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54.From Abacus to Computer

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Зуева И.К.
From Abacus to Computer
Учебное пособие
Смоленск, 2014
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Рецензент: Доктор филологических наук, профессор СмолГУ, Андреев С.Н.
Пособие предназначено для студентов факультетов компьютерных технологий.
Цель данного пособия - подготовить студентов к практической деятельности – умению работать с
литературой по специальности, а также обучение устным формам общения по научной тематике на
материале предложенных текстов и упражнений.
Учебное пособие разработано на основе аутентичных текстов, представляющих практический и
познавательный интерес для студентов факультетов компьютерных технологий и всех пользователей
ПК, желающих улучшить свой английский.
Следует отметить наличие в пособии разнообразных текстов по истории вычислительной техники, что,
безусловно, способствует расширению кругозора студентов.
Таким образом, считаю, что данное учебное пособие Зуевой И.К. « From Abacus to Computer» можно
рекомендовать для издания в Смоленском гуманитарном университете.
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UNIT I
PART I
Read the text
What is a Computer?
A computer is a machine with an intricate network of electronic circuits that operate switches . The
switches, like the cores, are capable of being in one of two possible states, that is, on or off. The machine is
capable of storing and manipulating numbers, letters and characters. The basic idea of a computer is that we can
make the machine do what we want by inputting signals that turn certain switches on and turn the others off.
The basic job of computers is the processing of information. For this reason, computers can be defined
as devices which accept information in the form of instructions called a program and characters called data,
perform mathematical and/or logical operations on the information, and then supply results of these operations.
The program, or part of it, which tells the computer what to do and the data, which provide the information
needed to solve the problem, are kept inside the computer in a place called memory.
Computers are thought to have many remarkable powers. However, most computers, whether large or
small have three basic capabilities. First, computers have circuits for performing arithmetic operations, such as:
addition, subtraction, division, multiplication and exponentiation. Second, computers have a means of
communicating with the user. After all, if we couldn’t feed information in and get results back, these machines
wouldn’t be of much use. However, certain computers (commonly minicomputers and microco mputers) are used
to control directly things such as robots, aircraft navigation systems, medical instruments, etc.
Some of the most common methods of inputting information are to use punched cards, magnetic tape,
disks, and terminals. The computer’s input device (which might be a card reader, a tape drive or disk drive,
depending on the medium used in inputting information) reads the information into the computer. For outputting
information, two common devices are a printer which prints the new information on paper, or a CRT display
screen which shows the results on a TV-like screen.
Third, computers have circuits which can make decisions. The kinds of decisions which computer
circuits can make are not of the type: “Who would win a war between two countries ?” or “Who is the richest
person in the world?” Unfortunately, the computer can only decide three things, namely: Is one number less than
another? Are two numbers equal? and Is one number greater than another?
A computer can solve a series of problems and make hundreds, even thousands of logical decisions
without becoming tired or bored. It can find the solution to a problem in a fraction of the time it takes a human
being to do the job. A computer can replace people in dull, routine tasks, but it has no originality; it works
according to the instructions given to it and can not exercise and value judgments. There are times when a
computer seems to operate like a mechanical “brain”, but its achievements are limited by the minds of human
beings. A computer cannot do anything unless a person tells it what to do and gives it the appropriate
information; but because electric pulses can move at the speed of light, a computer can carry out vast numbers of
arithmetic-logical operations almost instantaneously. A pers on can do everything a computer can do, but in
many cases that person would be dead long before the job was finished.
1 . Which of the statements expresses the main idea best? Why
1) Computers have changed the way in which many kinds of jobs are done.
2) Instructions and data must be given to the computer to act on.
3) Computers are machines capable of processing and outputting data.
4) Without computers, many tasks would take much longer to do.
do you think so?
2. Look back in the text. Decide if the sentences are true or false, and rewrite the false
ones to make them true.
1) A computer can store or handle any data even if it hasn't received information to do so.
2) All computers accept and process information in the form of instru ctions and characters.
3) The information necessary for solving problems is found in the memory of the computer.
4) Not all computers can perform arithmetic operations, make decisions, and communicate in some way with the
user.
5) Computers can still be useful machines even if they can't communicate with the user.
6) There are many different types of devices for feeding information into a computer.
7) There aren't as many different types of devices used for giving results as there are for accepting informa tion.
8) Computers can make any type of decision they are asked to.
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9) Computers can work endlessly without having to stop to rest unless there is a breakdown.
3. Find the passage and the line in it where the following ideas are expressed:
1) Computers accept information, perform mathematical and/or logical operations then supply new information.
2) All computers have three basic capabilities.
3) A computer is a machine that can be made to operate by receiving signals.
4) A computer cannot work without being told what to do.
5) A computers can make three types of decisions.
6) The fundamental job of a computer is processing information.
7) A computer can do the work of hundreds of people in a very short time.
8) The memory of a computer is used for storing information.
4. Fill in the gaps using the given words in the singular or plural form (some words can
be used more than once):
core, device, data, circuit, terminal, switch, program, memory, medium, CRT display
1) Every computer has … for performing arithmetic operations, operating … or magnetized … .
2) A … with a screen is normally referred to as a … unit.
3) A computer is a … that processes information in the form of … and can store this information in a… .
4) Card readers, tape drives, or disk drives are different … for inputting information.
5. Using the information of the text and your own knowledge and experience tell the
group what a computer is.
PART II
History of Computing
Read the text
In The Beginning...
The history of computers starts out about 2000 years ago, at the birth of the
abacus, a wooden rack holding two horizontal wires with beads strung on them.
When these beads are moved around, according to programming rules memorized by
the user, all regular arithmetic problems can be done. Another important invention
around the same time was the Astrolabe, used for navigation.
Blaise Pascal is usually credited for building the first digital computer in
1642. It added numbers entered with dials and was made to help his father, a tax
collector. In 1671, Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz invented a computer that was
built in 1694. It could add, and, after changing some things around, multiply. Leibniz invented a special stepped
gear mechanism for introducing the addend digits, and this is still being used.
The prototypes made by Pascal and Leibniz were not used in many places, and considered weird until a
little more than a century later, when Thomas of Colmar (A.K.A. Charles Xavier Thomas) created the first
successful mechanical calculator that could add, subtract, multiply, and divide. A lot of improved desktop
calculators by many inventors followed, so that by about 1890, the range of improvements included:
Accumulation of partial results
Storage and automatic reentry of past results (A memory function)
Printing of the results
Each of these required manual installation. These improvements were mainly made for commercial
users, and not for the needs of science.
1. Give English equivalents:
цифровой компьютер; пользователь; изобретение; прибавлять; вычитать; умножать; делить;
усовершенствование ; накопление частичных результатов; автоматическое извлечение из памяти
сохранённых результатов.
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2. Answer the following questions:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
How old is the computer?
What is the abacus and how was it used?
Who built the first digital computer? What was it made for?
What could the first mechanical calculator do?
What did the range of improvements include?
What was the purpose of these improvements?
3. Translate into English:
1)
Первая цифровая вычислительная машина складывала числа, которые вводились при помощи
набора.
2)
К 1980 году вычислительная машина уже умела складывать, вычитать, умножать, делить,
накапливать частичные результаты, сохранять их, автоматически воспроизводить и распечатывать.
4. Give a summary of the text.
UNIT II
PART I
Read the text
Computer Capabilities and Limitations
Like all machines, a computer needs to be directed and controlled in order to perform a task
successfully. Until such time as a program is prepared and stored in the computer’s memory, the computer
“knows” absolutely nothing, not even how to accept or reject data. Even the most sophisticated computer, no
matter how capable it is, must be told what to do. Until the capabilities and the limitations of a computer are
recognized, its usefulness cannot be thoroughly understood.
In the first place, it should be recognized that computers are capable of doing repe titive operations. A
computer can perform similar operations thousands of times, without becoming, bored, tired, or even careless.
Secondly, computers can process information at extremely rapid rates, for example, modern computers
can solve certain classes of arithmetic problems millions of times faster than a skilled mathematician. Speeds for
performing decision-making operations are comparable to those for arithmetic operations but input -output
operations, however, involve mechanical motion and hence requ ire more time. On a typical computer system,
cards are read at an average speed of 1000 cards per minute and as many as 1000 lines can be printed at the same
rate.
Thirdly, computers may be programmed to calculate answers to whatever level of accuracy is s pecified
by the programmer. In spite of newspaper headlines such as “Computer Fails”, these machines are very accurate
and reliable especially when the number of operations they can perform every second is considered. Because
they are man-made machines, they sometimes malfunction or break down and have to be repaired. However, in
most instances when the computer fails, it is due to human error and not the fault of the computer at all.
In the fourth place, general-purpose computers can be programmed to solve various types of problems
because of their flexibility. One of the most important reason why computers are so widely used today is that
almost every big problem can be solved by solving a number of little problems - one after another.
Finally, a computer, unlike a human being, has no intuition. A person may suddenly find the answer to a
problem without working out too many of the details, but a computer can only process as it has been
programmed to.
Using the very limited capabilities possessed by a11 computers, the task of producing a university
payroll, for instance, can be done quite easily. The following kinds of things need to be done for each employee
on the payroll. First: input information about the employee such as wage rate, hours worked, tax rate ,
unemployment insurance, and pension deductions. Second: Do some simple arithmetic and decision making
operations. Third: Output a few printed lines on a cheque. By repeating this process over and over again, the
payroll will eventually be completed.
1. Which of the statements expresses the main idea best? Why do you think so?
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1) The most elaborate of computers must be programmed in order to be useful.
2) It is important to know what a computer can and cannot do.
3) A computer is useless without a programmer to tell it what to do.
2. Look back in the text. Decide if the sentences are true or false, and rewrite the false
ones to make then true.
1) A computer cannot do anything until it has been programmed.
2) A computer is a useless machine if its capabilities and limitations are unknown.
3) А computer can repeat the same operation over and over again forever if permitted.
4) The speed at which different computer components function is considered to be one of the limitations of
a computer.
5) Computers do not usually make mistakes unless they break down.
6) A computer can think and solve problems by itself.
7) A computer is a single-purpose machine in that it cannot be programmed to solve various types of
problems.
8) Computers can solve big problems by following a series of simple steps.
9) A computer usually solves problems by doing some mathematical and decision -making operations.
10) Computers are used because they are fast and exact.
3. Find the passage and the line in it where the following ideas
are expressed:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
A computer can do the same operations millions of times without stopping .
A computer must work out the details of a problem before reaching a solution.
A computer needs to be told what to do.
Computers can solve all kinds of different problems.
Knowledge of a computer's capabilities and limitations is important.
A computer can process information very rapidly.
Computers are exact and dependable.
Input and output devices operate more slowly than the arithmetic and decision -making devices.
4. Match the words with the statements.
1) decision-making operations
2) programmer
3) general-purpose computers
4) computer system
a) can solve different types of problems
b) all the equipment needed input, process and output
information
c) those which comраге numbers
d) decides what the program is to be.
5. Decide which of the following statements are computer capabilities or limitations (C
or L).
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
11)
12)
directed and controlled,
must be told what to do,
capable of doing repetitive operations,
never gets bored or tied,
fast and careful,
input-output operations are slower,
very accurate and dependable,
man-made machine,
can solve different types of problems,
finds a solution after working out all the details.
can't think for itself,
producing a payroll is an easy task.
6. Complete the table using passages 2,3,4,5,6 of the text "Computer Capabilities and
Limitations".
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Listing marker
Characteristics
1.
can do repetitive operations
2. Secondly
3.
4.
problems
can calculate answers accurately
can be programmed to solve different
5. Finally
7.
Discuss the problem "Computer Capabilities and Limitations'" using your own
experience and information of the text.
PART II
History of Computing
Read text
Babbage
While Thomas of Colmar was developing the desktop calculator, a series of very interesting developments in
computers was started in Cambridge, England, by Charles Babbage (of which the computer store "Babbages" is
named), a mathematics professor. In 1812, Babbage realized that many long calculations, especially those
needed to make mathematical tables, were really a series of predictable actions that were constantly repeated.
From this he suspected that it should be possible to do these automatically.
He began to design an automatic mechanical calculating machine, which he called a difference engine. By 1822,
he had a working model to demonstrate with. With financial help from the British government, Babbage started
fabrication of a difference engine in 1823. It was intended to be steam powered and fully automatic, including
the printing of the resulting tables, and commanded by a fixed instruction program.
The difference engine, although having limited adaptability and applicability, was really a great advance.
Babbage continued to work on it for the next 10 years, but in 1833 he lost interest because he thought he had a
better idea -- the construction of what would now be called a general purpose, fully program-controlled,
automatic mechanical digital computer. Babbage called this idea an Analytical Engine. The ideas of this design
showed a lot of foresight, although this couldn’t be appreciated until a full century later.
The plans for this engine required an identical decimal computer operating on numbers of 50 decimal digits (or
words) and having a storage capacity (memory) of 1,000 such digits. The built -in operations were supposed to
include everything that a modern general - purpose computer would need, even the all important Conditional
Control Transfer Capability that would allow commands to be executed in any order, not just the order in which
they were programmed.
The analytical engine was soon to use punched cards, which would be read into the machine from several
different Reading Stations. The machine was supposed to operate automatically, by ste am power, and require
only one person there.
Babbage's computers were never finished. Various reasons are used for his failure. Most used is the lack of
precision machining techniques at the time. Another speculation is that Babbage was working on a solution of a
problem that few people in 1840 really needed to solve. After Babbage, there was a temporary loss of interest in
automatic digital computers.
Between 1850 and 1900 great advances were made in mathematical physics, and it came to be known that most
observable dynamic phenomena can be identified by differential equations (which meant that most events
occurring in nature can be measured or described in one equation or another), so t hat easy means for their
calculation would be helpful.
Moreover, from a practical view, the availability of steam power caused manufacturing (boilers), transportation
(steam engines and boats), and commerce to prosper and led to a period of a lot of engine ering achievements.
The designing of railroads, and the making of steamships, textile mills, and bridges required differential calculus
to determine such things as:

center of gravity
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


center of buoyancy
moment of inertia
stress distributions
Even the assessment of the power output of a steam engine needed mathematical integration. A strong need thus
developed for a machine that could rapidly perform many repetitive calculations.
1. Give English equivalents:
настольный калькулятор; паровая энергия; ограниченное применение; потерять интерес к чему-либо;
полностью контролируемый программой; оценить; десятичные числа; исполнять команды в любом
порядке; перфокарта; считывающая станция; недостаток точности; решение проблемы; делать успехи;
дифференциальное уравнение; производство паровых котлов; паровой двигатель; преуспевать
(процветать); инженерные достижения; пароход; дифференциальное исчисление; центр тяжести; центр
плавучести; момент инерции; распределение напряжения; повторные подсчёты.
2. Answer the questions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
What was the difference engine like? Who designed it?
Why did Babbage loose interest in difference engine?
What was the Analytical Engine like?
What did the plans for this Engine require?
Why were Babbage's computers never finished?
Which great advances in mathematical physics were made between 1850 and 1900?
What were the achievements caused by the availability of steam power?
3. Translate into Russian:
Первая в истории вычислительная машина была спроектирована в 1833 году Чарльзом Бебиджем.
Бебидж понял, что большинство длинных расчётов представляют у себя серию предсказуемых
постоянно повторяющихся действий.
Вычислительная машина управлялась при помощи фиксированной про граммы инструкций.
Машина должна была иметь память объёмом 1.000 десятичных чисел и выполнять над ними
арифметические операции по программе, вводимой с перфокарт.
Доступность паровой энергии подстегнуло развитие промышленности, транспорта, торговли .
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
4. Divide the text into four parts, title them and give a summary of the text.
UNIT III
PART I
KINDS OF COMPUTERS
Read the text and write out computer terms:
Mainframes
Large computer systems, or mainframes, as they are referred to in the field of computer science, are
those computer systems found in compute installation processing immense amounts of data. These powerful
computers make use of very high speed main memories into which data and programs to be dealt with are
transferred for rapid access. These powerful machines have a larger repertoire of more complex instructions
which can be executed more quickly. Whereas smaller computers may take several steps to perform a particular
operation, a larger machine may accomplish the same thing with one instruction.
These computers can be of two types: digital or analog. The digital computer or general-purpose
computer as it is often known makes up about 90 % of the large computers now in use. It gets its name because
the data that are presented to it are made of a code consisting of digits -single-character limbers. The digital
computer is like a gigantic cash register in that it can do calculations in steps, one after another at tremendous
speed and with great accuracy. Digital computer programming is by far the most commonly used in electronic
data processing for business or statistical purposes. The analog computer works something like a car
speedometer, in that it continuous ly works out calculations. It is used essentially for problems involving
measurements. It can simulate, or imitate different measurements by electronic means. Both of these computer
types - the digital and the analog are made up of electronic components th at may require a large room to
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accommodate them. At present, the digital computer is capable of doing anything the analog once did. Moreover,
it is easier to program and cheaper to operate. A new type of a scientific computer system called the hybrid
computer has now been produced that combines the two types into one.
Really powerful computers continue to be bulky and require special provision for their housing,
refrigeration systems, air filtration and power supplies. This is because much more space is taken up by the
input/output devices - the magnetic tape and disk units and other peripheral equipment - than by the electronic
components that do not make up the bulk of the machine in a powerful installation. The power consumption of
these machines is also quite high, not to mention the price that runs into hundreds of thousands of dollars. The
future will bring great developments in the mechanical devices associated with computer systems. For a long
time these have been the weak link, from the point of view of both efficiency and reliability.
1. Which of the statements expresses the main idea best? Why do you think so?
1)
2)
3)
4)
Hybrid computers are a combination of digital and analog computers.
Digital computers are used more than any other type of computers.
There are three types of mainframes.
Analog computers can do more varied work than digital or hybrid computers.
2. Look back in the text. Decide if the sentences are true or false, and rewrite the false
ones to make them true.
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
A mainframe is a type of computer that can sit on the top of a desk.
Mainframes are very powerful and can execute jobs very rapidly and easily.
Digital computers are used more than analog computers .
The analog computer is far smaller than a digital computer and therefore occupies very little space.
The hybrid computer is a combination of both the digital and the analog computer.
The analog computer does its calculations one step at a time.
The digital computer continuously works out calculations.
Mainframes are huge powerful machines whose peripheral equipment takes up a lot of space.
Mainframe technology has reached the end of the road. No further development is needed.
3. Find the passage and the line in it where the following ideas are expressed:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
Smaller computers may take longer to perform an operation.
More technological development is necessary in the mechanical devices associated with computer systems.
Mainframes can operate quickly and execute more complex instructions.
The hybrid computer is a combination of both the digital and the analog computers.
Digital computers are used more than analog computers.
Mainframes are large powerful computers.
An analog computer is comparable to a car speedometer in the way it operates.
Digital computers do calculations, one after another, quickly and exactly.
PART II
I.
History of Computing
Read the text
Electronic Digital Computers
The start of World War II produced a large need for computer capacity, especially for the military. New
weapons were made for which trajectory tables and other essential data were needed. In 1942, John P. Eckert,
John W. Mauchly, and their associates at the Moore school of Electrical Engineering of University of
Pennsylvania decided to build a high - speed electronic computer to do the job. This machine became known as
ENIAC (Electrical Numerical Integrator And Calculator)
The size of ENIAC’s numerical “word” was 10 decimal digits, and it could multiply two of these
numbers at a rate of 300 per second, by finding the value of each product from a multiplication table stored in its
memory. ENIAC was therefore about 1,000 times faster then the previous generation of relay computers.
ENIAC used 18,000 vacuum tubes, about 1,800 square feet of floor space, and consumed about 180,000
watts of electrical power. It had punched card I/O, 1 multiplier, 1 divider/square rooter, and 20 adders using
decimal ring counters, which served as adders and also as quick-access (.0002 seconds) read-write register
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storage. The executable instructions making up a program were embodied in the separate “units” of ENIAC,
which were plugged together to form a “route” for the flow of information.
These connections had to be redone after each computation, together with presetting function tables and
switches. This “wire your own” technique was inconvenient (for obvious reasons), and with only some latitude
could ENIAC be considered programmable. It was, however, efficient in handling the particular programs for
which it had been designed.
ENIAC is commonly accepted as the first successful high - speed electronic digital computer (EDC)
and was used from 1946 to 1955. A controversy developed in 1971, however, over the patentability of ENIAC’s
basic digital concepts, the claim being made that another physicist, John V. Atanasoff (left) had already used
basically the same ideas in a simpler vacuum - tube device he had built in the 1930’s while at Iowa State
College. In 1973 the courts found in favor of the company using the Atanasoff claim.
1.
Give English equivalents:
объём памяти; основные данные; высокоскоростная электронно -вычислительная машина; счётчик;
поглощать электроэнергию; результаты умножения; заключать в отдельные разделы (ячейки); маршрут
для потока информации; иск; в чью-либо пользу; вычисление; сумматор (блок суммирования);
квадратный корень; регистр памяти считывание-запись.
2. Answer the questions based on the text:
1) What was ENIAC made for?
2) What were the main characteristics of this computer?
3) Were there any defects in ENIAC?
4) Why did the controversy over the patentability of ENIAC’s based digital concepts develop in 1971?
3. Fill in the blanks with the words from the text
1)The military needed computers with large … .
1) ENIAC could … two of these numbers at a … of 300 per second.
2) ENIAC does the … by finding … of each … from a multiplication table stored in its … .
3) The … instruction making up a program were … in separate “units” of ENIAC.
4) These “units” were … together to form a “ …” for the flow of information.
5) These … had to be redone after each … .
4. Match the words with their definitions:
1)an electrical calculating machine that can store and recall information and make calculations at very high
speeds.
2)a frame holding wires on which small balls can be moved, used for counting
3)any of numbers from 0 to 9.
4)to join numbers so as to find the total
5)the method of combining two numbers by adding one of them to itself as many times as the other states
6)to find out how many times one number contains or is contained in another number.
7)based on number 10 (adjective)
8)a statement that two quantities are equal.
9)to keep somewhere for future use.
________________________________________________________
abacus; to add; computer; decimal; digit; divide; equation; multiplication; to store.
5. Retell the text.
UNIT IV
PART I
Read the text and write out computer terms:
Minicomputers
Until the mid-1960s, digital computers were powerful and physically large and expensive. What was
really needed though, were computers of less power, a smaller memory capacity and without such a large array
of peripheral equipment- This need was partially satisfied by the rapid improvement in performance of the
semiconductor devices (transistors), and their incredible reduction in size, cost and power; all of which led to the
development of the minicomputer or mini for short. Although there is no exact definition of a minicomp uter, it is
generally understood to refer to a computer whose mainframe is physically small, has a fixed word length
between 8 and 32 bits and costs less than U.S. $100,000 for the central processor. The amount of primary storage
available optionally in minicomputer systems ranges from 38-512 Kbytes; however, some systems allow this
memory to be expanded even further.
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A large number of peripherals have been developed especially for use in systems built around
minicomputers; they are sometimes referred to as miniperipherals. These include magnetic tape cartridges and
cassettes, small disk units and a large variety of printers and consoles.
Many minicomputers are used merely for a fixed application and run only a single program. This is
changed only when neces sary either to correct errors or when a change in the design of the system is introduced.
Since the operating environment for most minis is far less varied and complex than large mainframes, it goes
without saying that the software and peripheral requirements differ greatly from those of a computer which runs
several hundred ever-changing jobs a day. The operating systems of minis also usually provide system access to
either a single user or a limited number of users at a time.
Since many minis are employed in real-time processing, they are usually provided with operating
systems that are specialized for this purpose. For example, most minis have an interrupt feature which allows a
program to be interrupted when they receive a special signal indicating that any one of a number of external
events, to which they are pre-programmed to respond, has occurred. When the interrupt occurs, the computer
stores enough information about the job in process to resume operation after it has responded to the interruption.
Because minicomputer systems have been used so often in real-time applications, other aspects of their design
have changed; that is, they usually possess the hardware capability to be connected directly to a large variety of
measurement instruments, to analog and digital converters, to microprocessors, and ultimately, to an even larger
mainframe in order to analyze the collected data.
1. Which of the statements expresses the main idea best? Why do you think
so?
1)
2)
3)
4)
Minicomputers
Minicomputers
Minicomputers
Minicomputers
are not as efficient as mainframes.
are as useful as mainframes.
are not as big and expensive as mainframes.
will not be of any use in the future.
2. Are these facts mentioned in the text? (yes/no):
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
The rapid development of transistors led to the development of minicomputers.
A minicomputer is said to be very much the same as a mainframe.
Special peripheral devices have been developed to go with minicomputers.
Minicomputers can understand more than one computer language.
Mainframe operating systems usually provide access to a number of users at the
same time.
6) Minicomputers have specialized features because of the operations they execute.
7) Minicomputers can be connected directly to various types of devices.
8) Minicomputers were developed after mainframes.
9) Minicomputers will be more popular in the future than mainframes.
10) Operating minicomputers costs less than operating mainframes.
3. Find the passage and the line in it where the following ideas are expresse d:
1) Various peripherals were developed to go with minicomputers .
2) Minicomputers were developed after the mid-1960s.
3) Minicomputers have specially built-in features that enable them to store information while responding to
another operation.
4) The improved performance of transistors led to the development of minicomputers.
5) Minicomputers can be hooked up to larger mainframes if need be.
6) Minicomputers are usually used for single-purpose jobs.
7) Minicomputers are similar to mainframes except that they are smaller.
8) Fewer people can use minicomputers at one time than mainframes .
10 Match the words with their definitions:
А
1) – minicomputer
2) - primary memory
3) - miniperipherals
4) - cartridges
5) - console
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6) - microprocessors
B
a) - processing unit of minicomputer
b) - specialized secondary memory
с) - where operator can manually operate the computer
d) - internal storage
e) - fixed word length of 8-32 bits
f) - attached to minicomputers
PART II
History of Computing
Read the text:
The Modern Stored program EDC
Fascinated by the success of ENIAC, the mathematician John Von Neumann (left) undertook, in 1945,
an abstract study of computation that showed that a computer should have a very simple, fixed physical
structure, and yet be able to execute any kind of computation by means of a proper programmed control without
the need for any change in the unit itself.
Von Neumann contributed a new awareness of how practical, yet fast computers should be organized
and built. These ideas, usually referred to as the stored - program technique, became essential for future
generations of high - speed digital computers and were universally adopted.
The Stored - Program technique involves many features of computer design and function besides the
one that it is named after. In combination, these features make very - high - speed operation attainable. A
glimpse may be provided by considering what 1,000 operations per second means. If each instruction in a job
program were used once in consecutive order, no human programmer could generate enou gh instruction to keep
the computer busy.
Arrangements must be made, therefore, for parts of the job program (called subroutines) to be used
repeatedly in a manner that depends on the way the computation goes. Also, it would clearly be helpful if
instructions could be changed if needed during a computation to make them behave differently. Von Neumann
met these two needs by making a special type of machine instruction, called a Conditional control transfer which allowed the program sequence to be stopped and started again at any point - and by storing all instruction
programs together with data in the same memory unit, so that, when needed, instructions could be arithmetically
changed in the same way as data.
As a result of these techniques, computing and programming became much faster, more flexible, and
more efficient with work. Regularly used subroutines did not have to be reprogrammed for each new program,
but could be kept in “libraries” and read into memory only when needed. Thus, much of a given program could
be assembled from the subroutine library.
The all - purpose computer memory became the assembly place in which all parts of a long computation
were kept, worked on piece by piece, and put together to form the final results. The computer control survived
only as an “errand runner” for the overall process. As soon as the advantage of these techniques became clear,
they became a standard practice.
The first generation of modern programmed electronic computers to take advantage of these
improvements were built in 1947. This group included computers using Random - Access - Memory (RAM),
which is a memory designed to give almost constant access to any particular piece of information. . These
machines had punched - card or punched tape I/O devices and RAM’s of 1,000 - word capacity and access times
of .5 Greek MU seconds (.5*10-6 seconds). Some of them could perform multiplications in 2 to 4 MU seconds.
Physically, they were much smaller than ENIAC. Some were about the size of a grand piano and used only
2,500 electron tubes, a lot less then required by the earlier ENIAC. The first - generation stored - program
computers needed a lot of maintenance, reached probably about 70 to 80% reliability of operation (ROO) and
were used for 8 to 12 years. They were usually programmed in ML, although by the mid 1950’s progress had
been made in several aspects of advanced programming. This group of computers included EDVAC (above) and
UNIVAC (below) the first commercially available computers.
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1. Give the English equivalents:
выполнять вычисления; команда перехода; делать вклад; техника с хранимой программой; использовать
в последовательном порядке; подпрограмма; условная передача управления; данные; библиотека
подпрограмм; накопитель; воспользоваться; универсальная компьютерная память; память произвольного
доступа; постоянный доступ к чему-либо; техническое обслуживание; ввод-вывод.
2. Answer the questions:
1)
2)
3)
4)
What should a computer have from Neumann's point of view?
What is a conditional control transfer? What was it made for?
What were the results of the new Stored-Program techniques?
How did the first generation of modern programmed electronic computers differ from ENIAC?
3. Translate into English:
1) У компьютера должна быть очень простая фиксированная физическая структура, и он должен
выполнять любые вычисления при помощи контрольной программы без изменений в самом устройстве.
2) Необходимая для будущего поколения высокоскоростных цифровых компьютеров техника с
хранимой программой была принята повсеместно.
3) Фон Ньюман изобрёл особую инструкцию для машин "Условная передача управления", которая
позволяла программе останавливаться и запускаться снова на любом этапе, сохраняя при этом все
командные программы вместе с данными в одной и той же ячейке памяти.
4) Регулярно используемые программы не нужно было перепрограммировать для каждой новой
программы. Они сохранялись в "библиотеках" и считывались в память по мере необходимости.
4. Give a summary of the text.
UNIT V
PART I
Read the text and write out computer terms:
Microcomputers
The early 1970s saw the birth of the microcomputer, or micro for short. The central processor of the
micro, called the microprocessor, is built as a single semiconductor device; that is, the thousands of individual
circuit elements necessary to perform all the logical and arithmetic functions of computer are manufactured as a
single chip. A complete microcomputer system is composed of a microprocessor, а memory and peripheral
equipment. The processor, memory and electronic controls for peripheral equipment are usually put together on
a single or on a few printed circuit boards. Systems using microprocessors can be hooked together to do the
work that until recently only minicomputer systems were capable of doing , micros generally have somewhat
simpler and less flexible instruction sets than minis, and are typically much lower. Different micros are available
with 4-, 8-, 12-, 16-bit work lengths, and some new ones use 32-bit chips. Similarly, minis are available with
word lengths up to 32 bits. Although minis can be equipped with much larger primary memory size, micros are
becoming more powerful and converging with minicomputer technology.
The extremely low price of micros has opened up entirely new areas of application for computers. Only
20 years or so ago, a central processing unit of medium capability sold for a few hundred thousand dollars
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(U.S.), and now some microprocessors sell for as cheaply as $10. Of course, by the time you have a usable
microcomputer system, the price will be somewhere between $200 and $5000 depending on the display unit,
secondary storage, and whatever other peripherals are needed.
The available range of microcomputer systems is evolving more rapidly than minicomputers. Because
of their incredibly low price, it is now possible to use only a small fraction of the computer’s capability in a
particular system application and still be far ahead financially of any other way of getting the job done. For
example, thousands of industrial robots are in use today, and the number is growing very rapidly as this
relatively new industry improves the price and performance of its products by using the latest microcomputer.
Microcomputer software is developing rapidly and it now covers a tremendous range of applications, as
well as data processing, software can also be written for specialized tasks even as complex as navigating rockets.
Some modern micros are even capable of multi-tasking. In addition to their extensive use in control systems of
all types, they are destined for many new uses from more complex calculations to automobile engine operation
and medical diagnostics. They are already used in automobile emission control systems and are the basis of
many TV game attachments. There is also a rapidly growing market for personal computers whose application
potential in education is only just beginning to be exploited.
It would seem that the limits for microcomputer applications have by no means been reached. There are
those who predict that the home and hobby computer markets, and the education market, will grow int o multibillion dollar enterprises within a decade or so. It would also appear that performance of microprocessors could
well increase tenfold in the near future while prices for micros could decrease by as much.
1. Which of the statements expresses the main idea best? Why do you think so?
1)
2)
3)
4)
Microcomputers
There is no limit
Microcomputers
Microcomputers
will be everywhere in the future.
to what microcomputers can be.
are cheap, reliable and efficient.
are far superior to minicomputers.
2. Are these facts mentioned in the text? (yes / no):
1) Microcomputers were developed after minicomputers.
2) The processor of a microcomputer is printed on a chip.
3) A mainframe uses more power than a microcomputer.
4) Microcomputers can do the work done by minicomputers.
5) Microcomputers have the same memory capacity as minicomputers and can be hooked up to a variety of
peripherals.
6) Microcomputers are cheaper than minicomputers.
7) Many different types of industries are using microcomputers to do their work.
8) Microcomputers are now used in sophisticated toys and games .
9) Because of microminiaturization, mainframes now occupy less space.
10) By the end of this century microcomputers will be cheaper, better and probably used in every aspect of life.
3. Find the passage and the line in it where the following ideas are expressed:
1) Microcomputers can do work that until quite recently was done by minicomputers.
2) Microcomputers are mainly used for single-purpose job.
3) The integrated circuitry of a microcomputer has been reduced to a chip.
4) Microcomputer technology will continue to improve.
5) Microcomputers are smaller, simpler and less flexible than minicomputers.
6) Microcomputers are a recent development in computer technology.
7) Microcomputer systems are increasing faster than minicomputers.
8) In the future, microprocessors will be cheaper, and their capacity and performance
will be greater.
4. Fill in the gaps using the words bellow:
microcomputer ; semiconductor; chip; microprocessor;
circuit board primary memory; minicomputer ; micro;
memory
1) … are often referred to as … for short.
2) A …system is composed of a … , … and peripheral equipment.
3) The … of a microcomputer is usually built as a single … device known as a ….
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4) Microcomputers have small … and cannot be hooked up to as many peripherals as ….
5) A few … are normally used for the processor, memory and electronic controls of peripherals for computers.
5. Complete the text bellow with the words:
Minis and micros
Systems; memory; task; terminals; desktop; CAD; applications
The first microcomputers, also known as …… PCs, were for single users only, and this clearly distinguished
them from minicomputers. Another important difference was that ‘minis’ were much more powerful than
‘micro’: they could execute more than one …… simultaneously and were used as file servers for …… and
workstations.
However, modern microcomputers have operating …… and network facilities that can support many
simultaneous users. Today, most personal computers have enough …… to be used for word processing and
business ….. . .Some PCs can even handle multitasking and …… applications. As a result, the division between
‘minis’ and ‘micros’ is now disappearing.
6. Complete the table and compare kinds of computers:
Mainframes
Minicomputers
Microcomputers
1
When developed
developed in the 70s
2
Usage
used in fixed applications
3
Memory speed and
capacity
4
Electrical power mehod
5
Price
6
Size
7
Complexity of
instructions
8
number of users
9
Type of processing
PART II
Most primary memory
ranges from 32-512 Kbytes
consumes little electrical
power
extremely high prices
small portable size
very complex instruction
which can be executed
quickly
single user -personal
computer
allows batch as well as realtime processing
xxxxmxx
History of Computing
Read the text:
Advances in the 1950’s
Early in the 50’s two important engineering discoveries changed the image of the electronic - computer
field, from one of fast but unreliable hardware to an image of relatively h igh reliability and even more capability.
These discoveries were the magnetic core memory and the Transistor - Circuit Element. These technical
discoveries quickly found their way into new models of digital computers. RAM capacities increased from 8,000
to 64,000 words in commercially available machines by the 1960’s, with access times of 2 to 3 MS
(Milliseconds). These machines were very expensive to purchase or even to rent and were particularly expensive
to operate because of the cost of expanding programming. Such computers were mostly found in large computer
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centers operated by industry, government, and private laboratories - staffed with many programmers and support
personnel. This situation led to modes of operation enabling the sharing of the high potential available.
One such mode is batch processing, in which problems are prepared and t hen held ready for
computation on a relatively cheap storage medium. Magnetic drums, magnetic - disk packs, or magnetic tapes
were usually used. When the computer finishes with a problem, it "dumps" the whole problem (program and
results) on one of these peripheral storage units and starts on a new problem.
Another mode for fast, powerful machines is called time-sharing. In time-sharing, the computer
processes many jobs in such rapid succession that each job runs as if the other jobs did not exist, thus kee ping
each "customer" satisfied. Such operating modes need elaborate executable programs to attend to the
administration of the various tasks.
1. Give English equivalents:
ненадёжное техническое средство; надёжность и способность; запоминающее устройство на магнитных
сердечниках; информационная ёмкость; время доступа; расширенное программирование; режим
операций; пакетная обработка; носитель данных; магнитный барабан (диск; лента); задача; "сбрасывать";
внешнее (периферийное) запоминающее устройство ; система разделения времени; исполнительная
программа; обслуживать.
2. Answer the questions:
1)
2)
3)
4)
Which two important engineering discoveries changed the image of the electronic computer field in the 50's?
Were new machines expensive or cheap?
What did this situation lead to?
What were the new modes?
3. Give a summary of the text.
UNIT VI
PART I
1 Before reading the text, match these words with their definitions:
a)
b)
с)
d)
e)
f)
g)
clipboard
stylus
screen
grid
voltage
pixel
template
1) surface on which pictures or data are shown
2) electrical force
3) pattern used as a guide for creating letters
4) individual dot on a computer screen
5) network of lines crossing at right angles
6) pointed implement for drawing or writing
7) portable board with a clip at the top for holding
papers
Read the text and decide why the author chose the title Delete Keys. Can you
suggest a better title? Write out new computer terms .
Delete Keys - Clipboard Technology
For the last generation Silicon Valley and Tokyo have been working to design computers that are ever
easier to use. There is one thing, however, that has prevented the machines from becoming their user-friendliest:
you still have to input data with a keyboard, and that can require уou to do a lot of typing and to memorize a lot
of elaborate commands.
Enter the clipboard computer, a technology that has been in development for the last 20 years but took
hold in the mass market only this year. Clipboard PCs - which, as their паmе suggests, are not much bigger than
an actual clipboard - replace the keyboard with a liquid crystal display (LCD) screen and an electronic stylus.
Users input data by printing individual letters directly on the screen.
There are two technologies at work in a clipboard PC: one allows raw data to get into the computer and
the other allows the computer to figure out what that data means. The first technology relies principally on
hardware and varies depending on the particular computer. In one system, marketed under the name GRID Pad,
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the computer’s LCD screen is covered by a sheet of glass with a transparent conductive coating. Voltage is sent
across the glass in horizontal and vertical lines forming a fine grid; at any point on the grid, the voltage is
slightly different. When the stylus - which is essentially a voltmeter - touches the screen, it informs the computer
of the voltage at that point. The computer uses this information to determine where the stylus is and causes a
liquid crystal pixel to appear at those coordinates. The position of the stylus is monitored several hundred times a
second, so as the stylus moves across the glass, whole strings of pixels are activated.
“What we do is sort of connect the dots,” says Jeff Hawkins, the creator of GRID Pad. “Users can then
write whatever they want on the screen with a kind of electronic ink.” Making that writing comprehensible to the
computer, however, requires the help of some powerful software. When the stylus is being used, the comput er is
programmed to look for moments when the tip does not touch the screen for a third of a second or more. Every
time this happens - and it happens a lot when somebody is printing - the software assumes that one letter or
number has been written. The pixel positions of this fresh character are then passed on to the computer’s pattern
recognition software, which instantly identifies the letter or number written.
The software does this by first cleaning up the character - smoothing out crooked lines and removing
errant dots. The remaining lines and curves are then compared with a series of templates in the computer’s
memory that represent hundreds of thousands of different versions of every letter in the English alphabet and all
ten numerals. When the computer finds the closest match, it encodes the character in memory and displays it on
the screen as if it had been typed. The entire process takes just a fraction of a second. To delete a word, you
simply draw a line through it. To move to the next page, you flick the stylus at the bottom of the screen as if
you’re flicking the page of a book.
There are a handful of clipboard computers now on the market, including GRID Pad, which is sold in
the US; Penvision, manufactured by NCR and sold around the world; and Sony’s Palmtop and Canon’s Al Note,
both sold only in Japan. IBM and Apple are also pouring millions of dollars into the technology.
In addition to this hardware, a variety of software is also making its way to the market. Depending on
the power of the computer and the sophistication of the software, clipboard systems can be programmed to
understand the particular quirks of a particular user’s printing; this is an especially useful feature in Japan, where
elaborate kanji characters make up most of the written language. Improvements in software may soon allow
machines sold in the US to understand not only printing but continuous script as well.
Given such flexibility, the designers of clipboard computers are predicting big things - and a big market
- for their products. “There’s no doubt about it,” says an optimistic Hawkins. “You’re going to own one of these
things in the not-too-distant future”.
Notes:
printing - (in this case) writing separated letters or numbers by hand
kanji - Japanese script which uses Chinese characters
2. Decide whether the following statements are true or false in relation to the information
in the text. If you think a statement is false, change it to make it true .
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
The Americans and the Japanese are working together to produce userfriendlier computers.
The clipboard computer was first sold twenty years ago.
On a clipboard, an electronic pen replaces the traditional keyboard.
In the GRID Pad system, when the pen touches the screen, it informs the computer and a liquid crystal pixel
appears at that point.
The software decides that one character or number is complete if the tip of the
Stylus is not in contact with the screen for more than half a second.
The whole process of recognizing letters or numbers and printing them on the screen takes very little time.
There are many clipboard computers sold today which are all available everywhere in the world.
Clipboard systems can be made to understand any kind of writing.
3. Use the information in the text to complete the dialogue in your own words .
A How big is a clipboard PС?
B________________________
A Does it have a keyboard?
В________________________
A How does the stylus work?
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В ________________________
A How does the computer know when one letter or number is complete?
В ________________________
A And how does the computer recognize different letters?
В _______________________
A Can you delete a word after you have written it?
В Yes. ___________________
A Are these systems capable of recognizing joined writing?
В _______________________
4. Using the table, information of the texts and your own experience write an assay on
the kinds of computers.
5. Discuss the kinds of computers, their advantages and disadvantages.
PART II
History of Computing
Read the text:
Advances in the 1960’s
In the 1960’s, efforts to design and develop the fastest possible computer with the greatest capacity
reached a turning point with the LARC machine, built for the Livermore Radiation Laboratories of the
University of California by the Sperry - Rand Corporation, and the Stretch computer by IBM. The LARC had a
base memory of 98,000 words and multiplied in 10 Greek MU seconds. Stretch was made with several degrees
of memory having slower access for the ranks of greater capacity, the fastest access time being less then 1 Greek
MU Second and the total capacity in the vicinity of 100,000,000 words.
During this period, the major computer manufacturers began to offer a range of capabilities and prices,
as well as accessories such as:
Consoles
Card Feeders
Page Printers
Cathode - ray - tube displays
Graphing devices
These were widely used in businesses for such things as:
Accounting
Payroll
Inventory control
Ordering Supplies
Billing
CPU’s for these uses did not have to be very fast arithmetically and were usually used to access large
amounts of records on file, keeping these up to date. By far, the most number of computer systems were sold for
the more simple uses, such as hospitals (keeping track of patient records, medications, and treatments given).
They were also used in libraries, such as the National Medical Library retrieval system, and in the Chemical
Abstracts System, where computer records on file now cover nearly all known chemical compounds.
1. Which of the statements expresses the main idea best? Why do you think so?
1) During the 1960’s many accessories were offered to the users.
2) At that time the computers were very fast and reliable.
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2. Match the words with their definitions:
1) the part of a computer or calculator in which information (date) can be stored until it is wanted;
2) facts, information;
3) an order (to a person or machine) or advice on how to do something;
4) a person who prepares a program for a computer;
5) a piece of work;
6) one gathered together for a special purpose;
7) machinery which makes up a computer;
8) a flat surface containing the controls for a machine, electrical apparatus, etc;
9) a very small computer, or part of this, which contains one or more microchips;
__________________________________________________________________________
assembly; console; data; hardware; instruction; job; memory; microprocessor; programmer.
UNIT VII
PART I
Read the text and write out computer terms:
Parts of the Computer System
Computer has three main parts: the keyboard, the computer unit and the monitor. There are other accessories
such as a mouse, speakers, a microphone and a printer.
You will see a big metal box with a fan on it. That's the power supply. It takes house curren t (110 volts,
alternating) and steps it down to 5 and 12 volts direct current, to supply the computer's needs.
You will see the disk drives. You will also see some large printed circuit boards that plug into long sockets on an
even bigger printed circuit board. The big one is on the bottom of a standard desktop case, and on one side of
tower and mini-tower cases. It is called the motherboard. The boards that plug into it are called expansion cards.
The motherboard holds the most essential parts of a computer, the Central Processing Unit, called CPU, the
RAM and ROM memory, and an assortment of other important parts. The CPU coordinates all the activities of
the various components of the computer. It determines which operations should be carried out and in what order.
The CPU can also retrieve information from memory and can store the results of manipulations back into the
memory for later reference. The expansion cards contain special circuits for "accessories" such as your monitor,
disk drives, and options you might have such as a scanner or modem. On many modern computers, there are
fewer expansion cards than in computers from the past, since more functions are now built directly into the
motherboard.
When personal computers first became popular, the most common device used to transfer information from the
user to the computer was the keyboard. The keyboard is used to type in information and operate the computer.
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The Mouse device is an effective and convenient tool. It is the opto-mechanical input device. The Mouse has two
or three buttons which control cursor movement across the screen. Its primary functions are to help the user to
draw, point and select images on your computer display by moving the Mouse across the screen.
Monitor or screen is the TV-type screen on which you see the work you are doing on your computer.
Modern computers have an expansion card and external stereo speakers that can play digitized speech and
multiple-voice music.
A microphone can provide a way to talk through or to the computer.
A printer is a device which makes a printed copy of your work on a sheet of paper.
Like anybody waking up, your computer is hungry. But the computer hungers for more information. It checks to
see if a bootable disk is in drive A:. If not, it looks to see if the hard disk is bootable.
A bootable disk is one that contains "system files." The computer then reads these system files. They tell it all
about becoming a real computer. Once it reads these files, it knows how to run programs.
Just like when you read a book, the computer puts this information in short -term memory. On a computer, this is
the RAM. These are several IC chips that can hold hundreds of thousands or millions of individual bytes.
The computer has a timing crystal which keeps it thinking organized. Another timing crystal keeps track of the
time and date. Most computers also have a small rechargeable battery and an IC chip that keeps track of the time
even when the main power switch is turned off. This small part of the computer is always awake. Whenever the
computer is turned on, the battery is recharged.
1. Which of the statements expresses the main idea best? Why do you think so?
1) All parts of the computer system are essential for work.
2) CPU is the most important part of the computer system.
2. Decide whether the following statements are true or false in relation to the
information in the text. If you think a statement is false, change it to make it true.
1) A computer has three main parts: the monitor, the computer unit and the printer.
2) The main printed circuit board which is inside the computer is called the motherboard.
3) RAM and ROM memory coordinate all the activities of the various components of the computer system.
4) The monitor, the disk drives, the modem and some other options are called “accessories”.
5) The keyboard is the only means to transfer information from the user to the computer.
6) There are special sound cards which can play digitized speech and multiple-voice music.
7) A hard disk contains system files which tell the computer how to be a real machine.
8) RAM is a short-term memory which can hold hundreds of thousands bytes of information.
9) A special timing crystal helps the computer thinking organised and keeps track of time and date.
3. Translate into English:
1) Блок питания преобразовывает переменный ток в постоянный.
2) Платы расширения подключаются в материнскую плату.
3) На материнской плате находятся самые главные части компьютера: центральный процессор, память
произвольного доступа, ПЗУ и другие.
4) Прочитав системные файлы, ваш компьютер знает, как запустить программы.
5) Благодаря маленькой подзаряжающейся батарейке и микросхеме компьютер ведёт учёт времени, даже
если его выключали. Батарейка подзаряжается при каждом включении компьютера.
6) Пользователь может вводить информацию в компьютер при помощи клавиатуры.
7) Принтер и монитор – это устройства для вывода информации.
8) Пользователь может подключить различные внешние устройства к сво ему компьютеру.
9) В современных компьютерах многие функции встроены прямо в материнскую плату.
4. Match these words with their descriptions:
1) Keyboard
a) Used in computer games
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2) Mouse and Trackball
b) Lets you trace an image directly on the screen
3) Graphic Tablet
c) Impact printer, noisy and poor quality, prints in small dots of ink
4) Light Pen
d) Used to input text and graphics directly into memory
5) Scanner
e) Typing information into the computer
6) Microphone
f) Transfer drawings directly into computer’s memory
7) Joystick
g) Inputs sounds and can be used for voice recognition
8) Speakers
h) Screen to view output from computer
9) Dot Matrix Printer
i) Used to produce high quality sounds and play music
10) VDU or monitor
j) Used to point and click on icons within a windows environment
5. Fill in the blanks with the words below:
Device; colour monitor; network; input socket; printer; RAM; formatted; hard disk drive; floppy
disk drive; hardware; ROM; scanner; microphone; keyboard; mouse; CD ROM;DVD; data
1) The name given to the physical parts of the system is …… .
2) Each separate part of the system is called a …… .
3) A typical computer system might have these devices:
* input device – a …… and …… .
* output device – a …… and a …… .
* backing storage device - …… , ……, …… or ……, connected to the central processing unit (CPU).
4) When two or more computers are joined together the system is called a …… .
5) A running program is stored along with the …… in the main …… of the computer.
6) There are two different types of memory chips …… and …… .
7) Disks have to be …… before they can be used.
8) A …… is used to input pictures and graphics.
9) Sound and music can be input via a …… and a sound …… …… .
10) A high definition …… …… is used to display pictures and video.
6. Speak about the parts of the computer system, using information from the text
and your own experience.
PART II
History of Computing
Read the text:
More Recent Advances
The trend during the 1970's was, to some extent, moving away from very powerful, single - purpose
computers and toward a larger range of applications for cheaper computer systems. Most continuous -process
manufacturing, such as petroleum refining and electrical-power distribution systems, now used computers of
smaller capability for controlling and regulating their jobs.
In the 1960’s, the problems in programming applications were an o bstacle to the independence of
medium sized on-site computers, but gains in applications programming language technologies removed these
obstacles. Applications languages were now available for controlling a great range of manufacturing processes,
for using machine tools with computers, and for many other things. Moreover, a new revolution in computer
hardware was under way, involving shrinking of computer-logic circuitry and of components by what are called
large-scale integration (LSI) techniques. In the 1950s it was realized that "scaling down" the size of electronic
digital computer circuits and parts would increase speed and efficiency and by that, improve performance, if they
could only find a way to do this. About 1960 photo printing of conductive circuit boards to eliminate wiring
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became more developed. Then it became possible to build resistors and capacitors into the circuitry by the same
process. In the 1970’s, vacuum deposition of transistors became the norm, and entire assemblies, with adders,
shifting registers, and counters, became available on tiny "chips."
In the 1980’s, very large scale integration (VLSI), in which hundreds of thousands of transistors were
placed on a single chip, became more and more common. Many companies, some new to the computer field,
introduced in the 1970s programmable minicomputers supplied with software packages. The "shrinking" trend
continued with the introduction of personal computers (PC’s), which are programmable machines small enough
and inexpensive enough to be purchased and used by individuals.
Many companies, such as Apple Computer and Radio Shack, introduced very successful PC’s in the
1970s, encouraged in part by a fad in computer (video) games. In the 1980s some friction occurred in the
crowded PC field, with Apple and IBM keeping strong. In the manufacturing of semiconductor chips, the Intel
and Motorola Corporations were very competitive into the 1980s, although Japanese firms were making strong
economic advances, especially in the area of memory chips. By the late 1980s, some personal computers were
run by microprocessors that, handling 32 bits of data at a time, could process about 4,000,000 instructions per
second.
Microprocessors equipped with read-only memory (ROM), which stores constantly used, unchanging
programs, now performed an increased number of process -control, testing, monitoring, and diagnosing
functions, like automobile ignition systems, automobile-engine diagnosis, and production-line inspection duties.
Cray Research and Control Data Inc. dominated the field of supercomputers, or the most powerful
computer systems, through the 1970s and 1980s. In the early 1980s, however, the Japanese government
announced a gigantic plan to design and build a new generation of supercomputers. This new generation, the so called "fifth" generation, is using new technologies in very large integration, along with new programming
languages, and will be capable of amazing feats in the area of artificial intelligence, such as voice recognition.
Progress in the area of software has not matched the great advances in hardware. Software has become
the major cost of many systems because programming productivity has not increased very quickly. New
programming techniques, such as object-oriented programming, have been developed to help relieve this
problem. Despite difficulties with software, however, the cost per calculation of computers is rapidly lessening,
and their convenience and efficiency are expected to increas e in the early future.
The computer field continues to experience huge growth. Computer networking, computer mail, and
electronic publishing are just a few of the applications that have grown in recent years. Advances in technologies
continue to produce cheaper and more powerful computers offering the promise that in the near future,
computers or terminals will reside in most, if not all homes, offices, and schools.
1. Look through the text and find English equivalents for the following Russian words
and phrases:
программа для решения определённой задачи; помеха; функциональный язык; автоматизированная
система; широкомасштабная интеграция; сжатие (уплотнение); схема; проводниковая плата; провод;
резистор; конденсатор; вакуумное напыление; сборка; блок суммирования; сдвиговый регистр;
микросхема; делать большие успехи в области экономики; постоянное запоминающее устройство;
функция слежения; система зажигания; производственная линия; господствовать; искусственный
интеллект; распознавание голоса; производительность; объектно-ориентированное программирование;
облегчить проблему; вычислительная сеть; электронная почта; подготовка изданий с применением
электронной техники; поселиться где-то.
2. Fill in the blanks with the information taken from the text
The text concerns the problems of … .
In the 1950's and 1960's the new technologies in entire assemblies of computers led to … .
In the 1970's and 1980's the shrinking trend continued and … .
Microprocessors equipped with ROM … .
The new generation of computers the so-called "Fifth" generation which was designed and built by … and is
using now … .
6) … has become the major cost of many systems because … .
7) To relieve this problem such new techniques as … were developed.
8) In recent years a lot of applications such as … have grown.
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
3. Think and say about:
1) the progress in computer technologies in the 1950's and 1960s.
2) the progress in computer technologies in the 1970's and 1980s.
3) the progress in the area of software.
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UNIT VIII
PART I
Read the text and write out computer terms:
Windows. Learn the Basics.
Windows is a program that makes it easy for you to tell your personal computer what to do. Instead of
memorizing commands and typing them at a prompt, you tell the computer what to do by selecting buttons,
pictures (called “icons”), and commands from menus. Most of the time, you use your computer’s mouse to make
the selections; choosing a command is as easy as pointing to an option and clicking a button on the mouse.
Windows is designed to be easy to learn and easy to use. With Windows, you can run more than one application
at a time. Each application you run, such as Word, Excel, or Netscape, appears in a separate window, as if you
had several computer screens but just one monitor. By learning to manage the different windows, you can easily
work on several different projects at the same time. One major feature of Windows is its flexib ility. You can do a
task in several different ways.
When you turn on a computer with Windows installed, you first see a screen called the Desktop. Each
window you open sits on this desktop. The desktop is just like your own desk: you can keep it as orderly or as
messy as you like. On the Desktop, you will see several icons, which are small pictures that are graphic
representations of computer files, devices or programs. You can customize your desktop by right clicking on any
blank area and choosing Properties. The Properties window gives you information about the desktop and
allows you to make changes to it. You will see various tabs on the top of the screen in the Properties window.
Windows does give you a tool that makes it easier to keep things tidy as you move from task to task: the
Taskbar, located at the bottom of the window. At the far left side of the Taskbar is the button for the Start
menu. The Start menu is the place you generally go to start any program. You can also shut down your
computer from this menu.
The programs or tasks that you are running are shown in the small rectangles near the middle of the task
bar. Near the right side, you will see the programs or tasks that have been started automatically when you started
Windows. On the far right, you will usually see the time displayed.
Depending on how you have arranged your desktop, you usually see several icons on the left side of the
screen.
You can us e My Computer to manage files and folders on your hard drive (usually C:\) and
any other drives to which you have access, such as a CD-ROM drive, floppy disk drive (A:\), or your Local Area
Network (LAN) server.
The Recycle Bin is where you discard files. Additional icons on your desktop may provide access to
files and shortcuts (shortcuts are icons that have a small white arrow in the low left corner to point to a program,
folder or other item) to programs you frequently use.
Every window has a Title Bar at the top. The Title Bar has the name of the program and the name of
the file. This is important information, not to be overlooked. The Title Bar also has three small icons in the upper
right corner, that allows you minimize a window (make it smaller), maximize a window (make it larger) or close
a window. The menus at the top of the screen are called drop down menus. When you click on any of the words
in the menu a list of choices drops down.
There is often one or more toolbars under the menu choices. A toolbar is a row of icons. These icons are
shortcuts for choices that are in the menus. You can perform most functions more quickly by using the icons on
the toolbar. You display or hide the toolbars by finding the Toolbar menu, most often found in the View menu.
In Windows, when you want to work with some text, you must select or highlight it. Do this by placing
the icon at the beginning or the end of the text you want to select, press the mous e button and hold it down as
you move the cursor across the text, then release the mouse button. The text will become blackened.
In any Windows program you can cut or copy information into an area of the computer memory called
the Clipboard. You cannot see the Clipboard or the information that is in it. Once you have highlighted
something, choose Edit, then Copy or Cut. Choosing Copy will copy the text or graphics that you have
highlighted and keep the original document intact. Choosing Cut will remove the text or graphics from the
original document. To save mouse clicks, use the icons at the top of the screen for cut and copy procedures. Cut
looks like a pair of scissors, copy usually shows two pieces of paper and paste looks like a clipboard or a pot of
glue.
Scrollbars are used to display the contents of a window that extend beyond the window’s current
viewing area. A scrollbar is a gray rectangle with small black arrows on both ends. It can be seen on the left side
and/or bottom of a window. You can click on the arrows to make the screen move up and down or side to side.
When you open (double click) My Computer, you will see an icon for the Control Panel. When you
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open the Control Panel, you will find yourself in the area where you can control the Windo ws environment.
Click on the Start button and choose Help to learn more about how to use Windows. Most programs
have a help menu that you can search for information. In many programs, you can click on Help and choose
What’s This. Your cursor will turn into a question mark. You can click the question mark on any item on the
screen to get useful information about what that item is or what it does. Return to the Help menu and click on
What’s This again to turn it off.
1)
Which of the statements expresses the main idea best? Why do you think so?
1) Windows is one of the most popular and easiest computer programs.
2) In Windows, you can easily have several programs running at the same time.
3) Windows is a very flexible program that’s why you can do the same task in several different ways.
2)
Decide whether the following statements are true or false in relation to the
information in the text. If you think a statement is false, change it to make it true.
1)
2)
3)
4)
In Windows you must memorize the commands and type them to tell your computer what to do.
The screen you see first when you turn on your PC is called the Desktop.
The Recycle bin is the place where you store all your files and folders.
You can highlight any text or graphic by clicking your mouse on it or clicking the mouse button and holding
it down while dragging the mouse across your intended selection.
5) In Windows you must close one program before you start another one.
6) In Windows everything begins and ends at the Help button.
7) In Windows, you can often do the same thing several different ways.
8) My computer lets you access the parts of your computer where files and programs are stored.
9) Start button provides access to very few programs and files.
10) You can’t see Clipboard or the information that is in it on your computer screen.
11) You can cut, copy or paste a text only using your mouse.
12) If you don’t know something when computing just press Help b utton to get all necessary information.
3)
Answer the questions:
1) What is Windows?
2) Why do you need Windows on your PC?
3) At what button does everything begin and end in Windows?
4) What is an icon?
5) What is a shortcut?
6) What does the icon My Computer represent?
7) What information is shown in the Task bar?
8) What information can you read in the Title bar?
9) What do three small icons in the upper right corner do?
10) Where can you find a list of choices?
11) What is a Tool bar?
12) What must you do first if you want copy, cut or paste a text?
13) What are scrollbars used for?
14) From which panel can you control the Windows environment?
15) Where can you search the information you need?
4. Fill in the missing words using information from the text and your own experience:
You can use a …… to do all sorts of tasks …… a special program which operates it. This is called an ……
System. …… 1990 Microsoft released Windows …… . Windows was an easier operating system …… use
because …… was operated by clicking …… a series of pictures …… menus. Windows lets your …… run
software …… as application programs. …… machines will now have Pentium processor inside so will have no
trouble Windows 95. Windows 95 …… written to improve computers and make them truly.
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5. Using information from the text and your own experience speak why Windows is
easy to utilize and how you can work with it.
PART II
History of Computing
Read the text:
History of Windowing Systems
The first concept of a windowing (or WIMP - windows, icons, menus and pointers) system appeared in
the Xerox 8010 (‘Star’) system in 1981. This idea was then copied by Apple in 1984 as they developed the Mac
OS operating system for use on their Apple Macintosh, and later by Microsoft who wrote the first version of
Windows in 1985. Windows was a GUI (graphic user interface) for their own operating system MS-DOS (the
letters stand for MicroSoft Disk Operating System) that had been shipped with IBM PC and compatible
computers since 1981. Windows was designed to look a bit like Mac OS but unfortunately it was so similar that
Apple decided to take Microsoft to court over it ... a court case that was to run for many years.
This first version of Windows wasn’t very powerful and so not incredibly popular. Microsoft Windows
2 came out in 1987, and was a bit more popular that the original version. The first really popular version of
Windows was version 3.0, released in 1990. It was operated by clicking on a series of pictures and menus and
benefited from the improved graphics available on PCs by this time, and also from the 80386 processor which
allowed ‘true’ multitasking of the Windows applications. This made it more efficient and more reliable when
running more than one piece of software at a time. It would even allow you to run and multitask older MS-DOS
based software. Windows 3 made the IBM PC a serious piece of competition for the Apple Mac. Various
improvements - Windows 3.1 and Windows 3.11 were released, although they didn ’t really provide many
significant improvements to the way windows looked or worked.
Also available at a similar time to Windows 3 was IBM ’s OS/2 (which was actually written in
partnership with Microsoft). OS/2 Warp was also released which was a full 32 bit operating system - it came out
long before Windows 95, and boasted many similar features. Unfortunately IBM failed to market it successfully
enough and it didn’t catch on.
Windows 95 was released in 1995, in August. In Windows 95 the goal was, where possible, to make
tasks automatic. Although it shared much code with Windows 3 and even MS-DOS, Windows 95 had 2 big
advantages. First, it was an entire Operating System, you no -longer needed to buy MS-DOS and then install
Windows on top of it. Second it was specially written for 80386 and better process ors and made ‘full’ use of the
32 bit facilities. In this respect Windows 95 moved closer to Windows NT.
Windows NT (New Technology) was developed alongside Windows for use on servers and businesses.
It is designed to be more reliable and secure than Wind ows 95, but as a trade-off it is less compatible with older
MS-DOS based software (crucially for the home market it won’t run many video games).
1998 (June 25) saw the release of Windows 98, which is very similar to Windows 95, except that it
provided a new method of storing data on disks, a method that is more efficient and that supports disks larger
than the 2 GB allowed by the first release of Windows 95.
It is Microsoft’s aim - with Windows 2000 - to merge the two versions of Windows (Windows 95/8 and
Windows NT) into one product.
Which just leaves the question of the court case between Apple and Microsoft, the one Apple started in
1985 by trying to sue Microsoft for copying the ‘look and feel’ of their operating system. Well the answer was
that in 1997, August 6, after 18 months of losses by Apple, Microsoft helped ‘bail’ them out of serious financial
trouble by buying 100,000 non-voting shares in the company for $150 million. Microsoft had several political
reasons for doing this, but one condition was that Apple had to drop this long-running court case.
It is also worth mentioning another windowing system, developed in the late 1980s, ‘X Windows’. This
was developed at MIT for use on graphics workstations, and due largely to the availability of the source code
used to write it, it has become the standard graphical interface on most Unix based systems - including most
Linux distributions.
1. Give English equivalents:
система управления окнами; пиктограмма; указатель; подать иск в суд; точное программ ирование;
конкуренция; усовершенствование; обеспечивать; не пользоваться успехом (провалиться на рынке);
выпутаться из финансовых трудностей; прекратить длительный судебный процесс; исходная программа.
2. Answer the questions:
a.
When did the first concept of a windowing system appear?
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b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
Why did Apple decide to take Microsoft to court?
Why was Windows 3.0 more popular than versions1 and 2?
What were two big advantages of Windows 95?
What is the difference between Windows 95 and Windows 98?
What is Microsoft's aim with Windows 2000?
Why did Apple drop the long-running case against Microsoft?
What was "X windows" developed for?
3. Translate into English:
1)
2)
3)
4)
Первая действительно популярная версия Windows 3.0 была выпущена (вышла в свет) в 1990г.
Эта версия выигрывала за счёт улучшенной графики и позволяла точное мультипрограммирование
прикладных программ Windows.
Windows 95 хотя и имела много общего с Windows 93 и даже MS-DOS, обладала большими
преимуществами. Например, это была точная операционная система , и вам больше не нужно было
покупать MS-DOS и устанавливать её поверх Windows.
Стоит упомянуть, что "X Windows" была разработана для использования на графических рабочих
станциях и благодаря наличию исходной программы, стала стандартным графическим интерфейсом
для системы UNIX.
UNIT IX
PART I
Read the text and write out computer terms:
Computer Viruses
1. Try to answer these questions:
1) What is a computer virus?
2) How does a virus work?
2. Before reading the text, match the words and definitions listed below:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
a detonator
an infector
to boot
to trigger
to erase
pirated
a shield
8) to detect
a) a protective device
b) to remove all traces of something
c) a device used to set off an explosion or other destructive process
d) to discover or recognize that something is present
e) to set a process in motion
f) something which transmits a disease or virus
g) stolen, obtained without the owner’s consent
h) to load the operating system into memory
3. Now read the text to check your answers to Task 1.
A
How computer viruses work
A computer virus - an unwanted program that has entered your system without you knowing about it has two parts, which may be called the “infector” and the “detonator”. They have two very different jobs. One of
the features of a computer virus that separates it from other kinds of computer program is that it replicates itself,
so that it can spread (via floppies transported from computer to computer, or networks) to other computers.
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After the infector has copied the virus elsewhere, the detonator performs the virus’s main work.
Generally, that work is either damaging data on your disks, altering what you see on your computer display, or
doing something else that interferes with the normal use of your computer. Here’s an example of a simple virus,
the Lehigh virus. The infector portion of Lehigh replicates by attaching a copy of itself to COMMAND.COM
(an important part of DOS), enlarging it by about 1000 bytes.
So let’s say you put a floppy containing COMMAND.COM into an infected PC at your office -that is, a
PC that is running the Lehigh program. The infector portion of Lehigh looks over DOS’s shoulde r, monitoring
all floppy accesses. The first time you tell the infected PC to access your floppy drive, the Lehigh infector
notices the copy of COMMAND.COM on the floppy and adds a copy of itself to that file. Then you take the
floppy home to your PC and boot from the floppy. (In this case, you’ve got to boot from the floppy in order for
the virus to take effect, since you may so have many copies of COMMAND.COM on your hard and floppy
disks, but DOS only uses the COMMAND.COM on the boot drive).
Now the virus has silently and instantly been installed in your PC’s memory. Every time you access a
hard disk subdirectory or a floppy disk containing COMMAND.COM, the virus sees that file and infects it, in
the hope that this particular COMMAND.COM will be used on a boot disk on some computer someday.
Meanwhile, Lehigh keeps a count of infections. Once it has infected four copies of COMMAND.COM,
the detonator is triggered. The detonator in Lehigh is a simple one. It erases a vital part of your hard disk,
making the files on that part of the disk no longer accessible. You grumble and set about rebuilding your work,
unaware that Lehigh is waiting to infect other unsuspecting computers if you boot from one of those four
infected floppies.
Don’t worry too much about viruses. You may never see one. There are just a few ways to become
infected that you should be aware of. The sources seem to be service people, pirated games, putting floppies in
publicly available PCs without write-protect tabs, commercial software (rarely), and software distributed over
computer bulletin board systems (also quite rarely, despite media misinformation).
Many viruses have spread now through pirated - illegally copied or broken – games. This is easy to
avoid. Pay for your games, fair and square. If you use a shared PC or a PC that has public access, such as one in
a college PC lab or a library, be very careful about putting floppies into that PC’s drives without a write-protect
tab. Carry a virus-checking program and scan the PC before letting it write data onto floppies.
Despite the low incidence of actual viruses, it can’t hurt to run a virus checking program now and then.
There are actually two kinds of antivirus programs: virus shields, which detect viruses as they are infecting your
PC, and virus scanners, which detect viruses once they’ve infected you.
Viruses are something to worry about, but not a lot. A little common sense and the occasional virus scan
will keep you virus-free. Remember these four points:
Viruses can’t infect a data or text file.
Before running an antivirus program, be sure to cold-boot from a write-protected floppy.
Don’t boot from floppies except reliable DOS disks or your original production disks.
Stay away from pirated software.
Vocabulary
fair and square – honestly
it can’t hurt - it’s probably a good idea
4) Which of the statements express the main idea best? Why do you think so?
1) Many PC users fear viruses.
2) A computer virus is a program which infects your PC.
3) You needn’t worry a lot about computer viruses, just be sure to have a good antivirus program and update it regularly.
5. Look back in the text. Decide if the sentences are true or false, and rewrite the false
ones to make them true.
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
Computer viruses consist of two parts “the infector” and “the detonator”.
A computer virus is like any other computer program.
The virus can be activated any time.
Viruses can’t go from one computer to another.
The Lehigh virus erases a vital part of a hard disk, making the files on it no
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longer accessible.
6) The sources of viruses are floppies and applications bought at special shops.
7) You needn’t scan the PC before letting it write data onto floppies.
8) There is only one kind of anti-virus programs: virus scanners, which detect
viruses once they have infected your PC.
9) Follow some rules and you will never have serious problems with viruses.
6. Fill in the missing words:
Virus-infested, activate, infiltrate, spread, start, virus, inside, install, inactive
………. often cause erratic behavior, smiley faces may pop up, your screen may disappear, or your ………. may
crash. The trigger that ………. The virus can be almost anything. For instance, the virus can be activated the
minute it is ………. . Or it may start its dirty work the next time you ………. your computer. In many cases, a
virus can reside ………. your computer in an ………. state, waiting for a certain event (like a certain date) to
happen. From the moment the virus ………. your computer to the time that it made itself known to you, you
could have innocently ……….. the virus to others. A very disconcerting sign that you have a virus is when your
friends call or e-mail to let you know you have sent them a ………. e-mail.
PART II
History of Computing
Read the text:
Hardware History Overview
Modern computing can probably be traced back to the 'Harvard Mk I' and Colossus (both of 1943).
Colossus was an electronic computer built in Britain at the end 1943 and designed to crack the German coding
system - Lorenz cipher. The 'Harvard Mk I' was a more general purpose electro -mechanical programmable
computer built at Harvard University with backing from IBM. These computers were among the first of the 'first
generation' computers.
First generation computers were normally bas ed around wired circuits containing vacuum valves and
used punched cards as the main (non-volatile) storage medium. Another general purpose computer of this era
was 'ENIAC' (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) which was completed in 1946. It was typical of
first generation computers, it weighed 30 tones contained 18,000 electronic valves and consumed around 25KW
of electrical power. It was, however, capable of an amazing 100,000 calculations a second.
The next major step in the History of Computing was the invention of the transistor in 1947. This
replaced the inefficient valves with a much smaller and more reliable component. Transistorized computers are
normally referred to as 'Second Generation' and dominated the late 1950s and early 1960s. Des pite using
transistors and printed circuits these computers were still bulky and strictly the domain of Universities and
governments.
The explosion in the use of computers began with 'Third Generation' computers. These relied Jack St.
Claire Kilby's invention - the integrated circuit or microchip; the first integrated circuit was produced in
September 1958 but computers using them didn't begin to appear until 1963. While large 'mainframes' such as
the I.B.M. 360 increased storage and processing capabilities further, the integrated circuit allowed the
development of Minicomputers that began to bring computing into many smaller businesses. On November 15,
1971, Intel released the world's first microprocessor, the 4004 - and a technology on which the fourth generation
of computers are based. The microprocessor locates much of the computers processing abilities on a single
(small) chip. Coupled with another of Intel's inventions - the RAM chip (Kilobits of memory on a single chip) the microprocessor allowed fourth generation computers to be even smaller and faster than ever before. The
4004 was capable of 60,000 instructions per second, but later processors (such as the 8086 that all of Intel's
processors for the IBM PC and compatibles are based) brought ever increasing speed and power to the
computers. Supercomputers of the era were immensely powerful, like the Cray -1 which could calculate 150
million floating point operations per second. The microprocessor allowed the development of microcomputers,
personal computers that were small and cheap enough to be available to ordinary people. The first such personal
computer was the MITS Altair 8800, released at the end of 1974, but it was followed by computers such as the
Apple I & II, Commodore PET and eventually the original IBM PC in 1981.
Although processing power and storage capacities have increased beyond all recognition since 1972 the
underlying technology of LSI (large scale integration) or VLSI (very large scale integration) microchips has
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remained basically the same, so it is widely regarded that most of today's computers still belong to the fourth
generation.
1. Find English equivalents :
энергонезависимые носители данных; интегральная схема; универсальная ЭВМ; выпустить (произвести);
операция с плавающей запятой.
2. Answer the questions:
1) What were the first generation computers based around?
2) When was another general purpose computer of this era completed?
3) How was it called and what was it like?
4) Which invention led to the creation of the "Second Generation" computers?
5) Which circuits did they use?
6) Were these computers small or still bulky?
7) When did the explosion in the use of computers begin? What invention caused it?
8) Were computers still bulky when the integrated circuit was invented?
9) What are the main characteristics of the "Forth Generation" of computers?
10) What did the invention of the microprocessor allow?
11) When was the first personal computer released?
12) Has the underlying technology of LSI or VLSI microchips changed with the increasing of processing power
and storage capacities?
Fill in the blanks with the information taken from the text:
1) First generation of computers were normally based … .
2) The first major step in the History of Computing … .
3) The explosion in the use of computers began with … .
4) On November15; 1971; Intel released … .
5) Coupled with another of Intel's inventions – … .
6) The microprocessors allowed the development of … .
7) Although … and … have increased beyond all recognition since 1972 … or … has remained basically the
same.
3. Think and say about:
the first generation of computers;
the invention of the transistor;
the third generation of computers;
the fourth generation of computers
UNIT X
PART I
Graphical User Interface
1. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) makes computers easier to use. A GUI
uses icons. Icons are pictures which represent programs; folders; and files.
Can you identify any of these icons?
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2. Find the icons for the software which controls these items:
1 date and time
2 the mouse
3 fonts
4 the keyboard
5 a modem
6 sounds
3 . Study this dialog box. Tick (•) the features you can identify:
1 text box
2 tab
3 checkbox
4 title bar
5 drop-down list box
6 command button
4. Now read and check your answers:
Graphical User Interface
This is a picture of a computer screen with one window open. The window contains a
dialog box. This one is the Find dialog box. You can see the name on the title bar at the top of the
screen. You use this dialog box to find files or folders. Near the top of the window there are three
tabs. The first tab is for searching by name and location. There are two other tabs: one for searching
by date and the other for advanced searches. To search for a file by name and location ; you type the
name of the file in the drop-down list box called Named. In this example; the user wants to find all
the document files. Then you choose the folder to search in using another drop -down list box labeled
Look in. Here the user wants to look in the folder called Personal on the C drive. So the first drop down list box is for the name; and the second drop-down list box is for the location. Between the
Named and Look in drop-down boxes is a text box. In the text box you type any words which you
want to look for. In this example; the user only wants documents with the word 'sport'. You start the
search by clicking on the Find Now command button. Other buttons stop the search ; start a new
search; or browse the drives.
5. Read again. Match the features of a dialog box (1-4) with the examples from
the screen (a-d):
1
2
3
4
command button
dialog box
tab
drop-down list box
a Find
b Advanced
c Look in
d Stop
6. Here are the steps for using this dialog box. Put them in the correct
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order:
a
b
Enter name; location; and text required;
Press Find Now command button;
c
d
Choose tab;
Open dialog box.
7. Study this screen display. Can you find these items?
8. Find definitions in the text of these items:
1
menu
3 window
5 pointer
2
interface
4 active window
6 icon
WIMP
Most computers have a Graphic User Interface. The interface is the connection between
the user and the computer. The most common type of GUI uses a WIMP system. WIMP stands
for Window; Icon; Menu (or Mouse); Pointer (or Pull-down/Pop-up menu).
Windows A window is an area of the computer screen where you can see the contents of
a folder; a file; or a program. Some systems allow several windows on the screen at the same
time and windows can overlap each other. The window on the top is the one which is “active” ;
the one in use.
Icons are small pictures on the screen. They represent programs; folders; or files. For
example; the Recycle Bin icon represents a program for deleting and restoring files. Most
systems have a special area of the screen on which icons appear.
Menus give the user a list of choices. You operate the menu by press ing and releasing
one or more buttons on the mouse.
The pointer is the arrow you use to select icons or to choose options from a menu. You
move a pointer across the screen with the mouse. Then you click a button on the mouse to use the
object selected by the pointer.
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Language work: Making definitions
Study these descriptions of an icon:
An icon is a small picture on a computer screen.
An icon represents items such as floppy disks.
We can link these sentences to make a definition of an icon.
An icon is a small picture on a computer screen which represents items such as floppy disks.
Study these other examples of definitions.
A mainframe is a very large computer which is used by universities;
businesses; and government departments.
A palmtop is a very small computer which can be held in one hand.
A byte is a small unit of memory which can hold one character of data.
9. Add to the statements (1-10) using extra information (a-j)
Example
A barcode is a pattern of printed black lines which supermarkets use for
1) A barcode is a pattern of printed
black lines
a) It contains the main electronic
components.
2) A floppy is a disk
b) It adds features to a computer.
3) A motherboard is a printed circuit
board
c) It is about the size of a piece of
paper.
4) A password is a secret set of
d) Supermarkets use them for pricing.
characters
e) It reads and writes to disks.
5) A monitor is an output device
f) It can hold 1.44Mb of data.
6) A disk drive is a unit
g) It allows access to a computer
7) An expansion card is an electronic
board
system.
h) It controls all the other boards in a
8) A CD-ROM drive is a common
storage device
computer.
i) It displays data on a screen.
9) A notebook is a portable computer
j) It reads data from a CD-ROM disk.
10) The system unit is the main part of
the computer
10. Work with a partner. Ask for and make definitions of these items. Add other
examples of your own.
1 PC
2 menu
3 window
4 active window
5 pointer
6 CD
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PART II
History of Computing
Read the text:
History of Internet
The internet's history can be traced back to ARPANET - which was started by the US Dept. of
Defense for research into networking sometime in 1969.
Many people wanted to put their ideas into the standards for communication between the computers that
made up this network, so a system was devised for putting forward ideas. Basically you wrote your ideas in a paper
called a 'Request for Comments' (RFC for short), and let everyone else read it. People commented on and improved
your ideas in new RFCs. The first RFC (RFC0001) was written on April 7th, 1969 - that this is probably the closest
thing to a 'start date' for the internet. There are now well over 2000 RFCs, describing every aspect of how the internet
functions.
ARPAnet was opened to non-military users later in the 1970s, and early takers were the big universities although at this stage it resembled nothing like the internet we know today. International connections (i.e. outside
America) started in 1972, but the internet was still just a way for computers to talk to each other and for research into
networking, there was no World-Wide-Web and no email as we now know it.
It wasn't until the early to mid 1980s that the services we use most now started appearing on the internet.
The concept of 'domain names', things like 'www.microsoft.com' (Microsoft's web server), wasn't even introduced
until 1984 - before that all the computers were just addressed by their IP addresses (numbers). Most protocols for
email and other services appeared after this.
The part of the internet most people are probably most familiar with is the World -Wide-Web. This is a
collection of hyperlinked pages of information distributed over the internet via a network protocol called HTTP
(hyper-text-transfer-protocol). This was invented by Tim Berners -Lee in 1989. He was a physicist working at CERN,
the European Particle Physics Laboratory, and wanted a way for physicists to share information about their research the World-Wide-Web was his solution. So the web was started, although at this time it was text-only. Graphics came
later with a browser called NCSA Mosaic. Both Microsoft's Internet Explorer and Netscape were originally based on
NCSA Mosaic.
The graphical interface opened up the internet to novice users and in 1993 it's use exploded as people were
allowed to 'dial-in' to the internet using their computer at home and a modem to ring up an 'Internet Service Provider'
(ISP) to get their connection to this (now huge) network. Before this the only computers connect ed were at
Universities and other large organizations that could afford to hire cables between each other to transfer the data over
- but now anyone could use the internet and it evolved into the 'Information Superhighway' that we know and
(possibly) love today.
1. Give English equivalents:
Изобретать; быть похожим; научное исследование; область определения; межсетевой протокол;
решение проблемы; программа (окно) просмотра; средства графического взаимодействия;
подключиться к интернету; передавать данные.
2. Speak about the history of Internet in short.
3. Read the text and translate it in writing.
On the Internet and internets
A word on the ”Internet “ and on ''internets'' in general, is in order. In print, the difference between the two
seems slight: one is always capitalized, one isn't. The distinction between their meanings, however, is significant. The
Internet, with a capital "I", refers to the network that began its life as the ARPANET and continues today as, roughly,
the confederation of all TCP/IP networks directly or indirectly connected to commercial U.S. backbones. Seen close
up, it's actually quite a few different networks – commercial TCP/IP backbones, regional TCP/IP networks corporate
and U.S. government TCP/IP networks, and TCP/IP networks in other countries – interconnected by high-speed
digital circuits.
A lowercase internet, on the other hand, is simply any network made up of multiple smaller networks using
the same internetworking protocols. An internet (little "i") isn't necessarily c onnected to the Internet (big "I"), nor
does it necessarily use TCP/IP as its internetworking protocol. There are isolated corporate internets, and there are
Xerox XNS-based internets and DECnet-based internets.
The new term "intranet" is really just a marketing term for a TCP/IP-based "little" internet, used to
emphasize the use of technologies developed and introduced on the Internet within a company's internal corporate
network.
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4. Answer the questions:
a)
b)
c)
d)
Are the words "Internet" and "internets" the same?
What does the word "Internet" with capital "I" refer to?
What does "internets" refer to?
What does "intranet" mean?
UNIT XI
PART I
Read the text
How to Understand E-mail Addresses and URLs
Just as you need an address to mail a letter at the post office, you need an address to mail correspondence
through your computer. E-mail addresses generally look something like this: person@place.typ.
The first part of the address indicates the user name of the person you are trying to reach. The user name
might be a first name, last name, or combination of both. It might also be a nickname or any other name that the user
selected or was assigned when he signed up for e-mail. The @ symbol in the address is simply used to separate the
user name from the rest of the address. @ is read as “at”. Don’t try to skip it though, as it is a necessary part of the
address. After the @ symbol, you will find the name of the domain, which indicates the network where the user is
located. The domain can be considered the place that the user’s mail is received. The extension following the domain
indicates the type of organization involved.
Some common extensions are:
com (commercial )
edu (educational institution)
gov (government)
int (international)
mil (military)
net (network)
org (organization)
You might also see foreign addresses that add a country code as the last several digits of t he address, such
as:
au (Australia)
ca (Canada)
fr (France)
it (Italy)
us (United States of America)
As you know, with the popularity of cell phones and the additional number of phone lines being installed in
homes, many new area codes have been added to accommodate the growing number of telephone numbers. The same
thing is already happening to Internet addresses. Many new domains are being added to support all the new Internet
users. Recently seven new domains were created, and more are exp ected to follow in the not too distant future.
First and foremost in the e-mail addressing world is to remember that you must type the e-mail address
exactly. Even if one digit is wrong, it will be returned to you. Also, there are no spaces in Internet add resses. Using
spaces is a common error, easily corrected.
Web page addresses are slightly different. A Web page address is also called a Uniform Resource Locator or
URL. A typical URL would look like this:
http://www.aarp.org/
or
http://www.compukiss.com/
The first part of the address, the part before the colon, is the access method. Most of the time when you see
“http,” you are accessing a Web page.
Colons and slashes are special separators that the computer understands. They are UNIX codes because most
computers use the UNIX operating system to access the Internet. For those of you familiar with DOS, you will find
that DOS uses the backslash (\) while Internet addresses use the forward slash (/).
After the slashes, you will see an indicator such as www. This stands for World Wide Web. Next comes the
name of the computer where the information is located. Every now and then, you will see an address that does not
contain www. This is not necessarily a mistake. Although most Internet addresses include a www, a Web page can
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reside on the part of the Internet that is not found on the World Wide Web.
When you are looking for a Web page, you can sometimes guess the correct address if you understand how
addresses are formed. For example, if you want to find the Ford Motor Company, you would probably guess its
address to be http://www.ford.com/. If you enter that address in Netscape Navigator or Microsoft Internet Explorer,
you do not have to enter the http://. You would simply enter www.ford.com. Actually, Netscape Navigator seems to
be a little better at guessing addresses than Internet Explorer. In Navigator, you enter just “ford,” and it would take
you to the correct page.
Be aware, however, that the three letters after the period can make a big difference. For instance,
http://www.whitehouse.gov/ will take you to the official White House governmental Web site, but
www.whitehouse.com will transport you to one of the better-known pornographic Web sites.
The Internet is a treasure chest of information. As a user, you must have a key to unlock this high tech chest.
E-mail addresses and URLs are the keys. The quicker you master an understanding of both, the quicker you can open
that chest and begin enjoying the riches of the Internet.
1. Which of the statements express the main idea best? Why do you think so?
1) E-mail is the most popular Internet tool.
2) When writing e-mail addresses you must know about addressing and etiquette.
2. Look back in the text. Decide if the sentences are true or false, and rewrite the false
ones to make them true:
1) The-mail address looks like an address you write on the ordinary envelope.
2) The first part of the address usually indicates the user’s name.
3) You needn’t be very accurate when writing the e-mail address.
4) E-mail addresses and Web page addresses are different.
5) WWW stands for World Wide Web.
6) Most of the time you see “http”, you are accessing Web page.
7) If you don’t see www in the address, it means a mistake.
8) The Internet can’t provide you with information.
3. Answer the questions using information from the text:
1. What do the digits in the e-mail address mean?
2. What is the first and foremost rule in the e-mail addressing world?
3.How is web page address called?
4. What does the first part of this address stand for?
5. Which information comes after www?
6. Is it a mistake if www is missed in the address?
7. Can the user guess the address of the web page?
8. Can three letters after the period make a big difference?
9. Where can you find different information on different topics?
5) This is an E-mail message. Where are these parts of the mail: the header, the
message? Who sent this E-mail, and who received it? What is the mail about?
To: Bobsmith@harenet.or.jp
From: Andrewivanov@shu.ru
Subject: Re: June’s computer club meeting
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Hi Bob,
6. Read the text:
It is interesting to know that …
An electronic message is just words. It doesn’t convey body language or speech inflection that provides
clues to your mood when you speak face to face. Since e-mail tends to be less formal than paper mail, people are not
as careful about what they write. There are ways to show how you feel when you write. Here are a few of them:
- Use emphasis. Doing this with just ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) text can
be difficult. A good way to show emphasis is to use an asterisk to make words look more important. The phrase “I
*need* you to pick up that package today” is much clearer.
- Use bold face (or BIG letters) to convey even stronger emotion. Usually boldfacing means you are
ANGRY AND SHOUTING. While this shouldn’t be used often, it can be good sometimes.
- Use symbols to show your mood. Most of these are a variety of the sideways smiley face. The symbol: :-)
means the person is joking or something was not serious. See, it looks like two eyes, a nose and a n upturned mouth.
Other symbols are:
;-) winking smiley face
:-( frowning face
:-) smiley face sticking its tongue out
:’-( user is crying
:’-) user is so happy, s/he is crying
:-> user just made a really biting sarcastic remark
You may also see abbreviations of some commonly used phrases. Examples of these are:
IMHO (in my humble opinion)
FUI (for your information)
FAQ (frequently asked questions)
BTW (by the way)
RTFM (read the fine manual)
It is easy to be misunderstood when you send E-mail, don’t get angry if you don’t know what someone said.
PART II History of Computing
Read the text:
The History of the Domain Name System
Through the 1970s, the ARPANET was a small, friendly community of a few hundred hosts. A single file,
HOSTS. TXT, contained all the information you needed to know about those hosts: it held a name -to-address mapping
for every host connected to the ARPANET. The familiar UNIX host table, /etc/ hosts, was compiled from HOSTS.
TXT (mostly by deleting fields UNIX didn’t use).
The file was maintained by SRI’s Network Information Center (dubbed “the NIC”) and distributed from a
single host, SRI-NIC1 . ARPANET administrators typically emailed their changes to the NIC, and periodically ftp’d to
SRI-NIC and grabbed the current HOSTS. TXT. Their changes were compiled into a new HOSTS. TXT once or twice a
week. As the ARPANET grew, however, this scheme became unworkable. The size of HOSTS. TXT grew in
proportion to the growth in the number of ARPANEN hosts. Moreover, the traffic generated by the update process
increased even faster: every additional host meant not only another line in HOSTS. TXT, but potentially another host
updating from SRI-NIC.
And when the ARPANET moved to the TCP/IP protocols, the population of the network exploded. Now
there was a host of problems with HOST.TXT :
Traffic and load
1
SRI is the Stanford Research Institute in Menlo Park, California. SRI conducts research into many different areas,
including computer network.
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The toll on SRI-NIC, in terms of network traffic and processor load, was becoming unbearable.
Name collisions
No two hosts in HOST.TXT could have the same name. However, while the NIC could assign addresses in a
way that guaranteed uniqueness, it had no authority over host n ames. There was nothing to prevent someone from
adding a host with a conflicting name and breaking the whole scheme. Someone adding a host with the same name as
a major mail hub, for example, could disrupt mail service to much of the ARPANET.
Consistency
Maintaining consistency of the file across an expanding network became harder and harder. By the time a
new HOSTS.TXT could reach the farthest shores of the enlarged ARPANET, a host across the network had changed
addresses, or a new host had sprung up that users wanted to reach.
The essential problem was that the HOSTS.TXT mechanism didn’t scale well. Ironically, the success of the
ARPANET as an experiment led to the failure and obsolescence of HOSTS.TXT.
The ARPANET’s governing bodies chartered an investigation into a successor for HOSTS.TXT. Their goal
to create a system that solved the problems inherent in a unified host table system. The new system should allow
local administration of data, yet make that data globally available. The decentralization of ad ministration would
eliminate the single-host bottleneck and relieve the traffic problem. And local management would make the task of
keeping data up to date much easier. It should use a hierarchical name space to name hosts. This would ensure the
uniqueness of names.
Paul Mockapetris, of USC’s Information Sciences Institute, was responsible for designing the architecture of
the new system. In 1984, he released RFCs 882 and 883, which describe the Domain Name System, or DNS. These
RFC’s were superseded by RFCs 1034 to 1035, the current specifications of the Domain Name System. RFCs 1034
and 1035 have now been augmented by RFCs 1535, 1536, and 1537, which describe potential DNS security
problems, implementation problems, and administrative problems respectively.
1. Give English equivalents:
отображение; составлять таблицы; удалять; сетевой информационный центр; распределять; отправлять
по электронной почте; протокол передачи файлов; поток данных; обновлять; загружать; столкновение
имён; концентратор; разрывать; последовательность; узкое место; заменять; увеличивать.
2. Answer the questions based on the text:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
3.
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
What does “a host” mean?
How was the information distributed across the network?
Why did the host problem appear?
Why couldn’t two hosts have the same name?
How did the ARPANET‘s governing bodies solve this problem?
Match the words with their definitions:
a way planned or followed from one place to another.
means of entering, way in entrance;
the magnetic tapes, programs, etc. that make a computer work.
the complete circular path of an electric current;
the way of acting;
a tiny set of connected electronic parts produced as a single unit on a slice of material such as silicon, used
in computers, calculators, etc.
7) to (cause to) become smaller;
8) a substance that readily acts as a path for electricity; heat, etc;
9) a small electrical apparatus; esp. used in radios, TVs, etc;
10) made by a man; not natural;
11) ability to learn and understand;
12) the flow of electricity past a fixed point;
access; artificial; circuit; current; intelligence; microchip mode; route; to shrink; software; transistor.
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UNIT XII
PART I
Read the texts:
Computer devices
Input devices
Computers can listen to your voice and change what you say into a written message or into orders. Voice
input is a great help to people who cannot use their hands. It also helps people like pilots who need their hands or
eyes for other tasks.
There are five steps in voice input. Step 1: when you speak, you produce audio waves. A microphone
changes these waves into electrical waves. That’s Step 2. Inside the computer there’s a speech recognition board. In
Step 3, the speech recognition board processes the waves from the microphone to form a binary code for each word
you say. A binary code is a pattern of zeroes and ones, for example, OlOOl100. Each word has its own code.
In Step 4, the computer compares the code with other codes in its memory to identify each word. When it
finds the correct word, it displays it on the monitor screen. That’s Step 5, the last step .
Output devices
There are three different types of printers. These are dot-matrix, inkjet, and laser printers. Basically, you get
what you pay for. The more you pay, the better the printer. Dot -matrix printers are the cheapest kind of printer, but
their print quality is low and they are slow and noisy. They’re cheap to run. Pay a bit more for an inkjet and you get
better quality and quieter operation, but inkjets are relatively slow and also expensive to run. They’re a good choice
for colour. A laser printer gives you the best quality of output. It prints faster than either of the other two types of
printer and it costs less to run than an inkjet. Great for black and white. Unfortunately, it costs almost twice as much.
The Modem
The modem dials up other computers, arranges protocol so that your computer can talk to the other
computers, and handles all the details of sending and receiving bytes. All information is transferred one byte at a
time. Modem-based transfer of information may seem slow to you, but you should have seen it in the 1970's. Current
modems run at 28,000 bits per second or greater, but back then most modems were running at 300 bits per second.
Some zoomed along at 1,200 bits per second. Transferring single pictures could take hours. You could watch text
appear on your screen, one character at a time. The Worldwide Web would have been impossible back then.
Even though telephone lines can be quite noisy with clicks, static and other problems, modem-based
transmission is remarkably accurate. Modems send data in blocks of bytes. After each block, some basic math is
performed to analyze the block, and the computer on the receiving end is asked whether it agrees about the resultant
numbers. If any differences appear, the block is sent again.
Modems come in four main types. The most common are expansion cards, plugged into the motherboard.
PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) modems are a variation designed for notools-needed installation in notebook computers. They look like credit cards. External modems can be used with any
computer, by simply plugging into a port on the back of the computer. The last type, not often seen, are modems built
into the computer. Some notebook computers have dedicated built-in modems.
Storage devices
The hard disk drive inside your PC is like a filing cabinet. Instead of paper, it stores everything
electronically. It can hold all the software that runs on your system and all your personal files. It’s a pretty important
part of your computer. A hard disk drive normally contains several disks. They’re stacked on top of each other. There
are five in the diagram. The drive motor spins the disks very quickly. It runs all the time your PC is in use. There’s a
gap, a space, between each disk. We need the gaps so the read/write heads can move across the disks and reach all
parts quickly. The head motor controls the read/write heads.
The space between the head and the disk surface is tiny. Even smoke from a cigarett e can cause a crash. A
crash is what happens when the head touches the surface of the disk. To keep out dust and smoke, the drive is inside
a sealed case.
1 Look back in the text. Decide if the sentences are true or false, and rewrite the false
ones to make them true.
1) People can work at their computers without using hands, but just saying the commands.
2) The computer can’t identify human speech.
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3) Printers come in three main types.
4) Dot-matrix printers are the most expensive kinds of printers and laser ones are the cheapest.
5) You can’t dial up to other computers without a modem.
6) All types of modem are built into the computer.
7) A hard disk drive stores any information electronically.
8) A hard disk drive contains a single dis k.
2. Answer the questions using information from the texts and your own experience:
1) What kind of printer have you used?
2) If you want to print an important document which printer would you use? Why?
3) How much does an ink jet printer cost?
4) What type of modem are you using at home?
5) How does a modem send data and which operations are made on them?
6) What storage devices do you know? Which one do you prefer?
3. Fill in the blanks using the given words (some words can be used more than once):
input; output; device; install; file; access; keyboard; disc drive; peripheral;
transfer; install; store
1) To ……. Information recorded on a disk, a …… must be used.
2) The computer …… at the University has an IBM-370 and many …… .
3) The computer …… …… reads the information into the computer memory.
4) The information is …… on disks, diskettes and magnetic tapes as …… .
5) When personal computers first became popular, the most common device used to …… information from the
user
to the computer was the …… .
6) The BIOS receives requests from programs to perform the standard ……/…… services.
4. Speak about computer devices using information from the texts and your own
experience.
PART II History of Computing
Read the text and answer the question:
How many and what steps were there in the computer technology development ?
Great Strides in Computer Technology
Still faster means of getting at computer-stored information must be developed. The problems of
communicating with the computer are becoming increasingly apparent. Punch cards, typewriter terminals, and paper
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tapes all demand special codes and computer languages. Such a situation can no longer be accepted, for computers
already calculate at a blinding pace, and their speeds are steadily increasing.
The great leap forward in computer technology was attained in 1947 with the development of the transistor.
Transistor can perform all of the functions of vacuum tubes but are flea -sized by comparison and require only a
fraction as much power to operate. The transistor is made of a semiconductor, a crystal that conducts electricity better
than glass, though not as well as metal. The manufacture of a transistor starts with a single pure crystal of
semiconductor, such as germanium. The addition of very small amounts of a chemical impurity such as arsenic
introduces excess electrons into the crystal lattice. These electrons can move easily to carry electricity. Other atomic
impurities such as boron soak up electrons from the lattice and thus create deficiencies, or holes, where there are no
electrons. The hole, in effect, is a positive charge, the opposite of the negat ively charged electron. Both holes and
electrons skip through the material with ease.
Arsenic- and boron-doped crystals are sliced into wafers and then sandwiched together so that alternating
layers containing either free electrons or holes face each other. Holes and electrons, carrying opposite electrical
charges, are attracted to each other and a few drift across the junction, creating an electrical field.
By adding electrical contact points to each of the layers in the sandwich, a transistor is created.
Current flowing between two of the contact points can be controlled by sending an electrical signal to a third
point. The signal can thus be amplified from fifty to forty thousand times. Moreover, the current keeps step with the
incoming signal, so that when it is pumped back out again, the signal is a precisely amplified image of the original
signal.
By 1955 the transistor was replacing the vacuum tube in computers, shrinking their size and increasing their
speed. The transition from vacuum tubes to trans istors was but the first step however. Integrated circuits that combine
both amplifiers and other electrical components on slivers of material far smaller than even transistor are shrinking
the size of the computer still further. The integrated circuits (IC) conserve space, and they also save time and the
effort of linking up individual components. This means that a quarter-inch chip containing five or six complete
circuits can move information across its route faster than a transistorized circuit because e very element within it is
closer that are the elements of transistors. On the horizon is yet another shrinkage, which will be made possible by a
process, still undeveloped, called large-scale integration, or LSI. An LSI chip will be only a tenth of an inch square
and will carry as many as one hundred circuits. The difference between an LSI chip and an IC chip may seem like
hairsplitting, but on such negligible differences are built great strides in computer technology.
The limiting speed on computers is the speed of light. Computer engineers used this fact to create a standard
measure – the light-foot – by which to clock computer speeds. It is defined as the distance, about twelve inches that
light travels in a billionth of a second. Miniaturization will narrow the gap between circuits and so reduce the number
of light-feet that must be traversed through the logic circuits. But there are still other limitations that must be
overcome before computer processing will be rapid enough to satisfy the demands of perfectionists.
1. Look through the passage and find the English equivalents for the following Russian
phrases:
с ослепительной скоростью; постоянно возрастают; большой скачок вперёд; размером с блоху;
химическая примесь; избыточные электроны; кристаллическая р ешётка; кристалл, легированный
мышьяком; разрезать на полупроводниковые пластины; перемежающиеся слои; экономит время и
усилия; мелочный педантизм; большие успехи в технологии; предельная скорость; люди, занимающиеся
совершенствованием.
2. Match each word in A with that in B which means the opposite:
A. excess, off, purity, subtract, divide, pure, nonsense
B. on, impurity, deficiency, sense, add, multiply, doped
3. Answer the following questions based on the information found in the text or on
your own experience and thinking:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
How many great leaps forward were made in the development of the computer technology?
What was the technology of the first generation of computers?
Why were the first computers so bulky and speed-limited?
When were transistors invented?
What were the advantages of transistor technology?
What is the technology of transistor?
What further still greater leap forward in the computer technology was made after 1955?
What still greater opportunities did the IC technology provide?
What does LSI means?
How many circuits does a single LSI chip carry?
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11. What other problems do there remain in computer technology?
12. How could these problems be solved?
4.
Think and say about:
a) the history of the computer technology;
b) the process of transistor manufacturing;
c) the advantages of modern IC and LSI technologies.
SUPPLEMENTARY TEXTS
Text 1
An Information-Processing Machine
A computer is a special kind of machine - a machine that processes information. Most personal computers
look very much alike both on the inside and on the outside and they consist of both hardware and software. The
hardware is the part of the computer you can touch. The software is the collection of programs that makes the
computer work. You cannot see or touch software.
The hardware of a computer system consists of four main parts:
1. Input devices. These are designed to get information into a computer. Examples include a keyboard,
microphone, digital camera, scanner, drawing tablet, and a mouse.
2. Storage devices. Internal storage is of two kinds. The computer uses temporary storage called RAM to
hold the information being used during processing. Chips are partially or totally dedicated to this kind of storage. The
computer uses long-term storage called ROM to hold information it needs each time the computer is used. The ROM
chips receive their information before the computer is assembled. In addition, the computer uses external storage or
storage that is not directly involved in information processing. Hard drives, floppy disks, CD-ROMs, and tapes are all
devices that hold information for long periods of time and is moved from this type of memory into the computer when
needed.
1. Information processing. The computer has special integrated circuits that are designed to handle the
processing of information. Of the many chips inside a computer, the microprocessor is the most complex and has the
greatest amount of circuits. The microprocessor is the primary work area when information is being processed.
2. Output devices. The results of information processing must be accessed to be of value to the user. Examples
of output devices are monitors, speakers, and printers.
The computer's microprocessor is an extremely versatile chip. As a user, you only have to change the
instruction set you give the microprocessor - your choice of software - and your computer changes from being a word
processor to a graphics machine to a sound editor or even to a games machine. The microprocessor helps with every
task.
Other information-processing machines exist that are much less versatile. These use an embedded processor a processor given a limited set of instructions. Embedded processors are found in VCRs, electronic games, microwave
ovens, remote controls, wrist watches and so on. These devices are only able to accomplish the tasks assigned to them
by their designers. As a user, you can only use the device for whatever purpose it was intended.
Text 2
Completely Electronic Device
There are many different kinds of computers in the world today. Computers are operating at the bank, in your car, and
at the grocery store. Many of these computers are special-purpose computers; that is, they serve specific functions. There are
also general-purpose computers in the office, at home, and at school, versatile enough to handle all kinds of tasks. The existence of
all these different types of computers raises an important question: What is a computer? Simply put, a computer is a device
that processes raw data into useful information. But from that perspective, a typewriter, a calculator, or even an abacus could
be called a computer. What distinguishes a computer from other information-processing devices are three basic
characteristics:
• A computer is completely electronic. That is, all its functions are carried out with
electrical signals.
• A computer can remember information and hold it for future use. Computers
do this on a temporary basis with memory circuits and permanently with storage devices such as magnetic disk and tape.
• A computer is programmable. Unlike other devices built to perform a single function or limited range of functions a
computer can be instructed to do whatever task we tell it to do. This opens up a vast realm of possibilities for computers to
solve problems for us in everyday life: at home, at school, or at work.
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The most common kind of general-purpose computer in use today is the personal computer or microcomputer. It gets the
name microcomputer from the tiny electronic device, called the microprocessor that does the actual processing. The use of
personal computers has grown greatly during the last ten years. Only a few million personal computers were in use in 1980, so
they were a relative novelty. Now there are almost a hundred million in this country alone.
Microcomputers form the most common of the four classes of general-purpose computers; the other three
classes are minicomputers, mainframe computers, and supercomputers. Microcomputers, be sides relying on a
microprocessor, are the smallest and are generally designed for a single user. Minicomputers, mainframes, and
supercomputers all use processors built from a large'number of components. Minicomputers, larger than microcomputers (up to the size of a refrigerator) are generally intended for small- to medium-sized groups of users in businesses and
other organizations; their processing abilities are more robust than those of microcomputers. Mainframe computers can take
up a whole room and can handle the needs of many simultaneous users while process ing large volumes of data; they are
most often used in large organizations and institutions. Supercomputers, the most sophisticated computers, are designed
for extremely high-speed processing of huge amounts of data, often using multiple processors working together. They
are most often used for performing complex computations by the government, research organizations, and large
industrial groups.
Fifteen or twenty years ago most books on computers described mainframes, because mainframes were the most
common. Today, though, you are more likely to use a microcomputer. The first micros were sold to computer hobbyists in
1975. In 1977, Apple entered the market with the Apple II, and in 1981 IBM joined the race. Apple released the Macintosh, the
cornerstone of its current computer line, in 1984. During the 1980s, literally hundreds of manufacturers began making
microcomputers. The competition kept prices down, and millions of people and businesses bought micros.
As the microcomputer industry grew, computer makers constantly tried to lure new customers with more
powerful machines. The typical microcomputer sold today can work with more than 200 times as much data as the first
IBM PC, and it can work with that data at least 200 times as fast. In fact, many of today's laptop and desktop microcomputers are more powerful than the minis and mainframes that dominated the market only fifteen or twenty years ago.
The power of the modern microcomputer enables it to be used for all kinds of tasks. You can use it to write papers,
perform mathematical computations and analyses, and conduct research. At home you can use the same computer to
communicate with friends, play games, buy airline tickets, and keep track of finances. The same computer can be used again at
work for correspondence, financial analysis, compiling and analyzing data, communicating with clients, and a thousand other
tasks.
Text 3
History of Computing
The earliest computing device undoubtedly consisted of the five fingers of each hand, and this is still the
preferred device of every child who learns to count. Since there are ten discrete fingers (digits) available for counting,
both digital computation and the decimal system have enjoyed a huge popularity throughout history. However,
improvements were made to replace the digits of the hand by a more reliable ' count-10' device.
From Pebbles and Beads to the Abacus
It probably did not take more than a few million years of human evolution before someone had the idea that
pebbles could be used just as well as fingers to count things. Thus, ten pebbles or ten of anything were kept in a
handy container to represent the numbers 1 to 10, instead of the ten fingers. The form the pebble container should
take for handy calculations kept many of the best minds of the Stone Age busy for centuries. It was not t ill about five
thousand years ago in the Tigris -Euphrates Valley (and as late as 460 BC in Egypt) that there arose the idea of
arranging a clay board with a number of grooves into which the pebbles were placed. By sliding the pebbles along
the grooves from one side of the board to the other, counting became almost ' semi-automatic '; even to the point
allowing one hand to be kept free for other things. The grooved pebble container was too big a thing to be kept secret
for long, and the processes of cultural diffusion (e.g. deported slaves) saw to it that it became known in China, Japan,
and Rome. When the diversity of these races were confronted with this leap into the future, a flowering of ingenuity a sort of minor renaissance - resulted, which swept the pebble computer to a high plateau of development. One group
came up the idea of drilling holes in the pebbles and stringing the resulting beads in groups often of a frame of wire;
another used reeds instead. In eihter case, the beads could be moved easily and rapidly along the wire or reeds, and a
tremendous speed-up in calculations resulted. This device, is somewhat more sophisticated form, became known as
the abacus in China.
The Chinese abacus is made of 13 columns with 2 beads on top (heaven) and 5 beads below (earth). The
Japanese copied the Chinese abacus around the 17th century AD and adapted it to their more delicate way of thinking.
It has 21 columns with 1 bead on top and 4 beads below. The abacus is s t ill taught in the Far East as regular school
training, and is used commonly in many places. In 1946 a contest between a Japanese abacist (Kiyoshu Matzukai) and
an electronic computer was held for 2 days resulting in an unmistakable victory of the abacist. The third modern form
of the abacus is Russian with 10 beads in 10 arched rows.
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Text 4
Charles Babbage
Charles Babbage was born in Walworth, Surrey, on 26 December 1791. He was one of four children born to
the banker Benjamin Babbage and Elizabeth Teape. He attended Trinity College, Cambridge in 1810, graduated from
Peterhouse in 1814 and received an MA in 1817. He resided at Devonshire Street in London until 1828 when he
moved to 1 Dorset Street, Manchester Square, London, where he resided until his death. He was elected a fellow of
the Royal Society in 1816 and occupied the Lucasian chair of mathematics at Cambridge University from 1828 to
1839.
Between 1813 and 1868, Babbage published six full length works and nearly ninety papers. Babbage’s
talents and interests were wide-ranging. He was a prolific inventor, a mathematician, scientist, politician, critic of the
scientific establishment and political economist. Babbage pioneered lighthouse signalling, proposed ‘black box’
recorders for monitoring the conditions preceding railway catastrophes, advocated decimal currency and the use of
tidal power once coal reserves were exhausted. He favoured and campaigned for the introduction of Continental
theories to the mathematics curriculum and highlighted the neglect of science and the status of scientists.
Babbage’s reputation as a computer pioneer rests on his work on automatic calculating e ngines. His engines
were of two kinds: Difference Engines and Analytical Engines. By previous standards these engines were
monumental in conception, size and complexity.
In 1821, Babbage began the task of mechanising the production of tables. The idea was that a calculating
machine that could not only calculate without error but automatically print the results would eliminate at a stroke all
three sources of errors in printed tables. Babbage designed an apparatus called a Difference Engine so -called because
of the mathematical principle on which it was based – the method of finite differences.
By the end of 1834, while Difference Engine No. 1 was still incomplete, he had conceived the Analytical
Engine – a revolutionary machine on which his fame as a compu ter pioneer now largely rests. The Analytical Engine
is far more ambitious and technically demanding than his earlier Difference Engine. Like the Difference Engine little
of it was ever built and all that survives are a few partially completed mechanical a ssemblies and test models of small
working sections.
The ground-breaking work on the Analytical Engine was largely complete by 1840. Seven years later he
started the design of Difference Engine No. 2 using elegant and simplified techniques developed for t he more
complex Analytical Engine.
Babbage failed to complete the construction of any of his engines. His failures were not failures of principle
but of practical accomplishment. However, the legend of his work if not its technical detail remained part of the
folklore amongst those who pursued the ideal of automated calculation after his death.
Text 5
A. Charles Babbage (1791-1871) is widely regarded as the first computer pioneer and the great ancestral
figure in the history of computing. Babbage excelled in a variety of scientific and philosophical subjects though his
present-day reputation rests largely on the invention and design of his vast mechanical calculating engines. His
Analytical Engine conceived in 1834 is one of the startling intellectual feats of the nineteenth century. The design of
this machine possesses all the essential logical features of the modern general purpose computer. However, there is
no direct line of descent from Babbage’s work to the modern electronic computer invented by the pioneers of the
electronic age in the late 1930s and early 1940s largely in ignorance of the detail of Babbage's work.
Babbage failed to build a complete machine. The most widely accepted reason for this failure is that
Victorian mechanical engineering were not sufficiently developed to produce parts with sufficient precision.
In 1985 the Science Museum launched a project to build a complete Babbage Engine to original designs to
explore the practical viability of Babbage’s schemes. The Engine chosen was Ba bbage’s Difference Engine No. 2
designed between 1847 and 1849. The calculating section of the Engine, which weighs 2.6 tonnes and consists of
4,000 separate parts, was completed and working in November 1991, one month before the 200th anniversary of
Babbage's birth.
B. The first device that might be considered to be a computer in the modern sense of the word was
conceived in 1822 by the eccentric British mathematician and inventor Charles Babbage.
In Babbage's time, mathematical tables, such as logarithmic and trigonometric functions, were generated by
teams of mathematicians working day and night on primitive calculators. Due to the fact that these people performed
computations they were referred to as "computers." In fact the term "computer" was used as a job description (rather
than referring to the machines themselves) well into the 1940s, but over the course of time this term became
associated with machines that could perform the computations on their own.
In 1822, Babbage proposed building a machine called the Difference Engine to automatically calculate
mathematical tables. The Difference Engine was only partially completed when Babba ge conceived the idea of
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another, more sophisticated machine called an Analytical Engine.
The Analytical Engine was intended to use loops of Jacquard's punched cards to control an automatic
calculator, which could make decisions based on the results of previous computations. This machine was also
intended to employ several features subsequently used in modern computers, including sequential control, branching,
and looping.
Working with Babbage was Augusta Ada Lovelace, the daughter of the English poet Lord Byron. Ada, who
was a splendid mathematician and one of the few people who fully understood Babbage's vision, created a program
for the Analytical Engine.
Had the Analytical Engine ever actually worked, Ada's program would have been able to compute a
mathematical sequence known as Bernoulli numbers. Based on this work, Ada is now credited as being the first
computer programmer and, in 1979, a modern programming language was named ADA in her honor.
Babbage worked on his Analytical Engine from around 1830 until he died, but sadly it was never completed.
It is often said that Babbage was a hundred years ahead of his time and that the technology of the day was inadequate
for the task.
Text 6
Analytical Engine
Babbage had conceived of the Analytical Engine by 1834 after the Difference Engine project collapsed. It is
the Analytical Engine more than the Difference Engine that shows Babbage’s forward thinking.
The Difference Engines were automatic i.e. they did not rely (as did the manual calculators that came
before) on the continuous informed intervention of a human operator to get useful results. The Difference Engines
were the first designs to successfully embody mathematical rule in mechanism. However, the Difference Engines are
not a general purpose machines. They could process numbers entered into them only by adding them in a particular
sequence. The Analytical Engine was not only automatic but also general purpose i.e. it could be `programmed’ by
the user to execute a repertoire instructions in any required order.
Portion of the mill of the Analytical Engine with printing
mechanism, under construction at the time of Babbage’s death.
© Science Museum/Science & Society Picture Library
[
The engine was envisaged as a universal machine for finding the value of almost any algebraic function. The
Analytical Engine is not a single physical machine but a succession of designs that Babbage refined until his death in
1871.
The designs for the Analytical Engine include almost all the essential logical features of a modern electronic
digital computer. The engine was programmable using punched cards. It had a ‘store’ where numbers and
intermediate results could be held and a separate ‘mill’ where th e arithmetic processing was performed. The
separation of the ‘store’ (memory) and ‘mill’ (central processor) is a fundamental feature of the internal organisation
of modern computers.
The Analytical Engine could have `looped’ (repeat the same sequence of operations a predetermined number
of times) and was capable of conditional branching (IF… THEN… statements) i.e. automatically take alternative
courses of action depending on the result of a cacluation.
The Engine would have been vast. Had it been built it would have needed to be operated by a steam engine
of some kind. Babbage made little attempt to raise funds to build the Analytical Engine. Instead he continued to work
on simpler and cheaper methods of manufacturing parts and built a small trial model which was under construction at
the time of his death.
The movement to automate mathematical calculation in the nineteenth century failed and the impetus to
continue this work was largely lost with Babbage’s death. From the vantage point of the modern comp uter age we are
better placed to appreciate the full extent to which Babbage was indeed the first pioneer of computing.
Text 7
Personal or micro
There is a computer for every use under heaven, or so it seems. Let's look at the kinds of computers that
there are, based on general performance levels .
Computers for personal use come in all shapes and sizes, from tiny PDAs (personal digital assistant) to hefty
PC (personal computer) towers. More specialized models are announced each week - trip planners, expense account
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pads, language translators... (Hand-held (HPC), PDA, Tablet PC, Laptop, Desktop, Tower, Workstation).
When talking about PC computers, most people probably think of the desktop type, which are designed to sit
on your desk. The tower and the smaller mini-tower style cases have become popular as people started needing more
room for extra drives inside. Repairmen certainly appreciate the roominess inside for all the cables and circuit boards
... and their knuckles.
A workstation is part of a computer network and generally would be expected to have more than a regular
desktop PC of most everything, like memory, storage space, and speed.
The market for the smallest PCs is expanding rapidly. Software is becoming available for the small types of
PC like the palmtop (PPC) and handheld (HPC). This new software is based on new operating systems like Windows
CE (for Consumer Electronics). You may find simplified versions of the major applications you use. One big
advantage for the newer programs is the ability to link the small computers to your home or work computer and
coordinate the data. So you can carry a tiny computer like a PalmPilot around to en ter new phone numbers and
appointments and those great ideas you just had. Then later you can move this information to your main computer.
With a Tablet PC you use an electronic stylus to write on the screen, just like with a pen and paper, only
your words are in digital ink. The Tablet PC saves your work just like your wrote it (as a picture), or you can let the
Hand Recognition (HR) software turn your chicken-scratches into regular text.
Main frame
The main frame is the workhorse of the business world. A main frame is the heart of a network of computers
or terminals which allows hundreds of people to work at the same time on the same data. It requires a special
environment - cold and dry.
Supercomputers
The supercomputer is the top of the heap in power and expense. These are used for jobs that take massive
amounts of calculating, like weather forecasting, engineering design and testing, serious decryption, economic
forecasting, etc.
Distributed or Grid Computing
The power needed for some calculations is more than even a single supercomputer can manage. In
distributed computing using a PC grid many computers of all sizes can work on parts of the problem and their results
are pooled. A number of current projects rely on volunteers with computers connected to the Internet. The computers
do the work when they are not busy otherwise.
The projects that need distributed computing are highly technical. For example, the
http://setiathome.ssl.berkeley.edu/ project looks for signs of intelligent communication in radio signals coming from
space. (SETI stands for Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence.) If you volunteer your computer for this project,
you would load a small screen-saver program onto your own computer. When the computer is not busy, the screen
saver comes on. The program downloads some signal data, starts to analyze it, and later reports the results back to
SETI@Home. Once the program is installed, you do not have to do anything else but watch the progress in the
screen saver.
Server
The term server actually refers to a computer's function rather than to a specific kind of computer. A server
runs a network of computers. It handles the sharing of equipment like printers and the communication between
computers on the network. For such tasks a computer would need to be somewhat more capable than a desktop
computer. It would need: more power, larger memory, larger storage capacity, high speed communications.
Minicomputer
The minicomputer has become less important since the PC has gotten so powerful on its own. In fact, the
ordinary new PC is much more powerful than minicomputers used to be. Originally this size was developed to handle
specific tasks, like engineering and CAD calculations, that tended to tie up the main frame.
Text 8
Hardware and Software
All computers consist of hardware. This includes the computer itself and all other related physical
devices. The other pieces of the computer system include software, the instructions that tell the computer what tasks to
perform; data, the information the computer works on; and you, the user, who ultimately tell the computer what to
do, and for whom the computer does all its work.
All computers use the same basic techniques for carrying out the tasks we give them. The computer takes in
data through input devices, it manipulates the data according to its instructions, it outputs the results of its processing,
and it stores data for later use. These four processes together are known as the computing cycle.
Input is the process of entering data into the computer. The most common device used for input on microcomputers is
the keyboard. Computer keyboards include many special command and function keys to perform specialized input tasks as
well as the usual typewriter layout. Other input devices include a mouse, which manipulates a pointer on the computer
screen for giving commands and entering data; a scanner, which reads graphic images and pages of text and sends them to
the computer; a modem, which receives data over phone lines; and several other devices.
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Once data is in a microcomputer, it is processed by the microprocessor and its as sociated integrated circuit
chips. Microprocessors perform all calculations and manipulations necessary to transform data into meaningful
information. Associated with the processor is the computer's memory, which is used for storing data and programs while
they're being used by the processor.
Getting processed data out of the computer is the job of output devices. The computer can display the data on a
monitor screen, of which there are several types: colour or monochrome, flat-panel or picture tube, desktop or portable.
You can also send data to a printer or plotter to make a paper copy, use the modem to send the data over a phone line to
another computer, or use any number of specialized output devices.
What do you do if you want to keep the data in a permanent form? That's what storage devices are for. Storage
devices hold data permanently, so you can save it and retrieve it later. All microcomputers use disks to store data
magnetically. Each type at disk is used by its corresponding disk drive to read and write information. Floppy disks are
used for easy, portable storage, and built-in hard disks are used for more permanent storage of larger amounts of data and
programs for fast access. Other common storage devices include optical discs (such as CD-ROM) and magnetic tape.
A program is a group of instructions that tells the processing devices what to do. Software can be a single programor
a set of programs that work together. Because their meanings are very similar, the terms software (or a piece of software) and
program are often used interchangeably.
Two types of software are necessary to make the computer capable of performing useful work. They are the operating
system and application software. The operating system contains basic instructions that tell the CPU* how to use other
hardware devices, where to find programs, and how to load and keep track of programs in memory. Because it includes basic
instructions that are vital to the internal functioning of the computer, the operating system is the first program to be processed
after the computer is turned on, and it remains in memory until the computer is turned off.
For the computer to perform useful tasks, it needs application software in addition to the operating system. An
application is a job that a computer can perform, such as creating text documents, manipulating sets of numbers, creating
graphic images, and communicating with other computers. Application software is the term used to describe programs that tell
the computer how to performsuch jobs. The six most common types of application software are
• Word processing software
• Graphics software
• Desktop publishing software
• Spreadsheet software
• Database management software
• Communications software
• Application software is what makes a computer a tool for performing the tasks we most often need to complete at
school, at home, or at office.
Text 9
1971 AD to 1976 ADThe First Microprocessors
In 1906, the American inventor Lee de Forest introduced a third electrode called the grid into the vacuum
tube. The resulting triode could be used as both an amplifier and a switch, and many of the early radio transmitters
were built by de Forest using these triodes (he also presented the first live opera broadcast and the first news report
on radio).
De Forest's triodes revolutionized the field of broadcasting and were destined to do much more, because
their ability to act as switches was to have a tremendous impact on digital computing.
With the benefit of hindsight (the one exact science), the advent of the microprocessor appears to have been
an obvious development. But this was less than self-evident at the time for a number of reasons, not the least that
computers of the day were big, expensive, and a complete pain to use. Although these arguments would appear to
support the development of the microprocessor, by some strange quirk of fate they actually managed to work to its
disfavor.
Due to the fact that computers were so big and expensive, only large institutions could afford them and they
were only used for computationally intensive tasks. Thus, following a somewhat circular argument, popular opinion
held that only large institutions needed computers in the first place. Similarly, due to the fact that computers were
few and far between, only the chosen few had any access to them, which meant that only a handful of people had the
faintest clue as to how they worked.
Coupled with the fact that the early computers were difficult to
use in the first place, this engendered the belief that only heroes (and heroines) with size-16 turbo-charged brains had
any chance of being capable of using them at all. Last but not least, computers of the day required many thousands of
transistors and the thrust was toward yet more powerful computers in terms of raw number-crunching capability, but
integrated circuit technology was in its infancy and it wasn't possible to construct even a few thousand transistors on
a single integrated circuit until the late 1960s.
The end result was that the (potential) future of the (hypothetical) microprocessor looked somewhat ble ak,
but fortunately other forces were afoot. Although computers were somewhat scarce in the 1960s, there was a large
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and growing market for electronic desktop calculators. In 1970, the Japanese calculator company Busicom
approached Intel with a request to design a set of twelve integrated circuits for use in a new calculator.
The task was presented to one Marcian "Ted" Hoff, a man who could foresee a somewhat bleak and neverending role for himself designing sets of special-purpose integrated circuits for one-of-a-kind tasks. However, during
his early ruminations on the project, Hoff realized that rather than design the special-purpose devices requested by
Busicom, he could create a single integrated circuit with the attributes of a simple -minded, stripped-down, generalpurpose computer processor.
The result of Hoff's inspiration was the world's first microprocessor, the 4004, where the '4's were used to
indicate that the device had a 4-bit data path. The 4004 was part of a four-chip system which also cons isted of a 256byte ROM, a 32-bit RAM, and a 10-bit shift register. The 4004 itself contained approximately 2,300 transistors and
could execute 60,000 operations per second. The advantage (as far as Hoff was concerned) was that by simply
changing the external program, the same device could be used for a multitude of future projects.
Knowing how pervasive micro- processors were to become, you might be tempted to imagine that there was
a fanfare of trumpets and Hoff was immediately acclaimed to be the master of the known universe, but such was not
to be the case.
The 4004 was so radically different from what Busicom had requested that they didn't immediately
recognize its implications (much as if they'd ordered a Chevy Cavalier, which had suddenly transmogrified itself into
an Aston Martin), so they politely said that they weren't really interested and could they please have the twelve -chip
set they'd originally requested (they did eventually agree to use the fruits of Hoff's labors).
In November 1972, Intel introduced the 8008, which was essentially an 8-bit version of the 4004. The 8008
contained approximately 3,300 transistors and was the first microprocessor to be supported by a high -level language
compiler called PL/M. The 8008 was followed by the 4040, which extended the 4004's capabilities by adding logical
and compare instructions, and by supporting subroutine nesting using a small internal stack.
However, the 4004, 4040, and 8008 were all designed for specific applications, and it was not until April
1974 that Intel presented the first true general-purpose microprocessor, the 8080. This 8-bit device, which contained
around 4,500 transistors and could perform 200,000 operations per second, was destined for fame as the central
processor of many of the early home computers.
Following the 8080, the microprocessor field exploded with devices such as the 6800 from Motorola in
August 1974, the 6502 from MOS Technology in 1975, and the Z80 from Zilog in 1976 (to name but a few).
Unfortunately, documenting all of the different microprocessors would require an entire web site, so we
won't even attempt the task here. Instead, we'll create a cunning diversion that will allow us to leap gracefully into the
next topic ......
Text 10
1973 AD to 1981 ADThe First Personal Computers (PCs)
As is true of many facets in computing, the phrase " Personal Computer" can be something of a slippery
customer. For example, the IBM 610 Auto-Point Computer (1957) was described as being " IBM's first personal
computer" on the premise that it was intended for use by a single operator, but this machine was not based on the
stored program concept and it cost $55,000! Other contenders include MIT's LINC (1963), CTC's Datapoint 2200
(1971), the Kenbak-1 (1971), and the Xerox Alto (1973), but all of these machines were either cripplingly expensive,
relatively unusable, or only intended as experimental projects. So, for our purposes here, we will understand
"Personal Computer" to refer to an affordable, general-purpose, microprocessor- based computer intended for the
consumer market.
Given that the 8008 microprocessor was not introduced until November 1972, the
resulting flurry of activity was quite impressive. Only six months later, in May 1973, the first computer based on a
microprocessor was designed and built in France. Unfortunately the 8008-based Micral, as this device was known,
did not prove tremendously successful in America. However, in June of that year, the term " microcomputer" first
appeared in print in reference to the Micral.
In the same mid-1973 time-frame, the Scelbi Computer Consulting Company presented the 8008-based
Scelbi-8H microcomputer, which was the first microprocessor-based computer kit to hit the market (the Micral wasn't
a kit -- it was only available in fully assembled form). The Scelbi-8H was advertised at $565 and came equipped with
1 K-byte of RAM.
In June 1974, Radio Electronics magazine published an article by Jonathan Titus on building a
microcomputer called the Mark-8, which, like the Micral and the Scelbi-8H, was based on the 8008 microprocessor.
The Mark-8 received a lot of attention from hobbyists, and a number of user groups sprang up around the US to share
hints and tips and disseminate information.
Around the same time that Jonathan Titus was penning his article on the Mark-8, a man called Ed Roberts
was pondering the future of his failing calculator company known as MITS (which was located next to a laundromat
in Albuquerque, New Mexico). Roberts decided to take a gamble with what little funds remained available to him,
and he started to design a computer called the Altair 8800 (the name "Altair" originated in one of the early episodes
of Star Trek).
Roberts based his Altair 8800 system on the newly-released 8080 microprocessor, and the resulting do-it-
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yourself kit was advertised in Popular Electronics magazine in January 1975 for the then unheard -of price of $439. In
fact, when the first unit shipped in April of that year, the price had fallen to an amazingly low $375. Even though it
only contained a miserly 256 bytes of RAM and the only way to program it was by means of a switch panel, the
Altair 8800 proved to be a tremendous success. (These kits were su pplied with a steel cabinet sufficient to withstand
most natural disasters, which is why a remarkable number of them continue to lurk in their owner's garages to this
day).
Also in April 1975, Bill Gates and Paul Allen founded Microsoft (which was to achieve a certain notoriety
over the coming years), and in July of that year, MITS announced the availability of BASIC 2.0 on the Altair 8800.
This BASIC interpreter, which was written by Gates and Allen, was the first reasonably high -level computer
language program to be made available on a home computer. MITS sold 2,000 systems that year, which certainly
made Ed Roberts a happy camper, while Microsoft had taken its first tentative step on the path toward world
domination.
Also in April 1977, Commodore Business Machines presented their 6502-based Commodore PET, which
contained 14 K-bytes of ROM, 4 K-bytes of RAM, a keyboard, a display, and a cassette tape drive for only $600.
Similarly, in August of that year, Tandy/Radio Shack announced their Z80-based TRS-80, comprising 4 K-bytes of
ROM, 4 K-bytes of RAM, a keyboard, and a cassette tape drive for $600.
One point that may seem strange today is that there were practically no programs available for the early
microcomputers (apart from the programs written by the users themselves). In fact it wasn't until late in 1978 that
commercial software began to appear. Possibly the most significant tool of that time was the VisiCalc spreadsheet
program, which was written for the Apple II by a student at the Harvard Business School and which appeared in
1979.
It is difficult to overstate the impact of this VisiCalc, but it is estimated that over a quarter of the Apple
machines sold in 1979 were purchased by businesses solely for the purpose of running this program. In addition to
making Apple very happy, the success of VisiCalc spurred the development of other application s such as
wordprocessors.
When home computers first began to appear, existing manufacturers of large computers tended to regard
them with disdain ("It's just a fad ..... it will never catch on"). However, it wasn't too long before the sound of money
changing hands began to awaken their interest. In 1981, IBM launched their first PC for $1,365, which, if nothing
else, sent a very powerful signal to the world that personal computers were here to stay.
Unfortunately, we've only been able to touch on a few syst ems here, but hopefully we've managed to
illustrate both the public's interest in, and the incredible pace of development of, the personal computer. The advent
of the general-purpose microprocessor heralded a new era in computing -- microcomputer systems small enough to
fit on a desk could be endowed with more processing power than monsters weighing tens of tons only a decade
before.
The effects of these developments are still unfolding, but it is not excessive to say that digital computing and
the personal computer have changed the world more significantly than almost any other human invention, and many
observers believe that we've only just begun our journey into the unknown!
Text 11
Internet
It is almost impossible to make it through a day without hearing a reference to the Internet. The Internet
began in 1969 as the ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network). This computer network was created
by the U.S. Department of Defense to link research scientists together to exchange and share ideas that would
increase research results. ARPANET soon extended to include college and university researchers. From this restricted
group of users, the Internet has evolved to serve millions of people all over the world.
The history of networking shows that large, wide reaching networks preceded the smaller, more selfcontained networks that are presently found in offices or schools. The first computers were large, extremely expensive,
and very scarce. Often, buying time on a computer miles away was cheaper than installing your own computer. The
coordination of the timesharing approach to computer use provided the motivation for the development of networking
hardware and software. ARPANET, now the Internet, is only one example of these early, large networks.
Many networks did not survive beyond these first early efforts. However, the Internet did and is still evolving.
At first known only within academic and scientific communities as a channel for exchanging text-based documents,
today the Internet is a global network connecting computers all over the world - There are many smaller networks
entwined in this complex, global connection of computers and people. Each computer that connects to the Internet is
referred to as an Internet client.
The Internet is more than just computers and cables. The Internet is also a world of people with a very
unique culture. Members come from all over the world and many regard themselves as members of online
communities that function in a similar fashion to their geographical community defined by where they live. Perhaps
the best known part of the Internet is the World Wide Web (WWW or Web). It is responsible for popularizing the Web
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by allowing information to be linked with hyperlinks and enabling the transmission of all sorts of media. The Web can
be thought of as a way to navigate major portions of the Internet. The Web includes text, graphics, and sounds in
electronic documents called home pages or Web sites. Each Web site ha s a unique address. These addresses are
referred to as URLs (Uniform Resource Locators). A critical aspect of Web sites is their ability to provide an
electronic link to other Web sites. It is possible for almost anyone to create and maintain their own home page if they
wish.
The vast collection of Web sites available on the Internet is almost beyond comprehension, and many tools
have been developed to help users access whatever they choose. Using a browser, a program designed specifically for
use with the Web, you can explore this vast electronic library. Most browsers provide a graphical interface so
navigating the Web is little different from navigating your own personal computer. Embedded links on Web pages
allow you to move from one computer to another. The location of each computer is irrelevant.
Internet use has expanded far beyond its original vision. In every facet of our lives -business, education, and
recreation - the Internet now plays an established role. It serves as a means of gathering, storing, processing, and
sharing information.
Text 12
Windows 95
Windows 95 is a consumer-oriented graphical user interface-based operating system. It was released on
August 24, 1995 by Microsoft, and was a significant progression from the company's previous Windows products.
During development it was referred to by the internal codename Chicago.
Windows 95 was intended to integrate Microsoft's formerly separate MS-DOS and Windows products. It
featured significant improvements over the popular Windows 3.1, most visibly the graphical user interface (GUI)
whose basic format and structure is still used in later versions such as Windows Vista. There were also large changes
made to the underlying workings, including support for 255-character mixed-case long filenames and preemptively
multitasked protected-mode 32-bit applications. Whereas the previous versions of Windows were optional "operating
environments" requiring the MS-DOS operating system (usually available separately), Windows 95 was a
consolidated operating system, which was a significant marketing change.
Windows 95 followed Windows for Workgroups 3.11 with its lack of support for older, 16-bit x86
processors, thus requiring an Intel 80386 (or compatible) processor running in protected mode.
32-bit
The introduction of 32-bit File Access in Windows for Workgroups 3.11 meant that 16-bit real mode MSDOS was no longer used for managing the files while Windows was running, and the earlier introduction of the 32bit Disk Access meant that the PC BIOS wasn't used for managing hard disks. This essentially reduced MS-DOS to
the role of a boot loader for the protected-mode Windows kernel. DOS could still be used for running old -style
drivers for compatibility, but Microsoft discouraged using them, as this prev ented proper multitasking and impaired
system stability. The Control Panel allowed a user to see what MS-DOS components were still used by the system;
optimal performance was achieved when they were all bypassed. The Windows kernel still used MS-DOS style realmode drivers in the so-called Safe mode, but this mode existed merely to allow a user to fix problems with loading
native, protected-mode drivers.
Long file names
32-bit File Access was necessary for the long file names feature introduced with Windows 95 through the
use of the VFAT file system. It was available to both Windows programs and MS-DOS programs started from
Windows (they had to be adapted slightly, since accessing long file names required using larger pathname buffers
and hence different system calls). Competing DOS-compatible operating systems needed an upgrade to be able to see
these names. Using older versions of DOS utilities to manipulate files meant that the long names were not visible and
would be lost if files were copied or moved around. During a Windows 95 automatic upgrade of an older Windows
3.1 system, DOS and third-party disk utilities which could destroy long file names were identified and made
unavailable (Microsoft Anti-Virus for Windows indicated that the upgrade program was itself a computer virus). If
Windows 95 was started in DOS mode, e.g. for running DOS games, low-level access to disks was locked out. If the
need arose to depend on disk utilities that do not recognize long file names, such as MS-DOS 6.22's defrag utility, a
program was provided on the CD-ROM called LFNBACK for backup and restoration of long file names. The
program is in the \ADMIN\APPTOOLS\LFNBA CK directory of the Windows 95 CD-ROM.
User interface
In the marketplace, Windows 95 was an unqualified success, and within a year or two of its release had
become the most successful operating system ever produced. It also had the effect of driving other major players in
the DOS-compatible operating system out of business, something which would later be used in court against
Microsoft.
Internet Explorer 4.0 came with an optional shell update known as Windows Desktop Update that gave
Windows 95 (and NT 4.0) a user interface that would become the graphical user interface of Windows 98. Only the
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4.x series of the browser contained the shell update, so those that wanted the new shell had to install IE4 with the
desktop update before installing a newer version of Internet Explorer.
Windows 95 marked the introduction of the Start button and taskbar to Microsoft's GUI, both of which have
remained fixtures of all subsequent versions of Windows, except for Windows Vista, which replaces the Start button
with the Windows Orb; the functionality remains the same.
Windows 95 was released with a great fanfare, including a commercial featuring the Rolling Stones song
"Start Me Up" (a reference to the Start button)[2]. It was widely reported that Microsoft paid the Rolling Stones
between $8 and $14 million for the use of the song (from the 1981 album Tattoo You) in the '95 advertising
campaign. According to sources at Microsoft, however, this was just a rumor spread by the Stones to increase their
market value, and Microsoft actually paid a fraction of that amount. [3] Microsoft's $300 million advertising campaign
featured stories of people waiting in line outside stores to get a copy, and there were tales of people without
computers buying the software on hype alone, not even knowing what Windows was. [citation needed]
In the UK, the largest computer chain PC World received a huge amount of oversized Windows 95 boxes,
posters and point of sale material, and many branches opened at midnight to sell the first copies of the product,
although these customers were far fewer in number than publicity had suggested.
In New York City, the Empire State Building was lit to match the colors of the Windows logo. In Toronto, a
300-foot banner was hung from the top of the CN Tower. Copies of The Times were available for free in the UK
where Microsoft paid for 1.5 million issues (twice the daily circulation at the time).
Internet Explorer
Windows 95 OEM Service Release 1 was the first release of Windows to include Internet Explorer
(Codenamed O'Hare) with the OS. While there was no uninstaller, it could be deleted easily if the user so desired.
The last version of Internet Explorer supported on Windows 95 is Internet Explorer 5.5 which was released in 2000.
While Windows 95 was originally sold as a shrink-wrapped product, later editions were provided only to
computer OEMs for installation on new PCs. The term OEM Service Release is frequently abbreviated OSR, as in
OSR1 or OSR2.1. Thus, for example, OSR1 was the OEM release that was identical to Windows 95 retail with
Service Pack 1 applied (with the addition of Internet Explorer). In order to maintain compatibility with existing
programs, Windows 95 would always supply a version number of "4.00.950", regardless of the internal build number,
thus giving Windows 95 a higher version than Windows 3.1 or Windows NT 4.0. (Similarly, Windows 98 would
claim to be Windows 4.10.) Later versions are sometimes referred to by the trailing letter appended to this version
string, such as Windows 95 B for OSR2 and OSR2.1.
Official system requirements were an Intel 80386 DX CPU of any speed, 4 MB of system RAM, and 50 MB
of hard drive space. These minimal claims were made in order to maximise the available market of Windows 3.1
converts. This configuration was distinctly suboptimal for any productive use on anything but s ingle tasking
dedicated workstations due to the heavy reliance on virtual memory. Also, in some cases, if any networking or
similar components were installed the system would refuse to boot with 4 Megabytes of RAM. It was possible to run
Windows 95 on a 386 SX but this led to even less acceptable performance. To achieve optimal performance,
Microsoft recommends an Intel 80486 or compatible microprocessor with at least 8 MB of RAM. [7]
Windows 95 was superseded by Windows 98 and could still be directly upgraded by both Windows 2000 [8]
and Windows Me. As of December 31, 2001, Microsoft ended its support for Windows 95, making it an "obsolete"
product according to the Microsoft Lifecycle Policy. [9] Even though support for Windows 95 has ended, the software
still remains in widespread use on many home computers because of budget issues, or a lack of knowledge or lack of
desire to upgrade to Windows XP or Windows Vista. Another main reason is that a computer purchased around the
era of Windows 95's introduction is unlikely to meet the hardware requirements of Windows XP, let alone Vista, and
many do not wish to upgrade their existing or buy a new computer. Microsoft has tried to get these people to migrate
from Windows 95 because it is an obsolete product and no longer fit for Internet use but has failed to seize the
attention of many customers.
Windows 95 has been released on both floppy disks and on CD-ROM, as some computers at the time did not
include a CD-ROM drive. The floppy disk version of Windows 95 came on 13 DMF formatted floppy disks,
excluding additional software that s ome releases might have featured, such as Internet Explorer. Microsoft Plus for
Windows 95 was also available on floppy disks.
Text 13
Windows 98
Windows 98 (codenamed Memphis) is a graphical operating system released on June 25, 1998 by
Microsoft and the successor to Windows 95. Like its predecessor, it is a hybrid 16-bit/32-bit monolithic product
based on MS-DOS.
The first edition of Windows 98 is designated by the internal version number 4.10.1998, or 4.10.1998A if it
has been updated with the Security CD from Microsoft. Windows 98 Second Edition is designated by the internal
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version number 4.10.2222A, or 4.10.2222B if it has been updated with the Security CD from Microsoft. The
successor to Windows 98 is Windows Me.
Windows 98 Second Edition
Windows 98 Second Edition (SE) is an update to Windows 98, released on May 5, 1999. It includes fixes for
many minor issues, improved USB support, and the replacement of Internet Explorer 4.0 with the significantly faster
Internet Explorer 5. Also included is Internet Connection Sharing, which allows multiple computers on a LAN to
share a single Internet connection through Network Address Translation. Other features in the update include
Microsoft NetMeeting 3.0 and integrated support for DVD-ROM drives. However, it is not a free upgrade for
Windows 98, but a stand-alone product. This can cause problems if programs specifically request Windows 98 SE,
but the user only owns Windows 98.
New and updated features
Among the new features of Windows 98 are better AGP support, functional USB drivers, and support for
multiple monitors and WebTV. It also features support for the FAT32 file system, allowing it to support disk
partitions larger than the two gigabyte maximum accepted by Windows 95. It is also the first version of Windows to
support ACPI. As in later releases of Windows 95, Internet Explorer continues to be integrated into the Windows
Explorer interface (a feature called Active Desktop).
New driver standards
Windows 98 is the first operating system to use Windows Driver Model (WDM). This fact was not well
published when Windows 98 was released and most hardware producers continued to develop for the older driver
standard, VxD. This resulted in the misconception that Windows 98 can use only VxD drivers which it is not true.
The WDM standard spread years after its release, mostly through Windows 2000 and Windows XP, because these
systems were no longer compatible with the older VxD standard. Today, even if hardware produ cers are not
developing drivers optimized for Windows 98, the drivers written to WDM standards are compatible with Windows
98–based systems.
Advantages and disadvantages
Windows 98 is a hybrid 16/32-bit operating system. It has quite low system requirements, therefore it can
gain full potential even on older machines.
When doing a new install of Windows 98SE, FAT32 is used to allocate disk space, while it supports FAT16
and FAT for upgrades from older installations. Data I/O on disks with capacities over 128 GB is slower and less
secure than with newer file systems, and unlike its successor NTFS, FAT32 doesn't support file encryption.
The graphical user interface (GUI) runs on a DOS-based layer. This is partially an advantage and
disadvantage. DOS has some limits (such as the amount of buffers or files), but through its environment memory
managers, drivers or other applications can be load ed which can improve overall system performance and
functionality.
Windows 98 also offers full support for DOS applications because it can be switched to real DOS Mode
where DOS based applications can handle the system in their native environment which differs from emulation used
in Windows NT-based operating systems (most emulated environments cannot handle devices such as modem or
LAN cards which are required for some DOS applications).
DOS Mode also offers the possibility to fix various system errors wit hout entering GUI. For example, if a
virus is active in GUI mode it can be safely removed in DOS mode.
Windows 98 has never been as stable as common users required, for many reasons. Often the software
developers of drivers and applications had insufficien t experience with the creation of programs for the 'new' system,
therefore causing many errors which have been generally described as "system errors" by users, even if the error was
not caused by parts of Windows or DOS. Windows 98 can gain extreme stability, on par with newer versions of
Windows, by using the newest device drivers and careful installation of the OS and programs.
Newer OS shield their core files from user access, eliminating the possibility to modify or delete important
files without dedicated programs, whilst in Windows 98, kernel files can be altered by any user. By setting "hidden",
"system" and "read only" attributes to important files, low-level protection is achieved, but experienced users can
change these settings within seconds.
The biggest advantage of this operating system is its compatibility. It can safely handle very old applications
or hardware originating from the 16-bit era (late '80s and early '90s) while running most newer applications without
problems. Its software environment is very similar to Windows 2000 and XP.
Another advantage is its size. While newer Microsoft OS take up several GB of disk space, Windows 98 can
be installed requiring less than 250 MB of HDD space, offering more room for applications and files. It als o has a
very small memory footprint, so it doesn't reduce the overall system performance the way current OS do on older
systems. When installed on newer systems, Windows 98SE can boot within 15 seconds and shut down within 3
seconds, giving it a huge advantage in speed when comparing it to current versions of Windows.
Its biggest limit is hardware handling. Windows 98 doesn't support more than 512 megabytes of RAM
natively, this being an internal limitation of the system. RAM over this limit can be used by changing the system
settings: Open the win.ini file, go to the 'VCache' section and add 'MaxFileCache = 524288' at the end of the section.
There is no native support for SATA drives, multi-threading or multi-core processors, and most hardware
manufacturers do not ship drivers for Windows 98SE any more, so current high -end graphics cards and peripherals
do not work properly. Legacy support (1994 – release date) is excellent. For example, Windows 98SE may have a
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driver for 3Com network card made in 1995, but later versions such as Windows 2000 and XP would not natively
support that card. This is one of the greatest advantages of DOS-based operating systems such as Windows 95 and 98
SE; their driver compatibility and support is excellent. Windows NT systems gen erally and comparatively do not
have as good support. Some modern installation files contain an OS check, refusing to install on Windows 9x
systems, therefore reducing available software and driving Windows 9x out of the market, sometimes even when
application is able to run properly.
Text 14
Innovations - Windows 2000
Microsoft Windows® 2000 is the operating system for the next generation of PCs. It offers a user-friendly
interface, NT technology, integrated web capabilities, and support for mobile computers and new devices. There are
two main Windows systems: Windows 2000 Professional for desktops and laptops, and Windows 2000 Server family
for networks, web servers and high-performance workstations.
Windows 2000 includes a built-in safeguard called Windows File Protection, which prevents core system
files from being deleted or changed by users or applications. If a system file is altered, this feature repairs that file
avoiding many system crashing found in previous versions.
Windows 2000 is 25 percent faster than Windows 9x on systems with 64 MB and lets you run more
programs and do more tasks at the same time than previous versions. It protects your hard drive by using encryption
and decryption systems. It also supports Kerberos, an Internet standard which protects corporate networks or
intranets.
The graphical user interface has been improved. You can personalise the Start menu and display
applications you use most often. You can use step-by-step wizards for numerous tasks. The Hardware Wizard lets
users add and configure peripherals. The Network Connection Wizard helps you connect to networks. The Microsoft
Installer helps you install, configure and upgrade software easily.
With IntelliMirror Technology, based on Active Directory service, d esktop administrators can easily manage
and back up user’s data.
With Internet Explorer integrated into the desktop, Windows 2000 allows you to search files and folders on
your PC, find pages on your company intranet or surf the web. Internet Explorer au tomatically corrects mistakes on
common URL conventions such as http, .com and .org. It also lets you download complete web pages with graphics
for viewing off-line.
NetMeeting video-conferencing software enables participants to talk to and see each other, share programs
and ideas. It supports Dynamic HTML and Extensible Markup Language (XML) which help programmers create
new ways of exchanging and displaying information.
It supports the latest technologies, from digital cameras and music players to USB de vices. USB (Universal
Serial Bus) lets you easily connect and remove peripherals without configuring or rebooting your PC. It also offers
support for storage devices such as DVD and Device Bay.
Mobile users can share files between wireless devices (laptops or desktop PCs) through the IrDA (Infrared
Data Association) protocol.
Text 15
Windows Millennium Edition
Windows Millennium Edition, or Windows Me, is a hybrid 16-bit/32-bit graphical operating system released
on September 14, 2000 by Microsoft. It was originally codenamed Millennium.
Overview
A successor to Windows 95 and Windows 98, Windows Me was marketed as a "Home Edition" when
compared to Windows 2000 which had been released seven months earlier. It provided Internet Explorer 5.5,
Windows Media Player 7, and the new Windows Movie Maker software, which provided basic video editing and was
designed to be easy for home users. Microsoft also updated the graphical user interface in Windows Me with some of
the features that were first introduced in Windows 2000.
Unlike the "Home" edition of Windows XP which would replace Windows Me a year later, Windows Me is
not built on the Windows NT architecture of Microsoft's professional operating system at the time. Windows Me is
an MS-DOS (Windows 9x) based version like its predecessors but with access to real mode MS-DOS restricted for
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faster system boot time. This was one of the most publicized changes in Windows Me because applications that
needed real mode DOS to run (such as older disk utilities) would not run under the Windows Me operating system.
Compared with other releases, Windows Me had a short shelf-life; it was soon replaced by Windows XP,
which was launched on October 25, 2001.
In 2006, PCWorld declared Windows Me the fourth "Worst Tech Product of All Time" (after AOL,
RealPlayer, and Syncronys SoftRAM) because of various technical issues.
Text 16
Windows XP
Windows XP is a line of proprietary operating systems developed by Microsoft for use on general-purpose
computer systems, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, and media centers. The letters "XP"
stand for eXPerience. Codenamed "Whistler" after Whistler, British Columbia, as many Microsoft employees skied
at the Whistler-Blackcomb ski resort during its development, Windows XP is the successor to both Windows 2000
and Windows Me, and is the first consumer-oriented operating system produced by Microsoft to be built on the
Windows NT kernel and architecture. Windows XP was first released on October 25, 2001, and over 400 million
copies are in use, according to a January 2006 estimate by an IDC analyst. It is succeeded by Windows Vista, which
was released to volume license customers on November 8, 2006, and worldwide to the general public on January 30,
2007.
The most common editions of the operating system are Windows XP Home Edition, which is targeted at
home users, and Windows XP Professional, which has additional features such as support for Windows Server
domains and dual processors, and is targeted at power users and business clients. Windows XP Media Center Edition
has additional multimedia features enhancing the ability to record and watch TV shows, view DVD movies, and
listen to music. Windows XP Tablet PC Edition is designed to run the ink-aware Tablet PC platform. Two separate
64-bit versions of Windows XP were also released, Windows XP 64-bit Edition for IA-64 (Itanium) processors and
Windows XP Professional x64 Edition for x86-64 processors.
Windows XP is known for its improved stability and efficiency over previous versions of Microsoft
Windows. It presents a significantly redesigned graphical user interface, a change Microsoft promoted as more userfriendly than previous versions of Windows. New software management capabilities were introduced to avoid the
"DLL hell" that plagued older consumer versions of Windows. It is also the first version of Windows to use product
activation to combat software piracy, a restriction that did not sit well with some users and privacy advocates.
Windows XP has also been criticized by some us ers for security vulnerabilities, tight integration of applications such
as Internet Explorer and Windows Media Player, and for aspects of its user interface.
Windows XP had been in development since early 1999, when Microsoft started working on Windows
Neptune, an operating system intended to be the "Home Edition" equivalent to Windows 2000 Professional. It was
eventually cancelled and became Whistler, which later became Windows XP. Many ideas from Neptune and Odyssey
(another cancelled Windows version) were used in Windows XP.
Two major editions are Windows XP Home Edition, designed for home users, and Windows XP
Professional, designed for business and power-users. Other builds of Windows XP include those built for specialized
hardware and limited-feature versions sold in Europe and select developing economies.
Text 17
Windows Vista
Windows Vista is the latest release of Microsoft Windows, a line of graphical operating systems used on
personal computers, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, Tablet PCs, and media centers.
Prior to its announcement on July 22, 2005, Windows Vista was known by its codename "Longhorn". Development
was completed on November 8, 2006; over the following three months it was released in stages to computer
hardware and software manufacturers, business customers, and retail channels. On January 30, 2007, it was released
worldwide to the general public, and was made available for purchase and downloading from Microsoft's web site.
The release of Windows Vista comes more than five years after the introduction of its predecessor, Windows XP,
making it the longest time span between two releases of Windows versions.
Windows Vista contains hundreds of new features ; some of the most significant include an updated
graphical user interface (GUI) and visual style dubbed Windows Aero, improved searching features, new multimedia
creation tools such as Windows DVD Maker, and completely redesigned networking, audio, print, and display sub systems. Vista also aims to increase the level of communication between machines on a home net work using peer-topeer technology, making it easier to share files and digital media between computers and devices. For developers,
Vista includes version 3.0 of the .NET Framework, which aims to make it significantly easier for developers to write
high-quality applications than with the traditional Windows API.
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Microsoft's primary stated objective with Windows Vista, however, has been to improve the state of security
in the Windows operating system. One common criticism of Windows XP and its predecessors has been their
commonly exploited security vulnerabilities and overall susceptibility to malware, viruses and buffer overflows. In
light of this, Microsoft chairman Bill Gates announced in early 2002 a company-wide 'Trustworthy Computing
initiative' which aims to incorporate security work into every aspect of software development at the company.
Microsoft stated that it prioritized improving the security of Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 above finishing
Windows Vista, thus delaying its completion.
During the course of its development, Windows Vista has been the target of a number of negative
assessments by various groups. Criticism of Windows Vista has included protracted development time, more
restrictive licensing terms, the inclusion of a number of new Digital Rights Management technologies aimed at
restricting the copying of protected digital media, and the other new features such as User Account Control.
Development
Microsoft started work on their plans for Windows Vista ("Longhorn") in 2001, prior to the release of
Windows XP. It was originally expected to ship sometime late in 2003 as a minor step between Windows XP
(codenamed "Whistler") and "Blackcomb" (now known as Windows "Vienna"). Gradually, "Longhorn" assimilated
many of the important new features and technologies slated for "Blackcomb," resulting in the release date being
pushed back several times. Many of Microsoft's developers were also re-tasked with improving the security of
Windows XP.[5] Faced with ongoing delays and concerns about feature creep, Microsoft announced on August 27,
2004 that it was making significant and favorable changes. The o riginal "Longhorn," based on the Windows XP
source code, was scrapped, and Vista development started anew, building on the Windows Server 2003 codebase,
and re-incorporating only the features that would be intended for an actual operating system release. Some previously
announced features, such as WinFS and NGSCB, were dropped or postponed, and a new software development
methodology called the "Security Development Lifecycle" was incorporated in an effort to address concerns with the
security of the Windows codebase. After "Longhorn" was named Windows Vista, an unprecedented beta-test
program was started, involving hundreds of thousands of volunteers and companies. In September 2005, Microsoft
started releasing regular Community Technology Previews (CTP) to beta testers. The first of these was distributed
among 2005 Microsoft Professional Developers Conference attendees, and was subsequently released to Microsoft
Beta testers and Microsoft Developer Network subscribers. The builds that followed incorporated most of the
planned features for the final product, as well as a number of changes to the user interface, based largely on feedback
from beta testers. Windows Vista was deemed feature-complete with the release of the "February CTP," released on
February 22, 2006, and much of the remainder of work between that build and the final release of the product focused
on stability, performance, application and driver compatibility, and documentation. Beta 2, re leased in late May, was
the first build to be made available to the general public through Microsoft's Customer Preview Program. It was
downloaded by over five million people. Two release candidates followed in September and October, both of which
were made available to a large number of users.
While Microsoft had originally hoped to have the operating system available worldwide in time for
Christmas 2006, it was announced in March 2006 that the release date would be pushed back to January 2007, so as
to give the company – and the hardware and software companies which Microsoft depends on for providing device
drivers – additional time to prepare. Microsoft also argued that some man ufacturers selling PCs via retail said they
would not be able to have Vista machines on sale in time for Christmas, whereas direct PC suppliers such as Dell
would be able to ship Vista almost immediately; a delay was therefore necessary to create a "level playing field".
Through much of 2006, analysts and bloggers had speculated that Windows Vista would be delayed further,
owing to anti-trust concerns raised by the European Commission and South Korea, and due to a perceived lack of
progress with the beta releases. However, with the November 8, 2006 announcement of the completion of Windows
Vista, Microsoft's most lengthy operating system development project came to an end.
TEXTS FOR TRANSLATION
Что такое компьютер
Слово «компьютер» означает «вычислитель», т. е. устройство для вычислений. Это связано с тем, что
первые компьютеры создавались именно как устройства для вычислений, как усовершенствованные, автоматические
арифмометры. Принципиальное отличие компьютеров от арифмометров и других счетных устройств (счет,
логарифмических линеек и т. д.) состояло в том, что арифмометры могли выполнять лишь отдельные
вычислительные операции (сложение, вычитание, умножение, деление и др.), а компьютеры позволяют проводить
без участия человека сложные последовательности вычислительных операций по заранее заданной инструкции программе. Кроме того, компьютеры могут хранить в памяти полученные промежуточные и итоговые результаты.
Хотя компьютеры создавались для численных расчетов, скоро оказалось, что они могут обрабатывать и
другие виды информации - ведь практически любая информация может быть представлена в числовой форме. Для
этого на компьютере надо иметь средства для преобразования нужного вида информации в числовую форму и
обратно. Сейчас с помощью компьютеров не только проводятся числовые расчеты, но и подготавливаются к
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печати книги, создаются рисунки, кинофильмы, музыка, осуществляется управление заводами и космическими
кораблями и т. д. Компьютеры превратились в универсальные средства для обработки всех видов информации,
используемых человеком.
Пре дставле ние инф ормации в компьюте ре
Числовая форма. Как говорилось выше, компьютер может обрабатывать информацию, представленную в
числовой форме. Вся другая информация (звуки, изображения, показания приборов и т. д.) для обработки на
компьютере должна быть преобразована в числовую форму. Скажем, чтобы перевести в цифровую форму звук, можно
через небольшие промежутки времени измерять интенсивность звука, представляя результаты каждого измерения в
числовой форме. С помощью программ для ком пьютера можно выполнить преобразования полученной
информации, например «наложить» друг на друга звуки от разных источников. После этого результат можно
преобразовать обратно в звуковую форму.
Кодировки символов. Для обработки на компьютере текстовой информации обычно при вводе в
компьютер каждая буква кодируется определенным числом, а при выводе на внешние устройства (экран или
печать) для восприятия человеком по этим числам строятся соответствующие изображения букв.
Соответствие между набором букв и числами называется кодировкой символов.
Двоичная система счисления. Как правило, все числа внутри компьютера представляются с помощью
нулей и единиц. Иными словами, компьютеры обычно работают в двоичной системе счисления. Ввод чисел в
компьютер и вывод их для чтения человеком может осуществляться в привычной для людей десятичной форме все необходимые преобразования выполняются программами, работающими на компьютере.
Биты и байты. Единицей информации в компьютере является один бит, т. е. двоичный разряд, который может
принимать значение 0 или 1. Как правило, команды компьютеров работают не с отдельными битами, а с восемью
битами сразу. Восемь последовательных битов составляют байт. В одном байте можно закодировать значение одного
символа из 256 возможных (256=2). Более крупными единицами информации являются килобайт (сокращенно
обозначаемый Кбайт), равный 1024 байтам (1024=2), мегабайт (сокращенно обозначаемый Мбайт), равный 1024
Кбайтам и гигабайт (Гбайт), равный 1024 Мбайтам. Для примера скажем, что если на странице текста помещается
в среднем 2500 знаков, то 1 Мбайт - это примерно 400 страниц, а 1 Гбайт - 400 тыс. страниц.
Шестнадцатеричная система счисления. В компьютерной литературе, особенно рассчитанной на
программистов, при описании обрабатываемых компьютером данных, содержимого оперативной памяти и т.
д., часто используется шестнадцатеричная система счисления. Она удобна тем, что очень просто соотносится с
двоичной системой, в которой работает компьютер: одна шестнадцатеричная цифра соответствует четырем
двоичным разрядам. Для шестнадцатеричных цифр, больше девяти, используются буквенные обозначения: А десять, В - одиннадцать, С - двенадцать, Б - тринадцать, Е - четырнадцать, и Р - пятнадцать. Для указания того, что
число записано в шестнадцатеричной системе счисления, в конце его добавляют символ «Ь» или «Н» (Ь - первая буква
слова hexadecimal, то есть шестнадцатеричный). Например, В9h 11x16+9=185; 4А9FН=4х163+10х162+9х16+15=19103.
Как работает компьютер
Еще при создании первых компьютеров в 1945 г. знаменитый математик Джон фон Нейман описал, как
должен быть устроен компьютер, чтобы он был универсальным и эффективным устройством для обработки
информации. Эти основы конструкции компьютера называются принципами фон Неймана. Сейчас
подавляющее большинство компьютеров в основных чертах соответствует принципам фон Неймана.
Устройства компьютера. Прежде всего, компьютер, согласно принципам фон Неймана, должен иметь
следующие устройства:
• арифметически-логическое устройство, выполняющее арифметические и логические операции;
• устройство управления, которое организует процесс выполнения программ;
• запоминающее устройство или память для хранения программ и данных;
• внешние устройства для ввода-вывода информации.
Память компьютера должна состоять из некоторого количества пронумерованных ячеек, в каждой из
которых могут находиться или обрабатываемые данные, или инструкции программ. Все ячейки памяти должны быть
одинаково легко доступны для других устройств компьютера.
Принципы работы компьютера. В общих чертах работу компьютера можно описать так. Сначала с помощью
какого-либо внешнего устройства в память компьютера вводится программа. Устройство управления считывает содержимое ячейки памяти, где находится первая инструкция (команда) программы, и организует ее выполнение. Эта команда
может задавать выполнение арифметических или логических операций, чтение из памяти данных для выполнения
арифметических или логических операций или запись их результатов в память, ввод данных из внешнего устройства в
память или вывод данных из памяти на внешнее устройство.
Как правило, после выполнения одной команды устройство управления начинает выполнять команду из
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ячейки памяти, которая находится непосредственно за только что выполненной командой. Однако этот порядок
может быть изменен с помощью команд передачи управления (перехода). Эти команды указывают устройству
управления, что ему следует продолжить выпо лнение пр о гр ам м ы, нач иная с команды, содержащейся в
другой ячейке памяти. Такой «скачок», или переход, в программе может выполняться не всегда, а только при
выполнении определенных условий, например, если некоторые числа равны, если в результате пр едыду щей
ар иф м етич еско й операции получился нуль и т. д. Это позволяет использовать одни и те же
последовательности команд в программе много раз (т. е. организовывать циклы), выполнять различные последовательности команд в зависимости от выполнения определенных условий и т. д., т.е. создавать сложные программы.
Таким образом, управляющее устройство выполняет инструкции программы автоматически, т. е. без
вмешательства человека. Оно может обмениваться информацией с оперативной памятью и внешними устройствами
компьютера. Поскольку внешние устройства, как правило, работают значительно медленнее, чем остальные части компьютера, управляющее устройство может приостанавливать выполнение программы до завершения
операции ввода-вывода с внешним устройством. Все результаты выполненной программы должны быть выведены
ею на внешние устройства компьютера, после чего компьютер переходит к ожиданию каких-либо сигналов
внешних устройств.
Особенности современных компьютеров. Следует заметить, что схема устройства современных компьютеров
несколько отличается от приведенной выше. В частности, арифметическо-логическое устройство и устройство
управления, как правило, объединены в единое устройство - центральный процессор. Кроме того, процесс выполнения программ может прерываться для выполнения неотложных действий, связанных с поступившими сигналами от
внешних устройств компьютера, - прерываний. Многие быстродействующие компьютеры осуществляют параллельную
обработку данных на нескольких процессорах.
Программы для компьютеров
Компьютер — это универсальное устройство для обработки информации. Но сам по себе компьютер является
просто ящиком с набором электронных схем. Он не обладает знаниями ни в одной области своего применения. Все эти знания сосредоточены в выполняемых на компьютере программах. Это аналогично тому, как для воспроизведения музыки недостаточно одного магнитофона, нужны еще и кассеты с записями.
Для того чтобы компьютер мог осуществить определенные действия, необходимо составить для компьютера программу, то есть точную и подробную последовательность команд (инструкций) на понятном компьютеру языке.
Часто употребляемое выражение «компьютер сделал» (подсчитал, нарисовал) означает, что на компьютере была выполнена программа, которая позволила совершить соответствующее действие. Меняя программы для компьютера, можно
превратить его в рабочее место бухгалтера или конструктора, статистика или агронома, редактировать на нем
документы или играть в какую-нибудь игру. Поэтому для эффективного использования компьютера необходимо знать
назначение и свойства необходимых при работе с ним программ.
Виды программ. Программы, работающие, на компьютере, можно разделить на три категории:
• прикладные программы, непосредственно обеспечивающие выполнение необходимых пользователям
работ: редактирование текстов, рисование картинок, обработку информационных массивов и т. д.;
• системные программы, выполняющие р азлич ные вспо м о гательные функции, например создание
копий используемой информации, проверку работоспособности устройств компьютера и т. д. Особую роль среди
системных программ играет операционная система — программа, управляющая компьютером, запускающая все
другие программы и выполняющая для них различные сервисные функции;
•
инструментальные системы (системы программирования), обеспечивающие создание новых программ
для компьютера.
Большинство программ является коммерчески распространяемыми - они продаются в магазинах, по
почте и другими способам. Имеются и бесплатно распространяемые программы, а также так называемые условнобесплатные программы (по-английски - shareware), их можно получить для опробования бесплатно, но при
систематическом использовании этих программ следует выслать определенную сумму разработчикам.
IBM PC-совместимые компьютеры
Большинство (более 90%) современных компьютеров является IBM PC-совместимыми персональными компьютерами. Эти компьютеры называются IBM PC-совместимыми, поскольку они совместимы с компьютером IBM PC, разработанном в 1981 г. крупнейшей в мире компьютерной фирмой IBM. Слово «совместимость» здесь означает:
• программную совместимость - все программы, разработанные для IBM PC, будут работать и на всех IBM
PC-совместимых компьютерах;
• в значительной степени - и аппаратную совместимость: подавляющее большинство устройств для
компьютеров IBM PC и более новых версий (IBM PC XT, IBM PC AT и т. д.) годятся и для современных компьютеров.
Правда, обычно устаревшие устройства (пяти-, или десятилетней давности) в современных компьютерах не
применяются.
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Слово «персональный» означает, что этот компьютер рассчитан на одновременную работу с одним
пользователем (большие компьютеры, как правило, поддерживают одновременную работу многих пользователей).
Открытость архитектуры. Важнейшую роль в развитии IBM PC-совместимых компьютеров сыграл
заложенный в них фирмой IBM принцип открытой архитектуры. Фирма IBM сделала компьютер не единым
неразъемным устройством, а обеспечила возможность его сборки из независимых частей аналогично детскому
конструктору. При этом методы сопряжения различных частей компьютера IBM PC и подсоединения к нему
внешних устройств не только не держались в секрете, но были доступны всем желающим. Таким образом,
производить комплектующие и внешние устройства для IBM PC смогли не только отобранные IBM фирмы, а все
желающие, а скоро сотни фирм стали осуществлять сборку компьютеров (IBM PC-совместимых компьютеров). Через
несколько лет IBM перестала быть монополистом в выпуске разработанных ею компьютеров и стала одной из
тысяч конкурирующих между собой фирм. Причем многие сборщики стали не только перенимать достижения
фирмы IBM, но и внедрять многие технические новинки раньше IBM, так что IBM перестала быть и технологическим лидером.
Однако то, что лишило фирму IBM лидирующих позиций, самым благоприятным образом сказалось на рынке
IBM PC-совместимых компьютеров. Конкуренция тысяч сборщиков компьютеров, производителей комплектующих и
программного обеспечения привели к стремительному росту возможностей компьютеров, предназначенных для них устройств и программного обеспечения, а также снижению цен на них.
Преимущества IBM PC-совместимых компьютеров. Успеху IBM PC-совместимых компьютеров
способствовали следующие факторы:
• полная программная совместимость этих компьютеров привела к появлению сотен тысяч разработанных
для них программ, охватывающих практически все сферы человеческой деятельности. Многие фирмы вкладывали огромные средства в разработку программ, поскольку были уверены, что программы будут востребованы на рынке;
• открытость рынка IBM PC-совместимых компьютеров привела к острейшей конкуренции тысяч производителей
компьютеров и их комплектующих, а значит, к максимально быстрым темпам внедрения технических новинок,
обеспечивающих повышение возможностей компьютеров при сохранении относительно низких цен (от нескольких
сотен до нескольких тысяч дол.);
• модульное устройство и интеграция компонентов IBM PC-совместимых компьютеров обеспечили
компактность компьютеров, их высокую надежность и простоту ремонта;
• модульное устройство IBM PC- со вм естим ых ко м пьютер о в также обеспечило возможность их
легкой модернизации, в том числе силами самих пользователей. В результате пользователи могут приспособить эти
компьютеры к своим нуждам, купив и подсоединив то или иное устройство, а также увеличить мощность своего
компьютера (например, установив более мощный процессор или более емкий жесткий диск);
• высокие возможности IBM PC-совместимых компьютеров по переработке информации позволили
использовать их (а не более мощные компьютеры) как для решения подавляющего большинства задач в бизнесе,
так и для личных нужд пользователей.
История развития компьютеров
Аналитическая машина Бэббиджа. Еще в первой половине XIX в. английский математик Чарльз Бэббидж
попытался построить универсальное вычислительное устройство, то есть компьютер (Бэббидж называл его
Аналитической машиной). Именно Бэббидж впервые додумался до того, что компьютер должен содержать память и
управляться с помощью программы. Бэббидж хотел построить свой компьютер как механическое устройство, а
программы собирался задавать посредством перфокарт — карт из плотной бумаги с информацией, наносимой с помощью
отверстий (они в то время уже широко употреблялись в ткацкихстанках). Однако довести до конца эту работу Бэббидж не
смог — она оказалась слишком сложной для техники того времени.
Первые компьютеры. В 40-ходах XX в. сразу несколько групп исследователей повторили попытку Бэббиджа
на основе техники XX в. - электромеханических реле. Некоторые из этих исследователей ничего не знали о работах
Бэббиджа и открыли его идеи заново. Первым из них был немецкий инженер Конрад Цузе, который в 1941 г. построил
небольшой компьютер на основе нескольких электромеханических реле. Однако из-за войны работы Цузе не
были опубликованы. А в 1943 г. в США на одном из предприятий фирмы IBM американец Говард Эйкен создал
более мощный компьютер под названием «Марк-1». Он уже позволял проводить вычисления в сотни раз быстрее, чем
вручную (с помощью арифмометра), и реально использовался для военныхрасчетов.
Однако электромеханические реле работали медленно и недостаточно надежно, поэтому, начиная с 1943 г. в
США группа специалистов под руководством Джона Мочли и Преспера Экерта начала конструировать компьютер ENIAC
на основе электронных ламп. Созданный ими компьютер работал в тысячу раз быстрее, чем Марк-1. Однако
обнаружилось, что большую часть времени этот компьютер простаивал — ведь для задания метода расчетов
(программы) в этом компьютере приходилось в течение нескольких часов или даже нескольких дней подсоединять
нужным образом провода. Сам же расчет мог занять всего лишь несколько минут или даже секунд.
Компьютеры с хранимой в памяти программой. Чтобы упростить и убыстрить процесс задания программ, Мочли и Экерт начали конструировать новый компьютер, который мог бы хранить программу в своей памяти. В 1945 г. к
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работе был привлечен знаменитый математик Джон фон Нейман, который подготовил доклад об этом компьютере.
Доклад был разослан многим ученым и получил широкую известность, поскольку в нем фон Нейман ясно и просто сформулировал общие принципы функционирования компьютеров. До сих пор подавляющее большинство компьютеров сделано в соответствии с теми принципами, которые изложил в своем докладе в 1945 г. Джон фон Нейман. Первый
компьютеров котором были воплощены принципы фон Неймана, был построен в 1949 г. английским исследователем
Морисом Уилксом. Мы расскажем о принципах фон Неймана в следующем параграфе.
Развитие элементной базы компьютеров. В 40-х и 50-х годах компьютеры создавались на основе
электронных ламп, поэтому компьютеры были очень большими (они занимали огромные залы), дорогими и
ненадежными - ведь электронные лампы, как и обычные лампочки, часто перегорают. В 1948 г. были изобретены
транзисторы - миниатюрные и недорогие электронные приборы, которые смогли заменить электронные лампы. Это
привело к уменьшению размеров компьютеров в сотни раз и повышению их надежности. Первые компьютеры на
основе транзисторов появились в конце 50-х годов, а к середине 60-х годов были созданы и значительно более компактные
внешние устройства для компьютеров, что позволило фирме Digital Equipment выпустить в 1965 г. первый
мини-компьютер PDP-8 размером с холодильник и стоимостью всего 20 тыс. $ (компьютеры 40-х и 50-х годов обычно
стоили миллионы $).
После появления транзисторов наиболее трудоемкой операцией при производстве компьютеров было соединение и спайка транзисторов для создания электронных схем. В 1959 г. Роберт Нойс (будущий основатель фирмы Intel)
изобрел способ, позволяющий создавать на одной пластине кремния транзисторы и все необходимые соединения
между ними. Полученные электронные схемы стали называться интегральными схемами, или чипами. В 1968 г. фирма
Burroughs выпустила первый компьютер на интегральных схемах, а в 1970 г. фирма Intel начала продавать интегральные схемы памяти. В дальнейшем количество транзисторов, которое удавалось разместить на единицу площади
интегральной схемы, увеличивалось приблизительно вдвое каждый год, что и обеспечивало постоянное уменьшение
стоимости компьютеров и повышение их быстродействия.
Микропроцессоры. В 1970 г. был сделан еще один важный шаг на пути к персональному компьютеру Маршиан Эдвард Хофф из фирмы Intel сконструировал интегральную схему, аналогичную по своим функциям
центральному процессору большого компьютера. Так появился первый микропроцессор Intel-4004, который был
выпущен в продажу в 1971 г. Это был настоящий прорыв, ибо микропроцессор Intel-4004 размером менее 3 см был
производительнее гигантской машины ENIAC. Правда, возможности Intel-4004 были куда скромнее, чем у центрального
процессора больших компьютеров того времени, - он работал гораздо медленнее и мог обрабатывать одновременно
только 4 бита информации (процессоры больших компьютеров обрабатывали 16 или 32 бита одновременно), но и стоил он
в десятки тысяч раз дешевле. Однако рост производительности микропроцессоров не заставил себя ждать. В 1973 г. фирма
Intel выпустила 8-битовый микропроцессор Intel-8008, а в 1974 г. — его усовершенствованную версию Intel-8080,
которая до конца 70-х годов была стандартом для микрокомпьютерной индустрии.
Появление персональных компьютеров. Вначале микропроцессоры использовались в различных специализированных устройствах, например, в калькуляторах. В1974 г. несколько фирм объявили о создании на основе микропроцессора
Intel-8008 персонального компьютера,
т. е. устройства, выполняющего те же функции, что и большой компьютер, но рассчитанного на одного пользователя.
В начале 1975 г. появился первый коммерчески распространяемый персональный компьютер Альтаир-8800 на основе микропроцессора Intel-8080. Этот компьютер продавался по цене около 500 $. Хотя возможности его были весьма ограничены
(оперативная память составляла всего 256 байт, клавиатура и экран отсутствовали), его появление было встречено с большим
энтузиазмом: в первые же месяцы было продано несколько тысяч комплектов машины. Покупатели снабжали этот компьютер дополнительными устройствами: монитором для вывода информации, клавиатурой, блоками расширения памяти и т. д.
Вскоре эти устройства стали выпускаться другими фирмами. В конце 1975. г. Пол Аллен и Билл Гейтс (будущие основатели
фирмы Microsoft) создали для компьютера «Альтаир» интерпретатор языка Basic, что позволило пользователям
достаточно просто общаться с компьютером и легко писать для него программы. Это также способствовало популярности персональных компьютеров. Успех Альтаир-8800 заставил многие фирмы также заняться производством
персональных компьютеров. Персональные компьютеры стали продаваться уже в полной комплектации с клавиатурой и
монитором, спрос на них составил десятки, а затем и сотни тысяч штук в год. Появилось несколько журналов, посвященных персональным компьютерам. Росту объема продаж весьма способствовали многочисленные полезные программы,
разработанные для делового мира. Появились и коммерчески распространяемые программы, например, программа для
редактирования текстов WordStar и табличный процессор VisiCalc (соответственно 1978 и 1979 гг.). Эти и многие другие
программы сделали покупку персональных компьютеров весьма выгодным для бизнеса: с их помощью стало возможно
выполнять бухгалтерские расчеты, составлять документы и т. д.
Появление IBM PC. В конце 70-х годов распространение персональных компьютеров привело к некоторому снижению спроса на большие компьютеры и мини-компьютеры (мини-ЭВМ). Это стало предметом серьезного беспокойства
ф ир м ы IBM (In t ern at io n al Bu s in es s Machines Corporation)—ведущей компании по производству больших компьютеров, и в 1979 г. фирма IBM решила попробовать свои силы на рынке персональных компьютеров. Однако руководство фирмы
недооценило будущую важность этого рынка и рассматривало создание персонального компьютера всего лишь как
мелкий эксперимент — что-то вроде одной из десятков проводившихся в фирме работ по созданию нового оборудования.
Чтобы не тратить на этот эксперимент слишком много денег, руководство фирмы предоставило подразделению, ответственному за данный проект, невиданную в фирме свободу. В частности, ему было разрешено не конструировать персональный компьютер «с нуля», а использовать блоки, изготовленные другими фирмами. И это подразделение сполна
использовало предоставленный шанс.
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Прежде всего, в качестве основного микропроцессора компьютера был выбран новейший тогда 16-разрядный
микропроцессор Intel-8088. Его использование позволило значительно увеличить потенциальные возможности компьютера, так как новый микропроцессор позволял работать с 1 Мбайтом памяти, а все имевшиеся тогда компьютеры были
ограничены 64 Кбайтами. В компьютере были использованы и другие комплектующие различных фирм, а его
программное обеспечение было поручено разработать небольшой фирме Microsoft. В августе 1981 г. новый компьютер
под названием IBM PC был официально представлен публике, и вскоре после этого он приобрел большую
популярность у пользователей. Через один - два года компьютер IBM PC занял ведущее место на рынке, вытеснив
модели 8-битовых компьютеров.
Открытая архитектура и появление клонов. Если бы IBM PC был сделан так же, как другие существовавшие во
время его появления компьютеры, он бы устарел через два-три года, и мы давно бы уже о нем забыли. Действительно, кто
сейчас помнит о самых замечательных моделях телевизоров, телефонов или даже автомобилей пятнадцатилетней давности!
Однако с компьютерами IBM PC получилось по-другому. Фирма IBM не сделала свой компьютер единым неразъемным устройством и не стала защищать его конструкцию патентами. Наоборот, она собрала компьютер из независимо изготовленных частей и не стала держать спецификации этих частей и способы их соединения в секрете. Напротив, принципы конструкции IBM PC были доступны всем желающим. Этот подход, называемый принципом открытой архитектуры,
обеспечил потрясающий успех компьютеру IBM PC, хотя и лишил фирму IBM возможности единолично пользоваться
плодами этого успеха. Вот как открытость архитектуры IBM PC повлияла на развитие персональных компьютеров:
1. Перспективность и популярность IBM PC сделала весьма привлекательным производство различных комплектующих
и дополнительных устройств для IBM PC. Конкуренция между производителями привела к удешевлению комплектующих и
устройств.
2. Очень скоро многие фирмы перестали довольствоваться ролью производителей комплектующих для IBM PC
и начали сами собирать компьютеры, совместимые с IBM PC. Поскольку этим фирмам не требовалось нести огромные
издержки фирмы IBM на исследования и поддержание структуры громадной фирмы, они смогли продавать свои компьютеры
значительно дешевле (иногда в 2-3раза) аналогичных компьютеров фирмы IBM. Совместимые с IBM PC компьютеры вначале
презрительно называли «клонами», но эта кличка не прижилась, так как многие фирмы-производители IBM PCсовместимых компьютеров стали реализовывать технические достижения быстрее, чем сама IBM.
3. Пользователи
получили
возможность
самостоятельно
модернизировать
свои компьютеры и оснащать их дополнительными устройствами сотен различных производителей.
Все это привело к снижению цен на IBM PC-совместимые компьютеры и стремительному улучшению их
характеристик, а значит, к росту их популярности.
Применение других типов компьютеров
Персональные IBM PC-совместимые компьютеры являются наиболее широко используемым видом
компьютеров, их мощность постоянно увеличивается, а область применения расширяется. Эти компьютеры могут
объединяться в сети, что позволяет десяткам и сотням пользователей легко обмениваться информацией и
одновременно получать доступ к общим базам данных. Средства электронной почты позволяют пользователям
компьютеров с помощью обычной телефонной сети посылать текстовые и факсимильные сообщения в другие
города и страны и получать информацию из крупных банков данных. Глобальная система электронной связи Internet
обеспечивает за крайне низкую цену возможность оперативного получения информации изо всех уголков земного
шара, предоставляет возможности голосовой и факсимильной связи, облегчает создание внутрикорпоративных
сетей передачи информации для фирм, имеющих отделения в разных городах и странах.
Однако возможности IBM PC-совместимых персональных компьютеров по обработке информации все же
ограничены, и не во всех ситуациях их применение оправдано. Вот основные виды компьютеров, существующих
наряду с IBM PC-совместимыми:
• мэйнфреймы, или большие ЭВМ - это компьютеры, созданные для обработки больших объемов информации. Наиболее
крупный их производитель - фирма IBM. Отличаются исключительной надежностью, высоким быстродействием, очень большой
пропускной способностью каналов ввода-вывода. К ним могут подсоединяться тысячи терминалов (дисплеев с клавиатурой)
или персональных компьютеров для работы пользователей. Большинство крупных корпораций, банков, зарубежных
правительственных учреждений обрабатывают свои данные именно на больших ЭВМ. Хотя они могут стоить
миллионы долларов, спрос на них не падает, так как обеспечиваемые ими централизованные хранение и обработка данных
обходятся дешевле, чем обслуживание распределенных систем обработки данных, состоящих из сотен и тысяч персональных компьютеров;
• супер-ЭВМ - это компьютеры, предназначенные для решения задач, требующих громадных объемов
вычислений. Основные потребители суперЭВМ - военные, метеорологи, геологи и прочие ученые. Например,
качественный прогноз погоды или моделирование ядерного взрыва требуют колоссальных расчетов, так что применение
суперЭВМ здесь полностью оправдано. Супер-ЭВМ стоят десятки миллионов долларов (если не дороже), их
производят всего несколько фирм - Cray Research (ныне это подразделение фирмы Silicon Graphics), Hitachi и др.;
• мини-ЭВМ - это компьютеры, занимающие промежуточное положение между персональными компьютерами
и мэйнфреймами. За рубежом они используются в большинстве крупных фирм, в университетах, правительственных
учреждениях, центрах обработки данных и т. д. - как для тех задач, для которых производительности персональных
компьютеров недостаточно, так и для обеспечения централизованного хранения и обработки данных. Обычно к мини-ЭВМ
подключаются десятки или сотни терминалов (дисплеев с клавиатурой) или персональных компьютеров для работы
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пользователей. Основные производите ли мини-ЭВМ - DEC (Digital Equipment Corp.), Sun, Hewlett-Packard, IBM, Silicon
Graphics и др. Компьютеры фирмы Silicon Graphics снабжаются специальными аппаратными средствами для ускорения процессов трехмерного моделирования и анимации, поэтому на этих компьютерах создается большинство
спецэффектов в выпускаемых сейчас кинофильмах;
• рабочие станции -как правило, это младшие модели мини-ЭВМ, предназнач енные для р аб о ты с
о дним пользователем. Обычно они имеют производительность как у самых мощных персональных компьютеров
или даже несколько больше;
• компьютеры типа Macintosh - это единственный распространенный вид персональных компьютеров,
не совместимый с IBM PC. В середине и конце 80-х годов компьютеры Macintosh, разработанные и производимые
фирмой Apple, составляли, несмотря на свою дороговизну, достойную альтернативу IBM PC-совместимым
компьютерам, так как они обеспечивали наглядный графический интерфейс для работы с пользователем и были
значительно проще в эксплуатации. Однако в 90-х годах для IBM PC-совместимых компьютеров были разработаны
ОС с графическим интерфейсом - Windows, Windows NT, Windows 95, OS/2, а так же многочисленные
рассчитанные на них пр о гр ам м ы. И пр еим у щества Macintosh в значительной мере исчезли. Многие
производители программ для Macintosh стали выпускать версии своих программ также и для IBM PC, a доля
Macintosh в общем выпуске персональных компьютеров стала снижаться (сейчас она составляет около 78%). Тем не м енее, ко м пьютеры Macintosh удерживают прочные позиции в издательском деле, образовании,
создании мультимедиа-программ и во многих других областях;
• кар м анные ко м пьютер ы, или личные электронные помощники, - это небольшие компьютеры
весом около 300-500 грамм, помещающиеся на кисти одной руки. Как правило, они работают на обычных
батарейках и одного комплекта батареек им хватает на несколько десятков часов. Большинство
карманных компьютеров не совмести мо с настольными компьютерами типа IBM PC, но есть и IBM PC-совместимые. В карманных компьютерах нет ни жесткого диска, ни дисковода для дискет, ни дисковода CD-ROM (из-за их
большого энергопотребления). Некоторые карманные компьютеры имеют миниатюрную клавиатуру, но есть и
модели без клавиатуры — в них ввод данных осуществляется нажатиями или рисованием специальным пером по экрану. Наиболее распространены карм анные ко м пьютер ы ф ир м A p p le , Hewlett-Packard, Sony, Psion и др.
Совместное использование компьютеров разных типов. Как правило, в больших организациях
одновременно используется несколько типов компьютеров, поскольку на каждом типе компьютеров
целесообразно решать свои задачи. Например, если в организации десяткам или сотням пользователей
необходимо централизованно работать с большой общей базой данных, то для хранения и обработки этой базы
данных может быть приобретена мини-ЭВМ или даже мэйнфрейм, а в качестве рабочих мест пользователей
могут использоваться IBM PC-совместимые компьютеры. Производство рекламы и издательской продукции в той же
организации может осуществляться на компьютере типа Macintosh (поскольку для этих компьютеров имеются
более качественное программное обеспечение для издательской деятельности), а разъездным агентам могут
быть выданы карманные компьютеры. Все эти компьютеры могут обмениваться данными с помощью объединения в локальную сеть, а также иными способами.
Vocabulary
А
abacus - абак, (древние) счёты
abort - прерывать
AC = alternating current - переменный ток
accept - принимать
access 1) доступ; 2) выборка информации (из памяти); 2. v получить доступ
access time – время доступа
accessory – принадлежность (реквизит, аксессуар); 1) дополнительное периферийное устройство компьютера;
2) одно из мини-приложений, поставляемых бесплатно с операционной системой
accommodate - размещать
accomplish – завершать
accumulate – накапливать, собирать, аккумулировать
accumulation - накопление, собрание
accuracy – точность, меткость
accurate - точный, меткий
action - действие; физич. : движение
active - 1) деятельный, энергичный, активный; 2) действительный, эффективный; 3) действующий
activate – активировать, активизировать; вызывать
adapt – приспосабливать, настраивать, адаптировать
adaptability - приспособляемость
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adapter - 1) тех. адаптер; 2) соединительное (переходное) устройство
add - 1) прибавлять, присоединять, 2) мат. складывать
adopt – принимать
advance - прогресс, продвижение
advanced - продвинутый, передовой
advantage - преимущество, достоинство; выгода, польза
alternating - переменный
analysis – анализ
analog – аналоговый
apparent – видимый, очевидный, явный, кажущийся, мнимый
applicability- применимость
application – применение, приложение
application program – прикладная программа
arrange – приводить в порядок, располагать, расставлять
arsenic - мышьяк
artificial – искусственный
assemble – собирать, монтировать
assign – присвоить дисководу другое логическое имя, букву
asterisk – звёздочка
attach – прикреплять, присоединять
attainable - достижимый
B
batch – пакет
batch processing – пакетная обработка
blank - пробел
block - 1) блок; 2) группа, масса однородных предметов
bold - полужирный
boot - осуществить первоначальную загрузку
bootable - способный выполнять первоначальную загрузку
boron – бор
break - прерывание работы программы;
buffer - 1) буфер, амортизатор, глушитель; 2) промежуточная область памяти
built-in – встроенный
bulky – громоздкий, массивный
button – кнопка
buoyancy - плавучесть
byte - байт, единица измерения информации
С
cable - кабель, провод
calculate – считать
calculator – калькулятор
cancel - отменить
capable – способный
capability – способность, возможность
capacity – объём, информационная ёмкость
capacitor - конденсатор
cartridge tape – накопитель на магнитной ленте
cash register – кассовый аппарат
chain - цепочка
character - знак, символ, цифра
characteristic - характеристика
charge - 1. n заряд; 2. v заряжать
check - проверять, контролировать
chip – чип, микросхема
cipher – шифр, код; ноль
circuit – цепь, схема
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clipboard – камера хранения, буфер обмена, доска с зажимом для бумаги
code 1) код; 2) система кодирования; 3) код, программа; 2. v кодировать
command] 1. п команда, приказ; 2. v приказывать
communication - 1) коммуникация, связь; 2) сообщение, передача; 3) связь, общение
compatible - 1) совместимый, сочетаемый; 2) сходный
complete - выполнить
compute - вычислять, считать, подсчитывать
computation - вычисление
computer - 1) вычислитель, счетчик, счетно-решающее устройство; 2) ЭВМ, компьютер;
personal computer - персональный компьютер
conduct – проводить, вести
conductor - проводник
connect - соединять, связывать
conserve - сохранять, хранить
console - 1) консоль, кронштейн; 2) пульт (управления), пульт оператора
consume –
content - содержание
control [kan'troul] n 1) управление, руководство; 2) власть; 3)
надзор, контроль, проверка; 4) регулировка
controller – контроллер
convert - преобразовать
coprocessor - сопроцессор
counter - счётчик
copy - копирование файлов на другие диски и директории, копировать
cord – шнур
CPU –central processing unit – центральный процессор
control – управление, регулирование
current - текущий
current - течение; ток
cursor - тех. указатель, курсор
D
data - данные, факты, сведения
digit – цифра, разряд
digital – цифровой
digitizer - дигитайзер
decimal – десятичный
define - определить
deposition – напыление
desktop – настольный
delete - 1) вычеркивать, стирать; 2) изглаживать из памяти, уничтожать, не оставлять следов
desktop (computer) – настольный ( компьютер)
device - устройство, приспособление, механизм, аппарат, прибор
dial – набирать номер
dial-in – подключиться к
difference engine – разностная машина
difference equation - дифференциальное уравнение
direct - 1) руководить, управлять; 2) направлять
directly - прямо, непосредственно
directory - 1) адресная книга, справочник; 2) директория, каталог, current ~ текущая директория;
default ~ - директория, имя которой можно не указывать (обычно рабочая, текущая директо рия);
working ~ - рабочая директория
disk - диск; blank ~ - чистый диск; double-density ~ - диск с удвоенной плотностью; double.sided ~ двусторонний диск; master ~ - диск-оригинал с записью программного обеспечения; micro-floppy
~ - гибкий микродиск; RAM ~ = random access memory ~ имитация диска в памяти компьютера
для временного хранения данных; single-sided ~ - односторонняя дискета; source ~ - диск, с
которого осуществляется копирование; target ~- диск, на который осуществляется копирование;
write-protected ~ диск, защищенный от записи
diskette - дискета; source ~ - дискета, с которой осуществляется копирование; target ~ - дискета, на
которую осуществляется копирование
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disk space – ёмкость дискеты
display - 1. n 1) показ, выставка; 2) дисплей, вывод на экран дисплея; 2. v выводить на экран
дисплея; LCD = Liquid-crystal ~ дисплей на жидких кристаллах
divide – делить
division - деление
domain - домен ; 1) в реляционных базах данных – область определения одного столбца
отношения; 2) в сетях группа ресурсов, управляемых одним узлом; область определения функци и
domain name - имя домена. Имя, назначенное в сети Interne хост-компьютеру
DOS = DISK Operating System операционная система, хранящаяся на диске
dot – точка
dot matrix printer – матричный принтер
draft – черновик, черновая печать
drive - дисковод, накопитель; default ~ - дисковод, используемый по умолчанию; external floppy
disk ~ внешний (дополнительный) дисковод; internal floppy disk ~ встроенный в компьютер
дисковод; working ~ - рабочий дисковод; ~ identifier - идентификатор дисковода
drop down menu – плавающее (выдвижное) меню
duplicate - 1. n дубликат, копия; 2. v 1) снимать копию; 2) дублировать; скопировать кусок текста
Е
edit – 1) редактировать, 2) правка
Email – электронная почта
embody – содержать, включать
empty – пустой, свободный
encode - закодировать
enter - входить, проникать
environment - конфигурация
equipment - оборудование, оснащение
ERASE - уничтожение указанного файла
error - 1) ошибка, заблуждение; 2) ошибка, погрешность;
disk ~ - writing ошибка, допущенная при записи данных на диск; disk ~ reading ~ - ошибка,
допущенная при считывании данных с диска; divide ~ - ошибка, допущенная при делении
ESC = escape - выход из текущего режима работы
escape – переход, выход, потеря
essential –необходимый, существенный
even - чётный
exclude - исключить
execute – выполнять, исполнять
executable - а выполнимый
execution - выполнение, исполнение
executive - 1. а исполнительный; 2. n организующая программа, управляющая программа
EXIT - выход из командного процессора и возвращение к приостановленной программе
expand - расширять
expansion – расширение, растяжение
expansion card - плата расширения
extend - 1) протягивать, вытягивать; 2) расширять; 3) продлить, удлинить
extension – расширение
external - внешний, наружный
F
facility – оборудование, сооружение
failure - 1) неуспех, неудача, провал; 2) отказ, сбой
fan - вентилятор
feature – особенность, признак, свойство, топографический элемент
feed – подача
feeder – устройство подачи, подающий механизм, фидер
figure - 1) цифра, число; 2) диаграмма, рисунок, чертеж
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file [fail] n 1) регистратор для бумаг; 2) подшитые бумаги, дело, досье; 3) картотека; 4) файл;
batch ~ файл, содержащий группу команд
fixed – фиксированный
flexible – гибкий,
flea-sized – размером с блоху
floating point – плавающая запятая
floppy – гибкий
floppy disk - гибкий диск
floppy disk drive - дисковод для гибких дисков
folder - папка
font - шрифт, комплект шрифта
format - 1) формат; 2) размер, форма; 2. v форматировать, задавать формат
footers – нижние заголовки
FTP – file transmission / transfer protocol – протокол передачи файлов
FTP –доступ к файловому депозитарию с помощью процедуры FTP
function - 1) функция, назначение; 2) функция, деятельность
function key – функциональная клавиша
G
gap – пробел, зазор, пауза, промежуток
general purpose computer - универсальный компьютер
generate – производить, создавать
generation – поколение
germanium – германий
grab – забирать, схватить
graphics - проектирование, составление проекций, графиков, чертежей; графика, чертеж
grid – растр, координатная сетка, решётка, грид, направляющий провод (в криотроне)
GUI = graphical user interface - графический интерфейс пользователя
Н
handle – управлять, определить
hardware - 1) аппаратура, оборудование, аппаратные средства (в отличие от программных); 3)
технические средства, механическое обеспечение
hierarchical–иерархический
highlight - выделять
HELP- получение различных справок о работе компьютера
hold (held, held) - держать; ~ down держать в горизонтальном, нажатом положении
hook – крючок, захватчик, перехватить
host computer– главный компьютер, «хост»
HTTP = hyper-text-transfer-protocol – гипертекстовый протокол
hub – концентратор, расширитель, хаб; узел
I
icon – пиктограмма, икона /условное изображение информационного объекта или операции
improvement – улучшение, усовершенствование
impurity – нечистота, грязь, примесь
incompatible - несовместимый
inconsistent - 1) несовместимый; 2) непоследовательный, противоречивый
incorrect - неправильный, неверный, неточный
increase - увеличивать
index - 1) индекс, указатель; 2) алфавитный указатель
indicate - показывать, указывать
indicator - указатель, показатель
infect – заражать
inkjet printer – струйный принтер
input – ввод
I/O port = input/output port – порт ввода/вывода
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insert - вставка, вклейка; вставить
install - 1) помещать, устраивать; 2) устанавливать, монтировать
installation – установка, настройка
integrator – интегратор – средство объединения прикладных программ, позволяющее работать с
несколькими окнами, управлять работой программ через меню, автоматически рас пределять
память между программами.
internal – внутренний
interrupt – прерывать, прерывание
introduce - вводить
invalid – недействительный
invent – изобретать
invention – изобретение
investigate – исследовать, расследовать
investigation – исследование, расследование
investigator – исследователь
IP = internet protocol – сетевой протокол низкого уровня, использованный в ARPANET и других
TCP/IP сетях
italics – курсив
J
job - задание
job control - управление заданиями
job load - рабочая загрузка
job mix – смесь задач
job processing - выполнение задания
job queue - очередь заданий
joystick - джойстик
К
keep – хранить
key - ключ; клавиша; function ~ - функциональная клавиша; special ~ - специальная клавиша
keyboard - клавиатура
keypad - (малая) клавиатура
L
label - метка
lack – недостаток
laptop/portable computer – портативный компьютер
lattice –решётка
layer - слой
LCD = Liquid-crystal display line - 1) линия; 2) строка; command ~ командная строка
link - 1. n связующее звено, связь, соединение; 2. v соединять, связывать, смыкать, сцеплять
load - 1) грузить, нагружать; 2) заряжать, загружать
locate - устанавливать, определять точное место
lock - 1. n замок, запор, затвор; 2. v запирать
lowercase - нижний регистр
LSI = large scale integration – большая интегральная схема
M
machine - машина, механизм
magnetic – магнитный
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magnetic core memory –запоминающее устройство на магнитных сердечниках
mainframe – головная, как правило, большая(в отличии от персональных и мини-компьютеров)
вычислительная машина
maintenance – 1) техническое обслуживание; 2) эксплуатация» 3) текущий ремонт
manage - 1) руководить, управлять; 2) справляться
manual – руководство
margin - поле
mark – отметить
master – главный (компьютер)
math – математические символы
mean – способ, средство
measure – измерять, единица измерения, масштаб
measurement – измерение, размеры, система мер
medium - носитель (данных), среднее число, средний
megabyte - мегабайт (106 байт)
memory - 1) оперативная память; 2) память, запоминающее устройство
memory capacity – объём оперативной памяти
menudriven - (программа) управляемая с помощью меню
message - сообщение, донесение; error ~ сообщение об ошибках
merge – сливать, объединять данные
mode - 1) режим ; 2) образ действия, манера; 3) метод, способ
modem – модем (устройство, позволяющее подключить компьютер к телефонной линии и
организовать связь с удалённым компьютером
modify - модифицировать
monitor - тех. монитор
mother board – материнская плата
mouse - «мышь» (устройство для отработки положения указателя/курсора на экране дисплея)
move – передвигать, пересылать данные
MS-DOS-Microsoft-Disk Operating System операционная система, хранящаяся на диске, которая
разработана корпорацией Майкрософт
multiplication - умножение
multiply – умножать
N
name - 1. n имя; file ~ - имя файла; 2. именовать
network -) сеть; 2) группа компонентов, соединенная линиями связи
non-removable - неперемещаемый
nonstandard - не соответствующий установленным нормам
non-volatile – энергонезависимый
notepad – «записная книжка, блокнот»
numerical - числовой, цифровой, численный
О
odd – нечётный
operating system – операционная система
operation - действие, операция, работа, приведение в действие
operator - работающий на машине, управляющий машиной или механизмом, оператор
option - 1) необязательный параметр, вариант; 2) выбор; 3) предмет выбора
optional - необязательный, факультативный
orator – латинский для заголовков
output - 1) выпуск, выработка; 2) выход, вывод; 3) выходное устройство; 4) выходные данные
Р
pack - 1) узел, блок, пакет; 2) корпус; 2. v паковать
page – страница
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pagination – разбиение страницы
panel - 1) панель; 2) приборная панель, щит управления
password - пароль
path - путь к файлу
pathname - указание пути к файлу
pause - пауза, перерыв, остановка, перемена, передышка
PC = personal computer – персональный компьютер
performance – выполнение, исполнение; быстродействие
peripheral - 1. а периферийный; 2. n периферийное оборудование, внешнее оборудование,
внешнее устройство
pitch - шаг
pixel – пиксель (минимальная единица изображения, цвет и/или яркость которой можно задать
независимо от остального изображения)
plug – подключать
point – указывать, показывать
pointer – указатель, курсор
port - 1) тех. отверстие, проход; 2) порт (многоразрядный вход или выход в устройство)
portable - портативный, переносный, передвижной
power - мощность, энергия
powerful - сильный, мощный
press - жать, нажимать, давить
previous - предыдущий
print - шрифт, печать; печатать;
printed circuit board – печатная плата
printer - принтер, печатающее устройство
process – 1) процесс, состояние, стадия; 2) обрабатывать
processor – процессор (функциональная часть персонального компьютера или системы обработки
информации, предназначенная для интерпретации программ
produce - производить, вырабатывать
program - программа; word processing ~ программа для редактирования текстов, текстовой
редактор
prompt - подсказка; подсказывать
property - свойство
protect - 1) защищать, ограждать; 2) предохранять
protection - защита
protective - защитный
provide - снабжать, обеспечивать
provided - при условии
provider - поставщик
принтере изображения с экрана дисплея
punched card - перфокарта
punctuation - пунктуация
Q
question-mark - вопросительный знак
queue -очередь
R
RAM = random access memory – память произвольного доступа
range - 1) ряд, линия; 2) диапазон; 3) пределы, протяжение, пространство
read-only – только для чтения
read rate – скорость чтения
rechargeable – подзаряжающийся, перезаряжающийся
redirect - перенаправлять, направить снова, повторно
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re-display - вывод на экран дисплея повторно, заново
reduce – уменьшать, сокращать
reduction – уменьшение, сокращение
reference - 1) ссылка (на кого-л., что-л.); 2) справочник
register - регистр
receive - получить
record – запись
redefine - переопределить
reformat - переформатировать
reinsert - вставлять снова, повторно
relay – ретрансляционный
release – отпускать, выпускать, освобождать
reliable – надёжный
reliability - надёжность
reload - перезагружать, загружать повторно
removable - 1) передвигаемый, подвижный, съемный; 2) сменяемый
rename - переименовывать, давать новое имя
repeat - повторять
repeatedly - неоднократно, часто, повторно
replace - 1) ставить или класть обратно; 2) заменять, замещать
replaceable - заменяемый, съемный
replicate – повторить, дублировать
report – 1) v сообщать, рассказывать, описывать; 2) n доклад
requirement - требование
reset - перенастроить, переустановить, перезагрузить
resistor – резистор, катушка сопротивления
resolution – разрешающая способность
restart - начинать снова, возобновлять работу
restore - 1) возвращать, отдавать обратно; 2) возвращать на прежнее место, в прежнее положение;
3) восстанавливать; 4) реставрировать
restrict - ограничивать, держать в определенных пределах
RFC = request for comments – запросы на комментарии; официальные документы Internet
resume – возобновлять, продолжать
roll-in - подкачка
ROM = read only memory – постоянное запоминающее устройство
room - место, пространство; участок памяти (для хранения блока данных)
root – корень
rout - маршрут
S
safe - безопасный
save - 1) спасать; 2) беречь, экономить
scale – масштаб, шкала; масштабировать
scan – развёртка (изображения)
scanner - сканер
schedule - 1) список, каталог, опись; 2) расписание
screen - экран дисплея
script – рукописный (латинский)
scroll – прокручивать, перемещать, просматривать
scroll –bar –полоса скроллинга, линейка прокрутки
search -1) поиск; 2) искать
segment - 1) сегмент; доля; часть; 2) v делить на части
select – отбирать
semiconductor – полупроводник
sequence - последовательность
serial port - последовательный порт (разъем)
server – сервер, спецпроцессор, обслуживающее устройство
share - разделять (с кем-л. что-л.)
shell - оболочка
shift – 1) сдвиг, переключение; 2) передвигать
shortcut – ярлык (очень маленький файл, указывающий на гораздо больший файл или папку,
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расположенную в другом месте)
shrink – сжимать, уменьшать
single –единственный, одинарный
skip - пропускать, перепрыгивать
slash - 1) разрез; 2) косая черта
soak – пропитывать, вымачивать
socket - розетка
software - программное обеспечение
source – источник
space – пробел, пространство
speaker - громкоговоритель
specific - особый
specification - спецификация, перечень
specify - определять
storage - хранение, память; запоминающее устройство
store – хранить
string - строка
stylus – (электронное) перо
sub-directory - субдиректория, подкаталог
subroutine - подпрограмма
substitute - заменять, замещать
subtract – вычитать
subtraction - вычитание
supply - подавать, подводить, питать
surface - поверхность
switch - 1) переключение; 2) переключатель
symbol - символ, знак
syntax - синтаксис
Т
tabulation - составление таблиц, сведение в таблицы, классификация, табулирование
target - 1) цель, мишень; 2) объект, на который направлено действие
task - задание, задача
taskbar – панель (полоса) задач
TCP = transmission control protocol – протокол управления передачей
technique – техника, учение; технический приём
time - 1) время; 2) раз
tiny - крошечный
tool – инструмент, орудие
tools – вспомогательные программы; библиотечные программы; инструментальные программные
средства: средства обработки; сервисные программы
toolbar – панель (полоса) инструментов
track - 1) след; 2) путь; 3) дорожка (на диске, дискете); keep ~ - следить
traffic – движение, трафик
transfer -1) перенос, перенесение, перемещение; 2) переносить, перемещать, переставлять
transistor – транзистор
transmission – передача (данных по линии связи)
transparent – прозрачный (о промежуточных средствах взаимодействия, применение которых
«незаметно» пользователю или программе)
transmit - сообщать, передавать
type - 1) писать на машинке; 2) набирать текст на клавиатуре и выводить на экран дисплея
U
underline - подчёркнутый
unit – единица; единица измерения; устройство; элемент; ячейка; раздел
unlock - отпирать, открывать
unmovable – недвижимый, непередвигаемый
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unpack - распаковывать
unrecoverable - невосстанавливаемый
unrelated - несвязанный, не имеющий отношения
unremovable – неудаляемый, неперемещаемый
insufficient memory – недостаточно памяти
unsuitable - неподходящий
unusable - негодный к употреблению
unused - неиспользованный
update – изменять, модифицировать; корректировать; обновлять; исправленная (новая) версия
uppercase - верхний регистр
URL = uniform resource locator – универсальный локатор ресурса
usable - годный к употреблению
usage - употребление
use - применение, использование
user - 1) потребитель; 2) пользователь, адресат
utility - 1) полезность; 2) полезная вещь; 3) обслуживающая программа, утилита
V
vacuum tube (valve) – вакуумная трубка (лампа)
valid -а действительный, имеющий силу, правильный
VLSI = very large scale integration - сверхбольшая интегральная схема
virtual - 1) фактический, действительный; 2) возможный, виртуальный, предполагаемый
virus - вирус
voltage - напряжение, вольтаж
volume - том; объем; сила, полнота (звука)
W
warning - предупреждение, предостережение
way - 1) путь, дорога; 2) метод, образ действия
wildcard - n знак с неопределенным значением
wire – провод
write protect - защищённый от записи
Использованная литература:
1. Jeremy Meyers, “A Short History of the computer”
2. Stephen White “A Brief History of Computing”
3. Paul Albitz and Cricket Liu “DNS and BIND” 1977. O’Reilly TM Cambridge, Koln, Paris,
Sebastopos, Tokyo. Printed in the USA
4. Sandy Berger, AARP Webplace. Computers and Technology -How To’s. 1995-2001
5. Jim Schweizer, Internet Basics for ESL Students. 1998
6. Basic English for Computing. Oxford University Press . 1998
7. Windows 95/98 lessons. Lesson Plans Online
8. P. Brown, N. Mullen, English for Computer Science. Oxford University Press, 1987
8. Esteras R. English for Computer Users. Cambridge University Press, 1996
9. Мороз И.Н. “What is a Computer” Дисс. канд. пед. наук. М., 1999.
10. Е. И. Курашвили Учебное пособие по чтению и устной речи для технических вузов. М.
«Высшая школа». - 1991.
11. Лоскутова Г.В., Масленникова Ю.В. О компьютере по-английски / Учебное пособие по
чтению на английском языке. – СПб.: КАРО, 2004. – 192 с.
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