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204.Практикум по совершенствованию владения английским языком (на материале текстов по психологии человека для неязыковых специальностей)

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации
Федеральное агентство по образованию
Ярославский государственный университет им. П.Г. Демидова
Кафедра иностранных языков
ПРАКТИКУМ
по совершенствованию владения английским языком
(на материале текстов по психологии человека
для неязыковых специальностей)
Рекомендовано
Научно-методическим советом университета
для студентов специальности Психология
Ярославль 2006
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УДК 811.111
ББК Ш 143.21я73
П 69
Рекомендовано
Редакционно-издательским советом университета
в качестве учебного издания. План 2006 года
Рецензент
кафедра иностранных языков ЯрГУ им. П.Г. Демидова
Составители:
Т.Г. Клименко, Е.А. Невская, Н.Г. Срибная, Т.В. Чвягина
П 69
Практикум по совершенствованию владения английским
языком (на материале текстов по психологии человека для неязыковых специальностей) / Сост. Т.Г. Клименко, Е.А. Невская,
Н.Г. Срибная, Т.В. Чвягина; Яросл. гос. ун-т. Ярославль: ЯрГУ,
2006. – 60 с.
Практикум содержит аутентичные материалы и предназначен
для совершенствования владения английским языком. Материал
практикума состоит из трех частей.
В части I совершенствуются навыки владения устной речью.
Части II и III направлены на развитие практических навыков
перевода с английского языка на русский и наоборот.
Практикум предназначен для студентов, обучающихся по специальности 020400 Психология (дисциплина "Иностранный язык
(английский)", блок ГСЭ), очной формы обучения.
УДК 811.111
ББК Ш 143.21я73
© Ярославский государственный университет, 2006
©, Т.Г. Клименко, Е.А. Невская, Н.Г. Срибная, Т.В. Чвягина, 2006
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PART I
UNIT 1. SENSATION and PERCEPTION
1 .Match the following definitions with the words given below.
Give your own definitions of them.
a) Cells specialized to detect certain types of energy and convert it
into neural activity.
b) Senses that are spread throughout the body rather than located in
a specific organ.
с) Decreasing responsiveness to an unchanging stimulus over time.
d) Mental process resulting from stimulation of a sense organ.
e) The portion of vertebrate central nervous system enclosed within
the skull that constitutes the organ of thought and neural coordination.
f) The increasing ability to see in the time passes
g) The mental interpretation of physical sensations produced by
stimuli from the external word.
1) Brain
2) Adaptation
3) Dark adaptation
4) Receptors
5) Sensation
6) Perception
7) Somatic senses
2. What is the difference between sensation and perception?
3. A visual illusion occurs when two objects produce exactly the
same retinal image but are perceived as different images. Illusions are
incorrect but not abnormal.
– Give your own definition of a visual illusion. When does it occur?
4. Perceptual processes have four characteristics; they are automatic, selective, contextual and creative.
How do you understand these characteristics? Give examples to illustrate them.
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What You See Is What You’ve Learned
Part I
The fact that the sensory world (what you see, hear, touch, taste and
smell) usually appears to you in an organized way is due to your abilities of perception. Sensations are the raw materials for perception. Your
brain’s perceptual processes are involved in three general activities:
1) selecting the sensations to pay attention to;
2) organizing these into recognizable patterns and shapes;
3) interpreting this organization to explain and make judgments
about the world.
In other words, perception refers to how we take this jumble of sensations and create meaning.
The perceptual strategy you probably use the most is called figureground. We appear to have a natural tendency to divide sensations into
figure and ground relationships. It makes the world a much more organized place.
Other organizational strategies we use routinely to create order and
meaning out of those chaotic sensations are called “perceptual constancies”. These refer to our ability to know that the characteristics of objects stay the same, even though our sensations of them may change
drastically. One of these is shape constancy. You perceive the shape of
the chair, for example, to be unchanged even though you angle of vision
changes.
Another one of these techniques is size constancy. You perceive a
familiar object as being the same size, regardless of its distance from
you.
Are these perceptual abilities learned or inborn. Research with individuals who were blind at birth and who later gain their sight has suggested that our ability to perceive figure-ground relationships is, at least
in part, innate, that is, present from birth. Perceptual constancies, on the
other hand, are clearly a product of experience.
Could a situation exist in which a person might grow to adulthood
and not posses some of these perceptual talents? Well, Turnbull’s brief
report published 30 years ago shed a great deal of light on these questions.
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Tasks:
1. Answer the questions:
1) What are general activities of the brain?
2) What perceptual strategies of the brain do you know?
3) Are these perceptual abilities learned or inborn?
2. Retell the text.
Part II
Turnbull is not a psychologist, but rather an anthropologist. In the
late 1950s and early ‘60s he was in the dense Ituri Forest in Zaire studying the life and culture of the Bambuti Pygmies. His primary method of
research was naturalistic observation; that is observing behavior as it
occurs in its natural setting. He was accompanied by a young man
(about 22 years old) named Kenge, who was from one of the local Pygmy villages. Kenge always assisted Turnbull in his research as a guide
and introduced him to groups of Pygmies. One day they reached the
eastern edge of a hill that had been cleared of trees for a missionary station.
Because of this clearing there was a distant view over the forest to
the high Ruwenzori Mountains. In the jungle where Kenge had spent his
entire life, there were no long-range views. He had never in his life seen
great distances. Looking out across the plain, Kenge saw a herd of buffalo grazing several miles away. He turned to Turnbull and asked what
kind of insect they were! Turnbull replied that they were buffalo even
bigger than the forest buffalo Kenge had seen before. Kenge just laughed at what he considered to be a stupid story. Well, Turnbull got into the
car and drove with Kenge to the grazing animals steadily increase in
size, he was afraid. As they approached the buffalo and he could see
them, he wondered if there was some of trickery going on.
This research report illustrates how we acquire our abilities called
perceptual constancies. They are learned as a result of experience. In the
jungle, where Kenge lived, vision was limited to about a hundred feet.
Therefore there was no opportunity to develop size constancy and even
no need to do so. But it is possible that these same groups of Pygmies
may have a more highly developed ability for figure ground relationships. The logic here is that it is extremely important for the Pygmies to
distinguish those animals (especially the potentially dangerous ones)
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that are able to blend into the surrounding background vegetations. This
perceptual skill would seem less necessary for people living in a modern
industrialized culture.
Tasks:
1. Dramatize this story.
2. Retell the text and express the most important idea of it.
Are our visual abilities inborn or learned?
One of the most often told anecdotes in psychology concerns a man
called S.B. (initials used to protect his privacy). S.B. had been blind his
entire life until the age of 52, when a newly developed operation was
performed on him and his sight was restored. However, S.B.’s new ability to see did not mean that he automatically perceived what he saw the
way the rest of us do.
One example of this became evident soon after the operation. He
looked out his hospital window and was curious about the small objects
he could see moving on the ground below. He began to crawl out on his
window ledge, thinking he would lower himself down by his hands and
have a look. Fortunately, the hospital staff prevented him from trying
this. He was on the fourth floor, and those moving things were cars!
Even though S.B. could now see, he was not able to perceive depth.
The central question is whether our visual abilities are inborn or
learned.
Depth perception is an inborn survival mechanism that does not require experience to develop. Do you agree?
Kenge (by Turnball) had the ability to perceive depth but he didn’t
have the experience necessary to develop the visual skill “size constancy”.
The question of whether perceptual abilities are innate or learned
continues to be debated. The truth may lie in a compromise that proposes an interaction between nature and nurture. Perhaps, as various studies
have indicated, depth perception is present at birth, but fear of falling
and avoidance of danger is learned through experience.
Task:
1. Retell the text.
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*****
The question of whether certain experiences produce physical
changes in the brain has been a problem of research for centuries. By
the 1960s new technologies had been developed that gave scientists the
ability to measure brain changes.
Mark Rosenzweig and his colleagues at the University of California
applied these technologies to a number of experiments to study the effect of experience on the brain. It has been found that enriched environmental experiences influence brain development. When a person develops a greater number of skills and abilities, the brain actually becomes more complex and heavier. For example, in a blind person’s
brain, the portion of the cortex used for vision is significantly less developed and thinner than in the brain of a person with normal sight.
Marian Diamond, one of the researchers, has applied the results of
work in this area to the process of human intellectual development
throughout life. She says: “We can take a more optimistic view of the
aging brain… The main factor is stimulation. The nerve cells are designed for stimulation. And I think curiosity is a key factor. If one maintains curiosity for a lifetime that will surely stimulate neural tissue and
the cortex may in turn respond… I looked for people who were extremely active after 88 years of age. I found that the people who use
their brains don’t lose them”.
Tasks:
1. Answer the questions:
1) What is meant by “enriched environmental experiences”?
2) How can you prove interdependence between anatomy, physiology and psychology?
3) What is curiosity?
2. Give the title to this text and retell it.
SAD
Seasonal affective depression (SAD) or disorder is a tendency to
become depressed and anxious during the short-daylight months of winter. Mild SAD patients feel generally down and without energy, but crit7
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ical cases often complain of terrible lethargy, deep depression, a desire
to sleep late in the mornings and early at night, severely antisocial behavior and a strange craving for heavy and sweet food.
The infectiousness of winter’s gloom is no new phenomenon – the
Finns, for example, have always had to live with it – but it is only recently that psychologists have confirmed its existence clinically and begun to offer psychological explanations for it. It has been shown, for example, that people particularly sensitive to SAD can have their depression alleviated by sitting in bright artificial light, and that the light stimulus acts mainly through the eyes rather than the skin.
The precise cause is not yet known, but it is believed to involve a
complex reaction between various hormones and neurotransmitters in
the brain.
Task:
Retell the text.
Extrasensory Perception
Our eyes, ears, mouth, nose and skin provide us with sensory information about the external world. Our perceptions are based on our interpretation of this sensory information. Extrasensory perception (ESP)
is perception that occurs without the use of known sensory processes.
The majority of psychologists do not believe in ESP, however, a small
number of psychologists do investigate it. Extrasensory experiences fall
into 4 main categories. The first is telepathy, which involves the transfer
of thought from one person to another. Precognition involves “knowing” events before they happen. For example, a fortune teller tells you
what will happen to you in future.
Clairvoyance [klεə′voiəns] involves the ability to perceive remote
events that are not in sight. Psychokinesis is a closely related phenomenon of being able to move objects without touching them.
Tasks:
1. Speak about your attitude to ESP.
2. Working in pairs make up a dialogue based on the text. Try to
persuade your interlocutor if his/her opinion is different from yours.
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UNIT 2. LEARNING AND CONDITIONING
From birth to death, we are always learning. Understanding the
principles of learning helps us discover how and why we behave the
way we do. Sometimes, we learn associations between signals or cues.
But learning is more than this. We also mentally represent, store and use
information that affects learning. What we think, how we feel, and what
we see all have an impact on what we do. Blend in practice and feedback, mix well and you have all of the ingredients of the learning
process.
Tasks:
1. Answer the questions:
1) What is learning? How can you define this process?
2) What are the ingredients of learning?
3) What is meant by “blend in practice and feedback”?
2. Match the following definitions with the words given below. Give
your own definitions of them.
a) A process in which responses are learned on the basis of their
rewarding or punishing consequences.
b) A process in which a person or animal stops trying to exert control after experience suggests no control is possible.
c) Learning that is not demonstrated at the time it occurs.
d) A mental representation of the environment.
e) A sudden understanding about what is required to produce a desired effect.
f) An event or stimulus that decreases the likelihood of a behaviour
that precedes it. Can involve removal of something desired or presentation of something not desired.
g) If a response made to a particular stimulus is followed by satisfaction, that response is more likely to occur the next time the stimulus
is present.
h) A relatively permanent change in behaviour or knowledge due to
experience.
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1) law of effect
2) punishment
4) learned helplessness 5) operant conditioning
7) learning
8) insight
3) cognitive map
6) latent learning
Skinner
Skinner was called a radical behaviorist because he believed that all
behaviour in either human or non-human animals is caused, shaped and
maintained by its consequences. To put it in basic terms: If, in a given
situation, you behave in some way and your behaviour is followed by a
rewarding event (such as food, praise, or money), you will tend to behave that way again. On the other hand, if you do something that produces an unpleasant event (such as pain, or embarrassment), you will be
less likely to do that again in identical or similar situations. Rewarding
events are called “reinforcement” and unpleasant events are called “punishment”. Skinner called this learning process operant conditioning. It
may be diagrammed as follows:
Situation→Behaviour→Consequence
Reinforcement = Learning
Punishment = No learning
Tasks:
1. Speak of Skinner and his theory.
2. Comment on the diagram.
3. Say whether you agree that punishment always means “No
learning”
4. Speak of conditions under which unlearning process called extinction occurs.
5. Say whether you agree with Skinner’s ideas about the causes of
human’s behaviour. If not, give your reasons.
The following words may be of help to you:
purposes, goals, values, choice, perceptions of self, perceptions of
others, the personal constructs.
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Applications of Classical Conditioning
There are few scientists who have had as much impact in any single
discipline as Pavlov. Classical conditioning is one of the fundamental
theories on which modern psychology rests.
One of the applications of Pavlov’s discoveries is in advertising. In
fact, the entire advertising industry has at its foundation the principles of
classical conditioning. Most television and magazine advertisements are
trying to pair a product with something producing a positive response.
One study exposed subjects to either pleasant or unpleasant music while
they were looking at advertisements for competing products. Results indicated that the products paired with the pleasant music were preferred
over those paired with the unpleasant music, even though all the products were essentially the same.
One more research involving classical conditioning, is in the field
of behavioral medicine. Recent research has found that the activity of
the immune system can be altered by using Pavlovian principles. If it is
so, there is reason to believe it may be possible one day to strengthen
your resistance to illness (a conditional response) by exposing yourself
to a non-medical conditioned stimulus.
One fascinating application of classical conditioning theory involves a new and promising technique for treating post-traumatic stress
disorder (PTSD), a debilitating psychological condition that may follow
an extremely traumatic event such as military combat, natural disasters
or personal assault such as rape.
People suffering from PTSD exhibit diminished interest in activities, social withdrawal, anxiety, memory problems, sleep disturbances
and periodic psychological re-living of the traumatic event. The study
reports on a new method of classical conditioning, in this case, a desensitizing, of small eye movements. While this is a purely reflexive response, the Pavlovian conditioning treatment appears to be effective in
reducing the negative psychological effects of the disorder.
Tasks:
1. Speak of Pavlov’s contribution to psychology.
2. Define classical conditioning.
3. Speak of all applications of Pavlov’s discoveries mentioned in
the text.
4. Write a short summary of the text.
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Learned Helplessness
Martin Seligman, a well-known and influential behavioral psychologist, maintains that our perceptions of power and control are learned
from experience. He believes that when a person’s efforts at controlling
certain life events fail repeatedly, the person may stop attempting to exercise control altogether. If these failures happen often enough, the person may generalize the perception of lack of control to all situations,
even when control may actually be possible. This person becomes helpless and depressed. Seligman termed this cause of depression learned
helplessness. He developed his theory at the University of Pennsylvania,
in a series of now classic experiments that used dogs as subjects.
Seligman argued that people respond to failure in various ways:
– Attributing the failure to an internal cause (themselves) or to an
external cause (other people, circumstances).
– Attributing the failure to a stable cause (likely to continue in future) or to an instable cause (might easily change in future).
– Attributing the failure to a global cause (applying to a wide range
of situations) or to a specific cause (applying only to one situation).
People with learned helplessness tend to attribute failure to internal,
stable and global causes.
Tasks
1. Answer the questions:
1) What is learned helplessness?
2) How is it formed?
3) In what ways do people respond to failure?
2. Give some characteristics of people with learned helplessness.
Make use of the words and word-combinations given below in sentences
of your own:
situational factors; personal characteristics; passivity; giving up;
lack of aggression; slowness to learn that a certain behaviour is successful; weight loss; social withdrawal; death of a loved; an abusive parent;
the loss of a job or serous illness; permanent or temporary state; to
attribute the lack of control to…
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Freud & Watson
Freud’s psychoanalytic view of human behaviour was based on the
idea that we are motivated by unconscious instincts and repressed conflicts from early childhood.
In simplified Freudian terms, behaviour and specifically emotion, is
generated internally through biological and instinctual processes.
In the 1920s a new movement in psychology known as behaviorism
headed by Watson, began to take hold. The behaviorist viewpoint was
radically opposed to the psychoanalytic school and proposed that behaviour is generated outside the person through various environmental or
situational stimuli. Therefore, Watson theorized, emotional responses
exist in us because we have been conditioned to respond emotionally to
certain stimuli in the environment.
In other words, we learn our emotional reactions, in fact Watson
believed that all human behaviour was a product of learning and conditioning as he proclaimed in his famous statement of 1913.
“Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own special
world to bring them up in, and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random
and train him to become any type of specialist I might select – doctor,
artist, merchant – chief and , yes, beggarman and thief”.
Watson had 2 fundamental goals in all his work:
а) to demonstrate that all human behaviour stems from learning &
conditioning;
b) to demostrate that the Freudian conception of psychology, that
our behaviour stems from unconscious processes, was wrong.
Tasks:
1. Relell the text.
2. Express your viewpoint on the nature of human behaviour.
Motivation
Why do we do what we do, and how do we feel about it? That question is central to the study of motivation and emotion. Research in many
subfields of psychology contributes to the search for answers.
Motivation includes the factors that influence the initiation, direction, intensity and the persistence of behaviour. Part of the motivation
for behaviour is to feel certain emotions, such as the joy of finishing
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some work or becoming a parent. Motivation also affect emotion when
hunger makes you more likely to become angry when people annoy
you. So, motivation and emotion are closely interwoven. Motivation
cannot be directly observed. Its presence is inferred from what we can
observe.
Motivation helps explain why behaviour changes over time. For example, many people cannot bring themselves to lose weight or give up
smoking until they experience a heart attack or other serious health
problem. Then, however, they may be motivated to eat a low-fat diet,
give up tobacco, and exercise regularly.
Human motivation stems from four main sources. First, we can be
motivated by biological factors such as the need for food, water, sex and
temperature regulation.
Second, emotional factors can motivate behaviour. Panic, fear, anger, love and hatred can underlie behaviour ranging from selfless giving
to brutal murder.
Cognitive factors provide a third source of motivation. Your perceptions of the world, your beliefs about what you can do and your expectations of how others will respond generate certain behaviours.
Fourth, motivation can stem from social factors, including reactions
to parents, teachers, siblings, friends, television and other social forces.
For example, have you ever bought a jacket or tried a particular
hairstyle, not because you liked it but because it was “in fashion”? The
combined influence of such social factors on motivation deeply affects
almost all human behaviour.
No single theory gives a complete explanation of all aspects of motivation. However, each of the four prominent ones – instinct theory,
drive reduction, theory, arousal theory and incentive theory – helps tell
part of the story.
Tasks:
1. Retell the text.
2. Express your viewpoint on sources of motivation.
3. Speak of the relations between learning and motivation.
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UNIT 3. UNDERSTANDING PERSONALITY
What are the sources of consistent behaviour patterns? Is our behaviour shaped by the situation we are in or by the type of person we are?
This is the basic question asked by personality theorists and researchers.
They answer this question in many different ways.
To help make sense of the wide range of personality theories proposed over the past ninety years, we describe five general approaches to
explaining personality. These are the psychoanalytic approach, the trait
approach, the humanistic approach, the behavioral/social approach and
the cognitive approach. Each of the major theories of personality fits into one of these five general approaches.
But why so many theories of personality? I’ll try to answer this
question by way of analogy. Nearly everyone has heard the story about
the five blind men who encounter an elephant. Each feels a different
part of the animal and then tries to explain to the others what an elephant is like. The blind man feeling the leg describes the elephant as tall
and round. Another feels the ear and claims an elephant is thin and flat,
while yet another describes the long, slender elephant he feels when
holding onto the trunk. The man feeling the tail and the one touching the
elephant’s side have a different image. The point to this story, of course,
is that each man knows only a part of the whole animal. Thus, while
each is partly correct, because he does not acknowledge that there is
more to the elephant than he has felt, each provides an incomplete description of the animal.
In one sense, the five approaches to personality are analogous to the
five blind men. That is, each approach does seem to correctly identify
and examine an important aspect of human personality. For example,
psychologists who subscribe to the psychoanalytic approach argue that
people’s unconscious minds are largely responsible for important differences in their behaviour styles. Other psychologists who favour the trait
approach identify where along a continuum of various personality characteristics a person might lie. These psychologists often point to inherited predispositions to explain individual differences in personality. In
contrast, those advocating the humanistic approach identify personal responsibility and feelings of self-acceptance as the key causes of differences in personality. Behavioral/social learning theorists explain consis15
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tent behaviour patterns as the result of habits learned from exposure to
certain kinds of environments. Finally, those promoting the cognitive
approach look at differences in the way people process information to
explain differences in behaviour.
Obviously, each of the five approaches we describe is of some value when explaining the existence of consistent behaviour patterns. No
doubt some theories will make more sense to you than others. But it is
worth keeping in mind that each approach has been developed and promoted by a large number of respected psychologists. While not at all of
these men and women are correct about every issue, each approach has
something of value to offer in our quest to understand what makes each
of us who we are.
Humanistic Approach to Understanding
Human Behaviour
There are no agreed-upon definitions of what constitutes a humanistic personality theory. Nevertheless, it’s possible to say that the following four elements are central to the general view on humanistic approach to psychology. These four are:
1) an emphasis on personal responsibility.
People themselves choose to remain in the relationships or to break
them. They choose to be active or passive. They are not at the mercy of
forces but active shapers of their own lives. One goal of humanistic
psychotherapy often is to get clients to accept that they have the power
to do or to be whatever they desire. But, as Erich Fromm observed, for
many this freedom is frightening.
2) an emphasis on “here and now”.
According to humanistic perspective, we can’t become fully functioning individuals until we learn to live our lives as they happen. Some
reflection on one’s past or future can be helpful, but too much time
spent on these activities is time lost, for you can only live life fully if
you live it here and now. Past experience shouldn’t dictate how to live
now. Humanistic personality theorists reject the idea that personalities
are shaped in childhood. They say: “people don’t need to remain shy
only because they have always been shy.
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3) an emphasis on the phenomenology of the individual.
No one knows you better yourself. So, emphasis is made on subjective experience rather than on objective reality. Therefore, great importance is given to awareness of self (values, aims, sufferings, desires). He
knows better how to overcome obstacles.
Humanistic psychologists consider a man inherently good.
4) an emphasis on personal growth.
People are motivated to continue their development in a positive
manner. Carl Rogers refers to this as “becoming fully functioning personality”. Abraham Maslow gives the term “self-actualization”. Of
course, some problems and forces can prevent us from progressing.
When these obstacles block our growth, humanistic psychology can be
helpful.
Tasks:
1. Speak about various approaches to understanding the causes of
human behaviour described in the text.
2. Give your reasons to explain the variety of approaches to understanding one and the same thing.
3. Retell the story with the five blind men.
4. Look through the first part of the text again and characterize
each approach using the following words and word combinations.
those who promote
1) the way people process information;
those who favour
2) habits learned due to certain environment;
those who subscribe to 3) our personal responsibility and the feeling of
self-acceptance;
those who advocate
4) individual differences determined by genetic
make up; inherited predispositions;
5) unconscious processes, instincts.
Speak about strong and weak points of each approach as you see
them.
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5. Say whether you know which approach the following personality
psychologists belong to.
Sigmund Freud
Carl Rojers
Kurt Levin
Hans Eysenck
Abraham Maslow
Harold Kelly
Henry Murray
Frederick Skinner
Alfred Adler
Carl Jung
John.B. Watson
Gordon Allport
6. Speak about Russian psychologists’ view on approaches to understanding human behaviour.
Personality by S. FREUD
Freud proposed that personality consists of three components: the
id, the ego, and the superego.
The id consists of basic biological urges, such as hunger, thirst and
sexual impulses. Whenever these needs are not met, the id generates
strong motivation for the person to find a way to satisfy them, and do so
immediately! Regardless of reason, logic, safety or morality. Freud believed that there are dark, antisocial and dangerous instinctual urges
(especially sexual ones) present in everyone’s id. You are not usually
aware of these because the id operates on the unconscious level, on
what Freud called “the pleasant principle”.
According to Freud, the ego operates on the “reality principle”,
which means it is alert to the real world and the consequences of behaviour. The ego is conscious, its job is to satisfy your id’s urges but to do
so using means that are rational, socially acceptable and reasonably safe.
However, the ego also has limits placed upon by the superego.
Your superego requires that the solutions the ego finds to the id’s needs
are moral and ethical, according to your own internalized set of rules
what is good or bad. These rules were instilled in you by your parents. If
you behave in ways that violate them your superego will punish you
with its own effective weapon: guilt. Do you recognize this? It is commonly referred to as your conscience. Freud believed that superego operates on both conscious and unconscious levels. So, the ego is constantly trying to balance the needs and the urges of the id with the moral
requirements of the superego in determining your behaviour.
Here is an example of how this might work. Imagine a 16-year-oldboy strolling down the street in a small town. It is 10 p.m. and he is on
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his way home. Suddenly he realizes he is hungry. He passes a grocery
store and sees food on the other side of the large windows but the store
is closed. His id might say, “Look! Food! Jump through the glass and
get some!” (Remember, the id wants immediate satisfaction, regardless
of the consequences.) He would probably be not aware of the id’s suggestion because it would be at a level below his consciousness. His ego
would “hear it, though and since its job is to protect the boy from danger it might respond, “No, that would be dangerous. Let’s go around
back, break into the store and steal some food!” At this, the superego
would remark indignantly, “You can’t do that! It’s immoral and if you
do it I will punish you!”. So, his ego reconsiders and makes a new suggestion that is acceptable to both the id and the superego. “You know,
there’s an all-night fast food place four blocks over. Let’s go there and
buy some food.” This solution, assuming that the boy is psychologically
healthy, is the one that makes it to his consciousness and is reflected in
his behaviour.
Tasks:
1. Describe the Freudian model of personality.
2. Dramatize the example with the boy strolling down the street.
Defense Mechanisms
According to Freud, if the unacceptable urges of the id force their
way into your consciousness (into what Freud called the “preconscious”) and begin to overpower the ego, you will experience a very unpleasant condition called anxiety. It is uncomfortable and we are motivated to change this state. To do this the ego will bring on its “big
guns”, called the defense mechanisms. The purpose of the defense mechanisms is to prevent the id’s forbidden impulse from entering consciousness. If this is successful, the discomfort of the anxiety associated
with the impulse is relieved.
You might be asking: How do the defense mechanisms ward off
anxiety? Well, they do it through self-deception and the distortion of reality so that the id’s urges will not have to be acknowledged.
Anna Freud identified 10 defense mechanisms that have been described by her father. Five of them that are most commonly used and
recognized today are: repression, regression, projection, reaction forma19
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tion and sublimation. The primary function of the defense mechanisms
is to alter reality to protect against anxiety.
1. Repression is the most basic and commonly used mechanism of
defense. Repression protects a person from anxiety by forcing disturbing impulses out of consciousness. If this is accomplished successfully,
the anxiety associated with the impulses is avoided. This is often referred to as “motivated forgetting”. In Freud’s view, repression is often
employed to defend against the anxiety that would be produced by unacceptable sexual desires. These hidden impulses may be revealed
through slips of the tongue, through dreams or by the various techniques
used in psychoanalyses, such as free association. Furthermore, repressed
desires can create psychological problems that are expressed in the form
of neuroses.
2. Regression is a defense used by ego to guard against anxiety by
causing the person to retreat to the behaviour of an earlier stage of development that was less demanding and safer. Often when a second
child is born into a family, the older sibling will regress to using earlier
speech patterns, wanting a bottle, etc.
3. Imagine for a moment that your ego is being attacked by your id.
You’re not sure why but you are experiencing a lot of anxiety. If your
ego uses the defense mechanism of projection to eliminate the anxiety,
you will begin to see your unconscious urges in other people’s behaviour. That is you will project your impulses onto others. This externalizes the anxiety-provoking feelings and reduces the anxiety. You’ll be
not aware that you’re doing this, and the people onto whom you project
will probably not be guilty of your accusations. An example of this offered by Anna Freud involves a husband who is experiencing impulses
to be unfaithful to his wife. He way not even be conscious of these
urges but they are creeping up from his id and are creating anxiety. To
ward off the anxiety, he projects his desires onto his wife becomes intensely jealous and accuses her of having affairs, even though there is
no evidence to support his claims.
4. According to Freud, sublimation is the only truly successful defense mechanism. Unlike repression, the more we use sublimation, the
more productive we become. Sublimation is the channeling of negative
id impulses into socially acceptable actions. For example, your aggressive id impulses can get you into trouble if you direct them at the people
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you might want to. But sublimating these impulses into, say, boxing or
football, is acceptable.
5. Using reaction formation a person attempts to hide from a threatening idea or urge by acting in a manner opposite to his or her unconscious desires. For example, a young woman who constantly tells people
how much she loves her mother could be masking strong unconscious
hatred for her mother.
Tasks:
1. Answer the questions to the text.
1) What are the defense mechanisms that are most commonly used
and recognized today?
2) What is the primary function of the defense mechanisms?
3) How does repression protect a person from anxiety?
4) How does regression work?
5) In what way does projection reduce anxiety?
6) What is the nature of sublimation?
7) How does reaction formation operate?
8) What other defense mechanisms do you know?
2. Read and translate the definitions of some other defense mechanisms.
Displacement is channeling our impulses to a non-threatening object, that is expressing aggression at somebody else instead of the one
who provoked it.
Denial is refusal to accept that some fact exists. A person insists
that something is not true, despite all evidence to the contrary.
Intellectualization is handling threatening material by removing
emotional content from the idea.
Rationalization is attempts to make actions or mistakes seem reasonable.
3. Match the following situations with the defense mechanisms they
describe.
1) Instead of recognizing that “I hate him” a person may feel that
“He hates me”.
2) Anger at one’s boss is expressed through hostility toward a family member or even the dog.
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3) “That I spank my children is not a mistake. I do it because it’s
good for them.”
4) A person experiences loss of memory for an unpleasant event.
5) A person insists that something is not true despite all evidence to
the contrary.
6) A husband who unconsciously desires other women becomes obsessively devoted to his wife.
7) A married adult “Goes home to mother” whenever there is a
problem in the marriage.
4. Discuss defense mechanisms.
Make use of the following words and word-combinations.
to disguise
to prevent
to push out of consciousness
to keep from reaching consciousness
to keep out of awareness
to channel impulses to
to refuse to accept the idea
to hide from a threatening idea
to remove the emotional content
to force out of consciousness
to attribute to
unwanted thoughts and ideas
unacceptable thoughts
and impulses
disturbing impulses
anxiety or guilt
threatening material
5. Retell the following text:
According to Freudian psychology, the person who has grown up
without successfully adjusting to the parent – child relationship or to his
own place in the family constellation may develop either of the following:
1) An Oedipus complex. The male so burdened is the typical “mama’s boy” who has been overprotected and overbabied and prevented
from maturing emotionally. Unconsciously, according to the Freudians,
he has a repressed desire to kill his father and marry his mother.
2) An Electra complex. This is the female version of the Oedipal
problem – the girl is hostile to her mother, in love with her father.
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K. JUNG
The experience that not everyone functions in the same way has
been the basis for numerous systems of typology. From earliest times
attempts have been made to categorize individual attitudes and behaviour patterns, in order to, explain the differences between people.
The oldest system of typology known to us is the one devised by
oriental astrologers. They classified character in terms of four trigons,
corresponding to the four elements – water, air, earth and fire. The air
trigon in the horoscope, for instance, consists of the three aerial signs of
the zodiac, Aquarius, Gemini, Libra; the fire trigon is made up of Aries,
Lea and Sagittarius. According to this old view, whoever is born under
these signs shares in their aerial or fiery nature and has a corresponding
temperament and fate; similarly for the water and earth signs. This system survives in modified form in present day astrology.
Closely connected with this ancient cosmological scheme is the physiological typology of Greek medicine, according to which individuals
were classified as phlegmatic, sanguine, choleric or melancholic, based
on the designations for the secretions of the body (phlegm, blood, yellow
bile and black bile). These descriptions are still in common linguistic use,
though medically they have long since been superseded.
Jung’s own model of typology grew out of an extensive review of
the type question in literature, mythology, aesthetics, philosophy and
psychopathology. Jung’s model is connected with the movement of
psychic energy and the way in which one habitually or preferentially
orients oneself in the world.
From this point of view, Jung differentiates eight typological groups:
two personality attitudes – introversion and extraversion – and four functions or modes of orientation – thinking, sensation, intuition and feeling –
each of which may operate in introverted or extroverted way.
Introversion and extraversion are psychological modes of adaptation. In the former, the movement of energy is toward the inner world.
In the latter, interest is directed toward the outer world. In one case the
subject (inner reality) and in the other the object (things and other
people, outer reality) is of primary importance.
Introversion, writes Jung “is normally characterized by a hesitant,
reflective, retiring nature that keeps itself to itself, shrinks from objects
and is always slightly on the defensive”.
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Conversely, extraversion is normally characterized by “an outgoing, candid, and accommodating nature that adapts easily to a given
situation, quickly forms attachments and setting aside any possible misgivings, will often venture forth with careless confidence into unknown
situations.”
In the extraverted attitude, external factors are the predominant motivating force for judgments,
perceptions, feelings, affects and action. This sharply contrasts with
the psychological nature of introversion where internal or subjective
factors are the chief motivation.
Extraverts like to travel, meet new people, see new places. They are
typical adventurers, open and friendly. The introvert is essentially conservative, preferring the familiar surroundings of home, intimate times
with a few close friends. To the extravert, the introvert is a stick-in-the
mud, dull and predictable. Conversely, the introvert who tends to be
more self-sufficient than the extravert, might describe the latter as flighty, a superficial gad-about.
In practice, it is not possible to demonstrate the introverted and
extraverted attitudes per se, that is in isolation. Whether a person is one
way or the other only becomes apparent in association with one of the
four functions, each of which has its special area of expertise.
The function of thinking refers to the process of cognitive thought,
sensation is perception by means of the physical sense organs, feeling is
the function of subjective judgments or valuation and intuition refers to
perception by way of the unconscious.
Briefly, the sensation function establishes that something exists,
thinking tells us what it is, feeling tells us what it’s worth and through
intuition we have a sense of what can be done with it (the possibilities).
Any one function by itself is not sufficient for ordering our experience
of ourselves or the world around us, all four, writes Jung, are required
for a comprehensive understanding. In practice the four functions are
not equally developed or differentiated in any individual. Invariable one
or the other is more developed, called the primary or superior function,
while the rest remain inferior, relatively undifferentiated. The terms
“superior” or “interior” do not imply value judgments. No function is
any better than any of the others. The superior function is simply the
one a person is most likely to use; similarly, inferior does not mean pathological but merely unused (or at least less used).
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To illustrate his typology, Jung tells the story of two youths, one an
introverted type, the other extraverted, rambling in the countryside.
They come upon a castle. Both want to visit it but for different reasons.
The introvert wonders what it’s like inside; the extravert is game for adventure.
At the gate the introvert draws back. “Perhaps we aren’t allowed
in”, he says – imagining guard dogs, policemen and fines in the background.
The extravert is undeterred. “Oh, they’ll let us in all right”, he
says – with visions of kindly old watchmen and the possibility of meeting an attractive girl.
On the strength of extroverted optimism, the two finally get inside
the castle. There they find some dusty rooms with a collection of old
manuscripts. As it happens, old manuscripts are the main interest of the
introvert. He whoops with joy and enthusiastically peruses the treasures.
He talks to the caretaker, becomes quite animated; his shyness has vanished. Meanwhile, the spirits of the extrovert have fallen. He becomes
glum, begins to yawn. There are no kindly watchmen, no pretty girls,
just an old castle made into a museum. The manuscripts remind him of a
library, library is associated with university, university with studies and
examinations. He finds the whole thing incredibly boring.
“Isn’t it marvelous?”, cries the introvert, “Look at these!” – to
which the extravert replies grumpily, “Nothing here for me, let’s go”.
Now he can think of nothing but that he’d rather be out of doors on a
lovely spring day.
Tasks:
1. Give a short summary of this text in the written form.
2. Characterize extraverted and introverted people.
3. Dramatize the story of the two youths.
Adaptors and Innovators
According to adaptation-innovation theory (Kirton, 1976, -91) each
worker can be classified as being more or less adaptive or innovative.
Roughly speaking, all individuals can be classified as adaptors or innovators.
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Adaptors are characterized as those who “produce enough ideas
based closely but on existing definitions of the problems and likely solutions” (Kirton, 1990). They are more concerned with doing better than
doing differently. They usually do not undertake any activities in the direction of changing their organizations. Adaptive solutions are directly
and obviously acceptable to the majority. Even if the solution fails,
adaptors are much more likely to be personally acceptable within their
organizations.
On the other hand, innovators usually change and reconstruct the
problems of their work. They prefer less acceptable solutions. Their effort is directed toward doing things in new ways, and not toward doing
things better or improving them. Their ideas may be opposed to the consensus of the group. So, the organizational climate of innovators appears
more risky, less understood and less respectful of the views of others.
Tasks:
1. Interpret or paraphrase the following words and wordcombinations from the text.
– adaptor
– innovator
– likely solutions
– they are likely to be personally acceptable
– be opposed to the consensus
2. Retell the text.
Creative Style of Behaviour
Creative style of behaviour is described by the following 10 dimensions:
1. Strong ego: concentration on problem solving, ability to cope
with anxiety due to the situation of the problem, ability to make decisions, low level of neuroticism.
2. Tolerance of cognitive dissonance: tolerance of controversy, conflict, divergence and lack of information.
3. Spontaneousness: self-acceptance, life probation, spontaneity
that determinates active programs of life.
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4. Flexibility of cognitive structures: originality and independence
of thinking, ability to use different types of methods for problem solving.
5. Aesthetic attitude: potential ability to find logical clear and aesthetic solutions.
6. Self-realization accomplishment tendency, strong motivation for
solving distant problems, ambition.
7. Internal locus of control: readiness to be guided according to an
internal value system, independence from external pressure, flexibility
of problem analyzing.
8. Autonomous cognitive motivation: ability to formulate long-term
and ambitious goals, satisfaction due to problem solving.
9. Originality: readiness to generate new and original solutions.
10. Non-conformity: non-conventionality, ability to defend one’s
viewpoint against external pressure, energy of action.
Tasks:
1. Explain in English the meaning of the following words and wordcombinations or paraphrase them:
– low level of neuroticism
– tolerance of cognitive dissonance
– distant problems
– ambition
– internal locus of control
– flexibility
– conformity; nonconformity
2. Speak about creative style of behaviour.
Procrastinators
Procrastinators are people who have a chronic habit of putting
things off, usually until the last minute and sometimes until it is too late
altogether. The most common reason that procrastinators themselves
give for their habit, which they are usually quite willing to change, is
that they are lazy. Other typical excuses are that they are undisciplined,
brilliant but disorganized or very poor at organizing their time.
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Some procrastinators, however, almost against their very nature, actually get as far as trying to do something about their nature and seek
help. Recent research with much people seems to suggest that their difficulties are much more complex than the procrastinators themselves think.
The general conclusions are that such people have a vulnerable sense of
self-worth, are particularly fearful of failure and deliberately put things
off precisely so that they never leave themselves time to produce their
best work. The reason for their delaying is that, since they do everything
at the last moment and under pressure, the procrastinators can retain their
illusion of brilliance without ever having to put it to the test.
Task:
Retell the text.
Traits of Successful Entrepreneurs
There have been many studies during the past few years that have
attempted to identify the characteristics of successful entrepreneurs.
One such study compared many of the lists already developed. Those
characteristics common to all or most of the lists indicated that an entrepreneur tends to have the following characteristics (information provided by James Gonyea, author of “The Entrepreneurial Assessment
Guide”):
1) high level of physical energy;
2) ability to set clear goals and plans to reach goals;
3) strong positive attitude;
4) high levels of moral strength;
5) willingness to take chance;
6) industrious – need to always be working at something;
7) takes the initiative in starting work;
8) high level of reasoning ability;
9) able to make decisions;
10) willing to lead others;
11) organized;
12) positive attitude toward others;
13) uses time effectively;
14) willing and eager to learn;
15) desire to satisfy the needs of others;
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16) able to change and adapt to a changing environment;
17) able to seek and find information needed to achieve their goals;
18) aggressive and hard working;
19) avoids procrastination;
20) has a determined persistence;
21) informed about latest trends and needs;
22) willing to take responsibility;
23) knows how to manage money;
24) able to motivate others;
25) always looking for opportunities;
26) willing to recognize and reward contributions of others;
27) restless – eager to do something new;
28) earns from failure and moves on.
Obviously not all entrepreneurs are alike, but based on a variety of
studies most of the successful ones have the above characteristics.
Task:
Read the text, then close the book and try to write down as many
characteristics as you can recollect. If you have some difficulty, do it
first in Russian, then translate consulting the text. You may work in
pairs.
Type A – Type B Behaviour Patterns
Some psychologists noticed that their heart attack patients seemed
to act differently than their other patients (Friedman, Rosenman, 1974).
Heart attack victims were more active, more energetic and more driving
than those without heart problems. In short, they seemed to have different personalities.
This personality dimension was identified as the coronary-prone
behaviour pattern. Today this dimension is more commonly referred to
as Type A – Type B. Strictly speaking, the name is somewhat inaccurate. Instead of identifying two types of people, A and B, we can better
understand the concept in terms of a trait continuum, with extreme Type
A people at one end and extreme Type B people at the other.
Typical Type A people are strongly motivated to overcome obstacles and driven to achieve and to meet goals. They are attracted to
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ger and action. They dislike wasting time and do things in a vigorous
and efficient manner. They often find easygoing people a source of frustration. On the other hand, Type B people are relaxed and unhurried.
They may work on occasions but rarely in the driven, compulsive manner of Type A people. They are less likely to seek competition.
David Glass and his colleagues conducted a serious of studies in the
1970s to identify the behavioral differences between Type A and Type
B people. Three major components of the Type A trait were found:
First, Type A people have a higher competitive achievement striving.
Second, they show a sense of time urgency.
Third, they are more likely to respond to a frustrating situation with
aggressiveness and hostility.
Glass concluded that these 3 features of the Type A behaviour pattern could be reduced to one underlying concept: a desire to exert control over the environment. Type A people usually perform better in
achievement situations. Type B’s do better at tasks that require some
thinking and careful consideration of ideas.
Tasks:
1. Say whether you agree that the term “Type A Behaviour pattern”
is inaccurate. If you do, give your reasons.
2. Describe Type A style of behaviour, Type B style of behaviour.
3. Speak about three major components of the Type A trait.
4. Say whether you agree that type A behaviour people are better
workers than type B’s.
5. You can get a rough idea of your behaviour pattern by examining
the list of Type A characteristics below to see how many apply to you.
1) Frequently doing more than one thing at a time.
2) Urging others to hurry up and finish what they are saying.
3) Becoming very irritated when traffic is blocked or when you are
waiting in line.
4) Gesturing a lot while talking.
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5) Having a hard time sitting with nothing to do.
6) Speaking explosively and using obscenities often.
7) Playing to win all the time even with children.
8) Becoming impatient when watching others carry out a task.
If you suspect that you are a Type A, you may want to consider a
more careful evaluation by a psychologist and take care of prevention a
heart disease. Some other risks of cardiovascular problems are high
blood pressure, smoking, obesity, inactivity.
Stress
The concept of stress is one that is widely used by both scientists
and the general public when discussing the interaction of a person with
the environment. The idea that external environmental changes can disrupt the internal stability of the individual found its earliest scientific
expression in the work of a French physiologist, Claude Bernard (1867).
The modern concept of stress, however, was most profoundly shaped in
the extensive work of the Canadian endocrinologist, Hans Selye, popularly known as “the father of stress”. He proposed that stress is a nonspecific bodily response to any demand made upon the organism. These
demands are considered to be stressors. Selye called this nonspecific response the General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS). He argued that it consists of three stages (phases).
The first, or alarm phase involves major biochemical changes in the
body, which occur when a stressor is first encountered. These changes
include increases in adrenalin, increases in heart rate and blood pressure, decreases in digestive processes and a heightening of all senses.
The second, or resistance phase, occurs when the stressor is being
dealt with in some way. The alarm responses disappear, the organism
calls for more careful use of the body’s resources. There is also much
use of coping strategies (e.g. denying that the situation is stressful).
The third, or exhaustion phase, occurs when the adaptive energy for
resisting the stressor is used up. The physiological system becomes ineffective and stress related disease (e.g. high blood pressure, heart disease)
becomes more likely. The alarm phase may be reactivated and the GAS
cycle repeated. If there is no alternative strategy, the organism may die.
The work of Selye, although enormously influential, focused attention on physical stressors and physiological stress responses. Current
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stress research places far greater emphasis on psychological stressors as
well as on psychological and social responses to those stimuli. This expansion of the concept of stress has resulted in new definitions of stress,
so that now there is considerable disagreement and debate about just
what stress is.
Tasks:
1. Look through the text again and reproduce the context in which
the following words and proper names were used.
Claude Bernard, Hans Selye, alarm, resistance, exhaustion
2. Reproduce the definition of stress given by Selye and say what is
meant by the words “demand” on the one hand and “nonspecific bodily
response” on the other.
3. Decipher the abbreviation GAS and say what it means.
4. Say whether there is any difference between Selye’s approach to
stress and current stress research.
5. Many psychologists agree that there are four major kinds of effects associated with the stressed state: emotional, physiological, cognitive and behavioral.
Classify stress effects according to these four criteria:
1) emotional
2) physiological
3) cognitive
4) behavioral
1) reduced work performance
2) poor concentration
3) feeling of anxiety and depression
4) increased physical tension
5) shut-down of digestive system
6) increased distractibility
7) expansion of air passages in lungs
8) reduced short-time memory capacity
9) disrupted sleep patterns
10) increased psychological tension
11) increased heart-rate
12) constriction of blood vessels
13) increased absenteeism
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Definitions of Stress
Even though stress is a popular term that is widely used by both
professionals and the general public, its meaning is not always clear.
There are many different definitions of stress most of which fall into
one of three categories: stress as stimulus, stress as response or stress as
a stimulus-response interaction.
In the stimulus definition, stress is considered to be a characteristic
of the environment that is disturbing or disruptive for a person. Thus,
stress is an external force that causes a reaction of strain within the individual. However, this definition has been criticized for its inability to
explain individual differences in response to the same level of stress and
its assumption that an undemanding (or boring) environment is an ideal
one because it is “stress free”.
In contrast to the stimulus definition of stress, the response definition considers stress to be a pattern of physiological or psychological
reactions exhibited by a person who is under pressure from a disturbing
or dysfunctional environment. Thus, stress is an internal response to external stressors. The major proponent of the stress-as-response definition has been Selye, who, as mentioned earlier, considered stress to be a
nonspecific response to any demand placed on the individual. However,
this position has become less popular as evidence has increased that the
stress response is variable rather than fixed and unchanged. Also, like
the stimulus definition, the response definition of stress does not clearly
explain individual differences.
A third approach to conceptualizing stress has been to combine the
stimulus and the response approaches and define stress as the consequence of the interaction between environmental stimuli and individual
responses. In addition to focusing on the continuing relationship, or
transaction between the person and the environment, this approach emphasizes intervening psychological processes, such as perception and
cognitive appraisal. Stress is considered to occur only when the person
perceives an external demand as exceeding his or her capability to deal
with it. Thus, the individual’s personal evaluation of the nature of the
demand, of the available resources and personal skills and of the presumed outcomes will determine the stress experience. This interactional
approach both recognizes and deals with individual differences.
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Most discussions of stress emphasize its negative qualities. Stress is
considered to be an upsetting or disruptive experience and a problem
that needs to be resolved through stress reduction.
However, stress has its positive side as well. External demands can
be challenges rather than threats, and challenges can stimulate creativity, improve performance and yield such personal benefits as satisfaction
and self-esteem.
The distinction between the negative and positive aspects of stress
was recognized by Selye who used the term distress to refer to “bad” or
disruptive stress and eustress to refer to “good” stress and its positive
outcomes.
Tasks:
1. There are three definitions of stress in the text. Reproduce them
and discuss their strong and weak points.
2. Give your own definition of stress.
3. Speak about possible positive aspects of stress.
Sources of Stress
What are the major sources of stress?
If to view stress as the result of external demands exceeding the individual capacity to respond, there are two categories of stress sources:
environmental and personal.
Environmental sources
Physical stimuli have been identified as sources of stress, for example, high level of noise, crowding and air pollution.
In most cases, attention has focused on excessive levels of these
factors, or overstimulation. But there is evidence that too little stimulation is also stressful, as in the case of isolation or sensory deprivation. In
general, the more the environment fails to satisfy the person’s needs or
interferes in the person’s pursuit of desired goals, the more stress it will
induce.
In addition to physical aspects of the environment much attention
has been given to social events as sources of stress. Among them are extreme situations, such as military combat, traumatic injury, natural disasters, terrorism, war, migration. Most stress research however has
shifted its attention from extreme situations to more normal life events.
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It has been shown that the quality of the events is more important than
the quantity of changes that are involved. Events that are involuntary,
undesirable and unexpected (e.g. illness, injury, premature death of a
loved one, divorce or job loss) are the ones most consistently linked to
stress outcomes.
Personal sources
There have been several approaches to elucidating the role of the
individual in stress experience.
The first approach is to look for personality characteristics that
make people susceptible to stress.
One such characteristic is trait anxiety (a dispositional tendency to
perceive situations as threatening and to respond to them with greater
anxiousness. Much attention is given to the individual with a Type A
personality, who typically behaves in an ambitious, aggressive, competitive, and impatient way. This behaviour pattern puts the individual
at greater risk for heart attacks.
Another approach has focused on individual differences in people’s
responses to stressful life events. Vulnerable people are more likely to
respond with some form of psychiatric disorder. Vulnerability could
stem from a genetic predisposition, childhood experiences, or family relationships and could involve deficiencies in interpersonal skills, coping
and access to resources.
A different approach to personal factors has focused on cognitive
processes that mediate the person-environment interaction. Cognitive
appraisal refers to the process by which people evaluate and judge the
meaning of a situation.
Tasks:
1. Respond to the following words and word-combinations from the
text by giving synonyms, paraphrases or your interpretations.
Example: unexpected events – something you didn’t expect.
1) crowding
10) undesirable events
2) excessive level of noise
11) involuntary action
3) overstimulation
12) extreme situations
4) isolation
13) premature death
5) natural disaster
14) divorce
6) job loss
15) people susceptible to stress
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7) trait anxiety
8) deficiencies
9) cognitive appraisal
16) ambitious
17) coping
18) genetic predisposition
2. Draw a scheme depicting all sources of stress mentioned in the
text.
3. Retell the text.
Outcomes of Stress
How do people respond to a perceived stressor?
Stress produces a series of changes in bodily functioning. Basically,
these changes prepare the organism for any physical actions (such as
fight or flight) that are necessary to cope with the external stressor.Muscles get tense, adrenalin starts to flow and heart rate speeds up –
with the result that the body has extra strength and energy to meet any
physical demands.
However, because many stressors are psychological in nature, rather than physical threats, there is sometimes no need for that sort of
physical action. In these instances, the bodily changes are inappropriate
and even maladaptive, as they actually interfere with the behaviours necessary for effective coping (such as staying calm and listening carefully).
In addition to physiological outcomes, a number of psychological
effects are linked to stress. At the cognitive level, there is a narrowing
of attention and a greater reliance on stereotyped and rigid thinking.
This process interferes with memory, problem solving and decision
making. At the emotional level, the major reactions are anxiety, depression, frustration, anger and irritability. These feelings may get expressed
in a number of dysfunctional behaviours, such as excessive use of drugs
and alcohol, eating disorders, aggression and even suicide.
Task:
Retell the text.
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Coping with Stress
A coping activity is any attempt to deal with the demands and problems of a particular situation. There are many different types of coping
activities and they can vary widely in their effectiveness.
Two basic categories of coping strategies can be identified: problem-focused coping and emotion-focused coping.
In problem-focused coping, the person deals directly with the stressor and tries to remove or reduce its impact. Examples of problemfocused coping include fight (trying to get rid of the stressor), flight
(trying to get away from it), alternative options (e.g. bargaining or compromising) and prevention of future stress.
In emotion-focused coping, the goal is not to change the stressor,
but to reduce its discomfort by changing one’s thoughts and feelings
about it. Examples of emotion-focused coping are activities to reduce
physiological arousal (e.g. relaxation or drugs), cognitive strategies (e.g.
distraction or fantasies) and unconscious processes that distort reality.
Social ties are an important factor in successful coping. If people
have a social network of family and friends to whom they can turn for
help, advice and emotional support, they are better able to cope with
stress. In contrast, people who are socially isolated and lack such a support are likely both to experience more stress and to cope with it less
adequately.
Tasks:
1. Speak about
1) problem-focused coping;
2) emotion-focused coping.
2. Speak about the role of social ties in coping with stress.
3. Some psychologists consider three groups of coping strategies
dealing with stress.
These are 1) task-oriented strategy;
2) emotion-oriented strategy;
3) avoidance-oriented strategy.
Compare this classification of coping strategies with the one given
in the text and express your opinion. Characterize avoidance-oriented
strategy.
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UNIT 4. SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
Social psychology is the branch that looks at how your behaviour is
influenced by that of others and how their behaviour is influenced by
you. This psychological field is vast and covers a wide range of problems from romantic relationships to group relationships, prejudice, discrimination, aggression. May be this area for non-psychologists is the
most relevant. It’s the study of human interaction. We all constantly interact with others and it’s important for us to learn more about the psychological processes involved. Here are some items.
Social comparison
People spend a lot of time thinking about themselves, trying to evaluate their own perceptions, opinions, values, abilities and so on. According to the theory of social comparison, people evaluate themselves
in relation to others. When you wonder how creative, interesting or attractive you are, you use social rather than objective criteria.
People have a tendency to compare themselves to the categories of
people they feel they belong to. These categories of people are called
reference groups. Social identity is our beliefs about the groups to which
we belong.
Forming first impression
First impressions are formed quickly usually change slowly and
typically have a long-lasting influence. People interpret new information using pre-existing mental representations or schemes. We tend to
assume that the people we meet have attitudes and values similar to our
own. But it takes very little information to change our minds. So, negative information attracts more attention and carries more weight than
positive information in shaping first impressions.
Forming attitudes
People are not born with specific attitudes to specific objects but
their attitudes about new objects begin to appear in early childhood and
continue to emerge throughout life.
Inherited predispositions toward the temperaments may have some
indirect effects but the formation of attitudes is influenced mainly by
modeling and other forms of social learning.
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Cognitive Dissonance Theory holds that people want their thoughts, beliefs and attitudes to be in harmony with one another. When these
cognitions are inconsistent, people become anxious and want to make
them more consistent (sometimes by changing their attitudes)
How does Prejudice Develop?
Stereotypes are the perceptions, beliefs and expectations a person
has about members of some group. Typically, they involve assumption
that all members of a group share the same characteristics. The characteristics that make up the stereotype may be positive but more often they
are negative. Stereotypes often lead to prejudice which is a positive or
negative attitude to an individual or an entire group of people. Prejudice
literally means “to prejudge”. Many theorists believe that prejudice like
other attitudes has cognitive, affective and behavioral components. Stereotyped thinking is the cognitive component. The hatred, admiration,
anger and other feelings constitute the affective component. The behavioral component of prejudice involves discrimination, which is different treatment of individuals who belong to different groups.
Tasks:
1. Give your definition of the following:
social psychology, reference group, social criteria, social identity,
prejudice, schema, attitude, cognitive dissonance, stereotype, discrimination
2. Give examples of or illustrate from your life experience the following:
prejudice; cognitive dissonance; schema; stereotype; discrimination
Obey at Any Cost
The research by Stanley Milgram of Yale University on obedience
may be the most famous and widely recognized in all of psychology history. It is included in every general psychology text and in every social
psychology text.
Milgran’s idea for this project grew out of his desire to investigate
scientifically how people could be capable of carrying out great harm to
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cifically to the millions of hideous atrocities committed on command
during World War II.
To approach this task scientifically was the greatest challenge to
Milgram, since many events in the real world are difficult to re-create in
a laboratory setting. So, Milgram’s problem was how to cause one person to order another person to physically injure a third person without
anyone actually getting injured.
Milgram’s primary theoretical basis for this study was that humans
have a tendency to obey other people who are in a position of authority
over them, even if, in obeying, they violate their own codes of moral
and ethical behaviour. He believed that, for example, individuals who
would never intentionally inflict pain on another would, when placed in
a subordinate position to a powerful authority figure, inflict pain on a
third person because they are ordered to do so.
Milgram designed a very realistically looking simulated shock generator with voltage levels starting at 30 volts and increasing by 15-volt
intervals up to 450 volts. The switches were labeled in groups such as
‘slight shock’, moderate shock’ and ‘danger: severe shock’ Please, note
that no one ever actually received any painful shocks.
The subjects for this study were 40 males between the ages of 20
and 50, recruited through newspaper ads, asking for subjects to be paid
participants in a study about memory and learning. Each was paid
$4.50. All subjects were clearly told that this payment was simply for
coming no matter what happened after they arrived. This was to ensure
that subjects did not behave in certain ways because they were fearful of
not being paid.
In addition to the subjects, there were two other key participants: a
confederate in the experiment posing as another subject and an ‘actor’
playing the part of the experimenter. Two subjects drew pieces of paper
out of a hat to determine who would be the teacher and who would be
the learner. This drawing was rigged so that the true subject always became the teacher and the confederate always played the part of the
learner. The learner was then taken into the next room and was with the
subject watching, strapped to a chair and wired with electrodes connected to a shock generator. The learner was able to reach four buttons
marked a, b, c and d in order to answer questions posed by the teacher
from the next room.
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The learning task involved the learner memorizing connections between various pairs of words. It was a rather lengthy list and not an easy
memory task. The teacher was instructed by the experimenter to administer an electric shock each time the learner responded incorrectly.
Most important, for each incorrect response, the teacher was to move up
one level of shock on the generator. Furthermore, as the amount of voltage increased, the learner began to shout and at the 300 volt level he
pounded on the wall and demanded to be let out. After 300-volt level he
became completely silent. The teacher was instructed to treat this lack
of responses as being incorrect and to continue the procedure.
Most of the subjects would turn to the experimenter at some point
for guidance on whether to continue the shocks. When this happened,
the experimenter ordered to continue, in a series of commands increasing in severity:
Command 1: Please continue.
Command 2: The experiment requires that you continue.
Command 3: It’s absolutely essential that you continue.
Command 4: You have no choice, you must go on.
The results of the experiment were shocking. Every subject continued at least to the 300-volt level. But most surprising is the number of
subjects who obeyed orders to continue all the way to the top of the
scale. After 300-volt level only 8 subjects refused to continue.
Milgram’s findings focused on two main points.
The first was a very strong tendency to obey. The subjects were average, normal people but not sadistic, cruel individuals. From childhood
they had learned that it is immoral to hurt others against their will. So,
why did they do so? The experimenter was a person in a position of authority but if you think about it, how much authority did he really have?
The subjects would lose nothing by refusing to follow orders.
The second key observation made during the course of this story
was extreme tension and anxiety manifested by the subjects as they obeyed the experimenter’s command. This tension could be relieved by refusing to go on and yet this is not what happened. Milgram quotes one
observer (who watched a subject through a one-way mirror): I observed
a mature and initially poised businessman enter a laboratory smiling and
confident. Within 20 minutes he was reduced to a twitching stuttering
wreck who was rapidly approaching a point of nervous collapse… At
one point he pushed his fist into his forehead and muttered: “Oh, God!
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Let’s stop it.” And yet he continued to respond to every word of the experimenter and obeyed to the end!
Later Milgram continued his research designed to reveal the conditions that promote or limit obedience. He found that the physical and
therefore emotional distance of the victim from the teacher altered the
amount of obedience. The highest level of obedience occurred when the
learner was in another room and could not be seen or heard. When the
learner was in the same room with the subject, the rate of obedience
dropped.
Milgram also discovered that the physical distance of the authority
figure to the subject also influenced obedience. The closer the experimenter, the greater the obedience. In one condition the experimenter
was out of the room and telephoned his commands. In this case obedience fell to only 21 percent.
Tasks:
1. Find the following words, word-combinations and phrases in the
text and explain their meaning in English.
1) confederate
2) simulated shock generator
3) hideous atrocities
4) recreate
5) authority figure
6) to injure
7) to inflict pain intentionally
8) a person in a subordinate position
9) They were fearful of not being paid
10) They refused to continue
11) one-way mirror
2. Find the following words and word-combinations in the text and
reproduce the context in which they were used.
1) hideous atrocities 6) memory task
2) challenge 7) to pound on the wall
3) simulated shock generator 8) You have no choice
4) newspaper ads 9) nervous collapse
5) hat 10) obedience dropped
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3. Arrange a discussion or an interview on the text. Some of you
may play parts of organizers of the experiment and subjects. The others
may ask questions or express opinions about the following:
1) The true and the announced aim of the experiment.
2) The equipment of the experiment.
3) The procedure of the experiment.
4) The subjects.
5) The experimenter’s commands.
6) The subjects’ behaviour.
7) The results of the experiment.
8) The conclusions.
9) Additional research.
The Power of Conformity
Psychologists have been interested in the concept of conformity for
decades. When they talk about conformity, they refer to an individual’s
behaviour that adheres to the behaviour patterns of a particular group of
which that individual is a member. The usually unspoken rules or guidelines for behaviour in a group are called “social norms”.
Conformity is a powerful force on our behaviour and can even at
times make us do things that conflict with our attitudes, ethics, morals
and belief systems. Therefore, conformity is clearly very worthy of
scientific interest.
In the early 1950s Solomon Asch decided to make a systematic
study. He wanted to find out just how powerful the need to conform is
in influencing our behaviour. Asch chose to focus on perceptual conformity. He examined conforming behaviour on a simple visual comparison task. The visual materials consisted simply of pairs of cards with
three different lengths of vertical lines (called comparison lines) on one
and a single standard line (the same length as one on the first card) on
the other.
Here is how the experimental process worked. Imagine you are a
subject who has volunteered to participate in a “visual perception
study”. You arrive at the experiment room on time and find seven other
subjects already seated in a row. You sit in the empty chair at the end of
the row. The experimenter reveals a pair of cards and asks to determine
which of the three lines is the same as the standard line. You look at the
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lines and immediately decide on the correct response. Starting at the far
end of the row away from you, each subject is asked individually for his
or her answer. But you can’t believe what is happening. They all choose
the same wrong line! Now, when it is your turn, you pause. Are all these
other people blind? The correct answer is obvious. Isn’t it? Have you
gone blind? Or crazy? And you agree with your co-workers.
As you have probably figured out by now, the other seven “subjects” in the room were not subjects at all, but confederates of the experimenter.
Results. Approximately 75 per cent of all subjects went along with
the group’s consensus at least once (each subject participated several
times). Considering all trials combined, subjects agree with the group on
the incorrect responses about one-third of the time.
Asch’s results were extremely important to the field of psychology.
Further research in the field elaborated our knowledge of the specific
factors that determine the effects conformity has on our behaviour.
Some of these findings are:
1. Social support. If one of the confederates gave the correct answer only 5 percent of the subjects agreed with the group consensus.
Apparently, a single ally is all you need to resist the pressure to conform.
2. Attraction and commitment to the group. Later research has
demonstrated that the more attracted and committed you are to a particular group, the more likely you are to conform.
3. Size of the group. At first, research by Asch and others demonstrated that the tendency to conform increases as the size of the group
increases. However, this only holds for groups up to six or seven members. As the group increases beyond this number, conformity levels off,
and even decreases somewhat. Why is this? Well, Asch suggested that
as the group becomes large, people may begin to suspect the other
members of working together purposefully and they become resistant to
this obvious pressure.
4. Sex. Early studies indicated that women seemed to be much
more willing to conform than men. It even entered the psychological literature as an accepted difference between the sexes.
However, more recent research shows that it may have simply been
a systematic error caused by subtle and unintentional biases in the methods used. Early studies were conducted by men and created conditions
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that were familiar and comfortable for men. More recent research has
failed to find this sex difference in conformity behaviour.
Tasks:
1. Give the definition or your understanding of the following:
1) Conformity.
2) Social norms of behaviour
3) Visual comparison task
2. Speak about Solomon Asch’s study.
3. Describe the ways in which social support, attraction to the
group, size of the group and sex relate to conformity.
To Help or not to Help?
This story continues to be well-known due to its frequent retelling
in psychology texts. In 1964, Kitty Genovese was returning to her
apartment in a quiet, middle-class neighborhood in New York. As she
left her car and walked toward her building, she was viciously attacked
by a man with a knife. As the man stabbed her several times, she
screamed for help. One neighbour yelled out his window for the man to
“leave that girl alone” at which the attacker began to walk away. But
then he turned, knocked Genovese to the ground and began stabbing her
again. She continued to scream until finally someone telephoned the police. The police arrived 2 minutes after they were called but Genovese
was already dead and her attacker disappeared. The attack had lasted 35
minutes. During police investigation it was found that 38 people in the
surrounding apartments had witnessed the attack but only one had eventually called the police. One couple (who said they assumed the police
had been called by someone) had moved two chairs next to their windows in order to watch the violence. The murderer was never found.
The Genovese tragedy sparked the interest of psychologists who set
out to try to better understand what psychological forces might have
been at work to prevent all those people from helping. John Darley and
Bibb Latane, both social psychologists, were among those who wanted
to examine these factors. They termed the behaviour of helping in
emergences “bystander intervention” (or in this case, non-intervention).
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They proposed that the large number of people who witnessed the event
decreased the willingness to help. They believed that the reason no one
took steps to help Kitty was a phenomenon they called “diffusion of responsibility”. That is, as the number of bystanders in an emergency increases, the greater is the belief that “someone else will help, so I don’t
need to.”
The findings from the study conducted by Darley and Latane offered strong support for the researchers’ hypothesis.
Another possible explanation for this type of behaviour is something that psychologists have termed “evaluation apprehension”. Darley
and Latane contended that part of the reason we fail to help when others
are present is that we are afraid of being embarrassed or ridiculed. Imagine how foolish you would feel if you were to spring into action to
help someone who did not need or want your help.
The results of this research may seem rather pessimistic. Hopefully,
as more people become aware of the bystander effect, they will make
the extra effort to intervene in an emergency, even if others are present.
Never assume that others have intervened or will intervene. Always act
as if you are the only person there.
Tasks:
1. Give a short summary of the text in the written form.
2. Retell the text.
The Sources of Human Aggression
Throughout the history of psychology, many theoretical approaches
have been proposed to explain the causes of aggression. Some of these
contend that you are biologically preprogrammed for aggression, such
that violent urges build up in you over time until they demand to be released. Other theories look to situational factors, such as repeated frustration, as the main determinants of aggressive responses. A third view
and one that may be the most widely accepted, is that aggression is
learned. Social learning theorists believe that learning is the primary
factor in the development of personality and this learning occurs
through interactions with other people.
For example, as you are growing up, important people such as your
parents and teachers reinforce certain behaviours and ignore or punish
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others. Bandura, one of the founders of social learning theory, however,
believed that behaviour can be shaped through simply observing and
imitating (or modeling) the behaviour of others.
Task:
Retell the text.
PART II
I. Translate the following sentences with a dictionary:
1. Your ideas don’t have to be big to be creative.
2. This is the road less traveled.
3. The more negative a younger sibling is toward the older, the
higher the self-esteem of the younger 3 years later.
4. A further data source is therefore required.
5. Although motion analysis of a high order is evident in such simple visual systems as the fly’s, it is only in primates that a well-defined
anatomical division of the central visual pathways can be seen to be
specialized for the analyses of motion.
6. Children are said to ignore adult utterances whose meanings are
unrelated to the present context.
7. For us to be able to do it, we must be attracted toward and committed to an object beyond the boundaries of self.
8. Few parents have had any education in family relationships and
even those who have have discovered that their traditional education has
little relevance for the improvement of parent-child relationships today.
9. Many parents still believe that human beings are basically aggressive and that it is human nature to fight.
10. When 2 people fight, both parents have to agree to fight. If either person decides not to fight, there will be no fight.
11. It is expected little improvement.
12. Because he was so seriously depressed – having lost the identity
that his family gave him – I made an appointment to see him again 2
years later.
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13. It is for this reason that many people are unable to break the habit of taking sleeping pills or alcohol in order to sleep.
14. Freud contended that to understand the meaning of a dream, the
obvious or surface message of dreams (called the “manifest content”)
had to be penetrated so that the underlying, true message being expressed (the “latent content”) could be examined and interpreted.
15. After the necessary research environment had been established
the procedure was quite simple.
16. The Pavlovian conditioning treatment appears to be effective in
reducing the negative psychological effects of the disorder.
17. It was during his employment in Paris that Piaget began to formulate his theories about cognitive development.
18. Since no learning is necessary for this response to occur, the
loud noise is called an unconditioned stimulus.
19. Albert was found to be afraid of the rat.
20. Another aspect of conditioned responses Watson wanted to explore was whether the learned emotion would transfer from one situation to another.
21. The final test Watson wanted to make was to see if Albert’s
newly learned emotional responses would persist over time.
22. Skinner is considered by most to be the father of radical behaviorism.
23. The new behaviour had nothing to do with the pigeon receiving
food.
24. To define aggression turns out to be rather elusive.
25. Throughout the history of psychology, many theoretical approaches have been proposed to explain the causes of aggression.
26. What you expect is what you get.
27. Whatever the questions are, it is the methodological advances
(such as the visual cliff) that allow us to begin to find answers.
28. Several studies have determined that being the first-born child
in a family is related to certain characteristics.
29. Individual counsel is not at all that comfortable a process, since
it demands searching self-examination.
30. Any counselor worth his salt should be able to recognize when
he is being abused, rather than used.
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II. Translate the following texts with a dictionary.
Theories of Counseling
There is a vast body of American and British literature on counseling theory and technique, which is best read at first hand. The main debate between the theorists concerns the amount of direction the counselor should give the content of the universe. It is generally agreed that the
quality of the relationship between counselor and client is of fundamental importance, that among the goals of counseling are ‘selfunderstanding, self-awareness, self-acceptance, self-determination ‘.
But are these goals best achieved by non-directive, directive or eclectic
counseling techniques? Non-directive counselors, inspired by the work
of Carl Rogers, put the onus of direction very much on the individual;
the client must be allowed to talk about what he wants to talk about. The
relationship between the counselor and his client is in itself therapeutic
and brings the freedom for the client to make his own decisions and
grow towards maturity. Directive counselors are more purposeful. They
lead the client through an examination of his problem, go through the
possible consequences of various courses of action, help the client try
out various new solutions. The client is still making the decisions but
the choice is largely directed by the experience and the expertise of the
counselor. Eclectic counselors use whatever method they feel best suits
the needs of the client, arguing that some pupils, because of their age,
inexperience or personality, need more specific help in making a decision than others. More recently client problems have been seen as learning problems and the counselor’s job has been defined as ‘helping his
client learn more effective ways of solving his own problems.’, that is,
to learn more adaptive and constructive modes of behaviour. It is this
mode which is particularly appropriate in the current climate.
Rapport
First there must be a relationship between the person counseling
and his client. That might sound self-evident bit it is possible for two
people to be together, to be talking, without there being any communication of feeling between them. The plays of Pinter and NF Simpson for
example illustrate vividly some extreme cases of non-interaction. It may
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take time for a relationship to be established between counselor and
client but they may quickly make rapport with each other, that is, recognize that there is, in their response to each other, a basis for building up
a relationship. But for a fruitful relationship to be established, the client
must want a relationship with the counselor, and the counselor must
want to help the client and feel that he can help him, in other words
there is a negotiation. Let us suppose for example that John is sent for
counseling because he is unruly, aggressive and rude. If John himself
either does not want or does not see the need for any help from anybody, then the counselor may not be able to form a helpful relationship
with John. He may after a while, if he is sufficiently skilled or lucky, inspire enough confidence in John for him to change his mind. But counseling will not really begin until John admits his need. If John has decided that he needs help, but the counselor appears bored or disinterested in what he is saying, if the counselor is thinking. “What a dreadful type. I can quite see why no one can handle him. How on earth can I
be expected to do anything with a case like this?” then there is not a
sound basis for a counseling relationship. John will sense the lack of
confidence and respect in the counselor and not feel the warmth, trust
and security in the relationship which he needs to be able to talk about
how he really feels, to be able to admit for example that behind his aggressive defiance he feels unsure of himself, unloved and unwanted.
Problems and Pain
Life is difficult.
This is a great truth, one of the greatest truths. It is a great truth because once we see this truth, we transcend it. Once we truly know that
life is difficult – once we truly understand and accept it – then life is no
longer difficult. Because once it is accepted, the fact that life is difficult
no longer matters.
Most do not fully see this truth that life is difficult. Instead they
moan more or less incessantly, noisily or subtly, about the enormity of
the problems, their burdens and their difficulties as if life were generally
easy, as if life should be easy. They voice their belief, noisily or subtly,
that their difficulties represent a unique kind of affliction that should not
be and that has somehow been especially visited upon them, or else
upon their families, their tribe, their class, their nation, their race or even
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their species and not upon others. I know about this moaning because I
have done my share.
Life is a series of problems. Do we want to moan about them or
solve them? Do we want to teach our children to solve them?
Discipline is the basic set of tools we require to solve life’s problems. Without discipline we can solve nothing. With only some discipline we can solve only some problems. With total discipline we can
solve all problems.
What makes life difficult is that the process of confronting and
solving problems is a painful one. Problems, depending upon their nature, evoke in us frustration or grief or sadness or loneliness or guilt or
regret or anger or fear or anxiety or anguish or despair. These are uncomfortable feelings, often very uncomfortable, often as painful as any
kind of physical pain, sometimes equaling the very worst kind of physical pain. Indeed, it is because of the pain that events or conflicts engender in us that we call them problems. And since life poses an endless
series of problems, life is difficult and is full of pain as well as joy.
Yet it is in this whole process of meeting and solving problems that
life has its meaning. Problems are the cutting edge that distinguishes between success and failure. Problems call forth our courage and our wisdom; indeed, they create our courage and our wisdom. It is only because
of problems that we grow mentally and spiritually. When we desire to
encourage the growth of the human spirit, we challenge and encourage
the human capacity to solve problems, just as in school we deliberately
set problems for our children to solve. It is through the pain of confronting and resolving problems that we learn. As Benjamin Franklin said,
“Those things that hurt, instruct.” It is for this reason that wise people
learn not to dread but actually to welcome problems and actually to
welcome the pain of problems.
Most of us are not so wise. Fearing the pain involved, almost all of
us, to a greater or lesser degree, attempt to avoid problems. We procrastinate, hoping that they will go away. We ignore them, forget them, pretend they do not exist. We even take drugs to assist us in ignoring them,
so that by deadening ourselves to the pain we can forget the problems
that cause the pain. We attempt to skirt around problems rather than
meet them head on. We attempt to get out of them rather than suffer
through them.
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This tendency to avoid problems and the emotional suffering inherent in them is the primary basis of all human mental illness. Since most
of us have this tendency to a greater or lesser degree, most of us are
mentally ill to a greater or lesser degree, lacking complete mental
health.
How to Select a Job
“What do you want to be when you grow up?”
This is a question frequently asked of children. The obvious implication is that children have a basis for deciding what they want to be or
more accurately, what they want to do for a living and that they will ultimately choose from an endless array of possible jobs. The truth of the
matter is that few people choose a job; most people simply settle for one.
The reasons for this are varied. Few people learn enough about a
variety of jobs to consider them seriously. Also, job selection may be
seriously restricted by what is available in the area. If ninety percent of
a town’s population is employed in one industry, there is little opportunity to find a job outside that industry without moving away from home.
Job seekers usually fall into two general categories: those with a high
school education or less and those who have finished high school and
have acquired special training in college or in a trade school. In either
case, the job seeker looks around at the available jobs and tries to select
the one which he is best suited. The person without special training
looks for a job that is interesting or in some way rewarding but which
does not require any special skills. Again, the economic circumstances
of the job seeker will often dictate the kinds of jobs he will consider. A
person who marries shortly after leaving high school cannot take a lowpaying trainee job – even though it will lead to a better position later
on – so readily as one who still lives with his parents. This is also true
of disadvantaged youths who are obliged to contribute to the family income as soon as they have left high school.
Limited access to the job market often results in a job that leads
nowhere, that is not satisfying in any aspect and that becomes a negative
force in one’s life. So it is desirable to be able to select a job. And to select a job there are many things one has to know.
There is no possible way to familiarize everyone with every job.
But we can devise a way of thinking about jobs that will help in the se52
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lection process and which take into account the differences and peculiarities of each person.
Women
Many young women are led to believe that their place in society is
as an adjunct to a male. Their prime goal is suggested to be that of a
mother, housewife or helpmate to a male, who is expected to be a
breadwinner.
Their view of a career, then, is limited by the notion of what they
should be and their career choices are affected accordingly. For example, a young woman may want to become a secretary because she feels
that she can always get a job in this field “if her husband needs help”.
She might not even consider selecting a job on the basis of the satisfaction it could give her. It is readily apparent in the case of this particular
woman that the counseling process is being unduly influenced by factors that have nothing to do with the counselee’s interests or desires but
reflect instead of society’s distortion of the feminine role. Indeed, if the
young woman feels that her role in life is primarily as an adjunct to
some male, her job or career choice (given the false premise) might logically be very well designed to put her in proximity with desirable
males. It is the duty of the counselor not only to recognize this attitude
in a female student but to explore the possibility of its presence in any
case in which it may be even remotely suspected.
The counselor must determine if the young woman in question has
decided on a career primarily with this attitude in mind and he must be
aware that, to the counselee, the attitude may seem to be a positive one.
Clues to this type of limiting attitude can be found in the counselee’s inability to clearly express the reasons for her choices of job and career,
an acceptance of a career choice far beneath potential or a lack of any
effort to maximize her career potential.
III. Look through the following words and make sure whether
you know what they mean.
- than, as, rather than;
– or, nor, either…or, neither…nor, otherwise;
– at the same time, after, meanwhile;
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– still, yet, on the other hand, unlike, on the contrary, in spite of,
whereas, nevertheless, however, while, instead of, though, although;
– because, for, since, as;
– that is, i.e., in other words;
– if, unless, provided that, whether;
– hence, therefore, consequently, thus;
– both…and, not only…but, also, furthermore, moreover, besides.
IV. Match the groups of the link-words above with the following:
1) comparison
6) equivalence
2) alternation
7) condition
3) time-sequence
8) consequence
4) opposition
9) addition
5) cause
Make up sentences of your own with some of them.
PART III
Render the following texts in Russian.
Пaмять
Память – это процесс накопления информации, сохранения и
воспроизведения накопленного опыта. Это важнейший механизм
адаптации, позволяющий длительное время удерживать в голове
различные психические феномены – полученные ощущения, сделанные выводы, двигательные навыки. С работой памяти связаны
такие важнейшие элементы процессов восприятия и мышления,
как представления и понятия. Память - основа, важная предпосылка работы интеллекта.
Механизмы памяти изучены недостаточно, но накоплено много фактов, свидетельствующих о существовании кратковременной
памяти, основанной на быстро образующихся временных связях, и
долговременной памяти, представляющей собой прочные связи.
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Нарушение памяти может возникать как результат расстройств
других сфер психики. Так, с работой памяти тесно связаны функции внимания, ясности сознания.
Салливен
Американский психолог Салливен назвал свою теорию «интерперсональной теорией психиатрии». В ее основе лежат три
принципа, заимствованные из биологии, – принцип общественного
существования, принцип функциональной активности и принцип
организациию При этом Салливен модифицирует и соединяет в
своей теории два направления: психоанализ и бихевиоризм.
Салливен говорит, что личность человека не является врожденной, а формируется в процессе общения младенца с окружающими,
т.е. «личность – это модель повторяющихся межличностных отношений». В своем развитии ребенок проходит несколько этапов – от
младенчества до юношества, причем на каждом этапе формируется
определенная модель. В детстве эта модель формируется на основе
игр со сверстниками, в подростковом периоде – на основе общения
с представителями другого пола, и т.д. Хотя ребенок не рождается
с определенными социальными чувствами, однако они формируются у него в первые дни жизни. Процесс их развития связан со
стремлением к разрядке напряжения, создаваемого его потребностями.
Салливен считал, что потребность не только создает напряженность, но и формирует способы ее преодоления, динамизмы.
Главными потребностями Салливен считал потребность в ласке и потребность в избежании тревоги.
К. Левин
Свою теорию личности немецкий ученый Курт Левин разрабатывал в направлении гештальтпсихологии, дав ей название «теория
психологического поля».
…Левин приходит к мнению, что не только неврозы, но и особенности когнитивных процессов, такие феномены, как сохранение, забывание, волевое поведение, связаны с разрядкой или напряжением потребностей. В экспериментах Левина было доказано,
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что нереализованные потребности лучше запоминаются, чем реализованные; что состояние напряжения может вызвать агрессию
или тревогу у человека.
Исследования Левина доказывали, что не только существующая в данный момент ситуация, но и ее предвосхищение; предметы, существующие только в сознании человека, могут определять его деятельность. Такие «идеальные» мотивы помогают человеку преодолеть непосредственное влияние поля окружающих
предметов, «встать над полем». Это поведение он назвал волевым,
в отличие от полевого, которое возникает под влиянием непосредственного (прямого) окружения.
Н. Ланге
Николай Ланге является одним из основоположников экспериментальной психологии в России. Во времена деятельности Ланге
психология определялась главным образом как наука о сознании.
Ланге выделил ряд стадий в психической эволюции, соотнеся
их с изменениями, претерпеваемыми нервной системой. Эти стадии таковы: стадия недифференцированной психики, недифференцированных ощущений и движений инстинктивного типа; стадия
индивидуально-приобретенного опыта и, наконец, как качественно
новая ступень – развитие психики у человека как социокультурного существа. Если у животных действует биологическая наследственность, то у людей передача от одного поколения другому всей
совокупности культуры осуществляется через подражание и обучение, т.е. социальную наследственность. Поэтому большая роль
отводится языку. Ланге писал: «Язык с его словарем и грамматикой формирует всю умственную жизнь человека, вводя в его сознание все те формы и категории, которые исторически развивались
в предыдущих поколениях».
З. Фрейд
Фрэйд считал, что психика состоит из трех слов: сознательного, предсознательного и бессознательного, в которых и располагаются основные структуры личности. При этом бессознательное, по
Фрэйду, недоступно осознанию (находится за пределами осозна56
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ния). Предсознательное может быть осознано, хотя это и требует
больших усилий.
В бессознательном слое располагается одна из структур личности – ид, которая фактически является энергетической основой
личности. Ид содержит врожденные бессознательные инстинкты,
которые требуют удовлетворения, и таким образом детерминируют
деятельность субъекта.
Фрейд считал, что существует два основных бессознательных
инстинкта: инстинкт жизни и инстинкт смерти, которые находятся
в антагонистических отношениях между собой. Это создает основу
для фундаментального, биологически внутреннего конфликта.
Вторая структура личности – эго, по Фрейду, также является
врожденной и находится как в сознательном, так и в предсознании.
Третья структура, супер-эго, – не врожденная, она формируется в процессе жизни ребенка. Механизмом ее формирования является общение с близким взрослым своего пола. В содержание супер-эго входит совесть, самонаблюдение, идеалы человека.
Пиаже
Пиаже, известный швейцарский ученый, создавал свою теорию
развития детского мышления на основе логики и биологии. Он
считал, что основой психического развития является интеллект. В
ряде экспериментов он доказывал свою точку зрения, что интеллект, уровень понимания влияют на речь детей, на их восприятие и
память. Так, Пиаже пришел к выводу, что этапы психического развития - это фактически этапы развития интеллекта, через которые
постепенно ребенок проходит. При этом формируются все более
адекватные схемы ситуации. Основой этих схем и является интеллект. В процессе развития происходит адаптация организма к окружающей среде, которая обеспечивается пониманием того, что
происходит создание правильных схем окружающего. При этом
адаптация – не пассивный, но активный процесс взаимодействия
организма с окружающей средой. Это активность является необходимым условием развития. Схема, считает Пиаже, не дается человеку в готовом виде при рождении, нет ее и в окружающей среде.
Схема вырабатывается только в процессе активного взаимодействия человека со средой.
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Э. Фромм
Фромм считается наиболее социально-ориентированным из
всех психоаналитиков. Для него социальное окружение является не
просто условием, но важнейшим фактором развития личности. В
отличие от Адлера, под средой Фромм понимает не только ближайшее окружение ребенка, его семью и близких, но и тот социальный строй (систему), в котором он живет. По Фромму, основными движущими силами развития личности являются две врожденные потребности: потребность в укоренении и потребность в
индивидуализации; эти потребности находятся в постоянном антагонизме. Если потребность в укоренении заставляет человека стремиться к обществу, иметь общую систему идеалов и убеждений, то
потребность в индивидуализации, напротив, толкает человека к
изоляции от других, к свободе от давления и требований общества.
Эти две потребности являются причиной внутренних противоречий, конфликта мотивов у человека. Для избежания конфликта человек прибегает к механизму психологической защиты. Он
(Фромм) выделяет четыре механизма психологической защиты –
садизм, мазохизм, конформизм и деструктивизм. Фромм считает,
что есть два способа реализации своей внутренней природы: способ быть и способ иметь.
1) Люди, которые живут, чтобы иметь, ориентированы на
внешнюю сторону своего развития, на укорененность в обществе.
Для них главное – показать свою индивидуальность, свое значение
(значимость), свою важность. Отсюда они нетерпимы ко всем, кто
сомневается в их позициях. Это может проявляться в напряженности, неуверенности, агрессивности, что ведет к неврозам.
2) Развитие по типу «быть» характеризуется внутренней свободой и уверенностью человека в себе. Они более терпимы и менее
агрессивны, чем люди. живущие по принципу «иметь».
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Contents
PART I ................................................................................................... 3
UNIT 1. SENSATION and PERCEPTION ........................................ 3
UNIT 2. LEARNING AND CONDITIONING ................................. 9
UNIT 3. UNDERSTANDING PERSONALITY ............................. 15
UNIT 4. SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY ................................................. 38
PART II ............................................................................................... 47
PART III .............................................................................................. 54
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Учебное издание
Практикум
по совершенствованию владения английским языком
(на материале текстов по психологии человека
для неязыковых специальностей)
Составители: Клименко Татьяна Георгиевна
Невская Елена Анатольевна
Срибная Наталья Геннадьевна
Чвягина Татьяна Владимировна
Редактор, корректор А.А. Антонова
Компьютерная верстка И.Н. Ивановой
Подписано в печать 03.03.2006 г. Формат 60х84/16.
Бумага тип. Усл. печ. л. 3,49. Уч.-изд. л. 2,81.
Тираж 150 экз. Заказ
Оригинал-макет подготовлен
в редакционно-издательском отделе ЯрГУ.
Отпечатано на ризографе.
Ярославский государственный университет.
150000 Ярославль, ул. Советская, 14.
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ПРАКТИКУМ
по совершенствованию владения английским языком
(на материале текстов по психологии человека
для неязыковых специальностей)
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