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81.Английский язык для студентов юридического факультета

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I. GRAMMAR PRACTICE IN EXERCISES
Grammar practice 1: The verb to be, to have
(Present, Past Simple)
Ex. 1. Use: am, are, is, was, were.
1. This ? a classroom. 2. His friends ? from Glasgow.
3. Peter and Ann ? happy. 4. His father ? a lawyer.
5. She ? a young lady. 6. Bill ? in Paris yesterday.
7. They ? students of Russian at Moscow University two years
ago.
8. He ? a good specialist in criminal law. 9. His father ? very
busy on week days.
Ex. 2. Use: have, has, had.
1. He ? a large family. 2. They ? a very nice flat in Moscow.
3. John ? many friends at the university. 4. When he was a small
boy his parents ? many problems with him. 5. Yesterday I ? a
lot of work about the house. 6. My sister ? two children.
7. They ? many books on law at home.
Ex. 3. Answer the questions. Use the words in brackets.
1. What is Mr. Black? (a judge) 2. Where is your house? (not far
from here) 3. How old are your parents? (of the same age) 4. What
was his wife? (a teacher) 5. What is your friend?s hobby? (fishing)
6. What student is she? (a law student) 7. What were you last year? (a
schoolboy).
Ex. 4. Make these sentences interrogative.
1. Her brother is a student. 2. She is very busy on week
days. 3. They are fond of classic music. 4. They were young. 5. You
are at the English lesson. 6. He was good at mathematics at school.
7. You are a good sportsman. 8. The boy had short black hair. 9. They
were at the theatre yesterday. 10. They have lectures five days a week.
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Grammar practice 2:
Construction there is, there are
Ex. 5. Translate the sentences.
1. There is a good library at our department. 2. There is a lift in
the house. 3. There were many old buildings in the city. 4. There are
four seminars every week. 5. There are twelve months in ? year.
6. There was an interesting article in this newspaper yesterday.
7. There is a computer on his desk.
Ex. 6. Make these sentences interrogative.
1. There were five exams last term. 2. There are fourteen chairs at
our college. 3. There are many new words in this text. 4. There are
few mistakes in my work. 5. There were many interesting reports at
our conference. 6. There are nine departments at our university.
Ex. 7. Put questions to the words given in bold type.
1. There was a party yesterday. 2. There are twelve months in a
year. 3. There is a big park in the centre of the city. 4. There were
three seminars last week. 5. There are many visitors on
Sunday. 6. There was a lecture on Criminal Law on Friday.
Ex. 8. Answer the following questions.
1. How many students are there in your group? 2. Is there a lift in
your house? 3. How many windows are there in our classroom?
4. How many pens are there on your desk? 5. How many days are
there in November? 6. What is there on your desk? 7. Were there
many seminars last week?
Grammar practice 3: Present Simple, Past Simple,
Future Simple
Ex. 9. Make the sentences negative and interrogative.
1. He speaks English well. 2. First-year students attend classes
five days a week. 3. They play football at the stadium. 4. My friend
gets to the university by bus. 5. His father works at the hospital.
6. Their hostel is far from the university. 7. Both his friends live at the
hostel.
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Ex. 10. Ask questions using the question words in brackets.
1. They leave for the university in the morning (When?). 2. He
likes classic music (What?). 3. They want to become lawyers (What?).
4. I often go to visit my friends in Moscow (Where?). 5. My friends
attends lectures on law in the evening (When?). 6. His father is a judge
(What?). 7. She usually goes to her work on foot (How?).
Ex. 11. Answer the questions using the words in brackets.
1. Where does your brother study? (at the university). 2. How
many days a week do you attend classes? (5 days a week). 3. Where
do they have a large flat? (in Yaroslavl). 4. How old is his sister?
(18). 5. Where does your friend live? (in a hostel). 6. How long does it
take her to get ready for the seminar in Logics? (3 or 4 hours).
7. When are they busy? (on week days).
Ex. 12. Chose the right form of the verb from those in brackets
and translate the sentences.
1. Yesterday I (take, took) a taxi to get to the university in
time. 2. They usually (leave, left) for the university in the morning.
3. Some years ago she (teaches, taught) English at school. 4. When he
was a schoolboy he (decide, decided) to become a lawyer. 5. My
friend is a full-time student. Every day he (attends, attended) lectures
and seminars at the university. 6. Last year John (graduate, graduated)
from the university.
Ex. 13. Ask questions using the words in brackets.
1. The delegation arrived in the evening (When?). 2. My friend
became a law student in summer (What?). 3. They moved to a new flat
last month. (Who?). 4. The undergraduates practiced as lawyers at the
procurator?s office last month (Where?). 5. He passed his exams well
last term (How?). 6. They were very busy last week (Who? When?).
Ex. 14. Make the sentences negative and interrogative.
1. My friend will be a lawyer in two years. 2. He will visit his
relatives in Canada. 3. We shall have a lecture on Criminal Law
tomorrow. 4. His sister will leave school next year. 5. They will take
exams in December. 6. You will speak at the seminar today. 7. They
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will study Criminology next term. 8. There will be many reports at the
conference. 9. There will be a telephone in his flat.
Ex. 15. Translate the sentences paying attention to the
construction ?to be going + Infinitive?.
1. We are going to take five exams at the end of the term. 2. He is
going to study German. 3. Our students are going to take part in the
concert. 4. I am going to meet him at the club tonight. 5. They are
going to enter the university next year. 6. When he was at school he
was going to become an economist.
Ex. 16. Use the correct tense form of the verb in the subordinate
clauses of time and condition.
1. If they (want) your advice, they (get) in touch with you. 2. You
(catch) the train if you (hurry). 3. If you (look) through today?s paper,
you (see) your picture there. 4. We (tell) you all the news when we
(meet) at the club. 5. I (think) about your invitation after I (talk) with
my parents. 6. When you (cross) the street, look left and then
right. 7. They (leave) Yaroslavl as soon as they (pass) their exams.
Ex. 17. Put the verb in brackets into the Present, Past or Future
Simple Tense. Translate the sentences.
1. The students (attend) lectures and seminars every day. 2. He
(graduate) from the university in two years. 3. She (take part) in this
work with great pleasure if you (invite) her. 4. They (study)
Criminalistics next year. 5. His brother (pass) his exams successfully
last term. 6. When I (be) eighteen, I (take part) in the elections.
7. They (finish) this experiment in some days. 8. When he (graduate)
from the university, he (become) a good specialist. 9. People (speak)
English all over the world. 10. We (not/start) dinner until Jack
(arrive).
Ex. 18. Put questions to the underlined words.
1. My friend served in the army in the Far East. 2. They play
football at the stadium. 3. He speaks English very well. 4. He will
become a lawyer in five years. 5. He worked in militia two years
ago. 6. My sister gets to school on foot. 7. Mary is very busy now
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because she will take exams next week. 8. This student made a very
interesting report at the last conference. 9. They were good
sportsmen. 10. Mike is going to enter postgraduate courses. 11. There
will be a good concert in this club next week.
Ex. 19. Translate the sentences. Pay attention to the words in bold
type.
1. Both my friends and I are going to become lawyers. 2. Both
seminars are very important for us. 3. He may study either English or
German at this school. 4. You may take either of these
hotels. 5. Neither hotel is expensive. 6. He neither wrote nor
telephoned. 7. Both Ann and Tom came to the party.
Ex. 20. Translate the sentences. Pay attention to the emphatic
constructions.
1. It was in 1975 that the Moscow Law Institute was
founded. 2. ?Did Ann make a report yesterday?? ?No, it was Nick who
made a report?. 3. It was the witness who told the police about these
important facts. 4. You say your friend is in Kiev now. It was only
yesterday that I met him in the street. 5. It was only during the trial
that he began to tell the truth. 6. It is Pete who usually investigates
such crimes successfully.
Grammar practice 4: Adjectives
Ex. 21. Form the Comparative and Superlative Degrees of the
following adjectives and adverbs:
a) happy, short, thick, long, young, nice, small, hot, easy, cold,
late;
b) beautiful, happy, difficult, wonderful, interesting, popular;
c) good, many, bad, little, much, well, badly.
Ex. 22. Compare:
1. I am (tall) than my friend. 2. This text is (difficult) than text 1.
3. Nick studies (badly) than Tom. 4. Exercise 3 is (easy) than exercise
2. 5. This judge has (much) practical experience than all of us. 6. Civil
law is (interesting) for me than Criminal law.
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Ex. 23. Open the brackets and use the correct form of the
adjective.
1. The Mississippi is (long) river in the world. 2. October is (cold)
than June. 3. I think this exercise is (difficult). 4. She is not so (busy)
as I am. 5. This court is located in (old) district of the town. 6. The
criminal did not like the answers of the witness and he became (angry)
and (angry).
Ex. 24. Translate the sentences. Pay attention to the comparative
constructions and degrees of comparison.
1. My friend knows English not so well as German. 2. My mother
is as old as my father. 3. My report was not so interesting as
hers. 4. The better people know the laws, the less they violate
them. 5. She was not so busy today as she was yesterday. 6. The chairs
conduct educational as well as scientific research work. 7. The more
developed is ? society the more perfect are its laws. 8. He worked as a
judge and delivered lectures at the university as well. 9. Do you know
the shortest way to Red Square from this place? 10. Yesterday our
lectures began later than usual. 11. The most outstanding scientists
deliver lectures at this university. 12. It takes much less time to read a
text than to translate it. 13. Our hostel is nearer to the university than
my house. 14. This student?s report was among the most interesting
ones at our conference. 15. Reading is a most useful way of learning
new words and expressions.
Grammar practice 5: Pronouns
Ex. 25. Insert indefinite pronouns ?some?, ?any?, ?no?,
?anybody?, ?somebody?, ?nobody?.
1. Do you have ? classes today? ? No, we have ? classes on
Sunday.
2. Hi! Is there ? in the house? ? No, I?m afraid there is ? . Let?s
go and see.
3. There is light in the flat. ? is at home.
4. I want to show you ? evidence.
5. Has the victim ? relatives? ? Yes, he has ? .
6. Was there ? special at the party? ? Nothing special.
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Ex. 26. Open the brackets using possessive pronouns.
1. This lawyer is (I) friend.
2. I often come to (they) place.
3. (We) department is in Sobinov Street.
4. (He) car is very nice.
5. This is (you) computer and these are (it) details.
Ex. 27. Translate the sentences into English using reflexive
pronouns wherever necessary.
1. ??? ???????? (to hurt).
2. ? ????? ???? ????? ?? ???????????? ?????.
3. ??????? ??? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? (to
cross-examine witnesses).
4. ???????? ???? ?????? ???????? ??? ????? ????????.
5. ???? ???????? ????? ???????.
Ex. 28. Use ?much?, ?many?, ?little?, ?few?, ?a few?, ?a little?.
1. ? money is spent for crime prevention.
2. Very ? people knew about this case.
3. Do you know ? students of your department?
4. I am busy now. I have ? time.
5. Does she read ??
6. ? people know Chinese.
7. There is ? light in this room, because there are ? windows in
it.
8. She talks ?, but does ? .
9. Has he got many English books? ? No, only ? .
10. My parents are going away for ? days.
Ex. 29. Open the brackets.
1. Give (they) dictionaries, please.
2. We met (she) at the station yesterday.
3. Let (I) go and see everything myself.
4. (We) friends are English.
5. He is a friend of (I).
6. (You) bag is very big.
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Ex. 30. Translate the sentences. Pay attention to the pronoun it.
1. Constitutional law is a leading branch of the whole system of
law. It deals with social structure, state system, organization of power.
Its principal source is the Constitution. 2. It is important that
administrative law is closely connected with the constitutional law.
3. Elections are equal. It means that each citizen has one vote. 4. The
Supreme Court is the highest judicial organ of the state. It has the
power of supervision over the activities of all the judicial organs of the
state. 5. It is not difficult to settle this problem. 6. Moscow is our
capital. It is a beautiful modern city. 7. It has a lot of historical
monuments. 8. It is the Parliament that passes new laws. 9. The city is
situated in the centre of London. It occupies about one square mile in
area. 10. It is a famous picture. It was painted by John Constable.
Grammar practice 6: Modal verbs
Ex. 31. Make the sentences interrogative and negative. Translate
the sentences.
1. Mary was allowed to go out. 2. You may keep this book for
two days. 3. The boy must explain something. 4. I can do this work in
time. 5. Jack had to get up early yesterday. 6. They could play tennis
well. 7. My friend will be able to speak Spanish soon.
Ex. 32. Translate the sentences. Pay attention to the modal verbs.
1. I can?t translate this text without a dictionary. Could you help
me? 2. You needn?t translate these sentences. 3. The train is to arrive
at five. 4. You have to leave for the University in the morning. 5. You
should work hard and be more attentive. 6. May I ask you to wait a
little? I am not yet ready. 7. They must learn this material. 8. We can?t
investigate criminal cases now. We shall be able to do it by the end of
the final course. 9. You ought not to waste your time. 10. Today the
first-year students are to attend two lectures in Logics. 11. You
mustn?t smoke here. You should go out and smoke in the yard.
Ex. 33. Use ?must? or ?needn?t?.
1. Must he come on Sunday? ? ..., it?s his day off. 2. Shall I type
the article for you now? ? ?, I need it today. 3. Must she tell the
truth? ? ?, it?s important. 4. Must you go shopping? ? ?, we have a
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lot of food. 5. Must she stay in bed? ? ?, she is much better
today. 6. Shall I use this material in my report? ? ?, it is very
interesting and important.
Grammar practice 7: Articles
Ex. 34. Use the definite article where it is necessary.
1. Nature is so beautiful in ? autumn.
2. On ? Monday we will come to see you.
3. My mother finished school ? 25 years ago.
4. ? door is locked.
5. Don?t touch ? dog.
6. Where is ? key?
Ex. 35. Use the indefinite article where it is necessary.
1. Christmas comes once ? year.
2. The Thames is ? river.
3. I went to the shop to buy ? bread.
4. Kate is ? lawyer.
5. Hawaii is ? island in the Pacific Ocean.
6. Do you like ? dogs?
Ex. 36. Insert the correct article wherever necessary.
1. They signed ? contract only yesterday.
2. He mentioned ? article 4.
3. ? New Zealand and ? France were involved in this case.
4. He is ? criminal.
5. ? Library of Congress is ? largest library in ? USA.
6. It is one of ? most important questions we discussed.
Grammar practice 8: Present Continuous,
Past Continuous; Future Continuous
Ex. 37. Use continuous forms with the following verbs:
a) Present Continuous: to work, to translate, to investigate, to
form, to phone;
b) Past Continuous: to sleep, to read, to speak, to play, to discuss;
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c) Future Continuous: to write, to answer, to learn, to do, to
drive.
Ex. 38. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present, Past or Future
Continuous Tense.
1. If I (to sleep) when he comes, please, wake me up.
2. What you (to do) from 2 to 3 o?clock tomorrow?
3. Where is John? He (to get ready) for his seminar at the library.
4. He (to sit) in a cafe, when I (to phone) him.
5. While she (to watch) TV, I (to write) an article.
6. The judge (to pronounce) the sentence, when we entered the
court room.
Ex. 39. Chose the correct form of the verbs in brackets.
1. Are you (learn, learning) the new words?
2. They?re (listen, listening) to the professor.
3. Were the students (have, having) a lecture in Criminal law at
that time yesterday?
4. Will you be (sleep. sleeping) when I come?
Grammar practice 9: Present, Perfect, Past Perfect,
Future Perfect
Ex. 40.
a)
Use the Present Perfect Tense with the words in brackets.
1. We translate English texts every week (already)
2. I see her every day (today).
3. He knows him very well (since his childhood).
4. They pass the exams every term (just).
b)
Use the Past Perfect Tense with the words in brackets.
1. They finished their experiment (by 5 o?clock).
2. The jury discussed the verdict (when the judge came).
3. She looked through the materials of the case (by that time).
4. They elected their governor (by the end of the month).
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c)
Use the Future Perfect Tense with the words in brackets.
1. They will pass the exams in June (by July).
2. He is writing his report on Criminal law (by Monday).
3. I?ll make dinner tomorrow (by the time my parents come).
4. The investigator will prepare the evidence (by the beginning of
the trial).
Ex. 41.
Answer the following questions:
1. Where had you studied before you entered the University?
2. Will you come back before the new term begins?
3. By what time will they have closed the trial?
4. How many films have you seen this month?
5. Will they have passed all exams by July?
6. Have you ever been to Saint-Petersburg?
Ex. 42. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present, Past and Future
Perfect Tense.
1. I (not to hear) of him since that time.
2. The students (to know) the results of the examinations by 3
o?clock tomorrow.
3. By 5 o?clock yesterday the Congress (to adopt) the draft
program.
4. After they (to present) the draft program, long debates took
place.
5. She (to do) already all her tasks.
6. By the time you arrived we (to leave).
Grammar practice 10: Passive Voice
Ex. 43. Put the verbs in brackets into the Passive Voice.
1. The country (to head) by the President.
2. He (to elect) as the leader of the party two years ago.
3. Sometimes the peers (to appoint) by the Queen.
4. Ann (to ask) at the last seminar.
5. The treaty (to sign) at the next meeting.
6. The evidence (to find) at the crime scene.
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Ex. 44. Choose the right form of the verb from those in brackets
(active or passive) and translate the sentences.
1. The case (has investigated; has been investigated) successfully.
2. At our university the students (teach; are taught) English,
German or French.
3. He (has finished; has been finished) the translation of the text.
4. I am sure the exams (will pass; will be passed) successfully.
5. This university (founded; was founded) in 1755.
6. The students (attend; are attended) lectures and seminars with
interest.
7. English (speaks; is spoken) at our English tutorials.
8. Specialists of high qualification (train; are trained) at Moscow
State University.
Ex. 45. Change the following sentences into passive forms.
1. The students saw this English film.
2. The university trains future investigators for Russian law
offices.
3. I passed the exam on Civil law yesterday.
4. The barrister deals with really difficult cases.
5. The chair of Labour and Financial law organized a very
interesting Olympiad for our students last term.
6. He has just finished his report.
7. You can find many interesting books in our living-room.
8. Students must use new words in their exercises.
Grammar practice 11: Indirect Speech
Ex. 46. Choose the right word.
1. We knew our friends were going to London (now, then). 2. She
said she had been to the USA a year (ago, before). 3. I was asked
when I was going to return (here, there). 4. We are told that we?ll take
our English exam (next, the next) year. 5. They asked me if I had
passed my exam well (yesterday, the day before). 6. The students
didn?t know if they would attend the conference (tomorrow, the next
day). 7. She says we can find interesting articles in (these, those)
journals.
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Ex. 47. Translate the sentences. Pay attention to indirect speech.
1. I didn?t know if I should be able to attend the lecture on
Monday. 2. We were told that we could go in for different sports at
our school. 3. My friend said that he liked to work as a lawyer. 4. He
was asked if he knew about the invitation to take part in the
concert. 5. The student said that he had served in the Far East two
years before. 6. My parents were told that the film was very
interesting. 7. The teacher told us to bring our dictionaries for the
lesson. 8. We were told to use those materials in our report. 9. They
said that they were going to take their exam on Criminology the next
day. 10. I don?t know what he was going to become.
Grammar practice 12: Subjunctive Mood
Ex. 48. Analyze and translate the sentences with the Subjunctive
Mood.
1. I would have never recognized him. He has changed a
lot. 2. You would hardly believe him even if he brought a dozen of
witnesses. 3. It is important that legal knowledge should become the
element of education for the younger generation. 4. This could have
been proved by the testimony of the eye-witness. 5. I wish it weren?t
true. 6. He wouldn?t have been imprisoned if he had not violated the
law. 7. Were the offender under 14 he would be tried by a juvenile
court. 8. Criminality would have been liquidated long ago if all people
observed the laws. 9. Had these facts been fully appreciated by the
judge the trial would have taken a different course. 10. Were he a
good lawyer, he wouldn?t make such mistakes. 11. They treat him as
if he were a criminal. 12. I suggest that he should testify at the
trial. 13. The judge proposed the eye-witness identify the robber.
Ex. 49. Change the sentences according to the model.
Model 1. I have no spare time today I won?t go there.
If I had time today. I would go there
1. I am busy. I won?t go to the cinema.
2. It is rainy. The children won?t go for a walk.
3. The students have no classes on Saturday. They won?t go to the
university.
4. Ann is ill. She won?t join us.
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Model 2. She gave me a call. I didn?t send her a letter.
If she had not given me a call I wouldn?t have sent her a letter.
1. These
boys
passed
their
entrance
examinations
successfully. They were admitted (???????) to the university.
2. Mary gave me a warning (????????????) I didn?t tell them this
news.
3. I was ready for the seminar. I answered all the teacher?s
questions correctly.
4. Nick had good knowledge of French. He was sent to Paris to
work at the exhibition.
II. GRAMMAR REVIEW IN EXERCISES
Ex.1. Open the brackets. Choose the correct form of the verb.
1. It often (to rain) in October. 2. They (to see) this film
already. 3. Two years ago he (to return) to Russia. 4. This article (to
publish) in the magazine last week. 5. When they (to be) in the fourth
year they will have their practice as lawyers. 6. Where is Ann? She (to
work) at the library. She always (to work) there at this time. 7. I (to
see) never the sea. 8. Six public holidays (to celebrate) in Great
Britain. 9. John (to finish) school in two years. 10. If you (to look
through) today?s paper, you (to see) many interesting articles
there. 11. When we came, the performance (to begin)
already. 12. Mary (to like) to go to this supermarket.
Ex. 2. Put question to the words in bold type.
1. He has brought you some books on Criminal Law. 2. We
always come home late. 3. They often spend their summer vacation at
the seaside. 4. These students have learnt many new words. 5. He
had to finish his work earlier yesterday. 6. The President is elected
every four years. 7. After the war her family moved to
Yaroslavl. 8. Our lab will be equipped well. 9. She leaves her house
early in the morning. 10. They are singing a very popular
song. 11. There were only English books on the shelves. 12. He
usually has supper at seven o?clock.
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Ex. 3. Translate into Russian.
1. The meeting was attended by thousands of people. 2. We were
sure that they lived in Minsk. 3. He was looked at with interest. 4. He is
going to work as a detective. 5. This letter is being translated into
Russian. 6. We were told to take the exam on Monday. 7. Our lecture
was to begin at 10 o?clock. 8. We were told that we could use
dictionaries. 9. This classroom has been cleaned and aired. 10. He
should be more attentive at the lessons. 11. They want to know if I am
interested to have this material. 12. This book was given to me
yesterday. 13. I?ll ask him to do this work if I see him. 14. You needn?t
translate this text today. You will have to do it in a week. 15. The
offender has just been arrested by the police inspector. 16. The convict
was taken to prison after his appeal had been rejected by the higher
court. 17. The judge will have been appointed by the beginning of the
trial. 18. The investigator has prepared the evidence on the case. 19. The
hearing of the case had been finished by the end of May. 20. The
defendant knew that his case would be tried in the Crown Court.
Ex. 4. Translate into English.
?)
1. ?????????? ??????????? ????? ???????, ?? ??????? ?????????? ???????.
2. ??? ????????? ?? ????? ?????, ??? ????.
3. ????????? ??????? ??? ????? ??????.
4. ??? ???????????? ???? ????? ??????.
5. ??? ???? ???? ????? ?????????? ??? ????? ?????????.
6. ??? ?????? ?? ???????? ??????, ??? ?????? ??????
?????.
7. ?? ?????? ????????? ????????
?)
1. ?? ??????????????! ? ?????? ??????.
2. ?????????, ??? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????? ? 7 ????? ???????
3. ??? ???? ????? ????????? ?????? ? 10 ????? ????.
4. ??? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ?
????? ??????.
5. ???? ????? ?? ???????? ? ???? ????.
6. ????? ???????? ????????? ???? ????????????.
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7. ??????????? ???????? ??? ?????? 24 ???? ? ?????.
?)
1. ? ????? ???????????? ??????? ???? ??????????? ??????
(to teach).
2. ???? ?????????? ?? ??????? ???????????? ??????? (to
ask).
3. ? ?????, ???????? ????? ????? ??????? (to pass).
4. ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ? 1755 ????
(to found).
5. ??? ?????? ????? ????????? (to translate).
Ex. 5. Answers the following questions.
1. What would you do if you had much spare time now?
2. Where would you go to spend your holiday if it were August
now?
3. Would Colombians have discovered new trade routes if the
Spanish government had not given him ships?
4. What places of interest would you recommend tourists to see in
your native town?
Ex. 6. Insert the correct article wherever necessary.
? young man attempted to rob ? store near my ? office. He
bought ? bag of ? potatoes chips, and while ? clerk was making ?
change, he attempted to grab ? money from ? cash register. When ?
clerk quickly closed ? drawer ? man tried to take ? cash register but
it was so heavy, he couldn?t lift it. He got angry. There was ? rack full
of ? cigarettes in ? corner of ? store. He decided to grab ? cigarettes
but ? clerk stopped him. ? man drove away empty-handed, but was
spotted by ? police for driving ? stolen car. ? police pursued him
with ? lights flashing and ? sirens blaring. He was soon arrested and
charged with ? possession of ? stolen vehicle, careless and reckless
driving and speeding. His ? fine was set at $2000. While being
escorted, ? man asked if he could stop near ? store and get his ?
potatoes chips, since he had paid for them. ? clerk at ? store identified
him as ? man had tried to steal ? cash register, and he was charged
with ? attempted robbery. His ? fine was increased to $ 15000; he is
in ? jail awaiting ? trial.
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III. GRAMMAR PRACTICE IN TESTS
Test 1. Present Simple
1. Who ? to go to the theatre with us?
A. want
B. does
C. wants
2. We ? a car, but we are going to buy it.
A. don?t have
B. aren?t have
C. hasn?t
3. ? Jane (know) what I want?
A. Jane knows
B. Does Jane knows
C. Does Jane know
4. Bob (not/smoke)
A. isn?t smoke
B. doesn?t smoke
C. don?t smoke
5. ? your sister (speak) English?
A. Is ? speak
B. Does ? speak
C. Do ? speaks
6. Can you help me? I (not/know) the way to the university.
A. am not know
B. not know
C. don?t know
7. What?s the matter? You (look) very happy.
A. look
B. are look
C. looks
8. ? Pete ? a car?
A. Do Pete have
B. Does Pete has
C. Has Pete got
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Test 2. Present Simple/ Present Continuous
1. They (usually/work) on Saturdays.
A. is usually working
B. usually works
C. usually work
2. Usually Jack (have coffee) in the morning, but now he
(drink tea).
A. is having coffee A. drink
B. has coffee B. is drinking
3. What he (do)? ? He is a policeman.
A. is he doing
B. he does
C. does he do
4. Mary (still/work) in the garden.
A. is still working
B. still works
C. still work
5. Don?t make so much noise. I (to work).
A. am work
B. am working
C. work
6. It (often/rain) in the autumn.
A. is often raining
B. often rains
C. often rain
7. Take your umbrella. It (rain).
A. is rain
B. rains
C. is raining
8. Tom (speak) five languages.
A. speaks
B. is speaks
C. is speaking
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Test 3. Present Perfect/ Past Simple
/ Past Continuous
1. When Bob (finish) school?
A. When had Bob finished
B. When has Bob finished
C. When did Bob finish
2. His parents (be) to the USA many times.
A. have been
B. had been
C. were
3. At six o?clock I (wait) for Kate at the station.
A. waiting
B. was waiting
C. waited
4. We (not/see) Kate this week, but we (see) her a couple of
weeks ago.
A. didn?t see A. saw
B. haven?t saw B. have saw
C. haven?t seen C. have seen
5. I (not/have) a holiday last year
A. didn?t have
B. haven?t had
C. hadn?t have
6. ? it stop raining yet?
A. Did it stop
B. Is it stop
C. Has it stopped
7. The police caught the man when he (rob) a shop.
A. had rob
B. was robbed
C. was robbing
8. They (already/inform) me about the accident.
A. has informed
B. have informed
C. informed
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Test 4. Future Simple / Future Perfect
/ Future Continuous
1. They (come) at 9 in the morning
A. will come
B. will be coming
C. will have come
2. He hopes he (save) money for a new car by the end of the year
A. will save
B. will have saved
C. will be saving
3. My friend (know) the result of her exam on Criminal Law in
two days
A. will have known
B. will know
C. will be knowing
4. This time tomorrow they (sit) in the train on their way to
Moscow
A. will be sitting
B. will sit
C. will have sat
5. I (finish) the work by 5 o?clock on Friday
A. will have finished
B. will be finishing
C. will finish
6. I hope it (stop) raining by tomorrow morning
A. will stop
B. will have stopped
C. will be stopping
7. ? you (come) to see me on Sunday?
A. Will you come
B. Will you be coming
C. Will you have come
8. The workers (build up) the hotel by the beginning of the
September.
A. will be building up
B. will build up
C. will have built up
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Test 5. Conditional Sentences
1. If they (need) your advice, they (phone) you.
A. will need, will phone
B. need, would phone
C. need, will phone
2. You look tired. If I (be) you, I (take) a holiday.
A. be, take
B. were, would take
C. have been, would take
3. How did it happen that you missed your stop? ? I
(not\missed) it, if the conductor (announce) the stops.
A. wouldn?t have missed, had announced
B. wouldn?t miss, announced
C. hadn?t missed, had announced
4. If I (know) that you were coming, I (meet) you at the
station. I had enough time to do that.
A. know, will meet
B. knew, would meet
C. had known, would have met
5. If we (buy) a new car, we (go) to the sea-side by car next
summer.
A. buy, will go
B. will buy, will go
C. buys, will go
6. What a pity John is away. If he (be) here he (help) you.
A. were, will help
B. were, would help
C. had been, would help
7. Hurry up! We (not/get) good seats if we (arrive) late.
A. don?t get, arrived
B. won?t get, arrive
C. won?t get, will arrive
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Test 6. Passive Voice
1. Yesterday we (invited) to the birthday party by our
friends.
A. are invited
B. were invited
C. invited
2. The problem (study) for some years, but they haven?t got
any result.
A. has been study
B. was studied
C. has been studied
3. His book (publish) by the end of the month.
A. would be published
B. will be published
C. will have been published
4. Look! The bridge (repair).
A. is been repaired
B. was being repaired
C. is being repaired
5. Tom (know) to be a very industrious student.
A. knows
B. is known
C. has been known
6. The letter (send) tomorrow.
A. will be send
B. will be sent
C. will have been sent
7. In Greece the Olympic Games (hold) once in four years.
A. are being held
B. were held
C. are held
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Test 7. Sequence of Tenses
1. He told me about his problems because I knew that he
(trust) me.
A. trusted
B. had trusted
C. would trust
2. I knew that Mercury (be) the closest planet to the Sun.
A. was
B. is
C. had been
3. We were told that Pete (go) to work as a judge.
A. is going
B. went
C. was going
4. Nick decided that he (celebrate) his birthday on Saturday.
A. celebrated
B. will celebrate
C. would celebrate
5. The police found out that Eliza (not live) in London at that
time.
A. has not lived
B. doesn?t live
C. didn?t live
6. I was informed that the professor (deliver) his lecture on
Monday.
A. will deliver
B. would deliver
C. will be delivering
7. Tom explained that they (be) friends since their childhood.
A. were
B. have been
C. had been
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Test 8. Modal Verbs
1. The policeman told the woman she ? worry.
A. can?t
B. mustn?t
C. needn?t
2. You ? eat so many sweets.
A. needn?t
B. ought not
C. shouldn?t
3. I have hurt my leg. I ? go very fast.
A. can?t
B. ought not
C. must
4. After graduating from the university they ? to investigate
criminal cases.
A. will can
B. are able
C. will be able
5. You ? smoke here.
A. needn?t
B. can?t
C. mustn?t
6. We have plenty of time. We ? hurry.
A. mustn?t
B. must
C. needn?t
7. Last term we ? get up early on Mondays.
A. could
B. must
C. had to
8. I feel better. Doctors say I ? go for a walk.
A. couldn?t
B. might
C. may
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Test 9. Degrees of Comparison
1. I am (young) in our family.
A. the younger
B. younger
C. the youngest
2. Henry is not (strong) his elder brother.
A. as strong as
B. so strong as
C. stronger
3. Where is (near) petrol station, please?
A. the next
B. nearer
C. the nearest
4. Let?s go by train. It?s much (cheap).
A. cheap
B. the cheapest
C. cheaper
5. It?s (good) film I?ve ever seen.
A. a good
B. the best
C. the goodest.
6. My (old) sister doesn?t live with us.
A. the oldest
B. older
C. elder
7. This is (old) theatre in London.
A. an elder
B. the oldest
C. the eldest
8. Public transport in London is (expensive) in Europe.
A. the expensivest
B. the most expensive
C. more expensive
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IV. GRAMMAR REVIEW IN TESTS
Test 1
1. This film ?
A. is speaking much about
B. is speaks much about
C. is much spoken about
2. We ? from him since last year.
A. didn?t hear
B. hadn?t heard
C. haven?t heard
3. His room is ?
A. the comfortablest
B. more comfortable
C. the most comfortable
4. The police ? the criminal yet.
A. have caught
B. didn?t catch
C. haven?t caught
5. If I were you. I ? a house in the country.
A. bought
B. would buy
C. would bought
6. Mike said that he ? the material the next day.
A. will bring
B. would have brought
C. would bring
7. He knows French ? than his brother.
A. as bad as
B. the worst
C. worse
8. I ? take a taxi because I was late.
A. was able to
B. was to
C. had to
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9. This book ? into 5 languages.
A. translated
B. has been translated
C. has translated
10. Tony ? from the university last year.
A. graduated
B. has graduated
C. had graduated
11. They ? this rule.
A. are not understand
B. are not understanding
C. don?t understand
12. When I phoned him at 10 o?clock in the morning, he ?
A. slept
B. was sleeping
C. had slept
13. When did you discover that your car ??
A. was disappeared
B. had disappeared
C. had been disappeared
14. ? this party?
A. Do you enjoy
B. Are you enjoying
C. Are you enjoy
15. The last student ? now.
A. is being examined
B. is examined
C. examines
Test 2
1. The police ? the criminal yet.
A. haven?t arrested
B. didn?t arrest
C. have arrested
2. Jim?s ? sister wants to become a lawyer.
A. elder
B. older
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C. the oldest
3. ? Volga is the longest river in Europe.
A. ?
B. A
C. The
4. I know that Bill is ? a lie.
A. saying
B. talking
C. telling
5. He said that he ? to Egypt.
A. never had been
B. had never been
C. has never been
6. It was ? place I had ever seen.
A. a most beautiful
B. the most beautiful
C. the beautifulest
7. How many meals a day ??
A. are you having
B. do you have
C. you have
8. Julia ? to the cinema last night.
A. had invited
B. is invited
C. was invited
9. Hurry up! They ? for you at home.
A. wait
B. were waiting
C. are waiting
10. Yesterday we ? the office at 7 p.m.
A. had to leave
B. have to leave
C. could leave
11. ? I would use that material.
A. On your place
B. If I was instead of you
C. If I were you
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12. Where are you going to stay when ? in London?
A. you will be
B. you are
C. you will
13. When ? in London?
A. have you arrived
B. you arrived
C. did you arrive
14. I ? this car for a year.
A. have
B. have had
C. am having
15. Though Christmas is celebrated on December 25, the
actual date of Christ?s birth ? .
A. has not known
B. doesn?t know
C. is not known
Test 3
1. New York is ? city in the USA.
A. the larger
B. most largest
C. the largest
2. The text was rather difficult. I ? look up many words in
the dictionary.
A. must
B. have to
C. had to
3. Is there ? snow in England in winter?
A. many
B. large
C. much
4. Many of Agatha Christie?s novels ? .
A. have been made into films
B. have made into films
C. were made into films
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5. There aren?t ? easy ways of learning a foreign language.
A. some
B. any
C. no
6. He has never been to Great Britain, ??
A. hasn?t he?
B. isn?t he?
C. didn?t he?
7. Which of you ? to go to the museum on Sunday?
A. does want
B. do want
C. wants
8. Where will you stay when ? in Moscow?
A. you will be
B. you will
C. you are
9. John Major ? Prime Minister in 1990.
A. became
B. has become
C. had become
10. Tell me where ? .
A. does your brother study
B. your brother studies
C. your brother does study
11. Tretyakov Gallery ? a priceless collection of pictures.
A. contains
B. is contained
C. is containing
12. The weather was fine and we ? .
A. decided to go for a walk
B. had decided to go for a walk
C. have decided to go for a walk
13. ? television when I phoned you?
A. Did you watch
B. You watching
C. Were you watching
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14. Neither Nick nor his friend ? to go to the club tonight.
A. wants
B. want
C. don?t want
15. You won?t be late if you ? a taxi.
A. take
B. will take
C. are taking
V. GRAMMAR REVIEW IN TEXTS
Text 1
Introduction to Law
Task 1. Read the text for obtaining information.
The English word "law" refers to limits upon various forms of
behavior. Some laws are descriptive ? they simply describe how
people usually behave. Other laws are prescriptive ? they prescribe
how people ought to behave.
In all societies, relations between people are regulated by
prescriptive laws. Some of them are customs, that is, informal rules of
social and moral behaviour. Some are rules we accept if we belong to
particular social institutions, such as religious, educational and
cultural group. And some are precise laws made by nations and
enforced against all citizens within their power.
Customs need not be made by governments, and they need not be
written down. We learn how we should behave in society through the
instruction of family and teachers, the advice of friends, and our own
experiences. The rules of social institutions tend to be more formal
than customs. Governments often consider anti-social behaviour not
simply as a matter between two individuals but as a danger to the
well-being and order of society as a whole. The laws made by the
government of one country are often very different from the laws of
another country. Law today is, to a large extent, a complex of different
and relatively independent national systems.
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Task 2. Say which is true. Prove your choice by sentences
from the text. Translate them into Russian.
1. Descriptive laws regulate powers of governments.
2. Customs are a form of descriptive laws.
3. Governments of all countries make actually the same laws.
4. Anti-social behaviour is dangerous for the society as a whole.
5. The rules of social institutions are as formal as customs.
Task 3. Put questions to the main ideas of the text.
Text 2
What is Law?
Task 1. Read the text for obtaining information.
Law is the whole set of rules that are supported by the power of
government and that control the behaviour of members of a
society. The law itself provides the basic structure within which
commerce and industry operate. It safeguards the rights of individuals,
regulates their dealings with others and enforces the duties of
government.
There are two main kinds of the law ? public and private
(civil). Private law concerns disputes among citizens within a country,
and public law concerns disputes between citizens and the state, or
between one state and another.
The system of law consists of different categories of law. There
are laws which enable citizens to take legal action against the
state. These actions are part of constitutional law. A constitution is the
political and ideological structure within which a system of laws
operates. Most countries have a formal written Constitution describing
how laws are to be made and enforced.
Many countries face similar social, economic and political
problems. Nations have always made political and economic treaties
with each other. International law is created to regulate relations
between governments and also between private citizens of one country
and those of another.
Criminal law deals with wrongful acts harmful to the community
and punishable by the state.
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Civil law deals with individual rights, duties and obligations
towards one another.
As well as defining the powers of government, most constitutions
describe the fundamental rights of citizens. These usually include
general declarations about freedom and equality, but, also some
specific provisions. The European Convention on Human Rights
(ECHR) was first adopted in 1950 and has now been signed by every
country of Western Europe. Individual citizens of these countries have
the right to bring a complaint before the European Commission if they
think their government has broken the Convention. But despite the
development of legally binding national and international conventions,
millions of people in the world still do not enjoy human rights.
Task 2. Say which is true. Prove your choice by sentences
from the text. Translate them into Russian.
1. Commerce and industry of each society operate within the
basic structure of law.
2. The law enforces the duties of government.
3. Constitutions of most countries are unwritten.
4. Constitutional law deals with acts harmful to the society.
5. Most constitutions describe human rights and the powers of
government.
Task 3. Put questions to the main ideas of the text.
Text 3
Entering the Profession
Task 1. Read the text for obtaining information.
How does someone become a lawyer?
In some countries in order to practice as a lawyer it is necessary to
get a university degree in law. However, in others, a degree maybe
insufficient; professional examinations must be passed. In Britain, it is
not in fact necessary to have a degree, although nowadays most people
entering the profession do. The main requirement is to pass the Bar
Final examination* (for barristers) or the Law Society Final
examination* (for solicitor). Someone with university degree in a
35
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subject other than law needs first to take a preparatory
course. Someone without a degree at all may also prepare for the final
examination, but this will take several years. In most countries, lawyers will tell you that the time they spent studying for their law finals
was one of the worst periods of their life! This is because an enormous
number of procedural rules covering a wide area of law must be
memorized. In Japan, where there are relatively few lawyers, the
examinations are supposed to be particularly hard; less than 5 percent
of candidates pass. Even after passing the examination, though, a
lawyer is not necessarily qualified. A solicitor in England, for
example, must then spend two years as an articled clerk, during this
time his work is closely supervised by an experienced lawyer, and he
must take further courses. A barrister must spend a similar year as a
pupil.
The rate at which the legal profession grows is terrific. In the 21
century the number of lawyers will probably outpace the rate of
population growth.
Why is the career in law so popular? In the USA the average
salary of experienced lawyers in private practice is more than
$100,000
Lawyers' salaries are substantially greater than those of many
other professionals. The glamour of legal practice strengthens the
attraction of its financial rewards.
*the Bar Final examination ? ???????, ??????? ??????? ???
??????????? ? ???????? ?????????
*the Law Society Final examination ? ???????, ?????? ?????
???? ?????? ???????? ??????? (????????????????? ?????
???????????)
Task 2. Say which is true. Prove your choice by sentences
from the text. Translate them into Russian.
1. Most people is Britain get a University degree if they want to
become lawyers.
2. All future lawyers in Britain have to pass the Bar Final
examination.
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3. People without a university degree can?t become lawyers in
Britain.
4. The profession of a lawyer is particularly popular in Japan
because it is quite easy to become a lawyer there.
5. Lawyers? salaries are rather attractive.
Task 3. Put questions to the main ideas of the text.
Text 4
Constitutional Law
Task 1. Read the text for obtaining information.
There are laws which enable citizens to take legal action against
the state ? against, for example, a public authority or even against the
government itself. These fictions are part of constitutional law.
As knowledge of the law has increased among the general public,
so have the number and range of constitutional law cases.
A constitution is the political and ideological structure within
which a system of laws operates. Most countries have a formal written
Constitution describing how laws are to be made and enforced. The
French Constitution, for example, sets a seven year term of office for
the president; the U. S. constitution sets a four year term. In
Switzerland, a referendum (national vote) must be held on any issue
for which a petition signed by 10, 000 people has been gathered; in
Ireland, referenda are to be used only лn the case of changes in the
constitution itself. In Germany, a change in the constitution requires a
special majority vote in parliament, not the simple majority necessary
for other laws. Many other countries put the constitution above other
laws by making it difficult to change.
Task 2. Say which is true. Prove your choice by sentences
from the text. Translate them into Russian.
1. According to constitutional law citizens have the right to take
legal action against the state.
2. The number of constitutional law cases has increased.
3. The French Constitution is an example of an unwritten
Constitution.
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4. A system of laws operates within a constitution.
5. Laws of many countries are above the constitution.
Task 3. Put questions to the main ideas of the text.
Text 5
The Form of the British Constitution
Task 1. Read the text for obtaining information.
When people take part in any activity they have to act according
to certain rules. A nation needs a set of agreed rules by which it may
govern itself. We call these rules a Constitution. From this you will
soon realize that when we describe a country as a "Constitutional
Monarchy" we mean a country with a King who regards himself as
limited in his actions by the nation's rules.
Now we often say that some countries have a "written
constitution". For example, the United States of America and France
have written constitutions. In both these countries the whole of the
constitution is set out in an official volume which anyone can buy and
study. On the other hand, it is often said that the British Constitution is
unwritten, meaning that it is not written in a single official
handbook. In this sense it is quite true that Britain has an unwritten
constitution. Some of the rules, those which have been made by
Parliament, are written down in statutes but many more depend on
customs. Here is a good example of the unwritten nature of the British
Constitution. At any time during the last two hundred years, an
educated Englishman would understand what was meant by the term
"Prime Minister". Yet it was only in the year 1917 that the Prime
Minister was recognized officially by being mentioned in an Act of
Parliament.
Britain is a constitutional monarchy. That is to say, a monarch
reigns but is limited by the rules of the State, rules which depend
partly on written laws but even more on established customs which
have been handed down from generation to generation,
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Task 2. Say which is true. Prove your choice by sentences
from the text. Translate them into Russian.
1. Each state is governed by a set of agreed rules.
2. Constitutions of most countries are unwritten.
3. Only some of the British rules have been made by Parliament.
4. Written laws and established customs limit the power of the
British monarch.
5. Customs undergo changes from generation to generation.
Task 3. Put questions to the main ideas of the text.
Text 6
Interpol
Task 1. Read the text for obtaining information.
Interpol is an international corporation. It was founded in 1923.
It is devoted to coordinating actions against international
criminals. Its clients are 174 agencies throughout the world. This
organization is not under the control or supervision of any
government.
Interpol is a recognized intergovernmental police force whose
task is to hunt down the international criminal, to fight international
terrorism and sky-jackings. Interpol leads the war on narcotics, assists
a number of nations in the continuing search for wanted Nazi war
criminals.
Interpol, like any other police force is to safeguard the basic rights
of every citizen. It operates according to a strict code of behavior and
adheres to the highest ethical standards.
Interpol has never been recognized or established by any international charier or treaty and has no police powers. Because of Interpol's
cooperation with the UN particularly in the area of drugs, Interpol was
recognized as an intergovernmental organization.
Interpol members are, for the most part, police and not governmental representatives, although certain governments have sent observers from their military, intelligence, customs, post office, and immigration departments.
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Interpol does not have powers of arrest or any investigative
rights. Its function is to disseminate information.
Task 2. Say which is true. Prove your choice by sentences
from the text. Translate them into Russian.
1. Interpol is an intergovernmental organization.
2. This international corporation works under international
charters and treaties.
3. To arrest international criminals is one of the tasks of Interpol.
4. Interpol cooperates with the United Nations.
5. No government controls or supervises the work of Interpol.
Task 3. Put questions to the main ideas of the text.
Text 7
Police Force in the United States
Task 1. Read the text for obtaining information.
Historians suggest that the first modern police in the United States
did not come into existence until 1833 in the city of New York.
The first municipal police agencies consisted of night watchmen
whose responsibility was to protect property during the evening and
early morning hours. Crime continued to increase, however, and
gradually there were demands to hire men to provide similar
protection during the daylight hours as well. Thus, by the 1830s and
1840s these two types of police were combined to form a unified,
more effective municipal police agency. The modern police
departments came into existence, especially in the years following
World War I. Since 1920 municipal police agencies have increasingly
grown in personnel and responsibilities. Special training and more
selective recruitment practices have been developed to go hand in
hand with the use of such technological developments as the
automobile, the individual police radio, and the computer. The great
part of police work does not involve crime-fighting situations but
rather consists of both service and peacekeeping.
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Task 2. Say which is true. Prove your choice by sentences
from the text. Translate them into Russian.
1. The first modern police force appeared in the 18th century.
2. To protect property was the task of night watchmen.
3. Two types of police formed a unified police agency.
4. Most of police work in the United States deals with service and
peacekeeping.
5. The automobile, the individual radio and the computer are
technical means of the modern police.
Task 3. Put questions to the main ideas of the text.
Text 8
The Work of Militia
Task 1. Read the text for obtaining information.
Our militia was created by the working people to protect their
rights. The officers of our militia have always displayed courage and
heroism in the fight against enemies of our state during the Great Patriotic War as well as in the years of peaceful construction.
The main aim of militia has always been to maintain public order,
to protect state and personal property and safeguard the rights of our
citizens. Nowadays great attention in the work of militia is paid to prevention of crime, to its suppression. But if a crime has been
committed, the militia officers are to solve the crime as quickly as
possible. To fulfil these tasks the organs of internal affairs are
composed of different departments.
The Criminal Detection Department is one of the most complicated militia services. The main responsibility of the officer of the
Criminal Detection Department is to detect the criminal, that is to locate and apprehend him. In many cases the detective must trace a fugitive who is hiding.
The officers of the Criminal Investigation Department collect
facts to prove the guilt or innocence of the suspect. The final test of a
criminal investigation is in presentation of evidence in court. Corpus
delicti must be established, the defendant must be identified and
associated with the crime scene. The investigator must also provide
competent witnesses.
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Economic Crimes Department fights against those who don't want
to live an honest life. The responsibility of the officers of this Department is to reveal the criminal activity of those who commit embezzlement and other economic crimes, bring them to justice.
Task 2. Say which is true. Prove your choice by sentences
from the text. Translate them into Russian.
1. Crime prevention is not so important for the militia officers as
crime investigation.
2. State and personal property is under the protection of militia.
3. To detect the criminal means to locate and to arrest him.
4. Criminal investigation is concluded by presentation of evidence
in court.
5. The criminal activity of those who commit economic crimes is
under the control of the Criminal Detection Department.
Task 3. Put questions to the main ideas of the text.
Text 9
The Presidents of the United States
Task 1. Read the text for obtaining information.
The United States has had over 40 Presidents. The first President,
George Washington, was inaugurated in 1789 He served two terms
that ended in 1797. When he died he was mourned in the United
Stales and abroad as one of the great men of the time. He was buried
at his home at Mount Vernon, Virginia.
Nine Presidents were elected for two terms. Franklin D. Roosevelt
served three terms. He was elected to a fourth term in 1944. He died in
1945, and his term was completed by Harry Truman.
The shortest term was served by William Henry Harrison who
died one month after his inauguration in 1841. Four Presidents were
killed while in office. The first of these was the 16th President,
Abraham Lincoln. He was shot while attending the theatre in
Washington. James Garfield was shot a few months after his
inauguration and died at the age of forty-nine. William McKinley was
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killed in Buffalo, New York in 1901. John Kennedy was killed in
Texas in 1963.
One of the Presidents (Andrew Johnson) was a tailor before he
became President. Three of the Presidents ? Washington, Grant and
Eisenhower were Generals of the Army before they were elected
The 26lh President, Theodore Roosevelt was a Colonel in the
Army before he was elected to serve as Vice-president during William
McKinley's term of office. When President McKinley was killed,
Theodore Roosevelt became President. He became the youngest man
to be called upon to fill presidency. He was forty-two years old. John
Kennedy was the youngest person to be elected to the office. Me was
forty-three at the time he was chosen.
Task 2. Say which is true. Prove your choice by sentences
from the text. Translate them into Russian.
1. No US President has served more than eight years altogether.
2. William Henry Harrison was the fourth President to be killed
while in office.
3. James Garfield was forty-nine when he died.
4. Those serving in the Army can be called upon to fill presidency
in the US.
5. Theodore Roosevelt was elected together with William
McKinley.
Task 3. Put questions to the main ideas of the text.
Text 10
The Royal Family
Task 1. Read the text for obtaining information.
Many members of the Royal Family undertake official duties in
Britain and abroad. Their various responsibilities reflect tradition,
their own personal interests and Britain's former imperial status.
The Royal Family's money comes from two sources: government
funds and their own personal wealth, which is considerable. On the
one hand the Queen is certainly one of the richest women in the world,
while on the other her power is limited by the fact that so many of her
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expenses are paid for by government money. Parliament has had
effective control of the monarch's finances since the seventeenth
century.
The Queen is really a Figurehead representing the country, but
she has the power to prevent any politician from establishing a
dictatorship. The Queen and her family are a symbol that people can
identify with. The British public is obsessed with the details of the
royal family life, and when people feel that the Queen has problems
with her children, or her sister, they see her as a "real person" with the
same worries and anxieties as themselves.
The monarchy has not always been popular. During the late 19th
century there was a growing republican sentiment, but the personality
and family image of the Queen, her father and grandfather have
removed that feeling.
In recent years the Queen has become a roving ambassador for
Britain, and if we calculate the increase in trade after a royal visit
abroad, the nation probably makes a profit from her activities.
Just how popular is she? In the late 1980s a newspaper conducted
an opinion poll. People were asked, "If there were no monarchy, who
would you vote for as President?" More than 80 per cent chose the
Queen. Prince Charles came second, closely followed by his father,
Prince Philip. The prime minister of the day was the fourth ? with 2
per cent of the votes.
Task 2. Say which is true. Prove your choice by sentences
from the text. Translate them into Russian.
1. The Queen is not only a symbol of Britain, but she is also a
figurehead representing the country.
2. Today Parliament controls the monarch?s financiers as
effectively as it was in the seventeenth century.
3. The British people want to change from a monarchy to a
republic.
4. The Queen?s visits abroad are rather profitable for Britain.
5. In the late 1980s the Queen was not so popular as the prime
minister of the day.
Task 3. Put questions to the main ideas of the text.
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Text 11
The Election Timetable
Task 1. Read the text for obtaining information.
The British government is elected for up to five years, unless it is
defeated in Parliament on a major issue. The Prime Minister chooses
the date of the next General Election, but does not have to wait until
the end of the five years. A time is chosen which will give as much
advantage as possible to the political party in power. Other politicians
and the newspapers try very hard to guess which date the Prime
Minister will choose.
About a month before the election the Prime Minister meets a
small group of close advisers to discuss the date which would best suit
the party.
The date is announced to the Cabinet. The Prime Minister
formally asks the Sovereign to dissolve Parliament.
Once Parliament is dissolved, all MPs are unemployed, but
government officers continue to function.
Party manifestos are published and campaigning begins
throughout the country, lasting for about three weeks with large-scale
press, radio and television coverage. Voting takes place on Polling
Day (usually a Thursday). The results from each constituency are
announced as soon as the votes have been counted, usually the same
night. The national result is known by the next morning at the latest.
As soon as it is clear that one party has a majority of seats in the
House of Commons, its leader is formally invited by the Sovereign to
form a government.
Task 2. Say which is true. Prove your choice by sentences
from the text. Translate them into Russian.
1. The date of new elections of the British government is chosen
by the Prime Minister.
2. The Prime Minister discusses the suitable date with the
Sovereign.
3. As soon as the Queen dissolves Parliament, all MPs including
government are unemployed.
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4. It takes about three weeks to count the votes before the national
result is announced.
5. The leader of the majority party forms the government.
Task 3. Put questions to the main ideas of the text.
Text 12
The Organization of the Federal Courts Today
Task 1. Read the text for obtaining information.
The American court system is complex. It functions as part of the
federal system of government. Each state runs its own court system,
and no two are identical. In addition, we have a system of courts for
the national government. These federal courts coexist with the state
courts.
Individuals fall under the jurisdiction of two different court
systems, their state courts and federal courts. They can sue or be sued
in either system, depending mostly on what their case is about. The
vast majority of cases are resolved in the state courts.
The federal courts are organized in three tiers, like a pyramid. At
the bottom of the pyramid are the US district courts, where litigation
begins. In the middle are the US courts of appeals. At the top is the
US Supreme Court. To appeal means to take, a case to a higher
court. The courts of appeals and the Supreme Court are appellate
courts, with few exceptions, they review cases that have been decided
in lower courts. Most federal courts hear and decide a wide array of
cases; the judges in these courts are known as generalists.
Task 2. Say which is true. Prove your choice by sentences
from the text. Translate them into Russian.
1. All state court systems are organized in much the same way.
2. American people can sue or be sued either in state or in federal
courts.
3. As a rule litigation begins in the lowest courts of the court
system of the US.
4. Cases may be reviewed only in the US Supreme Court.
5. Most cases are tried in the state courts.
Task 3. Put questions to the main ideas of the text.
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Text 13
The System of Law in Russia
Task 1. Read the text for general understanding.
Law is a system of rules established by the state.
The main aim of law is to consolidate and safeguard the social
and state system and its economic foundation.
One important distinction made in all countries is between
private-?r civil ? law and public law. Civil law concerns disputes
among citizens within a country, and public law concerns disputes
between citizens and the state, or between one state and another.
The system of law in our country consists of different categories
of law.
Constitutional law is a leading category of the whole system of
law. Its principal source is the country's Constitution. It deals with
social structure, the state system, organization of state power and the
legal status of citizens.
Administrative law is closely connected with constitutional law
but it deals with the legal forms of concrete executive and
administrative activity of a government and ministries.
Criminal law defines the general principles of criminal
responsibility, individual types of crimes and punishment applied to
criminals. Crimes are wrongs which, even committed against an
individual are considered to harm the well-being of society in
general. Criminal law takes the form of a criminal code.
International law regulates relations between governments and
also between private citizens of one country and those of another.
Financial law regulates the budget, taxation, state credit-and other
spheres of financial activity.
Civil law is connected with relations in the economic sphere of
life, with relations involving property, its distribution and
exchange. The right in property is the central institution of civil law.
The rules of employment law include the legislation on the
employment of industrial and office workers and regulate matters
arising from employment relations.
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Task 2. Find the answers in the text. Translate them into
Russian.
1. What is the main aim of law?
2. What is the main difference between private law and public
law?
3. What is the principle source of constitutional law?
4. What law is connected with constitutional law?
5. What form does criminal law take?
6. Is taxation regulated by international law or financial law?
7. What is the central institution of civil law?
8. What law deals with employment relations?
9. What does criminal law define?
Text 14
US Constitution
Task 1. Read the text for general understanding.
The form of the U S government is based on the Constitution of
1787, adopted after the War of Independence. A лconstitution╗ in
American political language means the set of rules, laws, regulations
and customs which together provide the political norms or standards
regulating the work of the government. The document known as the
Constitution of the United States, though a basic document is only a
part of the body of rules and customs which form the whole of the
American Constitution. Supreme Court decisions, interpreting parts of
the US Constitution, laws, regulations, customs are part of the basic
law (the so-called live constitution). Most historians regard the US
Constitution as an essentially conservative document.
The US Constitution consists of the Preamble, seven articles and
twenty seven amendments; the first ten of them were called collectively
the Bill of Rights and were adopted under the popular pressure in
1791. When the Constitution was first proposed in 1787, there was
widespread dissatisfaction because it didn't contain guarantees of certain
basic freedoms and individual rights. The Constitution consolidated
those gains of the revolution that were advantageous for the capitalist
class. Significantly, nothing was said about the elementary bourgeoisdemocratic freedoms. In December, 1791, the Congress adopted ten
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amendments to the Constitution, known as the Bill of Rights. The Bill
enumerated what the government controlled by the oligarchy was not
going to be allowed to do. It was, of course, an important democratic
gain for the people at that time. But nowadays some of these ten
amendments are relatively unimportant.
The Bill of Rights is sometimes violated by the judicial and law
enforcement practice.
Americans feel that of all the freedoms proclaimed in the
Constitution only one freedom ? freedom of enterprise is in fact
guaranteed.
If there is no freedom to work, no guaranteed labour, you face
unemployment and poverty. The main freedoms after all a man needs
are a life of security, a guaranteed income and guaranteed health care.
Task 2. Find the answers in the text. Translate them into
Russian.
1. What does a ?constitution? in America political language
mean?
2. What does the US Constitution consist of?
3. Why was there wide-spread dissatisfaction among the people
when the Constitution was first proposed in 1787?
4. What did that dissatisfaction among people lead to (result in)?
5. What are the main freedoms a man needs?
Text 15
Checks and Balances
Task 1. Read the text for general understanding.
The Constitution provides for three main branches of government
which are separate and distinct from one another. The powers given to
each are carefully balanced by the powers of the other two. Each
branch serves as a check on the others. This is to keep any branch
from gaining too much power or from misusing its powers.
Congress has the power to make laws, but the President may veto
any act of Congress. Congress, in its turn, can override a veto by a
two-thirds vote in each house. Congress can also refuse to provide
funds requested by the President, The President can appoint important
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officials of his administration, but they must be approved by the
Senate. The President also has the power to name all federal judges;
they, too, must be approved by the Senate. The courts have the power
to determine the constitutionality of all acts of Congress and of
presidential actions, and to strike down those they find
unconstitutional.
The system of checks and balances makes compromise and
consensus necessary. Compromise is also a vital aspect of other levels
of government in the United States. This system protects against
extremes. It means, for example, that new presidents cannot radically
change governmental policies just as they wish. In the US, therefore,
when people think of "the government", they usually mean the entire
system, that is, the Executive Branch and the President, Congress, and
the courts. In fact and in practice, therefore, the President (i.e. "the
Administration") is not as powerful as many people outside the US
seem to think he is. In comparison with other leaders in systems where
the majority party forms "the government", he is much less so.
Task 2. Find the answers in the text. Translate them into
Russian.
1. How many branches does the Constitution provide for?
2. What may happen to acts of Congress?
3. What official appointments must be approved by the Senate?
4. Is it possible for new presidents to change radically government
policies?
5. What do people in the USA usually mean when they think of
лthe government╗?
Text 16
The President and Federal Departments
Task 1. Read the text for general understanding.
The President of the United States is elected every four years to a
four-year term of office, with no more than two full terms allowed. As
is true with Senators and Representatives, the President is elected
directly by the voters (through state electors). In other words, the
political party with the most Senators and Representatives does not
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choose the President. This means that the President can be from one
party and the majority of those in the House of Representatives or
Senate (or both) from another. This is not uncommon.
Thus, although one of the parties may win a majority in the midterm
elections (those held every two years), die President remains President,
even though his party may not have a majority in either house. Such a
result could easily hurt his ability to get legislation through Congress,
which must pass all laws, but this is not necessarily so. In any case, the
President's policies must be approved by the House of Representatives
and the Senate before they can become law. In domestic as well as in
foreign policy, the President can seldom count upon the automatic
support of Congress, even when his own party has a majority in both the
Senate and the House. Therefore, he must be able to convince
Congressmen, the Representatives and Senators, of his point of view. He
must bargain and compromise. This is a major difference between the
American system and those, in which the nation's leader represents the
majority party or parties that is parliamentary systems.
Within the Executive Branch, there are a number of executive
departments. Currently these are the departments of State, Treasury,
Defense, Justice, Interior, Agriculture, Commerce, Labour, Health and
Human Resources, Housing and Urban Development, Transportation,
Energy, and Education. Each department is established by law, and, as
their names indicate, each is responsible for a specific area. The head
of each department is appointed by the President. These appointments,
however, must be approved by the Senate. None of these Secretaries,
as the department heads are usually called, can also be serving in
Congress or in another part of the government. Each is directly
responsible to the President and only serves as long as the President
wants him or her to. They can best be seen, therefore, as Presidential
assistants and advisers. When they meet together, they are termed "the
President's Cabinet." Some Presidents have relied quite a bit on their
Cabinets for advice and some very little.
Task 2. Find the answers in the text. Translate them into
Russian.
1. How long may the term of office of the President of the USA
last?
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2. What is not uncommon in the presidential elections?
3. When is it necessary for the House of Representatives and the
Senate to approve the President?s policies before they become law?
4. What executive departments are there within the Executive
Branch?
5. Who appoints the head of each department?
6. Whom is the head of the department responsible to?
Text 17
Political Parties
Task 1. Read the text for general understanding.
The Constitution says nothing about political parties, but over
time the US has in
fact developed a two-party system. The two leading parties are the
Democrats and the Republicans. There are other parties besides these
two, and foreign observers are often surprised to learn that among
these are also a Communist party and several Socialist parties. Minor
parties have occasionally won offices at lower levels of government,
but they do not play a role in national politics. In fact, one does not
need to be a member of a political party to run in any election at any
level of government. Also, people can simply declare themselves to be
members of one of the two major parties when they register to vote in
a district.
Sometimes, the Democrats are thought of as associated with
labour, and the Republicans with business and industry. ?? distinguish
between the parties is often difficult, however. Furthermore, the
traditional European terms of "right" and "left", or "conservative" and
"liberal" do not quite fit the American system. Someone from the
"conservative right", for instance, would be against a strong central
government. Or a Democrat from one part of the country could be
very "liberal", and one from another part, quite "conservative". Even if
they have been elected as Democrats or Republicans, Representatives
or Senators are not bound to a party programme, nor are they subject
to any discipline when they disagree with their party.
While some voters will vote a "straight ticket", in other words, for
all of the Republican or Democratic candidates in an election, many
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do not. They vote for one party's candidate for one office, and
another's for another. As a result, the political parties have much less
actual power than they do in other nations.
In the US, parties cannot win seats which they are then free to fill
with party members they have chosen. Rather, both Representatives
and Senators are elected to serve the interests of the people and the
areas they represent, that is, their "constituencies".
Task 2. Find the answers in the text. Translate them into
Russian.
1. What are the leading parties in the USA?
2. What are foreign observers surprised to learn?
3. What terms do not fit the American system?
4. Does the activity of Representatives or Senators depend on the
policy of their party?
5. What are Representatives and Senators elected to do?
Text 18
The Bodies of Government in the United Kingdom
Task 1. Read the text for general understanding.
Great Britain is a monarchy, but the Queen of Great Britain is not
absolute, but constitutional. Her powers are limited by Parliament. But
the power is hereditary, and not elective.
The power of the monopolists over the Parliamentary government
in Britain is achieved in three main ways: 1) by direct representation
in Parliament by businessmen and by politicians supporting
businessmen; 2) by direct influence over the Cabinet, the supreme
organ of the British Government which controls Parliament; and 3) by
initiation, control and amendment of legislation in which they are
interested.
The bodies of government in the United Kingdom are: those of
the legislature, which consists of the Queen in Parliament and is the
supreme authority of the country; those of the executive and those of
the judiciary.
The executive bodies consist of 1) the Cabinet and other ministers
of the Crown who are responsible for directing national policy;
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2) government departments, who are responsible for administration at
the national level; 3) local authorities who administer and control
many services at the local level; and 4) statutory boards, who are
responsible for the operation of particular nationalized industries or
public services. The highest judicial body in the English judicial
system is the House of Lords.
The Prime Minister is usually the leader of the party that has a
majority in the House of Commons. The Prime Minister usually takes
policy decisions with the agreement of his Cabinet (a committee of
leading Ministers). Each new Prime Minister may make changes in
the size of his Cabinet and may create new ministries or make other
changes. The Prime Minister holds Cabinet meetings at his (her)
house at number 10 Downing Street, which is very near the Houses of
Parliament in Westminster.
Task 2. Find the answers in the text. Translate them into
Russian.
1. How is the power of monopolists over the government
achieved in Britain?
2. What is the supreme authority in the United Kingdom?
3. Who is responsible for directing national policy?
4. What do statutory boards do in the country?
5. What is the highest judicial body in Britain?
6. Who is responsible for all changes in the Cabinet?
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Contents
I. GRAMMAR PRACTICE IN EXERCISES ...................................... 3
II. GRAMMAR REVIEW IN EXERCISES ...................................... 16
III. GRAMMAR PRACTICE IN TESTS ........................................... 19
IV. GRAMMAR REVIEW IN TESTS .............................................. 28
V. GRAMMAR REVIEW IN TEXTS ............................................... 33
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150000, ?????????, ??. ?????????, 14.
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Ex. 47. Translate the sentences. Pay attention to indirect speech.
1. I didn?t know if I should be able to attend the lecture on
Monday. 2. We were told that we could go in for different sports at
our school. 3. My friend said that he liked to work as a lawyer. 4. He
was asked if he knew about the invitation to take part in the
concert. 5. The student said that he had served in the Far East two
years before. 6. My parents were told that the film was very
interesting. 7. The teacher told us to bring our dictionaries for the
lesson. 8. We were told to use those materials in our report. 9. They
said that they were going to take their exam on Criminology the next
day. 10. I don?t know what he was going to become.
Grammar practice 12: Subjunctive Mood
Ex. 48. Analyze and translate the sentences with the Subjunctive
Mood.
1. I would have never recognized him. He has changed a
lot. 2. You would hardly believe him even if he brought a dozen of
witnesses. 3. It is important that legal knowledge should become the
element of education for the younger generation. 4. This could have
been proved by the testimony of the eye-witness. 5. I wish it weren?t
true. 6. He wouldn?t have been imprisoned if he had not violated the
law. 7. Were the offender under 14 he would be tried by a juvenile
court. 8. Criminality would have been liquidated long ago if all people
observed the laws. 9. Had these facts been fully appreciated by the
judge the trial would have taken a different course. 10. Were he a
good lawyer, he wouldn?t make such mistakes. 11. They treat him as
if he were a criminal. 12. I suggest that he should testify at the
trial. 13. The judge proposed the eye-witness identify the robber.
Ex. 49. Change the sentences according to the model.
Model 1. I have no spare time today I won?t go there.
If I had time today. I would go there
1. I am busy. I won?t go to the cinema.
2. It is rainy. The children won?t go for a walk.
3. The students have no classes on Saturday. They won?t go to the
university.
4. Ann is ill. She won?t join us.
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Model 2. She gave me a call. I didn?t send her a letter.
If she had not given me a call I wouldn?t have sent her a letter.
1. These
boys
passed
their
entrance
examinations
successfully. They were admitted (???????) to the university.
2. Mary gave me a warning (????????????) I didn?t tell them this
news.
3. I was ready for the seminar. I answered all the teacher?s
questions correctly.
4. Nick had good knowledge of French. He was sent to Paris to
work at the exhibition.
II. GRAMMAR REVIEW IN EXERCISES
Ex.1. Open the brackets. Choose the correct form of the verb.
1. It often (to rain) in October. 2. They (to see) this film
already. 3. Two years ago he (to return) to Russia. 4. This article (to
publish) in the magazine last week. 5. When they (to be) in the fourth
year they will have their practice as lawyers. 6. Where is Ann? She (to
work) at the library. She always (to work) there at this time. 7. I (to
see) never the sea. 8. Six public holidays (to celebrate) in Great
Britain. 9. John (to finish) school in two years. 10. If you (to look
through) today?s paper, you (to see) many interesting articles
there. 11. When we came, the performance (to begin)
already. 12. Mary (to like) to go to this supermarket.
Ex. 2. Put question to the words in bold type.
1. He has brought you some books on Criminal Law. 2. We
always come home late. 3. They often spend their summer vacation at
the seaside. 4. These students have learnt many new words. 5. He
had to finish his work earlier yesterday. 6. The President is elected
every four years. 7. After the war her family moved to
Yaroslavl. 8. Our lab will be equipped well. 9. She leaves her house
early in the morning. 10. They are singing a very popular
song. 11. There were only English books on the shelves. 12. He
usually has supper at seven o?clock.
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Ex. 3. Translate into Russian.
1. The meeting was attended by thousands of people. 2. We were
sure that they lived in Minsk. 3. He was looked at with interest. 4. He is
going to work as a detective. 5. This letter is being translated into
Russian. 6. We were told to take the exam on Monday. 7. Our lecture
was to begin at 10 o?clock. 8. We were told that we could use
dictionaries. 9. This classroom has been cleaned and aired. 10. He
should be more attentive at the lessons. 11. They want to know if I am
interested to have this material. 12. This book was given to me
yesterday. 13. I?ll ask him to do this work if I see him. 14. You needn?t
translate this text today. You will have to do it in a week. 15. The
offender has just been arrested by the police inspector. 16. The convict
was taken to prison after his appeal had been rejected by the higher
court. 17. The judge will have been appointed by the beginning of the
trial. 18. The investigator has prepared the evidence on the case. 19. The
hearing of the case had been finished by the end of May. 20. The
defendant knew that his case would be tried in the Crown Court.
Ex. 4. Translate into English.
?)
1. ?????????? ??????????? ????? ???????, ?? ??????? ?????????? ???????.
2. ??? ????????? ?? ????? ?????, ??? ????.
3. ????????? ??????? ??? ????? ??????.
4. ??? ???????????? ???? ????? ??????.
5. ??? ???? ???? ????? ?????????? ??? ????? ?????????.
6. ??? ?????? ?? ???????? ??????, ??? ?????? ??????
?????.
7. ?? ?????? ????????? ????????
?)
1. ?? ??????????????! ? ?????? ??????.
2. ?????????, ??? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????? ? 7 ????? ???????
3. ??? ???? ????? ????????? ?????? ? 10 ????? ????.
4. ??? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ?
????? ??????.
5. ???? ????? ?? ???????? ? ???? ????.
6. ????? ???????? ????????? ???? ????????????.
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7. ??????????? ???????? ??? ?????? 24 ???? ? ?????.
?)
1. ? ????? ???????????? ??????? ???? ??????????? ??????
(to teach).
2. ???? ?????????? ?? ??????? ???????????? ??????? (to
ask).
3. ? ?????, ???????? ????? ????? ??????? (to pass).
4. ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ? 1755 ????
(to found).
5. ??? ?????? ????? ????????? (to translate).
Ex. 5. Answers the following questions.
1. What would you do if you had much spare time now?
2. Where would you go to spend your holiday if it were August
now?
3. Would Colombians have discovered new trade routes if the
Spanish government had not given him ships?
4. What places of interest would you recommend tourists to see in
your native town?
Ex. 6. Insert the correct article wherever necessary.
? young man attempted to rob ? store near my ? office. He
bought ? bag of ? potatoes chips, and while ? clerk was making ?
change, he attempted to grab ? money from ? cash register. When ?
clerk quickly closed ? drawer ? man tried to take ? cash register but
it was so heavy, he couldn?t lift it. He got angry. There was ? rack full
of ? cigarettes in ? corner of ? store. He decided to grab ? cigarettes
but ? clerk stopped him. ? man drove away empty-handed, but was
spotted by ? police for driving ? stolen car. ? police pursued him
with ? lights flashing and ? sirens blaring. He was soon arrested and
charged with ? possession of ? stolen vehicle, careless and reckless
driving and speeding. His ? fine was set at $2000. While being
escorted, ? man asked if he could stop near ? store and get his ?
potatoes chips, since he had paid for them. ? clerk at ? store identified
him as ? man had tried to steal ? cash register, and he was charged
with ? attempted robbery. His ? fine was increased to $ 15000; he is
in ? jail awaiting ? trial.
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III. GRAMMAR PRACTICE IN TESTS
Test 1. Present Simple
1. Who ? to go to the theatre with us?
A. want
B. does
C. wants
2. We ? a car, but we are going to buy it.
A. don?t have
B. aren?t have
C. hasn?t
3. ? Jane (know) what I want?
A. Jane knows
B. Does Jane knows
C. Does Jane know
4. Bob (not/smoke)
A. isn?t smoke
B. doesn?t smoke
C. don?t smoke
5. ? your sister (speak) English?
A. Is ? speak
B. Does ? speak
C. Do ? speaks
6. Can you help me? I (not/know) the way to the university.
A. am not know
B. not know
C. don?t know
7. What?s the matter? You (look) very happy.
A. look
B. are look
C. looks
8. ? Pete ? a car?
A. Do Pete have
B. Does Pete has
C. Has Pete got
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Test 2. Present Simple/ Present Continuous
1. They (usually/work) on Saturdays.
A. is usually working
B. usually works
C. usually work
2. Usually Jack (have coffee) in the morning, but now he
(drink tea).
A. is having coffee A. drink
B. has coffee B. is drinking
3. What he (do)? ? He is a policeman.
A. is he doing
B. he does
C. does he do
4. Mary (still/work) in the garden.
A. is still working
B. still works
C. still work
5. Don?t make so much noise. I (to work).
A. am work
B. am working
C. work
6. It (often/rain) in the autumn.
A. is often raining
B. often rains
C. often rain
7. Take your umbrella. It (rain).
A. is rain
B. rains
C. is raining
8. Tom (speak) five languages.
A. speaks
B. is speaks
C. is speaking
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Test 3. Present Perfect/ Past Simple
/ Past Continuous
1. When Bob (finish) school?
A. When had Bob finished
B. When has Bob finished
C. When did Bob finish
2. His parents (be) to the USA many times.
A. have been
B. had been
C. were
3. At six o?clock I (wait) for Kate at the station.
A. waiting
B. was waiting
C. waited
4. We (not/see) Kate this week, but we (see) her a couple of
weeks ago.
A. didn?t see A. saw
B. haven?t saw B. have saw
C. haven?t seen C. have seen
5. I (not/have) a holiday last year
A. didn?t have
B. haven?t had
C. hadn?t have
6. ? it stop raining yet?
A. Did it stop
B. Is it stop
C. Has it stopped
7. The police caught the man when he (rob) a shop.
A. had rob
B. was robbed
C. was robbing
8. They (already/inform) me about the accident.
A. has informed
B. have informed
C. informed
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Test 4. Future Simple / Future Perfect
/ Future Continuous
1. They (come) at 9 in the morning
A. will come
B. will be coming
C. will have come
2. He hopes he (save) money for a new car by the end of the year
A. will save
B. will have saved
C. will be saving
3. My friend (know) the result of her exam on Criminal Law in
two days
A. will have known
B. will know
C. will be knowing
4. This time tomorrow they (sit) in the train on their way to
Moscow
A. will be sitting
B. will sit
C. will have sat
5. I (finish) the work by 5 o?clock on Friday
A. will have finished
B. will be finishing
C. will finish
6. I hope it (stop) raining by tomorrow morning
A. will stop
B. will have stopped
C. will be stopping
7. ? you (come) to see me on Sunday?
A. Will you come
B. Will you be coming
C. Will you have come
8. The workers (build up) the hotel by the beginning of the
September.
A. will be building up
B. will build up
C. will have built up
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Test 5. Conditional Sentences
1. If they (need) your advice, they (phone) you.
A. will need, will phone
B. need, would phone
C. need, will phone
2. You look tired. If I (be) you, I (take) a holiday.
A. be, take
B. were, would take
C. have been, would take
3. How did it happen that you missed your stop? ? I
(not\missed) it, if the conductor (announce) the stops.
A. wouldn?t have missed, had announced
B. wouldn?t miss, announced
C. hadn?t missed, had announced
4. If I (know) that you were coming, I (meet) you at the
station. I had enough time to do that.
A. know, will meet
B. knew, would meet
C. had known, would have met
5. If we (buy) a new car, we (go) to the sea-side by car next
summer.
A. buy, will go
B. will buy, will go
C. buys, will go
6. What a pity John is away. If he (be) here he (help) you.
A. were, will help
B. were, would help
C. had been, would help
7. Hurry up! We (not/get) good seats if we (arrive) late.
A. don?t get, arrived
B. won?t get, arrive
C. won?t get, will arrive
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Test 6. Passive Voice
1. Yesterday we (invited) to the birthday party by our
friends.
A. are invited
B. were invited
C. invited
2. The problem (study) for some years, but they haven?t got
any result.
A. has been study
B. was studied
C. has been studied
3. His book (publish) by the end of the month.
A. would be published
B. will be published
C. will have been published
4. Look! The bridge (repair).
A. is been repaired
B. was being repaired
C. is being repaired
5. Tom (know) to be a very industrious student.
A. knows
B. is known
C. has been known
6. The letter (send) tomorrow.
A. will be send
B. will be sent
C. will have been sent
7. In Greece the Olympic Games (hold) once in four years.
A. are being held
B. were held
C. are held
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Test 7. Sequence of Tenses
1. He told me about his problems because I knew that he
(trust) me.
A. trusted
B. had trusted
C. would trust
2. I knew that Mercury (be) the closest planet to the Sun.
A. was
B. is
C. had been
3. We were told that Pete (go) to work as a judge.
A. is going
B. went
C. was going
4. Nick decided that he (celebrate) his birthday on Saturday.
A. celebrated
B. will celebrate
C. would celebrate
5. The police found out that Eliza (not live) in London at that
time.
A. has not lived
B. doesn?t live
C. didn?t live
6. I was informed that the professor (deliver) his lecture on
Monday.
A. will deliver
B. would deliver
C. will be delivering
7. Tom explained that they (be) friends since their childhood.
A. were
B. have been
C. had been
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Test 8. Modal Verbs
1. The policeman told the woman she ? worry.
A. can?t
B. mustn?t
C. needn?t
2. You ? eat so many sweets.
A. needn?t
B. ought not
C. shouldn?t
3. I have hurt my leg. I ? go very fast.
A. can?t
B. ought not
C. must
4. After graduating from the university they ? to investigate
criminal cases.
A. will can
B. are able
C. will be able
5. You ? smoke here.
A. needn?t
B. can?t
C. mustn?t
6. We have plenty of time. We ? hurry.
A. mustn?t
B. must
C. needn?t
7. Last term we ? get up early on Mondays.
A. could
B. must
C. had to
8. I feel better. Doctors say I ? go for a walk.
A. couldn?t
B. might
C. may
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Test 9. Degrees of Comparison
1. I am (young) in our family.
A. the younger
B. younger
C. the youngest
2. Henry is not (strong) his elder brother.
A. as strong as
B. so strong as
C. stronger
3. Where is (near) petrol station, please?
A. the next
B. nearer
C. the nearest
4. Let?s go by train. It?s much (cheap).
A. cheap
B. the cheapest
C. cheaper
5. It?s (good) film I?ve ever seen.
A. a good
B. the best
C. the goodest.
6. My (old) sister doesn?t live with us.
A. the oldest
B. older
C. elder
7. This is (old) theatre in London.
A. an elder
B. the oldest
C. the eldest
8. Public transport in London is (expensive) in Europe.
A. the expensivest
B. the most expensive
C. more expensive
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IV. GRAMMAR REVIEW IN TESTS
Test 1
1. This film ?
A. is speaking much about
B. is speaks much about
C. is much spoken about
2. We ? from him since last year.
A. didn?t hear
B. hadn?t heard
C. haven?t heard
3. His room is ?
A. the comfortablest
B. more comfortable
C. the most comfortable
4. The police ? the criminal yet.
A. have caught
B. didn?t catch
C. haven?t caught
5. If I were you. I ? a house in the country.
A. bought
B. would buy
C. would bought
6. Mike said that he ? the material the next day.
A. will bring
B. would have brought
C. would bring
7. He knows French ? than his brother.
A. as bad as
B. the worst
C. worse
8. I ? take a taxi because I was late.
A. was able to
B. was to
C. had to
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9. This book ? into 5 languages.
A. translated
B. has been translated
C. has translated
10. Tony ? from the university last year.
A. graduated
B. has graduated
C. had graduated
11. They ? this rule.
A. are not understand
B. are not understanding
C. don?t understand
12. When I phoned him at 10 o?clock in the morning, he ?
A. slept
B. was sleeping
C. had slept
13. When did you discover that your car ??
A. was disappeared
B. had disappeared
C. had been disappeared
14. ? this party?
A. Do you enjoy
B. Are you enjoying
C. Are you enjoy
15. The last student ? now.
A. is being examined
B. is examined
C. examines
Test 2
1. The police ? the criminal yet.
A. haven?t arrested
B. didn?t arrest
C. have arrested
2. Jim?s ? sister wants to become a lawyer.
A. elder
B. older
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C. the oldest
3. ? Volga is the longest river in Europe.
A. ?
B. A
C. The
4. I know that Bill is ? a lie.
A. saying
B. talking
C. telling
5. He said that he ? to Egypt.
A. never had been
B. had never been
C. has never been
6. It was ? place I had ever seen.
A. a most beautiful
B. the most beautiful
C. the beautifulest
7. How many meals a day ??
A. are you having
B. do you have
C. you have
8. Julia ? to the cinema last night.
A. had invited
B. is invited
C. was invited
9. Hurry up! They ? for you at home.
A. wait
B. were waiting
C. are waiting
10. Yesterday we ? the office at 7 p.m.
A. had to leave
B. have to leave
C. could leave
11. ? I would use that material.
A. On your place
B. If I was instead of you
C. If I were you
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12. Where are you going to stay when ? in London?
A. you will be
B. you are
C. you will
13. When ? in London?
A. have you arrived
B. you arrived
C. did you arrive
14. I ? this car for a year.
A. have
B. have had
C. am having
15. Though Christmas is celebrated on December 25, the
actual date of Christ?s birth ? .
A. has not known
B. doesn?t know
C. is not known
Test 3
1. New York is ? city in the USA.
A. the larger
B. most largest
C. the largest
2. The text was rather difficult. I ? look up many words in
the dictionary.
A. must
B. have to
C. had to
3. Is there ? snow in England in winter?
A. many
B. large
C. much
4. Many of Agatha Christie?s novels ? .
A. have been made into films
B. have made into films
C. were made into films
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5. There aren?t ? easy ways of learning a foreign language.
A. some
B. any
C. no
6. He has never been to Great Britain, ??
A. hasn?t he?
B. isn?t he?
C. didn?t he?
7. Which of you ? to go to the museum on Sunday?
A. does want
B. do want
C. wants
8. Where will you stay when ? in Moscow?
A. you will be
B. you will
C. you are
9. John Major ? Prime Minister in 1990.
A. became
B. has become
C. had become
10. Tell me where ? .
A. does your brother study
B. your brother studies
C. your brother does study
11. Tretyakov Gallery ? a priceless collection of pictures.
A. contains
B. is contained
C. is containing
12. The weather was fine and we ? .
A. decided to go for a walk
B. had decided to go for a walk
C. have decided to go for a walk
13. ? television when I phoned you?
A. Did you watch
B. You watching
C. Were you watching
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14. Neither Nick nor his friend ? to go to the club tonight.
A. wants
B. want
C. don?t want
15. You won?t be late if you ? a taxi.
A. take
B. will take
C. are taking
V. GRAMMAR REVIEW IN TEXTS
Text 1
Introduction to Law
Task 1. Read the text for obtaining information.
The English word "law" refers to limits upon various forms of
behavior. Some laws are descriptive ? they simply describe how
people usually behave. Other laws are prescriptive ? they prescribe
how people ought to behave.
In all societies, relations between people are regulated by
prescriptive laws. Some of them are customs, that is, informal rules of
social and moral behaviour. Some are rules we accept if we belong to
particular social institutions, such as religious, educational and
cultural group. And some are precise laws made by nations and
enforced against all citizens within their power.
Customs need not be made by governments, and they need not be
written down. We learn how we should behave in society through the
instruction of family and teachers, the advice of friends, and our own
experiences. The rules of social institutions tend to be more formal
than customs. Governments often consider anti-social behaviour not
simply as a matter between two individuals but as a danger to the
well-being and order of society as a whole. The laws made by the
government of one country are often very different from the laws of
another country. Law today is, to a large extent, a complex of different
and relatively independent national systems.
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Task 2. Say which is true. Prove your choice by sentences
from the text. Translate them into Russian.
1. Descriptive laws regulate powers of governments.
2. Customs are a form of descriptive laws.
3. Governments of all countries make actually the same laws.
4. Anti-social behaviour is dangerous for the society as a whole.
5. The rules of social institutions are as formal as customs.
Task 3. Put questions to the main ideas of the text.
Text 2
What is Law?
Task 1. Read the text for obtaining information.
Law is the whole set of rules that are supported by the power of
government and that control the behaviour of members of a
society. The law itself provides the basic structure within which
commerce and industry operate. It safeguards the rights of individuals,
regulates their dealings with others and enforces the duties of
government.
There are two main kinds of the law ? public and private
(civil). Private law concerns disputes among citizens within a country,
and public law concerns disputes between citizens and the state, or
between one state and another.
The system of law consists of different categories of law. There
are laws which enable citizens to take legal action against the
state. These actions are part of constitutional law. A constitution is the
political and ideological structure within which a system of laws
operates. Most countries have a formal written Constitution describing
how laws are to be made and enforced.
Many countries face similar social, economic and political
problems. Nations have always made political and economic treaties
with each other. International law is created to regulate relations
between governments and also between private citizens of one country
and those of another.
Criminal law deals with wrongful acts harmful to the community
and punishable by the state.
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Civil law deals with individual rights, duties and obligations
towards one another.
As well as defining the powers of government, most constitutions
describe the fundamental rights of citizens. These usually include
general declarations about freedom and equality, but, also some
specific provisions. The European Convention on Human Rights
(ECHR) was first adopted in 1950 and has now been signed by every
country of Western Europe. Individual citizens of these countries have
the right to bring a complaint before the European Commission if they
think their government has broken the Convention. But despite the
development of legally binding national and international conventions,
millions of people in the world still do not enjoy human rights.
Task 2. Say which is true. Prove your choice by sentences
from the text. Translate them into Russian.
1. Commerce and industry of each society operate within the
basic structure of law.
2. The law enforces the duties of government.
3. Constitutions of most countries are unwritten.
4. Constitutional law deals with acts harmful to the society.
5. Most constitutions describe human rights and the powers of
government.
Task 3. Put questions to the main ideas of the text.
Text 3
Entering the Profession
Task 1. Read the text for obtaining information.
How does someone become a lawyer?
In some countries in order to practice as a lawyer it is necessary to
get a university degree in law. However, in others, a degree maybe
insufficient; professional examinations must be passed. In Britain, it is
not in fact necessary to have a degree, although nowadays most people
entering the profession do. The main requirement is to pass the Bar
Final examination* (for barristers) or the Law Society Final
examination* (for solicitor). Someone with university degree in a
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subject other than law needs first to take a preparatory
course. Someone without a degree at all may also prepare for the final
examination, but this will take several years. In most countries, lawyers will tell you that the time they spent studying for their law finals
was one of the worst periods of their life! This is because an enormous
number of procedural rules covering a wide area of law must be
memorized. In Japan, where there are relatively few lawyers, the
examinations are supposed to be particularly hard; less than 5 percent
of candidates pass. Even after passing the examination, though, a
lawyer is not necessarily qualified. A solicitor in England, for
example, must then spend two years as an articled clerk, during this
time his work is closely supervised by an experienced lawyer, and he
must take further courses. A barrister must spend a similar year as a
pupil.
The rate at which the legal profession grows is terrific. In the 21
century the number of lawyers will probably outpace the rate of
population growth.
Why is the career in law so popular? In the USA the average
salary of experienced lawyers in private practice is more than
$100,000
Lawyers' salaries are substantially greater than those of many
other professionals. The glamour of legal practice strengthens the
attraction of its financial rewards.
*the Bar Final examination ? ???????, ??????? ??????? ???
??????????? ? ???????? ?????????
*the Law Society Final examination ? ???????, ?????? ?????
???? ?????? ???????? ??????? (????????????????? ?????
???????????)
Task 2. Say which is true. Prove your choice by sentences
from the text. Translate them into Russian.
1. Most people is Britain get a University degree if they want to
become lawyers.
2. All future lawyers in Britain have to pass the Bar Final
examination.
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3. People without a university degree can?t become lawyers in
Britain.
4. The profession of a lawyer is particularly popular in Japan
because it is quite easy to become a lawyer there.
5. Lawyers? salaries are rather attractive.
Task 3. Put questions to the main ideas of the text.
Text 4
Constitutional Law
Task 1. Read the text for obtaining information.
There are laws which enable citizens to take legal action against
the state ? against, for example, a public authority or even against the
government itself. These fictions are part of constitutional law.
As knowledge of the law has increased among the general public,
so have the number and range of constitutional law cases.
A constitution is the political and ideological structure within
which a system of laws operates. Most countries have a formal written
Constitution describing how laws are to be made and enforced. The
French Constitution, for example, sets a seven year term of office for
the president; the U. S. constitution sets a four year term. In
Switzerland, a referendum (national vote) must be held on any issue
for which a petition signed by 10, 000 people has been gathered; in
Ireland, referenda are to be used only лn the case of changes in the
constitution itself. In Germany, a change in the constitution requires a
special majority vote in parliament, not the simple majority necessary
for other laws. Many other countries put the constitution above other
laws by making it difficult to change.
Task 2. Say which is true. Prove your choice by sentences
from the text. Translate them into Russian.
1. According to constitutional law citizens have the right to take
legal action against the state.
2. The number of constitutional law cases has increased.
3. The French Constitution is an example of an unwritten
Constitution.
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4. A system of laws operates within a constitution.
5. Laws of many countries are above the constitution.
Task 3. Put questions to the main ideas of the text.
Text 5
The Form of the British Constitution
Task 1. Read the text for obtaining information.
When people take part in any activity they have to act according
to certain rules. A nation needs a set of agreed rules by which it may
govern itself. We call these rules a Constitution. From this you will
soon realize that when we describe a country as a "Constitutional
Monarchy" we mean a country with a King who regards himself as
limited in his actions by the nation's rules.
Now we often say that some countries have a "written
constitution". For example, the United States of America and France
have written constitutions. In both these countries the whole of the
constitution is set out in an official volume which anyone can buy and
study. On the other hand, it is often said that the British Constitution is
unwritten, meaning that it is not written in a single official
handbook. In this sense it is quite true that Britain has an unwritten
constitution. Some of the rules, those which have been made by
Parliament, are written down in statutes but many more depend on
customs. Here is a good example of the unwritten nature of the British
Constitution. At any time during the last two hundred years, an
educated Englishman would understand what was meant by the term
"Prime Minister". Yet it was only in the year 1917 that the Prime
Minister was recognized officially by being mentioned in an Act of
Parliament.
Britain is a constitutional monarchy. That is to say, a monarch
reigns but is limited by the rules of the State, rules which depend
partly on written laws but even more on established customs which
have been handed down from generation to generation,
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Task 2. Say which is true. Prove your choice by sentences
from the text. Translate them into Russian.
1. Each state is governed by a set of agreed rules.
2. Constitutions of most countries are unwritten.
3. Only some of the British rules have been made by Parliament.
4. Written laws and established customs limit the power of the
British monarch.
5. Customs undergo changes from generation to generation.
Task 3. Put questions to the main ideas of the text.
Text 6
Interpol
Task 1. Read the text for obtaining information.
Interpol is an international corporation. It was founded in 1923.
It is devoted to coordinating actions against international
criminals. Its clients are 174 agencies throughout the world. This
organization is not under the control or supervision of any
government.
Interpol is a recognized intergovernmental police force whose
task is to hunt down the international criminal, to fight international
terrorism and sky-jackings. Interpol leads the war on narcotics, assists
a number of nations in the continuing search for wanted Nazi war
criminals.
Interpol, like any other police force is to safeguard the basic rights
of every citizen. It operates according to a strict code of behavior and
adheres to the highest ethical standards.
Interpol has never been recognized or established by any international charier or treaty and has no police powers. Because of Interpol's
cooperation with the UN particularly in the area of drugs, Interpol was
recognized as an intergovernmental organization.
Interpol members are, for the most part, police and not governmental representatives, although certain governments have sent observers from their military, intelligence, customs, post office, and immigration departments.
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Interpol does not have powers of arrest or any investigative
rights. Its function is to disseminate information.
Task 2. Say which is true. Prove your choice by sentences
from the text. Translate them into Russian.
1. Interpol is an intergovernmental organization.
2. This international corporation works under international
charters and treaties.
3. To arrest international criminals is one of the tasks of Interpol.
4. Interpol cooperates with the United Nations.
5. No government controls or supervises the work of Interpol.
Task 3. Put questions to the main ideas of the text.
Text 7
Police Force in the United States
Task 1. Read the text for obtaining information.
Historians suggest that the first modern police in the United States
did not come into existence until 1833 in the city of New York.
The first municipal police agencies consisted of night watchmen
whose responsibility was to protect property during the evening and
early morning hours. Crime continued to increase, however, and
gradually there were demands to hire men to provide similar
protection during the daylight hours as well. Thus, by the 1830s and
1840s these two types of police were combined to form a unified,
more effective municipal police agency. The modern police
departments came into existence, especially in the years following
World War I. Since 1920 municipal police agencies have increasingly
grown in personnel and responsibilities. Special training and more
selective recruitment practices have been developed to go hand in
hand with the use of such technological developments as the
automobile, the individual police radio, and the computer. The great
part of police work does not involve crime-fighting situations but
rather consists of both service and peacekeeping.
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Task 2. Say which is true. Prove your choice by sentences
from the text. Translate them into Russian.
1. The first modern police force appeared in the 18th century.
2. To protect property was the task of night watchmen.
3. Two types of police formed a unified police agency.
4. Most of police work in the United States deals with service and
peacekeeping.
5. The automobile, the individual radio and the computer are
technical means of the modern police.
Task 3. Put questions to the main ideas of the text.
Text 8
The Work of Militia
Task 1. Read the text for obtaining information.
Our militia was created by the working people to protect their
rights. The officers of our militia have always displayed courage and
heroism in the fight against enemies of our state during the Great Patriotic War as well as in the years of peaceful construction.
The main aim of militia has always been to maintain public order,
to protect state and personal property and safeguard the rights of our
citizens. Nowadays great attention in the work of militia is paid to prevention of crime, to its suppression. But if a crime has been
committed, the militia officers are to solve the crime as quickly as
possible. To fulfil these tasks the organs of internal affairs are
composed of different departments.
The Criminal Detection Department is one of the most complicated militia services. The main responsibility of the officer of the
Criminal Detection Department is to detect the criminal, that is to locate and apprehend him. In many cases the detective must trace a fugitive who is hiding.
The officers of the Criminal Investigation Department collect
facts to prove the guilt or innocence of the suspect. The final test of a
criminal investigation is in presentation of evidence in court. Corpus
delicti must be established, the defendant must be identified and
associated with the crime scene. The investigator must also provide
competent witnesses.
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Economic Crimes Department fights against those who don't want
to live an honest life. The responsibility of the officers of this Department is to reveal the criminal activity of those who commit embezzlement and other economic crimes, bring them to justice.
Task 2. Say which is true. Prove your choice by sentences
from the text. Translate them into Russian.
1. Crime prevention is not so important for the militia officers as
crime investigation.
2. State and personal property is under the protection of militia.
3. To detect the criminal means to locate and to arrest him.
4. Criminal investigation is concluded by presentation of evidence
in court.
5. The criminal activity of those who commit economic crimes is
under the control of the Criminal Detection Department.
Task 3. Put questions to the main ideas of the text.
Text 9
The Presidents of the United States
Task 1. Read the text for obtaining information.
The United States has had over 40 Presidents. The first President,
George Washington, was inaugurated in 1789 He served two terms
that ended in 1797. When he died he was mourned in the United
Stales and abroad as one of the great men of the time. He was buried
at his home at Mount Vernon, Virginia.
Nine Presidents were elected for two terms. Franklin D. Roosevelt
served three terms. He was elected to a fourth term in 1944. He died in
1945, and his term was completed by Harry Truman.
The shortest term was served by William Henry Harrison who
died one month after his inauguration in 1841. Four Presidents were
killed while in office. The first of these was the 16th President,
Abraham Lincoln. He was shot while attending the theatre in
Washington. James Garfield was shot a few months after his
inauguration and died at the age of forty-nine. William McKinley was
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killed in Buffalo, New York in 1901. John Kennedy was killed in
Texas in 1963.
One of the Presidents (Andrew Johnson) was a tailor before he
became President. Three of the Presidents ? Washington, Grant and
Eisenhower were Generals of the Army before they were elected
The 26lh President, Theodore Roosevelt was a Colonel in the
Army before he was elected to serve as Vice-president during William
McKinley's term of office. When President McKinley was killed,
Theodore Roosevelt became President. He became the youngest man
to be called upon to fill presidency. He was forty-two years old. John
Kennedy was the youngest person to be elected to the office. Me was
forty-three at the time he was chosen.
Task 2. Say which is true. Prove your choice by sentences
from the text. Translate them into Russian.
1. No US President has served more than eight years altogether.
2. William Henry Harrison was the fourth President to be killed
whi
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