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Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации
Федеральное агентство по образованию
Ярославский государственный университет им. П. Г. Демидова
Кафедра иностранных языков
Страны, языки, традиции
Методические указания
Научно-методическим советом университета для студентов,
обучающихся по специальностям Юриспруденция, Биология,
Социология, Музеология
Ярославль 2010
УДК 811.111
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ББК Ш 143.21я73
С 83
Редакционно-издательским советом университета
в качестве учебного издания. План 2009/10 года
кафедра иностранных языков Ярославского государственного
университета им. П. Г. Демидова
Составитель О. А. Томашова
Страны, языки, традиции: метод. указания
С 83 / сост. О. А. Томашова; Яросл. гос. ун-т им. П. Г. Демидова. – Ярославль : ЯрГУ, 2010. – 40 с.
Предназначены для студентов, обучающихся по
специальностям 030501.65 Юриспруденция, 040201.65
Социология, 020201.65 Биология, 031502.65 Музеология
(дисциплина «Английский язык», блок ГСЭ), очной и
очно-заочной форм обучения.
УДК 811.111
ББК Ш 143.21я73
 Ярославский
государственный университет
им. П. Г. Демидова, 2010
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1. People, races, nationalities
People belong to ethnic groups and regional groups such as
Afro – Caribbeans, Asians and Orientals and Latin Americans. What
are you? (e.g. North African, Southern African European,
Melanesian). They speak dialects as well as languages. Everyone has
a mother tongue or first language; many have second and third
languages. Some people are perfect in more than one language and are
bilingual or multilingual.
Some nationalities have nouns for referring to people, e.g. a Finn,
a Swede, a Turk, a Spaniard, an Arab. For most nationalities we can
use the adjective as a noun, e.g. a German, an Italian, a Greek, an
African. Some need woman (men) person added to them (you can’t
say ‘ a Dutch’), so if in doubt, use them, e.g. a Dutch man, a French
woman, an Irish person.
Adjectives referring to countries and languages
With – ish: British, Irish, Danish, Turkish, Spanish.
With – (i)an: Canadian, American, Russian, Australian.
With – ese: Japanese, Chinese, Guyanese, Taiwanese.
With – i: Israeli, Iraqi, Kuwaiti, Pakistani.
With – ic: Icelandic, Arabic.
1. Make up adjectives from the following proper names:
Hungary –
Armenia –
Italy –
Poland –
Lithuania –
Portugal –
2. Complete the list of adjectives:
Hungarian –
Armenian –
3. Can you name a famous ......
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а) Polish person who became a world religious leader?
b) Italian opera singer?
c) Irish rock – music group?
d) Chinese politician?
2. Words from other languages
English has taken over words from most of the other languages
with which it has had contact. It has taken many expressions from the
ancient languages, Latin and Greek and these borrowings usually have
academic or literary associations. From French, English has taken lots
of words to do with cooking, the arts, and a more sophisticated
lifestyle in general. From Italian come words connected with music
and the plastic arts. German expressions in English have been coined
either by tourists bringing back words for new things they saw or by
philosophers or historians describing German concepts or
experiences. The borrowings from other languages usually relate to
things which English speakers experienced for the first time abroad.
There are borrowings from a wide range of languages. For
example, from Japanese, tycoon, karate, origami, judo, futon and
bonsai. From Arabic, mattress, cipher, alcove, carafe, algebra,
harem, mufti and yashmak. From Turkish, yoghurt, jackal, kiosk,
tulip and caftan. From Farsi, caravan, shawl, taffeta, bazzar and
sherbet and from Eskimo, kayak, igloo and anorak.
The list below shows the origin of some English words and
expressions borrowed from some other European languages:
cuisine, gateau, chauffeur, boutiqua, creche, duver, coup, elite,
saute, avant garde, aubergine, bider.
kindergarten, rottweiler, hamburger, delicatessen, blitz, waltz,
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dogma, drama, psychology, hippopotamus, theory, pseudonym,
jacht, easel, tattoo, cruise.
ghetto, piano, soprano, ballerina, confetti, fiasco, spaghetti,
bandit, casino, vendetta.
ford, floe, ski, slalom, lemming.
marmalade, palaver, dodo, cobra.
bistro, sputnik, cosmonaut, perestroika, steppe, tundra, tsar,
balalaika, mammoth.
embargo, junta, siesta, guerrila, macho, mosquito, bonanza, lasso,
ombudsman, tangsten.
1. Which of words listed above are also used in your language?
2. Match the adjectives on the left with the nouns (they are most
likely to be associated with) on the right:
right – wing
long – sleeved
long – standing
all – night
3. What verbs are frequently used with the following nouns?
Example: study algebra
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karate, kayak, mufti, embargo, querrilla, cul de sac, coup,
confetti, siesta, cruise, sauna, seminar.
4. Have some words or expressions been borrowed from English
into your own language? Give some examples.
3. Other Englishes
US or American English is not the only special variety of
English. Each area of the English – speaking world has developed its
own special characteristics. This is usually mainly a matter of
vocabulary and pronunciation. This text just gives you a small taste of
some of the different varieties of English by drawing your attention of
vocabulary used in various English – speaking regions. All the words
covered in this text would be understood by educated native speakers
of British English although they might not choose to use them
themselves. They are all words which you may come across in your
own reading, listening or viewing.
Australian English is particularly interesting for its rich store of
highly colloquial words and expressions. Australian colloquialisms
often involve shortening a word. Sometimes the ending ‘- ie’, or ‘- o ‘,
is then added, e.g. a smoko (from smoking), is ‘ a tea or coffee break’
and a milko delivers the milk; beaut, short for ‘beautiful’ means
‘great’. Because of the current popularity of Australian TV
programmes and films some of these words are now being used by
British people too.
Indian English, on the other hand, is characterised by sounding
more formal than British English. It has retained in everyday usage
words that are found more in the classics of nineteenth century
literature than in contemporary TV programmes from London, e.g.
The bereaved are condoled and the Prime Minister is felicitated on
his or her birthday. An Indian might complain of a pain in his bosom
(rather – than, his chest) and an Indian bandit is referred to as a
Scottish English uses a number of special dialect words. Some of
the more common of these are worth learning e.g. aye – yes; ben –
mountain, dram – drink (usually whisky), loch – lake, to mind – to
remember, bonny – beautiful, lassie – girl, wee – small, ken – know.
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Black English is the term used to refer to the English which
originated in the Caribbean islands and has now spread to many parts
of the UK, Canada and the USA. Listed below are some words which
are characteristic of Black English but are also now used in other
varieties of English. Many are particularly associated with the music
world chick – girl, rap – street talk, beat – exhausted, dig –
understand, pad – bed, square – dull.
1. The words on the left are more common in Indian English than
British English. The words on the right are the equivalent words more
frequently used in British English. Match the Indian word with its
British English equivalent.
bag (i.e. a seat in an election)
Eve – teaser
the common man
catch (e.g. by police)
man who annoys girls
plimsolls, sneakers
people awaiting trial
the general public
capture / obtain
4. US English
English in the USA differs considerably from British English.
Pronunciation is the most striking difference but there are also a
number of differences in vocabulary and spelling as well as slight
differences in grammar. On the whole, British people are exposed to a
lot of American English on TV, in films and so on and so they will
usually understand most American vocabulary.
American spelling is usually simpler. For example, British
English words ending in – our and – re, end in – or, and – er in
American English, e.g. colour – color, centre – center. There are
differences in Individual words too, e.g. British ‘plough’ becomes
‘plow’. The American spelling usually tries to correspond more
closely to pronunciation.
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Here are some common US words with their British equivalents:
gasoline – petrol, truck – lorry, baggage – luggage, blow-out –
puncture, sidewalk – pavement, line – queue, vacation – holiday,
trunk – boot (of car), cab – taxi, engineer – engine driver, baby
carriage – pram.
1. What are the American and the British words for the following
антенна – ...., лифт – ...., конфета – ...., детская
коляска...., шторы...., грузовик.... .
2. Do you know any other examples of American English? Make
a list in your vocabulary notebook.
5. Fifty United States
Massachusetts is the center of the New England states, with New
Hampshire and Vermont touching it on the north and Rhode Island
and Connecticut on the south. Its Atlantic coastline on the east has
been important in its history.
The Pilgrims landed in Massachusetts in 1620. Boston’s fine
harbor helped make it an important seaport from colonial times until
today. It is New England’s largest city.
Fishermen have sailed from Boston and other Massachusetts
ports since colonial days. Whaling boats left on long voyages and
Gloucester schooners went out for cod off the 63 – mile – long finger
of land called Cape Cod. Today the fishing boats are driven by Diesel
Massachusetts had some of the first factories with power – driven
machines in America. More shoes are made here than in any other
state. Cloth, watches, tools, paper and furniture are also made.
Farmers in Massachusetts raise hay, tobacco, fruits and
vegetables, poultry and dairy cattle.
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There are 70 state forests. Many of them are in the Berkshire
Mountains in the western part of the state.
Massachusetts was the scene of many important events of the
American Revolution. When American colonists dumped British tea
into Boston harbor rather than pay the King’s tax, they helped start
the Revolution. The first battles between the colonists and the British
were at Lexington and Concord and at Bunker Hill in Boston. You
can visit these battlefields and many other historic sites in
Many of the smaller cities and towns in the center and western
part of the state look much as they did in colonial days, with white
wooden houses and churches around quiet village greens.
The first college, Harvard, and the first public school in the
United States were founded in Massachusetts. The capital is Boston,
the area of the state is 8,257 square miles.
1. Find in the text above the examples of American English.
6. Cities
А. Boston/
Boston is the capital of the state of Massachusetts and is the
largest city in New England. Settled in 1630, the city played an
important role in the American Revolution and is rich in history and
tradition. Today Boston has a world – wide reputation as a center for
education, finance, health research and high technology. Boston is
also the cultural center of New England offering a rich variety of
attractions – art, theatre, symphony, opera and ballet. Students also
enjoy professional sports pop music, cafes and discos.
The cosmopolitan Boston area is a truly global community. The
metropolitan area has a population of over 2,830,000 many from other
countries, and there are international cultural events happening
throughout the year. Boston is probably most famous as the center for
higher education in the US. There are over 50 colleges and
universities in the Boston area and more than 12,000 international
students study here each year.
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1. Here are some useful adjectives for describing cities and
picturesque, historic, spacious, magnificent, crowded, quaint,
Please describe Boston.
2. Check that you understand the text about Boston by answering
the following questions:
а) What state is Boston the capital?
b) What is Boston?
с) Did Boston play an important role in the American
d) How many universities and colleges are there in the Boston
Faneuil Hall Marketplace
Built in the early 1740s, the marketplace was the original idea of
Peter Faneuil, an English merchant. The actual building, constructed
in a Palladian-style of architecture similarly found in British market
halls, was also used as an assembly hall which would some day be put
to use by Samuel Adams and other historical figures. And atop the
central steeple sits Faneuil’s personal gift to the marketplace – a
grasshopper weathervane, symbolizing good luck, fortune and
By 1823, Boston’s newly-elected mayor, Josiah Quincy, decided
to expand Faneuil’s market to accommodate the needs of the growing
Commonwealth. Alexander Paris was hired to design a bigger
marketplace with more stores and shopping areas. Eventually he built
three Greek Revival arcades, all 353 feet in length. These arcades are
now called the North, South and Quincy buildings, and the complex
as a whole is known as Faneuil Hall Marketplace. Together, Faneuil
Hall and the Marketplace became a successful center of trade in the
expanding city of Boston.
Answer the questions:
1. Who was Peter Faneuil?
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2. What style of architecture is the building of Faneuil’s Market?
3. For what purpose was it used?
4. Who decided to expand Faneuil’s Market?
5. What did Faneuil Hall and Marketplace become in the city of
В. Washington.
The government of all fifty United States is carried on in the city
of Washington. It is on the banks of the Potomac River and is called
the Federal District of Columbia. The place was chosen by George
In Washington you can visit the White House, where the
President lives and has his office. You can also watch meetings of the
Senate and House of Representatives in the Capitol and visit the
Supreme Court. The nation’s capital was moved to Washington in
1800. The city was carefully planned. The major avenues are named
for the states. Due west of the Capitol are the Washington Monument
and the Lincoln Memorial.
Thousands of visitors come to the city each year. Spring time is
especially popular. That is when the cherry trees bloom near the
Thomas Jefferson Memorial. You can take a boat down the Potomac
River to visit George Washington’s beautiful home at Mount Vernon
in nearby Virginia.
The following words are for describing Washington. Use them in
your story about Washington: Potomac River, Federal District Of
Columbia, George Washington, White House, President, Senate,
House of Representatives, Capitol, Supreme Court, Washington
Monument, Lincoln Memorial.
From historic Pennsylvania Avenue – America’s Main Street – to
Alexandria’s colonial Old Town, the neighborhoods and communities
in and around the capital city form a modern metropolis rich in 200
years of history and etnic traditions.
In 1790 George Washington, founding father and first president,
hired Pierre L’Enfant to design a new capital city. Standing atop a
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glassy patch of high ground above a bog that’s now the National Mall,
L’Enfant pronounced the site “a pedestal waiting for a monument”.
Today it’s simply known as “The Hill”. And from its summit rises the
US Capitol, a domed symbol of authority that remains, by statute, the
city’s highest structure.
The Capitol is the logistical center of the city’s geometric design
of circles, squares and radials. Streets emanating from here divide the
city into quadrants: Northeast, Northwest, Southeast and Southwest.
Before you head for your destination, be sure the street address bears
one of those designations, for a given address may be found in any of
those quadrants.
Capitol Hill is a neighborhood best known for its elite workforce.
Members of the US Senate and the House of Representatives were
originally intended to meet for short sessions a few times a year and
then return to their full-time professions.
С. Philadelphia/
Philadelphia is a busy, modern city. But most Americans know it
as the birthplace of the nation. In Independents Hall, which still stands
in the heart of the city, George Washington was made Commander in
Chief of the army during the American Revolution. In this same hall,
on July 4,1776, the Declaration of Independence was signed. The
Liberty Bell was rung in honor of the occasion. Here too, beginning in
1787, the Constitution was written.
Answer: What is Philadelphia famous for?
D. New York.
New York City is built on and around the small island of
Manhattan in the southern part of the state. It is the nation’s largest
city and most important shipping and banking center. Also, it is the
home of the United Nations. About 8,000,000 people live in New
York City. This is more people than the population of most of the
states. Millions more come to work there each day from nearby areas.
The explorer, Henry Hudson, sailed into New York City’s harbor
and up the Hudson River in 1609. The Dutch settled New York first,
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but lost it to the British in 1664. New York was the scene of many
battles in the American Revolution. New York City was the first
capital of the United States from 1785 to 1790. And in 1789, George
Washington was inaugurated there as the first president of the
New York Neighborhoods
The story of New York is a story of a city on the move. From
Lower Manhattan where the first settlers landed over 450 years ago to
the upper reaches of the West Side where newer generations of urban
explorers stake their claim to the good life, New York is an island rich
in history and ethnic diversity. Any way you slice it, the Big Apple is
a bounteous feast. Here then is a sampler of some of the
neighborhoods that blossom in spring and make New York a great
place to visit and even greater place to live.
Lower Manhattan, the area south of Chambers street flanked by
the Hudson and East Rivers, is New York’s soul, its financial center
and its patriotic spirit. The Dutch established the first permanent
settlement in 1612 which they named New Amsterdam. The English
captured New Amsterdam in 1664, rechristened in New York and
held it until after the Revolutionary War when it became the new
nation’s first capital.
Answer the questions:
1. Where was the first President of the country inaugurated?
2. What is the financial center of New York?
Е. Chicago.
Chicago is the mix of races, cultures and ethnic groups that make
up the city.
In 1890 80 percent of all Chicagoans were immigrants or
immigrant’s children. That pattern continues today and one thing a
visitor notices quickly is that the city consists of clusters of welldefined neighborhoods. You can still enjoy the rich spiciness of
Greektown, Chinatown, Old Palonia, Little Italy and Germantown,
well-established old city neighborhoods.
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In Andersonville, for example, you’ll find the greatest
concentration of Swedish shops and restaurants outside Stockholm.
And newer groups from Vietnam, Thailand, Syria, Afghanistan,
Mexico, India, Pakistan, Korea, Ethiopia, Cuba and Peru are adding
lively enclaves of shops, restaurants and cultures to the ever-changing
1. You are going on holiday to the States. Which of the words
listed in A and B would be most important for you to know?
2. Write sentences about any towns you know, using the
adjectives and adverbs: carefully, major, each, especially,
picturesque, historic, beautiful, nearby, spacious, magnificent,
crowded, busy, American, quaint, cluster, concentration, enclaves.
7. Education
No language stands still. New words and expressions are always
being created, usually because something new is invented or
sometimes just for fun. No government committee decides whether a
new word is acceptable or not; if it is used frequently, and in a variety
of contexts, it will find its way into the dictionary. Here are some of
the words and expressions that have come into English since 1980.
faxable – able to be sent by fax machine
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sound bite – a brief excerpt from a speech or statement, broadcast
on TV
monoboarding – the sport of skiing downhill on a large single ski
snowsurfing – skiing downhill standing sideways on a large
single ski
vogueing – a style of dancing to house music incorporating the
movements and gestares of models displaying clothes.
cardboard city – area occupied by cardboard boxes serving as
homes for the homeless
newmannery – behaviour of the new man (gentle, carring, non –
couch potato – a lazy person who prefers watching TV no being
karaoke – singing pop songs solo to recorded music in bars
glasnost – policy of openness or frankness (Russia)
singlehood – the state of being single rather than married.
1. Here are some more new words. Which of the six categories
opposite does each fit in?
collectomania – a specially bred miniaturised form of vegetable.
bio – house – a hypothetical miniaturised device capable of
making its way through bodily passages and performing various tasks.
bimbo – an irresistible urge to collect things.
mini – vegetable – an indoor version of American football.
arenaball – a house constructed solely from natural materials.
microbot – a female of limited intelligence but high sex appeal.
2. Explain what the underlined words in the following sentences
must mean.
a) I very much prefer restaurants where there is no microwavery.
b) They’re building a new cineplex on the edge of the town so we
should be able to choose from a variety of films on Saturday nights.
с) Upskiing, which uses small parachutes, is rapidly developing
sport in the USA.
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d) World AIDS Day was inspired by the health globocrats of the
World Health Organization.
e) He is writing a thesis on humorology.
f) The boss is very much a hands-on manager who likes to be
involved in all aspects of the company’s work.
g) Many large shops now have their own store cards.
h) The post war baby-boomers are now becoming grandparents.
8. Words with interesting origins
A number of words in English have organized from the names of
biro – ball – (point pen); named after Laszlo Biro, its Hungarian
boycott – (refure to deal with or refusal to deal with); after a
landlord in Ireland, who made himself unpopular by his treatment of
his tenants and was socially isolated.
braille – (name of a raised writing system used by blind people);
from the name of its French inventor, Louis Braille.
hooligan – (a rough, lawless youth); from the Irish family name,
mentor – (loyal and wise adviser); from Mentor, friend to
pamphlet – (a small leafter); from a character Pamphilus, in a 12th
century love poem.
saxophone – (musical instrument); invented by the Belgian,
Adolphe Sax.
watt – ( unit of power); from the 18th century Scottish inventor,
James Watt.
A number of other words in English come from place names.
bedlam – (chaos); from the name of a famous London Mental
hospital, once situated where Liverpool Street Station now stands.
spartan – (severely simple); from the ancient Greek city of
Sparta, famed for its austerity.
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gypsy – (member of a particular group of travelling people).
These people were once thought to have come from Egypt, hence the
A number of names of different kinds of cloth originate from
place names. The place of origin is shown in brackets:
angora – (Ankara)
satin – (Qingjiang, China)
cashmere (Kashmir)
damask – (Damascus)
muslin – (Mosul, Iraq)
tweed – (River Tweed, Scotland)
The U.S.Higher Education System.
In the United States, students begin higher education after
completing 12 years of primary and secondary school. Institutions of
higher education include two-year colleges (known as community or
junior colleges), four-year colleges, universities, institutes of
technology, vocational and technical schools, and professional
schools such as law and medical schools. Higher education is
available in public (government support) and private ( no government
support) institutions, institutions affiliated with religious groups, and
profit-making institutions – a wide variety. Size varies, too. Some
excellent colleges enroll fewer than a thousand students; many large
universities enroll fifty thousand or more students.
The underlying purpose of institutions varies: some provide a
basic “liberal arts” education; others concentrate on technical
education; still others focus on music or art or the professions. Experts
at U.S. educational advising centers around the world can help you
sort through these categories.
The United States government does not recognize or approve
colleges and universities as does the ministry of education in many
countries. Instead the US Department of Education reviews and
recognizes “accrediting agencies” that in turn assure the quality of
educational institutions and programs. Be sure that the universities in
which you are interested are accredited by an agency recognized by
the Department of Education.
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Most colleges and universities have what is called “regional
accreditation” from an agency that has jurisdiction over the region of
the country in which they are located. Accreditation assures you that
the institution has met certain academic, administrative and fiscal
standards. Accreditation also assures you that your degree will be
recognized by other educational institutions and by employers.
The academic year in the United States generally runs from late
August or early September through late May or early June. Colleges
and universities offer courses throughout the academic year based on
semesters, trimesters or quarters. The semester system is the most
common, dividing the year in half. The terms “trimester” and
“quarter” are used in a variety of ways.
1. Can you tell when students in the US begin higher education?
а) after completing 12 years of primary and secondary education
b) after colleges
2. Complete the list of institutions of higher education:
а) colleges
b) universities
Stonehill College
Stonehill College is an independent undergraduate church –
related institution offering a degree in the liberal arts and related
professional disciplines, the sciences, and business administration.
Stonehill^s primary mission is to provide a vigorous programm of
academic studies in the liberal arts tradition which will engage
students in a life – long guest for intellectual excellence and
dedication to service. Stonehill is open to men and women of diverse
beliefs who wish to be educated in the Catholic tradition. The Day
Division consists largely of full – time students who live on campus.
The Evening Division attracts part – time students who may have
interrupted their schooling for financial or family reasons and who
complete degree programs.
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A student who has completed three years of study may under
certain conditions be accepted for admission to such professional
schools as Dentistry, Law, and Medicine. The student who has
fulfilled all other graduation requirements may be granted the
Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science degree upon satisfactory
completion of the first year of professional studies. Under this plan a
pre-professional student may reduce by one year the time ordinarily
required for obtaining both degrees.
American Classroom Etiquette.
There are some American student behaviors that you may find
surprising or that would be considered disrespectful in your country.
For example, students may sit in class with their feet on the chair or
desk in front of them. They may eat, drink, or even sleep in class!
Students may interrupt lectures to ask questions or even to raise
objections to what is being said. In general, none of these behaviors
denotes disrespect unless done in a belligerent or aggressive manner.
In fact, one way in which an American student shows respect for his
or her teacher is by being an active participant in class.
Plagiarism is the use of another’s words or ideas without
acknowledgment of their source. Although in some cultures
incorporating the words of revered scholars is an important part of the
style of academic writing, it is not acceptable in the United States;
indeed, it is considered a serious offence. Borrowed words and ideas
must always be clearly documented.
9. Social behavior in the US
Throughout their 300-year history, Americans have been trying to
balance the freedom of the individual with the well-being of society,
sometimes with odd results. Often the right of a majority to freedom
from something wins out, as in anti-smoking laws, where the right of
non-smokers to be free of smoke overrides the right of smokers to
smoke. International students are often shocked by the number of
rules governing their behavior as foreigners, as students, as monitors,
as bicyclists – any of the roles they may assume during their stay in
the United States.
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The rules of social behavior in the United States can be equally
confusing. There is a strong dose of Puritanism mixed in with the
generally laissez-faire American attitude, which makes it difficult to
predict how people will behave or react to others’ behavior. Also, in
the United States many different cultures exist side by side, which
means that the values may differ widely from one social group to
another and from one individual to another.
In regions where there are many immigrants you may find
yourself blending in, suffering more from indifference than
intolerance. In other, more isolated and homogeneous areas, you may
be an object of curiosity, noticed and welcomed, but perhaps not
always understood. Because of America’s relative geographical
isolation, many Americans are quite ignorant about the rest of the
world and may be rather chauvinistic (have a sense of national
superiority). This may be irritating, but you will find that hostility
towards foreigners is rare.
Racial and ethnic prejudice is unfortunately a reality in the United
States and occasionally a foreign student experiences hostility, even
violence, of this nature. It would be wise to be aware of the tensions
that may exist in the communities you visit in the United States, but
do not fear that this will be a common or frequent problem. Pay
attention to the news, listen to the advice of friends, and perhaps take
a class of race relations in the United States. This is a complex issue
that reflects many of the paradoxes of American history.
America is a driving society, with many accessible roads and all
provisions available for drivers. The drawback to a driving culture is
that it is difficult to reach many places without a car. There are
alternatives, although they are limited, especially in the West. Flying
can be cheap, particularly, between major cities. The train system is
well established in the East, particularly, along the coast, but leaves
much to be desired in the West. The bus system covers all major
routes and is relatively inexpensive.
Americans usually spend the holidays with their families.
Americans also enjoy going to the beach in groups and taking part in
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outdoor activities and sporting events. Their goal is to have fun and
take a rest from the pressure of studying. Nature is one of these
country’s best attractions. Most of the time, natural beauty is close at
hand in the form of local, state, and the national parks, or national
wildlife refuges. In most cases, you pay an access fee and can stay as
long as you like. Most parks have a center where you can get maps
and information about the things to see and do at the park.
Cultural shock.
Cultural shock is not quite as shocking or as sudden as most
people expect. It is part of the process of learning a new culture that is
called “cultural adaptation”. Most people experience some discomfort
before they are able to function well in a new setting. This discomfort
is the “culture shock” stage of the adaptation process. The main thing
to remember is that this is a very normal process that nearly everyone
goes through.
Sometimes students worry about “ loosing their culture” if they
become too well adapted to the host culture. It is virtually impossible
to loose the culture in which you were raised. In fact, learning about
the new culture often increases your appreciations for and
understanding of your own culture. Do not resist the opportunity to
become bicultural, that is, able to function competently in two cultural
10. Australia
The name Australia is derived from the Latin australis, meaning
“southern”. Legends of an “unknown land of the south” date back to
Roman times and were commonplace in medieval geography but were
not based on any documented knowledge of the continent.
The first use of the word Australia in English was in 1625.
The name Australia was popularized by Matthew Flinders, who,
as early as 1804, pushed for the name to be formally adopted.
The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland
was made by the Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon, who sighted the
cost of Cape York Peninsula in 1606. In 1770, James Cook sailed
along and mapped the east coast of Australia, which he named New
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South Wales and claimed for Great Britain. The British Crown
Colony of New South Wales began a settlement at Port Jackson on 26
January 1788. This date was later to become Australia’s national day.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies became a federation, and the
Commonwealth of Australia was formed. The Commonwealth of
Australia is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the
continental mainland, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller
islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans.
The word Australia in Australian English is pronounced [
Since early in the 20-th century the country is sometimes referred to
locally and internationally as Oz. Aussie ( less frequently spelt Ozzie,
better representing the pronunciation) is common colloquially as an
adjective, and as a noun referring to an Australian.
Most visitors to Australia comments their travels in Sydney.
Sydney Harbour, stretching from “the heads” where it enters the
South Pacific Ocean, to the Sydney Harbour Bridge. This is a great
introduction to Sydney.
Sydney offers a wide variety of quality accommodation from 5
star hotels to backpackers. Many of the top hotels are located in the
Rocks and Darling Harbour areas, most with spectacular views. A
number of 3 and 4 star hotels are located at King’s Cross, a popular
area for restaurants and the “nightlife” hub of the city.
Sydney is a popular destination with backpackers. They love the
night life, shopping, beaches, scenery and climate.
Australian English.
The roots of Australian English lie in the South and East of
England, London, Scotland and Ireland. To take just few examples,
words like corker, dust-up, purler and tootsy all came to Australia from
Ireland; billy comes from the Scottish bally, meaning “ a milk pail”.
Some elements of Aboriginal languages have been incorporated
into Australian English, mainly as names for the indigenous flora and
fauna (e.g. dingo, kangaroo), as well as extensive borrowings for
place names.
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Australian English has a unique set of diminutives formed by
adding –o or –ie (-y) to the ends of (often abbreviated) words.
Examples with the –o ending include:
–agro (aggressive),
–ambo (ambulance office),
–bizzo (business),
–journo (journalist).
Sample Text in Australian English.
I got up and put on my black daks. They are the most exy piece of
my clobber as they’re my Dad’s last Chrissie prezzie. My Dad’s a
bonzer bloke and I like him most of all my rellies. That’s cos I’ve got no
Mum and my brother’s a bloody bludger and an ignorant ocker. We’ve
never been matey with each other and I often get agro with him.
11. Canada
Canada lies in the northern part of the North American continent.
It borders the United States ( south and northwest), the polar regions
(north), as well as the Atlantic and Pacific oceans (east and west).
Canada is also known for having the longest coastline in the world at
about 244,000 km. The country also has so many different landscapes,
such as vast, fertile prairies, approximately 2 million fresh-water
lakes, boreal forests, tall mountain ranges and lots of tundra.
Canada is the second largest country in the world. Canada came
into being as a country on July 1, 1867, when the British government
passed the British North American Act. The original dominion of
Canada was made up of only 4 provinces: Ontario, Quebec, Nova
Scotia and New Brunswick.
Ottawa ( capital city) is situated on the Ottawa River in Eastern
Languages of Canada.
A multitude of languages are spoken in Canada. According to the
2006 census, English and French are the preferred language (“home
language”, or language spoken most often in the home) of 67.1 % and
21.5%, respectively. English and French are recognized by the
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Constitution of Canada as “official languages”. This means that all laws
of the federal government are enacted in both English and French and
that federal government services must be available in both languages.
Many Canadians believe that the relationship between the English
and French languages is the central of defining aspect of the Canadian
About 20 % of Canadians (roughly 6.1 million people) have a
language other than English or French as their first language or
mother tongue and nearly 3.5 million Canadians use a non-official
home language. The five most widely-spoken non-official languages
are Chinese, Punjabi, Spanish, Italian and Dutch. Aboriginal
languages, many of which are unique to Canada, are spoken by less
than one percent of the population, and are most in decline.
12. Test Yourself
1. Has English taken many expressions from the ancient
• Latin
• Greek
• Chinese
2. Do people belong to ethnic groups?
• Asians
• Scandinavian
• Dutch
3. Does English language have varieties?
• American English
• Chinese English
• Russian English
4. Which of the following is true?
English in the USA differs considerably from British English in
• pronunciation
• spelling
• grammar
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5. Which state is the center of the New England states?
• Vermont
• Rhode Island
• Massachusetts
6. Where did the Pilgrims land in?
• Connecticut
• Vermont
• Massachusetts
7. Where was the first public school in the US founded?
• Massachusetts
• New Hampshire
• Vermont
8. How old is Boston?
• 370 years old
• 500 years old
• 1500 years old
9. Which city can be called the financial heart of the US?
• Washington
• Boston
• Philadelphia
10. Where does American President live and have his office?
• New York
• Washington
• Philadelphia
11. What city is the birthplace of the nation of the USA?
• Boston
• Philadelphia
• New York
12. Who was the first European explorer who sailed in the place
what is now the harbor of New York?
• Christopher Columbus
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• Henry Hudson
• Giovanni de Verrazano
13. Where and when was George Washington inaugurated?
• Boston
• Washington
• New York
14. Which city was the first capital of the US?
• Washington
• Boston
• New York
15. Which city consists of clusters of well-defined
• Boston
• Chicago
• Philadelphia
13. Appendix
List of Geographical Names:
text 1. Afro – Caribbeans – африканцы Карибского бассейна
Asians – азиаты
Orientals – уроженцы Востока
text 5. New Hampshire – штат Нью-Хемпшир
Vermont – штат Вермонт
Rhode Island – штат Род Айленд
Connecticut – штат Коннектикут
Massachusetts – штат Массачусетс
New England – Новая Англия
Gloucester – г. Глостер (к северу от Бостона)
Cape Cod – мыс трески
Berkshire Mountains – Беркширские горы
Lexington – г. Лексингтон (штат Массачусетс)
Concord – г. Конкорд (штат Массачусетс)
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Bunker Hill – холм Бункер
Old Palonia – собств.
text 6. Potomac River – река Потомак
District of Columbia – округ Колумбия
Mount Vernon – город в штате Нью-Йорк
Virginia – штат Вирджиния
Independence Hall – зал Независимости
Manhattan – Манхеттен (р-н Нью-Йорка)
Hudson River – река Гудзон
List of Proper Names.
Pilgrims – пилигримы, паломники
Diesel – Рудольф Дизель, нем. инженер
Harvard – Джордж Харвард – амер. деятель и бизнесмен
George Washington – первый президент США (1789)
Lincoln – президент США – Авраам Линкольн (1800)
Thomas Jefferson – амер. государственный и общественный
Henry Hudson – Хенри Хадсон, англ. Мореплаватель
Independence Hall – зал Независимости
Liberty Bell – колокол Свободы
Old Palonia – старая Польша
Andersonville – район Чикаго
Manhattan – район Нью-Йорка
Henry Hudson – Генри Хадсон, мореплаватель
Pennsylvania Avenue – главная улица Вашингтона
P L’Enfan – французский архитектор
Capitol – Капитолий
14. Keys
1. 1. Armenia, Italian, Polish, Lithuanian, Portugalian.
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2. Ukrain, Bulgaria, Rumania, Albania, Mongolia, Moldavia.
Ukrainian, Bulgarian, Rumanian, Albanian, Mongolian,
3. Pope John Paul II, Luciano Pavarotti, UZ, Mao-Tse-Tung.
2. 2. right-wing coup, prima ballerina, strawberry yoghurt, icefloe, Chinese cuisine, long-sleeved caftan, total embargo, longstanding vendetta, noisy kindergarten, cosy duvet, all-night casino.
practise karate
place an embargo attempt a coup take a cruise
paddle a kayak be a querrilla
throw confetti take a sauna
wear mufti
live in a cul de sac have a siesta
hold a seminar
3. 1.
the general public
plimsolls, sneakers
catch (e.g. by police)
people awaiting trial
capture (obtain)
man who annoys girls
4. 1. antenna-aerial, elevator-lift, candy-sweets, baby-carriagepram, drapes-curtains, truck-lorry.
5. 1. harbor, greens.
6. 2.
• Boston is the capital of Massachusetts.
• Boston is the center for education, finance, health, research.
• Yes, it did. Boston played an important role in the American
• There are about 50 colleges and universities in the Boston area.
3. the largest city, an important center, the major avenues. White
7. 1.
• English has taken many expressions from the ancient Latin and
• People belong to ethnic groups and regional groups such as
• English language has varieties, such as American, English.
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• Everything is true. English in the USA differs considerably
from British English in pronunciation, spelling and grammar.
• Massachusetts is the center of the New England states.
• The Pilgrims landed in Boston.
• The first public school in the US was founded in Massachusetts.
• Boston is 370 years old.
• Boston is the financial heart of the US.
• The American President lives and has his office in Washington.
• Philadelphia is the birthplace of the nation.
• Henry Hudson was the first European explorer who sailed into
New York City’s harbor.
• George Washington was inaugurated in New York in 1789.
• New York was the first capital of the US.
8. 1.
• an increasible urge.
• a house constructed.
• a female of limited.
• a specially bred.
• an indoor version.
• a hypothetical.
• cooking by microwave oven.
• a building which houses a number of different cinemas.
• skiing uphill.
• high-ranking, powerful members of international organizations.
• the study of humour.
• practically active.
• credit cards for use in a particular shop.
• babies born at a time when the birth-rate was particularly high.
9. 1. after completing 12 years of primary and secondary
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2. institutes of technology, vocational and technical schools,
professional schools
15. The United Kingdom of Great Britain
and Northern Ireland
The United Kingdom, consisting of Great Britain (England,
Wales and Scotland) and Northern Ireland, is twice the size of New
York State. England, in the southeast part of the British Isles, is
separated from Scotland on the north by the granite Cheviot Hills;
from them the Pennine chain of uplands extends south through the
center of England, reaching its highest point in the Lake District in the
northwest. To the west along the border of Wales—a land of steep
hills and valleys—are the Cambrian Mountains, while the Cotswolds,
a range of hills in Gloucestershire, extend into the surrounding shires.
Important rivers flowing into the North Sea are the Thames,
Humber, Tees, and Tyne. In the west are the Severn and Wye, which
empty into the Bristol Channel and are navigable, as are the Mersey
and Ribble.
The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy and
parliamentary democracy, with a queen and a parliament that has two
houses: the House of Lords, with 574 life peers, 92 hereditary peers,
and 26 bishops; and the House of Commons, which has 651 popularly
elected members. Supreme legislative power is vested in parliament,
which sits for five years unless dissolved sooner. The House of Lords
was stripped of most of its power in 1911, and now its main function
is to revise legislation. In Nov. 1999, hundreds of hereditary peers
were expelled in an effort to make the body more democratic. The
executive power of the Crown is exercised by the cabinet, headed by
the prime minister.
England has existed as a unified entity since the 10th century; the
union between England and Wales begun in 1284 with the Statute of
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Rhuddlan, was not formalized until 1536 with an Act of Union; in
another Act of Union in 1707, England and Scotland agreed to
permanently join as Great Britain; the legislative union of Great
Britain and Ireland was implemented in 1801, with the adoption of the
name the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; the AngloIrish treaty of 1921 formalized a partition of Ireland; six northern Irish
counties remained part of the United Kingdom as Northern Ireland
and the current name of the country, the United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Northern Ireland, was adopted in 1927.
American vs British English
"England and America are two countries separated by the same
This famous quote attributed to the Irish playwright George
Bernard Shaw is certainly an exaggeration. The differences between
British and American English have never been as different as people
have imagined. Nevertheless, as any learner of English knows, there
are some areas of language – especially vocabulary and use – in
which the differences between these two varieties of English can be a
source of confusion and even embarrassment. This article describes
some of the
Types of homes
Whether you are British or American, the place where you live is
your home, no matter what type of building it is. This is one case
where Americans use the same term as the British. When it comes to
naming specific types of homes, however, the Americans and the
British usually use terms that are quite different. In a few cases, such
as ranch house (a house on one level, often with a roof that does not
slope much), the terms describe types of dwellings that are native to
the American continent, thus unknown in Britain. Some other
American terms, such as apartment (what the British usually call a
flat), may be familiar to speakers of British English, but in Britain
they are used to describe different sorts of things, as in the following
If you visit Hampton Court, you can take a tour of the Royal
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Many of the differences in housing vocabulary are in the words
used to describe types of homes. The following is a list of examples in
which different words and expressions are used to indicate essentially
the same type of house and apartment.
apartment house or apartment building block of flats
apartment hotel
service flats
owner-occupied flat
semi-detached house
row house
terraced house
In other situations, however, there may be no exact British
equivalent for the American term, as is the case with the following:
• A brownstone is a house made of red-brown stone, especially
one built in the cities of the eastern U.S. in the nineteenth century:
She bought a lovely old brownstone in Greenwich Village.
• An efficiency apartment is a small apartment that usually
already has furniture and has no separate bedroom, and only a
very small bathroom and kitchen. The nearest British equivalent
is a bedsit (or bedsitter), a rented room that is used for both
living and sleeping in, but which does not have its own
bathroom and kitchen.
• A housing development is a large group of houses that were
built at the same time and are similar in style.
The rooms in a house
The good news here is that American and British English use the
same words to describe most of the rooms in a house: bathroom,
bedroom, dining room and kitchen. Note, however, the following
• The bathroom in an American home always includes a toilet, and
Americans often use the word bathroom as a polite synonym for
the word toilet (even in a public building). If you want to use the
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toilet in an American home, you should say something like 'May I
please use the bathroom?' as many Americans consider the term
toilet indelicate. This euphemistic use of the word bathroom can be
sometimes taken to extremes, as Americans will say things like,
'My neighbor's dog went to the bathroom on my lawn.'
• The main room in an American home, the room where people
usually sit and do things together like watch television and
entertain visitors, is called a living room. The British name for
this room, sitting room, sounds rather quaint and old-fashioned
to American ears.
• The word cupboard exists in both American and British
English, but whereas a British cupboard can be used for storing
all sorts of things, from clothes to toys, to Americans a cupboard
is almost always a kitchen cupboard – a place for storing food or
dishware. Thus, most Americans would be very surprised to hear
someone tell them to put their clothes in a cupboard, since they
usually hang their clothes in a closet.
In the kitchen
Ask an American and a British person to list the things that can
be found in their kitchens and then compare the lists. You will
discover a relatively large number of appliances and other items that
have different names in American and British English. Here is a list of
the most common ones:
can opener
tin opener
clothes pin
clothes peg
electrical outlet
power point
washing-up bowl
dish towel
tea towel
dishwashing liquid
washing-up liquid
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waste basket
waste bin
Polite houseguests in the U.S. will offer to do the dishes (wash
and dry the dishes) after a meal. The British equivalent do the
washing-up is confusing to many Americans for whom the verb wash
up usually means to wash yourself, especially your hands and face.
Furniture and furnishings
Most items of furniture and household furnishings share the same
names in American and British English, but there are a few exceptions
that may cause confusion. Sometimes it is merely the case of different
names for the same object. For example, what Americans call a shade
(a sheet of material that you pull down to cover a window) is called a
roller blind by speakers of British English. And what speakers in
Britain call a standard lamp (a lamp on top of a tall pole that stands
on the floor) is called a floor lamp in the U.S. Sometimes, however,
the differences are potentially more confusing, as in the following
• To an American, a bureau is a piece of furniture with
drawers for holding things such as towels or items of clothing.
The British call this piece of furniture a chest of drawers. To
the British, a bureau is a piece of furniture with drawers, but
with a top part that opens to make a writing table. An
American would call this piece of furniture a writing table.
• In American English, a cot is a light narrow bed that can be
folded up, for example for use in camping. In fact, the British
call this type of bed a camp bed. To speakers of British
English, a cot is a small bed for a baby with tall sides that have
bars, something Americans refer to as a crib.
How many flights up?
The American system for indicating the floors of a building is
different from that used by the British. In the U.S., the term first floor
is used to refer to the ground level of a building. However, in the
British system the first floor is the floor immediately above the
ground level. Americans call that floor (the one above the ground
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level) the second floor. This difference in nomenclature continues all
the way to the top of a building. To make things even more confusing,
Americans who live on the ground level sometimes say they live on
the ground floor, and some who live on the level above the ground
level will describe their apartment as being one flight up. And if you
live on a really high floor in an American apartment house, you will
probably ride upstairs in an elevator, what is known in British English
as a lift.
Незаметные, но важные отличия
При изучении иностранного языка проводить параллели с
родным языком необходимо, иначе многое понять будет сложно.
Кажется, что одинаковые слова во всех европейских языках
имеют общие свойства. Однако в каждом языке есть такое
понятие, как ложный друг переводчика.
Нам кажется, что английские существительные имеют такую
же родовую принадлежность, что и русские. Но в английском
языке родовая принадлежность объекта практически не
подчеркивается. И вот это "практически не" с точки зрения
русского языка несколько странно. Так вот новорожденные и
младенцы обоих полов соотносятся с местоимением it: "The baby
was lying on the grass alone. It was crying".
А корабль может быть назван it или she, особенно, если
говорить о нем (ней?) с чувством симпатии: "She is really
beautiful, your yacht!". А вот автомобиль (машина) в английском
языке может быть it или (как и у нас) she: "Is your car fast? She is
very fast". Но это, опять-таки, если о машине говорить с
Весьма интересна половая принадлежность сказочных героев
(не людей). Некоторые герои, которые в наших сказках имеют
женский род, в английских сказках этот пол меняют на мужской.
Итак, Мышь – он, Сова – он, Лиса – он. Но в других сказках пол
данных персонажей может быть "правильным".
Тем не менее род предмета в языках, где носителями
грамматики в основном являются окончания слов, определяется
исключительно по окончаниям. Если взять, к примеру,
французский язык, то родовая принадлежность предметов далеко
не всегда совпадает с родом предметов в русском языке. Так,
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стол (la table) во французском языке имеет женский род, а книга
(le livre) – род мужской.
Также смущение часто вызывает несоответствие числа
некоторых объектов в русском и английском языках. То есть то,
что в русском языке имеет единственное число, в английском –
множественное, и наоборот. Давайте рассмотрим самые
интересные моменты.
Итак. Будьте внимательны, когда говорите о волосах. Дело в
том, что те волосы, которые у нас на голове называются hair, и
только так. И соответственно hair – это единственное число: What
colour is his hair?
Если вы захотите высказать комплимент по поводу чьих-то
волос следующим образом: What beautiful hairs you have!, то
счастливой улыбки на устах своего собеседника вы так и не
дождетесь. Hairs употребляют, чтобы сказать о волосках,
простите, в супе или еще где. Ну, а hairs на голове – верный
предвестник парика. Это как в том анекдоте, когда старушка
укладывала свои три hairs, а потом утомилась и пошла на улицу
непричесанной. Также будьте внимательны и не употребляйте
артикль "a" перед hair, иначе вместо нескольких волосинок вы
"наградите" человека лишь одной.
Интересно, что слово money (деньги) также имеет
единственное число. Поэтому никаких money are или moneys are!
Только money is! А если вы хотите сказать "много денег", то
употребляйте только much: That costs much money. Вот такие они,
деньги по-английски, неисчисляемые, но вполне реальные.
А вот еще один занятный момент. В английском языке слова
"новость" и "новости" обозначаются одним news. News всегда
имеют единственное число, и никогда перед ними не
употребляется неопределенный артикль "a". Запоминать
употребление news лучше всего по пословицам: No news is good
news! Bad news travels quickly.
People имеет два перевода: люди и народ. Когда Моисей
пришел к фараону и попросил его: "Let my people go", он сказал:
"Отпусти мой народ", а не "Отпусти моих людей". People (люди)
не имеет окончания множественного числа, однако согласуется
только с глаголом во множественном числе: These people were
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
arrested. А вот people (народ) может иметь окончания
единственного и множественно числа, согласовываясь с глаголом
соответственно. The Greeks are a proud people.
Тост (toast) и в английском языке, и в русском, бывает двух
видов: хлеб и пожелание за столом. Как продукт питания toast
неисчисляем, то есть употребляется без артикля "a" и всегда
имеет единственное число: Let's have toast with marmalade.
Тосты на свадьбах и прочих праздниках вполне исчисляемы: We
drank a toast to the happy couple.
А вот некоторые слова из русского языка, которые у нас
употребляются исключительно во множественном числе, а в
английском языке – в единственном.
Зачастую даже не новички в английском могут на секунду
задуматься, а употреблять ли им слово watch или clock (часы) с
окончанием множественного числа? Конечно, нет! My watch is
two minutes slow.
К счастью, со словом "ворота" ситуация попроще. Все ворота
в домах и аналогичных сооружениях – gate: We walked through a
wooden gate onto the field behind the house.
А вот ворота у больших публичных сооружений (школа,
больница, стадион) чаще всего – gates: The crowd of furious fans
gathered at the gates of the stadium. Ну и там, наверху, или внизу,
также имеются gates: I think everyone of us wants to enter the Pearly
Какой же вывод здесь напрашивается? Употребление даже
такого распространенного языка, как английский, требует от нас
постоянного внимания.
Will you choose the best answer in each group of four sentences?
1. Which of these is not a polite
way to apologize?
a) I'm really sorry.
b) I do beg your pardon.
c) Pardon.
d) I do apologize.
4. Which of these is not a good way
to give advice?
a) If I were you, I'd do it again.
b) You should do it again.
c) If you do it again, you'll be i
n big trouble.
d) Why not do it again?
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
2. Which of these is not a polite way
to say 'no'?
a) I wouldn't if I were you.
b) I'd rather not.
c) I don't think so.
d) It's not really my idea of fun.
3. Which of these is not a polite way
to ask permission?
a) Would you mind if I open
the window?
b) Is it OK if I open the window?
c) How about opening the window?
d) Can I open the window?
5. Which of these is not a greeting?
a) How do you do?
b) Pleased to meet you.
c) Good evening.
d) Good night.
6. Which of these is not a way to make
a suggestion?
a) Try the red one and be done with it.
b) Why don't we try to red one?
c) How about trying the red one?
d) Let's try the red one.
Look at these expressions. What do they mean? Choose from the
list of meanings on the right.
1 He's got no back-bone.
2 She's completely legless.
3 He's very thick-skinned.
4 She gave him the elbow.
5 He can't keep his nose out
of things.
6 She's got a finger in every pie.
7 He's all mouth.
8 She's off her head.
a very drunk
b exaggerates or lies in order
to impress
c doesn't care what other people
d very cowardly
e ended a romantic relationship
f always interfering
g behaves in a mad way
h has an interest in many businnes
Animals and their noises
Dogs "bark" and cats "miaow". What do these animals do? Choose
a suitable word to describe their noises from the selection below.
a snort
1 cows
b twitter
2 bees
c neigh
3 mice
d roar
4 ducks
e quack
5 sheep
f moo
6 pigs
g squeak
7 lions
h buzz
8 birds
i bleat
9 horses
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Some English nouns have adjectives which derive from Latin. For
example, the adjective of "city" is "urban". Can you match the correct
adjective to each of these nouns?
1 countryside
2 hand
3 sun
4 moon
5 ear
6 mouth
7 father
8 brother
a solar
b fraternal
c manual
d oral
e paternal
f aural
g rural
h lunar
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
1. People, races, nationalities ................................................................................ 3
2. Words from other languages ............................................................................. 4
3. Other Englishes ................................................................................................. 6
4. US English ......................................................................................................... 7
5. Fifty United States ............................................................................................. 8
6. Cities .................................................................................................................. 9
7. Education ......................................................................................................... 14
8. Words with interesting origins ........................................................................ 16
9. Social behavior in the US ................................................................................ 19
10. Australia ........................................................................................................ 21
11. Canada ........................................................................................................... 23
12. Test Yourself ................................................................................................. 24
13. Appendix ....................................................................................................... 26
14. Keys ............................................................................................................... 27
15. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland....................... 30
____________________________________________________________ Учебное издание
Страны, языки, традиции
Методические указания
Составитель Томашова Ольга Алексеевна
Корректор И. В. Бунакова
Верстка Е. Л. Шелехова
Подписано в печать 11.01.2010. Формат 6084 1/16.
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Отпечатано на ризографе.
Ярославский государственный университет
им. П. Г. Демидова.
150000, Ярославль, ул. Советская, 14.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
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