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133.Профессиональный английский язык для бухгалтеров и менеджеров Методические указания

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации
Федеральное агентство по образованию
Ярославский государственный университет им. П.Г. Демидова
Кафедра иностранных языков
Профессиональный английский язык
для бухгалтеров и менеджеров
Методические указания
Рекомендовано
Научно-методическим советом университета
для студентов специальностей Бухгалтерский учет,
анализ и аудит и Менеджмент организации
Ярославль 2005
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УДК 81:372.881
ББК Ш 143.21я73
П 84
Составитель Т.С. Казакова
Рекомендовано
Редакционно-издательским советом университета
в качестве учебного издания. План 2005 года
Рецензент
кафедра иностранных языков Ярославского
государственного университета им. П.Г. Демидова
П 84
Профессиональный английский язык для бухгалтеров и менеджеров: Метод. указания / Сост. Т.С. Казакова; Яросл. гос. ун-т. Ярославль: ЯрГУ, 2005. - 52 с.
Данная работа представляет собой продолжение методических
указаний того же автора под названием «Учет и работники учетной
сферы», предназначенное для развития навыков устной речи по
профессиональной тематике по специальности «менеджмент». Первая
часть настоящего пособия имеет структуру, аналогичную структуре ранее изданного. Наличие в пособии грамматического тренировочного
материала (ч. II) связано с необходимостью научить студентов вышеуказанных специальностей преодолевать трудности перевода пассивных грамматических явлений, широко представленных в спецтекстах
экономического характера, с которыми они непосредственно сталкиваются, работая индивидуально с оригинальной литературой и над
материалами профессионального характера. И те, и другие навыки
должны приобретаться на последних этапах обучения, что соответствует требованиям, предъявляемым на итоговом экзамене в конце 3-го
семестра. Отсюда и включение в пособие в помощь студентам трех
лабораторных работ для индивидуальной подготовки по овладению
неличными формами глагола.
Предназначено для студентов 1-го и 2-го курса экономического
факультета, обучающихся по специальностям 060500 Бухгалтерский
учет, анализ и аудит и 061100 Менеджмент организации (дисциплина
«Английский язык», блок ГСЭ), очной и очно-заочной форм обучения.
УДК 81:372.881
ББК Ш 143.21я73
© Ярославский государственный университет, 2005
© Т.С. Казакова, 2005
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PART I
1. MANAGEMENT
The sources of management are rooted in antiquity. There are
examples of large-scale well-organized ancient constructions which we
admire even today. For instance, the Egyptian pyramids could not have
been built without directing the joint labour of the tens of thousands of
their builders. Similarly, without management, the construction and
operation of ancient irrigation system would have been unthinkable.
Generally speaking, any joint work on any more or less large scale
and every economic process need management. A building or a production
team must have its team leader; an orchestra – the conductor; a military
unit – the commander. This is all the more true of the collective work in a
modern enterprise, in a firm.
Different systems of organization and management originated under
different socio-economic conditions. For example, capitalist economy is
characterized by business management and economic forecasting and
regulation in individual branches of production and commerce. And after
socialism had asserted itself as a state system, economic management of
the national economy of the hole country on the basis of a single state plan
came into being. Today it is a fact of history and whether one likes it or
not, one cannot deny that for nearly seven decades the Soviet national
economy has been managed on the principle of unified state plan.
Management now is the subject of profound studies by many people
from various points of view. It is the subject matter and one of the most
complex issues of economic sciences.
It is important to notice that the concept of management embraces two
different aspects: technical and social.
In the technical sense, management has to do with machines,
instruments, etc. Men control machines and mechanical systems and this
calls for professional knowledge and special skills. In principle, however,
management of this kind pertains to the technical aspect of production and
strictly speaking, remains outside the sphere of economics. It is devoid of
any social elements. The rules of driving a car or operating a milling
machine are mainly the same in the USA, in France, in Portugal and in this
country.
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What we are going to examine is the social aspect of management of
the economy, i.e., a sphere where the objects of management are not things
but men and their social relations. Using an analogy, we may say that what
interests us is not how the musician controls his instrument but how the
conductor controls the whole orchestra.
Active vocabulary
noun
goal
source
forecasting
subject-matter
issue
concept
skill
totality
distribution
exchange
consumption
appreciation
outlook
scale
labour
enterprise
decade
verb
originate
embrace
pertain to
be devoid of
direct
deny
unify
foresee
orientate
regulate
determine
expressions
strictly speaking
to form on one’s own
in regard to
adjective
ancient
joint
profound
single
definite
contemporary
adverb
similarly
Exercises
I. Translate the following word combinations into Russian; say it in
English again minding the use of prepositions:
the examples of large-scale ancient constructions;
the joint labour of the tens of thousands of builders;
the construction of ancient irrigation systems;
capitalist economy is characterized by business management and
economic forecasting;
individual branches of production;
the economic management of the national economy of the whole
country;
on the basis of a single (unified) state plan;
for nearly 7 decades;
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the object of profound study;
one of the most complex issues of economic sciences;
the processes of appropriation, exchange;
the aim of activity;
to work for a set goal;
to be devoid of social elements;
to originate under different socio-economic systems
II. Translate the words and their derivatives; form word combinations
with them:
Social, socially, socio-economic, society; социальный и технический аспекты управления, общественные отношения, совокупность
общественных отношений.
To direct, director, direction; руководить совместным трудом,
ориентировать в одном направлении.
To foresee, foreseeable, (un)foreseen; предвидеть будущее
общества.
Definite, definitely, indefinite, definition; ориентировать в
определенном направлении.
To originate, origin, original(ly); брать начало в древности.
Profound, profoundly; предмет глубокого изучения.
Total, totally, totality; совокупность общественных отношений.
III. Give synonyms to the following words (use active vocabulary):
in the same way
a matter, a question
consumption
wide
to cover
ability
deep
aims
IV. Determine what words from your active vocabulary correspond to
the following interpretations of their sense:
1) an object which is in the sphere of professional interests of a
specialist;
2) to suffer a full absence of something;
3) things brought together and considered as an unbreakable unity;
4) independently of different factors and circumstances;
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5) a system of views concerning the processes and phenomena going
on in a society.
V. Try and give your own interpretation of the meaning of the
following phrases:
1) economic forecasting;
2) special skills;
3) to direct the joint labour.
VI. Translate into English (Passive Voice):
1. Предмет изучения науки управления рассматривается с
различных точек зрения.
2. Технический аспект процесса контроля лишен специальных
элементов: глубокие знания и профессиональные навыки требуются,
чтобы управлять машиной.
3. Два аспекта управления иллюстрируются на примерах, когда, с
одной
стороны,
музыкальный
инструмент
контролируется
музыкантом, а с другой стороны, когда весь оркестр управляется
дирижером.
4. Будущее людей предвидится, их ориентируют в определенном
направлении к поставленной цели.
5. Процессы производства и присвоения товаров формируют
основу, на которой базируются отношения между людьми в
обществе.
6. Процесс
построения
древних
оросительных
систем
организовывался в гигантских масштабах, совместный труд тысяч
людей
направлялся,
координировался,
регулировался
и
контролировался.
VII. Answer the following questions. Continue asking and answering
as many why-questions as you can.
1. Why should joint labour on a large scale be managed?
2. Why is the concept of management – one of the most complex
issues of economic sciences?
3. Why was the economy managed on the principle of unified state
plans under socialism?
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4. Why does the technical aspect of management remain outside the
sphere of economics?
5. Why does the social aspect of management remain the object of
more profound studies by specialists than its technical aspect?
VIII. Discussion.
1. Comment on the reasons of the importance of managing large scale
processes.
2. Motivate your preference of studying management to other spheres
of economic sciences.
2. MANAGEMENT and MANAGERS
Management by definition, is a function of planning, organizing,
coordinating and controlling. Any managerial system, at any managerial
level, is characterized in terms of these general functions. Management is
revealed in a variety of specific activities. Marketing management refers to
organization of production and sales of products, which is based on
consumer requirements research. All companies must look beyond their
present situation and developed a long-term strategy to meet changing
conditions in their country. Marketing management therefore, consists of
evaluating market opportunities, selecting markets, developing market
strategies, planning market tactics and controlling market results.
A number of different terms are used for “manager”, including
director administrator and president. The term manager is used more
frequently in profit-making organizations while the others are used more
widely in government and non-profit organizations such as universities,
hospitals and social work agencies.
What then is a manager?
When used collectively, the term ‘management’ refers to those people
who are responsible for making and carrying out decisions within the
system. An individual manager is a person who directly supervises people
in an organization.
Some basic characteristics seem to apply to managers in all types of
organizations; they include hard work on a variety of activities, preference
for active tasks, direct personal relationships. Almost everything a
manager does involves decisions. The reason for making a decision is that
a problem exists. In decision-making there is always some uncertainty and
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risk. Managing is a hard job. There is a lot to be done and relatively little
time to do it.
Strategic planning includes defining the company’s long-term as well
as specific objectives, such as sales volume market share, profitability and
innovation and deciding on financial, material and other resources
necessary to achieve those objectives.
In problems of market selection and product planning one of the key
concepts is that of the Product Life Cycle. That product pass through
various stages between life and death (introduction – growth – maturity –
decline) is hard to deny. Equally accepted is the understanding that a
company should have a mix of products with representation in each of
these stages. Companies can make more effective marketing decisions if
they take time to find out where each of their products stands in its life
cycle.
Ignoring the concept of the product life cycle leads to wrong decisionmaking. This may well be seen in the following story.
A supplier of some light industrial equipment felt that the decline in
the sales of his major product was due to the fact it was not receiving the
sales support. A special advertising campaign was run. But the end-of-year
sales results showed no improvement. At the same time, several promising
products that were still in their “young” growth phase, went into gradual
sales decline because of cutting into their marketing budgets.
Active vocabulary
noun
variety
consumer
requirement
research
opportunity
tactics
strategy
profit-making organizations
non-profit organizations
decision(-making)
preference for
relationship
(un)certainty
verb
adjective
specific
direct
personal
hard
wrong
major
gradual
reveal
look beyond
meet conditions
consist of
evaluate
select
refer to
be responsible for
make (carry out) expressions
decisions
supervise
due to
exist
define
decide on
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adverb
frequently
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objective
achieve
sales volume
pass through
share
deny
profitability
ignore
innovation
receive
selection
deserve
concept
advertise
key
promise
stage
introduction
growth
maturity
death
a mix of products = a marketing mix
representation
decline
support
campaign
improvement
budget
Exercises
I. Translate into Russian and give a back translation minding the
correct pronunciation of the following:
to be revealed in a variety of specific activities; to meet changing
conditions; to look beyond the present situation; consumer requirements
research; to supervise people directly; preference for active tasks;
uncertainty and risk; direct personal relationships; to make (carry out)
decisions; decision-making process; profit-making (non-profit)
organizations; to evaluate market opportunities; to receive sales support; to
run an advertising campaign; to cut into the budget of a promising product;
to give extra sales support; to go into gradual decline; a mix of products; a
marketing mix.
II. Translate the words and their derivatives.
To define, definition, definite, indefinitely; to define a long-term
strategy.
To reveal, revelation, unrevealed; is revealed in a variety of specific
activities.
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Profit, profitable, profitability, unprofitability, profit-making
organizations.
To decide, decision, a decision-maker, to carry out decisions, wrong
decision-making.
III. Find out an odd word in the following chains:
1) doubt, uncertainty, evaluation, disbelief;
2) to supervise, to meet the requirements, to conduct audits, to control;
3) to be connected, to be related to, to be responsible, to refer to;
4) to perform, to carry out, to fulfill, to reveal;
5) to find out, to include, to reveal, to discover.
IV. Guess what is meant by the following (your active vocabulary).
1) the process of studying what consumers want;
2) organizations working for exclusively one aim – maximizing
profits;
3) the main thing for which a manager is responsible;
4) a wish to buy only one particular product;
5) a certain number of product items representing different stages of
the product life cycle;
6) measures taken to make consumers buy goods;
7) doing one’s best to show the benefits of goods.
V. Draw your conclusions based on the given statements according to
the model:
T.: We can’t deny that …
S.: That’s why …
1. We can’t deny that products pass through various stages between
life and death, that’s why …
2. We can’t deny that demand for some products and services
fluctuates and management should respond to such changes, …
3. We can’t deny that important marketing decisions are made only on
the basis of the knowledge of the concept of the Product Life Cycle, …
4. We can’t deny that wrong decision-making is the result of ignoring
the concept of the Product Life Cycle, …
VI. Ask and answer indirect questions beginning with:
I wonder …
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Do you think…
I’d like to learn…
I’m interested in …
based on the following situations:
1) разница
между
коммерческими и
некоммерческими
организациями;
2) проблемы, являющиеся основанием для принятия решений;
3) специфические
виды
деятельности,
характеризующие
управление процессом сбыта;
4) функции, определяющие ответственность конкретного
руководителя;
5) общие черты, отличающие руководителя любого типа;
6) тип организаций, руководителей которых обычно называют
«менеджер».
VII. Discussion.
a) Be ready to ask and answer questions based on the following
situations:
1. Поинтересуйтесь,
в
чем
выражается
трудность
и
ответственность задачи управления.
2. Узнайте детали о разнице в значениях слова «management».
3. Узнайте мнение собеседника по поводу того, связан ли процесс
управления с риском и почему.
4. Узнайте, какие решения приходится принимать менеджерам и
каких целей можно таким образом достичь.
5. Поинтересуйтесь тем, что должен знать менеджер о ключевой
концепции жизненного цикла продукта и для решения каких задач
она используется.
6. Выясните, каковы отрицательные последствия неучета
вышеупомянутой концепции в практической деятельности.
b) Express your viewpoint on the following:
1. A manager has to overcome a lot of difficulties in his way.
2. The role of economic forecasting in business management.
3. A lot of specific skills help the manager to achieve a set goal.
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3. MARKETING TODAY
Marketing is a new science. What has been around previously is the
art of salesmanship. Salesmanship is the art of manufacturing something
and making another person want it. Marketing is the art of finding out
what the other person wants, then manufacturing it for him.
In a market of multiple choice, it is no longer sufficient to produce a
product and show your customers that it satisfies one of their basic needs.
You must show them it provides benefits other products fail to provide,
that it can be supplied at a competitive price and above all, supplied
reliably. But in this fast-changing world, competitors catch up more
quickly than ever.
Preferences that consumers have for this or that product work for
shorter and shorter periods. Choice makes marketing work.
Companies need to be constantly engaged in product development, if
they wish to grow and make profits. Coca Cola was successful for many
years with one product in one size until Pepsi Cola challenged them with a
double bottle the size at the same cost to the consumer. Since then Coca
Cola has made many changes: today Coca Cola has many different soft
drinks, cheeses, wines, movie companies, television production
companies, to name only a few of its holdings.
Multiple choices for a consumer is the motor that drives the marketing
vehicle.
Active vocabulary
noun
art
salesmanship
choice
benefit
competition
competitor
preference
product development
marketing vehicle
verb
fail
supply
catch up
be engaged in
challenge
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adjective
multiple
sufficient
competitive
successful
double
adverb
reliably
constantly
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Exercises
I. Translate the word combinations into Russian; repeat them in
English giving a correct pronunciation:
a market of multiple choice; to supply reliably and at a competitive
price; to provide benefits which other products fail to provide; It’s no
longer sufficient to produce…; the art of finding out what consumers want;
the motor which drives the marketing vehicle; to sell at the same price; to
challenge (to catch up with) a competitor.
II. Choose from the list of your active vocabulary the words which are
the synonyms/antonyms to the following:
synonyms
to satisfy the requirements
often
to control
advantage
a rival from
cost
enough
antonyms
the only one
to fail
indirect
certainty
time to time
III. Find out what word from your active vocabulary corresponds to
the following interpretations of their meaning:
1) clarifying what consumers want with the purpose of arranging
effective production and sales of products;
2) to be in conformity with a definite situation, conditions, needs;
3) the price which satisfies both producers and consumers is a bit
lower than competitors quote;
4) to be able to reach the same level in business which competitors
have already reached;
5) to foresee future tendencies of economic development;
6) to form a firm opinion concerning the measures which should be
taken;
7) the ability to do smth. perfectly so as to achieve the best possible
results.
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IV. Try and give your own interpretations of the meaning of the
following:
1) a market of multiple choice;
2) benefit;
3) product development.
V. Find out an odd word in the following chains of words:
1) advantage – preference – benefit;
2) enough – efficient – sufficient;
3) to catch up – to supervise – to control;
4) opportunity – chance – variety;
5) urgent – safe – reliable;
6) to be in accordance – to meet – to fail;
7) doubt – preference – uncertainty;
8) to reveal – to discover – to clarify;
9) to foresee – to evaluate – to predict;
10) to challenge – to catch up – to become a competitor.
VI. Form word combinations using the following words. Try and
reproduce a situation in which this word combination can be used:
1) a decision (принимать);
2) research (потребительский спрос);
3) a competitor (догнать);
4) a situation (видеть в перспективе);
5) price (продать по той же цене);
6) a competitor (бросить вызов);
7) vehicle.
VII. Discussion.
Be ready to ask and answer questions based on the following
situations:
1. Узнайте мнение собеседника о необходимости исследования
потребительского спроса.
2. Поинтересуйтесь, считает ли собеседник процесс сбыта
искусством или нет.
3. Узнайте у собеседника, считает ли он, что процесс развития
производства стимулируется спросом и почему.
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4. Выясните, в каком смысле возможность неограниченного
выбора на рынке играет роль мотора, приводящего в движение
механизм сбыта.
5. Выясните, что значит поставлять продукцию по
конкурентоспособной цене.
6. Поинтересуйтесь, в чем выражается конкуренция на рынке
сбыта.
7. Узнайте мнение собеседника о том, что дает больше прибыли –
искусство торговли или искусство сбыта.
8. Попросите объяснить, почему американской компании ПепсиКола удалось не только догнать конкурента, но и одержать победу
над ним.
9. Узнайте, согласен ли собеседник с тем, что для удачного сбыта
достаточно произвести продукт, удовлетворяющий потребительскому
спросу.
4. MARKET RESEARCH
Most manufacturers will carry out a market research enquiry before
they commence to manufacture a new product and before they modify an
existing product. Good, scientifically constructed market research is
essential if the manufacturer is to be able to produce goods that the
customer will buy and at a price that can be afforded.
The normal procedure is for a sample to be taken of the prospective
market. These people will be asked a number of questions about whether
they would be likely to buy a new product and how much they would pay.
The research may be carried out by the company itself or by a market
research company who specializes in this work.
The results of the research are analyzed and the company will then be
reasonably sure what to manufacture, how to pack it, where to sell it and
what to charge the customer.
The following are very important in the marketing of a product: price,
method of selling, packaging, sales promotion.
The price must be set at a level where the firm is able to make a
reasonable profit. Obviously if the firm has an efficient production process
then it will probably be able to offer its products at a lower price than
those being charged by its competitors. If the price is set too high, then the
sales may be low and the overall profitability affected.
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The method of selling must be ascertained and choices may have to be
made between the normal wholesaler-retailer method or mail order or
direct selling, etc. The packaging is important and must be attractive and
easy to transport. Sales promotion depends on advertising, price reductions
for quantity purchases, free gift offers, after-sales service, display stands
and the use of specially trained sales and service staff, etc.
Research is the basic tool of marketing. A marketer must determine
what customer needs are. Marketing experts have developed techniques for
determining the needs of prospective customers. It’s done by the way of
market segmentation.
How can market segmentation be of help to a manager who wants to
develop a new product? Every market can be divided into segments or, in
other words, into separate groups of consumers. First there are
demographic factors like age, income, educational background,
occupation, size of family, type of home and neighbourhood, etc. Then
there are psychographic factors – the customer’s opinions and interests,
vacation, sports, favourite sports, etc.
Then a product is compared with the goods already established in the
market by quality and quantity standards. To be a success you must be
ahead of your competitors.
Competition never stops. That is why market segmentation must never
stop as well. It should be on a permanent basis. Introduction of a pioneer
product can immediately change the composition and a number of a
consumer grouping.
For Russia competition could be an important incentive. Innovating
more effectively at home means finding more to export abroad, more hard
currency to earn, more jobs to create, a more powerful industrial complex
to build.
The fundamental principles for a marketer are:
1) understand the customer (through research);
2) understand the grouping (to which the customer or his business
belongs);
3) create a choice (a difference in price, concept or value that will
distinguish your product);
4) communicate that choice (through promotion and advertising).
Consumer marketing should be based on understanding consumer
values, wants and needs.
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Active vocabulary
noun
research
inquiry
sample
promotion
profitability
wholesaler
retailer
mail order
packaging
reduction
gift
display stands
technique
income
neighbourhood
composition
incentive
a loss leader
store
item
grocery
verb
afford
affect
ascertain
determine
divide into
establish
be ahead of
earn
belong
distinguish
communicate
intend
pass by
encourage
run short
cater for
adjective
essential
prospective
efficient
overall
demographic
psychographic
permanent
hard currency
adverb
immediately
abroad
especially
exactly
expressions
at a front (rear)
Exercises
I. Mind the correct pronunciation of the following words:
research inquiry, essential, procedure, packaging, efficient, ascertain,
wholesaler, retailer, quantity purchase, segmentation, separate,
demographic, occupation, neighbourhood, psychographic, incentive,
distinguish, specialize, encourage.
II. Translate into Russian paying attention to the suffixes and prefixes:
reduction, achievement, lower, overevaluate, mixture, efficiently,
quantitative, advertisement, prospective, reconsider, underevaluate,
reasonably, attractive.
III. Translate the word combinations into Russian and answer
appropriate questions:
1. To carry out a market research inquiry.
What are the main reasons for carrying out a market research inquiry?
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2. Taking a sample of the prospective market as a normal procedure of
a market research.
What is meant by “a sample”?
3. To sell products at prices which customers can afford;
to change lower prices than those charged by competitors.
In what case a market research help manufacturers?
4. An efficient production process.
What should an efficiently functioning production process result in?
5. To affect overall profitability.
What kind of pricing policy can negatively effect profitability? Why?
6. To ascertain the method of selling.
What are the main methods of selling?
7. A technique for carrying out market research.
What kind of such a technique has been developed by marketing
experts?
IV. As you know “sales promotion” is the process including the
activities stimulating sales and based on the use of effective marketing
tools.
What kind of marketing tools have you got acquainted with in the
text?
Prepare a list of such marketing tools and be ready to determine their
role in the marketing process.
V. Establish a correspondence between the words in the left-hand and
the right-hand part:
1) market segmentation
1) constant
2) prospective
2) a pioneer product
3) permanent
3) stimulus
4) innovation
4) segments
5) incentive
5) consumer grouping
6) separate groups
6) future
7) stimulate
7) encourage
VI. Read the two extracts from the texts about how private small shops
and supermarkets make their profits by using effective marketing tools.
Point out those ones which weren’t mentioned before.
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The Small Shop
The householder can use the small shop when he or she runs short of
small items of grocery, etc. The small shop will often be open early in the
morning and late at night. The shopkeeper will also allow some of the best
customers to have credit and pay their bill at the end of the week. Special
likes and dislikes of the customers are catered for by the small shop and
they will often carry a wide variety of stock to cover individual needs of
many customers. The shopkeeper will spend a lot of time and trouble to
make sure that regular customers get exactly what they want.
The Supermarket
The supermarket will use loss leaders to persuade shoppers to enter
the shop. Once they are inside it is hoped that impulse buying by the
customers will take place, making them purchases more than they has
intended. Loss leaders are goods offered at an especially low price, and
these goods are usually placed at the rear of the store so that the customers
will have to pass by all the other goods before reaching the loss leaders. As
they pass these goods they will be tempted to buy on impulse. These goods
at the front of the store are those on which the supermarket is making a
good profile.
During the weekdays, when customers are comparatively few, the
store will pay slow music to encourage the shopper to linger and buy
more. At the weekend, when the store is busy, quick music will be played
to encourage the shoppers to move quickly so that more customers can
pass through and the store can take more money.
The goods which the supermarket wants to sell quickly will be placed
at eye level where they can be seen most easily by the shopper. The
supermarkets also place highly priced attractive items near to the loss
leaders, in an effort to encourage sales of these items. For example,
expensive biscuits may be placed near cheap tea, or coffee and tins of fruit
may be placed near to expensive tins of cream.
VII. Points worth discussing.
a) What’s your opinion as far as smth. is concerned, e.g.
T.: What’s your opinion as far as … is concerned?
St.: As far as … is concerned
I am sure
I’m of the opinion that
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I believe
I suppose
I guess
1) scientifically constructed market research;
2) reasons for carrying out market research;
3) the role of market research.
b) Comment of the following:
1. Your opinion in favour of using market segmentation in carrying
out a market research inquiry: Prove your point of view.
2. It goes without saying that consumer grouping should be on a
permanent basis. Have you got any doubts concerning this statement?
3. Is creating a choice directly connected with market segmentation?
Explain your point of view.
5. GREEN MANAGEMENT
How being green changes the way managers work.
Companies that want to be green make large investments in cleaner
technology. Big profitable companies find it easier to be green than small
ones. Many small companies are not obeying environmental rules.
Companies that take the environment seriously try to change not only
their technology but the way they run themselves too. Often, such changes
go hand in hand with improvements in the quality of management.
Badly managed companies are seldom kind to the environment,
companies that try hard to reduce the damage they do to the environment
are usually well manages.
A clever manager cares about employees and product quality. He may
spend a lot of time and money working on health safety and the
environment. If employees see that their manager cares about environment
they come up with green ideas of their own. Many companies find that
their shop-floor employees (who may live nearer their plants than do
managers) and their younger, graduate managers are the strongest
advocates of greenery.
In some industries the pressure to be green is changing links between
companies and their customers. Some companies now offer to take back
the waste product from their customers and clean it up.
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Customers, in their turn, are starting to take more interests in their
suppliers. They want to be sure that the product they consume is not
hazardous.
Greenery is also encouraging companies to build links with each
other.
In Holland the problem of disposing heavy metals in batteries has led
Philips, an electronics group, to join other companies involved in battery
manufacture to develop the recycling programme. More manager now
understand that green regulation is a necessity.
Active vocabulary
noun
investment
cleaner technology
environmental rules
damage
health safety
shop-floor employees
advocate
greenery
pressure
waste product
recycling programme
emission standards
vehicle makers
expense
time-table
verb
adjective
hazardous
obey
take smth. seriously
run a company
reduce
care about smth.
come up with
green ideas
clean smth. up
dispose of smth.
warn
envisage
to do one’s fair share in doing smth.
Exercises
I. Practice a correct pronunciation of the following:
to obey environmental rules,
to take the environment seriously,
improvements in the quality of management,
to reduce the damage,
to care about employees,
health safety,
graduate managers,
advocates of greenery,
the pressure to be green,
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hazardous products,
to encourage companies,
recycling programmes,
emission standards,
vehicle makers,
the time-table envisaged,
isn’t achievable on technology grounds,
to do fair share in correcting the environment,
foreign automobiles/
II. Give English equivalents of the following:
осуществлять крупные капиталовложения для создания
технологий, способствующих очищению окружающей среды;
подчиняться экологическим правилам;
прилагать все усилия для снижения ущерба, наносимого
окружающей среде;
учитывать экологический фактор;
профсоюзные массы, как самые ярые защитники политики учета
экологического фактора;
упорное стремление защищать окружающую среду;
подвергать отходы очистке;
побуждать фирмы к установлению взаимных связей;
избавиться от тяжелых металлов.
Ш. Read the extract from “Financial Times” (Europe’s Business
Newspaper) illustrating real concern of American states about
environment. Be ready to make up a synopsis reflecting your
understanding of the key problems.
…Last week, the state of New York adopted California’s present
emission standards. Six other eastern states are considering similar moves.
The country’s leading vehicle makers have been expecting the
expense – claimed to be billions of dollars – that the industry now faces.
They warn that the time-table envisaged may not be achievable on
technology grounds.
Nevertheless, GM has already developed an electric car, the Impact,
which it says will be put into production within two years.
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Mr. Harold Poling, chairman of Ford US acknowledged that: “We are
part of the (environmental) problem and we will continue with government
to do our fair share in correcting it”.
As representatives of the state that is the largest buyer of cars in the
US California regulators are in unique position to demand progress on
emission controls from both US and foreign automobiles”.
IV. Answer the following questions:
1. What kind of expense does the American car industry face?
2. What does the phrase “emission control from automobiles mean”?
3. What measures are being taken by US states to solve “green”
problems?
V. Give an explanation of the expressions according to the model:
green management – the kind of management which takes the
environment seriously
1) cleaner technology;
2) to obey environmental rules;
3) to take environment seriously;
4) a recycling programme.
VI. Here is one of the possible ways of expressing the contents of the
article in the form of a synopsis. Try and present your own version on
translating the given sentences into English.
Американская автомобильная промышленность сталкивается с
определенными финансовыми проблемами, так как в настоящее
время в большинстве штатов предпринимаются усилия по контролю
за
загрязнениями
атмосферы
вредными
продуктами
от
автотранспортных средств.
Ведущие производители автомобилей Форд и Дженерал Моторс
выступают против потенциальных расходов, связанных с принятием
мер по контролю за загрязнениями окружающей среды.
Но все-таки им приходится делать свой посильный вклад
совместно с правительством для разрешения проблемы защиты
окружающей среды.
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Хотя они и предупредили, что установленные сроки могут быть
нарушены по технологическим соображениям, Дж. Моторс уже
создала электромобиль, серийное производство которого будет
налажено за два года.
VII. Prepare a detailed plan of answering the following questions (not
less than 3 points of a plan for each question). Be ready to prove your
point of view and develop your ideas.
What are the main tools of green management?
1. What is done to build a new relationship between companies and
their consumers/employees?
2. How do companies coordinate their activities for environmental
protection?
6. WHAT a GOOD MANAGER NEEDS to KNOW
Successful managers have the ability to “read” the characters and
behaviour of their colleagues. This enables them to act in the right way at
the right time and as a result to win loyalty, enthusiasm and effort from
those around the. How do you do it?
Good managers study human behaviour – including their own.
People’s characters are formed in different ways, the interplay between
their intellect and their emotions varies widely. Their capacities for
insecurity, aggression, anxiety and ambition also differ enormously. With
this kaleidoscope of human types what gives the manager the insight he
needs?
The answer lies in having an understanding of the general
characteristics of behaviour and relating this knowledge to specific
individuals and to the team. Plus the ability to learn from his own
experience and that of others.
Why do people work?
A simple question which goes considerably deeper than the obvious
answer, “To earn enough to live on.” Psychologists have established that
mental and physical activity – and work in particular – is a dominant
human driving force. It seems that, subconsciously, everyone has a
hierarchy of needs that they must satisfy in the right sequence.
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The bottom step in the hierarchy is the survival need followed quickly
by the need to have a roof over one’s head. These needs usually come first
and if they are not satisfied everything else is irrelevant. Thus adequate
pay and working conditions are of fundamental importance.
The next step is the need to “belong” to some group. The family is the
most elementary unit and those who are self-employed often rely heavily
on the family group for support. In larger organizations it is the team, the
department, the company, the trade union or the profession which may
satisfy this need.
Self-esteem is a substantial part of job satisfaction and is another step
in the hierarchy. It means that the individual understands the contribution
needed from him and is receiving recognition for making it. Psychologists
call the process of recognizing and satisfying these needs “stroking”.
Words of congratulation and appreciation from the superior help to
engender self-esteem. Some organizations have recently centred their
management culture on achievement recognition to the extent that every
correct action is rewarded by management. Initial results look impressive,
but like all single-focused styles it seems likely that its effectiveness will
decline with familiarity. Everyone’s response to praise is different and
changes with age and seniority. Reward systems need to be equally
responsive to changing needs.
The final step is the release of potential. This may be a simple
ambition to succeed or the desire to make a contribution to a body of
knowledge; it could be a fascination with solving problems or risk taking,
or just a wish for the fun and companionship of working in a successful
company. But fulfillment of this need is the most potent force behind a
person’s commitment to work. The manager should strive to create an
environment in which all the other basic needs are satisfied; each
individual has a unique contribution to make and a good manager should
know his subordinates well enough to make use of their expertise in a way
which fulfills their potential.
Motivation
Some factors are known positively to motivate the individual at work,
while others either demotivate or have a neutral effect. Motivating factors
include job content, recognition of achievement, prospects of promotion,
membership of a successful team and financial reward. Potentially
demotivating factors include bad personnel management, lack of clear
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goals, uninteresting work and failure to recognize achievement. Working
conditions, the existence (or absence) of bureaucracy and the extent to
which the organization offers welfare facilities are essentially neutral in
their effect on motivation.
Most of the motivating factors lie within the power of the manager.
The factors which may cause problems are:
- promotion prospects (which may result from wider issues of growth
and success lying outside the manager’s control);
- financial rewards (because pay scales may be low or badly
organized).
The manager should regularly review the effects of these factors on
the motivation of both individuals and the team for which he is
responsible.
There are other factors both domestic and work related which affect
motivation. A manager cannot hope to head off these problems but should
be able to recognize the symptoms and mitigate their influence on the
individual concerned.
Active vocabulary
behaviour
colleague
loyalty
enthusiasm
effort
emotion
insecurity
anxiety
kaleidoscope
insight
experience
psychologist
driving force
hierarchy
sequence
survival
self-esteem
contribution
recognition
noun
congratulation
appreciation
superior
welfare facilities
verb
enable
earn
belong
rely on
reward
head off
mitigate
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adjective
human
dominant
adequate
responsive
adverb
subconsciously
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Exercises
I. Read the words paying special attention to their pronunciation.
Translate the words and word combinations with them, answering some
key questions:
emotions, subconscious, behaviour (human b.,, the b. of collegues), a
kaleidoscope of characters, insecurity, anxiety, aggression, ambition.
How can you characterize the kaleidoscope of human characters?
loyalty, enthusiasm, effort.
What reaction on the part of employees will a manager win if he is
able to read “their characters”?
superior, appreciation, adequate, a hierarchy of needs, to satisfy in the
right sequence.
1) self-esteem, 2) having a roof over one’s hand, 3) survival need,
4) the release of potential, 5) the need to belong to a group.
Arrange the elements of the hierarchy in the right sequence:
psychology, psychological terms, achievement recognition,
congratulation and appreciation, to create an environment, motivation, job
content, prospects of promotion, financial reward, bad personnel
management, lack of clear goals, failure to recognize achievements,
demotivating factors, to recognize the symptoms and mitigate the
influence of demotivating factors.
Which of the above word combination can be considered as purely
psychological terms?
II. Give English equivalents of the following:
завоевать преданность; энтузиазм, усилия; удовлетворять в
правильной последовательности; эффективность, снижающаяся при
многократном использовании; сделать уникальный вклад; нехватка
ясных целей; разнообразие человеческих типов; соответствующие
условия оплаты; обязательство работать; научиться на опыте;
однонаправленная система; реакция на похвалу; очарование риском;
вызвать самоуважение; признание достижений; умственная и
физическая деятельность.
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III. Establish a correspondence between the 2 parts, identifying
synonyms and antonyms and preparing the task in the form of a test.
e.g. 1 – 3 ; 2 – 5 ; etc.
Synonyms
1) subconsciously
2) a manager
3) insecurity
4) a vast diversity
5) a driving force
6) to release the potential
7) welfare facilities
8) responsive to requirements
9) sequence
10) to enable
1) intuitively
2) a kaleidoscope
3) the
order
of
performing
operations
4) inability to protect one’s own
interests
5) conditions promoting high living
standards
6) able to meet the needs
7) to demonstrate one’s mental or
physical abilities
8) to give an opportunity
9) a superior
10) the basic motive
Antonyms
1) a subordinate
2) death
3) to strengthen
4) poverty
5) dominant
6) safety
7) failure
8) abundance
9) inexperienced
10) underestimation
1) success
2) shortage
3) welfare
4) insecurity
5) life
6) a manager
7) having a lack of experience
8) secondary
9) overevaluation
10) to weaken
IV. Form derivatives of the following words and translate them into
Russian:
to recognize, to achieve, success, emotion, mental, conscious,
adequate, superior, unique.
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V. What’s your understanding of the meaning of the following word
combinations? Give your own interpretations?
1) to make a contribution;
2) to enable;
3) insecurity;
4) lack of goals;
5) the release of potential;
6) responsive to requirements;
7) welfare facilities.
VI. Express the viewpoints of different people on the problems
discussed in the text and say whether you hold a similar or a different
view. Support your point of view with arguments.
1. Удачливые менеджеры – это люди, полагающиеся на инстинкт
и удачу, но и не сбрасывающие со счетов способность впитывать
свой опыт и опты других.
2. Бывшие блестящие студенты с отличием закончившие ВУЗ,
гораздо чаще становятся удачливыми менеджерами, чем те, кто
считались посредственными студентами.
из
путей,
способствующих
самовыражению
3. Одним
подчиненных, является создание
обстановки, в
которой
удовлетворяется вся иерархия их потребностей.
4. Каждый правильный поступок должен награждаться
руководством. Слова поощрения со стороны начальника всегда
положительно сказываются на работе подчиненных.
5. Лишь знание общих характеристик человеческого поведения
может привести менеджера к определению правильной стратегии и
тактики работы.
6. Честолюбивый менеджер должен руководствоваться рядом
безошибочных правил, чтобы завоевать доверие, энтузиазм и
инициативу со стороны своей команды.
VII. Study the following list of questions. Be ready to answer them
motivating your point of view on the problem.
1. How can you prove that the knowledge of psychology ensures
successful management?
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2. How does the understanding of “the hierarchy of human needs”
help prudent management?
3. What should a manager know to create positive motivation of
individuals to work?
4. What kind of problems can demotivate individuals at work and
what can mitigate their influence?
5. Why do managers nowadays consider personal initiative and
creativity to be the most valuable features in their employees?
6. What do you think can help former “dull” students to satisfy their
professional career as managers?
VIII. Write an essay acknowledging your awareness of everything that
can help to turn an inexperienced debutante into a successful manager.
Give your essay your own title.
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PART II
LABORATORY WORK 1
Gerund
I. Translate the following into Russian. Pay attention to the difference
in translating Gerund and Participle at the beginning of a sentence.
Follow the model. Model:
Participle
Investigating the case we used…
Исследуя этот случай, мы
использовали…
Gerund
Investigating the case will help you in…
Исследование этого случая поможет
вам в..
1. Analyzing the problems of
automation we discovered…
1. Analyzing the problems of automation
is necessary in this case.
2. Reducing production costs
automation leads to…
3. Making machinery safer
automation makes it possible
2. Reducing production costs can be
achieved by means of…
3. Making machinery safer will not only
reduce the number of accidents
4. Raising the productive forces
automation causes…
4. Raising the productive forces will lead
to…
II. Translate the following into Russian. Pay attention to the
difference in the translation of the Gerund depending on a preposition
preceding it, i.e.
Gerund
in determining
при определении
on determining
после определения…
=
=
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Participle
determining (the process)
определяя
having determined (the result)
определив…
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1. In solving the problem we applied…
2. In improving the device we can use it …
3. On calculating the value you must multiply it …
4. On establishing the private ownership of the means of production it
will be possible …
5. In accelerating this process we must take into account …
III. Now use the suggested prepositions (in, on) and replace the
Participles by the Gerund. Follow the model:
Preparing for the report I found …
In preparing for the report I found …
Having written the report I gave it …
On writing the report I gave it …
1. Obtaining such results you should remember …
2. Having solved the problem we can improve …
3. Having examined the machine carefully he …
4. Having obtained such data, it is easy to find …
5. Having discussed the work we could proceed …
6. Explaining the problem I tried to give …
IV. Translate the following sentences into Russian upon the model.
Model: His having obtained good results didn’t surprise us.
То, что он добился хороших результатов, не удивили нас…
1. His having made such a discovery interested everyone.
2. Our having finished all the experimental part in time didn’t surprise
them.
3. Their having obtained the new equipment will help them greatly.
4. Her working in this field of economy was mentioned at the
conference.
V. Combine the two sentences into one using the Gerundial
construction functioning as the Subject. Model:
He works at this problem. It is known to us.
His working at this problem is known to us. Or:
He has made the experiment. It is important.
His having made the experiment I is important.
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1. They have obtained some new data. It’s very important.
2. We had asked for help. It surprised him greatly.
3. He had stopped making experiments. It was unknown to us.
4. He makes use of this device. It will give good results.
VI. Give an oral speech version of the following. Model:
Their having obtained some new data is very important.
The fact that they have obtained some new data is very important.
1. Our having finished all the experimental part in time didn’t surprise
them.
2. Her working in this field of economy was mentioned at the
conference.
3. His having made such a discovery interested everyone.
4. Their having obtained some new data is very important.
VII. Study the sentences where Gerund is used as an object. Compare
the English and the Russian variants. Be ready to reproduce the English
variant.
1. The fact is worth mentioning.
2. The boy was accused of
betraying his friends.
3. Do you mind my interfering in
your talk?
4. I don’t mind raising the question.
Факт заслуживает упоминания.
Мальчика обвинили в
предательстве друзей.
Вы не возражаете, если я
вмешаюсь в вашу беседу?
Я не возражаю против
постановки этого вопроса.
5. Why did you give up trying?
Почему вы прекратили попытки?
6. Excuse my dwelling on it in
Извините, что я останавливаюсь
detail.
на этом так подробно.
7. I couldn’t help telling Walter
Я не мог удержаться, чтобы не
about it.
рассказать Уолтеру об этом.
8. We object to his making a report. Мы возражаем против того,
чтобы он отчитывался.
9. Go on reading.
Продолжайте чтение.
10. He was suspected of being a
Его заподозрили в том, что он
robber.
грабитель.
11. Who is responsible for sending Кто отвечает за отправку
the documents?
документов?
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12. I am used to William making
fun of everything.
13. We look forward to your
coming as soon as possible.
14. I gave up the idea of taking a
holiday in January.
15. What’s the use of arguing?
16. Why risk being killed?
17. Avoid being worried and
worrying others.
18. The flowers want watering.
19. I insist on taking urgent
measures.
20. He is against your inviting the
Parkers.
Я привык к тому, что Уильям все
превращает в шутку.
Мы с нетерпением ожидаем
вашего cкорейшего прибытия.
Я отказался от мысли взять
отпуск в январе.
Что толку спорить?
Зачем рисковать, чтобы вас
убили?
Избегайте, чтобы вас
беспокоили, но и cами не
беспокойте других.
Цветы пора полить.
Я настаиваю на принятии
срочных мер.
Он против того, чтобы вы
приглашали Паркеров.
LABORATORY WORK 2
Participle
I. Replace the Subordinate Clauses by a Simple Participle
Construction. Follow the model. Translate the transformed sentences into
Russian.
Model 1:
As the pound rested on the strength of British capital, it was the
strongest currency in the world.
Та как фунт опирался на мощь …
Resting on the strength of British capital, the pound was the strongest
currency in the world.
Опираясь на мощь…
1. When he was investigating the origins of the general crisis of
British imperialism, he made some notes.
2. As the pound was the strongest currency in the world, it assumed a
dominating role.
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3. While they conducted all their foreign trade in sterling, the
countries of the Empire kept their foreign exchange reserves in London.
4. As he had plenty of time, he didn’t hurry.
Model 2:
After he had investigated the origins of the crisis, he discovered its
permanent character. Исследовав истоки кризиса, …
1 After it had taken place periodically in 1947, 1949, 1955, 1956 and
1957 the crisis revealed its deep-seated and permanent character.
2. After he had finished his investigation he compared the results of
all the crises.
3.After he had received the answer, he wrote again.
II. Replace the following into Russian. Pay attention to PII
functioning as an attribute.
Model: The position assumed was… Приобретенное положение
было …
1. The economic power assumed gave …
2. An important position assured was …
3. Money left here was used …
4. The opportunities made possible showed …
5. The long-term export of capital developed gave …
6. The small gold reserve preserved was …
7. In spite of all the remedies applied, the crisis occurred …
III. Translate the following sentences into English using appropriate
forms of Participle.
1. Анализируя происхождение кризиса, мы обнаружили …
2. Проанализировав происхождение кризиса, мы отметили …
3. Приобретая экономическую власть, фунт становился …
4. Приобретенная таким образом экономическая власть
гарантировала …
5. Прочитав о монотонном возобновлении кризиса, сделайте
вывод …
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6. Обеспечивая важную экономическую позицию фунту,
заморские операции …
7. Обеспеченная таким образом важная экономическая позиция
имела значение…
IV. Replace the Attributive Clause either by PI or PII. Follow the
models.
Model 1:
The general estimate which was made is of great importance.
Общая оценка, которая была сделана, имеет большое значение.
The general estimate made is of great importance.
Сделанная общая оценка имеет большое значение.
Model 2:
The people who were organizing the conference made a good deal of
work.
Люди, которые организовали конференцию, проделали огромную
работу.
1. Our delegates made reports at the conference which was organized
in Warsaw.
2. The facts which prove the correctness of this estimate can be easily
illustrated.
3.A scientific study of the phenomena which predict new discoveries
must begin at once.
4. A study of the phenomena which were predicted began much later.
5. The methods which are used at our factory give good results.
V. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Keep in mind that
the Absolute Participle Construction at the beginning of a sentence is
usually translated into Russian as an Adverbial Clause of a) Time
(introduced by Russian conjunctions когда, после того, как, по мере
того, как).
Model: The facts having been discovered, it was difficult…
После того, как были открыты эти факты, они сделали…
cause (Russian conjunctions так как, поскольку)
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Model: The reason being unknown, it was difficult …
Так как причина была неизвестна, было трудно …
condition (Russian conjunction если)
Model: The demand increasing too quickly, they’ll have to …
Если спрос будет расти слишком быстро, им придется …
1. The origins of the crisis having been traced back right to the First
World War, it was discovered
2. Britain’s position as the metropolis of the mighty British Empire
having been discussed, we could find…
3. Britain being the ‘workshop of the world’, her trade and merchant
marine were vast.
4. The City of London being able to get into its hands the financing of
much international trade, foreigners left their money here for the
settlement of accounts.
5. The equipment provided, we shall begin …
6. All other conditions being constant, it will be possible…
VI. Translate into Russian minding the Absolute Participle
Constructions at the end of a sentence. In Russian they are introduced by
conjunctions а, но, и, причем. Follow the model.
Model: This machine was …, some changes having been made by that
time.
Эта машина была…, причем к этому времени были сделаны
некоторые изменения.
1. Sterling was the currency of the whole of the Empire, the Local
moneys being merely different varieties of the pound.
2. The British banking network had its head offices in London, the
banking system of the Empire being simply an overseas extension of this
network.
3. Money came or went of one foreign country or another, this fact
being of little account when the general position of sterling was so strong.
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VII. Compare the English & the Russian variants of the following
sentences. You must be able to reproduce the English variants.
1. При посещении выставки мы
обратили внимание на самые
последние достижения в
нашей области.
2. Изучив эти образцы, мы
увидели, что они имеют много
преимуществ.
3. Делегаты, прибывшие для
участия в конференции,
сегодня осматривают
достопримечательности.
4. Мы получили письмо с
сообщением (просьбой) о
сроках проведения совещания
(сообщить детали о модели
последнего образца).
5. Мы получили письмо от
фирмы, поставляющей нам
оборудование.
6. Просматривая каталоги вашей
фирмы мы заключили, что это
оборудование удовлетворяет
нашим требованиям.
Attending the exhibition we paid
attention to the latest
achievements in our sphere.
Having studied these samples we
understood that they had a lot of
advantages.
The delegates who arrived to
participate in the work of the
conference are making a view of
the places of interest.
We received a letter informing
(requesting) about the dates of
holding the conference (the
details of the model of the latest
design).
We received a letter from the firm
delivering equipment for us.
Looking through the catalogues of
your firm we concluded that they
met our requirements.
LABORATORY WORK 3
Infinitive
I. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Pay attention to the
difference in translating the Infinitive depending on its function in a
sentence.
Model:
подлежащее (что?)
обстоятельство цели (для чего?)
To obtain these results is our aim.
To obtain these results we must
work hard.
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Получить эти результаты – наша
цель.
1. To improve the living standard of
the people is very important.
Чтобы получить эти результаты,
мы должны усердно работать.
1. To improve the living standard
of the people it is necessary to
increase…
2. To start this work is not difficult. To start this work today we have
to prepare…
3. Not to change anything is our Not to change anything we
wish.
decided…
II. Translate the sentences into Russian.
Model:
to be + Infinitive = ( гл.-связка) =
to be + Infinitive = (мод.глагол) =
означает, заключается в том, должен, предстоит
чтобы…
To decide is to act.
He is to act.
Решить – значит действовать.
Он должен действовать.
1. Our aim is to draw right The engineers are to use this
conclusions.
device to prove the correctness of
their theory.
2. One of the methods is to use this He is to make a report about his
device.
discovery at the conference.
3. The object of the experiment is to By using this method he is to
improve the results.
improve the results of his work.
III. Translate the following sentences into Russian upon the model:
Model: Here is the device to help you in the experiment.
Вот прибор, который поможет вам при проведении эксперимента.
1. This is the result to be expected.
2. The report to be made is connected with your work.
3. The article to be read is published in this journal.
4. The advantages to be achieved are necessary for the welfare of the
people.
IV. Translate the sentences into Russian:
1. To explain this phenomenon is our task.
2. To explain this phenomenon we made a series of experiments.
3. The phenomenon to be explained relates to statistics.
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4. To show the difference between these phenomena is difficult.
5. To show the difference between these phenomena we must study
them in detail.
6. The phenomena to be considered are closely connected with each
other.
V. Translate the following sentences into Russian upon the model:
make + smth.(smb.) + Infinitive (without ‘to’)
make smb. do smth. = заставить кого-либо сделать что-либо
1. Make him analyze the problems arising from automation.
2. Can you make the machine run?
3. To make the device work accurately is a difficult task.
4. Scientists make new electronic machines , do calculations and
control production processes.
5. To make him change his decision was extremely difficult.
VI. Express the idea stated in Russian by using the Complex Object.
a) Вам хотелось, чтобы кто-либо сделал что-либо.
I’d like smb. to do smth.
I’d like them to visit the exhibition.
1) … чтобы партнеры проинформировали вас об условиях
контракта.
2) … чтобы были отправлены отгрузочные документы.
3) … чтобы товары были доставлены немедленно.
4) … чтобы клиент увеличил заказ.
5) … чтобы фирма поставила заказ как можно быстрее.
б) Вы слышали, как кто-либо сказал о чем-либо (скажите, что
именно).
I heard smb. say smth.
I heard my friend say a few words about his trip.
1) инженеры – о качестве нового оборудования;
2) директор – о последних переговорах;
3) директор по сбыту – о ценах Браун и Ко.
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в) Вы видели, чем люди занимались, когда вы пришли куда-либо.
(Скажите, чем именно занимались люди)
I saw … when I came to …
I saw the scientist demonstrating the new phenomenon when I
entered the classroom.
1) на почте
2) на выставке русского искусства
3) на вокзале
4) в коммерческом центре выставки
VII. Translate the following phrases into Russian:
Model: These properties are believed to help…
Полагают, что эти свойства помогают…
1. The device is known to be used…
2. The results seem to be …
3. The problem is thought to have been discussed.
4. The sharp increase in the turnover of the capital is found to be the
result …
5. The tempo and scale of the introduction of automation is supposed
to depend on …
6. This material is expected to have similar properties.
7. These forces are believed to act…
8. Such definition is likely to prove…
VIII. Translate the following negative sentences into Russian. Notice
the way they are translated. Follow the model:
He doesn’t seem to know them.
Он, кажется, не знает их.
1. He doesn’t seem to use this device.
2. There doesn’t seem to be any relationship between these values.
3. This sentence doesn’t seem to have this property.
Model: The phenomenon is unlikely to occur.
Маловероятно, что это явление произойдет.
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1. This method is unlikely to give the results required.
2. This plan is unlikely to have been changed.
3. Our results are unlikely to be similar to those reported by Dr. Smith.
IX. Translate into Russian. Mind the translation of the verb ‘to prove’.
Model: We proved this suggestion to be wrong (Complex Object).
Мы доказали, что это предположение неверно.
The suggestion proved to be wrong. (Complex Subject; сказуемое
‘proved’ в форме активного залога) Оказалось, что предположение
неверно.
The suggestion was proved to be wrong.
(Complex Subject, сказуемое ‘was proved’ в форме пассивного
залога)
Доказали, что предположение неверно.
1. We proved this process to be of a permanent character.
2. This process proved to be of a permanent character.
3. This process was proved to be of a permanent character.
4. The scientists couldn’t prove this method to produce a substantial
economic effect.
5. This method couldn’t be proved to produce a substantial economic
effect.
6. This method proved to produce a substantial economic effect.
7. Capitalist application of automation proved to be at variance with
the possibilities being created.
9. He proved capitalist application of automation to be at variance
with the possibilities being created.
10. Capitalist application of automation was proved to be at variance
with the possibilities being created.
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КОНТРОЛЬНЫЕ ЗАДАНИЯ
Active vocabulary
noun
automation
(productive) forces
accident
device
value
ownership
report
the pound of sterling
foreign exchange
reserve
origin
plant
currency
recurrence
conclusion
workshop
merchant
marine
living standard
advantage
welfare
prerequisite
abundance
level
decision
property
increase
turnover
tempo
scale
introduction
relationship
value
substance
application
verb
investigate
discover
reduce
cause
achieve
determine
solve
apply
improve
calculate
accelerate
multiply
create
establish
obtain
examine
conduct (trade)
compare
predict
assure
assume
dominate
be of little account
reveal
trace
consider
exclude
expect
suppose
depend
act
prove
require
be at variance
proceed to
43
adjective
safe
vast
monotonous
deep-seated
permanent
overseas
qualitative
sharp
similar
substantial
expressions
by means of
to take into account
adverb
carefully
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Gerund
I. Give 2 ways of expressing the following.
1. После установления … собственности на средства производства, появится возможность…
2. Объясняя проблему, я попытался дать …
3. При создании таких возможностей необходимо…
4. Решив задачу, мы можем улучшить…
5. Ускоряя этот процесс, мы должны принять во внимание…
6. Усовершенствовав механизм, мы можем использовать его…
7. Обсудив работу, мы смогли перейти к …
8. Получая подобные результаты, вы должны помнить …
II. Use one and the same –ing-form in two different senses.
1. Сокращения издержек производства можно достигнуть
посредством…
Сокращая издержки производства, автоматизация ведет к…
2. Повышая производительные силы, автоматизация вызывает…
Повышение производительных сил приведет к…
3. Анализируя проблемы автоматизации, мы обнаружим…
Анализ проблем автоматизации необходим в данном случае.
4. Создание более надежных машин не только сократит число
аварий…
Создавая более надежные машины, автоматизация дает
возможность…
III. Answer the questions using gerundial constructions in your
answers.
1. What didn’t surprise them?
(мы закончили всю экспериментальную часть вовремя).
2. What will give good results?
(они пользуются этим устройством)
3. What is very important?
(они получили ряд новых данных)
4. What was mentioned at the conference?
(она работает в этой области экономики)
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5. What didn’t surprise us?
(он получил хорошие результаты)
6. What was unknown to them?
(они прекратили проведение экспериментов)
7. What interested everyone?
(они сделали это открытие)
IV. Paraphrase the following using Gerund.
1. I’m in favour of the discussion of this question.
2. I couldn’t but tell Walter about it.
3. A polite form of interfering in a talk.
4. It’s a very important fact.
5. We don’t want you to go there.
6. We are eagerly awaiting for your arrival as soon as possible.
7. You apologize for dwelling on the matter in detail.
8. Everybody had a feeling that he was a robber.
Participle
I. Replace a Subordinate Clause by a Simple Participle Construction.
Translate the new sentence into Russian.
1. While they conducted all their foreign trade in sterling, the
countries of the Empire kept their foreign exchange reserves in London.
2. When he was investigating the origins of the general crisis of
British imperialism, he made some notes.
3. After he had finished his investigations, he compared the results of
all the crises.
4. As the pound was the strongest currency in the world, it assumed a
dominating role.
5. When I was coming here, I met an old friend of mine.
6. After it had taken place periodically in 19…, the crisis revealed its
deep-seated and permanent character.
7. As he had plenty of time he didn’t hurry.
8. A scientific study of the phenomena which predict new discoveries
must begin at once.
9. The people who were organizing the conference made a good deal
of work.
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II. Translate the sentences a) into Russian.
1. The economic power thus assumed assured …
2. Assuming economic power the pound was becoming…
3. Having read about the monotonous recurrence of the crisis draw a
conclusion…
4. Assuring economic power to the pound the overseas operations…
b) into English
1. Оставленные здесь деньги были …
2. Анализируя происхождение кризиса, мы обнаружили …
3. Предоставленные возможности показали …
4. Оставленный небольшой золотой запас был…
5. Обеспеченная таким образом важная экономическая позиция
(была в) имела значение…
III. Replace Subordinate Clauses by PI or PII constructions:
1. The method which are used at our plant give good results.
2. A study of the phenomena which were predicted began…
3. Our delegates made reports at the meeting which was organized in
Warsaw.
4. The general estimate which was made is of great importance.
IV. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. Money came or went of one foreign country or another, this fact
being of little account when the general position of sterling was so strong.
2. All other conditions being constant, it will be possible…
3. Britain being “the workshop of the world”, her trade and merchant
marine was vast.
V. Give an oral speech version of the following (exclude the Absolute
Participle Construction).
1. Sterling was the currency of the whole of the Empire, the local
moneys being different varieties of the pound.
2. The origins of the crisis having been traced back to the World War
I, it was discovered …
3. The equipment provided, we shall begin..
4. Britain being the workshop of the world, her trade and merchant
marine were vast.
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Infinitive
I. Какие из предложений можно перефразировать, используя
союз перед инфинитивом? Перевести предложения, например:
инфинитив – подлежащее, обстоятельство цели.
1. To show the difference between these phenomena we must study
them in detail.
2. To explain this phenomenon is our task.
3. Not to change anything we decided…
4. To improve the living standard of the people it is necessary to…
5. To explain this phenomenon we made a series of experiments.
6. To start this work today we have to..
7. To show the difference between these phenomena is difficult.
8. To improve the living standard of the people is very important.
II. Выбрать и перевести предложения, где инфинитив – часть
составного именного сказуемого.
Выбрать и перевести предложения, где инфинитив –
обстоятельство цели.
1. Our aim is to improve these results.
2. They are to improve the results of the experiment.
3. To start this work today we have to make the necessary
preparations.
4. Not to change anything is our wish.
5. To improve the living standard of the people it is necessary to…
6. He is to use this device.
7. To start this work today isn’t difficult.
8. Not to change anything we decided…
9. Their programme was to set up a corporation.
III. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. One of the methods is to use this device.
2. The report to be made is connected with your work.
3. Scientists make the new electronic machines do calculations and
control production processes.
4. For these phenomena to be explained we must get some new
information.
5. The advantages to be achieved are necessary for the welfare of the
people.
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6. To make him change his decision was extremely difficult.
7. What must we do for the whole system to function automatically?
8. To make the device work accurately is a difficult task.
9. The phenomenon to be explained relates to statistics.
10. Make him analyze the problems arising from automation.
IV. Give an oral speech version of the following (exclude Complex
Subject).
1. The material is expected to have …
2. The results seem to be…
3. Such definition is likely to prove..
4. He doesn’t seem to use this device.
5. These (process) forces are believed to act …
6. The problem is thought to be…
7. The method is unlikely to give the results required.
8. The sharp increase in the turnover of the capital is found to be the
result of…
V. Translate into Russian.
1. There doesn’t seem to be any relationship between these values.
2. The device proved to be used…
3. These forces turn out to act…
4. The problem appeared to be…
5. This substance doesn’t seem to have this property.
6. This plan is unlikely to have been changed.
7. The tempo and scale of the introduction of automation is supposed
to depend on…
VI. Скажите, какая конструкция употреблена в предложениях –
Complex Object или Complex Subject? Переведите предложения.
Переведите предложения, где “prove” переводится как:
а) доказывать,
б) оказываться.
1. Capitalist application of automation was proved to be at variance
with the possibilities which are being created.
2. The method proved to produce a substantial economic effect.
3. The process proved to be of a permanent character.
4. This process was proved to be of a permanent character.
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5. This method couldn’t be proved to produce a substantial economic
effect.
6. We proved this process to be of a permanent character.
VII. Use Complex Subject in the following cases:
1. Say what you saw people doing when you came to the post-office.
2. The manager said he would buy some computers from thus firm.
Our manager heard this.
Our manager …
3. – Они уже внедрили изменения в компьютер?
- Нет еще. Я ожидаю, что они внедрят их в понедельник.
4. Borisov bought some books at the bookshop some minutes ago.
I saw him.
I saw …
5. Скажите, что вам хотелось бы чтобы:
клиент увеличил заказ,
товары были доставлены немедленно
фирма поставила заказ как можно быстрее,
были доставлены отгрузочные документы,
партнеры проинформировали вас об условиях контракта.
6. Say what you heard the engineer say about the quality of the new
equipment.
7. – Вы ожидаете, что испытание тракторов будет проведено
сегодня, не так ли?
- Да, но, к сожалению, они не будут проведены.
8. The engineers were discussing the performance of the machine.
The director heard this.
The director heard …
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9. – Они начали проведение переговоров о покупке сырья?
- Еще нет. Я ожидаю, что они начнут переговоры в пятницу.
10. (The manager said that he)
- Они уже обсудили условия оплаты?
- Нет еще. Я ожидаю, что они обсудят их завтра.
11. Say what you saw people doing when you came to the exhibition
of Russian art.
12. – Вы ожидаете, что конструкцию этой модели изменят, не так
ли?
- Да, но, к сожалению, конструкция не будет изменена.
13. Say what you heard your colleagues say about the latest talks.
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Содержание
PART I ................................................................................................. 3
1. MANAGEMENT .......................................................................... 3
2. MANAGEMENT and MANAGERS ............................................ 7
3. MARKETING TODAY .............................................................. 12
4. MARKET RESEARCH .............................................................. 15
5. GREEN MANAGEMENT .......................................................... 20
6. WHAT a GOOD MANAGER NEEDS to KNOW ..................... 24
PART II.............................................................................................. 31
LABORATORY WORK 1.............................................................. 31
LABORATORY WORK 2.............................................................. 34
LABORATORY WORK 3.............................................................. 38
КОНТРОЛЬНЫЕ ЗАДАНИЯ ....................................................... 43
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Учебное издание
Профессиональный английский язык
для бухгалтеров и менеджеров
Составитель: Казакова Татьяна Сергеевна
Редактор, корректор А.А. Антонова
Компьютерная верстка И.Н. Ивановой
Подписано в печать 17.10.2005 г. Формат 80×64/16.
Бумага тип. Усл. печ. л. 3,02. Уч.-изд. л. 2,1.
Тираж 100 экз. Заказ
.
Оригинал-макет подготовлен
в редакционно-издательском отделе ЯрГУ.
Отпечатано на ризографе
Ярославский государственный университет
150 000 Ярославль, ул. Советская, 14
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
53
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Профессиональный английский язык
для бухгалтеров и менеджеров
54
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