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62.Culture of Business English

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
ДЕПАРТАМЕНТ ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И МОЛОДЁЖНОЙ ПОЛИТИКИ
ХАНТЫ-МАНСИЙСКОГО АВТОНОМНОГО ОКРУГА – ЮГРЫ
ГОУ ВПО ХМАО – ЮГРЫ
«СУРГУТСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ПЕДАГОГИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»
Кафедра лингвистического образования
и межкультурной коммуникации
СULTURE OF BUSINESS
ENGLISH
У ЧЕБНО - МЕТ ОДИЧЕСКОЕ
ПО СОБИЕ
ДЛЯ СТ УДЕНТОВ НАПРАВЛЕН ИЙ ПОДГОТОВ КИ :
100400.62 Туризм
080400.62 Управление персоналом
080500.62 Менеджмент
221400.62 Управление качеством
Сургут 2014
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
УДК 811.111(07)
ББК 81.432.1я73
С 94
Печатается по рекомендации отдела
сертификации и методического сопровождения
образовательного процесса СурГПУ
Учебно-методическое пособие утверждено
на заседании кафедры ЛингвОМКК
16 апреля 2014 года, протокол № 13
Рецензент:
Сургай Ю.В., кандидат филологических наук, доцент
кафедры лингвистического образования и межкультурной коммуникации
Сургутского государственного педагогического университета
С 94
Culture of Business English : учеб.-метод. пособие для студентов
направлений подготовки: 100400.62 Туризм, 080400.62 Управление
персоналом, 080500.62 Менеджмент, 221400.62 Управление
качеством ; Гос. образоват. учреждение высш. проф. образования
ХМАО–Югры «Сургут. гос. пед. ун-т» ; авт.-сост : Ю. В. Бопп,
С. В. Овчаренко. – Сургут : РИО СурГПУ, 2014. – 84, [1] с.
Данное учебно-методическое пособие состоит из десяти разделов,
выстроенных вокруг оригинальных текстов по специальности, лексических
и грамматических упражнений к ним, а также упражнений на выработку навыков профессионально-ориентированной устной речи по темам уроков. Пособие
составлено в соответствии с требованиями Федерального государственного
образовательного стандарта Российской Федерации к обязательному минимуму содержания основной образовательной программы дисциплины «Иностранный язык» и направлено на развитие языковых навыков и коммуникативных умений студентов, таких как чтение, говорение, письмо.
Предназначено для студентов направлений подготовки 100400.62
Туризм, 080400.62 Управление персоналом, 080500.62 Менеджмент, 221400.62
Управление качеством очного и заочного отделений.
УДК 811.111(07)
ББК 81.432.1я73
© Сургутский государственный педагогический университет, 2014
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CONTENTS
Предисловие .............................................................................
4
Unit 1. Austria .............................................................................
8
Unit 2. China ............................................................................... 15
Unit 3. France ............................................................................. 21
Unit 4. Germany .......................................................................... 27
Unit 5. Italy .................................................................................. 34
Unit 6. Japan .............................................................................. 42
Unit 7. Spain ............................................................................... 48
Unit 8. Turkey ............................................................................. 57
Unit 9. The USA .......................................................................... 65
Unit 10. The UK .......................................................................... 75
Литература ................................................................................ 83
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ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ
Английский язык – всемирно признанный язык деловых отношений. В условиях современного общества, в связи с набирающими силу процессами глобализации,
иностранные языки приобретают все большее значение. Знание иностранных языков
является необходимым условием высокой
квалификации любого специалиста. Изучение иностранного языка в современном
мире – это один из самых важных составляющих моментов современного, успешного человека. Знание иностранного языка расширяет кругозор, позволяет узнать культуру и обычаи другого народа.
Современная система обучения иностранному языку, согласно
новой языковой политике, характеризуется тем, что, во-первых, практическое владение иностранным языком стало насущной потребностью
широких слоев общества, и, во-вторых, общий социальный контекст
создает благоприятные условия для дифференциации обучения иностранному языку.
Знание иностранных языков играет немаловажную роль в карьерном росте хорошего специалиста, независимо от профиля его деятельности. Общение с зарубежными партнерами, спонсорами или инвесторами, работа в компании, в управлении которой есть иностранцы,
требует от специалиста свободного владения деловой иностранной
речью, умения вести деловую переписку, переговоры, объяснять свою
позицию, используя специализированную лексику.
Простого знания языка в подобных случаях недостаточно, поскольку в рабочих ситуациях приходится оперировать деловой лексикой
и соответствующими грамматическими конструкциями.
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Настоящее пособие «Culture of Business English» предназначено
для студентов направлений подготовки 100400.62 Туризм, 080400.62
Управление персоналом, 080500.62 Менеджмент, 221400.62 Управление качеством и составлено в соответствии с требованиями Федерального государственного образовательного стандарта Российской
Федерации к обязательному минимуму содержания основной образовательной программы дисциплины «Иностранный язык».
Общая трудоемкость курса рассчитана на 1 семестр (третий), составляет 3 зачетные единицы, 108 часов, из них:
– аудиторная работа (практические занятия, интерактивные
формы занятий) – 32 часа;
– самостоятельная работа – 62 часа;
– текущий контроль успеваемости и промежуточной аттестации
– 14 часов;
– итогом освоения курса является экзамен.
Согласно ФГОС ВПО данный курс направлен на формирование
следующих общекультурных компетенций студентов:
 владеть одним из иностранных языков на уровне, обеспечивающем эффективную профессиональную деятельность (ОК-14)
080400.62 Управление персоналом, 080500.62 Менеджмент;
 владеет одним из иностранных языков на уровне не ниже
разговорного (ОК-15) 221400.62 Управление качеством;
 готовность к восприятию культуры и обычаев других стран
и народов, с терпимостью относится к национальным, расовым, конфессиональным различиям, способностью к межкультурным коммуникациям в туристической индустрии (ОК-7) 100400.62 Туризм;
 способность к письменной и устной коммуникации на государственном и иностранном языках, готовностью к работе в иноязычной среде (ОК-10) 100400.62 Туризм;
 способностью осуществлять деловое общение: публичные выступления, переговоры, проведение совещаний, деловую переписку,
электронные коммуникации (ОК-19) 080500.62 Менеджмент;
 знакомством с основами межкультурных отношений в менеджменте, способностью эффективно выполнять свои функции в межкультурной среде (ПК-25) 080500.62 Менеджмент.
Целью освоения дисциплины «Иностранный язык» на 1 курсе является изучение английского языка в объеме требований Федерального
государственного стандарта высшего профессионального образования,
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направленное на формирование специалиста, владеющего практическими навыками иностранного языка на уровне, обеспечивающее эффективную профессиональную деятельность.
Следовательно, цель пособия – формирование и развитие
умений чтения, перевода и реферирования англоязычных деловых
текстов, и навыков общения на профессионально-ориентированные
темы.
Цель реализуется в следующих задачах:
1. Научиться читать и понимать оригинальные научно-популярные
тексты.
2. Уметь переводить аутентичные тексты среднего уровня сложности.
3. Уметь обрабатывать и извлекать необходимую информацию
из предложенных текстов по профилю специальности.
4. Уметь поддерживать беседу на английском языке делать сообщения в рамках изучаемых тем.
5. Овладеть базовым минимумом лексических единиц терминологического характера по специальности.
Необходимость решения поставленных задач предопределила
структуру пособия. Так, пособие состоит из 10 разделов, тематика
которых соответствует программе обучения иностранному языку для
студентов 2 курса неязыковых специальностей (профессиональный
блок) направлений подготовки: 100400.62 Туризм, 080400.62 Управление персоналом, 080500.62 Менеджмент, 221400.62 Управление качеством. В каждом разделе – текст: Australia, China, France, Germany, Italy,
Japan, Spain, Turkey, the USA, The UK.
В каждом разделе текст и задания к нему: построены по единой
схеме, хотя и отличаются разнообразием содержания наполнения.
Тексты, включенные в данное пособие, научно-популярные по своему
характеру. Однако они были подвергнуты некоторым сокращениям,
что продиктовано учебными целями пособия. Каждый текст содержит
список активной лексики, либо высоко частотной, либо абсолютно необходимой для устного обсуждения тем уроков.
Активная лексика урока закрепляется в ходе выполнения текстовых и послетекстовых упражнений. Это упражнения на перевод словосочетаний, заполнение пропусков в предложениях, работа с предлогами,
предназначенные, главным образом, для устной активной аудиторной
работы.
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Наряду с активизацией лексики в пособии отводится значительное место изучению грамматического материала. Это материал для
рецептивного усвоения, и ему обычно уделяется недостаточно внимания в школьном курсе английского языка (активный и пассивный залоги,
времена группы Simple, Continuous, Perfect, условные предложения,
модальные глаголы)
Поскольку тематика текстов уже знакома студентам, на их основе
можно успешно развивать навыки устной речи. Это, прежде всего, вопросно-ответная форма работы над текстами для проверки понимания прочитанного, для контроля за степенью сформированности умений чтения
и перевода.
В качестве завершающего этапа работы по теме в конце каждого
раздела предлагаются творческие задания в соответствии с деятельностным подходом, направленные на решение познавательнокоммуникативных задач и возможного использования полученной информации в будущей профессиональной деятельности. Все упражнения направлены на достижение основной цели данного пособия.
На каждый урок пособия рекомендуется отводить 2 занятия
(4 часа), хотя в зависимости от уровня подготовленности студентов
программа курса может быть изменена. Работу над уроками рекомендуется построить следующим образом:
1) работа над основным текстом и словарем: чтение, поиск
транскрипций, перевод текста на уровне слова, словосочетания и предложения;
2) выполнение упражнений, служащих для активизации фонетического, грамматического и лексического материала;
3) речевая тренировка с помощью подстановочных лексикограмматических таблиц;
4) выполнение упражнений, направленных на проверку понимания прочитанного текста, заполнение пропусков, ответы на вопросы;
5) решение учебных ситуаций, составление схем и таблиц.
Апробация материалов данного пособия проводилась на практических занятиях по иностранному языку, а также спецкурса «Деловой
английский язык» для студентов специальностей 100400.62 Туризм,
080400.62 Управление персоналом, 080500.62 Менеджмент, 221400.62
Управление качеством.
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UNIT I
AUSTRIA
Facts about Austria:
* Vienna is the Capital and largest city
of Austria;
* The official language is German;
* The area is about 83,855 km2 (115th);
* The population is about 8,414,638;
* The Government is a Federal parliamentary
republic: Heinz Fischer, a President.
Questions for discussion:
1. What is business? Do YOU
want to be a businessman/ woman?
2. Do YOU plan your time
in advance?
3. Are YOU punctual and
expect others to observe the same
courtesy at all times? Are YOU
always on time for your English lessons?
4. Do YOU tend to make decisions methodically and with tremendous precision?
Making appointments
Part 1
Austrians plan their weeks even months in advance and try
to follow what they have prearranged in their appointment books.
If it is absolutely necessary to reschedule an appointment, you
should ensure that you do so as soon as you know of the change.
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Telephone interviews, on the other hand, can sometimes be
lead at surprisingly short notice.
Austrians are scrupulously punctual and expect others to observe
the same courtesy at all times. Therefore, it is essential to arrive on time
for all meetings and other engagements especially if you are invited
to a prestigious concert or opera in Salzburg or Vienna. Austrians view
people who can manage time as also being able to handle business
projects with punctilious attention to detail. These qualities are of tremendous importance to them.
The Austrian transport system
is efficient and reliable even during
alpine winters so there should be no
excuse for being late.
Office hours are typically 8:00
a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Monday through
Thursday with a short break for lunch
typically just 30 minutes; on Friday
afternoon most businesses close early usually by 3:00 p.m. In Vienna,
though, the working day tends to start and finish an hour later.
It is not uncommon for senior management and executives
to arrive at their desks a little later and to stay much later but Austrians generally view working late as a sign of inefficiency rather than
devotion to the company.
The preferred times for appointments are 10:00 a.m. –
1:00 p.m. and 3:00 p.m. to 5:00 p.m.
You should avoid planning business meetings for August
or any time near the Christmas holidays when many Austrians
schedule lengthy trips. Similarly, good snow at any time between
December and April is likely to tempt skiers to head for the Alps.
Austria is a Catholic country and so observes the customary
th
religious festivals. The 26 of October is National Day commemorating the State Treaty of 1955.
Austria: Appointment Alert [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа:
http://wwws.executiveplanet.com/index.php?title=Austria:_Appointment_Alert%21
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Ex. 1 Study A and find the transcriptions of the following words
and proper names in B. transcriptions the words:
A. Austrians, reschedule, Vienna, surprisingly, scrupulously,
Salzburg, courtesy, engagement, punctilious, through, 3:00 p.m., executives, efficient, preferred, appointment, lengthy, Catholic, customary,
commemorating, Treaty, 1955, similarly.
B. [ˈleŋθɪ], [’ɔ:strɪənz], [ˈkɜː(r)təsɪ], [pʌŋkˈtɪlɪəs], [ˌriːˈʃedjuːl],
[sə(r)ˈpraɪzɪŋlɪ], [ˈskruːpjʊləslɪ], [kəˈmeməreɪt], [ˈkʌstəmərɪ], [θruː],
[viːˈɛnə], [ɪˈfɪʃ(ə)nt], [ˈsɔːlzˌbɜrɡ], [ɪnˈɡeɪdʒm:nt], [ˈθriːˌpiː ˈem], [ˈtriːtɪ],
[ɪɡˈzekjʊtɪvz], [prɪˈfɜː(r)d], [əˈpɔɪntmənt], [ˈkæθ(ə)lɪk], [wʌn ˈhʌndrəd ˈfɪftɪ
faɪv], [ˈsɪmələ(r)lɪ].
Ex. 2 Study word-combinations and translate them:
In advance, on the other hand, arrive on, at short notice,
to arrive at, as soon as you know, at surprisingly short notice, with
punctilious attention, tends to start, not uncommon for, preferred
times for, at any time, is likely to tempt, a Catholic country.
Ex. 3 Study the sentences and translate them:
1. Austrians plan their months in advance and follow what they
prearrange in their books.
2. Telephone interviews can be lead at short notice.
3. It is essential for Austrians to arrive on time for all meetings.
4. Office hours are 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Monday through
Thursday with a break for lunch.
5. Austrians prefer time for appointments from 10:00 a.m.
till 1:00 p.m. and 3:00 p.m. to 5:00 p.m.
Ex. 4 Complete the sentences with the proper prepositions:
1. Austrians plan their weeks even months … advance.
2. Telephone interviews, … the other hand, can sometimes
be lead … surprisingly short notice.
3. It is essential to arrive … time … all meetings.
4. These qualities are … tremendous importance … them.
5. The preferred times … appointments are 10:00 a.m. – 1:00 p.m.
and 3:00 p.m. … 5:00 p.m.
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Ex. 5 Complete the sentences with a word or a phrase:
1. If it is absolutely necessary to reschedule …, you should
ensure that you do so as soon as … .
2. Telephone … can sometimes be lead at surprisingly short … .
3. … qualities are of tremendous importance to … .
4. Office … are typically 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 … .
5. Good … at any time between … and … is likely to tempt …
to head for the … .
Ex. 6 Put the verb in brackets into the correct form for each blank:
1. If it … absolutely necessary to reschedule an appointment
(to be), you should ensure that you … so as soon as you … of the
change (to do/to know).
2. It … essential to arrive on time (to be) if you … to a prestigious concert or opera in Salzburg or Vienna (to invite).
3. The working day … to … and … an hour later (to tend/
to start/to finish).
4. Austrians generally … working late as a sign of inefficiency
(to view).
5. You should … planning business meetings for August
or any time near the Christmas holidays (to avoid).
Ex. 7 Choose 3–4 verbs in the third person singular in the text
and use them in sentences of your own according to the pattern.
Define the tense:
Ex.: tend – tends – The working day tends to start and finish
an hour later.
Public behavior
Part 2
Respect and conservatism are the keys to business success
in Austria.
Austrians conduct themselves in public with a tremendous
amount of polite formalities. You should, therefore, avoid doing anything that might draw attention to yourself:
– avoid exaggeration and extravagant compliments;
– avoid public displays of affection and casual pats;
– try not to introduce yourself to others;
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– look your interlocutor directly in the eyes;
– attract person's attention by raising your index finger;
– never keep your hands in your pockets;
– keep your hands above the table when dining;
– do not jaywalk.
In accordance with etiquette you should acknowledge people
with a formal greeting before jumping into conversation. If you know
the positions of the people you are meeting, extend your hand to the
most senior individuals first. When shaking hands be sure to give
a quick yet confident handshake. Men should wait for a woman
to initiate any handshake.
As in most European countries a handshake should be extended when leaving as a way of confirming what has been discussed and solidifying your friendship.
Women are often still treated with a greater degree of ritualized respect by men. Some older Austrians, in fact, may take the
woman's hand (always after she has offered it) and raise it towards
their lips. It is important that the hand does not actually touch the lips
and that the «kiss» is merely symbolic.
In a restaurant do not wait to be seated but do not under any
circumstances sit at the Stammtisch which is reserved for regulars
in a bar or pub.
Restaurants and cafes usually include a service charge in the
bill. Even if the gratuity is included, you should still round the bill up
as an additional reward for good service. It is not common practice
to leave a tip on the table; instead, you should state the total amount
you want to pay when you hand over your credit card or cash.
Taxis cannot be hailed on the street. When you are leaving
a hotel, ask the concierge to call one for you. The standard tip
is 10% of your fare. If the driver assists you with your luggage,
be prepared to give slightly more than just your gratuity.
Finally, if you need to visit a bathroom, you ask for das WC
(pronounced «vay-tsay») or die Toilette and, in a public place you
should be sure to go with change in hand either to pay the attendant
or to insert a coin in the door to unlock the cubicle.
Austria: Public Behaviour [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа:
http://ww.executiveplanet.com/index.php?title=Austria:_Public_Behaviour_-_Part_1
**********************************
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Ex. 8 Write an appropriate answer for each question:
1. Why is it essential to carry a
plentiful supply of business cards
when doing business?
A. _____________________
2. What do meetings with Austrians start with?
B. _____________________
3. How are meetings held?
C. _____________________
4. What should you remember
when making a presentation?
D. _____________________
5. How do Austrians solve problems and make decisions?
E. _____________________
Ex. 9 Write an appropriate question for each answer:
1. ____________________
A. Austrians conduct themselves in
public with a tremendous amount
of polite formalities.
2. ____________________
B. In accordance with etiquette you
should acknowledge people with a
formal greeting before jumping into
conversation.
3. ____________________
C. When shaking hands be sure
to give a quick yet confident handshake.
4. ____________________
D. Restaurants and cafes usually
include a service charge in the bill.
5. ____________________
E. If the driver assists you with
your luggage, be prepared to give
slightly more than just your gratuity.
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Ex. 10 You are from Austria. Your partner is from Russia. You
don’t know each other. Make friends. Exchange business cards.
d
Make an appointment on the 23 of July, at 3 p.m. Demonstrate
respect and conservatism and show it through your own dialogue.
Ex. 11 Make up a list of key words and word combinations.
Give an oral short account and enumerate all positive and negative
but essential Austrians’ qualities in two columns.
Ex. 12 Speak and Prove that Austria has a formal, structured
and conservative business culture. Keep a 3 minutes’ talk.
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UNIT II
CHINA
Facts about China:
* Beijing is the Capital and Shanghai is the
largest city of China;
* The official language is Modern Standard
Mandarin (or Putonghua);
* The area is about 9,640,821 km2;
* The population is about 1,339,724,852;
* The Government is One-party republic,
called a Communist state: Xi Jinping, a President.
Questions for discussion:
1. Is being late for YOU
considered a serious insult?
Are YOU often late?
2. What are YOUR studying hours Monday through Saturday?
3. Do YOU have a business card? Are YOU keen on exchanging them?
4. Do YOU use your hands when speaking to your groupmates?
Making appointments
Part 1
Being late for an appointment is considered a serious insult
in Chinese business culture.
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The services of a host of a reputable Public Relations firm are
recommended for detailed work involving meeting and negotiating
with senior Chinese officials.
The best times for scheduling appointments are April to June and September to October.
Business and government hours
are 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Monday
through Saturday. There is, however,
a five-day work week in larger cities.
Avoid planning to visit government offices on Friday afternoon because this is sometimes reserved for «political studying» for the officials.
Store hours are 9:00 a.m. to 7:00 p.m. daily. Most stores
in Shanghai, however, remain open until 10:00 p.m.
Most Chinese workers take a break between 12:00 p.m. and
2:00 p.m. Practically everything «shuts down» during this period
including elevator and phone services.
When scheduling your appointments be sensitive to holidays
such as Chinese New Year. For May Day and National Day many
businesses will be closed for up to a week. The date of these occasions varies from year to year due to official advice allowing the long
holidays.
China: Appointment Alert [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа:
http://ww.executiveplanet.com/index.php?title=China:_Appointment_Alert%21
**********************************
Ex. 1 Study A and find the transcriptions of the following words
and proper names in B. Translate the words:
A. Chinese, culture, host, reputable, involving, negotiating,
senior, insult, scheduling, October, government, Saturday, avoid,
reserved, officials, Shanghai, period, including, sensitive, varies,
allowing, occasions.
B. [ˌtʃaɪˈniːz], [ɪnˈvɒlvɪŋ], [ˈkʌltʃə(r)], [nɪˈɡəʊʃieɪtɪŋ], [həʊst],
[ˈsiːnɪə(r)], [ˈrepjʊtəb(ə)l], [ˈɪnsʌlt], [ˈʃedjuːlɪŋ], [əˈlaʊɪŋ], [əˈkeɪʒ(ə)nz],
[ʃæŋˈhaɪ], [ˈpɪərɪəd], [ɪnˈkluːdɪŋ], [ˈsensətɪv], [ˈveərɪz], [əˈfɪʃ(ə)lz], [əˈvɔɪd],
[ˈsætə(r)deɪ], [rɪˈzɜː(r)vd], [ˈɡʌvə(r)nmənt], [ɒkˈtəʊbə(r)].
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Ex. 2 Study word-combinations and translate them:
Being late for, a serious insult, Public Relations firm, detailed
work, Chinese officials, involving meeting and negotiating, scheduling appointments, government hours, government offices, «political
studying», store hours, «shuts down», take a break.
days.
noon.
Ex. 3 Study the sentences and translate them:
1. When scheduling your appointments be sensitive to holi2. The date varies from year to year.
3. Many businesses will be closed for up to a week.
4. Avoid planning to visit government offices on Friday after-
5. The services of a reputable Public Relations firm are recommended for detailed work.
Ex. 4 Complete the sentences with the proper prepositions:
1. Being late … an appointment is considered a serious
insult … Chinese business culture.
2. The services … a reputable Public Relations firm are recommended … work involving negotiating … officials.
3. Avoid planning … Friday afternoon because this is reserved
… «political studying» … the officials.
4. … May Day many businesses will be closed … up …
a week.
5. The date … occasions varies … year … year.
Ex. 5 Complete the sentences with a word or a phrase:
1. Being … for an … is considered a serious … in China.
2. The services are recommended for … work involving … and
… with Chinese officials.
3. The best times for … … are April to … and September to … .
4. Most stores in … remain open … 10:00 p.m.
5. Most Chinese … take a ... between 12:00 p.m. and … .
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blank:
Ex. 6 Put the verb in brackets into the correct form for each
1. The services of a host of a reputable Public Relations
firm … for detailed work involving meeting and negotiating (to recommend).
2. The time on Friday afternoon … for «political studying»
for the officials (to reserve).
3. Most Chinese workers … a break (to take).
4. The date of these occasions … from year to year
(to vary).
5. Practically everything «… down» between 12:00 p.m. and
2:00 p.m. (to shut).
Ex. 7 Choose 3–4 verbs in the text and transfer them into Past
Simple and Past Continuous. Use them in sentences of your own according to the pattern. Do not forget about signal words of time:
Ex.: take a break – Most Chinese workers took a break between 12:00 p.m. and 2:00 p.m. last month/Most Chinese workers
were taking a break at12:00 p.m. and at 2:00 p.m. yesterday.
Public Behavior
Part 2
The Chinese will sometimes nod as an initial greeting. Bowing
is seldom used except in ceremonies. Handshakes are also popular;
wait, however, for your Chinese counterpart to initiate the gesture.
If you visit a school, theatre, or other workplace, it is likely that
you will be greeted with applause as a sign of welcome. In turn,
you should respond by applauding back.
Avoid making expansive gestures and using unusual facial
expressions.
The Chinese do not use their hands when speaking and will
only become annoyed with a speaker who does.
Some hand gestures, however, are necessary. They are outlined in the next two points.
To summon attention turn your palm down waving your fingers
toward yourself.
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Use your whole hand rather than your index finger to point.
The Chinese, especially those, who are older and in positions
of authority, dislike being touched by strangers.
Acknowledge the most senior person in a group first.
Smiling is not as noticeable in China since there is a heavy
emphasis on repressing emotion.
Members of the same sex may hold hands in public in order
to show friendliness.
Public displays of affection between sexes are frowned
upon.
Do not put your hands in your mouth as it is considered vulgar.
Consequently, when in public avoid biting your nails, removing food
from your teeth, and similar practices.
Spitting in public is no longer acceptable. It is subject
to a heavy fine now.
Blowing your nose with a handkerchief is also acceptable,
but it is advisable to turn away from people while doing so.
China: Public Behaviour [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа:
http://ww.executiveplanet.com/index.php?title=China:_Public_Behaviour
**********************************
Ex. 8 Write an appropriate answer for each question:
1. What is the way to point at
something?
A. ______________________
2. What is the way of the Chinese
speaking?
B. ______________________
3. Are you to put your hands in
your mouth when speaking?
C. ______________________
4. Do they use some hand gestures?
D. ______________________
5. Do the Chinese dislike being
touched by strangers?
E. ______________________
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Ex. 9 Write an appropriate question for each answer:
1. _______________________
A. If you visit a school, theatre,
or other workplace, it is likely
that you will be greeted with applause as a sign of welcome.
2. _______________________
B. Avoid making expansive gestures and using unusual facial
expressions.
3. _______________________
C. The Chinese do not use their
hands when speaking.
4. _______________________
D. Acknowledge the most senior
person in a group first.
5. _______________________
E. Spitting in public is no longer
acceptable.
Ex. 10 You are from China. Your partner is from Austria. You
don’t know each other. Make friends. Exchange business cards. Make
an appointment on the 3d of December, at 10 a.m. Demonstrate respect and conservatism and show it through your own dialogue.
Ex. 11 Make up a list of key words and word combinations.
Give an oral short account and prove that it isn't easy to negotiate
with the Chinese.
Ex. 12 Speak and Prove that China has a structured and conservative business culture. Keep a 3 minutes’ talk.
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UNIT III
FRANCE
Facts about France:
* Paris is the Capital and the largest city;
* The official language is French;
* The area is about 674,843 km2;
* The population is about 65,350,000;
* The Government is Unitary semi-presidential
constitutional republic;
* The president is François Hollande.
Questions for discussion:
1. Do YOU have a business card?
What information is used there?
2. What language do YOU learn?
Do YOU know how to say «Hello» or «Bye»
in French?
3. How do YOU usually behave yourself during lessons?
Making appointments
Part 1
Ensure that you make appointments for both business and social
occasions. While you should strive to be punctual, you won't be considered late if you arrive ten minutes after the scheduled time. There is
increased tolerance for arriving late as you go further south.
French employees get five weeks of vacation, and take at
least three in July or August. Moreover, France practically «shuts
down» in August.
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With the mandatory reduction of the work week to 35 hours
executives are getting additional vacation in lieu of shorter working
weeks (14 to 16 extra days every year). This results in a lot
of offices being practically deserted during Christmas and Easter
school closings. You will need to take this into account when planning your business trips to France.
Generally, business hours
are from 8:30 or 9:00 a.m.
to 6:30 or 7:00 p.m. Lunch may
last for two hours or more.
In Paris lunch begins at 1:00 p.m.
In the provinces lunch begins at
noon or 12:30 p.m. Executives
often stay in the office until
7:00 or 8:00 p.m.
Staying late at the office is common, especially for individuals
in more senior positions.
The best time to schedule meetings is usually 11:00 a.m.
or 3:30 p.m.
France: [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа: http://ww.executiveplanet.
com/index.php?title=France
**********************************
Ex. 1 Study A and find the transcriptions of the following words
and proper names in B. Translate the words:
A. Ensure, appointment, occasion, punctual, scheduled,
further, tolerance, employee, mandatory, executive, additional,
in lieu, account, province, individual, schedule, lunch, during,
reduction, increased, strive, south, both.
B. [ɪnˈʃɔː], [əˈkeɪʒ(ə)n], [ˈpʌŋktʃuəl], [ˈɔːɡəst], [ˈmændət(ə)rɪ],
[luː], [ɪɡˈzekjʊtɪv], [dɪˈzɜː(r)tɪd], [ˈprɒvɪns], [əˈkaʊnt], [ˈdʒen(ə)rəlɪ],
[nuːn], [ˈkɒmən], [ɪˈspeʃ(ə)lɪ], [ˌɪndɪˈvɪdʒuəl], [ˈsiːnɪə(r)], [ˈʃedjuːl].
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Ex. 2 Study word-combinations and translate them:
For both business, social occasions, to be punctual, the scheduled time, go further, French employees, get five weeks of vacation,
take at least three, «shuts down», with the mandatory reduction,
in lieu of, being practically deserted, last for, time to schedule meetings.
Ex. 3 Study the sentences and translate them:
1. While you should strive to be punctual, you won't be considered late.
2. There is increased tolerance for arriving late.
3. Executives are getting additional vacation in lieu of shorter
working weeks.
4. This results in a lot of offices being practically deserted during Christmas.
5. Staying late at the office is common, especially for individuals in more senior positions.
Ex. 4 Complete the sentences with the proper prepositions:
1. There is increased tolerance … arriving late.
2. French employees get five weeks … vacation, and take …
least three … July or August.
3. Business hours are … 8:30 or 9:00 a.m. … 6:30 or 7:00 p.m.
4. Staying late … the office is common, especially … individuals … more senior positions.
5. France practically «shuts down» … August.
Ex. 5 Complete the sentences with a word or a phrase:
1. Ensure that you make … for both business and social … .
2. … employees get five weeks of …, and take at least …
in July or August.
3. …, France practically … in August.
4. This results in a lot of offices being practically … during
Christmas and … .
5. The best time to … meetings is usually 11:00 … or 3:30 … .
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Ex. 6 Put the verb in brackets into the correct form for each
blank:
1. While you should … to be punctual, you … late if you arrive ten minutes after the scheduled time (to strive/to consider –
passive).
2. French employees … five weeks of vacation, and …
at least three in July or August (to get/to take).
3. Executives often … in the office until 7:00 or 8:00 p.m.
(to stay).
4. Staying late at the office … common for individuals in senior
positions (to be).
5. The best time to schedule meetings … usually 11:00 a.m.
or 3:30 p.m. (to be).
Ex. 7 Choose 3–4 verbs in the text and transfer them into sentences of your own in the passive voice according to the pattern.
Define the tense:
Ex.: consider – to be considered – You are considered to be
punctual.
Public Behaviour
Part 2
Men should stand, or at least initiate a move to do so, whenever a superior makes an entrance.
Good posture is considered a sign of breeding in this culture.
Expect to be greeted by a handshake; kissing on the cheeks
(across genders) is also common amongst colleagues at work.
It is not extended to outsiders and you should not attempt it until your
female colleagues have made the initial move.
Despite the formality of French business culture people tend
to stand close when speaking to each other. Moreover, touching
a shoulder or patting an arm is also commonplace and usually within
the bounds of French business etiquette.
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Maintaining eye contact is important but try not to focus too
intently on the other person. Chewing gum in public is considered
vulgar. Keep your hands out of your pockets when in public. Slapping an open palm over a closed fist is offensive. Snapping fingers
is also considered offensive. Smiling is treated only with indifference
here. It will not be perceived as a greeting or as an indication of approval. If you feel the need to point, motion with your whole hand
rather than your index finger. Make a writing gesture in the air to
summon the bill.
The U.S. «O.K.» sign (forming a circle with the thumb and
forefinger) actually means «zero» or «useless» in France. The French
«O.K.» symbol is the North American «thumbs up»; use this symbol
to express approval.
France: Public Behaviour [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа:
http://ww.executiveplanet.com/index.php?title=France:_Public_Behaviour
**********************************
Ex. 8 Write an appropriate answer for each question:
1. Is good posture considered a
sign of breeding in French culture?
A. ____________________
2. Should you focus too intently on
the other person?
B. ____________________
3. What bad habits do you should
avoid when speaking to the French?
C. ____________________
4. Do the U.S. «O.K.» sign (forming
a circle with the thumb and forefinger) actually mean «zero» or «useless» in France?
D. ____________________
5. Expect to be greeted by a handshake; kissing on the cheeks (across
genders) is also common amongst
colleagues at work, isn’t it?
E. ____________________
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Ex. 9 Write an appropriate question for each answer:
1. ______________________
A. Expect to be greeted by a
handshake.
2. ______________________
B. Chewing gum in public is
considered vulgar.
3. ______________________
C. If you feel the need to point,
motion with your whole hand
rather than your index finger.
4. ______________________
D. The French «O.K.» symbol is
the North American «thumbs
up»; use this symbol to express
approval.
5. ______________________
E. Maintaining eye contact is
important but try not to focus too
intently on the other person.
Ex. 10 You are from France. Your partner is from China. You
don’t know each other. Make friends. Exchange business cards.
th
Make an appointment on the 30 of October, at 5 p.m. Demonstrate
respect and conservatism and show it through your own dialogue.
Ex. 11 Make up a list of key words and word combinations.
Give and enumerate all the essential French qualities in two columns. Compare the characteristics of the Chinese and the French.
Whom would you like to deal with? Why?
Ex. 12 Speak and Prove that formality is inherent to France.
Keep a 3 minutes’ talk.
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UNIT IV
GERMANY
Facts about Germany:
* Motto: «Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit»
German) // «Unity and Justice and Freedom» (unofficial);
* The capital and largest city is Berlin;
* The official language is German;
2
* The area is about 357.021 km ;
* The population is 80,585,700;
* The President is Joachim Gauck.
Questions for discussion:
1. How are meetings organized in YOUR
family?
2. Do YOU know the way the Russian
business culture is characterized by?
3. Do YOU know that formal and informal
languages differ from each other?
4. Can YOU give an example of informal/formal languages?
Making appointments
Part 1
Never underestimate the importance of punctuality in German
business culture. Arriving even five to ten minutes later than the appointed time is perceived as late especially if you are a subordinate.
Fifteen minutes would be considered a very serious faux pas.
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Be prepared to make an appointment for most things. Germans don't usually feel comfortable discussing especially serious
things «on the go» so don't expect to be able to just drop into the
office unannounced for any detailed discussions. Make your appointments well in advance. Give at least one or two weeks notice for
an appointment made by telephone; allow at least a month for an
appointment made by mail. If you don't have much preparation time,
it's sometimes possible to arrange a brief, introductory meeting within
a few days' notice.
If you must be late for any reason, it's important that you call
and notify the person who is expecting you.
The preferred times for business appointments are between
10:00 a.m. and 1:00 p.m. or between 3:00 p.m. and 5:00 p.m.
Avoid scheduling appointments on Friday afternoons as some
offices close by 2:00 p.m. or 3:00 p.m. on Fridays.
Casually changing the time and place of an appointment
is not appreciated. Allow at least 24 hrs.
Be sensitive to vacation and festival periods here. Germans generally have six weeks of paid vacation, which means someone
is almost always «in Urlaub» («on holiday»). Therefore, be prepared
to take this into consideration when making appointments or planning
visits. For instance, Germans commonly take long vacations during July,
August, December and Easter when schools break up.
Germany: Appointment Alert [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа:
http://ww.executiveplanet.com/index.php?title=Germany:_Appointment_Alert%21
**********************************
Ex. 1 Study A and find the transcriptions of the following words
and proper names in B. Translate the words:
A. Underestimate, punctuality, appointed,
considered, prepared, discussing, expect,
announced, scheduling, Urlaub, consideration, appreciated, notify, arrange, introductory,
paid, commonly, generally, notice, sensitive,
break up, preparation.
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B. [‚ʌndər’estə‚meɪt], [’pʌŋktʃʋəlɪtɪ], [ə’pɔɪntɪd], [kən’sɪdəd],
[prɪ’peəd], [dɪ’skʌsɪŋ], [ɪk’spekt], [ə’naʋnst], [kən‚sɪdə’reɪʃən],
[ə’pri:ʃɪ‚eɪtɪd], [ə’reɪndʒ], [‚ɪntrə’dʌktərɪ], [’kɒmənlɪ], [’dʒenərəlɪ],
[‚prepə’reɪʃən], [ˈʃedjuːlɪŋ].
Ex. 2 Study word-combinations and translate them:
А «middle hierarchical» culture; in-house procedure; communication behaviour; initial relationship-building; historical «village
mentality»; fact-oriented thinking; communication tools; a very formal, law-obeying society.
Ex. 3 Study the sentences and translate them:
1. There is some noticeable resentment, especially among the
45 to 60 age group, which generally doesn't feel as secure
in the language as next younger generations.
2. The smaller the office is, the more greetings will be forthcoming and expected, but the bigger the environment is, the less
it will be expected and offered.
3. They will not expect to be approached by complete strangers, nor will they as a rule do the same to establish some points
of commonality through fluent small talk.
4. The traditional relaxed mood Germans talk so fondly
of when getting together socially, is reserved for, indeed only possible, within a close circle of family and friends.
5. Germans generally have six weeks of paid vacation, which
means someone is almost always «in Urlaub» («on holiday»).
Ex. 4 Complete the sentences with the proper prepositions:
1. Never underestimate the importance of punctuality … German business culture.
2. Arriving even five … ten minutes later than the appointed
time is perceived as late especially if you are a subordinate.
3. Give … least one or two weeks notice … an appointment
made … telephone.
4. Avoid scheduling appointments … Friday afternoons
as some offices close … 2:00 p.m. or 3:00 p.m. … Fridays.
5. Germans generally have six weeks … paid vacation, which
means someone is almost always «… Urlaub» («… holiday»).
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Ex. 5 Complete the sentences with a word or a phrase:
1. If you must … for any reason, it's important that you call
and … who is expecting you.
2. Be … and festival periods … .
3. Germans commonly take … … during July, August, December and Easter when schools … .
4. Casually changing the … and … of an appointment is not … .
5. Allow … … hrs.
blank:
Ex. 6 Put the verb in brackets into the correct form for each
1. Germans usually … comfortable discussing especially serious things «on the go» (not to feel).
2. If you … much preparation time, it … sometimes possible
to arrange an introductory meeting within a few days' notice (not
to have/to be).
3. … scheduling appointments on Friday afternoons
(to avoid – imperative).
4. … at least one or two weeks notice for an appointment
(to give – imperative).
5. Germans generally … six weeks of paid vacation (to have).
Ex. 7 Choose 3–4 verbs in the text and transfer them into sentences of your own in the passive voice according to the pattern. Define the tense and change them into Past and Future Simple:
Ex.: consider – to be considered – You are considered to be
punctual.
Public Behaviour
Part 2
If you do not speak German, be careful of automatically addressing a person in English. While Germans generally speak very
good English, some may feel offended at the presumption.
Germans do not expect to be greeted by strangers, even when
eye contact has been made in the office. The fact-oriented thinking
is, «since I don't know this person, there is no relationship, so there
is no need to get into superficial pleasantries».
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Generally, Germans prefer third-party introductions. Small talk
is an elusive and difficult skill for most Germans.
The German culture is considered to be a «middle hierarchical» culture. Corporate rank demands a degree of privilege and respect from subordinates.
Firm, brief handshakes at the time of arrival and departure are
standard in both business and social relationships. Hugging and
kissing are common only among good friends.
Eye contact during introductions is serious, direct, and should
be maintained as long as the person is addressing you. It would be
wrong, however, to assume that all stares in public are meant to be
threatening. Nonetheless, do not expect direct eye contact to necessitate some greeting or acknowledgement; the German will likewise
not expect anything from you. What is essentially a typical example
of intercultural miscommunication/ misunderstanding can suddenly
be misread in an unfortunate, racial context.
Before crossing the street pedestrians are expected to wait
patiently on the curb until the light turns green. Moreover, on streets
where there are no traffic lights be very careful when crossing since
German drivers will not always stop for you.
Germans can be extremely impatient and aggressive drivers.
Be prepared for much more «chasing» and maneuvering, which can
make autobahn driving much more stressful.
Although this is usually a very formal, law-obeying society,
pushing, shoving, and other displays of impatience in queues are not
uncommon. Apologies are in such cases not necessarily the rule.
Interestingly, despite the high value of rules and social order in most
aspects of public life, waiting your turn are not strong traits in present
day of Germany. The bakery is a good showplace for this kind of behaviour. Sales personnel themselves do not expect lines and will
tend to aggravate the problem by typically asking «Wer is jetzt
dran?» («Whose turn is it now?»). If you do not move fast and stick
to your guns, expect someone brazenly to butt in right in front of you.
Petty arguments are not uncommon at such venues, and don't expect the sales person to speak up for you!
Germany: Appointment Alert [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа:
http://ww.executiveplanet.com/index.php?title=Germany:_Appointment_Alert%21
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Ex. 8 Write an appropriate answer for each question:
1. Are you expected to wait patiently on the curb until the light
turns green?
A. _______________________
2. What introductions do Germans prefer?
B. _______________________
3. Is the German culture considered to be a «middle hierarchical» culture or not?
C. _______________________
4. Germans can be extremely
impatient and aggressive drivers,
can’t they?
D. _______________________
5. Firm, brief handshakes at the
time of arrival and departure are
not standard in both business and
social relationships, are they?
E. _______________________
Ex. 9 Write an appropriate question for each answer:
1. _______________________
A. Germans do not expect to be
greeted by strangers.
2. _______________________
B. Eye contact during introductions is serious, direct, and should
be maintained as long as the person is addressing you.
3. _______________________
C. Germans can be extremely
impatient and aggressive drivers.
4. _______________________
D. Firm, brief handshakes at the
time of arrival and departure are
standard in both business and social relationships.
5. _______________________
E. Germans prefer third-party introductions.
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Ex. 10 Choose the adjectives you would use to describe the
Germans:
Punctual, intelligent, blunt, unreasonable, cunning, direct,
concealed, straightforward, flexible, hesitant, reserved, tough, wellinformed, schedule-oriented, hypocritical, frank, open, outspoken,
trusting, dignified, cautious, rational, serious, polite, tactful, uncivil,
light-minded.
Ex. 11 You are from Germany. Your partner is from France.
You don’t know each other. Make friends. Exchange business
d
cards. Make an appointment on the 3 of May, at 10 a.m. Demonstrate respect and conservatism and show it through your own dialogue.
Ex. 12 Speak and рrove that punctuality is inherent to Germany. Keep a 3 minutes’ talk.
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UNIT V
ITALY
Facts about Germany:
* Rome is the Capital and the largest city;
* The official language is Italian;
* The area is about 301,338 km2;
* The population is about 59,685,227;
* The Government is Unitary parliamentary
constitutional republiс;
* The president is Giorgio Napolitano.
Questions for discussion:
1. What does this «beautiful figure»
mean? Do YOU have a beautiful figure?
2. Where will YOUR initial meeting be
conducted if YOU are a businessman?
3. What is the goal for the initial
meeting?
4. Do YOU know something in Italian?
Making appointments
Part 1
Given the choice, Italians would prefer to do business with
even a superficial acquaintance rather than a complete stranger.
Since familiarity is so important in Italian business culture ensure that
you find a well-connected contact that can establish the right introductions on your behalf.
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In Italian business culture
punctuality is not of high priority.
As a visitor, however, it's usually
a good policy to arrive on time.
Be prepared to wait 15–45 minutes before your Italian counterpart appears or lets you into his
or her office. Consequently, you
may want to bring work, a book or
another diversion to fill the time while you wait.
Northern business hours for small businesses, shops and public
offices are usually from 8:30 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. and from 3:30 p.m.
to 6:30 p.m. Monday through Friday. Also, a lot of businesses are open
on Saturday. Larger companies usually work from 8.30/9.00 until
6.00/6.30 with an hour or so for lunch. This lunch break will be significantly longer when eating out at a restaurant with guests.
In central and southern Italy business hours are from
8:30 a.m. to 12:45 p.m. then 4:30 p.m. or 5:00 p.m. to 7:30 p.m.
or 8:00 p.m. Monday through Friday, and from 8:30 a.m. to 12:45 p.m.
Saturday. The southern business pace is usually less intense.
In many cities, such as Rome, there is a long break lasting
as long as two hours from 1:30 p.m. to 3:30 p.m. Business is often
discussed during this break over lunch.
Generally, the best times to plan appointments are between
10:00 a.m. and 11:00 a.m., and after 3:00 p.m.
Be aware of summer vacation periods. Most firms are closed
in August. If you write for an appointment in mid-July, you may not
receive a satisfactory reply until September.
Many Italian public holidays follow those of contiental Europe
but are usually different from the U.S., U.K. and Canada. It is worth
checking while planning a trip that a public holiday does not fall in the
middle of it as the company and whole region may close down that
day.
Italy: Appointment Alert [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа:
http://ww.executiveplanet.com/index.php?title=Italy:_Appointment_Alert%21
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Ex. 1 Study A and find the pronunciation of the following
words and proper names in B. Translate the words:
A. superficial, acquaintance, ensure, well-connected, priority,
counterpart, consequently, diversion, aware, satisfactory, reply, less,
larger, significantly, longer, intense, generally, continental, public,
holiday.
B. [‚su:pər’fɪʃəl], [ə’kweɪntəns], [ɪn’ʃʋə], [praɪ’ɔ:rətɪ], [’kaʋntər‚pɑ:t],
[’kɒnsə‚kwentlɪ], [daɪ’vɜ:ʒən], [‚sætɪs’fæktərɪ], [ə’weə], [rɪ’plaɪ],
[sɪg’nɪfəkəntlɪ], [ɪn’tens], [’dʒenərəlɪ], [‚kɒntə’nentəl], [’hɒlə‚deɪ],
[’pʌblɪk].
Ex. 2 Study word-combinations and translate them:
Given the choice, do business with, superficial acquaintance,
well-connected contact, on your behalf, of high priority, be significantly longer, be aware of, summer vacation periods, to plan appointments, is worth checking.
Ex. 3 Study the sentences and translate them:
1. It is worth checking while planning a trip that a public holiday does not fall in the middle of it as the company and whole region
may close down that day.
2. Whether you are worth knowing and doing business with
may be more important than the actual details of your proposal.
3. Given the choice, Italians would prefer to do business with
even a superficial acquaintance rather than a complete stranger.
4. Be prepared to wait 15–45 minutes before your Italian counterpart appears or lets you into his or her office.
5. Many Italian public holidays follow those of continental
Europe but are usually different from the U.S., U.K. and Canada.
Ex. 4 Complete the sentences with the proper prepositions:
1. ... introductions and departures one should shake hands ...
everyone individually in a group.
2. Italian businesspeople will often base their decisions... what
has worked ... others in similar situations.
3. Two situations are directly related ... each other.
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4. An idea does not correspond ... an individual's subjective
experience or opinion.
5. Italians are very tolerant ... people who take advantage
of the lack of strict queuing to get served first.
Ex. 5 Complete the sentences with a word or a phrase:
1. Since familiarity is so important in Italian business culture,
you should find a well-connected contact that can ... .
2. In Italian business culture punctuality is not ... .
3. The best times to plan appointments are between ... .
4. Most firms are closed in ... .
5. Many Italian public holidays follow those of... .
blank:
Ex. 6 Put the verb in brackets into the correct form for each
1. Business culture punctuality … of high priority (not to be).
2. A lot of businesses … open on Saturday (to be).
3. Larger companies usually … from 8:30/9:00 until 6:00/6:30
with an hour or so for lunch (to work).
4. Business … often … during this break over lunch (to discuss –
passive).
5. Most firms … closed in August (to be).
Ex. 7 Choose 3–4 verbs in the passive voice and transfer them
into sentences of your own in the active one according to the pattern:
Ex.: consider – to be considered – They consider you to be
punctual.
Public Behavior
Part 2
Generally, the Italians prefer third-party introductions whenever
possible.
You will always be introduced to older people and women first
and it is best to follow this protocol when introducing yourself.
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Upon introductions and departures shake hands with everyone
individually in a group. It is polite while doing this to say «buon
giorno» (in the morning) and «buo-na sera» (in the late afternoon
and evening).
Frequent warm and vigorous handshakes can be common for
both business and social occasions.
Italians will not hesitate to greet people they know with an embrace.
You'll notice that the Italians are often Very animated and like
to gesture with their hands while talking. In most cases, they gesture
good-naturedly to emphasize a feeling.
While passionate gestures are common among Italians, they
would not expect someone from another culture to do the same.
When you know your Italian colleague well, it would be considered
friendly to return a warm embrace.
Upon your arrival it is considered common courtesy to greet
people in the workplace, stores or restaurants with an appropriate
daily greeting such as «buon giorno» or «buona sera» and «arrivaderci» upon leaving.
You'll also observe people (i.e. men with women, men with
men, and women with women) walking arm in arm or holding hands
in public. This often occurs in the evening, during a customary stroll
known as «passeggiata».
Don't be surprised if your Italian colleagues stand much closer
to you than you are used to or even feel comfortable with. Italian
personal space is smaller than that of northern Europeans and significantly smaller than that of Americans.
Likewise, you may experience some gentle pushing and shoving during line-ups. It is not uncommon to see a person walking right
up to the front of a line at a bank, restaurant or store and get served
first because of the relationship he or she has with the clerk.
Queue-jumping is not the crime in Italy that it is in other countries. Italians are very tolerant of people who take advantage of the
lack of strict queuing to get served first. There is even a certain admiration for someone who beats the system.
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On public transportation younger people should give up their
seats to older people while men should still give up their seats
to women.
Eye contact remains direct and is the way Italians show
their interest. Be aware that looking away may be perceived as
a sign of boredom or outright rudeness. A romantic interest is usually
implied when the eyes of two strangers meet and linger.
Do not presume to seat yourself at a gathering; whenever
possible, wait for the host to tell you where to sit.
Placing the hand on the stomach signifies dislike usually for
another person.
Rubbing the chin with the fingertips, and then propelling them
forward is a gesture of contempt.
Contorting the fingers and hand to resemble the devil's horns
pointed outward is an obscene gesture. Pointing the fingers inward,
however, is a sign to ward off evil.
Pointing with the index and little finger is a gesture used only
when wishing someone bad luck.
Slapping one's raised arm above the elbow and thumbing the
nose are both considered extremely offensive.
In public behaviors such as gum chewing, leaning, and slouching are unacceptable. Likewise, it is rare to see Italian businesspeople eating as they walk along a street. Eating an ice-cream is the
only perfectly acceptable exception to this.
Italy: Public Behaviour [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа:
http://ww.executiveplanet.com/index.php?title=Italy:_Public_Behaviour
**********************************
Ex. 8 Write an appropriate answer for each question:
1. Do the Italians prefer thirdparty or two-party introductions?
A. ________________________
2. Is queue-jumping the crime
in Italy?
B. ________________________
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3. How may looking away be
perceived?
C. ________________________
4. Are slapping raised arm
above the elbow and thumbing
the nose considered friendly?
D. ________________________
5. Are gum chewing, leaning,
and slouching acceptable in
public behaviors?
E. ________________________
Ex. 9 Write an appropriate question for each answer:
1. _______________________
A. Eye contact remains direct
and is the way Italians show
their interest.
2. _______________________
B. Pointing with the index and
little finger is a gesture used only
when wishing someone bad luck.
3. _______________________
C. In public behaviors such as
gum chewing, leaning, and slouching are unacceptable.
4. _______________________
D. Placing the hand on the
stomach signifies dislike usually
for another person.
5. _______________________
E. On public transportation
younger people should give up
their seats to older people while
men should still give up their
seats to women.
Ex. 10 Choose the correct item.
1. Placing the hand on the stomach signifies ..., usually for another person.
a) dislike
b) greeting
c) sympathy
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2. Rubbing the chin with the fingertips, and then propelling
them forward is a gesture of ... .
a) liking
b) contempt
c) admiration
3. Contorting the fingers and hand to resemble the devil's
horns pointed outward is an ... gesture.
a) obscene
b) gentle
c) common
4. Pointing with the index and little finger is a gesture used
only when wishing someone ... .
a) good health
b) fortune
c) bad luck
5. Slapping one's raised arm above the elbow and thumbing
the nose are both considered ... .
Ex. 11 You are from Italy. Your partner is from Germany. You
don’t know each other. Make friends. Exchange business cards.
Make an appointment on the 3d of May, at 10 a.m. Demonstrate
respect and conservatism and show it through your own dialogue.
Ex. 12 Compare the characteristics of the Italians and the
Germans. Whom would you prefer to deal with? Why?
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UNIT VI
JAPAN
Facts about Japan:
* Tokyo is the Capital and the largest city;
* The official language is Japanese;
* The area is about 377,944 km2;
* The population is about 126,659,683;
* The Government is Unitary parliamentary
constitutional monarchy;
* The Emperor of Japan is Akihito.
Questions for discussion:
1. Is it important to have business
cards? What language should YOU use on it?
2. What is the purpose of the initial
meeting?
3. How should YOU behave during
exams, negotiations or a lesson?
4. What do YOU usually apologize
for?
Making appointments
Part 1
If you want to make an appointment, but have connections,
a personal call will be more effective than sending a letter. Moreover,
a letter requesting an appointment might go unanswered.
Punctuality is necessary when doing business here; the Japanese believe it is rude to be late.
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In Japanese business culture the working week consists
of 48 hours, with no overtime pay, completed in five and a half days.
Larger firms have initiated a five-day week.
Generally, office hours are 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 or 5:30 p.m.
Many people work lo five-day week longer hours.
During holidays banks and offices close, and stores remain
open.
During three weeks of the year (New Year's holiday, from December 28 to January 3; Golden Week, from April 29 to May 5 and
mid-August) many Japanese visit the graves of their ancestors.
Avoid scheduling appointments, business trips during these periods.
Japan: Appointment Alert [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа:
http://ww.executiveplanet.com/index.php?title=Japan:_Appointment_Alert%21
**********************************
Ex. 1 Study A and find the transcriptions of the following words
and proper names in B. Translate the words:
A. connections, personal, request, moreover, unanswered, believe, rude, consist, initiated, five-day week, during, five-day, overtime, completed, remain, week, ancestor, business trips, Golden
Week, late.
B. [ˈp3ːsnl], [bɪˈliːv], [kəˈnekʃnz], [rɪˈkwest], [mɔːrˈəʊvə(r)], [ʌnˈɑːnsəd],
[ruːd], [kənˈsɪst], [ɪˈnɪʃɪeɪt], [faɪv], [ˈdjʊərɪŋ], [ˈəʊvətaɪm], [kəmˈpliːt], [rɪˈmeɪn],
[wiːk], [ˈænsestər], [ˈɡəʊldən].
Ex. 2 Study word-combinations and translate them:
Make an appointment, have connections, be more effective,
letter requesting an appointment, doing business, punctuality is necessary, business culture, the working week, no overtime pay, completed in five, initiated a five-day week, three weeks of the year,
sit the graves of their ancestors.
Ex. 3 Study the sentences and translate them:
1. If you want to make an appointment, but have connections,
a personal call will be more effective than sending a letter.
2. A letter requesting an appointment might go unanswered.
3. Larger firms have initiated a five-day week.
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4. Generally, office hours are 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 or 5:30 p.m.
5. Golden Week, from April 29 to May 5 and mid-August)
many Japanese visit the graves of their ancestors.
Ex. 4 Complete the sentences with the proper prepositions:
1. The Japanese frowned ... touching in public between males
and females.
2. This gesture can help a businessperson in establishing rapport ... a potential Japanese client.
3. The Japanese apologize ... not being punctual enough.
4. Negotiations generally have an atmosphere ... grave seriousness.
5. The Japanese will commit themselves ... an oral agreement.
Ex. 5 Complete the sentences with a word or a phrase:
1. If you want to make an appointment, a personal call will be
more effective than ... .
2. The Japanese believe it is rude to ... .
3. Office hours are ... .
4. You should avoid scheduling appointments, business trips
during ... .
5. In Japanese business culture the working week …
of 48 hours.
blank:
Ex. 6 Put the verb in brackets into the correct form for each
1. If you … to make an appointment, but have connections,
a personal call … more effective (want/ to be).
2. Punctuality … necessary when doing business here (to be).
3. Many people … lo five-day week longer hours (to work).
4. Larger firms … initiated a five-day week (to have).
5. Office hours … 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 or 5:30 p.m. (to be).
Ex. 7 Choose 3–4 sentences in the text and transfer them
into sentences of your own using the modal verbs according to the
pattern:
Ex.: Punctuality is necessary when doing business – Punctuality should be necessary when doing business.
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Public Behavior
Part 2
Maintain a quiet, low-key, and polite manner at all times.
A bow, «ojigi» (oh-jee-ghee), can be a way of greeting someone, acknowledging a person, expressing thanks, saying «I'm sorry»
or even asking for a favour.
The Japanese will shake hands with Westerners as a way
of making them feel comfortable. On their part, it's an asset for foreign businessmen to bow, to demonstrate that they are taking the
initiative to learn Japanese customs. This simple gesture can do a lot
to help a businessperson in establishing rapport with a potential
Japanese client.
The depth of the bow depends on the recipient's rank, status.
When bowing to an individual who is of higher status than you, bow
a little lower than that person to display deference. Do the same
if you are uncertain of the status of the person that you are facing.
With a person of your equivalent status, bow at the same height.
The bow is an important part of Japanese business protocol.
Bows are used for expressing appreciation, making apologies and
requests as well as for greetings and farewells. Bows convey both
respect and humility.
Meanings will be read into even the slightest gestures. Consequently, avoid displaying unusual facial expressions and motioning
in ways that are remotely dramatic or expansive.
The American «O.K.» sign (thumb and forefinger shaped into
an «O») actually means «mory» in Japan.
Instead of pointing, which is considered rude, wave your hand
with the palm facing up.
To indicate a negative response in informal situations move
the open hand, with the palm facing left, in a fanning motion.
It is no longer acceptable in Japan to spit, snort, and sniff
in public – although lower class men may do so.
Blowing one's nose in public is also regarded as impolite.
When this action is necessary, use a disposable tissue and then
throw it away immediately. Generally speaking, the Japanese find
the idea of actually keeping a used handkerchief or tissue disgusting.
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Laughter may indicate embarrassment or distress rather than
amusement.
Smiling is a popular gesture here. It is often used, however,
for self-control.
Scratching the head is another gesture used to disguise confusion and embarrassment.
When the Japanese want to give the impression that they are
in deep thought, they will sometimes fold their arms. Try not to interpret this as a gesture of hostility.
Direct eye contact is now common in Japan.
You may experience some pushing and shoving when
in crowds of commuters getting on and off trains and subways.
A popular «excuse me» gesture involves bowing slightly and holding an
open hand in front of you (as if clearing a passage). You don't really
chop; you just hold your hand up, and may wave it slightly.
Touching in public between males and females, once frowned
upon, is now common among young couples. This kind of touching
is also is starting to occur among men out on the town and older men
drinking in bars and cabarets.
In Japanese business culture men don't engage in backslapping but again, it is common in drinking situations after hours.
You're likely to find that taxi drivers rarely speak English.
One way of overcoming this problem is to have your host or an employee from your hotel write your destination in Japanese so that you
can show it to the driver. Also, keep a hotel card in Japanese with
you so that the driver can ensure your return.
Japan: Public Behaviour [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа:
http://ww.executiveplanet.com/index.php?title=Japan:_Public_Behaviour
**********************************
Ex. 8 Write an appropriate answer for each question:
1. What kind of intermediary
should one select to do business
in Japan?
A. _________________________
2. How do the Japanese tend
to think?
B. _________________________
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3. How should presentations be
organized?
C. ________________________
4. What is an oral agreement
acknowledged by?
D. ________________________
5. What is the best policy for a
businesswoman?
E. _________________________
Ex. 9 Write an appropriate question for each answer:
1. _______________________
A. The Japanese will shake hands
with Westerners as a way of making
them feel comfortable.
2. _______________________
B. The depth of the bow depends on
the recipient's rank, status.
3. _______________________
C. Direct eye contact is now common in Japan.
4. _______________________
D. Scratching the head is another
gesture used to disguise confusion
and embarrassment.
5. _______________________
E. Touching in public between males
and females, once frowned upon,
is now common among young couples.
Ex. 10 Speak about the traits of the Japanese.
Ex. 11 You are from Japan. Your partner is from Italy. You
don’t know each other. Make friends. Exchange business cards.
Make an appointment on the 3d of May, at 10 a.m. Demonstrate
respect and conservatism and show it through your own dialogue.
Ex. 12 Compare the characteristics of the Italians and the
Japanese. Whom would you prefer to deal with? Why?
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UNIT VII
SPAIN
Facts about Spain:
* Madrid is the Capital and the largest city;
* The official language is Castilian;
* The area is about 505,992 km2;
* The population is about 46,704,314;
* The Government is Unitary parliamentary
constitutional monarchy;
* King is Juan Carlos;
* Prime Minister is Mariano Rajoy;
* Deputy Prime Minister is Soraya Sáenz
de Santamaría.
Questions for discussion:
1. Who and What are YOU?
Characterize yourself as if YOU are
asked to do it during an interview?
2. Do YOU have a business
card? What does YOUR business card
contain?
3. What is it essential for YOUR
success in studying or competitions?
4. Who has the authority to make decisions in YOUR
family? How are decisions made?
Making appointments
Part 1
Working hours vary both across Spain and according to the type
of business but most offices are generally open from 9:00 a.m.
to 1:30 p.m. or 2:00 p.m. and again from perhaps 4:30 p.m. or 5:00 p.m.
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until about 8:00 p.m. Monday to Friday. In July and especially August, when most people take their vacations, hours may change
to 8:30 a.m. – 2:30 p.m. Monday to Thursday and 8:30 a.m.
to 2:00 p.m. on Friday.
Banks and government offices open 9:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m.
Monday to Friday (banks are usually
open 9:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m. on Saturday) and may not open at all in the
afternoon.
Whilst the siesta remains an
integral feature of the Spanish way
of life, it is no longer the case that all Spain closes completely for
the afternoon. Since Franco's death in 1975 Spanish working hours
have become «Europeanized». Though still far from «nine-to-five»,
the Spanish business day increasingly recognizes that its former
idiosyncrasies no longer match the demands and expectations of the
modern commercial world. Thus, a shorter break is more typically
taken between 2:00 p.m. and 4:00 p.m. (more or less), bigger shops
remain open throughout the day and close at 9:00 p.m. and many
office-workers remain at their desks until mid-evening. More and
more staff members do not leave the office at all during the siesta.
Nevertheless, even in Madrid, Barcelona or Valencia,
the working day still means arriving at the office around 9:00 a.m.
For many people the day will begin leisurely at first, drinking coffee
and catching up with the news or office gossip. Work does not really
start until 9:30 or 10:00 a.m. but, if it includes dinner, the working day
may extend beyond midnight.
Lunch usually starts between 1:00 p.m. and 2:00 p.m. and depending on the circumstances could either be a quick, casual meal
at a local cafe or bar or could last for several hours in a fine restaurant.
After returning to the office workers stay as long as necessary typically
until 7:00 p.m. or 8:00 p.m. but often much later for professionals.
Business can be conducted over meals but you should be
aware that Spaniards regard eating as a primarily sociable activity.
So, if you want to discuss business, you should make this clear
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to your Spanish counterpart in advance. Breakfast meetings are not
very popular and should certainly not be scheduled before 8:30 a.m.
Also, many Spaniards still go home for lunch, so you should not be
alarmed if your invitation to eat at this time is declined.
Because of the comparatively unusual structure of the Spanish
working day it is probably best to arrange an initial meeting for the
mid-morning until or unless you know your counterpart's particular
routine.
Spain: Appointment Alert [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа: http://ww.
executiveplanet.com/index.php?title=Spain:_Appointment_Alert%21_-_Part_1
**********************************
Ex. 1 Study A and find the pronunciation of the following
words and proper names in B. Translate the words:
A. Whilst, siesta, «Europeanized», Barcelona, Valencia, leisurely,
circumstances, alarmed, Spaniards, mid-morning, declined, regard,
comparatively, primarily, extend, catching up, nine-to-five, increasingly, sociable activity, in advance.
B. [waɪl], [sɪˈestə], [ˈleʒəlɪ], [jʊərəˈpiːən], [ˈsɜːkəmstəns], [əˈlɑːmd],
[ˈspænjəd], [ˌmɪdˈmɔːnɪŋ], [dɪˈklaɪn], [faɪv], [rɪˈɡɑːd], [kəmˈpærətɪvlɪ],
[ˈkætʃɪŋ], [praɪˈmerəlɪ], [ɪkˈstend], [ɪnˈkriːsɪŋlɪ], [ˈsəʊʃəbl̩], [ədˈvɑːns].
Ex. 2 Study word-combinations and translate them:
Take their vacations, whilst the siesta, integral feature,
way of life, for the afternoon, far from «nine-to-five», begin leisurely
at first, catching up with the news or office gossip, depending on the
circumstances, can be conducted over meals, a primarily sociable
activity, be scheduled before, comparatively unusual structure.
Ex. 3 Study the sentences and translate them:
1. Banks and government offices open 9:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m.
Monday to Friday (banks are usually open 9:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m.
on Saturday) and may not open at all in the afternoon.
2. Since Franco's death in 1975 Spanish working hours have
become «Europeanized».
3. For many people the day will begin leisurely at first, drinking
coffee and catching up with the news or office gossip.
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4. Business can be conducted over meals but you should be
aware that Spaniards regard eating as a primarily sociable activity.
5. It is probably best to arrange an initial meeting for the midmorning until or unless you know your counterpart's particular routine.
Ex. 4 Complete the sentences with the proper prepositions:
1. … Madrid, Barcelona or Valencia, the working day still
means arriving … the office around 9:00 a.m.
2. You should make this clear … your Spanish counterpart …
advance.
3. Because … the comparatively unusual structure …
the Spanish working day it is probably best to arrange an initial
meeting … the mid-morning.
4. Many Spaniards still go home … lunch, so you should not
be alarmed if your invitation to eat … this time is declined.
5. Work does not really start … 9:30 or 10.00 a.m. but,
if it includes dinner, the working day may extend … midnight.
Ex. 5 Complete the sentences with a word or a phrase:
1. When most people take their vacations, hours may
change … .
2. Banks and government offices open … .
3. A shorter break is more typically taken between … .
4. Work does not really start until … .
5. After returning to the office workers stay as … .
blank:
Ex. 6 Put the verb in brackets into the correct form for each
1. Banks and government offices … 9:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m.
(to open).
2. For many people the day will … leisurely at first, … coffee
and … up with the news or office gossip (to begin/ to drink/
to catch).
3. Business can … over meals but you should … that Spaniards … eating as a primarily sociable activity (to conduct/to be
aware/ to regard).
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4. Many Spaniards still ... home for lunch, so you should not …
if your invitation to eat at this time … (to go/ to be alarmed/
to decline).
5. Casual meal at a local cafe or bar could … for several hours
in a fine restaurant (to last).
Ex. 7 Choose 3–4 sentences in the text and transfer them into
sentences of your own in Conditionals 2 (unreal) according to the
pattern:
Ex.: If you want to discuss business, you should make this
clear to your Spanish counterpart – If you wanted to discuss business, you should make that clear to your Spanish counterpart.
Public Behavior
Part 2
Life in Spain is unhurried, loud and smoke-filled. There is,
however, little point in getting irritated and even less point in trying
to complain. It may take a few days to adapt.
The Spanish attitude towards time is notoriously flexible. Nothing is done in a hurry but whatever needs doing gets done. So, if a
waiter does not come to your table immediately, you should not condemn him for poor service but accept that he does not appear to be
in any hurry because he assumes that you are not in a hurry.
The Spanish daily timetable is also alien to most visitors.
Although wider use of air-conditioning is hastening change,
old habits die hard and most Spaniards enjoy an active social life
out of doors in the cool of the evening and into the night. You should
not be surprised to see young children still up at midnight and you
should not be annoyed if your colleagues stay out drinking into the
early hours. The Spanish day is not rigidly structured; it is not divided
crudely into work and play but the two are interwoven throughout the
24-hour cycle.
In general, the Spanish are tolerant, easy-going and even welcoming. In a culture where the self and one's family are paramount,
the other – the outsider who does not belong to any obvious group
is accorded a distinctly inferior status and priority. Still, this does not
mean that you should ignore the basic social niceties.
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A general «buenos dias» or «buenas tardes» on entering
a shop or bar and «adiys» or «buenas noches» on leaving is expected. Do not fail to make an effort to understand local customs.
Spaniards are among the heaviest smokers in Europe. Initial
introductions with Spaniards are always formal: extend a brief but
firm handshake, while maintaining eye contact and saying «buenos
dias» or «buenas tardes» depending on the time of day.
Men will continue to shake hands on all subsequent occasions. Women will embrace and kiss; you may also observe professional women greeting particularly close (male) colleagues in this
way. In the company of friends it is also common for men to hug
or pat each other on the back as well as shaking hands.
Spaniards, though, are perhaps less likely to insist on going
through the same rituals when parting than, say, the French.
In conversation, Spaniards may not only stand uncomfortably
close, hut may also pat your arm or shoulder. If you are put out by
such gestures, it will only cause offence to try to retreat into your own
private space.
Indeed, a wide range of gestures accompanies all conversations and the more animated the discussion the more the Spanish
will gesticulate. Most Spanish body language is self-explanatory –
shrugs of indifference, shaking the hands downwards for emphasis,
the universal gestures of contempt, etc. – but you shouldn't hesitate
to ask a trusted colleague if you have difficulty understanding certain
unfamiliar gestures.
Remember that the North American symbol for «OK» (i.e. making
a circle with the index finger and thumb) is considered vulgar
in Spain.
When summoning someone (e.g. a waiter), you should turn
your palm down and wave your fingers or entire hand.
Compared with England, where queuing is a sacrosanct ritual,
and North America, where there is also respect for standing in line,
Spain often requires a much greater degree of self-assertion in order
to gain attention in shops, bars, government offices, etc.
Spaniards derive a sense of identity from their particular region rather than the country as a whole so you should try to be sensitive to regional differences and avoid making misinformed comments
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about a Spaniard's region of origin. There are seventeen autonomous regions, each with a different degree of independence from
Madrid, and each has its own individual characteristics; you should
respect local sensibilities and manners without recourse to stereotypes or caricatures.
Spain is a deeply traditional country, and this essential conservatism is particularly apparent with right to religion and the status
of women.
Although attendance at mass is declining and it is increasingly
difficult to recruit candidates for the priesthood, Spain remains a
highly religious country – some 94% of the total population of 40m
are Roman Catholic – and many people will be offended to hear you
take the Lord's name in vain. (Actually it is a good policy to refrain
from swearing at all in the presence of others.) If you are visiting
a Church, you must be sure to dress and behave with due respect.
Women's liberation has advanced rapidly since the death
of Franco. Whereas in the past a woman could do little without her
husband's permission, there are now many more working and independent women, however sexual stereotyping is still strong (especially in the south and among older men throughout Spain).
Women are still expected to run the household and look after
the children and, whilst Spanish men can be extremely charming
in female company, modern women's approaches may be too forward for some people's tastes.
Foreign (especially blonde) women continue to hold a particular fascination for the older generation however, although it is now
considered rude to whistle, any attractive woman must be prepared
for turned heads and lengthy stares from admiring males. The correct response is to smile and ignore such unwanted attention.
By law the service charge is included in the bill in Spanish restaurants, hotels, etc. It is customary, however, to round the bill up
and to leave small change in cafes and bars. You might reward exceptional service with an additional tip of 5%.
All taxis are metered and there are usually fixed fares advertised for journeys from the airport to the city centre. A gratuity of 10%
will be appreciated.
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Driving in Spain, incidentally, can be a hazardous and nerveracking experience for the more sedate foreign driver; the rules
of the road are generally observed but the volume of traffic and pace
of driving, especially in city-centers, can be disconcerting for those
still struggling to come to terms with the gentle rhythms of all other
aspects of Spanish life.
Spain: Public Behaviour [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа: http://ww.
executiveplanet.com/index.php?title=Spain:_Public_Behaviour_-_ Part_1
**********************************
Ex. 8 Write an appropriate answer for each question:
1. What kind of intermediary should
one select to do business in Japan?
A. ______________________
2. How do the Japanese tend to
think?
B. ______________________
3. How should presentations be
organized?
C. ______________________
4. What is an oral agreement
acknowledged by?
D. ______________________
5. What is the best policy for a
businesswoman?
E. ______________________
Ex. 9 Write an appropriate question for each answer:
1. _____________________
A. Life in Spain is unhurried, loud
and smoke-filled.
2. _____________________
B. Women are still expected to run
the household and look after the
children and, whilst Spanish men
can be extremely charming in female company, modern women's
approaches may be too forward for
some people's tastes.
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3. _____________________
C. By law the service charge is included in the bill in Spanish restaurants, hotels.
4. _____________________
D. All taxis are metered and there
are usually fixed fares advertised
for journeys from the airport to the
city centre.
5. _____________________
E. There are seventeen autonomous regions, each with a different
degree of independence from Madrid, and each has its own individual characteristics.
Ex. 10 Speak about the traits of the Spanish.
Ex. 11 You are from Spain. Your partner is from Japan. You
don’t know each other. Make friends. Exchange business cards.
Make an appointment on the 3d of May, at 10 a.m. Demonstrate
respect and conservatism and show it through your own dialogue.
Ex. 12 Compare the characteristics of the Spain and the Italians. Whom would you prefer to deal with? Why?
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UNIT VIII
TURKEY
Facts about Turkey:
* Ankara is the Capital and the largest city
is Istanbul;
* The official language is Turkish;
2
* The area is about 783,562 km ;
* The population is about 76,667,864;
* The Government is Unitary constitutional
monarchy;
* The President is Abdullah Gül.
Questions for discussion:
1. Do YOU do your home
task in advance? Are YOU always
ready for a lesson?
2. Are YOU always in time
for a meeting? Do traffic jams
influence on YOU?
3. Do YOU speak English well? What other languages do YOU
know?
4. Do YOU have a lot of days-off in YOUR country? Do YOU
usually study?
Making appointments
Part 1
Arrange appointments by mail well in advance. A personal
introduction or at least a letter of introduction will be of tremendous
help to you in gaining acceptance.
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You are expected to be punctual for all business appointments.
Traffic jams are frequent in both Istanbul and Ankara so allow
you plenty of travel time.
Turkish businesspeople who
deal internationally are usually able
to communicate in one or more foreign languages. English is commonly
understood as well as German and
French. Given advance notice your
Turkish colleagues should be able to
conduct business in English; they probably have English speaking
people on their staff. Business letters may also be in English. Turks,
however, will appreciate it if you make an effort to learn at least a few
phrases in Turkish.
Do not expect to get down to business straight away in a
meeting with a Turkish businessperson. Some preliminary «small
talk» allows him or her to get to know you.
Business and banking hours are 9:00 a.m. to 12:00 noon and
2:00 p.m. to 5:00 p.m. Monday through Friday. Note that business
executives generally arrive between 9:30 and 10:00 a.m. and return
from lunch around 2:30 p.m.
Although Friday is the Muslim holiday, business is still conducted on that day. Sunday is the government decreed day
of rest.
Business appointments can rarely be made during the months
of June, July, and August since most Turkish businesspeople take
extended vacations during this time.
Of course, you cannot expect to conduct business on a Turkish holiday. Be aware that many people will begin the holiday around
noon the day before.
Both secular and Islamic holidays are celebrated in Turkey.
November, 10 is a secular holiday remembering the death
of the founder of modern Turkey, Kemal Ataturk.
Muslim holidays will fall on different dates of the year.
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Ramazan (called Ramadan in other Muslim countries) is the
holy month. Observers fast from dawn until dusk. Dusk is announced
with a cannon shot. The faithful are awakened before sunrise by
drummers who roam the streets, reminding them to eat before dawn.
It is impolite for non-believers to eat, drink, or even smoke in the presence of those who are fasting; it's important that you be discreet.
Office hours may be reduced. Be aware that fasting people
may be short-tempered especially when Ramazan falls during the
heat of summer. This is called «Ramazan kafasi» or «Ramadan irritability». Sheker Bayram is the three day festival at the end of the
Ramazan irritability.
Kurban Bayram is the feast of the sacrifice celebrating the traditional story of Abraham's near sacrifice of his son Isaac. This is the
most important religious and secular holiday of the year. The holiday
lasts for four days, but many banks and businesses close for an entire week. Resorts and transportation will be booked solid.
Turkey: Appointment Alert [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа:
http://ww.executiveplanet.com/index.php?title=Turkey:_Appointment_Alert%21
**********************************
Ex. 1 Study A and find the transcriptions of the following words
and proper names in B. Translate the words:
A. tremendous, Istanbul, Ankara, colleagues, appreciate, preliminary, executives, Muslim, decreed, extended, Islamic, Ramazan,
Ramazan kafasi, Kurban Bayram, entire, solid, booked, Resorts and
transportation, Sheker Bayram.
B. [trɪˈmendəs], [əˈpriːʃieɪt], [ɪstæn’bu:l], [‘æŋkərə], [prɪˈlɪmɪnərɪ],
[ˈkɒliːɡ], [ɪɡˈzekjutɪv], [ˈmʌzlɪm], [dɪˈkriː], [ɪkˈstendɪd], [ˈɪzlæmik],
[‘ramazan], [‘ramazan ‘kafasɪ], [‘kurban ‘beɪram], [ɪn’taɪə], [solɪd],
[buk], [rɪ’zo:ts].
Ex. 2 Study word-combinations and translate them:
By mail, well in advance, personal introduction, in gaining acceptance, are expected to be punctual, plenty of travel time, traffic
jams, communicate in one or more foreign languages, have English
speaking people on their staff.
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Ex. 3 Study the sentences and translate them:
1. A personal introduction or at least a letter of introduction will
be of tremendous help to you in gaining acceptance.
2. Given advance notice your Turkish colleagues should be
able to conduct business in English; they probably have English
speaking people on their staff.
3. Do not expect to get down to business straight away
in a meeting with a Turkish businessperson.
4. Be aware that fasting people may be short-tempered especially when Ramazan falls during the heat of summer.
5. Sheker Bayram is the three day festival at the end of the
Ramazan irritability.
Ex. 4 Complete the sentences with the proper prepositions:
1. You are expected to be punctual … all business appointments.
2. Both secular and Islamic holidays are celebrated … Turkey.
3. Sheker Bayram is the three day festival … the end … the
Ramazan irritability.
4. Sunday is the government decreed day … rest.
5. Business letters may also be … English. Turks, however,
will appreciate it if you make an effort to learn … least a few phrases
… Turkish.
Ex. 5 Complete the sentences with a word or a phrase:
1. A personal introduction or at least a letter of introduction will
be of … to you in … .
2. Turkish businesspeople who deal … are usually able
to communicate in one or more … languages.
3. Business and banking hours are … to … … and
2:00 p.m. to … .
4. Some preliminary «…» allows him or her to get to know
you.
5. Be aware that many people will begin the holiday around …
the day … .
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blank:
Ex. 6 Put the verb in brackets into the correct form for each
1. Ramazan (called Ramadan in other Muslim countries) …
the holy month (to be).
2. This … the most important religious and secular holiday
of the year (to be).
3. Resorts and transportation will … booked solid (to be).
4. It … impolite for non-believers to eat, drink, or even smoke
in the presence of those who … fasting; it … important that you be
discreet (to be/to be/to be).
5. English … commonly understood as well as German and
French (to be).
Ex. 7 Choose 3–4 sentences in the text and transfer them into
sentences of your own in Future Simple according to the pattern:
Ex.: Sheker Bayram is the three day festival at the end
of the Ramazan irritability – Sheker Bayram will be the three day festival at the end of the Ramazan irritability.
Public Behavior
Part 2
Shake hands firmly when greeting or being introduced
to a Turkish man. It is not customary to shake hands again upon departure.
Turks may greet a close friend of either sex with a two-handed
handshake and/or a kiss on both cheeks.
Elders are respected in Turkey. For example, if you are
seated, rise to greet them when they enter a room. When being
introduced to a group of men shake hands with each one starting
with the eldest.
The traditional Turkish greetings are «Merhaba» (MERHhah-bah; «Hello») and «Nasilsiniz?» (NAHS-sulh-suh-nuhz; «How
are you?») The response to the latter is «elyiyim teshekur ederim»
(ee-YEE-yihm, tesh-ek-KEWR eh-dehr-eem; «I'm fine, thank you!»).
Turks will appreciate any effort you make to speak their language.
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Tobacco is everywhere in Turkey. No-smoking areas are virtually non-existent. If you are allergic to tobacco smoke, you will be
in for a difficult time.
Keep both feet flat on the ground when sitting. Displaying the
soles of your shoes or feet to someone is insulting. It is impolite for
women to cross their legs while facing another person.
It is rude to cross your arms while facing someone. Keep your
hands out of your pockets. Avoid blowing your nose in public especially in a restaurant. If you must, turn away from the others and blow
as quietly as possible. Do not kiss, hug, or even hold hands with
someone of the opposite sex in public.
While Turks indicate «yes» by nodding their heads up and down,
the gestures for «no» are different. Two ways to indicate «no» include:
raising the eyebrows in a subtle way (this arch look may be accompanied by the sound «tsk»), and the same eyebrow-arching with a backward tilting of the head and lowering of the eyelids.
The accepted western gesture for «no» (wagging the head
from side to side) is the Turkish gesture for «I don't understand».
If you inadvertently make this gesture in response to a question,
a Turk will probably assume that you did not understand the language and will ask the question in another tongue.
The Turks approximate length by extending one arm and placing the flat of the other hand on the arm; the length indicated
is measured from the fingertips of the extended arm up to the side
of the hand.
To attract attention Turks wave (palm out) with an up-anddown motion rather than from side to side.
The Turkish «follow me» gesture is done with the entire curled
hand moving in a downward «scooping» motion rather than by curling an upraised index finger. It is considered rude to point your finger
directly at someone.
Turkey: Public Behaviour [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа:
http://ww.executiveplanet.com/index.php?title=Turkey:_Public_Behaviour
**********************************
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Ex. 8 Write an appropriate answer for each question:
1. What way should you shake your
hands when greeting or being introduced to a Turkish man?
A. ______________________
2. How do the Turks usually greet
a person?
B. ______________________
3. What should you do when to
attract a Turkish person?
C. ______________________
4. Are elders respected in Turkey?
D. ______________________
5. What is the best policy for
a businessman?
E. ______________________
Ex. 9 Write an appropriate question for each answer:
1. ______________________
A. The traditional Turkish greetings
are «Merhaba» (MERH-hah-bah;
«Hello») and «Nasilsiniz?»
2. ______________________
B. Tobacco is everywhere in Turkey. No-smoking areas are virtually
non-existent.
3. ______________________
C. Do not kiss, hug, or even hold
hands with someone of the opposite sex in public.
4. ______________________
D. The accepted western gesture
for «no» (wagging the head from
side to side) is the Turkish gesture
for «I don't understand».
5. ______________________
E. To attract attention Turks wave
(palm out) with an up-and-down
motion rather than from side to
side.
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Ex. 10 Speak about the traits and habits of Turks and compare them with others. Fill in the table:
Italy
Japan
China
France
Introduction
Time
Meeting
Greeting
Gesture
…
Ex. 11 You are from Japan. Your partner is from Turkey. You
don’t know each other. Make friends. Exchange business cards.
Make an appointment on the 3d of August, at 11 a.m. Demonstrate
respect and conservatism and show it through your own dialogue.
Ex. 12 Compare the characteristics of the Spanish and the
Turks. Whom would you prefer to deal with? Why?
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UNIT IX
THE UNITED STATES
OF AMERICA
Facts about The USA:
* Washington, D.C. is the Capital and
the largest city is New York City;
* The official language is American
English;
2
* The area is about 9,826,675 km ;
* The population is about 317,859,000;
* The Government is Federal presidential
constitutional republic;
* The President is Baraсk Obama.
Questions for discussion:
1. What country have YOU
visited recently?
2. Are there anything that impressed YOU much?
3. What do meetings start
with?
Making appointments
Part 1
Prior appointments are necessary. People in the United States
write the month first, then the day, and then the year (i.e., December 5,
2006 is written 12/5/06). Generally, the working week is Monday
through Friday, 8:30 or 9:00 to 17:00 or 18:00. Many people, however, work overtime.
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Punctuality is very important for business occasions. In many
U.S. cities, traffic can cause considerable delays, so be sure to allow
enough driving time for your appointment. If you know that you will
be late, call to let your contact know.
If you are invited for a meal, you should arrive promptly. When
invited to a cocktail party, it's usually permissible to arrive a few minutes late. On these occasions, you do not need to call ahead, even
if you are 30 minutes late.
It is a good idea to practice driving before getting on the freeways, particularly during work hours. Driving can be an intense challenge, especially for a visitor. Practically all Americans drive their
own car.
Smoking is not commonplace and is subject to restrictions
in most public places. Before
smoking, the best policy is to ask if
anyone minds, or wait to see if
others smoke. Restaurants often
have a section where smoking is
permitted. Many hotels designate
rooms as smoking and non-smoking. Certain states, like California,
now have laws against smoking in public places such as restaurants
and bars.
A handshake is the customary greeting for both men and
women. Americans tend to refrain from greetings that involve hugging and other close physical contact, except with family members
and friends. For the most part, they are unreceptive to being touched
during conversation and other social situations. The standard space
between you and your conversation partner should be about two
feet. Most U.S. executives will be uncomfortable standing at a closer
distance. Direct eye contact conveys that you are sincere, although
it should not be too intense. Certain ethnic groups may look away
to show respect. To point, you may use the index finger, although it's
impolite to point at another person. To beckon someone, wave either
all the fingers or just the index finger in a scooping motion, with the
palm facing up. To show approval, there are two common gestures:
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the «O.K.» sign, formed by making a circle of the thumb and index
finger, and the «thumbs up» sign, formed by making a fist and pointing the thumb upward. The backslap is sometimes used as a sign
of friendship, camaraderie. To wave goodbye, move your entire
hand, with the palm facing outward.
When sitting U.S. citizens often look very relaxed. They may
sometimes sit with the ankle of one leg on their knee or prop their
feet up on chairs or desks. In formal business situations, however,
you're advised to maintain good posture and a less casual pose.
Crossing legs knee over knee is not considered arrogant, as in other
cultures. In the U.S. this position is common and considered professional.
When giving an item to another person, it's common to toss
it or hand it over with only one hand.
United States: Appointment Alert [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа:
http://ww.executiveplanet.com/index.php?title=United_States: _Appointment_
Alert%21
United States: Public Behaviour – part 1 [Электронный ресурс]. –
Режим доступа: http://ww.executiveplanet.com/index.php?title=United_States:
_Public_ Behaviour
United States: Public Behaviour – part 2 [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим
доступа: http://ww.executiveplanet.com/index.php?title=United_States: _Public_
Behaviour
**********************************
Ex. 1 Study A and find the transcriptions of the following words
and proper names in B. Translate the words:
A. prior, overtime, United States, cause, permissible, freeways, California, designate, Americans, unreceptive, handshake,
hugging, beckon, scooping, palm, facing, approval, camaraderie,
citizens, ankle, arrogant, toss.
B. [’praɪər], [pər’mɪsəbəl], [‘fri:weɪz], [’dezɪg‚neɪt], [ə’merɪkənz],
[ʌnri’septiv], [‘hændʃeɪk], [ju:’naɪtɪd steɪts], [ˈbekən], [sku:pɪŋ], [‘hʌgɪŋ],
[pɑ:m], [‚əʋvər’taɪm], [kɔ:z], [feɪsɪŋ], [‚kælə’fɔ:rnɪə], [ə’pru:vəl],
[‚kæmə’rædərɪ], [‘sɪtəzənz], [‘æŋkəl], [‘ærəgənt], [ tɔ:s].
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Ex. 2 Study word-combinations and translate them:
Prior appointments, work overtime, cause considerable delays, time for your appointment, arrive promptly, call ahead, getting
on the freeways, intense challenge, to refrain from greetings, use the
index finger, to point at another person, in a scooping motion, a sign
of friendship, camaraderie, advised to maintain good posture, hand
it over with only one hand.
Ex. 3 Study the sentences and translate them:
1. If you know that you will be late, call to let your contact know.
2. If you are invited for a meal, you should arrive promptly.
3. When invited to a cocktail party, it's usually permissible
to arrive a few minutes late.
4. Americans tend to refrain from greetings that involve hugging and other close physical contact, except with family members
and friends.
5. To show approval, there are two common gestures: the
«O.K.» sign, formed by making a circle of the thumb and index finger, and the «thumbs up» sign, formed by making a fist and pointing
the thumb upward.
Ex. 4 Complete the sentences with the proper prepositions:
1. … many U.S. cities, traffic can cause considerable delays,
so be sure to allow enough driving time … your appointment.
2. Punctuality is very important … business occasions.
3. It is a good idea to practice driving … getting … the freeways, particularly … work hours.
4. … the most part, they are unreceptive to being touched …
conversation and other social situations.
5. When giving an item … another person, it's common
to toss it or hand it … … only one hand.
Ex. 5 Complete the sentences with a word or a phrase:
1. Driving can be an intense …, especially for a … .
2. A … is the customary … for both men and … .
3. Certain … groups may look … to … respect.
4. Most … executives will be … standing at a … distance.
5. … legs … over knee is not considered …, as in other
cultures.
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blank:
Ex. 6 Put the verb in brackets into the correct form for each
1. When … to a cocktail party, it … usually permissible to arrive a few minutes late (to invite/ to be).
2. Practically all Americans … their own car (to drive).
3. Direct eye contact … that you … sincere, although it should
not … too intense (to convey/ to be/ to be).
4. To show approval, there … two common gestures (to be).
5. You may … the index finger, although it … impolite to point
at another person (to use/ to be).
Ex. 7 Choose 3–4 sentences in the text and transfer them into
sentences of your own in Past Simple according to the pattern:
Ex.: Direct eye contact conveys that you are sincere, although
it should not be too intense – Direct eye contact conveyed that you
were sincere, although it should not be too intense.
Let's Make a Deal!
Part 2
This culture stresses individual initiative and achievement.
Moreover, Americans can be competitive in both work and leisure.
The concept «time is money» is taken seriously in U.S. business culture. Businesspeople are used to making up their minds quickly and
decisively. They value information that is straightforward and to the
point. In the U.S.A., money is a key priority and an issue that will be
used to win most arguments. Status, protocol, and national honour
play a smaller role. Similarly, «saving face» and other social niceties
and formalities that are vitally important to other cultures are not as
important in the United States.
American businesspeople are opportunistic and willing to take
chances. Opportunism and risk taking often result in Americans going
for the biggest possible slice of the business, 100% if possible. Americans tend to dislike periods of silence during negotiations and in conversations, in general. They may continue to speak simply to avoid
silence. In general, people from the U.S. will not hesitate to answer
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«no». Businesspeople are direct and will not hesitate to disagree with
you. This communication style often causes embarrassment to business travelers who are unaccustomed to dealing with Americans
or direct communication in general. Persistence is another characteristic you will frequently encounter in American businesspeople; there is
a prevailing belief that there is always a solution. Moreover, they will
explore all options when negotiations are at an impasse. Anxiety often
develops over deadlines and results. The work ethic is so strong, that
it appears that Americans' lives revolve around work. Consistency
is common among American businesspeople: when they agree
to a deal, they rarely change their minds. Americans tend to be future
oriented. Therefore, innovation often takes precedence over tradition.
The United States tends to be an ethnocentric culture, so it is closed
to a lot of «outside» information. Thinking tends to be analytical, concepts are abstracted quickly, and the «universal» rule is preferred.
There are established rules for almost everything, and experts are relied upon at all levels. Be aware that the United States is the most litigious society in the world. There are lawyers who specialize in practically every industry and segment of society.
In a meeting, the participants will proceed with business usually after some brief, preliminary «small talk» about topics unrelated
to the business at hand. This is generally practiced to ease tensions
and create a comfortable environment before entering into business
matters. Topics may range from sports, weather, or other smaller
business topics. Personal matters should not be discussed during
this time, or any time in the negotiation. Usually, business is conducted at an extremely fast pace. Regardless of the negotiator, company policy is always followed. Though they are risk-takers, American businesspeople will also have a financial plan which must be
followed. Americans regard negotiating as problem solving through
«give and take» based on respective strengths. Therefore, they will
often emphasize their financial strength and/or position of power.
In negotiations, points are made by the accumulation of objective facts. This evidence is sometimes biased by faith in the ideologies of democracy, capitalism, and consumerism. The subjective
feelings of the participants are not as much of a factor. Therefore,
they will not spend much time seeking consensus.
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Often, American businesspeople try to extract an oral agreement at the first meeting. However, U.S. salespeople sometimes
bring final contracts to first meetings with prospective clients. In large
firms, contracts under $10,000 can often be approved by one middle
manager in a single meeting.
Your business card will not be refused, but you may not always receive one in return. Try not to be offended – in the U.S., the
rituals involved in exchanging business cards are sometimes not observed as closely as in other cultures. The recipient of your card will
probably place it into a wallet, which a man may put in the back
pocket of his pants. This gesture is done for convenience and is not
meant to be a sign of disrespect, as it might be in other cultures.
In many cases, business cards are not exchanged unless you want
to contact the person later.
Much emphasis is placed, in theory, on the equality of individuals in the United States. Personal equality is guaranteed by law.
Nonetheless, ethnic and social bias does exist. Women are still striving for equality in pay and positions of authority. In the structure
of the workplace, there is often inequality in employees' roles. Compared with many cultures, the United States is moving forward rapidly and successfully with its unique diversity. Expect to work with
women and people of different ethnic backgrounds, religions, and
cultures in the workplace at all levels and positions. Do not assume,
for example, that a woman present in the meeting will be responsible
for handling coffee. She may very well be leading the meeting and
the person who will make the final decision. Treat everyone with respect and dignity to ensure a successful trip. Many people in the
United States have a limited knowledge of cultures beyond their own
country and its own diverse subcultures. Some Americans may assume that their way is the «correct» or only way. Business culture
can vary greatly from company to company, because of America's
diversity. Learn as much about the business culture of your foreign
associates before meeting with them through their website, marketing materials, and business literature.
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Presenting a gift is a thoughtful gesture, but it is not expected. Business gifts are often presented after the deal is closed.
In most situations, gifts are usually unwrapped immediately and
shown to all assembled. In many cases, the best gifts are those
that come from your country. You may not receive a gift in return
right away. During the Holiday season (late November through the
first week of January), gifts are exchanged. For your business associates, you can give gifts such as useful items for the office, liquor or wine. Choose gifts with no religious connotations (i.e. don't
buy Christmas ornaments) unless you are certain of the religious
background of your associates. While Christmas is the dominant
celebration, and is widely commercialized during this period, people
may be celebrating many other holidays during this period.
Many stores and malls offer gift-wrapping services during the
winter holidays. When you visit a home, it is not necessary to take
a gift, although it is always appreciated. Flowers, a potted plant,
or a bottle of wine are good gift choices. If you wish to give flowers,
you can have them sent in advance to relieve your host or hostess
of taking care of them when you arrive. If you stay in a U.S. home
for a few days, a gift is appropriate. You may also write a thank-you
note. Taking someone out for a meal or other form of entertainment
is another popular gift. Gifts for women such as perfume or clothing
are usually inappropriate. They aré considered too personal. Gifts
for children are often a thoughtful and appreciated gesture, but take
into account the values of the parents. Many parents would object
to your giving a toy gun or a violent video game to their child.
For a first meeting, you cannot go wrong if you dress conservatively. Afterwards, you may want to follow the example of your
American counterparts. In U.S. business culture, dress tends to vary.
In some parts of the country – the East in particular – most people
wear business suits. In other areas, such as the West coast, a more
relaxed approach to dressing is the norm in many workplaces. Executives in most regions of the country, however, usually dress quite
formally.
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Business suits or dresses are often the standard attire for
women. Pantsuits, in classic styles, are also acceptable. Accessorizing, which adds flair to even very simple outfits, is also practiced
here. When not working, feel free to dress casually. In their leisure
hours, you will notice that Americans wear a wide range of casual
items, such as running shoes, T-shirts, jeans, shorts, baseball caps.
United States: Let Make a Deal [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа:
http://ww.executiveplanet.com/index.php?title=United_States:_Let%27s_Make
_a_Deal%21_-_Part_1
United States: Let Make a Deal [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа:
http://ww.executiveplanet.com/index.php?title=United_States:_Let%27s_Make
_a_Deal%21_-_Part_2
**********************************
Ex. 8 Write an appropriate answer for each question:
1. What does the concept «time
is money» mean?
A. ________________________
2. What are the traits of American businesspeople?
B. ________________________
3. What kind of society is the
United States?
C. ________________________
4. What are the rituals involved
in exchanging business cards?
D. _______________________
5. When are gifts presented?
What gifts are presented?
E. ________________________
Ex. 9 Write an appropriate question for each answer:
1. ______________________
A. The concept «time is money» is
taken seriously in U.S. business
culture.
2. ______________________
B. Executives in most regions of the
country, however, usually dress
quite formally.
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3. ______________________
C. Gifts for women such as perfume or clothing are usually inappropriate.
4. ______________________
D. Business culture can vary greatly
from company to company, because
of America's diversity.
5. ______________________
E. While Christmas is the dominant
celebration, and is widely commercialized during this period, people
may be celebrating many other holidays during this period.
Ex. 10 Speak about the traits and habits of the USA and compare them with others. Fill in the table:
Austria
Spain
Italy
The USA
Introduction
Time
Meeting
Greeting
Gesture
Clothes
Gifts
Traits of
character
Ex. 11 Would you like to do business with the Americans
or not? Give your reasons. Demonstrate respect and conservatism
and show it through your own monologue.
Ex. 12 Prove that the United States tends to be an ethnocentric culture.
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UNIT X
THE UNITED KINGDOM
Facts about Great Britain:
* London is the Capital and the largest city
in Great Britain;
* The official language is English;
2
* The area is about 229,848 km ;
* The population is about 60,800,800;
* The Government is а constitutional
monarchy.
Questions for discussion:
1. Have YOU ever been to Great
Britain?
2. What other names of it do YOU
know?
3. What famous people do YOU
know?
4. What does the word «a constitutional monarchy mean?
Making appointments
Part 1
In theory, official working hours are normally 09:00–17:00
Monday to Friday. In practice, most employees work considerably
longer hours; many will be at their desks by 08:30 and executives
rarely leave before 19:00. Professionals like lawyers and consultants may not arrive before 09:30 but, on the other hand, they may
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not leave the office until the following day. Generally, the British
prefer staying late in the office to taking work home with them, even
if they do carry a briefcase (their «executive lunch-box»).
Government offices close for lunch between 13:00 and 14:00 but
stay open until 17:30.
The opening hours for shops are almost completely deregulated, though there are some restrictions on Sunday trading, and
many outlets are open 24/7 even outside the major urban areas.
Banks are generally open 09:30–16:30 Monday-Friday.
Appointments should be made at least a few days in advance
and, ideally, confirmed on arrival in the UK. Most British businessmen are not so jealous of their diaries that they will decline to meet
a visitor even at relatively short notice. Grander members of the socalled «Establishment», however, may have uncooperative Pas
to shield them, whilst jet-setting
entrepreneurs may be genuinely too busy. Cold calling is
not appreciated.
It is best to avoid July
and August when those with
children are almost obliged to
take their annual vacation.
Easter is also popular for holidaying and there are two Bank Holidays
in May that may catch the unwary visitor (especially in a year when
Easter falls in late April). UK industry closes down almost completely
between Christmas and New Year.
Otherwise the UK has only eight national holidays a year,
which is the lowest number in Europe.
The easiest times of day to arrange an appointment are
probably mid-morning (say 11:00) and mid-afternoon (say 16:00).
Breakfast meetings are rare outside London and other major cities
and it is unlikely that an initial meeting will involve lunch (or dinner).
Punctuality is appreciated but no one really minds if you arrive
a little late (up to 15 minutes) for a one-to-one meeting. Obviously,
though, if several people are involved then there is a greater likelihood that someone will have another engagement to attend. On the
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other hand, you should not arrive too promptly for social events –
but aim to arrive a respectable fifteen minutes after the specified
time; thus, if a dinner invitation states «7:30 for 8:00», it means that
you will be expected at about 7:50.
Finally, it should be remembered that the UK led the world
with its transport infrastructure in the 19th century. Much of it survives intact. This means that journeys in London and the South East
in particular may take considerably longer than advertised and/or
expected. The London underground (the «Tube») and long-distance
rail services are the worst offenders. The flow of traffic in central
London has improved greatly since the introduction of congestion
charging (drivers must now pay £5 per day to enter the clearly
marked inner zone) but many main roads resemble car parks at peak
times even without accidents. The M25 is notorious in this respect,
especially now there are major road works on the western section
near Heathrow airport. So, the more important the meeting, the more
time you should allow for almost inevitable delay.
United Kingdom: Appointment Alert [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа:
http://ww.executiveplanet.com/index.php?title=United_Kingdom:_Appointment
_Alert%21
**********************************
Ex. 1 Study A and find the transcriptions of the following words
and proper names in B. Translate the words:
A. lawyer, considerably, consultant, completely, deregulated,
restriction, whilst, entrepreneur, genuinely, unwary, major, one-toone, likelihood, engagement, respectable, infrastructure, Tube, M25.
B. [kəm’pli:tlɪ], [dɪ’regjə‚leɪtɪd], [waɪlst], [‚ɒntrəprə’nɜ:r]],
[‘dʒenjʋɪnlɪ], [ʌnˈweərɪ], [‘wʌntuwʌn], [kən’sʌltənt], [’laɪklɪ‚hʋd],
[kən’sɪdərəblɪ], [ˈmeɪdʒər], [ɪn’geɪdʒmənt], [rɪ’spektəbəl], [’ɪnfrə‚strʌktʃər],
[tu:b], [rɪ’strɪkʃən], [‘lɔ:jər], [’məʋtər‚weɪ].
Ex. 2 Study word-combinations and translate them:
At their desks by, until the following day, «executive lunchbox», almost completely deregulated, some restrictions on Sunday
trading, so-called «Establishment», long-distance rail services, jetsetting entrepreneurs, for a one-to-one meeting, with its transport
infrastructure.
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Ex. 3 Study the sentences and translate them:
1. The opening hours for shops are almost completely deregulated, though there are some restrictions on Sunday trading,
and many outlets are open 24/7 even outside the major urban areas.
2. Grander members of the so-called «Establishment», however, may have uncooperative PAs to shield them, whilst jet-setting
entrepreneurs may be genuinely too busy.
3. On the other hand, you should not arrive too promptly for
social events – but aim to arrive a respectable fifteen minutes after
the specified time; thus, if a dinner invitation states «7:30 for 8:00»,
it means that you will be expected at about 7:50.
4. The flow of traffic in central London has improved greatly
since the introduction of congestion charging (drivers must now pay
£5 per day to enter the clearly marked inner zone) but many main
roads resemble car parks at peak times even without accidents.
5. So, the more important the meeting, the more time you
should allow for almost inevitable delay.
Ex. 4 Complete the sentences with the proper prepositions
and conjunctions:
1. Government offices close … lunch … 13:00 and 14:00 but
stay open … 17:30.
2. Appointments should be made … least a few days …
advance and, ideally, confirmed … arrival … the UK.
3. Easter is also popular … holidaying and there are two Bank
Holidays … May that may catch the unwary visitor (especially …
a year when Easter falls … late April).
4. This means that journeys … London and the South East …
particular may take considerably longer … advertised and/
or expected.
5. … the other hand, you should not arrive too promptly …
social events – but aim to arrive a respectable fifteen minutes …
the specified time; thus, if a dinner invitation states «7:30 … 8:00»,
it means that you will be expected … about 7:50.
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to … .
Ex. 5 Complete the sentences with a word or a phrase:
1. In …, official working … are normally 09:00–17:00 Monday
2. … the UK has only … national holidays a …, which is the …
number in Europe.
3. … of it … intact.
4. The London … (the «…») and long-distance rail services
are the worst … .
5. The … important the meeting, the … time you should
allow for … inevitable … .
blank:
Ex. 6 Put the verb in brackets into the correct form for each
1. There … some restrictions on Sunday trading, and many outlets … open 24/7 even outside the major urban areas (to be/ to be).
2. Cold calling … (not to appreciate – passive).
3. UK industry … down almost completely between Christmas
and New Year (to close).
4. The flow of traffic in central London … greatly since the introduction of congestion charging (to improve).
5. The UK … the world with its transport infrastructure
in the 19th century (to lead).
Ex. 7 Find all the sentences in the passive voice in the text
and transfer them into the sentences of active one according
to the pattern:
Ex.: If several people are involved… . – They involve several
people… .
Public Behavior
Part 2
Britons, and the English in particular, are notoriously undemonstrative. The «stiff upper lip» is not just the stuff of fiction and
emotional displays, positive or negative, are generally frowned upon.
Gestures such as backslapping and hugging are discouraged and
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versation. Maintaining eye contact may be necessary when you are
trying to emphasize important points but you must avoid any temptation to «eye-ball». Talking loudly is unacceptable and shouting is beyond the pale. Some old-fashioned interlocutors may not hear you
if you have your hands in your pockets. The British do not gesticulate
frantically.
Introductions can be tricky. Ideally the British prefer thirdparty introductions but in certain situations, like a drinks party,
it may not always be possible and, though awkward, you may just
have to go ahead and introduce yourself. Firm handshakes are the
norm as part of a formal introduction but may not be expected
at subsequent meetings or on social occasions; a gentleman
should always wait for a woman to proffer her hand before squeezing it gently. The continental habit of exchanging kisses has gained
currency especially amongst the young and the affected but is not
recommended for visitors – even the natives are unsure of the correct procedure.
«How do you do?» is a greeting not a question. It is used
when people are introduced for the first time only and the correct
response is to repeat «How do you do?». Such conventional usage
is not to be confused with «How are you?» which is a more or less
sincere enquiry as to your well-being.
This emotional detachment or even apparent indifference also
explains the British abhorrence of Americanisms such as «Have a nice
day». The objection lies not in the sentiment itself but in the lack of sincerity that is implied to the stand-offish British mentality.
If the British use few words, it is because they prefer to mean
those they do use. They are polite and courteous for the most part.
They expect to be treated with respect, in return for which they will
treat you with respect, so:
– if there is a queue, go to the back of the line and wait patiently;
– do not use the «V» – sign (raising the index and middle fingers) unless you are sure which is the Churchillian version signifying
peace or victory (palm outwards); the use of the alternative version
(palm inwards) is less common nowadays but is still vulgar and
offensive.
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A service charge of 10-15% is almost always included in hotel
and restaurant bills and you should be wary of establishments that
leave the credit card slip open for you to include an additional contribution (if you wish to reward exceptional service give cash directly
to the staff). Do not tip bar staff in pubs where there is no table service. Otherwise taxi drivers (especially in London), hairdressers, porters, etc. will expect 10–15% or a couple of pounds, whichever is the
greater.
United Kingdom: Public Behaviour [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа:
http://ww.executiveplanet.com/index.php?title=United_Kingdom:_Public_Behaviour
**********************************
Ex. 8 Write an appropriate answer for each question:
1. Why is it desirable to send
older representatives to the UK
for face-to face discussion?
A. _________________________
2. What are the meetings like?
B. ________________________
3. Who makes the «big» decisions?
C. ________________________
4. What did the «Thatcherite»
reforms of the 1980s bring
about?
D. ________________________
5. How do British businessmen
behave during initial meetings?
E. _________________________
Ex. 9 Write an appropriate question for each answer:
1. _________________________
A. Gestures such as backslapping
and hugging are discouraged and
a wide distance should be maintained between participants in a
conversation.
2. _________________________
B. «How do you do?» is a greeting
not a question.
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3. _________________________
C. If the British use few words,
it is because they prefer to mean
those they do use.
4. _________________________
D. They are polite and courteous
for the most part.
5. _________________________
E. Firm handshakes are the norm
as part of a formal introduction but
may not be expected at subsequent meetings or on social occasions
Ex. 10 Prove that British business culture is conservative.
Ex. 11 You are from The UK. Your partner is from The USA.
You don’t know each other. Make friends. Exchange business cards.
Make an appointment on the 30th of August, at 9 a.m. Demonstrate
respect and conservatism and show it through your own dialogue.
Ex. 12 Compare the characteristics of the USA and the UK.
Would you like to do business in England or not? Give your reasons.
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ЛИТРАТУРА
 Основная литература
1. Агабекян, И.П. Английский язык для бакалавров. – Ростов н /Д : Феникс, 2012. – 379 c.
2. Буковский, С.Л. Учебное пособие по английскому языку для студентов экономических специальностей. – М. : Изд-во «Прометей (Московский Государственный Педагогический Университет)», 2012. – 68 с.
Электронный ресурс. – Режим доступа : http://e.lanbook.com/books/
element.php? pl1_cid= 25&pl1_id=30355
3. Венявская, В.М. Английский язык. Страноведение = Across the
countries and continents : учеб. для студентов вузов / В.М. Венявская. –
Ростов н/Д : Феникс, 2009. – 443 c.
 Дополнительная литература
4. Мюллер, В. Новый англо-русский словарь / В. Мюллер. – М., 2003.
5. Першина, Е.Ю. Английский язык для бакалавров экономических
специальностей. – М. : Флинта, 2012. – 113 с. Электронный ресурс. –
Режим доступа : http://e.lanbook.com/books/element.php?pl1_cid=
25&pl1_id=3378
6. Утевская, Н.Л. English Grammar Book. Version 2.0 (Грамматика английского языка. Версия 2.0). – М. : Изд-во «Антология», 2012. – 480 с.
Электронный ресурс. – Режим доступа : http://e.lanbook.com/books/
element.php?pl1_cid=25&pl1_id=36946
7. Учебное пособие по устной разговорной практике английского языка /
сост. : И.В. Захарчева, Ю.В. Крамаренко, Н.В. Мартынович. – Омск :
Изд-во СибГУФК, 2010. – 140 с.
8. Яшина, Б.В, Жаткин, О.П. Английский язык для делового общения. –
М. : Флинта, 2009. – 112 с. Электронный ресурс. – Режим доступа :
http://e.lanbook.com/books/element.php?pl1_cid =25&pl1_id=2465
9. Cambridge International Dictionary of English. – Cambridge University
Press. – 2001. – 1773 p.
10. Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа : http://dictionary.cambridge.org/ dictionary/british
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11. Longman Dictionary of English Language and Culture / Director Della
Summers. – Essex: Pearson Education Limited, 2000. – 1568 c.
12. Macmillan Essential Dictionary for Learners of English, 2003. – 861 p.
13. Merriam-Webster Dictionary and Thesaurus [Электронный ресурс]. –
Режим доступа : http://www.merriam-webster.com/
14. Мультитран [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа : http://multitran.ru/
15. The Oxford Russian Dictionary. – Oxford, 1995.
16. Oxford Dictionaries [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа : http://
oxforddictionaries.com/
 Интернет источники
17. Executive planet [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа : http://ww.
executiveplanet.com/index.php?title. Дата обращения : 25.10.13.
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Culture of Business English
Учебно-методическое пособие
для студентов направлений подготовки:
100400.62 Туризм, 080400.62 Управление персоналом,
080500.62 Менеджмент, 221400.62 Управление качеством
Техническая редакция, вёрстка – С.М. Десяткова
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