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Долженко Алина Александровна ГБПОУ НСО"Бердский политехнический колледж" руководитель Пасько Анна Александровна
ГБПОУ НСО «Бердский политехнический колледж» г.Бердск Тема: London Выполнила: Долженко Алина Александровна специальность: Технология продукции общественного питания группа: У14ТП 1 курс Руководитель: преподаватель английского языка Пасько Анна Александровна LONDON London Museums and Galleries London's places if interest London Parks London Ceremonies and Traditions London is a large city situated in the southeastern part of England, standing on the river Thames. This city is a capital of the United Kingdom. The population of London is more than eight million people. London is considered as the largest city not only of the United Kingdom but also in western part of Europe. London is one of the largest financial centers of the world. Romans founded this city in AD 34, they called it Londinium. This word later was shortened to what we have now – London. The capital of the United Kingdom has different names in different languages of the countries composing Great Britain — in Irish Londain, in Welsh Llundain, in Scottish Lunnainn. London was a small city for a very long time. Romans built walls muring the city and all the citizens lived inside these walls. Now this area is called the City of London. But around the city there were many little villages which population increased gradually. After some time (when the Romans left) all these villages were joined into one huge city which is known now as Greater London or just London. In twelfth century London became the capital of England. In spite of the fact today’s London has many immigrants, most people in this city are British. Immigrants came to London from different countries all over the world, they brought not only their languages but also their cultures and religions. Many foreigners stay in London on business, others visit London as tourists. London offers a lot of sights to see. The most visited are the famous Sights of London which include churches, palaces and museums. London is considered as one of the most important cities of the world for finance, business and politics. The capital of Great Britain is also important for entertainment, culture, media, art and fashion. Over eight million objects from all over the world are housed in this impressive museum of human history and culture. Founded in 1753, the British Museum displays ranging from prehistoric to modern times were primarily based on the collections of physician and scientist, Sir Hans Sloane. Notable objects include the Parthenon Marbles, the Rosetta Stone, sculptures from the Parthenon, the Sutton Hoo and Mildenhall treasures, and the Portland Vase. The hieroglyphics and classical sculptures are instantly recognisable and world famous, but more surprising is the workmanship and beauty of the Saxon jewellery collection. The treasures assembled here, from Britain's Dark Ages, reveal a period of original and brilliant artistry. The museum's Great Court with its magnificent glass and steel roof by Sir Norman Foster is an exhibition piece in itself. Regular events include talks, films, performances and demonstrations. The National Gallery dominates London's Trafalgar Square with its neo-classical columns and portico designed by William Wilkins adjoining the square where it has been pedestrianised. Some of the finest examples of European art, ranging from 1260 to 1900, are included among the 2300 paintings filling its halls and rooms. Holbein's 'The Ambassadors', 'The Hay Wain' by Constable, and Jan Van Eyck's 'Arnolfini Marriage' are just some of the major attractions. Works on display also include those of Botticelli, Monet, Constable, Van Gogh and Rembrandt. This really is the place to come for top quality artwork spanning a wide spectrum of styles and periods. From the Early Renaissance to the Post-Impressionists, every significant stage in the development of painting is represented in its collection, often by masterpieces. Originally established by Parliament in 1824, the collection belongs to the British public and every effort is made to encourage the public to visit, view and experience the art: free entry, free events, free talks and free tours support this ethos of encouragement and enthusiasm. Regular activities include: audio tours, guided tours, sessions for visitors with a visual impairment, lunchtime talks, live music and late night openings on Fridays. When the Millennium Commission announced their intention to build an observation wheel that would stand 135 metres over the city of London, people were initially cynical. But the London Eye has turned out to be the finest and most popular new attraction in London since Queen Victoria's Great Exhibition. The Eye now welcomes between 3.5 and 4 million guests every year and, conceived and designed by Marks Barfield Architects, is a feat of modern engineering, both beautiful to look at and from. When constructed in 1999, it was the tallest observation wheel in the world and, though it has now been surpassed by similar constructions in China and Singapore, it allows you to see one of the world's most exciting cities from a completely new perspective. Sir Christopher Wren's mighty St Paul's Cathedral draws the eye like nothing else in London, even though the City's skyscrapers now tower above it. The centrepiece of the great reconstruction of London after the great fire of 1666, it is still the spiritual focus of Great Britain. Royal weddings and birthdays, the funerals of Britain's leaders and services to celebrate the ends of wars all take place beneath the famous dome. The cathedral miraculously survived the Blitz in World War II and served as an inspirational symbol of strength. Explore the medieval relics in the crypt, the gorgeous Victorian mosaics and up to the staggering views of London from the top of the dome. HMS Belfast, moored at Morgan's Lane off Tooley Street, is a World War Two cruiser with nine decks. As you explore this floating museum, pop into the Captain's Bridge and then head down to the massive Boiler and Engine Rooms, well below the ship's waterline. Launched on St Patrick's Day (17th March) 1938, the 187-metre long ship is a 6-inch cruiser (the inches denote the size of its guns), designed for the protection of trade, for offensive action, and to support military operations by aiding landings from the sea. One of her last jobs was to help evacuate emaciated survivors of Japanese prisoner of war and civilian internment camps from China. Up until the autumn of 1947 she was fully occupied with peace-keeping duties in the Far East. Following a stint in Korea she was retired in 1952 and long after was given to the public in 1971. A collapsed gangway in 2011 caused the ship to close for members of the public but it was successfully re-opened in May 2012. For a thousand years the Tower of London has protected, threatened, imprisoned and occasionally executed the people of London. Originally the fortress of the hated Norman conquerors, built with imported white stone from France, it has been through many different incarnations in its life; the bloody tower where Richard III allegedly murdered his nephews, a patriotic symbol, home to British monarchs and armies, a prison and in modern times a treasury museum and UNESCO World Heritage site. The biggest draw for visitors are the crown jewels: crowns, sceptres, plate, and the two largest cut diamonds in the world are among the objects in the collection. The medieval palace, traitors gate, the beefeaters and the ravens make visits wonderfully atmospheric. England's most famous royal palace, and the official residence of Queen Elizabeth II, Buckingham Palace opens the doors of its State Rooms to the public every summer. Originally acquired by King George III for his wife Queen Charlotte, Buckingham House was increasingly known as the 'Queen's House' and 14 of George III's children were born there. On his accession to the throne, George IV decided to convert the house into a palace and employed John Nash to help him extend the building. Queen Victoria was the first sovereign to live here (from 1837). The State Rooms are now still used by the Royal Family to receive and entertain guests on State and ceremonial occasions. Visitors can admire some of the more unusual gifts received by the current Queen, including drawings by Salvador Dali, an embroidered silk scarf from Nelson Mandela and a grove of maple trees. Decorated in lavish fashion, the rooms include paintings by Rembrandt, Rubens, Canaletto, Vermeer and Poussin, sculpture by Canova, exquisite examples of Svres porcelain, and some of the finest English and French furniture in the world. The Ball Supper Room, the setting for a host of sparkling events in the history of the palace, 29-acre gardens and annual exhibitions are all also available to visitors. Now more commonly known as the Houses of Parliament, the Palace of Westminster began life in 1042 as a royal residence under Edward the Confessor. The major structure to survive various fires, Westminster Hall was built between 1087 and 1100 and is one of the largest medieval halls in Europe with an unsupported hammerbeam roof. During the 14th century the Hall housed the courts of law as well as shops and stalls selling legal equipment - wigs and pens. Following a fire in 1512, Henry VIII abandoned the Palace and it has been home to the two seats of Parliament - the Commons and the Lords - ever since. Yet another disastrous fire in 1834 destroyed everything except Westminster Hall and the Jewel Tower. A competition to redevelop the whole site was won by Sir Charles Barry and Augustus Pugin who came upwith the mock Gothic building that has become such a familiar landmarktoday and includes Big Ben (the bell that chimes on the hour) and the largest clock face in the country. Members of the public can watch debates when Parliament is in session - you don't need tickets in advance but may have to queue. To watch Prime Minister's Question Time (Wed 12noon, when Parliament is sitting) it's advisable to get tickets in advance. When it officially opened on Thursday 5th July 2012, The Shard became the tallest building iThe Shardn the European Union and the 45th tallest building in the world. Designed in 2000 by Renzo Piano, an Italian architect best known for creating Paris's Pompidou Centre in collaboration with Britain's Richard Rogers, the mixed use Shard building, visible from wherever you are in London, combines offices, three floors of restaurants and the 5-star Shangri-La Hotel with residential apartments - Europe's highest homes; yours for 30 to 50 million pounds - and London's highest viewing gallery. Covered in 11,000 panes of glass, the 'vertical city' in the newly created London Bridge Quarter is well connected with London Bridge Tube and train stations ferrying people to and from the hard-tomiss London landmark. The public viewing galleries, way up on floors 68 to 72, open early February 2013 but you can preregister now to be the first to get tickets when they go on sale at 9am on Friday 6th July 2012. In the meantime you can enjoy the virtual views 40 miles across the city online. Vertigo sufferers need not apply. See our full feature on The Shard. Victoria Park One of London's best kept secrets, Victoria Park is a fantastic place to spend an afternoon. Inside the park's boundaries countless varieties of trees stripe the skyline: oaks, horse chestnuts, cherries, hawthorns and even Kentucky coffee trees. The park is split in two by Grove Road. The smaller, western section contains the most picturesque of its lakes with a fully functioning fountain and the imposing Dogs of Alcibiades, two snarling sculptures. Retreat to the quiet of the Old English Garden, a floral haven brimming with flowers and shrubs. Have a peek into the deer enclosure and let the kids run off some energy in the children's playground. The city's first public park, Victoria Park was opened in the East End in 1845 after a local MP presented Queen Victoria with a petition of 30,000 signatures. It was envisaged as a Regent's Park of the east and originally had its own Speaker's Corner. The Victorians saw parks as instruments of moral and physical improvement, especially for the working classes. Sanitary reformer William Farr believed the use of parks would significantly boost life expectancy. Why not boost your constitution and have an enjoyable day out at the same time, as you explore the many attractions of this glorious park. Technically two different parks, Hyde Park and Kensington Gardens are in practical terms one huge, merging expanse. The 'split' dates back to 1728 when Queen Caroline, wife of George II, took almost 300 acres from Hyde Park to form Kensington Gardens. The 350 acres that remained has become one of London's best-loved parks. Almost every kind of outdoor pursuit takes place within its lush green landscape. Horse riding, rollerblading, bowls, putting and tennis are all catered for while informal games of cricket, rounders and frizbee spring up on the area to the south of the park known as The Sports Field. A number of famous London attractions are also housed within this central space. Hyde Park boasts Speakers' Corner, the Princess of Wales Memorial Fountain and the Serpentine Boating Lake - another feature owed to Queen Caroline who started a new landscaping trend by designing this natural-looking lake. Today the water is a hive of activity in the summer months, doubling up as a lido and boating lake with its very own solar powered boat plus two cafes - The Lido Cafe and Serpentine Bar & Kitchen - on the water's edge. Hyde Park's central location means it attracts a diverse crowd, making it one of the most buzzing, fun green spaces in London. A full diary of events including free guided walks, concerts and children's entertainment complete the picture. Situated on the south side of the Thames, facing Chelsea, Battersea Park caters for everyone within its 200-acre space. Firstly, there's lots of water - a lake for boating, ponds for admiring the wildlife, and the Thames along one side for general gazing purposes. Then there's art – the Pumphouse Gallery has regular exhibitions and there are many sculptures dotted around the park itself. Next comes sport - with all-weather pitches, tennis courts and a place to hire bicycles there's no excuse to be lazy. Children get a great deal with their own adventure playground and zoo, while a majestic Peace Pagoda bestows an air of calm and tranquillity to the typically action-packed surroundings. Wildlife thrives here with birds, animals and plants happily cohabiting within the grounds. The Queen usually celebrates her actual birthday, 21st April, privately, but the occasion is marked publicly by gun salutes in central London: there's a 41-gun salute in Hyde Park, a 21-gun salute in Windsor Great Park and a 62-gun salute at the Tower Of London, all taking place at midday. The Queen's Birthday Gun Salutes take place on her actual birthday, ahead of her official birthday in June which is marked by Trooping the Colour. At Hyde Park the Queen's Birthday Gun Salute is carried out by the King's Troop Royal Horse Artillery who ride into the park from the north by Marble Arch along North Carriage Drive, line up abreast and gallop down the parade ground to roughly opposite the Dorchester Hotel. The Troop itself arrives at around 11.45am ready to fire the first round at midday. The guns are then unhooked and the salute is fired off. Duty performed, the horses gallop back up towards North Carriage Drive. The band arrives separately and can usually be seen from about 11.30am. It is a spectacular show of pomp and ceremony and it's also the only time when you will see horses legally at a full gallop in Hyde Park - with a ton and a half of cannon in tow. Happy Birthday Liz! Dating back to Medieval London, this spectacular annual ceremony marking the beginning of the new parliamentary year takes place May (prior to 2012 it took place in October or November) and features peers and bishops in traditional robes and a royal procession involving the State Coach (visible to the public). The Yeomen of the Guard (royal bodyguards since 1485) are responsible for searching the cellars of the Houses of Parliament before the Queen arrives - a duty undertaken ever since the infamous Gunpowder Plot of 1605 when Guy Fawkes tried to blow up Parliament. The televised ceremony that follows takes place in the House of Lords. The proceedings begin with Black Rod (the Queen's Messenger) calling 250 members of the House of Commons to the House of Lords. The door is initially slammed in his face before being re-opened. This reminds people that the Commons can exclude everyone but the Sovereign's messengers. The Queen reads the Queen's Speech from the Throne in the House of Lords. This speech is prepared by the government of the day and outlines the forthcoming policies for the year. The Queen then returns to Buckingham Palace. The Royal procession starts at Buckingham Palace (11am), follows The Mall to Horse Guards Parade and Whitehall and then Parliament Square. A gun salute is fired at 11.15am from Hyde Park. A good vantage point is St James's Park. Книга -Достопримечательности Лондона М.В. Васильев London's places if interest И.И.Донскова Лондон город парков и дворцов.