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94.Legal English Quick Overview

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
УЧЕБНИК ДЛЯ БАКАЛАВРОВ - 2014
LEGAL ENGLISH:
QUICK OVERVIEW
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
В СФЕРЕ ЮРИСПРУДЕНЦИИ
БАЗОВЫЙ КУРС
Е.Б. Попов
Е.М. Феоктистова
Г.Р. Халюшева
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Московский государственный юридический университет
имени О.Е. Кутафина (МГЮА)
_________________Оренбургский институт (филиал)_________________
Е.Б. Попов, Е.М. Феоктистова, Г.Р. Халюшева
LEGAL ENGLISH:
QUICK OVERVIEW
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
В СФЕРЕ ЮРИСПРУДЕНЦИИ
БАЗОВЫЙ КУРС
Рекомендовано УМО по юридическому образованию
вузов Российской Федерации в качестве учебника
для студентов образовательных организаций,
обучающихся по направлению подготовки «Юриспруденция»,
квалификация (степень) «бакалавр»
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
УДК 811 (075)
ББК 81 (Англ) я73
П 58
Рецензенты:
Мангушев С.В., к.ф.н., доцент, заведующий кафедрой английского
языка и методики преподавания английского языка
Оренбургского государственного педагогического университета
Моисеева Е.В., к.п.н., доцент, заведующий кафедрой английского
языка Оренбургского государственного аграрного университета
Рахматуллина Д.Р., к.ф.н., доцент, заведующий кафедрой иностранных языков Оренбургского государственного института менеджмента
Reap, James K., JD, an attorney and Associate Professor in the Master of
Historic Preservation Program at the University of Georgia
(USA), a Fellow of the Dean Rusk Center, International,
Comparative and Graduate Legal Studies
П 58
Попов Е.Б., Феоктистова Е.М., Халюшева Г.Р.
Legal English: Quick Overview: Английский язык в сфере
юриспруденции: базовый курс: Учебник для бакалавров /
под общей редакцией Е.Б. Попова.- Оренбург: Оренбургский институт (филиал) Московского государственного
юридического университета имени О.Е. Кутафина (МГЮА),
ООО ИПК «Университет», 2014.- 312 с.
ISBN 978-5-4417-0439-7
Учебник предназначается для студентов, обучающихся по направлению подготовки «Юриспруденция», уровень подготовки: бакалавр. Цель данного учебника – последовательное обучение студентов грамматике и правовой лексике
английского языка на основе образовательных текстов, адаптированных для
студентов-юристов.
УДК 811 (075)
ББК 81 (Англ) я73
ISBN 978-5-4417-0439-7
Е.Б.Попов и др., 2014
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
CONTENTS
Introduction ………………………………………………....................
UNIT 1. Form of Government ……………………………...............
Text. State System of Russia ……………………………………......
Text. British Monarchy ………………………………………………..
Text. US Political System ………………………………………….....
UNIT 2. Law and its Sources ……………………….......................
Text. Law ……………………………………………….......................
Text. Sources of English Law ………………………………............
Text. Concept of International Law ………………………………...
UNIT 3. Civil Law …………………………………………..................
Text. Substantive Civil Law ………………………………..............
Text. Civil Procedure ………………………………........................
UNIT 4. Law of Property ………………………………….................
Text. Real Property ………………………………...........................
Text. Personal Property ………………………………....................
Text. Intellectual Property Law in Britain: Copyright ..............
Text. Intellectual Property Law in Britain: Industrial Property
UNIT 5. Family Law ………………………………………..................
Text. Marriage ………………………………..................................
Text. Parent and Child ……………………………….....................
UNIT 6. Contract Law ……………………………………..................
Text. Nature of Contracts ……………………………….................
Text. Mutual Agreement: Offer and Acceptance ......................
Text. Kinds of Contracts ………………………………...................
UNIT 7. Company Law .…………………………............................
Text. Private Enterprise and Partnerships ..............................
Text. Business Organizations: Companies ..............................
Text. Company Structure ……………………………….................
UNIT 8. Criminal Law ……………………………………..................
Text. Criminal Law ………………………………...........................
Text. Nature of Crime ……………………………….......................
UNIT 9. Punishment ………………………………………................
Text. Possible Reasons for Punishment ..................................
Text. Penalties ………………………………..................................
UNIT 10. Law of Torts ……………………………………..................
Text. Nature of Tort ………………………………..........................
Text. Classification of Torts ………………………………..............
UNIT 11. Evidence and Investigation ………………..................
Text. Probable Cause and Other Levels of Proof ......................
Text. Evidence ………………………………..................................
Text. Investigation ………………………………............................
UNIT 12. Judiciary ………………………………………...................
Text. Kinds of Cases ……………………………….........................
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166
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Text. What Happens During the Trial? ………………………....... 181
Text. Judicial Systems in Different Countries ......................... 184
UNIT 13. Legal Profession ………………………………................. 194
Text. Work Activities for Lawyers ………………………………...... 195
Text. Legal Profession in England ………………………………..... 198
Text. US Attorney ………………………………............................. 201
Text. Job Seeking: Resume .................................................... 207
UNIT 14. Labour Relations .……………………………................... 217
Text. Labour Law ………………………………............................. 218
Text. Defining the Employment Contract ………………………... 221
UNIT 15. Essential English Grammar for Law Students.......... 230
1. Word Order ……………………………….................................. 231
1.1. Affirmative Sentence ............................................... 231
1.2. Imperative Sentence ................................................ 231
1.3. Interrogative Sentence .............................................. 232
1.4. Negative Sentence ................................................... 233
1.5. ‘There Is/Are’ Construction ...................................... 235
2. Verbs ………………………………........................................... 239
2.1. Tense ...................................................................... 240
2.2. Indefinite Tenses ...................................................... 241
2.3. Indefinite Passive ..................................................... 244
2.4. Continuous Tenses .................................................. 245
2.5. Perfect Tenses .......................................................... 246
3. Modal Verbs ………………………………................................. 253
4. Multivalent Verbs “Be”, “Have”, "Do" …………………………... 258
5. Verbals: Infinitive ………………………………......................... 261
5.1. Infinitive Forms ....................................................... 262
5.2. Infinitive Constructions ........................................... 265
6. Verbals: Participles and Gerund ………………………………... 275
6.1. Participle I ............................................................... 275
6.2. Participle II .............................................................. 276
6.3. Gerund ................................................................... 279
7. Compound and Complex Sentences …………………………… 288
7.1. Compound Sentences ............................................. 288
7.2. Complex Sentences ................................................. 288
7.3. Co-Ordinate and Subordinate Conjunctions ............ 289
7.4. Parataxis ................................................................. 290
8. Sequence of Tenses ………………………………...................... 292
9. Conditional Sentences ……………………………….................. 295
9.1. True Conditional ..................................................... 296
9.2. Untrue Conditional: Present and Future .................. 296
9.3. Untrue Conditional: Past ......................................... 297
9.4. Conjunctionless Conditionals .................................. 298
Appendixes ............................................................................... 302
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Предисловие (Introduction)
Учебник предназначается для студентов юридических специальностей, уровень подготовки: бакалавр. Цель учебника – последовательное изучение правовой лексики на основе образовательных текстов, объединенных в четырнадцать тематических блоков,
а также усвоение и закрепление грамматики на основе учебного
материала и упражнений, представленных в приложении. Каждый
тематический блок рассчитан на прохождение в течение 6-8 практических занятий и включает в себя следующие виды заданий:
BEFORE READING - задание выполняется до прочтения тематического текста
SCANNING – задание предполагает чтение, перевод и подробное
изучение основного текста
LEXIS - лексический минимум, который помогает усвоить содержание тематического текста
FORMATION - задание на перевод однокоренных слов и составление предложений с каждым из них; задание позволяет студентам уяснить закономерности словообразования в английском
языке
QUESTIONS - вопросы к ранее прочитанному тексту предполагают
воспроизведение содержащейся в нём информации
AGREE OR DISAGREE - задание предполагает оценку соответствия
предложений содержанию изученного материала; если утверждение содержит ошибку, то необходимо внести соответствующие изменения и дать верный вариант предложения
GIVE ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS – задание на поиск в ранее прочитанном тексте слов и словосочетаний на английском языке,
схожих по значению с предлагаемыми словами и фразами на
русском языке, и составление студентами своих предложений
с каждым из этих словосочетаний
SAY WHAT YOU KNOW - вопросы по изучаемой теме, предполагающие использование дополнительной информации и позволяющие высказать собственную точку зрения по проблеме
SKIMMING – беглое прочтение дополнительного текста по изучаемой теме, позволяющее студентам расширить их представления о правовой действительности в странах изучаемого языка
ENGAGE IN CONVERSATION – задание рассчитано на работу в
парах или группе; студентам предлагается составить и инсценировать диалог на заданную тему
DEBATES – задание содержит спорные суждения, выносимые для
детального обсуждения темы и для обоснования студентами
своей точки зрения по вопросам, не имеющим однозначного
решения
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KEY WORDS - ключевые слова по изученной теме; студентам необходимо употребить эти слова в самостоятельно составленных
предложениях, используя материал тематического блока; данное задание рекомендуется сочетать с работой в группе по
устному переводу предложений, составленных каждым из студентов, на русский язык
ESSAY WRITING – задание предполагает написание сочинения на
заданную тему
TEST YOURSELF – упражнение содержит тестовые задания на общее понимание изучаемой темы
MAKE A REPORT – выступление с обобщающим докладом по пройденной теме с опорой на рекомендуемые пункты плана
Дополнительные обозначения:
(*) – задание для самостоятельной работы студентов;
(**) - задание повышенного уровня сложности; подобные задания
выполняются по выбору студента; результат рекомендуется
оценивать повышением личностных баллов за семестр по системе БаРС.
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Unit 1. Form of Government
1.1. BEFORE READING learn the following words and phrases
which are essential on the topic:
administrative /ədˈmɪnɪstrətɪv/ - исполнительный (о власти); административный, управленческий, правительственный
authority /ɔːˈθɒrətɪ/ - власть, полномочие; орган власти, орган
управления; сфера компетенции
branch of power /brɑːntʃ əv ˈpaʊə(r)/ – ветвь власти, сфера государственных полномочий
citizen /ˈsɪtɪz(ə)n/ - гражданин; гражданка (законный житель государства)
country /ˈkʌntri/ = nation /ˈneɪʃ(ə)n/ – страна; народ страны; родина, отечество
court /kɔː(r)t/ = court of justice /kɔː(r)t əv ˈdʒʌstɪs/ – суд, здание суда
department /dɪˈpɑː(r)tmənt/ - департамент; ведомство, министерство, отдел
executive body /ɪɡˈzekjʊtɪv ˈbɒdɪ/ = executive authority /ɪɡˈzekjʊtɪv
ɔːˈθɒrətɪ/, executive branch /ɪɡˈzekjʊtɪv brɑːntʃ/, administration
/ədˌmɪnɪˈstreɪʃ(ə)n/ - исполнительная власть; правительство; администрация
government /ˈɡʌvə(r)nmənt/ = form of government /fɔː(r)m əv
ˈɡʌvə(r)nmənt/, state structure /steɪt ˈstrʌktʃə(r)/ - государственное
устройство; политический строй; форма правления, правительство, правительственный аппарат
head of state /hed əv steɪt/ - глава государства
independence /ˌɪndɪˈpendəns/ - автономия, независимость, самостоятельность, суверенитет
judicial system /dʒuːˈdɪʃ(ə)l ˈsɪstəm/ = judiciary /dʒuːˈdɪʃərɪ/ - судебная власть; судебная система; судоустройство
legislative body /ˈledʒɪslətɪv ˈbɒdɪ/ = legislative authority /ˈledʒɪslətɪv
ɔːˈθɒrətɪ/, legislature /ˈledʒɪslətʃə(r)/, law-making body /lɔː ˈmeɪkɪŋ
ˈbɒdi/ - законодательная власть; законодательный орган
monarch /ˈmɒnə(r)k/ = sovereign /ˈsɒvrɪn/, the Crown /ðɪ kraʊn/ –
монарх; король, королева, корона, престол; королевская власть
parliament /ˈpɑː(r)ləmənt/ - парламент
policy /ˈpɒləsi/ – политика, политический курс, курс действий, линия поведения
political party /pəˈlɪtɪk(ə)l ˈpɑː(r)tɪ/ - политическая партия
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political power /pəˈlɪtɪk(ə)l ˈpaʊə(r)/ = public authority /ˈpʌblɪk
ɔːˈθɒrəti/, state power /steɪt ˈpaʊə(r)/ – государственная власть,
политическая власть
representative democracy /ˌreprɪˈzentətɪv dɪˈmɒkrəsɪ/ - представительная демократия
rights and freedoms /raɪts ænd ˈfriːdəms/ - права и свободы
separation of power /ˌsepəˈreɪʃ(ə)n əv ˈpaʊə(r)/ - разделение полномочий, разграничение власти, разделение властей
state /steɪt/ – государство, страна; штат (как субъект федерации в
США, Индии или Австралии)
to appoint /əˈpɔɪnt/ - назначать (на должность), утверждать (в
должности)
to elect /ɪˈlekt/ - избирать (голосованием), выбирать
to exercise power /ˈeksə(r)saɪz ˈpaʊə(r)/ – осуществлять властные
полномочия, применять власть, проявлять государственную
власть
to manage /ˈmænɪdʒ/ = administer /ədˈmɪnɪstə(r)/ - руководить,
управлять, заведовать; стоять во главе
to regulate /ˈreɡjʊleɪt/ - регулировать; регламентировать; упорядочивать, приводить в порядок
to serve /sɜː(r)v/ - состоять на службе, служить, работать
1.2. SCANNING
State System of Russia
1. Government is a political organization, which performs the
functions of the supreme administrative body of a country.
Governments are classified in a great many ways: monarchic systems
oppose republican governments; democratic governments are distinguished from dictatorships; federal states are distinguished from unitary states; cabinet governments are distinguished from presidential
ones.
2. The Russian Federation (RF) is a democratic federal republic.
The word "federation", as a part of the name of modern Russia, means
that in our country every political subdivision, despite its size, population, and economics, has the same rights along with others. No region,
even the majority of regions, can force the others to accept or make a
decision: common agreement is necessary.
3. State power in our country is exercised on the basis of the separation of powers among the legislative (the Federal Assembly),
judicial (courts of the RF), and executive (the government) branches.
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4. The president as a head of the state coordinates the activity of
all three branches of power. He is the guarantor of the Constitution of
the RF and of human and civil rights and freedoms of citizens. The
president is elected for a term of six years by the citizens of Russia on
the basis of general, equal and direct vote by secret ballot. A citizen of
the RF not younger than 35, who has resided in the RF for not less
than 10 years, may be elected president of the RF but not more than
for two terms in succession.
5. The legislative power is exercised by the Federal Assembly,
which consists of the Federation Council and the State Duma. The
State Duma has 450 seats, which are allocated to the various political
parties based on national election results. The deputies are elected for
a five-year term. The upper chamber - the Federation Council – reflects the federal nature of our state, whereby political power is divided between a central authority and all locally autonomous units –
the subjects of the federation. There are two deputies of the Council
from each subject: one from the executive and one from the representative bodies. The main job of the deputies is to make laws.
6. The executive power in Russia is exercised by the government
headed by the prime-minister who is appointed by the president with
consent of the State Duma. The executive branch of the government
manages federal property and ensures:
o the implementation of a uniform monetary policy in Russia;
o the implementation of a uniform state policy in the field of culture, science, education, health, social security and ecology;
o the country's defense, state security and the implementation of
the foreign policy of the RF.
The work of this branch of power is regulated by federal constitutional laws.
7. The judicial power belongs to the system of courts, which consists of the Constitutional Court and the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation (the SC RF) and inferior courts. All federal judges are
appointed by the president of the RF.
8. The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation interprets
the Constitution of our country. Legislative enactments, executive bylaws and international agreements may not be applied if they violate
the Constitution.
9. The SC RF is the highest judicial body on civil, criminal, administrative and other matters triable by general jurisdiction courts; it
also acts as the tribunal of last resort for economic and commercial
disputes (i.e. the current Supreme Court also covers the functions of
the former Supreme Commercial (Arbitration) Court). The SC RF shall
effect judiciary supervision over the activity of all inferior courts and
shall offer explanations on judicial practice issues.
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LEXIS
perform - исполнять, выполнять
monarchic - монархический
republican - республиканский
democratic - демократический
federal state - федерация, федеративное государство
unitary state - унитарное государство
cabinet government – парламентаризм, кабинетское правление
(система управления государством, при которой решающую
роль играет кабинет министров)
presidential government - президентская форма правления; правительство, назначаемое и возглавляемое главой государства
subdivision – подразделение
despite - несмотря на, вопреки чему-л.
economics - хозяйственная жизнь, экономические характеристики,
экономические показатели
majority – большинство
accept – соглашаться, принимать
make a decision – принять решение
common agreement - общее согласие
guarantor - поручитель; гарант
general, equal and direct vote – всеобщее прямое голосование
secret ballot - тайное голосование
reside - проживать, жить
in succession - подряд
Federal Assembly – Федеральное собрание
Federation Council – Совет федерации
State Duma - Государственная дума
central authority - центральная власть
locally autonomous unit – самоуправляющаяся территория
deputy - депутат
representative body - представительный орган
consent – согласие, разрешение
ensure - гарантировать, обеспечивать
implementation - выполнение, исполнение, осуществление, реализация, введение в действие
uniform monetary policy - единая кредитно-денежная политика
uniform state policy – единая государственная политика
social security - социальное страхование, социальное обеспечение
state security – государственная безопасность
foreign policy - внешняя политика
Supreme Court - Верховный суд
inferior courts - нижестоящий суд
judge – судья
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legislative enactment - законодательный акт
bylaw - подзаконный акт; постановление местных органов власти
apply – применять, использовать
violate - нарушать, попирать, преступать
triable by general jurisdiction court - подлежащий рассмотрению в
суде общей юрисдикции
tribunal of last resort - последняя судебная инстанция, суд высшей
инстанции
former – существовавший ранее, предшествующий, бывший
supervision - надзор, наблюдение; заведование, контроль
judicial practice issues – вопросы судебной практики
-
1.3. (*) FORMATION
- democrat, democracy, democratic, democratize;
- execute, executed, unexecuted, executing, executor, executory, executorial, executive, executable, execution;
govern, governable, ungovernable, governance, governed, governing,
governor, governess, government, governmental;
parliament, parliamentary, unparliamentary, parliamentarism;
preside, president, presidency, presidential;
represent, representing, represented, representable, representative,
representation, unrepresentative, misrepresent, misrepresentation;
republic, republican, republicanism;
supervise, supervised, supervising, supervisory, supervision.
1.4. QUESTIONS
1. What is a broad meaning of the term “government”?
2. How are governments classified?
3. What kind of state is the RF?
4. How many branches of power are there on the federal level?
5. Who and how coordinates all these branches?
5. How are the deputies of both chambers of the Federal Assembly
chosen?
6. What is the jurisdiction of these two chambers?
7. Who is the executive power in the RF headed by?
8. How is the work of the federal government regulated?
9. What powers are entrusted to the executive branch?
10. What is the composition of the federal judiciary?
11. What is the jurisdiction of the highest judicial bodies?
1.5. AGREE OR DISAGREE
a) LOOK THROUGH the following statements pertaining to
the text “State system of Russia”:
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1. In a federation no region, even the majority of regions, can force the
others to accept a decision.
2. In a federation the form of state structure is highly centralized.
3. The RF president is elected by the deputies of the Federal Assembly
for a term of six years.
4. Any citizen of the RF may be elected president of the RF.
5. The State Duma reflects the federal nature of our state.
6. The main job of the executive agencies is to make laws.
7. All federal judges are elected by people on the basis of general,
equal and direct vote by secret ballot.
8. The Supreme Court is the highest judiciary body resolving economic and commercial disputes.
b) EXPRESS YOUR AGREEMENT OR DISAGREEMENT with the foregoing statements; in your answer you should use the expressions
given below:
all correct - всё правильно
I fully agree with the statement ... because … - Я полностью согласен
с утверждением .... так как ...
that’s true = true enough – верно; это правда
without question = for sure = certainly = surely – вне сомнения;
безусловно; конечно
Yes, indeed. - Несомненно!
I doubt … = I have my doubts about ... = I’m not so sure... – у меня
есть сомнения ...; я не уверен, что ...
I disagree - я думаю иначе; я не согласен
it’s wrong – не так; не верно
the statement is inaccurate – это утверждение неверно
accompanying expressions – сопутствующие фразы
according to the text ... - согласно тексту ...
as I see it - как мне это представляется
frankly speaking - откровенно говоря
from my personal point of view - с моей точки зрения
I am convinced that … - я убежден, что ...
I reckon that … - думаю, что ...
in my opinion - по моему мнению; на мой взгляд
taking into account - с учётом; принимая во внимание
to my mind - на мой взгляд
what I want to say is that ... – то что я хочу сказать, так это ...
1.6. GIVE ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS for:
a) выполнять в стране функции органа управления;
b) иметь равные права наряду со всеми остальными;
c) основываться на результатах всеобщих выборов;
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d) распоряжаться федеральным имуществом;
e) осуществлять судебный надзор;
f) распределяться между различными политическими партиями.
1.7. ENGAGE IN CONVERSATION. Discuss the following illustration in the context of the system of “checks and balances” in the Russian Federation:
“Checks and Balances” on the Federal Level
1.8. (**) SAY WHAT YOU KNOW about:
1) the characteristic features of the federal form of the Russian Federation;
2) pluses and minuses of democracy;
3) the difference between the role of law-enforcement agencies in
democratic and totalitarian states.
NOTE: Reliable information may be obtained from free Internet resources indicated in Appendix 2 (p. 305).
1.9. DEBATES
1. Do you support the statement: “It is not the voting that is
democracy, it is counting”?
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2. Does the Russian Federation have national symbols? What do they
symbolize?
3. How do you understand the well-known idea: “The essence of the
democracy is not the majority power but the protection of the
minority”? How does this idea respond to the main principle of
the democracy of minority subordination to the majority?
4. What problems of the Russian state structure development are the
most urgent in your opinion?
5. What body of the state structure serves as the main apparatus of
the democracy? Give arguments.
WORK IN PAIRS. One of you should talk for not less than one
minute about the sentence chosen for discussion; the other should
use at least one of the expressions given in Appendix 3 (p. 306) while
responding to the speech of the groupmate and then ask a question
about statements contained in his/her speech.
1.10. (*) BEFORE READING
1. What do you know about the European monarchies?
2. Name some of the British monarchs. What did they become
famous for?
1.11. SCANNING
British Monarchy
1. The United Kingdom is one of six constitutional monarchies within the European Community. The kingdom includes
the island of Great Britain (comprising England, Scotland, and Wales)
and Northern Ireland. Windsor as the name of the royal family of
Great Britain was adopted in 1917. The name was taken from Windsor Castle. Reigning members of the house of Windsor have been
George V, Edward VIII, George VI, and Elizabeth II.
2. Actually the monarch reigns but does not rule. He or she
summons and dissolves Parliament; he/she usually opens new sessions of Parliament in the House of Lords with a speech from the
throne in which the major government policies are outlined. The monarch must give the royal assent before a bill which has passed all its
stages in both Houses of Parliament can become a legal enactment
(act of Parliament). As head of state, the monarch has the power to
sign international agreements, to cede or receive territory, and to declare war or make peace. The monarch confers honours and makes appointments to all important offices of state, including ministers,
judges, officers in the armed services, diplomats and the leading positions in the Established Church. These acts form part of the royal pre14
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rogative, defined as arbitrary authority of legislative, executive and
judicial character.
3. The House of Commons (or lower chamber) is a popular assembly elected for a term of not more than 5 years by almost universal adult suffrage. Each member of Parliament (MP) – represents one
of 650 geographical areas (constituencies) into which the country is
divided for electoral purposes (533 for England, 40 for Wales, 59 for
Scotland and about 18 for Northern Ireland in 2013). If an MP dies,
resigns or is made a peer, a by-election is held in that constituency to
elect a new MP. Leaders of the government and opposition sit on the
front benches of the Commons, with their supporters (back-benchers)
behind them. The House is presided over by the Speaker.
4. The main opposition party forms a Shadow Cabinet, which is
more or less as the government would be if the party were in power,
and the relevant members act as opposition spokesmen on major issues.
5. The House of Lords is probably the only upper House in the
democratic world whose members are not elected. It is made up of the
Lords spiritual (the Archbishops of York and Canterbury and 20 bishops) and the Lords temporal. The number of peers is not fixed; as of
6 October 2013 the House of Lords had 771 members. Less than 90
of them were hereditary peers. The rest were life peers, named by the
sovereign on the advice of the prime minister, thus they could not
pass on their title when they die. The main legislative function of
peers is to examine and revise bills from the Commons but the House
can only delay a bill from becoming law for a maximum of 12 months.
The Lords cannot normally prevent proposed legislation from becoming law if the Commons insists on it.
6. Executive power in Great Britain belongs to a prime minister
(PM) and the cabinet of ministers. The prime minister is usually the
leader of the majority party in the House of Commons. He or she consults and advises the monarch on government business, supervises
and to some extent coordinates the work of the various ministries and
departments and is the principal spokesperson for the government in
the House of Commons.
7. The cabinet is the nucleus of government. By custom, cabinet
ministers are selected from among members of the two houses of parliament. They are appointed by the Crown on the recommendation of
the prime minister. The number of members of the British cabinet varies but usually is about 25-30 ministers. The cabinet meets in private and its deliberations are secret; no vote is taken, and, by the
principle of "cabinet unanimity", collective responsibility is assumed
for all decisions taken. It is a political convention for the cabinet to
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act as a single man, which means that a minister who cannot accept a
cabinet decision must resign.
8. Unlike some other countries (the USA for example), not even
the most senior administrative jobs change hands when a new government comes to power. The day-to-day running of the government
and the implementation of its policy continue in the hands of the
same people that were there with the previous government - the top
rank of the civil service. Governments come and go, but the civil service remains. Civil servants get a high salary (higher than that of their
ministers), have absolute job security (unlike their ministers); moreover, civil servants know the secrets of the previous government which
the present minister is unaware of.
9. In accordance with the Constitutional Reform Act 2005, the
judicial functions of the final national court of appeal in civil and
criminal cases were transferred from the House of Lords and entrusted
to the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom, which consists of 12
judges appointed by the monarch.
LEXIS
European Community - Европейское экономическое сообщество
adopt - принимать
Windsor Castle - Виндзорский замок (одна из официальных загородных резиденций английских королей в г. Виндзоре, графство Беркшир; строительство замка начато при Вильгельме
Завоевателе в 1070)
reign – царствовать; иметь власть, влияние
rule - править; господствовать
summon – созывать, собирать
dissolve - прекращать деятельность, распускать
House of Lords - палата лордов
royal prerogative - королевская прерогатива
royal assent - королевская санкция (принятого парламентом закона)
bill - законопроект
legal enactment - закон, указ, законодательный акт
sign - подписывать(ся), ставить подпись
cede - оставлять, сдавать
confer honours - жаловать, даровать награды, почести
appointment – назначение (на должность, место)
office of state - государственное ведомство, учреждение
Established Church - государственная церковь (официально признана государством и частично финансируется им)
arbitrary authority – полномочие произвольно принимать решение
House of Commons - палата общин
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popular assembly – народное собрание
universal adult suffrage - всеобщее избирательное право
constituency - избирательный округ
be made a peer - возвести в пэры, утвердить членом палаты лордов
hold by-election - проводить дополнительные выборы
front bench - министерская скамья в английском парламенте или
скамья, занимаемая лидерами оппозиции в парламенте
back-bencher - рядовой член парламента, "заднескамеечник"
preside over - председательствовать
Speaker - спикер (старшее должностное лицо в палате общин;
председательствует на её заседаниях, следит за соблюдением
правил парламентской процедуры и порядком дебатов; избирается из числа членов палаты; не принимает участия в дебатах и голосовании, за исключением тех случаев, когда голоса
делятся поровну; тогда его голос является решающим)
Shadow Cabinet - "теневой кабинет" (парламентский комитет главной оппозиционной партии, состоящий из ведущих деятелей
этой партии, которые занимаются теми же вопросами, что и
члены кабинета)
Upper House - верхняя палата
lords spiritual - "духовные лорды" (епископы - члены палаты лордов)
lords temporal - "мирские лорды" (светские члены палаты лордов)
fix - устанавливать; фиксировать
hereditary peer - наследственный пэр
life peer - пожизненный пэр
pass on - передавать, оставлять (по наследству и т. п.)
examine – рассматривать; изучать
revise - видоизменять, изменять, модифицировать, перерабатывать, пересматривать
delay - задерживать, замедлять; препятствовать
prevent - препятствовать, мешать, не допускать
proposed legislation - предложенный законопроект
insist on - настаивать на
majority party – партия большинства
government business - государственные заказы
ministry - ведомство, департамент, министерство
spokesperson – представитель; лицо, выступающее от чьего-л. имени, оратор
nucleus - ядро; центр
cabinet minister - член совета министров
vary - изменять(ся), менять(ся)
integrate – объединять, интегрировать
submission - передача на рассмотрение, представление документов
in private - наедине; конфиденциально
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deliberation - рассмотрение, обсуждение, дискуссия
unanimity - единодушие
collective responsibility - коллективная ответственность (принцип
управления, при котором каждый член органа, принимающего решения, сохраняет свое членство только при условии принятия на себя полной ответственности за все решения
данного органа)
single man – одно лицо, единый субъект
resign - уходить в отставку, подавать в отставку; оставлять пост
change hands - переходить в другие руки
come to power - прийти к власти
day-to-day running – повседневное функционирование
civil service - гражданская служба, чиновничий аппарат министерств
high salary – высокая оплата труда
job security - гарантия занятости, гарантированность работы
unaware of – не осведомленный
final national court – высший государственный суд
transfer from – передавать, перемещать (от)
entrust to - вверять; возлагать, поручать, доверять
-
1.12. (*) FORMATION
- constitution, constitutional, unconstitutional, nonconstitutional, constitutionalism, constitutionality, constitutionally;
evolve, evolution, evolutional, evolutionist, evolutionary;
king, kingcraft, kingdom, kinglike, kingly, kingmaker;
monarch, monarchy, monarchist, monarchic, monarchical.
history, prehistory, historic, prehistoric, historical, historically, historian, historiography, historiographer, historicity;
oppose, opposable, opposed, opposer, opposing, opposite, oppositely,
opposition.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
1.13. QUESTIONS
1. How many European states are constitutional monarchies?
Which parts does the United Kingdom comprise?
What are the powers and functions of the monarch today?
Who governs in the name of the sovereign?
How are cabinet members selected?
What makes up the British Parliament?
What types of lords are in the upper chamber?
How are members of the House of Commons elected?
How long is the term of MPs?
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10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
Is the prime minister in GB usually elected or appointed?
What are the functions of the prime minister?
How is the British cabinet formed?
Is the number of members of the cabinet fixed?
It is a political convention for the cabinet to act as a single man.
What does it mean?
15. What is a Shadow Cabinet? What functions does it perform?
1.14. AGREE OR DISAGREE
1. In fact the monarch reigns but does not rule.
2. A bill becomes an act of Parliament even without the royal
assent.
3. The monarch makes appointments to all important offices of state,
excluding judges and leading positions in the Established
Church.
4. Part of the royal prerogative is the power to prorogue Parliament.
5. A cabinet cannot be formed or a minister cannot take up office
without the monarch's consent and approval.
6. The monarch does not have the power to cede territory or to declare war.
7. The position of prime minister is based on convention, not statute.
8. The Crown presides over meetings of the cabinet.
9. The cabinet meets in private and its discussions are secret.
10. The cabinet determines, controls and integrates the government
policies which are then presented to parliament for consideration.
1.15. GIVE ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS for:
a) кратко излагать основные направления государственной политики;
b) пройти все необходимые этапы;
c) заключать мир;
d) представлять избирательный округ;
e) консультировать и информировать монарха;
f) выбирать из числа депутатов обеих палат парламента;
g) выступать от имени оппозиции по наиболее важным вопросам.
1.16. SAY WHAT YOU KNOW about:
1) any of the monarchs of England, from Alfred the Great, in
the ninth century, to the recent ruler;
2) the changes that the royal family has shown itself willing
to accept, such as the monarch’s decision to pay tax, changes being made to the civil list, and the opening of Buckingham Palace
to the public to help fund the restoration of Windsor castle;
3) the history of the British Parliament;
4) some traditions and ceremonies still kept in the Parliament;
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5) the UK Constitutional Reform, 1999;
6) the future of the monarchy in Great Britain.
1.17. ENGAGE IN CONVERSATION. Discuss the following
illustration in the context of interdependence of legislative
and executive power in the United Kingdom:
The UK Central Government
1.18. BEFORE READING
Provide a detailed examination of the historical and philosophical origins of the federal idea and its subsequent evolution as modern federalism.
1.19. SCANNING
US Political System
1. The United States of America is a federal republic and a
representative democracy on the continent of North America, consisting of 50 states. The national Constitution, ratified on the 21st of July
1788, defines the powers of national and state governments, the functions and framework of all three branches of federal government (legislative, executive, judicial) and the rights of individual citizens.
2. The form of government is based on three main principles:
federalism, the separation of powers, and respect for the Constitution
and the rule of law. Americans are subject to two governments, that of
their state and that of the Union, and each has its own distinct function. The states have, under the Constitution, the primary functions
of providing law and order, education, public health and most of the
things which concern day-to-day life. The Federal government at
Washington is concerned with foreign affairs and with matters of general concern to all the states, including commerce between the states.
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3. State governments. Each state has its own constitution, similar to the federal one, which defines and limits political power, and
which provides safeguards against tyranny and means for popular
participation. In each state, power is divided between three agencies,
with law-making power given to a legislature (usually of two houses,
elected for fixed terms), an executive (the governor), and finally the
judges of the State Supreme Court. Each state is divided into counties,
which have their own powers granted by the state, and there are also
special-purpose areas for some functions of local interest.
4. The Federal government also has three elements - executive
(the President), legislature (Congress) and judicial (federal courts), and
the three elements are checked and balanced by one another. The
President is the effective head of the executive branch of government
as well as head of state. In November of each leap year a President is
elected to serve for exactly four years from a fixed day in the following
January. The four-year rhythm has never been broken. Together with
the President, a Vice-President is elected, and if the President dies the
Vice-President becomes President for the unexpired part of the four
years - which could be 3 years or only three months. According to the
Constitution a Vice-President acts as the presiding officer of the U.S.
Senate.
5. Since the adoption of the Constitution, the national government
has increased its functions in economic and social matters and has
shared more responsibilities with the states. The executive branch of
the government, headed by the President, comprises 14 departments:
e.g. the Department of State, Department of the Treasury, Department
of Justice, Department of Commerce, Department of Health and Human
Services, Department of Education, Department of Transportation, Department of Energy.
6. All legislative powers are exercised by the Congress of the
United States. Congress consists of two houses, the Senate and the
House of Representatives. The Senate contains 100 senators, two
representing each state - a provision of the Constitution not subject to
amendment. The 435 members of the House are elected by the different states on the basis of their population at the most recent U.S.
census. California has the largest number of representatives, 52; several states, such as Delaware, Alaska and Vermont, have only one.
Representatives serve two-year terms, and senators six-year terms.
Every two years all 435 members of the House are elected, and onethird of the senators.
7. The federal court system includes the Supreme Court of the
United States, established by the Constitution; and 12 courts of appeal (sometimes called circuit courts), 91 district courts, and special
courts such as the Tax Court and the Court of Veterans' Appeals, all
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established by Congress. The federal courts perform two constitutional functions. First, they interpret the meaning of laws and administrative regulations; this is known as statutory construction. Second, the
courts determine whether any law passed by Congress or state legislatures, or any administrative action taken by the national or state
executive branches, violates the U.S. Constitution; this is known as
judicial review.
LEXIS
framework - структура, строение
federalism - федерализм
respect for - уважение; почтительное отношение
rule of law - принцип господства права
be subject to – подчиняться, находиться под действием, зависеть от
distinct - отдельный; особый, индивидуальный
provide – обеспечивать, предоставлять
law and order - правопорядок
public health - здравоохранение
concern - касаться, относиться; затрагивать
day-to-day - будничный, обыденный, повседневный
be concerned with - занятый чем-л.; имеющий отношение к чему-л.
foreign affairs - международные отношения; внешняя политика
matter - тема, вопрос, предмет
commerce - торговля; коммерция
safeguards - мера безопасности
means – средства, механизм
popular participation - участие населения, народное соучастие
agency - орган, учреждение, организация, ведомство
law-making power - право законодательства, право издания законов
governor - губернатор
State Supreme Court – Верховный Суд штата
county - округ, графство, губерния
special-purpose area – территориальное подразделение, образованное для конкретной цели (округ, ответственный за охрану экологии крупного природного объекта; округ с едиными требованиями в общем образовании и т.п.)
Congress - конгресс
check - ограничивать, сдерживать, обуздывать, регулировать
balance - сохранять равновесие; уравновешивать (что-л.; чем-л.)
effective – зд.: действующий; фактический
leap year - високосный год
rhythm – ритм, периодичность, цикличность
vice-president - вице-президент
unexpired - неистекший (о сроке)
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presiding officer - председательствующее лицо; лицо, наблюдающее
за правильностью подсчёта голосов
national government - центральное, национальное правительство
increase - увеличивать; усиливать
share - делить, распределять; разделять, делиться
responsibility – ответственность; обязанность; обязательство
comprise - включать, заключать в себе, содержать
Department of State - Государственный департамент (министерство
иностранных дел США)
Department of the Treasury - министерство финансов
Department of Justice - министерство юстиции
Department of Commerce - министерство торговли
Department of Health and Human Services - министерство здравоохранения и социальных услуг [социального обеспечения]
Department of Transportation – министерство транспорта
Department of Energy - министерство энергетики
Senate - сенат (верхняя палата конгресса США)
House of Representatives - палата представителей (нижняя палата)
senator – сенатор, член сената США
provision - положение, условие (договора и т. п.)
not subject to amendment – не допускающий поправок, не подлежащий изменению
census - перепись населения, сбор сведений
Delaware - Делавэр (сокращение - DE или Del.)
Vermont - Вермонт
court of appeal - апелляционный суд
circuit court - федеральный окружной суд
district court - федеральный районный суд (первой инстанции)
Tax Court - налоговый суд
Court of Veterans' Appeals – суд, рассматривающий обращения ветеранов (бывших военнослужащих)
interpret - объяснять, толковать, интерпретировать
administrative regulation - административное предписание
statutory construction - толкование закона
violate - нарушать, попирать, преступать
judicial review - судебный контроль
1.20. (*) FORMATION
- amend, amending, amended, unamended, amendable,
amendatory, amendment;
- limit, limitable, limited, limitless, unlimited, delimited, limiting, limitating, limitation, limiter;
- settle, settleable, settled, settler, settlement, settling, unsettled;
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- stable, unstable, stableness, stability, unstability, stabilization, stabilize, stabilizing, stabilized, stabilizer.
1.21. QUESTIONS
1. How many states are there in the USA?
2. How old is the US Constitution?
3. Each state in the USA has its own constitution, doesn’t it?
4. What is the US national government responsible for?
5. The seat of the national government is New York, isn’t it?
6. What is the purpose of creating a system of checks and balances?
7. How many members are chosen to the US Congress?
8. Do all states have the same number of members in the House of
Representatives?
9. Are all senators reelected every two years?
10. What is the structure of the federal court system?
11. Why are federal courts sometimes called constitutional courts?
1.22. AGREE OR DISAGREE
2) Americans are subject to two governments.
3) The executive branch of the federal government comprises
25 departments.
4) Representatives serve four-year terms, and senators two-year
terms.
5) The Supreme Court of the United States, as well as 12 courts of
appeal, 91 district courts, and special courts such as the Tax
Court and the Court of Veterans' Appeals, are all established by
Congress.
6) The federal courts perform two constitutional functions.
1.23. GIVE ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS for:
a) обозначить функции и структуру трёх ветвей власти;
b) ограничивать государственную власть;
c) находиться в должности в течение 4 лет;
d) исполнять законодательные полномочия;
e) выполнять конституционную функцию судебного контроля;
f) объяснять значение законов.
1.24. (**) SAY WHAT YOU KNOW about:
1) how the Constitution of the USA was created;
2) amendments to the US Constitution;
3) the Bill of Rights (1791) as a part of the US Constitution;
4) elections of the US President and the role of Electoral College;
5) some of the American states.
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1.25. DEBATES
In Russia, the national (ethnic) principle, even though supplemented by the territorial one, has become the crucial one
in building federal statehood. On the contrary, the national (ethnic)
factor is not a federal principle in the USA and has no meaning in the
construction of American federalism. Why is it so?
1.26. ENGAGE IN CONVERSATION. Discuss the following
chart in the context of interdependence of federal and state
governments in the United States of America:
Constitutional Basis of the US Federalism
Powers delegated
to the Federal
government
• regulate interstate
and foreign trade
• create and maintain armed forces
• make copyright
and patent laws
• define foreign policy
• create federal
courts
• coin money
• declare war
• admit new states
Powers denied to
the Federal
government
• change state
boundaries without consent of
states involved
Shared
powers
Powers reserved
to State governments
• enforce laws
• make laws
• establish and
maintain
courts
• collect taxes
• establish banks
• borrow money
• provide for public welfare
• build roads
• protect the lives
and property of
the people
• establish local government
• regulate trade within the state
• run election
• establish and maintain
schools
• license professional workers,
such as doctors and lawyers
• incorporate business firms
• make laws about marriage
and divorce
• keep all the "reserved powers"
not granted to the national
government nor prohibited to
the states
• deny due
process of law
• grant titles of
nobility
• coin money
• enter into treaties
Powers denied
to both
governments
Powers denied to
State governments
1.27. KEY WORDS
act of Parliament
administrative
authority
branch of power
by-election
legislature
lord
majority party
monarch
official opposition
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cabinet
chairperson
checks and balances
citizen
Congress
constituency
constitution
constitutional court
country
court
department
deputy
executive body
Federal Assembly
federal court
federal government
federalism
Federation Council
general election(s)
government
head of state
House of Commons
independence
inferior court
judiciary
parliament
parliamentary monarchy
policy
political party
political power
president
representative democracy
rights and freedoms
royal family
separation of power
Shadow Cabinet
Speaker
state
State Duma
state government
subject of the federation
Supreme Court
to appoint
to be subject to
to elect
to exercise power
to manage
to regulate
to serve
vice-president
1.28. SKIMMING
Five-Paragraph Essay
One of the classic formats for writing an essay is to use the fiveparagraph essay model. This format breaks down the essay into five
paragraphs - the introductory paragraph, three body or supporting paragraphs, and a concluding paragraph.
1. Introductory Paragraph. The job of the introductory paragraph is to get the reader interested in the topic of the essay, as well
as to tell the reader what the main idea of the essay will be about. The
introductory paragraph should contain the thesis statement, which is
a short, yet purposeful, summary that tells the reader what issue will
be examined. You don’t need to advance your opinion in this paragraph.
2. Body - First argument. The first paragraph of the body should
contain the strongest and doubtless argument, most significant example or cleverest illustration. The topic for this paragraph should be
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in the first or second sentence. This topic should relate to the thesis
statement in the introductory paragraph.
3. Body - Second argument. The second paragraph of the body
should contain the second strongest argument, rather significant example, fairly clever illustration, or an obvious follow up the first paragraph in the body.
4. Body - Third argument. The third paragraph of the body
should contain a generally known argument, example, illustration, or
a conclusive follow up to the second paragraph in the body.
5. Concluding paragraph. This paragraph should include the following:
a) a restatement of the thesis statement in new language so that
the meaning remains the same, but the language is different;
b) a summary of the main ideas presented in the three body paragraphs;
c) a final statement that gives the reader signals that the discussion has come to an end.
If the theme of your essay is contradictory and you want to bring
forward arguments pro and con, then the essay may contain more
than three paragraphs in the body.
LEXIS
essay – сочинение
introductory paragraph - вводный абзац/параграф
supporting paragraph – абзац/параграф с подтверждающей информацией, абзац/параграф с предъявляемыми аргументами
concluding paragraph - заключительный абзац/параграф
thesis statement – исходное утверждение в сочинении
purposeful – важный, полный значения
summary - краткое изложение
advance opinion - высказывать мнение
body - основная часть
argument – довод, доказательство, аргумент
follow up – продолжение, дополнение к
conclusive – окончательный, решающий
restatement – повторное утверждение, переформулирование
come to an end - подходить к концу, завершаться
contradictory - внутренне противоречивый, неоднозначный
pro and con - за и против
1.29. ESSAY WRITING
a) SKIM the foregoing text “Five-Paragraph Essay”;
b) SCRUTINIZE the ‘linking phrases for an essay’, given in
Appendix 4 (p. 308);
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c) WRITE an essay on one of the following themes:
-
“Advantages and disadvantages of separation of powers.”
“Inter-relations of national and local governments.”
“The differences between the form of government in the UK and US.”
“The principles of federalism.”
“The purpose of elections in the political systems.”
1.30. TEST YOURSELF. Fill each gap in the sentences with only one word or phrase from the box given below:
1. After elections the main opposition party in Britain forms
_____.
2. As head of state the monarch has the powers known as _____.
3. ____ consists of two houses, the Senate and the House of Representatives.
4. Executive power in Great Britain belongs to a prime minister and
_____.
5. Government is a political organization which performs the functions of the supreme _____.
6. State power in case of a democracy is exercised on the basis of
_____ among the legislative, judicial, and executive branches.
7. The form of government in the USA is based on three main principles: federalism, the separation of powers, and _____.
8. The government as a rule manages _____ and ensures the country's defense and state security.
9. _____ is a popular assembly elected for a term of not more than 5
years by almost universal adult suffrage.
10. The House of Lords is made up of two kinds of its members: hereditary and _____.
11. The judicial power belongs to _____.
12. The legislative power in our country is exercised by _____, which
consists of the Federation Council and the State Duma.
13. The president of the RF is elected for _____ on the basis of general, equal and direct vote.
14. The prime minister in Great Britain is usually the leader of _____
in the House of Commons.
15. _____ contains 100 senators, two representing each state - a provision of the Constitution not subject to amendment.
16. The United Kingdom is one of six _____ within the European
Community.
17. The US courts perform two _____ known as statutory construction
and judicial review.
18. The US President is the effective head of _____ of government and
represents the country abroad.
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19. The word "_____" means that within the country every political
subdivision, despite its size, population, and economics, has the
same rights along with others.
20. The work of all three branches of power within each state is regulated by _____.
the House of Commons, the majority party, the royal prerogative,
administrative body of a country, a Shadow Cabinet, the Senate,
a term of six years, constitutional functions, constitutional law,
the executive branch, the Federal Assembly, the US Congress,
life peers, the separation of powers, the system of courts,
constitutional monarchies, federal property, federation,
respect for the Constitution, the cabinet of ministers
1.31. MAKE A REPORT on the topic “Form of Government”,
paying attention to the following points in your speech:
- definition of government as a political organization;
- classification of governments;
- division of powers in modern governments;
- comparative description of structure, composition and functions of
three branches of power (legislative, executive and judicial) in
Russia, Great Britain and the USA.
NOTE: You may use the expressions given in “Key Phrases for Making
a Report” in Appendix 5 (p. 310).
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Unit 2. Law and Its Sources
2.1. BEFORE READING learn the following words and phrases which are essential on the topic:
adjective law /ˈædʒɪktɪv lɔː/ = law of procedure /lɔː əv
prəˈsiːdʒə(r)/, procedural law /prəˈsiːdʒ(ə)rəl lɔː/ - процессуальное право, формальное право
agreement /əˈɡriːmənt/ - договор, соглашение
bill /bɪl/ = draft law /drɑːft lɔː/, legislative proposal /ˈledʒɪslətɪv
prəˈpəʊz(ə)l/ - законопроект, билль (вносимый в парламент на
обсуждение)
branch of law /brɑːntʃ əv lɔː/ = field of law /fiːld əv lɔː/ - отрасль права, область права
civil law countries /ˈsɪv(ə)l lɔː ˈkʌntriz/ – страны с континентальной
(цивильной, римской) системой права
common law /ˈkɒmən lɔː/ - общее право (прецедентное право), англо-саксонское право (в отличие от континентального права)
common law countries /ˈkɒmən lɔː ˈkʌntriz/ - страны с англосаксонской системой права (основанной на некодифицированном/общем праве); страны-незаконодатели
custom /ˈkʌstəm/ - обычай, традиция
international law /ˌɪntə(r)ˈnæʃ(ə)nəl lɔː/ = law of nations /lɔː əv
ˈneɪʃ(ə)nz/ - международное право
justice /ˈdʒʌstɪs/ – справедливость, правосудие; юстиция
law /lɔː/- закон; правило; право; правоведение, законоведение,
юриспруденция
lawmaker /ˈlɔːˌmeɪkə(r)/ = legislator /ˈledʒɪˌsleɪtə(r)/, lawgiver /ˈlɔːˌɡɪvə(r)/
– законодатель, субъект правотворчества
legal action /ˈliːɡ(ə)l ˈækʃ(ə)n/ - правовое действие, судебный иск,
судебное дело, судебный процесс
legal rule /ˈliːɡ(ə)l ruːl/ - норма права, правовая норма; принцип
господства права
legislation /ˌledʒɪˈsleɪʃ(ə)n/ = enacted law /ɪnˈæktɪd lɔː/, enactment
/ɪnˈæktmənt/ - законодательство; писаное право, закон, свод
законов
means of social control /miːnz əv ˈsəʊʃ(ə)l kənˈtrəʊl/ – средство/инструмент общественного контроля
national law /ˈnæʃ(ə)nəl lɔː/ = domestic law /dəˈmestɪk lɔː/, internal
law /ɪnˈtɜː(r)n(ə)l lɔː/, municipal law /mjuːˈnɪsɪp(ə)l lɔː/ - внутригосударственное право
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precedent /ˈpresɪdənt/ - судебный прецедент
private law /ˈpraɪvət lɔː/ - частное право, частный закон; закон,
действующий в отношении конкретных лиц
protection /prəˈtekʃ(ə)n/ – защита, охрана, средства защиты
provision /prəˈvɪʒ(ə)n/ - положение, условие (договора, закона и т.
п.); постановление; обеспечение; предоставление; предоставляемая возможность
public law /ˈpʌblɪk lɔː/ = political law /pəˈlɪtɪk(ə)l lɔː/ - общественное
право, публичный закон (закон, касающийся всего населения)
public opinion /ˈpʌblɪk əˈpɪnjən/ – общественное мнение
regulation /ˌreɡjʊˈleɪʃ(ə)n/ - предписание, постановление, регламент,
распоряжение, директива
resolution of disputes /ˌrezəˈluːʃ(ə)n əv dɪˈspjuːts/ - разрешение споров
society /səˈsaɪəti/ - общество; объединение, организация
source of law /sɔː(r)s əv lɔː/ - источник права
substantive law /səbˈstæntɪv lɔː/, law of substance /lɔː əv ˈsʌbstəns/ материальное право
to enforce /ɪnˈfɔː(r)s/ - проводить в жизнь; придавать законную силу; осуществлять, приводить в исполнение
to govern /ˈɡʌvə(r)n/ - править, управлять, регулировать, регламентировать
to interpret /ɪnˈtɜː(r)prɪt/ - объяснять, интерпретировать, толковать
(правовую норму, закон, договор)
to make law /meɪk lɔː/ - издавать законы, устанавливать правовые
нормы
to negotiate /nɪˈɡəʊʃieɪt/ - вести переговоры, договариваться (с
кем-л.); обсуждать условия
to prohibit /prəʊˈhɪbɪt/ – запрещать, препятствовать
to settle /ˈset(ə)l/ - улаживать(ся); решать, приходить или приводить к решению; регулировать(ся); приводить(ся) в порядок;
утрясать
treaty /ˈtriːti/ - международный договор
2.2. BEFORE READING
1. Have a look at these eight different meanings of the noun
“law” given in a dictionary. Make your own sentences with all
of them:
1) the whole system of rules that everyone in a country or society
must obey; 2) a particular branch of the law; 3) a rule that deals
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with a particular crime, agreement, etc.; 4) the study of the law as
a subject at university, etc.; 5) one of the rules which controls an
organization or activity; 6) a rule for good behaviour or how you
should behave in a particular place or situation; 7) the fact that
something always happens in the same way in an activity or in
nature; 8) a scientific rule that somebody has stated to explain a
natural process.
2. What is the role of law in a modern society?
3. If there are different branches of law what is the reason to have so
many of them?
4. What is a “system” in its general meaning? What do you know
about the system of law in our country?
2.3. SCANNING
Law
1. Law is a body of official rules and regulations, generally
found in Constitutions, treaties, acts of Parliament, ordinances, executive orders, enforced customs, court decisions, that are
used to govern a society and to control the behaviour of its members.
The nature and functions of law have varied throughout history. In
modern societies, some authorized body such as a legislature or a
court makes the law. Law is backed by the coercive power of the state,
which enforces the law by means of appropriate penalties or remedies.
2. Formal legal rules and actions are usually distinguished from
other means of social control such as mores, morality, public opinion,
and custom or tradition. Of course, a lawmaker may respond to public
opinion or other pressures, and a formal law may prohibit what is
morally unacceptable.
3. To be capable of performing the function of guiding behavior, a
system of rules must satisfy the following principles:
- the rules must be expressed in general and understandable
terms;
- the rules must be prospective in effect;
- the rules must be publicly promulgated;
- the rules must be consistent with one another;
- the rules must not be changed so frequently that the subject
cannot rely on them; and
- the rules must be administered in a manner consistent with
their wording.
4. Being a complex body of rules, law serves a variety of functions. There are, for instance, laws which govern working conditions
(e.g. by laying down minimum standards of health and safety), or laws
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which control personal relationships (e.g. by prohibiting marriage between close relatives). Property and contract laws facilitate business
activities. Laws against crimes help to maintain a peaceful, relatively
stable society. Laws limiting the powers of government help to provide
some degree of protection against any excessive misuse of authority.
5. Law has also been used as a mechanism for social change; for
instance, at various times laws have been passed to inhibit social discrimination and to improve the quality of individual life in matters of
health, education, and welfare.
6. The system of law in general may be represented by a great
number of different branches, among them are the following:
- constitutional law is a leading branch of the whole legal system.
It deals with frame of society, state structure, organization of government and legal status of citizens.
- administrative law is a body of rules applicable to the operations
of the executive branch of government.
- criminal law defines the general principles of criminal responsibility, individual types of crimes and penalties applied to criminals.
- civil law deals with civil relationships such as citizenship, marriage, divorce, and certain contractual arrangements.
- financial law regulates taxation, budget, social security, insurance, pensions, investments and other spheres of financial activity.
- labour law covers matters arising from labour relations of employees and their employers.
7. Substantive and adjective law. Substantive law defines the
rights and duties of persons; it determines a wide variety of matters for example, what is required to form a contract, what the difference
is between larceny and robbery, when one is entitled to compensation
for an injury, and so on.
8. Adjective law (or procedural law) defines and deals with procedures for enforcing the rights and duties of persons. The rules of procedure and jurisdiction determine the court or administrative agency
that may handle a claim or dispute; the form of the trial, hearing, or
appeal; the time limits involved; the kinds of evidence that may be
presented.
9. Public and private law. Public law is that area of law that
deals with the state and the relations of the state with the public. It
includes such branches as constitutional, administrative and criminal
law.
10. Private law involves the various relationships that people have
with one another and the rules that determine their legal rights and
duties among themselves. Private law is sometimes referred to as “civil law” in its general meaning.
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11. International and national law. National law is a set of written and unwritten rules by which a particular country is governed
and the activities of people and organizations are controlled within a
given state. International law deals with general principles, norms,
and standards that apply between sovereign states and other entities
legally recognized as international actors. International law is the law
of the whole international community.
LEXIS
ordinance - указ, распоряжение; декрет; приказ
executive order - правительственное постановление
enforced custom – обычай, обеспеченный правовой санкцией
judicial opinion - судебная практика
behaviour - образ действий, поведение
back - поддерживать; подкреплять
coercive power - власть, основанная на принуждении (на возможности применения или отмены наказания)
penalty – наказание; взыскание; штраф
remedy - средство судебной защиты, средство защиты права
mores – нравы, обычаи, традиции
morality – мораль, нравственность; этика
respond to - реагировать
pressure - острая необходимость, воздействие
be capable of performing the function – быть в состоянии выполнять
функции
prospective - относящийся к будущему
publicly promulgated – опубликованный
consistent – согласующийся
wording – формулировка, словесное выражение
working conditions - условия труда
health and safety - техника безопасности и охрана здоровья
prohibit – запрещать, не позволять
close relatives - близкие (кровные) родственники
facilitate - облегчать; содействовать; способствовать; продвигать
maintain - поддерживать, удерживать, сохранять
limit - ограничивать
excessive misuse of authority - чрезмерное злоупотребление властью
inhibit - подавлять, препятствовать, сдерживать
discrimination - дискриминация; неодинаковое отношение
welfare - благоденствие, благополучие, благосостояние
frame of society - социальная система
applicable - применимый, подходящий
define - задать (процедуру); определить, описать
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criminal responsibility - уголовная ответственность
apply to - использовать, применять
citizenship - гражданство
contractual arrangements – договорные соглашения, отношения на
контрактной основе
taxation - налогообложение
social security - социальное обеспечение, социальное страхование
insurance - страхование
labour relations - трудовые отношения (отношения, возникающие
между работодателем и его работником)
employee - служащий; работающий по найму
employer - наниматель, работодатель
larceny - воровство, кража
robbery - кража; грабеж
be entitled to - иметь право, быть уполномоченным
injury - вред, повреждение, порча, убыток, ущерб
handle - обращаться с, прорабатывать; обсуждать, разбирать
claim – иск; претензия
dispute - спор
trial - судебное разбирательство; судебный процесс, суд
hearing - разбор, слушание дела
appeal - апелляция
time limits - предельный срок, регламент
evidence - улика; свидетельское показание
operative within – действующий внутри, в пределах
binding – обязательный
entity - самостоятельная правовая единица, субъект права
2.4. (*) FORMATION
A. Translate the given word forms into Russian. Explain the
language rule according to which they were derived. Find examples in the text.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
unacceptable, unaccountable, unforgettable, unbearable;
relatively, positively, comparatively, objectively;
responsibility, audibility, credibility, sensibility;
citizenship, friendship, ownership, scholarship;
government, arrangement, measurement, judgement.
B. Consult a dictionary. Find examples to illustrate the language rule.
2.5. QUESTIONS
1. What does the word “law” as a legal term mean?
2. What does the phrase “law enforcement” mean?
3. What are the main functions of law?
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4. How does the law influence the society?
5. How may laws be classified?
6. What law serves as a leading branch of the whole legal system?
7. What does substantive law define?
8. What is the difference between international and national law?
9. What branches of law does public law include?
10. What does adjective law deal with?
11. What general principles should legal rules satisfy in order to be
effectively applied?
2.6. AGREE OR DISAGREE
1. It is publicity and transparency that the law is basically
backed by.
2. All legal norms depend on public opinion.
3. The powers of government cannot be restricted by laws.
4. Absence of laws makes life of people more stable, equal and free.
5. International law is an equivalent of “internal law”.
6. Law is used as a deterrent device against any social change.
7. Constitutional law regulates private affairs among citizens.
8. The Constitution is a supreme law, thus it can't be changed or
amended.
9. Labour law and administrative law cover matters arising from contracts.
10. Family matters are resolved under financial law.
11. Public law includes constitutional, administrative, civil and criminal law.
2.7. GIVE ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS for:
a) запрещать то, что противоречит морали;
b) соответствовать определенным принципам;
c) полагаться на действующие правила;
d) предоставлять определенную степень защиты;
e) улучшать качество жизни;
f) регулировать финансовую деятельность;
g) определять юридические права и обязанности.
2.8. (**) SAY WHAT YOU KNOW about:
- natural and positive law;
- institutions that make laws;
- branches of private law;
- distinctions between public international law and private international law;
- the protection of people’s rights by particular branches of law.
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2.9. ENGAGE IN CONVERSATION. Discuss the following
chart in the context of the hierarchy of branches of law within the Russian legal system.
Classification of Law in Russia
Constitutional law
Leading branch
Fundamental
branches of law
Substantive and procedural parts
Civil law
Administrative law
Criminal law
Specialized
branches of law
Land law, family law, labour law, contract law,
company law, financial law, law of torts, etc.
Combined
branches of law
Business law, environmental law, maritime law,
immigration law, law of social security, sports law,
law of conflict of laws, etc.
2.10. BEFORE READING. Answer the following questions:
1) What do we call “a source of law”?
2) Which sources of Russian law do you know?
3) Do all national legal systems have the same sources of law?
4) What do you know about different legal systems in the world?
2.11. SCANNING
Sources of English Law
1. “Source of law” is a legal term that refers to the authorities
by which law is made. There are a number of different
sources that are used to define the creation and force of law, though
not all are used equally. Some examples of sources include legislation, government regulation, court decisions, and custom.
2. Considered from the aspect of their sources, laws are traditionally divided into written (formally enacted) or unwritten (unenacted
law). In England unwritten law is predominant, for more of English
law has derived from judicial precedents than from legislative enactment. Two principal and two subsidiary sources there should be mentioned. These principal sources are ‘legislation’ and ‘judicial
precedent’; the subsidiary sources are ‘custom’ and ‘books of authority’.
3. Legislation is enacted law. Legislation consists of laws made
by Parliament or under its authority and may be:
- statutes or acts of Parliament;
- Orders in Council made by the monarch in Privy Council (in practice, a minister drafts and makes them in the name of the monarch);
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- rules and regulations made by ministers, but they must be submitted to Parliament for approval;
- by-laws made by local authorities, they require the approval of
the appropriate Minister before they have legislative force.
3. In England the decisions of courts are treated with respect,
and they are regarded as «precedents». The feature of their national
system is the hierarchical authority of the courts: an inferior court is
obliged to follow a court of superior authority if decides upon facts
similar to facts already tried by the superior court. The precedents
formed by decided cases are thus the «anchors of the laws».
4. Customs are social habits of behaviour, which all societies
seem to evolve without express formulation or conscious creation. Customs, prevailing among particular groups of people living in particular
localities, are sometimes recognized by the courts as capable of creating a special law for the locality. But recognition will only be accorded
if the custom is: 1) reasonable, 2) certain, 3) of «immemorial existence»,
3) not contrary to any statute.
5. In England the writings of legal authors form an essential
source of law, for there are certain «books of authority», written by authors of outstanding eminence, which may carry a weight of authority
almost equal to that of precedent. Among the most important of these
works are Bracton's "De Legibus et Consuetudinibus Angliae" (thirteenth century), Coke's "Institutes" (1628-1641) and Blackstone's
"Commentaries" (1765).
6. Since Britain's accession to European Community, Community law forms an independent source of English law. Community law
has not been incorporated or made identical with domestic law but
operates as a separate system side by side with that law. In the event
of conflict Community law prevails over domestic law.
LEXIS
written law - писаное право, статутное право
unwritten law - неписаный закон, неписаное право, прецедентное право
derive from - происходить
principal source - основной источник
subsidiary source – дополнительный, второстепенный источник
Book of Authority – книга, написанная авторитетным специалистом
under authority – на основании переданных полномочий
Order in Council - "королевский указ в совете" (правительственное
распоряжение, одобренное монархом и не требующее рассмотрения в парламенте
Privy Council - Тайный совет (в Великобритании)
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draft - писать черновик, делать набросок
in the name of - от имени; именем
rules and regulations - правила и предписания
submit - представлять на рассмотрение
by-laws - подзаконные нормативные акты
hierarchical - иерархический
inferior court - нижестоящий суд
superior court - высший суд; вышестоящий суд
be tried - находиться на рассмотрении суда
decided case - судебное дело, по которому принято решение
anchors of the laws – правовые "привязки/ссылки", фиксаторы
правовых норм
express formulation - точная формулировка
conscious creation – целенаправленное формирование
reasonable - разумный, благоразумный; рациональный; здравый
certain - верный, известный, проверенный, надежный; бесспорный
immemorial existence – существование с незапамятных времен
writings of a legal author - труды юриста-теоретика, работы эксперта по праву
author of outstanding eminence - выдающийся исследователь
weight of authority – значимость, авторитетность, весомость
accession - вступление
incorporated - введённый в состав
identical - тождественно равный, идентичный
prevail - иметь преимущественную силу
2.12. (*) FORMATION
A. Translate the given word forms into Russian. Explain the
rule according to which they were derived. Find examples in
the text.
B. Consult a dictionary. Find examples of your own to illustrate the rule.
1.
2.
3.
4.
2.
3.
4.
5.
immemorial, impossible, impracticable, imprecise;
independent, inaccessible, inaccurate, ineducable;
irrelevant, irremovable, irreparable, irrespective;
unwritten, unwilling, unwarranted, unwanted.
2.13. QUESTIONS
1. What do the expressions «written» and «unwritten law» signify?
What are the principal/subsidiary sources of English law?
Is most English law codified?
What are the types of legislation?
What authorities pass legislation in England?
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6. What is regarded as «precedent»?
7. What does a «book of authority» mean?
8. Has English law developed from fixed general rules or through decisions in individual cases?
9. When are customs recognized by courts as capable of being a
source of law?
10. Is Community law a part of domestic law of England? What prevails in the event of conflict?
2.14. AGREE OR DISAGREE
1. In England written law is predominant.
2.The courts in England are the interpreters and declares of
the law.
3. Legislation includes both enacted and unenacted law.
4. Rules, made by ministers, need not be submitted to the Parliament.
5. In England the decisions of higher courts are treated with respect.
6. Coke’s “Institutes” can also be considered a source of law in England.
2.15. GIVE ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS for:
a) создавать законы;
b) передавать в парламент для одобрения;
c) иметь силу законодательного акта;
d) относиться с уважением;
e) существовать с давних времен;
f) функционировать в качестве отдельной правовой системы.
2.16. DEBATES
According to the foregoing text, the decisions of courts are
treated as an essential source of law in Great Britain. Is it
possible to adopt the same approach in Russia?
-
2.17. (**) SAY WHAT YOU KNOW about:
- unicameral or bicameral legislative systems in different
countries;
features of our national legal system;
those who have the right to initiate the legislative process in Russia;
stages of a lawmaking process in Russia or any other country;
if you could abolish one law, which law would it be?
2.18. BEFORE READING
1. How can you define international law?
2. What are the sources of contemporary international law?
3. What areas are covered by norms of international law?
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4. What is the interrelation between national and international legal
norms?
2.19. SCANNING
Concept of International Law
1. In order to understand international law concepts, it is
helpful to consider the world's different types of legal systems. There are three main types of legal systems: common law,
civil law and religious law:
- The oldest and most influential is the Roman-Germanic legal
system, commonly called civil (or civic) law. In this meaning ‘civil law’
is the law contained in extensive codes and accompanying statutes.
Although civil law countries do have judicial systems, their court cases are typically not considered binding law in the way they are under
common law systems.
- The United States and most former British colonies have a
common law legal system. In common law systems, judicial precedents, i.e. case law, is a major source of law, although most common
law systems also rely on statutes and regulations.
- Religious law tends to govern personal matters in the countries
in which it operates. Most religious legal systems operate alongside a
civil or common law system and are most prevalent in Islamic countries and Israel.
2. By definition, international law is the common concern of nations, a blend of legal systems, cultures, ideas and experiences. International law is derived from custom, treaties, court cases, statutes,
and all other sources used in national law. The main concept of international law is the regulation of relations between different states. International law attempts to establish a workable framework for intergovernmental relations as well as provide criteria and procedures for
the resolution of disputes among states.
3. International law tends to settle international disputes by different forms of treaties: conventions, agreements, exchange of letters, protocols, covenants, charters, which can be either bilateral or
multilateral in nature. For instance:
- convention is a multilateral treaty or the instrument negotiated
under the auspices of an international organization especially one
dealing with a specific matter such as postal service, copyright, etc.;
conventions are normally open for participation by the international
community as a whole, or by a large number of states;
- agreement is a mutual arrangement based on unanimity and
tending to involve cultural exchange, economic or technical operation
as well as using control of the terms of a transaction;
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- protocol is generally an international agreement that supplements a previous one;
- the term "charter" is used for particularly formal and solemn instruments, such as the constituent treaty of an international organization.
4. International law includes several provisions outlining methods
of dispute settlement. They require states to "settle their international disputes by peaceful means in such a manner that international peace and security, and justice, are not endangered". Thus Article
33 of the United Nations Organization Charter calls for peaceful settlement of disputes through "negotiation, enquiry, mediation, conciliation, arbitration, judicial settlement, resort to regional agencies or
arrangements, or other peaceful means of their own choice".
5. In general international law regulates three main categories
of questions which include the following:
(i) Questions which cannot be resolved by one state or by the unilateral actions of one state. These questions include common human
interests and values which need to be agreed upon in the framework
of the international community, i.e. the very existence of states, diplomatic relations, international security, disarmament, global ecological processes, open seas, space exploration.
(ii) Questions which are not connected with common human interests but resolved only by mutual efforts by two or more states. All
these questions include the establishment of common borders, offering
legal aid, dual citizenship, entrance upon a foreign territory with or
without a visa.
(iii) Questions which can be regulated within each state but
which are better regulated by mutual intergovernmental acts in order
to make them more effective; they include the provision and protection of human rights and interests, provision of criminal jurisdiction
of transnational nature: international terrorism, money laundering,
drug trafficking, etc.
LEXIS
concept - понятие, идея; общее представление; концепция
consider - рассматривать, учитывать
Roman-Germanic - римско-германский
extensive - подробный
binding law - императивная норма
former - бывший
case law - прецедентное право
rely on – основываться, опираться, полагаться
prevalent - распространенный, общепринятый
common concern – общая забота, общая для всех проблема
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experiences – знания, опыт применения
workable framework - оптимальные принципы; основа для работы
intergovernmental - межправительственный
procedure - процедура; порядок
convention - соглашение, договоренность, договор, конвенция
protocol - дополнительное международное соглашение
covenant - международный пакт, договор или акт за печатью
charter - хартия, устав
bilateral - двусторонний
multilateral - многосторонний
under the auspices - при содействии, под покровительством
postal service - почтовая служба, почтовая связь
mutual arrangement - взаимное соглашение, договоренность
unanimity – единодушие, единогласие
cultural exchange - культурный обмен
transaction - дело; сделка, соглашение
supplement – дополнять, добавлять
solemn - торжественный; официальный; удовлетворяющий всем
формальным требования
constituent treaty – учредительный договор
outline - обрисовать, наметить в общих чертах
peaceful means - мирные средства
endanger - подвергать опасности
enquiry - исследование обстоятельств дела, изучение
mediation - посредничество, вмешательство с целью примирения
conciliation - примирение, согласительная процедура, мировое соглашение
arbitration - третейский суд, арбитраж
resort to - обращение за помощью к
arrangement – структура, организация, мероприятие, сделка
unilateral - односторонний
the very existence – само существование
international security - международная безопасность
disarmament - демилитаризация, разоружение
open seas - открытое море, нейтральные воды
space exploration - космические исследования; космонавтика
common borders - общие границы
legal aid - правовая помощь, юридическая помощь
dual citizenship - двойное гражданство
intergovernmental – межправительственный, межгосударственный
transnational - транснациональный
money laundering – отмывание денег
drug trafficking - контрабанда наркотиков, незаконный оборот
наркотиков
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2.20. (*) FORMATION
A. Translate the given word forms into Russian. Explain the
rule according to which they were derived. Find examples in
the text.
B. Consult a dictionary. Find examples of your own to illustrate the
rule.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
bilateral, bilingual, bicameral, biannual;
multinational, multilingual, multimedia, multilevel;
quadruple, quadruped, quadripole, quadripartite;
triangle, triarchy, tricolour, tricycle;
unilateral, unicameral, uniform, unipolar.
2.21. QUESTIONS
1. What are the world's different types of legal systems?
2. What is the concept of international law?
3. What are the basic means of settling down international disputes
among states?
4. Why should some questions be regulated both by national legal
systems as well as by intergovernmental acts?
2.
3.
4.
5.
2.22. AGREE OR DISAGREE
1. The Anglo-American legal system of common law is the
oldest and most influential.
International law is actually a blend of legal cultures.
A treaty is a formal agreement between two or more states in reference to peace, alliance, commerce, or other international relations.
A convention is under international law a large meeting of the
members of a profession or a political party.
International law regulates questions which cannot be resolved by
one state.
2.23. GIVE ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS for:
a) быть основным источником права;
b) действовать наряду с другими правовыми системами;
c) возникать на основе обычаев и международных соглашений;
d) создавать процедуры для решения споров;
e) решать споры мирными средствами;
f) требовать мирного урегулирования спора при помощи переговоров;
g) регулировать вопросы, касающиеся общечеловеческих ценностей.
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2.24. DEBATES
Larger organizations and institutions, whether public or
private, are almost always, and inherently, less efficient,
more resistant to change, more hierarchic, and less transparent than
smaller organizations. International organizations are by nature huge
ones. How one can prevent global organizations becoming either dangerous tyrannies or self-expanding bureaucracies, and instead make
them effective and responsive to the people whose lives they affect?
-
2.25. (**) SAY WHAT YOU KNOW about:
- international agreements and conventions dealing with
international relations and law;
international issues which can be resolved unilaterally;
differences between mediation and good offices;
differences between mediation and negotiations;
advantages and disadvantages of arbitration.
2.26. KEY WORDS
adjective law
agreement
bill
branch of law
by-law
civil law countries
common law
common law countries
Community law
custom
enactment
international dispute
international law
introduction of a bill
judicial settlement
justice
law
lawmaker
legal action
legal rule
legislation
means of social control
national law
negotiations
peaceful means
precedent
principal source
private law
protection
provision
public law
public opinion
regulation
resolution of disputes
right of legislative initiative
society
source of law
subsidiary source
substantive law
to enforce
to govern
to interpret
to make law
to negotiate
to prohibit
to settle
treaty
writings of legal authors
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2.27. (**) ESSAY WRITING. Chose one of the following themes
for your essay on the topic “Law and its sources”:
- “Are the general legal principals universal?”
- “Case law as a principal source of law.”
“Is international law effective nowadays?”
“Morality, customs and law.”
“Our country as a subject of international law.”
“Russia: legal history and traditions.”
“Security vs. freedom.”
“Should individual rights take precedence over collective rights?”
“Written law vs. unwritten law.”
2.28. TEST YOURSELF. Fill each gap in the text with only one
word or phrase from the box given below:
The term “law” is used in many senses, but when we speak
of the law of a state, we mean (1), which is imposed upon and enforced among the members of a given state. Thus, the chief characteristic of a law in a legal sense is that laws are enforced and such enforcement is carried by (2). Legal norms and rules cover different
spheres of social and economic life that is why there are a great number of (3) which all together form the national system of law. The system of law in our country embraces such branches as:
(4) is a leading branch of the whole system of law. It deals with (5),
organization of state power and the legal status of (6).
(7) deals with legal forms of executive and administrative activity of
the government and (8).
(9) is connected with the rights and duties of individuals towards
each other. For instance it regulates the relations involving property,
its distribution and (10).
(11) defines the general principles of criminal responsibility, individual types of crimes and punishment applied to (12). Criminal law
in our country takes the form of (13) which consists of (14).
The rules of (15) include the legislation on the employment of (16)
and regulate matters arising from labour relations.
(17) regulates the state budget, taxation, state credits, insurance,
pensions, and other spheres of (18).
administrative law, branches of law, citizens, constitutional law,
criminal or penal law, civil law, criminals, exchange, labour law,
financial activity, “a rule of human conduct”, financial law, manual
and office workers, ministries, social structure, the criminal code,
the state authorized organs, two parts: general and special
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2.29. MAKE A REPORT on the topic “Law and Its Sources”,
paying attention to the following points in your speech:
- definition of law;
nature and functions of law;
different grounds for law classifications;
characteristics of particular branches of law;
sources of law in different legal systems;
nature and functions of international law.
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Unit 3. Civil Law
3.1. BEFORE READING learn the following words and phrases which are essential on the topic:
action /ˈækʃ(ə)n/ - иск, исковое требование, претензия;
судебное дело, судебный процесс; судебное преследование; обвинение
appeal /əˈpiːl/ - апелляция, апелляционная жалоба; обжалование ||
апеллировать, подавать апелляционную жалобу; обжаловать
civil procedure /ˈsɪv(ə)l prəˈsiːdʒə(r)/ - гражданский процесс, гражданское судопроизводство; гражданско-процессуальное право
complaint /kəmˈpleɪnt/ – иск, жалоба, претензия; прошение; официальное обвинение
contract /ˈkɒntrækt/ - договор, соглашение, контракт (устное или
письменное соглашение между двумя и более сторонами, направленное на установление, изменение или прекращение
гражданских прав или обязанностей) || заключать договор
compensation /ˌkɒmpənˈseɪʃ(ə)n/ = damages /ˈdæmɪdʒəz/ - возмещение убытков, компенсация за убытки
duration /djʊˈreɪʃ(ə)n/ - срок действия, продолжительность, срок
полномочий
evidence /ˈevɪd(ə)ns/ - 1) средство или средства доказывания; доказательство, доказательства; подтверждение; улика; свидетельские показания || служить доказательством, подтверждать, доказывать; свидетельствовать, давать показания
injury /ˈɪndʒəri/ - вред, повреждение, порча, убыток, ущерб; нарушение права другого лица
intellectual property law /ˌɪntəˈlektʃuəl ˈprɒpə(r)ti lɔː/ - закон об интеллектуальной собственности (концепция юридической защиты
оригинальных произведений; касается товарных знаков, патентов, авторского права)
issue /ˈɪʃuː/ – 1) спорный вопрос, предмет спора, разногласие; проблема 2) публикация, опубликование, издание || опубликовать, выпускать, издавать
jurisdiction /ˌdʒʊərɪsˈdɪkʃ(ə)n/ - 1) юрисдикция; сфера полномочий;
2) орган власти; 3) территория в подведомственности органа
власти; подведомственная область; 4) подсудность; судебная
практика
jury /ˈdʒʊəri/ - коллегия присяжных заседателей; присяжные, состав присяжных; малое жюри; суд присяжных || быть членом
жюри
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licence /ˈlaɪs(ə)ns/ – лицензия; разрешение на использование материалов, защищенных патентным или авторским правом ||
разрешать, давать разрешение, лицензировать
litigation /ˌlɪtɪˈɡeɪʃ(ə)n/ - гражданский судебный спор, тяжба, судопроизводство, процесс
obligation /ˌɒblɪˈɡeɪʃ(ə)n/ - обязательство, долг, обязанность; принудительная сила (закона, договора)
ownership /ˈəʊnə(r)ʃɪp/ - собственность; владение; обладание, право
собственности
party /ˈpɑː(r)ti/ - (участвующая) сторона; лицо, участвующее в
сделке или заключающее соглашение, участник судебного
процесса; юридическая сторона
patent /ˈpeɪt(ə)nt/ - патент (охранный документ на изобретение,
удостоверяющий признание предложения изобретением, его
приоритет и исключительное право на него патентообладателя) || патентовать
pleading /ˈpliːdɪŋ/ - 1) предварительное производство по делу, обмен состязательными бумагами 2) состязательные бумаги (которыми обмениваются стороны на предварительной стадии
судебного разбирательства) 3) выступление стороны или адвоката в суде 4) судоговорение
property /ˈprɒpə(r)ti/ - имущество; собственность; состояние, хозяйство
relationship /rɪˈleɪʃ(ə)nʃɪp/ - отношение, взаимоотношение; взаимосвязь
remedy /ˈremədi/ - средство судебной защиты, средство защиты
права | предоставлять средство правовой защиты
responsibility /rɪˌspɒnsəˈbɪləti/ = accountability /əˌkaʊntəˈbɪləti/,
liability /ˌlaɪəˈbɪləti/ – ответственность, способность отвечать за
содеянное; вменяемость
review /rɪˈvjuː/ – пересмотр, рассмотрение, проверка || пересматривать (судебное дело)
suit /suːt/ = lawsuit /ˈlɔːˌsuːt/ - 1) иск; преследование по суду; 2) судебное дело; судебная тяжба; судебный процесс; судопроизводство, 3) прошение, ходатайство, обращение
to seek damages /siːk ˈdæmɪdʒəz/ - требовать возмещения убытков
(компенсации), обращаться в суд с иском о возмещении ущерба
to sue /suː/ = bring a claim /brɪŋ ə kleɪm/ - преследовать судом, подавать в суд, возбуждать иск, предъявлять иск или обвинение,
искать в суде, выступать в качестве истца или обвинителя
tort /tɔː(r)t/ - деликт, гражданское правонарушение
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trade mark /treɪd mɑː(r)k/ - товарный (торговый, фирменный) знак
transaction /trænˈzækʃ(ə)n/ - сделка, торговая операция, соглашение
trade secret /treɪd ˈsiːkrət/ - коммерческая тайна, производственный секрет; засекреченная технология
trial /ˈtraɪəl/ - судебное разбирательство, судебный процесс, слушание дела по существу
venue /ˈvenjuː/ - 1) место рассмотрения дела, территориальная
подсудность; подсудность по месту совершения действия 2)
часть искового заявления, содержащая указание на территориальную подсудность
3.2. SCANNING
Substantive Civil Law
1. Substantive civil law consists of numerous sets of principles determining the rights, duties and obligations that exist between individuals and institutions such as corporations and
government bodies. Each set of principles is covered by a separate
civil law category, developed by the courts and legislatures over a long
time. Below you will find some of the more common substantive civil
law categories utilized by the law books:
2. Civil rights law comprises statutes and constitutional provisions that apply to discrimination on the basis of such legally recognized characteristics as race, sex, ethnic or national background or
color.
3. Commercial law includes such titles as principal and agent,
borrower and lender, bank and their customers, wholesaler and retailer and mortgagor and mortgagee; carriage by land and sea; bill of
lading and bill of exchange.
4. Consumer protection laws are a form of government regulation which aims to protect the rights of consumers. For example, a
government may require businesses to disclose detailed information
about products - particularly in areas where safety or public health is
an issue, such as food.
5. Contract law indicates when written or oral agreements are
enforceable, how they are discharged, when they may be broken, and
what happens if they’re broken or cancelled.
6. Company law (also "corporate law" or “the law of business association”) is the field of law concerning companies, corporations,
partnerships and other business organizations. It also specifies the relationship between a business entity and outside parties who commercially interact with it.
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7. Education law deals with the rights of students and the restrictions placed on them by schools, educational standards, competency testing, financial assistance to students, teachers’ rights and responsibilities.
8. Labour law can be divided into two parts. The first one, employment law or individual labour law, is the part which regulates individual employment rights, for example, the rules relating to unfair
dismissal, equal pay, etc. The second one, collective labour law, is the
part which relates to collective activity, e.g.: industrial action, admission to and expulsion from trade unions.
9. Environmental law is a complex body of statutes, regulations
and cases that operates to control the interaction of humanity and the
natural environment. These norms may be divided into two major
subdivisions: (a) pollution control and remediation, (b) resource conservation and management.
10. Family law is an area of the law that deals with family-related
matters and domestic relations including:
- the nature of marriage;
- issues arising from marriage, including marital property, child
custody, guardianship and adoption;
- the termination of the relationship and matters associated with
it: e.g. divorce, property settlements, child visitation and alimony.
11. Insurance law pertains to problems arising under any kind
of insurance contract, such as life insurance, car insurance and disability insurance.
12. Law of evidence governs the use of testimony and exhibits or
other documentary material which is admissible in a judicial or administrative proceeding.
13. Media law pertains to the print and broadcast media, include
such items as libel, privacy, censorship, access to government information and court records, licensing of radio and television stations.
14. Property law is the area of law that governs the various forms
of ownership in real (immovable) property and in personal (movable)
property. Thus it governs valuable things that people call 'theirs'.
Intellectual property law aims at safeguarding creators and other
producers of intellectual goods and services. Its norms and procedures encompass copyrights, trademarks, trade secrets and patents.
15. Tax law covers the issues related to national and local taxation of such items as income, personal property, business profits, real
estate, and sales transactions.
16. Tort law (personal injury law) pertains to any injury to a
person or business that is directly caused by the intentional or negligent actions of another.
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LEXIS
utilize - использовать, употреблять
law books - юридическая литература, кодексы
background or color – происхождение или цвет кожи
principal and agent - доверитель и доверенный, принципал и его
агент
borrower and lender - ссудополучатель и ссудодатель
wholesaler and retailer - оптовик и розничный торговец
mortgagor and mortgagee - должник по закладной (ипотеке) и кредитор по залогу
carriage – перевозка, стоимость перевозки; провоз
bill of lading - транспортная накладная, коносамент
bill of exchange - переводный вексель
consumer protection - охрана прав потребителей, защита потребителей
business – зд. предприятие, фирма, компания
be an issue – иметь принципиальное значение
enforceable - имеющий исковую силу; обеспеченный правовой
санкцией
discharge – исполнять, выполнять, осуществлять (обязанности по
договору); прекращать (обязательство); освобождать от обязательств
cancel - аннулировать, отменять; отказываться
partnership - товарищество, партнерство (некорпорированная
фирма, которой управляют несколько компаньонов)
business entity – предприятие
outside parties – зд. лица, не являющееся членами/работниками
фирмы (компании, предприятия)
restrictions - ограничения
competency testing – проверка обученности
employment law - трудовое право, закон о занятости
employment - работа по найму, личный наём
unfair dismissal - несправедливое увольнение
industrial action - забастовочное движение
admission to - приём в, поступление в
expulsion – исключение
trade union - профсоюз, объединение профессиональных союзов
environmental law - закон по охране окружающей среды, экологическое законодательство
interaction - взаимодействие; взаимосвязь
pollution - загрязнение (окружающей среды)
remediation - рекультивация земель
resource conservation - охрана природных ресурсов
domestic relations - семейные отношения
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marriage - брак, супружество; замужество; женитьба
marital property – имущество супругов
child custody – содержание и забота о ребенке
guardianship - опека; попечительство
adoption - усыновление, удочерение
termination - прекращение; окончание
divorce - развод, расторжение брака
property settlement – урегулирование имущественных споров
child visitation - посещение ребёнка, оставленного судом у одного
из супругов, другим супругом
alimony - алименты; содержание
insurance law - страховое право
disability insurance - страхование на случай потери трудоспособности
law of evidence - доказательственное право
testimony - свидетельское показание (показание, данное в устной
или письменной форме под присягой или скреплённое торжественной декларацией)
admissible - возможный, допустимый, приемлемый
exhibits - вещественные доказательства
media law – законодательство о СМИ
libel - клевета (в печати), диффамация
privacy - частная жизнь, неприкосновенность частной жизни
censorship - цензура (государственный надзор за печатью и средствами массовой информации)
access to - доступ к
court records - материалы судебного заседания
real property - недвижимое имущество, «реальное» (в отличие от
«персонального») имущество
personal property - движимое имущество, «персональное» (в отличие от «реального») имущество; личное имущество
safeguard - защищать; гарантировать; охранять
copyrights - авторские права
trade secrets - секреты производства, засекреченная технология,
коммерческая тайна
tax - государственный налог
taxation - налогообложение; взимание налога
income - (годовой) доход; заработок
business profits - прибыли предприятия
real estate - недвижимая собственность
tort law - деликтное право, закон о гражданских правонарушениях
intentional - намеренный, преднамеренный, умышленный
negligent - халатный, беспечный; небрежный
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3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
3.
4.
5.
6.
3.3. QUESTIONS
1. What does civil law cover?
2. What are the main sub-divisions of civil law?
What matters are regulated by family law?
What branch of civil law defines whether written and oral agreements are enforceable or not?
What is the aim of intellectual property law?
Can you give any examples of consumer protection laws?
Which part of labour law deals with industrial actions?
Are teachers’ rights and responsibilities regulated by norms of civil
rights law?
3.4. AGREE OR DISAGREE
1. The law of business association is an equivalent to industrial law.
2. Intellectual property law deals with various forms of ownership in real and personal property.
Commercial law specifies how companies, corporations, partnerships and other business organizations are formed.
The nature of marriage is defined by contract law.
Personal injury law clarifies what materials are admissible as evidence in a judicial or administrative proceeding.
The issues related to national and local taxation of sales transactions are regulated by commercial law.
3.5. GIVE ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS for:
a) применять нормы конституции;
b) защищать права потребителей;
c) сообщать подробную информацию о товарах;
d) нарушать условия соглашения;
e) использовать письменные доказательства в судебном разбирательстве;
f) включать в себя нормы и процедуры;
g) причинить ущерб в результате небрежности.
3.6. (**) SAY WHAT YOU KNOW about the following subdivisions of civil law:






agency
antitrust and unfair competition
bankruptcy
commercial paper
creditor/debtor
cyberspace
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





estates and trusts
health care
immigration
insurance
sales
secured transactions
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 elderly
 entertainment and sports
 taxation
3.7. SCANNING
Civil Procedure
1. Civil procedure concerns a wide range of issues which can
be analyzed in the following sequence: jurisdiction; venue; pleading;
parties; discovery; trial and post-trial.
2. Jurisdiction is the power or authority that a court has to hear
a particular case. When considering the question of jurisdiction, one
of the first points that must be determined is whether the case is in
rem or in personam action. An in rem action is a lawsuit that is directed against property rather than against a particular person. An in
personam action is a lawsuit in which the plaintiff seeks damages or
other relief against a specific person or entity.
3. Venue is a statutory limitation on the geographical location of
litigation to prevent a plaintiff from suing where it would be burdensome for the defendant to appear and defend. Even when jurisdiction
and venue are proper, courts may decline to exercise jurisdiction on
the ground that the location the plaintiff selected for the case is grossly inconvenient.
4. The essential parts of the complaint are: the caption, jurisdictional allegations, body, prayer for relief, and subscription.
(i) Caption must set forth:
- the name of the court;
- the number assigned to the action (stamped by the clerk when
the action is filed);
- a designation of the pleading (e.g., "Complaint for Damages");
and
- the names of the parties.
(ii) Jurisdictional allegations give grounds upon which the subject
matter jurisdiction of the court is invoked.
(iii) Body is a part of complaint which contains a statement of the
facts upon which recovery is sought.
(iv) Prayer for relief is a statement of the relief sought.
(v) Subscription: The complaint must be signed by the lawyer or
by the party himself, where he is acting as his own counsel.
5. Stages of jury trial:
- opening statements of plaintiff and defendant;
- presentation of direct evidence by the parties, with crossexamination of each witness;
- presentation of rebuttal evidence by plaintiff and defendant;
- arguments of plaintiff and defendant to jury;
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- final closing argument of plaintiff to jury;
- instructions to jury by judge;
- verdict of jury;
- adjudication.
6. Adjudication is usually in the form of the following remedies:
(i) Damages are an order from the court that an amount of money
must be paid to the claimant. This is called an award of damages.
There are different types of damages awarded by the civil courts;
- Special damages: this is the name for damages which can be
calculated specifically;
- General damages: these are for things which can't be easily calculated. This may include an amount for pain and suffering
and also for loss of future earnings.
- Exemplary damages (or punitive damages): these are damages
which are intended to punish the defendant and not merely
to compensate the claimant.
(ii) An injunction may be awarded by the judge where damages
would not be an appropriate remedy. It is an order by the court to
stop doing something.
(iii) Rectification is an order from the court that a document
should be altered to reflect the parties' true intentions. The court will
only grant this remedy where is it satisfied that a mistake was made
in drawing up the document so that it is no longer a true version of
what the parties originally agreed.
(iv) Specific performance is only used in contract law. It is an order of the court to do something if it is envisaged by the contract itself.
(v) Rescission is also only available in contract cases. The aim is
to return the parties to the dispute as far as possible to their precontractual position.
7. An appeal is the normal procedure for obtaining review by a
higher court. The function of the appeal is to assure that the trial has
been conducted in a lawful manner and that judgments conform to
the law. An appeal normally does not involve a retrial of the case, but
is limited to a consideration of the rulings by the lower court in light
of the record on which those rulings were made.
LEXIS
discovery - предоставление документов суду
post-trial - разбирательство после рассмотрения дела судом первой инстанции
in rem action - вещный иск
in personam action - иск в отношении конкретного лица
seek relief - искать судебной защиты, обращаться за защитой в суд
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entity - организация-субъект права, юридическое лицо, самостоятельная правовая единица
statutory limitation - соответствующий закону, предусматриваемый законом, предписанный законом
burdensome - обременительный; тягостный
proper - правильный; должный; надлежащий, соответствующий,
уместный
decline - отклонять, отказывать
caption - заголовок судебного документа, заголовок
designation – обозначение, наименование, маркировка
jurisdictional allegation - относящееся к юрисдикции утверждение,
заявление
invoke - ссылаться на что-л.; требовать применения чего-л.; применять (норму, статью, оговорку, прецедент)
subject matter - содержание, предмет, существо, предмет изучения
body - главная, основная часть (документа), текстовый блок; текстовая часть
sought - искомый, желаемый, необходимый, запрашиваемый
prayer for relief - прошение о предоставлении судебной защиты;
ходатайство об удовлетворении требования
subscription – подпись, подписание
lawyer - юрист; адвокат; консультант по вопросам права
jury trial - суд присяжных, судебное разбирательство с участием
присяжных заседателей
opening statement - вступительная речь
cross-examination - перекрёстный допрос (свидетеля противной
стороны)
rebuttal evidence - контрдоказательство, опровергающее доказательство
closing argument - решающий довод, заключительное слово
adjudication - разрешение дела, вынесение судебного решения; судебное решение или приговор
award of damages - решение суда о возмещении убытков
special damages - реальные убытки, определяемые особыми обстоятельствами дела
general damages - общий ущерб; генеральные убытки
exemplary damages - денежное возмещение в виде наказания ответчика для примера
injunction - судебный запрет
rectification - внесение исправления
specific performance - исполнение договора в натуре, реальное исполнение
rescission - аннулирование, расторжение, прекращение
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retrial - новое слушание дела, повторное слушание дела; повторное
расследование
ruling - постановление, решение (суда, председателя собрания)
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
3.8. QUESTIONS
1. What do they refer to as “civil procedure”?
2. What do they understand by “jurisdiction”?
What is “venue”?
What are the essential parts of the complaint?
Can you enumerate the stages of jury trial?
Who instructs jurors at the trial?
What remedies are available in civil litigation?
What do they call the normal procedure for obtaining review by a
higher court? What functions does it have?
3.9. AGREE OR DISAGREE
1. An in rem action is a lawsuit that is directed against a
particular person rather than against property.
2. An appeal normally involves a retrial of the case.
When jurisdiction and venue are proper, courts may never decline
to exercise jurisdiction.
A jury trial as a rule begins with closing arguments of parties.
A designation of the pleading is defined in a body of complaint.
Rescission and specific performance are used as remedies in contract law.
Adjudication along with jurisdictional allegations are essential
parts of a complaint.
3.10. GIVE ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS for:
a) заслушивать определенное дело (в суде);
b) не позволять истцу подавать иск;
c) присвоить иску определенный номер;
d) содержать утверждение по фактам дела;
e) поставить подпись под исковым требованием;
f) подсчитывать сумму ущерба;
g) наказать ответчика;
h) изменить текст документа;
i) гарантировать, что решение суда соответствует закону.
3.11. (**) SAY WHAT YOU KNOW about such constituents of
civil proceedings as:
- subpoena;
- counterclaim;
- objection;
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- cross-examination of witnesses;
- brief on appeal.
3.12. (*) SKIMMING. Read the following text and prepare seven questions about its content. Be ready to interview your
group mates.
Steps in a Lawsuit
1. When you bring your claim in court there is a predictable stepby-step process which is described hereafter.
2. First, you file a complaint, sometimes called a pleading. The filer
of a complaint is called the plaintiff or the petitioner. The papers you
file are served on the person you are arguing with, called the defendant. Sometimes the defendant is called the respondent (because he is
responding to your complaint and it sounds more neutral than to call
him the defendant, which implies guilt). The defendant can answer
the claim and even bring his own claim (called “a counterclaim”)
against the plaintiff in the same case.
3. If the defense argues that they are not liable to the plaintiff because someone else was to blame for the incident, that someone else
may as well be there to get this all indemnified. All the claims have to
be stated and responded to be between all the parties involved.
4. Next, here is a process of discovery that takes place between the
parties. Discovery is the process of gathering the relevant evidence to
prove your case. It could include taking written or oral statements
and gathering witnesses, diagrams, tests, expert testimony or scientific research on the issue. This step is costly and time consuming, but it
helps the parties clarify where they each stand and the veracity of the
claims being made. Many cases settle at some point during the discovery process. Interrogatories (written questions and answers between parties) and depositions (sworn statements by parties and witnesses) are used widely in discovery.
5. When discovery is nearing completion, a trial date is usually set,
which can easily be two years or more from the date the case was flied
depending on the jurisdiction. At trial, the parties each get a chance
to present their version of the case - with testimony, exhibits, and
cross-examination - to attempt to convince the trier of fact, who is a
judge or a jury of what happened. Whoever tells the most believable
story wins. In a civil case, it the plaintiff wins, she gets a judgment for
damages in an amount that the court determines. If the plaintiff loses, the defendant just has to pay his lawyer for defending him.
6. If one side is not satisfied with the result of the trial it is possible, but not a guaranteed right, to appeal the judgment to a higher
court. The appellate court does not retry the case. They do not hear
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the witnesses again; they do not view the exhibits. What is appealed
is a point of law or a procedural point about the trial. The appellate
court may reverse or change the trial court ruling. The facts are never
changed on appeal.
7. Thus, there are four main stages to a trial. In sequence, they
are:
- pleadings - filing the complaint and the defense's motions;
- pretrial - discovery process, finding of facts;
- trial procedure - selection of the jury, opening statements, testimony on behalf of the plaintiffs and testimony on behalf of the defendants, presentation of evidence, concluding arguments, judge's charge
to the jury, jury deliberations, announcement of judgment;
- post-trial - allocation of court costs, motions for new trial or appeal, enforcement of civil judgments.
LEXIS
predictable – предсказуемый, ожидаемый
step-by-step process - поэтапный процесс, пошаговая процедура
file a complaint - подавать жалобу
pleading – ходатайство, заявление оснований иска
filer of a complaint - податель искового заявления
serve on - вручать документ
respondent - выступающий в качестве ответчика
counterclaim - встречный иск
blame for - винить кого-либо в чем-либо, возлагать вину
indemnify - гарантировать возмещение ущерба, погашать ответственность
discovery - представление документов суду
relevant - относящийся к делу
expert testimony - экспертное заключение
costly and time consuming - дорогостоящий и требующий больших
затрат времени
veracity - достоверность
settle – улаживаться, рушаться, регулироваться
interrogatory - письменный опрос сторон. или свидетелей
deposition - письменные показания под присягой
near completion - приближаться к завершению
convince - убедить
trier of fact - лицо, решающее вопрос факта
believable story - правдоподобная версия
appeal the judgment - опротестовать решение суда
retry - слушать дело повторно
view – изучать, осматривать, оценивать
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point of law - вопрос права
procedural point – вопрос, относящийся к процедуре
reverse – отменять
judge's charge - заключительное обращение судьи (к присяжным)
allocation of court costs - распределение судебных издержек
3.13. ENGAGE IN CONVERSATION. Discuss the following
chart in the context of various objectives and fields of application of civil remedies in English courts:
Civil Justice: Judicial Remedies
Equity
law
Common
law
Specific performance – order requiring party to carry
out a contract
Rescission – cancellation of a contract due to fraud or
unilateral error
Rectification – change in a written instrument to reflect
the actual agreement of the parties
Mandatory injunction – order directed to a person to
do some specific activity
Prohibitory injunction - order directed to a person to
refrain from doing some specific activity
Restitution – attempt to restore the situation to a previous position to prevent unjust enrichment
Declaratory judgment – determination of parties’ legal
rights
Compensatory damages – money awarded to compensate a person from losses resulting from another’s
wrong
Punitive damages - money awarded in addition to
compensatory damages in order to punish a wrongdoer
Nominal damages – a trivial amount of money awarded
where no actual loss resulted from a wrong
Liquidated damages - money awarded as per the parties’ previous agreement
Ejectment - order requiring party to recover possession
of land and damages
3.14. DETERMINE which of the following situations are substantive and which are procedural issues:
1. Joyce sues Michael for injuries received in an automobile
accident. Michael maintains that Joyce filed suit in the wrong court
entirely.
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2. Maxwell and Franco are brothers. Maxwell is sued, but he
claims that the summons in the suit was given to Franco. Therefore,
Maxwell maintains that since he never properly received the summons, he should not have to answer the suit against him.
3. Margo and Clay are involved in a breach of contract dispute.
Margo alleges that Clay was obligated by the contract to paint her
house yellow. In fact, Clay painted the house purple.
3.15. DEBATES
The state legislature of Texas, United States, enacts a rule of
procedure that requires that all petitions for dissolution of
marriage be filed in the court of the county where the petitioner is
domiciled. This is an example of a rule of procedure that applies to
the entire jurisdiction (the entire state). The county court of Weir
County (the same state) enacts a local rule that requires petitions for
divorce to be filed only on Mondays with the Clerk of the Court, Domestic Relations Division. This local rule is created by the county
court and would apply in no other county in the state.
Points for discussion
1. Why are local rules necessary?
2. Wouldn’t it be easier to have completely uniform rules for an entire
jurisdiction?
3.16. EXAMINE the following statements and identify at what
stage of trial each would occur:
1. “Ladies and gentlemen of the jury, it is our belief that the
evidence you will see today will convince you by a preponderance that the defendant is not responsible for the losses of the
plaintiff as alleged.”
2. “Mr. Smith, as a juror do you feel you could put aside your
personal feelings about drunk drivers and consider the defendant as
innocent until proven responsible for the accident in which the plaintiff’s property was harmed?”
3. “Ms. Johnson, isn’t it true that you had been drinking yourself
on the night you claimed to have witnessed the accident involving the
defendant?”
4. “It is quite clear from the evidence that the plaintiff’s damage
resulted not from the defendant’s actions but rather, from the plaintiff’s own contributory negligence in driving at a speed too fast for
conditions after working for a continuous eighteen hours at her job.”
3.17. (*) CREATE a detailed chart that demonstrates each
step of court procedure from the time, when a lawsuit is
filed, up to the appeal.
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3.18. KEY WORDS
action
appeal
closing argument
civil procedure
claim
commercial law
company law
complaint
consumer law
contract
damages
defendant
education law
environmental law
evidence
exemplary damages
family law
general damages
in personam action
in rem action
injunction
injury
insurance law
issue
intellectual property law
jurisdiction
jury
labour law
law of contracts
-
law of evidence
liability
litigation
media law
obligation
opening statement
ownership
party
plaintiff
pleading
proof
property law
rebuttal evidence
relationship
remedy
responsibility
review
special damages
specific performance
suit
tax law
to appeal to a higher court
to seek damages
to sue
tort law
transaction
trial
venue
will
3.19. (**) ESSAY WRITING. Chose one of the following themes
for your essay on the topic “Civil law":
- “Alternative dispute resolution in civil disputes.”
- “Are jurors effective in civil justice?”
“Civil law: substance and procedure.”
“History of civil law.”
“How do civil law systems differ from common law systems?”
“Is civil law synonymous with private law?”
“What is a ‘right’ under civil law?”
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3.20. TEST YOURSELF. Fill each gap in the text with only one
word or phrase from the box given below:
Civil law (or private law) covers the norms relating to (1) and
to agreements between individuals. The main sub-divisions of civil
law are:
o (2), which includes the laws governing marriage, divorce and
the welfare of children;
o (3): a branch of the law dealing with the rights of ownership;
the purchase, maintenance and sale of real estate, and the disposal of
property on death;
o (4): the laws governing copyrights, trademarks, (5);
o (6): all matters related to the registration, use and transfer of
motor vehicles, drivers’ licenses and noncriminal traffic offenses;
o (7): norms relating to agreements, for instance, the sale of
goods, loans, partnerships and guarantees;
o (8): the rights of employees and the restrictions placed on employers by law;
o (9): issues surrounding trade unions, collective bargaining
agreements, strikes and labor negotiations;
o (10): constitutional provisions that apply to discrimination on
the basis of such legally recognized characteristics as race, sex, (11) or
color;
o (12), which governs injuries suffered by one person at the hands
of another - for instance, negligence, libel and malicious prosecution;
o (13): what kinds of items and testimony can be introduced as
proof in a trial or hearing.
Another set of rules that govern how the civil justice system
works is often termed “rules of (14).” It controls the following matters:
jurisdiction, (15), parties, pleading, discovery; trial and (16).
Jurisdiction is (17) that a court has to hear a particular case.
Venue is a statutory limitation on (18) of litigation to prevent a
plaintiff from suing where it would be burdensome for (19) to appear
and defend.
Complaint is a statement of the case made by the plaintiff at the
beginning of a civil action. The parts of the complaint are: caption, jurisdictional allegations, body, (20), and subscription.
(21) is the normal procedure for obtaining review by a higher
court. The function of the appeal is to assure that the trial has been
conducted in a lawful manner and that (22) conform to the law.
an appeal, civil procedure, civil rights law, employment law, ethnic or
national background, evidence, family law, intellectual property law,
judgments, labor law, law of contract, law of property, law of torts,
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people’s rights and duties, post-trial, prayer for relief, the defendant,
the geographical location, the power or authority, trade secrets and
patents, vehicle law, venue
3.21. MAKE A REPORT on the topic “Civil Law”, paying attention to the following points in your speech:
- nature of civil law;
- branches of civil law;
- civil trial;
- remedies in civil litigation.
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Unit 4. Law of Property
4.1. BEFORE READING learn the following words and phrases which are essential on the topic:
copyright /ˈkɒpiˌraɪt/ - авторское право, издательское
право; право литературной собственности; право перепечатки; право постановки || обеспечивать авторское / издательское право
estate /ɪˈsteɪt/ - 1) имущество; собственность 2) вещно-правовой
титул, право вещного характера, вещно-правовой интерес;
имущественный интерес в недвижимости
freehold /ˈfriːhəʊld/ = fee simple /fiː ˈsɪmp(ə)l/ - безусловное право
собственности на недвижимость, неограниченное право собственности
intangible property /ɪnˈtændʒəb(ə)l ˈprɒpə(r)ti/ - 1) неосязаемая собственность 2) нематериальные активы (напр. репутация фирмы) 3) нематериальное имущество, имущество в правах
intellectual property right /ˌɪntəˈlektʃuəl ˈprɒpə(r)ti raɪt/ - право интеллектуальной собственности
interest in property /ˈɪntrəst ɪn ˈprɒpə(r)ti/ - вещное имущественное
право, право в имуществе
leasehold /ˈliːsˌhəʊld/ = estate for years /ɪˈsteɪt fə(r) jɪə(r)z/ - 1) владение имуществом в течение определённого срока, аренда на
срок, 2) право использования арендованной собственности
owner /ˈəʊnə(r)/ - владелец; собственник, хозяин
personal property /ˈpɜː(r)s(ə)nəl ˈprɒpə(r)ti/ = personal assets
/ˈpɜː(r)s(ə)nəl ˈæsets/, personal wealth /ˈpɜː(r)s(ə)nəl welθ/, personalty /ˈpɜː(r)s(ə)nəlti/, personal estate /ˈpɜː(r)s(ə)nəl ɪˈsteɪt/, movable
property /ˈmuːvəb(ə)l ˈprɒpə(r)ti/, movables /ˈmuːvəb(ə)lz/, goods
and chattels /ɡʊdz ænd ˈtʃæt(ə)lz/ - индивидуальная [личная] собственность; движимое имущество, движимость (различные
материальные и нематериальные активы, которые не относятся к недвижимому имуществу)
real property /rɪəl ˈprɒpə(r)ti/ = realty /ˈrɪəlti/, real asset /rɪəl ˈæset/,
landed property /ˈlændɪd ˈprɒpə(r)ti/, immovables /ɪˈmuːvəb(ə)lz/,
immovable property /ɪˈmuːvəb(ə)l ˈprɒpə(r)ti/, real estate /rɪəl
ɪˈsteɪt/ - недвижимое имущество, недвижимость, недвижимая
собственность (имущество, использование которого по назначению и без ущерба его характеристикам исключает его перемещение: здания, сооружения, земельные участки и иное
имущество, прикрепленное к земле и связанное с ней)
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royalty /ˈrɔɪəlti/ - авторский гонорар; лицензионный платеж
service mark /ˈsɜː(r)vɪs mɑː(r)k/ - знак обслуживания (зарегистрированный знак, которым предприятия сферы услуг обозначают
оказываемые ими услуги для индивидуализации своей деятельности; применяются предприятиями в сфере транспорта,
страхования, банковского дела, бытовых услуг)
succession /səkˈseʃ(ə)n/ – 1) правопреемство, порядок наследования, наследственное право 2) наследство; имущество, переходящее по наследству
tangible property /ˈtændʒəb(ə)l ˈprɒpə(r)ti/ - 1) осязаемая собственность, 2) материальное имущество, осязаемое имущество,
имущество в вещах
title /ˈtaɪt(ə)l/ - правовой титул; право собственности; право на
имущество; основание права на имущество; документ о правовом титуле
to dispose (of) /dɪˈspəʊz/ - отчуждать, распоряжаться (об имуществе), разрешать (дела, споры)
to own /əʊn/ = possess /pəˈzes/ – владеть, иметь на праве собственности, обладать, располагать
trade mark /treɪd mɑː(r)k/ - торговая марка; товарный знак; фирменный знак; заводская [фабричная] марка
trade secret /treɪd ˈsiːkrət/ - коммерческая тайна, производственный секрет; засекреченная технология
will /wɪl/ – завещание || завещать
4.2. SCANNING
Real Property
1. The word ‘property’ has several meanings, and in law we
must be careful to distinguish between two of them:
(i) Property may mean the thing or things capable of ownership.
In this sense the word includes not only physical things such as a
pen, desk, watch, and land, but also non-physical things such as patent rights, copyrights, debts, etc. This is the popular sense of the
term ‘property’.
(ii) Property may mean ownership. Thus, we may say in law that
‘Mr. Star has the property in a watch’, or in other words, ‘Mr. Star
owns a watch’. Both statements mean the same. In a sale of goods
where, for example, a student buys a pen, the shop assistant hands
the pen to the buyer, and, at the same time, passes ‘the property in
the goods’ (i.e. the ownership) to the buyer by delivery on the sale.
2. On the whole there are two main types of property:
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(i) real property, which is land, the buildings, trees, or other items
attached to the land, and the rights of land ownership and use; and
(ii) personal property, which is all other property, tangible or intangible, except real property.
3. Real property is a legal term encompassing real estate itself
and ownership interests in real estate. These interests in property are
classified into:
 Fee simple (or freehold) is the most common interest or right in
real estate and provides the owner the right to use the real estate for
any lawful purpose and sell the interest when and to whom the owner
wishes.
 Life estate is an interest in immovable property which is
granted to a life tenant until that person dies. During the life estate,
the life tenant has the right to use the real estate for any lawful purpose. The interest terminates upon the death of the life tenant.
 Estate for years is similar to a life estate but term is a specified number of years.
 Leasehold is the right to possess and use immovable property
pursuant to the terms of a lease.
 Concurrent tenancy (or co-tenancy) indicates the ownership of
an interest in immovable property by more than one party. Rights of
any single party may be limited in various ways depending on the jurisdiction and type of concurrency.
4. Real property is not just the ownership of property and buildings - it includes many legal relationships between owners of immovable property that are purely conceptual such as the easement, where
a neighboring property may have some right on your property or the
right to pass over a property.
5. Whereas real property is essential for industry or other activity
requiring a lot of fixed physical capital, economics is very concerned
with real property and rules regarding its valuation and disposition. In
economic terms, real property consists of some natural capital (or
land, including the surface, whatever is attached to the surface such
as trees, whatever is beneath the surface, such as minerals, and the
area above the surface, i.e., the sky.), and infrastructural capital (the
buildings, roads, bridges, power and water lines, and other improvements necessary to make immovable property useful for some human
purpose).
6. Methods of acquiring title to real property:
 By transfer. Without question, the most common method of
acquiring property is by transfer. There are three basic types of property transfers: (1) sale and purchase, (2) gift, and (3) court action (or
involuntary transfer).
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 By accession. You may acquire title to property that is added
to your existing real estate. This process is called accession. Examples
include accretion and addition of fixtures.
 By will. A will is a legal instrument by which a person over the
age of 18 and of sound mind disposes of property upon his or her
death.
 By succession. When a deceased person leaves no will, the law
provides for the disposition of his or her property.
 By eminent domain. The government can take land from private citizens for public use, with just compensation,
 By occupancy. Real property or the use of real property can be
also gained through (1) abandonment and (2) adverse possession.
7. In a case of adverse possession a person possesses the property of another for a statutory period of time (three to thirty years, with
ten years being the most common), that person acquires title to the
property, provided the possession is actual and exclusive, open and
visible, continuous and peaceable, and hostile and adverse (without
the permission of the owner).
LEXIS
capable - допускающий (что-л.), поддающийся (чему-л.),
способный
property in the goods - право собственности на товар
life estate - имущество, находящееся в пожизненном владении;
пожизненное право на недвижимое имущество
life tenant - пожизненный землевладелец; человек, владеющий определенной долей доходов с владений недвижимостью только
на время своей жизни
terminate - 1) прекращать (напр. действие, использование), завершать, 2) заканчиваться, завершаться (о времени, о сроках)
lease – аренда, сдача внаем; договор об аренде; срок аренды
concurrent tenancy - совместное владение недвижимостью
jurisdiction - территория в подведомственности органа власти
concurrency - одновременное (параллельное) владение
purely conceptual - исключительно воображаемый, чисто теоретический, полностью умозрительный
easement - сервитут (в гражданском праве право ограниченного
пользования чужим земельным участком)
pass over - переходить через, пересекать
economics - экономика, экономическая наука, политическая экономия, хозяйственная жизнь
valuation - оценка, определение стоимости [ценности]
disposition - нахождение в чьем-л. распоряжении, возможность
воспользоваться чем-л., управление чем-л., передача
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natural capital - природный капитал, физический капитал естественного происхождения (земля и природные богатства)
infrastructural capital - капитал, относящийся к инфраструктуре
improvements - внесение конструктивных улучшений, модернизация, элементы благоустройства
acquire title - приобретать право собственности
transfer - передача (имущества, права и т. п.); цессия; трансферт
gift - акт дарения (добровольная передача собственности одного
лица другому)
court action – решение суда
accession - увеличение (имущества), присоединение, дополнение
accretion – естественное приращение недвижимости (например
наращение суши наносами)
fixtures - недвижимый инвентарь (неотделимый от здания или
земли и юридически являющийся частью их)
deceased person - умершее лицо
eminent domain - право государства на принудительное отчуждение частной собственности
just compensation - справедливое возмещение
occupancy – завладение
abandonment - отказ (от права): отказ от собственности без указания наследника
adverse possession - незаконное владение; владение, основанное
на утверждении правового титула вопреки притязанию другого лица
statutory period of time - установленный законом срок
visible – очевидный, не скрываемый
hostile and adverse – вопреки желанию другой стороны
3.
4.
5.
6.
4.3. QUESTIONS
1. How does law define the notion of “property”?
2. What are the main types of property?
What does the term “real property” encompass?
What are the economic aspects of real property?
What types of ownership interests in real estate do you know?
How may a person acquire title to real property?
4.4. AGREE OR DISAGREE
1. Real property is not just the ownership of property and
buildings.
2. Fee simple or freehold is the least common interest or
right in real estate.
3. A life estate is the same as an estate for years.
4. The title to real property may be acquired only by succession.
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5. The ownership of an interest in immovable property by more than
one party is impossible.
4.5. GIVE ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS for:
a) проводить различие между терминами;
b) передавать право собственности на товар;
c) пожаловать/предоставить право на использование недвижимого имущества;
d) ограничивать права одной из сторон;
e) приобретать право собственности на недвижимость;
f) не оставлять завещания.
4.6. (**) ENGAGE IN CONVERSATION. Explore any additional information if necessary and discuss the issue of
types of ownership interests in real property:
Types of Estate
4.7. (**) SAY WHAT YOU KNOW about the types of real estate ownership interests and methods of acquiring title to
real property in Russia.
4.8. (*) SKIMMING. Read the following text and:
- prepare five questions about its content; be ready to interview your group mates;
- form an opinion on the issue; substantiate your point of view.
Space Property Rights Discussion
The global space industry is expanding in directions unanticipated only a decade ago. Entrepreneurial space companies are changing the entire focus of commercial space. An industry once limited to
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satellite telecommunications is now seeing huge private sector investments in space transportation, personal (tourism) spaceflight,
Earth-orbit logistics, and resource recovery.
As commercialization of space expands, market opportunities and
profitability will be shaped by additions and changes in laws that govern every aspect of space. This will include patents, real property
rights, mineral rights, and tax incentives for space entrepreneurs. Resource appropriation and real property rights are two of the most controversial issues in international space law.
The law which governs property rights and resource appropriation
is the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the
Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and Other
Celestial Bodies, commonly known as the Outer Space Treaty. This
treaty entered into force on October 10, 1967, and a total of 102 nations are now party to the Agreement.
While the Outer Space Treaty does not directly address the issues
of property rights and resource appropriation, Article I says that outer
space shall be free for exploration and use (emphasis added). This
provision is relevant to the issue of resource appropriation. Article II
of the treaty prohibits “national appropriation.” This provision is relevant to the issue of property rights.
Most space lawyers agree that the intent and meaning of Article II
is to prohibit national control of territory or territorial sovereignty.
Virtually all space lawyers agree that this provision prevents parties
to the treaty from granting or recognizing titles to territory.
The experts have noted that Article II of the Outer Space Treaty
does not prohibit “private appropriation.” Because private appropriation is not prohibited, and because Article I says that outer space is
free for “use,” many lawyers believe that commercial mining of space
resources is legal under the treaty. The analogy that space lawyers
most often cite on this point is commercial fishing in international
waters: although no one owns the oceans, individuals and corporations can catch seafood and sell it for a profit.
4.9. SCANNING
Personal Property
1. In the civil law systems personal property is often called
movable property or movables - any property that can be moved from
one location to another. In the common law systems personal property
may also be called chattels. Personal property may be classified in a
variety of ways, such as money, negotiable instruments, securities,
goods, and intangible assets including chose in action. Certain objects
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that are a part of real estate may become personal property when they
are removed from the land, such as cut timber or mined ore.
2. Personal property can be tangible or intangible. Tangible personal property is subject to physical possession. It can include almost anything that occupies space and is movable (i.e., it is not attached to real property or land), touched or felt. These generally include items such as furniture, clothing, jewellery, art, writings, or
household goods.
3. Intangible personal property consists of rights in something
that lacks physical substance. Examples include contracts, stocks,
bonds, computer software (programs), employment, utility services
(telephone, electricity, etc.), and intellectual property (copyrights, patents, and trademarks).
4. For instance, a written agreement evinces a contract, but the
rights under the contract are the important property interest. Likewise, it is not the stock certificate, the computer disk, or the certificate
of copyright registration that is the key property interest; these are
evidence of property, but the property itself is not capable of physical
possession.
5. Acquiring title to personal property:
 transactions: contracts, sales of goods, and transfers of commercial paper;
 gifts as a voluntary transfer of property from its owner (donor)
to another person (donee) without any compensation for the donor;
 accession - an addition to the value of personal property, by
labor, materials and/or natural process (e.g. growing fruit or adding
an air conditioner to an automobile);
 possession - if personal property is lost, mislaid, or abandoned,
or clearly had no prior owner, a person may obtain title simply by taking possession of it;
 creation - a method of gaining title to personal property by invention, art, or other intellectual endeavor (e.g., creating a painting,
writing a book, knitting a sweater, developing a computer program).
LEXIS
civil law system - континентальная правовая система,
римская/цивильная система права
common law system - система, основанная на общем/англо-саксонском праве
chattels - движимое имущество, неземельная собственность
negotiable instruments - оборотные кредитно-денежные документы
securities - ценные бумаги
chose in action - имущество в требованиях; право требования;
право, могущее быть основанием для иска
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cut timber - лесоматериалы; строевой лес; древесина
mined ore - добытая руда
be subject - подчиняться, зависеть, обусловливаться, быть подверженным
physical substance - материальное состояние, физическая форма,
вещественное содержание
stocks - 1) акционерный капитал (капитал, привлеченный путем
выпуска и размещения акций), 2) акции; пакет акций; 3) (долговые) фонды; (долговые) ценные бумаги
bonds - облигация; гарантия (выполнения обязательств), поручительство; гарантийное обязательство
employment - наем, прием на работу, трудоустройство
utility services - коммунальное обслуживание
evince - доказывать, проявлять, показывать, указывать
stock certificate - свидетельство на долю участия в акционерном
капитале, сертификат акции, акционерный сертификат
key - основной, ключевой; важнейший, ведущий, главный
capable - 1) могущий, способный 2) правоспособный, дееспособный 3) поддающийся
acquiring title - приобретение права собственности
donor - даритель, податель, жертвующий, жертвователь
donee - лицо, получающее дар, подарок
possession - добросовестное владение
mislaid - оставленное не в нужном месте
abandoned - оставленный, брошенный, покинутый
intellectual endeavor - интеллектуальный труд, умственные усилия
4.10. QUESTIONS
1. What are the two types of personal property?
2. How can title to personal property be acquired?
3. What personal property is called “tangible”?
4. What property is “intangible” according to the law? Give the examples.
5. Explain the differences between creation and accession as methods of gaining title to personal property.
3.
4.
5.
6.
4.11. AGREE OR DISAGREE
1. All personal property is subject to physical possession.
2. Tangible personal property can include anything that
takes up space and is movable.
Stocks and bonds are examples of intangible property.
Utility services cannot be a type of property.
No object that is a part of real estate may become personal property.
Personal property is not capable of physical possession.
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4.12. GIVE ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS for:
a) перемещать с одного места в другое;
b) занимать некое пространство;
c) не иметь физической формы / быть лишенным материального
состояния;
d) указывать на наличие договоренности;
e) выбросить предмет как нечто ненужное его владельцу;
f) быть извлеченным из земли, быть отделённым от недвижимого
имущества;
g) создать компьютерную программу.
4.13. SAY WHAT YOU KNOW about:
- the distinction between private and personal property;
- the difference between mislaid and abandoned property;
- the distinction between tangible and intangible property.
4.14. DEBATES
A recently issued draft regulation allowing local governments in Sichuan province (China) to take over civilians'
private property for use in dealing with emergencies has triggered a
heated discussion. Some think it is OK if it is for emergencies or for
the public's interest, while others are concerned over possible infringement of personal rights.
Pros - 18%
Yes. For Sichuan province where
natural disasters are a frequent
occurrence, the regulation is
beneficial to the public and can
help the government deal with
emergencies efficiently.
Cons - 82%
No. The Constitution provides
that the legitimate property of citizens is protected. The regulation
would result in abuse of power
and possible infringement of personal property rights.
Do you support the regulation that personal property can be confiscated in dealing with emergencies? Could such a regulation be
possible in your jurisdiction?
4.15. (*) SKIMMING. Read the following text and prepare five
questions about its content. Be ready to interview your
group mates.
Trusts
A trust is an agreement whereby property is held and controlled
by someone on behalf of someone else. A common example of this is
where someone dies and leaves money for grandchildren who are too
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young to deal with it themselves. The money will be held in the name
of trustees – for example, the children’s parents.
They will be the legal owners of the money and will have the power to invest and make other decisions about it. But they are required
to act only in the interests of the children, known as the beneficiaries
of the trust, and they must not make any personal profit.
The concept of a trust is a creation of the law of equity. It is thus
unique to common law countries such as the United States and most
of the Commonwealth, although many countries, such as Japan have
statutes which effectively impose trusts in certain cases. Under the
conditions of trust the beneficiaries have an “equitable” interest in the
property and the trustees - a ”legal” interest. The original intention of
equity is to limit the powers of those who have legal rights but owe
special responsibilities to others.
Different types of trusts.
Some trusts are known as “express trusts”, having been intentionally created by someone with property to transfer (a settlor).
The example in the opening paragraph is an express private trust.
Other trusts are “implied trusts” - the law presumes that the settlor
intended to create a trust even though he did not expressly say so.
In all of these cases, the person appointed to be trustee has a
choice whether or not to accept the appointment when the trust is
created. But some trusts are “constructive”: the law imposes a trust
and obliges the legal owner of property to consider the beneficial interest of another person. A common example of this is when the seller
of a house is obliged to give a proportion of the proceeds to a former
spouse who once lived there with him. Directors of companies and solicitors are often in the position of a constructive trustee regarding
property under their control.
LEXIS
trust - распоряжение имуществом на началах доверительной собственности
trustee - лицо, распоряжающееся имуществом на началах доверительной собственности
beneficiary – бенефициар; лицо, в интересах которого осуществляется доверительная собственность
express trust - траст, учреждённый согласно намерениям сторон и
зафиксированный письменно и устно
implied trust - доверительная собственность в силу закона; подразумеваемая доверительная собственность
constructive trust - доверительная собственность на основе судебного решения
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4.16. SCANNING
Intellectual Property Law in Britain:
Copyright
1. "Intellectual property" (IP) is an original work fixed in a
tangible medium of expression. IP refers to creations of the mind: inventions, literary and artistic works, and symbols, names, images,
and designs used in commerce. IP law creates property rights in original creations to ensure that their originators are able to control their
use and receive appropriate financial reward. It embraces patents for
the protection of inventions, registered designs, trademarks, trade secrets, and copyright for the protection of original literary, dramatic,
musical or artistic works, films, video and sound recordings, broadcasts and computer software.
2. Copyright is a protection automatically conferred in Britain on
certain types of original and creative materials. It gives legal rights to
the producers of such materials, enabling them to control how their
works may be exploited. Broadly speaking, copyright covers copying,
reproducing, adapting, performing and broadcasting.
The 1988 Copyright, Designs and Patents Act defines copyright as
a 'property right' which means that it may be exploited, used, bought
and sold - or 'assigned' - like any other property.
3. Copyright owners have the exclusive right to perform certain
“restricted acts”:
 copying the work,
 issuing copies to the public,
 performing, playing or showing the work in public,
 broadcasting the work or transmitting it by cable,
 making an adaptation or performing any of the other restricted
acts with an adaptation,
 authorising the rental of material such as video cassettes and
receiving a royalty for the rental.
4. It is not necessary to register for copyright protection. However,
for record purposes, Stationers' Hall in London maintains a register in
which copyright owners may apply to have their works listed for a period of seven years.
5. Copyright covers works in three main categories:
 original literary, dramatic, musical or artistic works, including
photographs and architecture;
 sound and video recordings, films, broadcasts or cable programmes, and electronic databases,
 the typographical arrangement of a published work.
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6. Copyright Ownership. In most cases, the first owner of a copyright is the author or originator of a work, and this includes not only
writers and composers but also record and film producers, broadcasters and publishers.
Copyright holders may use their rights to prevent exploitation of
their work by others or may licence them to use it. In addition, they
may sell their rights like any other piece of property.
7. The Duration of Copyright. For artistic, musical and literary
works, copyright lasts throughout the author's life and for 50 years
after death.
Copyright on films and sound recordings extends for 50 years after the date of release, and for broadcast and cable programmes for
50 years from the date of first showing. Typographical copyright lasts
for 25 years from publication.
8. Exceptions to Copyright. Despite the protection which copyright affords to its owners, there are occasions when it does not apply
and materials may be used by others without obtaining permission to
do so. In general, this involves the reproduction or quotation of extracts for research, study, criticism, review and news reporting. In addition, copyright considerations should not hinder education or the
operation of libraries or public administration. The 1988 Act also provided for exceptions in the case of 'time-shift' recording of radio and
television programmes in the home.
9. Exercising Copyright. Copyright owners may licence others to
use that copyright. This may be in terms of some or all of the
'restricted acts' and it may be 'exclusive', that is such that not even
the first owner will be able to exercise the relevant rights.
LEXIS
fixed in a tangible medium of expression – закреплённый в
материальной форме, воплощенный в материальном объекте
reward – вознаграждение, награждение, поощрение
registered design - зарегистрированный промышленный образец,
внесенный в реестр промышленный образец
recording - звукозапись, видеозапись
broadcast - радиопередача; радиовещание, телевизионная передача; ТВ-вещание
computer software - компьютерное программное обеспечение
exclusive right - исключительное, эксклюзивное право; прерогатива
issuing copies - издание материалов; выпуск экземпляров, копий
adaptation - приспособление, адаптация; переделка; усовершенствование, улучшение
rental - прокат, аренда
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Stationers' Hall - Стейшнерз-Холл, здание в Лондоне, где хранится
список всех произведений, изданных в Великобритании
register - журнал, книга для записи, реестр, регистр; указатель
database - база данных (информация, определенным образом
структурированная и классифицированная)
typographical arrangement - оформительская композиция, типографическая компоновка, внешний вид (изданного текста)
exceptions to - исключение из, предусмотренное в законе изъятие
quotation of an extract - цитирование отрывка, ссылка на цитату
'time-shift' recording - запись отдельных эпизодов программы, запись программ со смещением времени и изменением компоновки передач
exercising – использование, осуществление (права), контроль
relevant - соответственный, соответствующий
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
4.17. QUESTIONS
1. What is the purpose of Intellectual property law?
2. What does Intellectual property law embrace?
3. What does copyright enable the producers of original and
creative materials to do?
Which are the three main categories of works that copyright covers?
Who can be the first owner of a copyright?
How can copyright holders transfer their rights?
What is the duration of copyright? Is it the same for different types
of works?
Can there be any exceptions to copyright?
4.18. AGREE OR DISAGREE
1. In Britain copyright is a protection automatically conferred on certain types of original and creative materials.
2. Adapting materials unlike copying them is not covered by
copyright.
Stationers' Hall in London maintains a register in which copyright
owners may apply to have their works listed for a period of seventy years.
Computer software is still not covered by copyright.
The 1968 Act provided for exceptions in the case of the recording
of broadcasts by educational institutions.
There may be cases when different copyrights overlap.
It is not necessary to register for copyright protection.
The duration of copyright is defined by the authors of copyrighted
materials.
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4.19. GIVE ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS for:
a) получать соответствующее денежное вознаграждение;
b) предоставлять защиту авторских прав;
c) вести регистрационный журнал/реестр;
d) не позволять использование своего произведения другими лицами;
e) длиться на протяжении всей жизни автора;
f) получать разрешение;
g) давать разрешение другим лицам на использование авторского
права.
4.20. (**) SAY WHAT YOU KNOW about:
- piracy in the world;
- countries where sharing files without profit is legal;
- Russian law on the issue.
4.21. DEBATES
Whether or not Internet intermediaries have liability for copyright infringement by users, and without the intermediaries'
authorization, has been subject to debate and court cases in a number of countries. Liability of online intermediaries has been one of the
earliest legal issues surrounding the internet.
What do you think of this problem?
4.22. SCANNING
Intellectual Property Law in Britain:
Industrial Property
1. Patents are granted to individuals and companies that
can lay claim to an invention which is capable of industrial manufacture and which was not previously known in Britain or elsewhere. The
granting of a patent gives the 'patentee' a monopoly to make, use or
sell the invention for a fixed period of time - which in Britain today is
a maximum of 20 years from the date on which the patent application
was first filed. In return for this monopoly, the patentee pays a fee to
cover the costs of processing the patent and, more importantly, publicly discloses details of the invention.
2. Patents are administered by the Patent Office, which analyses
applications to ensure that the right to a patent exists and publicly
provides information on every patent granted. The Office is an executive agency of the Department of Trade and Industry.
3. An industrial design right protects the form of appearance,
style or design of an industrial object. Protection is provided against
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itially marketed, although any person is entitled, as of right, to a licence to use the design during the following five years, and a right to
remuneration is provided for during that period. However, unrestricted
copying is permitted where there is no design freedom for either functional or aesthetic reasons, such as in the case of spare parts needed
to keep equipment in good repair.
4. A design right is a full property right, but according to the
1988 Act certain designs are not registrable and protection is in effect
provided only for truly aesthetic, 'stand-alone' designs which competitors do not need to copy in order to compete effectively.
5. A trade mark (or brand) is a means of identification - a symbol, whether a word or device or a combination of the two - which
enables traders to make their goods and services readily distinguishable from similar goods and services supplied by other traders. Fraudulent use of a trademark is a criminal offence which incurs substantial
penalties.
6. Service marks are the same thing as trademarks except that
they identify and distinguish services rather than products.
Not all brands can be registered, however - the criteria for registration being set by the Trade Marks Registry, which is part of the Patent Office.
7. A trade secret (or "confidential information") is secret, nonpublic information concerning the commercial practices or proprietary
knowledge of a business, public disclosure of which may sometimes
be illegal. A trade secret is any formula, pattern, machine, process,
database, method or operation used in the production of goods or services and known only to employees who need to know the secret to
accomplish their work.
The protection of trade secrets covers the ideas themselves. It’s
the main distinction from copyright.
8. Patents, trademarks, service marks, trade secrets and design
rights are sometimes collectively known as industrial property, as
they are typically created and used for industrial or commercial purposes.
LEXIS
industrial property - промышленная собственность, промышленные права
industrial manufacture - изготовление в промышленных масштабах
patentee - патентодержатель, владелец патента; лицо, имеющее
право на получение патента
fee - комиссия, комиссионный сбор; плата за услуги, взнос
processing - изготовление, оформление, подготовка
disclose - раскрывать; объявлять; сообщать, разглашать (сведения)
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Patent Office - Патентное ведомство
application - заявление, просьба, обращение, требование, заявка
remuneration - вознаграждение; компенсация; заработная плата
spare parts - запасные детали, запасные части
registrable - подлежащий регистрации, регистрируемый
stand-alone - выдающийся, особенный, непревзойденный
competitor - конкурент, соперник; участник рынка
device - 1) способ, средство 2) рисунок; эмблема, символ; девиз
distinguishable - различимый
fraudulent use - мошенническое использование
incur – нести, терпеть (расходы, убытки); подвергаться чему-л.
penalty - взыскание; санкция; штраф; наказание; санкция
proprietary - составляющий или характеризующий чью-либо собственность; частный
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
4.23. QUESTIONS
1. Which requirements should an invention meet to be
granted a patent?
What rights does a patent give to the 'patentee'?
What does the patentee have to do in return for the monopoly to
use his own invention?
Which body is responsible for administering patents? What are its
functions?
Can there take place unrestricted copying of original designs?
Which can be the case?
What is treated as industrial property?
Which body deals with setting the criteria for registration of
trademarks?
4.24. AGREE OR DISAGREE
1. Only individuals can be granted patents.
2. The Patent Office is an executive agency of the Department of Commerce.
The granting of a patent gives the 'patentee' a monopoly for a fixed
period of time - which in Britain today is 40 years.
Protection is provided against the copying of original designs for
seven years after they have been initially marketed.
Certain designs are not registrable.
Fraudulent use of a trade mark and possession of the offending
goods incurs substantial penalties.
Any trade or service mark can be registered.
4.25. GIVE ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS for:
a) предъявлять права на изобретение;
b) оплачивать комиссионный сбор;
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c) допускать копирование без каких-либо ограничений;
d) навлекать (на себя) санкции;
e) проводить различение между предоставляемыми услугами;
f) исполнять свою работу;
g) использовать в коммерческих целях.
4.26. (**) SAY WHAT YOU KNOW about:
- trademark/patent infringement cases;
- some unusual inventions;
- history of some famous inventions;
- history of some famous trademarks.
4.27. (*) EXERCISE. Match the legal terms with their definitions:
Abandoned property; Intangible property; Intellectual property; Lost property; Misplaced (or mislaid) property; Real property;
Tangible property.
a. Property that has no physical existence, such as stock options or
goodwill.
b. Land, real estate.
c. Property no longer in the owner’s possession, due to accident or
negligence, which cannot be located.
d. Property left and no longer wanted, used or needed.
e. Property with physical form and extent.
f. Property having to do with patents or trademarks.
g. Property that has been left unattended by the owner with an intent
to return to it later, but that can no longer be located.
4.28. (**) MAKE UP your own «list of top ten inventions» of all
time. Explain your choice and discuss it with your group
mates.
4.29. KEY WORDS
abandoned property
accession
chose in action
copyright
copyright owner
estate
estate for years
exclusive right
fee simple
natural capital
ownership interest
patent
patentee
personal property
possession
protection
real property
registered design
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infrastructural capital
intangible personal property
intellectual property
interest in property
lease
leasehold
licence
life estate
lost property
mislaid property
-
reversion
royalty
succession
tangible personal property
title to property
to acquire title
to be subject to
to possess
trade mark
trade secret
4.30. (**) ESSAY WRITING. Chose one of the following themes
for your essay on the topic “Law of property":
- “Intellectual property rights in Russia.”
- “Marital property.”
“Mortgage: a helping hand or a trap.”
“Neighbor disputes.”
“Private vs. public property.”
“Property law: landlord and tenant.”
“Prospects for the establishment of a specialized Russian court to
examine intellectual property cases.”
4.31. TEST YOURSELF. Fill each gap in the text with only
one word or phrase from the box given below:
The word ‘property’ has several (1), and in law we must be
careful to distinguish between two of them:
- property may mean (2) capable of ownership;
- property may also mean ownership.
There are two main types of property:
- (3), which is land, the buildings, trees, or other items attached
to (4), and the rights of land ownership and use; and
- (5), which is all other property, tangible or intangible, except
real property.
The term ‘real property’ in general signifies all interests in land. In
economic terms, real property consists of some (6) (or land, one of the
factors of production especially in agriculture), and (7) (the buildings,
water and power lines, and other improvements necessary to make
immovable property useful for particular (8)).
Real property can refer to immovable estate itself, or to various
types of ownership interests in immovables, including:
- (9): the owner has the right to use the real estate for any lawful
purpose and sell the interest when and to whom the owner wishes;
- (10): an interest in immovable property is granted to (11) until
that person dies;
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- (12): the right to possess and use immovable property is subject
to the terms of a lease;
- (13): the right to restore the fee interest in immovable property
after (14) of a life estate, estate for years, or leasehold;
- (15): the ownership of an interest in immovable property by
more than one party.
As we have mentioned above that personal property can be of two
kinds:
- (16) is subject to physical possession; it can include almost anything that takes up (17) and is movable;
- (18) consists of rights in something that lacks (19); examples include patent rights, (20), rights in trade marks, stocks and shares,
registered designs, goodwill of a business, insurance moneys, and
cheques.
The title to property may be acquired in different ways, among
them are:
a) in the case of real property:
- sale and purchase;
- (21) - the fact of receiving property when the former owner dies;
- occupancy;
b) in the case of personal property:
- (22): invention, art, or other intellectual endeavor;
- sale of goods and (23);
- gifts as a voluntary transfer of property from (24) to (25) without
any compensation;
- (26): an addition to the value of personal property by labor, materials or natural process.
a donee, a donor, a life tenant, accession, concurrent tenancy,
creation, fee simple, copyrights, human purposes, infrastructural
capital, intangible personal property, leasehold, life estate, meanings,
natural capital, personal property, physical substance, real property,
reversion, space, tangible personal property, the expiration, the land,
the thing or things, transfer of commercial papers, succession
-
4.32. MAKE A REPORT on the topic “Law of Property”, paying
attention to the following points in your speech:
- definition of property;
- real and personal property;
ownership interests in real estate;
acquisition of title to real property;
acquisition of title to personal property;
tangible and intangible personal property;
intellectual property rights.
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Unit 5. Family Law
5.1. BEFORE READING learn the following words and phrases which are essential on the topic:
adoption /əˈdɒpʃ(ə)n/ - усыновление, удочерение
adult /ˈædʌlt/ - взрослый, совершеннолетний, зрелый человек
alimony /ˈælɪməni/ - 1) алименты (регулярные платежи, производимые одним из бывших супругов в пользу другого бывшего
супруга во время раздельного проживания или после официального развода) 2) содержание, помощь
ancestor /ˈænsestə(r)/ – предок, родственник по восходящей линии
annulment /əˈnʌlmənt/ - постановление о признании брака недействительным
child custody /tʃaɪld ˈkʌstədi/ – попечение, забота о ребенке
child maintenance /tʃaɪld ˈmeɪntənəns/ - денежное пособие на содержание ребёнка, алименты на ребёнка
decree of divorce /dɪˈkriː əv dɪˈvɔː(r)s/ - судебное решение о разводе
супругов
descendant /dɪˈsendənt/ - потомок; наследник, родственник по
нисходящей линии
divorce /dɪˈvɔː(r)s/ - расторжение брака, развод || расторгать
брак; разводиться
family relationship /ˈfæm(ə)li rɪˈleɪʃ(ə)nʃɪp/ - семейные отношения
family status /ˈfæm(ə)li ˈsteɪtəs/ = marital status /ˈmærɪt(ə)l ˈsteɪtəs/,
civil status /ˈsɪv(ə)l ˈsteɪtəs/ - семейное положение
guardian /ˈɡɑː(r)diən/ = custodian /kʌˈstəʊdiən/ - опекун (назначается судом для малолетних или неспособных управлять имуществом)
guardianship /ˈɡɑː(r)diənʃɪp/ - опёка и попечительство
infant /ˈɪnfənt/ – малолетний, несовершеннолетний
inheritance /ɪnˈherɪt(ə)ns/ - 1) наследование 2) наследство, наследие
legal capacity /ˈliːɡ(ə)l kəˈpæsəti/ - правоспособность, дееспособность
legal relationship /ˈliːɡ(ə)l rɪˈleɪʃ(ə)nʃɪp/ - 1) родство, признанное законом; 2) правовые отношения
legitimate /lɪˈdʒɪtəməɪt/ - законный, законнорождённый || узаконивать, признавать законным
marriage /ˈmærɪdʒ/ - брак, супружество; замужество, женитьба;
бракосочетание, свадьба; вступление в брак, заключение брака
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natural relationship /ˈnætʃ(ə)rəl rɪˈleɪʃ(ə)nʃɪp/ - кровное родство; фактическое родство
parent /ˈpeərənt/ - родитель, отец, мать
paternity /pəˈtɜː(r)nəti/ – отцовство, происхождение по отцу
spouse /spaʊs/ - один из супругов; муж, супруг; жена, супруга
to divorce /dɪˈvɔː(r)s/ = dissolve a marriage /dɪˈzɒlv ə ˈmærɪdʒ/ - расторгать брак, разводиться (with), разводить (в суде)
to file for divorce /faɪl fə(r) dɪˈvɔː(r)s/ – подавать документа на развод
to marry /ˈmæri/ - жениться (на ком-л.) или выходить замуж (за
кого-л. - to); обручаться, бракосочетаться, вступать в брак (c
кем-л. - with)
5.2. SCANNING
Marriage
1. Family law is the term applied to the laws and rules regarding family relationships. Family law rules define not only the relationships between members of a family but also between a
family and society as a whole. More than any other area of the law,
family law reflects the values society shares regarding how people
who are related should treat each other.
2. Family law rules see the family as a special social institution
and clarify such issues as marriage and relationship planning, divorce, paternity, adoption, custody of and responsibility for children;
protection from violence in the home. Norms of family law also prescribe the rights of succession to the property of a family member
when they die.
3. Under family law "marriage" is a social institution uniting men
and women in special forms of mutual dependence, often for the purpose of founding and maintaining families. As far as children need
undergo a long period of development before attaining maturity, the
care of children during their years of relative helplessness is the chief
incentive for the spouses. Marriage as a contract between a man and
a woman has existed since ancient times. As a social practice it reflects the purposes, character, and customs of the society in which it
is found.
4. Basically, there are three requirements of a valid marriage:
(i) that the requisite formalities are complied with: whether a religious or a civil ceremony is necessary;
(ii) that the parties have legal capacity to marry each other; for instance, one or both may be under lawful age, or be already married to
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a third person, or they may be within the prohibited degrees of relationship, thus such individuals are prevented from wedding;
(iii) that the parties freely and knowingly consent to do so.
5. If a marriage has been imperfectly constituted in law, it may be
annulled; grounds for annulment include lack of capacity, no reality
of consent by the parties, a vitiating defect in the marriage ceremony,
or the subsequent discovery of such a “defect”.
6. If married people wish to terminate their marriage relationship
they both or any one of them should file for divorce. This can be accomplished through an uncontested divorce or a contested divorce.
The last one may be of two kinds: no-fault divorce or a fault based divorce.
7. With “a no-fault divorce”, the termination does not require
proof of fault to be shown. Reasons for this type of divorce include incompatibility or irremediable breakdown of the marriage. The application can be made by either party. With the support of a court system,
the other spouse may be divorced against his or her will in this case.
8. In “a fault based divorce”, the reasons for divorce are specific
such as: adultery, habitual drunkenness, conviction of a felony, unreasonable behaviour, cruel and inhuman treatment, insanity, desertion of at least two years, two years' separation where the divorce is by
consent, and five years' separation.
9. The procedure is usually for one party to petition for divorce. A
judge considers the evidence and, if the grounds for divorce are proven, the judge pronounces a decree nisi which is a provisional measure. Six weeks later the petitioner can apply for a decree absolute,
which is the final measure. The decree absolute has to be issued by
the court before either party can re-marry. A decree of divorce must
be pronounced in open court.
10. Alimony is amount of money ordered by a court to be paid by
one spouse to the other - usually by the husband to the wife - for
some period, limited or indefinite, after a divorce.
11. Child maintenance is financial support that helps towards a
child’s everyday living costs when the parents have separated. The
parent who doesn’t have day-to-day care of the child (the ‘paying parent’) pays child maintenance to the parent or person who does (the
‘receiving parent’).
LEXIS
relationship planning – регулирование/планирование родственных отношений
violence - жестокость, насилие
right of succession - право наследования
values - ценности
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share - разделять
treat - обращаться, относиться, вести себя по отношению к кому-л.
mutual dependence - взаимная зависимость
undergo - переносить, претерпевать
maturity - зрелость, совершеннолетие
valid - юридически действительный, имеющий силу; правомерный
requisite formalities - необходимые формальности
prohibited degrees of relationship - степени родства, при которых
запрещается брак
wedding - вступление в брак, бракосочетание, женитьба
imperfectly constituted – не полностью соответствующий
annul - признавать недействительным
vitiating defect – дефект, лишающий законной силы
subsequent discovery – более позднее выявление
terminate - прекращать действие
uncontested divorce - развод по обоюдному согласию
contested divorce – развод без согласия одного из супругов
no-fault divorce – развод без судебного обоснования причин
fault based divorce – развод на основании подтверждения веской
причины
incompatibility - несовместимость
irremediable breakdown – непоправимый разрыв (отношений)
application - письменное ходатайство суду или судье
adultery - адюльтер, прелюбодеяние, нарушение супружеской верности, супружеская измена
habitual drunkenness - алкоголизм
felony - тяжкое уголовное преступление (фелония)
inhuman treatment - жестокое обращение
insanity - психическая болезнь; невменяемость
desertion - злонамеренное оставление одним супругом другого
separation - раздельное жительство супругов (фактическое прекращение брака без юридического оформления)
decree nisi [dı'kri: 'naısaı] - условное решение суда, вступающее в
силу с определённого срока, если оно не отменено до этого
срока
petitioner - проситель; истец
decree absolute [dı'kri: 'æbsəlu:t] - решение суда, окончательное и
безусловно вступившее в силу
accustomed - привычный, привыкший
make sense - иметь смысл, быть понятым
earn the income - зарабатывать, приносить доход
rearing - воспитывание (детей)
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3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
5.3. QUESTIONS
1. What do people refer to as “marriage”?
2. Are there any requirements of a valid marriage?
How can a marriage be dissolved?
What are the typical grounds for a court to dissolve a marriage?
What is the procedure for divorce?
What is the purpose of a decree nisi in divorce proceedings?
What do they call the money ordered by a court to be paid by one
spouse to the other?
5.4. AGREE OR DISAGREE
1. Divorce is possible only if both parties petition for it.
2. A decree nisi is a provisional measure.
3. A decree of divorce is pronounced at a closed meeting of the court.
4. The period for which alimony is to be paid is always limited.
5. There are three main standards governing the amount of alimony.
5.5. GIVE ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS for:
a) отражать общественные ценности;
b) создавать и содержать семью;
c) достичь совершеннолетия;
d) соблюдать необходимые формальности;
e) добровольно и осознанно соглашаться;
f) подавать на развод;
g) изучить доказательства;
h) выносить решение в открытом судебном заседании.
5.6. DEBATES.
“Arranged marriages” are marriages which are negotiated
primarily by the parents of the couple, rather than the
couple themselves. There are proponents and opponents of this approach to creating new families:
Cons
a) Arranging marriages
is an insult to the very
nature of marriage, which
should be about creating
a loving and lasting partnership and family.
b) The practice of arranged marriage separates communities, helping to stop integration
Pros
a) Arranged marriages are very much
‘real’ marriages. Vastly more marriages
than not in human history would fall under any sensible definition of arrangement. More than that, an unusually
small number of arranged marriages actually end in divorce.
b) Arranged marriages do involve
choice. The difference is merely that
whole families are involved together in
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and encourage distrust
between communities.
both considering the best options and in
helping to achieve what is wanted.
1. Should we say that there is a great difference between arranged
and love marriages?
2. Describe advantages and disadvantages of these two approaches.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
5.7. AGREE OR DISAGREE
1. The divorce industry is biased against men in favour of
women.
2. When family law cases go to trial, both parties lose.
The existing family law system allows the rich to buy justice.
You should have a career established first and be financially stable
before you even think about getting married.
It’s not against the law to slap your own spouse.
Men being injured by women is just as big a problem as women being injured by men.
Success in marriage does not come merely through finding the
right mate, but through being the right mate.
A successful marriage requires falling in love many times, always
with the same person.
5.8. SCANNING
Parent and Child
1. Family law determines the legal rights and obligations of
fathers or mothers to their children and of children to their parents.
The legal relationship is distinguished from the natural relationship; for example, two persons may have a legal relationship of parent
and child although there is no natural relationship, as in the case of
an adopted child.
2. As a rule parents are the legal as well as natural guardians of
their child. They have the right to name the child and are entitled to
custody. As custodians, they can reasonably chastise the child, but
for excessive punishment the parents are criminally liable for assault,
or for homicide in case of death. Either parent has the right to custody of the children of the marriage, and in a divorce or separation the
court can award custody to the parent best qualified and able to care
for the children. Parents must provide for their children such necessities of life as food, clothing, shelter, education, and medical care; if
they cannot or will not, the laws authorize intervention by designated
authorities to ensure that children's needs are met.
3. A child, permanently bereaved of or abandoned by his or her
biological parents, may become a legal child of another couple
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through the procedure of adoption. On adoption the child is deemed
to be the legitimate child of his or her adoptive parents. The adopted
child has the same rights of inheritance under wills, deeds and intestacies as natural children of the adopters.
4. A person is eligible for adoption at any age under 18, provided
he or she is unmarried. In practice about 90 per cent of all adoptions
are of children under 10.
5. Who may adopt? The applicant or one of the joint applicants
for an adoption must (i) have attained the age of 25, or (ii) have attained the age of 21 and be a relative, e.g. grandparent, brother, sister, uncle or aunt, or (iii) be the mother or father of the infant, e.g.
with an illegitimate child.
6. Guardianship is the relationship existing between an infant
(known as a ward) and some person who has the right of control over
him and of ensuring his maintenance, education, and welfare.
Such powers are, of course, normally exercised by parents who
have a duty to provide care, protection, and control. Where, however,
either or both parents are deceased, or unable or unwilling to exercise
these powers and duties, the question of appointing a successor in the
form of a guardian will arise. Every infant must have some adult to
safeguard his interests.
7. Guardians may be appointed by:
a) a deed or will of a parent.
b) the court, where no guardian has been appointed by deed or
will and the infant has no parent, guardian or other person exercising
control over him.
8. Where an infant or minor has been made a ward of court
(which may result where both parents are dead or divorced) all important decisions affecting the child, such as his upbringing, property,
investments, etc. may only be made by authority of the court.
LEXIS
adopted child - приёмный ребёнок, усыновлённый ребёнок
custody - присмотр; опека; попечение
chastise - подвергнуть наказанию
excessive - чрезмерный, излишний
qualified - пригодный, подходящий (для чего-л.)
intervention – вмешательство; посредничество, соучастие
met - учтен, соблюден, удовлетворен
permanently bereaved - осиротевший из-за смерти родителей
abandoned – брошенный, оставленный
couple – супружеская пара, супруги
adoptive parent = adopter - приёмный родитель, усыновитель
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intestacy - отсутствие завещания; наследство, оставленное без завещания
eligible - имеющий право (в силу соответствия определенным требованиям); подходящий, приемлемый, годный, пригодный
ward - лицо, находящееся под опекой
maintenance – поддержка, содержание, уход
deceased - умерший, скончавшийся, ушедший из жизни человек
successor – правопреемник, наследник
deed - документ, скрепленный печатью; документ с подписями и
печатью
ward of court - лицо, находящееся под опекой суда
investments - затраты, расходы
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
5.9. QUESTIONS
1. What does family law determine?
2. What rights can parents exercise to their children?
Which parent has the right to custody of the children of the marriage? Who is custody awarded to in a divorce or separation?
What must parents provide for their children?
Who may adopt? Are there any requirements for those wishing to
adopt a child?
What is “guardianship”?
When does the question of appointing a guardian arise?
Who can appoint a guardian?
When can an infant or minor be made a ward of court?
5.10. AGREE OR DISAGREE
1. The legal relationship is the same as the natural relationship.
2. As a rule parents are the legal as well as natural guardians of their child.
Parents can chastise the child.
A father’s duty to support his minor children depends on whether
or not he has ever been married to their mother.
The adopted child has the same rights of inheritance as natural
children born in wedlock to the adopters.
A person is eligible for adoption at any age under 10.
All important decisions affecting the child, such as his upbringing,
property, investments, etc. can be made by authority of the court.
5.11. GIVE ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS for:
a) проводить различие между биологическим и законным
родством;
b) выносить судебное решение о передаче на попечительство;
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c) снабжать предметами первой необходимости;
d) назначать опекуна;
e) обеспечивать благополучие ребенка;
f) осуществлять контроль над несовершеннолетним ребёнком.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
5.12. (*) SAY WHAT YOU KNOW about rules, tips or recommendations how to strengthen families and to maintain good
relations between parents and their children. Write down a
list of such tips. For instance:
Tell your child you love him every day - no matter his age.
Play with your children.
Let your children help you.
Eat meals as a family.
Respect your child’s choices.
Show your children how you respect elder people.
5.13. ENGAGE IN CONVERSATION. Discuss parental rights
and duties. Use the following chart:
as
Authority
as
Provider
Parent
as
Caregiver
as
Protector
as
Socializer
5.14. DEBATES
1. If children behave badly, who's to blame: parents or
children?
2. Spanking is one of the most controversial discipline methods. On
one side of the debate are parents who believe it is all right to spank
their children. On the other side are those who think that children
should never be spanked. Somewhere in the middle are parents who
believe that spanking should only be used in particular instances
(e.g., when the child runs into the street). Whom do you support? Explain your choice.
5.15. KEY WORDS
adopted child
adopter
adoption
alimony
child custody
contested divorce
decree absolute
decree nisi
marriage
mutual dependence
natural relationship
no-fault divorce
parent
paternity
right to custody of one's children
separation
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divorce
family relationships
guardian
guardianship
husband
infant
inheritance
legal capacity
legal relationship
legitimation
-
spouse
succession
to attain maturity
to dissolve a marriage
to file for divorce
to re-marry
uncontested divorce
valid marriage
ward
wife
5.16. (**) ESSAY WRITING. Chose one of the following themes
for your essay on the topic “Family law":
- “Children: custody and support.”
- “Children’s rights and duties.”
“Divorce vs. separation.”
“Domestic violence: habitual act or exception?”
“International adoption.”
“International marriage.”
“Marriage contract: pros and cons.”
“Paternity: rights and duties.”
5.17. TEST YOURSELF. Match the words with their definitions:
adoption, adoptive parents, adult, adultery, alimony, annulment,
biological parent, child support, custodial parent, custody,
decree absolute, decree nisi, desertion, divorce, guardian,
guardianship, infant, marriage, marriage certificate,
no-fault divorce, one-parent family, parent, separation,
single parent, spouse, ward, wedding
1) a baby or very young child
2) a decision that a husband and wife make to live apart while they are
3) a
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
a
a
a
a
a
a
still legally married
divorce in which neither party has been accused of or found guilty
of any misconduct
family in which the children live with one parent rather than two
fully grown person who is legally responsible for their actions
legal document that proves two people are married
marriage ceremony, and the meal or party that usually follows it
person that has legally adopted a child
person who is legally responsible for the care of another person,
especially a child whose parents have died
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10) a person who is married to another person; a husband or wife
11) a person who takes care of their child or children without a hus12)
13)
14)
15)
16)
17)
18)
19)
20)
21)
22)
23)
24)
25)
26)
27)
band, wife or partner
a person, especially a child, who is under the legal protection of a
court or another person
a person’s father or mother
an order from a court that a marriage will end after a fixed amount
of time unless there is a good reason why it should not
an order from a court that finally ends a marriage, making the two
people divorced
money paid as part of a divorce settlement, to help maintain a
child of divorced parents
natural parents, not the people who adopted him/her
sexual intercourse by consent between a married person and
someone of the opposite sex who is not that person’s spouse
the act of ending a marriage by saying that it was never valid
the act of leaving a spouse; abandoning wife, husband, or child
with no intention of either returning or of reassuming the financial and other duties of marriage or parenthood
the legal ending of a marriage
the legal relationship between a husband and wife
the legal right of a parent to keep and bring up a child after a divorce; the control and care of something by someone
the money that a court orders somebody to pay regularly to their
former wife or husband when the marriage is ended; also called
maintenance or spousal support
the parent who has physical custody of the child
the state of being a guardian
the system which people use to become parents even though they
are not the child's natural parents
5.18. MAKE A REPORT on the topic “Family Law”, paying attention to the following points in your speech:
- nature of family law;
- marriage;
- parent-child relationship;
- termination of marriage relationship.
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Unit 6. Contract Law
6.1. BEFORE READING learn the following words and phrases which are essential on the topic:
acceptance /əkˈseptəns/ - принятие (запроса); акцептование (стадия торгового договора: ответ лица, которому адресована оферта о ее принятии; согласие принять предлагаемые условия)
breach of contract /briːtʃ əv ˈkɒntrækt/ - нарушение договора, невыполнение условий контракта
capacity /kəˈpæsəti/ = legal capacity /ˈliːɡ(ə)l kəˈpæsəti/ - правоспособность сторон договора
consideration /kənˌsɪdəˈreɪʃ(ə)n/ - встречное удовлетворение, компенсация, вознаграждение, возмещение, оплата (нечто ценное,
предлагаемое одной стороной в обмен на определенное обещание или действие другой стороны)
contract /ˈkɒntrækt/ - договор; сделка; контракт || заключать договор
contracting party /kənˈtræktɪŋ ˈpɑː(r)ti/ = party to contract /ˈpɑː(r)ti tʊ
ˈkɒntrækt/ - договаривающаяся сторона, контрагент, участник
договора
contractual relationship /kənˈtræktʃʊəl rɪˈleɪʃ(ə)nʃɪp/ - договорные отношения, контрактные отношения
counteroffer /ˈkaʊntə(r)ˌɒfə(r)/ - встречное предложение, контроферта
express agreement /ɪkˈspres əˈɡriːmənt/ - точно сформулированное
соглашение, положительно выраженное соглашение
implied agreement /ɪmˈplaɪd əˈɡriːmənt/ - подразумеваемое соглашение; соглашение, выводимое из направленных на заключение договора действий; квазидоговор
legally enforceable agreement /ˈliːɡəli ɪnˈfɔː(r)səb(ə)l əˈɡriːmənt/ - соглашение, имеющее исковую силу; договор, могущий быть
принудительно осуществленным в судебном порядке; соглашение, обеспеченное правовой санкцией
mutual promises /ˈmjuːtʃuəl ˈprɒmɪsəz/ - взаимные обязательства,
обоюдные обещания
offer /ˈɒfə(r)/ - оферта (предложение одного лица другому, сообщающее о желании заключить с ним договор) || предлагать;
делать предложение
specific performance /spəˈsɪfɪk pə(r)ˈfɔː(r)məns/ - реальное исполнение, исполнение в натуре
subject matter /ˈsʌbdʒɪkt ˈmætə(r)/ - содержание, предмет договора
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terms of contract /tɜː(r)mz əv ˈkɒntrækt/ - условия договора, договорные условия, срок исполнения договора
to enter into an agreement /ˈentə(r) ˈɪntʊ ən əˈɡriːmənt/ = make an
agreement /meɪk ən əˈɡriːmənt/, conclude a contract /kənˈkluːd ə
ˈkɒntrækt/ - заключать договор
to execute a contract /ˈeksɪˌkjuːt ə ˈkɒntrækt/ - исполнять договор,
выполнять условия договора
to rescind an agreement /rɪˈsɪnd ən əˈɡriːmənt/ = annul a contract
/əˈnʌl ə ˈkɒntrækt/, cancel a contract /ˈkæns(ə)l ə ˈkɒntrækt/, revoke an agreement /rɪˈvəʊk ən əˈɡriːmənt/ - прекратить действие
договора, аннулировать договор, объявлять соглашение недействительным
valid contract /ˈvælɪd ˈkɒntrækt/ - юридически действительный,
имеющий силу; правомерный контракт; договор, достаточный
с правовой точки зрения; неоспоримый контракт; надлежаще
оформленный, надлежаще совершённый контракт
void /vɔɪd/ - ничтожный; не имеющий юридической силы
voidable /ˈvɔɪdəb(ə)l/ - оспоримый; могущий быть аннулированным,
не обязательный к исполнению
6.2. SCANNING
Nature of Contracts
1. A contract is a legally enforceable agreement, express or
implied, which gives rise to certain rights and obligations. Thus in
case of a breach of contract the injured party may go to court to sue
for money damages, or for rescission, or for specific performance if
money damages would not compensate for the breach. But these
rights and obligations cannot arise except between the parties to the
contract.
2. There are four essential elements of a valid contract:
i) capacity of the parties;
ii) legality of subject matter;
iii) consideration (something of value given in exchange for a
promise);
iv) mutual agreement (assent), meeting of the minds (a valid offer
and acceptance) and intention of the parties to create legal relations.
3. Each of the four essential requirements must be met in the
formation of a valid contract.
 Capacity of the Parties
4. Under the law, only a person who is legally competent has the
power to make a binding contract and can be held to any promises
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contained therein. Persons who may be considered to be legally incompetent include minors, insane persons, and, sometimes under
specified circumstances, intoxicated persons.
 Legality of Subject Matter
5. If the subject matter of an agreement is not legal, the agreement is not enforceable in a court of law. In this respect, we do not
use the expression "void" or "voidable"; the illegal agreement simply
has no existence in contemplation of law. Generally, neither party has
access to a court for the assistance of law with respect to any aspect
of the agreement.
6. There are two reasons why the subject matter of a contract
may be illegal: statute and public policy. Statutes are legislative acts;
public policy is a judicial determination of prevailing morality.
 Consideration
7. Consideration is something of value that is given in exchange
for a promise. It is based on the idea of quid pro quo ("something for
something"). In almost all contracts, consideration is required for enforceability.
 Mutual agreement
8. Contracts usually consist of mutual promises given by parties
with intent to bind themselves. A promise creates for the promisor (the
person making the promise) a future obligation. For the promisee (the
person to whom the promise is made) it creates an expectation that
the promise will be fulfilled. Furthermore, the promisee will often rely
on the promise.
9. It is not necessary that the thing promised be affirmative; it
may be refraining from acting or promising not to act. A promise made
to give $1,000 to a friend if she does not smoke (a negative unilateral
contract) is mutual and binding.
LEXIS
injured party - сторона, понёсшая ущерб
sue for money damages - обращаться в суд с иском о денежной компенсации убытков
rescission – расторжение договора
meeting of minds - совпадение воли и желаний сторон
intention – намерение, стремление
binding - принудительный, обязательный, обязывающий
minor - несовершеннолетний; лицо, не достигшее совершеннолетия
public policy - общественное мнение, публичный порядок
quid pro quo - лат. услуга за услугу, встречное удовлетворение
promisor - лицо, дающее обещание; должник по договору
promisee - лицо, которому дают обещание; кредитор по договору
rely on - полагаться, надеяться; доверять, быть уверенным
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affirmative - позитивный, положительный, утвердительный
refrain - воздерживаться (от чего-либо); не совершать (что-либо)
negative unilateral contract - односторонний контракт о вознаграждении другой стороны в случае несовершения той стороной
какого-л. действия
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
3.
4.
5.
6.
6.3. QUESTIONS
1. What is the legal meaning of the term “contract:?
2. What is the meaning of the phrase "a legally competent
person" if we speak about contractual obligations?
Who is usually considered to be legally incompetent?
Is a contract void or voidable if its subject matter occurs to be illegal?
What do they mean if they say that the subject matter of a contract
is against public policy?
What is the role of consideration in contractual relations?
How do they call a person to whom the promise is made? What
does the promise create for him?
What is the difference between affirmative and negative promises?
6.4. AGREE OR DISAGREE
1. A contract is legally enforceable only if it is based on an
express agreement of the parties.
2. For a contract to be enforceable it is not necessary to be
in writing.
A contract is treated as valid even in the absence of any of its four
essential elements.
Intoxicated persons by no means are considered legally incompetent.
If the subject matter of a contract is against law they say that it is
a negative contract.
In contractual relations consideration is an equivalent to promise.
6.5. GIVE ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS for:
a) создавать права и обязанности;
b) давать что-либо ценное взамен;
c) быть неправоспособным;
d) соответствовать основным требованиям;
e) иметь доступ к суду / иметь право обращения в суд;
f) порождать обязательство на будущее;
g) выполнять обещание.
6.6. (**) SAY WHAT YOU KNOW about:
- various forms of consideration as an integral part of a valid contract;
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- forms of rejection of an offer;
- difference between an offer and an invitation to treat.
6.7. SCANNING
Mutual Agreement: Offer and Acceptance
1. As defined in the previous text, a contract is a legally enforceable agreement; an agreement is a meeting of the
minds. Since courts and juries are not mind readers, the existence of
this mental condition must be manifest in words, oral or written, or in
actions. The mutual assent of the parties to a contract is manifested
in two legal concepts, the offer and the acceptance.
2. The offer. The simplest way to form an express contract begins
with a formal offer. There are two requirements to an offer: a) it must
indicate a clear, definite intent to make a contract and b) it must be
communicated to the other party.
3. If an offer does not specify a period of time during which it is to
remain open, it expires after the passage of a reasonable time. What
constitutes a reasonable time depends on the implied intention of the
offerer and the property or goods offered, customs of the trade or
business, and the like. When the time during which the offer is to remain open is specified, that time then becomes the expiration date. An
offer may expire at an earlier time than stated, however, because of:
- rejection: if a person to whom an offer has been made rejects it,
then they cannot subsequently accept the original offer;
- a counter-offer: where the offeree tries to change the terms of
the original offer; a counter-offer should not be confused with a request for information, which does not end the offer;
- revocation of offer: the offeror may revoke a simple offer at any
time before it is accepted;
- the death or incompetency of either offerer or offeree.
4. The acceptance. Acceptance of the offer closes a transaction.
However, the acceptance must meet certain standards:
 first, the acceptance must be clear and unqualified; an acceptance that modifies the original offer is treated in the law as a counteroffer, that is, a rejection of the original offer and the making of a new
offer;
 second, the offeree must accept in any manner required by the
offer. If the offer states, "I must have your answer by 1 P.M. on December 1," then failure to have the answer in the hands of the offerer
by that time is fatal to the contract.
5. Reality of contract. As explained earlier, a meeting of the
minds - mutual assent or agreement - is a necessary element of a
contract. Without it, the contract may be void or voidable. There are
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several reasons why mutual assent may be lacking: mistake, fraud,
misrepresentation, undue influence, and duress.
6. Discharge of contract means that the parties to an agreement
are freed from their contractual obligations. A contract is discharged
in one of four ways:
(a) agreement of the parties to bring the contract to an end;
(b) performance of obligations;
(c) frustration;
(d) breach of contract conditions by another party.
LEXIS
mind reader - тот, кто читает чужие мысли
mental condition - психическое состояние, осознаваемое
условие
expire - закончиться, истечь (о сроках), потерять силу (о законе)
customs of the trade - торговый обычай
expiration date - дата истечения срока; срок действия
rejection - отказ; непринятие, отклонение (предложения)
request for information - запрос о предоставлении информации
revocation – аннулирование, отмена
incompetency - недееспособность, неправоспособность
close a transaction – заключать, завершать сделку
unqualified - абсолютный, безусловный, неограниченный
in the hands - в распоряжении, в интересах (кого-либо)
reality - действительность, истинность; неподдельность
lacking - недостающий, отсутствующий, недостаточный
fraud - мошенничество
misrepresentation - введение в заблуждение
undue influence - злоупотребление влиянием, неподобающее влияние
duress - физическое принуждение
discharge of contract - прекращение обязательств по договору
free - освобождать (от каких-л. обязательств и т.п.)
bring the contract to an end – прекратить действие договора
performance - исполнение, выполнение; свершение
frustration - прекращение обязательства из-за невозможности его
выполнения
breach - нарушение
6.8. QUESTIONS
1. How may a mutual agreement of contracting parties be
manifested?
2. What are the requirements to an offer?
3. What does an expiration date signify in connection with the offer?
4. May an offer expire at an earlier time than its expiration date?
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5. Under what conditions can an offerer revoke his or her offer?
6. What is treated as an acceptance in contractual relations?
7. What are legal consequences of mistake, fraud, misrepresentation,
duress and undue influence from the point of view of enforceability of a contract?
8. How may contracts be discharged?
9. Which of the following agreements will be enforced by the courts:
a. John agrees to sell his car to Peter for $500.
b. John agrees, as favour, to take Peter on holiday with him.
c. John agrees to give Peter, as favour, a valuable painting and
signs a deed to this effect which is sealed and delivered to Peter.
6.9. AGREE OR DISAGREE
1. A contract is based on an oral agreement of two or more
parties.
2. Any offer expires after the passage of a reasonable time.
3. Rejection in contractual relations is synonymous to counteroffer.
4. An offerer can revoke his or her offer only in cases stipulated by law.
5. Even without mutual assent of the parties the contract is treated
as valid.
6.10. GIVE ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS for:
a) ясно выражать в словах;
b) точно указывать срок/период времени;
c) заканчиваться ранее установленного срока;
d) отклонить предложение/оферту;
e) сообщать другой стороне в договоре;
f) видоизменять первоначальное предложение/оферту;
g) зависеть от предполагаемого намерения;
h) освобождаться от обязательств по договору.
6.11. (*) SKIMMING. Read the following text and prepare
five questions about its content. Be ready to interview your
group mates.
An offer is a proposal made on certain terms by offeror with a
promise to be bound by that proposal if the offeree accepts the stated
terms. An offer may be made to a specific person; in this case this offer can be accepted by that person. If an offer is made to a group of
people it may be accepted by any member of the group.
A genuine offer must be distinguished from an “invitation to
treat’, which occurs in the following instances:
- the display of goods with a price ticket attached in a shop window or on a supermarket shelf;
- advertisements, catalogues, brochures;
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- company prospectus;
- statements of price in negotiations for the sale of land;
- auctions;
- tenders.
An offer can end in a number of ways:
- by acceptance of the offer;
- by rejection of the offer:
a) by a counter offer;
b) by notifying the offeror of not accepting the offer.
- by revocation before acceptance;
- if the offer lapses;
- if the offeror dies;
- if failure of a condition attached to the offer happens.
6.12. SCANNING
Kinds of Contracts
1. Contracts may be classified in three ways: by type of formation (express or implied), by performance (unilateral or bilateral,
executed or executory), or by enforceability (valid, unenforceable, void
or voidable).
2. By type of formation:
An express contract is one in which the terms of the contract are
stated by the parties, either orally or in writing. The example of a written one is a contract under seal which is generally called a specialty
contract, a covenant or a deed. Three things are essential to a deed writing, sealing and delivery.
3. An implied contract is one in which the terms of the contract
are not stated by the parties. There are two types of implied contracts:
those implied in fact and those implied in law.
4. The existence and the terms of an implied-in-fact contract are
manifested in conduct, rather than words. The proof of the contract
lies in the conduct of the parties; it means that a reasonable person,
being aware of this conduct, would infer that a contract exists.
5. An implied-in-law or quasi contract is created by operation of
law (i.e., a court implies a contract) in order to avoid unjust enrichment of one party at the expense of another. There is no agreement,
no meeting of the minds, one party has rendered a benefit to another
under such circumstances that fairness and equity require compensation.
6. By type of performance:
 bilateral versus unilateral
A bilateral contract is based on an exchange of promises - a promise for a promise. Thus there is a mutual engagement.
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A unilateral contract involves a promise by one party and an act
by the other. A common example of a unilateral contract is a reward
contract. For example, suppose that A promises B a sum of $100 if B
is able to find A’s lost cat. This is a unilateral contract because the A
is only obligated to pay the $100 sum once B finds the lost
cat. However, B is under no obligation to find the cat. If, however, the
person receiving the offer promises to act before doing so, the contract
may become bilateral.
 executed versus executory
An executed contract is one that has been fully performed by both
parties; all promises have been fulfilled.
In an executory contract something remains to be done by one or
both parties at some future date.
7. By enforceability:
A valid contract meets all legal requirements and can be enforced by either party.
An unenforceable contract is one that is valid in itself but not
capable of being proved in a court of law because this contract does
not meet one or more legal requirements and cannot be enforced by
either party. Examples are promises to make a gift (no consideration),
promises made in jest (no contractual intent), and past breaches of
contract now beyond the statute of limitations.
A voidable contract is binding on only one of the parties. The
other party has the option to withdraw from the contract or enforce it.
Examples are contracts made by minors and contracts made under
mental duress.
A void contract is a contract that has no legal effect and cannot
be enforced by either party. Examples are illegal agreements made
under threat of physical force.
LEXIS
enforceability - обладание исковой силой; возможность
принудительного осуществления в судебном порядке;
обеспеченность правовой санкцией
contract under seal - договор за печатью (скрепленный печатью)
specialty contract - юридический документ, скреплённый печатью
covenant - договор или акт за печатью; обязательство из договора
deed - документ с подписями и печатью
implied-in-fact contract - подразумеваемый договор (договор, условия которого по умолчанию вытекают из поведения сторон)
infer - заключать; делать (логический) вывод; выводить (заключение, следствие; из чего-л.)
implied-in-law - подразумеваемый в силу закона
unjust enrichment - неправомерное обогащение
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at the expense - за счёт
render a benefit - оказывать содействие, создавать выгоду
bilateral contract - двусторонний договор
unilateral contract - односторонний контракт; контракт, перед заключением которого одна из сторон уже выполнила почти все
свои обязательства
executed contract - контракт, условия которого выполнены обеими
сторонами; договор с исполнением в момент заключения
executory contract - контракт, подлежащий исполнению в будущем
unenforceable contract - контракт, претензии по которому не могут
быть заявлены в суде
jest - шутка, проказа, розыгрыш
past breach - нарушение договора, срок действия которого уже истёк
withdraw from the contract - денонсировать договор, выйти из договора
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
6.13. QUESTIONS
1. What are possible grounds for classifying contracts?
2. What is the difference between express and implied contracts?
What are the two types of implied contracts? Define them.
What kind of contract does not require the existence of mutual
promises?
Is an unenforceable contract valid or void? Explain your choice.
Give the examples of unenforceable contracts.
How can we distinguish between voidable and void contracts?
6.14. (*) PREPARE a list of five-seven questions of your own to
ask about the topic “Contract Law”. Be ready to interview
the students in your group.
6.15. AGREE OR DISAGREE
1. There are three general kinds of contracts: a deed, a specialty contract and an implied-in-law contract.
2. Gifts and jests are the examples of voidable contracts.
3. Sometimes it is difficult to define whether there is an executed or
executory contract.
4. A quasi contract is created directly by the conduct of the parties rather than words.
6.16. GIVE ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS for:
a) классифицировать по трём основаниям;
b) устанавливать/формулировать условия договора;
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c) предотвратить неправомерное обогащение;
d) требовать/предписывать возмещение;
e) стать двусторонним соглашением;
f) сделать (ценный) подарок.
6.17. (**) ENGAGE IN CONVERSATION. Explore any additional information if necessary and discuss the issue of voluntary and mandatory ways of contract discharge:
Contract Discharge
6.18. COMPLETE the extracts using the words in the box below.
What is a contract?
It is an agreement that creates a binding (1) upon the parties. The
essentials of a contract are as follows: mutual (2); a legal (3), which in
most instances need not be financial; parties who have legal (4) to
make a contract; absence of (5) or duress; and a subject matter that
is not (6) or against public policy.
What form does a contract take?
In general, contracts may be either (7) or written. Certain types of
contracts, however, in order to be enforceable, must be written and
(8). These include contracts involving the sale and transfer of (9).
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How does a contract end?
In case of a (10) of contract, the injured party may go to court to
sue for financial compensation (or (11)), or for rescission, for injunction, or for specific performance if financial compensation would not
compensate for the breach. Specific (12) of a contract is the right by
one contracting party to have the other contracting party perform the
contract according to the precise (13) agreed.
agreement, breach, capacity, consideration, damages, fraud,
illegal, obligation, oral, performance, property, signed, terms
6.19. (**) SAY WHAT YOU KNOW about:
- the importance of contract law in international business;
- fundamental norms that the structure and content of a
written agreement must comply with;
- different kinds of contractual clauses.
6.20. DEBATES
Do you support the statement: “A contract is only as good as
the relationship with the other party in the contract”.
6.21. KEY WORDS
acceptance
acceptor
assent
bilateral contract
breach of contract
capacity of the party
consideration
contract under seal
contracting party
contractual relationship
counteroffer
deed
enforceability
executed contract
executory contract
expiration date
express contract
implied contract
implied-in-fact contract
implied-in-law contract
legally enforceable agreement
misrepresentation
money damages
mutual promises
offer
offeree
offeror
party to contract
specific performance
subject matter
terms of contract
to bind
to rescind
unenforceable contract
unilateral contract
valid
void
voidable
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-
6.22. (**) ESSAY WRITING. Chose one of the following themes
for your essay on the topic “Contract law":
- “Basic principles of contract law.”
- “Contracts and consumer law.”
“Essential clauses of a sales contract.”
“Electronic transactions: pros and cons.”
“Purpose and functions of contract law in modern society.”
“Remedies for breach of contract.”
6.23. TEST YOURSELF. Fill each gap in the text with only one
word or phrase from the box given below:
A contract is (1) which gives rise to certain rights and obligations that are created by the parties themselves. Thus in case of (2)
the injured party may go to court to sue for (3), for rescission, or for
specific performance.
There are four essential elements of a valid contract:
i) (4) of the parties - only a person who is legally competent has
the power to make a binding contract; examples of incompetent persons include (5), insane persons, or intoxicated persons;
ii) (6) of subject matter; if the subject matter of an agreement is
not legal, the agreement is not enforceable in a court of law;
iii) (7) - that is something of value given in exchange for a promise;
iv) mutual agreement or (8) given by parties with intent to bind
themselves; these promise create for the parties to the contract (9).
The simplest way to form an express contract begins with (10).
There are two requirements of an offer: a) it must indicate a definite
intent to make a contract; and b) it must be communicated to (11).
Acceptance of the offer closes a transaction if this (12) is clear and
unqualified.
Contractual obligations are created by (13) themselves and may
be discharged in one of four ways: performance of obligations; agreement of the parties; (14) by another party; frustration of the purpose.
All contracts may be classified in three ways:
1) by performance:
– (15) contract - a promise for a promise;
- (16) contract - a promise for an act (acceptance is the completed
performance of the act);
– (17) - a fully performed contract;
- (18) - a contract is not fully performed and something remains
to be done by one or both parties at some future date;
2) by (19):
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- express contract - formed by words (oral, written, or a combination);
- (20) - formed by the course of action of the parties;
- formal contract - requires a special form for creation;
- (21) - requires no special form for creation.
3) by enforceability:
- (22) - the contract has all necessary contractual elements;
- (23) - one party has the option of avoiding or enforcing the contractual obligation;
- (24) - a contract exists, but it cannot be enforced because of a
legal defense;
- (25) - no contract exists, or there is a contract without legal obligations.
a breach of contract, a formal offer, a legally enforceable agreement,
acceptance, bilateral, breach of contract conditions, capacity,
consideration, executed contract, executory contract, future obligations, implied contract, informal contract, legality, minors, money
damages, mutual promises, the other party, the parties, unenforceable contract, type of formation, unilateral, valid contract,
void contract, voidable contract
6.24. MAKE A REPORT on the topic “Contract Law”, paying
attention to the following points in your speech:
- nature of contract law;
- essential elements of a valid contract;
- classifications of contracts;
- discharge of contractual obligations.
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Unit 7. Company Law
7.1. BEFORE READING learn the following words and phrases which are essential on the topic:
articles of incorporation /ˈɑː(r)tɪk(ə)l əv ɪnˈkɔː(r)pəreɪʃ(ə)n/ =
memorandum of association /ˌmeməˈrændəm əv əˌsəʊsiˈeɪʃ(ə)n/
- договор об учреждении акционерного общества, учредительные документы, меморандум, устав юридического лица, официальный акт о регистрации компании
business entity /ˈbɪznəs ˈentəti/ - организационно-правовая форма
хозяйствования, фирма, компания, коммерческая организация, хозяйственная единица; юридическое лицо, занимающееся экономической деятельностью ради получения прибыли
close company /kləʊz ˈkʌmp(ə)ni/ = private company /ˈpraɪvət
ˈkʌmp(ə)ni/ - частная, частно-правовая компания (не имеющая
права на публичную продажу акций); корпорация закрытого
типа (компания с ограниченным числом участников, не
имеющих права продавать свои акции без согласия других
акционеров и непосредственно участвующих в управлении
компанией; акции таких корпораций не обращаются на открытом рынке)
company /ˈkʌmp(ə)ni/ = corporation /ˌkɔː(r)pəˈreɪʃ(ə)n/ - компания,
акционерное общество, фирма, корпорация, юридическое лицо
dissolution of a company /ˌdɪsəˈluːʃ(ə)n əv ə ˈkʌmp(ə)ni/ - ликвидация,
роспуск компании
distinct legal entity /dɪˈstɪŋkt ˈliːɡ(ə)l ˈentəti/ - юридический субъект,
самостоятельное юридическое лицо
general partnership /ˈdʒen(ə)rəl ˈpɑː(r)tnə(r)ʃɪp/ - полное товарищество, товарищество с неограниченной ответственностью (члены
такого товарищества несут как индивидуальную, так и солидарную ответственность по обязательствам товарищества)
incorporator /ɪnˈkɔː(r)pəreɪtə(r)/ - учредитель корпорации
joint venture /dʒɔɪnt ˈventʃə(r)/ - совместное предприятие, смешанное предприятие, временное товарищество
limited liability company (Ltd.) /ˈlɪmɪtɪd ˌlaɪəˈbɪləti ˈkʌmp(ə)ni/ - акционерное общество с ограниченной ответственностью; компания с ограниченной ответственностью по обязательствам
limited liability partnership /ˈlɪmɪtɪd ˌlaɪəˈbɪləti ˈpɑː(r)tnə(r)ʃɪp/ = limited partnership (LP.) /ˈlɪmɪtɪd ˈpɑː(r)tnə(r)ʃɪp/ - партнёрство с
ограниченной ответственностью, товарищество на вере, коммандитное товарищество (коммерческое предприятие, включающее по крайней мере одного партнера с полной ответст111
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венностью и по крайней мере одного партнера с ограниченной
ответственностью (отвечающего по обязательствам предприятия только в рамках своего пая)
ordinary shares /ˈɔː(r)d(ə)n(ə)ri ʃeə(r)z/ - обыкновенные акции, акции с нефиксированным дивидендом
partnership /ˈpɑː(r)tnə(r)ʃɪp/ - товарищество (форма предпринимательства, представляющая собой объединение двух или более
лиц (партнеров), совместно осуществляющих коммерческую
деятельность; для организации этой формы требуется устное
или письменное соглашение партнеров об их вкладах, участии
в прибыли, ответственности и т. п.; партнерство не образует
юридического лица)
preference shares /ˈpref(ə)rəns ʃeə(r)z/ - привилегированные акции
(с фиксированным дивидендом и правом первоочередной оплаты)
public company /ˈpʌblɪk ˈkʌmp(ə)ni/ = public corporation /ˈpʌblɪk
ˌkɔː(r)pəˈreɪʃ(ə)n/, open joint-stock company /ˈəʊpən ˌdʒɔɪntˈstɒk
ˈkʌmp(ə)ni/ - открытая или публичная акционерная компания,
открытое акционерное общество (имеет право продажи акций
на рынке ценных бумаг)
share /ʃeə(r)/ - пай (участие в капитале компании); акция (ценная
бумага, свидетельствующая о внесении определенной суммы в
собственный капитал компании и подтверждающая право
своего владельца на определенную часть прибыли данной
компании и остатка активов при ликвидации, а обычно также
и право на участие в управлении компании путем голосования
на собраниях акционеров)
shareholder /ˈʃeə(r)ˌhəʊldə(r)/ - акционер, владелец акций, держатель акций (юридическое или физическое лицо, являющееся
собственником акций акционерного общества, т. е. части акционерного капитала)
sole proprietorship /səʊl prəˈpraɪətə(r)ʃɪp/ = private enterprise
/ˈpraɪvət ˈentə(r)ˌpraɪz/ - фирма в индивидуальной особенности,
единоличное хозяйство, индивидуальное предприятие (компания, которая находится в собственности и управлении одного
человека, отвечающего по обязательствам данной компании
личным имуществом; такая юридическая форма предпринимательства избирается для мелких предприятий)
sole trader /səʊl ˈtreɪdə(r)/ = sole proprietor /səʊl prəˈpraɪətə(r)/, individual entrepreneur /ˌɪndɪˈvɪdʒuəl ˌɒntrəprəˈnɜː(r)/ - частный (индивидуальный) предприниматель; человек, имеющий собственное дело
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to form a company /fɔː(r)m ə ˈkʌmp(ə)ni/ = establish a company
/ɪˈstæblɪʃ ə ˈkʌmp(ə)ni/, constitute a company /ˈkɒnstɪˌtjuːt ə
ˈkʌmp(ə)ni/, start a company /stɑː(r)t ə ˈkʌmp(ə)ni/ - учредить
компанию
to reorganize /riˈɔː(r)ɡənaɪz/ – преобразовать, реорганизовать, производить санацию убыточного предприятия
to wind up company /waɪnd ʌp ə ˈkʌmp(ə)ni/ = dissolve a company
/dɪˈzɒlv ə ˈkʌmp(ə)ni/, close down a company /kləʊz daʊn ə
ˈkʌmp(ə)ni/ - ликвидировать компанию
7.2. SCANNING
Business Organizations:
Private Enterprise and Partnerships
1. There are three basic types of business organizations:
(i) The private enterprise is the simplest form. The sole owner and
his/her business are not legally distinct entities. The owner has unlimited liability for debts of the business.
(ii) The partnership: two or more individuals are the owners, having expressly or implicitly agreed to establish and run a business for
profit.
(iii) The corporation: a distinct legal entity which is created under
Company law and has an existence separate from its shareholders. A
business entity is deemed to be a corporation only if the entity has at
least three of the following four traits: limited liability, centralized
management, continuity of life, and free transferability of interests.
2. There are also some other organizational forms which are not
strictly classified as either partnerships or corporations - for instance,
syndicates, business trusts, associations, joint ventures and cooperatives.
3. Private enterprise or individual proprietorship is the form of
organization where the owner is in sole charge of the business and is
responsible for its success or failure. Although advantages for the
small business exist in this form, certain drawbacks make it undesirable for larger concerns. In the first place the single owner is seldom
able to invest as much capital as can be secured by a partnership or a
corporation. If single owners are able to invest large amounts of capital, they run great risk of losing it all because they are personally liable for all the debts of their businesses. This is called unlimited liability. Only in agriculture is the individual owner still a predominant figure.
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4. Partnership is an association of two or more persons who have
agreed to combine their labor, property, and skill, or some or all of
them, for the purpose of engaging in lawful business and sharing
profits and losses between them; in this definition the term business
includes every trade, occupation, and profession. The parties forming
such an association are known as partners. Partners may adopt a fictitious name or use a real family name. The agreement to form a partnership is known as a partnership contract, the most important provision of which spells out the manner in which profits are to be distributed.
5. There are two types of partnership: general and limited. General partnership is an ordinary partnership in which each partner is
personally liable for the acts of every other partner in the conduct of
the business and has unlimited personal liability for the debts of the
partnership, and usually all partners participate in the management
and conduct of the business.
6. A limited partnership is a partnership consisting of one or
more general partners and one or more limited partners. General partners manage the business and are personally liable for its debts and
obligations. Limited partners invest money or other property in the
business, but are not liable for the debts or obligations of the partnership.
7. A partnership can be formed only by contract. Any number of
persons may contract to form a partnership, and firms of partners
may enter into partnership with one another. New members may be
admitted into an existing partnership only with the consent of all the
partners. The agreement of partnership generally is for a definite term
of years; if no duration is specified, it is said to be a partnership at
will and can be terminated at any time by any partner. By agreement
of the members, a partnership may be dissolved or terminated and
the terms of the partnership agreement modified at any time. Death
or bankruptcy of a partner, the insanity or misconduct of a partner,
and the end of the period fixed for the duration of the partnership also operate to terminate the partnership.
LEXIS
transferability of interests - перемещаемость, передаваемость доли участия в компании
syndicate - синдикат, консорциум а) любое объединение банков,
страховых компаний, подрядчиков, товаропроизводителей или
других фирм с целью осуществления общего проекта б) объединение товаропроизводителей с целью сбыта и осуществления единой ценовой политики
business trust - деловой доверительный паевой фонд; деловой
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траст (форма неакционерного предприятия с ограниченной
ответственностью без образования юридического лица; состоит в объединении лиц, передающих титул собственности и
управление собственностью одному или нескольким доверительным собственникам, которые осуществляют распределение полученной прибыли в пользу участников (бенефициаров)
траста)
in sole charge of - полностью, единолично ответственный
drawback - недостаток, отрицательная сторона
larger concern - более серьёзное предприятие, более крупная фирма
secure - гарантировать, обеспечивать, защищать; оберегать (от чего-л.), страховать
run risk - идти на определенный риск
unlimited liability - неограниченная ответственность (акционера)
по обязательствам компании
fictitious name - вымышленное название
spell out - объяснять точно и обстоятельно, разъяснять, растолковывать
general partnership - полное товарищество, товарищество с неограниченной ответственностью (члены такого товарищества
несут как индивидуальную, так и солидарную ответственность
по обязательствам товарищества)
general partner - главный партнер с неограниченной (имущественной) ответственностью
limited partner - компаньон-вкладчик, компаньон с ограниченной
ответственностью
at will - бессрочный, по усмотрению партнеров
dissolve - ликвидировать (прекращать деятельность компании, товарищества и. п.)
terminate - 1) прекращать действие, кончать 2) ограничивать
modify - видоизменять, модифицировать; подправлять, корректировать, вносить поправки
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
7.3. QUESTIONS
1. What is the legal meaning of terms "limited liability" and
"unlimited liability"?
What are three basic types of business organizations? Are there
advantages and disadvantages peculiar to each of them?
What is the difference between partnership and corporation?
How can a partnership be established?
What two main types of partnership are there? Describe them.
What is said to be "a partnership at will"?
How may a partnership be dissolved or terminated?
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7.4. (*) PREPARE a list of five-seven questions of your own to
ask about the text above. Be ready to interview the students
in your group.
7.5. AGREE OR DISAGREE
1. Partnership is the simplest form of business organizations.
2. Individual proprietorship is the form of organization
where a legal entity is separate from its partners.
3. Partnerships may have only real family names.
4. No new members may be admitted into an existing partnership.
5. The legal status of general and limited partners is almost the same.
7.6. GIVE ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS for:
a) управлять предприятием с целью получения прибыли;
b) вкладывать большие суммы денег;
c) нести личную ответственность по долгам и обязательствам;
d) объединять усилия и навыки;
e) распределять доходы;
f) участвовать в управлении предприятия;
g) быть принятым в уже существующее товарищество;
e) прекращать существование предприятия.
7.7. SCANNING
Business Organizations: Companies
1. According to the classic definition “A company is an artificial being, invisible, intangible, and existing only in contemplation of
law.” A company is a legal entity that comes into existence when the
authorized governmental body issues a certificate of incorporation
which is applied for by one or more persons known as incorporators.
2. As a rule two or more natural persons may form a company,
provided that memorandum of association specifies:
(i) the purpose of the company and its duration;
(ii) its location and the post office address of its registered office;
(iii) the amount of paid-in-capital with which the company will begin business and the total number of shares;
(iv) the name and post office address of each of the incorporators
and a statement of the number of shares for which each has subscribed.
3. When the articles of incorporation are filed, the incorporators
hold a meeting, adopt bylaws, and approve the initial steps to be taken by the company.
4. In general all companies may be classified:
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o as to their type:
(i) public companies are those created by the people, or government for public purposes. As a rule they are open joint-stock companies. A company must satisfy three conditions before it can be a
public limited company:
- to be limited by shares and have a share capital;
- to state in its memorandum of association that it is to be a
public limited company; and
- to meet specified minimum capital requirements;
(ii) private corporations are close companies where the stock is
usually not sold publicly and may be held by one person, a family,
or a small group;
(iii) professional companies are organized for the purpose of conducting a profession. However, professional people cannot avoid personal liability by incorporation;
(iv) nonprofit companies are corporations formed for religious,
charitable, social, educational purposes on a nonprofit basis.
o as to their location:
(i) a domestic company is created by the laws of a state or country
in which it does business;
(ii) a foreign company is created in a state or country other than
the one in which it is doing business;
(iii) multinational corporations are the companies maintaining extensive business activities and large-scale production facilities
throughout the world, and their revenues sometimes exceed the total
revenues of some countries in which they operate.
5. A company may have any name provided that the regulatory
body does not think it undesirable. The last word in this name must
be ‘Limited’, or ‘Ltd.’, or ‘LLC’, or ‘plc’, or ‘Corp.’, depending on the
form of the business entity and the legal requirements of the state
where it is registered. The name must be fixed or painted outside
every office or place of business and must be conspicuous and easily
legible. It must also appear on all business letters, notices, cheques,
advertisements, bills, etc. If this particular word is omitted the consequences could be serious.
6. Reorganization and restructuring. Companies may be reorganized by merger, consolidation or sale of assets. Merger is the absorption of one corporation by another. For example, DOG Ltd. buys
out CAT Ltd. and merges CAT into DOG, with DOG Ltd. continuing as
the surviving corporation and CAT Ltd. going out of existence.
7. Where there is a consolidation, two or more companies cease to
exist and a new one is formed. For example, ABC Ltd. and ORN Ltd.
combine into a new LMN Ltd. which emerges as a result of the consolidation and both ABC and ORN now cease to exist.
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8. The terms "merger" and "consolidation" are often confused and
inaccurately used. A true consolidation is brought about when a new
company comes into existence to take over the assets and liabilities of
two or more former companies, which are then dissolved. A merger,
on the other hand, is brought about when one existing company is
continued and one or more others are merged into it without the formation of a new company.
9. Companies may be terminated either by reorganization or by
dissolution. Dissolution of a company may be by voluntary or involuntary action. Voluntary: shareholders may vote to dissolve the
company voluntarily. Involuntary, or forced dissolution, may be
caused by the creditors, by the petition of the required number of
shareholders, or by governmental action.
LEXIS
artificial being - искусственный объект, юридическое лицо
invisible - незримый, то что нельзя увидеть
intangible - нематериальный
in contemplation of law - с точки зрения закона
authorized - уполномоченный, наделенный полномочиями / правами
issue a certificate of incorporation - выдавать сертификат инкорпорации (свидетельство регистрации); выдавать разрешение государственного органа на создание компании
apply for - подавать заявление, ходатайствовать о
natural person - физическое лицо (правовое понятие, призванное
отличить человека (индивида) как субъекта права от другой
категории субъектов права- юридических лиц)
paid-in-capital = joint-stock = share capital - акционерный капитал,
оплачиваемая доля акционерного капитала
professional company - профессиональная корпорация, ассоциация, сообщество
domestic company - местная корпорация (основная деятельность
которой осуществляется в стране, где она зарегистрирована)
foreign company - иностранная корпорация (зарегистрированная в
ином государстве)
multinational corporation - многонациональная корпорация, транснациональная компания
large-scale production facilities - материальная база для серийного,
массового производства
revenue - доход, доходы, доходные статьи
regulatory body - регулирующий орган, орган управления
Ltd. - с ограниченной ответственностью
LLC - акционерное общество с ограниченной ответственностью
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plc - открытое акционерное общество
Corp. - корпорация
conspicuous - видный, заметный, бросающийся в глаза
easily legible - прочитываемый без труда, разборчиво написанный
merger - поглощение, слияние, объединение
consolidation - укрепление, объединение [консолидация] компаний
(соединение в одно целое двух или нескольких компаний)
absorption - поглощение, присоединение
cease - прекращать, останавливать; приостанавливать
governmental action - 1) правительственная мера 2) иск или преследование, возбуждённые органом государственной власти
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.8. QUESTIONS
1. What do incorporators apply to the authorized governmental body for?
What requirements should be met in order to form a corporation?
What conditions should a corporation satisfy to become a public
limited company (Plc)?
How are corporations classified as to their location?
What is the difference between merger and consolidation?
When does involuntary dissolution of a company take place?
7.9. (*) PREPARE a list of five-seven questions of your own to
ask about the text above. Be ready to interview the students
in your group.
4.
5.
6.
7.
7.10. AGREE OR DISAGREE
2. Not less than five natural persons may form a corporation.
3. Public corporations are either open joint-stock companies or close companies.
As a rule, professional people avoid personal liability by establishing professional corporations.
Multinational corporations are created on a nonprofit basis for religious, charitable, social or educational purposes.
The terms "merger" and "consolidation" have the same meaning "reorganization".
Only shareholders may decide whether to dissolve the corporation
voluntarily or there should be a forced dissolution.
7.11. GIVE ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS for:
a) появиться в качестве юридического лица;
b) указывать местоположение и почтовый адрес;
c) подавать на регистрацию учредительные документы компании;
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d) вести обширную коммерческую деятельность;
e) голосовать за роспуск компании;
f) соединяться с другой компанией.
7.12. SCANNING
Company Structure
1. As a result of globalization many countries although having different cultural, social, economic and political customs have worked out similar principles of running business and
making companies in different spheres of life.
2. Most companies are made up of three groups of people:
shareholders (who provide the capital), the management (who run the
process of producing some goods or services) and the workforce (who
practically produce these goods or services).
3. At the top of the company hierarchy is the Board of Directors,
who are usually the main investors to the business, and it is headed
by the chairman or president. Then comes a managing director (MD)
or a chief executive officer (CEO) who may be hired or chosen from
the Board and has overall responsibility for running the business.
Senior managers or company officers head the various departments
within the company and report to the CEO about the production
process, which is carried out by the people who are hired for the concrete job or service.
4. Typical company may have the following departments within
itself:
- marketing;
- public relations (PR);
- information technology (or IT);
- personnel and human resources (or HR);
- finance;
- production;
- research and development (or R&D).
Every department is engaged in its particular round of duties and
responsible for the concrete function in the process of providing goods
or services.
5. Very special place in this scheme is occupied by the in-house
legal department which provides legal strategy of the company, integrating legal considerations into business planning, presents the
interests of the company in different kinds of prosecution and reduces legal costs in handling such unexpected problems as embargoes, boycotts and strikes.
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6. The inside lawyer is expected to have general training and
professional skills that equip him for various specialized tasks. The
counselor should help the company as his sole client to avoid possible legal problems, be imaginative, offer alternative actions and foresee the probable legal consequences. To do this the business lawyer
must be experienced in all aspects of company activities.
7. The other role of the in-house lawyer is a kind of investigator,
which means that he accumulates potentially useful information
and then uses his data for the particular task. It concerns possible
competitors, former clients, mass media information and so on. He
has «to keep his hand on the pulse» in his special branch and to be
ready to use his knowledge for the exact task.
8. Besides the lawyer must be a drafter. He drafts documents
for the firm. Contracts, corporate deeds, corporate instruments are
just a few of the documents that are commonly prepared by lawyers.
Good drafting is important to avoid problems for the company.
9. A business lawyer must possess negotiating skills. The role of
the negotiator is very like that of the advocate. The lawyer presents
the client's strongest arguments in order to achieve the best result.
Successful negotiation often avoids costly suits, work stoppages, and
other undesirable economic consequences.
10. Being an advocate, the lawyer is to represent the company's
interests. This may take place in a court, administrative or legislative
body, or in another arena. The lawyer's duty, as an advocate, is to
present the facts and the law in the light most favorable to the
client. Of course, the opponent's lawyer will do the same. This is the
adversary system which helps the judge and other members of the
court to consider all the arguments before arriving at a reasonable
decision.
LEXIS
worked out - разрабатывать, создавать
run business - вести дело, управлять предприятием
make up - составлять; комплектовать
workforce - рабочая сила; трудовые ресурсы
managing director - директор-распорядитель, управляющий, главный менеджер
chief executive officer - главный исполнительный директор корпорации, управляющий предприятием
overall - полный, общий; всеобъемлющий
head - руководить; возглавлять
marketing department - отдел маркетинга, управление реализации
public relations department - отдел по связям с общественностью;
отдел общественных коммуникаций
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personnel and human resources - отдел кадров
production department - производственный отдел
research and development department - отдел исследований и разработок (отдел компании, занимающийся разработкой новой
продукции или новых технологий)
round of duties - круг обязанностей
in-house legal department - юридический отдел в структуре компании (внутренний, собственный отдел)
embargo - правительственный или юридический запрет на осуществление торговой деятельности
boycott - бойкот (полное или частичное прекращение отношений с
кем-либо в знак протеста против чего-либо)
strike - забастовка, стачка
inside lawyer - собственный юрист, штатный юрист
foresee - предвидеть, предвосхищать, предсказывать
competitor - конкурент; соперник
drafter - составитель документа
corporate deed - скреплённое подписями и печатью соглашение
от имени компании
instrument - (финансовый) инструмент
negotiating skills -навыки по ведению переговоров
work stoppage - прекращение [остановка, приостановка] работы
adversary system - система состязательности в суде
7.13. QUESTIONS
1. What three groups of people are most companies composed of?
2. Who is the board of directors usually headed by?
3. What do these abbreviations stand for: CEO, HR, MD, R&D, PR, IT?
4. What are the duties of an in-house legal department?
5. Work with your partner and discuss the questions:
i. If you run a business which form of legal service will you prefer
and why?
ii. If you are a lawyer, which work will you prefer to do and
which will you dislike and why?
iii. Make up a list of responsibilities for the in-house counsel
working for your firm.
7.14. AGREE OR DISAGREE
1. As far as different countries have different cultural, social, economic and political customs it is impossible to
work out common principles of running business.
2. Shareholders have overall responsibility for running the company.
3. There is a rigid hierarchy of departments within each company.
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7.15. GIVE ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS for:
a) управлять процессом создания товаров;
b) нанимать в качестве директора-распорядителя;
c) возглавлять отдел в компании;
d) представлять интересы компании;
e) накапливать потенциально полезную информацию;
f) составлять проекты документов;
g) избегать дорогостоящих судебных исков;
e) принимать во внимание все имеющиеся доводы.
7.16. (*) SKIMMING. Read the following text and prepare five
questions about its content. Be ready to interview your
group mates.
Characteristics of a Limited Liability Company
1. A limited company has a separate legal personality in law.
2. A company is owned by shareholders, management decisions
primarily being made by directors.
3. Shareholders (members) and directors have limited liability. A
shareholder’s personal liability is limited to paying fully for shares
held
4. A company’s nominal (or authorised) share capital refers to the
quantity of shares a company is authorised to issue (as indicated in
the company’s memorandum of association).
5. A company’s issued share capital (also known as allotted share
capital) refers to the value of shares actually issued (or allotted) to
shareholders.
6. A company’s paid-up share capital refers to the amount of the
total (nominal) value of the issued share capital actually ‘paid-up’ by
shareholders.
7. There are various types of shares which a company can issue,
including:
- ordinary shares–usually carrying voting rights and a right to any
dividend declared by the company (i.e. share of any profits made by
the company);
- preference shares – which do not carry voting rights (referred to
as non-voting shares) but provide priority (i.e. a preference) to payment of a dividend.
8. A company must be registered at the Companies Registry
(based in Cardiff for companies incorporated in England and Wales
and in Edinburgh for companies incorporated in Scotland).
9. A company comes into existence upon issue of a certificate of
incorporation.
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10. Documents required to form a company: memorandum of association; articles of association; Form 10; Form 12.
11. Memorandum of association indicates: the name of the company; whether it is a private or public limited company; the objects of
the company (which state the purpose of the company and the scope
of its legal capacity to conduct business with outside parties).
12. Articles of association provide a set of internal company rules.
13. There is a continuing duty on company to maintain annual
accounts and to file annual accounts with Registrar of Companies.
7.17. EXERCISE. Read the following dialogue and identify the
difference among a public corporation, a C corporation, and
private limited company.
Larsen: Albert Larsen. Good morning.
Wiseberg: Good morning. Mr Larsen, this is Ernest Wiseberg speaking
- we met last night at the reception at the museum.
Larsen: Yes, of course, Mr Wiseberg. Good to hear from you.
Wiseberg: You said I could give you a call. Am I disturbing you?
Larsen: No, not at all, not at all. You're interested in forming a
sportswear company, I recall. A private company limited by shares.
Wiseberg: That's right. I have some experience with company formation, but so far only in the United States, I founded a C corporation
with some business associates in Florida some years ago. You're
familiar with C corporations?
Larsen: Yes, yes, of course, C corporations are similar to private limited companies in the UK in many ways, particularly in respect of
liability, naturally. Shareholders are not personally liable for the
debts of the corporation in both a C corporation and a private limited company.
Wiseberg: That's right.
Larsen: But if I'm not mistaken, a C corporation may become a public
corporation, with its shares being bought and sold either through a
stock market or 'over the counter'.
Wiseberg: Mm-hm.
Larsen: In this respect, a private limited company differs. Its shares
are not available to the general public.
Wiseberg: I see.
Larsen: The two types of company are like each other in that both can
be founded by persons of any nationality, who need not be a resident of the country. Perhaps this is relevant for you, Mr Wiseberg.
Wiseberg: Yes, it is.
Larsen: And there is one big difference between a C corporation in the
US and our private limited company: that's the limit on the number
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of shares. As I recall, there's no limit on the number of shareholders of a C corporation.
Wiseberg: That's right.
Larsen: But that's not the case with a private limited company. The
Companies Act stipulates that not more than 50 members can hold
shares within the company.
Wiseberg: I see. I didn't know that. But that's not a problem for me.
Larsen: On the other hand, a limited company is comparatively easy
to form. You have several options open to you, depending on how
soon you want the company formed.
Wiseberg: Well, I'd like to begin operations as soon as possible. Of
course, I know I'll have to wait until the paperwork is completed.
How long would that take? A couple of days?
Larsen: Well, once you supply all the necessary documents to Companies House, it generally takes a couple of weeks for them to process
the documents.
Wiseberg: A couple of weeks! That's much too long. What other options
do I have?
Larsen: You could form the company through a company formation
agent. The agent would fill in the required forms for you and then
submit them to Companies House. It would take around five to
eight days before the company may begin to trade.
Wiseberg: That sounds better. Maybe you could tell me where I can
find one of these agents. Perhaps you have a telephone number…
Larsen: Hmm, well, can you ring me back in ten minutes? I'll make a
search for the telephone number you are interested in.
Wiseberg: Only if it is not inconvenient for you. Then thanks very
much for your help. I am sure to call you back.
Larsen: OK.
LEXIS
at the reception - на приёме, на встрече, на вечеринке
C corporation - С-корпорация; наиболее распространенный вид корпорации в США, в отличие от “S-корпорации” (последняя предполагает оплату налогов с прибыли самими акционерами компании)
associate - компаньон, деловой партнер
'over the counter' - продажа без посредников
stipulate - предусматривать
option - выбор, альтернатива, (возможный) вариант
paperwork - оформление документации, работа с документами, регистрация (в документах)
fill in the required form - заполнить требуемый бланк
Companies House - бюро регистрации компаний
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make a search for - разыскивать
inconvenient - причиняющий беспокойство, стесняющий, неудобный
7.18. MATCH the responsibilities with the official capacity
(different opinions are possible):
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
outside lawyer
in-house lawyer
advocate
counselor
investigator
drafter
negotiator
applicant for the
post of a lawyer
1. to foresee possible legal problems
2. to be a diplomat and good orator
3. to be competitive at the professional interview
4. to consult on one concrete legal case
5. to make documents to be submitted to
the boss
6. to advise alternative course of action
7. to find out the important information
8.to defend the interests of the company
in court
7.19. ENGAGE IN CONVERSATION. Discuss the advantages
and disadvantages of different business organizations using
the following chart:
The Most Common Business Entities in the USA
Entity
Sole Proprietorship
General Partnership
Liability
Unlimited
Unlimited
Taxation
Control
Flows
Sole owner
through to
controls
owner
Mainly in
Flows
equal shares
through to
for each
owners
partner
Unlimited
General
for general
partner conpartner,
Flows
Limited Parttrols, reand lithrough to
nership
gardless of
mited for
owners
percentage
limited
ownership
partner
Majority of
Double
C Corporation Limited
shareholders
taxation
control
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Formality
of Setup
Easiest
Easy, but filing with state
is usually recommended
Must file with
state, usually
need formal
partnership
agreement to
do so
Many specific
requirements
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Entity
S Corporation
Liability
Limited
Limited Liability CorporaLimited
tion
Formality
of Setup
Same as C
Flows
Majority of
Corp, plus a
through to shareholders number of adowner(s)
control
ditional requirements
Flows
Managerthrough to members
Much less
owner(s)
control, rethan for C and
unless
gardless of
S corporations
elected
percentage
otherwise ownership
Taxation
Control
7.20. SPEAK in pairs and give a widened differentiation of
functions of an in-house counsel and an out-side lawyer.
7.21. KEY WORDS
board of directors
chief executive officer
close corporation
domestic company
foreign company
general partnership
incorporator
in-house legal department
inside lawyer
legal entity
limited liability company
limited partnership
managing director
memorandum of association
merger
multinational corporation
open joint-stock company
ordinary shares
paid-in-capital
partnership
preference shares
private company
public company
revenue
share
shareholder
sole proprietorship
to establish a company
to dissolve a company
to register
trust
unlimited liability
7.22. (**) ESSAY WRITING. Chose one of the following themes
for your essay on the topic “Company law":
- “Private companies: pros and cons.”
- “Public companies: pros and cons.”
- “Shell companies: the edge of legality.”
- “Small business forms.”
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-
“Starting a business.”
“The diversity of company structure.”
“Transnational corporations.”
“Types of winding up – compulsory and voluntary.”
“Why to have an offshore company?”
7.23. TEST YOURSELF. Fill each gap in the text with only one
word or phrase from the box given below:
Business Entities in the USA
For federal tax purposes there are 7 forms of business organizations in the USA:
• (1) are unincorporated businesses. They are also called independent contractors, consultants, or sole traders. The sole owner is
responsible for (2) of the business and in turn receives, after taxes, all
of the profits. There are no legal requirements for starting this type of
business. The only thing you need to do is report annually your (3)
and expenses.
Every form of business besides the sole proprietor is considered
(4), and this often provides a measure of legal and financial protection
for the shareholders.
• (5) are incorporated businesses. They must have at least two
shareholders. Partnerships arise from (6) of the parties involved and
are governed by the general principles of contract law. Partners may
choose one of these forms: a general partnership, (7), or a limited liability partnership. Whatever the type of partnership they must have at
lease one (8) who assumes unlimited liability for the business.
• (9) are also incorporated businesses. Their rights and responsibilities are independent and distinct from the people who own or invest in them. Members of a corporation are not personally liable for
its debts and (10). Owners and investors generally are only liable to
the extent of the amount that these individuals invested in the corporation. As a rule these investments exist in the form of shares. Shares
can be divided into ordinary, (11), and redeemable shares.
Corporations can be public, (12) or nonprofit ones. As a rule they
are governed at three levels: a) (13) elect directors; b) (14), acting as a
board, set corporate policy, establish short and long term plans and
strategies; c) directors appoint (15) such as president, vice president,
treasurer and secretary to carry out the policies of the board and to
run the corporation on a day-to-day basis.
A dividend is a payment to shareholders, in proportion to their
shares, of current or past earnings or profits, usually on a regular
and periodic basis. Directors determine whether to issue dividends.
(16) can take the form of cash, property, or additional shares.
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• S-Corporations have features similar to a partnership. An Scorporation must have at least one shareholder, and cannot have
more than 75 (or 100) shareholders all of whom must be (17).
• The limited liability company (LLC) is a hybrid legal entity that
has both the characteristics of (18). An LLC provides its owners with
corporate-like protection against (19).
• (20) are corporations formed for a charitable, civic, or artistic
purpose. They are generally exempt from federal and state taxation on
their income.
• Trusts are usually formed upon the death of an individual and
are designed to provide continuity of the investments and business
activities of (21).
a corporation and a partnership, a limited partnership, a separate
entity, all the debts, business income, corporations, directors, dividends, general partner, nonprofits, obligations, officers, partnerships,
personal liability, preference, private, shareholders, sole proprietors,
the agreement, the deceased individual, U.S. citizens or U.S. residents
-
7.24. MAKE A REPORT on the topic “Company Law”, paying
attention to the following points in your speech:
- three basic types of business organizations: private enterprise, partnership and corporation/company;
two types of partnership;
classification of companies;
company structure;
creation and reorganization of companies.
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Unit 8. Criminal Law
8.1. BEFORE READING learn the following words and phrases which are essential on the topic:
actus reus /ˈæktəs ˈreɪəs/ - лат. виновное действие; противоправное действие; объективная сторона преступле-
ния
administration of justice /ədˌmɪnɪˈstreɪʃ(ə)n əv ˈdʒʌstɪs/ - отправление
правосудия, обеспечение правопорядка
attempt /əˈtempt/ - покушение (на преступление) || покушаться
(на совершение преступления)
chain of causation /ˈtʃeɪn əv kɔːˈzeɪʃ(ə)n/ - причинно-следственная
связь, цепь причинности
commission of crime /kəˈmɪʃ(ə)n əv ˈkraɪm/ - совершение преступления
corpus delicti /ˈkɔːpəs dɪˈlɪktaɪ/ – лат. состав преступления, вещественные доказательства
criminal /ˈkrɪmɪn(ə)l/ = delinquent /dɪˈlɪŋkwənt/, first offender /ˈfɜː(r)st
əˈfendə(r)/, culprit /ˈkʌlprɪt/, wrongdoer /ˈrɒŋˌduə/, perpetrator
/ˈpɜː(r)pətreɪtə/, subject of crime /ˈsʌbdʒɪkt əv ˈkraɪm/ - злоумышленник, правонарушитель, преступник, субъект преступления
criminal offence /ˈkrɪmɪn(ə)l əˈfens/ = crime /kraɪm/ - преступное
посягательство, нарушение (какого-л. права)
criminal punishment /ˈkrɪmɪn(ə)l ˈpʌnɪʃmənt/ - наказание за уголовное преступление
criminal responsibility /ˈkrɪmɪn(ə)l rɪˌspɒnsəˈbɪləti/ = criminal liability
/ˈkrɪmɪn(ə)l ˌlaɪəˈbɪləti/ - уголовная ответственность
felony /ˈfeləni/ - тяжкое уголовное преступление (фелония); преступление, за которое предусматривается серьезная уголовная
ответственность и наказание от длительных сроков тюремного
заключения до смертной казни
indictment /ɪnˈdaɪtmənt/ - официальное предъявление обвинения в
совершении тяжкого преступления; вердикт большого жюри о
привлечении к уголовной ответственности и передаче дела в
суд
mens rea /ˈmenz ˈreɪə/ - лат. = guilty mind /ˈɡɪlti maɪnd/, guilt /ɡɪlt/ виновная воля, вина; субъективная сторона преступления
misdemeanor /ˌmɪsdɪˈmiːnə(r)/ - cудебно наказуемый проступок,
мисдиминор (преступление, серьезность которого ниже, чем у
фелонии; за него предусматривается менее тяжкое наказание)
object of crime /ˈɒbdʒekt əv ˈkraɪm/ - объект преступления
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offence /əˈfens/ – правонарушение, посягательство, преступление
omission /əʊˈmɪʃ(ə)n/ - бездействие, несовершение действия, оплошность
preparation of a crime /ˌprepəˈreɪʃ(ə)n əv ə ˈkraɪm/ - приготовление к
преступлению
sentence of court /ˈsentəns əv ˈkɔː(r)t/ - приговор суда, определяющий меру наказания; судебное решение по уголовному делу
to charge with a crime /ˈtʃɑː(r)dʒ wɪð ə ˈkraɪm/ - обвинять в совершении преступления
to commit a crime /kəˈmɪt ə ˈkraɪm/ = perpetrate a crime
/ˈpɜː(r)pətreɪt ə ˈkraɪm/ - совершать преступление
8.2. SCANNING
Criminal Law
1. Criminal law is a body of rules that defines conduct prohibited by the government because it threatens and harms
public safety and welfare and that establishes punishment to be imposed for the commission of such acts. The purpose of these rules is
to provide protection for the social and state system, the universal
freedoms and personal rights of citizens against corrupt activities and
criminal offences.
2. Criminal law provides different grounds for classification of
crimes. According to the object of a criminal activity we may speak
about:
- crimes of violence: vandalism, assault, battery, mugging, robbery, kidnapping, homicide,
- crimes committed for political reasons: hijacking, terrorism, assassination, treason,
- crimes connected with drugs: possession of drugs, drug traffic,
- crimes involving nonviolent stealing or theft crimes;
- crimes committed by people in business or by office holders (so
called "white-collar crimes"): bribery, money laundering, perjury, computer crimes,
- car crimes: joy riding, drink driving, etc.
3. Criminal law also classifies a crime with respect to its gravity,
such as treason, felony, and misdemeanor and fixes punishments for
them. Also included in criminal law are rules and procedures for preventing and investigating crimes and prosecuting criminals, as well as
the regulations governing the constitution of courts, the conduct of
trials, the organization of police forces, and the administration of penal institutions.
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4. As a matter of fact criminal law is based on a number of universal principles. Here are some of them:
- a person may be charged with criminal responsibility only if he
has committed an act provided for in the criminal legislation;
- there is a presumption that the accused is innocent and the
prosecution must prove his guilt beyond reasonable doubt;
- responsibility can exist only in the presence of guilt;
- a person may not be considered guilty unless all elements of an
alleged crime have been established in his acts;
- criminal punishment shall be applied only by a sentence of the
court;
- persons committing crimes in a state of intoxication are not released from criminal responsibility.
5. The following general defences may excuse the accused from
criminal responsibility:
- lack of age (if an offender is under 14 he is not criminally liable);
- self-defence (when people have good reason to believe they are in
danger of serious injury or death, they can use force to protect themselves);
- defence of family members (courts will not punish someone for
using force to rescue a family member from attack if there was good
reason to believe the victim was in danger of severe bodily injury or
death);
- insanity (but everyone is presumed sane until the contrary is
proved);
- duress by threats or duress of circumstances;
- automatism (it may arise as the result of a reflex action or concussion);
- entrapment (if a law enforcement officer induces a law-abiding
citizen to commit a crime, which would not have been committed
without the involvement of the officer).
LEXIS
threatens and harms - представлять собой опасность и
причинять вред
corrupt - 1) испорченный, порочный, безнравственный 2) коррумпированный, продажный
crime of violence - насильственное преступление
vandalism - умышленная порча имущества, вандализм
mugging - ограбление прохожего, бандитское нападение на человека на улице
kidnapping - похищение человека с целью выкупа
hijacking - захват транспортного средства (судна, самолёта, автомашины); угон транспортного средства
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assassination – заказное убийство, убийство по политическим мотивам, политическое убийство
treason - государственная измена
possession of drugs - хранение наркотиков
drug traffic - торговля наркотиками, контрабандная перевозка
наркотиков
office holder - должностное лицо, государственный служащий
white-collar crime - беловоротничковое преступление (преступная
махинация, совершённая служащим или лицом, занимающим
высокое общественное положение)
bribery - 1) взяточничество; подкуп 2) продажность
money laundering - легализация незаконно полученных денег, отмывание "грязных" денег
perjury – лжесвидетельство, ложное показание под присягой, заведомо ложное показание
joy riding - угон автомобиля с целью покататься на нём
drink driving - вождение в нетрезвом виде
gravity - серьёзность, тяжесть (правонарушения)
fix - устанавливать, фиксировать; закреплять
prevent - предотвращать, предупреждать
investigate - расследовать; изучать (вопрос); рассматривать (дело)
police force - полицейские силы, полиция; полицейское подразделение
penal institution - исправительное учреждение; пенитенциарное,
карательное учреждение; пенитенциарий; тюрьма
beyond reasonable doubt - при отсутствии обоснованного сомнения
(юридический принцип, согласно которому любое обоснованное сомнение в виновности обвиняемого трактуется в его
пользу); преодолевая принцип презумпции невиновности
sentence - судебное решение, приговор суда
state of intoxication - состояние наркотической или алкогольной
интоксикации; опьянение
defence - 1) обстоятельство, освобождающее от ответственности 2)
защита (на суде); аргументация ответчика, подсудимого; возражение по иску, обвинению
lack of age – несовершеннолетие, малолетство (моложе установленного законом возраста, лишь по достижении которого наступает полная гражданская дееспособность )
self-defence - самозащита, самооборона
injury - увечье; травма; вред, ущерб
punish - налагать наказание, наказывать
victim - потерпевший
sane - находящийся в здравом рассудке; вменяемый
insanity – невменяемость, душевное расстройство
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duress by threats - противозаконное принуждение под угрозой насилия, принуждение путём запугивания
duress of circumstances - принуждение под влиянием обстоятельств
concussion - контузия, сотрясение
entrapment - провоцирование на уголовно наказуемое действие,
провокация преступления с целью его изобличения
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
2.
3.
4.
5.
8.3. QUESTIONS
1. Give examples of general defences that may excuse the
accused from criminal responsibility.
How are crimes classified in criminal law with respect to their
gravity?
May a defence be connected with the age of an offender?
On what grounds can crimes be classified?
What are the general principles which criminal law is based on?
What does a presumption of innocence mean?
What does criminal law define?
When is criminal punishment applied?
8.4. AGREE OR DISAGREE
1. Criminal law not only defines crimes and fixes punishments for them but also includes some procedures for preventing crimes.
A person may be considered guilty as soon as any element of an alleged crime has been established in his acts.
Persons committing crimes in a state of intoxication are usually released from criminal responsibility.
Children under 14 are considered to be criminally responsible.
Crimes may be classified only with respect to their gravity.
8.5. GIVE ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS for:
a) устанавливать наказание за преступление;
b) определять структуру суда;
c) основываться на совокупности принципов;
d) доказывать вину, преодолевая принцип презумпции невиновности;
e) устанавливать все элементы состава преступления;
f) освобождать от уголовной ответственности;
g) применять силу с целью самозащиты;
h) спасать члена своей семьи;
i) склонять к совершению преступления.
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8.6. SCANNING
Nature of Crime
1. Each crime consists of a number of individual elements.
The sum total of those elements, known as the corpus delicti,
characterizes the purpose of the criminal act, the form and method of
a criminal action, the character of the guilty conduct and so forth.
2. In general the corpus delicti has several basic common elements:
- a voluntary act or omission (actus reus);
- "a guilty mind" or "knowledge of the wrongfulness of conduct"
(mens rea);
- "concurrence" between the mens rea and the actus reus;
- chain of causation.
3. The corpus delicti in any act is a ground for establishing criminal responsibility against the offender. In the absence of any element
of corpus delicti in the acts of the accused, criminal proceedings may
not be instituted, and if instituted, may not be continued, and must
be stopped at any stage. In pronouncing its sentence the court must
above all answer these questions:
i) did the act ascribed to the accused actually take place?
ii) does it contain corpus delicti?
iii) was the act performed by the accused?
4. A crime may be committed by an act, i.e. the active behaviour
of a person, or by an omission, i.e. the non-performance of acts which
it was his duty to perform (such as failure to use authority).
As a rule, premeditated criminal activity consists of several stages: preparation, attempt and commission.
5. Preparation of a crime is the search for or adaptation of means
or instruments, or any other premeditated creation of conditions for
the commission of a crime. Preparation of a crime is generally a punishable offence. But in cases where the person plotting a crime has
not gone beyond the preparations, the court usually imposes a milder
penalty or none at all.
6. An attempt is a premeditated act directly aimed at the commission of a crime but not completed for reasons not depending on
the will of the guilty person. An attempt is also a punishable offence.
But in determining the penalty the court must take into consideration
the character and the degree of the danger to society involved in the
act committed by the guilty person, the degree to which the criminal
intent has been put into effect, and the causes that prevent the full
commission of the crime.
7. Commission of a crime is considered as performed when the
guilty person has carried out the act containing the corpus delicti.
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8. In theory of crime there are two other legal categories: “object
of crime” and “subject of crime”. The subject of crime is a person
who commits the crime and is responsible for it. Only persons who
have attained a certain age (usually 16 years of age) and are compos
mentis can be subjects of a crime.
9. The object of crime as a theoretical concept of penal law signifies social relations guarded by criminal legislation. This means that
all crimes prescribed by the Criminal Code are in the final count
aimed against social relations taking shape and developing in society.
However, each crime has an immediate object. Thus, murder has as
its immediate object human life; theft - state or personal property;
rowdyism - public law and order.
LEXIS
guilty conduct - виновное поведение, преступление
voluntary act - умышленное действие
guilty mind – вина, виновная воля, преступный умысел
conduct – поведение, поступок
concurrence - совпадение во времени и пространстве, стечение
(обстоятельств)
criminal proceedings - уголовное судопроизводство
institute - начинать, возбуждать (уголовное дело)
ascribed - приписываемый
punishable - наказуемый, заслуживающий наказания
plot - 1) организовывать заговор 2) замышлять, составлять план
go beyond - выходить за пределы
none at all - совершенно никакого
take into consideration - учитывать, принимать во внимание
put into effect - привести в исполнение, осуществить
immediate - непосредственный, прямой
murder - преднамеренное убийство
theft - похищение имущества, воровство
rowdyism - хулиганство, дебоширство
put into effect - приводить в исполнение, осуществить
3.
4.
5.
6.
8.7. QUESTIONS
1. How can a crime be defined?
2. What is known as the corpus delicti of a crime?
What do the elements of a crime characterize?
What is ground for establishing criminal responsibility against the
offender in any act?
What questions must the court answer in pronouncing its sentence?
What do the terms the “subject” and “object of a crime” refer to?
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7. How many stages of premeditated criminal activity do you know?
What are they?
8. When is an act regarded as a crime and what are the consequences of such an act?
9. Shall the criminal proceeding be instituted in the absence of any
element of corpus dilicti in the acts of the person?
8.8. AGREE OR DISAGREE
1. The non-performance of acts cannot constitute a crime.
2. Preparation of a crime is not punishable.
3. Each criminal action consists of three stages: preparation, attempt and commission.
4. The age limit for crimes is defined by the court itself.
8.9. GIVE ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS for:
a) описывать цель и форму преступного деяния;
b) возбуждать уголовное дело;
c) замышлять преступление;
d) определять меру наказания;
e) осуществить преступный замысел;
f) достичь определенного возраста;
g) формироваться и проявляться в обществе.
8.10. ENGAGE IN CONVERSATION. Discuss the following
chart and indicate the reasons of vital distinction between
civil and criminal law:
Key Differences
between Civil Law and Criminal Law
Issue
Civil Law
Disputes between priConcerns
vate individuals
Causing harm to a perWrongful act
son or to a person’s
property
Party who brings The person who suffered harm
suit
Purpose of the
action
To remedy the wrong
which has been suffered
Burden of proof
Preponderance of the
evidence
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Criminal Law
Offences against the
state
Violating a statute that
prohibits some type
of activity
The state
To preserve order in
the community by
punishing offenders
and deterring others
Beyond a reasonable
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Issue
Verdict
Remedy
Examples
Civil Law
Three-fourths majority
(typically)
Damages to compensate for the harm or
a decree to achieve
an equitable result
Contract, tort, trusts,
property law
Criminal Law
Unanimous
Punishment (fine,
community service,
probation, imprisonment, or death)
Theft, burglary, embezzlement, espionage,
driving with excess
alcohol
8.11. WORK WITH THE WORDS given in the box below:
a) match the words with their definition (bear in mind that
there are some odd words in the box);
b) classify all crimes given in the box into violent or non-violent ones.
armed robbery, blackmail, vagrancy, arson, fraud, murder, speeding,
shoplifting, burglary, assault, libel, battery, theft, treason, smuggling,
assassination, money laundering, perjury, homicide, bigamy, drug
dealing, forgery, embezzlement, gambling, extortion, manslaughter
1) a generic term for the killing of another person;
2) any instance in which one party deceives or takes unfair advan-
tage of another;
3) actual use of illegal force on another person;
4) attempt to transform illegally acquired money into apparently legitimate money;
5) attempt to use illegal force on another person;
6) betraying your country to a foreign power;
7) breaking into a private home with the intention of committing a felony;
8) driving a vehicle in excess of the permitted limit;
9) getting money from people by threatening to publicise facts they do
not want revealed;
10) getting money from people by using threats;
11) going through a ceremony of marriage when you are still married
to someone else;
12) killing a public figure illegally and intentionally;
13) making an illegal copy of a banknote or document;
14) possession of and/or trading in illegal substances;
15) setting fire to a building;
16) taking goods illegally into or out of a country;
17) taking the property of another without right or permission;
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18) telling lies when you have sworn an oath to say what is true in
19)
20)
21)
22)
23)
court;
unlawful killing of a person with intent;
unlawful killing of a person without malicious intent and therefore without premeditation;
unlawful taking of another’s property using a dangerous weapon;
using illegally or stealing money which you are looking after for
someone else;
writing, publishing or broadcasting a statement which damages
someone’s character.
8.12. (*) QUESTIONS
1. In which of the following situations would a defence of automatism be successful?
• While riding his bicycle Ted is hit on the head by a stone
which is thrown up from the road. He loses control of the bicycle
and injures Liz, a foot-passenger.
• Bob is a diabetic and assaults Nick whilst suffering from a deficiency of blood sugar.
• Bob is holding a knife when Nick seizes his hand and forces the
knife into Rod’s chest.
• After drinking two bottles of wine, Bob is involved in a fight during
which he shoots and kills Nick.
2. Henry plans to kill Mabel. He puts some poison in a glass
which Mabel subsequently drinks. Ten minutes later and before the
poison has taken effect, Mabel is involved in a car accident and dies
from his injuries. Is Henry guilty of murdering Mabel?
3. Keith is employed as a swimming pool attendant. His job is to
maintain order on the premises and to ensure the safety of the
swimmers. One evening Keith goes home early although he knows
that there are some children swimming in the pool. After he leaves,
one of the children gets into difficulties and subsequently drowns.
a) Has Keith committed a criminal act?
b) Would your answer to “a” be different if Keith was a bystander who
saw that the child was in difficulty but failed to help?
8.13. (**) SAY WHAT YOU KNOW about:
1) the essence of the principle of legality;
2) double jeopardy;
3) statute of limitations;
4) the difference between ignorance of the law and ignorance of the
fact;
5) the examples of unlawful acts, which may be criminal offences in
one country and not in another;
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6) any of the following criminological theories:
- psychological and psychiatric theories,
- biological theory,
- multiple causation theory,
- social environment theory,
- theological and ethical theories,
- climatic theory.
8.14. KEY WORDS
actus reus
arson
attempt
blackmail
chain of causation
commission of a crime
corpus delicti
criminal
criminal offence
criminal responsibility
duress
embezzlement
exemptions from criminal liability
felony
fraud
guilt
-
homicide
intoxication
lack of age
mens rea
misdemeanor
money laundering
object of crime
omission
preparation of a crime
presumption of innocence
prosecution
punishment
self-defence
subject of crime
to commit a crime
to prosecute
8.15. (**) ESSAY WRITING. Chose one of the following themes
for your essay on the topic “Criminal Law":
- “Accomplices, accessories, aiders, and abettors.”
- “Computer crimes.”
“Crimes against person.”
“Crimes against property.”
“Crimes against public safety.”
“Defendant's rights during a court trial.”
“Defenses to criminal charges.”
“Euthanasia: crime or mercy?”
“Hate crimes.”
“How should the law deal with young offenders?”
“Internet crime.”
“Steps in a criminal prosecution.”
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8.16. TEST YOURSELF. Match the words with their definitions:
accused, administration of justice, attempt, automatism, to charge
with a crime, commission, compos mentis, corpus delicti, criminal responsibility, due process, duress, encroachment, to excuse, felony,
guilt, innocent, insanity, to institute, intention, intoxication, misdemeanor, omission, penal code, penal institution, penalty, to plot,
preparation, presumption of innocence, prosecution, to provide for,
public decency, punishable offence, safety, sentence, treason, trial
1) a court order in a criminal case; a legal punishment given by a
court to a convicted person;
2) a criminal or civil court case heard before a judge; the process of
deciding a case (giving evidence, making arguments, deciding by a
judge and jury, etc.);
3) a defence to a criminal charge whereby the accused states he or
she acted involuntarily;
4) a Latin phrase meaning ‘of sound mind’ or ‘sane’;
5) a Latin phrase meaning ‘the body of the crime’: the real proof that a
crime has been committed; the circumstances in which a law is broken, and the facts relating to the case;
6) a legal, not a medical word, but it is no more precise than "crazy";
the state of being insane;
7) a minor crime; a crime that is not considered to be very serious;
8) a place such as a prison where convicted criminals are kept;
9) a punishment imposed by law;
10) a rule that the forms of law must be followed correctly;
11) a set of laws governing crime and its punishment;
12) an act of trying to do something, especially something difficult,
with no success;
13) an illegal act associated with a fear to be punished;
14) an illegal threat to use force on someone to make him or her do
something;
15) an offence of betraying one’s country, usually by helping the enemy in time of war;
16) blame or responsibility for doing something wrong or for something bad that has happened; being guilty, the state of having
committed a crime or done some other legal wrong;
17) infringement of one's right; breach of the law; illegally taking over
someone’s property little by little;
18) not guilty of a crime; not having done something wrong;
19) old term for a serious crime; the act of committing a serious crime
such as murder or rape; a crime of this type;
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20) organisation, control or management of the legal system in order
21)
22)
23)
24)
25)
26)
27)
28)
29)
30)
31)
32)
33)
34)
35)
36)
-
to make sure that everything is done fairly and in the correct
way;
standards of behaviour in society that people think are acceptable
the act of assuming that someone is innocent, until they have
been proved guilty;
a) the act of bringing someone to court to answer a charge b) a
party who brings a criminal charge against someone;
the act of committing a crime;
the act or process of getting ready for something or making something ready;
the fact of being responsible for a crime that has been committed;
the failure to do something that should be done;
the person or persons charged with a crime;
the situation of being free from danger or risk;
the state of being drunk;
the wish or plan to do something;
to accuse someone formally of having committed an offence;
to forgive somebody for something that they have done, for example not being polite or making a small mistake;
to introduce a system, policy, etc. or start a process;
to make a secret plan to harm somebody;
to make preparations to deal with something that might happen
in the future; to make it possible for something to be done.
8.17. MAKE A REPORT on the topic “Criminal Law”, paying
attention to the following points in your speech:
- purpose and principles of criminal law;
different classifications of crimes;
corpus delicti of a crime;
stages of premeditated criminal activity;
general defenses against criminal responsibility.
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Unit 9. Punishment
9.1. BEFORE READING learn the following words and phrases which are essential on the topic:
community service /kəˈmjuːnəti ˈsɜː(r)vɪs/ - общественные
работы (в порядке наказания за небольшие правонарушения; бесплатный труд на не требующих квалификации работах)
compensation /ˌkɒmpənˈseɪʃ(ə)n/ - возмещение, компенсация лицу,
права которого были нарушены
conviction /kənˈvɪkʃ(ə)n/ - осуждение (признание виновным); судимость; обвинительный приговор
corporal punishment /ˈkɔː(r)p(ə)rəl ˈpʌnɪʃmənt/ - телесное наказание
custodial sentence /kʌˈstəʊdiəl ˈsentəns/ - приговор, связанный с
лишением свободы
death penalty /ˈdeθ ˈpen(ə)lti/ = capital punishment /ˈkæpɪt(ə)l
ˈpʌnɪʃmənt/ - смертная казнь, высшая мера наказания
deterrence /dɪˈterəns/ - сдерживание, препятствование; удержание от враждебных или преступных действий, устрашение
fine /faɪn/ - штраф | налагать штраф, штрафовать
injunction /ɪnˈdʒʌŋkʃ(ə)n/ - судебный запрет, судебное предписание
предпринять или воздержаться от к.-л. действий)
isolation /ˌaɪsəˈleɪʃ(ə)n/ - изоляция, изолирование
non-custodial sentence /ˈnɒnkʌˈstəʊdiəl ˈsentəns/ - приговор, не связанный с лишением свободы
order /ˈɔː(r)də(r)/ - предписание суда, частное определение || давать указания, давать распоряжение, требовать
penalty /ˈpen(ə)lti/ - взыскание; санкция; штраф; пеня, наказание;
карательная мера
prisoner /ˈprɪz(ə)nə(r)/ - заключенный, арестант, узник; арестованный
probation /prəˈbeɪʃ(ə)n/ - условное осуждение, система испытаний,
пробация (вид условного осуждения), освобождение на поруки
rehabilitation /ˌriːəbɪlɪˈteɪʃ(ə)n/ - реабилитация, восстановление в
правах, оправдание, восстановление доброго имени
restoration /ˌrestəˈreɪʃ(ə)n/ - возмещение, восстановление, реституция, компенсация
retribution /ˌretrɪˈbjuːʃ(ə)n/ = revenge /rɪˈvendʒ/, reprisal /rɪˈpraɪz(ə)l/,
requital /rɪˈkwaɪt(ə)l/ - воздаяние, возмездие, кара, наказание,
расплата
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suspended sentence /səˈspendɪd ˈsentəns/ - приговор, отсроченный
в исполнении, условное наказание
to punish /ˈpʌnɪʃ/ = impose penalties /ɪmˈpəʊz ˈpen(ə)ltiz/, penalize
/ˈpiːnəlaɪz/ - наказывать; подвергать наказанию, карать; налагать взыскание
to receive punishment /rɪˈsiːv ˈpʌnɪʃmənt/ = incur punishment
/ɪnˈkɜː(r) ˈpʌnɪʃmənt/, receive a sentence /rɪˈsiːv ə ˈsentəns/, undergo
punishment /ˌʌndə(r)ˈɡəʊ ˈpʌnɪʃmənt/ - понести наказание
9.2. SCANNING
Possible Reasons for Punishment
1. What is the purpose of punishment? There are many
possible reasons that might be given to justify or explain why
someone ought to be punished; here follows a broad outline of typical,
possibly contradictory justifications.
2. Deterrence means dissuading someone from future
wrongdoing, by making the punishment severe enough that the
benefit gained from the offence is outweighed by the cost (and
probability) of the punishment. Deterrence is a very common reason
given for why an offender should be punished. It is often believed that
punishment can also deter punishee's peers from committing similarly
punishable offences.
3. Rehabilitation. Some punishment includes work to reform
and rehabilitate the wrongdoer so that they will not commit the
offence again. This is distinguished from deterrence, in that the goal
here is to change the offender's attitude to what they have done, and
make them come to accept that their behaviour was wrong.
4. Isolation. Imprisonment has the effect of confining prisoners,
physically preventing them from committing crimes against those
outside, i.e. protecting the community. The most dangerous criminals
may be sentenced to life imprisonment or the death penalty with a
goal of protecting society.
5. Restoration. For minor offences, punishment may take the
form of the offender "righting the wrong"; for example, a vandal might
be made to clean up the mess he has made. In more serious cases,
punishment in the form of fines and compensation payments may
also be considered a sort of "restoration".
6. Retribution. Retribution is the practice of "getting even" with a
wrongdoer - the suffering of the wrongdoer is seen as good in itself,
even if it has no other benefits. One reason for societies to include
this judicial element is to diminish the perceived need for street
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justice and blood revenge. Retribution sets an important standard on
punishment - the transgressor must get what he deserves, but no
more. Those who steal from others should be deprived of their own
property. For those who attack others corporal punishment should be
used. Murderers should be subject to the principle "an eye for an eye
and a tooth for a tooth" and automatically receive the death penalty.
7. Though sometimes it is said that such views are unreasonable,
cruel and barbaric and that we should show a more humane attitude
to punishment and try to understand why a person commits a crime
and how society has failed to enable him to live a respectable, lawabiding life.
LEXIS
contradictory - противоречивый, противоречащий
dissuade - отговаривать, отсоветовать, разубеждать
severe - суровый, строгий, жестокий
outweigh - перевешивать; быть более влиятельным, важным
punishee's peers - люди из окружения того, кто понёс наказание;
такие же как и тот, кто был наказан
imprisonment - тюремное заключение, лишение свободы
confine - лишать свободы; заключать в тюрьму
righting the wrong - возмещение нанесенного ущерба, восстановление нарушенного права
getting even - сведение счётов, расплата, воздаяние
transgressor - правонарушитель, нарушитель закона, преступник
deserve - заслуживать, быть достойным чего-л.
deprive - отбирать, отнимать, лишать (чего-л.)
barbaric - грубый, варварский; первобытный
humane - человечный, гуманный
respectable - заслуживающий уважения; допустимый; приемлемый
law-abiding - соблюдающий право, уважающий закон, законопослушный
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
9.3. QUESTIONS
1. What reasons for criminal punishment are deemed to be
legally warranted?
What does “deterrence” as a purpose of punishment mean?
What distinguishes “rehabilitation” from “deterrence” in criminal
law?
What effect should “isolation” have if it is used as a penalty?
What is the difference between restoration and retribution as a
justification of punishment?
How should the punishment be organized? Substantiate your
point of view.
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9.4. AGREE OR DISAGREE
1. Punishment always deters the punishee's peers from
committing similarly punishable offences.
2. The most dangerous criminals must be sentenced to
death with a goal of protecting society.
3. Criminals should be subject to the principle "an eye for an eye and
a tooth for a tooth".
4. We needn’t show a humane attitude to punishment and try to understand why a person commits a crime.
9.5. GIVE ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS for:
a) находить оправдание наказаниям;
b) получать выгоду;
c) перевоспитать правонарушителя;
d) изменить отношение к содеянному;
e) устранить причиненный беспорядок;
f) снизить потребность в «уличном правосудии»;
g) отобрать собственность;
h) жить законопослушно.
9.6. SCANNING
Penalties
1. The earliest known form of punishment for crime was
corporal punishment. The examples of common methods of
corporal punishment were stocks, pillory, ducking stool, whipping and
capital punishment.
Pillory and
stocks
2. Stocks were wooden boards with holes in which a person's ankles were made fast. The pillory was a larger frame of wood on a
wooden post. In this frame there were holes through which a person's
head and arms were put. Stocks and pillories were set up in public
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places, often in a market place. The purpose of this form of punishment was not only to make the criminal suffer physical discomfort,
but also to put him to shame, and to allow the neighbours to make fun
of him for hours.
3. Another popular method of punishment was "the ducking stool"
when the offender had to sit in a special “chair” at the end of a
wooden pole, which was wheeled through town and then dipped into
the water, hence the name "ducking stool".
4. Whipping or caning on various body parts was inflicted for
serious offences such as robbery with violence.
5. Important forms of punishment were imprisonment, penal servitude and the confinement of criminals in geographically isolated
penal colonies, such as Devils Island.
6. The death penalty or capital punishment was the most drastic
form of corporal punishment as it required law enforcement officers to
kill the offender. Forms of the death penalty included hanging,
crucifixion, the firing squad, burning at the stake, lethal injection, gas
chambers, beheading, and starvation, among others.
7. Fortunately for present-day wrong-doers many of these methods of punishment have been abolished in most countries. All types
of penalties applied to criminals nowadays may be divided into several
groups: capital punishment, custodial sentences, and non-custodial
sentences.
8. Custodial sentences include imprisonment and other forms of
forced detention (e.g., involuntary institutional psychiatry). Imprisonment means putting a convicted into a special building (prison) where
he is forced to live as a punishment for a fixed period of time. Prison
nowadays is not considered to be corporal punishment, although the
body is confined, no punishment is inflicted upon the body.
9. Non-custodial sentences include:
Suspended sentences: the offender does not go to prison unless
he or she commits another offence.
10. Probation is a kind of punishment when, instead of jailing a
person convicted of a crime, a judge will order that the person reports
to a probation officer regularly and according to a set schedule. An offender may have to report weekly for the first three months, then fortnightly and, if all is going well, every three or four weeks. A court probation order can last from six months to three years. It is a criminal
offence not to obey a probation order.
11. Community service. Sometimes petty criminals instead of
going to jail may, with their consent, be given community service orders. The court may order from 40 to 240 hours' unpaid service to be
completed within 12 months. Examples of community service orders
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ing adventure playgrounds. By this penalty the court punishes offenders by making them give something back to the community.
12. An injunction is a court order that prohibits a party from
doing something (restrictive injunction) or compels them to do something (mandatory injunction).
13. Fines. About 80 per cent of offenders are punished with a
fine. There is no limit to the fine, unless set by statute. When fixing
the amount of a fine, courts are required to reflect the seriousness of
the offence and to take into account the financial circumstances of the
offender.
14. Compensation. The courts may order an offender to pay
compensation for personal injury, loss or damage resulting from an
offence. In England and Wales courts are required to give reasons for
not awarding compensation to a victim. Compensation takes precedence over fines.
15. Cautioning. The police have discretion whether to charge an
offender or formally to caution him or her. Cautioning is a form of
warning and no court action is taken. Properly used, it is an effective
deterrent to those who have committed minor offences or who have offended for the first time. However, it is an inappropriate response to
serious offences.
16. Socio-economic punishment has become rather common
nowadays and takes the form of such penalties as loss of income;
confiscation; demotion, suspension or expulsion (especially in a strict
hierarchy, such as military service); restriction or loss of civic and
other rights.
LEXIS
stocks – колодки, тяжелые деревянные оковы
pillory - позорный столб
ducking stool - позорный стул
whipping - битье, побои, порка
wooden boards – деревянные бруски, деревянные доски
ankle - голеностопный сустав, лодыжка
make fast - закреплять
frame – рама, коробка
wooden post – деревянный столб, деревянная опора
suffer – подвергнуться, страдать, претерпевать
put to shame – срамить, пристыдить
make fun - высмеивать
wheel - катить, везти, толкать
dip into the water - погружать в воду
caning - избиение палкой
inflict - налагать (наказание), наносить (удар, рану и т. п.)
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penal colony - колония для уголовных преступников
drastic - решительный; радикальный
crucifixion - распятие на кресте (казнь)
firing squad - команда, назначенная для произведения расстрела
lethal injection - смертельная инъекция
gas chamber - газовая камера
beheading - отсечение головы, обезглавливание
starvation - голодная смерть
involuntary institutional psychiatry - принудительное помещение в
психиатрическую больницу
convicted - осуждённый, признанный по суду виновным
jailing - заключение в тюрьму
probation officer - чиновник, надзирающий за лицами, направленными судом на пробацию
set schedule - предписанный режим, установленный график
obey - выполнять, подчиняться, удовлетворять условиями
petty criminal - мелкий преступник
disabled - нетрудоспособный, с ограниченными возможностями
adventure playground - детская игровая площадка, детский городок
restrictive injunction - ограничительное предписание
mandatory injunction - обязывающее решение суда
financial circumstances - финансовое состояние
awarding - присуждение
take precedence - иметь преимущественное значение, превосходить по важности
cautioning - предостережение, предупреждение о возможных правовых последствиях
loss of income - снижение дохода, понижение оплаты труда
demotion - понижение в должности [звании, ранге], перевод на
менее квалифицированную работу
suspension - временное отстранение от должности, отстранение от
работы; дисквалификация
expulsion - увольнение (с работы); исключение
civic - гражданский
9.7. QUESTIONS
1. What types of punishment are described in the text
above?
2. Which was the earliest known form of punishment?
3. What is meant by “capital punishment”? What forms does this punishment include?
4. Where were stocks and pillories usually set up?
5. What do we refer to as custodial sentences? Can you characterize
some of them?
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6. What is meant by non-custodial sentences? Can you distinguish
some of them?
7. What are socio-economic forms of punishment?
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
9.8. AGREE OR DISAGREE
1. Prison nowadays is considered to be corporal punishment.
A court probation order can last from six months to thirteen years.
All offenders may, with their consent, be given community service
orders.
In England and Wales compensation takes precedence over fines.
About 30 per cent of offenders are punished with a fine.
The ducking stool was a method of capital punishment.
9.9. GIVE ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS for:
a) устанавливать в общественных местах;
b) отменить варварские виды наказания;
c) помещать осужденного в тюрьму;
d) являться с отчетом к чиновнику службы пробации;
e) длиться в течение трёх лет;
f) соблюдать условия пробации, определенные судом;
g) отражать тяжесть проступка;
h) учитывать финансовое положение;
i) сочетать разные виды наказания.
9.10. ENGAGE IN CONVERSATION. Discuss the dependence
of punishment upon the gravity of offence. Use the following
chart:
Degree
1st
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
Misdemeanor Punishments
Maximum
Maximum
jail time
fine
6 months
$1,000
90 days
$750
60 days
$500
30 days
$250
No jail
$150
Felony Punishments
Prison
Maximum
time
fine
3–10 years
$20,000
2–8 years
$15,000
1–5 years
$10,000
6–18 months
$5,000
6–12 months
$2,500
9.11. DEBATES
1. Are you for or against capital punishment? For what
crimes should the death penalty be imposed?
2. Is there a connection between death penalty and the crime rate in
a country?
3. Capital punishment is often replaced with long-term or life imprisonment. Do you support this replacement?
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4. Is there a connection between a political regime in a country and
the practice of capital punishment?
5. Do you share the opinion that criminals need help more than punishment? Give your arguments for and against this statement.
6. Is it a hard burden for a judge to decide whether to punish another
person or not?
7. What forms of punishment will be applied in future?
9.12. KEY WORDS
community service
convicted
conviction
corporal punishment
court order
curfew order
custodial sentence
death penalty = capital punishment
deterrence
fine
isolation
imprisonment
injunction
-
non-custodial sentence
offender
penalty
probation
purpose of punishment
rehabilitation
restoration
retribution
socio-economic punishment
suspended sentence
to deprive
to impose penalties
to justify
9.13. (**) ESSAY WRITING. Chose one of the following themes
for your essay on the topic “Punishment":
- “Alternative methods of punishment.”
- “Crime and punishment: an economic approach.”
“Criminal punishment: what is its main goal?”
“Do prisons perform their main function?”
“How strict should the law be with people who drink and drive?”
“Inmates’ rights.”
“Is capital punishment justified?”
“Private vs. public prisons.”
“What is the best way to deal with juvenile crime such as joy-riding,
vandalism, graffiti?”
9.14. TEST YOURSELF. Fill each gap in the sentences with
only one word or phrase from the box given below:
Punishment for people who break the law is decided in (1).
When (2) is found guilty of a crime (3) decides what punishment
should be applied. There are many possible reasons that might be
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given to justify or explain why someone ought to be punished; these
five are the most convincing: (4) (= severe punishment for a serious
wrong), (5) (= confining criminals away from society), (6) (= the work
of repairing something so that its condition is as good as it originally
was), (7) (= when it makes people less likely to violate penal norms)
and (8) (= when it helps convicted persons to have a normal, useful
life again after they have been in prison).
In both Britain and the US the least serious offences are punished
by (9) which must be paid to the court. The courts may order an offender to pay (10) for personal injury, loss or damage resulting from
an offence. If a fine is not considered adequate, a person may be sentenced to do (11) (= work without pay in hospitals, homes for old
people, etc.) or be put on (12) (= required to have regular meetings
with (13) over a set period). When the crime committed is more serious, the convicted person is likely to be given a (14). If it is their first
offence the sentence may be (15) (= only carried out if the person is
found guilty of another crime).
If a person is given a prison sentence its length depends on how
serious their crime is and on their (16). If a person thinks the sentence is too severe he or she has (17) against it in a higher court,
which has the power to reduce the sentence. As a reward for good behaviour prisoners are often given remission (= are released early).
Others get (18), which means that they can go free as long as they do
not commit any further crimes.
(19) is the legal killing of a person for a crime they have been
committed. In the US the death penalty is used in 38 states. Each
state decides what (20) will be used. This is usually (21) (= an intake
of a poisonous chemical) but other methods used include (22) (= a
strong flow of a current through the prisoner’s body), and, rarely,
hanging or (23) (= a group of soldiers who shoot the prisoner), and
(24) (= a room that is filled with poisonous gas when the prisoner is
inside).
In Britain the death penalty for murder was abolished in 1965,
but it can still be passed on anyone found guilty of (25) (= crimes
against the state). Nowadays the maximum sentence that can be
handed down by a judge in Britain is (26), which in fact usually
means spending about 20-25 years in prison.
a court of law, a firing squad, a lethal injection, a life sentence,
a social worker, an accused person, capital punishment, community
service, compensation, criminal record, deterrence, fines, isolation,
methods of execution, parole, prison sentence, probation,
rehabilitation, restoration, retribution, suspended, the electric chair,
the gas chamber, the judge, the right to appeal, treason
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-
9.15. MAKE A REPORT on the topic “Punishment”, paying attention to the following points in your speech:
- possible reasons for criminal punishment;
old forms of punishment;
capital punishment;
custodial sentences;
non-custodial sentences;
socio-economic punishment.
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Unit 10. Law of Torts
10.1. BEFORE READING learn the following words and
phrases which are essential on the topic:
actionable per se /ˈækʃ(ə)nəb(ə)l ˌpɜː(r) ˈseɪ/ - дающий право
на возбуждение иска сам по себе; непосредственно подлежащий преследованию в исковом порядке
assault /əˈsɔːlt/ - словесное оскорбление и угроза физическим насилием или покушение на нанесение удара либо угроза таковым || совершить нападение
award of damages /əˈwɔː(r)d əv ˈdæmɪdʒɪz/ - решение суда о возмещении убытков
balance of probabilities /ˈbæləns əv ˌprɒbəˈbɪlətiz/ - перевес доказательной базы; более убедительные, правдоподобные аргументы; предпочтение доказательствам, представленным одной из
сторон в деле
civil wrong /ˈsɪv(ə)l rɒŋ/ = tort /tɔː(r)t/, tortious act /ˈtɔːʃəs ˈækt/, legal
injury /ˈliːɡ(ə)l ˈɪndʒəri/ - деликт; гражданское правонарушение
damage /ˈdæmɪdʒ/ - 1) ущерб, урон, повреждение, убыток, убытки,
вред, порча 2) материальные или моральные потери || причинять ущерб, убыток, вред; повреждать
damages /ˈdæmɪdʒɪz/ = compensation for losses /ˌkɒmpənˈseɪʃ(ə)n fɔː(r)
ˈlɒsəz/ - компенсация за убытки, денежное возмещение
defamation /ˌdefəˈmeɪʃ(ə)n/ - клевета; умышленно ложное сообщение; разглашение позорящих другое лицо правдивых сведений, дискредитация; урон чьей-л. репутации
direct interference /dɪˈrekt ˌɪntə(r)ˈfɪərəns/ - прямое вмешательство
indirect interference /ˌɪndəˈrekt ɪntə(r)ˈfɪərəns/ - опосредованное,
косвенное вмешательство
injured party /ˈɪndʒə(r)d ˈpɑː(r)ti/ - сторона, понесшая ущерб; потерпевшая сторона
intentional tort /ɪnˈtenʃ(ə)nəl ˈtɔː(r)t/ - умышленное гражданское
правонарушение
invasion of privacy /ɪnˈveɪʒ(ə)n əv ˈprɪvəsi/ - вмешательство в личную жизнь
nuisance /ˈnjuːs(ə)ns/ - вред, помеха, неудобство; нарушение покоя, источник вреда, «зловредность» (в частности, причинение
собственнику недвижимости помех и неудобств в пользовании
ею); вредное воздействие
remedy /ˈremədi/ - 1) средство правовой судебной защиты, средство защиты права 2) право на возмещение || предоставлять
средство правовой защиты
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to compensate /ˈkɒmpənseɪt/ = indemnify /ɪnˈdemnɪfaɪ/, make compensation for smth /meɪk ˌkɒmpənˈseɪʃ(ə)n fə(r) ˈsʌmθɪŋ/ - возмещать ущерб, компенсировать
to infringe /ɪnˈfrɪndʒ/ = violate /ˈvaɪəleɪt/, break /breɪk/ – нарушать,
преступать (закон, обязательство, клятву и т. п.)
tortfeasor /ˈtɔː(r)tˈfiːzə(r)/ - причинитель вреда, деликвент, правонарушитель
trespass /ˈtrespəs/ - нарушение владения (с причинением вреда);
вторжение в чужое владение или противоправное пользование
чужим владением || нарушать чужое право владения
10.2. SCANNING
Nature of Tort
1. The word "tort" means "wrong" in French, and in English
law it is used to denote certain civil wrongs, e.g. trespass,
defamation, invasion of privacy, negligence, false arrest, false imprisonment, infringement of intellectual property rights, assault and
nuisance. It is important to distinguish torts from other legal wrongs,
notably crimes and breaches of contract.
2. Generally, in order to succeed in an action in tort, the plaintiff
must prove that the defendant:
(a) has infringed a legal right of the plaintiff;
(b) has caused the plaintiff damage (meaning loss or injury).
If the defendant has not infringed a legal right of the plaintiff, he
will not be liable in tort even if he has caused the plaintiff damage.
This situation is described as "Damnum sine injuria" – “Damage without legal injury”. An example would arise where a shopkeeper was
ruined by the legitimate competition of a nearby supermarket. There
would be damage but no violation of a legal right, and thus the
shopkeeper would have no remedy in tort.
3. Conversely, the causing of damage is not essential to every action in tort. Certain torts are said to be actionable per se (by themselves - without proof of actual damage). In these torts, there is infringement of a legal right but no damage. This situation is described
as "Injuria sine damno" – “Legal injury without actual harm”. Examples include libel and trespass. Thus if A. trespasses on B.'s land, A.
may be liable to pay compensation to B. even though he has caused
no actual harm.
4. Some general defences are available in a suit for tort, for instance: infancy, insanity, self-defence, defence of others, defence of
property, act of God, consent on the part of the injured party, necessity, contributory negligence, inevitable accident.
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5. The main remedies against tortious loss are: compensatory
damages, punitive damages, nominal damages, restitution or injunction.
6. Tort law vs. criminal law. A tort and a crime can be distinguished in the following way:
(i) A crime is an offence against the state, and proceedings are
usually initiated by the public body on behalf of the people, although
a private citizen may prosecute in certain cases. A tort, on the other
hand, is a civil wrong. The party injured by the commission of the tort
is entitled to sue the guilty party (called a tortfeasor).
(ii) A crime carries with it the various "penalties" or sanctions of
the criminal law, e.g. fines, probation, imprisonment. The aim of the
law of tort, on the other hand, is not to punish the tortfeasor but to
compensate the injured party by an award of damages. An injunction
is also a proper remedy in certain cases.
(iii) In a criminal trial, there is a presumption that the accused is
innocent and the prosecution must prove his guilt beyond reasonable
doubt. There is no such presumption in a civil action, and the defendant's responsibility for a tortious act need only be established on a
balance of probabilities.
(iv) A criminal prosecution may not be stopped by the victim. An
action arising out of tort may, like other civil actions, be discontinued
or settled out of court by the plaintiff at any time.
7. Tort vs. breach of contract. A tort and a breach of contract
may be distinguished as follows:
(i) Contracts impose duties but these are created by the agreement of the parties. On a breach of contract, there is a breach of such
a duty. A tort, on the other hand, is a breach of a duty imposed by the
law. It is not based on the agreement of the parties. Thus you are under a duty imposed by the law not to slander X, not to trespass on X's
land and so on.
(ii) By the doctrine of privity of contract, only a party to a contract
can sue for breach of it. A tortious act, however, entitles any injured
party to sue.
LEXIS
breach of contract - нарушение договора, невыполнение
условий контракта (без юридических оснований)
succeed - достигать цели, иметь успех
liable - ответственный, несущий ответственность
infancy – несовершеннолетие
act of God - стихийное бедствие, форс-мажорные обстоятельства
contributory negligence - неосторожность пострадавшего, приведшая к несчастному случаю; небрежность потерпевшего
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inevitable accident - непредотвратимый несчастный случай
compensatory damages - возмещение понесённых убытков
punitive damages - денежное возмещение в виде наказания ответчика для примера
nominal damages - возмещение убытков, имеющее символическое
значение
prosecute - преследовать в судебном порядке; поддерживать обвинение, обвинять
commission - совершение (действия), деяние
penalty - наказание; карательная мера; санкция
presumption - 1) предположение; допущение 2) презумпция
accused - 1) обвиняемый (в преступлении) 2) подсудимый
innocent - невиновный, безвинный
settle out of court - урегулировать спор без судебного разбирательства
impose duties - создавать обязательства, возложить обязанности
privity of contract - 1) договорные отношения, договорная связь; 2)
частный характер договорной связи
entitle - давать право; управомочивать
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
10.3. QUESTIONS
1. What does the word "tort" denote?
2. Can you give any examples of civil wrongs, which can be
classified as torts?
What must the plaintiff prove in order to succeed in an action in tort?
Certain torts are said to be actionable per se. What do you know
about them?
What do we call the guilty party in a tort?
How are torts and crimes distinguished?
How is a breach of contract distinguished from torts?
10.4. AGREE OR DISAGREE
1. If the defendant has caused the plaintiff some damage
but has not infringed a legal right of the plaintiff, he will not
be liable in tort.
It is causing of damage that is essential to every action in tort.
The aim of the law of tort is to punish the tortfeasor.
Tort cases are heard only by civil courts.
In a civil action, as well as in a criminal one, there is a presumption that the defendant is innocent.
An action arising out of tort may be settled out of court.
10.5. GIVE ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS for:
a) нарушить законное право;
b) причинить ущерб;
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c) выплачивать компенсацию;
d) начинать судебное разбирательство;
e) приостановить судопроизводство по гражданскому иску;
f) возложить обязанности в силу закона;
g) преследовать по суду за нарушение договора.
10.6. SCANNING
Classification of Torts
Most torts arise from either an intentional, wrongful action or
from a negligent action.
(i) Negligence
In a tort case arising out of negligence, the plaintiff must show
four things: (a) there was a duty imposed on the defendant in favor of
the plaintiff, (b) the defendant breached (violated) that duty, (c) the
breach was the proximate (natural and foreseeable) cause of the
harm, and (d) plaintiff suffered damages.
(ii) Intentional torts
To constitute an intentional tort, the defendant's act must be expressly or implicitly intended; the resulting harm need not be intended, but must have to be reasonably foreseeable. Examples of intentional torts are as follows:
a) Interference with the person
o Assault: any attempt to use illegal force on another person
without that person's consent. Verbal threats do not constitute assault. If violence actually occurs, the act is termed battery.
o False arrest: detention of the plaintiff, without his/her permission, under the falsely asserted authority of the defendant.
o False imprisonment: wrongful use of force, physical barriers, or
threats of force to restrain the plaintiff's freedom of movement.
o Intentional infliction of mental (emotional) distress: disturbance
of the plaintiff's peace of mind by the defendant's outrageous conduct.
Although damages are not limited to bodily injury, usually some
physical harm must be shown.
o Invasion of privacy: interference with a person's right to be left
alone. The right to solitude can be invaded in four different ways: (i)
public disclosure of private facts; (ii) publication of information placing a person in a false light; (iii) intrusion upon a person's private life;
or (iv) unauthorized appropriation of name or likeness (e.g., picture)
for commercial purposes.
b) Interference with property
o Conversion: unauthorized, unjustified exercise of control over
another's personal property. There are two requirements: defendant
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must (1) appropriate the property to his/her own use, and (2) indefinitely withhold its possession from the plaintiff or destroy it. Examples: acts of arson, robbery, or embezzlement, taking someone else's
umbrella, coat, or other personal property and keeping it after discovering that fact.
o Trespass: the unjustifiable and direct interference with another's rights to property, which can take two forms:
(i) trespass to land (real property) - including entry upon land,
throwing objects on to land or remaining on land after the right to entry has been withdrawn; and
(ii) trespass to goods (personal property).
All forms of trespass are actionable per se, i.e. without the necessity of showing that damage has been suffered by the plaintiff.
o Nuisance: the unlawful interference with another's use and enjoyment of land or some right over or in connection with land. In contrast to trespass the interference is indirect and includes: (i) interference with a right to light; (ii) interference with the enjoyment of land
generally, such as smoke, smells or noise; or (iii) obstruction of rights
of way. Proof of damage is necessary in order to bring an action for
nuisance.
c) Other intentional torts
o Abuse of process: the use of a court process (e.g., attachment,
injunction) for a purpose for which it was not intended. Example: attachment on excessive amounts of X's property in one case so as to
force X to dismiss an unrelated lawsuit.
o Defamation: the publication of a false statement about another
person which infringes his right to the reputation he enjoys among
his fellow men. Defamation takes two forms:
(i) libel, which is in a permanent form such as writing, painting,
broadcasting; and
(ii) slander, which is in a fleeting form - spoken words or gestures.
Libel is actionable per se. With a few exceptions, slander requires
proof of damage.
o Fraud (deceit, misrepresentation): a deceitful conduct designed
to manipulate another person to give something of value by lying or
by concealing a fact from the other party which may have saved that
party from being cheated.
o Infringement of intellectual property rights: civil wrongs in the
sphere covered by copyrights, patents, trademarks and industrial secrets.
LEXIS
proximate - непосредственный (о причине), ближайший
foreseeable - предвидимый, предсказуемый
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suffer damages - понести ущерб, получить повреждение
expressly - в явной форме, специально, словесно, в прямой форме
implicitly - по смыслу, молчаливо; подразумеваемым образом
intended - намеренный; умышленный
attempt - попытка, проба; покушение
verbal threat - словесная угроза
battery - нанесение удара; нанесение побоев, избиение
false arrest - незаконное задержание, имитация ареста
detention - задержание, арест, заключение под стражу
asserted - утверждаемый, заявляемый, предполагаемый
false imprisonment - незаконное лишение свободы
restrain - 1) ограничивать 2) запрещать; пресекать 3) принуждать
intentional infliction - умышленное, преднамеренное нанесение,
причинение (личного или имущественного вреда)
mental distress - психическое расстройство
emotional distress - эмоциональное расстройство
disturbance - нарушение; повреждение; беспокойство
peace of mind - душевный покой, психическое равновесие
outrageous - жестокий, оскорбительный; вопиющий, скандальный
solitude - одиночество; уединение, изоляция (о человеке)
intrusion - вторжение, насильственное проникновение, вмешательство; нарушение; посягательство
appropriation - обращение в свою собственность; конфискация;
присвоение
conversion - незаконное присвоение имущества, незаконное использование чьего-л. имущества в собственных целях
unjustified - необоснованный; несправедливый, неоправданный
indefinitely - в течение неопределенного времени; бесконечно, беспредельно, безгранично
withhold - удерживать, сдерживать, приостанавливать
entry - вход, въезд; проход
abuse of process - злоумышленное использование одной стороной
процессуальных законов во вред противной стороне, предъявление явно недобросовестного иска
attachment - наложение ареста
injunction - судебный запрет, судебное предписание
dismiss - отклонять исковое заявление
fellow men - коллеги, сотрудники, сослуживцы, соотечественники
libel - квалифицированная клевета, письменная клевета
permanent form – фиксированная, устойчивая форма
slander - клевета (в устной форме), злословие
fleeting form – скоротечная, нестабильная, мимолетная форма существования
deceit - обман, уловка, трюк, хитрость, мошенническая проделка
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misrepresentation - введение в заблуждение; искажение фактов
concealing - утаивание, умолчание
cheat - жульничать, мошенничать, ловчить, "надувать"
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
10.7. QUESTIONS
1.Does tort law cover any violation of intellectual property
rights?
Can you give examples of “invasion of privacy”?
What are the constituents of an intentional tort?
What are the four things that the plaintiff must prove in a tort case
arising out of negligence?
What do most torts arise from?
What is the difference between:
- “false arrest” and “false imprisonment”?
- “libel” and “slander”?
- “trespass” and “nuisance”?
What types of trespass are there?
10.8. (*) EXERCISE. Examine the following chart and identify
the procedural distinction of a tort case from a criminal case:
Tort Lawsuit and Criminal Prosecution
for the Same Act
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3.
4.
5.
6.
10.9. AGREE OR DISAGREE
1. Verbal threats do not constitute assault.
2. Any tort is a criminal offence.
All forms of trespass are actionable per se.
The right to solitude can be invaded in three different ways.
Proof of damage is not necessary in an action for nuisance.
Libel requires proof of damage.
10.10. GIVE ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS for:
a) являться непосредственной причиной ущерба;
b) быть вполне предсказуемым;
c) ограничивать свободу передвижения;
d) продемонстрировать наличие физического вреда;
e) уничтожить имущество;
f) аннулировать право на проход в помещение;
g) иметь хорошую репутацию среди коллег;
h) умело воздействовать на поведение другого человека;
i) давать что-либо ценное.
10.11. (**) DISTINGUISH between liability in tort and liability
in contract. Pay attention to prerequisites, judicial proceedings and legal remedies.
10.12. KEY WORDS
abuse of process
actionable per se
assault
award of damages
balance of probabilities
battery
be liable
conversion
defamation
direct interference
false arrest
false imprisonment
fraud
indirect interference
injured party
intentional tort
invasion of privacy
negligence
nuisance
to indemnify
to infringe
tort
tortfeasor
trespass to goods
trespass to land
violation of a legal right
10.13. (**) ESSAY WRITING. Chose one of the following themes
for your essay on the topic “Law of Torts":
- “Damages as a remedy in tort cases.”
- “Defences against tort liability.”
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-
“Is the law of torts able to provide justice to the victim of a wrong?”
“Medical malpractice: inevitable or impermissible?”
“Slander and libel: different torts or not?”
“Tort serves as a deterrent by sending a message to the community
as to what is unacceptable conduct.”
- “Why is it difficult to define the nature of tort?”
10.14. TEST YOURSELF. Fill each gap in the sentences with
only one word or phrase from the box given below:
In French, "tort" means "(1)". Tort refers to that body of the
law which will allow an injured person to obtain (2) from the person
who caused the injury. Every person is expected to conduct themselves without injuring others. When they do so, either intentionally
or by negligence, they can be required by a court to pay money to (3)
so that, ultimately, they will suffer the pain cause by their action.
A tort differs from a crime in that (4) is an offense against an individual, whereas a crime is (5), for which the state inflicts punishment.
A tort differs from a breach of contract in that the legal duty
breached by the tort is one imposed by the state, whereas in a breach
of contract, the obligation breached is one which (6) have voluntarily
assumed.
An act may be simultaneously a breach of contract, a tort, and
a crime; for example, the misappropriation of funds by a trustee is
a breach of the contract of trust, the tort of (7), and the crime of (8).
All torts may be either intentional or arising out of negligence.
Negligence designates a failure to exercise due care, resulting in injury to another, and for which an action for money damages may be
brought. To constitute an intentional tort the defendant's act must
be intended. The examples of (9) are assault and battery, fraud, defamation, (10), invasion of privacy.
Defamation is the act of (11) of another by means of false communications that expose that person to contempt, ridicule, hatred, or
social ostracism. In the common law, (12) is classified as libel, and
oral defamation as slander.
Trespass is (13) with another's person, property or rights. It takes
three forms: trespass to the person, trespass to (14) (i.e. to goods) and
trespass to (15) (i.e. to land). Theoretically, all torts are trespasses.
Nuisance is indirect interference with another's right to use and
enjoy his/her property (private nuisance) or with rights common to all
(public nuisance). The examples of (16) are pollution, excessive noise
or smoke.
The name given to a person or persons who have committed a tort
is (17).
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unlawful direct interference, public nuisance, false arrest, personal
property, conversion, the injured party, embezzlement, an offense
against the state, a wrong, the contracting parties, damaging the
reputation, intentional torts, tortfeasor, a tort, defamation in writing,
compensation, real property
10.15. MAKE A REPORT on the topic “Law of Torts”, paying attention to the following points in your speech:
- tort as a legal concept;
- a tort distinguished from a crime;
- tortious liability distinguished from contractual liability;
- classification of torts;
- remedies in tort cases.
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Unit 11. Evidence and Investigation
11.1. BEFORE READING learn the following words and
phrases which are essential on the topic:
arraignment /əˈreɪnment/ - формальное предъявление обвинения
arrest /əˈrest/ - арест; наложение ареста, задержание || арестовывать, накладывать арест, задерживать
booking /ˈbʊkɪŋ/ - регистрация протокола, заполнение протокола;
регистрация арестованных
burden of proof /ˈbɜː(r)d(ə)n əv ˈpruːf/ - обязанность доказывания;
"бремя доказательства" (в суде)
circumstantial evidence /ˌsɜː(r)kəmˈstænʃ(ə)l ˈevɪd(ə)ns/ - косвенные
доказательства или улики
confession /kənˈvɪkʃ(ə)n/ - признание в совершении преступления;
признание вины; покаяние
conviction /kənˈvɪkʃ(ə)n/ - обвинение, осуждение, обвинительный
приговор
defendant /dɪˈfendənt/ - ответчик по делу в суде, подсудимый, обвиняемый
detective /dɪˈtektɪv/ - 1) детектив, сыщик; сотрудник сыскной, уголовной полиции 2) детективный, сыскной, уголовный (о полиции)
direct evidence /dɪˈrekt ˈevɪd(ə)ns/ - прямое свидетельское показание, прямое [непосредственное] доказательство
documentary evidence /ˌdɒkjʊˈment(ə)ri ˈevɪd(ə)ns/ - документально
подтвержденное свидетельство
indictment /ɪnˈdaɪtmənt/ - обвинительный акт, обвинительное заключение; вердикт большого жюри о привлечении к уголовной
ответственности и передаче дела в суд
instrumentation /ˌɪnstrʊmenˈteɪʃ(ə)n/ - применение технических
средств; оснащение инструментальными средствами; средства
проведения расследования; науки о способах и средствах проведения расследования
interrogation /ɪnˌterəˈɡeɪʃ(ə)n/ - допрос (свидетелей и подозреваемых)
investigative tools /ɪnˈvestɪɡətɪv tuːlz/ - следственный инструментарий, средства и способы расследования преступлений
investigator /ɪnˈvestɪˌɡeɪtə(r)/ - следователь (лицо, ведущее расследование)
oral evidence /ˈɔːrəl ˈevɪd(ə)ns/ - устные свидетельские показания
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plaintiff /ˈpleɪntɪf/ - истец (лицо, подающее иск), жалобщик
prosecution /ˌprɒsɪˈkjuːʃ(ə)n/ - судебное преследование; уголовное
преследование; сторона обвинения
real evidence /ˈrɪəl ˈevɪd(ə)ns/ = exhibit /ɪɡˈzɪbɪt/ - вещественное доказательство
scene of the crime /ˈsiːn əv ðə kraɪm/ - место совершения преступления
to locate /ləʊˈkeɪt/ - определять место, обнаруживать точное местонахождение
to make investigation /ˈmeɪk ɪnˌvestɪˈɡeɪʃ(ə)n/ = detect /dɪˈtekt/,
investigate /ɪnˈvestɪɡeɪt/, hold an inquiry /ˈhəʊld ən ɪnˈkwaɪəri/ –
расследовать, вести расследование
to testify /ˈtestɪfaɪ/ - давать показания, показывать, свидетельствовать, заявлять, утверждать; быть свидетельством, доказательством
trace evidence /ˈtreɪs ˈevɪd(ə)ns/ - следовая улика, трассеологические доказательства
unsworn evidence /ˌʌnˈswɔː(r)n ˈevɪd(ə)ns/ - показание, не скреплённое присягой
witness /ˈwɪtnəs/ - свидетель, понятой; свидетельство, свидетельское показание || давать свидетельские показания; свидетельствовать; подписывать в качестве свидетеля
11.2. SCANNING
Probable Cause and Other Levels of Proof
1. Before the various steps of the criminal justice system can
be initiated - arrest, booking, indictment, arraignment and
sentencing - different levels of proof are required. The levels of proof
recognized by law are as follows:
2. Suspicion is the lowest level of proof justifying a police action.
Suspicion may occur when a police officer has only slight evidence to
believe that a crime has been or is in the process of being committed.
It permits a police officer to initiate an investigation.
3. Another level of proof is reasonable belief as a specific and
reasonable conclusion drawn from observable facts. Reasonable belief
permits the police to stop and search a person when they have reason
to believe they are dealing with armed and dangerous persons.
4. Probable cause is a higher level of proof that occurs when one
has sufficient and reliable information that a crime has been committed and that the accused has committed that crime. It is the standard
used for arrest, search and arraignment.
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5. Preponderance of evidence as a level of proof means that the
weight of evidence is greater for one side than for the other. This is
sufficient for making a judgment in civil cases, but not enough to
convict in criminal cases.
6. Beyond a reasonable doubt: This level of proof exists when,
after examining the evidence presented, a reasonable person would
rely on it. It is the standard needed to convict in a criminal case according to the doctrine of "presumption of innocence".
7. It is difficult to distinguish between each of the levels of the
proof described above. Yet the different levels of proof serve as a good
illustration of how society attempts to deal with the problem of protecting the state from crime while at the same time guaranteeing and
protecting an individual's liberty. The aim is to limit police actions
that are unreasonable or discriminatory while at the same time making it possible for the police to enforce the law. Mere suspicion is not
enough to put someone in jail, and the proof beyond a reasonable
doubt is needed to prove criminal guilt.
8. Thus no person can be found guilty of a criminal offence without proof “beyond a reasonable doubt”, but a person can be arrested
and searched, and formally charged with a crime on the basis of evidence that is less than that required to convict him.
LEXIS
proof - доказательство; свидетельство
suspicion - подозрение, сомнение
reasonable belief - обоснованное предположение
observable - заметный, различимый, поддающийся наблюдению
probable cause - вероятная причина; правдоподобное основание
preponderance of evidence - перевес доказательств
rely on - полагаться на, основываться
doctrine - теория, принцип; учение
unreasonable - неумеренный, чрезмерный; необоснованный
discriminatory - избирательный, селективный, предвзятый, тенденциозный, дискриминационный
enforce the law - обеспечивать соблюдение закона
11.3. QUESTIONS
1. What are the steps of a criminal justice proceeding?
2. What levels of proof do you know? Can you characterize
each of them?
3. What aims do different levels of proof serve?
4. What level of proof is sufficient for making a judgment in civil cases?
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3.
4.
5.
6.
11.4. AGREE OR DISAGREE
1. Suspicion is the highest level of proof justifying a conviction.
2. It is suspicion that permits the police to stop and search
a person.
For reasonable belief one needs some observable facts.
Reasonable belief is the standard used for arrest, search and arraignment.
Preponderance of evidence is a maxim of criminal trials.
The levels of proof are easily distinguishable.
11.5. GIVE ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS for:
a) делать обоснованный вывод на основе наблюдаемых
обстоятельств;
b) остановить и обыскать человека;
c) выносить обвинительный приговор по уголовному делу;
d) исследовать представленные доказательства;
e) защищать государство от преступности;
f) защищать свободу личности.
11.6. SCANNING
Evidence
1. The term "evidence" as used in English law means statement made by witnesses in court in relation to matters of
fact under inquiry (oral evidence), and items produced for the inspection of the court (real and documentary evidence). The weight of evidence has no necessary relation to the number of witnesses who testify to the same thing but depends on credibility of witnesses.
2. All evidentiary material can be classified into primary, or original, evidence and secondary evidence. Secondary evidence means a
reproduction of, or substitute for, an original document or item of proof
that is offered to establish a particular issue in a legal action. For example, a photocopy of a document or photograph would be considered
secondary evidence. Another example would be an exact replica of an
engine part that was contained in a motor vehicle. If the engine part is
not the very same engine part that was inside the motor vehicle involved in the case, it is considered secondary evidence. Courts prefer
original evidence and try to avoid using secondary evidence wherever
possible. This approach is called the best evidence rule.
3. Evidence can also be divided into direct and circumstantial
one. "Direct evidence" proves that the accused was seen committing
the crime with which he is charged, that is, evidence of the fact in issue. "Circumstantial" means evidence of facts relevant to the issue
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from which, taken alone or together with other facts, an inference may
be drawn that the crime was committed by a particular person. It is a
mistake to consider circumstantial evidence to be weaker than direct
evidence and that a person should not be convicted on it.
4. Criminals are very often convicted on circumstantial evidence
or exhibits, for they naturally tend not to commit crimes when someone who could later give direct evidence is watching. This form of evidence may indeed be stronger than direct evidence as a witness can
lie but circumstances cannot.
5. Trace evidence is an example of circumstantial evidence
which links a person (the suspect or defendant) with a place (the
scene of the crime) or an object. The link may be direct or indirect.
The guiding principle in criminalistics is "Every contact leaves a
trace". Identification of the trace may provide evidence of the contact
and it is most frequently necessary in such crimes as theft and burglaries.
6. In general, the following items are to be examined as trace evidence:
- fingerprints;
- footprints and impressions reproducing the shape of the objects
which made them;
- pieces of wood, metal or glass, which are broken off in committing the crime;
- explosives residue;
- stains and traces of materials, such as blood, paint, oil.
7. The transfer of traces is often a two-way process. Traces from
the crime scene may be carried away on the person, clothing, etc.,
and at the same time, traces may be left at the crime scene by the
criminal.
8. However, the help which the expert can give is limited if no one
in particular is suspected or if no arrest has been made, i.e. if only
the scene of the crime is available for the examination. But even in
this case the detective must make a thorough examination which may
help him to discover what size and type of footwear, or what colour
and material of clothing the criminal was wearing.
LEXIS
former - первый из упомянутых ранее
credibility – убедительность, правдивость, надёжность
evidentiary material - доказательственный материал
secondary evidence - вторичное доказательство, производное доказательство
reproduction - воспроизведение
substitute – замена, заменитель
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item of proof – предмет, представленный в виде доказательства
exact replica - точная репродукция
engine part - деталь двигателя
best evidence rule - требование представления наилучших (первичных, подлинных) доказательств
fact in issue - факт, являющийся предметом судебного спора;
предмет доказывания
inference - вывод, заключение, умозаключение
exhibits - вещественные доказательства
lie - лгать, обманывать, быть обманчивым
footprint - отпечаток ступни, след
impression - отпечаток, оттиск, след; слепок
break off – отрываться, откалываться, отламываться
explosives residue - следы взрывчатых веществ
stain - пятно, пятнышко
transfer - перенос, перенесение; перемещение
two-way process - двусторонний процесс
footwear - обувь
clothing - одежда, платье, костюм
11.7. QUESTIONS
1. What does the term "evidence" mean in English law?
2. Is there any relation between the weight of evidence and
the number of witnesses?
3. What is the difference between:
- direct and circumstantial evidence?
- primary and secondary evidence?
- oral, real and documentary evidence?
4. What evidence do courts prefer?
5. What do they refer to as “trace evidence”?
11.8. AGREE OR DISAGREE
1. Direct evidence is stronger than circumstantial evidence.
2. The transfer of traces is a two-way process.
3. Efficiency of an expert in criminal cases is limited.
4. Evidence can be divided into direct and secondary one.
5. Fingerprints and footprints are the examples of circumstantial evidence.
6. Photographs or photocopies of documents are used in courts as
original evidence.
11.9. GIVE ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS for:
a) предъявлять предметы для изучения в суде;
b) зависеть от убедительности свидетелей;
c) установить особенности по судебному делу;
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d) избегать использования производных доказательств;
e) вывести заключение из фактов, относящихся к делу;
f) воспроизводить форму объектов;
g) оставлять следы на месте преступления;
h) иметься в наличии для изучения.
11.10. SCANNING
Investigation
1. A criminal investigator is a person who collects facts to
accomplish a threefold aim: to identify and locate the guilty
party and to provide evidence of his guilt. Thus the objectives of the
investigator provide a convenient division of the investigation into
three phases:
(i) the criminal is identified;
(ii) he is traced and located; and
(iii) the facts proving his guilt are gathered for court presentation.
2. Most crimes can be solved. The investigation will be considered
successful if the available physical evidence was competently handled,
the witnesses intelligently interviewed, the suspect effectively interrogated, all logical leads properly developed, and the case comprehensively, clearly, and accurately reported to the court.
3. The tools of the investigator are, for the sake of simplicity,
referred to as the three "i's", namely, information, interrogation, and
instrumentation. By the application of the three "i's" in varying proportions the investigator gathers the facts which are necessary to establish the guilt of the accused in a criminal trial.
4. Information. The word "information" is used here to describe
the knowledge which the investigator gathers from other persons. The
success of "information" depends on the intelligent selection of informative sources. According to its sources there are basically two kinds
of information. The first type of information is acquired from regular
sources such as conscientious and public-spirited citizens, company
records, and the files of other agencies. The second type, which is of
particular interest to the criminal investigator, is the knowledge which
the experienced investigator gathers from cultivated sources such as
paid informants, former criminals, bartenders, taxi drivers, or room attendants.
5. Interrogation, the second "i", includes the skilful questioning
of witnesses as well as suspects when they do not cooperate with the
investigator. The effectiveness of interrogation varies with the craft,
logic, and psychological insight with which the investigator questions
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terview. The term “interview” means the simple questioning of a person who is co-operating with the investigator, while “interrogation” is
used to describe the intensive questioning of those who are reluctant
to turn in information.
6. Instrumentation. The third "i" means the application of the
instruments and methods of the physical sciences to the detection of
crime. Physics, for example, offers such aids as microscopy, photography, and the optical methods of analysis. Biology and pathology
are particularly important in crimes of physical violence.
7. The sum of these sciences insofar as they are applied to crime
detection is called criminalistics. Their utility is associated mainly with
physical evidence. By their means a part of the corpus delicti may be
established in certain crimes - the cause of death in a homicide or the
nature of the drug in a narcotics violation. They may be used to link
the suspect to the scene of the crime by showing that clue materials
found at the scene possess the same constituents as materials associated with the suspect. The same procedure is employed in identifying the criminal by tracing a substance found at the scene to a source
that can be immediately associated with the suspect.
8. Instrumentation, however, embraces rather more than criminalistics. It includes also all the technical methods by which the fugitive
is traced and examined and, in general, the investigation is advanced.
Thus, fingerprint systems, modus operandi files, the lie detector,
communication systems, surveillance equipment, searching apparatus
such as the X-ray unit and the metal detector, and other investigative
tools are contained within the scope of the term.
LEXIS
accomplish - совершать, выполнять; достигать
threefold - тройной, триединый
objective - цель; задача; проблема
competently - квалифицированно
handle - прорабатывать; обсуждать, разбирать (вопрос); управляться, справляться с кем-л., чем-л.
intelligently - с толком
interview - проводить опрос, расспрашивать
interrogate - опрашивать, допрашивать
lead - ключ (к разгадке чего-либо); подсказка
conscientious - добросовестный, сознательный, честный
public-spirited - движимый заботой об интересах общества, проникнутый духом гражданственности
experienced - опытный, знающий; квалифицированный
cultivated - специально созданный, поддерживаемый
paid informant - информатор, осведомитель, доносчик
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former criminal - ранее судимый, отбывший своё наказание
room attendant - горничная
skilful questioning - искусное опрашивание
craft - мастерство, умение, искусство; сноровка
insight - интуиция, понимание, проницательность
in possession of information - владеющий информацией, информированный
reluctant – делающий с неохотой, по принуждению; сопротивляющийся
turn in information - дать сведения, сообщить информацию
physical sciences - естественные науки
criminalistics - криминалистика; теория и техника расследования
преступлений
utility - полезность, практичность; эффективность
clue materials - ключевые предметы, наиболее существенные улики
constituents - компонент, состав, составная часть
substance - вещество; материал
embrace - включать, заключать в себе, содержать
advance - двигаться вперёд, продвигаться
modus operandi file - картотека преступных "почерков"
lie detector - детектор лжи (полиграф)
surveillance equipment – средства для идентификации, технические средства наблюдения
X-ray unit - рентгеновская установка
3.
4.
5.
6.
11.11. QUESTIONS
1. What are the objectives of an investigator?
2. What makes the investigation successful?
Which tools are available for an investigator?
What are the two kinds of information that the investigator is interested in?
What physical sciences are associated with “instrumentation”?
Can you give the examples of investigative tools being used by an
investigator.
11.12. AGREE OR DISAGREE
1. Every crime is soluble.
2. Instrumentation is regarded to be the same as criminalistics.
3. Information acquired from regular sources is of particular interest
to a criminal investigator.
4. The effectiveness of interrogation completely depends upon the
state of mind of a person who is in possession of information
relevant to the case.
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11.13. GIVE ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS for:
a) установить личность и определить местонахождение
виновного;
b) собирать факты для предъявления в суде;
c) раскрыть преступление;
d) получать информацию из обычных источников;
e) получать информацию из специально создаваемых источников;
f) сотрудничать со следователем;
g) применять естественные науки в расследовании преступления;
h) ассоциировать/связывать преступника с объектом, найденным
на месте преступления.
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11.14. (**) ENGAGE IN CONVERSATION. Discuss the importance of different forensic sciences; make use of the following extensive list:
ballistics
bite marks
blood spatter analysis
DNA analysis
fiber analysis
fingerprints
footwear
forensic chemistry
forensic entomology
forensic linguistics
forensic mathematics
forensic odontology
forensic palynology
forensic pathology
forensic psychiatry and psychology (soft sciences)
forensic reconstruction
forensic toxicology
glass fragments
hair analysis
paint chips analyses
questioned document analysis
soil analysis
statistics (soft sciences)
tire impressions
toolmarks.
WORK IN PAIRS. One of you should talk for not less than one
minute about investigative activities chosen for discussion; the other
should ask questions to this speech.
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11.15. KEY WORDS
arraignment
arrest
circumstantial evidence
criminalistics
cultivated sources of information
detective
direct evidence
documentary evidence
exhibits
fingerprints
instrumentation
interrogation
investigator
levels of proof
-
modus operandi file
oral evidence
regular sources of information
scene of crime
surveillance equipment
to detect
to identify
to locate
to present evidence
to prove
to solve a crime
to testify
trace evidence
witness
11.16. (**) ESSAY WRITING. Chose one of the following themes
for your essay on the topic “Evidence and Investigation":
- “Bail: getting out of jail after an arrest.”
- “Expert witnesses.”
“Importance of a criminalistics laboratory.”
“Should the police have the right to stop and search anyone in the
street without a warrant?”
“Social networks as a source of personal information.”
“The polygraph test: can science tell if you are lying?.”
“Witness protection.”
11.17. TEST YOURSELF. Fill each gap in the sentences with
only one word or phrase from the box given below:
The term "evidence" as used in English law means (1) in
court in relation to matters of fact under inquiry, i.e. oral evidence,
and documents and exhibits produced for the inspection of the court,
i.e. (2). Evidence in criminal cases is facts on the basis of which the
organ of inquiry, (3) and the court establish the existence or absence
of (4), the guilt of the person committing the act and other circumstances in the case.
Evidence can be divided into direct and circumstantial. (5) is given by witnesses, i.e. persons who perceive an event (by seeing, hearing, smelling or other sensory perception). The examples of (6) are fingerprints, (7), stains and traces of materials: while there may be no
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witness to a person's presence in a certain place, or contact with a
certain object, the scientific evidence of someone's (8) or footprints is
persuasive proof of a person's presence or contact with an object.
Before the various steps of the criminal justice system can be initiated - arrest, booking, arraignment and (9) - different levels of proof
are required. The levels of proof recognized by law are as follows: suspicion, (10), probable cause, preponderance of evidence and (11). The
last level of proof exists when, after examining the evidence presented,
a reasonable person would rely on it. It is the standard needed to
convict in a criminal case.
A criminal investigator is a person who collects facts to accomplish a threefold aim: to identify and locate (12) and to provide evidence of his guilt. The tools of the investigator are the three "i's",
namely, information, (13).
The word "information" is used to describe the knowledge which
the investigator gathers from other persons. There are basically two
kinds: (14) such as public spirited citizens, and cultivated sources
such as (15).
Interrogation, the second "I", includes (16) as well as witnesses if
they are reluctant to divulge information.
Instrumentation means the application of (17) to the detection of
crime. Thus instrumentation covers all the technical methods by
which the criminal is identified, traced, located and examined, e.g.
(18), the lie detector, communication systems, surveillance equipment
and the metal detector.
paid informants, sentencing, reasonable belief, footprints,
interrogation and instrumentation, the instruments and methods of
the physical sciences, circumstantial evidence, regular sources,
beyond a reasonable doubt, fingerprints, modus operandi files,
the skilful questioning of suspects, a socially dangerous act,
documentary evidence, statement made by witnesses,
the investigator, the guilty party, direct evidence
11.18. MAKE A REPORT on the topic “Evidence and Investigation”, paying attention to the following points in your
speech:
- levels of proof;
- direct and circumstantial evidence;
- phases of investigation;
- tools of the investigator: information, interrogation, instrumentation.
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Unit 12. Judiciary
12.1. BEFORE READING learn the following words and
phrases which are essential on the topic:
acquittal /əˈkwɪt(ə)l/ - оправдание; судебное решение об
оправдании; оправдательный вердикт, приговор
adjudication /əˌdʒuːdɪˈkeɪʃ(ə)n/ = adjudgement /əˈdʒʌdʒmənt/ - вынесение судебного решения; судебное решение
closing arguments /ˈkləʊzɪŋ ˈɑː(r)ɡjʊmənts/ – выступления, завершающие прения сторон в судебном разбирательстве
corroboration /kəˌrɒbəˈreɪʃ(ə)n/ - подтверждение (дополнительными
фактами); подкрепление (одного доказательства другим), дополнительное доказательство
court of appeal /ˈkɔː(r)t əv əˈpiːl/, appeal court /əˈpiːl ˈkɔː(r)t/, appellate
court /əˌpelət ˈkɔː(r)t/, court of appellate jurisdiction /ˈkɔː(r)t əv
əˌpelət ˌdʒʊərɪsˈdɪkʃ(ə)n/ - апелляционный суд (вторая инстанция)
court of cassation /ˈkɔː(r)t əv kæˈseɪʃ(ə)n/ = cassational court
/kæˈseɪʃ(ə)nəl ˈkɔː(r)t/, court of review /ˈkɔː(r)t əv rɪˈvjuː/ - кассационная инстанция, кассационный суд
court of trial /ˈkɔː(r)t əv ˈtraɪəl/ = court of original jurisdiction /ˈkɔː(r)t
əv əˈrɪdʒ(ə)nəl ˌdʒʊərɪsˈdɪkʃ(ə)n/, trial court /ˈtraɪəl ˈkɔː(r)t/, court of
first instance /ˈkɔː(r)t əv ˈfɜː(r)st ˈɪnstəns/ - суд, в котором дело
рассматривается по первой инстанции (по существу)
court session /ˈkɔː(r)t ˈseʃ(ə)n/ = sitting of the court /ˈsɪtɪŋ əv ðə
ˈkɔː(r)t/, hearing /ˈhɪərɪŋ/ - судебное заседание
cross-examination /ˌkrɒsɪɡzæmɪˈneɪʃ(ə)n/ = counter-interrogation
/ˌkaʊnt(ə)rɪnterəˈɡeɪʃ(ə)n/ - перекрёстный допрос (свидетеля противной стороны)
examination-in-chief /ɪɡˌzæmɪˈneɪʃ(ə)nɪnˌtʃiːf/ = direct examination
/dɪˈrekt ɪɡˌzæmɪˈneɪʃ(ə)n/ - главный опрос, первоначальный опрос
или допрос свидетеля выставившей стороной
equity /ˈekwəti/ - право справедливости; субъективное право (система, существующая наряду с обычными законодательными
актами и замещающая их в случае несоответствия их друг
другу; такая система действовала в Англии с 14 в.)
general jurisdiction /ˈdʒen(ə)rəl ˌdʒʊərɪsˈdɪkʃ(ə)n/ - общая юрисдикция
higher court /ˈhaɪə ˌkɔː(r)t/ = court of superior jurisdiction /ˈkɔː(r)t əv
sʊˈpɪəriə ˌdʒʊərɪsˈdɪkʃ(ə)n/, superior court /sʊˈpɪəriə ˌkɔː(r)t/ - суд
вышестоящей инстанции, вышестоящий суд
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judge /dʒʌdʒ/ = adjudicator /əˈdʒuːdɪkeɪtə/, bench /bentʃ/, bencher
/ˈbentʃə/, justice /ˈdʒʌstɪs/ - судья
judicial review /dʒuːˈdɪʃ(ə)l rɪˈvjuː/ - судебный контроль; судебный
надзор; судебный пересмотр, обзор судебной практики
judiciary /dʒuːˈdɪʃəri/ - суд; судебная власть; судебная система, судоустройство; лица судебной профессии; судьи; судейский
корпус
judgement /ˈdʒʌdʒmənt/ = judicial decision /dʒuːˈdɪʃ(ə)l dɪˈsɪʒ(ə)n/ –
судебное решение или приговор
jury deliberation /ˈdʒʊəri dɪˌlɪbəˈreɪʃ(ə)n/ – обсуждение вердикта присяжными заседателями
justice /ˈdʒʌstɪs/ - справедливость, вознаграждение по заслугам;
правосудие; юстиция, судья; отправление правосудия
lower court court /ˈləʊə ˌkɔː(r)t/ = minor court /ˈmaɪnə ˌkɔː(r)t/, inferior
court /ɪnˈfɪəriə ˌkɔː(r)t/, court of inferior jurisdiction /ˈkɔː(r)t əv
ɪnˈfɪəriə ˌdʒʊərɪsˈdɪkʃ(ə)n/ - суд низшей инстанции, нижестоящий
суд
objection /əbˈdʒekʃ(ə)n/ - возражение, протест (в ходе судебного
разбирательства)
opening statement /ˈəʊp(ə)nɪŋ ˈsteɪtmənt/ - вступительная речь,
вступительное заявление
petition /pəˈtɪʃ(ə)n/ - прошение, ходатайство; петиция; заявление в
суд; исковое заявление || подавать прошение в суд, ходатайствовать
presentation of evidence /ˌprez(ə)nˈteɪʃ(ə)n əv ˈevɪd(ə)ns/ - представление доказательств
to acquit /əˈkwɪt/ - оправдать, признать невиновным (в совершении преступления)
to adjudicate /əˈdʒuːdɪkeɪt/ = give judgement /ˈɡɪv ˈdʒʌdʒmənt/, pass
judgement /ˈpɑːs ˈdʒʌdʒmənt/, hold a decision /ˈhəʊld ə dɪˈsɪʒ(ə)n/ выносить судебное решение
to bring suit /ˈbrɪŋ ˈsuːt/ = bring an action /ˈbrɪŋ ən ˈækʃ(ə)n/ - предъявить иск, возбудить жалобу
to overrule the objection /ˌəʊvəˈruːl ði əbˈdʒekʃ(ə)n/ - отклонить протест, возражение
to preside over a court /priˈzaɪd ˈəʊvər ə ˈkɔː(r)t/ = handle a case
/ˈhænd(ə)l ə ˈkeɪs/ - вести судебное заседание, вести судебное
дело, руководить судебным заседанием
to sustain the objection /səˈsteɪn ði əbˈdʒekʃ(ə)n/ - поддерживать
возражение, протест (в ходе судебного слушания)
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trial /ˈtraɪəl/ - судебный процесс, слушание дела по существу, разбирательство дела, судоговорение
12.2. SCANNING
Kinds of Cases
1. Civil cases are usually disputes between or among private
citizens, corporations, governments, government agencies, and other
organizations. Most often, the party bringing the suit is asking for
money damages for some wrong that has been done. For example, a
tenant may sue a landlord for not fixing a leaky roof, or a landlord
may sue a tenant for not paying rent. People who have been injured
may sue a person or a company they feel is responsible for the injury.
2. The party bringing the suit is called the plaintiff; the party being sued is called the defendant. There may be many plaintiffs or
many defendants in the same case. The plaintiff, being the party
which institutes proceedings, should prove the case against the defendant. In each civil case the judge tells the jury what evidence must
be provided by the plaintiff in order to win a case. This is called “the
plaintiff’s burden of proof”. In most civil cases the plaintiff’s burden is
to prove the case by a preponderance of evidence, that is, that the
plaintiff’s version of what happened in the case is more probably true
than not true.
3. A criminal case is brought by the state or by a city or county
against a person or persons accused of having committed a crime.
The state, city, or county is called the plaintiff; the accused person is
called the defendant.
4. Since the outcome of a criminal trial may result in the defendant's loss of liberty or even life, the courts evolved a rule which casts
upon the prosecution a heavy burden of proof. No rule of criminal law
is of more importance than that which requires the prosecution to
prove the defendant's guilt and not for the latter to establish his innocence; he is presumed innocent until the contrary is proved.
5. In criminal cases the plaintiff cannot succeed on a mere balance of probabilities. The guiding principle of presumption of innocence demands that accused must be acquitted if there is any reasonable doubt whether he or she is guilty. An acquittal therefore either means that the jurors believe the accused and are satisfied of his
innocence, or that, while not satisfied that he is innocent, they do not
feel sure of his guilt. In England there is no middle verdict such as
the Scottish verdict of "not proven" to cover this sort of situation; "not
guilty" is the only alternative to a conviction.
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6. The heavier burden of proof required in criminal trials can also
be seen to operate in the rules, which provide that in certain cases
corroboration is necessary. In some instances the absence of corroboration is a bar to conviction. For example, the unsworn evidence of
a child must be corroborated. A jury cannot convict on such evidence
alone, for the law does not consider it sufficiently reliable to warrant a
conviction. In a charge of perjury the jury may not by law convict the
accused on the uncorroborated evidence of one witness alone. The
falsity of the defendant's evidence cannot be established by the evidence of only one witness, for if this were allowed, it would be merely
a case of oath against oath.
LEXIS
tenant - наниматель, арендатор; временный владелец
landlord - арендодатель; владелец дома, квартиры или земельного участка, сдаваемых внаем
win a case - выиграть дело (в суде)
outcome - исход, итог, последствие, результат
evolve - развивать; образовывать
cast upon - подвергать, возлагать на
latter - последний (из двух названных)
be satisfied – установить, придти к убеждению, определить
not proven - невиновен за отсутствием доказательств
bar to conviction - препятствие для обвинительного приговора
warrant a conviction - подтверждать обвинительный приговор,
признавать виновным
charge of – обвинение в, пункт обвинения
falsity - обманчивость; ложность, неверность, неправильность,
ошибочность
12.3. QUESTIONS
1. What does the party bringing the suit ask for in a civil
trial?
2. Who is called “the plaintiff” in criminal cases?
3. Is there a difference of the plaintiff’s burden of proof in civil and
criminal cases?
4. What does an acquittal mean in criminal cases?
12.4. AGREE OR DISAGREE
1. Civil cases are disputes between private citizens.
2. In criminal cases the plaintiff can succeed on a mere
balance of probabilities.
3. In a civil trial there may be only one plaintiff in the same case.
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4. If there is any reasonable doubt whether the accused is guilty, he
or she must be acquitted.
5. In all parts of Great Britain "not guilty" is the only alternative to a
conviction.
6. The evidence of a child isn’t reliable to warrant a conviction.
12.5. GIVE ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS for:
a) требовать денежного возмещения ущерба;
b) выиграть судебное дело;
c) предъявлять иск лицу, ответственному за причиненный ущерб;
d) привести к лишению свободы ответчика;
e) требовать от стороны обвинения доказать вину ответчика;
f) достигнуть цели на основе перевеса доказательной базы;
g) быть уверенным в чьей-либо вине;
h) подкреплять показания ребенка, не скрепленные присягой,
другим доказательством;
i) установить ложность показаний ответчика.
12.6. SCANNING
What Happens During the Trial?
1. Events in a trial usually happen in a particular order,
though the order may be changed by the judge. The usual order of
events is as follows:
2. Step one: selection of the jury. From a large group of potential
jurors 12 men and women are chosen by counsels for the parties and
sworn in. In civil cases the number of jurors can be determined by the
parties and the trial may require only six jurors.
3. Step two: opening statements. The lawyers for each side discuss their views of the case that the court is to hear and also present
a general picture of what they intend to prove about the case. What
the lawyers say in their opening statements is not evidence and,
therefore, does not help prove their cases.
4. Step three: presentation of evidence. All parties are entitled to
present evidence. The testimony of witnesses who testify at trial is
evidence. The questioning of your own witness under oath is called
examination-in-chief. Each party may also question the other's witnesses - it is a "cross-examination". Evidence may also take the form
of physical exhibits, such as a gun or a photograph. On occasion, the
deposition - written testimony of people not able to attend the trial may also be evidence in the case.
5. Many things presented during the trial are not evidence. For
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ments is not evidence. Testimony and physical exhibits, offered by the
parties, can also be disregarded if not admitted by the judge.
6. Many times during the trial the lawyers may make objections
to evidence presented by the other side or to questions asked by the
other lawyer. Lawyers are allowed to object to these things when they
consider them improper under the laws of evidence. It is up to the
judge to decide whether each objection was valid or invalid, and
whether, therefore, the evidence can be admitted or the question allowed. If the objection was valid, the judge will sustain the objection.
If the objection was not valid, the judge will overrule the objection.
These rulings do not reflect the judge's opinion of the case or whether
the judge favours or does not favour the evidence or the question to
which there has been an objection.
7. It is the duty of a jury to decide the weight or importance of
evidence allowed by the judge. Jurors are also the sole judge of the
credibility of witnesses, that is, of whether their testimony is believable. In considering credibility, the jury may take into account the witnesses' opportunity and ability to observe the events about which
they are testifying, their memory and manner while testifying, the
reasonableness of their testimony when considered in the light of all
the other evidence in the case.
8. Step four: instructions. Following presentation of all the evidence, the judge instructs the jury on the laws that are to guide the
jury in their deliberations on a verdict. A copy of the instructions is
sent to the jury room for the use of jurors during their deliberations.
Evidence in the form of documents or physical objects is also sent to
the jury room.
9. Step five: closing arguments. The lawyers in the closing arguments summarize the case from their point of view. They may discuss
the evidence that has been presented or comment on the credibility of
witnesses. The lawyers may also discuss any of the judge's instructions that they feel are of special importance to their case. These arguments are not evidence.
10. Step six: jury deliberation. The jury retires to the jury room
to conduct the deliberations on the verdict in the case they have just
heard. The jury first elects a foreman who will see to it that discussion is conducted in a sensible and orderly fashion, that all issues are
fully and fairly discussed, and that every juror is given a fair chance
to participate.
11. Step seven: adjudication. When a verdict has been reached,
the foreman signs it and informs the bailiff. The jury returns to the
courtroom, where the foreman presents the verdict. The judge then
discharges the jury from the case and passes his sentence.
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LEXIS
counsel for the party - адвокат стороны
swear in - приводить к присяге
deposition - письменное показание под присягой; приобщение к
материалам дела
disregard - не обращать внимания, не придавать значения, игнорировать, пренебрегать
admit – допускать, принимать
improper – неуместный, непозволительный
it is up to - (что-либо) зависит, исполняется, делается (кем-то)
favour - оказывать предпочтение, покровительствовать
believable - вероятный, возможный, правдоподобный
reasonableness - справедливость (довода); обоснованность
sensible and orderly fashion - целесообразный и последовательный
способ проведения
fair chance - равный шанс
reach – достигнуть, добиться, вынести (вердикт)
discharge - освобождать от (выполняемых) обязанностей
12.7. QUESTIONS
1. What is the usual order of events during a trial?
2. What happens at the stage “presentation of evidence”?
3. Why do lawyers make objections during the trial?
4. Who decides whether the objection made by a lawyer is valid or
invalid?
5. Whose duty is it to decide the weight of evidence and the credibility
of witnesses?
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
12.8. AGREE OR DISAGREE
1. Events in a trial usually happen in a particular order,
which may never be changed.
At the stage of selection 20 persons are chosen from a large group
of potential jurors.
Everything the lawyers say in their opening statements is evidence.
Many things presented during the trial are not evidence.
In considering credibility, the jury may not take into account the
witnesses' opportunity and ability to observe the events about
which they are testifying.
It is the judge who ensures that discussion is conducted in a sensible and orderly fashion.
After presenting the verdict the jurors also participate in the deliberation and passing the sentence.
12.9. GIVE ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS for:
a) происходить в определенной последовательности;
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b) давать общее представление о судебном деле;
c) опрашивать свидетелей противной стороны по делу;
d) присутствовать на процессе;
e) заявлять протест против доказательств, представленных противной стороной;
f) считать доказательства неуместными;
g) принять или отклонить возражение;
h) визуально воспринимать события;
i) подводить итог по делу.
12.10. SCANNING
Judicial Systems in Different Countries
1. In all legal systems there are institutions for modifying, interpreting and applying the law. Usually these take the form of a hierarchy of courts as a branch of government established to administer
justice. The role of each court and its capacity to make decisions is
strictly defined in relation to other courts. There are two main reasons
for having a variety of courts. One is that a particular court can specialize in particular kinds of legal actions (for example, family courts).
The other is that a person who is not satisfied with the decision of a
lower court can appeal to a higher court for reassessment. The decisions of a higher court are binding upon lower courts.
2. The structure of the judicial system in Russia and the sphere
of activities of its various parts are determined by the RF Constitution
and federal constitutional laws. There are two main components within the federal system:
- the Constitutional Court of the RF interprets the country’s Constitution and is supposed to function as a negative legislator;
- the Supreme Court of the RF is the highest judicial body in the
multi-tiered system of courts of general jurisdiction: civil, criminal,
administrative, military cases and economic disputes.
3. There is also a separate system of courts of the constituent entities: 1) regional constitutional courts (or charter courts) with the power
to interpret regional constitutions and charters; 2) justices of the
peace with general jurisdiction to handle small claims and petty offenses.
The activity of all Russian courts may be classified as follows: a
court of trial, a court of appeal, a court of cassation.
4. The judiciary in England and Wales is represented by two distinct divisions of courts with civil and criminal jurisdiction. The lowest courts in civil actions are county courts, which deal with claims
within a general limit of 25,000 pounds.
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5. Cases involving larger amounts of money are heard by one of
the divisions of the High Court. This court has unlimited civil jurisdiction and consists of three branches: the Queen’s Bench Division, the
Chancery Division, and the Family Division.
6. There are two types of English court with criminal jurisdiction:
- magistrates' courts (or courts of first instance) with unpaid lay
magistrates or Justices of the Peace, usually sitting in groups of
three; these courts deal with about 95 per cent of criminal cases; and
- Crown Courts for more serious or indictable offences where
hearing is held before a jury; the main function of the jury is to determine the guilt or innocence of the defendant; professional judges
preside over the Crown Court and pass a sentence (if the defendant is
found guilty).
7. If the jury cannot reach a unanimous verdict, the judge may direct it to bring in a majority verdict provided that, in the normal jury
of 12 people, there are not more than two dissenters. If the jury returns a verdict of 'not guilty', the prosecution has no right of appeal
and the defendant cannot be tried again for the same offence. If
'guilty' the defendant has a right of appeal to the appropriate court. A
jury is completely independent of the judiciary. Once members are
sworn in, they are protected from all interference. Both the prosecution and the defence can object to particular jurors.
8. Petitions of appeal against sentences of the Crown Court are
examined in the Court of Appeal (Criminal Division) and appeals from
the High Court and county courts are heard in the Court of Appeal
(Civil Division) and. The highest court in the land is the Supreme
Court of the United Kingdom which consists of 12 judges appointed
by the Monarch.
9. Courts of general jurisdiction in the United States are subdivided into two principal systems: the federal courts, or United
States courts, and the state courts.
10. Federal courts have the power to rule on both criminal and
civil cases. Judges of federal courts are appointed for life by the President with the approval of the Senate. The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the nation. It interprets the laws and
reviews them to determine whether they conform to the U.S. Constitution. All lower courts follow the rulings of the Supreme Court.
11. There are two other levels of federal courts:
- the courts of appeals in each of the 11 federal judicial circuits
and in the District of Columbia;
- the US district courts in each of 94 federal judicial districts.
12. Each state has an independent system of state courts operating under the constitution and laws of this state. The character and
names of the courts differ from state to state but as a whole they have
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general jurisdiction and handle criminal and other cases that do not
come under federal jurisdiction. Between the lower courts and the
supreme appellate courts, in a number of states, are intermediate appellate courts. Courts of last resort, the highest appellate tribunals of
the states in criminal and civil cases and in law and equity, are generally called ‘supreme courts’.
13. In some states, judges are publicly elected, in others they are
appointed by state governors or by special bodies such as judicial
councils. It may be even a combination of these methods, e.g., appointment followed by election. Some state judges hold office for fixed
periods, but others are installed for life or up to a retiring age.
14. Whatever the country, a trial court has its staff which usually
consists of legally qualified judges, clerks and bailiffs. The participants in the legal process may be the following: a plaintiff – the party
bringing a lawsuit, a defendant – a party being sued, a jury – a group
of ordinary people summoned to pass a verdict, a prosecutor - the
lawyer for the plaintiff in a criminal case, an advocate - a lawyer for
defence or just a legal counsel in civil cases, witnesses - people who
give testimony, experts - they express their own opinions.
LEXIS
modifying - изменение, доработка
capacity - возможность, способность, компетентность
be fairly treated – быть рассмотренным должным образом
reassessment – пересмотр ранее вынесенного решения
binding decision – решение суда, имеющее обязательную силу для
нижестоящих судов
interpret - объяснять, толковать, интерпретировать
negative legislator – «негативный законодатель; орган, приостанавливающий или отменяющий действие закона
multi-tiered system - многоуровневая система
constituent entity - субъект федерации
charter court – уставной суд субъекта федерации
petty offenses – проступки, мелкие правонарушения
county court – суд графства, окружной суд
High Court - Высокий суд, Высокий суд правосудия
Queen's Bench Division - Отделение Королевской Скамьи
Chancery Division - Отделение Лорда Канцлера
Family Division – Отделение по делам семьи
magistrates' court - суд магистрата, мировой суд
first instance - первая инстанция
unpaid lay magistrates - не получающий платы мировой судья без
юридического образования
pass a sentence - выносить приговор
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Crown Court - уголовный суд присяжных
unanimous verdict - вердикт, вынесенный единогласно
majority verdict - вердикт, вынесенный большинством присяжных
dissenter - тот, кто придерживается другого мнения
once - после того, как
be sworn in - быть приведённым к присяге
object to – возражать, отклонять
Court of Appeal - апелляционный суд
state court - суд штата
judicial circuit - судебный округ
intermediate - промежуточное звено | промежуточный; средний
hold office - занимать пост, занимать должность
install - официально вводить в должность
retiring age - возраст, установленный для выхода в отставку
whatever the country – вне зависимости от страны
staff - штат служащих; служебный персонал; личный состав
legally qualified judge - судья с юридическим образованием
clerk - секретарь суда
bailiff - судебный пристав, бейлиф; служащий, в обязанности которого входит следить за порядком в зале суда
prosecutor - лицо, возбуждающее и осуществляющее уголовное
преследование; прокурор
lawyer - юрист; адвокат; юрисконсульт
advocate - адвокат, защитник
legal counsel - юрист-консультант, юрисконсульт
12.11. QUESTIONS
1. What does the judiciary administer?
2. What are the reasons for having a variety of courts?
3. What is the legal basis for the activities of our judicial system?
4. What does the jurisdiction of the RF Constitutional Court cover?
5. What is the highest tribunal in the system of general jurisdiction
courts in Russia?
6. What is a typical composition of court?
7. Who participates in legal procedures?
8. What is the lowest English court in a civil action?
9. What is the general limit of a County Court jurisdiction?
10. What is the structure of the High Court?
11. What is the basic judicial organ for criminal cases in England?
12. Are lay magistrates legally qualified?
13. What English court deals with indictable offences?
14. What can you say about the selection of jurors?
15. How many levels is the US judiciary divided into?
16. Whom are all federal judges appointed by?
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17. What is the jurisdiction of the US Supreme Court?
18. How many district and circuit courts are there on the federal level
in America?
19. Are most state judges appointed for life?
20. What is the hierarchy of state courts in the USA?
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
12. 12. AGREE OR DISAGREE
1. There are four main components within the judicial system of the Russian Federation.
2. The general limit in cases heard before the county court
is £5,000.
The High Court has unlimited civil and criminal jurisdiction.
Magistrates' courts deal with about 50 per cent of criminal cases.
The rulings of the Supreme Court are binding for all lower courts.
Some of the states in the USA have their own independent systems
of courts.
In all states in America judges are elected and hold office for fixed
periods.
12.13. GIVE ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS for:
a) толковать и применять закон;
b) специализироваться в определенных судебных делах;
c) обладать неограниченной юрисдикцией;
d) проводить судебное слушание с участием присяжных;
e) выносить вердикт большинством голосов;
f) иметь право подать апелляционную жалобу в соответствующий
суд;
g) принимать решения и по уголовным и по гражданским делам;
h) соответствовать конституции;
i) выносить приговор суда.
12.14. SKIMMING. Read the following text and prepare five
questions to its content. Be ready to interview your group
mates.
In the Jury Box
1. Jury service in Great Britain isn't optional: a person receiving a
summons can be fined up to £1000 for ignoring it. Jury service usually involves a criminal trial but coroners' courts and civil courts can use
juries too.
2. Juries are chosen randomly, using a system approved by the
Royal Statistical Society. A person may never be chosen, or he or she
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vidual must be at least 18 and under 65 on the date his or her jury
service starts, and must have lived in the UK for at least five years. If
he or she doesn't qualify because of his or her age or short residency
in the UK, he or she should say so on the form accompanying the
summons and return it within seven days.
3. A potential juror could ask to be excused. The jury summoning officer has discretion to excuse a person in some circumstances,
e.g. if he or she:
- has got work commitments or runs a one-person business;
- has booked a holiday;
- is sitting for exams;
- is moving home;
- has moved from the area;
- is a parent with a young child;
- is looking after a sick relative;
- has suffered a bereavement;
- is in poor health, blind or deaf;
- doesn't speak English very well, or is illiterate.
4. Some people are entitled to be excused, though can serve if
they want. These include:
- people who have done jury service (excluding coroners' court juries) during the past two years, and people who've been specifically
excused for longer;
- practicing doctors, dentists, nurses, pharmacists, etc.;
- members of the armed forces (if the commanding officer agrees);
- MPs, peers, members of the European Parliament.
5. The person is ineligible if he or she is:
- mentally ill or mentally handicapped;
- a regular minister of any religious denomination;
- part of the administration of justice (such as a judge, barrister,
solicitor, court official, magistrate);
- part of the prison system (from prison governors to probation officers);
- a police officer (or special constable), a civilian employee of the
police, a member of a police authority, or an employee of a forensic
lab.
6. Anyone could be disqualified, sometimes for life, if he or she
has got a criminal record.
LEXIS
optional - по желанию, произвольный; необязательный
coroner's court - коронерский суд, производящий дознание в случаях насильственной или скоропостижной смерти
summon - вызывать; вручать приказ о явке в суд
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residency - проживание; пребывание
accompanying - сопровождающий, сопроводительный
commitment - обязательство, обязанность
run a one-person business - вести собственный бизнес, являться
частным предпринимателем
book a holiday - заказывать билеты для проведения отдыха
be sitting for exams - сдавать сессию в учебном заведении
move home - менять место жительства
bereavement - тяжёлая утрата; потеря, вызванная смертью близкого человека
blind - слепой
deaf - глухой, лишенный слуха, тугой на ухо
illiterate - неграмотный, необразованный, безграмотный
ineligible - не имеющий права (на что-л. ввиду несоответствия требованиям); неподходящий, непригодный, негодный
mentally handicapped - с умственными недостатками
regular minister - служитель
disqualified - 1) дисквалифицированный 2) лишённый прав(а); 3)
признанный неправоспособным или недееспособным
criminal record - прежняя судимость, имеющаяся судимость
12.15. EXERCISE. Examine the following chart. Prepare five
questions about its content. Be ready to interview your group
mates.
Difference between Trial Courts and Appellate Courts
in Common Law Countries
Trial Court
Appellate Court
Federal appellate courts are called courts of
Federal trial courts are
appeals. Cases can be further appealed to
called district courts.
the U.S. Supreme Court.
If either party disagrees with the decision in
Cases are heard for the
the trial court, they can appeal, asking a
first time in a trial court.
higher court to review the decision.
The outcome of appeals cases have the potenCases only affect the
tial to affect large numbers of people, because
people involved with the
these decisions are binding on district courts
case.
within the circuit.
The two sides present
evidence and witnesses, No new evidence is presented, the judge(s)
and either a judge or a
simply review the materials from the origijury makes a decision
nal trial and determine whether the lower
based on the evidence
court made the correct legal decision.
presented.
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12.16. KEY WORDS
adjudication
appellate court
bailiff
clerk
closing argument
Constitutional Court
county court
court of first instance
Crown Court
district court
general jurisdiction
hierarchy of courts
High Court
higher court
judge
judicial circuit
judiciary
jurisdiction
Justice of the Peace
-
lawyer for defence
lower court
magistrates' court
multi-tiered system
opening statement
prosecutor
reverse the original sentence
superior court
to adjudicate
to administer justice
to be sworn in
to interpret
to lose a case
to object to
to pass a verdict
to pass a sentence
to preside over a court
to win a case
trial court
12.17. (**) ESSAY WRITING. Chose one of the following themes
for your essay on the topic “Judiciary":
- “Electronic justice. The experience of and prospects for online court trials.”
“Foreign judgements.”
“Is the judiciary accessible to public?”
“Juvenile justice.”
“Our judicial system: is it effective?”
“Should judges be elected or appointed?”
“Summary procedure: advantages and disadvantages.”
“Who may become a judge?”
12.18. TEST YOURSELF. Fill each gap in the sentences with
only one word or phrase from the box given below:
In civil cases, the plaintiff brings an action against (1) in the
hope of winning (2) (= an amount of money that a court decides
should be paid by the person, that has caused harm or injury) or (3)
(= a court order preventing the defendant from doing something).
Criminal cases are brought against (4) by (5), in England and Wales
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by the Director of Public Prosecutions and in Scotland through procurators fiscal.
In England and Wales, every town has a Magistrates’ Court where
(6) cases are judged and (7) cases are passed to higher courts by
three magistrates called (8), specially trained members of the public.
The more serious cases are heard in a Crown Court by (9).
Minor civil cases, such as divorce and bankruptcy, are heard in
(10) and more serious ones in (11). Appeals against decisions from
the Crown Court or the High Court go to (12) and a few cases, where
a question of law is in doubt, are passed to the Supreme Court.
In Scotland, criminal cases are heard in District Courts by members of the public called lay justices. More serious cases go to (13)
and are heard by the sheriff and a jury. Civil cases begin in the sheriff
court. Appeals go to the High Court of Justiciary or the Court of Session in Edinburgh.
In the US, the judicial system is one of the three branches of the
federal government, but the legal system operates at many levels with
state, county and city courts as well as (14). Each type of court has
its own (15), that is it deals with certain kinds of cases. Both (16) are
first heard in trial courts and there is a right to appeal against the
court’s decision in a court of appeals. Many states have (17) where
people get divorced and (18) which deal with small amounts of money. States also have trial courts which hear a wider range of cases and
courts of appeal called superior courts or district courts. Most states
have (19) where the most serious appeals are held. States have their
own criminal code, but some crimes are federal offences, i.e. against
federal law, and crimes may fall under federal jurisdiction if more
than one state is involved.
Most courts have only one judge, but some higher courts have
several. In the US Supreme Court, the nine judges are called (20). The
people on either side of a case are represented by (21), also called attorneys-at-law. In a criminal trial the defendant is represented by a
defense attorney, or if they are too poor to pay a lawyer, the court will
appoint a public defender. The prosecution is led by an Assistant District Attorney or, in federal cases, by a federal attorney.
a judge and a jury, a supreme court, an injunction, civil and criminal
cases, common pleas courts, criminals, damages, family courts,
federal courts, jurisdiction, justices, Justices of the Peace, lawyers,
minor, more serious, regional sheriff courts, the county courts, the
Court of Appeal, the defendant, the High Court of Justice, the state
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-
12.19. MAKE A REPORT on the topic “Judiciary”, paying attention to the following points in your speech:
- civil and criminal litigation;
stages of court proceeding;
judicial system in our country;
English judiciary;
courts in the United States.
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Unit 13. Legal Profession
13.1. BEFORE READING learn the following words and
phrases which are essential on the topic:
adviser /ədˈvaɪzə(r)/ = counselor /ˈkaʊns(ə)lə(r)/, consultant
/kənˈsʌltənt/ - советник, консультант; референт (лицо,
дающее советы и рекомендации по определенным вопросам,
предлагающее варианты выбора в конкретной ситуации, предоставляющее запрашиваемую информацию)
attorney /əˈtɜː(r)ni/ - адвокат; юрист; атторней, уполномоченный,
доверенный; поверенный (в суде); прокурор (в США)
bar association /ˈbɑːr əˌsəʊsiˈeɪʃ(ə)n/ = the Bar /bɑː(r)/ - ассоциация
адвокатов (имеющих право выступать в суде); в США - организация практикующих профессиональных юристов; такие
организации существуют как на уровне штатов, где они принимают экзамены (bar examination) на право заниматься адвокатской практикой или отстраняют от нее (to disbar), так и
на общенациональном уровне
barrister /ˈbærɪstə(r)/ - барристер; адвокат, имеющий право выступать в высших судах (отличается тем, что не ведет дело с самого начала, а получает все материалы незадолго до суда); адвокат высшего ранга
brief /briːf/ - 1) краткое письменное изложение дела с привлечением фактов и документов, ссылок на законодательные акты и
юридические прецеденты, с которыми сторона намерена выступать в суде; 2) записка по делу, представляемая солиситором барристеру || резюмировать, составлять краткое изложение; поручать (адвокату) ведение дела в суде; давать инструкции адвокату
College of Advocates /ˈkɒlɪdʒ əv ˈædvəkeɪts/ = Bar /bɑː(r)/, Chamber
of Advocates /ˈtʃeɪmbər əv ˈædvəkeɪts/, Faculty of Advocates
/ˈfæk(ə)lti əv ˈædvəkeɪts/ - коллегия адвокатов
counsel /ˈkaʊns(ə)l/ - юрисконсульт; поверенный; участвующий в
деле адвокат; барристер || советовать, консультировать, давать заключение
drafter /ˈdrɑːftə/ - составитель документа; автор документа, законопроекта, законодательного акта
in-house counsel /ˈɪnˌhaʊs ˈkaʊns(ə)l/ - штатный юрист, работник
юридического отдела компании
Inns of Court /ˈɪnz əv ˈkɔː(r)t/ - "Судебные инны" (четыре корпорации барристеров в Лондоне; существуют с 14 века; в школах
при этих корпорациях готовят барристеров)
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jurist /ˈdʒʊərɪst/ - 1) юрист, учёный юрист; писатель по вопросам
права; цивилист; законовед, правовед, 2) адвокат, судья, 3)
студент юридического факультета 4) преподаватель права,
юриспруденции
Law Society /ˈlɔː səˈsaɪəti/ - Общество юристов (профессиональный
союз солиситоров; может привлекать своих членов к ответственности за нарушение профессиональной этики, исключать
из числа солиситоров)
lawyer /ˈlɔːjə(r)/ - юрист; адвокат; консультант по вопросам права,
юрисконсульт, юрист-практик
negotiator /nɪˈɡəʊʃieɪtə/ - 1) лицо, ведущее переговоры; сторона в
переговорах; сторона в договоре; 2) посредник, уполномоченный
notary /ˈnəʊtəri/ - 1) нотариус 2) нотариальные конторы
solicitor /səˈlɪsɪtə(r)/ - солиситор, адвокат (дающий советы клиенту, подготавливающий дела для барристера и выступающий
только в судах низшей инстанции); поверенный; стряпчий
to practice law /ˈpræktɪs ˈlɔː/ - заниматься юридической практикой, быть юристом
to represent the interests of a client /ˌreprɪˈzent ðə ˈɪntrəsts əv ə
ˈklaɪənt/ - представлять интересы клиента
trial lawyer /ˈtraɪəl ˌlɔːjə(r)/ - адвокат, выступающий в суде первой
инстанции; защитник в суде
13.2. SCANNING
Work Activities for Lawyers
1. Lawyer is a general term for a person who is qualified to
advise people about the law, to prepare legal documents for them
and/or to represent them in a court of law. Working as a lawyer
involves the practical application of abstract legal theories and
knowledge to solve specific individualized problems, or to advance the
interests of those who hire lawyers to perform legal services.
2. A lawyer often has several functions: investigator, drafter,
negotiator, advisor, and advocate. As a professional the lawyer is
usually permitted to carry out the following duties:
3. Oral argument in the courts. Arguing a client's case before a
judge or jury in a court of law is the traditional domain of trial lawyers
who specialize in trying cases in court.
In some countries litigants have the option of arguing pro se, or on
their own behalf. It is common for litigants to appear unrepresented
before certain courts like small claims courts; indeed, many such
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courts do not allow lawyers to speak for their clients, in an effort to
save money for all participants in a small case.
4. Research and drafting of court papers. Often, lawyers brief a
court in writing on the issues in a case before the issues can be orally
argued. They may have to perform extensive research into relevant
facts and law while drafting legal papers and preparing for oral
argument.
5. Legal advice is the application of abstract principles of law to
the concrete facts of the client's case in order to advise the client
about what they should do next. In many countries, only a properly
licensed lawyer may provide legal advice to clients for good
consideration. Therefore, even conveyancers and corporate in-house
counsels must first get a license to practice, though they may actually
spend very little of their careers in court. Failure to obey such a rule
is the crime of unauthorized practice of law.
6. Negotiating and drafting contracts. In some countries, the
negotiating and drafting of contracts is considered to be similar to the
provision of legal advice, so that it is subject to the licensing
requirement explained above. In other countries, notaries may
negotiate or draft contracts.
7. Conveyancing is the drafting of the documents necessary for
the transfer of real property, such as deeds and mortgages. In some
countries, all real estate transactions must be carried out by a lawyer.
8. Carrying out the intent of the deceased. In many countries,
only lawyers have the legal authority to do drafting of wills, trusts,
and any other documents that ensure the efficient disposition of a
person's property after death. In the United States, the estates of the
deceased must be administered by a court through probate. American
lawyers have a profitable monopoly on dispensing advice about
probate law.
9. Prosecution and defense of criminal suspects. In many civil
law countries, prosecutors are trained and employed as a part of the
judiciary; they are law-trained jurists, but may not necessarily be
lawyers in the sense that the word is used in the common law world.
In common law countries, prosecutors are usually lawyers holding
regular licenses who simply happen to work for the government office
that files criminal charges against suspects. Criminal defense lawyers
specialize in the defense of those charged with any crimes.
10. Judicial functions. Members of judiciary as a rule are chosen among experienced lawyers. In the decision-making process,
judges are expected to be independent and to act without any restriction, interference, improper influence, inducement, pressure or
threats. Those who are entrusted to administer justice have unfettered
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science and their interpretation of the facts, and in pursuance of the
prevailing rules of the law. Judges are not obliged to report on the merits of their cases to anyone outside the judiciary.
LEXIS
advance - успешно представлять, защищать
domain - предметная область, сфера действия
litigant - судящаяся сторона, сторона в гражданском процессе (относится как к истцам, так и ответчикам)
pro se - за себя
small claims court - суд по делам с небольшой суммой иска
extensive research - обширные исследования, большая исследовательская работа
draft - составлять проект документа
oral argument - выступление в прениях сторон в суде
good consideration – соответствующее денежное вознаграждение
conveyancer - нотариус по операциям с недвижимостью; адвокат,
готовящий документы о передаче прав собственности
obey – соблюдать, выполнять
provision - обеспечение, предоставление
subject to – подвергаемый; подлежащий
conveyancing - составление актов передачи прав собственности на
недвижимость
carry out the intent of the deceased - исполнять волю покойного,
исполнить завещание
will - завещание
trust - доверенность; документ о передаче в доверительное управление
disposition - распоряжение, управление (имуществом)
probate - доказывание завещания; утверждение завещания
dispense - готовить и предоставлять
civil law country – страна с континентальной (цивильной) системой
права
common law country - страна с системой, основанной на общем
(англо-саксонском) праве; страна-незаконодатель
decision-making process - процедура принятия решения
interference – вмешательство, помеха
inducement – побуждение, поощрение
unfettered freedom - не ограниченная свобода
impartially – беспристрастно, справедливо
conscience – совесть, сознательность
in pursuance - во исполнение, согласно
on the merits - по существу
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2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
13.3. QUESTIONS
1. What functional roles are traditionally associated with
lawyers?
Why are lawyers not allowed to speak for their clients in some
small claims courts?
What does it mean "to brief a court in writing on the issues in a
case"?
What is the difference between civil and common law countries in
respect of criminal prosecutors?
What is a traditional province of trial lawyers?
How are the estates of the deceased administered in the United
States?
13.4. AGREE OR DISAGREE
1. It is the crime of unauthorized practice of law for
conveyancers and corporate in-house counsels to practice
even though they have got a license for it.
2. In all countries negotiating and drafting of contracts is subject to
the licensing requirement.
3. Conveyancing is a synonym to probating.
4. One of the maxims of legal procedure is that litigants may never
argue pro se.
13.5. GIVE ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS for:
a) консультировать кого-либо по праву;
b) представлять кого-либо в суде;
c) выполнять определенные служебные обязанности;
d) приводить доводы по судебному делу;
e) выступать в суде без помощи адвоката;
f) экономить деньги;
g) получить разрешение на занятие адвокатской практикой;
h) осуществлять сделки с недвижимостью;
i) составлять текст завещания;
j) подавать документы с обвинением в совершении уголовного
преступления;
k) беспристрастно выносить решение по делу.
13.6. SCANNING
Legal Profession in England
1. England is almost unique in having two different kinds of
lawyers, with separate jobs in the legal system. The two kinds of lawyers are solicitors and barristers.
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2. In the English legal system solicitors have traditionally dealt
with any legal matter apart from conducting proceedings in courts, except minor criminal cases tried in magistrates' courts and small value
civil cases tried in county courts, which are almost always handled by
solicitors.
3. There are more than 150,000 solicitors on the roll in England
and Wales. Most of them are employed in private practice, either
alone or in a partnership firm. Others are employed in the public service, industry, and commerce.
4. Practicing solicitors are consulted by, and receive instructions
from clients on a wide variety of matters both civil and criminal, such
as making of wills; buying, selling and mortgaging land; family matters; the formation of companies; drawing up of documents; conveyancing; and the criminal offences of all kinds. In cases of unusual
difficulty or where a trial is to take place in the superior courts, the
solicitor takes his instructions from the client, prepares a brief and
approaches a barrister to give an «opinion» or represent the client at
the trial.
5. The relationship between a solicitor and his client is based on
professional confidence, and a solicitor cannot be compelled to disclose in court communications made in a professional relationship.
Nor is a solicitor liable for defamation in respect of statements made
in court during the course of a trial. A solicitor is, however, liable to
be sued for damages for negligence in the conduct of his profession:
e.g. where he has carelessly lost documents entrusted to him.
6. Solicitors in England and Wales are regulated by the Solicitors
Regulation Authority, an independently administered branch of the
Law Society of England and Wales. Moreover, solicitors must pay the
Law Society a practicing fee each year (about £400) in order to keep
practicing. If they do not do this they are 'non-practicing' and may not
give legal advice to the public (although they can start practicing
again at will, unlike those who have been struck off the roll).
7. The profession of barrister in England and Wales is a separate
profession from that of solicitor. The practical difference of barrister
from solicitors may be seen in the following:
o Barristers have a more specialized knowledge of case-law and
precedent. It is relatively common for a barrister to only receive a
"brief" from an instructing solicitor to represent a client at trial a day
or two before the hearing.
o A barrister has rights of audience in the higher courts. He or
she performs the functions relating to appearing in trials or pleading
cases before the courts.
9. All in all there are about 15,000 barristers and they are members of one of the Inns of Court, which have traditionally educated
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and regulated barristers. There are four Inns of Court: The Honourable Society of Gray's Inn, The Honourable Society of Lincoln's Inn, The
Honourable Society of the Middle Temple, and The Honourable Society
of the Inner Temple. All are situated in central London, near the Royal
Courts of Justice.
LEXIS
apart from - кроме, не считая
conduct proceedings – участвовать в судебных разбирательствах
handle – решать, регулировать, разбирать, заниматься
partnership firm - товарищество, партнёрство
drawing up - составление
confidence – доверие; уверенность, конфиденциальность
communication - информация
practicing fee - членский взнос занимающихся практикой
strike off the roll - лишать адвоката права практики
disbar - лишать звания адвоката, лишать права адвокатской
практики
right of audience - право выступать в суде
plead a case - представлять (чьи-либо) интересы по делу
Gray's Inn - Греевская школа ("Судебный инн", названный по имени первого владельца здания школы)
Lincoln's Inn - "Инн Линкольна" (готовит барристеров Канцлерского отделения Высокого суда правосудия; по имени первого
владельца здания инна Томаса де Линкольна)
Middle Temple - "Средний темпл" (один из четырёх "Судебных иннов", действующих в Лондоне)
Inner Temple - "Иннер темпл", "Внутренний темпл" (самый старый
и известный из четырёх "Судебных иннов")
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
13.7. QUESTIONS
1. What legal matters do solicitors deal with?
2. What is the basis of relationship between a solicitor and
his client?
Under what circumstances may a client sue his solicitor?
What legal profession does the Law Society of England and Wales
regulate?
What happens if a solicitor doesn't pay the Law Society a practicing
fee?
Is it possible for a person to be a solicitor and a barrister at the
same time?
How do barristers differ from solicitors in practicing law?
What institution must a barrister belong to?
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9. How many Inns of Courts are there in England and Wales?
10. Where are all these Inns of Court situated?
3.
4.
5.
6.
13.8. AGREE OR DISAGREE
1. No solicitor is allowed to argue a client's case before a
judge or jury in a court of law.
2. In difficult or complicated cases a barrister prepares a
brief and approaches a solicitor to represent the client at the trial.
Solicitors are liable for defamation in respect of statements made in
court and for negligence in the conduct of their profession.
As a rule a barrister should receive a "brief" from an instructing solicitor a month or two before the hearing.
All Inns of Court are dispersed all over the country for administrative purposes.
Solicitors and barristers can't be employed in companies as ‘inhouse’ counsels.
13.9. GIVE ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS for:
a) работать по найму в сфере частной адвокатской практики;
b) работать на государственной/общественной службе;
c) подготавливать краткое письменное изложение дела (для барристера);
d) высказать свое мнение; дать заключение;
e) продолжать заниматься оказанием юридических услуг;
f) обладать специализированными знаниями по прецедентному
праву.
13.10. SCANNING
US Attorney
1. In order to practice law in the USA, one must first be "admitted to the bar" in an individual state. This entails passing the
state bar exam. The bar exam covers the law particular to that state
and is approximately 6 hours in length. Thus attorneys in America are
licensed to practice only in their home states. If they wish to practice
in another state, they must fulfill that state's requirements - such as
taking test on the specific features of that state's law (a part of the bar
examination) before they can practice. Fortunately, there are some
states that have reciprocity agreements when two or more states honor
each other's rights or privileges, such as practicing law.
2. Generally, state bar examiners require evidence of three qualities in exam candidates: sufficient general education at the undergraduate level; sufficient US legal education; and sufficient knowledge of
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local bar requirements. Each state bar administration sets its own
criteria for permission to sit the state bar exam.
3. In addition to the state bar exam, almost all states also require
the Multistate Bar Exam (MBE). The MBE covers general legal knowledge in areas such as contracts, torts, constitutional law, criminal
law, evidence and real property. It is a 6-hour, multiple-choice exam
made up of 200 questions.
4. A typical second day of testing includes series of timed essay
exams on a variety of subjects. This portion may be comprised of two
other multistate exams: the Multistate Essay Exam (MEE) and the
Multistate Performance Test (MPT).
5. A part of the licensing process involves the assessment by bar
examiners of an applicant’s character and fitness to engage in the
practice of law. Currently, most states also require law students to
pass the Multistate Professional Responsibility Examination
(MPRE). The MPRE tests knowledge of the American Bar Association
codes on professional responsibility and judicial conduct. The MPRE is
a 2-hour, multiple-choice exam.
6. Upon admission to practice, an attorney is licensed to serve as
both advocate and legal councel. There is no division of the profession
between barristers and solicitors, as in England.
7. At the same time on the federal level there exists the American
Bar Association (ABA), which was founded in August 21, 1878 as a
voluntary national organization of the legal profession. The ABA accredits law schools under the authority of state high courts and the
United States Department of Education, and according to standards
developed by the association. The activities of the ABA also include
maintenance of high ethical standards for the profession. The most
current version of these standards, the Model Rules of Professional
Conduct, was adopted in 2012.
8. Remuneration of labor. Lawyers in the USA are paid for their
work in a variety of ways. In private practice, they may work for an
hourly fee, a contingency fee (usually in cases involving personal injury), or a lump sum payment if the matter is straightforward. Normally, most lawyers negotiate a written fee agreement up front and may
require a non-refundable retainer in advance. In many states there are
fee-shifting arrangements by which the loser must pay the winner's
fees and costs.
9. Lawyers working directly on the payroll of governments, nonprofits, and corporations usually earn a regular annual salary. In
many countries lawyers can also volunteer their labor in the service of
worthy causes through an arrangement called pro bono (for the common good). Traditionally such work was performed on behalf of the
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poor, but nowadays it has expanded to many other causes like the
natural environment.
LEXIS
cover - включать, содержать, охватывать
in length - продолжительностью
reciprocity agreement - соглашение, основанное на взаимности
honor - уважать, соблюдать
examiner - экзаменатор, эксперт
undergraduate level - уровень начальной стадии высшего образования
sit an exam - сдавать экзамен
multistate – общий для определенного количества штатов
multiple-choice exam – экзамен, представляющий возможность выбора из предоставленных ответов
essay exam - сочинение-рассуждение
performance test - функциональный тест
professional responsibility - профессиональная ответственность
code - кодекс; система правил (поведения, чести, морали и т. д.)
judicial conduct - беспристрастное поведение, поведение юриста
current - современный, популярный, широко распространенный
accredit - признать высшее учебное заведение правомочным выдавать дипломы и присваивать учёные степени
Model Rules of Professional Conduct - типовые нормы профессионального поведения; типовые нормы профессиональной этики
remuneration of labor - оплата труда, вознаграждение
hourly fee - почасовая плата, гонорар на повременной основе
contingency fee - оплата по результату; непредвиденный гонорар, в
зависимости от исхода дела
lump sum payment - аккордная оплата, единовременный платеж,
разовый платеж за все предоставленные услуги
straightforward – простой, ясный, понятный
fee agreement - соглашение об оплате услуг
up front - предварительно, авансом, вперёд
non-refundable retainer - невозмещаемый предварительный гонорар адвокату
fee-shifting arrangement - практика оплаты судебных издержек
проигравшей стороной
on the payroll - в списочном составе, из фонда заработной платы
nonprofit - некоммерческая компания
annual salary - годовой оклад, годовая зарплата
volunteer - предлагать (свою помощь, услуги) бесплатно; вызваться
добровольно; добровольно взять на себя что-л.
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worthy cause - благое дело, социально-значимое дело
for the common good - на общее благо
2.
3.
4.
5.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
13.11. QUESTIONS
1. What must a person do if he or she wishes to practice law
in the USA?
How may reciprocity agreements between states be connected with
the legal profession?
What qualities of candidates are evaluated by state bar examiners?
How are in-house lawyers paid for their work?
How many days does testing usually last? How many exams do applicants have to pass?
What areas of law does the MBE cover?
What form of remuneration may a lawyer in private practice get?
What should you learn in order to pass the MPRE?
What activities does the ABA carry out?
Why do lawyers sometimes volunteer their labor pro bono?
13.12. AGREE OR DISAGREE
1. All practicing lawyers in America earn a regular annual
salary.
2. A fee-shifting arrangement means that the winner pays the
loser's fees and costs.
In order to practice law in the United States, one must be admitted
to the ABA.
The criteria for permission to sit the state bar exam are the same
all over the USA.
The state bar exam in most states is also known as the Multistate
Bar Exam.
America has the same division of the profession between barristers
and solicitors, as England does.
All members of the state bars are automatically admitted to the
American Bar Association.
13.13. GIVE ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS for:
a) заранее обсудить соглашение об оплате услуг;
b) оплачивать гонорар юриста и судебные издержки;
c) работать либо в качестве адвоката, либо юрисконсультом;
d) сдавать экзамен в коллегию адвокатов штата;
e) соответствовать требованиям;
f) сдавать экзамен на знание кодекса профессиональной ответственности юриста;
g) устанавливать критерии.
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13.14. (*) EXERCISE. Look at this list of legal occupations. All
of these people work in law. We call all of the people who
work in these jobs, 'the legal profession'. Match the jobs
with one of the descriptions.
attorney
barrister
lawyer
solicitor
1. This person is a lawyer who gives legal advice and opinions to
solicitors. He or she passed the exams of the Bar Council of
England & Wales at the end of his or her studies.
2. This person is a lawyer who gives legal advice to individuals and
companies. He or she passed his or her exams in the USA at the
end of his or her studies and is usually a member of the American Bar Association.
3. This person is a lawyer who gives legal advice to individuals and
companies. He or she passed the exams of the Law Society of
England & Wales at the end of his or her studies.
4. This is the general job title that we use for people who work as a
solicitor, barrister or attorney.
13.15. (*) SKIMMING. Read the text about legal profession.
Decide if the statements below are “True” or “False”.
1. There are two types of lawyers practicing in America.
2. Last year I finished my training contract and I started working for
a large international law firm. I am now a qualified solicitor.
3. Many solicitors work together in partnerships but barristers don't.
4. In the USA and England lawyers can take a special exam to be a
judge.
There are two types of lawyers who practise in England: barristers and solicitors.
In the USA and most other countries, lawyers don't make this division - a lawyer is simply known as an attorney at law, or an attorney.
In both England and the USA, it is not possible to take a special
exam to be a judge. If you decide that you want to be a judge, you
must get a lot of experience as a lawyer first, and then apply to be a
judge and wait to see if you are chosen.
Most law students in England become solicitors. When they finish
their university studies they do a one year legal practice course and
then a two-year training contract with a law firm. After that, they are
qualified solicitors. Many solicitors work for a legal practice, which is
usually a partnership of solicitors who work together. Solicitors practise in many areas of law, although each solicitor usually chooses to
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specialize in one particular area. They represent their clients both in
and out of court. We often describe this as acting for a client. The
process of making a claim in the civil court is called litigation.
Barristers are self-employed lawyers and don't work in partnerships in the way that solicitors do. They are specialists in advocacy,
which is the skill of speaking for someone in court. We call this
pleading a case. They also give opinions on areas of law to solicitors
and the solicitors' clients.
13.16. (*) EXERCISE. Examine the following chart and identi-
fy whether there is any dependency between the payment for
labour of lawyers and the size of their law firm. Make comparison of salaries for legal professionals in the United States
and Canada in 2014 and explain how in these countries the payment for labour depends upon the work experience of a lawyer.
in the USA
Lawyer (10+ years’ exp.)
Large law firm
$ 174,500 - $ 264,250
Small law firm
$ 96,250 - $ 161,500
Lawyer (4-9 years’ exp.)
Large law firm
$ 150,750 - $ 213,250
Small law firm
$ 71,750 - $ 132,000
Lawyer (1-3 years’ exp.)
Large law firm
$ 116,500 - $ 152,000
Small law firm
$ 56,500 - $ 90,250
First-Year Associate
Large law firm
$ 110,750 - $ 136,500
Small law firm
$ 53,750 - $ 75,250
In-House Counsel (10+ years’ exp.)
Large law firm
$ 171,750 - $ 245,750
Small law firm
$ 121,500 - $ 176,500
Law Clerk/Paralegal (7+ years’ exp.)
Large law firm
$ 64,250 - $ 91,750
Small law firm
$ 48,000 - $ 63,250
in Canada
$ 192,500 - $ 282,000
$ 106,250 - $ 156,500
$ 135,250 - $ 240,000
$ 73,000 - $ 130,250
$ 90,500 - $ 124,500
$ 56,500 - $ 83,000
$ 84,750 - $ 92,000
$ 50,000 - $ 66,750
$ 168,500 - $ 269,750
$ 130,000 - $ 174,500
$ 63,500 - $ 93,000
$ 46,750 - $ 64,500
13.17. AGREE OR DISAGREE
1. Society can do without lawyers.
2. The law is a profession of words.
3. People who love sausage and people who believe in justice
should never watch either of them made.
4. A lawyer is a gentleman that rescues your estate from your enemies
and then keeps it for himself.
5. One law should be for the rich and another for the poor.
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13.18. (*) SAY WHAT YOU KNOW about any of the following
professional functions, which the lawyers typically perform:
 Advise and represent clients in courts, before government
agencies, or in private legal matters.
 Communicate with their clients and others.
 Conduct research and analysis of legal problems.
 Interpret laws, rulings, and regulations for individuals and businesses.
 Present facts in writing or verbally to their clients or others and argue on their behalf.
 Prepare and file legal documents, such as lawsuits, appeals, wills,
contracts, and deeds.
WORK IN PAIRS. One of you should talk for not less than one
minute about the function chosen for discussion; the other should respond to the speech of the groupmate and ask questions about
statements contained in his/her speech.
13.19. SCANNING
Job Seeking: Resume
1. Resume is a vital part of the employment process. Although a resume should give a lot of information about you, it is necessary to determine the most important facts about you and then to
select and order those facts in a way that will impress your reader.
2. Here are some general guidelines: for a person who wants to
develop a great resume:
o the very first thing that a reader should see on your resume is
your contact information; this includes your name, address, telephone
number;
o then, outline your work and educational experience;
o make the information action-oriented and stress accomplishment; instead of listing your duties for each job, tell what you have
achieved;
o in addition, list honors and awards such as grants, scholarships, or other forms of special recognition; be sure to include the
name of the honor, the granting institution, the date granted, and (if
appropriate) a description of the activity;
o match your skills and experience to the needs of the organization.
3. The layout of a resume and its composition are also of great
importance. Generally speaking, there are five most common resume
formats:
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(i) Chronological format contains work experience (history) in reverse time sequence (i.e. starting from the most recent one and going
back in time). The focus is on time, job continuity, professional growth
and advancement, results.
(ii) Functional format contains work experience and abilities
grouped by certain spheres or areas. The focus is on what you did,
not when or where.
(iii) Creative (or Alternative) format may be in the form of portfolio or visual resume if they contain pictures, photographs, articles, illustrations, and other creative products.
(iv) Curriculum Vitae (CV) is used mostly by those professions in
which it is important to list all the credentials (accomplishments, results, publications, titles of presentations at conferences, certificates,
awards, research programs, public lectures, etc.). Civil servants, university professors and those who want to study abroad will be perfect
candidates for CV, which is not limited in space unlike a resume having a one-page, maximum a two-page limit.
(v) It is rather common for applicants nowadays to make a socalled ‘combined resume’, which traditionally comprises five primary
sections:
 Heading or ‘Contact Information’ usually is placed at the central top part of the page and consists of:
- your full name and mailing address (with full postal code);
- home phone and cell phone number (with a country or area code);
- your E-mail address.
 Introduction answers these questions: "What do you want to
do? How can you contribute to the company where you want to
work?" It can be written in the form of a ‘Summary of Qualifications’
(‘Profile’), where you give your key strengths and areas of expertise,
accompanied by a brief indication of the resume objective.
 Employment or ‘Experience’ section highlights your professional career and experience, qualifications and achievements (results) as well as the level of your responsibility. You begin this section
with your most recent position (it must have maximum space) and
then move backwards. The following standard information should be
provided for each of your present and past employer: name of organization; its location (city and region where you worked); dates of employment; job titles or positions which you held.
 Education section begins with your most recent educational attainment and then work backwards. Be sure to give the date you obtained any degree or diploma, along with the name of the institution
that granted it. Under the Education section, you may want to include: extracurricular activities; scholarships; awards and honors; internships; presentations made at conferences and publications.
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 Miscellaneous. In this section, if you think it is important you
may write about: military service; interests and hobbies; foreign languages; volunteer work; membership and active participation in professional associations. If you include references into your resume,
don’t forget to give their full name, title, place of employment, telephone number and address.
LEXIS
resume ['rezju:meɪ] - краткая автобиография, резюме, биографическая справка
guidelines - (руководящее) указание, рекомендации, инструкция
contact information – информации, необходимая для дальнейших
контактов; контактная информация
outline - изложить вкратце, описывать
action-oriented - прикладной, практический, деятельный, ориентированный на действие
list - составлять список, перечислить
honors and awards - награды и поощрения
match - находить соответствие; приводить в соответствие, согласовывать; сопоставлять; подгонять, сочетать; выравнивать
layout - внешний вид, структура расположения отдельных частей
format – вид, стандартная форма
reverse time sequence - обратная хронологическая последовательность
job continuity - последовательность в выборе мест работы
professional growth and advancement - профессиональный рост и
продвижение
portfolio – подборка, портфолио
accomplishment - достижение, успех
research program - программа научных исследований, научный
проект
heading - "шапка" (верхняя часть текста), заголовок
top part - верхняя часть
profile - краткий биографический очерк; сведения из биографии
key strengths - главные достоинства, ключевые качества и характеристики
highlight – выделять, подчеркивать, отводить главное место; выдвигать на первый план
recent position - последнее место работы, ранее занимаемая должность
backwards - в обратном направлении
job title - название профессии, название должности
educational attainment - образовательная подготовка, уровень образования
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extracurricular activities - неаудиторная деятельность; общественные занятия студентов, включающие политическую деятельность, спорт, музыку, самодеятельность и т.п.
scholarship - именная стипендия (студента или молодого научного
работника в университете)
honors - отличие при сдаче экзамена; почётное звание
internship - практика, стажировка
miscellaneous - прочие положения, разное
reference - лицо, могущее дать рекомендацию
13.20. QUESTIONS
1. How should the ‘Employment section’ be organized?
2. Is ‘resume’ a synonym to CV?
3. Is a resume limited in space? How many pages should it be?
4. What additional information may be presented in a resume?
5. What are the guidelines for writing a resume?
6. What is included into the ‘Education section’?
7. What is the difference between functional and chronological formats of a resume?
8. What resume formats are described in the text?
9. What should contact information include?
10. When is it preferable to write a CV instead of a customary
resume?
13.21. AGREE OR DISAGREE
1. ‘Contact information’ usually is placed at the central top
part of the page.
2. Creative format of a resume is perfect for those who want to study
abroad.
3. Educational qualifications of a job applicant are highly estimated.
4. ‘Profile’, ‘Heading’ and ‘Contact information’ are synonyms.
5. The ‘Education section’ is usually placed at the end of the page.
6. The ‘Employment section’ is composed of places of work in reverse
order.
7. You should never give contact information of references if you include them into your resume.
13.22. (*) EXERCISE. There are excerpts from different legal resumes. Scrutinize the examples and translate them.
PROFILE: Recent law school graduate with an MBA and
strong acumen for business development and franchise management.
Skilled negotiator, mediator and advisor. Exceptional clinical experience
in family law, real estate law and landlord-tenant law. Strong scientific
and technological background.
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OBJECTIVES:
• To secure a senior level position at a top national law firm.
• To continue to clearly and effectively convey successful legal
advice.
• To efficiently work with a wide range of legal associates to
both improve and enhance the law field.
EDUCATION:
Juris Doctor, Jordan University School of Law, Logan, NY (2013)
• Cum Laude, 3.39 GPA
• American University Law Review, Staff Member
• Best Oral Advocate, Hal Philip Walker Moot Court Competition
• Participant, Roosevelt Boxley Mock Trial Competition
• Young Attorney's Society, Founding Member
• Public Interest Law Certificate
Bachelor of Arts, University of Northern Wyoming, Buckton, WY (2010)
EXPERIENCE:
Manfreedy, Moon & Vardy
Charleston, New Hampshire
Legal Intern
Summer 2013
Legal Assistant
Summer 2012
• Assisted in all aspects of trial preparation for this personal
injury litigation firm.
• Wrote motions, responses, client advice letters, and memoranda.
• Investigated plaintiffs' backgrounds; conducted extensive legal research and responded to discovery.
• Filed responses, motions, and briefs at courthouse; attended
settlement negotiations and observed trial.
• Proofread attorney briefs and motions.
• Assisted in preparing for deposition, including interviewing
an expert witness.
• Cross-checked depositions for inconsistencies; consulted
with senior partner as to questionable deposition testimony that might be relevant in trial or in future deposing of
other witnesses.
PROFESSIONAL AFFILIATIONS:
• Member of the Bar, State of Virginia, 2013
• Contributor to the National Law Review
• Contributor to the East Coast Law Review
VOLUNTEER WORK:
• New Jersey Green Party (various campaigns)
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• United Federation of Delaware
• Income Tax Relief Assistance Organization, Washington, DC.
LEXIS
acumen - деловая хватка, сообразительность, проницательность
business development - работа с потенциальными клиентами, коммерческое развитие
franchise - право на производство и продажу продукции другой
компании, франшиза
clinical experience – опыт предоставления юридической помощи во
время прохождения практики
secure – добиваться, получать
convey – предлагать, сообщать
enhance – совершенствовать, обогащать
Cum Laude - с отличием (о дипломе)
GPA (grade point average) - средний балл как характеристика успеваемости студента, определяемая путем деления суммы оценочных баллов на количество затраченных зачетных часов
discovery - представление документов (суду)
motion – ходатайство, запрос
deposition - письменные показания под присягой
access – доступ, право доступа
cross-check - осуществлять перекрёстный контроль, участвовать в
проведении взаимной проверки
contributor – сотрудник, автор статей
National Law Review - юридическое обозрение
Income Tax Relief Assistance – консультирование по вопросам о льготах по подоходному налогу
13.23. (*) EXERCISE. Draw up a legal resume using the following form.
Heading
o Full name
o Address details:
House number/name:
Region:
Tel no: (including code)
Resume Form
Street:
Post code:
Mobile No:
Objectives
o Explain the purpose of writing the resume:
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Country:
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Knowledge and Skills
o Describe any specialist knowledge you have:
o Describe your skills and abilities:
Work History (put on the list current/most recent jobs first)
o Job title and company/org name:
o Dates: from: ………, to: …….
o Short summary of job/role:
o Main elements/responsibilities/duties:
o Skills used:
o Achievements:
Education
School/college/university
Year started:
attended: (with location)
Year left:
Type of
qualification:
1 ...
2…
Outside activities including sporting and other achievements
Title:
Organisation name:
Date from:
Date to:
o
Short summary of the job/responsibilities/duties, skills
needed, achievements and number of people managed (if applicable)
Other information
o Describe your personal qualities:
o Describe your hobbies and other interests:
o Any other information you would like to add:
o Languages:
o Describe any computer skills:
References
o Please give the names, addresses and phone numbers of any
references you may wish to refer to on your resume:
13.24. (**) EXERCISE.
1. Make a speech persuading school leavers either to become
or not to become lawyers.
2. Clear up the questions: Who may become a judge in the
Russian Federation? How does one become a judge in the Russian Federation?
3. Write down a list of qualities necessary for a lawyer.
4. Write down a list of do’s and don’ts for a lawyer.
5. Make a presentation about one of the famous lawyers.
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13.25. KEY WORDS
American Bar Association
applicant
attorney
barrister
code of professional ethics
contact information
Curriculum Vitae
in-house counsel
Inn of Court
job seeking
Law Society
lawyer
legal advice
multiple-choice exam
professional association of
lawyers
professional career
-
private practice
public service
professional responsibility
reference
resume
right of audience
self-employed lawyer
solicitor
state bar exam
to admit to the bar
to disbar
to qualify
to practice law
to prepare a brief
to prepare legal documents
to represent a client in court
to specialize
13.26. (**) ESSAY WRITING. Chose one of the following themes
for your essay on the topic “Legal Profession":
- “Best law firms.”
- “Do prosecutors and advocates get different education?”
“History of the legal profession.”
“Is it necessary to reform our legal education?”
“Is the legal profession an art or business?”
“Notarial and authentication services.”
“Paralegals vs. lawyers.”
“Pro bono cases.”
“What you should expect from a lawyer: professional ethics.”
13.27. TEST YOURSELF. Fill each gap in the sentences with
only one word or phrase from the box given below:
A lawyer is a person learned in the law and thus licensed
(1). Lawyers do not so much "know the law" as they are familiar with
(2) and able to find specific norms and statutes applicable to a
particular situation.
As a rule the lawyer performs several functions: investigator,
drafter, (3), advisor, and advocate. And he is usually permitted to
carry out the following responsibilities:
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- arguing (4) before a judge or jury in a court of law;
- performing extensive (5) while drafting legal papers and
preparing for oral argument;
- providing clients with (6);
- (7);
- drafting of the documents necessary for the transfer of real
property, such as (8);
- drafting of wills, trusts, and any other documents that ensure
the efficient disposition of (9) after death;
- prosecuting or speaking in support of (10).
In many countries either the judiciary, or the Ministry of Justice,
or (11) directly supervises the admission, licensing, and (12) of
lawyers.
For example in England there are (13), with separate jobs in the
legal system: solicitors and barristers. Practicing solicitors are consulted by, and receive instructions from clients on a wide variety of
matters both (14). In cases of unusual difficulty the solicitor takes his
instructions from the client, prepares a brief and approaches a barrister to give an «opinion» or represent the client at the trial, because only barristers have (15) in the higher courts. A barrister must be a
member of (16), which traditionally educated and regulated barristers.
In order to practice law in the USA, one must first be "admitted to
(17)" in an individual state. This entails passing (18). Generally, state
bar examiners require evidence of three qualities in exam candidates:
sufficient (19) at the undergraduate level; sufficient US (20); and sufficient knowledge of local bar requirements. Part of the licensing
process involves the assessment by bar examiners of an applicant’s
(21) to engage in the practice of law.
Lawyers are paid for their work in a variety of ways. Lawyers
working directly on the payroll of governments, nonprofits, and corporations usually earn (22). In private practice, they may work for an
hourly fee, (23), or a lump sum payment if the matter is straightforward. In many countries there are fee-shifting arrangements by which
(24) must pay the winner's fees and costs.
legal education, civil and criminal, two different kinds of lawyers,
deeds and mortgages, the loser, legal advice, negotiator, negotiating
and drafting contracts, the state bar exam, rights of audience,
a professional association, one of the Inns of Court, to practice law,
a regular annual salary, a person's property, a client's case,
regulation, general legal principles, a contingency fee, research into
relevant facts and law, general education, criminal suspects, the bar,
character and fitness
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13.28. MAKE A REPORT on the topic “Legal Profession”,
paying attention to the following points in your speech:
- ordinary functions and duties of lawyers;
- professional responsibility of lawyers;
- legal profession in England: solicitors and barristers;
- legal profession in the USA;
- legal education.
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Unit 14. Labour Relations
14.1. BEFORE READING learn the following words and
phrases which are essential on the topic:
collective bargaining /kəˈlektɪv ˈbɑː(r)ɡɪnɪŋ/ - переговоры
между предпринимателями и профсоюзами о заключении коллективного договора
collective labour law /kəˈlektɪv ˈleɪbə lɔː/ - коллективное трудовое
законодательство
conditions of employment /kənˈdɪʃ(ə)nz əv ɪmˈplɔɪmənt/ - условия работы по найму
contract of employment /ˈkɒntrækt əv ɪmˈplɔɪmənt/ - договор личного найма, трудовое соглашение
educational leave /ˌedjʊˈkeɪʃ(ə)nəl ˈliːv/ - отпуск для получения образования
employee /ˌemplɔɪˈiː/ - работник по найму, лицо наёмного труда
employer /ɪmˈplɔɪə(r)/ – работодатель, наниматель
fringe benefits /ˈfrɪndʒ ˈbenɪfɪts/ – неденежные выплаты, сопутствующие льготы; доплаты к заработной плате, оговоренные в
коллективном договоре
individual labour law /ˌɪndɪˈvɪdʒuəl ˈleɪbə ˈlɔː/ – трудовое законодательство найма на работу
job security /ˈdʒɒb sɪˈkjʊərəti/ - гарантия занятости, обеспечение
работой
labour law = /ˈleɪbə ˈlɔː/, labour relations law /ˈleɪbə rɪˈleɪʃ(ə)nz ˈlɔː/, fair
employment practices law /ˈfeə ɪmˈplɔɪmənt ˈpræktɪsɪz ˈlɔː/, employment law /ɪmˈplɔɪmənt ˈlɔː/ - трудовое право, законы о трудовой занятости
labour union = /ˈleɪbə ˈjuːnjən/, trade union /ˈtreɪd ˈjuːnjən/, union
/ˈjuːnjən/ - профессиональный союз
maternity leave /məˈtɜː(r)nəti ˈliːv/ = child-care leave /ˈtʃaɪldˌ keə(r) ˈliːv/
- декретный отпуск, отпуск по уходу за ребёнком
minimum wage /ˈmɪnɪməm ˈweɪdʒ/ - минимальный размер оплаты
труда
safety regulations /ˈseɪfti ˌreɡjʊˈleɪʃ(ə)n/ - техника безопасности
salary /ˈsæləri/ = remuneration /riˌmjuːnəˈreɪʃ(ə)n/, wages /ˈweɪdʒɪz/ заработная плата, денежное содержание, жалование
sick leave /ˈsɪk ˈliːv/ – "больничный лист", денежное пособие по болезни
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to dismiss /dɪsˈmɪs/ = discharge from employment /dɪsˈtʃɑː(r)dʒ frəm
ɪmˈplɔɪmənt/, fire /ˈfaɪə(r)/, lay off /ˈleɪ ˈɒf/, sack /sæk/ - увольнять
to employ /ɪmˈplɔɪ/ = hire /ˈhaɪə(r)/ - взять на работу, предоставлять работу; нанимать
to resign /rɪˈzaɪn/, quit /kwɪt/, vacate a post /vəˈkeɪt ə ˈpəʊst /, leave
/liːv/ - увольняться
to retire /rɪˈtaɪə(r)/ - выходить на пенсию, уйти на покой
unemployment compensation /ˌʌnɪmˈplɔɪmənt ˌkɒmpənˈseɪʃ(ə)n/ - пособие по безработице
working hours /ˈwɜː(r)kɪŋ ˈaʊəz/ - продолжительность работы
14.2. SCANNING
Labour Law
1. Labour law is the body of laws, administrative rulings, and
precedents which address the legal rights of, and restrictions
on, working people and their organizations. As such, it mediates
many aspects of the relationship between trade unions, employers
and employees.
2. In general, there are two broad categories of labour law. First,
collective labour law relates to the three-party relationship between
employee, employer and union. It mostly concerns the inequality of
bargaining power between employers and workers. Second, individual
labour law concerns employees' rights at work and conditions and
terms of employment.
3. The basic feature of individual labour law is that the rights
and obligations of the worker and the employer between one another
are mediated through the contract of employment between the two.
Many terms and conditions of the contract are however implied by
legislation or common law, in such a way as to restrict the freedom of
people to agree to certain things in order to protect employees, and
facilitate a fluid labour market.
4. Thus employees have certain rights enforceable by law:
o the right of fair treatment regardless of age, race, religion,
gender, or disabilities;
o the right to equal treatment, also with regard to wages;
o the right not to be dismissed without proper cause and the
correct procedures;
o the right not to be dismissed for giving birth to a child;
o the right for compensation when employees are retrenched.
5. The central concept in collective labour law is "collective bargaining" which means negotiations between employers and employees
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(who are usually represented by a labor union) about terms and conditions of employment. The bargaining process is concerned with matters relating to working conditions: i.e. wages, working hours, job security, safety regulations, extended vacations, educational and maternity leave, housing, health insurance, unemployment compensation, and perhaps most important, carefully monitored grievance procedures to protect workers against any arbitrary action. Any or all of
these may be the subject of consideration. When agreement cannot be
reached, a union may conduct a strike against the employer.
6. According to collective labour law a trade union may be defined
as a combination of workmen whose principal object is collective bargaining. As everyone knows, the legal control of trade unions is the
subject of political debate. The pivotal questions are concerned with
creation, recognition and de-recognition of a trade union.
7. Legal immunities of trade unions currently include:
o protection against action for conspiracy;
o protection for peaceful picketing;
o provision prohibiting any court from ordering someone to
work;
o protection for persons inducing breaches of contracts of employment in contemplation or furtherance of a trade dispute.
8. Besides representatives of management and trade unions, private mediators and government officials sometimes participate in collective bargaining, especially when a major or vital industry is involved. Collective bargaining, which began in Great Britain in the
19th century, is now a crucial part of the labor union movement and
an accepted practice in many industrial nations.
LEXIS
address – называть, адресоваться
mediate - содействовать соглашению или сделке между
сторонами, служить связующим звеном
three-party - трёхсторонний
facilitate – оказать содействие, содействовать
fluid labour market - постоянно меняющийся спрос и предложение
труда
enforceable by law - обеспеченный правовой защитой
fair treatment- справедливое отношение
regardless of – независимо от
gender – пол (мужской/женский)
disabilities - ограничения дееспособности
equal treatment - равенство обращения
wages - заработная плата
proper cause - обоснованная причина
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giving birth to - рождать
retrench - сокращать
extended vacations – бессрочный отпуск
housing - обеспечение жильём, жилищные условия
grievance procedures - порядок разрешения трудовых споров
arbitrary – самовольный, произвольный
conduct a strike - проводить забастовку
combination of workmen – объединение работников
principal object - основная цель
pivotal question - ключевой вопрос
de-recognition - прекращение признания
action for conspiracy - иск об убытках, причинённых тайным сговором
peaceful picketing - пикетирование без нарушения общественного
порядка
induce – побудить, склонять, убедить
contemplation – цель, намерение
furtherance – содействие, поддержка, способствование
major or vital industry - ведущая или важнейшая отрасль промышленности
crucial – принципиальный, важный
industrial nations - промышленно развитые страны
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
2.
3.
4.
5.
14.3. QUESTIONS
1. What does labour law deal with?
2. What are the two subdivisions of labour law? How do they
differ?
What are the parties to a contract of employment?
What employee's rights are guaranteed by law?
Who usually participates in collective bargaining?
What matters is collective bargaining concerned with?
Why are trade unions treated as an indispensable element of social
life in industrialized nations?
14.4. AGREE OR DISAGREE
1. There are four broad categories of labour law: collective
labour law, individual labour law, labor union law and employment law.
Employment means negotiations between employers and employees
about terms and conditions of their relations.
Government officials may not participate in collective bargaining.
There is no legal control of trade unions in industrial countries.
Collective bargaining began in the USA at the beginning of the 19th
century.
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14.5. GIVE ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS for:
a) называть законные права трудящихся;
b) относиться к трехсторонним отношениям между профсоюзами, работодателями и наёмными работниками;
c) описывать права наёмных работников на рабочем месте;
d) увольнять без обоснованной причины;
e) быть предметом обсуждения;
f) достигнуть соглашения; договориться;
g) участвовать в переговорах между предпринимателями и профсоюзами.
14.6. SCANNING
Defining the Employment Contract
1. The employment contract regulates the work relationship
between the employer and employee. It stipulates the remuneration for work done by the employee. An agreement is signed after
the work offer is accepted. The employer and employee both have
rights and expectations that are stipulated in the contract.
2. Such contract is legally binding and enforceable by law even if
it is an oral agreement. It is however safer to get a written employment contract containing the following mandatory provisions:
o name of company;
o full names of the employee;
o proper work description;
o commencement of employment date;
o work address;
o remuneration;
o minimum and maximum working hours;
o fringe benefit package, including a retirement plan, employee
stock options, holiday pay, and health insurance benefits;
o sick leave stipulations;
o pension regulations;
o termination of employment;
o minimum notice time;
o procedures for complaints;
o disciplinary procedures;
o collective bargaining procedures.
3. Some employers also use non-disclosure and non-compete
clauses to protect their trade secrets from being dispersed when employees leave.
4. The above terms and regulations are direct terms. Indirect
terms (or assumed, unspoken terms) refer to terms not stipulated,
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but are indirectly referred to by signing the agreement. All contracts
contain the following terms regardless of stipulation in the contract:
o trust and confidence in terms of work and payment to be
done;
o ensuring a safe employment place.
5. The duty to provide written particulars of employment aims to
allow the employee to know concretely what to expect and is expected.
There are certain terms and conditions that people may simply not
agree to because they are deemed categorically unfair. Thus an employer may not legally offer a contract in which the employer pays the
worker less than a minimum wage. An employee may not for instance
agree to a contract, which allows an employer to dismiss them unfairly. However, this depends entirely on the particular legislation of the
country in which the work is.
LEXIS
work offer – предложение работы
expectations - ожидания
stipulate – оговаривать, предусматривать
mandatory provision - обязательное условие договора
proper work description – точное описание работ, полная характеристика занятости
commencement of employment date – дата начала трудовой деятельности по контракту
fringe benefit package – пакет льгот и доплат к заработной плате
retirement plan - порядок выхода на пенсию
employee stock options - право сотрудника купить акции по льготной цене, поощрение служащих продажей акций
holiday pay - плата за работу в праздничный день
health insurance benefits - медицинское страховое пособие
termination of employment - окончание срока работы по найму
notice time – срок предварительного уведомления
non-disclosure clause - условие контракта о неразглашении конфиденциальной информации
non-compete clause - условие контракта о добровольном отказе сотрудника наниматься на работу в конкурирующие организации
disperse – разносить, распространять
leave – увольняться, прекращать работу
direct terms – однозначные, непосредственно обозначенные условия
assumed - предполагаемый
trust and confidence - доверительные отношения
particulars - подробные данные
unfairly – нечестно, несправедливо
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2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
2.
3.
4.
5.
14.7. QUESTIONS
1. Whose rights and duties does the employment contract
stipulate?
What information should the employment contract contain?
Can you explain the difference between such terms of an employment contract as sick leave stipulations and health insurance
benefits?
What is the purpose of a non-disclosure clause?
Can you give examples of indirect terms of employment.
What is the legal meaning of a minimum wage?
14.8. AGREE OR DISAGREE
1. The employment contract is a quasi-agreement which is
not enforceable by law.
The employment contract is legally binding even if it is in the oral
form.
Direct terms and regulations of a contract are so called "assumed"
or "unspoken" terms.
No employer may offer a contract in which he pays the worker more
than a minimum wage.
The terms and conditions of employment are unified and do not
depend on the particular legislation of the country in which the
work is.
14.9. GIVE ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS for:
a) устанавливать заработную плату за выполняемую работу;
b) включить определенные условия в договор;
c) содержать определенные условия;
d) определять подробности работы по найму;
e) выплачивать минимальный размер оплаты труда;
f) зависеть от законодательства страны.
14.10. (*) PREPARE a list of six additional questions to ask
about the previous texts "Labour Law" and "Defining the
Employment Contract". Be ready to interview the students in
your group.
14.11. MATCH the following words with their definitions:
bargaining; dismissal; educational leave; employee; employer; employment; maternity leave; minimum wage; safety
regulations; remuneration; sick leave; trade union; unemployment;
working conditions
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1. an act of sacking somebody from their job
2. a period of time when a woman temporarily leaves her job to have
a baby
3. a person or company that pays people to work for them
4. a person who is paid to work for somebody
5. accident-prevention rules; laws that protect the health of people at
work
6. an amount of money that is paid to somebody for the work they
have done
7. an organization of workers, usually in a particular industry, that
exists to protect their interests, improve conditions of work, etc.
8. discussion of prices, conditions, etc. with the aim of reaching an
agreement that is acceptable
9. permission to be away from work because of illness
10. the circumstances or situation in which people work
11. the fact of a number of people not having a job; the number of
people without a job; the state of not having a job
12. the lowest money compensation that an employer is allowed to
pay by law
13. the period of time spent away from work in order to complete a
course of training
14. work, especially when it is done to earn money; the situation in
which people have work
14.12. EXERCISE. Read and translate the example of an employment contract given below. In order to ask the students
of your group about the details of this agreement make at
least five questions to the text.
Contract of Employment
1. Names of the contracting parties.
Between: ACME ACE LIMITED (the "Employer")
15 Town Road – Anytown – AT65 Y66
And: JOHN SMITH (the "Employee")
12 Smalltown Road - Midshire MRT 5EW.
2. Commencement of employment date.
Employment start date: 1st September 2015
3. Job title and description.
The Employee’s job title is: Production Controller.
The Employee’s main task is to assist the Production Manager in
maintaining a consistent flow of production.
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4. Address of the workplace.
The Employee will work from: 453 High Street, Newtown.
5. Salary.
The Employee’s salary is £17,000 per annum. Payments are monthly
by BACS directly in to the Employee’s bank account.
6. Hours of work.
The Employee’s working week will consist of 40 hours, from Monday
to Friday and from 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. There is an hour lunch break: timing to be agreed with immediate supervisor.
From time to time, the Employee may be asked to work outside of the
contracted hours. An hourly rate of 1.5 times the normal hourly rate
will be paid.
7. Holiday entitlement.
The Employee is entitled to 4 weeks (20 days) paid holiday per annum. At the end of 5 years service an extra days holiday entitlement
is given – followed by a further 1 day holiday entitlement for each of
the next 4 years service: bringing maximum holiday entitlement to 5
weeks (25 days).
8. Sickness entitlement.
Contractual Sick Pay: the Employee will receive his normal salary for a
period of 4 weeks, in any 12 month period where a doctor’s certificate
is produced after 7 consecutive days sickness.
9. Grievance procedure.
In all but one instance, the Employee must report any grievance to
his immediate supervisor. Where, and only where, the grievance is
with the immediate supervisor, the Employee can make his grievance
known to the immediate supervisor of the Employee's supervisor.
10. Disciplinary procedure.
Where the Employer believes that the Employee has acted in an unfit
way in the course of carrying out his duty, or the Employee brings the
Employers business in to disrepute, the Employee will face a disciplinary inquiry.
If the Employee is found to have committed a minor misconduct, the
Employer has the option of a verbal warning, or a written warning depending on the severity of the misconduct.
If the Employee is found to have committed gross misconduct, the
Employer has the option of a verbal warning, a written warning, a final written warning, or instant dismissal. The Employer also has the
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option to suspend the Employee where the Employer needs to make
an inquiry into the misconduct.
11. Notice periods required from both the Employee and the Employer.
The minimum notice periods are as follows:
Time in employment
Under 1 month
Over 1 month
2 years’ service
3 to 12 years’ service
Minimum notice
No notice
1 week
2 weeks
One week for each year to a maximum of 12 weeks.
The Employee must send a copy of his notice to the company’s address, as 1 above.
The Employer will send a copy of the notice to the Employee's address, as 1 above.
In the case of the Employee being dismissed for gross misconduct, the
Employer will decide if any notice period will be applied.
__________________________________________
I agree to the above terms and confirm I have received a copy of this
Contract.
Signed by the Employee
Dated ……………………
Signed by or on behalf of the Employer
Dated ……………………….…………….
LEXIS
job title - название должности
consistent flow of production – постоянный цикл производства продукции
per annum – ежегодно, в год
BACS - bankers' automated clearing services - Банковская автоматическая клиринговая система
timing - выбор определённого времени
immediate supervisor - непосредственный начальник
outside of the contracted hours - сверхурочные часы работы
hourly rate of 1.5 times the normal hourly rate – полуторный почасовой тариф от базового тарифа
holiday entitlement – право на оплачиваемый отпуск
extra day - дополнительный день
sickness entitlement - право на получение социальной помощи в
случае болезни
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contractual sick pay - договорная оплата больничного листа
doctor’s certificate – больничный лист, справка от врача
grievance procedure - порядок разрешения трудовых споров
in an unfit way – неприемлемым образом
in the course of carrying out – в процессе выполнения
disrepute - плохая репутация
face a disciplinary inquiry - подвергнуть дисциплинарному расследованию
minor misconduct - незначительный проступок
warning - предупреждение
severity – опасность, тяжесть
gross misconduct - злостное неправомерное поведение
instant dismissal - незамедлительное увольнение
suspend - временно отстранять от должности
notice period - промежуток времени на уведомление; срок для предупреждения, информирования
14.13. ENGAGE IN CONVERSATION. Examine the following
list on the topic: “Employment”. Identify a set of five fringe
benefits that are preferable for you. Discuss your choice
with that of your groupmate:














Common Fringe Benefits:
local telephone calls
meals and lodging provided for the employer’s convenience
flowers, fruit for special circumstances
traditional birthday or holiday gifts (not cash)
theater or sporting event tickets
awards and prizes
dependent care benefits
employee educational assistance programs
professional licenses and dues for organizations
transportation benefits
travel expenses
moving expenses
medical and dental health insurance coverage
life insurance coverage
14.14. KEY WORDS
collective bargaining
collective labour law
contract of employment
dismissal
maternity leave
minimum wage
notice period
remuneration
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employee
employer
employment
employment contract
fringe benefit package
grievance procedure
holiday entitlement
individual labour law
job security
labour law
-
safety regulations
sick leave
to conduct a strike
to dismiss
to employ
to retire
trade union
unemployment compensation
working conditions
working hours
14.15. (**) ESSAY WRITING. Chose one of the following themes
for your essay on the topic “Labour Relations":
- “Disability discrimination.”
- “Employee benefits.”
“Job discrimination.”
“Prohibited employment policies/practices.”
“Trade secrets in labour relations.”
“Wage and hour laws.”
“When does the employer have a right to fire an employee?”
“Why is it necessary to regulate labour relations?”
14.16. TEST YOURSELF. Fill each gap in the sentences with
only one word or phrase from the box given below:
Labour law is (1) which can be considered under several
broad categories: individual (2); wages and remuneration; conditions
of work; social security; trade unions and (3).
It is usual practice for (4) to enter into (5) which sets out their respective (6), and which constitutes a contract of (7), either at the
commencement of employment or shortly before. Clauses in the contract generally deal with pay, deductions, (8) of work, time off, job security, (9) leave, place of work, absence, confidentiality, restrictions
on the actions of an employee once employment is ended, giving (10),
(11) insurance, unemployment compensation, the grievance (12) in
the event of job loss, and variation of contract.
Employers are bound by the employment contract and (13) as to
how they may deal with employees, particularly in relation to (14).
Failure to observe such obligations and regulations may give rise to a
claim for (15) (where the employer is in breach of contract), unfair
dismissal (where the employer has not followed a fair dismissal and
disciplinary procedure before terminating the contract), or (16) (where
an employee resigns because of the conduct of his employer).
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collective bargaining, constructive dismissal, the body of law,
educational and maternity, employers and employees, employment,
employment relationships, health, hours, notice, obligations and
rights, procedures, statutory regulation, wrongful dismissal,
the termination of employment, written agreement
14.17. MAKE A REPORT on the topic “Labour Relations”,
paying attention to the following points in your speech:
- nature of labour law;
- collective labour law provisions;
- employee’s rights granted by employment law;
- issues regulated by an employment contract.
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UNIT 15. Essential English Grammar for Law
Students
Английский юридический язык есть профессионально обусловленная разновидность литературного языка, проявляющаяся через
совокупность грамматических и логических способов передачи и
оформления понятийного содержания права, для которой характерно:
- формализованный, протокольный характер построения утверждений;
- экспрессивная нейтральность и объективность подачи информации за счет использования терминов и отсутствия эмоционально окрашенной лексики, ассоциативных образов и других
выразительных средств, а так же благодаря использованию группы неопределенного времени глагола (Idefinite) и применением
пассивных конструкций (Passive);
- предписывающий характер утверждений, возникающий благодаря использованию лексических единиц со значением модальности необходимости и модальности возможности;
- информационная насыщенность текста за счет «перечисления всех возможных условий и следствий» и использования сложносочиненных и сложноподчинённых предложений.
Подобная природа юридического языка предполагает, что при
изучении грамматики английского языка студентам-бакалаврам
необходимо сконцентрироваться на практике применения глаголов и глагольных форм в английском предложении. Именно поэтому грамматический комментарий к данному учебнику объединен в 9 блоков, которые так или иначе связаны с общей тематикой
«Глагол в английском языке».
Тема
Тема
Тема
Тема
Тема
Тема
Тема
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Содержание
Порядок слов в английском предложении ............. 231
Глагол ..................................................................... 239
Модальные глаголы ................................................ 253
Многозначные глаголы “be”, “have”, "do" ................ 258
Неличные формы глагола: инфинитив ................. 261
Неличные формы глагола: причастия и герундий 275
Сложносочиненные и сложноподчиненные предложения ............................................................. 288
Тема 8. Сложноподчиненные предложения: согласование
времен ............................................................... 292
Тема 9. Сложноподчиненные предложения: типы условных предложений ............................................ 295
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Тема 1. ПОРЯДОК СЛОВ В АНГЛИЙСКОМ
ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИИ (WORD ORDER)
Предложение - это сочетание слов, выражающее законченную мысль. Основа предложения в английском языке всегда
состоит из двух главных частей (членов предложения): подлежащего и сказуемого. Подлежащее, как правило, выражено существительным или местоимением, а сказуемое – глаголом. Наряду
с главными членами предложения - подлежащим и сказуемым –
предложение обычно содержит несколько второстепенных членов
- дополнение, определение и обстоятельство. Фиксированный
порядок слов в английском языке является основным средством
различения членов предложения.
1.1. ПОВЕСТВОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЕ
(AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCE)
В утвердительном простом предложении порядок слов
схематично можно выразить следующим образом:
(1-ое место)
(2-ое место)
(3-е место)
(4-ое место)
подлежащее +
+ сказуемое +
+ дополнение +
+ обстоятельство
(1) The law || (2) came into force. – Закон начал действовать.
(1) They || (2) will ratify || (3) the treaty || (4) in a week.
– Они ратифицируют международный договор в течение недели.
Иногда обстоятельства места или времени могут стоять и перед подлежащим. Например:
(0) Every week || (1) they || (2) have || (3) English lessons || (4) at the University. – Каждую неделю в университете у них занятия по английскому языку.
1.2. ПОБУДИТЕЛЬНОЕ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЕ
(IMPERATIVE SENTENCE)
Побуждение к действию, просьба, приказ выражаются в
предложении повелительного наклонения, когда подлежащее
опускается, а форма глагола совпадает с его основной формой
(инфинитивом) без частицы to:
Stand up, please! – Встаньте, пожалуйста!
Translate the text! – Переводи текст!
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Отрицательная форма в виде запрета образуется при помощи
вспомогательного глагола do в повелительном наклонении, за которым следует отрицательная частица not и инфинитив смыслового глагола без частицы to:
Do not go there! – Не ходи туда!
Don’t talk with him! – Не говори с ним!
Don’t ask me such questions! – Не задавай мне таких
вопросов!
Побуждение к действию, обращенное к 1-му и 3-му лицу выражается сочетанием глагола let в форме повелительного наклонения и инфинитива смыслового глагола без частицы to. Лицо, к которому обращено побуждение, выражается соответствующим личным местоимением в объектном падеже или существительным в
общем падеже:
Let me speak. – Дайте мне сказать.
Let my friend help you. – Пусть мой друг поможет вам.
Let us go home. – Пойдемте домой.
1.3. ВОПРОСИТЕЛЬНОЕ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЕ
(INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE)
Вопросительные предложения образуются при помощи инверсии – изменения прямого порядка главных членов предложения:
подлежащего и сказуемого. В английском языке существует несколько типов вопросов: вопросы к подлежащему, общие, специальные, альтернативные и разделительные вопросы.
Общие вопросы (General/Yes-No Questions) – это вопросы ко
всему предложению. На них можно коротко ответить да или нет.
Для общих вопросов характерен обратный порядок слов, то есть
на первое место выносится сказуемое или его часть (первый вспомогательный глагол, модальный глагол).
Does he have his holidays in June? – У него отпуск в июне?
Can you use this gadget? – Ты умеешь пользоваться
этим устройством?
Was the contract signed? – Договор был подписан?
Альтернативные вопросы (Alternative Questions) предполагают выбор между двумя или более предметами, лицами, действиями или признаками, перечисляемыми в самом вопросительном
предложении. Они строятся по типу общих вопросов, но с союзом
или (or). Например:
Do you represent the plaintiff or defendant? – Вы представляете интересы истца или ответчика?
Did they study in Moscow or Orenburg? – Они обучались в
Москве или в Оренбурге?
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Специальные вопросы (Special Questions или W-Questions)
ставятся к одному из членов предложения с целью получения информации, которой в самом вопросе нет. Специальные вопросы
строятся на основе структуры общего вопроса, предваряя ее вопросительным словом, как правило, вопросительным местоимением (what - что, какой; which – который; who – кто; whom - кого,
кому; whose – чей) или вопросительным наречием (how – как;
where – где; when – когда; why – почему). Например:
When do you usually get up? – В какое время вы обычно
просыпаетесь?
Why were you absent yesterday? – Почему вас вчера не
было?
When was the work done? – Когда работа была завершена?
В вопросах к подлежащему сохраняется порядок слов утвердительного предложения, при этом глагол ставится в 3-м лице
единственного числа:
Who reads such books? – Кто читает такие книги?
What is there in the corner of the room? – Что это там в
углу комнаты?
Who wants to become a lawyer? – Кто хочет стать юристом?
Разделительные вопросы (Disjunctive/Tag/Tail Questions)
представляют собой высказывания, заканчивающиеся вопросом
‘не так ли?, не правда ли?’ Первая часть этих вопросов строится
по типу утвердительного предложения, вторая – по типу вопросительного предложения с местоимением в роли подлежащего (усеченный общий вопрос). Если первая часть утвердительная, то вторая - отрицательная и наоборот. Например:
You want to help me, don’t you? – Вы хотите мне помочь, не так ли?
Helen doesn’t want to annul a contract, does she? – Лена
не собирается аннулировать договор, не так ли?
Inga is very pretty, isn’t she? – Инга по-настоящему красива, не так ли?
I am a more experienced lawyer than the other candidate is,
aren’t I? – Я более опытный юрист в сравнении с другим кандидатом, не так ли?
1.4. ОБРАЗОВАНИЕ ОТРИЦАНИЯ (NEGATIVE SENTENCE)
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цание. В самом общем виде можно выделить следующие способы
выражения отрицания:
1. Отрицательной формой глагола-сказуемого, когда частичка
not ставится непосредственно после вспомогательного или модального глагола, входящего в состав сказуемого. Например:
They do not know the content of his will. – Им не известно
содержание его завещания.
Lawyers are not all-powerful. – Юристы не всесильны.
Police could not solve this case. – Полиция не могла раскрыть это преступление.
Parents will not see him every day. - Родители не будут
навещать его каждый день.
Отрицание not с глаголом имеет две формы: полную и сокращенную:
полная форма
am not
are not
is not
cannot/can not
could not
did not
does not
do not
has not
have not
had not
сокращение
полная форма
aren't
aren't
isn't
can't
couldn't
didn't
doesn't
don't
hasn't
haven't
hadn't
may not
might not
must not
need not
ought not
shall not
should not
was not
were not
will not
would not
сокращение
mayn't
mightn't
mustn't
needn't
oughtn't
shan't
shouldn't
wasn't
weren't
won't
wouldn't
2. Отрицательным местоимением “no” с существительным или
такими производными с “no” как: nobody - никто, nothing - ничто, nowhere - нигде, no one - ничто, none of - ни одного из.
3. Союзами neither… nor - ни… ни, until - до тех пор, пока не,
unless - если не, lest - чтобы не, как бы не.
4. Наречиями с отрицательным значением: never – никогда;
hardly - едва ли, scarcely - почти не.
5. Предлогом without в значении «не сделав, не совершая
(что-либо)», употребляемым с ing-формой глагола.
6. Глаголом с отрицательным значением fail - не исполнить, не
сделать; не удаваться; не хватать (о чем-л. необходимом или желательном).
7. Отрицание в английском языке может выражаться и через
словообразование, при этом префиксы и суффиксы изменяют
значение слова на противоположное, но не меняют принадлежности этого слова к той или иной части речи. Примеры префиксов:
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- с прилагательными: unhappy (несчастный), illegal (незаконный), impossible (невозможный), dishonest (нечестный), nonessential (несущественный);
- с существительными: disorder (беспорядок), inability (неспособность), anti-fascist (антифашист);
- с глаголами: dislike (не любить), misunderstand (неправильно
понимать), undo (уничтожать), undervalue (недооценивать).
1.5. ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЕ С КОНСТРУКЦИЕЙ ‘THERE IS/ARE’
(‘THERE IS/ARE’ CONSTRUCTION)
В английском языке широко употребляются предложения с
иным порядком слов, когда предложение начинается с конструкции ‘there is/are’ со значением ‘имеется, находится, есть, быть,
существует’, а затем вводится подлежащее, выраженное существительным или местоимением, которое непосредственно следует
за ним. В таких предложениях говорится о существовании, наличии предмета, лица, явления, выраженного подлежащим и ещё
неизвестного собеседнику или читателю. Например:
There are two sides to every question. – У каждой проблемы есть две стороны.
There was somebody there. – Там кто-то был.
There will be a meeting tomorrow. – Завтра состоится
собрание.
В вопросительном предложении глагол to be в соответствующей временной форме (is, are, was, were или will) ставятся перед словом there, например:
Were there books on the shelf? – На полке были книги?
Will there be a meeting tomorrow? – Завтра собрание будет?
Is there anybody in the courtroom? – В зале судебного заседания есть кто-нибудь?
В отрицательном предложении используется местоимение
“no”, а при наличии слов “many, much, any” – частица “not”, например:
There were no objections to this irresistible proof. – Это неоспоримое доказательство не вызвало никаких возражений.
There isn’t any hope. – Нет никакой надежды.
Следует различать оборот there is/are от фразы it is (или в
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го - краткое прилагательное, например: “it’s strange - странно”,
“it’s warm - тепло”, “it’s well known - хорошо известно”:
It’s very warm in Orenburg in May. – В Оренбурге в мае
очень тепло.
It is well known that precedents are created by higher
courts. - Известно, что судебные прецеденты создаются вышестоящими судами.
Оборот it is также употребляется в ответах на вопрос со словом “где”?:
“Where is the key?” – “It is in your pocket”. – “Где ключ?” –
“Он у тебя в кармане”.
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ. Тема 1: Порядок слов.
ЗАДАНИЕ 1.1. Расположите слова в соответствии с
правилами английского языка, чтобы получилось связанное высказывание. Переведите предложения.
Модель:
All three branches, as a head of, coordinates, of power, the activity of, the president, the Russian Federation.
The president as a head of the Russian Federation coordinates
the activity of all three branches of power. – Президент в качестве главы Российской Федерации координирует деятельность всех трёх ветвей власти.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
A police inspector, as, works, he.
Agreement, a legally enforceable, a contract, is.
Are, parents, her, who?
The House, the members, Lords, elected, are, of, not.
Supervises, the chief clerk, of, the work, the department.
Civil law, such branches, as, law of torts, family law, and, covers.
Congress, the legislative, of the USA, represents, power.
By more than, concurrent tenancy, in immovable property, indicates, one party, the ownership of an interest.
9. Constitutional functions, perform, the US federal courts, two.
10. As a mechanism, can be used, for, law, social change.
ЗАДАНИЕ 1.2. Переведите предложения на русский язык,
указывая на способ образования отрицания.
1. Certain contracts are not enforceable unless they are in writing and
are signed by the parties.
2. If one of the parties has failed to perform its obligations, the other
party to the contract may file a claim to the court.
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3. A citizen of the RF not younger than 35 may be elected President of
the RF but not more than for two terms in succession.
4. As neither the procurator nor the defendant made any appeals to a
higher court, the sentence came into force.
5. They never seek assistance irrespective of conditions.
6. She failed to protect the child though it was her duty to do it.
7. Parents' rights to custody of their children may be limited because
of failure to provide adequate care.
8. Legislative enactments and international agreements may not be
applied if they violate the Constitution.
9. It is not the voting that is democracy, it is counting.
10. The position of the British prime minister is based on convention,
not statute.
11. An attorney in America must first get a license to practice; if he
fails to obey such a rule then his actions are qualified as unauthorized practice of law.
ЗАДАНИЕ 1.3. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание
на оборот there is/are.
Модель:
There is a new magistrate court in our district. - В нашем районе
(есть) новый мировой суд.
1. There are many branches of law and family law is one of them.
2. How many district courts are there in different parts of the USA? –
There are about ninety.
3. Is there a book on the British judiciary in the library?
4. There was a very interesting conference at our department last
week.
5. There was no lecture on Legal Ethics yesterday.
6. There were not many new legal terms in this text.
7. Tomorrow there will be a lecture on the state system of Great Britain at our club.
8. Will there be a meeting at our department tomorrow?
9. There will be no seminars in “Rights and duties of citizens” next
month.
10. There were five exams at our Institute last term.
ЗАДАНИЕ 1.4. Задайте пять типов вопросов к следующим
предложениям.
1.
2.
3.
4.
I study for five hours every evening.
She usually walks to the university.
He will send us a contract tomorrow.
The members of his Administration stayed at a 4-star hotel.
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5. The text on sources of English law was translated by the students
yesterday.
6. The Justices of the Constitutional Court live and work in Saint Petersburg.
7. This detective can speak English fluently.
8. The professor will be met at the airport.
9. An appeal normally does not involve a retrial of the case.
ЗАДАНИЕ 1.5. Задайте вопросы к подчеркнутым словам.
Модель:
We have English every week. - How often do we have English?
1. Decisions of the committee are made by a two thirds majority of the
members.
2. The procurator supervises the investigation of cases conducted by
police, state security organs and other organs of inquiry.
3. The US President is elected for a four year term.
4. There were twenty-seven amendments to the Constitution.
5. The treaty will come into force next month.
6. The monarch received copies of all cabinet papers just a few hours
ago.
7. England and Wales are divided into 53 counties.
8. The bill was prepared by the Department of Education.
9. The House of Lords initiated legislation on social security.
10. The law will be passed only after summer holidays.
ЗАДАНИЕ
1.6. Заполните пропуски, выбрав нужную вре-
менную форму оборота “there is/are”. Переведите предложения.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
… no precedent on the case.
… not many crimes in this region last year.
… several scientific conferences in our Institute next month.
… some dictionaries, if you need.
… no intention to commit an offence. You must take it into consideration.
… any mistakes in the police report?
… wars all through the Middle Ages.
… an accident – can I phone?
I’m afraid, … no time to discuss the case now.
ЗАДАНИЕ 1.7. Вставьте “there is” или “it is” в соответст-
вующей форме. Переведите предложения.
1. … nothing new in his behaviour.
2. … hard to identify and locate a suspect.
3. … important to distinguish larceny from robbery.
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4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
… not necessary to register for copyright protection.
“Where is the record of trial?” “… on your table”.
… any evidence of her guilt?
Soon … a problem with the on-line broadcast.
… too late for them to adopt the child. They both are 60.
… a burglary in the house last night.
Тема 2. ГЛАГОЛ (VERB)
Сказуемое - главный член предложения, который обозначает действие, состояние, а также качество предмета
или лица, выраженного подлежащим в этом предложении.
Сказуемое в английском языке образуется за счет изменения
форм глаголов (смысловой глагол употребляется последним справа
во всей цепочке глагогов), при этом обобщенную формулу составного сказуемого можно представить следующим образом:
+ показатель времени: будущее, настоящее или прошедшее
перфектность
(результат)
непрерывность
(процесс)
страдательный
залог
смысловой
глагол
вспомогательный
глагол have +
причастие 2 (-ed)
вспомогательный
глагол be +
причастие 1 (-ing)
вспомогательный
глагол be +
причастие 2 (-ed)
смысловой
глагол в
нужной форме
Глагол – часть речи, которая обозначает действие или состояние лица или предмета.
По своему значению и выполняемой в предложении роли, глаголы делятся на четыре основные группы:
1. Смысловые глаголы (подавляющее большинство глаголов)
выражают действие, процесс или состояние и могут употребляться
в роли простого сказуемого.
2. Вспомогательные глаголы не имеют самостоятельного значения и служат для образования сложных глагольных форм. К ним
относятся: be, have, do, will / shall, would / should.
3. Глаголы-связки не выражают действия, а служат для связи
подлежащего со смысловой частью сказуемого и показывают лицо,
число и время. Основным глаголом-связкой является глагол be –
«быть». Кроме того, функцию связки могут выполнять глаголы:
become, get, grow, turn - все в значении «становиться», look в
значении «выглядеть» и некоторые другие.
4 Модальные глаголы, выражающие не само действие, а отношение говорящего человека к действию. Они употребляются
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вместе с инфинитивом смыслового глагола (словарный вариант) и
показывают возможность, вероятность, необходимость, желательность совершения действия, выраженного инфинитивом. К ним
относятся: can – могу, умею, may – могу, разрешается, must должен, need - надо.
2.1. ГРАММАТИЧЕСКОЕ ВРЕМЯ (TENSE)
Для выражения времени совершения действия – настоящего,
прошедшего, будущего – английский глагол имеет своеобразную
систему глагольных времен (Tenses). Глагольные времена делятся
на три группы:
- группа ‘неопределенных’ времен (Indefinite) употребляется для констатации факта совершения действия в настоящем,
прошедшем и будущем без указания на его длительность, законченность и безотносительно к какому-либо другому действию или
моменту;
- группа ‘длительных’ времен (Continuous) употребляется
для выражения длительного действия, которое всё ещё совершается, совершалось или будет совершаться в описываемый момент;
действие описывается как незаконченное в процессе его совершения; на русский язык этот оттенок передается глаголом несовершенного вида;
- группа ‘совершённых’ времен (Perfect) выражает действие, совершенное к определенному моменту в настоящем, прошлом или будущем; на русский язык эти глаголы чаще всего переводятся глаголами совершенного вида.
Таблица 1. Временные формы глагола в действительном и
страдательном залоге.
1. Действительный залог (Active Voice)
характеристика
времени
Present
Past
Indefinite
действие как факт
(обычное, постоянное,
повторяющееся)
ask
asks
спрашиваю, задаю вопросы (вообще, обычно,
всегда)
asked
спросил, спрашивал
(когда-то)
Continuous
действие как процесс (незаконченный, длящийся)
am asking
are asking
is asking
спрашиваю (сейчас)
Perfect
действие, предшествующее какому-то моменту
have asked
has asked
уже спросил
was asking
were asking
спрашивал, задавал
вопрос (в тот момент)
had asked
уже спросил
(к тому моменту
в прошлом)
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Future
will ask
спрошу, задам вопрос
will be asking
буду спрашивать
(в тот момент)
will have asked
уже спрошу
(к тому моменту
в прошлом)
2. Страдательный залог (Passive Voice)
Present
Past
Future
Indefinite
am asked
are asked
is asked
(кого-то) спрашивают (вообще, всегда,
обычно)
was asked
were asked
(кого-то) спросили
(вчера)
will be asked
(кого-то) спросят
Continuous
am being asked
are being asked
is being asked
(кого-то) спрашивают (сейчас)
Perfect
have been asked
has been asked
(кого-то) уже спросили (на данный момент)
was being asked
were being asked
(кого-то) спрашивали (в тот момент)
---
had been asked
(кого-то) уже спросили (к тому моменту в
прошлом)
will have been asked
(кого-то) уже спросят (к тому моменту
в будущем)
2.2. ГРУППА "НЕОПРЕДЕЛЁННОГО ВРЕМЕНИ"
(INDEFINITE TENSES).
Времена группы неопределенного времени в действительном залоге (Indefinite (Active Voice) - выражают обычные, характерные действия, общие положения в настоящем, прошедшем
и будущем. Утверждения часто сопровождаются наречиями неопределенного времени usually - обычно, always - всегда, often часто, every day - каждый день и др.
Настоящее неопределенное время (Present Indefinite)
употребляется для обозначения действия, относящегося к настоящему времени в широком смысле слова, не указывая ни на длительность, ни на завершенность, ни на предшествование действия. Это время употребляется:
- для обозначения простых фактов и общих истин, например:
Law is a system or collection of rules established by the
state. – Право есть система или совокупность норм,
установленных государством.
- для выражения повседневных, повторяющихся действий,
привычек, обычаев, например:
Twice a year we take examinations in our Institute. – Дважды в год мы сдаём сессию в нашем институте.
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При образовании настоящего неопределенного времени глагол
совпадает с инфинитивом (без частицы to) во всех лицах, кроме
третьего лица единственного числа, принимающего окончание –s
(-es).
Утвердительная форма настоящего неопределенного времени:
I (we, you, they) work. – Я (мы, ты, они) работаю.
He (she, it) works. – Он (она, оно) работает.
Вопросительная и отрицательная формы глагола образуются
при помощи вспомогательного глагола do (в третьем лице единственного числа – does) и инфинитива смыслового глагола (без частицы to).
Вопросительная форма настоящего неопределенного времени:
Do I (we, you, they) work? – Работаю ли я (мы, ты, они)?
Does he (she, it) work? - Он (она, оно) работает?
Отрицательная форма настоящего неопределенного времени:
I (we, you, they) do not work. – Я (мы, ты, они) не работаю.
He (she, it) does not work. - Он (мы, ты, они) не работает.
Прошедшее неопределенное время (Past Indefinite) употребляется для выражения действия, совершившегося или совершавшегося в прошлом и не связанного с настоящим:
He finished school in 2011. - Он закончил школу в 2011
году.
They worked there last week. – Они работали там на
прошлой неделе.
James took the key and opened the door. - Джеймс взял
ключ и открыл дверь.
В утвердительном предложении прошедшего неопределенного
времени форма правильных глаголов образуется синтетически
путем прибавления к основе инфинитива окончания –ed:
talked - говорил,
worked - работал,
asked - спрашивал, спросил,
lived - жил.
Неправильные глаголы образуют прошедшее неопределенное время различными другими способами, которые отражены в
словаре (см. Приложение 1, стр. 302); например:
be (быть)
– was (был), were (были),
know (знать)
– knew (знал),
cut (резать)
– cut (порезал, резал),
meet (встречать) – met (встретил),
send (отправлять) – sent (отправил).
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Эти исключения нужно запомнить. Например:
She sent them a letter. – Она отправила им письмо.
They met each other two weeks ago. – Они встретились
две недели назад.
Вопросительная и отрицательная формы прошедшего неопределенного времени образуются аналитически при помощи вспомогательного глагола “do” в форме прошедшего неопределенного
времени “did” и инфинитива смыслового глагола (без to).
Вопросительная форма прошедшего неопределенного времени:
Did they work there last week? – На прошлой неделе они
там работали?
Did she send them a letter? – Отправила ли она им письмо?
Отрицательная форма прошедшего неопределенного времени:
I did not work. – Я не работал.
He did not send any letter. – Он не отправляла никакого
письма.
Будущее неопределенное время (Future Indefinite) употребляется для выражения однократного или повторяющегося
обычного действия или ряда последовательных действий в будущем. Форма глагола в этом времени образуется аналитически –
при помощи вспомогательного глагола will и инфинитива смыслового глагола без частицы to.
Образование утвердительной формы будущего неопределенного времени:
I will work as a notary. – Я буду работать нотариусом.
Вопросительная форма будущего неопределенного времени:
Will I work as a notary? – Буду ли я работать нотариусом?
Отрицательная форма будущего неопределенного времени:
She will not work as a notary. – Она не будет работать
нотариусом.
Примечание:
1. В условных предложениях будущего времени с союзом if –
если и when – когда глагол в придаточном предложении (условии)
употребляется в форме настоящего неопределенного времени
(Present Indefinite), а в главном предложении (следствии) в форме
будущего неопределенного времени (Future Indefinite). То есть в
придаточном условном предложении вспомогательный глагол will,
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образующий будущее время, не употребляется. Однако на русский
язык и главное и придаточное предложения переводятся глаголами в будущем времени.
2. В предложениях с будущим временем с подлежащим в первом лице используется как вспомогательный глагол will, так и его
вариант shall:
I shall become a lawyer. – Я стану юристом.
We shall make an agreement. – Мы заключим соглашение.
3. Вспомогательный глагол will/shall в разговорной речи используется, как правило, в своей сокращенной форме (’ll):
Next year they’ll graduate from the institute. - Они окончат институт в следующем году.
Sometimes I’ll be there. – Иногда я буду там.
2.3. СТРАДАТЕЛЬНЫЙ ЗАЛОГ
ГРУППЫ НЕОПРЕДЕЛЕННЫХ ВРЕМЕН
(INDEFINITE PASSIVE)
Глагол в страдательном залоге обозначает действие, направленное на то лицо/лица или предмет/предметы, которые в данном
предложении выступают в качестве подлежащего. То есть, подлежащее не является источником действия, а наоборот подвержено
этому воздействию. Тем самым, страдательный залог используется:
1) если информация о том, кто именно совершил действие:
- отсутствует;
- не представляет важности для говорящего;
- является очевидной из контекста;
2) если само действие более важно, чем тот, кто его совершил
или же необходимо привлечь больше внимания к получателю действия;
3) если сообщение необходимо выразить в более вежливой или
официальной форме, не указывая на исполнителей;
4) если важно и само действие, и лицо, совершившее это действие; исполнитель в таком случае обозначается другим существительным, стоящим после сказуемого, с предлогом “by” (если указывается исполнитель) или “with” (если речь идет об инструменте,
средстве исполнения).
Страдательный залог (Passive Voice) образуется синтетическим
образом из сочетания вспомогательного глагола “to be” в соответствующем времени и смыслового глагола в форме Причастия 2.
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Для группы неопределенных времен это сочетание выстраивается
следующим образом:
- в настоящем времени
Present Indefinite Passive:
am, is, are + Причастие 2
- в прошедшем времени
Past Indefinite Passive:
was, were + Причастие 2
- в будущем времени
Future Indefinite Passive:
will be + Причастие 2
Рассмотрим на примере отдельного предложения на английском языке, как глагол в страдательном залоге переводится на
русский язык:
The case was considered by the city court.
Варианты перевода:
1) глаголом ‘быть’ с краткой формой причастия страдательного залога:
Дело было рассмотрено городским судом.
2) глаголом, оканчивающимся на ‘-ся’:
Дело рассматривалось городским судом.
3) неопределенно-личной формой глагола (то есть глаголом в
3-м лице множественного числа при отсутствии подлежащего):
Дело рассмотрели в городском суде.
4) глаголом в действительном залоге (при наличии исполнителя действия):
Дело рассмотрел городской суд.
2.4. ГРУППА "ДЛИТЕЛЬНЫХ ВРЕМЕН"
(CONTINUOUS TENSES).
Сказуемое в форме длительного времени обозначает процесссуальный характер действия, которое непосредственно протекает
в обозначенный момент в настоящем, прошедшем или будущем
времени. Дополнительными характеристиками таких действий
являются их незаконченность, динамичность и наглядность. Сказуемое в форме длительного времени состоит из двух элементов:
вспомогательного глагола to be в соответствующем времени (настоящем, прошедшем или будущем) + Причастие 1 смыслового
глагола (-ing форма глагола).
Например:
Не is preparing a brief. – Сейчас он готовит краткое
письменное изложение дела.
The witness was examining the picture curiously, as
though she was seeing it for the first time. - Свидетель с
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любопытством рассматривала рисунок, как будто
она впервые видела его.
My assistant will be interviewing a client at 6 o'clock. – В 6
часов мой помощник как раз будет разговаривать с
клиентом.
Группа длительных времен в страдательном залоге
(Continuous Passive).
В страдательном залоге используется глагол to be в соответствующем времени (настоящем, будущем или прошедшем), затем
идет Причастие 1 глагола to be (то есть being), а за ним Причастие 2 смыслового глагола (3-ья форма глагола). Например:
The suspect is being interrogated. - Подозреваемого сейчас допрашивают.
Вопросительная форма глаголов во временах группы длительных времен образуется путем перестановки первого (вспомогательного) глагола на место перед подлежащим.
Для примера возьмем предложение с фразой to argue the case
(обсуждать дело) в форме времен этой группы.
Таблица 2. Вопросительная форма глаголов группы длительных времён.
Present
Past
Future
Active Voice
Are you arguing the case? – Сейчас
вы заняты обсуждением дела?
Were you arguing the case? – В тот
момент вы как раз обсуждали дело?
Will you be arguing the case? – В
этот момент вы как раз будете обсуждать данное дело?
Passive Voice
Is it being argued? – Дело
обсуждается именно сейчас?
Was it being argued? – Обсуждалось ли дело в тот самый момент?
------
Отрицательная форма группы длительных времён образуется с
помощью частицы not, которая ставится после первого (вспомогательного) глагола:
She is not speaking. - Сейчас она не разговаривает.
We will not be waiting for you. - Мы не будем дожидаться
тебя (в тот момент времени в будущем).
He was not being suspected. - В тот момент его не подозревали.
2.5. ГРУППА ‘ПЕРФЕКТНЫХ (СОВЕРШЁННЫХ) ВРЕМЕН’
(PERFECT TENSES).
Группа перфектных времен употребляется для выражения
действия, закончившегося к определенному моменту в прошлом,
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будущем или к настоящему моменту; это действие уже важно для
говорящего как результат (или отсутствие результата на определенный момент времени).
Таблица 3. Группа перфектных времен (Perfect Tenses) в действительном и страдательном залоге (на примере глагола to pass –
проходить, сдавать).
Active Voice
Present I have passed the exam. - Я уже
сдал экзамен (на данный момент).
Past
Future
I had passed the exam. - Я (уже до
того момента в прошлом) сдал экзамен.
I shall have passed the exam. - Я
уже успею сдать экзамен (к этому
времени).
Passive Voice
The exam has been passed. - Экзамен уже сдан (на данный момент).
The exam had been passed. Экзамен (уже до того момента в
прошлом) был сдан.
The exam will have been
passed. - Экзамен (к этому времени) уже сдадут.
Из таблицы видно, что времена действительного залога образуются двумя глагольными формами: to have (в нужной форме)
+ Причастия 2 смыслового глагола.
Страдательный залог группы перфектных времен (Perfect
Passive) образуется тремя глагольными формами: to have + been +
Причастие 2 смыслового глагола.
Вопросительная форма сказуемого группы перфектных времен
образуется по общему правилу: первый вспомогательный глагол
ставится перед подлежащим.
Таблица 4. Вопросительная форма в предложениях группы
перфектных времен (Perfect Tenses) (на примере глагола to pay –
платить, оплачивать).
Present
Past
Future
Active Voice
Has she paid? - Она уже заплатила?
Had she paid? – Она расплатилась
(еще до того момента в прошлом)?
Will she have paid? – Она успеет
расплатиться (к этому времени)?
Passive Voice
Has it been paid? - Это уже
оплачено?
Had it been paid? – К тому моменту уже расплатились?
Will it have been paid? – Это
уже будет оплачено (к тому
времени)?
Отрицательная форма группы перфектных времен образуется
с помощью отрицательной частицы not, которая ставится после
первого глагола:
I have not invited them. - Я их не приглашал.
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It had not been argued. - До того момента ничего не
оспаривалось.
They will have filed their claim by this time. - К этому
времени они уже подадут исковое заявление.
Примечание:
Перфектое настоящее время не употребляется в придаточных
предложениях, начинающихся с союза when, если речь идет о завершившемся действии. В этом случае в английском языке употребляется глагол в форме прошедшего неопределенного времени.
Группа ‘перфектных длительных времен’
(Perfect Continuous Tenses)
Группа ‘перфектных длительных времен употребляется для
выражения длительного действия, которое началось и всё еще
продолжавшегося в момент наступления описываемого действия.
Сказуемое в этом случае образуется из трёх глагольных форм: to
have (в нужной форме) + been + Причастие 1 смыслового глагола:
I have been translating this contract for five hours. - Уже
пять часов я просидел над переводом этого договора.
He was tired because he had been working too much. - Он
устал, так как слишком много перед этим работал.
By next year we will have been living in this town for 30
years. - К будущему году мы проживем в этом городе
тридцать лет.
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ. Тема 2: Глагол.
ЗАДАНИЕ 2.1. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на грамматическое время сказуемого.
1. Did this judge work at the city court a year ago?
2. Her mother teaches civil law at our Institute.
3. If you do not work hard, you will not master law.
4. What subjects will the students study next year?
5. The higher courts hear and determine more important cases.
6. The new law came into force last month.
7. Court hearing will start at ten o’clock on Tuesday.
8. Did the prosecution establish his guilt beyond doubt?
9. A sincere confession leads to a lighter punishment.
10. The police interviewed all eyewitnesses.
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ЗАДАНИЕ 2.2. Раскройте скобки, поставив глагол-сказуемое
в нужную форму группы неопределённых времен. Переведите
предложения.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
We (to study) Criminalistics next year.
The students (to have) a scientific conference yesterday.
You (to specialize) in civil or criminal law?
He usually (to come) home at 6 o’clock.
She (to work) as a court secretary two years ago.
They always (to observe) the law?
Our legal adviser (to do) this work in two days.
Last year he (to graduate) from a law school.
ЗАДАНИЕ 2.3. Спишите предложения, подчеркните в них
сказуемое в страдательном залоге, переведите их на русский
язык.
Модель:
All candidates are examined before they are admitted to the state
bar. – Все кандидаты подвергаются испытанию, прежде чем
их примут в коллегию адвокатов штата. (are examined, are
admitted – Present Indefinite Passive)
1. Cases are classified under three chief groups: civil, criminal and
administrative.
2. Justice is administered by courts of all instances.
3. Only yesterday we were given the plan of our next seminar.
4. The members of the House of Commons are elected for a term of
not more than 5 years.
5. All members of this illegal enterprise will soon be brought before a
court.
6. How many subjects are studied during the second course of training?
7. The executive power in Russia is exercised by the government
headed by the prime-minister.
8. Windsor as the name of the royal family of Great Britain was
adopted in 1917.
9. Punishment must be aimed at reforming convicted persons.
10. Certain objects that are a part of real estate may become personal
property when they are removed from the land.
ЗАДАНИЕ 2.4. Спишите предложения, подчеркните в них
сказуемое, определите его время и залог.
1. His line of conduct was defined as a breach of contract obligations.
2. This complicated case will be tried next Friday.
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3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Lawyers lead a very busy life.
He was arrested on the charge of fraud.
The protection of trade secrets covers the ideas themselves.
The court acquitted the defendant.
Ownership interests in real estate are classified into freehold and
leasehold.
8. Where did he work a year ago?
9. The accused admitted his guilt.
10. Sometimes crimes are committed in groups.
11. Our Constitution was written more than 20 years ago.
12. This witness won’t take part in cross-examination.
13. Her guilt was established beyond doubt.
ЗАДАНИЕ 2.5. Переделайте предложения из действитель-
ного залога в страдательный залог. Переведите предложения.
Модель:
Our senior students usually make the reports at the conference. The reports at the conference are usually made by our senior students. - Доклады на конференцию обычно готовятся старшекурсниками.
1. They found the stolen car near the river last week.
2. She didn’t notify the police about the incident.
3. They questioned the victim whether he had noticed anything suspicious.
4. Countries usually settle international disputes by different forms of
treaties.
5. The government will introduce new measures against job discrimination.
6. Two experienced lawyers will represent the company in this case.
7. They always check passports at Passport Control.
8. Tomorrow we’ll meet the material witness for defence.
9. The parliament passes about a hundred laws annually.
10. I don’t think they’ll finish all the preparations this month.
ЗАДАНИЕ 2.6. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
Определите сказуемое, укажите его время и залог.
Модель:
This crime is being investigated now. (Present Continuous
Passive) - Сейчас расследуется это преступление.
1. At the beginning of our conference professor Dicey will be making
the report on defendants’ rights according to the criminal legislation.
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2. The case was being prepared for the trial when the investigator was
given an important piece of evidence.
3. The expert has collected all necessary information.
4. No doubt that the investigating committee will have finished its
work by the end of the week.
5. We knew that Steve was an experienced investigator and many serious crimes had been solved by him.
6. The court will be hearing the case for three days.
7. The police were being assisted by many citizens while this grievous
crime was being investigated.
8. He was brought to trial last week.
9. Thieves got into the room through the window, which had been
broken.
10. Files with personal information were stolen by this hacker.
ЗАДАНИЕ 2.7. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в не-
обходимом времени действительного или страдательного залога.
Переведите диалог.
A: Have you heard the news today?
B: No, why?
A: Well, the police (arrest) Ronald Bloggs.
B: Who’s he?
A: He was one of the men who (rob) a train in Britain about thirty
years ago.
B: Good Lord! I remember that. It (be) one of the biggest robberies ever. How much money (steal)?
A: Millions. And it (never find). Bloggs (send) to prison but he (escape).
Anyway, he (arrest) yesterday. He (live) in Brazil for the past fifteen years, and the British police have been trying all this time to
bring him back, but they can’t, because Britain doesn’t have an
extradition treaty with Brazil.
B: So who (arrest) him, the British police or the Brazilian police?
A: The Brazilian police. Apparently he (catch) shoplifting. He put
something in his pocket, and he didn’t know that a store detective
(watch) him.
B: But why is this in all the press? It’s not very important, is it?
A: Because now he will have a criminal record, and under Brazilian
law he could (send) back to Britain. If that happened, he would
(imprison) here to finish his sentence.
ЗАДАНИЕ 2.8. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Past
Indefinite или Past Continuous. Переведите историю.
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One evening I (go) out with my friend Neil for a quiet meal in a
country pub. We (leave) at 9.30 and I (offer) to take Neil home. We
(drive) along when, suddenly, a car drove past us out of control. The
car (crash) and after that it (burst) into flames. First we (run) to the
burning car. When we (get) there, we (see) three people trapped inside.
They (scream) and we (know) we had to get them out. It was incredibly
hot as we (open) the doors. The driver (sit) inside, unconscious. We
(get) him out and then (go) back for the other two people. Meanwhile,
some people who (watch) from a nearby campsite, (call) the emergency
services. In the end, I (stand) there in a state of shock when a policeman (ask) me my name and address. I couldn’t remember! I don’t
think we (do) anything extraordinary but the police (present) us with
certificates for our bravery. It’s a nice feeling to know you’ve helped to
save someone’s life.
ЗАДАНИЕ 2.9. Переведите предложения с учетом грамма-
тических времен Present Indefinite, Present Continuous and
Present Perfect Continuous.
А) 1. Он не работает в данный момент с документами. 2. Он
работает с документами с шести часов. 3. По вечерам он работает
с документами.
В) 1. Мы изучаем английский язык на первом курсе. 2. Мы
сейчас как раз изучаем английский язык. 3. Мы изучаем английский язык с 2013 года.
ЗАДАНИЕ 2.10. Перепишите предложения, заменяя формы
действительного залога (Active Voice) на формы страдательного
(Passive Voice). Обращайте внимание на то, в каком времени
употреблен глагол. Переведите предложения.
1. The police are inspecting the house now.
2. The offices have arrested the juvenile on a charge of a shoplifting.
3. The judge has fined him 300 Euros.
4. We were looking at the bailiff with great surprise.
5. An expert is restoring the retro-car.
6. They had already acquitted the accused.
7. They have increased the rate of taxation to forty percent.
8. Someone robbed this bank two days ago.
9. They gave him a two-year suspended sentence.
10. The court approved the adoption of the infant.
ЗАДАНИЕ
2.11. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в
Past Indefinite, Present Perfect или Past Perfect. Переведите
предложения.
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Модель:
She (go) home an hour ago. - She went home an hour ago. (Past
Indefinite) – Она ушла домой час тому назад.
А) 1. The court (appoint) Mr. Stuart as a guardian because the infant
lost his parents during a road accident.
2. The investigator already (interrogate) two suspects.
3. The court (order) the offender to pay compensation for personal injury.
4. The police officer (initiate) the investigation of this serious crime
last week.
5. The solicitor (prepare) a brief and (approach) the barrister to
represent the client at the trial.
6. Where is a detective I wonder? Anybody (see) him?
7. I (lose) my court papers and cannot remember when I last (see) it.
8. Your witness (come). He is waiting for you in the next room.
9. The court (take) into account the financial circumstances of the offender and (punish) with a fine of 500 Euros.
10. The jurors (not feel) sure of his guilt therefore he was acquitted.
11. The plaintiff (leave) the courthouse half an hour ago.
12. They (arrest) and (deliver) a fugitive under the terms of an extradition treaty between the countries.
13. Look! The civil defendant (win) the case! His version of what happened is more probably true than not true.
В) Last week police (arrest) Paul Dawson. They (suspect) him of being
the leader of a gang of robbers who (steal) art treasures from museums and homes since last January. Prior to his arrest, Dawson
(spend) two years in prison for theft. They (release) him only 16
months ago. The police (try) to find the gang’s hideout for months.
They feel sure they (arrest) the rest of the gang by the end of the
month.
Тема 3. МОДАЛЬНЫЕ ГЛАГОЛЫ И ИХ ЭКВИВАЛЕНТЫ (MODAL VERBS)
Модальные глаголы - это полусмысловые глаголы, которые в отличие от других глаголов не обозначают действия или состояния, а лишь передают отношение говорящего к действию,
выраженному инфинитивом. Модальные глаголы могут показывать, что говорящий рассматривает действие как возможное,
желательное, необходимое, сомнительное, допустимое, требуемое, запрещенное или принудительное. Модальный глагол в
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сочетании с инфинитивом смыслового глагола образует сложное
сказуемое.
Особенности модальных глаголов:
1) модальные глаголы не используются сами по себе, а только в
связке со смысловым глаголом в инфинитиве без частицы to (но
частица to сохраняется после глаголов-эквивалентов);
Примечание:
Иногда смысловой глагол после модального глагола может
опускаться, но при этом подразумевается, что мы понимаем, о чем
идет речь из контекста беседы, из ситуации, из текста.
2) модальные глаголы не имеют неопределённой формы (инфинитива), а также -ing форм; это правило не распространяется
на эквиваленты модальных глаголов;
3) модальные глаголы may и can имеют формы прошедшего
времени might, could соответственно, но эти видовременные
формы модальных глаголов правильнее рассматривать как отдельные модальные глаголы в связи с их значительной разницей в
употреблении;
4) модальные глаголы не образуют форм будущего времени
(для выражения того, что произойдёт в будущем, используются
эквиваленты модальных глаголов);
5) модальные глаголы не изменяются по лицам и числам (кроме эквивалентов модальных глаголов); например: в третьем лице
единственного числа настоящего времени не имеют окончания -s;
Таблица 5. Модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты.
модальные
глаголы
can
could
эквиваленты
be able to
перевод
мочь,
уметь
have to
вынужден,
приходится
be obliged to обязан,
призван
be to
нужно
must
ought to
следует
shall
должен (на русский язык может не переводиться)
следует,
должен
should
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оттенки
значения
умственная или физическая возможность совершения действия
долженствование в силу
обстоятельств
долженствование как
моральная обязанность
по плану или расписанию; по договоренности
долженствование по логике событий
долженствование как
гарантия, закон, приказ
долженствование как
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may
might
need
* в вопросительных и отрицательных
предложениях настоящего времени
be allowed to мочь, иметь разрешение
need to
нуждаться,
требоваться,
иметь потребность
разрешение совершить
действие
потребность, нужность
или желательность
действия
6) вопросительная и отрицательная форма модальных глаголов
формируется без вспомогательных глаголов; в таких предложений
модальный глагол сам выполняет роль вспомогательного: в вопросах он занимает место перед подлежащим, а в отрицаниях к нему
добавляется частица not (исключение составляют глаголыэквиваленты, которые образуют отрицательную и вопросительную
форму по общему правилу);
Примечание:
Модальные глаголы при образовании отрицания могут использоваться в сокращенной форме:
настоящее время
прошедшее время
can not = can't = cannot
may not = mayn't
must not = mustn't
shall not = shan't
need not = needn't
dare not = daren't.
could not = couldn't
might not = mightn't
should not = shouldn't
-
7) модальные глаголы могут употребляться с инфинитивом в
перфектной форме для описания действий, произошедших в
прошлом, а также с инфинитивом длительной формы для описания длящегося действия (см. Таблицу 6).
Таблица 6. Сложные конструкции с модальным глаголом.
1) I can't speak German. - Я не I could have helped
умею разговаривать на
you. – Я смог бы
немецком.
вам помочь (хотя
2) I'm sorry, you can't come in
и не помог).
here. - К сожалению, вам
нельзя сюда приходить.
1) You may not leave the table.
- Тебе нельзя (не смей)
вставать из-за стола.
2) Не may not know about it.
Он может и не знать об
этом. (Возможно, он не
знает об этом.)
You might have
asked him about
it. - Возможно,
вы всё же спросили его об этом.
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You could not have seen
him. – Неужели вы
его видели! (Вы не
могли его видеть!)
She can't be telling lies. Не похоже на то, что
она лжет.
You might not have seen
him. - Возможно, вы
его не видели.
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1) You mustn't play with
He must have known That must not have been
matches. - Нельзя (запреthat! - Он, должthe right restaurant. щено) играть со спичками.
но быть, знал об
Должно быть, это
2) You mustn't drink so much. этом!
был не тот ресторан.
Вам не следует так много They must be waitпить.
ing for us already.
- Должно быть,
они уже ждут
нас.
We need not seek a sanction I need not have paid anyНам не нужно требовать
thing. - Мне же совсем
применения санкции
не нужно было ни за
(можно обойтись и без
что платить! (Зря (наприменения санкций).
прасно) я расплатился)
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ. Тема 3: Модальные глаголы.
ЗАДАНИЕ 3.1. Переведите на русский язык, обращая
внимание на значение модальных глаголов:
1. The accused may have written the letter, but the signature is certainly not his.
2. One can't cross the street here.
3. You don’t need to interview the witnesses now if you are to leave, it
can wait.
4. A solicitor may not represent a client in the superior courts.
5. We didn’t need to send the letter. The contract had been already
broken.
6. Guardians may be appointed by a deed or will of the parent or by
the court.
7. The court hearing might have been started half an hour ago.
8. One may not touch it. It is an essential exhibit of the forgery.
9. I must have been examining the list of candidates for two hours.
10. You can't write the testimony in pencil.
11. In the USA an attorney can act on behalf of a person in business
or legal matters.
12. A potential juror could ask to be excused from duty.
13. Traces from the crime scene may be carried away on the person
or left at the crime scene by the criminal.
14. A barrister must be a member of one of the Inns of Court, which
traditionally educated and regulated barristers.
15. You needn't ask him anything. He has already confessed.
16. Circumstantial evidence may be stronger than direct evidence as
a witness can lie but circumstances cannot.
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ЗАДАНИЕ 3.2. Переведите предложения на русский язык,
учитывая оттенки значений эквивалентов модальных глаголов.
1. All citizens are obliged to observe laws.
2. In compliance of the Constitution the election of the US President
is to be held every four years.
3. As our meeting was to begin at 5 p.m. we had to finish our work
earlier than usually.
4. You should ask your friends to help you with your English.
5. There are too many accidents. Everyone should be much more
careful.
6. We shall be able to discuss this problem at the seminar.
7. The accused had to plead guilty.
8. The judges ought to act according to the law.
9. Both parents are obliged to support their children. In case of divorce one of them is to pay alimony through the court.
10. Will you be able to get to the court at 10 a.m.?
11. For most minor crimes people ought to be made to do community
work or something useful.
ЗАДАНИЕ 3.3. Переведите предложения на английский язык
с фразой to make a contract (заключить договор), учитывая оттенки значения модальных глаголов и их эквивалентов.
1. Он может заглючить договор.
2. У него есть потребность заключить договор.
3. Ему следует заключить договор.
4. Он вправе заключить договор.
5. Ему нельзя заключать договор.
6. Возможно, он всё же заключил договор.
7. А ведь он мог бы заключить договор ( но не заключил).
8. Неужели он заключил договор!
9. Должно быть, он заключил договор.
10. Ему же совсем не нужно было заключать договор (напрасно он
сделал это).
11. Ему нет необходимости заключать договор.
12. Ему нужно заключить договор (по плану).
13. Ему разрешат заключить договор.
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Тема 4. МНОГОЗНАЧНЫЕ ГЛАГОЛЫ ‘BE’,
‘HAVE’, ‘DO’ (MULTIVALENT VERBS ‘BE’, ‘HAVE’,
‘DO’)
Глаголы английского языка ‘be’, ‘do’ и ‘have’ в отличие от
большинства других глаголов могут выполнять несколько функций
и используются не только в качестве смысловых, но и вспомогательных слов.
4.1. ФУНКЦИИ ГЛАГОЛА ‘BE’
Глагол be (was/were, been) в отличие от других глаголов английского языка имеет несколько форм настоящего и прошедшего
времени в зависимости от числа и лица подлежащего:
настоящее время
прошедшее время
I am a student.
You are a student.
He (she) is a student.
We are students.
You are students.
They are students.
I was a student.
You were a student.
He (she) was a student.
We were students.
You were students.
They were students.
В предложении глагол be может выступать в 5 разных функциях:
Таблица 7. Функции глагола ‘be’.
функция
смысловой глагол
глагол-связка
конструкция
be + существительное с
предлогом, наречием
be + существительное
без предлога, прилагательное, инфинитив,
числительное
be + причастие 1
смыслового глагола
вспомогательный
глагол длительных времен
вспомогательный be + причастие 2
глагол страдатель- смыслового глагола
ного залога
эквивалент моbe to + инфинитив
дального глагола
перевод
быть, находиться
быть (есть),
являться,
состоит в
том, значит
------должен (по
плану)
пример
He is at home.
They are judges.
To live is to
learn.
I am reading
now.
He was sent to
London.
We are to meet
at 5 o’clock.
4.2. ФУНКЦИИ ГЛАГОЛА “HAVE”
Глагол have (had, had) может выступать в предложении в 5
разных функциях:
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Таблица 8. Функции глагола ‘have’.
№
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
конструкция
have + существительное
have + причастие
2 смыслового глагола
have to + инфинитив
have + дополнение
+ инфинитив (без
частицы to)
пример
I have a son.
функция
смысловой глагол
He has finished
his work.
вспомогательный
глагол перфектных
времен (Perfect)
эквивалент модального глагола
глагол выражает
побуждение (объектный подеж с
инфинитивом)
глагол показывает,
что действие произведено не лицом,
выраженным подлежащим, а кем-то
другим за него или
для него (объектный падеж с Причастием 2)
He has to pass
his exam.
I'll have him
confess.
have + дополнение Не will have his
+ Причастие 2
photo taken. Он сфотографируется.
I had a coat
made. - Я сшила
пальто (в значении: Мне сшили
пальто).
перевод
иметь,
обладать
---должен,
вынужден
заставить,
вынудить
----
4.3. ФУНКЦИИ ГЛАГОЛА “DO”
В английском языке глагол do (did, done) может выполнять четыре различные функции:
Таблица 9. Функции глагола ‘do’.
функция
смысловой глагол
слово-заменитель
пример
I will do it myself.
She knew Constitutional
law better than he did.
3.
слово-усилитель
значения действия
I did say so and I do say
so now.
4.
вспомогательный
глагол
We do not speak French.
1.
2.
перевод
Я и сам это сделаю.
Она знала Конституционное право лучше
чем (знал) он.
Я действительно так
сказал и еще раз это
повторяю.
Мы не говорим пофранцузски.
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ. Тема 4: Многозначные глаголы.
ЗАДАНИЕ 4.1. Переведите предложения на русский
язык, укажите функцию глагола to be.
Модель:
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He was at the conference yesterday. - Вчера он был на конференции. (смысловой глагол)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
The investigator is interviewing a witness.
The court is to examine all cases coming before it objectively.
All laws are to protect the rights of citizens.
His adoptive parents are rather young.
The criminal was sentenced to imprisonment.
The task of the police was to find the thief and recover the stolen
property.
7. The train is to arrive at 5 a.m.
8. The project is pending because the buyer has not selected a winner
yet.
9. Although shareholders are now angry about what he did, but I am
sure that his behaviour will have been forgotten by the end of
next week.
10. He has now recovered from his injury and is able to drive again.
ЗАДАНИЕ 4.2. Переведите предложения на русский язык,
укажите функцию глагола to have.
Модель:
Under the law every citizen has the right to elect and be elected. По закону каждый гражданин имеет право избирать и быть
избранным. (смысловой глагол)
1. This work will have been done by the end of the year.
2. I have brought you some books on Criminology.
3. They think you have good news.
4. The police had to release the suspect.
5. I’m afraid you will have to work next weekend.
6. He had to make a speech at the meeting.
7. Benjamin is not here. He had to leave early.
8. They could not have agreed to compromise.
9. Do they have any objections?
10. A number of people have complained about the noise.
ЗАДАНИЕ 4.3. Раскройте скобки, поставив глаголы to be, to
have в форме Present Indefinite. Переведите предложения.
Модель:
Her father (to be) a legal practitioner. - Her father is a legal
practitioner. - Её папа – юрист-практик.
Не (to have) many books on law. - He has many books on civil
law. - У него много книг по гражданскому праву.
1. She (to be) a procurator or an investigator?
2. Peter (to have) many friends at the Academy.
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3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
I (to have, no) Civil Code at home.
We (to be) law students.
They (to have) a seminar on criminal law today.
“What you (to be)?” – “I (to be) a lawyer.”
What colour his eyes (to be)?
She (to be) the same height as her father.
ЗАДАНИЕ 4.4. Употребите глагол “to be” или “to have” в
нужной форме.
1. It … not difficult to find a job now, … it?
2. I want … a civil practice lawyer that is why I … a law student.
3. There is no shool in this village and the children go to the school
which … two miles away.
4. How old … you? – I … nineteen.
5. She … no time to help you yesterday. She … sorry about it.
6. We … a conference tomorrow. So I … busy with my report today.
7. My uncle … a qualified arbitrator.
ЗАДАНИЕ 4.5. Определите функцию глагола to do в каждом
из данных предложений. Переведите предложения.
Модель:
There’s nothing we can do about it. - Мы ничего не можем с
этим сделать. (глагол do является смысловым глаголом).
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Where do they study?
‘I don’t want to go back.’ ‘Neither do I.’
He does look tired.
What does Helen want to do when she graduates from law school?
What can I do for you?
It looks easy, but it does need quite a bit of practice.
She works harder than he does.
What does a presumption of innocence mean?
They were sure that everything was done fairly and in the correct
way.
Тема 5. НЕЛИЧНЫЕ ФОРМЫ ГЛАГОЛА: ИНФИНИТИВ (VERBALS: INFINITIVE)
В английском языке четыре неличных формы глагола:
инфинитив (Infinitive), герундий (Gerund), Причастие 1 (Participle I)
и Причастие 2 (Participle II).
Все неличные формы глагола имеют ряд общих свойств:
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1. Неличные формы отличаются от личных форм тем, что не
имеют лица, числа и времени и не употребляются в предложении
в функции простого глагольного сказуемого, но может быть частью сложного сказуемого вместе с глаголом личной формы.
2. Каждая неличная форма, наряду со свойствами глагола, обладает некоторыми свойствами других частей речи. Например,
инфинитив и герундий обладают некоторыми свойствами существительного, а Причастия 1 и 2 - свойствами прилагательного и наречия.
3. Неперфектные неличные формы обозначают действия, одновременные с действием, выраженным личной формой глаголасказуемого (то есть одновременные с настоящим, прошедшим и
будущим), а перфектные неличные формы обозначают действия,
предшествующие действию, выраженному личной формой глагола-сказуемого (то есть преднастоящее, предпрошедшее и предбудущее).
5.1. ФОРМЫ ИНФИНИТИВА (INFINITIVE FORMS)
Инфинитив - это неличная форма глагола, которая называет
действие в наиболее общем виде. Инфинитив считается основной
(или первой) формой глагола и представляет глагол в словаре. В
русском языке инфинитиву соответствует неопределенная форма
глагола.
Внешним признаком любой формы инфинитива является частица to, которая опускается в следующих случаях:
1. После вспомогательных глаголов will/would, shall/should:
Tomorrow you will send them a letter. - Завтра ты отправишь им письмо.
Не will translate the warranty. - Он переведет текст
гарантийных обязательств.
I would stay here. – Я бы остался здесь.
2. После модальных глаголов:
Any pupil can read and write. - Каждый ученик умеет
читать и писать.
I can explain it. - Я могу объяснить это.
I must see you at once. - Мне надо сейчас же встретиться с тобой.
3. При образовании вопроса и отрицания группы времен неопределённых времен со вспомогательным глаголом do:
They do not know the rule. – Они не знают этого правила.
Did he finish secondary school? – Он закончил среднюю
школу?
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Where does she come from? – Откуда она (из какого региона)?
4. В инфинитивной конструкции «сложное дополнение» после
глаголов to see видеть, to hear слышать, to let разрешать, to
make заставлять и идущим сразу же за ними существительным
или местоимением:
I saw him jump. - Я видел, как он прыгнул.
We heard her play the piano. - Мы слышали, как она играет на рояле.
Не let me take his book. - Он разрешил мне взять свою
книгу.
5. В инфинитивных конструкциях после выражений had
better лучше (в качестве совета), would rather предпочитаю,
лучше бы:
You had better do it at once. - Лучше сделай это сразу.
I would rather come earlier. - Я бы лучше пришел (предпочел бы прийти) пораньше.
Инфинитив в английском языке имеет шесть форм:
- две временные формы (перфектный и неперфектный инфинитив);
- две видовые формы (общий и длительный инфинитив);
- две залоговые формы (действительный и страдательный инфинитив).
В Таблице 10 представлены эти формы на примере инфинитива to investigate – расследовать.
Таблица 10. Формы инфинитива.
Залог
Вид
Неперфектный Общий
(Non-Perfect)
(Indefinite)
Инфинитив
Длительный
(Continuous)
Перфектный
(Perfect)
Общий
(Indefinite)
Длительный
(Continuous)
Действительный
(Active)
to investigate
расследовать
Страдательный
(Passive)
to be investigated
подвергаться
расследованию
to be investigating (как
раз) заниматься расследованием
to have investigated
to have been
провести
investigated
(уже) быть
расследование
расследованным
to have been
investigating
заниматься
расследованием (уже
какое-то время)
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Функции инфинитива в предложении и способы его перевода.
Инфинитив может быть любым членом предложения, кроме
простого сказуемого (инфинитив может являться только смысловой частью сложного сказуемого).
Таблица 11. Функции инфинитива.
функция
инфинитива
Подлежащее
пример
перевод
То read much is to know
Много читать значит мноmuch.
го знать.
Часть простого
I will read much in summer. Летом я буду много чисказуемого
тать.
Часть сложного
We must read much.
Нам надо много читать. Я
глагольного
I began to read much when начал много читать, косказуемого
I was ten.
гда мне было десять лет.
Часть составного
My wish is to read much.
Мое желание - много чиименного сказуемого
тать.
Дополнение
I decided to read much.
Я решила много читать.
Определение
In my class I was the first to В моем классе я первая
read this book.
прочла эту книгу.
Обстоятельство
I go to the reading-hall to
Я хожу в читальный зал,
цели
read books.
чтобы читать.
Обстоятельство
He was too wise to argue
Он был слишком мудрым,
причины / следствия with her.
чтобы с ней спорить.
Примечание:
Неперфектный инфинитив выражает действие, одновременное с действием глагола-сказуемого (или следующее за нм). Например:
употребление
инфинитива
We are glad to study
at a law school.
одновременное действие в настоящем
Мы рады, что учимся в
юридическом институте.
We were glad to study
at a law school.
одновременное действие в прошедшем
Мы были рады учиться в
юридическом институте.
We’ll be glad to study
at a law school.
одновременное действие в будущем
Мы будем рады учиться в
юридическом институте.
We are going to study
at a law school
действие в будущем,
которое последует за
действием глаголасказуемого
Мы будем (собираемся)
учиться в юридическом
институте.
значение
перевод
Значение перфектного инфинитива не отличается от значения
личной перфектной формы глагола. Перфектный инфинитив выражает действие, предшествующее действию, выраженному глаголом-сказуемым. Например:
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употребление
инфинитива
I am glad to have
studied at a law school.
значение
перевод
действие, которое предшествует настоящему
времени сказуемого
Я рада, что училась в
юридическом институте.
I was glad to have
studied at a law school.
действие, которое предшествует прошедшему
времени сказуемого
Я была рада, что училась в юридическом
институте.
I shall always be glad
to have studied at a
law school.
действие, которое предшествует будущему времени сказуемого
Я всегда буду рада тому, что училась в юридическом институте.
5.2. КОНСТРУКЦИИ С ИНФИНИТИВОМ
(INFINITIVE CONSTRUCTIONS)
В английском языке инфинитив может образовывать конструкции, среди которых "Сложное подлежащее", "Сложное дополнение" и конструкция ‘Инфинитив с предлогом for’.
5.2.1. СЛОЖНОЕ ПОДЛЕЖАЩЕЕ (COMPLEX SUBJECT)
Конструкция "Сложное подлежащее" представляет собой сочетание существительного (в общем падеже) или местоимения (в
именительном падеже) с инфинитивом, которые соединены в единую фразу стоящей между ними глагольной связкой. Схематично
это выражается так:
1
2
существительное +
сказуемое
+
(глагольная связка)
(или местоимение)
3
инфинитив
Сказуемыми (глагольными связками) в таких предложениях
выступают глаголы, которые можно объединить в следующие две
группы:
1) в первую группу входят:
а) глаголы, выражающие умственную деятельность:
know - знать;
believe - считать, полагать;
consider - считать;
expect - ожидать;
suppose - предполагать;
understand – понимать;
б) глаголы, выражающие чувственное восприятие:
see - видеть;
hear – слышать;
feel - чувствовать; ощутить;
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в) глаголы, выражающие сообщение:
announce - объявлять;
report - сообщать;
say - сказать;
tell - говорить, сказать;
state – сообщать.
Обратите внимание: Глаголы этих трёх подгрупп употребляются в страдательном залоге. Например:
He is known to be a good lawyer. - Известно, что он хороший юрист.
You were seen to enter the court at 8.30. – Видели, как в
8.30 вы вошли в здание суда.
2) во вторую группу входят:
а) глаголы, которые употребляются в действительном залоге:
seem - казаться,
happen - случаться,
prove - оказываться, доказывать;
appear – оказываться
occur - происходить
Например:
She appears to study at the Law Institute. - Она, оказывается, учится в юридическом институте.
б) фразы, состоящие из глагола be и прилагательных:
be likely – вероятно,
be unlikely – маловероятно, вряд ли, едва ли
be certain – определенно, наверняка,
be sure – несомненно, безусловно, разумеется.
Например:
He is sure to come. - Он обязательно придет.
Students were unlikely to know this rule. - Вряд ли студенты знали это правило.
Особенности перевода. Перевод таких предложений следует
начинать со сказуемого. В русском языке глагол берется в неопределенно-личной форме (“говорят”, “сообщают”, “видели”); затем
берутся союзы “что”, “чтобы”, “как”; затем переводится первый
элемент сложного подлежащего, то есть существительное или местоимение, стоящие перед сказуемым; затем переводится инфинитив личным глаголом, грамматическое время которого определяется исходя из формы времени глагольной связки в английском
предложении. Наглядно логику перевода можно представить в виде следующей схемы:
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1
The judge
2
was reported
3
to have resigned.
Перевод:
0
Сообщалось,
1
что судья
2
подал в отставку.
5.2.2. СЛОЖНОЕ ДОПОЛНЕНИЕ (COMPLEX OBJECT)
Инфинитив в сочетании с существительным или местоимением может образовывать конструкцию ‘объектный падеж с инфинитивом’ и конструкцию, вводимую предлогом for. Обе эти инфинитивные конструкции по значению близки к придаточному предложению и переводятся на русский язык придаточным предложением. Подробнее рассмотрим эти конструкции:
Конструкция ‘объектный падеж с инфинитивом’ состоит из
местоимения в объектном падеже или существительного в общем
падеже и инфинитива и обозначает лицо или предмет, совершающее действие, выраженное инфинитивом, или подвергающееся этому действию. Например:
I expect the suspect to come here. - Я полагаю, что подозреваемый придет сюда.
They wish her to be happy. – Они желают, чтобы она
была счастлива.
Особенности перевода. На русский язык эта конструкция
переводится придаточным дополнительным предложением с союзом “что”, “чтобы”, “как”.
Конструкция Complex Object употребляется:
1. После глаголов чувственного восприятия:
hear – слышать,
see – видеть,
watch – наблюдать,
feel – чувствовать
После этих глаголов употребляется инфинитив без частицы to:
The detective saw the suspect leave the house. – Детектив видел, как подозреваемый покинул дом.
2. После глаголов, выражающих умственную деятельность:
think – думать,
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know – знать,
expect – ожидать,
understand – понимать,
believe – верить
С этими глаголами инфинитив употребляется с частицей to:
I know him to be a very good investigator. - Я знаю, что
он очень хороший следователь.
I believe her to have done the task. - Я верю, что она
уже выполнила задание.
3. После глаголов, обозначающих желания и чувства:
want – хотеть,
wish – желать,
like – любить, нравиться,
love – любить,
hate – ненавидеть, испытывать неловкость
Инфинитив после этих глаголов употребляется с частицей to:
We like our instructor to talk to us. - Мы любим, когда
наш преподаватель беседует с нами.
I didn't want our case to be tried on Monday. - Я не хотел,
чтобы наше дело рассматривали в понедельник.
4. После глаголов, выражающих побуждение; их два вида:
- те, после которых инфинитив употребляется с частицей to:
order – приказывать,
tell – велеть,
ask – просить,
cause – побуждать,
get – заставлять;
Например:
The accused asked his lawyer to make a statement. - Обвиняемый попросил своего адвоката сделать заявление.
The professor told the student to come to the interactive
whiteboard. - Преподаватель велел студенту подойти к интерактивной доске.
- те, после которых инфинитив употребляется без частицы to:
make – заставлять, вынуждать
let – позволять,
have – заставить, устроить.
Например:
Let him ring you up. - Позвольте ему позвонить вам.
I'll have him confess. - Я заставлю его сделать признание.
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На русский язык подобное словосочетание с инфинитивом переводится аналогичной русской конструкцией: существительное
(или местоимение) в винительном или дательном падеже, за которым следует инфинитив.
Конструкция ‘инфинитив с предлогом for’ (the for-toInfinitive Construction) состоит из существительного или местоимения в объектном падеже и инфинитива с предлогом for. Эта
конструкция употребляется, когда действие, выраженное инфинитивом, не относится к лицу (или предмету), являющемуся в
предложении подлежащим. Инфинитив может при этом быть в
действительном или страдательном залоге. Например:
Не opened the door for me to get out. - Он открыл дверь,
чтобы я вышел.
We waited for him to come. - Мы ждали, пока он придет.
She longed so much for people to be happy. - Ей так хотелось, чтобы люди были счастливы.
I'll re-read the rule for you to understand it better. - Я прочитаю правило снова, чтобы вы его лучше поняли.
Примечание:
Чтобы различать конструкции “Сложное подлежащее” и
“Сложное дополнение” важно помнить, что в сложном подлежащем
перед инфинитивом стоит сказуемое (глагольная связка), а в
сложном дополнении – существительное или местоимение в функции дополнения.
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ. Тема 5: Инфинитив.
ЗАДАНИЕ 5.1. Вставьте частицу to перед инфинитивом, если это необходимо.
1. She studied English in order … have a better chance of getting a
job.
2. The judge made me … repeat my words.
3. I saw him … enter the room.
4. Would you like … listen to the record of their conversation.
5. The phone is ringing again. Let’s not … answer. Just let it … ring.
6. That funny scene made me … laugh.
7. We had … put on our overcoats because it was cold.
8. You look tired. You had better … go home.
9. Catherine wanted … speak to Nick, but she could not … find his
telephone number.
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10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
It’s high time … get up.
I think I shall be able … solve this problem.
What makes you … think you are right?
You had better … wear your seatbelt.
Let him … send the letter right now.
ЗАДАНИЕ 5.2. Переведите предложения на русский язык,
определите форму и функцию инфинитива.
Модель:
To live is to learn. - Жить значит учиться. (to live – настоящее
неопределенное время, подлежащее; to learn – настоящее
неопределенное время, часть сказуемого с глаголом-связкой
is).
In our class she was the first to read this book. - Она была первая, кто прочёл эту книгу в нашем классе. (to read - настоящее неопределенное время, определение).
1. I beg to inform me about the details of the case.
2. The first person to be interviewed was the eyewitness of the road
accident.
3. In order to begin prosecution it is necessary to have evidence establishing the fact of the commission of the crime.
4. The expert supposes that both crimes might have been committed
by the same person.
5. In order to pass a just verdict the court examines all the circumstances of the crime.
6. The appeal was to be considered as soon as possible.
7. It is the duty of the government to maintain law and order.
8. Is there anything else we ought to discuss?
9. The problem was too complicated to solve it within two hours.
ЗАДАНИЕ 5.3. Замените выделенные части предложений
инфинитивными оборотами.
Модель:
The boy had many toys, which he could play with. - The boy had
many toys to play with.
1. Here are some more facts, which will prove that your assumption is
correct.
2. I have an examination, which I must take soon, so I can’t go to the
party with you.
3. Here are some articles, which must be translated as soon as possible.
4. She could give you some medicine, which will relieve your headache.
5. I have brought you a book, which you can read now.
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6. We found that there was another complicated problem that we were
to consider.
7. The girl was thirteen when both her parents died and she remained
alone with two younger brothers whom she had to take care of.
8. Is there anybody who will help you with your spelling?
9. Have you got anything that you want to say on the subject matter?
10. I have only a few minutes in which I can explain these legal terms
to you.
ЗАДАНИЕ 5.4. Замените придаточные предложения инфи-
нитивными оборотами.
Модель:
He is so old that he cannot skate. - He is too old to skate.
1. The accident was so terrible that I don’t want to talk about it.
2. They were so empty-headed that they could not preserve all deposit
receipts.
3. The window was so dirty that they could not see through it.
4. The problem is so difficult that it is impossible to solve it.
5. The box is so heavy that nobody can carry it.
6. She is so busy that she cannot talk with you.
7. We were so inattentive that we didn’t notice the mistake.
8. The rule was so difficult that they didn’t understand it.
ЗАДАНИЕ 5.5. Заполните пропуски в предложениях при по-
мощи глагола в форме инфинитива, выбирая вариант ответа из
глагогов в рамке или предлагая свой вариант.
get, give, go, hear, interrupt, keep, learn, meet, ride, undergo
1. Sue is lucky … keep alive after the accident.
2. The soldiers were prepared … hardship of life in extreme environments.
3. The children were anxious … to the circus.
4. We are glad … a wedding invitation from you.
5. The students are motivated … English.
6. Tom was hesitant … testimony.
7. I was happy … my friend at the airport.
8. I was surprised … that Mr. Loktevokusaev was absent.
9. We were sorry … their conversation.
10. Sally is afraid … a bicycle without a helmet.
ЗАДАНИЕ 5.6. Спишите и переведите предложения, ука-
жите инфинитив в каждом из них и определите его форму и
функцию в предложении.
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1. The case must have been considered by now.
2. When the case is too serious for the magistrates to deal with it
themselves, they hear evidence about it and then send the case to
be tried in the Crown Court where there is a jury.
3. The members of the jury have to decide only the questions of fact.
4. The main aim of all governments is to maintain peace and security
in the region.
5. Everyone has the right to be presumed innocent until proved
guilty.
6. The barrister was glad to have been asked to train law students.
7. All major decisions of the government must be made by the Cabinet.
ЗАДАНИЕ 5.7. Переведите предложения, выделите в них
сложное подлежащее.
Модель:
Law is known to protect the welfare of citizens. - Известно, что
право защищает благосостояние граждан.
1. She seemed to have forgotten my presence.
2. The juvenile was reported to have patented his invention.
3. She is known to be a very reliable notary.
4. The jury is unlikely to find them guilty.
5. He is sure to represent this young woman in court.
6. My friend seemed to have lost his patience entirely.
7. Johnny Depp happened to be sitting there.
8. Your friend seemed to be laughing.
9. This explanation happens to be true.
10. No one appeared to pay attention to my warning.
11. There were several people, but they did not seem to notice us.
ЗАДАНИЕ 5.8. Перефразируйте следующие предложения,
употребляя сложное подлежащее.
Модель A:
They heard that a car stopped outside the door. - A car was
heard to stop outside the door.
1.
2.
3.
4.
People consider that the climate there is very healthful.
They announced that the experts would arrive next week.
They expect that the performance will be a success.
They reported that five special agents were missing after the police
operation.
5. They report that the flood has caused much damage to the region.
Модель B:
It appeared that she had lost the way. - She appeared to have
lost the way.
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
It
It
It
It
It
It
It
It
happened that I was present at the opening session.
seemed that the discussion was coming to the end.
appeared that he was losing patience.
seems that you don’t approve the idea.
turned out that my prediction was correct.
happened that I overheard their conversation.
turned out that the language of the article was quite easy.
seems that they know all about it.
ЗАДАНИЕ 5.9. Переведите предложения на английский язык,
употребляя конструкцию “сложное подлежащее”.
1. Оказалось, что мы уже когда-то встречались (to meet each other).
2. Никак не ожидали, что процесс будет таким долгим (time consuming).
3. Вы, кажется, устали (to get tired).
4. Условия работы (job conditions) оказались более трудными, чем
предполагалось.
5. Вы случайно не знаете этого человека?
6. Новые законы оказались очень своевременными (timely).
7. Ваш приятель, кажется, очень интересуется (to be interested in)
историей права.
8. Он оказался хорошим юристом.
9. Я случайно встретил его в зале суда.
10. Предполагают, что судебное заседание закончится в пять часов.
11. Полагали, что свидетели знают больше, чем хотят показать.
12. Говорят, что он работает над (to work at) этой проблемой уже
несколько лет.
13. Вы, кажется, много читали специальной литературы перед поступлением в наш институт.
ЗАДАНИЕ 5.10. Спишите предложения, подчеркните в них
конструкцию “сложное дополнение”, переведите предложения.
Модель:
We think you to come in time. - Мы полагаем, что вы придете
вовремя.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
We don’t want our case to be tried without a jury.
The public expected the accused to be discharged.
The investigator asked the victim to describe the offender.
The witness heard the offender threaten the victim.
The detective saw the suspect leave the house.
Everyone wished the judge to start proceedings as soon as possible.
We heard him speak at the meeting.
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8. All his friends like him to play the guitar.
9. We all wish these words to be true.
10. I often see them play tennis.
11. At what time do you wish the lecture to begin?
12. We believe your friend to be a high-ranking statesperson.
13. He felt somebody walk beside him.
ЗАДАНИЕ 5.11. Спишите предложения, определите конст-
рукцию с инфинитивом, подчеркните в предложениях сложное
подлежащее или сложное дополнение. Переведите предложения.
1. The public expected the judge to impose imprisonment for the given crime.
2. The court was expected to impose imprisonment for the crime
committed.
3. The accused asked his advocate to make a statement.
4. His advocate is believed to make a statement at the trial.
5. He is sure to be discharged.
6. His parents wished him to be discharged.
7. The accused is likely to receive no punishment at all.
8. The defence attorney will help the accused to receive no punishment at all.
9. The investigator is said to have solved the crime.
10. Every person is presumed to be innocent until he has been proved
to be guilty.
ЗАДАНИЕ
5.12. Переведите предложения на английский
язык, употребляя сложное дополнение.
1. Лена посоветовала мне подать иск (to file a lawsuit) до конца недели.
2. Мы попросили Андрея помочь нам в расследовании этого запутанного дела (intricate matter).
3. Я не смог убедить его принять (to accept) нашу помощь.
4. Судья вынес решение о том, чтобы они заплатили штраф.
5. Жена предупреждала его не ехать слишком быстро.
6. Полиция заставила его признать свою вину (to admit guilt).
7. Все надеялись, что ты придешь вовремя (to come in good time).
8. Иван разрешил соседу воспользоваться его инструментом.
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Тема 6. НЕЛИЧНЫЕ ФОРМЫ ГЛАГОЛА: ПРИЧАСТИЯ И ГЕРУНДИЙ (VERBALS: PARTICIPLES
AND GERUND)
Причастие в английском языке представляет собой неличную
глагольную форму, которая наряду со свойствами глагола имеет
свойства прилагательного или наречия. Существуют две основные
формы причастия: Причастие 1 (Participle I) и Причастие 2
(Participle II)
6.1. ПРИЧАСТИЕ 1 (PARTICIPLE I)
Причастие 1 – это неличная форма глагола, обладающая свойствами глагола, прилагательного и наречия. Образуется с помощью суффикса -ing, прибавляемого к инфинитиву. Соответствует
формам причастия и деепричастия в русском языке. Причастие 1
употребляется в предложении в функциях обстоятельства, определения к существительному или части сказуемого в форме длительных времен.
Как и глагол, Причастие 1 имеет четыре формы, которые образуются от соответствующих форм инфинитива:
Таблица 12. Формы Причастия 1.
Форма
Non-Perfect Active
trying
Perfect Active
having tried
Non-Perfect Passive
being tried
Perfect Passive
having been tried
Перевод Причастия 1
в функции определения
причастием с суффиксом
–ущ / ющ, –вш или глаголом с союзом ‘который’
(рассматривающий; который рассматривает).
-
с суффиксом м, т, нн
или с союзом ‘который’;
причастие переводится
временем по правилам
перевода глагола в страдательном залоге (рассматриваемый; который
был рассмотрен).
переводится так же, как
форма being tried
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Перевод Причастия 1 в
функции обстоятельства
переводится деепричастием на –я (рассматривая);
союзы when, while не переводятся.
деепричастием с суффиксом –в (рассмотрев).
-
переводится придаточным
предложением; союзы
подбираются по смыслу;
грамматическое время
глагола определяется по
правилам перевода глаголов в страдательном залоге
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Причастие 1 с зависимыми словами может образовывать
причастный оборот. Если Причастие 1 – определение, то оборот
называется причастным определительным оборотом; если оно обстоятельство, то оборот – причастный обстоятельственный. Определяемое слово, к которому относится причастие, не входит в
причастный оборот, и это важно учитывать при переводе:
The boy playing in the yard is her adoptee. – Мальчик,
играющий во дворе, - это её приёмный сын.
Having plenty of time, they decided to prepare evidence. –
Имея в запасе много времени (Так как у них было
много времени), они решили подготовиться к даче
показаний.
Кроме этого Причастие 1 может образовывать самостоятельный причастный оборот (СПО) - конструкцию, в которой Причастие 1 выражает действие, не связанное с действием, обозначенным глаголом-сказуемым предложения. СПО состоит из сочетания существительного в общем падеже (местоимения в именительном падеже) и Причастия 1. Оборот выделяется запятыми при
письме. Перевод СПО зависит от его места в предложении:
- если СПО стоит в начале предложения, то он переводится
придаточным предложением времени, причины, условия с союзами когда, так как, поскольку, ввиду того что, после того как;
- СПО, стоящий в конце предложения, переводится простым
предложением с союзами а, и, причем или без союза.
Причастие 1 в СПО выполняет роль сказуемого и переводится
на русский язык личной формой глагола в зависимости от времени сказуемого в главном предложении. Например:
Elections being universal, all citizens at the age of 18
have the right to vote. – Так как выборы всеобщие, все
граждане с 18 лет могут участвовать в голосовании.
This being done, we left the jury room. (обстоятельство
времени) - Когда всё было закончено, мы вышли из
совещательной комнаты присяжных.
The most trials are held in open court, the press having the
right to be present. – Большая часть судебных разбирательств проходит в открытом суде, причем пресса вправе присутствовать на них.
6.2. ПРИЧАСТИЕ 2 (PARTICIPLE II)
Причастие 2 - это третья основная форма глагола, которая
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мет. Оно соответствует в русском языке причастиям настоящего
времени на -мый, -щийся и прошедшего времени, оканчивающимся на -нный, -тый, -вшийся.
Причастие 2 правильных глаголов имеет ту же форму, что и
глагол в прошедшем неопределенном времени, то есть совпадает
со второй основной формой глагола, которая образуется при помощи прибавления суффикса –ed к основе глагола. Например:
ask
– asked - заданный, опрошенный
convict
- convicted – осужденный
investigate - investigated - расследуемый, расследованный
Причастие 2 неправильных глаголов образуется различными
способами (см. Приложение 1, стр. 302); например:
begin
– begun - начатый
buy
– bought – купленный
read [rı:d] - read [red] - прочитанный, читаемый
teach
- taught - преподаваемый, обученный, умудренный
write
- written - написанный, рукописный
да.
Таблица 13. Употребление Причастия 2 и способы его перево-
функция
Определение
перевод
причастием прошедшего времени (суффиксы
нн, т, м), либо с помощью союза, ‘который’
(причастие переводится глаголом во времени
по правилу перевода страдательного залога)
Обстоятельство (перед
глаголом во времени по правилу перевода
Причастием 2 стоят сою- страдательного залога (см. перевод, тему
зы “when, if”)
“Страдательный залог”)
Часть именного сказуемо- глаголом страдательного залога в настоящем,
го (после глагола to be в
прошедшем и будущем времени в соответствии
соответствующей врес формой глагола to be
менной форме)
В предложении Причастие 2 употребляется в качестве определения к существительному, а так же может быть частью глагольного сказуемого при образовании пассивного залога (с вспомогательным глаголом be в нужной временной форме) и для образования
времен перфектной группы (с вспомогательным глаголом have).
Сложные конструкции с Причастием 2. Причастие 2 употребляется в двух конструкциях:
- ‘объектный падеж с Причастием 2’ (the Objective-with-theParticiple II Construction); и
- абсолютный причастный оборот (the Nominative Absolute Participial Construction).
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Конструкция ‘объектный падеж с Причастием 2’ отличается от
аналогичных конструкций с Причастием 1 и инфинитивом тем,
что в ней Причастие 2 называет действие, направленное на лицо
или предмет, выраженные существительным или личным местоимением в объектном падеже. Эта конструкция употребляется как
сложное дополнение и переводится на русский язык в основном
придаточным дополнительным предложением.
‘Объектный падеж с Причастием 2’ употребляется:
1. После глаголов чувственного восприятия:
see - видеть,
hear - слышать,
watch - наблюдать,
feel – чувствовать,
watch – наблюдать.
Например:
I heard his name mentioned several times. - Я слышал,
как его имя упоминали несколько раз.
I saw it done. - Я видел, что всё было выполнено.
2. После глаголов, выражающих желание:
want - хотеть,
wish - желать.
Например:
I want the letter sent at once. - Я хочу, чтобы письмо
сразу же отослали.
Не wishes the work done well. - Он хочет, чтобы работа была сделана хорошо.
3. После глаголов have и get. Конструкция с этими глаголами
показывает, что действие произведено не лицом, выраженным
подлежащим, а кем-то другим за него или для него. Она очень характерна для разговорной речи:
Не will have his photo taken. - Он сфотографируется.
I had (got) my hair cut yesterday. - Я вчера подстригся
(меня подстригли).
Anna had (got) a coat made. - Анна сшила пальто (Анне сшили пальто).
Предложения с данной конструкцией переводятся на русский
язык простым предложением.
Абсолютный причастный оборот с Причастием 2 (the
Nominative Absolute Participial Construction) состоит из двух частей. Первая выражена личным местоимением в именительном падеже или существительным в общем падеже, которое обозначает
лицо, претерпевающее действие, выраженное Причастием 2. На
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русский язык конструкция переводится соответствующим обстоятельственным предложением. Например:
My task finished, I went to bed. - Когда задание было
выполнено, я пошла спать.
His question unanswered, he couldn't go away. - Так
как на его вопрос не ответили, он не мог уйти.
The signal given, the train started. - После того как
сигнал был дан, noезд отошел.
6.3. ГЕРУНДИЙ (GERUND)
Герундий - это неличная форма глагола, которая обладает
свойствами как глагола, так и существительного. Герундий образуется от основы глагола с помощью суффикса –ing, то есть совпадает по форме с Причастием 1. Как и Причастие 1 герундий
имеет простую форму и сложную (см. формы причастия). В отличие от причастия герундий выполняет в предложении те же функции, что и существительное. В русском языке прямого соответствия герундию нет.
Употребление герундия. Обладая свойствами глагола и существительного, герундий может употребляться в функции всех
членов предложения, кроме простого сказуемого. В сложном сказуемом герундий может быть только смысловой частью. Так как в
русском языке нет аналогичной части речи, герундий переводится
по контексту любой именной частью речи или целым придаточным предложением, где союз подбирается по смыслу, а герундий
переводится глаголом во времени с учетом перфектной или неперфектной формы герундия.
Типичные случаи употребления герундия:
1) в функции определения герундий употребляется с различными предлогами (чаще всего с предлогом of). Например:
After his illness he had no chance of passing the
examination. - После болезни у него не было никакой
возможности сдать экзамен.
2) в функции обстоятельства герундий всегда употребляется с
предлогами в зависимости от смысла и вида обстоятельства:
- с предлогами on (upon) - no, после, after - после, before - перед, in - в то время как для выражения времени:
Before having breakfast I do my morning exercises. - До
завтрака я делаю зарядку.
On coming home from school, I have dinner. - Придя домой из школы, я обедаю.
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- с предлогами by - путем, при помощи, without - без помощи
для выражения образа действия:
I learned the words by repeating them several times. - Я
учил слова, повторяя их несколько раз.
Не translated the text without using a dictionary. - Он перевел текст без словаря.
3) в функции дополнения герундий употребляется с такими
глаголами как:
accuse of – обвинять,
admit – признать,
avoid – избегать,
delay – откладывать, отсрочить,
deny – отрицать,
excuse – извиняться,
postpone – откладывать,
agree to - соглашаться с,
approve of – одобрять,
complain of - жаловаться на,
depend on - зависеть от,
give up – отказываться,
insist on – настаивать на,
prevent from – помешать,
rely on - полагаться на,
speak of - говорить о,
suspect of – подозревать.
Например:
We avoided asking her questions. - Мы избегали задавать ей вопросы.
We insisted on reading that book. - Мы настаивали на
том, чтобы прочитать эту книгу.
Do you mind my listening to the music? - Вы не возражаете, что я слушаю музыку?
Примечание:
При этом следует учитывать особенности употребления некоторых английских глаголов в сочетании с инфинитивом или с герундием в функции дополнения, а именно:
Таблица 14. Особенности употребления глаголов с инфинитивом/герундием в функции дополнения.
инфинитив
be busy
1) быть занятым, не иметь времени
(на то, чтобы что-то сделать):
герундий
2) заниматься, хлопотать, тратить
своё время на что-то:
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I’ll be too busy to come to the meeting. – Я буду слишком занят,
поэтому не приду на собрание.
Slavik is busy practising for the
school concert. – Славик занят подготовкой к школьному концерту.
forget
1) забывать (что-либо сделать):
He forgot to call me. - Он забыл
позвонить мне.
Take care, and don’t forget to call
me. – Будь осторожнее и не забывай звонить мне.
I forgot to ask him for his address.
– Я забыл спросить адрес у него.
2) забывать (о чем-то, что произошло
ранее):
He forgot calling me. – Он забыл о
том, что позвонил мне.
I’ll never forget hearing this piece of
music for the first time. – Я никогда
не забуду того момента, когда
услышал это музыкальное произведение в первый раз.
regret
1) извиняться, испытывать сожаление (о чем-то, что будет сделано):
I regret to tell you the truth. – Сожалею, но вынужден сообщить
вам правду.
We regret to inform you that your
application has not been successful. – Мы приносим свои извинения, но ваша заявка была отклонена.
2) сожалеть о происшедшем ранее:
I regret telling her about that. –
Жаль, что я рассказал ей об этом.
Everyone regretted his being dismissed. - Все жалели, что его
уволили.
Do you regret doing it? – А вы
раскаиваетесь, что сделали это?
1) иметь в виду, помнить, думать (о
том, что нужно сделать):
I remembered to answer the letter.
– Я помнил, что нужно ответь
на письмо.
Did you remember to bring your
homework? – Ты помнил, что
нужно принести свою домашнюю работу?
2) припоминать, воскрешать в памяти:
I remembered answering the letter. –
Я вспомнил, что ответил на это
письмо.
I remember hearing him come in. – Я
помню, что слышал, как он вошел.
remember
1) останавливаться (что бы выполнить что-то):
He stopped to talk to us. – Он остановился, чтобы поговорить с
нами.
We stopped to take pictures. – Мы
остановились, чтобы сфотографироваться.
Let’s stop to look at the map. – Давайте остановимся и посмотрим на карту.
1) стараться, прилагать усилия, пытаться (иногда безрезультатно):
Try to open the window. – Поста-
stop
2) прекращать; приостанавливать:
That phone never stops ringing! –
Этот телефон не перестаёт звонить!
Please stop crying and tell me what’s
wrong. - Пожалйста, перестань
плакать и скажи, что произошло.
Has it stopped raining yet? – Дождь
уже перестал?
try
2) пробовать, делать попытку из ряда
возможных; проверять на опыте, испытывать:
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райся открыть окно.
What are you trying to do? – Что
вы пытаетесь сделать?
I tried hard not to laugh. – Я прилагал все усилия, чтобы не рассмеяться.
1) used to do (something): бывало,
раньше (что-то происходило, но
больше не происходит), постоянно
в прошлом (что-то происходило), в
былые времена обычно (что-либо
происходило):
I used to live in a block of flats. –
Раньше я жил в многоквартирном доме.
Did she use to have long hair? – А
раньше у неё были длинные волосы?
Try opening the window. – Попробуй
открыть окно.
Try phoning his home number. – Попробуй позвонить на его домашний номер.
use
2) be used to doing (something) –
иметь привычку, get used to doing
(something) - привыкнуть к чему-либо,
пристраститься:
I am used to getting up early. – У
меня привычка вставать рано.
I didn’t think I could ever get used to
living in a big city. – Не думал, что
когда-нибудь смогу привыкнуть к
жизни в крупном городе.
Все перечисленные выше возможные функции герундия отображены в следующей таблице:
Таблица 15. Употребление герундия и способы его перевода.
функция герундия
пример
Listening to music is my
favourite occupation.
Часть составного
My favourite occupation is
именного сказуемого listening to music.
Часть составного гла- I began listening to music
гольного сказуемого when I was six.
I enjoy listening to music.
Дополнение
The boy is fond of listening to music.
Определение
She has a habit of listening to music at night.
Обстоятельство
There was some discomfort
in ear after listening to
loud music.
Подлежащее
перевод
Слушать музыку - мое
любимое занятие.
Мое любимое занятие слушать музыку.
Я начал слушать музыку
лет в шесть.
Я получаю удовольствие,
когда слушаю музыку.
Мальчик любит слушать
музыку.
У нее привычка слушать
музыку вечером.
Возникли неприятные
ощущения в ушах после
прослушивания громкой
музыки.
Самостоятельный герундиальный оборот. Герундий в сочетании с притяжательным местоимением или существительным в
притяжательном падеже может образовывать герундиальную конструкцию, которая на русский язык переводится придаточным
предложением. Например:
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Do you mind my coming late? - Ты не возражаешь, если
я приду поздно?
Подобная конструкция называется самостоятельный герундиальный оборот (СГО). СГО переводится придаточным
предложением, при этом союзы подбираются по смыслу, а сам герундий переводится глаголом с учетом времени сказуемого в
предложении. Например:
The professor objected to Helen’s taking the exam ahead
of time. - Преподаватель возражал против того, чтобы Лена сдавала экзамен досрочно.
Не insisted on my returning soon. - Он настаивал на
том, чтобы я скорее вернулся.
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ. Тема 6: Причастия.
ЗАДАНИЕ 6.1. Переведите предложения на русский
язык. Найдите в них Причастие 1, определите его форму
и функцию.
Модель:
Making the decision the jury took into account the age of the
criminal. - Вынося решение, суд присяжных принял во внимание возраст преступника.
making - Причастие 1 (Non-Perfect Active), обстоятельство.
1.
2.
3.
4.
While reading this text we learned a number of new law terms.
The man standing at the desk kept silence.
Hearing the sounds of music, we stopped talking.
When having a conflict of evidence in a trial some additional proof
should be presented.
5. She went into the room, leaving the door open.
6. Entering the room, the detective turned on the light.
7. Do you know the professor delivering a lecture in Hall 7?
8. While staying in Moscow these foreign lawyers took part in the seminar on environmental law.
9. Looking back over legal history it is plain to see that the old local
customs at and around the time of the Norman Conquest are the
historical source of the common law.
10. Being found guilty of burglary, Mr. Brown was sentenced to three
years of imprisonment.
11. In criminal courts in England two main kinds of judges preside,
depending upon the seriousness of the case: professional judges
and lay magistrates.
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12. Having infringed a right of another person one should compensate
the injured party.
13. Labour law is a system of rules regulating labour relations.
14. While returning from the law office I met my friend.
15. While staying in Moscow we visited the administrative building of
our university.
ЗАДАНИЕ 6.2. Спишите предложения, подчеркните само-
стоятельный причастный оборот, переведите предложения.
Модель:
The hearing of the case being over, the judge closed the trial. Так как слушание дела закончилось, судья закрыл судебный
процесс.
1. The evidence being strong, the jury found the accused guilty.
2. The US Congress is the highest legislative organ, the work of preparing and considering legislation being done mainly by its numerous committees.
3. The last stage in the Commons is the third reading, when debating
the bill here only verbal changes can be made.
4. The original answers being weak under cross-examination, the witness was re-examined.
5. The testimony of witnesses having been collected, the suspect was
identified and located.
ЗАДАНИЕ 6.3. Переведите предложения, выделите в них
причастия или причастные обороты, укажите их функцию.
Модель:
When asked about this event, he told us many important facts. Когда его спросили об этом событии, он рассказал нам о
многих важных фактах. (asked – Причастие 2 в функции обстоятельства)
1. We all like the reports made by practicing lawyers.
2. When invited to deliver a course of lectures at our Institute this
criminalist agreed.
3. Last time the lecturer had no time to answer all the questions
asked by first-year students.
4. They all were imprisoned for the crime committed.
5. All the demonstrated films on ballistics were interesting.
6. He was sentenced to probation for the offence charged.
7. The article written by him was the best one.
8. While passing a sentence the court not merely punishes the criminal but also reeducates him.
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9. The discussed report was about the rights and duties of guest
workers in our country.
10. When invited by his colleagues to see a new exhibition he thanked
them.
ЗАДАНИЕ 6.4. Выберите из скобок требующуюся форму:
Причастие 1 или Причастие 2.
1. We listen to the girls (singing/sung) Russian folk songs.
2. Their house (surrounding/surrounded) by tall trees is very beautiful.
3. The person (writing/written) a political slogan on the wall is a provoker.
4. This newspaper is a (leading/led) organ of the country’s press.
5. The wall (surrounding/surrounded) the house was very high.
6. The exercises (doing/done) by the students were easy.
7. We listened to the Russian folk songs (singing/sung) by the girls.
8. Everything (writing/written) here is quite right.
ЗАДАНИЕ 6.5. Переведите предложения на русский язык,
подчеркните конструкции с Причастием 2.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
When asked, he explained that he could not come.
When last seen, she was running down the street.
If asked, answer that you are busy.
When taken by the police, the striker put up a fierce resistance.
Our skin dries quickly when exposed to the action of wind and sun.
If desired, price lists are sent to regular customers free of charge.
When addressed by the judge, you have to stand up.
When considered from this point of view, this matter seems to be
rather complicated.
9. Tired from the judicial examination, they went to the hotel right after the hearing of a case.
ЗАДАНИЕ 6.6. Переведите предложения, определите герун-
дий, укажите его форму и функцию.
Модель:
Solving this problem is of great importance. - Решение этой проблемы имеет большое значение.
solving – герундий (Non-Perfect Active), подлежащее
1. Taking part in scientific conferences helps the students to master
legal theory.
2. The young man is suspected of having plagiarized the term paper.
3. Giving the students additional holidays will please them.
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4. Nobody can be found guilty of committing a crime, unless the court
establishes all elements of corpus delicti in his or her acts.
5. After receiving the royal assent the bill becomes an act of Parliament.
6. He never thought of being a judge.
7. It is no use crying over missed opportunity.
8. We must go on investigating this case.
9. There was no question of sending her to student hostel.
10. They stopped discussing the news.
11. The witness tried to avoid giving categorical replies.
12. It is no use trying to look for your letter, as I seem to have lost it.
13. I did not mind giving him this magazine though I was sure he
would keep it for a long time.
14. We should stop to discuss the news.
ЗАДАНИЕ 6.7. Переведите предложения на русский язык, об-
ращая внимание на конструкции с герундием.
1. His coming so late seemed to be rather unusual.
2. Our studying so well is easily explained.
3. His friend's falling ill upset all his plans.
4. The expert on legal questions regretted our informing her so late.
5. I liked my son's being fond of hiking.
6. Не insisted on my accepting the offer.
7. Your not writing the letter of reply caused me much trouble.
8. His becoming a court secretary involved certain responsibilities.
9. I had not heard of Jane's being ill.
10. This event prevented their arriving in time.
11. Nothing would prevent our political leaders from speaking out
against injustice.
ЗАДАНИЕ 6.8. Переведите предложения, определите в них
самостоятельный герундиальный оборот.
Модель:
The instructor insists on the students’ learning all the new words
from this text. - Преподаватель настаивает на том, чтобы
студенты выучили все новые слова из этого текста.
1. Your client’s doing it at once is absolutely imperative.
2. It all depends on their helping us.
3. History has many examples of the achievements of the human
brain being used against humankind.
4. There isn’t such a thing as “trial by jury” in the sense of a case being heard by the jury alone, without the guidance of a professional judge.
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5. We were so sorry to hear about your uncle being reduced to a lower
rank.
6. I consider his selling of the house a big mistake.
7. They didn’t like his hearing this confidential information.
8. I remember the candles being lit again.
9. Can you ever forgive me for doubting you?
ЗАДАНИЕ 6.9. Переведите предложения. Установите часть
речи каждого слова с суффиксом -ing (Причастие 1 или герундий),
определите его функцию и форму.
1. Finding trace evidence is often the simplest phase of the investigation.
2. These policies resulted in many elderly people suffering hardship.
3. A suspect is a person who is under the suspicion of having committed a prohibited act.
4. The House of Lords having agreed to the bill, it was placed before
the monarch for signature.
5. He is suspected of being involved in a bank robbery.
6. Citizens of a country committing crimes in any other country are
responsible before the criminal law of that country.
7. Being based on the concepts of order and compulsion law has been
defined as any rule, which may be enforced by the courts.
8. Everyone enjoyed listening to the fair verdict.
9. Taking into account the possibility of a convict becoming reformed
before his term of imprisonment is completed, criminal law provides for conditional release.
10. The governments of all states are responsible for saving peace.
ЗАДАНИЕ 6.10. Заполните пропуски в предложениях при
помощи глаголов в скобках, употребляя их в форме герундия или
инфинитива. Переведите предложения.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Keep (talk) I’m listening to you.
Remember (call) me when you arrive!
Linda offered (look after) my dog while I was out of town.
You should not postpone (pay) your bills.
Mark mentioned (go) to the market later today. I wonder if he’s still
planning (go).
I used (go) there every Saturday.
The doctor ordered Mr. Bychkov (not, smoke).
Don’t tell me his secret. I prefer (not, know).
Could you please stop (make noise)? I am trying (concentrate) on
my work.
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10. She finally decided (leave) her present job and (look for) another
one.
11. Jack was allowed (renew) his student visa.
12. Patricia told us (not, wait) for her.
Тема 7. СЛОЖНОСОЧИНЕННЫЕ И СЛОЖНОПОДЧИНЕННЫЕ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЯ (COMPOUND
AND COMPLEX SENTENCES)
Сложным называется предложение, состоящее из двух и более
простых предложений, объединенных в одно целое по смыслу и
интонационно. Простые предложения, составляющие сложное, могут соединяться либо при помощи союзов, либо без союзов. Сложные предложения бывают двух типов: сложносочиненные и сложноподчиненные.
7.1. СЛОЖНОСОЧИНЁННОЕ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЕ
(COMPOUND SENTENCES)
В сложносочинённом предложении составляющие его простые
предложения равноправны по смыслу и связаны сочинительными
союзами: and - и, а; but - но, а; while, whereas - а, в то время
как; or - или; otherwise - иначе, или же; either … or - или … или.
Например:
The weather was fine || and there were lots of people on
the beach. - Погода была прекрасной, и на пляже было
многолюдно.
Svetlana is a lawyer, || while her brother is a law student.
- Светлана - юрист, а её брат – студент юридического факультета.
Как и в русском языке, простые предложения могут объединяться в сложное и без союзов. Например:
My children are quite full-grown people, || they live their
own life. - Мои дети совсем уже взрослые люди, у них
своя жизнь.
7.2. СЛОЖНОПОДЧИНЁННЫЕ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЯ
(COMPLEX SENTENCES)
Сложноподчинённое предложение состоит из главного и одного или нескольких придаточных предложений, при этом:
- придаточные предложения могут относиться к одному и тому
же члену главного предложения и отвечать на один и тот же вопрос;
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- придаточные предложения могут относиться к одному и тому
же члену главного предложения и отвечать на разные вопросы;
- придаточные предложения могут относиться к разным членам главного предложения и отвечать на разные вопросы;
- придаточные предложения могут относиться не только к
главному предложению, но и к другому придаточному.
Придаточные предложения выполняют различные функции:
подлежащего, именной части сказуемого, дополнения, определения, обстоятельства.
7.3. СОЮЗЫ: СОЧИНИТЕЛЬНЫЕ И ПОДЧИНИТЕЛЬНЫЕ
(CO-ORDINATE AND SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS)
Союз – это служебное слово, которое употребляется для соединения слов и словосочетаний в простом предложении или соединения отдельных предложений в сложном предложении. По своей
структуре союзы могут быть:
- отдельные слова: and, but, after, as, while, if
- словосочетания: in case, as soon as, as if
- а также соотносительные пары: both... and, either... or, not
only... but also.
Функционально союзы делятся на:
1) сочинительные союзы, которые соединяют между собой
однородные члены простого предложения, а также отдельные самостоятельные предложения в сложносочиненном предложении;
например: and - и, but - но, or - или, either ... or - или ... или,
neither ... nor - ни ... ни, both ... and - как ... так и, as well as также как, not only ... but - не только ... но и;
Treaties can be either bilateral or multilateral in nature. –
Международные соглашения могут быть как двусторонними, так и многосторонними.
Some international affairs should be regulated both by national legal systems as well as by intergovernmental acts.
– Некоторые муждународные отношения следует
регламентировать как средствами национального законодательства, так и межправительственными документами.
2) подчинительные союзы, которые присоединяют придаточные предложения к главному в сложноподчиненном предложении; например: when - когда, while - пока, after - после того как,
that - что, as - в то время как, before - прежде чем, since - с тех
пор как, if - если. Примеры:
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Her hair was dark and long. - Волосы у неё были тёмные
и длинные.
The weather is fine but cold. - Погода ясная, но холодная.
They know || that I will go with them || if they ask me to.
- Они знают, что я пойду с ними, если они меня пригласят.
7.4. БЕССОЮЗНОЕ ПОДЧИНЕНИЕ (PARATAXIS)
Некоторые типы придаточных предложений (дополнительные
и определительные), могут присоединяться к главному предложению без союза. Например:
The city || we want to visit this summer || is 2000 miles
from Orenburg. - Город, который мы хотим посетить
этим летом, расположен 2000 миль от Оренбурга.
I promise || they are much better || than you expected. Уверяю, они гораздо лучше, чем ты ожидал.
Придаточные дополнительные предложения употребляются
после сказуемого в главном предложении, поэтому при переводе
на границе между сказуемым главного предложения и подлежащим придаточного дополнительного предложения необходимо
вводить союз ‘что’. Например:
We know || he will come tomorrow. - Мы знаем, что он
придет завтра.
Придаточные определительные предложения употребляются
после определяемого существительного. При переводе на русский
язык на границе между главным и придаточным предложением
вводится союзное слово ‘который’. Эта граница проходит между
определяемым существительным и подлежащим придаточного определительного предложения. Например:
The candidate || we interviewed for a job yesterday ||
wants to revoke his application. – Претендент на вакансию, с которым мы провели собеседование вчера, хочет отозвать своё заявление.
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ. Тема 7: Сложное предложение.
ЗАДАНИЕ 7.1. Определите, являются ли предложения
простыми, сложносочиненными или сложноподчиненными. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
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1. Constitutional law is a branch of law that deals with social structure, state system, organization of government and legal status of
citizens.
2. I do not think your alibi is reliable.
3. Let us see the documents the in-house counsel has drafted for the
meeting.
4. Most torts arise from either an intentional, wrongful action or from
a negligent action.
5. The seminar we attended yesterday was very informative.
6. The federal laws in Russia are made by the Federal Assembly and
no other organ can make these laws.
7. Events in a trial usually happen in a particular order, though the
order may be changed by the judge.
8. You know there is no evil intent in his acts.
9. Civil law is sometimes called as private law, but it doesn't mean
that civil cases can't be of public nature.
10. Venue is the local area where a case may be tried.
11. The evidence the investigator had collected at the scene of the
crime was necessary to apprehend the offender.
12. Jurisdiction is the power or authority that a court has to hear a
particular case.
13. All constitutional authorities in England admit it is the Cabinet
and not Parliament that controls and runs the nation’s affairs.
14. The document we had to sign was written in three languages.
15. He that is not with us is against us.
ЗАДАНИЕ 7.2. Переведите предложения. Укажите в каждом
из них, какая из его частей является придаточным предложением, и определите, какой подчинительный союз используется в
этом предложении.
Модель:
As I am free now I’d like to walk about the town. - Так как я сейчас свободен, я хотел бы погулять по городу. (подчинительный союз as – поскольку, так как)
1. I live in a street that is not far from the City Administration Center.
2. My friend is very busy for he works as a judge and has a lot of work
to do.
3. Since criminality still exists it is necessary to reveal its causes.
5. As she thought that it was her cousin at the window, Rose decided
to open it.
6. Since he knew who the man was, Robert was very pleased to have a
chance of talking to him.
7. You must have much practice when you learn foreign languages.
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8. If you need help, come and see me.
9. He worked as a bailiff before he got married.
10. A will is a legal instrument by which a person over the age of 18
and of sound mind disposes of property upon his or her death.
11. The summers here are wet, while the winters are very dry.
12. She lost her job because she was often behind time.
Тема 8. СЛОЖНОПОДЧИНЕННЫЕ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЯ: СОГЛАСОВАНИЕ ВРЕМЕН (SEQUENCE
OF TENSES)
Согласование времен распространяется в основном на форму сказуемого в дополнительных придаточных предложениях. В
русском языке не требуется согласования времен в том виде, как
это существует в английском языке.
Правило согласования времен в английском языке гласит:
1) если предложение сложноподчиненное; и
2) если сказуемое в главном предложении стоит в одной из
форм прошедшего времени,
3) то сказуемое придаточного предложения может быть
употреблен только в одной из форм прошедшего времени:
Это правило применяется следующим образом:
1. Для выражения действия, одновременного с действием
главного предложения, глагол придаточного предложения употребляется в Past Indefinite, Past Continuous или Past Perfect Continuous. На русский язык сказуемое придаточного предложения переводится глаголом в настоящем времени.
I was sure that you knew her address. - Я был уверен, что
вы знаете ее адрес.
2. Для выражения действия, предшествующего действию
главного предложения, глагол придаточного предложения употребляется в форме прошедшего неопределенного времени. Предшествующее действие может быть выражено также в форме прошедшего неопределенного или прошедшего длительного времени, когда время совершения действия определено либо обстоятельством
времени, либо же другим придаточным предложением обстоятельства времени. На русский язык сказуемое придаточного предложения переводится глаголом в прошедшем времени.
They informed us that they had sent a copy of this document. - Они сообщили нам, что уже отослали копию
документа.
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She said that he left Moscow two years ago. - Она сказала,
что он уехал из Москвы два года назад.
3. Для выражения будущего действия по отношению к действию главного предложения глагол в придаточном предложении
употребляется в одной из форм «будущего в прошедшем» (Futurein-the-Past), выражающих будущее действие по отношению к
прошедшему моменту. На русский язык сказуемое переводится
глаголом в будущем времени.
Не said that he would try to come in time. - Он сказал, что
постарается придти во-время.
«Будущее в прошедшем» образуется аналогично соответствующим формам будущего времени, только вместо вспомогательных
глаголов will и shall употребляются формы их прошедшего времени would и should. При этом «будущее в прошедшем» имеет следующие видовременные формы глагола:
Future Indefinite-in-the-Past
Future Continuous-in-the-Past
Future Perfect-in-the-Past
Future Perfect Continuous-in-the-Past
he would
he would
he would
he would
work
be working
have worked
have been working
Примечание:
«Будущее в прошедшем» не употребляется в обстоятельственных предложениях времени и условия; вместо этого в придаточном предложении употребляются соответствующие формы прошедшего времени:
I thought that you would write to me || if they went away.
- Я думала, что ты мне напишешь, если они уедут.
He was afraid that he wouldn't find anybody at home ||
when he came. - Он боялся, что он не застанет никого
дома, когда придет.
В разговорной речи should и would употребляются в сокращенной форме:
I should = I'd
I should not = I shouldn't
he would = he'd
he would not = he wouldn't
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ. Тема 8: Согласование времен.
ЗАДАНИЕ 8.1. Укажите формы сказуемого в главном и
придаточном предложениях, установите их грамматическое время. Переведите предложения, учитывая правило согласования времен.
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Модель:
I heard that you would work as a judge. - Я слышал, что вы будете работать судьей. (heard - прошедшее неопределенное
время, would work - «будущее в прошедшем»)
1.
2.
3.
4.
I knew that he would teach land law at our Institute.
The judge said that the witness had already been interviewed.
She was sure she would become an excellent parent.
We wanted to know how many cases were tried by each judge
monthly.
5. When the judge had finished his summing up, he asked the jury to
consider their verdict.
6. The student was interested to know if solicitors had the same examinations to pass as barristers.
7. The judge told us what crime the accused would be guilty of, if the
evidence supplied by the prosecution was true.
8. They didn’t expect that Steve would be brought to trial.
9. My friend wondered what he was supposed to do, if he got into
trouble with the law in England.
10. She said she had translated the text of the inquiry letter that they
wanted to send.
ЗАДАНИЕ 8.2. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в фор-
ме прошедшего неопределенного, прошедшего перфектного или
прошедшего перфектного длительного.
1. He (to work) there some time when that dreadful accident (to happen).
2. He told us they (to live) in this district since they had left Paris.
3. Obviously the lawyer was affronted because he (not to be taken)
fully into his client's confidence.
4. The woman complained she (to have) a problem with her exhusband.
5. The judge held that the defendant (to be) innocent
6. They (to walk) in the garden for an hour when the storm broke out.
7. When we (to come) home, we (to find) that someone (to break) into
the garage and (to steal) the car.
8. The police officer who (to look) at me ever since I had come into the
room, suddenly rose and left.
9. How your boss (to find) out that you (to come) to work so late?
10. By that time the injured person already (to sleep) for two hours.
11. The ex-president claimed that he (to have) the most transparent
administration in history.
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ЗАДАНИЕ 8.3. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в фор-
ме «будущее в прошедшем». Переведите предложения.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
It seemed that there (to be) no end of questions.
She thought they (to come) in time.
We knew he (to come) back to get his money.
I couldn't remember who (to be) the first to make a telephone call.
He told me he (to return) your book tomorrow.
I asked when he (to try) to work better.
She asked me when I (to ring up) to my brother.
They assured that the chief executive officer (to sign) the contract.
Their partner notified them that he (to withdraw funds) from the
business.
Тема 9. СЛОЖНОПОДЧИНЕННЫЕ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЯ: ТИПЫ УСЛОВНЫХ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЙ
(CONDITIONAL SENTENCES)
Условное придаточное предложение является частью сложноподчиненного предложения, где главное предложение выражает
следствие условия, заключенного в придаточном предложении. И
условие, и следствие могут относиться к настоящему, прошедшему
и будущему.
В английском языке выделяются следующие типы условных
предложений:
- реальное условие: 1-ый тип, изъявительное наклонение;
- маловероятное или проблематичное условие: 2-ой тип, сослагательное наклонение; и
- условие, нереализованное в прошлом: 3-ий тип, сослагательное наклонение в предпрошедшем (то есть в форме прошедшего
перфектного) времени.
Каждый тип обладает своими особенностями в использовании
форм наклонения.
Основной союз, характерный для всех видов условных предложений, это союз if - если. Кроме него условные предложения могут вводиться союзами: in case - в случае если, на тот случай если; suppose (that) - предположим, что; on condition (that) - при
условии что; provided (that) - при условии что; sobeit - если
только и др. Например:
Take an umbrella in case it rains. - Возьмите зонтик на
тот случай, если пойдет дождь.
Suppose it rains, what shall we do? - Предположим, пойдет дождь, что будем делать?
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Среди союзов, вводящих условные предложения, выделяется
союз unless, так как он имеет отрицательное значение если... не:
You can't become a lawyer unless you've got experience. –
Нельзя стать адвокатом, если у тебя нет опыта
работы.
Don't promise anything unless you are 100 per cent sure. –
Не давай обещаний, если не уверен на все 100 процентов.
9.1. ПЕРВЫЙ ТИП УСЛОВНЫХ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЙ
(TRUE CONDITIONAL)
Условные предложения первого типа выражают вполне реальные, осуществимые предположения и соответствуют в русском
языке условным предложениям с глаголом в изъявительном наклонении. Например:
If the offender is under 14 he is not sentenced to imprisonment. – Если преступник моложе 14 лет, то его не
приговаривают к тюремному заключению.
If he is here, he is probably working in the library. - Если
он здесь, то он, вероятно, работает в библиотеке.
If he called on them yesterday, they gave him your letter. Если вчера он заходил к ним, то они отдали ему ваше
письмо.
If the weather is fine to-morrow, we shall go to the country.
- Если завтра будет хорошая погода, мы поедем за
город.
Примечание: В условных предложениях 1-го типа, относящихся к будущему, глагол в придаточном предложении (условии) употребляется в форме настоящего неопределенного времени, а в
главном предложении (следствии) - в форме будущего неопределенного времени. На русский язык они переводятся глаголами в
будущем времени.
9.2. ВТОРОЙ ТИП УСЛОВНЫХ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЙ
(UNTRUE CONDITIONAL: PRESENT AND FUTURE)
Условные предложения второго типа выражают проблематичные или маловероятные предположения. Они относятся к настоящему или будущему времени и соответствуют в русском языке условным предложениям с глаголом в сослагательном наклонении (т.
е. с глаголом в форме прошедшего времени с частицей бы). В условных предложениях второго типа в придаточном предложении
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шего времени, а в главном предложении (следствии) - вспомогательный глагол would с инфинитивом смыслового глагола без частички to. Например:
If my brother had time now, he would help them. - Если бы
у моего брата было время сейчас, он бы помог им. (Это
предположение также проблематично, поскольку у
брата нет времени сейчас и он, поэтому, не может помочь им.)
If we received the documents to-morrow, we would start
the case on Monday. - Если бы мы получили документы
завтра, мы начали дело в понедельник. (Говорящий
считает, что получение документов маловероятно и
что дело поэтому вряд ли будет начато в понедельник.)
Примечание: Глагол be в придаточном условном предложении
2-го типа традиционно употребляется в форме were со всеми лицами единственного и множественного числа. Однако в современном языке, особенно в разговорной речи, наряду с were с 1-м и 3м лицом единственного числа употребляется was:
If he were/was here, he would help us. - Если бы он был
здесь, он noмог бы нам.
If I were/was a ruler, I would establish some new public
holidays. – Если бы я был правителем, я бы учредил
несколько новых общенациональных праздников.
9.3. ТРЕТИЙ ТИП УСЛОВНЫХ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЙ
(UNTRUE CONDITIONAL: PAST)
Условные предложения третьего типа выражают предположения, относящиеся к прошедшему времени и являющиеся поэтому
невыполнимыми. Как и условные предложения второго типа, они
соответствуют в русском языке условным предложениям с глаголом в сослагательном наклонении (то есть с глаголом в форме
прошедшего времени с частицей бы).
В условных предложениях 3-го типа в придаточном предложении (условии) употребляется форма, совпадающая с формой прошедшего перфектного времени, а в главном предложении (следствии) – сочетание глагола would с перфектным инфинитивом смыслового глагола без частицы to. Например:
If Michael had seen her yesterday, he would have asked
her about it. - Если бы Миша увидел её вчера, он спросил бы её об этом.
В условных предложениях 2-го и 3-го типов в главном преложении вместо would может употребляться сочетание could или
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might с инфинитивом. В соответствующих русских предложениях
употребляются сочетания мог бы, могли бы с инфинитивом:
Не could do it if he tried. - Он мог бы это сделать, если
бы он постарался.
Не could have done it if he had tried. - Он бы уже смог
сделать это, если бы постарался.
You might find him there if you called at six o'clock. - Вы
вполне могли бы застать его там, если бы зашли в
шесть часов.
You might have found him there if you had called at six
o'clock. - Вот если бы вы зашли в шесть часов, то тогда бы вы его застали.
He could have passed the exams, if he had worked hard.
– Он бы справился с прошедшими экзамены, если бы
серьёзно занимался.
На русский язык 2-ой и 3-ий типы условных предложений переводятся одинаково, но в предложениях 3-го типа могут дополнительно использоваться такие фразы и слова как прошлый, тогда, в тот раз, уже.
9.4. БЕССОЮЗНЫЕ УСЛОВНЫЕ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЯ
(CONJUNCTIONLESS CONDITIONALS)
Союз if может быть опущен в условных предложениях всех
трех типов, такое изменение порядка слов называется инверсия и
применяется для усиления эмоционального воздействия сообщения.
В условных предложениях первого типа союз if может быть
заменен на глагол should, который тем самым ставится перед
подлежащим, но не образует вопроса, а лишь усиливает воздействующий эффект сообщения:
Should he come (=If he comes), ask him to wait. - Если он
всё-таки придет, попросите его подождать.
Should need arise (=If need arises), we'll communicate with
you again. - Если возникнет необходимость, мы снова
свяжемся с вами.
В условных предложениях 2-го типа союз if может быть опущен, когда в придаточном предложении имеются глаголы had,
were, could. В таких случаях эти глаголы ставятся перед подлежащим:
Had I time, I'd go to the club. = If I had time, I'd go to the
club. - Если бы у меня было время, я пошел бы в клуб,
Were he here, he would settle it out of court. = If he were
here, he would settle it out of court. - Если бы он был
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здесь, он помог бы урегулировать спор без судебного
разбирательства.
Could he come to-night, we should be very glad. = If he
could come to-night, we should be very glad. - Если бы он
мог придти сегодня вечером, мы были бы очень рады.
В условных предложениях 3-его типа при пропуске союза if
глагол had ставится перед подлежащим. Например:
Had I seen him yesterday, I would have asked him about it. =
If I had seen him yesterday, I would have asked him about
it. - Если бы я видел его вчера, я спросил бы его об этом.
Had he known it, he would not have gone there. = If he had
known it, he would not have gone there. - Если бы он это
знал, он не пошел бы туда.
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ. Тема 9: Условные предложения.
ЗАДАНИЕ 9.1. Переведите предложения и определите
тип условия.
1. If offenders are under 14, they are not sentenced to imprisonment.
2. I would never have offered him such a job, if I had been aware of
his criminal record.
3. If young people had more leisure centres, it would reduce crime.
4. If a fine were not considered adequate, a person might be sentenced to do community service or be put on probation.
5. If an eyewitness wants to give information, he will have an opportunity to do so.
6. They might not have been robbed, if they had had a burglar alarm.
7. The police officers will solve crimes quicker, if they use better
equipment.
8. If the in-house lawyer were not ill, he would participate in the negotiations.
9. If you come I shall explain you the subject-matter of dispute.
10. If you were able to abolish a legal norm what law would it be?
11. If A. trespassed on B.'s land, A. might be liable to pay compensation to B. even though he caused no actual harm.
12. The injured party may sue for specific performance if financial
compensation will not compensate for the breach of contract.
ЗАДАНИЕ 9.2. Употребите нужную форму глагола в услов-
ных предложениях 1-го и 2-го типов. Переведите предложения.
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1. If the employer (to pay) me tonight, I (to have) enough money for
the tickets.
2. He (to climb) over the wall if there (not to be) so much broken glass
on the top of it.
3. If the house (to burn) down, they (can claim) compensation for the
loss.
4. If you (not to believe) what I say ask your brother.
5. He (to look) better if he (not to work) nightly.
6. Why don’t you gеt a cat? If you (to keep) a cat, the mice (not to run)
about everywhere.
7. If you (to give) your evidence today, the jury (to find) him not guilty.
8. If someone (to make an offer), “I’ll give you 500 pounds to go into
the court and swear that my testimony is true,” what you (to
say)?
ЗАДАНИЕ 9.3. Раскройте скобки, используя соответствую-
щую форму глаголов в придаточном условном предложении.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
If it (to rain) we'll stay at home.
I'd go to the dentist if I (to be) you.
If he (to come), tell him that we were in a hurry.
If we (to know) that before we would not have come.
I would go at once if it (to be) necessary.
If you (to read) the book you would know the answer.
If they (to know) they would tell you.
If you (be) a lawyer, which work would you prefer to do and which
one would you dislike and why?
9. I think you would have got permission if you (to ask) the judge.
10. If violence actually (occur), the act would have been termed battery.
11. He would give you the money if he (to have) it.
12. We could go for a drive if it (to be) Saturday today.
13. I could understand the lecturer if she (to speak) more slowly.
ЗАДАНИЕ 9.4. Употребите нужную форму глагола в услов-
ных предложениях 3-го типа.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
If you (to arrive) ten minutes earlier, you (to got) a seat.
I (not to believe) it if I (not to see) it with my own eyes.
If they (to ask) you, you (to accept) it?
If I (to realize) what a bad driver you were, I (not to come) with you.
If you (to tell) me that he never paid his debts, I (not to lend) him
the money.
6. If she (to know) the whole story, she (not to be) so angry.
7. You (not to get) into trouble if you (to follow) my instructions.
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8. If my friend (to try) harder, he (to succeed).
9. You (to save) me a lot of trouble if you (to tell) me where he was
going.
10. If her alarm clock (to ring), she (to be) on time for work this morning.
ЗАДАНИЕ 9.5. Переведите предложения на русский язык, об-
ращая внимание на форму глагола в придаточных предложениях.
1. If you didn’t misrepresent facts, people would trust you more.
2. If she were telling the truth, she would be looking me straight in
the eye.
3. If the defendant had told the truth, she wouldn't have blushed like
that.
4. If he had confessed, he would not have been punished so severely.
5. If you had met him before, I am sure he would have recognized
you.
6. If their marriage had been imperfectly constituted in law, it would
have been annulled.
7. The falsity of the defendant's evidence cannot be established by the
evidence of only one witness, for if this were allowed, it would be
merely a case of oath against oath.
8. The investigation would have been considered successful if the
available physical evidence had been accurately reported to the
court.
9. The main opposition party forms a Shadow Cabinet, which is more
or less as the Government would be if the party were in power.
ЗАДАНИЕ 9.6. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание
на инверсию.
1. Were the offender under 14, he would be tried by a juvenile court.
2. Had these facts been fully appreciated by the judge, the trial would
have taken a different course.
3. Were she a good notary, she wouldn’t make such mistakes.
4. Had the investigator made the cross-examination with greater thoroughness, he would have been more successful.
5. Had they taken measures in time, many people would have been
saved.
6. Were the objection valid, the judge would sustain it.
7. Had the police officer committed an act provided for in the criminal
legislation, he would have been charged with criminal responsibility.
8. Had it been their first offence, the sentence would have been suspended.
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ЗАДАНИЕ 9.7. Преобразуйте предложения по образцу. Пере-
ведите предложения:
Модель:
I didn’t see the signal, so I didn’t stop. ~
If I had seen the signal, I would have stopped. - Если бы в тот
момент я увидел знак, я бы остановился.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
I didn’t know your number, so I didn’t call.
We came by bus because there were no taxis.
We didn’t visit the Patent Office because we hadn’t time.
I didn’t work hard at school, so I didn’t get a good job when I left.
Не was deep in his thoughts and didn’t notice the “No parking” sign.
She didn’t know you were in hospital, so she didn’t visit you.
There were so many people there that nobody noticed his absence.
They got the children back alive only because they paid the ransom
at once.
9. The contract was not enforceable because the subject matter of an
agreement wasn’t legal.
Приложение (Appendix) 1
Неправильные английские глаголы
VERB
PAST SIMPLE
PARTICIPLE 2
ПЕРЕВОД
be [bi:]
was, were [wз:]
been [bi:n]
быть
beat [bi:t]
beat [bi:t]
beaten ['bi:tn]
бить
become [bi:kʌ m]
became [bi:keim]
become[bi:kʌ m]
становиться
begin [bi'gin]
began [bi'gæn]
begun [bi'gʌ n]
начинать
bleed [bli:d]
bled [bled]
bled [bled]
кровоточить
blow [blou]
blew [blu:]
blown [bloun]
дуть
break [breik]
broke [brouk]
broken ['brouk(e)n]
ломать
bring [briŋ]
brought [brɔ :t]
brought [brɔ :t]
приносить
build [bild]
built [bilt]
built [bilt]
строить
burn [bз:n]
burnt [bз:nt]
burnt [bз:nt]
гореть
burst [bз:st]
burst [bз:st]
burst [bз:st]
разразиться
buy [bai]
bought [bɔ :t]
bought [bɔ :t]
покупать
catch [kætʃ ]
caught [kɔ :t]
caught [kɔ :t]
ловить, хватать
choose [tʃ u:z]
chose [ʃ əuz]
chosen [tʃ əuz(ə)n]
выбирать
come [kʌ m]
came [keim]
come [kʌ m]
приходить
cost [cɔ st]
cost [cɔ st]
cost [cɔ st]
стоить, оценивать
cut [kʌ t]
cut [kʌ t]
cut [kʌ t]
резать
do [du:]
did [did]
done [dʌ n]
делать
draw [drɔ :]
drew [dru:]
drawn [drɔ :n]
1) рисовать, 2) тащить
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VERB
PAST SIMPLE
PARTICIPLE 2
ПЕРЕВОД
dream [dri:m]
dreamt [dremt]
dreamt [dremt]
мечтать, дремать
drink [driŋk]
drank [dræŋk]
drunk [drʌ ŋk]
пить
drive [draiv]
drove [drouv]
driven ['drivn]
водить (автомобиль)
eat [i:t]
ate [et]
eaten ['i:tn]
есть, кушать
fall [fɔ :l]
fell [fel]
fallen ['fɔ :lən]
падать
feed [fi:d]
fed [fed]
fed [fed]
кормить
feel [fi:l]
felt [felt]
felt [felt]
чувствовать
fight [fait]
fought [fɔ :t]
fought [fɔ :t]
бороться
find [faind]
found [faund]
found [faund]
находить
fly [flai]
flew [flu:]
flown [floun]
летать
forget [fə'get]
forgot [fə'gɔ t]
forgotten [fə'gɔ t(ə)n]
забывать
forgive [fo'giv]
forgave [fo'geiv]
forgiven [fo'givn]
прощать
freeze [fri:z]
froze [frouz]
frozen ['frouzn]
замерзать
get [ get ]
got [gɔ t]
got [gɔ t]
получать
give [giv]
gave [geiv]
given [givn]
давать
go [gou]
went [went]
gone [gɔ n]
идти
grow [grou]
grew [gru:]
grown [groun]
расти
hang [hæŋ]
hung [hʌ ŋ]
hung [hʌ ŋ]
вешать
have [hæv]
had [hæd]
had [hæd]
иметь
hear [hiə]
heard [hз:d]
heard [hз:d]
слышать
hide [haid]
hid [hid]
hidden ['hidn]
прятать
hit [hit]
hit [hit]
hit [hit]
попадать в цель
hold [hould]
held [held]
held [held]
держать
hurt [hз:t]
hurt [hз:t]
hurt [hз:t]
ушибить
keep [ki:p]
kept [kept]
kept [kept]
содержать
know [nou]
knew [nju:]
known [noun]
знать
lay [lei]
laid [leid]
laid [leid]
класть
lead [li:d]
led [led]
led [led]
вести
lean [li:n]
leant [lent]
leant [lent]
наклоняться
leave [li:v]
left [left]
left [left]
оставлять
lend [lend]
lent [lent]
lent [lent]
занимать
let [let]
let [let]
let [let]
позволять
lie [lai]
lay [lei]
lain [lein]
лежать
light [lait]
lit [lit]
lit [lit]
освещать, разжигать
lose [lu:z]
lost [lɔ st]
lost [lɔ st]
терять
make [meik]
made [meid]
made [meid]
производить, создавать
mean [mi:n]
meant [ment]
meant [ment]
обозначать
meet [mi:t]
met [met]
met [met]
встречать
mistake [mis'teik]
mistook [mis'tuk]
mistaken [mis'teik(e)n]
ошибаться
pay [pei]
paid [peid]
paid [peid]
платить
prove [pru:v]
proved [pru:vd]
proven [pru:vn]
доказывать
put [put]
put [put]
put [put]
класть, помещать
quit [kwit]
quit [kwit]
quit [kwit]
выходить
read [ri:d]
read [red]
read [red]
читать
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VERB
PAST SIMPLE
PARTICIPLE 2
ПЕРЕВОД
ride [raid]
rode [roud]
ridden ['ridn]
ездить верхом
ring [riŋ]
rang [ræŋ]
rung [rʌ ŋ]
звенеть
rise [raiz]
rose [rouz]
risen ['rizn]
подниматься
run [rʌ ŋ]
ran [ræŋ]
run [rʌ ŋ]
бежать
say [sei]
said [sed]
said [sed]
говорить
see [si:]
saw [sɔ :]
seen [si:n]
видеть
seek [si:k]
sought [sɔ :t]
sought [sɔ :t]
искать
sell [sel]
sold [sould]
sold [sould]
продавать
send [send]
sent [sent]
sent [sent]
посылать
set [set]
set [set]
set [set]
ставить
sew [sou]
sewed [soud]
sewn [soun]
шить
shake [ʃ eik]
shook [ʃ uk]
shaken ['ʃ eik(ə)n]
встряхивать
show [ʃ əu]
showed [ʃ əud]
shown [ʃ əun]
показывать
shut [ʃ ʌ t]
shut [ʃ ʌ t]
shut [ʃ ʌ t]
закрывать
sing [siŋ]
sang [sæŋ]
sung [sʌ ŋ]
петь
sink [siŋk]
sank [sæŋk]
sunk [sʌ ŋk]
тонуть
sit [sit]
sat [sæt]
sat [sæt]
сидеть
sleep [sli:p]
slept [slept]
slept [slept]
спать
slide [slaid]
slid [slid]
slid [slid]
скользить
speak [spi:k]
spoke [spouk]
spoken ['spouk(e)n]
говорить
spend [spend]
spent [spent]
spent [spent]
тратить
spill [spil]
spilt [spilt]
spilt [spilt]
проливать
spread [spred]
spread [spred]
spread [spred]
расстилать
spring [spriŋ]
sprang [spræŋ]
sprung [sprʌ ŋ]
прыгать
stand [stænd]
stood [stu:d]
stood [stu:d]
стоять
steal [sti:l]
stole [stoul]
stolen ['stəulən]
красть
stick [stik]
stuck [stʌ k]
stuck [stʌ k]
колоть
sweep [swi:p]
swept [swept]
swept [swept]
смётать, подметать
swim [swim]
swam [swem]
swum [swʌ m]
плавать
swing [swiŋ]
swung [swʌ ŋ]
swung [swʌ ŋ]
раскачивать
take [teik]
took [tuk]
taken ['teik(ə)n]
брать, взять
teach [ti:tʃ ]
taught [tɔ :t]
taught [tɔ :t]
учить
tear [tɛ ə]
tore [tɔ :]
torn [tɔ :n]
рвать
tell [tel]
told [tould]
told [tould]
рассказывать, говорить
think [θiŋk]
thought [θɔ :t]
thought [θɔ :t]
думать
throw [θrəu]
threw [θru:]
thrown [θrəun]
бросать
understand [ʌ ndə'stænd] understood
understood [ʌ ndə'stud]
понимать
wake [weik]
woke [wouk]
woken ['wouk(e)n]
просыпаться
wear [wɛ ə]
wore [wɔ :]
worn [wɔ :n]
носить
weep [wi:p]
wept [wept]
wept [wept]
плакать
win [win]
won [wʌ n]
won [wʌ n]
выигрывать
wind [waind]
wound [waund]
wound [waund]
извиваться
write [rait]
wrote [rout]
written ['ritn]
записывать, сочинять
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Приложение (Appendix) 2
Интернет ресурсы (Useful Online Resources)
Dictionareis
http://thelawdictionary.org/
http://www.hg.org/law-dictionary.html
http://www.lexipedia.com/
http://www.merriam-webster.com/
www.wordreference.com/
Legal Information
http://books.google.com/
http://eur-lex.europa.eu/homepage.html
http://law.justia.com/
http://library.law.columbia.edu/guides/Finding_Foreign_Law_Resources_on_the_Int
ernet
http://library2.lawschool.cornell.edu/ForeignLawGuide/?id=1
http://lp.findlaw.com/
http://scholar.google.ru/schhp?hl=en&lr=lang_en&newwindow=1&as_sdt=0
http://www.answers.com/search?q=law
http://www.asil.org/resources/electronic-resource-guide-erg?page=eu
http://www.ehow.com/
http://www.jurist.law.pitt.edu/world/index.htm
http://www.lexisnexis.com/legalnewsroom/p/lexisonelandingpage.aspx
http://www.loc.gov/law/help/guide/nations/russia.php
http://www.nolo.com/
http://www.nyulawglobal.org/globalex/index.html
http://www.nyulawglobal.org/Globalex/Russia1.htm
http://www.onlinenewspapers.com/
http://www.plol.org/Pages/Search.aspx
http://www.refdesk.com/factlaw.html
http://www.uscourts.gov/Home.aspx
www.loc.gov
Video
http://www.videojug.com/search?keywords=law
http://www.youtube.com/channel/UCCyPO28BcLHY3HcQItd9Fvw
http://www.youtube.com/user/UKParliament
http://www.youtube.com/user/UKSupremeCourt
English Grammar
http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/forms/grammar_request.htm
http://homeenglish.ru/Grammar.htm
http://learnenglish.de/
http://www.edufind.com/english/grammar/
http://www.ucl.ac.uk/internet-grammar/
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Приложение (Appendix) 3
Exemplary Expressions
for the Assignment “DEBATES”
Аgreement - согласие:
I absolutely agree. = I completely
agree! = I couldn't agree more.
I can't help thinking the same.
I think it is true.
I'm exactly of the same opinion.
It’s like this.
Oh, exactly!
That's true. = You are right.
– Совершенно согласен.
–
–
–
–
–
–
Не могу не согласиться.
Полагаю, что это так.
Я думаю точно так же.
Похоже на то.
Именно так!
Вы правы.
Partial agreement - частичное согласие:
I don’t completely agree with it because ...
I see what you mean, but ...
I see your point, but I also think
that ...
I’m not entirely sure about that.
I’m not sure, in fact.
In spite of what you say, I think ...
OK, but ...
That doesn’t seem quite right.
That may be true, but on the other
hand ...
That’s all very well, but ...
There’s some truth in what you
say. However, ...
To a certain extent, yes, but...
– Я не могу согласиться с этим
полностью, так как ...
– Я понял, что вы имеете в виду, но …
– Я понимаю вашу позицию,
но при этом считаю, что ...
– Я не вполне уверен в этом.
– На самом деле я не уверен.
– Несмотря на то, что вы сказали, я думаю …
– Да, но …
– Мне не кажется это абсолютно верным.
– Может, и так, но с другой
стороны …
– Это очень хорошо, но …
– Есть доля истины в ваших
словах. Тем не менее…
– В определенной мере – это
так, но …
Disagreement - несогласие:
I am afraid, I can’t agree with it.
I am of a different opinion.
– Боюсь, но я не могу с этим
согласиться.
– Я придерживаюсь другого
мнения.
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I can’t say I share your view.
I completely disagree. = I strongly
disagree. = I don’t agree at all.
I disagree. = I don’t agree.
I don’t share your opinion (on that
matter).
I don’t think that’s right.
I’m afraid I entirely disagree with
...
That’s not my way of looking at it.
To my mind, it is false because ...
– Не могу сказать, что разделяю ваше мнение.
– Абсолютно с вами не согласен.
– Я думаю иначе.
– Не разделяю вашего мнения
(по этому вопросу).
– Не думаю, что это правильно.
– Боюсь, я совершенно не согласен с …
– Это отличается от того, как я
воспринимаю данный вопрос.
- По-моему, это неверно, так
как …
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Приложение (Appendix) 4
Linking Phrases for “ESSAY WRITING”
Introductory paragraph
Your thesis statement is sufficient if it is not trivial or stereotyped
and has a point that someone could argue against. For that reason,
use laconic and plain sentences but avoid phrases like the following:
I think that …
I'm not sure about this, but ...
In my opinion ...
In this paper I will ...
My essay is about …
The purpose of this essay is to ...
And don’t use a dictionary or encyclopedia definition as a thesis
statement.
Supporting your argument
at the same time it is true to
say that ...
firstly = to begin with
furthermore
in addition
in other words
in the first place
it should also be emphasized
that ...
it should also be noted that ...
let us take another example
secondly
the corollary of this is that ...
thirdly
this applies especially to ...
this idea is supported by ...
this in turn means that ...
this is further illustrated by ...
this takes us to the heart of the
matter
- вместе с тем, надо признать, что
...
- во-первых; для начала; прежде
всего
- более того, к тому же
- помимо всего прочего; сверх того
- иными словами
- в первую очередь
– следует подчеркнуть, что ...
– следует упомянуть и то, что ...
– возьмем еще один пример
- во-вторых
– выводом из этого является то,
что ...
- в-третьих
– это, прежде всего, распространяется на ...
– это утверждение подкрепляется
...
– это, в свою очередь, подразумевает, что
– дополнительно это иллюстрируется (чем-то)
– это подводит нас к сути вопроса
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Presenting a contrasting point
in a new sentence or paragraph
although
- даже если; хотя и; несмотря на
то, что
at the same time it could be ar- - в то же время можно утверgued that …
ждать, что ...
despite evidence to the con– вопреки доказательствам обратtrary, I would argue that ….
ного, я бы возразил, что ...
however
- тем не менее; однако же
in contrast to this
- в противоположность этому
in spite of this
– вопреки этому
on the one hand …, on the other - с одной стороны …, с другой стоhand …
роны ...
still, there is no denying that ... – однако никто не отрицает, что ...
What are the arguments on the – Каковы аргументы с другой стоother side?
роны?
whilst
- и в то же время
Concluding
accordingly
as a result
consequently
finally
for this reason = therefore =
thereupon
hence = thus
in short
in that case
it follows that ...
to sum up + to summarize
- исходя из этого
- в итоге, как результат
- вследствие этого, следовательно
– в заключение
- ввиду этого; по этой причине; в
этой связи
- таким образом; следовательно;
отсюда
- короче говоря
- в данном случае
– отсюда следует, что ...
– подводя итоги, обобщая
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Приложение (Appendix) 5
Key Phrases
for the Assignment “MAKE A REPORT”
1. Opening statements - вступительные слова
Today I'm going to talk about ...
In this report, I'd like to tell you
about ...
In today’s report I’m going to
cover three points: …
The first thing to say about …
is ...
What you really need to know
about … is ...
- Сегодня я хочу рассказать о ...
- В своем сообщении я хотел бы
рассказать вам о ...
- В своем сообщении сегодня я хочу осветить три вопроса: ...
- Первое, что следует сказать о ...,
так это ...
- Что вам следует знать о ..., так
это ...
2. Moving forward – развитие основной мысли
Taking into consideration what
we have said ...
We have to keep in mind that ...
Now let's look at ...
You may not know that ...
Now I'd like to look at …
Let's turn to ...
Another interesting thing to say
about … is ...
Finally, I'd like to say a few
words about ...
- Принимая во внимание то, что
уже было сказано ...
- Следует учитывать, что ...
- А теперь давайте рассмотрим ...
- Возможно, вы не знаете, что ...
- А теперь мне хотелось бы перейти к ...
- Давайте обратимся ...
- К тому же, говоря о ..., следует
упомянуть, что ...
- И в завершение мне хотелось бы
сказать несколько слов о ...
3. Linking phrases - связующие фразы
in addition, …
by the way ...
naturally ...
moreover ...
although ...
however ...
similarly ...
whereas ...
consequently ...
- вдобавок ...
- к слову сказать ...
- конечно; как и следовало ожидать, ...
- кроме того ...
- несмотря на ...
- однако же ...
- подобно этому ...
- принимая во внимание ...
- следовательно ...
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4. Using visual aids – отсылки на наглядные пособия
If you take a look at ...
As you can see from this slide
representing ...
If you look at this slide, you will
see ...
If we refer to this drawing we
can see that ...
- Если вы посмотрите на ...
- Как вы видите из этого слайда,
отражающего...
- Если вы посмотрите на этот
слайд, вы увидите ...
- Обратившись к этому рисунку,
мы видим, что ...
5. Summarizing – подведение итогов
In conclusion, it is necessary to
notice ...
To sum up ...
- В заключение необходимо отметить ...
- Подводя итог ...
Let me quickly summarize the
principal points: ...
- Давайте вкратце обобщим наиболее важные положения: ...
I would like to recapitulate the
main points of today's topic:
...
- Мне хотелось бы вкратце повторить основные положения
представленной сегодня темы:
...
6. Finishing the report –завершение сообщения
I'd like to thank you all for listening to my report.
Thank you all very much for
taking the time to listen to
this report.
- Мне хотелось бы поблагодарить
всех присутствующих за ваше
внимание к моему сообщению.
- Спасибо за то, что уделили внимание и выслушали моё выступление.
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Литература:
1. Business Law: Business Review Books, 4-th ed. / Robert W. Emerson.Barron’s Educational Series, 2004.
2. Essentials of the Legal Environment, 3-d ed. / Roger LeRoy Miller, Frank
B. Cross, Gaylord A. Jentz.- South-Western, Cengage Learning, 2011.
3. Law Made Simple, 12-th ed. / D.L.A. Barker and Mrs G. Padfield.- Elsevier Linacre House, Jordan Hill, 2007.
4. Английский язык для студентов-юристов / Попов Е.Б., Халюшева
Г.Р..- Саратов: Издательство «Вузовское образование», 2013. [электронное издание] URL: http://www.iprbookshop.ru/
5. Грамматика английского языка: Учебное пособие для студентовюристов / Попов Е.Б., Феоктистова Е.М.- Саратов: Издательство
«Вузовское образование», 2013. [электронное издание] URL:
http://www.iprbookshop.ru/
Учебное издание
Е.Б.Попов, Е.М. Феоктистова, Г.Р.Халюшева
Legal English: Quick Overview
Английский язык в сфере юриспруденции:
базовый курс
Учебник для бакалавров
ООО ИПК «Университет»
460007, г. Оренбург, ул. М. Джалиля, 6.
E-mail: ipk_universitet@mail.ru
Тел./факс: (3532) 90-00-26
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Отпечатано с готового оригинал-макета
в редакционно-издательсктм отделе
Оренбургского института (филиала)
Университета имени О.Е. Кутафина (МГЮА)
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