Выполнила студентка 2 курса колледжа экономики, управления и права ДГТУ Лупиногина Есения Сергеевна Научный руководитель: Акбаева Ольга Викторовна 1.Why do we study European, english-speaking cities? 2. Paris, France: A 21st-Century Eco-City 3.Nonmotorized Transportation in Paris 4. Biking in Paris 5. Freiburg, Germany: Germany’s Eco-Capital 6. Transportation in Freiburg 7. Solar Energy Systems in Freiburg 8. Copenhagen, Denmark: Green City amid the Finger Metropolis 9. Helsinki, Finland: Greenness and Urban Form 10. Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain: From Urban Greenbelt to Regional Green Infrastructure 11. London, England: A Global and Sustainable Capital City 12. Crossrail and bus travel in London 13. Conclusion 14. Literature We are living on an increasingly urban planet. In 2008 we passed the halfway mark—50% of the world’s population now live in cities, and that percentage is increasing to 70% by 2050. Nowadays European cities accommodate our economic and demographic needs while uplifting and elevating us, and we should protect, restore, and defend our planet and its natural systems. Do you know the answer to the question “Why do we study European, english-speaking cities?” As for me, European cities are eco-friendly and it will be useful to learn some interesting information not only about their sightseeings, but about this aspect too. Paris, with a population of 2.2 million, is the capital of and largest city in France. Paris is one of the great world cities, and its history, economy, culture, and iconic landmarks make it the most visited city in the world. There people speak English too. Moreover, it is the birthplace of public transport. The most recent effort to modernize France’s environmental law and policies is President Nicolas Sarkozy’s Grenelle de l’Environment. The Grenelle sets national environmental policy orientations and action plans. Sarkozy presented it in 2007 as the Ecological New Deal, a revolutionary emphasis on environmental concerns. By its sheer density and urban form (e.g., narrow medieval streets, treelined avenues), Paris is a highly walkable city. It takes about two hours to walk across the city from east to west or north to south. Almost any location in the city is within a five- or tenminute walk from Métro, bus stops, schools, parks or grocery stores. To improve pedestrian safety and quality of life, the municipality limited driving speed to 30 kmh, including wider sidewalks, speed bumps, elevated pedestrian crossings, bike lanes, tree plantings. Green Park Promenade Plantee in Paris Biking is highly publicized there. Paris launched its public bike program Vélib’ in July 2007. It offers about 20,000 public bicycles at 1,450 docking stations (one every three hundred meters). Anyone with a subscription (costing €1/day, €5/week, or €29/year) can use a bike for free for the first thirty minutes of any trip, with an unlimited numbers of trips. Longer trips cost €1 to €4 for each additional thirty minutes Freiburg is a global leader in developing energy planning strategy, water conservation, or high transportation modal splits. The city’s success in merging design, transportation, and ecology is reflected in its expanding trophy case of European and global sustainability awards. People speak German and English there fluently. It is also known as a city of museums and a city where all Germans dream to live. Freiburg’s approach to sustainable transportation planning puts biking and pedestrians on equal footing with cars. Not only cars are banned within the center city, but a 30kmh speed limit is imposed on all residential streets.The demand for bike parking has been so great that Freiburg has constructed more than 5,000 new bicycle parking spaces in the city center alone. Approximately 1,500 parking spaces for bikes have been made available at the railway station to enable train passengers a direct transfer to bicycles. Energy and economic development policies in Freiburg were coupled and lead to a proliferation of renewable energy and solar research institutions, including the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems. Freiburg also hired a full-time “solar manager” to coordinate its economic development activities, and it made available, rent-free, a cityowned building to house the International Solar Energy Society. Freiburg also constructed a solar information desk in the city center to inform and broadcast solar and other environmental information. Freiburg’s solar synergies have become a model of industrial ecology. Copenhagen has a long tradition of being a “green” city in the sense of practicing sustainable urban planning. Bicycle Policy Copenhagen is known far and wide as the “City of Cyclists.” Cycling is a socially acceptable means of transport; in fact, it is not uncommon to see Danish ministers or mayors cycle to work. Bicycle traffic in Copenhagen has grown in recent years, and as of 2011 one out of three Copenhageners cycle to work. Helsinki is an essentially green maritime city with a particularly rich shoreline; it is known as a city the modernist architecture. Two-thirds of Helsinki is in fact sea. The BEST survey for 2010 placed Helsinki, together with Geneva, at the top of the charts for the smooth running of its public transport and the standard of its service. (The other cities in the survey were Stockholm, Oslo, Copenhagen, and Vienna.) The path network is intended for the pedestrians and cyclists as well as crosscountry skiers in the wintertime. The ski track network as planned is about 240 kilometers, whereof forty kilometers are located on ice outside Helsinki coastline Located in the north of Spain, VitoriaGasteiz is the capital of the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country. Do you believe that people there speak English too?! The great investment of the Basque government in technological innovation and its strong support to face environmental challenges has been widely recognized. The most recent award has come from the European Commission, appointing Vitoria-Gasteiz as the European Green Capital. London is an ancient and complex city with layers of history. The Romans founded the city shortly after the invasion of England in a.d. 43. They built a bridge over the River Thames and created Londinium on the northern banks of the river. This was a small fortified city of some 350 acres, and remains of the Roman walls are still standing. The city has seen immigration from Europe probably continuously since the Romans, including the Saxons, the French (the Norman Conquest in 1066), waves of Huguenots, then Jews, and in the 20th century Afro-Caribbean and Asian populations, followed more recently by eastern Europeans after the expansion of the European Union. This has led to London becoming one of the most diverse and multicultural capital cities in the world with over 250 languages spoken. It has long been recognized that London needs a service to complement the central London Underground network, which is near capacity. As a result, London has committed to build a major rail project, Crossrail, which will link rail services to the east and to the west of London via a high-speed tunnel, and provide interchange with the existing Underground network. It will connect major retail centers, the City and Canary Wharf financial services centers, and Heathrow Airport with a highfrequency, highcapacity, convenient, and accessible train service across the capital beginning in 2018. In the 1980s, Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher famously said that a man over twenty-six years of age who was still traveling by bus was a failure. In the first years following the establishment of TfL, bus services were extensively improved and frequencies increased. Mayor Ken Livingstone made it one of his priorities to develop services and make journeys faster and more predictable by the introduction of almost two hundred miles of dedicated bus lanes, giving priority to buses over other traffic. These European cases show that a green urban agenda need not be about sacrifice or deprivation, but rather an opportunity for a more lively, livable, rich, and healthy lifestyle with a smaller ecological footprint. It is possible to design homes and businesses that use dramatically small amounts of energy yet provide delightful living and working spaces, as seen in the many examples in this book, from BedZED in London to Vauban in Freiburg. 1. European Sustainable Cities and Towns Campaign, “The Campaign,” accessed May 4, 2011, http://sustainable-cities.eu/ 2. European Green Capital, “About the Award,” accessed May 9, 2010, http://ec .europa.eu/ 3. John Gallagher, Re-imagining Detroit: Opportunities for Redefining an American City, Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 2010, 6. 4. Chris Turner, “Forget Sci-Fi Cities: Street-Level Livability Is a Better Way to Urban Sustainability,” April 1, 2011, accessed May 4, 2011, http://www.mnn.com/ 5. Kim Willshen, “Paris to Introduce Self Service Electric Car Scheme,” Guardian, December 16, 2010. 6. Richard Louv, Last Child in the Woods: Saving Our Children from Nature Deficit Disorder, Chapel Hill, NC: Algonquin, 2008.