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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
С.А. Пономарева
Д.А. Малинина
Липецкий государственный технический университет
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
ББК Ш 143.21 я 7
П 563
Рецензенты: Кафедра иностранных языков Липецкого эколого-гуманитарного
университета, канд.пед. наук, доц.Кабакова Е.Н.;
Начальник отдела Торгово-промышленной палаты Маркова Л.Б.
П 563 Пономарева, С.А. «YOUR MAJESTY SCIENCE», учеб. пособие /
С.А.Пономарева, Д.А. Малинина.– Липецк: Изд-во Лип.гос.тех.ун-т,2013.– 57 с.
ISBN – 978 - 5 – 88247 – 641 - 9
Данное учебное пособие предназначено для магистрантов технических
направлений, изучающих английский язык
В пособии используются аутентичные материалы зарубежной прессы.
Цель пособия – закрепление терминологического минимума по
специальности, обучение работе с научными источниками профессионально ориентированного характера, совершенствование навыков коммуникативной
направленности и преодоление языковых трудностей, характерных для научнотехнической литературы.
совершенствование грамматических навыков.
Печатается по решению редакционно-издательского совета ЛГТУ
ISBN – 978 - 5 – 88247 – 641 - 9
© ФГБОУ ВПО «Липецкий
государственный технический
университет», 2013
© Пономарева С.А., Малинина Д.А.,2013
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
I Формы Инфинитива
(to) design
(to) be designed
(to) have designed
(to) have been designed
(to) be designing
(to) have been designing
Prefect Сontinuous
1. He tried to find the right answer. Он пытался найти правильный ответ.
2. They must have been waiting too long. Должно быть, они ждут уже
3. He couldn’t have done it.
4. He must be working now.
Не может быть, что он так поступил.
Должно быть, он сейчас работает.
5. Everybody hates to be lied to. Никому не нравится, когда им лгут.
6. The manuscript seems to have been written in the 12 th century.
Рукопись, по всей видимости, относится к 12 веку.
II Функции инфинитива в предложении
В предложении инфинитив может выполнять следующие функции:
1. Подлежащее: They arranged to visit the laboratory the next day.
2. Предикатив (именная часть составного сказуемого): All I want to do is to
help you.
3. Сказуемое в односоставных предложениях (использование структурно
ограничено. Инфинитив без частицы to употребляется в вопросительных
предложениях после why): Why waste your time on this kind of work? Why not go
there right away?
4.Часть составного глагольного сказуемого.
a) после модальных глаголов ( без частицы to): He was so excited that he
couldn’t talk of other things.
d) после глаголов: to seem, to appear, to turn out, to prove, to happen ( с
частицей to) : They seemed to be getting on a bit better.
5. Второе действие при глаголе сказуемом: One night he woke up to hear a light
knock at the door.
6. Дополнение:
a) после глаголов: to agree, to arrange, to attempt, to choose, to decide, to
deserve, to expect, to fail, to help, to hesitate, to hope, to learn. to long, to
manage, to mean, to offer, to omit, to plan , to promise, to refuse, to tend, to
threaten, to want: He refused to see me.
b) после модального сочетания can afford: We can’t afford to buy a car.
c) после фразеологических сочетаний to make up one’s mind, to take care, to
take trouble, to make sure etc. He took care to buy the newsфpaper.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
7. Субъектный предикатив (после пассивной формы некоторых глаголов):
to advise, to allow, to ask, to believe, to consider, to expect, to feel, to find, to force,
to hear, to instruct etc.): They were heard to discuss the possibility.
8. Объектный предикатив: He advised me to call him up.
9. Обстоятельство: He dressed and went out to buy the morning paper.
To learn a foreign language you have to practice a lot. I was silent in order to give
him time to think.
10. Определение: It’s a matter for you to decide. He was the first to come.
11. Вводные словосочетания: to put it mildly, to be quite frank, so to speak, to
make matters worse, to tell the truth. To put it mildly, she is just a bit inquisitive.
1. Translate into Russian paying attention to the Infinitive.
a. I can’t afford to go out.
b. We expect to see you soon.
c. Let’s arrange to meet again next week.
d. Are you prepared to risk your life for this?
e. The aim is not to win, but to enjoy yourself.
f. The police appear to be chasing someone.
g. I’d like everyone to help us.
h. Since we saw him last, he appears to have become more responsible.
i. He always pretends not to understand, but he does.
j. I am sorry to have woken you up.
k. You need to concentrate on the road,
l. Your grandmother was sad not to see you.
m. I am so happy to be leaving school at last!
n. I can’t bear to watch this horror film any more.
o. Sam was sad to have lost the race.
p. Give a man a fish and he’ll eat for a day. Teach a man to fish and he’ll eat for a
2. Translate into English using the Infinitive.
a. Если быть откровенным, финансовый кризис обнажил множество
b. Изучать точные науки необходимо.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
c. Я постараюсь сделать все, что смогу.
d. Однажды ночью он проснулся и услышал легкий стук в дверь.
e. Почему бы не предпринять необходимые шаги незамедлительно?
f. Мой план заключался в том, чтобы перезагрузить компьютер и начать все
g. Он не старался найти выхода из сложившейся ситуации.
h. Не может быть, чтобы он сделал эту ошибку.
i. Он, должно быть, водит машину не первый год.
j. Наверное, она все еще ждет.
k. Кажется, ты нарушаешь скоростной режим. Притормози!
3. Skim the article to find the sentences with the Infinitives and state their
It's a knockout
Engineers find a new way to punch holes through steel
Electromagnetic pulses (EMPs) are usually associated with warfare.
The idea is to use a blast of energy to fry the enemy’s computers and
telecommunications gear. One common way proposed to do this is with an atomic
bomb. In a less extreme fashion, however, EMPs have peaceful uses. They are
already employed industrially to shape soft and light metals, such as aluminium and
copper. Now a group of researchers has found a way to use an EMP device to shape
and punch holes through industry’s metallic heavyweight - steel. This could
transform manufacturing by doing away with the need to use large, heavy presses to
make goods ranging from cars to washing machines.
Verena Kräusel and her colleagues performed their trick by beefing up an
existing electromagnetic-forming machine. Such machines use a bank of capacitors to
discharge a current rapidly through a coil. The coil converts the current into a
powerful magnetic field. When the component to be worked is placed next to such a
machine, the coil induces in it a corresponding field. Like poles repel, and the
repulsion between the two fields is strong enough to make the metal distort.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Dr Kräusel and her colleagues boosted the power of their machine by
strengthening its coil and speeding up the rate at which the capacitors dump their
charge. The result is an extremely strong field - one that delivers enough pressure
when it hits the steel to punch out the material next to it, leaving a hole behind. The
impact pressure on the steel is about 3,500 atmospheres. That is the weight of three
small cars pressing on an area only a centimetre or so square.
The result is that the machine is able to punch holes 30 mm in diameter
through the type of sheet steel used to build car bodies, which is usually around 1mm
thick. The group have also used their machine to punch holes in hardened steel,
including stainless steel. And, besides punching holes in steel, such a machine could
also be used to form shapes out of the metal without the need to use a mould or a die.
The Economist
4. Read the article carefully and choose the best answer for each question.
a. If you describe someone or something as a knockout, you think that they are:
a. extremely attractive or impressive; c. rude and aggressive;
b. strong and powerful;
d. weak and dependent.
b. The word warfare is closest in meaning to: a. competition; b. natural disaster; c.
peace; d. military action.
c. What is true about EMPs?
 Researchers have failed to work out any ways of using them in industry.
 They have nothing to do with violent struggle.
 They have found a new application in industry.
 Their uses for peaceful purposes are limited.
d. If you do away with something, you:
 go away from something.
 put an end to it.
 find a new way of using it.
 use a remote control to do something.
e. If you beef up something, you:
 increase, strengthen, or improve it.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
 cook a meal using beef.
 fight with it.
 abandon an attempt to get something.
f. Like poles are: a. similar; b. different; c. good; d. the ones you like.
g. The group increased the power of their machine by:
 changing its design completely.
 making its coils stronger.
 eliminating the capacitor.
 increasing the number of its coils.
h. What is not true about the pilot electromagnetic-forming machine?
 It is able to make holes through stainless steel.
 It is impossible to use it for making holes in hardened steels.
 There is no need in using any supplementary equipment while shaping steel.
 Automakers will benefit from using this machine.
5. Translate the last paragraph of the article in written form.
6. Learn the words in the box. Translate the sentences into English using the
Infinitive where possible.
Electric welding - электрическая сварка.
Direct polarity – прямая
Reversed polarity - обратная полярность. Bolt - болт,
скреплять болтами.
Forging – ковка.
Rivet – заклепка. Glue – клей.
Electric arc- электрическая дуга.
Fusion welding – сварка плавлением.
Consumable electrode –плавящийся электрод. Nonconsumable electrode неплавящийся электрод.
a) Металлические изделия можно соединить между собой болтами,
заклепками, клеем, ковкой и т. п.
b) Одним из самых надежных и долговечных способов крепления является
c) Главными преимуществами электросварки, которые позволили этому
методу получить широкое распространение не только в промышленности,
но и в быту, являются быстрота, экономичность и прочность
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
d) Известно, что электрическая дуга занимает одно из ведущих мест среди
различных видов сварки плавлением.
e) Все операции по зажиганию дуги, поддержанию ее длины и
перемещению вдоль линии шва сварщик осуществляет вручную.
f) Дуговая сварка может быть выполнена как плавящимся, так и
неплавящимся электродом при прямой или обратной полярности.
1. Translate the article using a dictionary.
Blacksmithing forges ahead
Blacksmithing conjures up images of hot, heavy work carried
out by burly bearded Britons ages ago; not much to do with
today’s world you might say. But take a closer look around you,
and you’ll be amazed at the amount of ironwork you can see –
the hinges holding open the door, the hook hanging up your coat, the ornate railings
you pass by every day. You may not know it, but blacksmiths created the very nails
that hold the modern world together.
In its purest form, the craft consists of shaping metal using heat, a hammer and
anvil. “You’re basically mucking around with its atomic structure,” says Aaron
Petersen, a blacksmith, sculptor and university lecturer. On a hot Saturday in an even
hotter forge in west Wales, he is teaching me the right way to pound the hell out of a
piece of steel.
“When the metal is heated, the molecules loosen so it’s easier to bend; a bit
like cooking,” says Petersen. But this is no ordinary kitchen: the Petersen family
forge is like something from another age, with its intense fire, hundreds of hammers
and tongs adorning the walls and weighty anvils which look as though they haven’t
moved an inch in centuries. An iron bottom clasped by an iron hand completes the
This morning we are cooking up mild steel to fashion into a decorative
candlestick, which will hopefully take pride of place on the family mantelpiece. “The
temperature should be from 1,000C-1,300C and a good welding heat is a yellow
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
one,” says Petersen, which means steel-capped boots and goggles are a must for this
line of work. And then the clanging begins: we begin by “drawing down” the steel
rods, pounding it with a hammer to “upset” or reduce the thickness of the metal, and
“drawing it to a point”.
“It’s an antidote to our computer-bound lives,” says Petersen. It’s incredibly
hot and dirty work too. “The great thing is that it’s an immediate process,” he says.
“The metal shapes quickly in smithing, as opposed to something like pottery which
involves several stages of firing and drying before you see the result.”
Students on his weekend course, which is geared towards mastering basic
smithing skills, have ranged from artists to stressed-out executives. “A lot of wives
send their husbands. Some are spurred to take it up professionally – not everyone is
cut out to be a hedge fund manager,” says Petersen. Everyone comes away with their
own finished pieces, be they bespoke tools, nails, decorative artwork or
doorknockers. Others renovating their homes come to work on specific items.
The Economist
2. Write an essay answering the question: ‘Will blacksmiths actually be needed
in the future?’
Инфинитивные обороты
1. Оборот «Сложное дополнение» встречается обычно после глаголов,
выражающих физическое восприятие, умственное восприятие, желание
приказание, просьбу: to hear, to see, to feel, to watch, to wish, to lie, to want, to
mean, to admit, to order etc.
a. I saw him run. Я видел, как он побежал.
b. I heard her speak on the radio. Я слышал ее выступление по радио.
c. The teacher wants us to study well. Преподаватель хочет, чтобы мы учились
2. Оборот «Сложное подлежащее» встречается после сказуемого в
пассивной форме, выраженного чаще всего глаголами to see, to hear, to feel,
to tell, to say, to expect, to consider, to know, to think.
a. He is expected to come soon. Ожидают, что он скоро придет.
b. The expedition is supposed to have returned. Предполагают, что экспедиция
уже вернулась.
3. Инфинитивная конструкция с предлогом ‘for’ переводится на русский
язык придаточным предложением или собственно инфинитивом.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
a. That was for the scientists to find out. Выяснить это должны были ученые.
b. The researchers asked for the project to be approved of.
Исследователи попросили, чтобы проект был одобрен.
1. Translate from English into Russian. Pay attention to the Infinitive
 The abbreviation GTAW is known to stand for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding.
 The TIG welding process is said to involve striking an arc between a nonconsumable tungsten electrode and the workpiece.
 The weld pool and the electrode are supposed to be protected by an inert gas,
usually argon.
 TIG welding is known to be widely used for welding with filler material,
which is applied in rod form by hand similar to gas welding.
Automatic welding tools are known to incorporate many advanced features,
including mechanized supply of filler wire.
 Specialists expect the method to provide the stable arc excellent control of the
welding result.
 The welding of stainless steel, the welding of light metals, such as aluminium
and magnesium alloys, and the welding of copper appear to be the main
application for TIG welding.
 The method is likely to be suitable for welding all weldable materials, apart
from lead and zinc.
 TIG welding turns out to be best suited to thin materials, from about 0.5 mm
up to about 3 mm thick.
 In terms of productivity, TIG welding is unlikely to compete with methods
such as short arc welding.
 Experts know TIG welding method to be very beneficial.
2. Translate into English using the Infinitive Constructions.
a) Известно, что наука не стоит на месте. Каждый день сообщают о новых
открытиях в разных областях науки и техники.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
в) Ожидается, что новая технология изготовления строительных блоков
позволит значительно сократить расходы.
с) Говорят, что скоро преподавателей заменят роботы. Я хочу, чтобы этого
никогда не произошло.
d) Я видел, как мой сосед безуспешно пытался списать на экзамене. Не
e) Такой способ решения уравнения считается самым оптимальным.
f) Это тебе решать.
3. Skim the article to find the sentences with the Infinitives and Infinitive
Constructions. Translate them into Russian.
Advances in Tin Cans; Lasers Help in Welding Smooth Seam
Some manufacturers contend that the seams on tin can are unsightly and make
labeling and decoration more difficult. Technological advances in the welding
process are reported to make these seams less noticeable and, in
turn, more attractive cans are known to be created.
In recent years, several companies are known to have
begun welding cans with laser beams instead of the conventional
thin copper electrode strip. Although many people in the can industry suggest it will
probably be several years before laser welding is widely used in consumer products,
the technique is said to become a common method of can manufacturing.
Laser welding is said to cut production costs and it uses about 45 percent less
energy than the traditional method, called resistance welding.
''Laser welding is a technology that's just getting started in the United States,''
said Fred L. Church, editor of Modern Metals, published from Chicago. ''Its use here
is targeted primarily for the aerosol can business because that's where the technology
is considered to be best used.''
Most beverage cans, Mr. Church said, are now made with two pieces of metal.
In these cans, there is no side seam because the cylinder and the base are formed from
just one piece of aluminum. But aluminum is considered to be too weak for some
food and pressurized products, so such cans are usually made from three metal
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pieces: a top, a base and a rectangular sheet of tin-plated steel, which must be welded
to form a cylinder. In resistance welding, the thin area of overlap on the curved sheet
is fused by intense heat conducted through a copper electrode.
A 1,325-watt carbon-dioxide laser, by contrast, melts the steel at the edges of
the sheet, fusing the edges and forming an almost seamless cylinder. After the
welding, the can passes through a set of rollers that smooth the welded area,
preparing it for the subsequent labeling or paint spraying.
The process is controlled by a computer that shuts off the laser if the beam
strays from the thin welding area. The biggest driving factor behind the development
of laser welding is supposed to be the fact that it makes the cans more esthetically
attractive. In the conventional method of welding cans with copper electrodes, there
is a seam that's an eighth of an inch or so. With laser welding, that seam is down to
almost nothing. Laser-welded cans are likely to appeal to can customers because they
are better to place labels on.
The New York Times
4. Read the article carefully and answer the questions.
1. What technological problems can manufactures face?
2. Are industrialists very optimistic about using laser welding in consumer products?
3. What are the advantages of laser wielding compared with traditional welding
4. How does the resistance welding technique work?
5. What is the main thing that promotes using a laser welding technique?
5. Translate the last paragraph of the article in written form.
6. Translate into English using the Infinitive and Infinitive Constructions where
Новая концепция.
Компания Rasselstein GmbH известна как единственный производитель белой
жести в Германии. В настоящее время она продвигает новые упаковочные
концепции. Сообщают, что CosmoCan ® является инновационной концепцией
для нового вида упаковки из жести.
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Говорят, что технология CosmoCan ® с успехом находит свое
применение: она может быть использована для аэрозольных продуктов, таких
как лаки для волос и дезодоранты, а также напитки и продукты питания.
Как полагают, новая концепция производства даст возможность
способствовать сокращению производственных затрат. Лазерная технология
также позволяет производить банки и тубы диаметром менее 10 мм, что, со
всей вероятностью, откроет совершенно новые возможности для использования
Стал возможным индивидуальный дизайн упаковки, так как при
изготовлении банки используют гидравлический процесс формовки. Новая
технология позволяет изготовлять банки необычной формы, что, наверняка,
привлечет внимание потребителя.
1. Translate the article using a dictionary.
Man of Steel’s Industrial Web, Mirroring Nature
ROXY PAINE’S stainless-steel Dendroid sculptures
seem to be straightforward enough at first, clearly
recognizable as treelike forms. But they always
manage to veer into ambiguous territory.
“Maelstrom,” for example, displayed on the roof of the Metropolitan Museum
of Art last year, posed as a mass of fallen trees in the aftermath of a storm. Yet its
branches were supposed to exhibit decidedly unbranchlike behavior: fusing and
connecting in the manner of neuron paths or pulses of energy. Mr. Paine’s Dendroids
are never really just about trees.
“Distillation” is considered to be the most complex and immersive structure in
his series of 22 Dendroids. It is now barreling through the James Cohan Gallery in
New York. Here Mr. Paine pushes the metaphoric content that underpins these
sculptures to new extremes. It still uses arboreal forms, but they now mesh with other
overtly defined branching systems: a vascular network of arteries and veins with two
plump kidneys, mushroom colonies and their germinating mycelia, neuron bundles
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and taxonomic diagrams, and raw pipelines connected to steel tanks and industrial
Each one of his Dendroids is known to be made from standard industrial piping
- the kind typically used by the pharmaceutical industry and nuclear power plants that Mr. Paine bends, welds, grinds and polishes to turn them into seamless organic
forms. They mirror nature but are sure to retain their gleaming industrial artifice. That
dichotomy reflects the artist’s ambivalent feelings about tampering with nature.
Like his work Mr. Paine, 44, is also said to straddle worlds. He and his family
split their time between an apartment in Williamsburg, Brooklyn, and their home in
rural Treadwell. In the country, he has converted a barn into a full-production
metalworking shop that’s staffed by about a half-dozen assistants.
Disassembled Dendroids awaiting future installation are splayed out in the
surrounding fields, their antlerlike steel components blinding in a strong sun, and
beautifully moody in cloudy light. His “100 Foot Line,” scheduled to be installed this
month at the National Gallery of Canada in Ottawa, is a single tree trunk that tapers
to a simple point; it is the antithesis of “Distillation.”
The Economist
2. Make a presentation on advances of modern welding techniques in Russia.
having played
being played
having been played
Перевод предложения зависит от формы герундия, например:
a. I hate going by for train Ненавижу ездить поездом.
b. I remember having seen him once. Я помню, что встречался с ним
c. I really don’t like being told what to do. Терпеть не могу, когда мне указывают.
d. He couldn’t forget having been cheated by a gipsy. Он не мог забыть, как его
обманула цыганка
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1. Translate from English into Russian paying attention to the Gerund.
 We can’t imagine modern industrial production without using computer
 Dancing is fun.
 Driving makes me tired.
 This is used for cutting metal.
 He is good at repairing bikes.
 I am sorry for having disturbed you.
 That explains his having been tired from his job.
 I enjoy having worked with you.
 Your refusing to help hurt him.
 I am annoyed about having lost all that money.
2. Translate into English paying attention to the Gerund.
a) Иметь высокий рост – это достоинство.
b) Что еще Вы можете делать, помимо работы на компьютере?
c) Я с утра пробежалась по магазинам.
d) Заниматься садоводством мне не интересно.
e) Сначала попробуй, а потом уже ворчи!
f) То, что он об этом не знает, не имеет никакого значения.
g) Нас разбудило его монотонное ворчание.
h) Рыбалка запрещена!
g) Тебе полезно есть фрукты.
h) Она рассердилась, что ее не послали в командировку за границу.
3. Skim the article to find the sentences with the Gerund. Translate them.
Computer mice for the blind
(1) Computers have become such an integral part of life, in
the rich world at least, that even social networking is done
online. The blind, however, are often excluded from such
kind of interacting. Now a system has been developed to make navigating the internet
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easier for blind people. It also allows using word-processing software and even
tracing the shapes of graphs and charts. Its inventors hope it will enable more blind
people to work in offices.
(2) The system developed by staff at Tactile World, an Israeli company, uses a
device that looks similar to a conventional computer mouse. On its top, however, it
has two pads, each with 16 pins arranged in a four-by-four array. Software supplied
with the mouse translates text displayed on the screen into Braille.
(3) In traditional Braille, numbers and letters are represented by raised bumps
in the paper of the page being read. The pins on the mouse take the role of these
bumps. As the cursor controlled by the mouse is moved across the screen, the pins
rise and fall to represent the text across which they are moving. One pad represents
the character under the cursor, the other gives the reader information about what is
coming next, such as whether it is a letter or the end of the word. This advance
information makes interpretation easier. As the user reads the text, the system also
announces the presence of links to other websites. And the user can opt, if he wishes,
to have the computer read the whole text out loud.
(4) The mouse’s software has an “anchor” feature, to hold onto the line of text
that is being read. Alternatively, a user can click a button on the mouse and the text
will scroll along and run under his fingers without him having to move the device.
(5) When he encounters a graph, map or other such figure, the pins rise when
the mouse is on a line. The number of pins raised reflects the thickness of the line. If
he strays from the line, the pins fall. He is thus able to trace, say, the curve of a graph
or the border of a country. Interpreting more complex diagrams is also possible. Dark
areas of maps, for example, can be represented by raising all the pins, while light
areas are places where all the pins are dropped.
The Economist
3. Read the article carefully and mark the sentences T (true) or F (false).
a) Social networking is impossible online._____
b) A system to help blind people to use the Internet is still to be developed.___
c) The new system resembles a traditional computer mouse.____
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d) Braille is a tactile writing system used by the blind and the visually impaired, and
found in books, on menus, signs, elevator buttons, and currency. ______
e) The principle behind the new device is similar to traditional Braille.____
f) There is an option of the reader being able to hear the whole text read.____
g) It is very difficult for the reader to keep the track of the line being read._____
h) The new mouse isn’t suitable to encounter graphs or maps, to say nothing of more
complex diagrams.____
i) The gadget makes it possible to distinguish colours. _____
4. Translate paragraphs 4 and 5 in written form.
5. Translate into English using the Gerund where possible.
Вот одна из концептуальных новинок Sony: портативный компьютер
Vaio EQ. Этот компьютер, имеющий форму шестиугольника, помещается в
карман и способен запоминать предпочтения пользователя, давать ему
полезные советы и напоминания. Если его постоянно носить с собой, то
компьютер будет "накапливать опыт", а его советы будут становиться все более
Например, если в загруженном из интернета прогнозе погоды будет
говориться о вероятности дождя, компьютер предложит пользователю взять с
собой зонт. Если же пользователь окажется
в ему незнакомом месте и
проголодается, компьютер выдаст ему список кафе и ресторанов. При этом, по
возможности, все они будут соответствовать гастрономическим предпочтениям
его владельца.
SELF-ASSESSMENT III 1. Translate the article using a dictionary.
Meet Rex, the real bionic man
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It cost six million dollars to create bionic superhero Steve Austin. Scientists
however have built a man from
artificial limbs for a sixth of the
price. Known as Rex – short for
robotic exoskeleton – his 6ft
frame is made up of an array of
artificial limbs and organs from
around the world. Built for a
exploring how far technology
ethical dilemmas. Research on
scientists could soon not only
replace missing body parts, but
improve on them. The C4
psychologist from Switzerland
who himself has a £30,000
bionic limb after being born
without a left hand. He said:
‘It’s exciting and a bit scary.
We might be at a point in
science and technology where
we see first glimpses of the possibilities to go beyond the limits of evolution.’
George Annas, Professor of Bioethics and Human Rights at Boston University,
warned: ‘I think when it comes to our bodies, the danger is we might change what it
is to be human. Create a new species that may turn around to bite us, similar to the
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Frankenstein myth, where your creature let loose in the world becomes destructive
and uncontrollable.’
The bionic man is being built from $1,000,000 (£640,000) of limbs and organs
by leading UK roboticists Richard Walker and Matthew Godden.
There is the artificial eye, which consists of a microchip implanted into the
retina that receives images captured by a camera housed on the patient’s glasses. It
sends electrical pulses that are translated by the brain into shapes and patterns.
Professor Robert MacLaren, from Oxford University, said: ‘We are hoping
patients who are completely blind will be able to see basic shapes and objects.’
Scientists are hoping prosthetic replacements for failing hearts, kidneys, pancreas and
spleens could one day solve the worldwide shortage of donor organs.
One example, the SynCardia Systems artificial heart is already saving lives,
with more than 1,000 implanted. Powered by a battery, it can temporarily replace a
diseased heart until a donor is found.
A prosthetic foot and ankle – developed by Massachusetts Institute of
Technology professor Hugh Herr, who lost his legs to frostbite in a climbing accident
– mimics the actions of the calf muscle and Achilles tendon. The professor said he
was now able to climb better than before his accident.
Mail Online
2. Come up with an idea of a domestic robot servant. Support you prese ntation
with all the necessary drawings and diagrams.
В предложении герундий может выполнять следующие функции:
1. Подлежащее: Working for the company means respect and higher social status.
2. Предикатив (именная часть составного сказуемого): What he always
wanted was doing what he liked.
3.Сказуемое в односоставных предложениях (структурно ограничено, чаще
в вопросительных предложениях после what about и how about): What about
translating it this way? How about coming here again?
4.Часть составного глагольного сказуемого (после глаголов to begin, to start,
to continue, to go on, to cease, to keep on): The students went on writing. He
continued looking at her in amazement. At last they started working on the project.
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5. Дополнение.
a.после глаголов to admit, to avoid, to consider, to delay, to deny, to enjoy, to
escape, to finish, to give up, to keep, to leave off, to mention, to postpone, to put off,
to recall, to resent, to resume, to risk, to stop, to suggest, etc.): He denied having
stolen the purse. If you invest all your money into the project you risk losing it.
b. после модальных сочетаний can’t imagine, can’t stand, can’t help: She can’t
help smiling.
c. после фразеологического сочетания to feel like: I don’t feel like talking to you
d. в предложениях с формальным подлежащим “it” после глаголов to
matter, to come down to: It doesn’t matter your being much talked about.
e. в предложениях с формальным подлежащим
прилагательного worth: It’s worth trying again.
f. в функции предложного дополнения к любому глаголу или
прилагательному: He objected to my selling the car.
6. Объектный предикатив.
a.после глаголов to catch, to discover, to feel, to find, to hear, to imagine, to
keep, to leave, to like/dislike, to notice, to see, to send, to set, to stop, to watch:
The news set me thinking.
b. после глаголов to consider, to explain, to guarantee, to mention, to regard, to
speak of, to take, to think of, to treat, to understand, если за ними следует as:
They thought of him as being a prominent scientist.
7.Обстоятельство (с предлогом): She was tired after reading. She found herself
much recovered upon waking.
8.Определение (обычно вводится предлогами of, in, for, at, about, to): I began
to have a feeling of being watched.
9. Вводные словосочетания: generally speaking, roughly speaking, strictly
speaking etc. Strictly speaking, their presence is not necessary.
1. Translate from English into Russian.
a) Learning English can be fun.
b) What I need now is having a cup of coffee.
c) What about discussing the matter later?
d) He answered the phone and went on writing the report.
e) He gave up smoking and felt much better.
f) She couldn’t help wondering at how inventive the child was.
g) We don’t feel like going out tonight.
h) When it comes down to speaking in public, I always feel nervous.
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i) The project isn’t worth supporting.
j) She objected to the child’s being taken to hospital.
k) Nobody likes being cheated.
l) Generally speaking, I got on well with most of the staff.
2. Skim the article to find the sentences with the Gerunds and state their
Fields of automation
A new generation of agricultural equipment promises to take more of the toil out
of farming by automating the business of growing fruit
In the early 1830s, spurred on by his hatred of sweaty
field work, Cyrus McCormick took an idea his father
had been working on at the family farm in Virginia and
produced a mechanical reaper. Others devised similar
machines. Despite initial skepticism, farmers eventually
bought them in droves. With one person riding the horse that pulled the reaper, and
another raking the cut stalks off the back, the machines could harvest as much grain
in a day as a dozen men breaking their backs with reaping hooks.
Mechanical reapers became even more efficient after being adapted to bale the
stalks into sheaves, too. Development continued: today a driver in the air-conditioned
cabin of a combine harvester may be guided by satellites as he cuts, threshes and
pours clean grain into a fleet of accompanying trailers.
One machine, the New Holland CR9090, holds the record after harvesting a
colossal 551 tons of wheat in just eight hours from a farm in Britain in 2008. Given
that such machines cost around £350,000 ($580,000), agricultural automation must
make economic sense - because farmers don’t spend money on frivolities.
But there are farms where people like McCormick still dream of taking hard,
manual work out of agriculture. These farms grow crops that mostly have to be
tended and picked by hand, such as apples, oranges, and strawberries. In rich
countries it is becoming increasingly difficult to find people to do this at wages
farmers say they can afford. Even Japan’s exquisite and expensive strawberries are
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becoming too costly to pick because of a shortage of workers, in part caused by an
ageing population.
Just as the mechanical reaper transformed the economics of cereal farming, a
new wave of agricultural automation promises to do the same in other areas of
horticulture. Because picking apples is very different to plucking strawberries, the
machines are taking various forms. Some have giant mechanical arms and are towed
behind tractors through orchards and vineyards. Some are fully autonomous and able
to scurry around on their own, even in paddy fields, like the robotic rice-planter
developed by Japan’s National Agricultural Research Centre. Others trundle about
inside experimental greenhouses.
The Economist
3. Read the article again carefully and work out the questions to the given
a) In the early 1830s.
b) After being adapted.
c) 551 tons.
d) £350,000.
e) Because picking apples is very different to plucking strawberries.
f) By Japan’s National Agricultural Research Centre.
4. Translate the last paragraph of the article in written form.
5. Skim the following article to find the sentences with the Gerunds and state
their functions.
Metal, heal thyself
A way for the damaged surfaces of metals to repair themselves has been devised
Sadly for engineers, inanimate objects cannot yet repair themselves. But scientists
have invented a way of healing damaged metals.
The surfaces of many metal objects are coated
with other metals for protection. Iron, for instance, is
frequently galvanized with zinc. The basic idea of the
new technology is to infiltrate this coating with tiny,
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fluid-filled capsules. When the metal coating is punctured or scratched, the capsules
in the damaged area burst and ooze restorative liquids, in the form of compounds
called trivalent chromates. These react with nearby metal atoms and form tough,
protective films a few molecules thick to ameliorate the damage.
The idea of doing this has been around for years, but it has proved difficult in
practice because the capsules used were too big. Surface coatings tend to be about 20
microns thick. The capsules were 10-15 microns across - large enough to disrupt the
coatings, and thus do more harm than good. The trick worked out by scientists is how
to create capsules a few hundredths of this size.
The capsules researchers have come up with are made by mixing
butylcyanoacrylate, a chemical found in superglue, with an oil carrying the healing
compounds. This mixture is then, itself, mixed with dilute hydrochloric acid. The
result is an emulsion of droplets between 100 and 300 nanometers across. Each
droplet has an oil core surrounded by a thin layer of butylcyanoacrylate molecules.
To make the droplets stable, phosphate is added to the emulsion. This triggers the
polymerization of the butylcyanoacrylate into a tough plastic, which forms the
outside of the capsule.
The greatest challenge, however, was not making the capsules in the first
place, but stabilizing them during the plating process. Though galvanization is often
done by dipping steel in liquid zinc, it is sometimes done by electrolysis - and nickel
and copper plating are normally done this way. The capsules, though, tend to stick
together in the liquids used as electrolytes during electroplating, and are also
destroyed by the extreme acidity or alkalinity that is often involved in the process. To
overcome these problems special detergents that stick to polybutylcyanoacrylate
were used, and thus both stop the capsules sticking together and protect them from
the electrolytes. The techniques were proved in electroplated layers of copper, nickel,
and zinc, and self-repairing metals are believed to commonly be available in the years
The Economist
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6. Read the text again and match the italicized words and word combinations
with their meanings.
a) ___________________a task or situation that tests someone's abilities
b) ___________________a cleansing agent, esp. a surface-active chemical
such as
an alkyl sulphonate, widely used in industry
c) ___________________ to think of a plan or idea and suggest it
d)___________________to have gained knowledge and experience of the world
e) ___________________ restore (something damaged, faulty, or worn) to a good
f) ___________________ lacking the qualities or features of living beings
g) ___________________ a substance formed from two or more elements chemically
united in fixed proportions
h)__________________ to make or become better; improve
7. Read the text once more carefully and answer the questions.
a) What means of corrosion prevention do you know?
b) What idea lies behind the new technology of protecting metals?
c) Why was it difficult to put the idea into practice?
d) How did researchers manage to overcome the problem?
8. Translate the last paragraph of the article in written form.
9. Translate into English using the Gerund where possible.
Все люди, которые связаны с разработкой, эксплуатацией и ремонтом
сложной электронной техники, знают, что в большинстве случаев выход из
строя электронных устройств связан с их механическими повреждениями,
приводящими к появлению трещин и микротрещин в проводниках. Поиск таких
повреждений является делом долгим, трудным и дорогостоящим. В некоторых
случаях ремонт электронного устройства становится нецелесообразным с
экономической точки зрения. Но в последнее время ведутся разработки
технологий самовосстанавливающейся электроники, благодаря которым
электронные устройства могут сами ликвидировать возникшие повреждения и
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Технологии самовосстановления не являются чем-то новым. Обычно
твердый материал заполняется капсулами с заключенной в них жидкостью. Эта
капсулы разрываются, если материал получает повреждения. Выпущенная из
них жидкость затвердевает на воздухе, восстанавливая целостность материала.
Этот принцип используется в изготовлении самовосстанавливающихся
строительных материалов и полимеров. Исследовательская группа из
университета Иллинойса применила подобный принцип по отношению к
электронике. Они создали технологию, которая позволяет автоматически
восстановить проводимость треснутого проводника за доли секунды. В
качестве капсул самовосстановления используются микрогранулы, размерами
около 10 микрон, заполненные "жидким металлом", сплавом галлия и индия.
SELF-ASSESSMENT IV 1. Translate the article using a dictionary.
A healing balm
Self-healing substances that are capable of repairing
themselves when damaged are under development
One of the differences between animals and machines is that
animal bodies can repair a lot of the damage that a cruel and
hostile world inflicts on them. A machine, by contrast, has to wait for someone to
come and fix it. But that may change if researchers in the field of self-repairing
materials have their way. Two groups in particular - one in America and one in
Britain - are trying to create composite materials that mend themselves if they get
cracked, in much the same way that an animal's broken bone heals itself. The
difference is that these materials will heal in minutes rather than months.
Such self-healing composites may take a while to enter everyday use. But if
they can be made reliably they will be welcome in high-stress applications that are
difficult to inspect regularly (the blades of wind turbines, for example) or are critical
to safety (such as the doors and window-frames of aircraft).
Jeffrey Moore and his colleagues at the University of Illinois are working on
the problem by adding extra components to their composites. Like most such
materials, these composites consist of fibres (in this instance, carbon fibres)
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embedded in a plastic matrix (an epoxy resin). The main extra component added by
Dr Moore is a sprinkling of tiny capsules containing a chemical called
dicyclopentadiene. If the composite cracks, the capsules near the crack break open
and release the dicyclopentadiene molecules, which link together to form another
type of plastic that binds the crack together and thus heals the material.
To start with, Dr Moore had to nurse this process along by adding a second
extra component—a catalyst based on ruthenium. This worked well in the laboratory,
but ruthenium is too expensive for mass deployment. However, when he was playing
with solvents that might be added to the system to speed the transfer of the
dicyclopentadiene to the cracks it is intended to heal, he found a solvent that
encouraged the process to work without the ruthenium catalyst. Alas, the solvent Dr
Moore hit on, chlorobenzene, is pretty nasty stuff (it is used, for example, in the
manufacture of DDT). However, he has since found a suitable alternative that turns
out to be even better. The chlorobenzene process restored only 80% of a material's
original toughness. The new solvents restore it completely.
The Economist
2. Make a presentation on advances in the sphere of self-repairing materials.
Под герундиальным оборотом понимается сочетание герундия с
притяжательным местоимением или существительным в притяжательном
падеже. Они представляют собой эквиваленты придаточных предложений
и в большинстве случаев переводятся придаточными предложениями,
соответствующими синтаксической роли герундия в предложении.
Your taking up English as supplementary education will do you a lot of good . То,
что вы выбрали английский в качестве дополнительного образования очень
вам пригодится.
His being such an easy-going person made my staying at his place even more
comfortable. То, что он был таким общительным, сделало мое пребывание в
его доме еще более приятным.
1. Translate into Russian paying attention to the Gerundial Constructions.
a) I can’t excuse her not answering out invitation.
b) You must pardon my not getting up.
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c) Would you mind Jane’s practicing in the room next to yours?
d) I can’t bear him whistling while I am trying to concentrate.
e) I really miss your bringing me breakfast in bed.
f) Fancy your meeting a ghost!
2. Skim the article to find the sentences with the Gerund and Gerundial
Constructions. Translate them into Russian.
How the alchemists used smart materials science
In their tireless quest for the Philosopher's Stone, alchemists relied on crucibles that
have only just yielded their secrets to scientists. Using the 21st century technology,
scientists have cracked the secret recipe used centuries ago
in creating extraordinarily tough crucibles that enabled
alchemists to do clever chemistry and pursue the
Philosopher's Stone, the secret of turning base metals into
gold and of immortality.
Since the Middle Ages, mixing vessels - or crucibles - manufactured in the
Hesse region of Germany have been world renowned because of their ability to
withstand strong reagents and high temperatures. Alchemists and metallurgists did
make crucibles, but they were never as good as the Hessian ones, which had to be
imported when conducting important, challenging chemical reactions.
The researchers revealed using a range of modern analytical techniques that
Hessian crucible makers had unwittingly created an advanced ceramic material only
properly identified and named in the 20th century. The analysis of 50 Hessian and
non-Hessian crucibles revealed that the secret component in their manufacture is an
aluminium silicate known as mullite (Al6Si2O13).
Today mullite is used in a wide range of modern conventional and advanced
ceramics, such as building materials, electronic packaging devices, optical materials
and catalytic converters, as well as in ceramic matrix composites such as thermal
protection systems and liners for aircraft and stationary gas turbine engines.
Hessian crucible makers’ taking advantage of this peculiar aluminium silicate
400 years earlier, this material was only first described in the 20th century. They
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synthesised mullite by manufacturing their crucibles with kaolinitic clay (produced
by the chemical weathering of aluminium silicate minerals such as feldspars) and
then firing them at temperatures above 1100 degrees. Crucible makers’ not being
aware of mullite, they mastered a very successful recipe, and that's why they kept it
constant, and secret, for centuries.
Since the Renaissance, alchemists and assayers used increasingly high
temperatures and stronger reagents in their chemistry, in order to purify metals and
minerals - and, in some cases, hoping to reduce them to their quintessence, as a basic
step in the production of the Philosopher's Stone.
With normal ceramic vessels, the extreme heat and aggressive chemicals would
attack the crucible itself, and often lead to cracks, leakage, or the vessel itself melting
down - which you wouldn't want to happen with any metals, but especially if you are
working with noble metals or the philosopher's stone.
The Economist
3. Scan the article and find words and word combinations to match the
a) ________________ a scientist in the Middle Ages who tried to discover how
to change ordinary metals into gold
b) ________________ a ceramic or metal container in which metals or other
substances may be melted or subjected to very high temperatures
c) ________________ a common metal that is not considered precious, such as
copper, tin, or zinc
d) ________________ known or talked about by many people; famous
e) ________________to remain undamaged or unaffected by; resist
f) ________________to make (previously unknown or secret information)
known to others
g) ________________ far on or ahead in development or progress
h) ________________ not done on purpose; unintentionally
i) ________________ make good use of the opportunities offered by
4. Read the article carefully and mark the statements T (true) or F (false).
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a) The Philosopher’s stone is a substance that was believed to have the power of
transmuting base metal into gold.______________
b) A crucible can’t be used for melting or subjecting substances to very high
c) Hessian crucible makers identified and named an advanced ceramic material
they used.______________
d) Mullite hasn’t found any wide industrial application. __________
e) Hessian crucible makers changed the composition and improved the quality of
the material they used several times.__________
f) Ancient alchemists were able to achieve quite high temperatures.________
g) Normal ceramic vessels are able to withstand any severe conditions of a
chemical reaction.___________
5. Read the article again and state the advantages of mullite as modern ceramics
6. Translate from Russian into English using the Gerund and Gerundial
Constructions where possible.
Что оставила нам эта необычная, загадочная наука – алхимия?
Первое и основное, что приходит на ум, когда говорится об алхимии, - это
поиск способа получить золото из менее благородных металлов, чтобы
обогатиться и в конечном итоге обрести власть. Другая цель этой науки достижение бессмертия. Об алхимиках, людях, посвятивших свою жизнь
алхимическим занятиям, ходило множество странных легенд. Среди прочего
будто бы
они нашли формулу бессмертия -
физического, поскольку в наше время это единственная форма бытия, которая
интересует людей. Все хотят узнать, как остаться вечно молодыми.
И третья цель алхимии - достижение счастья. О ней молчат философские
трактаты, однако думается, что поиски золота, молодости и счастья имеют
нечто общее. Алхимики искали одного и того же: счастья, вечной молодости
или сказочного богатства (конечно, если не касаться метафизической части
их учения).
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SELF-ASSESSMENT V 1. Translate the article using a dictionary. Pay
attention to the Gerund and Gerundial Constructions.
Abandoned US steel mill is sign of the times
For a century the Continental Steel mill has
loomed over the town of Kokomo, Indiana first as a sign of prosperity, then as a reminder
of the rust belt's decline and the cost of
environmental clean-up. A 15-meter high pile
of slag was left over from 74 years of making
nails, wire and fencing from scrap metal. There were 2,450 drums filled with solvent,
oil and rubbish dumped at the bottom of a quarry pond and scattered across the 74hectare property. The creeks that ran through town were so badly contaminated that
warnings were posted to stop people from eating the fish.
Thanks to a six-million-dollar infusion of economic stimulus funds, efforts to
restore the sprawling site are progressing. But it will still be several years before the
land abdicated in 1986 is deemed safe for use.
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates there are more than
450,000 sites across the United States where hazardous substances, pollutants or
contaminants are hampering redevelopment. Many remain abandoned or under-used
because the cleanup costs are higher than the property's value, while the polluters
have gone out of business and can't be forced to pay for it. And it will still be years probably decades - until the industrial mess can be removed.
Pouring industrial by-products directly into the air, water and ground was
standard practice until the EPA began regulating pollution with the Clean Air Act of
1970. It took years to figure out how to store and treat hazardous waste safely, while
the clean-ups are incredibly complicated and laborious projects.
First comes the investigation and risk assessment to sort out exactly what
contaminants are at the site and what threat they pose to human health. The tests are
expensive and have to be taken in different seasons to see how ground water is
affected. They often turn up hidden hazards that need to be dealt with immediately.
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Designing an appropriate remedy can also take several years, while the actual cleanup
work can last for decades. Some contaminants can be burned. Others can be broken
down by sunlight or bugs or buried under a cap of clean soil. Others still must be
separated from salvageable soil and materials sent to an approved hazardous waste
site. At some point nothing can be done. Even when all the work is complete, it
doesn't actually end. Sites need to be revisited periodically to make sure the
contaminants haven't escaped. And the number of new sites and spills is growing
amid the latest economic downturn.
The Telegraph
1. Причастие настоящего времени ( Present Participle)
having invented
being invented
having been invented
Английское причастие настоящего времени соответствует русскому
причастию действительного залога
настоящего времени
деепричастию. Варианты перевода в зависимости от формы причастия:
Even in the vicinity of the Pole there are animals living on the ice. Даже в
окрестностях полюса есть животные, обитающие на льду.
Having reached its maximum intencity the activity of the volcano began
subside. Достигнув своего максимального уровня, активность вулкана стала
Being the top of the class she never failed her exams. Так как она была лучшей
студенткой в группе, она всегда учпешно сдавала все экзамены.
Having been discovered by the first settlers the Holy Spring is still
considered to retain its holistic properties. Считается, что открытый еще
первыми поселенцами, Святой Источник все еще обладает своей целебной
2. Причастие прошедшего времени (Past Participle)
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Причастие прошедшего времени имеет только одну форму,
представляющую собой 3 форму глагола, на русский язык переводится
причастием страдательного залога.
The broken device can’t be mended. Испорченный прибор не подлежит
Иногда причастие прошедшего времени может употребляться в функции
Updated lately the product is going to be launched soon. После недавней
модернизации товар вскоре появится в продаже.
1. Translate into Russian. Pay attention to the Present and Past Participles .
a) Knowing that he was poor, I offered to pay his fare.
b) Finding no one at home, he left the house in a bad temper.
c) Hoping to find the will, she searched everywhere.
d) She didn't want to hear the story again having heard it all before.
e) One evening you will be sitting by the fire remembering this day.
f) The government once tried to tax people according to the size of their houses
having put a tax on windows.
g) We saw the first star shining in the sky,
h) Surrounded by photographers and pressmen, she swept up to the microphone.
j) Slates ripped off by the gale fell on people passing below.
k) Exhausted by his work, he threw himself on his bed.
l) Climbing the tree to get birds' eggs, the boy had a bad fall.
m) Uprooted by the gale, the tree fell across the road.
2. Translate into English using the Present and Past Participles.
a) Устав от моих жалоб, она вышла из комнаты, громко хлопнув дверью.
b) Растратив все деньги, он решил вернуться в отчий дом и начать работать.
c) Она видела, как он сидел у окна и нервно курил.
d) Неожиданно разбуженный криками за окном, он долго не мог понять, где он.
e) Он никак не мог придумать, где спрятать украденное серебро.
f) Мы, наконец, добрались до станции, вымокшие до нитки.
g) Потерянное время не воротишь.
h) Может, записаться в Клуб Разбитых Сердец?
i) Преподаватель вернул студентам проверенные работы.
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3. Skim the article to find sentences with the Participles. Translate them into
Russian. State the function of the Participle.
Scrap metal thieves target gas cylinders
First, it was copper cables, then church roofs, swiftly
followed by manhole covers. Now, scrap metal thieves
have found yet another lucrative and potentially
explosive source of income – disused gas cylinders. Calor
Gas, one of the UK’s largest suppliers of liquid petroleum gas, has had 100,000 steel
gas cylinders stolen over the last year with a market value of £4.5 million.
Organised criminals have targeted rural businesses and houses that are off the gas
mains and rely on tanked gas to heat their premises or homes. The gas is also used for
barbeques, cooking stoves and patio heaters.
Calor Gas has written to 1,500 scrap yards in the UK urging them not to accept
the steel cylinders, which it says are dangerous as they could still contain traces of
the highly flammable gas.
Some bottles have been seen in scrap yards with their basements welded off,
the company said. One man was recently found hitting gas cylinders with a
sledgehammer in a public car park in Newark in Nottinghamshire in an attempt to
remove the brass valves from the steel bottles prior to selling them on. The police
were called.
The missing cylinders are the latest instance of the growing trend of scrap
metal theft. Scrap metal prices have increased sharply due to rising demand. The
metal can be melted down and sold on, and many people in the unregulated trade
operate on a "no questions asked" policy. Earlier this month the Association of Chief
Police Officers said that 2011 has been an “extraordinary year” for metal theft.
Thieves have targeted everything from war memorials to copper cables above railway
The cylinders cost up to £60 each to make. In the last 75 years, there has been
no need for a system to track our bottles, but that has changed. There is a criminal
element at play here. This is beyond casual theft now. Recently a lifestyle magazine
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even ran an article showing readers how to make traditional-looking wood-burning
stoves out of old gas cylinders.
At the start of December 110 Calor Gas bottles were taken from a depot in
Cardiff in what appeared to be an organized raid. One gas cylinder has been spotted
as far a field as Tanzania, where the company does not do business. The company has
alerted the police.
Almost three-quarters of Calor Gas’s business come from providing gas to
areas, which are off the mains supply, such as rural areas. This means that CCTV
footage of the people stealing the cylinders rarely exists.
The Economist
4. Read the article carefully and answer the following questions.
a) What objects have become the targets of scrap metal thieves?
b) What parts of the country suffer from criminals most?
c) What makes the trend of scrap metal theft dangerous?
d) Why is the situation turning into an issue of a great concern?
e) What does CCTV stand for?
f) What does the last sentence of the article imply?
4. Match the italicized adjectives with their definitions.
a) ___________________________very unusual or remarkable
b) ______________________able or likely to shatter violently or burst apart
c) ______________________________________________easily set on fire
d) ___________________not controlled or supervised by regulations or laws
e) _________________ places which are far away from large towns or cities
f) ______________________________able or likely to cause harm or injury
g) __________________________________producing a great deal of profit
h) _______________________________________not regular or permanent
i) ___________________________having a consistency like that of water or oil,
i.e., flowing freely but of constant volume.
SELF-ASSESSMENT VI 1. Translate the article using a dictionary. Pay
attention to the Non-Finite forms of the verb.
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Conventional Engineering Materials
There are more than 50,000 materials available to
engineers for the design and manufacturing of products
for various applications. These materials range from
ordinary materials (e.g., copper, cast iron, brass), which
have been available for several hundred years, to the
more recently developed, advanced materials (e.g., composites, ceramics, and highperformance steels). Due to the wide choice of materials, today’s engineers are posed
with a big challenge for the right selection of a material and the right selection of a
manufacturing process for an application. It is difficult to study all of these materials
individually; therefore, a broad classification is necessary for simplification and
These materials, depending on their major characteristics (e.g., stiffness,
strength, density, and melting temperature), can be broadly divided into four main
categories: (1) metals, (2) plastics, (3) ceramics, and (4) composites. Each class
contains large number of materials with a range of properties which to some extent
results in an overlap of properties with other classes.
The maximum operating temperature in metals does not degrade the material
the way it degrades the plastics and composites. Metals generally tend to temper and
age at high temperatures, thus altering the microstructure of the metals. Due to such
microstructural changes, modulus and strength values generally drop. The maximum
temperature is the temperature at which the material retains its strength and stiffness
values to at least 90% of the original values.
Metals have been the dominating materials in the past for structural
applications. They provide the largest design and processing history to the engineers.
The common metals are iron, aluminum, copper, magnesium, zinc, lead, nickel, and
titanium. In structural applications, alloys are more frequently used than pure metals.
Alloys are formed by mixing different materials, sometimes including nonmetallic
elements. Alloys offer better properties than pure metals. For example, cast iron is
brittle and easy to corrode, but the addition of less than 1% carbon in iron makes it
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tougher, and the addition of chromium makes it corrosion-resistant. Through the
principle of alloying, thousands of new metals are created.
Metals are, in general, heavy as compared to plastics and composites. Only
aluminum, magnesium, and beryllium provide densities close to plastics. Steel is 4 to
7 times heavier than plastic materials; aluminum is 1.2 to 2 times heavier than
plastics. Metals generally require several machining operations to obtain the final
product. They provide the largest design and processing history to the engineers.
2. Make a presentation on modern composite materials and their uses.
Причастные обороты.
1. Конструкция «Сложное дополнение» с причастием.
In the next room I could hear them arguing heatedly. Я слышал, как они
яростно спорили в соседней комнате.
I found the laboratory closed. – Я обнаружил, что лаборатория закрыта.
2. Конструкция «Сложное подлежащее» с причастием.
He was seen engaged in a conversation with renowned scientist. Видели, как он
беседовал c одним известным ученым.
The spacecraft was seen taking off. Видели, как космический корабль стартовал.
3. Независимый причастный оборот.
The data being thoroughly analyzed we were able to publish the results.
были тщательно проанализированы, мы смогли опубликовать результаты.
Circumstances permitting, we shall start the experiment
tomorrow. Если
обстоятельства позволят,мы приступим к опыту завтра.
The team of the researchers won the recognition of the world scientific
community, a Russian atomic engineer being one of them. Группа исследователей
завоевала всемирное признание, причем среди них был российский ученыйатомщик.
4. Независимый причастный оборот с предлогом.
Они продолжали работать, задействовав все терминалы.
They presented their project, with the chief being dissatisfied as usual. Они
представили свой проект, однако шеф был, как всегда, недоволен.
1. Translate into Russian. Pay attention to the Participles and Participial
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1. The idea was that ships sailing in one direction would pass under one span, and
those sailing in the other direction would use the other span.
2. A new design was made for a suspension bridge, at that time being the longest
bridge in the world.
3. I learned a lot of practical skills, being supervised by skilled workers.
4. He was heard discussing the question of buying modern machinery with the board
of directors.
5. He found all new equipment broken.
6. You can include roof panels to introduce natural light to all parts of the building,
permitting ventilation.
2. Skim the article to find sentences with Participles and Participial
Constructions. Translate them into Russian.
Barren land
Why Venus is lifeless
For a planet named after the goddess of love, Venus is something of
a misfit. Its clouds of sulphuric acid, crushing atmosphere of carbon
dioxide and blast-furnace surface temperature of 457°C are
anything but lovely. Yet in its youth it was, like its gentler sister
Earth, swathed in oceans that provided a suitable breeding ground for life. What went
Since 1962 more than 30 spacecraft have made the trip to Venus, seeking to
understand Earth's nearest neighbour and so-called twin planet. The most recent of
these, Venus Express, was launched by the European Space Agency in 2005. In the
current issue of Nature, nine papers report what it has found so far.
Earth and Venus are supposed to have started out much the same. The Earth's
oceans teemed with plants and animals that converted most of its atmospheric carbon
dioxide into carbonates and sank to the bottom as they died, to become sedimentary
rocks. By contrast, Venus lost most of its liquid water. That is because Venus, being
closer to the sun, started to warm up. This generated more water vapour in its
atmosphere, further increasing the temperature in a runaway greenhouse effect.
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Planetary scientists have also long blamed Venus's sterility on the lack of an
internal magnetic field. The sun zaps its planetary neighbours with the “solar wind”, a
stream of highly energetic charged particles. Damaging cosmic rays also bombard the
planets. The Earth is protected from much of this radiation because it has an internal
magnetic field that generates a protective magnetosphere. But Venus has no such
protection, possibly because it does not rotate much.
Yet Venus does still manage to avoid much of the bombardment. The solar
wind itself carries a magnetic field all the way to Venus where it encounters the
planet's electrically charged upper atmosphere, or ionosphere. Venus's ionosphere is
highly conductive, with the solar wind not being able to penetrate it at any time. Like
a boat trying to cut through the ocean waves, the induced magnetic fields pile up
where the solar wind meets Venus's ionosphere. The solar wind fluctuates in strength,
but is prevented from entering both when it is strong and when it is weak.
On the dark side of the planet things are much quieter. Shielded from the
buffeting of the solar wind, ions quietly leak out of the atmosphere. Oxygen,
hydrogen and helium ions - remnants of early oceans - are escaping into space. The
two sisters may have started as twins but, as they have grown older, they have grown
The Economist
3. Read the article carefully and mark the statements as true (T) or False (F).
a) Venus, named after the goddess of love, justifies its given name.
b) The surface temperature of Venus is approximately the same as on Earth.
c) Earlier the planet provided a suitable breeding ground for life.
d) About 30 spacecraft have made the trip to Venus to explore it.
e) More water evaporation in the atmosphere results in increasing the temperature
in a runway greenhouse effect.
f) Venus’s sterility is one of the reasons for the lack of an internal magnetic field.
g) Solar wind is a stream of highly energetic charged particles.
h) Unlike Venus, Earth generates a protective magnetosphere.
4. Find English equivalents to the following words and word combinations.
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a) испаряться
b) внутреннее магнитное поле
c) солнечный ветер
d) поток энергетически заряженных частиц
e) вращаться
f) преобразовывать
g) исчезать
h) остатки
5. Translate into English using Participles and Participial Constructions where
Металл прочнее титана
Новый чудо-металл не ржавеет, и его легко можно отливать в нужную форму,
словно пластмассу. Он не нуждается в машинной обработке, когда изделие
отлито. Его очертания точны, а поверхность - безупречно гладкая. Если бы
среди металлов выбирали "супер-героя", то все лавры, наверняка, достались бы
именно этому. Так что же это за металл? По-английски он называется "ликвидметалл", от слова
"жидкий". А назвали его так потому, что аморфное
расположение атомов в этом металле напоминает именно жидкость. И у этого
"жидкого металла" есть все шансы на то, чтобы в перспективе буквально
революционизировать нашу промышленность. По-русски такие материалы
называют обычно "аморфными металлическими сплавами с неупорядоченным
расположением атомов в пространстве" или "металлическим стеклом".
1. Translate the article using a dictionary. Pay attention to the Non-Finite forms
of the verb.
Engineering ceramics based on silicon nitride are well known as low-density
materials with high strength and toughness. With the combination of these properties,
silicon nitride ceramics are an ideal candidate for several structural and functional
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applications. However, because of the relatively high brittleness of ceramics there is a
continual need to improve their mechanical characteristics. At the same time,
intensive research is being performed to improve the thermal and electrical properties
of ceramics. In general, there are two ways to improve the mechanical properties of
ceramics: controlling the microstructure, and preparation of the composite.
In connection to the microstructure–property relationship, new observations
have been performed on structural and morphological development of silicon nitride
ceramics. The development of an interlocking microstructure of elongated grains was
found to be vital to ensure that this family of ceramics has good damage tolerance. A
fast (within minutes) in situ formation of a tough microstructure has been observed
by a so-called dynamic Ostwald ripening process resulting from the rapid heating
rate. In this way, through formation of a tough interlocking microstructure,
mechanical properties may be improved.
On the other hand, physical and mechanical properties of ceramics can be
improved through nanocomposite processing. To increase the fracture toughness,
various energy-dissipating components have been incorporated into ceramic matrices.
These secondary constituents can be introduced in whisker, platelet, particle or fiber
forms. Depending on processing route, micro/nano or nano/nano type microstructures
can be synthesized, and silicon nitride–silicon carbide nanocomposites have been
developed, which retained high strength and good oxidation resistance up to 1400 C.
Moreover, through nanocomposite processing not only the high-temperature
properties may be improved, but high-performance structural materials can be
synthesized. From the literature, several methods are known for porous ceramic
preparation, such as partial sintering or using sintering additives with high melting
points to hinder the sintering process. It has been reported that by the addition of
small amounts of carbon, high-porosity silicon nitride composites with low shrinkage
have been realized. This process involved the formation of SiC particles at the grain
boundaries, which inhibited the rearrangement of Si3N4 particles during sintering,
assuring high porosity.
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1. Read the article and match the questions A-E with paragraphs 1-5.
A. Do you carve the stools by hand?
B. Are Christmas trees difficult to work with?
C. Do you feel that way about all pine?
D. Are you interested in the emotional connection people have with their
Christmas trees?
E. How did you happen to start working with Christmas trees?
A Designer Who Gives Christmas Trees an Afterlife
Many people feel a sense of regret when it comes time to dispose of
a Christmas tree. After being decorated and celebrated, the tree is
unceremoniously abandoned, which can seem both heartless and
Fabien Capello, a French designer who lives in London, decided to do something
about that. Since 2009, Mr. Capello has been making furniture out of Christmas trees
he finds on the street.
(1) ___________________________________________________________
When I was still a student at the Royal College of Art in London, I, basically, started
an investigation on where the wood in D.I.Y. shops and wood suppliers was actually
coming from, and how it ended up in the city. During my research, I saw some facts
about Christmas trees, saying it was the moment when the biggest amount of wood
was shipped into the city. You can find different facts and numbers, but most of them
say that around a million trees arrive, every year, in London. And I just thought that
was quite an amazing thing, because at the end of the festive period, after Christmas
and New Year’s Eve you can find them in the streets because people are just
throwing them away.
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There is this idea that you actually buy a tree and cherish it so much for a short
period of time, and then you just throw it away. I thought it would be quite interesting
to use this material. I wanted to do something that could come back into the house.
(3)__________________________________________________________ ____
It’s quite an ugly wood, actually. It’s probably one of the ugliest trees ever, if you just
see the trunk. Because it grows so fast, there is almost no grain. I did experiments to
turn the trees into wood, removing the bark and doing this sort of chopping, which is
the pattern on the legs. So I’ve been finding all sorts of techniques to work with it.
No. Christmas trees are the wood that we consume at the youngest stage of the tree,
because they are only two or three years old. You need time to get a beautiful wood
— a tree needs to grow, and it can take 100 years sometimes. This one is really,
really quite fast-growing, which is why it’s not quite so beautiful.
Yes. Some of them, the carving is made with a machine, but everything is controlled
by the hand. It’s very simple tools, like a belt sander, a band saw and a drill.
The New York Times
2. Read the article again and match the italicized words and word combinations
with their meanings.
a) a formal inquiry or systematic study _______________________________
b) to get rid of by throwing away or giving or selling to someone else _______
c) producing (an object, inscription, or design)
by cutting into a hard material ___________________________________
d) the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to
establish facts and reach new conclusions __________________________
e) to eat, drink, or ingest (food or drink); buy (goods or services); use up (a
resource) _______________________
f) relating to a festival, especially Christmas __________________________
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g) to protect and care for (someone) lovingly; hold (something) dear __________
h) causing great surprise or wonder; astonishing ________________________
i) to feel sad, repentant, or disappointed over (something that one has done or
failed to do) _________________________________________________
3. Complete the sentences with the right form of one of the words from the
previous exercise.
a) She immediately ___________ her words.
b) Vast amounts of food and drink were ________________.
c) Whose responsibility is it to _____________ of scrap materials?
d) I ________________ the letters she wrote.
e) It is ________________ how short memories are
f) The group carries out _________________ in geochemistry.
g) The ____________ of my initials on the tree evoked sweet memories.
h) The _____________ season is fast approaching.
i) An _____________ has been launched into the potential impact of the oil spill.
4. Translate from Russian into English.
Дизайн вашего сада
Мы привыкли слышать новое модное слово «дизайн». Все стали часто
использовать такие словосочетания, как: дизайн квартир, штор, ногтей,
спальни, платья, но есть еще и такое понятие, как дизайн ландшафта. Такое
красивое слово можно расшифровать как отличный впечатляющий пейзаж,
который будет радовать глаз. И если вы решили превратить свою дачу в нечто
необыкновенное, то стоит заняться дизайном ландшафта. Озеленение участка –
это один из самых важных моментов в дизайне ландшафта. Для озеленения
участка важен эдакий творческий беспорядок, который выглядит очень
натуралистично и эффектно. А для придания этой самой натуралистичности
все чаще стали использовать дикорастущие травы и декоративные растения,
уход за которым задача не из легких.
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1. Translate the article using a dictionary.
A Thermostat That's Clever, Not Clunky
Tony Fadell and his new company, Nest, have decided to reinvent a tech item
that hasn't seen much innovation in decades: the thermostat. Don't snicker. This isn't
trivial. According to Nest, there are a quarter of a billion thermostats in this country
alone; 10 million more are bought each year.
Half of your home's energy is controlled by this ugly, beige tool. Most people
never even bother to program their programmable thermostats. As a result, their
houses actually use more energy than homes without them.
The Nest Learning Thermostat ($250) doesn't introduce just one radical
rethinking of the thermostat; it introduces four of them.
RADICAL CHANGE 1 The look. The Nest is gorgeous. It's round. Its screen
is slightly domed glass; its barrel has a mirror finish that reflects your wall. Its color
screen glows orange when it's heating, blue when it's cooling; it turns on when you
approach it, and discreetly goes dark when nobody's nearby.
RADICAL CHANGE 2 The Nest has Wi-Fi, so it's online. It can download
software updates. You can program it on a Web site. You can also use a free iPhone
or Android app, from anywhere you happen to be, to see the current temperature and
change it -- to warm up the house before you arrive, for example.
RADICAL CHANGE 3 Learning. The Nest is supposed to program itself -and save you energy in the process. When you first install the Nest, you turn its ring
to change the temperature as you would a normal thermostat -- at bedtime, when you
leave for work, and so on.
A big, beautiful readout shows you the new setting and lets you know how
long it will take your house to reach that temperature. That information, Nest says, is
intended to discourage people from setting their thermostats to 90 degrees, for
example, thinking that the temperature will rise to 70 faster. (It doesn't.)
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Over the course of a week or so, the thermostat learns from your manual
adjustments. It notes when that happened, and what the temperature and humidity
were, and so on. And it begins to set its own schedule based on your living patterns.
RADICAL CHANGE 4 Energy savings. Let's face it, $250 is a lot to pay for a
thermostat. But Nest says that you'll recoup that through energy savings in less than
two years.
The New York Times
2. Make a presentation on Russian design achievements to prove that, great
though they may be, Italy, Germany and Japan certainly do not have a
monopoly on modern design culture.
1. For centuries, mathematics has been the main driver of science and
technology, and the results have transformed our world. What facts can you
present to support the idea?
2. Read the article and mark the statements as true (T) or false (F).
a) The available road space today is quite enough to accommodate all modern
vehicles. ___________
b) There is only one reason for traffic jams today, and it is the great number of
cars on roads._______
c) Maths has nothing to do with traffic jams._______
d) Adaptive cruise control appears to be a useful tool in providing the
“equilibrium spacing”._______
e) An ACC-using vehicle is quite a recent innovation._______
f) Some drivers are unwilling to use ACC.______
Jam today
Mathematicians make headway in understanding traffic congestion
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…At current rates, the number of cars and light trucks
worldwide is set to double over the next 20 years, from today’s
estimated 900m. Bashing out new cars is relatively easy;
building new roads to accommodate them is anything but.
Figuring out how to use the available road space more efficiently will thus be
necessary to keep ever more cars from languishing in jams, and spewing out
prodigious quantities of carbon dioxide as they do.
Scientists have been trying to bring order, or at least predictability, to
motorway mêlées for decades. They assumed the familiar “stop-and-go” waves of
congestion were due to the sheer volume of traffic. More recently, mathematical
models have suggested they may actually be down to drivers’ behaviour. With cars
moving fluidly in a tight pack even a seemingly innocuous change of lanes may cause
a tiny disruption which is propagated backwards for many miles.
Now, in one of the Royal Society papers, Jorge Laval, from the Georgia
Institute of Technology in America, and Ludovic Leclercq, of Université de Lyon in
France, finger timid and aggressive driver behaviour as the main culprit. To arrive at
their conclusion they looked at actual traffic on a 600-metre (a third of a mile) stretch
of freeway lanes in Los Angeles, and another near San Francisco, and created a
model to match the observed data. They found that vehicle speeds drop to zero if just
a few drivers accept shorter distances between their car and the one in front, and a
handful of others in the same lane prefer a greater gap, relative to the “equilibrium
spacing” which in theory ensures a steady ride.
One way to maintain this ideal gap would be more widespread deployment of
adaptive cruise control (ACC), which enables partly automated driving. Some of
these systems use radar to keep a car at a set distance from the one in front. In another
paper, Arne Kesting, of Technische Universität Dresden in Germany, and colleagues
calculated that a 1% increase in the number of ACC-using vehicles would free up
0.3% of road capacity. Such systems have been around since the late 1990s but many
motorists remain leery of relinquishing control to a computer. Until that changes they
had better steel themselves for more jams.
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The Economist
2. Translate the article from Russian into English.
А знаете ли вы, что рыбы умеют считать до четырех? Этот интересный
университета Падуи Кристиан Агрилло, который участвовал в проведении
эксперимента, сообщил: «Мы получили доказательства того, что рыбы
наделены рудиментарными математическими способностями». Прежде уже
было известно, что рыбы умеют находить отличие между большими и
маленькими косяками. Данный опыт показал, что рыбы могут посчитать,
способностями обладают обезьяны,
дельфины и некоторые люди с
ограниченными возможностями.
1. Translate the article using a dictionary.
How maths can improve your drinking water
Mathematical modelling can help keep the stuff that comes out of your taps
clean and fresh
In July, my wife Avril and I celebrated our 40th wedding
anniversary in Barbados. We joked with the hotel waiter that we
only came for the tap water, which is amazingly good. We found
out why when we visited Harrison’s cave. Barbados is mostly fossilised coral, which
acts like a giant filter for rainwater. So the tap water is very clean, with a tangy
mineral taste.
Several years ago we went to Slovenia, and were invited to join a group of
Chinese karstologists visiting the spectacular caves there. Karst is rugged limestone,
all jagged edges and collapsed holes. What’s all this geology got to do with maths?
Well, I was idly reading a mathematics research journal and came across an article
about karst.
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Great stuff for mathematicians and geologists, to be sure, but why should
anybody else care about karst?
The answer is: groundwater. Much of the water we drink, and the water that
industries use, comes from groundwater.
Because we rely heavily on groundwater, contamination is a serious problem.
Industrial waste, excess fertiliser running off fields, landfill sites for everyday
rubbish, and dozens of other sources can cause undesirable chemicals to get into our
groundwater. To some extent, karst aquifers can clean themselves, given time, but it’s
not clear whether they can cope with the level of contamination that is common
today. So scientists need to understand how water flows through the porous karst
Traditionally, they use mathematical models of fluid flow through a porous
substance. The usual models assume that the rock is equally porous everywhere,
because until recently no one knew how to include more realistic effects, such as
cracks in the rock, surface sinkholes, and springs. The sums were simply too difficult,
even using powerful computers. But those cracks are more important than the porous
rock when we want to know how contaminants move from place to place.
That’s where all the stuff about Beavers-Joseph interfaces comes in. It’s how
the modellers deal with holes and cracks in porous rock. After many years of effort,
the mathematicians who work in this area have discovered a good way to set up
realistic models in a computer, and calculate how effective the rock is at filtering out
chemical nasties and keeping itself clean.
The Economist
2. Write an essay to support the following statement: “Mathematics makes the
world go round”.
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1. Scan the article to state the reasons for a wider use of renewable sources of
2. Read the article again and complete it with a sentence A-E. There is one
sentence you don’t need.
A. In order to exploit renewable sources of energy it is often necessary to make a
considerable capital investment.
B. Geothermal energy is also becoming more and more widely used in some
C. This airborne water ultimately falls as rain, creating rivers
which may be
dammed to produce hydroelectric power.
D. This estimate, however, does not allow for economic and environmental
constraints and is therefore somewhat misleading.
E. Indeed, it is the perceived notion of sustainability that is driving governments
around the world to introduce legislation promoting the use of renewable
Renewable Energy
Climate change, coupled with concerns about high oil and energy prices, is
driving a global trend towards the increased use of renewable energy. Unlike fossil
fuels which are rapidly being depleted, renewable energy sources such as sunlight
and wind are naturally replenished and therefore sustainable. (1)_____________
Most sources of renewable energy originate either directly or indirectly from
the sun. For example, both wind and wave power derive their energy indirectly from
the sun. When solar radiation is absorbed by the Earth it is dissipated around the
globe in the form of winds and ocean currents. The wind interacts with the oceans
and transfers mechanical energy to water thus creating waves. In addition, solar
energy promotes evaporation of water from the oceans. (2)_________________
Furthermore, solar energy drives the photosynthesis necessary for the plants
that are used to create biofuels. Currently, only about 18% of the world’s energy
demand is supplied from renewable energy sources . However, there is great potential
to increase this contribution. Indeed, it has been estimated that the technical potential
of renewable energy is more than 18 times that of current global primary energy
demand. (3)_________________________ Owing to constraints, such as economic
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competitiveness, the potential that is likely to be realized in practice will be only a
fraction of this value.
(4)_________________This is particularly the case with large infrastructure
projects such as hydroelectric or tidal barrage schemes. To be economically viable,
such projects must absorb large capital costs and still be able to compete on price
with traditional sources of energy – something which in most cases it is difficult to
Peggy Daniels Becker, Alternative Energy
3. Are you optimistic about the use of alternative sources of energy? Make a list
of advantages and disadvantages of the current trends in energy producing
Биоэнергетика в России – одна из самых молодых и наиболее перспективных
отраслей экономики. К понятию «биоэнергетика» относится все, что так или
иначе связано с получением в промышленных масштабах энергии из
различного возобновляемого сырья биологического происхождения. Такое
сырье и его производные обычно называют биотопливом. Биотопливо бывает
твердым, жидким или газообразным. Оно может изготавливаться из самого
разного сырья, такого как древесные отходы, отходы сельскохозяйственного
канализационные стоки. В России, с ее богатыми запасами нефти, газа и
другого ископаемого сырья, к этой теме долго относились, как к ,своего рода,
забаве для энтузиастов от науки. Лишь в самом начале XXI века темой
производства биотоплива начал интересоваться бизнес.
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1. Translate the artcle using a dictionary.
Geothermal Power Could Become a Good Alternative for Making Electricity
It now makes up just a sliver of the electricity generation pie.
But experts at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology say that
enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) could have far wider
applications and be especially useful in times of high energy prices
and carbon constraints. Not only are the systems much cleaner than
fossil fuels but they also provide a continuous flow of energy—all at competitive
Geothermal energy is a very large resource and has the potential to be a
significant contributor to the energy needs of the world. Geothermal now provides
less than 1 % of the world’s power, although it could supply as much as 20 % in the
coming decades.
How Geothermal Power Works ? To get there the tools to perfect deep drilling
and water flow through the underground navigation system are needed.
Geothermal resources are available nationwide in the USA. But the highestgrade sites are in western states where hot rocks are closer to the surface, requiring
less drilling and thereby reducing exploration costs. Once there, those wells must
then be linked with natural or induced fractures in the rock to allow the water to flow
Water is pumped via the wells through these fractures in the hot rock and up to
the surface to run electric generators at the surface. Unlike conventional fossil-fuel
power plants that burn coal, natural gas or oil, no fuel would be required. The
environmental effects of geothermal power are “markedly lower” than either fossil
fuels or nuclear power. And unlike wind and solar systems, a geothermal plant works
night and day.
This environmental advantage is due to low emissions and the small overall
footprint of the entire geothermal system, which results because energy capture and
extraction is contained entirely underground, and the surface equipment needed for
conversion to electricity is relatively compact.
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It’s not an easy objective, though. It costs a lot of money to drill wells in large
part because explorers need to drill deep into the earth, often 5,000 feet or more
below the earth’s surface. Meeting water requirements for geothermal plants may be
an issue, particularly in arid regions.
Further, the water that is used to create electricity must be kept separate from
drinking water supplies to prevent contamination. Additionally, the potential for
seismic risk from fluid injection needs to be carefully monitored. The cumulative
effect of all those obstacles has led skeptics to conclude that geothermal energy will
remain a nominal power source.
Peggy Daniels Becker, Alternative Energy
2. Make a presentation on one of the alternative sources of energy successfully
used in the world.
1. Read the first paragraph of the article. What kind of material are
engineers from Stanford University working on?
2. Read the whole article and mark the statements as true (T) or false (F).
a) The resulting transistors are less than a centimeter thick._______
b) Organic
more efficient than their silicon
c) It takes just a little more than two months for the transistor to disappear in a
human organism._______
d) Being harmful for a patient, silver wires are not used in making medical
electronics. _____
e) There is no need in conducting any further tests to create working devices.___
f) Beta-carotene (the molecule that gives cucumbers their colour) might, act as a
A desirable solution
Biodegradable electronics for medical devices take a step closer
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The idea of creating biodegradable electronics for implantation into the human body
has been around for a couple of decades, but no one has yet managed to do it.
However, Zhenan Bao and Christopher Bettinger, who are chemical engineers at
Stanford University, have just made a start. They have created transistors from a
sulphur-containing hydrocarbon called thiophene, a polyester called polylactide coglycolide (PLGA, for short) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). All of these chemicals
are approved by America’s Food and Drug Administration for human use.
To make their transistors, Dr Bao and Dr Bettinger chopped sheets of PLGA
into 1cm squares and deposited thin silver contacts on to them. They then coated the
PLGA with thiophene, which acts as a semiconductor, interspersed with PVA, which
acts as an insulator. The result is a flexible transistor a few millimetres thick.
Such organic transistors are not as efficient and powerful as silicon transistors,
nor are they anything like as small. But they can be manufactured cheaply. More to
the point, they break down slowly in warm, salty conditions of the sort found in the
body. In laboratory tests intended to mimic the body’s interior, they disappeared after
70 days, leaving behind only the wires - which, being made of silver, are not toxic.
To create working devices it will be necessary to double-check that the other
ingredients are not toxic, too, despite their FDA clearance, and also to make the other
components of electrical circuits, such as capacitors and resistors, in a similar way.
Dr Bao is also investigating other compounds with potential uses in this area, such as
beta-carotene (the molecule that gives carrots their colour), which she thinks might,
like thiophene, act as a semiconductor. If she succeeds, it should be possible to devise
electrical control circuits for instruments such as drug-delivery devices that could be
implanted and then left alone to do their thing for a month or two before vanishing.
The Economist
3. Look at the italicized words and word combinations and explain what they
mean in your own words.
4. Speak on the technology of making a biodegradable transistor. Use the words
and word combinations from the box.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
biodegradable electronics
to chop
to deposit
silver contact
to coat
4. Translate the article from Russian into English.
Химия - это наука о строении и превращении веществ. Условно,
химию можно разделить на две основных группы. Неорганическая химия
изучает свойства и реакции неорганических веществ. Органическая химия
исследует взаимодействие органических веществ, построенных на основе
углеродной цепочки. Химия может изучать вещества и реакции, протекающие
внутри живого организма. Этим занимается биохимия, а также молекулярная
биология. Так как химия занимается изучением строения и свойств веществ, то
она очень тесно пересекается с физикой. Несколько разделов химии можно
также рассматривать как разделы физики: квантовая химия, и физическая
химия. Аналитическая химия занимается анализом различных химических
веществ с целью установить структуру исследуемого вещества.
1. Translate the article using a dictionary.
Greener tyres
Using biomass and bugs to create synthetic rubber
Oil does not just provide the fuel that powers the internal-combustion engines in cars.
Its by-products are also the basis of many of the materials, such as plastics, from
which cars are made. One of these petroleum by-products is isoprene. This is used to
make the synthetic rubber in car tyres. About a billion tyres are made every year each one requiring about 26 litres of oil. Now a way has been found to make greener
tyres by using genetically modified bugs to produce isoprene biologically.
The work is being carried out by Genencor, an industrial biotech company
based in California, in collaboration with Goodyear, one of the world’s biggest
tyremakers. In the laboratory Genencor has produced enough of what it calls
BioIsoprene for Goodyear to build and successfully test prototype tyres made with
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
the new material. Genencor is now completing a dedicated pilot factory which will be
used to develop a mass-production process, which could be operating commercially
around 2015.
Isoprene is a monomer, which is a substance whose molecules can be linked
together chemically to form a polymer. Latex, a material obtained from rubber trees,
is a natural polymer of isoprene. Isoprene can also be artificially polymerised to make
synthetic rubber. Tyres are made of a combination of natural and synthetic rubber to
provide the grip and endurance required by carmakers. Typically around a quarter of
each tyre is made from isoprene derived from petrochemicals, and about 60% of
worldwide isoprene production is used by tyremakers. The rest goes into making
other products, including glues, disposable nappies and surgical gloves.
Genencor used a genetically modified form of E-coli, a favourite species of
bacteria in microbial genetics, to produce BioIsoprene. By splicing in genes from
other bugs, the company was able to engineer synthetic metabolic pathways - ones
that do not exist in nature - that enable the bacteria to produce isoprene from the
sugars found in plant materials such as sugar cane, corn cobs and switch grass.
The Economist
2. Write an essay to support the statement: “Chemistry is a science of wonders”.
1. The Economist
3. Peggy Daniels Becker, Alternative Energy
4. The New York Times
5. Mail Online
6. The Telegraph
9. Practical Grammar. John Hughes and Ceri Jones. 2011 Heinle, Cengage
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12. http://www.wood
13. Use of English. Examination Practice. Virginia Evans. Express Publishing
14. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary.8 th edition .Sally Wehmeir. Oxford
University Press.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
С.А. Пономарева
Д.А. Малинина
Учебное пособие
Липецкий государственный технический университет
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Учебное издание
Пономарева Светлана Александровна
Малинина Диана Александровна
Редактор Р.А. Черникова
Подписано в печать
Формат 60х84 1/16.Бумага офсетная.
Ризография Печ.л.3,5. Тираж 200 экз. Заказ №
Издательство Липецкого государственного технического университета
Полиграфическое подразделение Издательства ЛГТУ.
398600 Липецк, ул. Московская, 30
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
С.А. Пономарева
Д.А. Малинина
Учебное пособие
Рукопись к печати утверждаю
Объем 3,5 п.л.
Тираж 200 экз.
Проректор по учебной работе
_______Ю.П. Качановский
Липецкий государственный технический университет
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
С.А. Пономарева
Д.А. Малинина
Учебное пособие
Рукопись к печати утверждаю
Объем 3,5 п.л.
Тираж 200 экз.
Заведующий кафедрой ин.яз.
_______Н.В. Барышев
Липецкий государственный технический университет
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