2. Неужели я так потолстела? 3. Неужели уже темнеет? 4. Неужели ей все рассказали? 5. Неужели я трачу время зря? 6. Неужели он переплыл реку в темноте? 7. Неужели молоко опять убежало?
8. Неужели они еще играют во дворе? 9. Неужели это так
трудно? 10. Неужели было так холодно?
Improbability, strong doubt
smb
can not
could not
be
know
be doing
have been
have known
have been doing
E.g. 1. You can’t be thinking of leaving. 2. You can’t mean
it. 3. He can’t have said it. 4. He can’t have been trying to cross
the river in this place.
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Ex. 12. Refer the statement to the past by changing the
form of the infinitive.
MODEL
1. She can’t be lying. He может быть, чтобы она лгала
(сейчас).
2. She can’t have been lying. He может быть, чтобы
она лгала (тогда). Не могла она лгать.
1. It can’t be true. 2. She can’t be in London now. 3. You
can’t mean it. 4. You can’t be doing your best. 5. She can’t be
crying. 6. It can’t be so difficult as all that. 7. There can’t be
only one way out of the cave. 8. They can’t be still waiting for
you. 9. Не can’t miss the train. 10. They can’t divorce.
Ex. 13. Rewrite the sentences using can’t, couldn’t.
MODEL
I don’t believe it’s true. — It can’t be true.
1. I don’t believe that you’ve failed the exam. 2. I don’t
believe that you know so little of the subject. 3. It’s impossible
that the house is still being built. 4. It isn’t possible she should
be good at English. She has no memory for words. 5. I don’t
think the teacher’ll be satisfied with your work. 6. It’s hard
to believe that she is staying in the hotel. 7. It’s unbelievable
you’ve ever met Mr. Jones. 8. I don’t believe he is as old as
that. He looks younger. 9. I doubt that you were at the library
yesterday. It was closed all day. 10. Really, you didn’t mean it.
11. I don’t think that the radio was stolen from his car.
Ex. 14. Express strong doubt according to the model.
MODEL
He says he saw Mary at the dance. (But he knows that
Mary wasn’t there.) — He couldn’t have seen her. She wasn’t
there.
He says he ...
1. had an argument with Tom at the party. (Tom wasn’t
there.) 2. bolted the door. (It has no bolt.) 3. used the Emergency
Exit. (There isn’t one.) 4. came up by the lift. (The lift wasn’t
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working.) 5. slept in room 13. (There is no room 13.) 6. bought
it in Harrods on Sunday. (Harrods doesn’t open on Sunday.)
7. carried it himself. (It weighs a ton.) 8. dined in a restaurant on
top of Nelson’s Column. (There is no restaurant there.) 9. saw
the Queen standing in a queue. (The Queen doesn’t stand in
queues.) 10. got sunburnt in Hyde Park in November. (The sun
is not strong enough.) 11. swam across the Irish Sea. (It is too
wide.) 12. heard your clock strike. (My clock doesn’t strike.)
13. went there by train. (The railway line is closed.)
Ex. 15. Rewrite the following sentences using cannot
(can’t).
MODEL
I don’t believe it is his fault. — It can’t be his fault.
1. It is impossible that he has changed his mind. 2. I can’t
believe that they have known it before. 3. I don’t think she is
good at languages. She has always had a bad ear and no memory
for words. 4. I don’t believe it is a joke. 5. It is impossible that
she is fifteen. She looks much older. 6. I can’t believe that he
has left without saying good-bye to us. 7. I can’t believe that he
has forgotten to post your letter. 8. He doesn’t believe that his
two friends have betrayed him. 9. I don’t think she was angry
with a sick child. 10. It is impossible that she has told a lie.
Ex. 16. Translate into English.
1. He может быть, чтобы он забыл свое обещание. 2. Не
может быть, чтобы молоко уже выкипело. 3. Не мог он вам
это сказать. 4. Не могла она опоздать на поезд. 5. Не может
она это думать. 6. Не может быть, чтобы ты этому действительно верил. 7. Не может быть, чтобы ей было двадцать
пять лет. 8. Чай не может быть все еще горячим. 9. Не может быть, чтобы вы знали это лучше нее. 10. Не мог он принять вас за другого.
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NOTE: The modal verb can may be used to make a sentence
more emotional. Such sentences have the form of questions
but are not questions because the speaker does not really
expect an answer.
Ex. 17. Make the following sentences more emotional.
MODEL
I wonder where I have left my spectacles. — Where can I
have left my spectacles!
1. I wonder where he is now. 2. I wonder why he said so.
3. I have no idea who wrote that letter. 4. The room was locked.
How did he get in? 5. What astonishes me is why he left that
note. 6. I wonder why she is taking so much trouble. 7. The
entrance was watched all the time. When did he get out, I’m
asking you? 8. I wonder how it was possible for him to find
us in that crowd. 9. It astonishes me that you find pleasure in
reading such stuff. 10. I wonder which of the children is writing
these things on the blackboard.
Ex. 18. Use can in the correct form followed by the
appropriate infinitive.
1. It is hard to believe he … (to behave) so badly to the
poor child. 2. ‘There is a gentleman with him, mamma,’ said
Kitty. ‘Who … it (to be)? ‘ 3. I … (to forgive) his pride, if he
had not mortified mine. 4. … we (to spend) all the money? 5. In
some families it was agreed by law that property … only (to
leave) to men. 6. She knew Lizzy … (to be) Mr Collins’s wife
by this time. 7. She … not (to go) out. There’s nowhere to go.
8. She had such a contempt for him that she … (to spit) in his
face. 9. He said he … (to manage) the task by himself. 10. Anne
would have played better if she … (to learn). 11. She … (to
sleep) now. It’s 12 o’clock! 12. I knew that I hated him then.
I … (to kill) him.
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NOTE: То express strong or very strong doubt about an
action not taking place (неужели кто-то не делает, не
сделал что-то; не может быть, чтобы кто-то не делал,
не сделал что-то) we use the expression to fail to do
something, negative prefixes dis- and mis- are also used.
1) He did not notice you.
a) Can (could) he have failed to notice you? = Неужели
он не заметил ... .
b) He can’t (couldn’t) have failed to notice you. = He мог
он не заметить ... .
2) He does not like it here.
a) Can (could) he dislike it here?
b) He can’t (couldn’t) dislike it here?
3) We did not see him do it?
a) Can (could) nobody have seen him do it?
b) Nobody can (could) have seen him do it.
4) He did not get your letter.
a) Can (could) he have never got my letter?
Ex. 19. Translate into English.
1. Неужели он не проверил, все ли на месте? 2. Не мог
он не слышать звонка. 3. Не может быть, чтобы она этому
не верила. 4. Неужели вы не принесли статью? 5. Неужели
он действительно не нравится вам? 6. Неужели он не понял
ваших объяснений? 7. Не может быть, чтобы он завтра не
приехал. 8. Неужели вы еще не проверили сочинения? 9. Не
мог он не прийти вчера на лекцию. 10. Неужели он так и не
отослал письмо?
Ex. 20. Memorize the following proverbs. Give their
Russian equivalents. Make up stories to illustrate them.
1. No man can serve two masters.
2. Never put off till tomorrow what you can do today.
3. You can judge (tell) a man by the company he keeps.
4. None can play the fool so well as a wise man.
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5. A man can do no more than he can.
6. Two of a trade can never agree.
7. You cannot have it both ways.
8. Money can’t buy everything.
9. One cannot be in two places at once.
10. The leopard cannot change his spots.
11. You cannot sell the cow and drink the milk.
12. You can’t eat your cake and have it.
13. You cannot get blood out of a stone.
14. You cannot make an omelet without breaking eggs.
15. You can lead the horse to the water but you cannot
make him drink.
16. Man cannot live by bread alone.
Revision of Can
Ex. 21. Comment on the meaning and form of the
modal verb can (could), to be able.
1. “Would you like me to help you?” “No, thank you,”
Matilda said. “I’m sure I can manage.” 2. She could read
fast and well and she naturally began hankering after books.
3. Can I help you, Matilda? 4. Now keep your mouth shut so
we can all watch this programme in peace. 5. She can multiply
complicated figures in her head like lightning. 6. I wish I could
do it. 7. How could it have happened? 8. Their teacher was
called Miss Honey, and she could not have been more than
twenty-three or twenty-four. 9. It was a modern brick house that
could not have been cheap to buy. 10. The boy was by now
so full of cake he was like a sackful of wet cement and you
couldn’t have hurt him with a hammer. 11. It could have been
yesterday or it could have been the day before. 12. Nobody else
could have thought up a trick like that! 13. She was able not
only to lift the cigar up into the air but also to move it around
exactly as she wished. 14. It couldn’t possibly have been you.
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Ex. 22. Translate into English using the verb can
(could).
1. Эту книгу можно купить в любом магазине. 2. В комнате темно, я не могу найти свои вещи. 3. Не может быть,
чтобы она ошиблась. 4. Неужели они ждали нас все это
время? 5. Не может быть, чтобы вас послали ко мне. 6. Он
сказал, что мы можем идти. 7. Я мог бы вернуться на автобусе. 8. Не может быть, чтобы она тебя не поняла. 9. Не
может быть, чтобы они об этом забыли. 10. Неужели он уже
уехал? 11. Неужели она все еще работает? 12. Не может
быть, что она все еще нас ждет. 13. Неужели она заболела?
14. Неужели вам нравится такая музыка? 15. Ты можешь
взять словарь. Мне он больше не нужен. 16. Неужели они
опоздали на поезд? Они же вышли из дома очень рано.
Ex. 23. Translate into English using the verb can
(could).
1. Я думаю, что я смогу помочь вам. 2. Не может быть,
что он сожалел об этом. 3. Неужели он отказался помочь
вам? 4. Неужели это правда? Не может быть, чтобы это
была правда. 5. Неужели он учится в девятом классе? Он
такой маленький на вид. 6. Не может быть, чтобы они уже
переехали на новую квартиру. 7. Неужели ты старше меня
на целых пять лет? 8. Прочтите эти статьи. Вы могли бы
сослаться на них в докладе. 9. На лестнице нет света. Вы не
могли бы посветить мне, пока я спущусь вниз? 10. Я думаю,
что мы могли бы попытаться еще раз убедить его в том,
что он неправ. 11. Не может быть, чтобы сейчас было лишь
три часа. Ваши часы остановились. 12. Нет, малыш, зимой
мороженое на улице есть нельзя. 13. Неужели он был
прав? 14. Вы не могли бы продиктовать мне эту страницу?
15. Неужели они ждут нас у другого выхода?
Ex. 24. Translate into English.
1. Во время контрольной пользоваться словарями
нельзя. 2. Неужели сегодня так холодно? 3. Не мог он
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сделать такой глупой ошибки. 4. Не мог он вам этого не
объяснить. 5. Можете идти в кино, если хотите. 6. Почему ты меня не спросил? Я бы могла тебе все объяснить.
7. Он мог бы сделать это на прошлой неделе. 8. Вы не
могли бы показать мне это место в учебнике? 9. Жаль, что
я не умею это делать так хорошо, как вы. 10. Я не знал,
что она была в Москве летом. Я бы мог попросить ее
отвезти эту книгу маме. 11. Принесите мне, пожалуйста,
стакан воды. 12. Можно, мы возьмем Джека тоже? 13. Как
они могли опоздать на поезд! Они очень рано вышли из
дома. 14. Кто ему мог рассказать об этом? 15. Можно мне
попытаться еще раз? 16. Не может быть, чтобы они этому
действительно верили. 17. Можете пользоваться словарем,
если вы не поймете какое-нибудь слово.
Ex. 25. Retell about a famous person who has/had
disability. What is/was the person’s disability? What are/
were the person’s accomplishments.
MAY
The modal verb may has two tense forms: may (the Present
Simple) — might (the Past Simple).
May can express the following meanings:
1. Permission or asking for permission (formal).
E. g. May I interrupt you?
You may be seated.
The form might is used in indirect speech according to the
rules of the sequence of tenses:
E. g. He told me that I might go home.
2. Prohibition (formal).
E. g. You may not smoke in here.
3. Possibility due to circumstances like can (only in
affirmative sentences with an indefinite infinitive).
E. g. You may/can order a ticket by telephone.
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4. Uncertainty. In this case it is translated into Russian as
может быть, возможно. Might is less categoric.
E. g. He may be tired (50% certain).
He might come later (40 % certain).
May or might are used with all forms of the infinitive. The
Perfect Infinitive is used to refer the action to the past.
E. g. He may/might have sold the house.
They might not be working in the library now.
NOTE: Supposition or uncertainty in questions is rendered
by: Is he likely to…?’, ‘Is it likely that he …?’, ‘Do you think…’
E. g. Is Mary likely to arrive tonight? — Может ли Мэри
приехать сегодня вечером?
5. Reproach, hurt feelings (only might is used).
E. g. You might at least say you’re sorry.
You might have warned me!
6. Wish.
E. g. May you be happy!
Ex. 26. Comment on the meanings of may.
1. May I please tell you what happened in class just now?
2. If you survive your first year you may just manage to live
through the rest of your time here. 3. You may all go out into
the playground and wait for your parents to come and take you
home. 4. “Please may I talk to you for a moment?” — “Of
course you may.” 5. It may have been judo or karate. 6. She
asked if she might sit awhile and read a book. 7. Oh God,
may I live to see them torn to pieces by the mob. 8. Do you
think I might come in for a few minutes and talk to you about
Matilda? 9. If we sit here and wait it may be worse still. 10. The
way things turned out it might have been better if your wife had
driven. 11. He had been wondering how her father might have
reacted to the news that control of the hotel might soon pass on
to other hands. 12. When you’re as fat as I am you may just as
well be comfortable. 13. There may have been more bravado
than confidence in his smile, but he had to make a good show
before the others. 14. May I let you know if I decide to come?
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Uncertainty
smb
may
might
do, be doing
have done, have been doing
Ex. 27. Express doubt about the statements made in the
following sentences.
MODEL
They lost their way.
They may (might) have lost their way.
1. There is some bread in the kitchen. 2. He thinks you
rather silly and unreasonable. 3. For all I know I will be here
for a long time. 4. Не has married. 5. She is looking for a job.
6. Good water was obtained from a well 7. Miss Honey joined
Matilda outside the school gates. 8. He is keeping an eye on
you. 9. They divorced. 10. His voice betrayed agitation. 11. She
was five or six years older than himself.
Ex. 28. Use may plus the infinitive instead of the
parenthetical expressions in the following sentences. Use the
Indefinite infinitive when the sentence refers to the present
or future, the Perfect infinitive, if it refers to the past.
MODEL
1. Maybe, he is at home now. — He may be at home now.
2. Perhaps, the rain will stop later in the day. — The rain
may stop later in the day.
3. Maybe, he was too angry to measure his words. — He
may have been too angry to measure the words.
1. Maybe, you will meet him at some party. 2. Maybe,
he will recognise you when he sees you. 3. Perhaps, it is less
difficult than you think. 4. Maybe, the door was not locked.
5. Maybe, she has forgotten her promise. 6. Maybe, she is
only trying to help. 7. Maybe, she was out when you phoned.
8. Perhaps, you have left your gloves in the taxi. 9. Maybe, the
stain will come out in the wash. 10. Perhaps, he does not know
about it.
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Ex. 29. Answer the following questions using the modal
verb may. The expressions in brackets may provide cues for
your answers.
MODEL
Why does he look so pale? (to be ill)
He may (might) be ill.
1. Why are there so many people on the platform? (to
wait for the next train) 2. Why is John so busy? (to read for his
examinations) 3. Why is he so tired? (to work in the garden)
4. Why doesn’t Oscar want to see the film? (not to like detective
stories) 5. Why doesn’t Monica want to eat ice-cream? (to slim)
6. Why has the boy raised his hand? (to want to ask a question)
7. Why do you think Anne made so many spelling mistakes in
the last dictation? (to be absent- minded) 8. Why is the child
crying? (to hurt himself) 9. Why doesn’t the girl want to bathe
in the river? (to feel unwell) 10. Why haven’t the Parkers
arrived yet? (not to find a taxi) 11. Why hasn’t Charles phoned
us? (not to get our telegramme) 12. Why has he refused to come
to the party? (to be busy that day) 13. Why does Madge want to
buy a new watch? (to lose her old one).
Reproach, hurt feelings
smb
might
do
have done
Ex. 30. Express your irritation using the modal verb
might.
MODEL
When did he tell them?
He told them just now.
He might have told them sooner!
1. “When did he say he was cancelling it?” “He phoned
us a few minutes ago.” 2. “When did he suggest he was having
second thoughts?” “He mentioned it a minute or two ago.”
3. “When did you get to hear of it?” “He brought it up at the
meeting.” 4. “When did it come to light?” “He revealed it the
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day before yesterday.” 5. “When did he eventually agree to it?”
“He gave his consent late this afternoon.” 6. “When did he say
he might have to go back on his decision?” “He informed them
a day or two ago.” 7. “When did he own up to taking it?” “He
admitted it an hour or so ago.”
Ex. 31. Paraphrase the following sentences using may
(might).
1. Perhaps the tide will come in very soon. Look out!
2. Perhaps the problem was too difficult for them. 3. Try this
medicine, perhaps it will cure you. 4. I had better take my
raincoat, perhaps it will rain. 5. Why didn’t you remind Ann of
her promise? It is possible that she forgot all about it. 6. Perhaps
you are right, but I am not sure you are. 7. It is possible we live
in the same street, but I doubt whether I have seen him before.
8. Perhaps she was proud of her daughter, but she never showed
it to her neighbours. 9. It is possible your letter has never
reached him, otherwise he would have answered it immediately.
10. Perhaps they tried to get in touch with us, but failed. 11. It
is possible you got into the wrong carriage, that’s why you did
not find your friend there. 12. Perhaps they will arrive here by
the next train.
Ex. 32. Paraphrase the following sentences using may
(might).
1. Perhaps, you changed at the wrong station, that’s why it
took you so long to get here. 2. Perhaps, he has already arrived,
let’s go and find out. 3. Perhaps it was true, I am not sure. 4. It
is possible that they have refused to help you. 5. Perhaps they
knew everything about it. 6. Perhaps the driver got a fright.
7. Perhaps the lorry overturned while going round the bend.
8. Perhaps they have already left. 9. Perhaps the performance
was over as many people were leaving the theatre. 10. Perhaps
it was all prepared beforehand. 11. Perhaps this old man is your
brother. 12. Perhaps the message was delivered in time as we
received an immediate answer.
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Ex. 33. Read the given situations and answer the
questions using may, might.
1. My sister is going to get married to an Indian doctor
next weekend and they are going to move to New Delhi. I am
worried about my sister because she has never been abroad
before. What kind of problems can be expected?
2. Kevin has entered university this year. He has started
living in the dormitory and has to share his room with other
students. What kind of problems can he be faced with?
3. Ann is invited to the birthday party where she is going to
meet her ex-boyfriend. What may come of it?
Ex. 34. Reprimand your friend by using the modal verb
might:
a) for being late for the performance; b) for not persevering
in what he was trying to do until he succeeded; c) for not being
in accordance with his words; d) for complaining very much;
e) for not checking up on all the details first; f) for not making
a decision at once.
Exercise 35. Translate the sentences into English using
may, might.
1. Уже поздно, не звони им. Может быть, они спят.
2. Он спросил меня, могу ли я дать ему ответ немедленно.
3. Может быть, магазины сегодня закрыты. Ведь сегодня
праздничный день. 4. Возможно, это ее рук дело. У нее есть
мотив. 5. Нельзя пользоваться бассейном после 23 часов.
6. Позвони ему в среду. Он, возможно, уже приготовит
доклад. 7. Босс мог бы сообщить заранее о сокращении
зарплаты. 8. Им позволили пересдать экзамен. 9. Я мог бы
поступить в медицинский институт, но мои родители были
против. 10. Лучше позвони ей. Возможно, она не слышала
новости. 11. Можешь не приходить так рано завтра.
Ex. 36. Translate into English.
1. Ты могла оставить сумку в кафе. 2. Она может
знать его адрес. 3. Его может не быть дома. 4. Вы можете
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опоздать на поезд. 5. Книга может быть уже распродана.
6. Там все же может быть такси. 7. А вдруг она знает его
телефон. 8. Вы могли ошибиться. 9. Более удивительные
вещи могут случаться. 10. Ты можешь его там встретить.
11. Можете не отвечать на этот вопрос, если не хотите.
12. Вы могли бы дать мне об этом знать заранее. 13. Нам
можно пользоваться словарем? — Нет, нельзя. 14. Возможно, он и знает обо всем, да не желает нам сказать. 15. Возможно, они все еще сдают экзамен. 16. Почему Кати еще
нет? — Она, возможно, придет позже. — Она могла бы
предупредить нас о том, что она опаздывает. 17. Я уже целый час ищу свою записную книжку. Не может быть, чтобы
я ее потерял. — Возможно, ты оставил ее у телефонаавтомата. Я видел, как ты вынимал ее. — Ты мог бы давно
уже сказать мне об этом. 18. Не беспокойся! Они не опоздают. Возможно, они уже едут сюда и будут здесь через
несколько минут. 19. Брат сказал, что не поедет кататься на
лыжах. Но может быть, он передумал.
Ex. 37. Translate into English. Give two variants where
possible.
1. Можно, я вас подожду? 2. Ему нельзя идти с нами
кататься на коньках. 3. Ты мог бы подумать, прежде чем отвечать. 4. Можно, я помогу вам? 5. А теперь, дети, можете
идти играть в сад. 6. Можно мне взять вашу газету на
минутку? 7. К сожалению, здесь ждать нельзя. 8. Ты бы, по
крайней мере, позвонила, что не приедешь. 9. В диктанте
много ошибок. Вы могли бы быть повнимательней.
10. Можно мне выйти? 11. Ты мог бы, по крайней мере,
посоветоваться с учителем! 12. Почему он не пришел? —
Он, может быть, не получил вашего письма. 13. Вы, может быть, найдете эту книгу в библиотеке; они, возможно,
получили несколько экземпляров. 14. Почему он не позвонил мне вчера? — Он, может быть, потерял номер вашего
телефона. 15. Почему он не отвечает? — Он, может быть,
не расслышал вашего вопроса, повторите ваш вопрос
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немного громче. 16. Почему она не пришла? — Может
быть, она передумала.
Ex. 38. Note the use of the verb may in these sentences
expressing wishes and hopes. Give their Russian equivalents.
1. May you be happy!
2. May you be successful!
3. May you live to see this happy day!
4. May you live to repent it!
5. May he rest in peace!
6. May damnation take him!
7. May success attend you!
8. Long may he live!
9. Much good may it do to him!
10. May there never be another world war!
11. May you both be happy!
Ex. 39. Translate the following sentences into English
using the previous exercise as a key.
1. Да сопутствует вам счастье!
2. Пусть никогда не будет новой войны!
3. Да будет его жизнь долгой!
4. Желаю вам обоим счастья!
5. Мир праху его!
6. Желаю вам дожить до этого счастливого дня!
7. Желаю вам здравствовать долгие годы!
8. Пусть это принесет ему много хорошего!
9. Вы еще об этом пожалеете!
10. Будь он проклят!
11. Желаю вам успехов!
Ex. 40. Memorize the following proverbs. Give their
Russian equivalents. Make up stories to illustrate them.
1. A cat may look at a king.
2. He who peeps through a hole may see what will vex him.
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3. The remedy may be worse than the disease.
4. If you don’t like it you may lump it.
5. Sticks and stones may break my bones, but words will
never hurt me.
6. A fair face may hide a foul heart.
7. Hares may pull dead lions by the beard.
8. Oaks may fall when reeds stand the storm.
9. Between the cup and the lip a morsel may slip.
10.A fool may sometimes speak to the purpose.
11.A fool may give a wise man counsel.
12.Men/friends may meet, but mountains never (greet).
13.A stumble may prevent a fall.
14.One man may steal a horse while another may not look
over a hedge.
15.At the end of the work you may judge the workman.
16.Little bodies may have great souls.
Revision of Can, May
Ex. 41. Fill in the blanks with can or may in the correct
form.
1. I don’t think you … tell anyone else. 2. He … come
if you ask him. 3. Nick … have forgotten about the meeting.
4. The President … not have made such a statement. 5. Ann
had a cold yesterday. She … still be ill. 6. This is a matter on
which Albert … have something to say. 7. Christine explained
her original idea that oxygen … be needed. 8. He simply … not
stop telling lies. 9. While they were waiting they … hear the
sharks threshing around in the water below them. 10. But how
… it possibly have grown so quickly? 11. It was a great solid
mass of water that … have been a lake or a whole ocean. 12. …
I see you to-night? 13. … I find you there to-night? 14. You
… read this article. You have knowledge enough. 15. You ...
take this book; I don’t need it. 16. … I be of any service to
you? 17. You … avail yourself of my services. 18. What … he
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want here? 19. “What... have made them so late?” “Something
... have happened to the car.”
Ex. 42. Complete the following sentences with can,
could, may, might.
1. Well, if there is nothing I … do I … just as well go back
to bed. 2. Mike … have posted the letter. 3. You … not help
being impressed by his dexterity. 4. He … be playing chess.
5. That … not be helped. 6. How … you expect people to be
moral when they wear nothing but a strip of red cotton round
their loins. 7. She … not have written that book unless she hated
him. 8. We … want to search his luggage. 9. A father won’t let
his children get into trouble if he … help it. 10. I don’t know
if we … make a reduction. 11. I wonder if we ... wear walking
shoes in here. 12. Shy though he … be, Ashenden was not going
to give in to this sort of thing with complete tameness.13. He …
not understand how a husband … stand by and see his wife in
another man’s arms. 14. She … have paid by credit card but she
used cash. 15. There … be life on Mars. 16. I … have gone to
drama school, but my parents wouldn’t let me.
Ex. 43. Express doubt about the statements made in the
following sentences. Make the doubt stronger by using more
and more emphatic expressions.
MODEL
They spent part of the summer here.
They may have spent — . They might have spent — . Can
they have spent — ? They can’t have spent — .
1. In the end Joe took the job. 2. She is very particular
about such things. 3. He is lying in wait for you downstairs.
4. They think much of her. 5. Someone broke that lock. 6. He
sent her some flowers. 7. He tells her all that happens at the
office. 8. He helps the child with his lessons.
Ex. 44. Paraphrase the following sentences, using the
modal verbs can or may in the correct form.
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1. It is impossible that he has broken his promise.
2. Perhaps you forgot to wind the watch. 3. I think he will
be able to do your work in case you don’t come. 4. Is it in
your power to change the decision? 5. Most probably she did
not recognise you, otherwise she would have greeted you.
6. Perhaps I shall have to take him to hospital; it is possible that
he has broken him wrist. 7. Why blame her? Maybe she did not
know it was so urgent. 8. It is impossible that she has wrongly
interpreted your words. 9. I suppose they were unable to get in
touch with you. 10. Would you mind my smoking here?
Ex. 45. Translate into English.
1. Ты мог бы и уступить ребенку! 2. С кем бы это я
мог говорить по телефону? 3. Похоже, что мы опоздаем.
4. Вы можете встретить это выражение в любой книге.
5. Я ничего не могу поделать! Она выводит меня из себя.
6. Вы смогли бы закончить работу, если бы попытались.
7. Если бы вы выехали на десять минут позже, вы могли
бы опоздать на поезд. 8. Как вы неосторожны! Вы могли
сломать ногу. 9. Если бы не ваша травма, вы могли бы вы­
играть. 10. Еще одна минута, и ребенок мог бы попасть под
трамвай. 11. Если бы вы предупредили меня о его отъезде, я, может быть, пошел бы (мог бы пойти) проводить его.
12. Возможно, он и знал обо всем, но не показывал вида.
13. Может быть, об этом и не говорилось открыто, но всем
все уже было известно. 14. Магазины могут быть закрыты
в воскресенье.
Ex. 46. Translate into English.
1. Неужели идет дождь? А я не взяла с собой зонтик.
2. Может быть, он не будет на тебя сердиться за то, что
ты не выполнила обещание. Он ведь добрый! 3. Не может
быть, чтобы Джон сделал так много ошибок в диктанте: он
пишет грамотно. 4. Возможно, он не достал билета на самолет. Может быть, он приедет завтра поездом. 5. Не может
быть, чтобы им понравился такой примитивный фильм.
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6. Неужели она все еще готовит обед? 7. Возможно, они
говорили так тихо, потому что не хотели разбудить ребенка.
8. Неужели они отказались от вашего предложения?
9. Возможно, они проведут все лето в горах. 10. Неужели
они не подождали вас? Мы этого от них не ожидали.
11. Может быть, Дуглас уже пришел с работы. Давай
позвоним ему. 12. Не может быть, чтобы студенты сделали
упражнение неправильно. 13. Может быть, у него какоето дело в нашем городе и он приехал сюда на несколько
дней. 14. Может быть, м-р Блейк еще не спит: сейчас всего
десять часов. 15. Вы могли бы посмотреть новые слова в
словаре. У вас было много времени. 16. Нельзя выносить
книги из читального зала. 17. Посетителям нельзя кормить
животных в зоопарке. 18. Вы можете задавать мне столько
вопросов, сколько хотите, я на все отвечу. 19. Можно нам
прийти на час позже? — К сожалению, нельзя.
MUST
The modal verb must has only one form.
Must can express the following meanings:
1. Duty, obligation, necessity.
E.g. All applicants must fill in this form.
Must he do it himself?
Obligations expressed by must refer to the present or future
but in reported speech they may refer to the past:
E.g. She said she must invite her friend to dinner.
NOTE: The necessity in the past is expressed with the help
of its equivalents to have and to be.
E.g. She had to see a doctor. (necessity due to some
circumstances)
They were to meet at 5. (necessity due to a plan)
The lack of necessity is expressed with the help of needn’t.
E.g. Must I phone him tonight?
No, you mustn’t. (It is wrong or forbidden to phone him)
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No, you needn’t. (It is not necessary to phone him)
2. Prohibition.
E.g. You mustn’t touch the statues.
3. Probability (in affirmative sentences). In this meaning
must can be followed by different forms of the infinitive.
It is translated into Russian as должно быть, вероятно,
очевиднo.
E.g. He must be thirty.
They must have missed the bus.
Ex. 47. Comment on the meaning of the verb must.
Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. I suppose one must be serious sometimes. 2. It must be
seven. 3. Pete, you are horrible! You mustn’t say these dreadful
things. 4. Nothing must be done in a hurry. 5. You and I are
friends, Nick, and we must always remain so. 6. I’ve always
thought he must be quite clever in his way. 7. I must be getting
sentimental. 8. “I am afraid I must be going,” he murmured.
9. You mustn’t say that, you mustn’t think that. 10. He looked
sixty, but I knew he must be much less than that. 11. She must
be found and brought here at once. 12. Her life must have been
very unhappy. 13. “You mustn’t talk so much,” the doctor said.
14. She must have been a very stupid woman. 15. You must be
telling another lie.
Probability
smb
must
do sth
be doing sth
have done sth
have been doing
Ex. 48. Paraphrase the following sentences using must
to denote probability. Use the indefinite infinitive when
speaking about the present, the perfect infinitive when
speaking about the past.
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MODEL
1. Of course, he is fond of dancing. — He must be fond of
dancing.
2. Certainly, she knew that something was wrong. — She
must have known that something was wrong.
1. No doubt, she likes sweets. 2. Probably, he missed the
train. 3. Of course, she has changed her mind. 4. Probably, they
wanted to find a short cut through the forest. 5. They are certain
to be looking for you. 6. Apparently she was trying to make up
her mind about it. 7. He is sure to be sleeping now. 8. Of course,
she speaks French fluently. 9. She is certain have visited France.
10. Probably, they are serious. 11. There is little doubt that the
first experiment failed. 11. No doubt, Ann caught the early train.
12. I’m sure she has lost your address. 13. There is little doubt
that they have taken the wrong turning. 14. Probably, he was
taken there by car.
Ex. 49. Make up sentences according to the model.
MODEL
The door’s open! (leave) — Peter must have left it open.
The library books have disappeared. (take back to the
library) — Peter must have taken them back to the library.
1. My torch isn’t here! (borrow) 2. The plates are all clean!
(wash up) 3. What are all these books doing here? (leave) 4. The
teapot is in pieces! (drop) 5. How shiny the furniture looks!
(polish) 6. The steps are unusually clean! (sweep) 7. There are
some sandwiches on the kitchen table! (make) 8. I’ve turned
the key but the door won’t open! (bolt) 9. There are no biscuits
left! (eat) 10. And there’s no whisky left! (drink) 11. The place
is full of empty bottles! (have a party) 12. The car is in a terrible
state! (drive into a wall) 13. The clock is going again! (wind)
14. There’s blood all over the kitchen floor! (cut himself)
15. The bath’s overflowing! (leave the tap on) 16. Where have
the curtain gone to? (take down) 17. There’s a new poster on
the wall! (put up).
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Ex. 50. Rewrite the sentences using must.
1. I am sure he has got all he needed. 2. The boy was
evidently reading something funny. He was smiling all the
time. 3. I shan’t bother you any longer; no doubt you are
tired of my talking. 4. It was clear the family were expecting
some guests: the mother was tidying up the rooms. 5. She was
probably upset by something. 6. He surely did not find out the
real reason for their silence. 7. The air was damp, and it was
getting dark. Probably it was rather late already. 8. You are too
poorly dressed for a frosty day. I am almost sure you feel cold.
9. Where is the 9th form now? — They at the stadium. I am
sure they are having their lesson of PE in the open. 10. She
has probably worked very hard to win the scholarship. 11. He
is a very experienced worker. I am sure he has been working
in the plant for some years. 12. Look! There is light in Mary’s
windows. I feel sure she is at home. 13. The Browns have never
been early rises. I am sure they are still sleeping. 14. Probably
they have changed the program. The pianist is playing a piece
which hasn’t been announced.
Ex. 51. Rewrite the sentences using must.
1. It is probably a very complicated machine. 2. I am sure
it is pleasant to live in such beautiful surroundings. 3. You have
probably heard the story before. 4. I feel sure there is a bend
in the road right ahead of us. 5. These ancient buildings were
probably erected about five hundred years ago. 6. Probably
that tower on the cliff is a lighthouse. 7. Probably you left your
bathing things on the beach. 8. You look so pale and work out.
Probably you are tired. 9. I’m sure you are hungry, you’ve had
nothing to eat but a sandwich since morning. 10. I am sure it’s a
delightful place, especially in summer. 11. I am sure they knew
everything about it. 12. My students are certainly at a lecture
now. 13. What wretched weather! You are wet to the skin, I am
sure. 14. Probably you have been travelling for a month already.
15. I am sure you have heard the news.
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Ex. 52. Use the verb must with the proper form of the
infinitive.
1. “You must (to be) right,” I said. 2. They must (to hear)
that the fellow was in London. 3. I must (to sit) there for a
quarter of an hour waiting and thinking about it before I saw the
letter. 4. He took us round the yacht. There was no doubt that
it must (to cost) him a lot of money. 5. At half past two I heard
Mike put down the book and switch out the light. He must (to
read) since midnight. 6. “I must (to get) old,” she said. 7. There
were a lot of mirrors that must (to buy) at the sale of some old
restaurant. 8. They must (to forget) my address. 9. Poor animal!
How it must (to suffer). 10. Haven’t you finished your work
yet? You must (to work) for more than an hour. 11. Where is
Ann? — She must (to work) in the next room. 12. Is he in? —
He was in 10 minutes ago, but he must (to leave).
Ex.53. Use the verb must with the proper form of the
infinitive.
1. Your whole future is concerned: you must (to decide)
for yourself. 2. Mary must (to put on) her new dress: I don’t
see it in the wardrobe. 3. Peter spent his holiday in Brighton;
that’s where he must (to meet) Barbara. 4. The four o’clock bus
must (to fail to arrive) on time; otherwise they would already
be here. 5. They must (to discuss) something important when
I came. 6. He must (to leave) the town; I haven’t seen him of
late. 7. I have heard you are staying in this hotel and I said to
myself: I must (to look) him up. 8. Henry was so gloomy that
I thought he must (to fail) his exam. 9. Judging by his paleness
he must (to work) too hard now. 10. We must (to ride) in the
bus for more than half an hour, and we haven’t reached even
the suburbs. 11. He must (to live) next door to us for more than
a decade, but we only have a nodding acquaintance with him.
12. “People must (to know) things. I consider it my duty to tell
them,” said Caroline. 13. You must (to forget) that she married
very early. 14. I am sure you must (to know) why he did it. Tell
me, I want to know all. 15. Sally must (to talk) on the telephone
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with a friend. Go on in. She’ll be pleased to see you. 16. They
must (to have) a holiday for a week now.
NOTE: Must can not be used to express probability about
a negative or a future action. In such cases we use the modal
word probably. There are several other ways of expressing
the negative meaning:
You must have misunderstood me.
They must have been inattentive.
He must have failed to recognize you.
He must have had no chance to warn you.
The letter must have never reached them.
The letter must have been left unanswered.
No one must have seen him there.
He must be quite unaware of the circumstances.
Probably, he didn’t tell her about it.
Ex. 54. Make the following sentences opposite in
meaning using the words given below.
1. He must be very competent in economics. 2. Brian must
have been very experienced in mountaineering. 3. They must
have realized the danger. 4. The lawyer must have found the
clue to the crime. 5. The committee must have been informed of
the coming changes. 6. Everybody must have done the wrong
thing. 7. He must have done something about it, I can see some
changes in the design. 8. The fax must have reached him at last.
9. The doctor must have read my mind. 10. The detective must
have understood the policeman’s words. 11. The poor thing
must have been aware of it all the time. 12. The parents must
have been quite conscious of the child’s strange ways. 13. The
landlady must have been very careful in choosing the tenants.
14. She must have loved him all her life.
to fail, to misinform, to be incompetent, no, to misunderstand,
to be inexperienced, to be unaware, to be unconscious, to be
careless, to dislike
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Ex. 55. Translate into English using the verb must.
1. Она, должно быть, ждет нас в университете. 2. Она
должна ждать нас в университете. 3. Он, должно быть,
живет на юге. 4. Она, должно быть, гостит у своих друзей,
так как она писала, что проведет свой отпуск у них. 5. Они,
должно быть, ждут меня, а я никак не могу дать им знать о
себе. 6. Он, по всей вероятности, забыл, что обещал прийти.
7. Они, наверное, пишут сочинение и скоро должны
закончить. 8. Вероятно, вы уже догадались, что я об этом
думаю. 9. Они, должно быть, сейчас готовятся к экзаменам.
10. Она, должно быть, уже месяца два работает медсестрой.
11. Я не видел Аню, но я знал, что она, вероятно, ждет
меня где-то здесь. 12. Я подождал с полчаса, и когда я
уже думал, что-то, должно быть, случилось с Катей, она
приехала на такси. 13. «Я должен для него что-нибудь
сделать», — подумал Джон. 14. Вы, наверняка, ничего не
знали об этом.
Ex. 56. Translate into English.
Нужно ли нам сдавать сочинение сегодня? — Нет,
не нужно. Вы можете сдать его завтра. 2. Мне нужно
подстричься и купить что-нибудь на ужин. 3. «Не уходите.
Я должна угостить вас яблочным пирогом», — сказала
м-с Смит. 4. Он, должно быть, не слышал, как в дверь
позвонили. 5. Вы, вероятно, спали, когда это произошло.
6. Она, должно быть, задремала и не видела, как он вошел
в дом. 7. Очевидно, Генри готовится к вступительным
экзаменам в университет. 8. Мальчики, должно быть,
играют в футбол с утра. 9. Вероятно, он удивился, увидев
ее у Паркеров. 10. Сегодня я должен идти к зубному врачу:
мне нужно запломбировать зуб. 11. Очевидно, они вас ждут
у входа. 12. Наверное, спектакль будет отменен, так как актриса, играющая главную роль, заболела. 13. Он, должно
быть, засомневался в правдивости ее слов, так как начал
задавать ей вопросы. 14. Она, вероятно, не увидела его в
толпе и поэтому не ответила на его приветствие. 15. Он,
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должно быть, недоволен результатами эксперимента.
16. Мы должны назначить день и время для собрания.
17. Очевидно, вопрос будет решен завтра. 8. Должно быть,
он болен: посмотрите, какой он бледный. 19. Несчастный
случай, вероятно, произошел около девяти часов вечера.
20. Наверное, вас неправильно поняли. 21. Это выражение,
должно быть, ей незнакомо. Дайте ей словарь. 22. Спросите
Сэма — он должен знать все. 23. Вы должны взять себя
в руки и ответить на вопрос. 24. Должно быть, они не
достали билеты на самолет и поедут поездом. 25. Вероятно,
он не согласился с Джорджем, и поэтому они поссорились.
Ex. 57. Note the use of the verb must in the following
proverbs. Explain and memorize them.
1. Beggars must be no choosers.
2. He that is afraid of wounds must not come near a battle.
3. He that dares not venture must not complain of ill-luck.
4. The bull must be taken by the horns.
5. The longest day must have an end.
6. Desperate diseases must have desperate remedies (cures).
7. A door must be either shut or open.
8. Every flow must have its ebb.
9. You must grin and bear it.
10. One must draw the line somewhere.
11. Every oak must be an acorn.
12. As you make your bed, so you must lie on it.
13. As you brew, so must you drink.
14. If you dance you must pay the fiddler.
15. If Mohammed won’t come to the mountain, the mountain must come to Mohammed.
16. One must draw back in order to leap better.
17. What must be must be.
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Revision of Can, May, Must.
Ex. 58. Rewrite the given sentences using can, may,
must.
1. Probably that tower on the hill is an old palace. 2. I don’t
believe I lost my ticket, it was here a minute ago. 3. Perhaps
you lost your way. 4. Probably you left your things on the
bench in the park. 5. I don’t believe they will postpone such an
important meeting. 6. You look so pale and work out. Probably
you overworked yourself. 7. I don’t believe this medicine is a
good cure for the flu. 8. I am sure you are hungry, you’ve had
nothing to eat but some porridge since morning. 9. Perhaps
the car overturned going round the bend. 10. I am sure it’s
a delightful place, especially in summer. 11. Perhaps you
are right. 12. I don’t believe he did it all by himself. 13. It is
possible that he forgot his bag in the car. 14. Most probably he
did not see you, otherwise he would have come up to you.
Ex. 59. Fill in the blanks with can, may, must.
1. I don’t believe her. She ... not have failed to recognize
me. 2. He ... have understood us, for he nodded his head. 3. You
... not have seen him at the meeting. He was ill. 4. Perhaps
in time I ... have learnt to act but I married and left the stage.
5. How ... the man be such a hypocrite? 6. You ... pay more
attention to your spelling. It’s very faulty. 7. The book ... be
mine. My name is on it. 8. They ... have taken all the necessary
steps but I am not quite sure. 9. Look into the canteen. He ... be
having a snack there now. 10. ... I use your books for a while?
11. Buy this dictionary. You ... want it one day. 12. It was a very
popular song at the time. You ... hear it everywhere. 13. You ...
get out of this place as soon as possible.
Ex. 60. Fill in the blanks with can, may, must.
1. “Will you know where to go?” “Yes, thank you. I ...
always ask my brother.” 2. What … he have meant when he
said it? He hesitated and said, “I ... go to South America. As a
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tea planter.” I said, “I ... be wrong, Pete, but I don’t think they
grow tea in South America.” 4. “I’d give anything to meet that
fellow.” “We … see what … be done.” 5. You … hardly have
been more surprised than I was. 6. The old man cupped his ear
in his palm. “I think I … be getting deaf. I … not hear you.”
7. It’s a most interesting story. He … not possibly have invented
it. 8. You have told him something. 9. I admire your mother’s
looks. She … have been a lovely girl. 10. The apples are very
good. You … eat them all. 11. My wife … leave the hospital
in a few days. 12. I’m trying to think where he … have gone.
13. “I don’t know why he did it.” “It … have amused him.”
14. The man danced very well. “He … have spent hours taking
lessons,” Jack thought. 15. You … never tell, everything … turn
out quite all right.
Ex. 61. Pay attention to the negative meaning of the
verbs must and can. Translate sentences into Russian.
1. You must have misunderstood him. 2. You can’t have
understood him. 3. She must have failed to understand the
rule. 4. The telegram can’t have failed to reach them. 5. The
telegram must have reached them. 6. They can’t have had
much opportunity of warning you. 7. They must have had little
opportunity of warning you. 8. He must have entered the hall
unseen. 9. Nobody can have seen him enter the hall. 10. He
can’t have answered the letter. 11. He must have left the letter
unanswered.
Ex. 62. Discuss possible explanations for the situations.
Then come to a conclusion. Use your imagination.
MODEL
You’ve been calling your sister on the phone for three days.
No one has answered.
A: She might be at the library. She always studies hard for
her exams.
B: I don’t think so. She’s already finished her exams.
A: You may have the wrong number.
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B: I can’t have the wrong number. This is the number
I always call. I think she’s been on vocation this week.
A: Then she must be away.
1. You are in the street. You have asked a woman three
times for the time. She hasn’t answered.
2. You are going to dinner with a good friend. He hardly
says a word all evening.
3. You went on a picnic in the park. You ate berries. Now
you are sneezing and your eyes are watering.
4. You are at a party, and no one is talking to you.
5. You enter the garage and see that your car has been dented.
6. You can’t find your keys in the bag.
Ex. 63. Translate into English using the verb must, may.
1. Это, очевидно, очень древняя церковь. Должно быть,
она построена в XIII веке. 2. Надо спешить: мы можем опоздать на концерт. 3. Она такая бледная. Очевидно, она была
больна. 4. Там, в твоей книжке было какое-то письмо. Ты,
наверное, забыл его. 5. «А, это ты!» — сказал он, взглянув
с удивлением. Он, должно быть, забыл, как меня зовут.
6. Юные пассажиры были немного взволнованы. Вероятно,
они впервые ехали морем. 7. Он говорил очень хорошо, его
речь, надо полагать, произвела большое впечатление на
слушателей. 8. Он искал билет в карманах, но ничего не
находил. Должно быть, он забыл его дома. 9. Эта книга,
очевидно, пользуется большим успехом у читателей. Она
выходит в пятый раз. 10. Вам, должно быть, уже сообщили
о том, что расписание будет изменено. 11. Он, надо
полагать, узнал меня сразу, хотя мы не виделись много
лет. 12. Вы, вероятно, располагаете большим количеством
свободного времени: вы все делаете очень медленно.
Ex. 64. Translate into English using the modal verbs
can, may or must.
1. Я не могу уйти, не расплатившись. 2. Скажи ему,
что он мог бы быть более внимательным к своим старым
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друзьям. 3. Вы можете встретить это выражение в любой
книге. 4. Я думаю, что вы сможете уговорить его, если вы
попытаетесь. 5. Я смогу написать им завтра. 6. Она, должно
быть, серьезно больна. 7. Мне нужно переписать всю работу или я могу исправить только ошибки? 8. Ты смог
закончить работу? 9. Где бы она могла хранить документы? 10. Должно быть, она тебе не поверила. 11. Я могла бы
переплыть речку, если бы вода была теплее. 12. Не может
быть, чтобы вы ошиблись. 13. Он, возможно, был там вчера. 14. Он, по всей вероятности, был там вчера. 15. Не­
ужели вы ошиблись? 16. Не может быть, чтобы он был там
вчера. 17. Вы, вероятно, ошиблись. 18. Вы, должно быть,
ошибаетесь.
Ex. 65. Translate into English using the modal verbs
can, may or must.
1. Можете не отвечать на этот вопрос, если не хотите. 2. Право же, вы могли бы дать мне об этом знать заранее. 3. Вы врач, и вам следует знать симптомы этой болезни. 4. Нам можно пользоваться словарями? — Нет,
нельзя. 5. Ваши часы, должно быть, спешат. 6. Официант,
должно быть, неправильно понял иностранца и принес не
то блюдо. 7. Не может быть, чтобы он подвел нас. 8. Разве
мог кто-нибудь подумать, что эта команда выиграет?
9. Он давно у нас не был. Ему, вероятно, не сказали, что
мы уже в Москве. 10. Они, должно быть, не опоздали на
поезд. Иначе они бы уже вернулись. 11. Их, очевидно,
неправильно информировали. 12. Не могли бы вы дать мне
консультацию сегодня? 13. Неужели вы им поверили? Они,
очевидно, пошутили над вами. 14. Вы бы лучше послали
ему письмо: он может не догадаться, что вас задерживают
дела, и будет волноваться. 15. Не мог бы я попросить вас
зайти ко мне немного позже?
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TO HAVE
As a modal verb to have is not a defective verb. It can have
the category of person and number and all tense-aspect forms
as well as verbals. It is followed by a to-Infinitive. The modal
verb to have has three tense forms: The Present Indefinite, The
Past Indefinite and the Future Indefinite. It expresses necessity
due to circumstances with the reference to the present, past or
future. It corresponds to the Russian приходится, вынужден.
E.g. You have to get a visa to visit Great Britain.
I’ll have to get up early tomorrow morning.
He had to stay in bed yesterday because he wasn’t very
well.
The interrogative and negative forms of the modal verb to
have are built up with the help of the auxiliary verb to do.
E.g. Do I have to do this?
They didn’t have to tell me what had happened.
Have you had to walk all that distance?
NOTE: To have got has the same meaning as to have. It
is more usual in spoken English especially in the negative and
interrogative forms:
E.g. Have you got to get up early tomorrow morning?
Ex. 66. Analyse the meaning of the verb to have. State
whether it is modal, auxiliary or notional.
1. King Lear had three daughters. 2. Have a look at the
picture. I think it is a Repin. 3. I have to answer many letters.
4. I have some information to pass on to you. 5. During our
trip we had an accident in which I had my leg badly hurt. 6. I’ll
have him come at six o’clock if that suits you. 7 He has just
come from abroad. 8. You will have to leave at six to catch the
train. 9. Is that all you have to say to me? 10. There are two
kinds of speeches: there is the speech which a man makes when
he has something to say, and the speech when he has to say
something.
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Ex. 67. Make questions with have to.
1. I just had to see the governor. — Who ...? 2. She has to
go to London on Monday. — When …? 3. They will have to stay
here for a month. — How long ...? 4. We had to pay to get to the
concert. — How much ...? 5. You have to sign your name at the
bottom of the page. — Where ...? 6. I had to ask my parents for
more money. — Whom ...? 7. You will have to come back at three
o’clock. — What time ...? 8. I have to go to the doctor tomorrow.
— When ...? 9. She has to go there twice a week. — How often
...? 10. They had to hire a taxi. — Why...? 11. You will have to
give me an answer as quickly as possible. — What ...?
Ex. 68. Write sentences using the given clues and had to.
1. yesterday / run over a cat / I / take to the vet. 2. stop at
the garage / buy some petrol. 3. you / write a report / last term?
4. I / drink 2 litres of water / before an ultrasound scan / last
week. 5. Sorry / I / late / take the children from school.
Ex. 69. Complete the sentences according to the model.
MODEL
I missed the last bus. — I missed the last bus and I had to
walk home.
1. There were no seats on the train. 2. There were no porters
at the station. 3. I lost my dictionary. 4. I couldn’t find a hotel.
5. We didn’t know the way. 6. I had no cash on me. 7. I had forgotten his number. 8. When I got to the door, I found that I had
lost my key. 9. My phone wasn’t working. 10. Our life was out
of order. 11. He had a puncture. 12. The lights went out during
dinner. 13. I didn’t understand the document. 14. My licence
was out of date. 15. We couldn’t eat the hostel meals. 16. She
couldn’t hear what she was saying. 17. One of the engines failed
just after take-off. 18. I couldn’t put the fire out myself.
Ex. 70. Make a list of your tasks for the week. Say what
you still have to do and what you don’t have to do because
you have already done it.
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Ex. 71. Translate into English using to have.
1. Вход в музей бесплатный. Тебе не придется ничего
платить. 2. Мне пришлось напомнить ему несколько раз,
чтобы он вернул мне книгу. 3. Ему не нужно готовить, он
ест в кафе. 4. Мне приходится ходить в очках, так как у
меня плохое зрение. 5. Возможно, тебе придется лечь в
больницу. 6. Лифт в здании не работал, и нам пришлось
подниматься пешком. 7. На вокзале не было носильщиков, и мне пришлось нести багаж самому. 8. Оказалось,
что я сел не на тот автобус, и мне пришлось делать
пересадку. 9. Тебе приходилось работать по ночам, не
так ли? 10. Мы были вынуждены рассказать родителям о
наших приключениях. 11. Я хорошо тебя слышу. Не надо
кричать. 12. Если ты хочешь жить полноценной жизнью,
тебе придется жениться. 13. Нас не нужно представлять
друг другу, мы уже знакомы.
Revision of Must, to Have
Ex. 72. Translate into Russian.
1. He must speak to her. 2. He had to speak to her. 3. He
must be speaking to her. 4. You must try to get in touch with
her. 5. He must be the brightest student in this group. 6. If they
want to win, they must work more. 7. She had to work more
because she missed so many classes. 8. She must have worked
hard. She has made progress. 9. They must be quarrelling.
10. What must they think of me?
Ex. 73. Fill in the blanks with must or had (to).
1. He ... get up early because he didn’t want to be late.
2. Martin knew that he ... stand up to be introduced. 3. His wife
kept telling him that he ... not sit up so late. 4. The doctor told
him he … give up smoking, as it might be ruinous to his lungs.
5. The father said to the children that they ... be careful while
crossing the street. 6. The bus was not going that direction, so
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he ... change. 7. It was not that the work ... be finished soon, but
we ourselves wanted to be through with it as soon as possible.
8. I had no special desire to do it, but as I felt it ... be done this
way or another, I started on it, though reluctantly. 9. I saw that
I ... speak louder to make myself heard. 10. Telling himself that
he ... control himself, he did not answer anything.
Ex. 74. Translate into English.
1. Мы должны навестить больного друга. 2. Она, должно быть, навещает друга. 3. Небо было пасмурное, и мне
пришлось взять зонтик. 4. Должно быть, она оставила зонт
в автобусе. 5. Ник должен был пересесть на автобус. 6. Ник,
должно быть, пересел на автобус. 7. Вы должны повторить
пройденный материал. 8. Должно быть, они повторяют
пройденный материал. 9. Кому пришлось мыть посуду?
10. Она, должно быть, моет посуду. 11. Она, должно быть,
уже помыла посуду.
TO BE
То be as a modal verb has two tenses: the Present and Past
Indefinite. It expresses the following meanings:
1. Necessity due to a plan or some kind of previous arrangement. It corresponds to the Russian должен, должен был.
E.g. He is to come at exactly five.
She was to phone after dinner.
NOTE: A perfect infinitive after the verb to be shows that
the action had been planned but wasn’t carried out.
E.g. He was to have come at seven and now it’s already
nine. (He didn’t come)
2. Strict orders, formal commands or formal instructions.
E.g. You are to report to the Captain.
3. Strict prohibitions. It corresponds to the Russian не
должен, не смей.
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E.g. You are not to tell anybody about it.
4. Something that is destined to happen. It corresponds
to the Russian суждено, предстоит.
E.g. It was to happen. She was to become his wife.
If we are to be neighbours for life, we should be on friendly terms. — Если нам предстоит всю жизнь быть соседями,
нам следует быть в дружеских отношениях.
5. Asking for instructions.
E.g. What are we to do? — Что нам делать?
Where am I to go? — Куда же мне идти?
6. Possibility. It is very close to can and may.
E.g. Where is he to be found. — Где его можно найти?
Nothing was to be done. — Ничего невозможно было
сделать.
Ex. 75. Comment on the meaning of to be in the following sentences. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. We are to see her tonight, if that boy doesn’t forget his
appointment. 2. We were to have gone away together this morning at dawn. 3. She reminded him that they were to meet at
eight fifteen that evening. 4. Where am I to turn? 5. Jane was to
go home with her sister. 6. Some of them were to dine with us
the next day. 7. They reached the hotel where they were to stay
for a few days. 8. They drew near the appointed place where
the rest of the party were to meet them. 9. You must know how
milking is to be done. 10. He is a strange person, I admit, but
it does not mean that he is to be laughed at. 11. What we are
to talk about next. I cannot imagine. 12. This time he is not
in the least to blame. 13. He reminded her of what she was to
expect in her new position. 14. No excellence in music is to be
acquired without constant practice. 15. “If we are to guide our
guests about the town, we have at least to do it competently,”
Nina said.
Ex. 76. State whether to be is a modal verb, a link verb,
an auxiliary verb or a notional verb.
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1. His plan was to drive straight up to the house. 2. She
said that mother was awake and was delighted to hear that
Martha had come to see her. 3. Bosinney was waiting for him
at the door, and on his rugged, goodlooking face was a queer,
yearning, yet happy look. 4. ‘When are you to be married?’
asked Miss Ley, after a pause. 5. My advice, Shirl, is to stay
away from the law. 6. No one else is to be admitted, under any
circumstances. 7. Mrs. Bramwell prided herself upon being
a hostess … and her idea of “making things go” was to talk
and laugh a great deal. 8. The entire sum of money is to be
converted to bank notes of small denomination. 9. I was silent.
My sympathy was too acute to be put into words. 10. How
many times am I to go over all this? 11. ‘Is Mrs. Franklin
interested in her husband’s work?’ I asked. 12. He knew that,
whatever he pretended to himself, there was only one thing to
do and that was to follow her.
Necessity due to a plan
smb
to be
to do
to have done
Ex. 77. Show that the planned action was not carried out.
MODEL
He was to leave that night.
He was to have left that night but he missed the train.
1. He was to make many friends in literary circles. 2. He
was to write a review to his fellow writer’s book. 3. He was not
to criticize his friend’s book. 4. He was to get in touch with the
editor. 5. I was to be given some fish for supper. 6. We were to
meet at the entrance of the theatre. 7. She was to be operated
on heart. 8. I was to take the medicine three times a day before
meals. 9. He was to stay in bed for a week. 10. The offensive
was to begin in two days. 11. Mary and John were to marry
in June. 12. My secretary was to arrange everything for our
meeting.
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Ex. 78. Rewrite the given sentences using to be.
1. We agreed that the one who came first reserved seats for
the rest of us. 2. We decided to go picnicking on Sunday but we
couldn’t because of the rainy weather. 3. We were told to finish our work in a week but we could not do it. 4. He planned to
get in touch with me but he failed as his telephone was out of
order. 5. Nobody met me at the station. I promised to arrive a
day later but could not warn any of my friends. 6. She said that
she would make the dress next day. 7. They asked us to leave
on Monday but we had to book tickets for Wednesday. 8. The
principal said it was my duty to arrange the meeting.
Ex. 79. Make up sentences according to the model.
MODEL
Did you borrow a car? — No. We were to have borrowed a
car but the plan fell through.
Did you ...
1. camp on the beach 2. hire a boat? 3. visit the island? 4.
anchor in the bay? 5. explore the caves? 6. bathe by moonlight?
7. spend a week there? 8. make a film of the seabirds? 9. swim
before breakfast? 10. get up at dawn? 11. climb the cliffs?
12. search for the sunken treasure-ship? 13. take photographs
under water? 14. have sing-songs round the camp fire?
15. invite everyone to a barbecue?
Ex. 80. Translate using to be.
1. Маргарет должна приехать завтра. Она сообщила об
этом по телефону. 2. Нам было суждено встретиться ещё
один раз в жизни. Это случилось через пять лет. 3. Вам
надо принимать лекарство по одной чайной ложке три раза
в день. 4. Вам категорически нельзя разговаривать. У Вас
была операция на голосовых связках. 5. Я вглядывался в
лица людей в толпе. Энтони нигде не было видно. 6. Никто
не знает, чему суждено произойти в нашей жизни. 7. Вы
никоим образом не должны действовать самостоятельно.
Ждите инструкций. 8. Случилось то, что должно было
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случиться. Талант молодой певицы был замечен публикой.
9. Вы ни в коем случае не должны сообщать партнёрам о
том, что мы крайне заинтересованы в этой сделке. 10. Вы
непременно должны постараться наладить сотрудничество.
Это задача первостепенной важности. 11. Нам предстоял
нелёгкий перелёт через океан. Мы были готовы к долгому
путешествию.
Revision of Must, to Have, to Be
Ex. 81. State in which meaning the modal verbs are
used. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. You mustn’t be too disappointed, my darling, if you
don’t find what you’re looking for underneath that wrapper.
2. It must have been nearly midnight before he was able to go
to bed. 3. We must all try to keep very calm. 4. We mustn’t
interrupt Mr Wonka. 5. Charlie Bucket? He must be that skinny
little shrimp standing beside the old fellow who looks like a
skeleton.6. The child only has to start screaming for a doll and
she gets it! 7. By evening, the snow lay four feet deep around
the tiny house, and Mr Bucket had to dig a path from the front
door to the road. 8. I think you’ll have to take a taxi if you mean
to catch that train. 9. Sadie Thompson was to be escorted on
board by a clerk in the governor’s office. 10. And on no account
are you to lay the table before twelve o’clock. 11. You must be
joking.12. There’s not a moment to lose. You must start making
preparations at once!
Ex. 82. Insert the verb to be or to have in the necessary
tense form.
1. I wondered what … to happen to us. 2. It looks like
raining. You … to take your raincoats. 3. We agreed that the one
who came first … to reserve seats for the rest of us. 4. Nobody
met me at the airfield as I … to have arrived a day later and
could not warn any of my friends of the change. 5. He always
puts off doing what he … to do until it … to be done. 6. We …
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to leave on Monday but because of a two days’ delay with the
visas we … to book tickets for Wednesday. 7. There is nothing
strange in what he did. It … to be expected. 8. It was too late
to change the plan, and it … to remain as it was. 9. You …
not to tell him about it if you don’t want to. 10. You … not to
tell him anything about it before you get further instructions.
11. They hoped to spend the summer together, but that … not to
be. 12. … I to do it all by myself? 13. The headmaster arranged
that the children … be taken home by bus.
Ex. 83. Complete the sentences with must, to have or to
be in the necessary tense form.
1. My mother is ill and I ... (call) the doctor. 2. The teacher
told the pupils that they ... (work) harder. 3. I ... (work) much
now because I have got behind the group. 4. Roy ... (keep) in
the public eye and strive to satisfy the public taste to make his
book sell. 5. He ... (expect) little or nothing of his fellow men.
6. The authors he wrote to ... (accept) his invitation to dinner.
7. Then the day саmе when I ... (go back) to school. 8. When
asked why he was late, he told me that he had missed the train
and ... (wait) for another one.8. Roy ... (ask) his old friends to
dinner, as he has no courage to drop them. 9. That man … (slip)
on the banana skin. 10. Mrs Davidson pointed out the schooner
which … (take) them to Apia. 11. It’s no use going to the shop;
it ... be already shut.
Ex. 84. Translate into English using to be or to have.
1. Им пришлось уйти с концерта, так как они боялись
опоздать на последнюю электричку. 2. Мы должны
были встретиться у входа в кинотеатр, но она почему-то
не пришла. 3. Вам придется подождать немного. Декан
сейчас занят. 4. В соответствии с планом вы должны
писать курсовую работу на четвертом курсе. 5. Мне
не пришлось ей ничего объяснять. Она уже все знала.
6. Строительство дома должно быть закончено к сентябрю.
7. Вы должны встретить туристов в аэропорту и отвезти их
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в гостиницу. 8. Мне не приходится тратить много времени
на дорогу в институт — я живу рядом. 9. Им было суждено
встретиться лишь через двадцать лет. 10. Его можно
видеть каждый вечер на стадионе: он регулярно играет в
теннис и волейбол. 11. Нам не пришлось стоять в очереди
за билетами: мы заказали их по телефону. 12. Сейчас
туристы отдыхают, а в пять часов они должны ехать на
экскурсию. 13. Завтра мне придется пойти к зубному
врачу, я не могу больше это откладывать. 14. Вы должны
сообщить нам о вашем решении не позднее двадцатого.
15. Сейчас мне приходится ложиться спать поздно, так
как я должен подготовить доклад к пятнице. 16. Все уже
готово к приему. Теперь нам только придется подождать
гостей: они должны прибыть в семь часов. 17. Так как вы
будете уходить последним, вам придется выключить свет и
запереть дверь. Ключ вы должны оставить под ковриком у
двери. 18. Нам пришлось спать в лодке, так как в ней было
теплее.
Ex. 85. Translate into English using to be or to have.
1. Если бы он не приготовил все заранее, ему нужно
было бы сделать это теперь. 2. Мне нет необходимости идти туда раньше пяти часов. 3. Кто должен был сообщить
о собрании? 4. По радио объявили, что вечером должен
выступить президент. 5. Выбора не было, и ему пришлось
согласиться. 6. Когда я узнал, что поезд уже прибыл, мне
пришлось взять такси и поспешить домой, так как у сестры
не было ключа от квартиры. 7. Он давно ушел и к пяти часам должен вернуться. 8. Я должна была там быть час тому
назад. 9. Почему им пришлось уехать из этого дома? 10. Он
сказал мне, что я должен ждать его здесь. 11. Согласно контракту, товары должны прибыть в порт в конце недели.
12. Он должен был прийти сюда на прошлой неделе, но он
не пришел.
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NEED
The verb need may be either a modal or a regular verb.
1. Need as a regular verb has tense forms, it is followed by
the to-infinitive. It forms its negative and interrogative forms
with the auxiliary verb to do.
E.g. Do I need to show my pass every time?
You don’t need to say it every time you see me.
You didn’t need to tell me about it.
Need is close to to have.
E.g. Did you need to read all these books? = Did you have
to read all these books?
2. Need as a modal verb is used in negative and interrogative sentences only. It expresses necessity. As a modal verb it
has no past tense form; it is used without -s in the third person
singular. It is followed by the infinitive without the particle to.
It corresponds to the Russian нужно:
E.g. You needn’t do it now.
Need she come tomorrow?
In negative sentences need followed by the Perfect Infinitive shows that the unnecessary action was performed. In this
case it is translated by зря, незачем, не к чему было.
E.g. You needn’t have spent all the money. Now we’ve got
nothing left.
Ex. 86. Comment on need. State whether it is modal or
regular.
1. I need not tell you that my sister is as competent as a
man. 2. We needn’t worry about that. 3. The artist needs peace
and quietness. 4. You knew exactly what you were to get when
you took on the job, and if you weren’t satisfied you needn’t
have taken it. 5. If he got into trouble he need look for no help.
6. Anyone can pull a trigger, but it needs a man to use a knife.
7. He need not have feared that the conversation would proceed
with difficulty. 8. He says I needn’t grudge him a little pleasure
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when he’ll be dead so soon and I can go on living for years and
years and have a good time. 9. He would have given anything to
get away then so that he need not set eyes on her again. 10. The
cage really needs to be cleaned.
Ex. 87. Paraphrase the following using the modal verb
need.
1. I see no reason to give him so much money. 2. It wasn’t
not necessary for us to book tickets well in advance. 3. Is it
so very necessary that you should get there so early? 4. There
is no use worrying about her; she is quite able to take care
of herself. 5. What’s the use of finding faults with the child?
He is only five. 6. There was no need for you to call her. 7. It
was quite unnecessary for you to do the work instead of him.
8. It wasn’t necessary for Peter to take so much money. 9. It
wasn’t necessary for Mr. Brown to collect the laundry because
his wife said she would do it. 10. It wasn’t necessary to give
her flowers as well. The chocolates would have been enough.
11. Our neighbour promised to look after our garden so it
wasn’t necessary to hire a gardener.
Ex. 88. Complete the sentences according to the given
situations and use needn’t have in your answers.
1. I had to walk home because I thought that I didn’t have
enough money with me but when I arrived home I realised that
I had some money in my pocket. — So I … .
2. Before going on holiday I first watered the flowers
because I didn’t know that my husband had already watered
them. — So I … .
3. The students had had the lesson notes photocopied
before the class started but during the lesson the teacher
distributed the notes. — So the students … .
4. I had prepared some sandwiches before going on the
excursion but during the trip they made a stop for lunch. — So
I….
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5. He went to the beach with his umbrella but when he got
there he saw the umbrellas around. — So he … .
Ex. 89. Fill the gaps with needn’t have or didn’t need to
and the correct form of the verb in brackets.
1. I ran all the way to work, but I ... (hurry) because I was
the first person to arrive. 2. We … (hurry), so we stopped to
have lunch on the way. 3. I went to college today, but I …
(go) as all the lectures were cancelled. 4. I … (ask) the way to
Lewes, since I’d been there before. 5. I … (buy) any food, so
I didn’t go to the supermarket. 6. I … (buy) any food after all,
because we had plenty at home. 7. I … (pack) my shorts, as it
rained all week. 8. We … (pack) many things, as we would only
be away for one night.
Ex. 90. Translate into English using the modal verb
need.
1. Три женщины ни от кого не зависели бы, если бы им
не нужен был четвертый человек для игры в бридж. 2. Тебе
не нужно читать все эти книги. 3. Не нужно меня бояться.
4. Мне нужно сообщить заранее о моем приезде? 5. Не
стоило так беспокоиться. 6. Им обязательно переодеваться?
7. Солнце уже садилось, и ей не нужна была шляпа. 8. Она
напрасно так уговаривала его. Все знают его упрямство.
9. Не нужно принимать витамины, если ты ешь достаточно
овощей и фруктов. 10. Мне нужны были новые очки.
11. Напрасно мы заказали билеты заранее. 12. Нам нужно
еще скопить денег, чтобы отправиться в путешествие.
13. Не нужно обманывать себя. 12. Тебе необязательно
звонить родителям каждый день. 15. Тебе не нужно было заказывать номер в гостинице. У нас есть свободная
спальня.
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Revision of Need, Have, Must, to Be
Ex. 91. Fill in the gaps with must, mustn’t or needn’t/
don’t have to.
1. You ... study hard to pass the exams. — I know. I study
every evening. 2. You … be late for your job interview. —
I know. I’ll leave early so as to get there on time. 3. Shall
I collect the children from the party? — No, you … collect
them. Mrs Shaw is giving them a lift home. 4. Do you want me
to wait for you after work? — No, you … wait. I can walk home
by myself. 5. You … interrupt while people are talking. — No.
It’s very bad manners to do that. 6. My dog has been ill all
week. — Oh dear! You … take him to the vet. 7. It’s Sally’s
birthday on Wednesday. — I know. I … remember to buy her
a present. 8. Shall I wash the dishes for you? — No, you … do
that. I’ll do them later.
Ex. 92. Fill in the blanks using the correct forms of the
modals to have, must, need and the verbs in brackets.
l. I … (go) to the bookstore as a friend of mine offered
to buy me the reading book, so instead I went back to the
classroom. 2. That traffic sign means drivers … (exceed) the
speed limit while driving in town. 3. We … (stop) for some
time on the way to Warsaw because there was an accident.
4. He … (buy) any furniture because he rented a furnished flat.
5. Although it was Sunday yesterday, I got up early because
I … (take) my mother to the airport. 6. Hospitals have put new
signs on their walls. According to these signs you … (use)
mobile phones when you are in a hospital. 7. You … (come) to
my house yesterday afternoon to bring the test results. Ann had
already sent them by e-mail. 8. People … (leave) their parcels
and coats in the hall before entering the auditorium. 9. I … (go)
to the conference hall so early because my assistant had already
put everything in order.
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Ex. 93. Translate into English using don’t have to,
needn’t.
1. У нас поставили телефон, и нам теперь не нужно
ходить к соседям. 2. Вам незачем было идти на улицу; у
соседей есть телефон. 3. У нас теперь построили стадион,
и детям не приходится ездить далеко. 4. Им незачем ездить
так далеко, можно заниматься в нашем читальном зале.
5. Не нужно отвечать на этот вопрос, если ты не хочешь.
6. Необязательно вам приходить самому. Можете прислать
кого-нибудь. 7. Ему незачем беспокоиться. Все будет
в порядке. 8. Нам не нужно было ходить в библиотеку.
Все необходимые книги были у меня дома. 9. К вечеру
зуб перестал болеть, и он решил, что ему не надо идти к
врачу. 10. Много ли времени пришлось вам потратить
на эту работу? 11. Мне не пришлось покупать новый
словарь, так как у меня был такой словарь дома. 12. Вам
не нужно было покупать этот словарь, у меня есть лишний
экземпляр дома. 13. Разговор наш продолжался недолго,
все было достаточно ясно, и нам не к чему было вдаваться
в излишние подробности. 14. Ему не к чему было вдаваться
в подробности. Это все равно не помогло. 15. Все слова в
тексте были хорошо знакомы, и мне даже незачем было
пользоваться словарем.
Ex. 94. Translate into English using the verbs must, to
be, to have, or need.
1. Сказал ли преподаватель, что мы должны выучить
этот текст наизусть? 2. Я не знал, что этот текст не надо
учить наизусть. 3. Зря вы учили этот текст наизусть, его надо было просто читать. 4. Не шумите, дети, должно быть,
спят. 5. Никто, наверно, не сказал ему об этом. 6. Они должны были прийти в 5, а уже 6 часов. 7. Они, наверняка, забыли, что должны были прийти в 5 часов. 8. Надеюсь, вам
не пришлось долго ждать, да? 9. Надеюсь, нам не придется ждать. 10. Эту книгу можно найти в любой библиотеке.
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11. Стоит ли волноваться из-за таких пустяков? 12. Тебе не
нужно беспокоиться. Ты сдашь экзамены хорошо. 13. Если
едешь в машине, надо пристегнуть ремни.
SHOULD. OUGHT
Should is very often interchangeable with ought, as their
meaning coincide. The modal verbs should and ought have
only one form and it is not changed in reported speech. Unlike
should, ought is used with the to-infinitive.
E.g. Drivers ought to be very careful on this dangerous
road.
You should be more careful. I told him he should be more
careful
Should, ought express:
1. Moral obligation, duty. In this meaning ought is more
common. It corresponds to the Russian следует:
E. g. You ought to treat animals kindly.
You should never break a promise you have given.
2. Advice. In this meaning should is more common.
E. g. You should see a doctor.
3. Criticism or regret with the Perfect Infinitive.
E. g. He should have asked me before he took my bike (the
action considered desirable was not carried out).
You ought to have told him the truth (the undesirable action was carried out).
4. Probability. To refer the action to the past the perfect
infinitive is used.
E. g. You should/ought to be hungry.
E. g. You should/ought to have received the report by now.
5. Should is used for the sake of emotional colouring. It
is used in set expressions corresponding to the Russian: чего
ради …; с какой стати ...; зачем ...
E.g. Why should (not) they do it?
Why should (not) he have done it?
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Ex. 95. Comment on the meaning of the verb should.
Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. The parents called her a noisy chatterbox and told her
sharply that small girls should be seen and not heard. 2. A girl
should think about making herself look attractive so she can
get a good husband later on. 3. You shouldn’t have said that.
4. Perhaps she said things that should have been left unsaid.
5. I suppose he shouldn’t have touched anything at all. 6. You
should read a receipt carefully before you sign it. 7. Now she
told me exactly what I should say. 8. One shouldn’t go from
one place to another. 9. While you are in our city you should
use every opportunity to see its wonders. 10. You should be
working now and not talking with your friend. 11. We should
go to the zoo more often, and watch the monkeys. 12. But why
should you want to give your factory to little Charlie?
Ex. 96. Comment on the meaning of the verb ought to
and translate the sentences into Russian.
1. The young ought to respect old age. 2. You ought not
to show to him that you notice his stammer, he feels it very
keenly. 3. “Where is Tom?” — “He ought to be in his study”.
4. Which end do you think I ought to open the bar of chocolate
first? 5. She knew that she ought to be paying some attention to
the rest of the class but she was altogether too excited to let the
matter rest. 6. If you think some rotten TV programme is more
important than your daughter’s future, then you ought not to
be a parent! 7. When he saw Ann playing tennis, he came up
and said, “Are you sure you ought to be doing that?” 8. You
ought not to have touched those instruments. 9. You ought to
be more careful in the future. 10. You ought to have reserved
tickets in advance. 11. I feel I ought to help her. 12. Of course
they didn’t want to get rid of her, but a girl ought to marry, and
somehow all the men they knew at home were married already.
13. I ought to have turned up on time. 14. ‘I ought never to have
been told,’ he said. ‘I think it was most selfish of you.’15. She
ought to be in France. She set off hours ago.
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Ex. 97. State whether should is auxiliary or modal.
1. You should have done it long ago. 2. We told him that
we should let him know the day of our arrival. 3. Had it not
been for the rain, we should have come in time. 4. He should
be more careful about his health. 5. Is it possible that he should
have misunderstood me? 6. I should gladly do it for you, but
I am too busy now. 7. “I shouldn’t have missed the chance,” he
reproached himself. 8. If you should run out of supplies, you
have only to come back to the factory and show this Golden
Ticket.
Ex. 98. State whether should is auxiliary or modal.
1. I was really hurt that he should speak to me like that.
2. When I had settled her down, I went to bed myself. I didn’t
think I should sleep, but I slept like a dog. 3. ‘How about
lunch? I get hungry right on time these days.’ — ‘Well — that’s
a bit of a problem.’ I knew I should have brought sandwiches.
4. I felt I should call and let you know that she was able to get
some sleep and is now feeling a good deal better. 5. What is
time? And, after all (I thought), why should the Exhibition not
be opened in a day or two? It is even open now. 6. I wondered
if I should ask her why she had made George confess, but
found that I could not bring myself to do so. 7. I’m engaged to
Althea Graham. We should have been married on Wednesday
if all this hadn’t happened. 8. He had solved the problem
finally with a magnificent flash of inspiration which, he told
himself disgustedly, should have come two seconds after he
had seen the problem. 9. There is one actor whom, since he
has never reached the rank of a star and so has hardly received
the recognition that he deserves, I should like to mention.
10. Dottie gave a little laugh. ‘Isn’t he amazing?’ she said,
‘Just like a doctor. You should have seen how he took over.’
11. ‘I should like to know,’ said Vera, ‘just which of us had
missed Papa.’
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Ex. 99. Criticize the actions mentioned in the following
sentences.
MODEL
I told him a week later. — You should have told him at
once.
1. I asked him a week later. 2. I paid the bill a week
later. 3. I thanked him a week later. 4. I looked for it a week
later. 5. I invited him a week later. 6. I apologized a week
later. 7. I sent it back a week later. 8. I returned a week later.
9. I booked the tickets a week later. 10. I answered his letter
a week later. 11. I cooked it a week later. 12. I wrote to him
a week later. 13. I rang him a week later. 14. I started a week
later. 15. I began a week later. 16. I ate it a week later.
Ex. 100. Speak about the four things you should have
done, and about the four things you shouldn’t have done.
Ex. 101. Give advice using the verb should (have).
1. I’m always pressed for time. 2. I’m so lonely. 3. My
son is so lazy. 4. My daughter is going to get married, but she
is only 18. 5. What a boring serial! 6. I think I am underpaid.
7. I am losing everything. 8. Summers are getting colder and
colder. 9. Nick twisted his ankle. 10. Ann is afraid of travelling
by plane. 11. I’m getting so nervous. 12. The child has a nasty
rash on his body. 13. She has gained 5 kilos lately. 14. Ann
often has rows with her husband. 15. He wants to go abroad.
16. He has a job interview. 16. I have forgotten my jacket on
the plane.
Ex. 102. Translate into English using should/ought.
1. Где ребенок? Ты не должен оставлять его без присмотра. 2. Ты должен вести себя тише, пока другие люди
спят. 3. Детям следует быть внимательнее с родителями.
Они уже не молоды. 4. Тебе не следовало брать машину
без моего разрешения. 5. Тебе следовало повторить материал лучше. 6. С какой стати я должна выполнять ее ука60
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зания? 6. Странно, что они не встретились на концерте.
9. Она пошла в магазин. Она может вернуться в любой момент. 10. Ты не должен со мной так разговаривать! 11. Дети не должны проводить много времени перед компьютером. 12. Самолет, должно, быть сейчас приземляется.
13. В это время не должно быть пробок. 14. Я не знаю, где
председатель. Он должен был приехать час назад. 15. Мне
жаль, что ты поссорилась с мужем. 16. Необходимо, чтобы
все были в курсе событий. 16. Тебе не следовало сердиться на Энн. Она не виновата. 17. Удивительно, что он так
себя ведет.
Ex. 103. Translate into English using should/ought.
1. Бен, хотя никто и не видел, тебе следует признаться,
что ты разбил окно. 2. Ты не должен был совершать это
правонарушение (to break the law). 3. Судье следовало приговорить (to condemn) террориста к пожизненному тюремному заключению (life imprisonment). 4. Сейчас ранняя весна. Все должны употреблять больше витаминов. 5. Завтра у
нас будет математика. Тебе следует повторить все правила.
6. Я не думаю, что Денису следует идти на прогулку: у него сильно болит голова. 7. Тебе следует делать физические
упражнения чаще. 8. Им не следовало так доверять агенту.
9. Преподаватель рекомендовал, чтобы студенты прочитали дополнительно два источника. 10. Смешно, чтобы мы
настаивали на столь абсурдном предложении. 11. Это было
великолепное представление. Если у тебя будет время, тебе
стоит посмотреть его. 12. Тебе не следовало ложиться спать
так поздно. 13. У тебя не должно возникнуть сложностей с
получением визы. 14. Почему цены на фрукты такие высокие? Сейчас же лето.
Revision
Ex. 104. Fill in the blanks with either should or must.
Translate into Russian.
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1. a) You … have spoken to him already. I see you know
everything. b) You … have spoken to him of the matter. Why
keep him in the dark? 2. a) They … have studied the subject
more thoroughly, they will regret it later on. b) They … have
studied the subject thoroughly, they answered every question.
3. a) You … have ignored the traffic regulations. That’s why
you were fined. b) You … have followed the traffic regulations,
then you would not have been fined. 4. a) He … have forgotten
to send them a telegram, b) He … have remembered to send
them a telegram. 5. a) I … have taken grandfather’s spectacles.
I cannot see anything through them. b) I … have taken my opera-glasses. I don’t see anything.
Ex. 105. Fill in the blanks with ought, to be, to have.
1. Don’t contradict her, you ... to respect her age. 2. She
is not a bad sort, if somewhat capricious; so you sometimes ...
to put up with her whims. 3. The situation grew awkward. He
felt that something ... to be done, or else the party would break
up; so he ... to say a few conciliating words to put the guests
at their ease. 4. He was boiling with rage, but he ... to control
his feelings not to give himself away. 5. I thought I ... to do
something to return their hospitality. 6. Not a living thing ... to
be seen. 7. Why do you ask my opinion? You have been in the
business much longer, you ... to know better. 8. You are a father,
you ... not to neglect your duties to your children. 9. According
to the rules of the game a football player ... not to touch the ball
with his hands. 10. He ... to have taken the floor and spoken in
favour of the proposal. 11. Ring me up at 6. The situation ... to
clear up by then.
Ex. 106. Replace the infinitives in brackets by should,
need, to have.
1. Well, she’s your responsibility from now on. You …
(deal) with her. 2. Campion suggested once or twice that they
… (start). 3. Youth was a dull time, Marsha often thought,
especially when you … (share) it with others the same age as
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yourself. 4. What a fool he had been to go to bed! He … never
(let) Campion out of his sight. 5. The thought reminded him of
the annoying two days he … (wait) for confirmation. 6. … you
(shout) so? I’m right next to you. 7. You haven’t told me who
you are. — I’m sorry. I … (explain). 8. You … (not to take)
warm sweaters. We could have taken more books. 9. The boss
is going to fire him. He … search for other employment. 10. We
… (not hurry). I don’t have to be at the hairdresser’s till three.
Ex. 107. Translate into English; using must, to be, to
have, needn’t or should.
1. Я должен был все спланировать заранее. 2. Мы,
должно быть, пропустили его. Мы должны были прийти пораньше. 3. Ей надо было сделать вид, что она его не знает.
4. Она должна была выгладить это платье до того, как оно
высохло; теперь ей придется смочить его снова. 5. Мы не
должны были устраивать скандал на глазах у детей. 6. Это
должно было случиться. Он такой забывчивый. 7. Этого следовало ожидать, и нечего удивляться. 8. Мне не
пришлось ничего ей объяснять. 9. Ты не должен принимать
все так близко к сердцу. 10. Вы не должны грызть ногти.
Это отвратительная привычка, и нужно от нее избавиться. 11. Мы договорились встретиться в парке у памятника
Пушкину. 12. Она, очевидно, была очень приятной женщиной. Все говорят о ней с такой любовью. 13. С какой стати
я буду делать то, что я не должна.
Ex. 108. Think of a problem you had with a friend or
relative. Write about the problem: the reason it might have
happened and what you and other people might have done
differently. Use modal verbs may, must, should/ought.
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SHALL
In present day English shall is not a purely modal verb.
It always combines its modal meaning with the function of an
auxiliary verb of the future tense. As a rule shall as a modal
verb is not translated into Russian, its meaning is rendered by
emphatic intonation.
Shall expresses:
1. Compulsion, strict order, prohibition. In this meaning
it is always used with the second and third persons and has a
strong stress.
E.g. When he comes in, nobody shall say a word.
2. Threat or warning. In this meaning it is also used in the
second and third persons and with a weak stress.
E.g. You shall pay for this, you shall.
3. Promise. It is also used with the second and third
persons and with a weak stress.
E.g. You shall not be punished.
4. Suggestion in interrogative sentences.
E.g. Shall I translate the text? — Мне переводить текст?
Ex. 109. Read and translate the sentences. Comment on
the meanings of the verb shall.
1. Divorce is our staple industry and the law shall be
repealed only over my dead body. 2. He shall do it whether he
wants it or not. 3. You shall answer for it! 4. We will amend
the law. Men shall come in as before without let or hindrance,
but women only accompanied by their husbands or with their
written consent. 5. At what time shall I be back? 6. You shall
do as you are told. 7. Shall I leave the things here? 8. If I come
here, you shall know about it. 9. “You shall see the portrait
yourself,” he cried, seizing a lamp from the table. 10. I give you
my word, you shall hear from me soon. 11. I made a mistake
this afternoon. It shall not happen again. 12. I’ll tell you the
story of my life and you shall tell me all about yours. 13. Shall
I open the door for you?
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Ex. 110. Translate the following sentences into English
using shall.
1. Мне заплатить за вас? 2. Скажи им, что они узнают
результаты завтра. 3. Перевести весь текст? — Нет, не нужно, переведите только подчеркнутые предложения. 4. Это
можно сделать и это будет сделано, если ты только поможешь мне. 5. «Тебе поиграть?» — спросила она. — «Да, пожалуйста». 6. У тебя не будет причины жаловаться на меня.
7. Вы получите книгу в понедельник. 8. Когда ему прийти?
9. Закрыть дверь? 10. Оборудование для нашей экспедиции
должно быть отгружено в мае. 11. Если вы будете сидеть на
сквозняке, вы простудитесь. 12. Что нужно сделать с этими
письмами? 13. Она позвонит вам? 14. Вам следует сделать
это немедленно. 15. Пригласить их на обед? — Нет, не нужно, я сделаю это сама. 16. Я ни за что не вернусь.
Ex. 111. Comment on the use of the verb shall in
the following proverbs and sayings Give their Russian
equivalents. Use them in situations of your own.
1. As you sow, so shall you reap.
2. They that live by the sword shall perish/die by the sword.
3. He who does not work neither shall he eat.
4. If the blind lead the blind, both shall fall into the ditch.
5. Blessed is he who expects nothing, for he shall never be
disappointed.
6. Man shall not live by bread alone.
7. At the game’s end we shall see who gains.
8. As a man lives, so shall he die.
9. As you have brewed, so shall you drink.
WILL
Will is hardly ever a purely modal verb. It generally combines its modal meaning with the function of an auxiliary verb
expressing futurity. Will has two forms: will for the present
tense and would for the past tense. Thus will and would are
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looked upon as forms of the same verb, although in a few cases
their meanings differ.
Will expresses:
1. Willingness, intention. In most cases will is rendered
in Russian by emphatic intonation, but sometimes the verb
хотеть or непременно, обязательно, охотно.
E.g. Don’t worry. We will help him.
This meaning is often found in conditional clauses after if:
E.g. I shall call you if you will allow me.
2. Refusal (in negative sentences).
E.g. The shop assistant wouldn’t change the jumper for me
even though I hadn’t worn it.
3. Resistance when speaking about lifeless things.
E.g. The door won’t open. — Дверь никак не открывается.
4. Polite request.
E.g. Will you please be quiet? I’m trying to concentrate.
Will you help me? — Yes, I will. / I’m afraid I can’t. (No, I
won’t — is not common because it is impolite. It means: I don’t
want to help you.)
Would expresses a more polite request.
5. Orders, rules and formal instructions.
E.g. You will do exactly as I say.
6. Characteristic habits. Will can sometimes be used in
place of the Present Simple.
E.g. Every day Dan will come home from work and turn
on the TV.
Would is used to speak about things that happened repeatedly in the past (but not past states).
E.g. Dad would always help us with our maths homework.
7. Certainty about the present and the past. It is similar to
must. It is translated должно быть, по-видимому.
E.g. This will be just what she wants.
We sent the invitations on Monday, so they will have received them by now.
8. Disapproval of something expected. In this meaning only would is used. It is used mainly in responses. It corresponds
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to the Russian этого и следовало ожидать, на него это похоже.
E.g. — Не refused to help. — Не would. — На него
похоже.
Ex. 112. Comment on the meaning of the verb will/
would and translate the sentences into Russian.
1. It will never happen again. Never. 2. “Now listen,
lady …” Peremptorily she cut him off. “I will not listen.
Instead, you will listen to me.” 3. When he returned I repeated
my offer of food, but he would take nothing. 4. Many times
a day, he would see other children taking bars of creamy
chocolate out of their pockets and munching them greedily, and
that, of course, was pure torture. 5. Leave the kid alone, will
you! 6. He had a wound that wouldn’t heal. 7. When the game
was over, while they smoked their pipes and drank whisky,
they would begin telling stories. 8. Will you please hang your
coats and hats on those pegs over there, and then follow me. 9.
I wish you wouldn’t interrupt! 10. ‘Thank you,’ Charlie said,
and off he went, running through the snow as fast as his legs
would go. 11. If you and all your people will come back to my
country and live in my factory, you can have all the cacao beans
you want!12. Would you mind closing the door? 13. Faster and
faster, chop-chop-chop, the noise went on, it wouldn’t stop.
14. He will leave the lights on when he leaves the office. 15. We
sent the invitations by second-class post. They won’t have
received them yet.
Ex. 113. Analyse the predicates in bold type. In case of
a compound verbal predicate state the form and meaning of
the modal verb.
MODEL
He just sat there crying and wouldn’t say a word. —
Compound verbal predicate. Past tense, willingness.
2. But for your sister, you would have drowned. — Simple
verbal predicate.
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1. Walking to school in the mornings, Charlie could see
great slabs of chocolate piled up high in the shop windows, and
he would stop and stare and press his nose against the glass.
2. He told all the workers that he was sorry, but they would
have to go home. 3. Of course, if he’d been a gentleman I could
have sent for my son and he would have killed him. 4. ‘And
then again,’ Grandpa Joe went on speaking very slowly now so
that Charlie wouldn’t miss a word. 5. I would rather you didn’t
take it. 6. They would have been independent of anyone else if
they had not needed a fourth at bridge. 7. I decided to invite five
children to the factory, and the one I liked best at the end of the
day would be the winner! 8. I do wish you wouldn’t mumble.
9. I wouldn’t say it. 10. The car would never start on winter
mornings.
Ex. 114. Replace the words in italics by will or would.
1. My children love watching television. They sit for hours
without saying a word. 2. He’s very absent-minded. He often
buys things and then leaves the shop without paying. 3. My
wife persistently leaves things where other people can fall over
them! 4. When we lived in the north, the water pipes used to
freeze every winter, and we had to call in a plumber. 5. The
chairman’s main fault was that he persistently interrupted
the speakers before they had finished. 6. I tried to refuse his
invitation, but he repeatedly insisted on my coming. 7. Why
do you persist in being so difficult? 8. My headmaster had
great authority. Whenever he spoke, everyone used to listen
attentively. 9. No wonder the house is cold! You always go out
and leave the doors open! 10. In the nineteenth century, people
used to go to church on Sunday as a matter of course.
Ex.115. Fill in the blanks with will or would.
1. Though the work is difficult, I … do it, and it … be done
well. 2. … you kindly pass me the salt? 3. I asked her but she
… not tell me her address. 4. I … do it whether you like it or
not! 5. … you be so kind as to shut the window? 6. We waited
till afternoon but the rain … not stop. 7. I asked him not to
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switch on the radio early in the morning but he … do it. 8. She
pushed the door, but it … not open. 9. Every lesson was the
same: he … not greet us or show any interest in us. 10. I think
he … have finished his call. 11. Our delegates … rather not stay
at the conference centre. 12. When he returned I repeated my
offer of food, but he … take nothing. 13. … you really do it for
me? 14. Shut the door, … you? 15. He … read a book before
going to bed. 16. … come round tomorrow?
Ex. 116. Translate the sentences into English.
1. Я просила, я умоляла, но Джейн так и не простила
меня. 2. Не понимаю, почему окно не открывается. 3. Она
часто слышала, как он что-то напевал себе. 4. Когда я был
ребенком, я часто плакал из-за мелочей. 5. Я лег и пытался
заснуть, но сон не шел. 6. Мы никому не скажем, что
мы узнали. Не беспокойтесь. 7. Он часто видел, как она
улыбалась чему-то. 8. Друзья старались убедить меня, но
я не хотел их слушать. 9. Я спросил, что случилось, но он
не отвечал. 10. Больной наотрез отказывался лежать в постели. 11. Открой, пожалуйста, дверь, у меня руки заняты.
12. Ребенок ни за что не хотел пить молоко. 13. Раньше
я боялась лететь самолетом. У меня начинало колотиться
сердце и руки потели.
Revision of Shall, Will, Should, Would.
Ex. 117. Fill in the blanks with will, should or would.
1. I swore that I forgave her everything, but she … not listen! 2. She clenched her teeth so that she … not cry. 3. Why
… the people be operated on without an anaesthetic? 4. For a
long time sleep … not come. 5. Sometimes we simply drink
tea and talk like friends. 6. I asked him one or two questions
but he … not answer. 7. … we talk Italian? … you mind very
much? 8. I … be very much obliged if you … have a talk to
him. 9. … you really do it for me? 10. Shut the door, … you?
11. You … never neglect a chance, however small it may seem.
12. He was very sorry that Philip … be disturbed. 13. People
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tried to be kind to her and asked her to stay with them, but she
… not. 14. … you kindly show me that lovely vase? 14. I’d be
very glad if you … stay and have a bit of dinner with me.
Ex. 118. Translate into English the following sentences
using shall, will, should or would.
1. Вы этого не сделаете. Запомните это! 2. Я сделаю эту
работу, хотя бы мне и пришлось не спать всю ночь. 3. Магазин, вероятно, еще открыт. Если вы поторопитесь, вы
успеете купить хлеб. 4. Он сказал, что ему придется уехать
через несколько дней, но мы и слушать не хотели. 5. Бесполезно доказывать ему, что вы правы; его никогда нельзя
убедить. Он очень упрямый. 6. Это его не касается. Незачем
было ему вмешиваться. 7. Вы должны прочесть эту интересную статью. 8. Вам придется держать экзамен еще раз.
Вам надо обратить больше внимания на грамматику. 9. Вам
бы следовало предупредить нас, что вы не придете. Мы бы
не ждали вас. 10. Вы прекрасно знали, что это бесполезно,
но все же это сделали. 11. Он не понял вас. Вам следовало
бы подробно объяснить свою точку зрения. 12. Вам давно
следовало бы побывать в этом древнем городе. 13. Я обещаю, что все будет сделано. 14. Замок никак не запирается!
Я просила тебя много раз починить его. 15. Ты никуда не
пойдешь, пока не сделаешь уроки!
DARE
Dare is used both as a regular verb and as a modal one.
As a regular verb dare has two forms: dare for the present
tense and dared for the past tense. As a regular verb it is used
with the auxiliary verb to do in the interrogative form and with
-s in the third person singular the Present Simple. It is also used
with the to-Infinitive.
E.g. No one dared to ask him.
He didn’t dare to stop me.
In affirmative sentences it may express challenge.
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E.g. I dare you to jump off that wall. — Спорим, что не
спрыгнешь с этой стены!
As a modal verb it is used chiefly in interrogative and negative sentences. It expresses to have the courage or impertinence
to do something or lack of courage in negative sentences.
E.g. I daren’t ask her. Will you do it?
How dare she take this risk?
NOTE:
1) I dare say (or daresay) means I suppose, probably.
E.g. I dare say he will come late. — Полагаю, он придет
позже.
2) You can come across a mixture of a regular and modal
verb:
E.g. We didn’t dare say anything else.
Ex. 119. Read, translate and comment on the use of the
verb dare.
1. Nobody dared to speak or move. 2. How dare you speak
to me like that! 3. He froze. He dare not move. 4. I daresay she’s
giving a farewell party to her friends on board. 5. How dare she
come here! 6. They daren’t go against the missionaries. 7. She
stood at the door with the tears streaming down her face and
did not dare to enter. 8. That was all I wanted to say to you.
Now I daresay you’d like to join the ladies. 9. But she dared
do nothing yet. 10. He dared not use his motorcycle. 11. ‘Don’t
you dare to speak to me,’ she screamed. ‘If you insult me
I shall have you turned out of here.’ 12. He didn’t dare lie to
his father.
Ex. 120. Read the sentences. Say what they express:
courage, lack of courage, challenge.
1. You dare raise your voice. 2. I daren’t tell them I’ve
broken the vase. 3. Jill’s friends dared her to ask for another
piece of cake. 4. He lost his job because he dared speak out.
5. I’m going to tell your mother what you’ve just done. — Just
dare you. 6. Dare you ask for more money? 7. I dare you to put
a spider in her desk. 8. I dare not disobey the General’s order.
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9. He is the only person who’ll dare to stand up to her! 10. For
25 minutes they hardly dared breathe. 11. Sometimes he dares
to suggest that the women stay at home.
Ex. 121. Complete the sentences with dare, daren’t, dared,
dared not.
1. I ... tell them I’ve just broken their favourite vase.
2. I hardly ... mention this but you still haven’t paid for those
tickets. 3. I knew I was right but I ... say so at the time. 4. When
he came, she ... express her feelings. 5. ... we ask for more
money after she has just said it? 6. How ... you speak to me
in such a tone? 7. I ... tell Mother that I had lost my favourite
gloves. 8. But I never ... ask Mrs. Danvers what she did about it.
9. He ... take his eyes off his assailant. 10. The teaches was very
strict. Nobody ... talk during his lessons.
Ex. 122. Rewrite these sentences using dare or dared.
1. I am not brave enough to speak to him about his daughter. 2. I challenge you to tell the teacher the truth. 3. The boys
hadn’t the courage to wake the father. 4. How can you be so
impudent as to go out by yourself after the orders I gave you.
5. I challenge you to fight him. 6. I haven’t the courage to reproach her for it. 7. How could he venture to strike me when
I was down? 8. How can you be so impudent as to ask those
children into the courtyard? 9. I wanted to ask for some time off
but. I hadn’t the courage.
Ex. 123. Translate the following sentences into English.
1. Гарри встретил вчера мистера Грина, но не посмел
сказать ему, что мы разбили автомобиль, который взяли
у него на время. 2. He скажете ли вы мистеру Грину, что
мы разбили его автомобиль? У меня не хватает смелости
сказать ему об этом. 3. Как вы смеете так говорить со мной?
4. Как он смеет говорить так грубо обо мне? 5. Посмеет
ли он признать это? 6. И они смеют говорить, что мы
поступили нечестно? 7. Он подстрекал меня перепрыгнуть
через ручей. 8. Пусть кто угодно попробует доказать, что
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мои факты неверны. 9. Она не смела посмотреть мне в
глаза. 10. Попробуй, залезь на это дерево!
GENERAL REVISION
Ex. 124. Comment on the use of modal verbs in these
sentences. Translate them into Russian.
1. She must have noticed the surprise with which he viewed
it. 2. You might have heard of her; she was a great success in
her day. 3. Sir Dennis has let it be known that much of his
collection is to be left to the nation. 4. “My hands wouldn’t
work”, I fumbled with the push-chair buckle. 5. It ought to be
somewhere here. I distinctly remember putting it here. 6. Once
in a while she would give me some lilac to take home. 7. It must
be Superglue. It couldn’t be anything else. 8. How dare she, he
seemed to be saying with each rip of a page, how dare she enjoy
reading books when he couldn’t? How dare she? 9. There was
no way she could go on existing like this indefinitely. 10. I must
be mad, Mrs Phelps told herself, but to Matilda she said, “Of
course you may try it.” 11. It was a modern brick house that
could not have been cheap to buy and the name on the gate said
cosy nook. Nosey cook might have been better, Miss Honey
thought. 12. Often, Charlie’s mother and father would come in
as well, and stand by the door, listening to the stories that the
old people told; and thus, for perhaps half an hour every night,
this room would become a happy place, and the whole family
would forget that it was hungry and poor. 13. “Shall I play to
you?” she said. 14. “You shall open your eyes,” I cried. 15. That
ought to have warned me. I should have insisted on going by
myself, and who knows, I might have got a job when I got to
London. 16. They must have laughed up their sleeves when he
told his story. 17. Will you tell the servants to pay no attention?
18. “Shall I come back later, Madame?” I inquired. 19. You
may have never been a really independent person. 20. You
should have protected me from my parents. 21. “You can’t say
anything about me in your paper,” she said. 22. Can they be
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laughing at me behind my back? 23. Mr Forrester said I was to
give you this letter when you asked for him, ma’am,’ said the
maid. 24. A woman shouldn’t even try on a knitted skirt or dress
unless she has a taffeta slip on.
Ex. 125. Translate into English.
1. Нужно посмотреть этот фильм. 2. Должно быть, он
уже смотрел этот фильм. 3. Ты бы посмотрел этот фильм
сначала. 4. Надо было посмотреть этот фильм. 5. Неужели он уже смотрел этот фильм? 6. Мы с друзьями должны
посмотреть этот фильм на этой неделе. 7. Он мог смотреть
(может быть, смотрел) этот фильм. 8. Не может быть,
чтобы он не смотрел этот фильм. 9. Мог бы и сам посмотреть этот фильм, а не приставать с вопросами. 10. Мне
придется посмотреть этот фильм. 11. С какой радости я
должен смотреть этот фильм? 12. Можно было и не смотреть этот фильм. Он оказался таким скучным. 13. Должно быть, он сейчас смотрит фильм. 14. Я хотел, чтобы моя
сестра посмотрела этот фильм, но она не хотела. 15. Ты не
должен был смотреть этот фильм, он не для детей!
Ex. 126. Translate into English the parts of the sentence
given in brackets using modal verbs.
1. Do you think we (смогли бы добраться) home by nine?
2. I had never stopped writing to my cousin, but seven years
(должно быть прошло) since we had met. 3. (Могу ли я сделать) as I like or (я должна сделать) as you like? 4. “Now listen to me!” he said, “I’ll tell you a few things that you (должен
был бы спросить) before starting out.” 5. “I’m sorry about
Kate,” he said. “I suppose it (должно было случиться),” his
sister answered. 6. When you came here I told you you were
free to come and go as you please, but you (не должна была
навещать) our old friend. 7. He (должен был заехать) for me
in the morning at ten o’clock, but he (должно быть, забыл)
about it. 8. That film was one of those that one (должен был
бы посмотреть). 9. She protested but he (не хотел и слушать)
to her protests. 10. I think he (мог бы подождать) till I came
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back. 11. The girl (должно быть, поняла) me as she nodded
her head. 12. You (зря написал) to him about it. 13. You (зря
был) with her so rude. She is crying now.
Ex. 127. Translate the sentences into English, using
modal verbs.
1. Работа должна быть выполнена немедленно. 2. Ты
мог бы сказать мне, что уезжаешь. 3. Экзамены планируется сдать в начале января. 4. Обед должен быть готов в три.
5. Этот текст придется выучить наизусть. 6. Упражнение
не следовало делать письменно. 7. Письмо нужно переписать еще раз. 8. Перевод может быть сделан без словаря.
9. О детях необходимо позаботиться. 10. Тебе не надо было
приводить своего товарища сюда. 11. Уже 2 ровно, поезд
должен был прийти полчаса тому назад. Пожалуйста, сходи
в справочное бюро и узнай последние новости. 12. Тебе не
следовало жениться так рано. 13. Молли не смела подумать
об этом. 14. Что посеешь, то и пожнешь. 15. Вы этого не
сделаете! 16. Она, бывало, частенько проводила каникулы у тети в деревне. 17. Я предложила, чтобы она поехала со мной на море, но она и слушать не желала. 18. На
прошлой неделе должна была прибыть делегация учителей
из Великобритании. Но они, возможно, изменили свои планы. 19. Мне вызывать врача? — Нет, незачем. Мне гораздо
лучше. 20. Тебе следовало надеть теплую куртку вчера.
Жаль, что я не настояла на этом. 21. Я пытался заснуть,
но сон не шел. 22. Она никогда не осмеливается возражать
своему боссу. 18. Вы меня еще вспомните!
Ex. 128. Compose 3—4 sentences about each of the
following situations. Express strong doubt, supposition.
MODEL
A little girl is walking in the street. She is holding a bag.
She looks unhappy.
1) Her mother must have sent her to the baker’s for some
bread.
2) She may have been unwilling to go because she wanted
to watch television.
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3) Can she have lost the money?
1. A young man is standing under a clock at the entrance
to a park. He is holding a bunch of flowers. His face is worried.
He keeps looking at his watch, then at the clock.
2. Your friend’s husband is late from work. Give possible
reasons for his lateness.
3. Your child comes back from school pale and listless. Try
to explain her state to yourself.
4. A young couple passes you in the street. They are talking
happily and laughing. The girl is carrying some gaily wrapped
packages. Speak about them.
5. A student leaves the examination-room. He smiles
broadly holding his matriculation card open in front of him.
Explain his behaviour.
6. A man stops at a book-stall. He looks annoyed. He feels
for something in one pocket after another. Why is he acting so?
Ex. 129. What should be said in the following situations?
MODEL
1. A student shows you a fairly well-written test and asks
you to allow him extra time to copy it. — You needn’t copy it.
2. A mother about to go out shopping gives her last instructions to a nine year old daughter who is to look after a baby
brother. — You are not to go out and leave him alone and you
may not take him out of his crib.
1. A policeman stops a woman about to cross the street
against the traffic-lights.
2. A reading-room attendant addresses a couple of students
whispering over their notes.
3. A reading-room attendant addresses a student who wants
to take his own dictionary into the reading-hall.
4. A middle-aged woman speaks to a small boy who wants
to pat her dog, a bad-tempered animal.
5. A wife says to her pipe-smoking husband who complains
of some irritation in his throat.
6. A woman tries to comfort a small child who has fallen
and hurt himself.
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7. A mother speaks to her child who sits over his food at
dinner without eating it.
8. A student comforts a friend who got a bad mark at an
examination.
9. A man pulls a boy to the side-walk out of the path of a
car, he says to him ... .
10. A doctor after a successful operation says to the
patient’s wife ... .
Ex. 130. Translate into English.
В воскресенье утром я должна была пойти в библиотеку, чтобы готовиться к докладу, который я должна была
сделать на уроке английского языка. Но я не смогла получить нужные мне книги, так как пришла поздно. Очевидно,
какой-то другой студент взял их до меня. Мне следовало
прийти пораньше. Было досадно, что теперь мне придется
прийти еще раз. Когда я уже собиралась уходить, ко мне подошла высокая женщина лет тридцати и сказала: «Ваше лицо кажется мне знакомым. Должно быть, мы с вами встречались, но я не помню где». «Я тоже не помню, — сказал
я. — Возможно, мы встречались летом в каком-нибудь доме
отдыха». «Возможно. Не может быть, чтобы мы работали
или учились вместе. Тогда бы мы должны были помнить
друг друга лучше».
Ex. 131. Translate the sentences into English using
modal verbs.
1. Неужели он действительно отказался вам помочь?
2. С какой стати я буду ему первая звонить? 3. Наверное,
он испугал вас своими угрозами. 4. Не нужно беспокоиться. Я обещаю, что все будет сделано. 5. Вам придется
согласиться на их условия. 6. Вся жизнь мальчика может
быть исковеркана, если вы не уведете его отсюда. 7. Ах,
если бы только я могла предвидеть это! 8. Он предложил,
чтобы соревнования назначили на пять часов. 9. Мне пойти
и узнать, сделал ли он работу? Он должен был закончить
ее вчера. 10. Тебе долго пришлось дожидаться его? 11. Зря
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ты пришел. Собрание отменено. 12. Ты должен был сказать
нам об этом. 13. Она, должно быть, забыла передать им нашу записку.
Ex. 132.Translate the sentences into English using
modal verbs.
1. He может быть, чтобы она совершила такой плохой
поступок. 2. Он должен был прийти к нам вечером. Неужели он забыл? 3. Ты должен был нам сказать, что он нездоров. 4. К сожалению, мне не пришлось договорить с врачом. 5. Ты бы мог мне сказать, что опоздаешь. 6. Мы бы,
возможно, опоздали на теплоход, если бы поехали вечерним поездом. 7. Я бы ни за что не взял свои слова назад,
даже если бы он извинился передо мной. Тем не менее я
бы все же предпочел, чтобы он извинился. 8. Вы можете не
звонить мне завтра. Я буду завтра работать. 9. Он, вероятно, не смог закончить перевод или, возможно, не знал, что
его нужно подготовить к началу следующей недели. 10. Ты
напрасно искал ключи. Они лежали на столе. 11. Тебе пришлось остаться до конца собрания, да? 12. Мы, возможно,
поедем на дачу на выходные дни.
Ex. 133. Translate the sentences into English using
modal verbs.
1. Вы можете не приносить доклад сегодня. Но завтра
утром он должен быть у меня. 2. Он бы мог сходить туда
сам; ему незачем было посылать вас, вы все же постарше
его. 3. Где я могу найти товарища Иванова? — Он, должно
быть, в соседней комнате. 4. Не может быть, что он был искренен, когда отказался ехать с вами на юг. Возможно, родители не разрешили ему ехать. 5. Ему не нужно было называть свою фамилию так громко, это привлекло внимание.
6. Она не такая застенчивая. Возможно, ваш вопрос был неожиданным для нее. 7. Тебе не нужно было спрашивать у
отца: я нашел журнал на твоем письменном столе. 8. Неужели он действительно так растерялся? — Конечно, и даже
покраснел. 9. Вы бы могли предупредить его об этом и не
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ставить его в такое неловкое положение. 10. Почему ее нет?
Неужели она обиделась и решила не приходить? 11. Почему ты так рано? — Нам не пришлось долго заседать: все
вопросы решили быстро. 12. Билеты можно было заказать
по телефону. Мне не нужно было ехать на вокзал. 13. Я был
в Москве, поэтому мне пришлось осмотреть весь город.
14. Вам не нужно было бросать эту работу. Ведь вы были
так близко к цели. 15. Я смогу выполнить эту работу завтра.
Ex. 134. Translate the sentences into English using
modal verbs and Oblique moods.
1. Зря мы не поехали туда на машине. Не надо было
слушать соседей. Мы бы сэкономили много времени, если
бы поехали туда на машине. 2. Эрик пожалел, что рассказал
профессору о том, как провел лето. Ему не следовало быть
столь откровенным. 3. Профессору очень хотелось, чтобы
его голос звучал приветливее, но ему это плохо удавалось.
Ему казалось важным, чтобы молодой человек доверял
ему. 4. И зачем только он отложил все назначенные встречи именно сегодня? Мог бы выбрать другой день. 5. Секретарша жалела, что не может услышать, о чем профессор
разговаривает с новым сотрудником. Они могли разговаривать об университете, но, по всей видимости, профессор
рассказывал молодому человеку о его обязанностях. 6. Вам
необходимо познакомиться со всеми сотрудниками. Важно
произвести хорошее впечатление. 7. Профессор пожалел,
что не спросил нового сотрудника, кто его рекомендовал.
Это, скорее всего, был кто-то из его коллег. 8. Собрание
могло уже закончиться. Подождем здесь, он может скоро
прийти. — Вряд ли. Если бы собрание закончилось, он бы
уже был здесь. 9. Петя, наверное, заболел, иначе он бы уже
был в театре, он никогда не приходит в последний момент.
10. Она должна была прийти полчаса назад. Наверное, она
забыла. = Не может быть, чтобы она забыла о концерте, это
совсем на нее не похоже. 11. Хотела бы я знать, где она достала эту старую книгу. — Она, наверное, взяла ее в нашей
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библиотеке. = Не могла она взять ее в нашей библиотеке.
Там только один экземпляр, и его уже взяла Марина. = Ну,
возможно, она взяла ее в другой библиотеке.
СПИСОК ИСПОЛЬЗОВАННОЙ ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ
1. Блинова, С. И. Практика английского языка. Модальные
глаголы : сб. упражнений / С. И. Блинова, Е. И. Синицкая, Г. С.
Чернышева. СПб. : СОЮЗ, 1999.
2. Истомина, Е. А. Английская грамматика / Е. А. Истомина,
А. С. Саакян. М. : Айрис-пресс, 2007.
3. Крутиков, Ю. А. Упражнения по грамматике английского
языка / Ю. А. Крутиков, И. С. Кузьмина, Х. В. Рабинович. М. :
Высшая школа, 1971.
4. Натанзон, Е. А. Косвенные наклонения и модальные глаголы в английском языке / Е. А. Натанзон. М. : Международные
отношения, 1968.
5. Утевская, Н. Л. Грамматика английского языка : учеб.
пособие / Н. Л. Утевская. СПб. : Антология, 2007.
Учебное издание
Безменова Лариса Эдуардовна
Modal verbs in English
Учебное пособие
Компьютерная верстка Е. С. Рожковой
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