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презентация на конкурс Лупиногина Есения

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Выполнила студентка 2 курса
колледжа экономики, управления и права
Лупиногина Есения Сергеевна
Научный руководитель: Акбаева Ольга
1.Why do we study European, english-speaking cities?
2. Paris, France: A 21st-Century Eco-City
3.Nonmotorized Transportation in Paris
4. Biking in Paris
5. Freiburg, Germany: Germany’s Eco-Capital
6. Transportation in Freiburg
7. Solar Energy Systems in Freiburg
8. Copenhagen, Denmark: Green City amid the Finger Metropolis
9. Helsinki, Finland: Greenness and Urban Form
10. Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain: From Urban Greenbelt to Regional Green Infrastructure
11. London, England: A Global and Sustainable Capital City
12. Crossrail and bus travel in London
13. Conclusion
14. Literature
We are living on an increasingly urban
planet. In 2008 we passed the halfway
mark—50% of the world’s population now
live in cities, and that percentage is
increasing to 70% by 2050. Nowadays
European cities accommodate our economic
and demographic needs while uplifting and
elevating us, and we should protect, restore,
and defend our planet and its natural
systems. Do you know the answer to the
question “Why do we study European,
english-speaking cities?” As for me,
European cities are eco-friendly and it will
be useful to learn some interesting
information not only about their
sightseeings, but about this aspect too.
Paris, with a population of 2.2 million, is the
capital of and largest city in France. Paris is
one of the great world cities, and its history,
economy, culture, and iconic landmarks make
it the most visited city in the world. There
people speak English too. Moreover, it is the
birthplace of public transport.
The most recent effort to modernize France’s
environmental law and policies is President
l’Environment. The Grenelle sets national
environmental policy orientations and action
plans. Sarkozy presented it in 2007 as the
Ecological New Deal, a revolutionary
emphasis on environmental concerns.
By its sheer density and urban form (e.g.,
narrow medieval streets, treelined avenues),
Paris is a highly walkable city. It takes about
two hours to walk across the city from east
to west or north to south. Almost any
location in the city is within a five- or tenminute walk from Métro, bus stops, schools,
parks or grocery stores.
To improve pedestrian safety and quality of
life, the municipality limited driving speed
to 30 kmh, including wider sidewalks, speed
bumps, elevated pedestrian crossings, bike
lanes, tree plantings.
Green Park Promenade
Plantee in Paris
Biking is highly publicized there. Paris
launched its public bike program Vélib’ in
July 2007. It offers about 20,000 public
bicycles at 1,450 docking stations (one
every three hundred meters). Anyone with
a subscription (costing €1/day, €5/week, or
€29/year) can use a bike for free for the
first thirty minutes of any trip, with an
unlimited numbers of trips. Longer trips
cost €1 to €4 for each additional thirty
Freiburg is a global leader in developing energy planning strategy, water
conservation, or high transportation modal splits. The city’s success in
merging design, transportation, and ecology is reflected in its expanding
trophy case of European and global sustainability awards. People speak
German and English there fluently. It is also known as a city of museums
and a city where all Germans dream to live.
transportation planning puts biking and
pedestrians on equal footing with cars. Not only
cars are banned within the center city, but a 30kmh speed limit is imposed on all residential
streets.The demand for bike parking has been
so great that Freiburg has constructed more
than 5,000 new bicycle parking spaces in the
city center alone. Approximately 1,500 parking
spaces for bikes have been made available at
the railway station to enable train passengers a
direct transfer to bicycles.
Energy and economic development policies in
Freiburg were coupled and lead to a proliferation of
renewable energy and solar research institutions,
including the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy
Systems. Freiburg also hired a full-time “solar
manager” to coordinate its economic development
activities, and it made available, rent-free, a cityowned building to house the International Solar
Energy Society. Freiburg also constructed a solar
information desk in the city center to inform and
broadcast solar and other environmental information.
Freiburg’s solar synergies have become a model of
industrial ecology.
Copenhagen has a long tradition of
being a “green” city in the sense of
practicing sustainable urban planning.
Bicycle Policy Copenhagen is known far
and wide as the “City of Cyclists.”
Cycling is a socially acceptable means
of transport; in fact, it is not uncommon
to see Danish ministers or mayors cycle
to work. Bicycle traffic in Copenhagen
has grown in recent years, and as of
2011 one out of three Copenhageners
cycle to work.
Helsinki is an essentially green maritime
city with a particularly rich shoreline; it is
known as a city the modernist architecture.
Two-thirds of Helsinki is in fact sea. The
BEST survey for 2010 placed Helsinki,
together with Geneva, at the top of the
charts for the smooth running of its public
transport and the standard of its service.
(The other cities in the survey were
Stockholm, Oslo, Copenhagen, and Vienna.)
The path network is intended for the
pedestrians and cyclists as well as crosscountry skiers in the wintertime. The ski
track network as planned is about 240
kilometers, whereof forty kilometers are
located on ice outside Helsinki coastline
Located in the north of Spain, VitoriaGasteiz is the capital of the Autonomous
Community of the Basque Country. Do
you believe that people there speak
English too?! The great investment of the
Basque government in technological
innovation and its strong support to face
environmental challenges has been
widely recognized. The most recent
award has come from the European
Commission, appointing Vitoria-Gasteiz
as the European Green Capital.
London is an ancient and complex city with
layers of history. The Romans founded the
city shortly after the invasion of England in
a.d. 43. They built a bridge over the River
Thames and created Londinium on the
northern banks of the river. This was a small
fortified city of some 350 acres, and
remains of the Roman walls are still
standing. The city has seen immigration
from Europe probably continuously since
the Romans, including the Saxons, the
French (the Norman Conquest in 1066),
waves of Huguenots, then Jews, and in the
20th century Afro-Caribbean and Asian
populations, followed more recently by
eastern Europeans after the expansion of the
European Union. This has led to London
becoming one of the most diverse and
multicultural capital cities in the world with
over 250 languages spoken.
It has long been recognized that London needs a service to complement the central
London Underground network, which is near capacity. As a result, London has
committed to build a major rail project, Crossrail, which will link rail services to the
east and to the west of London via a high-speed tunnel, and provide interchange
with the existing Underground network. It will connect major retail centers, the City
and Canary Wharf financial services centers, and Heathrow Airport with a highfrequency, highcapacity, convenient, and accessible train service across the capital
beginning in 2018.
In the 1980s, Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher famously said that a man over
twenty-six years of age who was still traveling by bus was a failure.
In the first years following the establishment of TfL, bus services were extensively
improved and frequencies increased. Mayor Ken Livingstone made it one of his
priorities to develop services and make journeys faster and more predictable by the
introduction of almost two hundred miles of dedicated bus lanes, giving priority to
buses over other traffic.
These European cases show that a green urban agenda need not be about
sacrifice or deprivation, but rather an opportunity for a more lively, livable, rich,
and healthy lifestyle with a smaller ecological footprint. It is possible to design
homes and businesses that use dramatically small amounts of energy yet
provide delightful living and working spaces, as seen in the many examples in
this book, from BedZED in London to Vauban in Freiburg.
1. European Sustainable Cities and Towns Campaign, “The Campaign,” accessed
May 4, 2011,
2. European Green Capital, “About the Award,” accessed May 9, 2010, http://ec
3. John Gallagher, Re-imagining Detroit: Opportunities for Redefining an
American City, Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 2010, 6.
4. Chris Turner, “Forget Sci-Fi Cities: Street-Level Livability Is a Better Way to
Urban Sustainability,” April 1, 2011, accessed May 4, 2011,
5. Kim Willshen, “Paris to Introduce Self Service Electric Car Scheme,”
Guardian, December 16, 2010.
6. Richard Louv, Last Child in the Woods: Saving Our Children from Nature Deficit
Disorder, Chapel Hill, NC: Algonquin, 2008.
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