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75.Исследования Гипотезы Эксперименты

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации
Федеральное агентство по образованию
Ярославский государственный университет им. П.Г. Демидова
Кафедра иностранных языков
Исследования
Гипотезы
Эксперименты
Методические указания
Рекомендовано
Редакционно-издательским советом университета
для магистрантов и аспирантов специальностей
Физика и Математика
Ярославль 2006
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УДК 81’1
ББК Ш 14я73
И 85
Рекомендовано
Редакционно-издательским советом университета
в качестве учебного издания. План 2006 года
Рецензент
кафедра иностранных языков ЯрГУ им. П.Г. Демидова
Составители: ст. препод. Т.Б. Потехина,
ст. препод. Л.Л. Туркина
И 85
Исследования. Гипотезы. Эксперименты : метод. указания / Сост.
Т.Б. Потехина, Л.Л. Туркина ; Яросл. гос. ун-т. – Ярославль : ЯрГУ,
2006. – 36 с.
Цель методических указаний – обучение магистрантов и
аспирантов естественных факультетов устной и письменной речи на
английском языке.
Методические указания состоят из разделов, куда включены
научно-популярные статьи из зарубежных периодических изданий, а
также упражнения и задания, стимулирующие речевую деятельность
на английском языке. Содержится справочный материал и
рекомендации по написанию и оформлению научных статей.
Методические указания составлены в соответствии с
требованиями действующей программы по английскому языку для
неязыковых специальностей высших учебных заведений.
Предназначены для магистрантов и аспирантов, обучающихся
по специальностям: магистратура 510400 Физика, магистратура
510100 Математика (дисциплина "Английский язык", блок ГСЭ),
очной формы обучения.
УДК 81’1
ББК Ш 14я73
© Ярославский государственный университет, 2006
© Т.Б. Потехина, Л.Л. Туркина, 2006
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Part I. Reading and summarising information
Text 1.
Electricity is not a Form of Energy
Вy William Beaty, 1999
Before you read the text
1. How many forms of energy do you know?
2. Define potential energy and kinetic energy.
3. What is the principle of energy?
Many encyclopedias, dictionaries and textbooks contain very clear
statements about the nature of Electricity. They say this:
– Electricity is a type of energy.
– Electric current is a flow of energy.
The above statements are wrong. Yes, electrical energy does exist.
However, this energy cannot be called “Electricity”, since Coulombs of
electricity are very different from Joules of electromagnetic energy.
They’re two different things, so the energy and the charge cannot both
be electricity. It’s not too difficult to demonstrate the mistake. Below is
a collection of simple facts which show that Electricity, the stuff that
flows within copper wires, is not form of energy.
In a simple electric circuit, the electricity flows slowly in a complete
circle, while the energy moves differently. The electrical energy flows
rapidly one way, going from the source to the load and not returning.
The energy does not follow the circular flow of electricity; electricity
and electrical energy are two different things. No charges of electricity
are gained or lost as the charges circulate within the wires, yet batteries
create electrical energy from chemical energy and light bulbs destroy
the electrical energy as they convert it into light. Electrical energy takes
a rapid one-way path from battery to bulb and then leaves the circuit as
light while electricity flows around (and around and around) a closedloop path and none is lost.
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In a lightbulb, charges of electricity flow through the filament and
back out again. None are lost. This electricity enters the light bulb
through one wire and the same amount of electricity leaves through the
other wire. Yet the energy doesn’t act like this at all. The light bulb uses
up the electric energy: the electrical energy flows into the bulb along
both wires and is transformed into heat and light. The electrical energy
does not come back out through the second wire and return to the
battery.
In an AC system, the charges of electricity move back and forth
over a short distance. In other words, they sit inside the wires and
vibrate. That’s what “Alternating Current” or AC is all about. The
electricity does not move forward at all (if it did, that would be a direct
current or “DC”). Yet as these charges of electricity are wiggling back
and forth, at the very same time the electrical energy moves forward
rapidly. Only the electricity “alternates.” The electrical energy does not;
the energy flows continuously forwards as waves.
If this is confusing, consider sound waves which move through
collections of air molecules. Electricity is like the air which is vibrating
while the electrical energy is like sound waves which fly through the
air. Sound and air are two different things, just as energy and electricity
are two different things.
In the above statements I am using the word “electricity’ used in
the way scientists have used it since Electricity was first investigated. I
am using the word “electricity” to name the stuff that flows inside the
wires, where a quantity of electrons is a quantity of electricity and
where a flow of electricity is called “an electric current”.
Most people use the word “electricity” in a totally different way.
They begin by defining the word “electricity” to mean electrical energy.
Electric companies do this (think of kilowatt-hours of electricity.) So do
many dictionaries and encyclopedias. This causes endless confusion.
Physicists try to tell us that the charges of electricity are not energy and
that a flow of charges is not a flow of energy. But then what is an
electric current? Under the definition of “electricity” used by all nonscientists, an electric current IS NOT a flow of electricity!
Note: my above statements about electricity and energy would be
accepted by most scientists throughout history, including Ben Franklin,
Michael Faraday, James Maxwell and Robert Millikan. I am using the
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word electricity in the same manner as they did: electricity is the
positive and negative “stuff” that’s found in all electrons and protons. It
is the “substance” that flows along inside of the wires. When it flows,
these scientists would call it a “current of electricity”. They’d say that
any charged object has a “charge of electricity” and that electrons and
protons are “particles of electricity”.
Text 2.
Mobile Communications Principles
Each mobile uses a separate, temporary radio channel to talk to the
cell site. The cell site talks to many mobiles at once, using one channel
per mobile. Channels use a pair of frequencies for communication – one
frequency, the forward link, for transmitting from the cell site and one
frequency, the reverse link, for the cell site to receive calls from the
users. Radio energy dissipates over distance, so mobiles must stay near
the base station to maintain communications. The basic structure of
mobile networks include telephone systems and radio services. Where
mobile radio service operates in a closed network and has no access to
the telephone system, mobile telephone service allows interconnection
to the telephone network.
Early Mobile Telephone System Architecture
Traditional mobile service structure was structured similar to
television broadcasting. One very powerful transmitter located at the
highest spot in an area would broadcast in a radius of up to fifty
kilometers. The cellular concept structured the mobile telephone
network in a different way. Instead of using one powerful transmitter,
many low-power transmitters were placed throughout a coverage area.
For example, by dividing a metropolitan region into one hundred
different areas (cells) with low-power transmitters using twelve
conversations (channels) each, the system capacity theoretically could
be increased from twelve conversations – or voice channels using one
powerful transmitter – to twelve hundred conversations (channels) using
one hundred low-power transmitters.
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Mobile Telephone System Using
the Cellular Concept
Interference problems caused by mobile units using the same
channel in adjacent areas proved that all channels could not be reused in
every cell. Areas had to be skipped before the same channel could be
reused. Even though this affected the efficiency of the original concept,
frequency reuse was still a viable solution to the problems of mobile
telephony systems.
Engineers discovered that the interference effects were not due to
the distance between areas but to the ratio of the distance between areas
to the transmitter power (radius) of the areas. By reducing the radius of
an area by fifty percent, service providers could increase the number of
potential customers in an area fourfold. Systems based on areas with a
one-kilometer radius would have one hundred times more channels than
systems with areas ten kilometers in radius. Speculation led to the
conclusion that by reducing the radius of areas to a few hundred meters,
millions of calls could be saved.
The cellular concept employs variable low-power levels which
allows cells to be sized according to the subscriber density and demand
of a given area. As the population grows, cells can be added to
accommodate that growth. Frequencies used in one cell cluster can be
reused in other cells. Conversations can be handed off from cell to cell
to maintain constant phone services as the user moves between cells.
The cellular radio equipment (base station) can communicate with
mobiles as long as they are within range. Radio energy dissipates over
distance so the mobiles must be within the operating range of the base
station. Like the early mobile radio system, the base station
communicates with mobiles via a channel. The channel is made of two
frequencies, one for transmitting to the base station and one to receive
information from the base station.
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Text 3.
Cellular System Architecture
Increases in demand and the poor quality of existing service led
mobile service providers to research ways to improve the quality of
service and to support more users in their systems. Because the amount
of frequency spectrum available for mobile cellular use was limited,
efficient use of the required frequencies was needed for mobile cellular
coverage. In modern cellular telephony, rural and urban regions are
divided into areas according to specific provisioning guidelines.
Deployment parameters, such as amount of cell-splitting and cell sizes,
are determined by engineers experienced in cellular system architecture.
Provisioning for each region is planned according to an engineering
plan that includes cells, clusters, frequency reuse and handovers.
Cells
A cell is a the basic geographic unit of a cellular system.
The term cellular comes from the honeycomb shape of the areas
into which a coverage region is divided. Cells are base stations
transmitting over small geographic areas that are represented as
hexagons. Each cell size varies depending on the landscape. Because of
constraints imposed by natural terrain and man-made structures, the true
shape of cells is not a perfect hexagon.
Clusters
A cluster is a group of cells. No channels are reused within a
cluster.
Frequency Reuse
Because only a small number of radio channel frequencies were
available for mobile systems, engineers had to find a way to reuse radio
channels in order to carry more than one conversation at a time. The
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solution the industry adopted was called frequency planning or
frequency reuse. Frequency reuse was implemented by restructuring the
mobile telephone system architecture into the cellular concept.
The concept of frequency reuse is based on assigning to each cell a
group of radio channels used within a small geographic area. Cells are
assigned a group of channels that is completely different from
neighbouring cells. The coverage area of cells are called the footprint.
This footprint is limited by a boundary so that the same group of
channels can be used in different cells that are far enough away from
each other so that their frequencies do not interfere.
Cell Splitting
Unfortunately, economic considerations made the concept of
creating full systems with many small areas impractical. To overcome
this difficulty, system operators developed the idea of cell splitting. As a
service area becomes full of users, this approach is used to split a single
area into smaller ones. In this way , urban centers can be split into as
many areas as necessary in order to provide acceptable service levels in
heavy-traffic regions, while larger, less expensive cells can be used to
cover remote rural regions.
Handoff
The final obstacle in the development of the cellular network
involved the problem created when a mobile subscriber traveled from
one cell to another during a call. As adjacent areas do not use the same
radio channels, a call must either be dropped or transferred from one
radio channel to another when a user crosses the line between adjacent
cells. Because dropping the cell is unacceptable, the process of handoff
was created. Handoff occurs when the mobile telephone network
automatically transfers a call from radio channel to radio channel as a
mobile crosses adjacent cells.
Find key sentences and write a summary.
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Text 4.
What Can Computers Do?
Вy N. Holmes, University of Tasmania
M. Leister answers his own question “Do computers make us
fools?” with the statement: “It seems that computers make people
incapable of independent thought”. On the other hand, he concludes that
reliance on them … might make us fools”, and this, together with many
of his other comments, answers quite a different question and answers it
well. But it seems to me that neither question is the basic question.
So what is the real question? What is the basic problem? The
context is that computers are seen as underpinning social change. The
mistake is that computers are seen as causing social change. Let me
illustrate one relevant social change.
Computer as Scapegoat
In 1970 I returned to Australia after living for a while in the
Hudson River Valley in America, where there was a fairly widespread
of computers and punched cards. The state of New York had a very
simple and effective drivers’ license system based on stub cards which
required only that you send back the stub with your payment each year;
the remainder of the card was your license.
When I went to get a license in Canberra, I was given a three-part
form. The form not only asked for many more personal details than
New York ever required, it required them to be written three times.
When I mildly criticized the form design at the counter, I was solemnly
informed that the design was as it was because of The Computer. I left it
at that, but my later inquiries revealed that the department had neither a
computer nor any plans to get one.
This incident altered me to the most important social role of the
computer, then as now: universal scapegoat. I have seen nothing since
to change my mind on this, and indeed I have seen much to confirm it.
The social change here is that people seem to be eager to use computers
to avoid personal responsibility. Computers are being used to replace
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personal values with impersonal ones, like the ultimate abstraction –
money.
Computer as Tool
Computers are merely tools. They are not members of society; they
are not even pseudomembers, like corporations and governments. They
are independent agents. Like cars and telephones, they only do things if
and when someone uses them. They can neither be blamed for what
they do (are used for) nor can they be given credit for what they do (are
used for). If there is blame or credit then it belongs to the users or to the
owners, or to the designers, or to the manufacturers, or to the
researchers, or to the financiers, never to the computer itself.
Computers cannot make us fools – they can only allow us to be
foolish faster. And they can be used by others to make fools of us, for
profit or power.
This is not understood by everyone because the computer industry
and the computing profession seem to be saying otherwise. We seem to
be saying that computers are like people; that they have memory,
intelligence, understanding and knowledge; that they are even friendly.
How ignorant! How impressive! How profitable!
Attitudes to Computers
Those in the industry who warned against anthropomorphic
language have been ignored. The people who put together the first
standard vocabularies for the industry urged people to call the devices
where data are put “stores” or “storage”, not “memories”. To suggest
there is any likeness between the computer storage and the memories a
human might reconstruct is farcical, if not insulting.
Those in the industry who urged that people be distinguished from
machines have been ignored. The people who put together the first
standard vocabulary for the industry installed such a distinction in its
very first two definitions. In brief, they defined “data’ as representations
of facts or ideas and they defined “information” as the meaning that
people give to data. Only people can process information; machines can
process only data. Embodying this fundamental distinction in the
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definition of the two most basic computing terms was a complete waste
of ink.
As long as we allow people to think of computers as anything else
than machines to be owned and used, powerful people and institutions
will be able to use computers as scapegoats and avoid blame for the
social inequities they are able to bring about for their own benefit by
using computers.
Discussion
How would you answer the questions?
1. What is the author’s reason for choosing such a preface to his
article?
2. Why does N.Holmes refer readers with concerns about
computers and social inequities?
3. What, in your opinion, is the social role of computers?
4. Why does the author stick to the idea that “computers cannot
make us fools”?
5. N.Holmes distinguishes between such terms as “storage” and
“memory”, “data” and “information”. Why?
Text 5.
Before you read
1. Comment on the statement: “Science is a powerful engine by
which the genius of the few is magnified by the talents of the many
for the benefits of all”.
2. Now read the text and determine its main points.
Science and Society in the USA
Science on the scale that it exists and is needed today can, however,
be maintained only with large amounts of public support. Large-scale
public support will be provided only if science and technology are
meeting the critical needs of society. Intellectual progress, as measured
by advances in specific disciplines, is not in itself sufficient to generate
such support. Perhaps it should be but it is not. Public support for
science may be wise policy but it is not an entitlement.
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The central problem is that the costs of meeting the needs of society
are too high and the time scale for meeting them is too long. Both the
ideals and the pragmatics of American society are based on
improvement in the quality of life. We expect better health care, better
education, economic security. We expect progress towards the
reduction, if not outright elimination of poverty, disease and
environmental degradation.
Progress towards these goals has recently been frustratingly slow
and increasingly expensive. The heavy costs of providing and
improving health care and education are examples.
The situation has produced a volatility in public opinion and mood
that reflects a lack of confidence in the ability of government and other
sectors of society, including science and technology, to adequately
address fundamental social needs.
If this mood hardens into a lack of vision, of optimism, of belief in
the future, a tremendous problem for science will result. Science, in its
commitment to innovation and expanding frontiers of knowledge, is a
thing of future.
The vistas of science are inspiring. Condensed matter physics is
embarked on materials by design, nanotechnology and high temperature
superconductivity, each containing the seeds of new industries, as well
as new scientific understanding. Molecular biology is in full blossom
with a vast potential for further intellectual progress. Neuroscience
seems poised for dramatic progress.
Research into the fundamental laws of physics is aiming at a
pinnacle. There is a candidate theory – the superstring theory – which is
proposed as a unification of all the known fundamental forces in nature
and which is supposed to give an account, complete in principle, if all
physical phenomena, down to the shortest distances currently
imaginable. At the largest scales of distance, observational astronomy is
uncovering meta-structures which enlarge the architecture of the
universe - a deeping of the problem of cosmology preliminary to its
resolution.
Underpinning much of this progress and progress in countless other
areas as well, has been the emergence of scientific computing as an
enabling technology.
All this is first-rate science. All this is not enough – either to
forestall change or to ensureadequate support for science in the present
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climate. Why it is not enough – and what else is required – are the
subjects of a special inquiry.
Discussion
How would you answer the questions?
1. Are there statements in the text that you disagree with? What are
they?
2. Are you aware of the latest achievements in your field of
science? What are they?
3. What should be done to ensure adequate support for science?
What would you do?
Text 6.
Read reminiscences of Thomas E. Hulls’ students
and then give the text a title
He was an effective leader who got commitment by soliciting
advice who got the best from people by expecting the best, whose
fundamental decency was apparent in every interaction. He taught by
example that the highest standards can be reached cooperatively,
without envy, jealousy or corrosive competition.
Even before I met Tom, he had a significant influence on me: I used
one of the books in the first computer science course that I took at the
University of Toronto in the early 1970s. Tom was the author of seven
textbooks that played a very important role in establishing computer
science as in academic discipline in the late 1960s and early 1970s.
I was fortunate to have Tom as an instructor for the first course on
numerical analysis that I took at the university. It was clear to all of us
in the class that Tom knew his subject thoroughly. Moreover, his
lectures were very well organized, clear concise and delivered with a
sense of humour. Many students find numerical analysis a little dry and
somewhat difficult. Tom was well aware of this and motivated his
students by beginning each of his lectures with a short intuitive
discussion of the topic that he was going to talk about that day and by
briefly outlining its importance, often relating the topic to other subjects
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that we were studying. Tom’s lecturing style was a model for many of
us who later went on to teaching careers ourselves.
Among the many reasons for Tom’s success as a teacher was his
love of interacting with people. He clearly enjoyed teaching a subject
that was dear to him and seeing others take pleasure in learning about it.
His enthusiasm was infectious and rubbed off on many of his students.
I was also fortunate to have Tom as a graduate supervisor, a role in
which he excelled. In part,this was because he was an excellent
researcher himself When I was a graduate student, about 20 years ago,
Tom was the chairman of the computer science department, a member
of NSERC (Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of
Canada) committee on grants and scholarships, an editor of three
prestigious journals, the author of several of the most important papers
in our area and an invited speaker at many international conferences. He
knew most of the key players in our research area and was aware of the
topics on which they were working. He had a very good sense for what
was a good problem to tackle and what would likely be fruitless.
More importantly, Tom was an excellent graduate supervisor at a
more personal level. His enthusiasm for discussing new ideas with
students was evident. In spite of his extremely busy schedule, he
always found time for his students and he gave all of us the impression
that our work was a high priority for him. He was always supportive,
encouraging and very generous in his praise of good ideas. But if
course, not all the ideas that the students have are good ones. Tom was
careful not to be too deflating when explaining why some silly scheme a
student had devised was not sound. He usually got the student back on
track and feeling positive about pursuing another line of attack.
Discussion
How would you answer the questions?
1. “The highest standards can be achieved cooperatively, without
envy, jealousy or corrosive competition”. Doesn’t this statement
contradict the common knowledge that competition helps us to achieve
better results in some spheres?
2. “Thomas E. Hull was an excellent supervisor. In part, this was
because he was an excellent researcher himself”. Does it mean that
every excellent researcher can be a good supervisor.
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3. “The influence of a teacher on a student is not always a good
thing”. Give your arguments for or against this statement.
4. What could you say about your thesis supervisor?
5. How does he help you?
Text 7.
Before you read
1. Comment on Henry Ford’s saying: “Had I worked fifty or ten
or even five years before, I would have failed. So it is with every new
thing. Progress happens when all the factors that make it are ready
and then it is inevitable”.
2. Now read the text and then say if it contains any new
information for you about the Microsoft empire.
Bill Gates’s Vision
It must be remembered that the future of the Microsoft empire
depends heavily on the accuracy of Bill Gates’s vision. If his thoughts
occasionally sound mundane or less than original, it is because they are
the result of a selection process: a person in his position has a legion of
experts at his beck and call, plenty of whom generate ideas as fast as he
does. His job is to sort out the ideas worth staking a piece of the
company’s future on. For that, an idea does not have to be original, or
even all that good, but it does have to fit his vision: a computer-filled
world in which Microsoft writes the best-selling software.
Early in 1975, Gates, by then a sophomore at Harvard University
and Allen, who was working as a programmer in Boston, set out to
overtake the revolution. Their first goal was to write a version of Basic
to run on the Altair. (Altair 8800 was the world’s first truly personal
computer) Although they didn’t own an Altair – and indeed had never
even seen one – Allen wrote a program on a Harvard mainframe to
simulate the new computer. So equipped, working virtually nonstop in
his dorm room, often losing track of night and day and routinely falling
asleep at his desk or on the floor, the 19-year-old Gates needed just five
weeks to complete the task. Later that spring, the pair formed the
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world’s first microcomputer software company, eventually naming it
Microsoft.
Like Ford before him Gates invented nothing: no computer, no
peripheral, no programming language. He certainly didn’t invent
microchips. What he did was probably inevitable, once the components
became available. He may, however, have been the very first to see how
the 8080 chip (unlike the 8008) could be used to place significant
computing power at the disposal of Everyman. He didn’t know what
would be done with it, and he certainly didn’t foresee (as Ford didn’t
foresee LA freeways) that offices, not homes, would house most of the
early PCs. Gates and Allen only knew that, if priced within reason, the
products they offered – DOS and Microsoft Basic – would sell.
Gates is eager to distinguish between the services performed by the
present generation of home computers and those to be expected in the
future from a station on an information highway. The current Internet,
he insists, is only a pale imitation of the highway to come. In time, most
of the world’s information will be available to almost any one in it. His
investigations have convinced him, however, that current satellite
technology will never supply the requisite bandwidth (channel
capacity). The transmission of so much information will require that
private homes be connected to the outside world by underground fiber
optic cables, just as they are now connected by existing sewerage,
water, electric power, cable TV and telephone conduits. The required
cable will be installed in due time, he predicts, and will be no more
costly than current networks.
When the powerful computers of the future are connected to the
information highway, you will be able to stay in touch with anyone,
anywhere, who wants to stay in touch with you; to browse through
thousands of libraries, by day or by night; and to retrieve the answers to
varied questions.
You will also be able to watch almost any movie ever made, at any
time of day or night, interrupted only upon request. The instructions for
assembling your latest purchase will be interactive. Shopping channels
will show you only what you ask to see, and the people with whom you
talk by telephone will see a well-groomed likeness of yourself
responding to their jokes and flirtations, even if you are actually
dripping wet from the shower.
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Discussion
Now test your memory by seeing how many of the following
questions you can answer:
1. What does the future of the Microsoft empire depend on?
2. How is Gates’s job characterized in the article?
3. If you worked at Microsoft would you try to come up with any
original ideas?
4. What is Gates’s vision?
5. How long did it take Allen and Gates to form the world’s first
microcomputer software company?
6. Gates did not invent anything special. What do you think made
him so famous?
7. What was the only thing that stimulated Gates’s activities?
8. In what way will most of the world’s information be available to
almost anyone in it?
9. What benefits does the information highway provide?
10. What else do you know about the Microsoft empire and its
founder?
11. Give your arguments for or against the statement: “Scientists
achieve success when they come down from the heights of science to
the level of an ordinary man”.
Text 8.
1. Read the text in order to discuss the creative process.
Did Poincare Point the Way to Twentieth-century Art?
Henri Poincare is well known to mathematicians for the depth and
breadth of his scientific accomplishments. Nowadays he is even more
widely known for creating much of mathematics that has gone into the
revolutionary scientific theory known as chaos. But could the French
mathematician also be responsible for inspiring a similarly dramatic
revolution in the world of art?
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One of Poincare’s essays on science directly inspired the artist
Marcel Duchamp to chart a new course for artistic expression.
Duchamp is famous for what he called “readymades” – such
ordinary objects as a hat rack or a snow shovel that became works of
art by virtue of his selecting them. Duchamp’s championing of the
artist’s “special intuition” in interpreting the world paved the way to
today’s unruly art.
But what gave him the idea?
In a section on mathematical creation, Poincare speculates that
unconscious processes continue to sift ideas between periods of active
thought and that fruitful combinations are brought to consciousness by
virtue of their aesthetic appeal. In other words, a creative mathematician
is once who recognizes a good idea when it jumps and bites him on the
brainstem.
According to Poincare, the creative process is set in motion during
a period of concentrated, conscious work. Poincare also describes an
instance in which, unable to sleep because of too much black coffee, he
felt his mind crowded with ideas that collided until they locked into a
stable combination; by the next morning, he had the solution to a
problem that had plagued him for weeks.
Duchamp is virtually certain to have read Poincare’s essay. The
avant-garde artists of the day were keenly interested in things scientific
and mathematical, with four-dimensional and non-Euclidean geometries
at the top of the list.
Poincare’s vivid description of the effects of coffee also influenced
Duchamp.
Duchamp regarded his 1911 painting “Coffee Mill” as the “key” to
his work, and at one exhibition he kept coffee beans roasting in a corner
of the room, the aroma being an integral part of the show.
“The fun starts now” as art historians and others begin to decode
Ducamp’s work in light of the Poincare connection. The question is:
Which mathematician will inspire the next revolutionary figure in art?
Discussion
How would you answer the questions?
1. What is the definition of the creative process, according to
Poincare?
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2. “He felt his mind crowded with ideas that collided until they
locked into a stable combination”. Can we conclude that chaos is
needed for the creative process?
3. “What must one do to make “ideas jump into one’s brain”? How
do you develop ideas?
4. What do you think might inspire a scientist?
5. What do you think the creative process is?
6. Can a person be taught to be creative?
Text 9.
The Current Challenge: Introductory Physics
By John S. Rigden
The power of physics, as a discipline, derives from the act that very
general theories can be expressed mathematically and the experimental
precepts can be reduced to number forms. Thus, physics is a
quantitative discipline and when treated quantitatively, the ideas of
physics can be understood and appreciated only by those who have
devoted the time required to learn the language of mathematics.
But the power of physics goes far beyond the discipline itself. To
be sure, the ideas and concepts of physics find their meaning in the
give-and-take between theory and experiment but this physical meaning
is merely the beginning. The meaning derived from physics informs the
intellect about the most basic features of the universe; it teaches us
about mass energy that takes the forms of an atom, a protein, an oak
leaf, and a child; it shapes the human imagination and finds expression
in art, literature and music; it inspires habits of mind which establish
the tone, the character of human culture.
The authority pf physics and the influence it has on human thought
and behaviour places a burden of responsibility on physics; the
responsibility of communicating the ideas and concepts of physics in a
language other than that of mathematics and to inform non-scientists
about their world. I fear physicists are falling short of meeting this
responsibility.
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During the 20th century, there have been fundamental changes in
the ways physicists think about the phenomena of nature. The theory of
relativity and quantum mechanics have cast the universe and the
processes within it in new light. Yet, students who take introductory
physics courses are unlikely to learn anything about either the new
physics itself or the new perspectives prompted by modern physics.
This is where physicists have failed.
The absence of modern physics in our introductory courses is a
measure of our failure… on two levels. The basic content of
introductory physics has remained essentially the same for decades. Oh
yes, we no longer dwell on pulleys and mechanical advantage and we
now teach statics as a part of dynamics; however, the fact remains that
the content of our courses is, as it has been for over a century,
mechanics, heat and thermodynamics, electricity and magnetism, and
optics. Greatgrandparents and grandparents and parents took, in this
basic sense, the same physics course as contemporary students are now
taking.
Contrast introductory textbooks of physics, chemistry and biology.
In both chemistry and biology, textbooks have undergone drastic and
dramatic changes in the last twenty-five years. Students of chemistry are
taught the structure of atoms in terms of quantum mechanics and
students of biology are taught the molecular basis of living organisms.
New editions of standard introductory textbooks in both chemistry and
biology contain new information, information that was not in the last
edition. Chemistry and biology are dynamic, developing subjects and
this dynamic is reflected in their introductory textbooks. By contrast,
physics textbooks are staid and predictable. Later editions differ from
earlier editions only superficially: the order of the end-of-chapter
problems, the numbers used in the problems, the ordering of topics, etc.
no new information appears in a new edition of physics textbook.
The content of introductory physics textbooks is static and, I fear,
the courses based upon them are static as well. The vitality and the spirit
that come to a subject when new ideas and new information are
integrated into it are missing from physics. I suggest that the small
number of students who elect to take physics is directly related to the
static, moribund content of our introductory courses. This is the first
level of our failure: the vast majority of students eschew the physics
classroom. The second level of our failure is that students who do take
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introductory physics learn nothing about ideas that inspire contemporary
physicists.
The tragedy of this failure to bring modern physics into our
introductory courses is that the ideas of relativity and quantum
mechanics (to say nothing of applications of these great theories) are
exciting, provocative and pregnant with implications for human thought.
The ideas of modern physics could revitalize the introductory
physics course and, in the process, revitalize departments of physics.
The audience interested in the ideas of physics would expand,
conversation about the ideas of physics would be heard more frequently,
and the students would be more likely to enroll in physics.
Recently I.I.Rabi has written: “I feel my generation and the current
generation have not devoted the time and profound effort to make the
extraordinary phenomena of relativity and quantum mechanics
accessible to the intelligent, educated person. I am sure it can be done
because that’s the way I understand it.” Rabi’s words are both an
indictment and a challenge. We deserve indictment; we should rise to
the challenge.
Note: in the give-and-take – (зд.) во взаимосвязи.
А
1. Прочитав статью, переведите ее заголовок и решите,
насколько он соответствует содержанию.
2. Выберите один из следующих вариантов заголовка или
предложите свой вариант.
– введение в физику – насущная проблема,
– изменить введение в физику – первостепенная задача,
– изменить начальный курс физики – насущная задача.
3. Кратко сформулируйте педагогическую проблему, которой
посвящена статья.
4. Выделите абзацы, в которых автор обсуждает современную
практику преподавания физики, ее недостатки и их причины.
5. скажите, в какой мере высказанные автором мысли
актуальны для преподавания физики в нашей стране.
6. Составьте план статьи.
7. Напишите реферат и аннотацию статьи.
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Б
1.Напишите выходные данные статьи.
2. Выпишите предложения, отвечающие на следующие
вопросы:
1) What does physics teach us?
2) What responsibility lies on physicists?
3) What theories have brought changes in understanding the
universe?
4) What is the basic content of introductory physics?
5) What material can revitalize the introductory physics course?
3. Составьте план реферата статьи
4. Напишите реферат статьи.
5. Напишите аннотацию статьи.
Text 10.
How to Build a Time Machine
By P. Davies
Time travel has been a popular science-fiction theme since
H.G. Wells wrote his celebrated novel “The Time Machine” in 1895.
But can it really be done? Is it possible to build a machine that would
transport a human being into the past or future?
For decades, time travel lay beyond the fringe of respectable
science. In recent years, however, the topic has become something of a
cottage industry among theoretical physicists. The motivation has been
partly recreational – time travel is fun to think about. But this research
has a serious side, too. Understanding the relation between cause and
effect is a key part of attempts to construct a unified theory of physics.
If unrestricted time travel were possible, even in principle, the nature of
such a unified theory could be drastically affected.
Our best understanding of time comes from Einstein’s theories of
relativity. Prior to these theories, time was widely regarded as absolute
and universal, the same for everyone no matter what their physical
circumstances were. In his special theory of relativity, Einstein
proposed that the measured interval between two events depends on
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how the observer is moving. Crucially, two observers who move
differently will experience different durations between the same two
events.
The effect is often described using the “twin paradox”. Suppose
that Sally and Sam are twins. Sally boards a rocket ship and travels at
high speed to a nearby star, turns around and flies back to Earth, while
Sam stays at home. For Sally the duration of the journey might be, say,
one year, but when she returns and steps out of the spaceship, she finds
that 10 years have elapsed on Earth. Her brother is now nine years older
than she is. Sally and Sam are no longer the same age, despite the fact
that they were born on the same day. This example illustrates a limited
type of time travel. In effect, Sally has leaped nine years into Earth’s
future.
Ask questions on the text.
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Part II. Speaking
Field of Science and Research
Active vocabulary
to do/to carry on/to carry out/to conduct research
to contribute to/to make a contribution to
to influence/to affect/to have an effect on/upon
to study/to make studies/to investigate/to explore
to put forward an idea
to suggest an idea/a theory/a hypothesis
to advance/to develop/to modify a theory
to predict/to forecast/to foresee
to accumulate knowledge
field of science/research
a new area of research
current branch/field of research
latest/recent achievements/developments/advances
a(an) outstanding/prominent/world-known scientist/researcher
Tasks
A. Answer the questions:
1. What is your field of science/research?
2. What are the current issues in your field of science/research?
3. Have new areas of research appeared in recent years?
4. What is your particular area of research?
5. What are the latest achievements in your field of
science/research?
6. Can you name some outstanding researchers in your field of
science/ What contribution have they made?
7. Do achievements in your branch of science/research influence
everyday life/ In what way?
8. What further developments can you predict in your field of
science/research/
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B. Complete the sentences which contain the words from the
active vocabulary section. Speak about your field of science/research.
1. I do research in the field of …
2. It is the science/a comparatively new branch of science that
studies …
3. The field of science/research that I’m concerned with gathers
knowledge about …
4. Major developments include advances in …
5. Remarkable advances have been made in …
6. My current field of science/research is …
7. It’s difficult/not difficult to foresee/forecast/predict…
Research Problem
Active vocabulary
to be due to
to arise from
to increase considerably
to be the subject of special/particular interest
to be studied comprehensively/thoroughly/extensively
to be only outlined
to be mentioned in passing
to be concerned with/to be engaged in the problem of
to deal with/to consider the problem of
to be interested in
to be of great/little/no interest,/importance/significance/value/use
to take up the problem
to work on the problem
to follow/to stick to the theory/hypothesis/concept
to postulate
to differ/to be different from
a lot of/little/no literature is available on the problem
the reason for the interest in the problem is …
Tasks
A. Answer the questions:
1. What is your research problem?
2. What is of special interest in the problem of your research?
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3. What is the subject of your research?
4. Why has the interest in this problem increased considerably in
recent years?
5. Do you follow/stick to any theory/hypothesis/concept? What is
it?
6. What concept is your research based on?
7. How does your research differ from other studies of the same
problem?
8. Is there much literature available on your research problem?
9.
Is
your
research
problem
described
comprehensively/thoroughly/extensively in literature?
10. Is the problem only outlined or mentioned in passing?
11. What are the main aspects of the problem that have been
considered?
B. Complete the sentences which contain the words from the
active vocabulary section. Speak about your research problem.
1. At present/now/currently I am studying the problem of …
2. The problem I am studying is concerned with …
3. There is a lot of/little/no literature on the problem of …
4. The literature available on the problem only outlines/mentions in
passing/thoroughly/extensively/describes such aspects as …
5. In solving our problem we follow the hypothesis that …
Current Research. Results and Conclusion
Active vocabulary
results/findings/data/observations/evidence
comprehensive/extensive
remarkable/encouraging/convincing
sufficient/insufficient
to collect/to get/to receive/to obtain data
to treat the problem
to succeed in/to make progress in/to be a success
to be similar to/to be the same as
to be consistent with/to coincide
to support/to provide support/in support of
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preliminary
to fail (in)
to agree with
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to reach an understanding/to come to an understanding
to conclude/to come to/to bring to a conclusion/to make
conclusions
Tasks
A. Answer the questions:
1. Have you already obtained any research results?
2. What are the main/comprehensive results of your current
research?
3. Has your research been successful?
4. Have you succeeded in receiving extensive data?
5. Do your research data agree with the theory you follow?
6. Do your results coincide with those obtained by other
researchers?
7. Are the results of purely theoretical or practical interest?
8. Do your research results appear to be of both theoretical and
practical importance?
9. Are the data/observations you have obtained sufficient to
formulate your final conclusions?
10. What part of your research is/remains still unfinished?
11. Do the data/results/observations/findings allow you to come to
any definite conclusion(s)?
12. What conclusion(s) have you come to?
13. How long will it take you to finish your research?
B. Complete the sentences which contain the words from the
active vocabulary section. Speak about your research results and
conclusions.
1. The research has been under way for a year and I’ve got …
2. At present a lot of work is being done to …
3. The results we have … so far cannot be used to …
4. Unfortunately, we have failed to …. But succeeded in ….
5. The findings prove to …
6. The evidence appears to …
7. As a result of numerous experiments performed we have
obtained sufficient data to …
8. Most of our research findings are consistent with …
9. We have come to the conclusion that ….
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Part III. Writing research papers
Writing a research paper demands a thorough knowledge not only
of the subject you are writing about but also of the strategies for
generating, verifying, substantiating and proving ideas. It is necessary to
follow the structure, style, format and layout of the paper.
Most papers in various scientific disciplines have a similar
organization pattern – Introduction, Body and Conclusion (especially
papers on theoretical issues). Research papers based on experiments
would include Introduction, Method, Results, Discussion/Conclusions.
Introduction: identify the subject of your research, provide
background information, state the problem and the hypothesis of
research, provide theoretical basis of the study, formulate the thesis
statement. Express your thesis statement at the end of the introduction.
Method: describe the subject/participants of your study, the
apparatus and equipment used, the procedure followed.
Results: report on your findings, support them with statistical data,
diagrams, graphs, tables, figures. Note whether your findings are
consistent with the advances hypothesis.
Discussion/Conclusions: evaluate and interpret the results
obtained, make inferences from the results. You can end your paper
with some suggestions for further research.
Body of the paper should provide evidence in support of the thesis
sentence, each paragraph explaining one and only one aspect of the
thesis. Begin each paragraph with a statement of the key idea in one
sentence which is called the topic sentence and explain or support it
with details and evidence. There are several ways of supporting the key
idea and developing paragraphs - by describing, classifying, providing
statistical data and scientific evidence, analyzing causes, comparing, etc.
Conclusion should express your judgment on the research
performed and the results obtained.
Title is the most important part, because the key words in the title
help the reader make a decision whether the paper is of interest or not.
Thus the title should not be very long and general, but rather specific.
The title should always be relevant to the problem studied and fit the
paper. It' should provide code words which identify the main points of
research.
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***
Structurally, a paper should have unity and coherence. Unity gives
the writing single version and coherence connects the parts. The paper
has unity when it talks about one topic, step by step exploring it in
depth. Your paper is coherent if all its parts fit together, talk about the
same topic, are connected logically. To obtain this effect use cohesive
devices. They help readers follow a writer's train of thought by
connecting key words and phrases. Among such devices are pronoun
references, same-word repetition, synonym repetition, sentencestructure repetition, collocations. Transition words serve as a bridge,
connecting one paragraph with another. They help readers anticipate
how the next paragraph or sentence will affect the meaning of what they
have just read:
also, besides, furthermore, in addition - to add more thought;
first, next, finally, later, afterwards, in front, beyond - to arrange
ideas in order, time or space;
but, still, yet, however, on the other hand, nevertheless - to connect
two contrasting ideas;
for example, in other words - to add an illustration or explanation;
thus, so, in short, in brief, to sum up - to summarize several ideas.
Nowadays in scientific publications there is a strong tendency to
use definite verb tenses in certain types of papers. When you write a
paper in natural sciences, use past tense or present perfect tense to cite
an author's work and/or show what has been accomplished (e.g.:
"Maxwell deduced" or "the experiment of Galileo has proven... Use
present tense when you discuss the results or when you mention
established knowledge (e.g. "water boils at 100 degrees Centigrade") –
Write your paper with a third-person voice to avoid "I believe" or "In my
opinion."
***
A summary is a concise description of the material without a lot of
concern for details. A summary condenses into a brief note the key
ideas of a source.
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A precis is a polished summary that in a few words expresses the
key ideas of an entire paragraph or chapter. To produce a precis,
condense the original piece of writing, reducing a paragraph into a
sentence, an article into a brief paragraph, a book into a page. Preserve
the tone and moods of the original (serious, skeptic, doubtful, etc.).
Always locate the source of your material.
An abstract is a brief description of the pages, It summarizes the
basic ideas developed in the paper. The abstract, as well as the title,
helps readers decide to read or to skip the paper.
Therefore, it should be accurate, concise, specific, self-contained.
As a rule, the abstract is placed at the beginning of the page, below
the title. It is written last.
Follow the suggestions given below:
1. Do not repeat the information given in the title.
2. Decide the degree of detail you include.
3. Use direct, straightforward English, reduce wordy phrases.
4. Use the past tense when describing what was done.
5. Use less than 100 words.
Part IV. Exercises
Translate the sentences. State the grammar used.
I.
1. It is this assumption that enables us to find linear functions that
represent the order.
2. It is only recently, as a result of the application of more
sophisticated techniques, that the fact has come fully to light.
3. It is the computers which provide the key to the fully automatic
factories of the future.
4. It is the first type of information, however, which the chemist is
often anxious to have, and it is just this first type of information which
is most difficult to obtain.
5. It is not the existence of an adding machine that is of importance
in a business system.
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II.
1. In what follows this representation provides useful basis for
definitions of problem situations.
2. Experience shows that work study does in fact provide one of the
most valuable means of improving production efficiency.
3. In addition to the organizational approach, chief programmer
team operations are based on two major innovative disciplines.
4. All commands are forwarded to the microdensitometer through
the microprocessor based controller.
5. In such cases the time-delayed ion ejection method proved
particularly valuable in determining the equilibrium constants.
6. A requirements document should specify only the external
behaviour.
7. The subject of this paper involves the implementation of a
maximum absolute error algorithm comparison criterion.
III.
1. The question of the laws of resistance in circuits may now be
turned to.
2. Many materials now commonly used were not even thought of
thirty years ago.
3. Biological methods of purifying water are given much attention
to by scientists.
4. The range of application of gas chromatography is wide and most
substances boiling under 300 C can be dealt with readily.
5. Political and economic penetration was soon followed by
outright annexation.
6. Their defeat was utter and awful. Mercy was not thought of.
7. The book was terribly bad, it was just a chance that it got
published.
8. Mathematics, astronomy and physics were the first sciences to
get organized and defined.
9. Every breach of rules was dealt with as a branch of the law and
punishment was proportionally severe.
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10. When exposed to a beam of light this movement becomes
oriented in the direction of the beam and on a vertical surface it
becomes directed by gravity.
IV.
1. The authors suggested that denaturation may have occurred
during preparation of the gamma globuline.
2. Although the structures proposed may not have been established
with complete certainty, all known facts, physical and chemical, fit
beautifully this ingenious interpretation.
3. The introduction of symbols for negative numbers must have
been a further source of difficulties.
4. Sustained experiments with the cyclotron produced rare hits of
the target by what might have been the atom of the new element.
5. It is for this reason that many reports on scientific research
include discussion of how the research ought to have been done in the
light of the experience gained in having done it the first time.
V.
1. Having eliminated the other classes of earthquakes we are left
with the remaining classes of earthquakes – tectonic.
2. A new technique having been worked out, the yields rose.
3. Peter was absent, having quitted the army to hurry on
reinforcements.
4. Having been taught Latin by an Englishman, and having traveled
to Western Europe, he realized the vital importance to Russia of
attracting the foreigners into the Muscovite Empire.
5. Having seen the way in which decision theory handles the future
and having examined some of the difficulties inherent in this approach,
we should give further consideration to what is altogether another line
of attack.
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VI.
1.Several treatments of this problem have been presented, with
theories resulting from this investigation falling into one of the two
categories.
2. Other theories having so far proved inadequate, dynamo theories
of the origin of solar fields are regarded as the most promising.
3. All rock species yet tested are somewhat radioactive, the
radioactivity being accompanied by the evolution of heat.
4. Rich deposits of iron ore having been discovered, we began to
build a blast furnace.
5. They took all the measurements during actual operation of the
machine, this being the usual practice in those days.
6. Evidently, a fuel with a lower ignition temperature, all other
conditions being equal, will ignite more quickly than one with higher
ignition temperature.
7. With the question of representing information tentatively settled,
the major design question becomes one of logic operations.
8. This value is subject to systematic errors, the most important one
reflecting our lack of knowledge of the energy spectrum.
9. It was early recognized that all the rocks were surprisingly
similar in chemical composition, the fact having been confirmed by the
subsequent examination of rocks from different parts of the world.
VII.
1. This problem owes its fame to looking easy but being hard.
2. Some scientists argue that these considerations are incompatible
with our decision being random.
3. Instead of pursuing the above topics in more detail we turn to
other possible extensions.
4. The possibility of radio waves being reflected from the Moon to
the Earth has been frequently speculated upon by workers in the radio
field.
5. This warning may result in the scientist’s getting rather confused.
6. Besides
developing
a
comprehension
of
available
representations, the reader may gain two things from these chapters.
7. He was afraid of the results not providing conclusive.
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8. There are unmistakable proofs of Pauling’s having been wrong.
9. The change in velocity resulted from the force acting from
outside.
VIII.
1. We know physical changes to be caused by heat.
2. One may assume the information to be correct.
3. It should be noted that Barbuer does not claim his results to be of
high accuracy.
4. It is worth answering the question: why are the results so difficult
to accept? I believe the answer to be simple and give it in operational
research terms.
5. He believed the results of this test to have been plotted in the
diagram.
6. One cannot expect a complicated problem like that of using solar
energy to be solved in a year or so.
IX.
1. By Toulmin, willing and thinking are asserted to be identical.
2. This approach cannot be expected to yield practical results.
3. Hot springs are believed often to be due to the presence of magna
near the surface.
4. This is likely to be the case for an area such as organization
design.
5. The Boltzmann expressions for the transition probabilities are
shown to have been applied under conditions for which they are not
valid.
6. The number of electrons per square metre of surface between the
plasma and the vacuum is estimated from the average lifetime and the
flux to be as follows.
7. The present era which is distinguished by the utilization of
metals in enormous quantities, may be said to have begun in 1860.
8. The atmosphere has been proved to extend several hundred
kilometers above the earth.
9. Since the leakage flux turns out to be only a few per cent of the
main flux, this rough method proves to be quite appropriate.
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
X.
1. For an automatic system to be successful it must tune a
transmitter at least as accurately as can be done manually.
2. It is not possible for the author to make all the mathematics
involved easy for those who have little training in that subject.
3. The suggestion is both attractive and interesting but the work is
not sufficiently advanced for any definite opinion of its validity to be
formed.
4. Slooping programs remove the need for other users to wait for a
busy printer to become free.
5. These experiments prove that it is physically possible for the
ground ice of Alaska to have been formed by a process of segregation.
Contents
Part I. Reading and summarising information ............................................. 3
Part II. Speaking............................................................................................. 24
Part III. Writing research papers ................................................................. 28
Part IV. Exercises ........................................................................................... 30
35
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Учебное издание
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Гипотезы
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Методические указания
Составители:
Потехина Татьяна Борисовна
Туркина Людмила Леонидовна
Редактор, корректор А.А. Антонова
Компьютерная верстка Е.Л. Шелеховой
Подписано в печать 09.06.2006 г. Формат 60х84/16.
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Ярославский государственный университет.
150000 Ярославль, ул. Советская, 14.
36
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
37
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Исследования
Гипотезы
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