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Долженко Алина Александровна ГБПОУ НСО"Бердский политехнический колледж" руководитель Пасько Анна Александровна
ГБПОУ НСО «Бердский политехнический колледж» г.Бердск
Тема: London
Выполнила: Долженко Алина Александровна
специальность: Технология продукции общественного питания
группа: У14ТП 1 курс
Руководитель: преподаватель английского языка
Пасько Анна Александровна
LONDON
London Museums and Galleries
London's places if interest
London Parks
London Ceremonies and
Traditions
London is a large city situated in the
southeastern
part
of
England,
standing on the river Thames. This
city is a capital of the United
Kingdom. The population of London
is more than eight million people.
London is considered as the largest
city not only of the United Kingdom
but also in western part of Europe.
London is one of the largest financial
centers of the world.
Romans founded this city in AD 34,
they called it Londinium. This word
later was shortened to what we have
now – London. The capital of the
United Kingdom has different names
in different languages of the countries
composing Great Britain — in Irish
Londain, in Welsh Llundain, in
Scottish Lunnainn.
London was a small city for a very long time. Romans built walls
muring the city and all the citizens lived inside these walls. Now
this area is called the City of London. But around the city there
were many little villages which population increased gradually.
After some time (when the Romans left) all these villages were
joined into one huge city which is known now as Greater London
or just London. In twelfth century London became the capital of
England. In spite of the fact today’s London has many
immigrants, most people in this city are British. Immigrants
came to London from different countries all over the world, they
brought not only their languages but also their cultures and
religions. Many foreigners stay in London on business, others
visit London as tourists. London offers a lot of sights to see. The
most visited are the famous Sights of London which include
churches, palaces and museums.
London is considered as one of the most important cities of the
world for finance, business and politics. The capital of Great
Britain is also important for entertainment, culture, media, art
and fashion.
Over eight million objects from all over the world are
housed in this impressive museum of human history and
culture. Founded in 1753, the British Museum displays
ranging from prehistoric to modern times were
primarily based on the collections of physician and
scientist, Sir Hans Sloane. Notable objects include the
Parthenon Marbles, the Rosetta Stone, sculptures from
the Parthenon, the Sutton Hoo and Mildenhall treasures,
and the Portland Vase. The hieroglyphics and classical
sculptures are instantly recognisable and world famous,
but more surprising is the workmanship and beauty of
the Saxon jewellery collection. The treasures assembled
here, from Britain's Dark Ages, reveal a period of
original and brilliant artistry. The museum's Great
Court with its magnificent glass and steel roof by Sir
Norman Foster is an exhibition piece in itself. Regular
events include talks, films, performances and
demonstrations.
The National Gallery dominates London's Trafalgar Square with its neo-classical
columns and portico designed by William Wilkins adjoining the square where it has been
pedestrianised. Some of the finest examples of European art, ranging from 1260 to 1900, are
included among the 2300 paintings filling its halls and rooms. Holbein's 'The Ambassadors', 'The
Hay Wain' by Constable, and Jan Van Eyck's 'Arnolfini Marriage' are just some of the major
attractions. Works on display also include those of Botticelli, Monet, Constable, Van Gogh and
Rembrandt. This really is the place to come for top quality artwork spanning a wide spectrum of
styles and periods. From the Early Renaissance to the Post-Impressionists, every significant stage in
the development of painting is represented in its collection, often by masterpieces. Originally
established by Parliament in 1824, the collection belongs to the British public and every effort is
made to encourage the public to visit, view and experience the art: free entry, free events, free talks
and free tours support this ethos of encouragement and enthusiasm. Regular activities include:
audio tours, guided tours, sessions for visitors with a visual impairment, lunchtime talks, live music
and late night openings on Fridays.
When the Millennium Commission announced their
intention to build an observation wheel that would stand
135 metres over the city of London, people were initially
cynical. But the London Eye has turned out to be the finest
and most popular new attraction in London since Queen
Victoria's Great Exhibition. The Eye now welcomes
between 3.5 and 4 million guests every year and, conceived
and designed by Marks Barfield Architects, is a feat of
modern engineering, both beautiful to look at and from.
When constructed in 1999, it was the tallest observation
wheel in the world and, though it has now been surpassed
by similar constructions in China and Singapore, it allows
you to see one of the world's most exciting cities from a
completely new perspective.
Sir Christopher Wren's mighty St Paul's Cathedral draws
the eye like nothing else in London, even though the City's
skyscrapers now tower above it. The centrepiece of the
great reconstruction of London after the great fire of 1666,
it is still the spiritual focus of Great Britain. Royal weddings
and birthdays, the funerals of Britain's leaders and services
to celebrate the ends of wars all take place beneath the
famous dome. The cathedral miraculously survived the
Blitz in World War II and served as an inspirational symbol
of strength. Explore the medieval relics in the crypt, the
gorgeous Victorian mosaics and up to the staggering views
of London from the top of the dome.
HMS Belfast, moored at Morgan's Lane off Tooley
Street, is a World War Two cruiser with nine decks. As
you explore this floating museum, pop into the Captain's
Bridge and then head down to the massive Boiler and
Engine Rooms, well below the ship's waterline.
Launched on St Patrick's Day (17th March) 1938, the
187-metre long ship is a 6-inch cruiser (the inches denote
the size of its guns), designed for the protection of trade,
for offensive action, and to support military operations
by aiding landings from the sea. One of her last jobs was
to help evacuate emaciated survivors of Japanese
prisoner of war and civilian internment camps from
China. Up until the autumn of 1947 she was fully
occupied with peace-keeping duties in the Far East.
Following a stint in Korea she was retired in 1952 and
long after was given to the public in 1971. A collapsed
gangway in 2011 caused the ship to close for members of
the public but it was successfully re-opened in May 2012.
For a thousand years the Tower of London has protected,
threatened, imprisoned and occasionally executed the people of
London. Originally the fortress of the hated Norman
conquerors, built with imported white stone from France, it
has been through many different incarnations in its life; the
bloody tower where Richard III allegedly murdered his
nephews, a patriotic symbol, home to British monarchs and
armies, a prison and in modern times a treasury museum and
UNESCO World Heritage site. The biggest draw for visitors
are the crown jewels: crowns, sceptres, plate, and the two
largest cut diamonds in the world are among the objects in the
collection. The medieval palace, traitors gate, the beefeaters
and the ravens make visits wonderfully atmospheric.
England's most famous royal palace, and the official residence of
Queen Elizabeth II, Buckingham Palace opens the doors of its
State Rooms to the public every summer. Originally acquired by
King George III for his wife Queen Charlotte, Buckingham
House was increasingly known as the 'Queen's House' and 14 of
George III's children were born there. On his accession to the
throne, George IV decided to convert the house into a palace and
employed John Nash to help him extend the building. Queen
Victoria was the first sovereign to live here (from 1837). The State
Rooms are now still used by the Royal Family to receive and
entertain guests on State and ceremonial occasions. Visitors can
admire some of the more unusual gifts received by the current
Queen, including drawings by Salvador Dali, an embroidered silk
scarf from Nelson Mandela and a grove of maple trees. Decorated
in lavish fashion, the rooms include paintings by Rembrandt,
Rubens, Canaletto, Vermeer and Poussin, sculpture by Canova,
exquisite examples of Svres porcelain, and some of the finest
English and French furniture in the world. The Ball Supper
Room, the setting for a host of sparkling events in the history of
the palace, 29-acre gardens and annual exhibitions are all also
available to visitors.
Now more commonly known as the Houses of Parliament, the Palace of Westminster began
life in 1042 as a royal residence under Edward the Confessor. The major structure to
survive various fires, Westminster Hall was built between 1087 and 1100 and is one of the
largest medieval halls in Europe with an unsupported hammerbeam roof. During the 14th
century the Hall housed the courts of law as well as shops and stalls selling legal equipment
- wigs and pens. Following a fire in 1512, Henry VIII abandoned the Palace and it has been
home to the two seats of Parliament - the Commons and the Lords - ever since. Yet another
disastrous fire in 1834 destroyed everything except Westminster Hall and the Jewel Tower.
A competition to redevelop the whole site was won by Sir Charles Barry and Augustus
Pugin who came upwith the mock Gothic building that has become such a familiar
landmarktoday and includes Big Ben (the bell that chimes on the hour) and the largest
clock face in the country. Members of the public can watch debates when Parliament is in
session - you don't need tickets in advance but may have to queue. To watch Prime
Minister's Question Time (Wed 12noon, when Parliament is sitting) it's advisable to get
tickets in advance.
When it officially opened on Thursday 5th July 2012, The
Shard became the tallest building iThe Shardn the European
Union and the 45th tallest building in the world. Designed in
2000 by Renzo Piano, an Italian architect best known for
creating Paris's Pompidou Centre in collaboration with
Britain's Richard Rogers, the mixed use Shard building, visible
from wherever you are in London, combines offices, three floors
of restaurants and the 5-star Shangri-La Hotel with residential
apartments - Europe's highest homes; yours for 30 to 50 million
pounds - and London's highest viewing gallery. Covered in
11,000 panes of glass, the 'vertical city' in the newly created
London Bridge Quarter is well connected with London Bridge
Tube and train stations ferrying people to and from the hard-tomiss London landmark. The public viewing galleries, way up on
floors 68 to 72, open early February 2013 but you can preregister now to be the first to get tickets when they go on sale at
9am on Friday 6th July 2012. In the meantime you can enjoy
the virtual views 40 miles across the city online. Vertigo
sufferers need not apply. See our full feature on The Shard.
Victoria Park
One of London's best kept secrets, Victoria Park is a fantastic
place to spend an afternoon. Inside the park's boundaries
countless varieties of trees stripe the skyline: oaks, horse
chestnuts, cherries, hawthorns and even Kentucky coffee
trees. The park is split in two by Grove Road. The smaller,
western section contains the most picturesque of its lakes with
a fully functioning fountain and the imposing Dogs of
Alcibiades, two snarling sculptures. Retreat to the quiet of the
Old English Garden, a floral haven brimming with flowers
and shrubs. Have a peek into the deer enclosure and let the
kids run off some energy in the children's playground. The
city's first public park, Victoria Park was opened in the East
End in 1845 after a local MP presented Queen Victoria with a
petition of 30,000 signatures. It was envisaged as a Regent's
Park of the east and originally had its own Speaker's Corner.
The Victorians saw parks as instruments of moral and
physical improvement, especially for the working classes.
Sanitary reformer William Farr believed the use of parks
would significantly boost life expectancy. Why not boost your
constitution and have an enjoyable day out at the same time,
as you explore the many attractions of this glorious park.
Technically two different parks, Hyde Park and Kensington
Gardens are in practical terms one huge, merging expanse. The
'split' dates back to 1728 when Queen Caroline, wife of George II,
took almost 300 acres from Hyde Park to form Kensington
Gardens. The 350 acres that remained has become one of London's
best-loved parks. Almost every kind of outdoor pursuit takes place
within its lush green landscape. Horse riding, rollerblading, bowls,
putting and tennis are all catered for while informal games of
cricket, rounders and frizbee spring up on the area to the south of
the park known as The Sports Field. A number of famous London
attractions are also housed within this central space. Hyde Park
boasts Speakers' Corner, the Princess of Wales Memorial
Fountain and the Serpentine Boating Lake - another feature owed
to Queen Caroline who started a new landscaping trend by
designing this natural-looking lake. Today the water is a hive of
activity in the summer months, doubling up as a lido and boating
lake with its very own solar powered boat plus two cafes - The Lido
Cafe and Serpentine Bar & Kitchen - on the water's edge. Hyde
Park's central location means it attracts a diverse crowd, making it
one of the most buzzing, fun green spaces in London. A full diary of
events including free guided walks, concerts and children's
entertainment complete the picture.
Situated on the south side of the Thames,
facing Chelsea, Battersea Park caters for
everyone within its 200-acre space.
Firstly, there's lots of water - a lake for
boating, ponds for admiring the wildlife,
and the Thames along one side for
general gazing purposes. Then there's
art – the Pumphouse Gallery has regular
exhibitions and there are many
sculptures dotted around the park itself.
Next comes sport - with all-weather
pitches, tennis courts and a place to hire
bicycles there's no excuse to be lazy.
Children get a great deal with their own
adventure playground and zoo, while a
majestic Peace Pagoda bestows an air of
calm and tranquillity to the typically
action-packed surroundings. Wildlife
thrives here with birds, animals and
plants happily cohabiting within the
grounds.
The Queen usually celebrates her actual birthday, 21st April,
privately, but the occasion is marked publicly by gun salutes in
central London: there's a 41-gun salute in Hyde Park, a 21-gun
salute in Windsor Great Park and a 62-gun salute at the Tower Of
London, all taking place at midday. The Queen's Birthday Gun
Salutes take place on her actual birthday, ahead of her official
birthday in June which is marked by Trooping the Colour. At Hyde
Park the Queen's Birthday Gun Salute is carried out by the King's
Troop Royal Horse Artillery who ride into the park from the north
by Marble Arch along North Carriage Drive, line up abreast and
gallop down the parade ground to roughly opposite the Dorchester
Hotel. The Troop itself arrives at around 11.45am ready to fire the
first round at midday. The guns are then unhooked and the salute
is fired off. Duty performed, the horses gallop back up towards
North Carriage Drive. The band arrives separately and can
usually be seen from about 11.30am. It is a spectacular show of
pomp and ceremony and it's also the only time when you will see
horses legally at a full gallop in Hyde Park - with a ton and a half
of cannon in tow. Happy Birthday Liz!
Dating back to Medieval London, this spectacular annual ceremony
marking the beginning of the new parliamentary year takes place
May (prior to 2012 it took place in October or November) and
features peers and bishops in traditional robes and a royal
procession involving the State Coach (visible to the public). The
Yeomen of the Guard (royal bodyguards since 1485) are responsible
for searching the cellars of the Houses of Parliament before the
Queen arrives - a duty undertaken ever since the infamous
Gunpowder Plot of 1605 when Guy Fawkes tried to blow up
Parliament. The televised ceremony that follows takes place in the
House of Lords. The proceedings begin with Black Rod (the
Queen's Messenger) calling 250 members of the House of Commons
to the House of Lords.
The door is initially slammed in his face before being re-opened.
This reminds people that the Commons can exclude everyone but
the Sovereign's messengers. The Queen reads the Queen's Speech
from the Throne in the House of Lords. This speech is prepared by
the government of the day and outlines the forthcoming policies for
the year. The Queen then returns to Buckingham Palace. The Royal
procession starts at Buckingham Palace (11am), follows The
Mall to Horse Guards Parade and Whitehall and then Parliament
Square. A gun salute is fired at 11.15am from Hyde Park. A good
vantage point is St James's Park.
Книга -Достопримечательности Лондона М.В. Васильев
London's places if interest
И.И.Донскова Лондон город парков и дворцов.
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