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56.Английский язык для студентов факультета ИВТ и математического факультета

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации
Ярославский государственный университет им. П. Г. Демидова
Кафедра иностранных языков
Английский язык
для студентов факультета ИВТ
и математического факультета
Практикум
Рекомендовано
Научно-методическим советом университета для студентов,
обучающихся по всем специальностям
Ярославль 2011
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УДК 811.111
ББК Ш 143.21я73
А 64
Рекомендовано
Редакционно-издательским советом университета
в качестве учебного издания. План 2010/2011 учебного года
Рецензент
кафедра иностранных языков Ярославского
государственного университета им. П. Г. Демидова
Составитель И. В. Умнова
А 64
Английский язык для студентов факультета ИВТ и математического факультета : практикум / сост. И.В. Умнова ; Яросл. гос.
ун-т им. П. Г. Демидова. – Ярославль : ЯрГУ, 2011. – 52 с.
В практикуме представлены оригинальные тексты по профессиональной тематике, содержащие большое количество компьютерных
терминов и концепций и отражающие современные достижения в этой
области. Разнообразные упражнения направлены на формирование различных видов компетенций, необходимых современному специалисту.
В результате усвоения материала практикума студенты научатся работать с текстами по специальности, строить монологические и диалогические высказывания на основе пройденного, выражать собственное
мнение по спорным вопросам.
Практикум содержит 4 основных раздела и 1 дополнительный. Преподаватель может выбирать очередность прохождения тем. Материалы
из дополнительного раздела могут служить домашним заданием.
Предназначен для студентов, обучающихся по всем специальностям
(дисциплина «Английский язык», блок ГСЭ), очной формы обучения.
УДК 811.111
ББК Ш 143.21я73
© Ярославский государственный
университет им. П. Г. Демидова, 2011
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UNIT I
A. Answer the following questions before you read the text:
What was the main means of communication when your parents were
young? What was the main source of getting information at the time
when your parents were of your age? Can you imagine yourself and
your peers without a computer?
B. These words and phrases from the text should be in your
active use:
to improve – улучшать
a skill – навык
to communicate with smb –общаться с кем-то
interactive – интерактивный, диалоговый
to give presentations – делать
презентации
a database – база данных
to keep – сохранять, хранить
via – через, посредством
to download – скачивать, загружать
to email – посылать эл. почту
built-in – встроенный
a mode – режим
to combine – комбинировать,
соединять, объединять
to pay for – платить за
instead of smth /smb /doing – вместо чего/кого/того, что
to verify – проверять, подтверждать, сверять
a cashpoint – банкомат
secure – безопасный, надёжный
fuel consumption – потребление
топлива
weather conditions – погодные
условия
to manage – управлять, контролировать
on the ground – на земле
to find out – обнаружить, узнать,
выяснить
availability – доступность, пригодность
TEXT 1. The Digital Age
We are now living in what some people call the digital age,
meaning that computers have become an essential part of our lives.
Young people who have grown up with PCs and mobile phones are
often called the digital generation. Computers help students to perform
mathematical operations and improve their maths skills. They are
used to access the Internet, to do basic research and to communicate
with other students around the world. Teachers use projectors and
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interactive whiteboards to give presentations and teach sciences,
history or language courses. PCs are also used for administrative
purposes – schools use word processors to write letters, and databases
to keep records of students and teachers. A school website allows
teachers to publish exercises for students to complete online. Students
can also enroll for courses via the website and parents can download
official reports.
Mobiles let you make voice calls, send texts, email people and
download logos, ringtones or games. With a built-in camera you
can send pictures and make video calls in face-to-face mode. New
smartphones combine a telephone with web access, video, a games
console, an MP3 player, a personal digital assistant (PDA) and a GPS
navigation system, all in one.
In banks, computers store information about the money held
by each customer and enable staff to access large databases and to
carry out financial transactions at high speed. They also control the
cashpoints, or ATMs (automatic teller machines), which dispense
money to customers by the use of a PIN-protected card. People use
a Chip and PIN card to pay for goods and services. Instead of using
a signature to verify payments, customers are asked to enter a fourdigit personal identification number (PIN), the same number used at
cashpoints; this system makes transactions more secure. With online
banking, clients can easily pay bills and transfer money from the
comfort of their homes.
Airline pilots use computers to help them control the plane. For
example, monitors display data about fuel consumption and weather
conditions. In airport control towers, computers are used to manage
radar systems and regulate air traffic. On the ground, airlines are
connected to travel agencies by computer. Travel agents use computers
to find out about the availability of flights, prices, times, stopovers and
many other details.
C. After you have read the text answer the following questions: 1. What professions are mentioned in the text?
2. What devices/gadgets does the author speak about? Name
those ones with which you are familiar.
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3. Say what spheres of human activities does the text cover:
medicine/ banking/transportation/ tourism/ education/ telephoning/
chemical industry/ film-making/science.
D. Discuss these questions with your fellow student. Make up
a dialogue. 1. How are/were computers used in your school?
2. How do you think computers will be used in school in the
future?
E. In groups of three discuss these questions. Submit your
group’s opinion.
1. Is it secure to pay for everything using a universal card?
2. What are pros and cons of using computerized library?
F. Submit your group’s opinion. These phrases may be of use:
In our general view – по нашему общему мнению
It seems to us that – нам кажется/ как нам кажется
On behalf of the group, I can say that …- от имени группы я
могу сказать, что …
In our opinion – на наш взгляд
From our point of view – с нашей точки зрения
I will express the general view if I say, that …– выражу общую точку зрения, если скажу, что …
G. Match the verbs (1-5) with the nouns (a-e) to make collocations.*
a money
1. give
b a PIN
2. keep
c databases
3. access
d presentations
4. enter
e records
5. transfer
* Collocations are word combinations of verbs and nouns that
often go together in English to make set phrases, for example write
letters, send texts, carry out transactions, store information, access
the Internet, display data, perform operations, do research, complete
exercises, make calls. Learning collocations instead of individual
words can help you remember which verb to use with which noun.
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H. Use collocations from G. to complete the following
sentences.
1. Thanks to Wi-Fi, it’s now easy to …….. from cafes, hotels,
parks and many other public places.
2. Online banking lets you …….. between your accounts easily
and securely.
3. Skype is a technology that enables users to …….. over the
Internet for free.
4. In many universities, students are encouraged to …….. using
PowerPoint in order to make their talks more visually attractive.
5. The Web has revolutionized the way people …….. – with
sites such as Google and Wikipedia, you can find the information you
need in seconds.
6. Cookies allow a website to …….. on a user’s machine and
later retrieve it; when you visit the website again, it remembers your
preferences.
7. With the latest mobile phones, you can …….. with multimedia
attachments – pictures, audio, even video.
UNIT II
A. Before reading the text find the meanings of these words
and phrases in a dictionary: drudgery/ clerical work/ bearable/
ubiquitous/ trend/ to feed into the computer’s memory.
TEXT 1. Computers
The computer is the great technological and scientific innovation
of the last half of the twentieth century. It has revolutionized how we
organize information, how we communicate with each other, and even
the way that we think about the human mind. Computers have eased
the drudgery of such tasks as calculating sums and clerical work, making them both more bearable and more efficient. The computer has
become ubiquitous in many aspects of business, recreation, and everyday life, and the trend is that they are becoming both more powerful
and easier to use.
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A computer is an electronic machine which can accept data in a
certain form, process the data, and give the results of the processing in
a specified format as information.
First data is fed into the computer’s memory. Then, when the program is run, the computer performs a set of instructions and processes
the data. Finally, we can see the results (the output) on the screen or
in printed form.
A computer system consists of two parts: hardware and software.
Hardware is any electronic or mechanical part you can see or touch.
There are three basic hardware sections: the central processing unit
(CPU), the main memory and peripherals. Software is a set of instructions, called a program, which tells the computer what to do.
B. Select the so-called international words from the text, read
them aloud and give their Russian equivalents. Remember that one
meaning of a word may become narrower, another one becomes more
general when translated into another language. For example, trend –
1) тенденция (общее значение) 2) тренд (более узкое значение).
C. Retell the text according to the following plan:
1. Speak of how computers have changed the society’s way of
living.
2. Give a definition of a computer.
3. Describe a computer system.
D. What do computers mean in our life? Read how different
people are answering this question in a blog.
• As for me I couldn’t live without my computer. I use it all the
time.
• Computers became an integral part of our life. I can’t even
suppose what I’d do without a computer and the Internet near at hand.
• I can’t imagine myself without a computer! It’s the best way to
cheer up=)
• It’s a great invention. What could our life be without a computer?
But where are romantic people? They’re playing online games,
chatting in ICQ, forums. You know, I really miss the old times, when
a rare letter was so pleasant to be received! Now everybody stays at
home, nobody wants to dream, to write stories or novels ...We are all
caught in a large net. It looks like freedom, but it’s a prison, though
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very nice to be in. Let’s concentrate on our life! The world around us
is full of wonders...
• We can’t live without information from computers. But how
could our grandparents? They even had no television, not to mention
other modern conveniences. Nevertheless, their life wasn’t boring.
What ‘s the secret of happiness?
• Today I gave an interview about computers and the Internet
for a local newspaper. I was speaking about their aid in education. I
am getting really upset when I hear that young people use it only for
entertainment. It should not be so. It’s waste of time.
E. Guess which utterances (высказывания) could belong to
a teacher, a pensioner, a student, an Internet addict, a middle-aged
woman, a young guy, a young girl, a businessman. There may be
more than one right answers. Explain your choice.
How would you answer the same question?
F. Translate the following sentences in written form. Pay
attention to verbals (the Infinitive, Participles I and II, the
Gerund). Find them out in the sentences, and fill in the table.
1. Today, knowing how to use a computer is not an option – it is
an essential.
2. Computers have become an integral part of our everyday life,
and are here to stay.
3. Computers have evolved to indispensable part of our society.
4. For people of the elder generation getting started with computers
may be a bit overwhelming, but very exciting.
5. Students may go to the site, download the files and either print
them to make transparencies or insert in a multimedia presentation.
6. Information today is being
circulated, disseminated and
dispersed in conditions which make it more and more difficult to
protect.
7. As a result of the imperfections in the identification methods,
other methods have been developed or are now being developed:
verification of signature, voice recognition, fingerprint recognition, as
well as other methods involving palm recognition and iris recognition.
8. I find it convenient to send and receive electronic mail using
Netscape Mail.
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9. A variety of tools is used to perform different tasks on the
Internet.
10. Being connected to the Internet is also called being online.
11. The number of computers connected to the Internet has grown
at an extraordinary rate: from only 4 in 1969 to millions today.
the Infinitive
Participle I
Participle II
the Gerund
TEXT 2. The Magic of Computers
G. Five sentences have been removed from the text. Choose
which sentence (1-5) fits which gap in the text (a-e).
Computers and microchips have become part of our everyday
lives: (a) ---------; we pay bills prepared by computers; just picking up
a telephone and dialing a number involves the use of a sophisticated
computer system, (b) ----------------.
Every day we encounter computers that spring to life the instant
they are switched on, (c) --------, all of which use chip technology.
What makes your computer such a miraculous device? Each time
you turn it on, it is a blank slate that , with appropriate hardware and
software, is capable of doing anything you ask. (d) -------------; it is
an electronic filing cabinet which manages large collections of data,
such as customer’ s lists, accounts, or inventories; it is a magical
typewriter that allows you to type and print any kind of documents –
letters, memos or legal documents; it is a personal communicator that
enables you to interact with other computers and with people around
the world; if you like gadgets and electronic entertainment, (e) --------.
Nowadays, it is almost impossible to imagine life without the
magic of computers.
1. it is a calculating machine that speeds up financial calculations.
2. we visit shops and offices which have been designed with the
help of computers.
3. you can even use your PC to relax with computer games.
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4. for example calculators, the car’s electronic ignition, the timer
in the microwave, or the programmer inside the VCR.
5. as does making a flight reservation or bank transaction.
H. Answer these questions.
Apart from computers, what other devices use microchips?
Which two components allow computer systems to operate?
What types of document are prepared on computers?
Why is a computer called a personal communicator?
I. Put this sentence into a right order.
LIVE,/ HAVE/ AND/ THE/ CHANGED/ WE,/ COMPUTERS/
PLAY/ WORK,/ WAY/ COMMUNICATE
J. Choose one of the areas below and discuss what you can
do with computers in that area. Here are some useful words and
phrases for you to use in your answer.
Formula 1 cars: design and build the car, test virtual models,
control electronic components, monitor engine speed, store (vital)
information, display data, analyze and communicate data
Entertainment: download music, burn CDs, play games, take
photos, edit photos, make video clips, watch movies on a DVD player,
watch TV on the computer, listen to MP3s, listen to the radio via the
Web
Factories and industrial processes: design products, do
calculations, control industrial robots, control assembly lines, keep
records of stocks (materials and equipment)
School/University: access the Internet, enroll online, search the
Web, prepare exams, write documents, complete exercises online, do
research, prepare presentations
Computers are used to ……..
A PC can also be used for ………..
People use computers to ……..
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UNIT III
A. Answer the following questions before you read the text:
How old is the Internet? What is more influential today for the society
– TV or the Internet? Give your reasons.
B. While reading the text Networks find English equivalents
to the following words and phrases, write them down. You should
learn them to speak about networking.
соединяться/ разделять/ разнообразные устройства/ классифицировать на основании разных критериев/ охватывать/ географическая зона/ зона крупных городов/ пересылать (распределять)
информацию/ возможности (зд.)/ схема устройства/ кабель/ проходить (о данных)/ узел/ центральный узел/ через/ без того, чтобы
нуждаться/ набор правил (требований).
TEXT 1. NETWORKS
A computer network is two or more computers that are connected
together to share resources, such as hardware, data, and /or software.
This is another definition: a network is a combination of hardware
and software that connects two or more computers and/or assorted
devices.
Networks are classified according to different criteria:
• Geographical area: PANs (Personal Area Networks) typically
include a laptop, а mobile phone and a PDA; LANs cover a building;
MANs (Metropolitan Area Networks) cover a campus or a city;
WANs (Wide Area Networks) cover a country or a continent.
• Architecture: In a client-server network, a computer acts as
a server and stores and distributes information to the other nodes, or
clients. In a peer-to-peer network, all the computers have the same
capabilities – that is, share files and peripherals without requiring a
separate server computer.
• Topology, or layout: In a bus network, all the computers are
connected to a main cable, or bus. In a star network, all data flows
through a central hub, a common connection point for the devices
in the network. In a ring network, all devices are connected to one
another in a continuous loop, or ring.
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• Network protocol: This is the language, or set of rules, that
computers use to communicate with each other. Networks use different
protocols. For instance, the Internet uses TCP/IP.
The largest computer network in the world is called the Internet.
The Internet is a network of networks, connecting millions of
computers. It is also commonly called the Information Superhighway.
C. After reading the text be ready to answer the following
questions.
1. What is a network? Give its definition.
2. Why do you think it is not easy to categorize (classify) networks?
3. What are the types of networks according to their layout?
4. Speak of the types of networks according to the geographical
area they cover?
5. What is the difference between a peer-to-peer network and a
client-server network?
6. What can you say about our university network? What can it
offer to students and the faculty (профессорско-преподавательский
состав)?
7. In case you have Internet connection at home who is your provider?
8. Should a layman (non-professional) know much about a network’s architecture and topology to be online?
TEXT 2. HISTORY of the INTERNET
D. While reading the text History of the Internet draw a scheme
that may help you to speak about Internet predecessors (предшественники). Reflect such issues as the date of foundation and
termination/transformation of organization, the aim, administrating,
technological potential on your scheme.
The grandfather of the modern–day Internet was an experimental
network called ARPANET, created in 1969 by the U.S. Department of
Defense’s Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA). The objective
of ARPANET was to enable researchers located in different places to
communicate with each other and to create a network that could send
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data over a variety of paths to ensure that communications could
continue even if part of the network was destroyed (presumably by
war or natural disaster).
From its creation through the early 1980s, ARPANET grew,
and protocols (standards) were developed for transferring data over
the network and for ensuring that the data was transferred intact.
During this period, ARPANET began connecting to other networks
(called internetworking) and this network of networks was dubbed the
Internet.
In 1986, the National Science Foundation established a new highspeed network called NSFNET that connected several supercomputing
centers around the United States. Research institutions soon formed
networks that were connected to NSFNET to allow their researchers
access to the supercomputers. The Internet functions of both
ARPANET and NSFNET were eventually replaced in the modern-day
Internet structure; ARPANET ceased to exist in 1990, and NSFNET
reverted to a research network in 1995.
TEXT 3. The Internet today
The structure of the Internet today is similar to that of the original
ARPANET, only on a much larger scale. Each country typically has
at least one primary high-speed network called a backbone. These
backbones are connected to other backbone networks within the
country and to backbone networks in other countries. Also connected
to backbones are smaller regional networks within each country to
which local area networks consisting of individual computers are
connected.
One of the most remarkable characteristics of the Internet is that
it is not owned by any one person or organization in charge. Although
each network is managed individually by a network administrator,
there is no network administrator for the Internet as a whole. The
closest thing to an Internet governing body is a variety of voluntary
groups, such as the Internet Society, Internet Architecture Board, and
World Wide Web Consortium. These organizations are involved with
such issues as establishing protocols and encouraging cooperation
among Internet networks.
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One of the disadvantages of the Internet in the past was that it
contained a huge amount of information with no easy way for users
to find what they were looking for. Fortunately, although the Internet
today is continually growing, it is also much more organized with
numerous directories and search tools to help users find what they
are looking for. It is common for people today to regularly use the
Internet to obtain stock quotes and other financial information, check
the weather, read newspapers and magazines, look up telephone
numbers, access library electronic card catalogs, tour museums,
and send electronic mail. The Internet is used to pay bills, purchase
products, and make telephone calls – these uses will become more
commonplace in the near future.
E. Arrange the points of the plan of the text in accordance
with its contents. Choose one of the points to retell.
The way the Internet is organized (from the point of view of
information retrieval).
The way the Internet is organized – legal aspect.
The structure of the Internet.
Options of using the Internet.
F. You are likely to know how Internet and e-mail addresses
are formed and written. Read about it in English paying attention
to new words and terms.
Internet Addresses
Each computer on the Internet has a unique Internet address. It
can be written as a number, such as 207.68.137.41 (usually used by
computers), or as a name, such as microsoft.com (usually used by
people). Numerical Internet addresses are called IP (Internet Protocol)
addresses; all computers on the Internet are assigned an IP address.
Most computers also have a text-based addresses, called a domain
name, that corresponds to the computer’s IP address. A domain
identifies the location of a computer; it can include the name of the
computer, the appropriate department, school, business, geographical
location, and/or type of organization. If there are multiple parts to a
domain, they are separated by periods and listed with the most specific
part first and the least specific part (the broadest category) listed last.
The last part of a domain name always describes a geographical
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location or a type of organization; in the United States it is usually .edu
for educational institutions, .gov for government agencies, .mil for the
military, .com for commercial businesses, .net for network providers,
.org for non-commercial organizations, or .us for the United States.
Identifying Computer Users
Each person on the Internet has a user name; usually an
abbreviation of the person’s name. A person’s Internet address
begins with his user name followed by the @ symbol followed by his
computer’s domain name combined with her (Gloria@giant.sequoias.
cc.ca.us) and uniquely identifies each user, just as a person’s name
combined with her street address gives her a unique mailing address.
Because computer users’ Internet addresses are used primarily to send
electronic mail, they usually called e-mail addresses.
G. Read attentively how to pronounce Internet addresses.
Pronouncing Internet Addresses
Because Internet addresses are frequently given verbally, it is
important to know how to pronounce them. Here are a few guidelines:
If a portion of the address forms a recognizable word or name, it
is spoken; otherwise it is spelled out.
The @ sign is pronounced at.
The period (.) is pronounced dot.
H. Read the following Internet addresses:
president@whitehouse .gov
www.grani.ru
www.berkley.edu
bob5@rambler.ru
I. Dictate your fellow student a couple of fake or real addresses
and sites. You can imitate a telephone talk. Take turns.
J. Fulfil these assignments.
• Assume that you need to find information about the history
of the New York Stock Exchange/ Computer History Museum for a
research paper. List two phrases for each topic that you could type as
key words when using a search engine to find appropriate Web pages.
• If a company called Apex created a Web home page, what would
its URL address probably be?
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K. It is very important for a future computer expert to
distinguish between wired and wireless connections. Read the
following to be sure you know the difference and are aware how
to speak about these technologies.
What is wireless networking?
Wired networks are linked by Ethernet cables, phone lines and
high-speed fibre optic cables. Wireless networks, however, use
electromagnetic waves, such as radio waves, to transmit data. These
are the main types of wireless networks:
• Satellites – for long distances.
• WiMAX – for connecting Wi-Fi hotspots.
• Wi-Fi – for medium–range distances.
• Bluetooth – for short distances.
• GSM – for mobile phones.
What is the difference between
a wired LAN and a wireless LAN?
Wired LANs are more difficult to install, but they are cheaper,
faster and more reliable. Wireless networks let you move, or roam,
from one access point to another, but they are less secure and subject to
interference. To set up a home wireless LAN one will need computers
equipped with a wireless adapter or wireless card, a wireless access
point (a wireless router) and a broadband internet connection.
L. After reading the text answer these questions.
What is a network protocol?
WiMAX is a type of wireless network. What is it used for?
What does PAN stand for?
What equipment do you need to set up a wireless LAN?
What is a computer network?
How many types of networks are there?
M. Be sure you remember the words from the text. Match
English words with their Russian equivalents.
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wired
to transmit
equipped
cheap
medium–range
to roam
fibre
broadband
wireless
to be linked
cable
reliable
to be subject to
interference
оборудованный
беспроводной
кабель
подвергаться
помехи
дешёвый
проводной
надёжный
волокно
бродить/перемещаться
передавать
широкополосный
соединяться
среднего диапазона
N. Discuss in pairs what the advantages and disadvantages of
wireless networks are.
O. Do this exercise in written form. Insert appropriate words.
1. A network that … a small … area, such as a room or a building,
is called a … area network or LAN.
geographical/ local/ covers
2. It is common to have a LAN in a … or an office to …printers
and software and to send and receive … mail (electronic letters sent
from one …to another).
share/ electronic/ computer/ classroom
3. Today it is necessary for an educated man to understand the
history and current …of the Internet, how to … the Internet, and how
to use Netscape software to find and access Internet … and to send
and receive electronic … .
access/ mail/ structure/ resources
P. Do the following network quiz. Choose the right answer.
1. This network typically consists of two or more local area
networks, covering a large geographical area.
a) LAN
b) WAN
c) Intranet
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2. This type of network does not have a dedicated server; all the
computers are independent.
a) peer-to-peer
b) client-server
c) Metropolitan Area Network
3. On this topology, all devices are connected to the same circuit,
forming a continuous loop.
a) star
b) ring
c) bus
4. The language used by computers to communicate with each
other on the Internet is called.
a) Ethernet
b) ADSL
c) TCP/ IP
5. Which cables are used to transfer information for the Internet
over long distances at high speeds?
a) telephone lines b) Ethernet cables
c) fibre optic cables
6. Which device allows several computers on a local network to
share an internet connection?
a) an ADSL port
b) a router
c) an Ethernet port
7. Which device serves as a common connection point for devices
in a wireless network?
a) wireless access point b) wired router
c) wireless adapter
8. Bluetooth is a wireless technology that uses radio waves to
transmit data over
a) long distances
b) medium-range distances
c) short distances (ten metres or less)
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UNIT IV.
A. Before you start working with the text answer the following
questions. What are the reasons to by a home computer if you have
one at work? Do you like playing on the computer? How often do you
work with the computer? Did you take seriously your mother’s advice
not to work so much on your computer?
B. The text is rich in medical terms that may seem difficult to
you. However, you should be aware of such types of texts. The first
reason is that they relate to your health. The second reason is that
medicine is becoming more and more computerized. Who knows
where you will apply your knowledge in days to come (in the future)?
TEXT 1. Your Computers and Your Health:
Real and Imagined Problems
1.
2.
3.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
The computer and its effects on health often evokes baseless fears
on the part of the user. The computer has been accused of causing
cataracts and myopia; of emitting harmful rays to the skin and the
eyes. Some have even suspected the computer of increasing the
risk of a miscarriage for women. The majority of these fears are
unjustified. None of the many studies effectuated on the subject
have established a causal link between visual deterioration and
working on the computer. As for ionizing rays and electro-magnetic
fields, they are always below permitted levels. On the other hand
intensive periods of work on the computer can lead to eye fatigue,
stress and muscular-skeletal pains. Nonetheless these symptoms
appear mostly when the user ignores a few elementary ergonomical rules, for instance if they subject themselves to unsatisfactory
working conditions or use inadequate equipment. Furthermore,
certain individuals with particular medical problems will be at
greater risk. The possible ill-effects of working on the computer
are therefore inseparable from very wide ergonomical, medical
and social factors. This is because the root of the problems associated with computing and their solution are more likely to be found
through investigating work conditions and customs, general health
of the user and even his or her life-style, than in the technical make
up of the computer itself.
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C. While reading the text fill in the following table.
Real ill-effects caused  
by computers
Imagined problems
D. In lines 9,11,12,14,16,17 find the so-called linking words*.
Look how they are working.
* Linking words make the text easier for the reader to follow (or
more difficult, if you do not know what the little words mean). They
express the logical relationships between different things.
The writer uses them to organize the text in order to make his point
clear. Linking words are used not only in written texts, good speakers
also use them to make it easier for the listener to follow him or her. For
example, he or she may give an example with “for example”!
E. Write down the meanings of words and phrases in bold
type. Memorize them.
F. After reading the text answer the following questions.
1. Was anything new to you in the text?
2. Do you agree that the boundary between real and imagined
problems is fuzzy?
3. What should one do to avoid health problems connected with
a computer?
4. What factors must be took into account when organizing
computerized working places?
TEXT 2. Are You Caught in the Web?
By Kathy Sena
While experts argue over whether “Internet addiction” is a true
addiction, some people spend hours each week (an average of nearly
30 hours, in one study) surfing the net, participating in chat rooms or
playing computer games. The real problem comes when these people
sacrifice their families, their jobs or their friends to feed their habit,
says a report in the Mayo Clinic Women’s HealthSource newsletter.
Some data indicate that lonely, middle-aged women who spend
hours in chat rooms are among those most affected.
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Kimberly Young, a psychologist who conducted one of the first
studies on the topic, classifies dependent Internet users as those who
meet four or more of the following criteria over a 12-month period:
* Felt preoccupied with the Internet
* Felt a need to use the Internet for increasing amounts of time to
achieve satisfaction
* Were unable to control Internet use
* Felt restless or irritable when attempting to reduce Internet use
* Used the Internet to escape problems
* Lied to family or friends to conceal the extent of their Internet
involvement
* Jeopardized or risked the loss of a significant relationship, job,
educational or career opportunity because of the Internet
* Kept returning even after spending excessive amounts for
online fees
* Became depressed or anxious when offline
* Stayed online longer than they intended
If your Internet use is interfering with the rest of your life, it may
be time to seek help. Call your local mental-health association to find
out about support groups and treatment specialists in your area.
G. Make up a dialogue with your fellow student. Follow the
situation and strategy below. See useful phrases below.
Situation 1. Mom worries too much that her son/ daughter spends
more than 5 hours a day in the Internet. She wants to speak to him/ her
about it. She has made this decision after a TV program about Internet
addiction.
Strategy (their intentions in the conversation):
1. Mom
says she is worrying about his health because he spends much
time at the computer.
Son
answers that he is searching for information for his course work.
2. Mom
hints that she heard strange sounds that could not be related to any
serious work. She adds he tells a lie.
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Son
makes an excuse and confesses that he was playing a game.
3. Mom
says she is worrying about his wasting time in front of the
computer every day. He is a student, and must study a lot to get a good
job in the future.
Son
assures her that everything will be OK.
4. Mom
she mentions his friends who stopped coming to their place, his
girlfriend who doesn’t even call
him. This is bad.
Son
Disagrees. He himself doesn’t want to see anybody. They all
irritate him. He feels at ease only when he is online.
What will his Mom recommend that he should do? What
would you recommend?
Useful phrases.
Sorry, I thought you didn’t mind.
How stupid/ silly of you.
That’s a real pity.
My mistake. I didn’t realize it.
I really don’t think that’s …
Can you do anything about …?
Role play. One of the participants of the conversation should be
an Internet addict, others may be parents, friends or somebody from a
support group.
H. Answer in written form.
Do you agree or disagree that progress is always good for people?
Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
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UNIT V.
TEXT 1. Computer Science
A. Read what computer science is and what it studies.
Computer science, or Computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems.
It is a science, because given a system of interest, it performs /
analyses/ and seeks general principles to explain that system.
Computer Science is a relatively young academic discipline that
has matured rather quickly due to the rapidly changing technological
environment.
Computer science is much more than knowing how to use the
latest application package or access nodes on the Internet. Like other
academic disciplines, computer science is a collection of related subfields that share a fundamental of knowledge and practice.
Here are some of the areas that lie within the broad concept of
computer science.
Computer programming
To write a program means to implement algorithms using a programming language to solve a particular task. Current emphasis on object-oriented programming is an attempt to incorporate into software
construction engineering principles, such as system modularization of
components that have successfully reduced size and cost of hardware
products. Programming in industry is generally a team activity using
productivity tools and adhering to sound engineering practices.
Computer Architecture
All computer professionals should have sound knowledge of how
bits of information are moved and processed in the computer. The
computer architect is concerned with organizing the data paths, functional units and instruction set of the machine to maximize its performance given the constraints on the cost and typical use of the machine.
Programming Languages
The various programming languages have features such as scooping of identifier, parameter passing, recursion, and function return that
can be implemented in different ways, or not at all. A language can be
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based upon a particular mathematical system, or be described within a
mathematical framework.
Artificial Intelligence
Specialists in artificial intelligence concern themselves with one
or two central projects: (1) studying the nature of intelligence by trying to simulate it computationally, or (2) building machines that can
communicate with people on human terms using natural language.
These machines can also function in a rapidly changing environment,
using visual and other forms of information gathering and general reasoning capabilities.
Databases
An important class of application programs deals with the storage and retrieval of information from large banks of data. Design and
maintenance of databases require a particular expertise. Different organizing principles are employed to associate selected keys and retrieve relevant records from a database.
Systems Programming
Systems programming deals with the topic of concurrently running processes and how to appropriately regulate their access to shared
system resources.
Computer graphics
Working out algorithms both for generating visual images
synthetically, and for integrating or altering visual and spatial
information sampled from the real world is a rapidly developing area.
Human – computer interaction – is the study of making
computers and computations useful, usable and universally accessible
to people, including the study and design of computer interfaces
through which people use computers.
Data mining is the study of algorithms for searching and
processing information in documents and databases; closely related to
information retrieval.
B. This exercise includes other areas of computer science that
have not been mentioned in the text above. Try to match the name
of a computer science subfield (1–20) with what it deals with (A–T).
1.Compilers
2.Networking
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3.Computability theory
4.Automata theory
5.Concurrency
6.Parallel computing
7.Symbolic mathematics
8.Formal methods
9.Bioinformatics
10.Numerical algorithms
11.Data structures
12.Computer vision
13.Cognitive Science
14.Machine learning
15.Image processing
16.Computational neuroscience
17.Cryptography
18.Computer Audio
19.Robotics
20.Operating systems
А. Manipulation and solution of expressions in symbolic form,
also known as Computer algebra.
В. Determining information from an image through computation.
С. Different logical structures for solving problems.
D. Applies results from complexity, probability and number
theory to invent and break codes.
E. Computing using multiple concurrent threads of execution.
F. Computational modeling of real minds.
G. Numerical solution of mathematical problems such as rootfinding, integration, the solution of ordinary differential equations and
the approximation of special functions.
H. Algorithms for controlling the behavior of robots
I. Computational modeling of real brains.
J. The use of computer science to maintain, analyze, store
biological data and to assist in solving biological problems such as
Protein folding, function prediction and Phylogeny.
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K. Algorithms and data structures for the creation, manipulation,
storage, and transmission of digital audio recordings. Also important
in voice recognition applications.
L. Algorithms for identifying three dimensional objects from a
two dimensional picture.
M. Automated creation of a set of rules and axioms based on
input.
N. What is calculable with the current models of computers.
O. The organization of and rules for the manipulation of data.
P. Mathematical approaches for describing and reasoning about
software designs.
Q. Algorithms and protocols for reliably communicating data
across different shared or dedicated media, often including error
correction.
R. Systems for managing computer programs and providing the
basis of a usable system.
S. Ways of translating computer programs, usually from higher
level languages to lower level ones.
T. The theory and practice of simultaneous computation; data
safety in any multitasking or multithreaded environment.
Check up your answers in the supplementary section.
C. Agree or disagree with the following statements:
1. Mathematics is considered a living part of any applied aspects
in computer science.
2. Computer science should be taught more pragmatically without
too much pure mathematics.
3. There is not much difference between a programmer and an
advanced self-educated user.
4. By integrating the concepts, theory, and practice of computer
science in a challenging curriculum, students are prepared for
professional employment or for further study.
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TEXT 2. Computer Science Education
D. Before reading the text answer the following question:
Do you agree that computer professionals today need an excellent
education foundation to enable them to deal with this ever-changing
world of computer software and hardware.
The fields of research and study constitute or build on the core body
of knowledge and practice of computer science. Each has challenging
problems that will stimulate continued learning and intellectual growth.
Each has rewarding career opportunities. And each can be a lot of fun
for those who enjoy seeing their intellectual creations come to life on
the screen in front of them. In short, computer science is a discipline
that requires good analytical skills, an abundance of patience and the
ability to work closely with other people.
The first formal university course in computer science for which
graduates got the Diploma in Numerical Analysis & Automatic
Computing, was offered at the University of Cambridge Computer
Laboratory (UK) in 1953. Subsequently, almost all universities have
introduced a computing course in some form or another.
Some universities teach computer science as a theoretical study
of computation and algorithmic reasoning. These programs often
feature the theory of computation, analysis of algorithms, formal
methods, concurrency theory, databases, computer graphics and
systems analysis, among others. They typically also teach computer
programming, but treat it as a vessel for the support of other fields of
computer science rather than a central focus of high-level study.
Other colleges and universities, as well as secondary schools
and vocational programs that teach computer science, emphasize the
practice of advanced computer programming rather than the theory of
algorithms and computation in their computer science curricula. Such
curricula tend to focus on those skills that are important to workers
entering the software industry. The practical aspects of computer
programming are often referred to as software engineering.
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TEXT 3. Top Computer Science Universities in USA
E. Reading the text find English equivalents to the following
Russian words and word combinations:
Старшекурсник – выпускник – аспиранты – получить степень
– современный – взаимодействие – искусственный интеллект –
присваивать степень – участвовать в программе – иметь доступ к
… – получать – занятая роль – профессорско-преподавательский
состав – руководитель – предлагать – быть ответственным за … –
включать – награды – совместный – выбирать – корни
by Lauren Miller, 2010
The top computer science universities in the United States are
responsible for some of the most important technological innovations
in modern history. From inventing operating systems to global
nonprofit initiatives serving the poor, the most prestigious computer
science programs in the country serve as incubators for the birth of
leading technology businesses.
Carnegie Mellon University
The School of Computer Science at Carnegie Mellon University
(CMU) is world-renowned for research and innovation and is the
number one school on the “U.S. News & World Report” 2010 list
of top computer science graduate schools. CMU’s Mach Project was
a leader in computer operating system inventions including Mac OS
X. Undergraduates and graduates have the opportunity to study at
the school’s international campuses in Qatar, Australia and Portugal.
Budding software engineers can apply for its industry-specific
program based in Silicon Valley. Faculty awards include the Nobel
Prize, Guggenheim Fellowships and MacArthur Fellows. The school
is a pioneer in encouraging women to enter the field with its Women
in Computer Science initiative.
Undergraduates earn a Bachelor of Science and can concentrate
in three areas: computer science, computational biology or computer
science and arts. Master’s degrees are offered in 14 areas including
a joint degree with Carnegie Mellon’s business school. Doctoral
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students have 20 areas of study to choose from including a joint Ph.D.M.D. option.
Carnegie Mellon University
School of Computer Science
Pittsburgh, PA cmu.edu
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is one of the oldest
programs in the country. It has its roots in an electrical engineering
program founded in 1882. More than 20 percent of the school’s
students study in the department. It is ranked second on the 2010 “U.S.
News & World Report” list of top computer science programs.
Students can earn degrees at the undergraduate, graduate and doctoral
level and have access to the university’s numerous research laboratories
and centers. MIT’s state-of-the-art media lab is a world leader in computer
and human interaction. Its initiatives include the One Laptop per Child, a
project that brings computers to children around the world.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
Cambridge mit.edu
Stanford University
Stanford University’s Department of Computer Science is the
third-ranked school on the “U.S. News & World Report” 2010 list
of top computer science graduate schools. The northern California
school is known for its research in artificial intelligence and robotics.
The department grants bachelor’s, master’s and doctorate degrees.
Undergraduates can participate in summer research projects with
faculty members serving as mentors. They can also gain teaching experience
by participating as section leaders in introductory computer science classes,
a role usually reserved for graduate students at other universities. Numerous
high-profile technology companies are the brainchild of Stanford graduates
including Google, Yahoo! and Cisco Systems.
Stanford University
Department of Computer Science
Serra Mall Stanford, CA stanford.edu
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F. Answer the following questions using information from
the text:
1. The top computer science universities in the United States are
called incubators – why?
2. For what innovations and initiatives are they responsible?
3. How are universities ranked on the “U.S. News & World
Report” 2010 list of top computer science graduate schools?
4. What is CMU?
5. What international campuses does CMU have?
6. What is MIT?
7. Where is the School of Computer Science at Carnegie Mellon
University?
8. Where is the Department of Electrical Engineering and
Computer Science (at MIT)?
9. Where is Stanford University’s Department of Computer
Science?
10. What important projects are mentioned in the text?
11. What honorable awards are mentioned in the text?
G. Characterize each of the universities answering the
following questions (fill in a table):
1. What degrees can students get there?
2. What are the main fields of research at this institution?
3. What are the main contributions/achievements of the university?
4. What is specific about it?
H. Imagine that you have got acquainted with a foreign
student or a computer expert from abroad.
What would you tell him/her about Yaroslavl University’s
Department of Computer Science (its location, specialties and degrees
students can get, subjects you study, computer facilities you can use,
achievements of the Department, its specifics).
I. Computer science specialists should always refresh their
knowledge. One of the ways to do that is to read professional
journals. Read information about The Computer Journal.
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The Computer Journal is one of the longest-established journals
serving all branches of the academic computer science community. It
is currently published in three sections:
Section A: Computer Science, Methods and Tools publishes
high quality research papers, review articles and special issues in
all computer science topics other than those covered in Section B.
Topics for inclusion in Section A may include areas such as theory,
algorithms, software engineering, data structures, and complexity.
Section B: Networks and Computer Systems focuses on the latest
ideas and research in computer systems and networks. This section
is for researchers involved in the latest developments in topics such
as architectures, mobile and wireless computing, network protocols,
security, reliability and performance optimization. In addition to
research papers, this section will also publish commissioned reviews
and special issues.
Section C: Computational Intelligence builds on artificial
intelligence, robotics and machine intelligence to develop smart
methods and tools that solve challenging problems in areas such as
data mining, image processing, knowledge-based systems and the
semantic web.
A fourth section, to be launched in 2011, is:
Section D: Security in Computer Systems and Networks
The Editors of the Journal welcome ideas for reviews and special
issues for any section.
J. What section of this journal would you choose to read?
What topic? Explain your choice.
K. You can go to http://comjnl.oxfordjournals.org to read
information about this journal. Some of the numbers may be read
free online.
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UNIT VI
A. Before reading the text do the following tasks:
Try to guess the meanings of the following words: 1) to criticize/
to formulate (find a synonym of the word in the text)/ to diversify.
What will be the corresponding nouns? 2) potential/ raw materials/
strategic
Search for these words’ transcription: archaic/ breakthroughs/ enterpreneurship/ pharmaceuticals
Remember these words and phrases relating to the sphere of
economy:
to decrease a country’s dependency on oil and gas revenues –
снизить зависимость (экономики) какой-либо страны от доходов
от нефти и газа
to create a diversified economy based on … – создать диверсифицированную экономику, основанную на …
to achieve breakthroughs in … – добиться прорывов, крупных
достижений в …
energy efficiency – энергоэффективность
Text 1. Russia Modernization Programme
In the article titled Go Russia, published online in September
2009, President Medvedev set out the so-called Medvedev modernisation programme. First he criticized Russia’s economic “backwardness” and what he called Russia’s “humiliating” dependency on oil
and raw materials. He described the Russian society as “archaic” and
“paternalistic,” and said that the country could no longer rely on the
achievements of the past to secure a prosperous future.
Finally, Medvedev formulated his strategic objective of modernizing Russia. The modernization programme aims at modernizing
Russia’s economy and society, decreasing the country’s dependency
on oil and gas revenues and creating a diversified economy based on
high technology and innovation.
The programme is based on the five key areas for economic
modernization, in which breakthroughs must be achieved:
1. energy efficiency use and new fuels.
2. medical technologies and pharmaceuticals.
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3. nuclear power engineering.
4. information technologies.
5. space technology in combination with telecommunications.
The process of modernization must come via the development
of the creative potential of every individual, through private
enterpreneurship and initiative.
B. Read definitions of the following words used in the text
above:
Archaic – архаический, архаичный, древний, старинный,
устарелый.
Paternalistic – патерналистский, отеческий, отцовский; as an
economic term – being overprotective towards the employees.
See also: Paternalistic management style – a way of managing
where the employer takes all the decisions and tries to keep the loyalty of the workforce (сохранять лояльность работников) by giving them special treatment (путем предоставления особых условий/
режима).
C. How can you explain Medvedev’s statement that the Russian society is “archaic” and “paternalistic”? What does he imply? Give your reasons.
D. Read what projects in the field of information technologies and space technology and telecommunications have been initiated, are being currently realized or are to be carried out. Use
the dictionary.
Information technologies
• Development of supercomputing and grid technology –
creation of the common space for the domestically produced highperformance supercomputers on the basis of grid computing, in order
to provide means for the complex calculations for nuclear technology
centers, aircraft industry and other major clients which need highperformance computing for computer simulation of their projects.
• Electronic government – gradual movement towards the
e-government, which includes the providing of interaction with the state
and access to the state services via Internet and other communication
technologies; reducing the volume of paper documentation in favour
of electronic one (first in the pilot regions, then on the state level); full
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transfer to the public announcement of the government procurement
orders in electronic form.
• IT and communication services in education and social
development – creation and development of the new e-learning
Internet resources aimed into improving the access to higher and
professional education, especially for people with disabilities,
inhabitants of remote regions of the country, and Russian speakers
outside of Russia; establishment of the special centers for the education
of specialists in IT and the involvement of gifted secondary and higher
education students into IT development.
• IT and communication services in medical science, health
care and social security – creation and development of the Internet
resources and automatic systems aimed at providing quality state
services in public health and social security; IT-based monitoring of
the personal health of citizens; development of systems that improve
the interaction between medical scientists and physicians; transfer
of medical records into the electronic form and introduction of the
similar electronic «social cards».
• IT and communication services in public and personal
security – development of systems of automatic speech recognition,
closed-circuit television, and security-related pattern recognition.
• Supercomputer education – creation of the national system
of education of specialists in supercomputing on the basis of
Supercomputer Consortium of Russian universities; no less than 500
experts in supercomputing are expected to be prepared in 2010-2012,
and 25 universities are expected to join the system of supercomputer
education.
Space technology and telecommunications
• Space-based navigation, including the commercialization of
the GLONASS system – providing the satellite navigation services
of Russian GLONASS system to various type of clients, including
emergency services, construction and freight companies, natural gas
and petroleum industry, energy supply and logistics, and individual
customers.
• Space-based monitoring and search – distant space-based
monitoring of the Earth atmosphere and surface, aimed at the search
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of mineral resourses, ecological control, climate change and weather
forecasting, and rescue operations support.
• Space-based targeting systems – implementation of the
capabilities of military and anti-terrorist space-based targeting systems
into the area of dealing with certain types of emergencies, control of
the atmospheric processes, etc.
• Space-based telecommunications in the broadband access
systems – transfer to the space-based broadband access systems,
including in the area of digital television and radio.
E. Give English equivalents to the names of the projects in
Russian.
«Мониторинг и слежение из космоса».
«ИКТ-услуги в области безопасности жизнедеятельности».
«Суперкомпьютерное образование».
«ИКТ-услуги в области медицины, здравоохранения и социального обеспечения».
«Системы наведения из космоса».
«Развитие суперкомпьютеров и ГРИД-технологий».
«ИКТ-услуги в области развития образования и социального
развития личности».
«Космическая навигация, включая коммерческое использование системы ГЛОНАСС».
«Космические телекоммуникации как часть системы широкополосного доступа».
«Электронное правительство».
F. Which of the projects do you consider the most important,
the most realistic/pragmatic, the most difficult to fulfil, the most
costly, the most promising?
G. This is an official site of Presidential Commission on the
modernization and technological development of the Russian
economy http://www.i-russia.ru
We recommend that you
regularly go to this site to be well informed in the results of this
programme’s fulfilment. The site is in Russian.
H. Read the following citations of the two Presidents. Do you
find similar ideas in their statements? Explain your opinion.
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«We are absolutely sure that, without urgent modernization,
the Russian economy has no future, even with the enormous natural
resources Russia has».
– President Medvedev in a televized speech in December 2009.
«Instead of the primitive raw material economy, we will create
a smart economy generating unique knowledge, new useful things
and technologies. Instead of the archaic society, in which the leaders
think and make decisions for everyone, we will become a country of
intelligent, free and responsible people».
– President Medvedev in a speech in November 2009.
«I want us to all think about new creative ways to engage young
people in science and engineering, whether it’s science festivals,
robotics competitions, fairs that encourage young people to create
and build and invent – to be makers of things, not just consumers of
things». – President Obama.
I. Render the text in English.
Наноиндустрия в России
Президент РФ Медведев заявил о курсе страны на построение инновационной экономики.
Стратегия акционерного общества «Роснано» предусматривает, что к 2015 году продажи нанопродукции, произведённой с
его участием, должны достичь 300 млрд руб., а объём наноиндустрии в целом – 900 млрд руб.
От выполнения этих показателей зависит бюджетное финансирование корпорации и репутация ее руководителя Анатолия
Чубайса. Но методик подобных подсчетов не существует. Россия может стать первой страной мира, где нанотехнологии будут
учитываться официальной статистикой. Пока даже в развитых
странах статистики не знают точно, что можно считать нанопродукцией, а что нет.
«Росстат» заявил, что готов поучаствовать в процессе построения новой экономики и уже в следующем году обещает разработать четкий классификатор нанопродукции и начать регулярно обследовать предприятия, которые ее производят.
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Useful words and phrases:
заявить о курсе – to announce/declare the course of the country
to build …
акционерное общество – joint-stock company
предусматривать – to stipulate
продажа – sale
произведённый с участием – produced with one’s participation
достигать – to make up
объём продукции – production output
бюджетное финансирование- budgetary investment
показатели – figures
методики подобных подсчетов – methods of how to estimate
this
учитываться официальной статистикой – to be taken stock of
by official statistics
статистики – statisticians
разработать – to work out
нанопродукция – nanoindustry output
обследовать предприятия – to inspect enterprises
Supplementary section
Assignment I. Translate in written form from English into
Russian. Use a dictionary.
Text 1. LEFT, RIGHT In The BRAIN
A left-hand brain, analytical and logical, involved in language,
and a right-hand brain, empirical and intuitive, processing images –
this is, put crudely, the concept that neuro-psychologists have today
of this human asymmetry. But this functional lateralization is difficult
to explain in terms of neuronal circuits. It is to the elucidation of these
neuro-anatomical bases that the Paul Broca II project in particular is
devoted. «As the two hemispheres are roughly identical in volume
and mass, the difference needs to come from the shape», explains
project coordinator Timothy Crow. «One new idea is that the cortex
is thinner and enlarged on one side only». The structural deformation,
which is imperceptible to the naked eye but identifiable by computer
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reconstruction, would then place architectural constraints on the
neurons, forcing them to create different circuits in the two halves of
the brain.
Text 2. NOBEL PRIZE 2010: Graphene lands award
for Russian-born scientists
Two Russian-born scientists have won the Nobel physics prize for
developing a microscopic material that could revolutionize electronics.
Andrey Geim and Konstantin Novosyolov have been working on
‘graphene’, which is a layer of carbon that’s just an atom in thickness.
The Nobel Academy said graphene could lead to technological
leaps in computer chips, touch screens and solar cells. The winning
scientists began their careers at a Soviet research centre in the Moscow
region, and now work at Manchester University in Britain. Geim
and Novosyolov get to share $1.5 million for their ground-breaking
developments. Ten years ago, Geim received the so-called Ig Nobel
Prize – which celebrates some of science’s most-ridiculous research –
for proving that magnets can cause frogs to levitate.
Assignment II. Topics for discussion.
1. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? With
the help of technology, students nowadays can learn more information
and learn it more quickly. Use specific reasons and examples to
support your answer.
2. Some people prefer to work for a large company. Others prefer
to work for a small company. Which would you prefer? Use specific
reasons and details to support your answer.
3. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Faceto-face communication is better than other types of communication
such as letters, e-mail, or telephone calls. Use specific reasons and
details to support your answer.
4. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? The
most important aspect of a job is the money a person earns. Use
specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
5. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? A
person should never make an important decision alone. Use specific
reasons and examples to support your answer.
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6. Some people think that they can learn better by themselves than
with a teacher. Others think that it is always better to have a teacher.
Which do you prefer?
7. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Games
are as important for adults as they are for children. Use specific reasons
and examples to support your answer.
8. You have received a gift of money. The money is enough to
buy either a piece of jewelry you like or ticket to a concert you want
to attend. Which would you buy? Use specific reasons and details to
support your answer.
Assignment III. Retell texts (1–5) in English.
Text 1. Интернет ускорят в 1000 раз
Разработчики новых сетевых технологий говорят о скором
создании новой сетевой технологии, способной передавать очень
большие объемы данных на большие расстояния по всего одному оптическому кабелю, толщиной не более 0,05 мм. Сейчас
разработка этой технологии идет в Университете Калифорнии в
Санта-Барбаре.
Эта технология предназначается для нового поколения
Ethernet-сетей, которые будут работать в тысячу раз быстрее
нынешних сетей передачи данных. Инженеры говорят, что к
2015 году будет возможно передавать всего по одному кабелю
1 триллион бит в секунду или 1 терабит в секунду. К 2020 году
эту скорость планируется увеличить еще в 100 раз – до 100 терабит в секунду.
Бизнес и различные группы пользователей передают все
большие массивы данных по Интернету, передают «живое» видео и транслируют HD-записи. Прогнозируется, что вскоре миллионы людей будут потреблять трафик сотнями терабайт прямо
из своей гостиной дома. Миллионы человек будут одновременно
получать огромные массивы информации.
Можно смело утверждать, что менее чем через пять лет все
технологии, используемые в компьютерных сетях сейчас, ока39
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жутся непригодными. Массовому потребителю будет необходима скорость в 1 Тбит/сек. Современные самые скоростные магистральные Ethernet-сети ограничены скоростью в 100 Гбит/сек.
По словам Дэниэля Блюменталя, именно на эту отметку следует
ориентироваться магистральным операторам при создании сетей,
причем уже сейчас следует предусмотреть возможность обновления до терабитных скоростей и выше.
Чтобы достичь желаемой скорости в случае со 100-терабитными Ethernet-сетями, инженеры обещают сделать ряд фундаментальных улучшений в сетевой архитектуре. Novosti-n.mk.ua,
2010 г.
Text 2. Гейм-зависимость
убивает корейский пользователей
В Южной Корее зарегистрировано очередное преступление на
почве компьютерных игр. 15 ноября 15-летний подросток во время домашней ссоры задушил свою мать и после этого повесился.
Младшая сестра самоубийцы рассказала, что мать с сыном поссорились из-за компьютерных игр. По ее словам, последние два-три
года брат активно играл через Интернет в «жестокие» игры.
Южная Корея является одной из стран – лидеров по числу
подключенных к Сети: по последним данным, доступ в Интернет имеют более 90% домохозяйств. Это обуславливает высокую
долю в обществе интернет-зависимых людей — таких в Южной
Корее насчитывается около 2 млн.
Одержимость молодежи компьютерными играми была признана одной из главных социальных проблем страны. Для геймеров разработали специальные программы. Первая программа
ограничивает время пребывания в Сети. С ее помощью сам пользователь или контролирующее лицо, например родители, могут
определить, сколько времени можно тратить на прогулки по Интернету. По истечении срока доступ к Сети будет перекрыт.
Вторая программа ориентирована на геймеров и получила
название Internet Fatigue. С течением времени игра усложняется,
пока игроку не надоест пытаться пройти один и тот же эпизод.
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Цель – сократить число граждан страны, страдающих от компьютерных зависимостей, с 8,8 до 5%.
На практике же трагедии из-за гейм-зависимости не прекратились. Одним из самых громких cлучаев, связанных с играми,
стала смерть от голода трехмесячной девочки, родители которой
проводили все время в интернет-клубах. Особой популярностью
у них пользовалась ролевая многопользовательская игра PRIUS –
они создали виртуального ребенка и усиленно занимались его
развитием. «Руформатор», 2010 г.
Text 3. Новый язык для общения с роботами
Обычная человеческая речь неоднозначна и часто нелогична,
поэтому научить робота понимать какой-либо язык почти невозможно. Специалисты в области информатики не могут справиться с этой задачей уже 30 лет.
Профессор промышленного дизайна из Голландии Кристоф
Бартнек решил разработать специальный простой и однозначный
язык для общения с роботами. Язык называется ROILA (Robot
Interaction Language).
Специальная программа, которая разрабатывает слова для
этого языка, гарантирует акустическое разнообразие. Каждое
слово отличается от другого по звучанию. В ROILA используются только те звуки, которые встречаются в большинстве человеческих языков. Чем чаще употребляется слово, тем оно короче.
Грамматика предельно проста: там нет исключений, артиклей,
падежей и множественного числа, так что этот язык легко выучить не только роботам, но и людям.
На сегодняшний день на языке роботов говорят четыре человека, но уже в следующем году их число увеличится. Декабрь,
2010.
Text 4. В России начал работу первый
в мире робот-преподаватель
Известно, что использование различных электронных программ для изучения иностранных языков может сделать занятия
более интересными и эффективными.
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В Санкт-Петербурге приступил к работе первый в мире
робот-преподаватель английского языка. Его зовут Джорж. С его
помощью учащиеся Санкт-Петербурга первыми в мире получили
доступ к современным образовательным технологиям, реализованным в сфере «облачных» вычислений.
Джордж – своего рода тренажер, на котором можно проводить онлайн-общение с виртуальным носителем языка.
Лингвистическую поддержку проекту оказала российская
компания ABBYY, ведущий мировой разработчик программного обеспечения и поставщик услуг в области лингвистики, распознавания документов и ввода данных. К программе подключен
известный словарь ABBYY Lingvo, благодаря которому школьники могут получать мгновенный перевод незнакомых им слов.
Всё, что для этого нужно, – ввести неизвестное слово, которое
использует Джордж, в строку поиска или дважды щелкнуть мышью над ним.
Робот представляет собой веб-ресурс, созданный компаниями «Метабург» и Еxistor на основе технологии Cleverbot и работающий в среде «облачных» вычислений компании «Селектел» –
первого в России члена Open Data Center Alliance. Аппаратная
база построена на передовых решениях Intel.
Технология распределенных вычислений («облачная» среда) позволяет роботу проводить одновременные факультативные
занятия во всех школах Санкт-Петербурга, а в дальнейшем подключиться и к другим регионам России.
Text 5. В Японии разработан первый «наномозг»
В Японии ученые разработали «наномозг» – молекулярную
структуру, позволяющую управлять нанороботами. В рамках
эксперимента с помощью этой разработки наномашины смогли
выполнять простейшие команды. По словам ученых, «наномозг»
может быть использован при создании суперкомпьютеров.
Исследователи поставили эксперимент, доказавший, что
структура из 17 молекул DRQ функционирует аналогично процессору, выполняющему 16 команд за один такт.17 молекул DRQ
могут быть сформированы в молекулярную машину, которая спо42
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собна закодировать более 4 млрд различных комбинаций. Размер
полученной молекулярной структуры – всего 2 нанометра. Это
первый в мире работающий образец «наномозга».
Предполагается, что «наномозг» можно будет использовать
при создании нанороботов, проекты которых пока находятся в
стадии разработки. Нанороботы могут широко использоваться в
медицинских целях. В частности, они могли бы доносить медицинские препараты в те места человеческого организма, которые
в этом нуждаются. Однако нанороботы требуют контроля. Для
того чтобы заложить в них программу, необходим «наномозг».
Пока нанороботы не изобретены, ученые надеются использовать полученные разработки при создании высокопроизводительных процессоров для современных компьютеров. Они уже
разработали более крупный образец «наномозга», который может послужить основой для процессоров будущего. Litenews.org,
ноябрь 2010.
Assignment IV. Read dialogues (1–5) in pairs. Reproduce
them.
Dialogue 1. HOOKING Up My COMPUTER
Peter: Hi Jack. Can you give me a hand?
Jack: Sure. What ‘s up?
Peter: I’ve just bought a new computer and I’m having some
problems hooking everything up.
Jack: ... and I’m a geek. Yeah, I know. I’d be happy to help.
Peter: Thanks! I’ve connected all the cables from my monitor,
mouse and keyboard, and I’ve plugged it in.
Jack: Have you installed the software yet?
Peter: No, I haven’t. Do I need to?
Jack: Not always, but it’s best to install drivers for your keyboard
and mouse, as well as your printer.
Peter: Will the computer boot up without those?
Jack: Of course. Boot up the computer and then we can update
the drives.
Peter: OK. What’s that thing (points to a computer component)
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Jack: Oh, that’s a memory reader. You can insert things like SD
cards from your camera and mp3 players into it.
Peter: That’s handy.
Jack: You’ve bought a nice system. How big is the hard drive?
Peter: I think it ‘s 750 gigabyte.
Jack: Good... The computer’s booted up. Let’s install those
drivers.
Peter: Before we do that, can I get online?
Jack: Do you have a modem?
Peter: Yes, I do. I think I have a cable modem.
Jack: hmmm... yes you do. Is the Ethernet cable plugged in?
Peter: What’s that?
Jack: It’s the cable that connects your modem to your computer.
Peter: Let’s surf the internet!
Jack: Just a moment... first we need to launch the browser.
Peter: The browser?
Jack: It’s the program that allows you to surf the internet.
Peter: Oh ... I’ve got a lot to learn.
Jack: Yes, you do. I can see I’m going to be here all day ...
Dialogue 2. HARDWARE DEDUCTIONS
Mr. Sanders: Mark can we talk for a moment?
Mark: Sure, Mr. Sanders. What would you like to discuss?
Mr. Sanders: I’d like to look into the Johnson account for a
moment.
Mark: I did the bookkeeping yesterday and updated the balance
sheet.
Mr. Sanders: Yes, I don’t understand some of these deductions.
Mark: Do you mean the amortization costs?
Mr. Sanders: You deducted $35,000 for depreciation of
hardware.
Mark: That’s based on their accounting criteria. I got the amount
from their bookkeeper.
Mr. Sanders: It seems too much to me.
Mark: Remember that computer equipment tends to depreciate
faster than office furniture.
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Mr. Sanders: I guess so. I’ll take your word for it. Did they
approve the balance?
Mark: Yes, it was OKed yesterday afternoon.
Mr. Sanders: The net growth looks fantastic this year.
Mark: It sure does! The bottom-line grew by 17%.
Dialogue 3. WebVisions CONFERENCE
Robert: I’m going to Portland on Thursday. There’s a internet
expo on. It’s called WebVisions.
Alice: What is the schedule like?
Robert: As soon as I arrive, the keynote speech begins.
Alice: ... and after that?
Robert: When the keynote ends, we’ll have two hours to check
out the booths.
Alice: Are you making any presentations?
Robert: No, I’m just attending this conference.
Alice: Is Tad Wilson presenting?
Robert: No, but he’s giving a workshop on Monday.
Alice: When are you coming back?
Robert: I’m flying back on Saturday morning.
Alice: Remember you are meeting with Trevor on Monday
morning at nine o’clock sharp!
Robert:Oh, thanks! I forgot about that ...
Alice: Have a good trip!
Dialogue 4. HOW To Use An ATM
Susan: How do I use the ATM?
Alan: First of all, put your card in this slot and enter your PIN.
Susan: OK. Then I choose withdrawal?
Alan: Yes, choose withdrawal, not account information.
Susan: What’s next?
Alan: The ATM calls up your checking or savings account.
Susan: And then?
Alan: Enter the amount you want to take out of your account.
Susan: How much can I take out?
Alan: Most accounts have a limit of $400.
Susan: What happens after I enter the withdrawal amount?
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Alan: The ATM gives you bills, usually $20 bills. Take the
money and receipt from the slots.
Dialogue 5. TALKING About Your JOB
Jack: Hi, Peter. Can you tell me a little bit about your current job?
Peter: Certainly. What would you like to know?
Jack: First of all, what do you work as?
Peter: I work as a computer technician at Schuller’s and Co.
Jack: What do your responsibilities include?
Peter: I’m responsible for systems administration and in-house
programming.
Jack: What sort of problems do you deal with on a day-to-do
basis?
Peter: Oh, there are always lots of small system glitches. I also
provide information on a need-to-know basis for employees.
Jack: What else does your job involve?
Peter: Well, as I said, for part of my job I have to develop inhouse programs for special company tasks.
Jack: Do you have to produce any reports?
Peter: No, I just have to make sure that everything is in good
working order.
Jack: Do you ever attend meetings?
Peter: Yes, I attend organizational meetings at the end of the
month.
Jack: Thanks for all the information, Peter. It sounds like you
have an interesting job.
Peter: Yes, it’s very interesting, but stressful, too!
Answers to Exercise B (UNIT V)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
S
Q
N
C
T
6. E
7. A
8. P
9. J
10. G
11. O
12. L
13. F
14. M
15. B
46
16. I
17. D
18. K
19. H
20. R
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Содержание
UNIT I��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 3
UNIT II������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 6
UNIT III���������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 11
UNIT IV���������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 19
UNIT V ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 23
UNIT VI���������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 32
Supplementary section������������������������������������������������������������ 37
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Учебное издание
Английский язык
для студентов факультета ИВТ
и математического факультета
Практикум
Составитель Умнова Ирина Васильевна
Редактор, корректор И. В. Бунакова
Компьютерная верстка И. Н. Иванова
Подписано в печать 11.04.2011. Формат 60х84 1/16.
Бумага тип. Печать офсетная. Усл. печ. л. 2,79. Уч.-изд. л. 2,01.
Тираж 50 экз. Заказ
 
Оригинал-макет подготовлен
в редакционно-издательском отделе ЯрГУ.
Отпечатано на ризографе.
Ярославский государственный университет им. П. Г. Демидова
150000 Ярославль, ул. Советская, 14.
48
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