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35.Словообразование в английском языке Методические указания

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации
Ярославский государственный университет им. П.Г. Демидова
Кафедра иностранных языков
Словообразование
в английском языке
Методические указания
Ярославль 2004
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
ББК
Ш 143.21-2я73
С 48
Составитель: ассист. кафедры иностр. языков Н.К. Мастакова
Словообразование в английском языке: Методические указания / Сост.
Н.К. Мастакова; Яросл. гос. ун-т. Ярославль, 2004. 28 c.
Приводятся таблицы словообразовательных суффиксов и префиксов, а
также упражнения.
Предназначено для студентов, обучающихся по дисциплине "Английский
язык" (блок ГСЭ), специальностям 010100 Математика и 010200 Прикладная
математика и информатика, очной формы обучения, и аспирантов факультетов
ИВТ и Математики.
Рецензент - кафедра иностранных языков Ярославского государственного
университета им. П.Г. Демидова.
 Ярославский государственный университет, 2004
 Н.К. Мастакова, 2004
Учебное издание
Словообразование в английском языке
Составитель: Мастакова Наталья Константиновна
Редактор, корректор А.А. Антонова
Компьютерная верстка С.И. Савинской
Подписано в печать 27.05.2004 г. Формат 60×84/16. Бумага тип.
Усл. печ. л. 1,63. Уч.-изд. л. 1,03. Тираж 100 экз. Заказ
.
Оригинал-макет подготовлен в редакционно-издательском отделе ЯрГУ.
Отпечатано на ризографе.
Ярославский государственный университет.
150000 Ярославль, ул. Советская, 14.
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Таблицы словообразовательных
суффиксов и префиксов
Суффиксы существительных
Значение суффикса
Суффиксы деятеля
Суффиксы со значением
качества, свойства,
состояния, процесса
действия, результата
действия
Суффикс со значением
количества, вмещающемся в чем-либо
Суффиксы (полусуффиксы) с обозначением
названий наук, отраслей
знаний, занятий какимлибо предметом
Суффиксы, имеющие
значение уменьшительности, иногда обладающие ласкательным
или пренебрежительным
оттенком
Суффикс
-er(or)
-ee
-ist
-man
-ian(-an, -n)
-ant(-ent)
-eer(-ier)
-ess
-ness
-ity(-ty)
-ship
-hood
-dom
-ment
-ion(-tion, ation, sion)
-ing
-age
-ance(-ence)
-cy
-ery(-ry)
-ism
-ture(sure)
-th
-ful
Примеры
Teacher, programmer
examinee
journalist
policeman
mathematician, American
participant, student
volunteer, financier
actress
likeness
productivity, certainty
friendship
boyhood
freedom
management
separation, explosion
processing
storage
assistance, difference
efficiency
bravery, dentistry
humanism
pressure, literature
length, width
armful of books
-ics
physics
-logy
biology
-graphy
oceanography
-ie(-y)
doggie, sonny
-let
toothlet
-ette
kitchenette
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Суффиксы прилагательных
Значение суффикса
Не имеющий, лишенный чего-либо,
невозможность совершения действия
Обладающий качеством, степень качества
Качество, признак, неполная степень
качества, национальность
Пассивное значение, значение признака, причинности
Относящийся к чему-либо, связанный
с чем-либо
Значение состава, структуры, отношения к чему-либо
Значение отношения
Обладающий качеством
Значение отношения
Суффикс
-less
Примеры
faultless
-ful, -y, ed
joyful, stormy, gloved
-ish
girlish, whitish, British
-able(-ible)
drinkable, suitable
-ary(-ory)
elementary, compulsory
-ic
economic, historic
-al(-ical)
-ous
-ive
Наличие свойства или качества
Значение подробности, похожести,
черт особенности чего-либо
Значение подробности, похожести,
периодичности
Значение отношения к геогр. названиям, относительности
Членность
Количество граней
Способность выражать размеренность
Признак кратности
Количество сторон
Количество мест, пунктов и т.д.
Качество, признак
-tuple
-like
economical, musical
religious, famous
Progressive, constructive
n-tuple
businesslike, babylike
-ly
weekly, timely
-an
(-ian, - ean)
-nomial
-hedral
-dimensional
-fold
-sided
-place
-some
African, agrarian
polynomial
polyhedral
three-dimensional
manyfold
two-sided
seven-place logarithms
troublesome
Суффиксы наречий
Значение суффикса, образование
От основ существительных
От основ причастий
От основ прилагательных
Значение, сходное со значением исходного
наречия
«-обрáзно»
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Суффикс
-ly
-ly
-ly
-ward(s)
Примеры
daily
hurriedly
quickly
forward(s)
-wise
otherwise
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Cуффиксы глаголов
Значение суффикса
Становиться, приобретать какое-либо качество
Значение действия
Значение действия
Процесс перехода в состояние
Суффикс
-ize(-ise)
Примеры
modernize
-fy
-ate
-en
exemplify
associate
lengthen
Префиксы
Значение префикса
Отрицательное, отсутствие качества
Уничтожение, лишение, разделение
Противоположное действие, удаление, обратное, взаимное действие
Префикс+перевод
Unне-, бесIn- (il-,im-,ir-)
не-, аDisраз-, неMisнеNonне-, без
DeдеAntiантиCounterпротивоПрефиксы, выражающие отношения Outместа, времени, степени, а также
перепревышение, превосходство, избыExtraток чего-либо, расположенный вне
экстра-, внечего-либо, недостаточность, непол- Ultraнота, взаимодействие, предшествосверх-, крайневание, последовательность
TransтрансOverпереSuperсверх-, пере-, надUnderнедоSubпод-
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Примеры
Unprofessional
uncover
Illogical, inattentive,
irregularity, improper
dissatisfaction, disconnect,
disagreeable
misfortune, mistrust
Non-transportable,
non-admission
Decode, detrain
Antimoral, antifreeze
Counteract, counterblow
outsider, outlive
extraterritorial
ultrasonic, ultra-abstract
transcontinental, transform
overdrink, overhead,
superprofit, supersonic
under-clerk, underdose
submarine, substructure
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Значение префикса
Повторяемость
Взаимность
«Бывший»
Приверженность
Префикс
Interвзаимо-, межPreдо-, пред-, заранее
PostпослеReпере-, сноваCoсовместный,
одинаково
Exбывший
Proпро-
Примеры
interconnect, interurban
pre-exist, pre-Christian
post-war, post-Roman
rebuild, refresh
coact, co-worker
ex-officer, ex-student
pro-American, pro-rector
Префиксы, наиболее часто встречающиеся
в науке и технике
Значение префикса
Отсутствие, противоположное качество
Двусторонность
Самостоятельность
Главенство
Описанный, относящийся к границе
Против, в противоположность
Тайный, скрытный
Половина чего-либо
Прохождение сквозь чего-либо
Положение внутри или движение внутрь
Равенство, приравнивание, постоянство
Расположение на, над, около или вблизи
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Префикс + перевод
A-, abбез-, аAmphiдвуAutoавто-, самоArchарх(и), пра
CircumContraпротиво-, контра
Cryptтайно, крипт(о)
Demiполу-, демиDiaдиаEndoэндоEquiравно-, эквиEpiэпи-
Примеры
Abnormal,
ahistoric
amphibious
autocode
archdeacon
circumscribe
contraposition
cryptogram
demilune
diameter
endothermal
equiangular
epicycle
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Значение префикса
Положение вне, движение наружу
Относящийся к Земле
Половина чего-либо
Разнородность, различие
В целом, полностью
Сходство, однородность
Больше, сверх, превышающий норму
Связь с отношениями под, ниже, меньше
Положение ниже, под чем-либо
На внутренней стороне, внутри
Большой охват в целом
Плохой, неправильный
Положение между, среди, за пределами
Крайняя малость в ед. измерения в миллионную долю
Средний, серединный
Единичный
Префикс + перевод
Exoвне-, экзоGeoгеоHemiполуHeteroгетероHoloголоHomoгомо-, одноHyperгипер-, сверхHypoгипоInfraниже-, под-, инфраIntraвнутри-, интраMacroмакроMalнеMetaметаMicroмикроMidMonoмоноMultiмульти-, многоNeoнеоNilнуль-, нильOrthoорто-, прямоPanвсе-
Много
Новое, современное
Отрицательное значение
Прямой
Все
7
Примеры
exothermal
geometry
hemisphere
heterotypical
holomorph
homogenous
hyperbola
hypotenuse
infranatural
Intra-atomic
macroscopic
malfunction
metacentre
micrometer
Midcoefficient
monotone
multipole
neofield
nilgroup
orthogonal
panorama
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Вокруг
Значение префикса
Множество
Ложный
Выражает направленность действия на
первоначальный объект, самопроизвольность
Половина
Движение вверх, подъем, полнота действия
Префикс + перевод
PeriвокругPolyполиPseudoпсевдо-, ложноSelfсамо-, авто-
Примеры
periscope
Semiполуup-
Semi-axis
Polynomial
pseudocomplex
Selfconjugate
upkeep
Префиксы, обозначающие латинские цифры
Единое целое
Двойной, дважды, в двух направлениях
Тройной
Четыре
Пять
Шесть
Восемь
Девять
Десять, десятая часть
Двенадцать, двенадцатая часть
8
UniодноBiдвуTriтри, треQuadriчетырехPentaпятиHexaшестиOctвосьмиNonдевятиDeca-, deciдесятиDodecaдвенадцати-
unilateral
bilingual
triangle
quadratic
pentagon
hexagon
octagonal
nonagonal
Decagon, decimal
dodecagon
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Revision: Nouns with the suffixes: -er (or), -ee, -ist,
-man, -ian (-an, -n), -ant (-ent), -eer (-ier), -ess.
1. Try to guess, what occupations these words name:
сoachman, programmer, composer, governess, fisherman, fruiteress,
cowman, laundress.
2. Match the synonyms:
occupant
watcher
observer
resident
proprietor
guardian
president
possessor
keeper
chairman
servant
craftsman
worker
attendant
ruler
dictator
partner
assistant
helper
participant
opposer
antagonist
applicant
rider
horseman
petitioner
follower
partisan
artist
painter
3. Translate and point out the words with the given suffixes:
1) Программисты нашей фирмы разработали новую систему обработки информации.
2) В конференции принимали участие представители различных
профессий: врачи, фотографы, рабочие, художники, продавцы и другие.
3) Наш университет готовит экономистов, историков, археологов,
физиков, математиков, геологов, филологов, журналистов.
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Revision: Nouns with the suffixes
-ness, -ity, -ty, -ship, -hood, -dom.
1. Form the words, using the given suffixes:
формальность (formal), равенство (equal), простота (simple),
красота (beauty), гражданство (citizen), авторство (author), свобода
(free), соседство (neighbour), мир книг (book).
2. Match the synonyms:
cheerfulness
generosity
darkness
familiarity
closeness
absurdity
clearness
fullness
greatness
hostility
illness
infirmity
kindness
safety
magnanimity
gaiety
obscurity
familiarity
likeness
completeness
silliness
security
clarity
enmity
immensity
goodness
weakness
sickness
3. Translate and point out the words with the given suffixes:
1) The students are to study the uniqueness property at the lesson.
2) Another advantage of a computer is reliability.
3) She was about to realize the dream of her childhood, girlhood, womanhood.
4) Nothing is known of the authorship of the book.
5) Every equation has a sign of equality.
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Revision: Nouns with the suffixes
-ment, -ion, -tion, -ation, -sion, -ing.
1. Form the words, using the given suffixes:
регулирование (adjust), деление (divide), умножение (multiply),
вычитание (subtract), программирование (program), управление (run),
сохранение (save).
2. Match the synonyms:
understanding
liberation
leaving
adaptment
learning
separation
position
statement
examination
entertainment
amelioration
feeling
agitation
announcement
administration
evacuation
adjustment
emancipation
comprehension
declaration
standing
isolation
instruction
sensation
amusement
investigation
improvement
government
excitement
advertisement
3. Translate and point out the words with the given suffixes:
1) An axiom is a statement generally accepted without proof.
2) Subtraction is the inverse operation of addition.
3) Four steps that any computer uses in doing its job are:
а) inputting of data into the computer,
b) processing of the data that has been input,
c) storage of data,
d) production of some kind of useful information.
4) Division is the reverse operation of multiplication.
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Revision: Nouns with the suffixes
-ance, (-ence), -cy, -age, -ery (-ry), -ism, -ture (sure), -th.
1. Form the words, using the given suffixes:
применение (apply), руководство (guide), лесоводство (forest),
гуманизм (human), хранилище (store), драгоценности (jewel), родословная (parent), клиентура (client), абсолютизм (absolute),
литература, длина.
2. Match the synonyms:
аssemblage
gathering
bondage
shortness
carriage
portion
dosage
imprisonment
lineage
protection
passage
extraction
parentage
succession
pilgrimage
transportation
storage
travelling
shortage
accumulation
3. Match the antonyms:
collectivism
materialism
rightism
atheism
abstractivism
communism
conservatism
humanism
revolutionism
idealism
leftism
individualism
realism
capitalism
religionism
barbarism
progressivism
evolutionism
4. Translate and point out the words with the given suffixes:
1) We cannot find the circumference of a circle by adding the measure
of the segments.
2) The ratio of the distance to time must be stated first of all.
3) The main storage of a computer is called the memory.
4) Bankruptcy is typical of many banks nowadays.
5) Slavery is definitely a thing of mediaevalism.
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6) They will solve the equation provided they know the pressure of
water.
7) So that to find the area of the square one should know its length and
width.
8) We can say that 20 = 4.5 approximately (to the nearest tenth).
9) The first level in a multilevel directory is the root directory, which is
created automatically when you format a disk and start putting files on it.
Revision: Nouns with the suffixes
-ful, -ics, -logy, -graphy, -ie (-y), -let, -ette.
1. Form the words, using the given suffixes:
весь город (town), «полные» руки (arm), «полный» дом (house),
«полная» сумка (bag).
2. Translate and point out the given suffixes:
метафизика, социология, динамика, кибернетика, математика,
геометрия, птичка, облачко, собачка, сыночек.
3. Translate and point out the words with the given prefixes:
1) Until 1940, developments in electronics took place at a comparatively slow pace.
2) Miranda saw Jane taking armfuls of floppy discs out of the drawer
of her table.
3) We all know that our present age is the age of revolution in science
and technology.
4) The success of quantum mechanics, molecular biology, to say nothing of cybernetics, are also great.
5) Press this small buttonlet and your computer will work.
Revision: Adjectives with the
suffixes -less, -ful, -y, -ed.
1. Form the words, using the given suffixes:
без удобств (comfort), полезный (help), шумный (noise), недвижимый (motion), в форме (uniform), много народа (crowd), волевой (will),
в очках (spectacles), безвкусный (taste), значимый (meaning), мечтательный (dream).
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2. Match the synonyms:
bold
sinless
honest
blameless
innocent
artless
weak
boundless
pale
fearless
vast
colourless
useless
needless
quiet
lifeless
correct
pitiless
cruel
noiseless
dead
faultless
helpless
defenceless
clean
spotless
careless
cheerless
gloomy
thoughtless
capable
shameful
cold
weighty
experienced
rich
successful
dirty
sad
cheerful
careful
dark
poor
well
sly
pleasant
hard
terrible
disgraceful
necessary
heavy
fruitful
skilled
muddy
gloomy
needy
thoughtful
joyful
dusky
lucky
foxy
healthy
stony
delightful
fearful
gifted
needful
frosty
3. Translate and point out the words with the given prefixes:
1) These diagrams may prove helpful.
2) Division by 0 is meaningless.
3) We consider these data very helpful.
4) The hackers went on doing their risky business breaking banks’
payment systems.
5) The computer was installed by the curtained window to prevent it
from direct rays of the sun.
6) The most talented students get special scholarships while the course
of study.
Revision: Adjectives with the suffixes
-ish, -able (-ible), -ary (-ory), -ic, -al, -ical.
1. Form the words, using the given suffixes:
плосковатый (flat), временный (temp), такой, на который можно
ответить (answer), атомный (atom), алгебраический (algebra), интеллектуальный (intellect), теоретический (theory), водянистый (water),
экономический (economy), противоречивый (contradict), подходящий
(suit), экономный (economy), такой, который можно выбрать (choose).
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2. Answer the following questions:
1) What breakable things are there on your table?
2) Attendance at the university is obligatory, isn’t i?
3) What physical laws do you know?
4) What is a documentary film?
5) Have you got a portable computer?
6) What people do we call childish?
7) Do you consider your handwriting readable?
8) What are the basic operations of arithmetic?
3. Translate and point out the words with the given prefixes:
A computer is made of a number of different electronic circuits.
A computer contains several digital circuits.
Today the types of computers available are as varied as the types of
musical instruments.
Having fixed the sharp end of a compass he drew a curved line.
Suddenly there appeared several reddish lines on the screen.
We find arithmetic and geometry to have become one single mathematical system.
At first you may think that the grammar rules of your mother tongue
are more sensible than the rules of any other language.
Revision: Adjectives with the suffixes
-ous, -ive, -like, -ly, -tuple, an (-an, -ean)
1. Form the words with the given suffixes:
нервный (nerve), шекспировский (Shakespeare), воинственный
(war), доброжелательный (kind), богоподобный (god), привлекательный (attract), африканский (Africa), дружеский (friend), смертельный
(dead), европейский (Europe), отцовский (father).
2. Answer the following questions:
1) What can be circle-like?
2) Do you know any monthly magazines on computers and programming?
3) What American brands of software do you know?
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4) Why is it necessary to be very attentive and careful while working
on publicly available PCs?
5) Why are computer viruses considered to be so dangerous?
3. Translate and point out the words with the given prefixes:
1) In problems dealing with abstract numbers, negative answers are
just as acceptable as positive ones.
2) What is the average programmer’s monthly wage?
3) The machine translation of the 60es contained 1,2% untranslated
words and 6,3% multiple meanings.
4) John is an ambitious boy, he wants to be as famous as Bill Gates.
5) It is very important to look businesslike while applying for a job.
Revision. Adjectives with the suffixes: -dimensional,
-fold, -nomial, -hedral, -sided, -place, -some.
Translate and point out the words with the gives suffixes:
1. Suppose there were a space of such a nature that four members, or
five, or eighteen, are absolutely required to locate a fixed point in it. That
would be 4-dimensional space, or 5-dimensional space, or 18-dimensional
space. Such spaces don’t exist in the universe, but mathematicians can imagine such “hyperspaces” and work out what the properties of mathematical figures in such mathematical spaces would be. This is n-dimensional
geometry.
2. Holomorph is a holohedral crystal which has the full number of
faces for perfect symmetry.
3. Terms of a polynomial are separate expressions which form the polynomial by the aid of the + and – signs.
4. Any four-sided plane figure can be called a quadrilateral.
5. What do you know about one-place predicate calculus?
6. What a tiresome being is a man who is fond of talking!!!
Revision : Adverbs with the suffixes -ly, -ward(s).
1. Form the adverbs, using the given suffixes:
быстро (quick), по-джентельменски (gentleman), едва (bare),
от души (heart), по ночам (night), естественно (natural), назад (back),
осторожно (careful), в идеале (ideal), вообще (general), общепризнанно
(admitted).
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2. Match the synonyms:
likely
rudely
cruelly
closely
clearly
kindly
seriously
hardly
awfully
immediately
truly
mainly
regularly
openly
pleasantly
legally
sharply
firmly
thoughtlessly
noticeably
brutally
nearly
brightly
probably
roughly
gently
barely
dreadfully
gravely
directly
loyally
publicly
agreeably
lawfully
systematically
principally
keenly
steadily
carelessly
distinguishably
3. Translate and point out the words with the given suffixes:
1) The problem is being solved successfully.
2) Levin, who was system administrator at AO Saturn, a St. Petersburg software house, allegedly has been advised by his attorney not to
speak to the press.
3) The system allows Citibank customers to initiate their own fund
transfers to other banks; its daily turnover being approximately $500 billion.
4) No matter how short an arc is, it is curved at least slightly.
5) The scientist put forward a very interesting idea how to find a reliable method of detecting errors.
6) If the programme is correct, the results are sure to give correct answers to the original programme; otherwise, the programme will have to
be amended and presented again to the computer.
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Revision: Verbs with the suffixes -ize(ise), -fy, -ate, en.
1. Form the verbs, using the given suffixes:
терроризировать (terror), классифицировать (class), рационализировать (rational), углублять (deep), упрощать (simple), характеризировать (character), суммировать (sum), укреплять (strength), олицетворять (person).
2. Find the verbs with the suffix –ate, having the same root as the following words:
Participation, circulation, communication, irritation, indication, dedication.
3. Match the words from «А» to «В»:
«А» complicate, pollute, separate, please, establish;
«В» purify, simplify, horrify, nullify, unify.
4. Match the synonyms:
oppress
systematize
notice
tyrannize
praise
individualize
mark
authorize
calm
tranquilize
free
accumulate
disturb
calculate
show
demonstrate
explain
illustrate
divide
create
start
separate
send
delegate
arrange
allow
concentrate
humanize
agree
gather
count
rouse
predict
make
ask
recognize
localize
civilize
panegyrize
harmonize
agitate
liberate
stimulate
anticipate
initiate
interrogate
5. Translate and point out the words with the given suffixes:
1) Multiplier is the number by which we multiply.
2) It is necessary to summarize all the known facts.
3) The lecturer asked the students to formulate the new method of research.
4) Do the coming examinations frighten you?
5) The problem has been to simplify the procedure under consideration.
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6) Most students soon learn that a program designates a sequence of
events and that these events take place on the same order as the instructions are set out in the program.
Revision: The words with the prefixes
un-, in- (il-, im-, ir-), dis-, mis-.
1. Form the words, using the given prefixes:
несправедливый (just), невнимательный (attentive), неспособный
(able), разоружение (armament), косвенный (direct), раскрывать (cover), ошибаться в расчете (calculate), не нравиться (like), безответственный (responsible), неправильно адресовать (address), неудовлетворение (satisfaction), неправильное употребление (usage), не верить (believe), безоблачный (clouded), расстегнуть (button), нелогичный
(logical), необычный (usual), несчастливый (happy).
2. Match the synonyms:
uneasy
eventless
unending
baseless
unknown
boundless
unlucky
needless
unpractical
useless
immovable
uneducated
illiterate
firm
impolite
rude
inexperienced
unlikely
involuntary
forced
uneventful
unfounded
unlimited
unnecessary
unproductive
immortal
immoderate
improbable
invaluable
irresolute
restless
endless
nameless
luckless
fruitless
excessive
eternal
ignorant
priceless
weak
3. Arrange the words in synonymic groups:
dislike, disability, disarrange, disburden, disloyal, disorderly, distasteful, disapproval, disorder, incapacity, inability, unfaithful, unburden, unruly, untidy, disagreeable, displeasure, unsettle, incapability, unload, untrue,
unmanageable, unpleasant.
4. Translate and point out the words with the given prefixes:
1) What are the advantages and the disadvantages of the binary numeration system?
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2) The rule is inapplicable in this case.
3) As a matter of fact, 20 represents an irrational number which can
only be expressed approximately as a rational number.
4) Fractions which name a number equal to or greater than 1 are called
improper fractions.
5) Reducing the fraction to its lowest terms leaves it unchanged.
6) We ought to discuss every detail lest there should be a misunderstanding.
7) Citibank claims it recovered most of the approximately $10 mln. in
illegal transfers.
Revision: Prefixes non-, de-, anti-, counter-.
1. Form the words, using the given prefixes:
безалкогольный (alcohol), неприбытие (arrival), контраргумент
(argument), некурящий (smoker), антифриз (freeze), противошумный
(noise), немузыкальный (musical), контрмера (measure), антивоенный
(war), неофициальный (official), контрзаговор (counter), раскодировать (code), противодействовать (act), размораживать (freeze), аморальный (moral), непьющий (drinker).
2. Match the synonyms:
unbeliever
unsuccess
unload
irregular
innumerable
disorder
distrust
misspend
nonviolent
nondemocratic
non-moral
unmask
failure
discharge
nonbeliever
numerous
occasional
mistrust
mess
waste
undemocratic
peaceful
reveal
immoral
3. Translate and point out the words with the given prefixes:
1) Teenagers were allowed to use Internet non-stop as it was a special
day of the Internet Café.
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2) Nowadays all the people dealing with computers are worried about
the harm computer viruses can do to their systems. They are trying to find
the way how to counteract the affect of computer viruses.
3) Scientists themselves become all the more acutely aware of the restrictions imposed upon them in practice by monopoly interests and in
theory by anti-scientific ideas.
4) DataFiles/16 compressed files, but when decompressed, those files
bore no resemblance to their originals.
5) Sometimes it is very difficult to deal with non-bootable partitions.
6) The current working directory is often called the default directory.
Revision: Prefixes out-, extra-, ultra-, trans-.
1. Form the words, using the given prefixes:
надворное строение, сарай (house), не поддающийся физическим
законам (physical), превышающий человеческие возможности (human), крайне умеренный (moderate), обогнать (drive), аутсайдер (sider), перемещать (locate), трансокеанский (ocean), ультрасовременный
(modern), внеаудиторный (curricular), искренний, открытый (spoken),
сверхскромный (modest), видоизменять (transfigure), уходящий
(going), не поддающийся научному объяснению (scientific).
2. Give the Russian equivalents:
extra-temporal activities, extra-professional duties, ultrasonic speed,
an ultracomplex equation, an ultrawealthy person, a transpacific liner,
transplantation of organs, to transplace furniture.
3. Translate and point out the given prefixes:
1) He moved slowly towards his computer, his arms outstretched.
2) Ultrahigh temperature is necessary for conduction of certain chemical reactions.
3) Nowadays most technical inventions demonstrate extraordinary
production potentialities and capacity.
4) The hackers conducted transactions during New York business
hours so that not to raise alarms.
5) The output from a program may be printed and/or written to a file.
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Revision: Prefixes over-, super-, hyper-.
1. Form the words with the given prefixes and translate:
оказывать очень большое давление (press), гиперактивный (active), сверхзанятый (busy), чрезмерно высокая оценка (value), сверхсенсация, колоссальный хит (hit), супермен (man), оценивать слишком высоко (estimate), сверхчувствительный (sensitive), сверхурочная
работа (work).
2. Answer the following questions:
1) When do you put on an overcoat?
2) Do you often oversleep?
3) What do you usually do so that not to overload your computer with
information?
4) What do you understand by the term “hypercomplex”?
5) What is a supercomputer?
6) Do scientists believe in supernatural forces? Why?
3. Translate and point out the words with the given prefixes:
1) A powerful stimulus of further advancement is the constantly growing intellectual potential of our supercomputers and robotics complexes of
the fifth generation.
2) Nowadays planes can fly with supersonic speed.
3) We were overcharged for the speakers we had bought.
4) Our lecturer asked us to give the definition of a hypercube
5) A computer is really a very specific kind of counting hypermachine.
6) In the 20th century scientists have done a lot to investigate distant
stars, quasars, supergravity.
Revision: Prefixes under-, sub-, inter-, pre-, post-.
1. Form the words with the given prefixes and translate:
младший сотрудник (clerk), подповерхностный (surface), доисторический (historic), подкласс (class), неполная занятость (employment),
послеполуденный (meridian), лежащий под ногами (foot), недостаточная доза (dose), межрегиональный (regional), расположение сзади (position), заранее планировать (arrange), недоразвитый (developed),
метро (way), находящийся между двумя городами (urban), постледниковый (glacial), взаимно связывать (connect).
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2. Paraphrase and translate:
а university student who has not yet graduated, to sell things at a lower price than, to pay insufficiently, nearly central, a subordinate language,
an assistant inspector, a station subordinate to another station, act of mutually changing, to link together, to place between or among, mutual relation, to communicate mutually, to limit previously, to recommend before,
to notify in advance, a person who has already graduated from the university, but continues studying and works on his degree.
3. Translate and point out the words with the given prefixes:
1) The point of intersection is a point where the lines cross on a plane.
2) It often becomes profitable to have a library of subroutines available to the programmer, stored at all times in some part of the computer.
3) The lecturer checked our precalculated figures, necessary for solving the problem.
4) Some of our students took part in post-synchronization of a scientific movie.
5) Unfortunately, during the war-time many people remained undereducated.
6) The circuit does not just react in a fixed, pre-programmed way to an
input signal to produce an output signal.
Revision: Prefixes re-, co-, ex-, pro-.
1. From the words with the given prefixes:
перегружать (load), кокатегория (category), перегруппировать
(arrange), бывший студент (student), проевропейский (European),
одинаково бесконечный (finite), проректор (rector), восстанавливать
(cover), бывший сотрудник (employee), сотрудничать (operate),
бывший солдат (soldier), косвязанный (connected), заново собирать
(assemble).
2. Paraphrase and translate:
To conduct back, to develop again, second examination, to construct
again, new valuation.
The education of students of both sexes, to live in peace with each
other, a former director, a former chairman, a former president.
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3. Find the words with the prefix pro- for the words with the prefix anti-:
anti-war
anti-republican
anti-fascist
anti-clerical
anti-humananti-scientific
anti-parliamentary
anti-foreign
4. Translate and point out the words with the following prefixes:
1) If you do not reload you computer, this error will appear again and
again.
2) Peaceful coexistance – is what people all over the world really
need.
3) Most breaches of banks’ management systems are committed with
the help from the inside, including present and ex-employees, vendors and
contractors.
4) Nowadays one can find a lot of pro-American articles and web-sites
in the Internet.
5) The difference between a typerwriter and computer keyboard is that
computer has special additional control keys, among them the escape key,
the altmode key, the break key, the return key and some others.
6) Because you can put files in different directories, you and your coworkers can have files with the same names, but with unrelated content.
Revision: Prefixes a- (ab-), amphi-, arch-, auto-.
Match these word combinations and terms with the suitable definitions:
1. Abnormal profits
2. Amphibolous answer
3. Amphibious car
4. Archimandrite
5. Arch-father
6. Autoregulation
7. Automobile
a) the supervisor of the monastery, who
presides over more than one monastery
b) a vehicle, which can go both by land and
by water
c) a car
d) self-regulation
e) the Lord
f) an ambiguous reply, that has more than
1 meaning
g) very big benefit
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Revision: Prefixes circum-, contra-, crypt(o)-.
Match these word combinations and terms with the suitable definitions:
1. Circumsphere
a) против часовой стрелки
2. Circumvolution
b) фальшивое имя
3. Circumrotation
c) антитеза
4. Contra-rotation
d) вращение вокруг своей оси
5. Contraclockwise
e) периметр
6. Contraposition
f) описанная сфера
7. Circumference
g) вращение в противоположном
направлении
8. Cryptosystem
h) система тайнописи
9. Cryptonym
i) извилина, изгиб
Revision: Prefixes demi-, hemi-.
Match these word combinations and terms with the suitable definitions:
1. demigod
a) half the earth
2. demi-official letter
b) partly divine being
3. demi-pension
c) divide into 2
4. hemicircle
d) half of the group
5. hemisect
e) to get only breakfast and dinner as meals
6. hemigroup
f) a half-formal message
7. hemisphere
g) half of a circle
Revision: Prefixes dia-, endo-,
equi, epi-, exo-.
Match these word combinations and terms with the suitable definitions:
1. Equiangular
a) (a straight line) joining two non-adjacent angles
of rectilineal figure or solid contained by planes
b) a straight line drawn through the centre of a circle
2. Equiform
and dividing the circle into two equal parts
3. Equilateral
c) of the same kind
4. Eqimultiple
d) existence in the outer space or on another planet
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5. Diagonal line
6. Exothermic
7. Homogeneous
8. Epicycle
9. Exolife
10. Diameter
e) a numeral, having a common factor with the other
numerals
f) having the same measure of the angles
g) having the same linear measure
h) a circle the centre of which moves along the
circumference of a greater circle.
i) objects, having the same shape
j) a process accompanied by the calorification
of heat
Revision: Prefixes geo-, hetero-,
holo-, homo-, hypo-.
Translate these sentences and point out the words with the given prefixes:
1) A rectangle is a closed geometric figure having 4 sides and 4 right
angles.
2) A term heterogeneous means that some substance is not of a uniform composition; showing different properties in different positions.
3) A holomorph is a holohedral crystal which has the full number of
faces for perfect symmetry.
4) Homogenize means to make something more digestible by breaking
up the fat droplets into smaller particles.
5) A hypocycloid is the curve traced out by a mark on the circumference of a circle which rolls on the inside of the circumference of a fixed
circle.
6) A hypotenuse is the side opposite the right angle in a right triangle.
Revision: Prefixes intra-, infra-, macro-, micro-.
Match these word combinations and terms with the suitable definitions:
1. infrared stars.
a) beyond red end of spectrum
2. intra-molecular forces b) forces within the molecule
3. microelectronics.
c) an instrument for measuring distant objects
4. a micrometer
d) visible to naked eye.
5. macrobiotic cooking
e) within one nation
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6. infrastructure
7. infrared
8. intranational
9. macroscopic
f) a system of airfields, telecommunications,
and public services forming a basis for
defence
g) celestial bodies whose principal emission
is infrared radiation
h) a branch of science which deals with
production and usage of tiny devices
i) vegetarian cuisine
Revision: Prefixes uni-, bi-, tri-, quadri-, penta-,
hexa-, oct-, non-, deca-, deci-, dodeca-.
Translate these words and make up sentences:
unilateral, bilingual, triangle, quadratic, pentagon, hexagon, octagon,
nonagonal, decagon, decimal, dodecagon.
Revision: Prefixes mal-, meta-, mono-, poly-.
Match these word combinations and terms with the following definitions:
1. a monographer
a) a point of intersection of the vertical through
the centre of buoyancy of a floating body
with the vertical through the new centre ob
buoyancy when the body is slightly displaced
2. malfunctioning
b) to deal with somebody in a rude way
3. metaphysical
c) a vehicle having just one wheel
4. a monomial
d) a disorder in the process, by which nutritive
material is built up into living matter
5. to maltreat
e) the author of a literary work
6. a metacentre
f) a faultiness in work
7. a polygon
g) based on abstract general reasoning,
over-subtle, supernatural
8. monogamy
h) an algebraic expression whose last operation
in point of order is neither addition nor
subtraction, an expression consisting of
a single term
9. a metabolic disease
i) not properly regulated or installed
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10. maladjusted
11. a monocycle
j) a plane figure having any number of sides
and angles
k) being married to one at a time
Revision: Prefixes: neo-, ortho-, pseud(o)-,
self-, semi-, up-.
Match the word combinations and terms with suitable dedinitions:
1. orthogonal projection
a) half of the circle
2. upkeep
b) a ficticious name, especially one adopted
by a writer, artist or doctor
3. self-opinionated
c) to upgrade, modernize
4. pseudonym
d) a projection, made by lines drawn at right
angles to the plane on which the
projection is made
5. semicircle
e) too much sure of himself
6. neo-Pythagoreanism
f) running his own business
7. self-employed
g) maintenance, repair
8. to update
h) an attempt to revive the doctrines of
Pythagoras, combined with Peripatetic,
stoic, and Oriental elements, which
originated at Alexandria in the 1st century
B.C.
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Словообразование
в английском языке
30
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