The Era of Appleкод для вставки
THE ERA OF APPLE Apple Inc. (NASDAQ: AAPL) formerly Apple Computer, Inc. is an American multinational corporation that designs and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and personal computers. The company’s best-know hardware products are the Macintosh line of computers, the iPod, the iPhone and the iPad. Its software includes the Mac OS X operating system; the iTunes media browser; the iLife suite of multimedia and creativity software; the iWork suite of productivity software; Aperture, a professional photography package; Final Cut Studio, a suite of professional audio and film-industry software products; Logic Studio, a suite of music production tools; the Safari web browser; and iOS, a mobile operating system. In 2011 Apple had 357 retail stores in ten countries and an online store. It’s the largest publicly traded company in the world by market capitalization, overtopping Exxon Mobil by some $60 billion, as well as the largest technology company in the world by revenue and profit worth more than Google and Microsoft combined. In 2012 the company had 60,400 permanent full-time employees and 2,900 temporary full-time employees; its worldwide annual sales totaled $65.23 billion, growing to $108.249 billion in 2011. Fortune magazine named Apple the most admired company in the United States and in the world. However, the company has received widespread criticism for its contractor’s labour, and for its environmental and business practices. The company was named Apple Computer, Inc. for its first 30 years. The word “Computer” was removed from its name on January 9, 2007, as its traditional focus on personal computers shifted towards consumer electronics. Apple was established on April 1, 1976 by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak and Ronald Wayne to sell the Apple I personal computer kit. They were hand-build by Wozniak and first shown to the public at the Homebrew Computer Club. The Apple I was sold as a motherboard (with CPU, RAM, and basic textual-video chips) – less than what is today considered a complete personal computer. The Apple I went on sale on July 1976 and was market-priced at $666.66. The Apple II was introduced in 1977 at the first West Coast Computer Faire and differed from its major rivals, the TRS-80 and Commodore PET, because it came with character cell based colour graphics and an open architecture. While early models used ordinary cassette tapes as storage devices, they were superseded by the introduction of a floppy disk drive and interface, the Disk II. The Apple II was chosen to be the desktop platform for the first “killer app” of the business world – the VisiCalc spreadsheet programme VisiCalc created a business market for the Apple II. Apple exaggerated its sales figures and was a distant third place to Commodore and Tandy until VisiCalc came along. By the end of the 1970s, Apple had a staff of computer designers and a production line. The company introduced the ill-fated Apple III in May 1980 in an attempt to compete with IBM and Microsoft in the business and corporate computing market. Jobs and several Apple employees including Jef Raskin visited Xerox PARC in December 1979 to see the Xerox Alto. Xerox granted Apple engineers three days of access to the PARC facilities in return for the option to buy 100,000 shares of Apple at the pre-IPO price of $10 a share. Jobs was immediately convinced that all future computers would use a graphical user interface (GUI), and development of a GUI began for the Apple Lisa. When Apple went public, it generated more capital than any IPO since Ford Motor Company in 1956 and instantly created more millionaires than any company in history. At the Macworld Conference & Expo in January 2007, Steve Jobs revealed the long anticipated iPhone, a convergence of an Internet-enabled smartphone and iPod. The original iPhone combined a 2.5G quad band GSM and EDGE cellular phone with features found in hand held devices, running scaled-down versions of Apple’s Mac OS X ( dubbed iOS, formerly iPhone OS), with various Mac OS X applications such as Safari and Mail. It also includes web-based and Dashboard apps such as Google Maps and Weather. The iPhone features a 3.5-inch (89 mm) touch screen display, 4, 8, or 16 GB of memory, Bluetooth, and Wi-Fi (both “b” and “g”). The iPhone first became available on June 29, 2007 for $499 (4 GB) and $599 (8 GB) with an AT&T contact. On February 5, 2008, Apple updated the original iPhone to have 16 GB of memory, in addition to the 8 GB and 4 GB models. On June 9, 2008, at WWDC 2008, Steve Jobs announced that the iPhone 3G would be available on July 11, 2008. This version added support for 3G networking, assisted-GPS navigation, and a price cut to $199 for the 8 GB version, and $299 for the 16 GB version, which was available in both black and white. The new version was visually different from its predecessor in that it eliminated the flat silver back, and large antenna square for a curved glossy black or white back. Following complaints from many people, the headphone jack was changed from a recessed jack to a flush jack to be compatible with more styles of headphones. The software capabilities changed as well, with the release of the new iPhone cane the release of Apple’s App Store; the store provided applications for download that were compatible with the iPhone. On April 24, 2009, the App Store surpassed one billion downloads. On June 8, 2009, at Apple’s annual worldwide developers conference, the iPhone 3GS was announced, providing an incremental update to the device including faster internal components, support for faster 3G speeds, video recording capability, and voice control. On June 7, 2010, at WWDC 2010, the iPhone 4 was an- nounced, which Apple says is its “biggest leap we’ve taken” since the original iPhone. The phone includes an all-new design, 960x640 display, Apple’s A4 processor used in the iPad, a gyroscope for enhanced gaming, 5MP camera with LED flash, front-facing VGA camera and Face Time video calling. Shortly after the release of the iPhone 4, it was realized by consumers that the new iPhone had reception issues. This is due to the stainless steel band around the edge of the device, which also serves as the phones cellular signal and Wi-Fi antenna. The current fix for this issue was a “Bumper Case” for the phone distributed for free to all iPhone 4 owners for a few months. In June 2011, Apple overtook Nokia to become the world’s biggest smartphone maker by volume. On January 17, 2011, Jobs announced in an internal Apple memo that he would take another medical leave of absence, for an indefinite period, to allow him to focus on his health. Chief operating officer Tim Cook took up Job’s day-to-day operations at Apple, although Jobs would still remain “involved in major strategic decisions for the company.” Apple became the most valuable consumer-facing brand in the world. In June 2011, Steve Jobs surprisingly took the stage and unveiled iCloud. iCloud is an online storage and syncing service for music, photos, files and software which replaced MobileMe, Apple’s previous attempt at content syncing. This would be the last product launch Jobs would attend before his death. It has been argued that Apple has achieved such efficiency in its supply chain that the company operates as a monopsony (one buyer, many sellers), in that it can dictate terms to its suppliers. Briefly in July 2011, due to the debt-ceiling crisis, Apple’s financial reserves were greater than those of the US Government. On August 24, 2011, Jobs resigned his position as CEO of Apple. He was replaced by Tim Cook and Jobs became Apple’s chairman. Prior to this, Apple did not have a chairman and instead had two co-lead directors, Andrea Jung and Arthur D. Levinson, who continued with those titles until Levinson became Chairman of the Board in November. On October, 2011, Apple announced the iPhone 4S, which includes an improved camera with 1080p video recording, a dual core A5 chip capable of 7 times faster graphics than the A4, an “intelligent software assistant” named Siri, and cloud-sourced data with iCloud. On October 5, 2011, Apple announced that Jobs had died, marking the end of an era for Apple Inc. The iPhone 4S, which was released in the United States, Canada, Australia, United Kingdom, France, Germany, and Japan on October 14, 2011, with other countries set to follow later in the year. This was the first iPhone model to feature the Apple A5 chip, as well as the first offered on the Sprint network. On October 19, 2011, Apple announced an agreement with C Spire Wireless to sell the iPhone 4S with that carrier in the near future, marking the first time the iPhone was officially supported on a regional carrier’s network. On October 29, 2011, Apple purchased C3 Technologies, a mapping company, for $240 million. C3 is the third mapping company Apple has purchased so far. On January 10, 2012, Apple acquired Anobit, an Israeli hardware company that developed and supplies a proprietary memory signal processing technology that improves the performance of flash-memory used in iPhones and iPads for $390 million. Another notable feature of the iPhone 4S was Siri voice assistant technology, which Apple had acquired as well as other features, including an updated 8 megapixel camera with new optics. Apple sold 4 million iPhone 4S phones in the first three days after its release, which made it not only the best iPhone launch in Apple’s history, but the most-successful launch of any mobile phone ever. In his biography Steve Jobs stated that he wanted to reinvent the textbook and education. And on January 19, 2012, Apple’s Phil Schiller introduced iBooks Textbooks for iOS and iBook Author for Mac OS X in New York. This was the first major announcement by Apple since the passing of Steve Jobs.