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194.Английский язык для студентов III - IV курсов исторического факультета

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Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации
Федеральное агентство по образованию
Ярославский государственный университет им. П.Г. Демидова
Кафедра иностранных языков
Английский язык
для студентов III – IV курсов
исторического факультета
Методические указания
Научно-методическим советом университета для студентов,
обучающихся по специальности История
Ярославль 2009
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УДК 81:93/94
ББК Ш 143.21я73
А 64
Редакционно-издательским советом университета
в качестве учебного издания. План 2009 года
кафедра иностранных языков Ярославского государственного
университета им. П.Г. Демидова
Составитель И.В. Мартьянова
А 64
Английский язык для студентов III – IV курсов исторического факультета: метод. указания / сост. И.В. Мартьянова;
Яросл. гос. ун-т. – Ярославль : ЯрГУ, 2009. – 35 с.
Методические указания состоят из двух разделов. Раздел I
включает три урока, цель которых – выработать у студентов навык понимания оригинальной литературы по специальности, развить умение излагать прочитанный материал в кратком и обобщенном виде, вести дискуссии и беседы. Каждый урок имеет базовый и дополнительные тексты, упражнения по грамматике
(особенности употребления модальных глаголов и сослагательного наклонения), упражнения для активного усвоения лексики и
развития навыков устной речи.
Раздел II содержит тексты из оригинальных источников по
специальности для письменного перевода, написания аннотаций
и обсуждения их содержания.
Предназначены для студентов, обучающихся по специальности
030401 История (дисциплина «Английский язык», блок ГСЭ), очной формы обучения.
Ш 143.21я73
© Ярославский государственный
университет им. П.Г. Демидова, 2009
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Section I
Unite I
Grammar: Modal verbs (Can/Could; May /Might)
Text: Irish Patriot
Grammar Study
1. Change the following using “could” to sound your request
more politely.
Model: I want to speak to Mr Smith. – Could I speak to Mr
1. Give me the names of the most famous ancient historians.
2. Pay more attention to the way you speak. 3. Show me the way to
Bond Street. 4. Repeat your question. 5. I want to leave a message to
Mr Wilson. 6. I want to reserve the book. 7. Show me your passport.
8. Send up my breakfast to my room at 6.30. 9. I want just coffee and
a croissant.
2. Interview your friend about his (her) physical and mental abilities.
Model: Can you work long hours? – Yes, I can. / No, I can’t.
Use the list of abilities below. You may continue the list.
to run a marathon, to swim backstroke, to ride a horse, to drive a
car, to look after small children, to do boring things, to be tolerant to
e-mail mistakes, to memorize dates, to deal with angry people, to take
strategic decisions, to read (speak, write) English
3. Change the statements to express a) doubt (сомнение), use
“can’t”; b) astonishment (изумление), use “can”. Mind the form of
the infinitive.
Models: His information is valid. – a) His information can’t be valid.
b) Can his information be valid?
His information was valid. – a) His information can’t have been valid.
b) Can his information have been valid?
1. The fairy-tale is of Oriental origin. 2. He lives in this neighbourhood. 3. They promise a large reward for this book. 4. She is
crazy about doing boring things. 5. The report produced an enormous
effect. 6. The librarian lost an ancient manuscript. 7. The medicine has
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accomplished wonders. 8. Read this text and express your attitude
(doubt or astonishment) to the information. Nick Bourn decided to run
from one end of Africa to the other. He got up at 3.30 a. m., ate a
breakfast of cereal, and started running. After 20 miles he stopped for
a rest and pasta lunch, before running another 20 miles. He drank up
to 15 litres of liquid a day. After eleven months and 6.021 miles he arrived at the Pyramids.
4. Paraphrase the following sentences using “may” or “might” to
express supposition or uncertainty. Mind the form of the infinitive.
Models: Perhaps they know nothing about it. – They may know
nothing about it.
Perhaps they knew about it. – They may have known about it.
1. It is possible the pamphlets are still on sale. 2. Perhaps he was
right, but I’m not sure he was.3. Perhaps everybody in the town knew
who the author of the pamphlet was. 4. It is possible that Shakespeare
wrote some plays in collaboration. 5. Perhaps he has no sense of humour. 6. Perhaps they are afraid of the public opinion. 7. It is possible
that they gave their reasons against the publication of the second edition of the book. 8. We are not sure but it is quite possible that we’ll
go to Prague for Christmas this year.
5. Read the story about Nick Bourn from exercise 3 (8) again.
Suppose what kind of experience he had during his journey. Use
“may” or “might” + Perfect Infinitive.
Model: He might have come face to face with a giant cobra.
6. Respond to the following expressing reproach (упрек). Use the
verb “might” + Perfect Infinitive.
Model: A. It is very close here, isn’t – B. Yes awfully. They
might have opened the window and let some fresh air in.
1. His handwriting is quite unreadable. 2. This suit-case is very
heavy for your aunt to carry. 3. What a pity. All the flowers have withered! 4. Her English is rather poor, isn’t it? 5. Don’t you think our
guide has neglected his duties? 6. There are many mistakes in my
work. 7. He runs up huge telephone bills. 8. She spends hours chatting
and sending e-mails.
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The Text
Before you read the text, decide if the following statements are
true or false.
a) The natural conditions of Ireland are good for arable farming.
b) Irish art was at its height long before Europe’s Middle Ages.
c) English domination over Ireland was put an end to in the midth
16 century.
d) Jonathan Swift, the famous English satirist, was linked to Ireland through business and professional interests.
e) The Drapier’s Letters were a periodical published for those
who worked in the textile industry.
f) The English authorities published a proclamation against the
author of the Drapier’s Letters.
g) J. Swift wrote pamphlets to criticize the policy of the English
authorities in Ireland.
Read the text to see if you are correct; translate the text paying
attention to Modal verbs.
Off the western coast of England, separated from it by a narrow
strip of water, lies a large island covered with green pasture land. This is
Ireland, the Emerald Isle. Long before Europe’s Middle Ages Ireland
was a center of artistic and intellectual excellence. The sixth and the seventh centuries saw the Golden Age of Irish art. The country might have
developed into a highly advanced, prosperous state. But then came the
English domination and the centuries of oppression and cruelty.
Early English invasions were succeeded by a fanatical war of the
mid-16th century. Another savage war erupted in 1641 when the English devastated the country with fire and sword. At the turn of the century England, anxious to crush Ireland into complete submission,
passed a series of laws which destroyed Irish cattle-breeding, woolen
industry, shipping and provision trades.
The man who then became the unofficial spokesman for the Irish
interest was Jonathan Swift, the famous English satirist. Swift regarded his life as dedicated to the cause of liberty. Linked to Ireland
by birth, education and profession, he could not bear the sight of his
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native land being ravaged and humiliated. He committed himself to
Ireland’s cause and remained firm to the commitment throughout the
rest of his life. He wrote numerous tracts dealing with all kinds of the
nation’s problems. But by far the most effective of them were the
Drapier’s Letters (1724).
The Drapier’s Letters – five successive pamphlets written in the
name of an Irish drapier – were caused by a monetary scheme which
was made up in England and might have dealt another heavy blow at
Irish economy. Attacking the scheme Swift took his chance to rally
the Irish patriots to resistance. He called upon the nation to assert its
political independence.
The English authorities declared the Draper’s Letters “seditious”.
A proclamation was issued against the Drapier, and a large reward
was offered for the discovery of the Drapier’s identity. The printer of
the letters was taken into custody. But though everybody in Dublin
knew who the author of the Letters was, nobody came to claim the
money promised to the informer.
The Letters may be said to have accomplished wonders. Faced
with the resolute opposition, the English administration had to withdraw the scheme. Swift succeeded in bringing the people of Ireland
together in a common cause. It is true he could have done little without the staunch support of the Irish people. But it is also true that the
Irish could not have been welded into a unanimous front without
Swift’s pamphlets.
Word Study
1. Complete the chart with the correct form of the word. Consult
the dictionary.
succeed (in)
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2. Complete each sentence with one of the words from the chart.
a. The five pamphlets were a tremendous … with the Irishmen.
b. Defoe’s most … weapon was irony.
c. Changes in the Tory administration … the downfall of the cabinet.
d. Ireland was a … country before the English domination.
e. Joan of Arc persuaded the king to take … actions against the
English invaders and … to liberate Orlean.
f. In 1540 The Order of Jesuits was established to fight the Reformation whose … demanded church reforms.
3. Find in the text the English equivalent for:
художественное мастерство, опустошить огнем и мечом, посвятить себя общему делу, быть связанным с, не мог вынести вида, оставаться верным своему делу, писать от (чьего-либо) имени,
наносить удар, призывать отстаивать независимость, неофициальный защитник интересов, принять закон, обещать награду,
воспользоваться случаем, посадить в тюрьму, столкнувшись с
решительной оппозицией, сплачивать, совершить чудо, установить личность, единый фронт.
Use each of these expressions in sentences of your own (write).
4. Find in the text and write the words defined as :
a. a bright green jewel,
b. very cruel or violent,
c. to make someone feel ashamed or stupid,
d. very loyal,
e. a weapon with a long sharp blade and a handle,
f. an official plan that is intended to achieve something,
g. to destroy or damage something very badly.
5. Consult the dictionary to learn:
a. the difference between “island” and “isle”,
b. the adjective which means “pertaining to the Middle Ages”,
c. the three forms of the verb “to lie”,
d. the different meanings of the noun “cause”.
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Oral Language Practice
1. Read the statements before the text again; agree, disagree,
2. Answer the following questions:
1. Why is Ireland called the Emerald Isle?
2. Like most of the writers of his days Swift excelled in many
fields. What do you know about his activities as a politician and a man
of letters?
3. What book made Swift’s name live for ever? Have you read it?
What is it about?
4. How many parts does his masterpiece “Gulliver’s Travels”
consist of?
5. What makes critics rank the book among the greatest satiric
writings in world literature?
6. Why did he write pamphlets?
7. Why did he write one of his pamphlets in the name of a drapier?
8. Why did he publish the pamphlet anonymously?
9. What great writer, generally known as novelist and playwright,
took an active part in the Irish fight against Britain?
10. How long did it take Ireland to become independent?
3. Comment on the extract from Swift’s poem “On the Death of
Doctor Swift” (1739). Use the phrases: 1. to start your comment; 2. to
continue your comment, 3. to conclude your comment:
1. a. What is probably meant here is…
b. As far as I know it concerns…
2. c. In addition to this I’d like to say that…
d. There’s one more thing I’d like to add that…
e. I’d like as well add that…
3. f. In conclusion I’d like to say that…
g. To make a long story short…
…Fair liberty was all his cry.
For her he stood prepared to die;
For her he boldly stood alone;
For her he oft exposed his own.
Two kingdoms, just as faction led,
Had set a price upon his head;
But not a traitor could be found
To sell him for six hundred pound.
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4. Speak on a) geographical position of Ireland; b) Ireland before
the English domination; c) Ireland under English oppression during
the 12th – 17th centuries; d) J. Swift as an Irish patriot; d) The Drapier’s Letters as Swift’s most successful attack against the English authorities.
5. Restore the logical order of the events described in the following text: 1- , 2- , 3- , 4- , 5- , 6- .
The Easter Rebellion
a) The Citizen Army and the Volunteers joined forces and began
preparation for an insurrection. The date set was Monday of Easter
Week 1916, when most of the officers in the British military garrisons
would be out of town. The strength of the Irish forces was small.
Moreover, in several provincial towns where the attacks were to be
launched at the same time as in Dublin, nothing happened. Despite
this the Irish decided to go on with the uprising. On April 24, 1916
they captured several key points in Dublin and promulgated Ireland an
independent republic.
b) The Irish people stiffened in anger and wrath. The spirit of
revolution that the Ester Week men had failed to inspire in their attacks on Dublin had been aroused by their deaths in the prison yard.
The stage was set for the next and final fight for freedom. But it took
several years of severe fighting and many more losses for Ireland to
gain the independence.
c) The Irish patriots hastened to form their own military organizations, drilling troops for a fight against the gangs of Ulster. The Irish
Republican Brotherhood and Sinn Feiners (Sinn Fein –“ourselves
alone”) organized the soldiers of the Irish volunteers. The Labour Party in Dublin established the Irish Citizen Army. It was commanded by
James Connoly and Sean O’Casey.
d) In 1910 the British Government offered Ireland a mild form of
Home Rule (full self-government in regard to purely Irish affairs).
Opposition was at once started in Ulster where an armed force was organized by Protestants. They were backed by the generals of the British Army’s occupation troops in Ireland.
e) The British rushed troops into the city and opened heavy machine and artillery fire. Most of the buildings round the Post office,
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where the Irish headquarters were housed, were destroyed and the
Post Office burned. After holding out a week the Irish were finally
forced to surrender. Then the British authorities took their revenge:
the participants of the uprising were court -martialled and shot or sentenced to long terms of penal servitude. James Connoly, badly
wounded at the Post Office, was carried to the execution on a stretcher.
f) “We declare the right of the people of Ireland to the ownership
of Ireland, and to the unfettered control of Irish destinies, to be sovereign and indefeasible. The long usurpation of that right by a foreign
people and government has not extinguished the right, nor can it ever
be extinguished except by destruction of the Irish people. In every
generation the Irish people have asserted their right to national freedom and sovereignty; six times during the past three hundred years
they have asserted it in arms. Standing on that fundamental right and
again asserting it in arms in the face of the world, we hereby proclaim
the Irish Republic as a Sovereign Independent State, and we pledge
our lives and the lives of our comrade-in-arms to the cause of its freedom, of its welfare, and its exaltation among the nations.”
6. Word study: a) find in the text all words close in meaning to the
word ‘revolution’ and discuss the difference between them; c) give
English equivalents for: относительно чего-либо, поддерживать,
объединить силы, назначить дату, начать атаку, захватить ключевые пункты, пулемет, отомстить (взять реванш), участники восстания, судить военным трибуналом, быть раненым, приговорить
на долгие сроки каторжных работ, начать последний этап борьбы
7. Retell the text “The Easter Rebellion”, follow the plan: reasons
and immediate cause of rebellion, preparation and forces, leaders,
course of rebellion and its result, reasons of defeat, significance of the
8. Render the main ideas of the following text in English.
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Поэты восстания
Среди руководителей “пасхального” восстания 1916 года были ирландские поэты Падрик Пирс ( Padric Pearse, 1879 – 1916),
Томас МакДонах (Thomas MacDonagh, 1878 – 1916) и Джозеф
Планкетт ( Josweph Plunkett, 1887 – 1916). Их подписи стоят под
прокламацией, объявившей Ирландию независимым государством, свободной и суверенной (sovereign) республикой. Пирс был
избран председателем (chairman) временного (provisional) республиканского правительства. Именно он от имени восставших
огласил прокламацию об образовании Свободной Ирландской
республики. После подавления восстания английскими войсками
Пирс, Макдонах и Планкетт были казнены в числе других республиканских вождей.
Народ Ирландии сохранил о них память как о “поэтах восстания”. Вся их жизнь была отдана делу борьбы за свободу и независимость родной страны. Пирс был не только поэтом и профессиональным революционером, но и известным педагогом. Он
основал школу, в которой воспитывалась любовь к национальным традициям и литературе. Кроме общеобразовательных (academic) предметов в этой школе преподавали ирландский язык и
ирландскую литературу. Одним из преподавателей этой школы
был Томас МакДонах.
Хотя талант этих поэтов не успел раскрыться в полной мере
(to the full), их творчество (literature work) сыграло значительную
роль в развитии революционной ирландской поэзии. Их стихотворения, которые появлялись в периодической печати и отдельными сборниками, отмечены стремлением активно содействовать
освобождению своей родины от колониального гнета. В своей
речи на суде Падрик Пирс сказал: “Я рад, что мы выступили. Это
только кажется, что мы потерпели поражение (suffered a defeat).
Отказ от борьбы означал бы поражение, борьба – это победа. Мы
сохранили верность прошлому и передали наши идеалы будущему”. Поэт оказался прав. Самый факт провозглашения Ирландии
республикой в дальнейшем изменил всю последующую историю
этой страны.
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9. Continue the story about Irish history after the Ester Rebellion.
10. Topics for discussion in the form of a conference, talk show or
a. Outline of Irish History.
b. Fight of Ireland for independence.
c. Irish patriots.
d. A man who dedicated his life to the cause of liberty.
f. The fall of the English colonial empire.
g. Uprising that played a considerable role.
Unit II
Grammar: Modal verbs (must, should/ought to)
Text: Standing in the Pillory
Grammar Exercises
1. Combine part “a” and part “b”. Translate the sentences into
ought to
oughtn’t to
change his point of view.
have changed our time-table.
be discussing the strict measures.
respect your opinion.
have been given a chance.
help the old.
2. Paraphrase the italicized sentences using “must” to convey
probability. (Be careful to use the right form of the infinitive.)
1. Can you make out what is written in this line? – No. Probably,
the author forgot to correct a misprint. 2. He is very good at business.
I am sure, he has had good teachers. 3. Look! There is light in his
study. I’m almost sure, he is still working. 4. Have they got a reference library here? – Yes, I think, they have. It is probably on the
second floor. 5. The Sports Gazette has doubled its circulation of late.
No doubt, it has gained great popularity with the public. 6. There are
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many mistakes in your work. I’m certain, you have forgotten to look it
3. Give advice using “should” (shouldn’t) or “ought to”
(oughtn’t to):
Model: He is rather poor at figures. a) He should take lessons in
maths. b) No matter. He shouldn’t go in book-keeping.
1. Her handwriting is hardly readable. 2. She looks very tired.
3. My friend wants to do all the sights of Moscow in three days. 4. He
longs to acquire a good command of English. 5. He’d like to tour in
the extreme North. 6. Her eyes are getting weak.
4. Respond to the following statements expressing disapproval or regret (сожаление). Use Modal verbs from ex. 3 plus Perfect Infinitive.
Model: A: He didn’t answer her letter and she was much worried.
B: No wonder she was. He should have answered her letter at once.
1. He told a lie to his friends and they never believed him again.
2. She jeered at her brother and he was greatly offended. 3. He refused
to follow any directions and lost his way. 4. She was not tolerant to
her neighbours and they had no desire to keep her company. 5. He
made a gross mistake in the translation. 6. She has lost her temper.
The Text
Before reading the text, decide if the following statements are true
or false.
a) Daniel Defoe, the famous English writer, was a frequent visitor
of the Royal Exchange.
b) In his pamphlet “The Shortest Way with the Dissenters” he
criticized the government and the State church.
c) He called upon the English government and the State church to
take strict measures against the Dissenters.
d) In the 17th century the Dissenters were those who refused to
accept the doctrines and practices of the State church.
e) In his pamphlet Defoe declared that the Dissenters should be
immediately executed.
f) On reading the pamphlet the church authorities thanked the author and rewarded him with the flower-garland.
g) The Londoners drank his health.
h) Pillory is the soft object you rest your head on when you sleep.
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Read the text to see if you are correct; translate the text paying
attention to the Modal verbs.
Standing in the Pillory
About noon, on Thursday, July 29, 1703 a rather smallish figure
stood on a wooden platform before the Royal Exchange in the financial centre of London. His neck and wrists were held in the openings
of a cross-shaped frame and over his head there was an inscription that
recited the accusation: the man standing in the pillory had written an
ant-government pamphlet. The man was Denial Defoe and the pamphlet – The Shortest Way with the Dissenters.
The Dissenters were those who refused to accept the doctrines
and practices of the established state church. Most of them were the
Whigs and radicals, and the Tories, the party in power, did their best
to keep them out of office. The Act of Toleration of 1689 secured the
Dissenters from persecution. Under the Act they were tolerated – but
no more than tolerated. No Dissenter could hold state or municipal office unless he joined the established church.
At the turn of the centuries there was much talk from reactionary
peers and bishops about dependence of government on religion and
how heresy and schism inevitably led to rebellion. So a new Bill
against the Dissenters was to be considered by the Parliament.
At the height of the discussion Defoe issued a pamphlet. What
Defoe did in the Shortest Way with the Dissenters was to parody the
violence of the established state church and the Tory writers. The Dissenters had been treated too leniently, he declared. This kind of thing
should continue no more. The Dissenters ought to be hanged or annihilated in any other way. There need to be no delay. The government
had to be more severe with them. It should have long taken strict
measures against the Dissenters.
Defoe’s caricature came off so brilliantly and it was so true to life
that at first his irony was taken in earnest. For some time the champions of the church rejoiced and the Dissenters were panic-stricken.
But very soon the truth leaked out and the anger of the church authorities and the Tories was intense. Defoe was found guilty of the “breach
of the peace” and sentenced to stand in the pillory.
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So the last three days of July found Defoe standing in the pillory
exposed to the sun’s heat and the crows. An offender punished in this
way was considered lucky if he escaped with his life from the shower
of brickbats and paving stones which were hurled at him. But as Defoe stood there a remarkable thing happened. The crowd far from jeering at him, cheered him instead. Cheered him and drank his health
while the pretty flower-girls garlanded his pillory with flowers. The
authorities found to their horror that the exhibition in the pillory was
an occasion of triumph and not ignominy to Daniel Defoe.
Be ready for reading and translation presentation of passages 4,
5, 6.
Word Study and Writing Practice
1. Write out international words from the text and translate them
into Russian.
2. Complete the chart with the correct form of the word:
to anger
to rebel
to violate
3. Of the following words match up opposite in meaning:
lenient, radical, accept, expose, establish, tolerate, leak out, triumph, refuse, pour into, persecute, failure, annihilate, reactionary,
conceal, ignominy, strict, honour
4. Find in the text and write the English equivalents for :
закон, законопроект, по закону, в разгар дискуссии, занимать
должность, нарушение общественного порядка, стоять у позорного столба, не допускать на государственную должность, на рубеже веков, принимать жесткие меры, защищать от преследований,
признать виновным в…, приговорить к…, спастись от смерти,
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принять за чистую монету, пить за здоровье, жизненно правдивый.
Use nine of these expressions in sentences of your own.
5. Find in the text a word defined as:
1. a belief that is different from the official beliefs of a particular
region is …………..
2. cruel and unfairly treatment of someone, especially because of
their beliefs is ………..
3. a piece of writing, music etc. or an action that copies someone
or something in an amusing way is ………
4. a funny drawing or description of someone that makes them
seem silly is ………..
5. the joint between your hand and arm is ………..
6. a suitable time or reason to do something is ………
7. a feeling of shame and embarrassment is ……….
8. Christian priest of high rank ……
6. Render the main ideas of the text in English in the form of a dialogue.
Чернышевский у позорного столба
В 1861 году в России была отменена крепостная зависимость
(serfdom). Но реформа не на много улучшила положение крестьянства (peasantry). Крестьянские массы ответили на “освобождение” вспышками восстаний. Все они были жестоко подавлены.
В том же, 1861 году, была создана подпольная (secret) организация “Земля и воля”. Ее идейным вдохновителем был Чернышевский. Он пользовался огромной популярностью среди революционно настроенной молодежи. Царское правительство и правящие круги считали его опасным врагом. За Чернышевским
было установлено тайное наблюдение (secret control).
В начале 1862 года у одного из знакомых Чернышевского
конфисковали письмо от А.И. Герцена (Alexander Herzen). Герцен
находился в политической эмиграции. В этом письме он предлагал наладить издание журнала “Современник” в Лондоне или
Женеве (Geneva). Редактором (editor) и издателем этого журнала
был Чернышевский. Письмо послужило поводом для обвинения
Чернышевского в антигосударственной деятельности.
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В июне 1862 года издание журнала было приостановлено.
Месяцем позже Н.Г. Чернышевский был арестован и заключен в
Петропавловскую крепость. Следствие (investigation) по делу
Чернышевского длилось два года. 5 февраля 1864 года он был
приговорен к ссылке на каторжные работы на 14 лет. Остальные
годы своей жизни ему предстояло провести в ссылке в Сибири.
19 мая 1864 года на Мытнинской площади в Петербурге состоялась гражданская казнь Чернышевского. Его поставили к позорному столбу, на грудь повесили доску с надписью “государственный преступник”. Палач переломил шпагу над его головой.
На площади собралась большая толпа, главным образом студенческая молодежь. Студенты выражали свое уважение к Чернышевскому и негодование его палачам. Из толпы на эшафот кто-то
бросил цветы. Хотя площадь была оцеплена полицейскими, они
были бессильны прекратить демонстрацию сочувствия
(sympathy) великому революционеру.
7. Write a precis on the text “Standing in the Pillory”. (Remember the rules of writing a precie).
Oral Language Practice
1. Mark the false statements and disagree with them using the
formulas of disagreement:
a) The Dissenters did not accept the doctrines and practices of the
established state church. b) The Dissenters did not enjoy equal rights
with those who belonged to the Church of England. c) Under the Act
of Toleration (1689) the Dissenters could hold any office in the state.
d) The new Bill to be introduced in Parliament at the turn of the centuries was to secure the Dissenters from persecution. e) Daniel Defoe
was a spokesman for the Church of England. f) In his pamphlet he
called upon the government to take strict measures against the Dissenters. g) Defoe was sentenced to stand in the pillory because he spoke
against the Dissenters. h) Standing in the pillory was a mild punishment easy to bear. i) As a rule people who gathered to watch the offender expressed their sympathy with him. j) The exhibition in the pillory turned out to be an occasion of triumph to Daniel Defoe.
2. Act as a journalist interviewing D. Defoe a) before the court
trial, b) after the civil execution.
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3. Describe the financial centre of London a) as it is, b) on July
29, 1703.
4. Speak on the events using the information from the text and an
extract from the pamphlet in the name of: a) D. Defoe, b) a Dissenter,
c) a champion of the Church of England.
“The Shortest Way with the Dissenters;
or Proposals for the Establishment of the Church”
by Daniel Defoe
It is near fourteen years, (1688 – 1702), that the glory and peace
of the purest and most flourishing Church in the world has been eclipsed, buffeted, and disturbed by a sort of men, whom, GOD in His
Providence, has suffered to insult over her, and bring her down. These
have been the days of her humiliation and tribulation. These have
borne with an invincible patience, the reproach of the wicked; and
GOD has at last heard her prayers, and delivered her from the oppression of the stranger.
And the strangers find their Day is over, their power gone, and
the throne of English nation possessed by a Royal, English, true, and
ever constant member of, and friend to, the Church of England. Now,
they find that they are in danger of the Church of England’s just resentments. Now, they cry out, “Peace!” “Union!” “Forbearance!”
and “Charity!”: as if the Church had not too long harboured her
enemies under her wing and nourished the viperous blood, till they
hiss and fly in the face of the Mother that cherished them.
But the time of mercy is past. Day of Grace of these gentlemen is
over, they should have practiced peace, and moderation, and charity,
if they expected any themselves!
The first execution of the Laws against Dissenters in England was
in the days of King James I. The worst they suffered was, at their own
request, to let them go to New England, and erect a new colony; and
give them great privileges, grants, and suitable powers; keep them
under protection, and defend them against all invaders; and receive
no taxes or revenue from them.
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This was the cruelty of the Church of England, fatal lenity. It was
the ruin of that excellent Prince, King Charles I. Had King James sent
all the Puritans in England away to the West Indies, the Church of
England had been kept undivided and entire.
It needs to examine the reasons Dissenters pretend to give, why
the Anglicans should be favourable to them and why the Anglicans
should continue and tolerate Dissenters among themselves.
First. They are very numerous. That are a great part of the nation, and the Church of England cannot suppress them.
But they are not so numerous as the Protestants in France: and
yet the French King effectually cleared the nation of them, at once.
The more numerous, the more dangerous; and therefore the more
need to suppress them. ………………….
5. Topics for role play, talk show or essay writing:
a. D. Defoe a writer and a political figure.
b. The court trial.
c. Dispute in the House of Commons.
d. Execution of D. Defoe.
e. History of Great Britain at the turn of the 17th – 18th
f. Church of England.
g. Dissenters in Great Britain.
h. J. Swift vs D. Defoe.
Unite III
Grammar: Subjunctive Mood
Text: International Auxiliary Tongue
Grammar Exercises
1. Combine part “A” and part “B”. State whether the condition is
real or unreal and what time the condition is referred to. Translate the
sentences into Russian.
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A. Condition
1. If I want a book to read.
2. If she is in good health.
3. If the child was left alone,
4. If I want a reference book,
5. If he asks you for help,
B. Consequence
I borrow it from my friend.
she goes to her office on foot.
I shall go to the library.
do what you can.
video camera watched him.
1. If I wanted a book to read,
2. If she were in good health,
3. If I wanted a reference book,
4. If I were not doing my tasks now,
she would take part in our tour.
I would be playing computer games.
I would borrow it from my friend.
I would go to the university library.
1. If she had been in good health last I would have recognized him at once.
he would have done double.
she would have joined in the game.
2. If he had had more time to spare,
you would have met him.
3. If I had known him before,
you might have won a prize.
4. If you had been trained regularly,
5. If you could have expected he
might arrive,
2. State whether the following if-clauses are ‘real’ or ‘unreal’;
complete the sentences.
1. If he was at home last night … . 2. If they buy a new car next
month … . 3. If it were a fine day tomorrow … . 4. If I receive my
students’ grant this week … . 5. If I had enough money now … . 6. If
he won the grant next year … . 7. If he has time to spare … . 8. If I am
invited … . 9. If he had talent for business … . 10. If she had attended
the open lecture … . 11. If she arrived here in a week … . 12. If the
authorities had known the person who wrote “The Drapier’s Letters”
… .13. If D. Defoe had not written “The Shortest Way with the Dissenters” … . 14. If the cathedral and monastic schools could have accommodated the new studies and the increased number of students in
the 12th century … .
3. Replace the infinitive by the correct form of the subjunctive:
1. But for the old sagas we (to know) nothing about the legendary
heroes of the ancient past. 2. But for the invention of printing knowledge (to disseminate) so quickly as it did. 3. But for the French Egyptologist Champollion Egyptian hieroglyphs (to remain) a secret code
for many years. 4. But for Cyril and his elder brother Methodius the
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Russian ABC (to be) less complete and perfect. 5. But for the press,
radio, TV and the Internet modern life (be) quite different. 6. But for
the colonial expansion English (not to spread) so quickly throughout
the world.
4. Translate the following sentences paying attention to inversion.
1. Had Shakespeare written nothing but the sonnets, he would still
have to be accorded a very high position in world literature. 2. Were
the atomic energy used for creation instead of destruction, it would be
an immense help in remaking nature. 3. In 1811 Byron entered the
House of Lords. Had his interest lain in that direction, he might have
had a brilliant political career. 4. Had this facts been fully appreciated
by the Allied Generals at the time the war would have taken a different course. 5. Had the author concentrated upon a single aspect of his
subject, his study would have proved easier to read.
5. Put each verb in brackets into a suitable form. Remember to
use Past Simple for wishes about the present, Past Perfect for wishes
about the past and could/would+infinitive for wishes about the future.
1. This train journey seems endless. I wish we (go) by car. 2. I
wish I (have) the money to buy some new cloths, but I can’t afford
any at the moment. 3. I wish the government (do) something about the
pollution in the city. 4. I’m getting really soaked. I wish I (not forget)
my umbrella. 5. That was a lovely meal, but I wish I (not eat) so
much. 6. I’m afraid I have no idea where Diana has gone. I wish I
6. Change the following “sorry” or “pity” sentences into “wish”
1. It’s a pity that I have only five minutes left. 2. We are sorry that
you haven’t any time to spare. 3. I’m sorry that I can’t speak your language. 4. I’m sorry that I don’t know where she is. 5. They are sorry
that they forgot to give you the message. 6. It’s a pity he thought so
much about himself. 7. It’s a pity that he took it in earnest.
The Text
Before reading the text, decide if the following statements are true
or false.
a) An international auxiliary tongue is an international language
intended to replace the mother tongue.
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b) The idea of the international auxiliary tongue was elaborated
by Descartes and rejected by Leibnitz.
c) Latin, Greek, Arabic used to be international languages at various times in history.
d) If a national language is adopted as an international tongue the
people of one particular nation will be given advantages over all others.
e) The chief objections to choosing Latin as an international tongue is that it is too difficult to learn.
f) The so-called dead languages possess the prime requisite of
g) An invented language should be adopted as an international
auxiliary tongue.
Read the text to see if you are correct; translate the text paying
attention to Subjunctive Mood.
International Auxiliary Tongue
At various times in history some language has had a predominant
position in the world or in a large part of it. In the West Greek, Latin,
Arabic, Italian and French used to hold such a pre-eminent position
and now, in a way, English.
By an international auxiliary tongue is meant an international language for use in intercourse between peoples of different mother tongues. It is intended to assist and not to replace the mother one. The
idea of this kind of language is by far not a modern one. In fact, it was
a subject treated by philosophers several hundred years ago, notably
by Descartes and Leibnitz. Over two hundred systems have been devised in the last 300 years.
Three classes of languages present themselves for consideration:
living or national languages, dead languages and, finally, artificial or
synthetic languages.
Concerning the first class, many think that some national tongue
ought to be adopted as an international language. A brief consideration of the facts, however, should easily reveal the fallacy of adopting
a national language for the purpose.
There is no doubt that if any language were chosen as an international auxiliary tongue, the favoured nation would be given advantag22
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es over all others. The country would be relieved of the necessity of
learning any secondary language at all. It would be required that other
countries should learn the selected national language in addition to
their mother tongues. It is obviously impracticable to adopt a living
language for the purpose.
This leads to a consideration, therefore, of the second class, i. e.,
the so-called dead languages and the possible adoption of Latin, Greek
or Sanskrit. They all possess the prime requisite of neutrality. It has
often been proposed that Latin should be chosen for the role. The
chief objection, however, is the great difficulty to learn any of the
dead languages. In their unmodified, inflected forms they are too
cumbrous to meet all modern conditions.
The only practical solution of the problem, as it may seem, is to
adopt an artificial or invented language. An artificial language may be
invented anew and may have nothing in common with natural languages; it may be based upon elements borrowed from natural tongues; it may be a modification or simplification of some dead or existing language. The best-known example of an “unnatural” language is
Esperanto. The language invented by Zamenhof, a doctor and linguist
from Warsaw, employs Latin script, has phonetic orthography and vocabulary most common to the majority of the European languages.
Be ready for reading and translation presentation of passages 4,
5, 6.
Word Study and Writing Practice
1. Complete the chart with the correct form of the word. Translate
the words into Russian.
Noun Verb Adjective Adverb
to present
to conclude
to employ
2. Find in the text and write the English equivalents for:
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относительная ценность, родной язык, подобная идея, далеко
не новый, в действительности, за последние / в течение 200 лет, в
качестве международного языка, краткое рассмотрение фактов,
для этой цели, в различные исторические периоды, занимать исключительное положение, решение проблемы, удовлетворять
всем современным условиям, приводить к заключению, главное
возражение, так называемые мертвые языки, освобождать от необходимости, преимущество над всеми остальными
Use nine of these expressions in sentences of your own.
3. Find in the text the words defined as:
a) formed by artificial means; b) superior to others in influence,
authority or importance; c) a mistaken idea; d) a question to be solved;
e) at last; f) having to do with many nations; g) the soft part inside
your mouth that you use for tasting and speaking; h) the first language
you learned as a child; i) someone who is good at languages; j) careful
thought; k) to put out of place; l) coming after the primary; m) the importance or usefulness of something.
4. Find in the text words close in meaning to:
assisting, benefit, aim, uncertainty, evidently, to plan, significance, requirement, principal, to discuss, short, to free from, to demand, opposition.
5. Use the following phrases in sentences of your own (write):
In face of…, by far not, in fact, in the world or in a large part of
it, to hold a privileged position, to give advantages over all others, to
be relieved of the necessity of…, for the purpose, to present for consideration, the favoured nation, to meet all modern conditions.
6. Consult the dictionary to learn whether “tongue” and “language” are always interchangeable. What can you say of the following: a foreign language or a foreign tongue; to hold one’s tongue or to
hold one’s language; animals don’t possess language or animals don’t
possess tongue; the languages of Europe or the tongues of Europe; to
have a good command of language or to have a good command of
tongue; technical language or technical tongue; the gift of tongues or
the gift of languages; her sharp tongue or her sharp language.
7. Write a precis or a summary on the text “International Auxiliary Tongue”.
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Oral Language Practice
1. Read the statements (a –g) before the text; agree, disagree,
comment. Remember about formulas of agreement and disagreement.
2. Ask ten questions to the contents of the text. You have a lucky
chance to interview a famous linguist on the problem. Choose the situation and act accordingly:
a) English linguist/s/ – English journalists;
b) English linguist/s/ – Russian journalists – interpreter;
c) Russian linguist/s/ - English journalists – interpreter.
3. Speak on a) a national language, b) a dead language, c) a synthetic language as international auxiliary tongues, giving arguments
for and against.
4. Speak on (choose) Greek, Latin, Arabic, Italian or French as international tongues in history: when, how, why they held a privileged
position and then were displaced from it.
5. Answer the following questions:
What is the role of the English language nowadays?
Why is it more important to study English than other foreign languages?
What’s the reason for your learning English? What are the advantages of having a good command of English?
What’s Distance Learning?
What role does Internet play in learning / teaching English?
Are you for or against the process of globalization in the sphere of
The following text might be helpful when answering the questions.
English around the World
The development of global English is a natural process and it is
not imposed on by some governments, politicians etc. In his interview
Tom McArthur, Editor of English Today says, “A ‘global nervous system’ i.e. an electronic network, whether it is radio, TV, cinema or the
Internet and the World Wide Net, is highly unlikely to be in English
alone, but English will probably dominate it. The situation may
change but at the moment English is the high language and it tends to
flow into everything else, downward, like water”.
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Firstly, despite being more than 2700 languages in the world,
English has grown into the language of international communication,
English being spoken by one billion – that is approximately 20% of
the world’s population. Incredibly enough, 75% of the world’s mail
and 60% of the world’s telephone calls are in English. It is also the
language of business, international conferences, and symposia.
Secondly, English is the language of Information Technology.
Not just in the sense that technical computer language is English, but
also in the sense that electronic mail lists and information on the Internet are overwhelmingly in English. New Information Technologies
allows everybody, at any time receive whatever knowledge he wishes.
It is remarkable nowadays that education does not belong to any particular university, country, community, or ideology. This new technology leads to the long-life education that is practically impossible
without DE and the Internet. “The internet will carry 30 times more
digital stuff than it does now. Over the next 20 years, everything that
has been written, composed, performed and painted will have been digitized. And because of the Internet it’ll be available to anyone of any
culture that wants to look at it,” Dr. John Tailor predicts.
Thirdly, we are entering the Information Age. Education is shifting more and more toward services, and toward knowledge. The number of people who wish to learn English has grown dramatically. Different people learn English but their purpose in learning and their attitude to the language are different to. They need English quickly. They
simply need good enough English for their particular purpose. They
want English as a tool. There is cognitive interest: to learn for the sake
of learning, seek English for its own sake, to satisfy an inquiring
mind. And learners try to use different new methods in revising, maintaining old skills, or mastering new ones. Whether their aim is simply
to be understood clearly, to persuade, or to make a good impression,
the teacher’s job is to develop their language to the necessary level
and in the appropriate skills to achieve that aim. In making decisions
about balance of skills taught and selecting which lexis, structures of
grammar or functions to teach, the key word is needs. And the only
technique that can satisfy these needs is new information technologies
and DE.
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6. Watch video “Adventure of English” (medialab. uniyar. ac.
ru). This film about extraordinary adventure of English from 500 A.D.
to 2000 consists of eight parts:
1. about how successive invasions threatened and destroyed English;
2. about when English went underground and how it survived and
fought back;
3. about how the English language fought to become the language
of God;
4. about how it became the language of Shakespeare;
5 – 7. about English in America, islands in the Caribbean sea, India, Australia;
8. about the international English language of business in the 21st
Choose to watch any part of the film and report in class on what
you saw and learned.
7. Topics for conference, role play, talk show or essay:
a. World language available to millions.
b. International auxiliary tongue (history
of the problem).
c. Advance of English.
d. Russian as an international tongue.
e. English provides a variety of possibilities.
f. Languages are rich sources of cultural expression
and knowledge.
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Section II
1. Grammar revision
I, ex. 1
I, ex. 3
I, ex. 4
I, ex. 6
II, ex. 2
II, ex. 3
II, ex.4
III, ex.3
III, ex.4
III, ex.5
III, ex.5
1, 11
2, 12
3, 13
4, 14
2. Written Translation (A), Discussion (B), Summary
(C) Practice
Review the course of “Passive English Grammar”: Infinitive, Participle,
Gerund, Emphatic Construction, Modal Verbs, Subjunctive Mood, Passive Voice to overcome grammatical difficulties in translating original
historical texts.
The English articles are not translated. However, sometimes they should be
translated as: a/an – некий, какой-то; один; the – этот, тот самый.
Remember! A few/a little – несколько; few/little – мало; since – с, с тех
пор, как; так как, поскольку; as – в то время как, когда, хотя, так как, поскольку; как; while – пока, несмотря на то, что; тогда как, в то время как;
не переводится перед причастием; it – он она, оно.
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Text 1 (A, B, C.)
At the turn of the 19 and the 20th centuries the English people
“found a new vein of gold”, as one of the leading literary magazines,
the Athenaeum, put it, - Russian literature. Since then there have been
a few creative writers in England who have not pointed to the Russian
novel as one of the most stimulating elements in the cultural atmosphere of the country.
“…I recommend you to read the Russians, especially Tolstoy,
Turgenev and Chekhov. Perhaps you have read them – if so, read
them again, and try to grasp the sincerity of impression that runs all
through them” (J. Galsworthy, 1912).
“…The Russian novel has now the vogue, and deserves to have
it” (M. Arnold, 1886).
“These books have changed our lives, no less. What would it like
to be without them!” (K. Mansfield, 1921).
It is true that the acquaintance with Russian letters in England
was made long before the 1890s, a considerable body of Russian fiction being available in translation since the beginning of the century.
However, it made very little impact. Of all foreign influences that had
entered into English literary heritage none has been so completely dependent upon it. Not only the public who read the great Russian novels but also the critics who commented upon them were, for the
greater part, utterly ignorant of the originals. In addition, most of the
early translations were clumsy and inadequate. It was not until the advent of Constance Garnett that the public had the opportunity of reading the works of the great Russian writers in really good English.
To translate Russian literature she started to learn Russian. Being
a gifted linguist, Constance managed to overcome all the difficulties
in a relatively short time and soon could read Russian as if she had
known it since childhood. She was very anxious lest her poor knowledge of Russian life should provoke some gross mistakes and oddity.
Her friends advised her to go to Russia so that she might acquire a better understanding of the people whose literature she was going to introduce to her countrymen. Her two sojourns in Russia, short as they
were, proved to be of invaluable importance for her translation.
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The work performed by Constance Garnett was really gigantic.
Since 1894, when her first Turgenev’s volume came out, and almost
up to her last days she was translating Russian classics: Dostoevsky,
Chekhov, Tolstoy, Gorky. As one of the English critics holds, but for
her genius and astonishing industry, the history of the 20th century
English literature would have been a very different thing.
/”Translated by Constance Garnett” from “English for History
Students” by M.A. Shereshevskaya, Leningrad University Press,
B. (discussion)
1. What is the easiest thing (mark+) and the most difficult one for
you (mark -)
a) to speak English,
b) to read English.
c) to write English,
d) to translate from English into Russian?
Could you explain reasons of your choice?
2. Write out characteristics of bad translation from the text. How
did C. Garnett manage to overcome difficulties?
3. Put letters in the correct order to form a word that defines professional and excellent translation: q, e, t, a, u, a, e, d (you can find its
antonym in the text).
C. (write a summary)
Text 2 (A)
To write an adequate translation you should convey a) sense, b) style of the
original text and c) observe standard of the Russian language.
In 1715, proud of his twenty-one years, he went to Paris, just in
time to be at the death of Louis XIV. The succeeding Louis being too
young to govern France, much less Paris, the power fell into the hands
of a regent: and during this quasi-interregnum life ran riot in the capital of the world, and the young Voltaire ran with it.
He soon achieved a reputation as a brilliant and reckless man.
When the Regent for economy sold half the horses that filled the royal
stables, Voltaire noticed how much more sensible it would have been
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to dismiss half the asses that filled the royal court. At last all bright
and naughty things whispered about Paris were fathered upon him;
and it was his ill luck that these included the poem accusing the Regent of desiring to usurp the throne. The Regent raged and, meeting
the youth in the park one day, said to him, “My young friend, I will
wage that I can show you something that you have never seen before.”
“What is it?” – “The inside of the Bastille.” Voltaire saw it the next
day, April 16, 1717.
While in the Bastille he adopted, for some unknown reason, the
pen-name Voltaire, and became a poet in earnest and at length. Before
he had served eleven months he had written a long and not unworthy
epic, the Henriade, telling the story of Henry of Navarre. Then the
Regent having discovered, perhaps, that he had imprisoned an innocent man, released him and gave a pension. Whereupon Voltaire wrote
thanking him for so taking of his board, and begging permission hereafter to take care of his lodging himself.
/from “The Story of Philosophy” by W. Durant, New York, 1962/
Text 3 (A, B)
The barbarous population of the Russian plain was far withdrawn
from the thoughts, ideals, and activities which, during the Middle
Ages and afterwards, moulded the life of the Latin and Teutonic races.
In this wild, half-Asiatic country there was no use of Latin or scholastic philosophy, no mediaeval analogue to the University of Paris or the
Parliament of Westminster. The great movements which shook the
west meant nothing to Russia. Here Popes did not quarrel with Emperors, setting alight in the process a flame of political discussion which
laid bare the origins and credentials of the state. Here was no renaissance of classical learning, quickening into new life the intellectual
ardour of a cultured people, no Protestant Reformation backed by
princes and breaking and transforming the Catholic Church. And as
the Russians pursued their way without Latin or scholasticism, without parliament or university, without a literature of political debate or
a sustained challenge to religious tradition, so they were spared the
wars of religion which for two centuries moulded the life and fashioned the moral being of western Europe. In these decisive spiritual
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experience of the west, “Holy Russia,” slumbering in oriental seclusion, had no share.
/from “A History of Europe”, volume I “From the Earliest Times
to 1713” by H. A L. Fisher, Great Britain, 1986/
a) That’s how Mr Fisher begins Chapter XXXII “Mediaeval Russia” in his book. Do you like this introductory passage? Do you share
his point of you? If not, give your arguments.
b) What would you write if you were to introduce Russian history
from the earliest times to 1713 to the reader? (Work in small group)
c) Suggest the plan for the chapter outlining the main events.
(Work in small group)
Text 4 (A, C)
A great deal of time and energy has been wasted in attempts to fix
the responsibility for the World War I upon this or that state or politician. Arguments about the Austrian ultimatum to Serbia, the exact
date of mobilization of the respective armies have a certain academic
interest; but they cannot affect that main fact, which was that for more
than a decade Europe had been divided into two rival imperialistic
groups, each heavily armed and seeking to expand at the expense of
the other.
It is not true that the Balkan question was the main cause of the
War, but it was here that the greatest possibilities of diplomatic aggravation existed, it is to this area that we must turn for the War’s immediate cause. And Serbia became the focus of all disturbances till this
barbarous little state acquired an eminence in the European politics
out of all proportion to its population or importance.
For this there were two reasons. First, the spinal cord of German’s
eastern design, vital to her development as an imperialist power, was
the railway to Constantinople, part of a projected Berlin to Baghdad
route that would ensure the vassalage of Turkey and threaten the British and Russian positions in Persia and India. This route passed
through Serbia, and so long as Serbia was under Russian control an
essential link was missing. In the second place, Serbia became the
weapon with which Russia is known to have been working for the disruption of the Austrian Empire.
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/from “A People’s History of England” by A. L. Morton/
Text 5 (A, C)
The currents of social economic thought generated and developed
by the school of Owen and the anti-capitalist criticism reached, in the
year from 1825 onwards, the thinking portion of the British working
class and created Chartism, which constituted a series of social revolutionary attempts to re-organize the United Kingdom on a socialist and
labour basis.
Chartism, in its essence and aims, resembled the international socialist and labour movement of the present day. But, having had no
precedent to be guided by, it was deficient in coherence of thought
and systematic policy. It presents itself as an elemental class-war, rising and falling in curves between enthusiastic upheavals and apathetic
inertia. Only its immediate aim – the conquest of political power – appears to have been grasped with unmistakable distinctness and energy.
But owing to lack of a national organization and popular education it
was impossible for it to become a permanent and victorious movement. To the eye of the historian it takes the form of a pioneer movement of socialists and mass of workmen. During its theoretical period
(1831 -34) illuminating ideas flashed out with meteoric suddenness
and disappeared just as abruptly, leaving scarce a trace behind. And
during the practical period (1837 -42) theoretical discussions were not
favoured, lest they should be a hindrance in the struggle for the immediate aim – to seize the reins of government as quickly as possible:
“Peaceably if we may – forcibly if we must.”
/from “A History of British Socialism” by M. Beer/
Text 6 (A)
Translate the extract from the proclamation (Unit I, the text “The
Easter Rebellion”, passage f, p. 10). Remember about its solemn style.
Text 7 (A)
Translate Swift’s poem from Unit I, p. 8. Preserve its poetical
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Text 8 (A)
Translate Defoe’s pamphlet (an extract) from Unit II, p. 18. Remember about Defoe’s irony.
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