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262.Основы перевода технических текстов (для студентов физического факультета)

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации
Федеральное агентство по образованию
Ярославский государственный университет им. П.Г. Демидова
Кафедра иностранных языков
Основы перевода технических текстов
(для студентов физического факультета)
Практикум
Рекомендовано
Научно-методическим советом университета для студентов,
обучающихся по направлению Физика
Ярославль 2008
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УДК 81′255.2:6:811.111(07)
ББК Ш 143.21–7я73
О 75
Рекомендовано
Редакционно-издательским советом университета
в качестве учебного издания. План 2008 года
Рецензент
кафедра иностранных языков Ярославского государственного
университета им. П.Г. Демидова
Составители: Т.Б. Потехина, Л.Л. Туркина
Основы перевода технических текстов (для студентов физического факультета): практикум / сост.
О 75
Т.Б. Потехина, Л.Л. Туркина; Яросл. гос. ун-т. – Ярославль : ЯрГУ, 2008. – 40 с.
Целью практикума является ознакомление студентов
со специальной лексикой и текстами по специальности.
Предназначен для студентов, обучающихся по направлению 010700 Физика (дисциплина «Английский язык»,
блок СЭ), заочной формы обучения.
УДК 81′255.2:6:811.111(07)
ББК Ш 143.21–7я73
© Ярославский государственный университет им. П.Г. Демидова,
2008
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Part 1
Lesson I
I study at the university
n. day, week, week-day, month, o'clock, half, quarter, watch, hotel, laboratory, term, autumn, winter, spring, summer, examination,
German, French, topic.
v. check, translate, describe, live, want, learn, end, last, a. next,
technical, short, long, difficult, slow, fast, adv. together, then, regularly.
w. comb, academic year, to have a rest, in the morning, as a rule,
at the end (of), to take place, to be attentive, each other.
I study at the Yaroslavl State University. The academic year begins, as a rule, on the first of September and ends in June. It lasts ten
months: September, October, November, December, January, February, March, April, May and June. The academic year has two terms:
the autumn term and the spring term. The autumn term begins in September and ends in December. It lasts about four months. The spring
term begins on the 7th of February and ends, as rule, in May. Each
term ends with examinations. The examinations take place in January
and June.
We have two holidays a year - winter holidays and summer holidays. The summer holidays are long. They last two months. The winter holiday are short. They last only two weeks. During the holidays
we do not study, we have a rest.
We go to the University on week-days. We do not go to the University on Sundays. On Sundays we have a rest.
Classes begin at eight o’clock in the morning and end at half past
two in the afternoon. All students study some foreign language - English, German or French. We study English. We have two English
classes a week on Thursdays and an Fridays. When the teacher comes
into the room our work begins. We check our homework. We ask and
answer questions, we read English texts and translate sentences from
Russian into English, or from English into Russian. We describe pictures and speak on various topics. During the English class we speak,
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read and write English. I am very attentive in class I always prepare
my homework, because I want to learn to speak and to read English.
English is not difficult for me, because I work at it regularly. As I live
in the hostel, I always prepare my lessons together with my friend. We
ask each other questions and answer them.
At the end of each class the teacher gives us our Homework.
Ex. 1. Переведите на русский язык следующие словосочетания:
to check homework, to do an exercises, to do homework, a picture, to learn the new words, to prepare lessons together, at the end of
the year, the sping term, various topics, to speak on a topic, each other, at about 3 o’clock, to study regularly, in the afternoon, a difficult
text, to have a rest.
Ex. 2. Переведите на английский язык следующие словосочетания:
заниматься регулярно, жить в общежитии, в конце урока, в
конце недели, учить новые слова, описать картину, кончаться,
днем, трудный язык, длиться около двух дней, как правило, друг
друга.
Eх. 3. Ответьте на вопросы:
Where do you study? 2. When does the spring term begin?
3. When is it over? 4. How long does it last? 5. When do the summer
holidays begin? 6. When do examinations take place? 7. Hew long do
holidays last? 8. What do you do during the English class? 9. Do you
speak English or Russian in сlass? 10. What do students do when the
teacher comes into the classroom? 11. Do you work at your English
regularly? 12. Does your friend live in the hostel or with his parents at
home? 13. At what time do you come to the University? 14. How long
does the academic year last?
Eх. 4. Переведите следующие вопросы на английский язык,
используя образцы:
a) When do you prepare your lessons? 1. Когда вы читаете газеты? 2. Когда вы занимаетесь английским? 3. Когда вы приходите
в университет? 4. Когда вы отдыхаете?
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b) Where does he study? 1. Где он живет? 2. Где учится ваш
друг? 3. Где живет паша сестра? 4. Где она изучает иностранный
язык? 5. Где они готовят уроки? 6. Куда вы ходите по воскресеньям? 7. Куда мы приходим утром?
Ex. 5. Переведите следующие предложения на английский
язык:
1. Мой друг живет в общежитии. 2. Я хочу научиться говорить по-английски. 3. На уроках мы переводим предложения с
русского на английский. 4. Занятия в университете заканчиваются в 14:30. 5. Я занимаюсь регулярно. 6. Я хожу в университет
каждый день. 7. У нас два урока в неделю – по понедельникам и
средам. 8. По вечерам я отдыхаю. 9. В конце каждого семестра у
нас бывают экзамены. 10. Студенты не учатся в каникулы.
11. Как правило, я в аудитории очень внимательный. 12. Я не живу в общежитии.
Ех. 6. Задайте вопросы.
1. We study at the University. 2. The academic year has two
terms. 3. The examinations take place at the end of each term. 4. They
do not study on Sundays. 5. The summer holidays are long. 6. Classes
begin at 8 o'clock. 7. The teacher comes into the room and the students begin their work. 8. He does not speak on various topics. 9. She
works at her English regularly. 10. They ask each other questions.
Ex. 7. Исправьте утверждения, заменив существительные
соответствующие местоимением.
The boy is a worker.
The boy is not a worker. He is a first-year student.
1. The girls are at home (at the University). 2. These students are
in our classroom (their). 3. The winters holidays are long (short).
4. The student, must translate the text. 5. Nick is a first-year student
(second-year). 6. The boys come to the University straight from work
(from home). 7. Mary works at she plant (at an office). 8. The students
may take the book (the note-books).
Ex. 8. Выразите несогласие.
1. The academic year lasts 5 months. 2. The autumn term begins
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mer holidays are short. 5. Classes begin at 9 o’clock. 6. All students
study two foreign languages. 7. We translate sentences from French
into Russian. 8. He is attentive in class. 9. She must prepare her lessons together with her friend. 10. They are good students. 11. She is in
the class now. 12. I live in the hostel. 13. The hostel is near the University.
Ex. 9. Поставьте предложения в отрицательную форму.
А. 1. I have a family. 2. She has a mother. 3. Не has a sister.
4. They have a flat in a new house. 5. We have an English class today.
6. You have a new textbook.
B. 1. He is a good student. 2. They are brothers. 3. We are friends.
4. She is a pioneer. 5. My friend is at home.
C. 1. There is a bag on the chair. 2. There are students in the
room. 3. There is a lamp there. 4. There are twelve new words in this
text.
D. 1. He works at an office. 2. I speak English well. 3. My sister
helps me to do my homework. 4. Those foreign students speak Russian, 5. They listen to their teacher.
Ex. 10. Переведите на английский язык.
A. 1. У меня нет мела. 2. У нее нет тетрадей. 3. У них нет
учебников. 4. У меня нет братьев. 5. У моего брата нет семьи.
Б. 1. Моя мама не врач. 2. Они не студенты. 3. Не ты дежуришь сегодня. 4. Мы не родственники.
B. 1. На этой странице нет картинки. 2. В комнате нет детей.
3. В этом тексте нет новых слов. 4. В комнате нет врача.
Г. 1. Он не учится в институте. 2. Ее брат не работает на заводе. 3. Мой друг не играет с нами в волейбол. 4. Мы не учимся
по воскресеньям. 5. Она не говорит по-русски. 6. Ты не помогаешь родителям.
Ex. 11. Переспросите, используя слово 'really":
They are at the University.
Are they really at the University?
1. They are in the classroom. 2. The classroom is large. 3. This is
an English lesson. 4. The teacher is in the room. 5. The students are
ready for the lesson. 6. This is an English text. 7. It is easy. 8. There is
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a department of physics. 9. There are students at the desk. 10. We are
busy on week-day.
Дополнительный текст
Universities of England
1. Britain's oldest and most famous universities, Oxford and
Cambridge, date from the 12th century. 2. In many respects these universities keep to the traditions of the past. 3. The chief subjects taught
at Oxford and Cambridge include ancient languages, philosophy, history, law, theology, medicine, natural sciences and mathematics.
4. The universities have well-equipped laboratories and great libraries
holding thousand of volumes. 5. They are the most 'aristocratic' universities of Great Britain and the cost of living there is higher than at
any of the others. 6. The students are almost entirely from the schools
which serve only the aristocracy. 7. This system cannot provide for
the developing needs of the country in technicians and scientists.
8. Other English universities called "modern" or "provincial" are located in large centers of industry. 9. The first of the technical colleges
was opened in Manchester. 10. Then similar colleges were established
in Birmingham, Liverpool and some other industrial cities.
11. Besides the traditional university subjects they teach agriculture,
applied sciences and engineering. 12. Yet, much more is to be done to
make away with the privileges of the ruling classes and make the education accessible to the masses.
Ex. 1. Find the wrong (false) statements and correct them. Or:
Say whether the following statements are right (true) or wrong
(false).
1. Ancient languages are not taught at Oxford and Cambridge
nowadays.
2. These universities date from the 17th century.
3. They are the oldest British universities.
4. The cost of living is high at Oxford and Cambridge.
5. Oxford and Cambridge are accessible to all British schoolchildren.
6. The first of the technical colleges was opened in Liverpool.
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7. Technical colleges established in some British industrial cities
keep to traditions of the past.
8. Oxford and Cambridge have well-equipped laboratories and
great, libraries.
9. Modern English universities are sometimes called "provincial".
Ex. 2. Переведите предложения 1, 2, 3, 7, 11, 12.
Lesson 2
My working day
n. break, society, meeting, hour, cinema, seminar, lecture; v. to
get up, to leave for, to get, to study, to meet, to walk, to watch TV, to
spend (on), to have dinner, to like, to attend, to switch (on)
adv. early, usually, often, far (from), seldom, sometimes, always;
a. favorite, scientific, latest news, to music. it takes me..., to go by
bus (tram), once а month, social work.
My working day begins early. I always get up at 7 o'clock. Every
day I do my morning exercises. Doing them 1 open the window and
switch on tine radio, I like to do the exercises to music. Then I go to
the bathroom I wash and dress, and at a quarter past seven I am ready
to have breakfast, having my breakfast I often listen to the latest news
over the radio or look through newspapers.
It does not take me long to have breakfast. At half past seven I
leave home for the University. As I live far from the University I go
there by bus. It usually takes me half an hour to get there. I seldom
walk to the University in the morning because I have no time.
I am never late. I always come to the University in time. Between
classes have short breaks. At 13:05 we have a long break for dinner, I
usually have dinner in the canteen of cur University.
As rule we have three lectures or seminars a day. Classes are over
at 20 minutes to four. Sometimes I stay at the University if i have
some social work to do or if I have a Komsomol meeting. There is a
Student's Scientific Society at our University. I am member of this Society. Once a month I attend its meeting.
After classes 1 usually walk home. I like to walk after a busy day
at the University. When I come home I have supper and a short rest.
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Then I prepare my lessons. It usually takes me about 3 hours. In
the evening I read books or Watch TV. Sometimes, if i have tune, I go
to the cinema. I usually go to bed at 11 o'clock.
Ex. l. а) Переведите на русский язык следующие словосочетания; б) предложения:
a) to have breakfast (dinner, supper), to walk home, to have a
short rest, a five minutes break, to spend time on, between classes, between windows, to music, over the radio, to switch on the radio, to go
by tram (bus), a busy day, an hour and a half, half an hour, far from
the house, early in the morning.
б) 1. I like to watch TV. 2. I am going to meet my friend today.
3. He is busy with his scientific work today. 4. I live far from the University but near the centre of the town. 5. Once a week I go to the cinema. 6. Are you a member of the Students Scientific society? 7. We
spend much time on sports during the academic year. 8. It takes my
friend half an hour to listen to the latest news.
Ex. 2. Переведите на английский язык:
пятиминутный перерыв, тратить время на, по радио, идти
домой, немного отдохнуть, под музыку, ехать автобусом, полтора
часа, рано утром, СНО, в течение года, собираться сделать чтолибо, раз в неделю.
Eх. З. Ответьте на вопросы:
1. At what time do you get up? 2. Do you usually do your morning exercises? 3. Do you listen to the latest news in the morning or in
the evening? 4. When do you leave for the University? 5. How do you
get to the University? 6. How much does it take you to get to the University? 7. Do you attend all lectures and seminars? 8. What со you do
during the break? 9. Do you stay at the University after classes?
10. What do you do in the evening? 11. Do you like to watch TV?
12. How long does it take you to do your homework? 13. At what time
do you go to bed?
Ех. 4. Составьте предложения по образцу, используя следующие выражения:
It takes me one an hour to da my work.
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(to do morning exercises, to listen to the latest news, to get. to the
University, to have supper, tp prepare one's lessons, to get to the cinema, to translate the text)
Ex. 5. Составьте отрицательные и вопросительные предложения по образцу, используя выражения упражнения 4.
How long does it take them to do ... ? It does not take me long to
do ...
Ex. 6. Переведите следующие предложения:
1. Я встаю рано. 2. Я ухожу из дома в 7:30. 3. Мне нравится
ездить автобусом. 4. Я всегда прихожу в институт вовремя,
5. Она никогда не опаздывает. 6. Ему нравится ходить пешком.
7. Я часто обедаю в столовой института. 8. Ему нравится обедать
дома. 9. Я ухожу из института, когда кончаются занятия. 10. Если
у меня не бывает собрания после уроков, я иду домой. 11. Я не
люблю смотреть телевизор. 12. Мы ужинаем в 7 часов. 13. Во
время ужина они не слушают обычно радио. 14. Я не ложусь
спать в 10 часов, а обычно в 11. 15. В столовой сейчас много народу. 16. Один раз в неделю я занимаюсь в СНО. 17. Вечером я
готовлю домашнее задание. 18. Сколько времени у тебя уходит
на перевод текста? 19. У меня уходит 2 или 3 часа на приготовление заданий. 20. Домой я добираюсь трамваем.
Ex. 7. Приготовьте сообщение на тему 'My Working Day",
"His Working Day'.
Наречия неопределенного времени.
Always – всегда never – никогда sometimes – иногда usually –
обычно seldom – редко often – часто
1. He seldom comes here. She usually speaks English early. I often come home early.
2. I am never late. She is seldom ill. She is never at home at this
time.
3. Sometimes I have dinner at home. I sometimes have dinner at
home.
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Ex. 8. Поставьте наречия, данные в скобках, на правильное место в предложении:
1. Не is free at this time, (always). 2. He is at home on Sundays
(never). 3. I am busy on week-days (always). 4. He is late (often).
5. She comes in time (seldom). 6. I get up at 7 o^clock (usually).
Ex. 9. Переведите на английский язык:
1. Я часто беру книги в библиотеке. 2. Он редко рассказывает
нам о своей работе. 3. Она часто помогает нам. 4. Я никогда не
опаздываю. 5. По воскресеньям мы обычно бываем дома. 6. Он
всегда приходит в институт вовремя. 7. Они всегда готовы отвечать на вопросы.
Ex. 10. Переведите на английский.
а) 1. Вы встаете рано или поздно? 2. После занятий она идет
домой или в библиотеку? 3. Ваш друг изучает английский или
французский язык? 4. Его сестра бывает занята утром или вечером? 5. Ее брат студент или школьник? 6. М-р Браун живет в
Лондоне или в Брайтоне (Brighton)? 7. У вас есть братья или сестры?
b) 1. Вы знаете этого человека, не правда ли? 2. Он преподаватель, не так ли? 3. Он преподает историю, правда? 4. Анна и
Елена (Helen) сестры, не так ли? 5. Ваш брат дома сейчас, не
правда ли? 6. У них большая семья, не так ли? 7. Вы не любите
писать письма, не так ли? 8. Его отец не старый, не правда ли?
9. У Петровых (the Petrovs) нет машины, да?
с) 1. Какие предметы (subjects) вы изучаете? 2. Какие книги
он читает? Он читает английские книги. 3. Как вам нравится этот
фильм? 4. Когда она встает? Она обычно встает рано, в 6 часов.
5. В какое время ваш отец приходит домой? 6. Где вы учитесь?
7. Куда вы ходите вечером? 8. Что он делает дома? 9. Что вам
нужно (хотите)? 10. С кем он встречается в клубе (at the club)?
11. Что любит ваша жена? 12. Кому вы помогаете? 13. Сколько
бумаги ему нужно? 14. Сколько газет вы получаете (to get)?
15. Кто живет недалеко от станции? Я (он).
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Дополнительный текст.
Moscow University
1. Moscow University is the oldest University in Russia. 2. It is
with the cultural progress of the country that its history is connected.
3. Some of Russians best sons has attended the University, among
them the great revolutionary democrats Belinsky, Herzen, and Ogarev,
the famous writers Griboedov, Lermontov, and Chekhov, and who I
known scientists Pirogov, Sechenov, Timiriasev, and Zhukovsky.
4. Moscow University has played an important part in the advancement of Russian science and education, yet in оld Russia the University could not be called a source of learning for working people. 5. It
was only after the Great October Socialist Revolution that the University opened its doors to the sons and daughter's of workers and peasants. 6. Moscow University is now one of the leading centres of Soviet Science and world science as well. 7. It provides the best conditions for training young people and for extensive scientific work.
Ex. 1. Переведите предложения 2, 4, 5.
Lesson 3
Mikhail Lomonosov
The great scientist and poet, M. Lomonosov, began his working
life when he was still a boy. The son of a fisherman, he often went
with his father to the White Sea and to the Artie Ocean and learned
much about nature and the life of his country. He did not go to school,
but he learned to read at an early age and soon knew by heart the few
books that he had.
At the age of 19 he left his home and went on foot to Moscow,
where he entered the Slavonic-Greek-Latin Academy.
There was no other higher school in Moscow at that time, his first
years of study were difficult, but he worked hard and made great
progress. He continued his studies in Petersburg and later on in foreign countries.
When Lomonosov came back, he taught chemistry and other subjects at the Academy of Sciences. He founded the first chemical laboratory in Russia, and made in it over 4,000 (four thousand) experiments
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on the production of stained glass. He formulated the main principles
of one of the basic laws of physics – the law of conservation of matter
and motion. He also made a number of experiments with atmospheric
electricity and gave much time to the study of the natural resources of
the earth and ocean.
Lomonosov wrote poetry that had a great effect on the development of the Russian literary language. He also wrote the first Russian
grammar. He translated a course in physics from German into Russian
and introduced into the Russian scientific language such terms as
thermometer, formula, atmosphere and some others.
He devoted his whole life to the development of Russian science,
and all that he did, he did for his people and for his country.
Ex. 1. Дайте форму Past Indefinite от глаголов:
to know, to be, to do, to write, to have, to give, to teach.
Ex. 2. Употребите глаголы, указанные в скобках в Past Indefinite.
1. Lomonosov (to be) a great poet and (to do) much for the
progress of the Russian language. 2. In his Grammar he (to teach) how
to write Russian. 3. He (to give) much time to experiments in chemistry and physics. 4. These experiments (to have) a great effect on the
development of Russian science, which (to make) considerable
progress at his time. 5. There (to be) no chemical laboratories in Russia before Lomonosov. 6. Lomonosov (to know) the nature and the
life of his country. 7. He (to write) the first Russian grammar. 8. He
(to do) all for his country.
Ex. 3. Переведите, обращая внимание на употребление предлогов в выделенных словосочетаниях:
1. Lomonosov had so few books when he was a boy that he soon
knew them by heart. 2. His desire for knowledge was so great that he
went on foot to Moscow. 3. He lectured on chemistry at the Academy
of sciences. 4. He translated a course in physics from German into
Russian 5. His experiments on the production of glass had a great effect on the development of glass industry in Russia.
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Ex. 4. Ответьте на вопросы.
1. When did Lomonosov leave his home? 2. Where did he study?
3. What did he teach at the Academy of Sciences? 4. Was there any
other higher school in Moscow at that time? 5. Did Lomonosov continue his studies later on? 6. Did he know foreign languages? 7. What
did he translate?
1. Lomonosov went with some students to foreign countries.
2. He enriched science with his experiments on atmospheric electricity. 3. Lomonosov was a man of science and a poet at the same time.
4. Lomonosov was one of those scientists who combined study with
practice in his work. 5. He made a number of experiments which haloed him to study electricity. 6. He formulated some principles which
had a great effect on the development of physics. 7. He introduced
some technical terms which were new to the Russian language of his
time.
Дополнительный текст
Isaak Newton
The outstanding genius of the 17th century and one of the most
prominent scientists of the all time I. Newton was born on the 25th of
December 1642 in a small village in Lincolnshire.
After school he entered Cambridge University where later on he
lectured on mathematics for more than 30 years.
At the University Newton displayed an extraordinary mathematical and scientific ability.
During the plague of 1660 – 1665 in England Newton left Cambridge and spend 18 months at his home in the country. In this short
time he made practically all of his great discoveries. He discovered the
binomial theorem, laid the foundation of what is now differential, and
integral calculus, performed experiments on light and color, formulated the laws of motion and started the chain of investigations which
led to the formulation of the law of universal gravitation.
Newton was not only a scientist. He was also a very skilled
craftsman. He made the first reflecting telescope, whose most important part: is a concave mirror, not a lens. Today ail large astronomical
telescopes rely mostly on mirrors to concentrate the light from distant
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stars. Newton was also a politician. He took part in progressive political movements of his day. Like most great men, he was an all-round
man.
Newton died in 1727 when he was 85 years old.
Ex. 1. Ответьте на вопросы:
1. When was Newton born? 2. Where did he study? 3. Why did
Newton spend 18 months at home in 1660 – 1665? 4. What discoveries did he make during this short period of time? 5. Was Newton only
a scientist? 6. What was his telescope like?
Ex. 2. Заполните пропуски нужными словами:
1. After school he... Cambridge University. 2. Newton... an extraordinary mathematical and scientific ... . 3. Newton .... the law of
universal ... . 4. Newton... 18 months at his home in the country.
5. Today all large telescopes rely mostly on... to concentrate... from
distant stars, 6. He... in the progressive political movements of his
day.
Ex. 3. Подставьте нужные слова и прочитайте:
1. Volta (родился) in Italy, in 1745. For some years he (был) a
teacher of (физики), Later on he became professor of (естественных
наук) at the University. 2. Russian (ученый) Yablochkov (работал)
in the field of electrical engineering in the second (половине) of the
19th (столетия). 3. M. Lomonosov’s (открытие) of the atmosphere
on Venus (положило) the beginning for research into the (физические) properties of (плачет) of the solar system.
Lesson 4
Men on the Moon
When you saw pictures of the Moon did you wish you could be
there? What can you find out from this story about living on the
Moon?
For thousands of years men have dreamed about going to the
moon. Now men have landed on it but living there will not be easy.
The moon is a dead world, without air and water. It is hit by dangerous rays.
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Man has lived on the earth under very hard conditions. At the
South Pole men have lived for many months in temperatures of 75 to
100 degrees below zero!
Living on the moon will be even harder than living at the South
Pole. Each night is two weeks long and the temperature drops to 200
degrees below zero. Each day is two weeks long, but the temperature
rises to 200 degrees above zero. If man hopes to live on the moon, he
will have to make his houses there strong and airtight. Instead of
building up, he will have to build down. He will have to dig beneath
the moon's surface and live underground.
The first men on the moon had to carry along their own air, water
and food with them from the earth. Later when men live on the moon,
spaceships will have to keep bringing in more supplies.
After a while, man might be able to find ways to get his air, food
and water supplies from the moon itself.
"Ask Uncle Ray," St. Louis Post – Dispatch
Check Your Understanding
1. Living on the moon will be ...
a) easy. b) just like living at the South Pole. c) safe. d) hard.
2. The moon...
a) is hit by dangerous rays. b) has air. c) has water. d) has its own
food supply.
3. Temperatures on the moon are...
a) the same as those on the earth. b) the same as at the South Pole.
c) hot in the day and hot at night.
d) hot in the day and cold at night.
Exercises
I. Переведите на русский язык.
1. If everything's all right, my son will graduate from college next
year. 2. I shall not do what you want unless you do what I asked you
to. 3. When you leave I lie room, please, make us a sign, and we shall
follow you. 4. We shall not have dinner until Father conies back from
work. 5. As soon as John gets a good job, he will get married and will
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have a family of his own. 6. Before I go to the evening party, I'll call
for you or let you know through the phone. 7. He will always find it
hard to communicate with the deaf and dumb unless he has a good!
knowledge of the sign language. 8. I'll come and see you after I have
finished my work, if I finish it at all. 9. Don't leave until Professor
Grey is back to give you the necessary instructions.
II. Поставьте глаголы в соответствующем времени (Future Indefinite or Present Indefinite).
1. If you (to come) at five o'clock we (to see) an interesting program on TV. 2. Before you (to leave) home ring me up. 3. As soon as
you (to get) my letter let me know. 4. When I (to enter) the University
(study) two foreign languages. 5. If you (to be busy) on Sunday afternoon we (not to go) to the stadium 6. If you (to look through) to
day's paper you (to find) an interesting article. 7. When she (to arrive)
at the hotel it (to be) 5 o'clock. 8. When you (to be tired) we (tо stop)
working. 9. As soon as I (to get) any news about him I (to tell) you
about it. 10. Before he (to begin) to read a book he (to look through)
it.
III. Заполните пропуски местоимениями some, any.
1. Have you got ... lessons tomorrow morning? 2. I did not ask her
... questions yet. 3. There are ... books on the shelf. 4. Are there ... apple-trees in the school garden? 5. Give me ... time to think about it.
6. He drank ... whisky and left the bar. 7. Did she send ... telegram to
her mother? 8. They did not bring: ... chairs into the room: 9. She
translated ... articles into English. 10. My grandmother does not watch
... programs on TV.
IV. Заполните пропуски местоимениями (наречиями), производными от some, any, no, every.
1. ... is here. We can open the meeting. 2. It's very dark here. I
cannot see ... 3. She knows all about it, but she doesn't want to tell us.
4. You must do ... to improve ([im'pru;v] – улучшить) your English.
5. Ask ... to help you in. this. work. 6. Did you say ...? – No, I said ....
7. ... likes this song. No wonder, you can hear it ... 8. If I have spare
time, I shall go out ... to night. 9. The other day we went to see our
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friends, but ... was at home. 10. There is ... important in the letter.
11. Victor will go ... because he feels unwell. 12. Please give me ... interesting to read. 13. Will ... go to the library right after classes?
14. Did you hear ... about this film? 15. I am sure you can get this
book.
V. Употребите глагол-сказуемое в форме Present Continuous
или Present Indefinite.
1. I (to read) a very interesting book. 2. Usually my friend (to
read) a lot. 3. He (to swim) very fast. 4. Look! Somebody (to swim)
over there. 5. What you (to do) tonight? Let's go to the cinema.
6. What they usually (to do) at the week-end? 7. – Where is Alec? –
He is in the garden. I think he (to do) his morning exercises. 8. He always (to do) his morning exercises with the window open. 9. Mrs.
Grey seldom (to cook) meals at home. 10. – Is Mother in the
kitchen? – Yes, she is. She (to cook) something. 11. We never (to play
football) in the gym (спортзал). 12. The Dynamo team (to play) very
well to-day. 13. – I'd like to see Professor Smith. – Sorry. He is out at
the moment. He (to give a lecture). 14. Sometimes he (to give his lectures) in English for the students of the English section. 15. Ann hardly ever (почти никогда) (to eat anything) before going to bed. 16. –
Where are the children? – I suppose they (to have a walk) in the park.
17. – Who (to make a report) at the meeting? – I am sorry. I don't
know the speaker's name. 18. Our teacher (to speak) two foreign languages. 19. – Hello. This is Brown speaking. – Sorry, I don't hear you
well. Who (to speak)? 20. – Is Nick in the dining-room? – Yes, He (to
have lunch).
VI. Переведите на английский язык.
1. Вы торопитесь на занятия (to hurry)? – Да. В 11.00 у нас
лекция. 2. Куда вы идете? Я иду в библиотеку. Я всегда хожу туда в это время. 3. Вы читаете? Что вы читаете? 4. Кому вы пишете это письмо? – Сестре. Я пишу ей каждую неделю. 5. Ваш брат
дома? – Да. Он занят сейчас. Он готовит уроки (to do one's
lessons). 6. Я хочу видеть профессора Смирнова. – Простите, его
здесь нет. Он читает лекцию в аудитории 6. 7. Где Виктор? – Он в
читальном зале (a reading room). Он читает газеты. – Какие газеты
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он читает? – Я не знаю. 8. Не входите в аудиторию. Студенты
пишут там контрольную работу (a test). 9. На следующей неделе
(next week) мы едем в Сочи. 10. Делегация прибывает (приезжает) завтра. 11. Какой (which) урок вы сейчас проходите (изучаете)? – Мы проходим 5-й урок. 12. Этот писатель пишет новую
книгу. 13. Куда все (everybody) спешат? – На стадион. Там сегодня интересный матч. 14. Не шумите (to make a noise). Дети спят.
15. Что делает Петя? – Он рисует (to draw). 16. Что ты рисуешь?
17. Вы уже заканчиваете эту работу? 18. Когда вы обычно заканчиваете работу? 19. Не мешайте (to disturb) мне. Я готовлюсь к
докладу. 20. Отец дома? – Да. Он работает в саду. Он часто там
работает в это время. 21. О чем вы думаете? 22. С кем он там разговаривает? 23. На что вы смотрите? 24. О чем вы говорите?
VII. Choose the correct tense form:
1. He (has studied, studied) this subject last year. 2. He (has studied, studied) this problem. He will answer all your questions. 3. Ask
him about this film. He (has seen, saw) it. 4. He (has seen, saw) this
film on Sunday. 5. (have done, did) all my work. I am going home.
6. I (have done, did) all my work in the morning. 7. They (have been,
were) to Leningrad many times. They know it very well. 8. They
(were, have been) in Leningrad last year. 9. She (has been, was) in
Kiev two months ago. 10. We (have written, wrote) all the exercises.
We are free.
VIII. Choose the correct form:
1. It is eight o'clock in the evening. We (are sitting, sit) in our living room. My brother (is reading, reads) an English book, my sister (is
doing, does) her home task and I (watch, am watching) TV. 1 often
(watch, am watching) TV in the evening and my mother usually (is
reading, reads) at that time, she (is not watching, does not watch) TV
very often.
2. What (are, were) you doing now? – I (am, was) reading a book.
How long (have, had) you been reading it? – I (have, had) been reading it since 1 (return, returned) home. How much (had, have) you
read? – I (had, have) read half of it.
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3. Yesterday when the teacher (entered, enters) the class-room,
the students (were, are) sitting and writing. They (have, had) been
writing their test in mathematics for an hour already. Two students
(have, had) finished the work and (are, were) looking it through.
4. He (has come, came) home already and (was doing, did) the
room.
5. This student always (has come, comes) to the Institute in time.
He (is, was) a very good student. He usually (gets, will get) full marks
at his exams and I (am, was) sure, that he (graduates, will graduate)
from the Institute with honors.
Дополнительные тексты:
1. Edisons's first invention
When Edison was a boy of 15, he worked as a telegraph operator.
He had to be on duty from 7 a.m. and give a signal every hour to
prove that he did not sleep. One night an inspector arrived and saw
Edison sleeping in a chair. There was a mechanism on the table near
the telegraph instrument. When the hand of the clack pointed to the
hour, the instrument got busy and one lever threw open the key while
the other sent the signal over the wire. The inspector 'fired' the boy.
That is why the first of Edison's numerous inventions was never patented.
2. The useful gате
For a long time Edison's quests wondered why the gate to his garden was so difficult to open. A friend of his said: "The gate to your
garden is so heavy that I have to use all my strength to open it. You
are such a brilliant man. I'm sure you can invent something better.
"The gate seems to be quite all right", Edison answered with a smile.
'In fact, it is quite a brilliant invention. The gate is connected with a
pump. Everybody who comes in pumps twenty liters of water out of
the well…
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3. X-rays by post
This happened when X-ray treatment was still a new invention.
Roentgen, the discoverer of X-rays, received a letter from a man. The
man asked to send him 'several X-rays with instructions how to use
them. He explained that he had been shot in the chest and the bullet
still reminded there but he had no time to go to Roengen himself. The
Scientist replied ' I am very sorry but we have no X-rays now. And
besides, If-s very difficult to send them by post. But there is a simpler
thing you can do. Send your chest by to post me. '
4. The sense of humour
Once professor Thompson (Lord Kelvin, the inventor of mirror
galvanometer) was unable to stay for the class, so he placed a sign on
the door which read as following "Professor Thomson will be unable
to meet his classes today”. Some college student decided to display his
sense of humor and erased the letter "c" in the word 'classes'. The professor heared the laughter, came back, looked at the student, then at
the sign with the 'с' erased and calmly erased the "1" in "lasses".
5. About Einstain
It was Einstein’s pride always to have time. Once he agreed to
meet a friend of his on a certain bridge. The man said he couldn’t
promise to be there at the appointed time. 'Oh', said Einstein, 'than I
shall wait on the bridge'. The friend suggested that he might lose too
much of his time. "Oh, no", answered Einstein, 'the kind of work I do
can be done anywhere.. I can think about my problems on the bridge
as well as at home.'
6. About Einstain
Albert Einstein liked the films with Ch. Chaplin and treated him
with great sympathy. Once he wrote a letter to Chaplin ''Everybody in
the world understands your film «Golden Fever». You will become a
great man by all means''.
Einstein.
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Chaplin's answer was: "I admire you. still more. Nobody in the
world understands your «Theory of Relativity» and you have become
a great man nevertheless."
Chaplin.
Part 2
The history of computer
Computers have evolved over hundreds of years. The modern
computer is the product of many people's ideas blended over time.
This process of development is still going on.
Punched cards and electricity helped technology advance from
mechanical to electronic calculating machines.
Improvements in electronic circuitry made possible increasingly
powerful computers. First-generation, vacuum-tube computers gave
way to second-generation, transistor-powered computers. Thirdgeneration computers used tiny silicon chips engraved with integrated
circuits. Then fourth-generation computers were built using largescale integrated circuits – thousands of ICs' squeezed onto single
chips. Soon, one superchip will hold millions of ICs'.
Computers became more powerful, smaller, and easier to use. If
the current trend continues, computers will play an increasingly important role in our lives.
Computers are versatile electronic tools that can store information
аnd instructions and process data with remarkable speed and reliability
Unlike other tools and machines, computers allow for interactive,
or two-way, communication.
Analog computers calculate by measuring the continuous change
in some physical quality. Digital computers calculate by counting
numbers.
Mainframe computers are large, powerful, and expensive.
Minicomputers are smaller than mainframes and not as powerful.
Microcomputers, the smallest computers, are also known as personal
computers, home computers, and desktop computers.
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General-purpose computers can perform a variety of tasks. Special-purpose, or dedicated, computers are designed for one particular
purpose.
Languages of a computer
There are many different computer languages: BASIC, Pascal,
Logo, FORTRAN, COBOL, and others. For every computer to understand one of these languages, it needs a translator for that language.
Why are there different computer languages? The reason for this
is that different languages work well for different kinds of tasks.
A machine language is the natural instruction set of a computer
which bears little resemblance to the algebraic form in which mathematical expressions are normally written. This language makes the
operation of the computer possible. It is known as the binary number
system and was originally used to represent and handle numbers only.
Nowadays it is used to handle letters and symbols as well.
Binary (bi means two) system uses only two symbols, 1 and 0, rather than the ten decimal numbers. (0 – 9), and the twenty six letters,
we normally use.
The decimal numbers are compared with the corresponding binary symbols. The symbol 1 in the binary system can be used to
represent one, two, four, eight, or sixteen depending on its position or
place in a special chart.
The binary system is not so practical for ordinary numerical problems as the decimal system because more digits are required to express numbers. But this system suits modern computers because some
of them can store more than one and a half million decimal digits and
operate with a lightening speed.
Before feeding information into the computer special machines,
which look and operate like ordinary type-writers, can change or
translate the entire contents of a problem into a binary notation onto
cards or tape.
The answer from the computers output is also received on cards
or tape and fed through another translator that will deliver the desired
information to the programmer in decimal numbers and English letters.
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Electricity
Exercises
I. Words to be memorized:
particle, charge, positive, negative, to generate, wire, terminal, to
connect, to repel, to attract, voltage, damage, to heat, to produce, device.
II. Read and translate the text.
Electricity
1. All objects a made up of very small particles known as atoms.
Atoms consist of even smaller particles, some of which carry electric
charges. There are two types of electric charge, positive (+) and negative (-). You may see this positive and negative signs on transistor radio batteries. Transistor radios and cassette recorders usually work
from a battery. Batteries are devices containing chemicals which generate a voltage. A voltage pushes an electric current along a metal
wire. The more electrons on the negative electrode and the fewer on
the positive electrode, the greater is the voltage of the battery. Connections to battery are made to terminals which are fixed to the ends
of the electrodes.
2. Let us see what happens when a metal wire is connected to the
terminals of the battery. Metal wires have electrons inside tern which
can move independently of the atoms of the wire. The electrons are
called free electrons and they can move anywhere inside the wire. The
positive terminal of the battery attracts these free electrons while the
negative terminal repels them. This means that electrons move inside
the wire from the negative terminal to the positive terminal. The
greater the voltage of the battery, the faster the electrons move and the
greater is the current. WARNING - do not connect a short wire to the
terminals of the battery. This can damage the battery and you may
burn your fingers.
3. Now we have seen what an electric current is, we have to find
out what it does. One thing that it does is to heat up the wire through
which it flows. If special wire is used a greater deal of heat is produced. So much heat is produced that the wire becomes red hot. If the
wire is allowed to become even hotter (white hot), is can be used for
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electric "lightning". Another thing that electric current can do is to
produce magnetic fields. Because a magnetic field is produced by an
electric current flowing in a wire, electric motors are possible. Electric
motors are used in very many electrical devices such as record players, cassette recorders, vacuum cleaners and refrigerators.
I. Insert the required words:
battery, repel, negative, device, wire, positive.
1. There are two types of electric charges ...
2. Batteries are ... which contain chemicals generating voltage.
3. The positive terminal of the battery attracts free electrons while
the negative terminal repels them.
4. Electrons move inside the ... from the negative terminal to the
positive one.
II. 2. Agree or disagree with the following statements:
1. Atoms consist of small particles, all of them carry electric
charges.
2. A voltage pushes an electric current along a metal wire.
3. The fewer electrons on the negative electrode the more electrons on the positive electrode the greater the voltage of the battery.
4. There are no electrons which can move independently of the
atoms.
5. The positive terminal repels free electrons, the negative terminal attracts them.
6. The greater the voltage of the battery, the faster the electrons
move, the greater is the current.
Source of electrical energy
Exercises
I. Words to be memorized:
to require, to create, thermal, radiant, to split, to generate, to
transform, a cell, power, enormous, considerable, contribution.
II. Read and translate the text.
Source of electrical energy
1. To produce an electric current requires to employ a chemical,
as in the battery, or mechanical, as in the electromagnetic generator,
source of energy.
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Energy is not created by an electric energy source, but is only
converted into electrical form from another one, such as mechanical,
chemical, thermal or radiant energy. In water-power plants the energy
of falling water is converted into electrical energy. In stream plants the
chemical energy of coal is converted into heat when the coal is burnt.
Chemical source of current having a limited application, great quantities of electric energy generated today come from various forms of
mechanical energy.
2. For the first time mechanical energy was converted into electrical one by means of electrostatic machines. Industrial application of
energy increasing, greater amount of energy is needed every year. The
energy needs will continue to grow while the energy sources of energy
of the world are decreasing.
3. At present, Coal one of the most important kinds of fuel and
our basic source of energy. However it is quite possible that coal and
other kinds of fuel may be replaced by atomic energy. Man has learnt
to split atoms with the help of a nuclear reactor in order to get great
quantities of energy. Being used to produce energy, the nuclear reactor
produces it in the form of heat. But the way, a ton of uranium (nuclear
fuel) can give us as much energy as about 3 million tons of coal.
Atomic energy replacing the present sources if energy, the latter will
find various new applications.
4. The Sun is an unlimited source of energy. But at present only a
little part of solar energy is being used. Performance of solar stations
will permit to generate cheap electricity in large quantities in the near
future. Using semiconductors scientists can transform solar energy into electrical one. Power cells can accumulate sufficient energy in one
bright day to power a large transistor radio for ten days.
5. An enormous energy of the wind, exceeding millions of kilowatt hours, has not yet found effective application. Utilization of tidal
forces and wind energy will certainly make considerable contribution
to future electricity production.
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Types of electric current
Exercises
I. Translate the following words and word-combinations:
to contribute to, according to, to set up, a flow of electric current,
in other words, per second, metallic conductor, to cause, the same direction, to change the polarity, voltage value, direct current, alternating current, abbreviation, to occur, frequency, to damp, transient.
II. Read and translate the text.
Types of electric current
1. The electric current was born in the year 1800 when Volta constructed the first source of continuous current. Since that time numerous scientists and inventors, Russia and foreign, have greatly contributed to its development and practical application. According to electronic theory it is the electron that sets up a flow of electric current. In
other words an electric current is a flow of electrons in a circuit per
second of time. The flow of electricity through a circuit is called the
electric current and it measured in amperes. The instrument for measuring electric current is called ammeter.
2. The electric current flows in circuits formed of metallic conductors. Sometimes the circuit includes, in addition to metal conductors, electrolytes (as in batteries), gaseous conductors (as in fluorescent lamps), streams of electrons an ions (as in the electric tubes). In
all these cases the passage of the current is followed by the production
of heat and light, or both and in the case of electrolytes in causes
chemical changes.
3. There are different types of current having great importance for
our industry, but we shall discuss only some of them. An electric current which always flows in the same direction through a conductor
and does not change its polarity is called a direct current (d.c. or
D.C.). A direct current generally remains at constant voltage, that is,
the voltage neither rises nor falls. A pulsating direct current is that
kind of electric current that flows in the same direction through a circuit but varies in its voltage value.
4. An alternating current is an electric current, alternating or varying both in amount and direction; its abbreviation A.C. The alternation
may occur (take place) from a few per second up to several million
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per second. Two alternations make cycle. The number of cycles in one
second is called the frequency of an alternating current.
5. An oscillating current is similar in shape to alternating one but
it has a constant frequency and its amplitude is damped. Transient currents usually damp away extremely rapidly. One should mention unidirectional transient and a.c. transient types of electric current.
III. Find synonyms:
constant, change, shape, rapidly, flow, value, form stable, quickly,
vary, pass, amount.
IV. Find antonyms:
Metallic conductor, direct current, rise, the same, rapidly, alternating current, different, non-metallic conductor, slowly, fall.
V. Use the English terms instead of the Russian ones.
1. The flow of direct current is (непрерывные).
2. An ammeter is an instrument for (измерения величины) of a
current.
3. Alternating current (измеряется) both in amount and direction.
4. The d.c. voltage neither (повышается) nor falls.
5. The temperature rise of the (проводников) depends on the
construction of a circuit.
6. Instruments that measure (постоянные токи) are called d.c.
ammeters.
7. An (колебательный) current has a much higher (частоту).
Semiconductor devices
Exercises
I. Translate the following words and word-combinations:
to define, semiconductor properties, conductivity, insulator, semiconductor detector, power rectifier, radio reception, appearance, to
witness, photo cell, diode, increasing application, to turn (pay) attention, conversion of heat, contribution, high efficiency, a means of
solving a problem.
II. Read and translate the text.
Semiconductor devices
1. A semiconductor is often defined as an electrical conductor that
has conductivity intermediate between that of an insulator and that of
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a metal. Some of the properties which we now associate with semiconductors have been known for a century or more. Little use was
made of this properties, however, until the first decade of the present
century, when practical semiconductor detectors were developed for
radio reception.
The late twenties and middle thirties saw the appearance of selenium power rectifiers. The late thirties and early forties witnessed the
development of the risistors, diodes, rectifiers and photocells, all these
devises having and ever increasing application.
2. Soviet engineers and scientist turned their attention to semiconductors more than thirty years ago. They saw in them a means of
solving an old engineering problem, namely, that of direct conversion
of heat into electricity without boilers or machines.
A great contribution to the study of semiconductor physics has
been made by the prominent Soviet scientist academician A. F. Yoffe.
It was A. F. Yoffe who suggested that semiconductors could be used
for the direct conversion of heat and light energy into electric one.
Semiconductor thermoelectric systems as well as photocells with
a high efficiency have been developed by a group of researchers headed by A. F. Yoffe. A new industry – helio engineering – has appeared.
Solar batteries are successfully operating on Soviet sputniks and
spaceships. Having contributed to the theory of semiconductor physics, A. F. Yoffe showed the increasing technical importance of semiconductor devises.
3. The most important among the semiconductor devices, the
transistors, were invented in 1948. Their invention and development
have led to the expanded use of semiconductor devices of all kinds.
Semiconductor devices can usually perform all the elementary functions of oscillation, amplification, modulation and demodulation, rectification, etc. with greater economy of cost, space and power, than
can other devices such as vacuum tubes and relays. Semiconductor
devices are used in measuring technique, automatics, computers, radio
and TV sets.
I. Make nouns from the verbs:
To rectify, to modulate, to conduct, to develop, to appear, to contribute, to convert, to invent, to oscillate, to measure, to apply.
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II. Use the English term instead of Russian one.
1. The term (полупроводник) has been used because the material
occupies (промежуточное) place between conductors and nonconductors.
2. (Проводимость) of materials and crystals increases with heating and falls with cooling.
3. Soviet (исследователи) turned their attention to semiconductor
physics in late twenties.
4. We believe that new semiconductor devises (появятся) in the
nearest future.
5. We consider (изобретение) of transistors to be of great importance.
6. A transistor is a semiconductor devise for (усиления) of electric signals.
7. Semiconductor (устройства) are used for transmission of signals.
8. There are two types of semiconductor (выпрямителей).
III. Find the synonyms:
to associate, prominent, to operate, importance, to perform,
means, method, to do, to be in action, to connect, famous.
VI. Translate the following sentences, paying attention to the
words "one", "if, "that".
1. It is known that the term "semiconductor" was developed in the
first decade of last century.
2. One knows that the nuclear reactor must be one of the most reliable devices producing atomic energy.
3. Atomic energy can serve people but we must never forget that
that energy can also destroy the world.
4. An electric current passing through a wire heats that wire.
5. This is a semiconductor photocell, it was developed by a group
of researches headed by Yoffe.
6. One of you will compare the results obtained.
7. The transistor is a semiconductor device that performs the
functions of a vacuum tube with greater efficiency.
8. One knows a great variety of substances called semiconductors.
9. Transistors are only one of the family of semiconductors, and
now many new ones are being discovered.
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Elements of electric and radio circuits
Exercises
I. Words to be memorized:
a receiver, to connect, terminal, to require, complete, to produce,
according to, successively, condition, the same, total, to differ, to
transmit, intelligence, carrier, to radiate, to modulate, loudspeaker.
II. Read and translate the text.
Elements of electric and radio circuits
1. An electric circuit is known to be a path along which electricity
can flow. Electric circuit consist of a source of energy or power
source, a receiver of energy and two conductors connecting the receiver and power source terminals. The purpose of an electric source
is to produce the necessary electromotive force required for the flow
of current through the circuit. The circuit showed be complete, otherwise no electric current can flow through it. If the circuit is broken or
"opened", the current is known to stop flowing. So we break the circuit when we switch off our electric devices.
2. Fundamentally, two types of circuits are possible, according to
the way in which the circuit elements are joined. To understand the
difference between the flowing circuit connections is not difficult.
When electrical devices are connected one after the other so that the
current flows successively through each element, they are said to be
connected in series. Under such conditions the current flow is the
same in all parts of the circuit, as there is only a single path along
which it may flow. The electrical bell circuit is considered to be a typical example of a series circuit.
3. The parallel circuit provides two or more paths for the passage
of current. The parallel circuit elements are connected side by side in
such a way, that the total current flowing through the circuit is the sum
of the currents flowing through each circuit element individually. The
lamps in your room are generally connected in parallel.
4. We know any radio circuit to be an electric circuit including
radio elements. Radio differs from other methods of communication in
the means used to connect the transmitting and receiving points. The
basic elements of any radio system are: a transmitter used for generating a radio frequency, a modulator used for impressing intelligence
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upon the carrier and a transmitting antenna used for radiating the
modulated carrier wave. At the receiving end there must be a receiving antenna, a receiver and a loudspeaker.
III. Choose the expressions corresponding to the text.
1. If the circuit is broken:
a) the current flows through it;
b) the circuit elements are joined;
c) the current stops to flow.
2. When electric devices are joined one after the other the combination is called:
a) a series circuit;
b) a parallel circuit;
c) a complete circuit.
3. The parallel circuit provides:
a) only a single path along which the current may flow;
b) two or more paths for the passage of current;
c) the necessary electromotive force.
IV. Find synonyms:
A. to arise, energy, to join, successfully, a flow, main.
B. power, to induce, a passage, to connect, in series, basic.
Find antonyms:
A. to connect, complete, a conductor, total.
B. broken, to break, single, an insulator.
V. State the part of speech of the underlined words:
1. Electromotive force causes electricity to move through a conductor.
2. There are effects that tend to force the current to flow mostly in
outer parts of the conductor.
3. An electrical circuit is a path through which electric currents
flow.
4. The flow of electricity through a circuit is called the electric
current.
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Part 3
Exercises
1. A.
1. They offered me a cup of tea. 2. Students take examinations at
the end of each term. 3. Mother baked the birthday cake. 4. Columbus
discovered America in 1492. 5. The children asked me to read a story.
6. George Simenon wrote this story. 7. The boss gave us a form to fill
in. 8. Father taught me to ride a bicycle. 9. The doctor told him to lie
in bed for three days. 10. The waiter will serve you breakfast in five
minutes. 11. People speak English in many countries. 12. I shall give
you a cup of coffee if you want. 13. They close the shop at 5.
B.
1. What are they discussing? 2. The professor is examining our
group. 3. The Spartans were celebrating a religious festival when a
messenger came from Athens. 4. They are building a new school in
our district. 5. What film are they demonstrating in the lecture room?
6. He had a feeling that someone was following him. 7. They were
watching and taking pictures of a UFO. 8. They were interrogating the
first witness when I came into the courtroom. 9. They are counting the
prize money. 10. They are relieving him of his duty because of his
age.
C.
1. They have offered me a job at a local bank. 2. Have you
warned them about the meeting? 3. Someone has stolen a picture from
a museum. 4. I have lost some secret papers. 5. We have kept this
meat in the fridge for a week. 6. The police have found a dead body in
the park. 7. They had packed the suitcases when the bellboy arrived.
8. They had sold the famous house to an American before I learnt
about it. 9. I didn't attend the meeting because you hadn't warned me.
10. The room looked dirty because we hadn't cleaned it for a week.
11. They will clear up the situation when they have known some more
facts. 12. They will have repaired mv shoes by the evening.
2. A.
1. The new theatre (to open) last month. 2. Three people (to kill)
in the car accident. 3. A cure for cancer (not to find) yet. 4. The article
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(to translate) into Russian now, it (to publish) as soon as they (to return) it. 5. Our office (to decorate) for the celebration and looks cheerful. 6. When the plane (to take off), the passengers (to show) how to
use life jackets. 7. If you (to offer) a cheap camera, don't buy it, it (not
to work). 8. I (to ask) a lot of questions about my education background when I (to hire). 9. You (to offer) a new job. 10. Ann (to attack) last night when she (to walk) home alone. 11. School (to close)
for a few days because of the storm. 12. Andrew (to arrest) a few days
ago. 13. British coins (to make) in the Royal Mint. 14. New Year's
Day (to celebrate) on January, 1. 15. Under safety regulations women
(not to allow) to work underground. 16. The movie (to show) four
times in the cinema. 17. The hikers (to force) to turn back by bad
weather. 18. The letter (to write) by a lefthander. I (to understand) it
after I (to read) it several times. 19. When I (to enter) the classroom,
my friend (to examine).
В.
I. April Fool's Day (to mark) for the last few years in Russia too.
2. He (to bring up) by his parents to be a strict Catholic. 3. Sue (to
lose) her purse yesterday. It (to be) in her bag and her bag (not to fasten). 4. He (to wound) when he (to try) to stop the man attacking a
young girl. He (to shoot) in the leg. 5. Finally after we (to wait) for
half and hour salad, beefsteak and tea (to serve). 6. The twins (to impress) by the beauty of the night city. 7. The glass mirror (to invent)
by the Romans. 8. The huge pyramids (to decorate) with thousands of
carved pictures. 9. The textbook (to look) so shabby because it (to use)
for many years. 10. The crops (to damage) by the heavy rain falls and
the peasants expected a hard year. 11. The tickets (to bring) ten minutes before we (to start) for the airport. 12. "Swan Lake" (to stage)
throughout the whole century. 13. In the John town Flood of 1899
more than two thousand people (to kill). Furniture (to float) away and
homes (to wreck). The flood (to cause) by a dam that (to break).
14. Trafalgar Square (to lay out) in the 19th century. 15. I (to sleep)
for some time when I (to remember) that Red Chief (to say) I (to burn)
at the stake. 16. Many superstitions and occult practices (to build) on
dreams to foretell the future. 17. Garlic (to use) widely as a medicine.
A bulb of garlic (to make up) of a number of small sections. Each sec34
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tion (to call) a clove. Each clove (to cover) bv a thin skin. The cloves
(to peel), (to chop) and (to use) in a variety of dishes.
3.
1. The man ... be a foreigner. He ... not understand Russian. 2. ...
you believe her story? It... be her imagination. 3. How ... we get to the
centre of London? 4. ... you tell us where we ... get off? 5. It's 10
o'clock, you .., go to bed at once. 6. I ... not do without your help now.
7. You ... get her on the phone any time. 8. If you go through the forest you ... I lose your way. 9. ... I use your camera? 10. Flue ... be very
dangerous. 11. The road was dirty, you ... wipe your feet when you
come in. 12. Mrs. Smith ... be at least 60. 13. Something ... be done to
stop the criminal. 14. I... leave now, I have a seminar. 15. ... you understand what he's speaking about? 16. I ... admit he's very capable.
17. I ... hear some voices outside. 18. You ... come a little later tomorrow, 19. She ... not be 35, she has grandchildren. 20. She ... be very
unreasonable at times. 21. ... I apologize to him? 22. You ... go and
play now. 23. They've bought such an expensive house. They ... be
very well-off. 24. I wonder what they ... think of the girl now. 25. ...
you speak Spanish? 26. My watch ... be two minutes fast. It ... be 6
sharp now.
4.
1. Bread (to eat) every day. 2. The letter (to receive) yesterday.
3. Nick (to send) to Moscow next week. 4. I (to ask) at the lesson yesterday. 5. I (to give) a very interesting book at the library last Friday.
6. Many houses (to build) in our town every year. 7. This work (to do)
tomorrow. 8. This text (to translate) at the last lesson. 9. These trees
(to plant) last autumn. 10. Many interesting games always (to play) at
our PT lessons. 11. This bone (to give) to my dog tomorrow. 12. We
(to invite) to a concert last Saturday. 13. Mv question (to answer) yesterday. 14. Hockey (to play) in winter. 15. Mushrooms (to gather) in
autumn. 16. Many houses (to burn) during the Great Fire of London.
17. His new book (to finish) next year. 18. Flowers (to sell) in shops
and in the streets. 19. St. Petersburg (to found) in 1703.
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5. Раскройте скобки, выбирая требующуюся форму глагола.
1.The porter will (bring, be brought) your luggage to your room.
2. Your luggage will (bring, be brought) up in the lift. 3. You may
(leave, be left) your hat and coat in the cloak-room downstairs.
4. They can (leave, be left) the key with the clerk downstairs. 5. From
the station they will (take, be taken) straight to the hotel. 6. Tomorrow
he will (take, betaken) them to the Russian Museum. 7. At the station
they will (meet, be met) by a man from the travel bureau. 8. She will
(meet, be met) them in the hall upstairs.
6. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Passive Voice.
1. At the last competition the first prize (to win) by our team.
2. The question (to settle) as soon as they arrived. 3. Your report must
(to divide) into two chapters. 4. Soon he (to send) to a sanatorium.
5. The book (to discuss) at the next conference. 6. The composition
must (to hand) in on Wednesday. 7. Yesterday he (to tell) to prepare a
speech. 8. The article (to publish) last week, if I am not mistaken.
9. The lectures (to attend) by all of us. 10. A taxi (to call) fifteen minutes ago, so we are expecting it any moment. 11. The young man (to
introduce) to me only a couple of hours ago, but it seems to me that
I've known him for years. 12. The rule explained by the teacher at the
last lesson (to understand) by all of us. 13. The poem was so beautiful
that it (to learn) bv everybody. 14. I hope the invitation (to accept) by
everybody. 15. The letter (to post) in half an hour. 16. It seems to me
that music (to hear) from the next room.
7. Перефразируйте следующие словосочетания и предложения, употребляя притяжательный падеж.
1. The room of my friend. 2. The questions of my son. 3. The
wife of my brother. 4. The table of our teacher. 5. The poems of Pushkin. 6. The voice of this girl. 7. The new club of the workers. 8. The
letter of Pete. 9. The car of my parents. 10. The life of this woman.
11. The handbags of these women. 12. The flat of my sister is large.
13. The children of my brother are at home. 14. The room of the boys
is large. 15. The name of this girl is Jane. 16. The work of these students is interesting.
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8. Поставьте прилагательные и наречия в соответствующую степень.
1. Moscow is one of (large) cities in the world. 2. The Kremlin is
(beautiful) part of Moscow. 3. This boy is (fat) than that one. 4. My
brother is (tall) than my sister. 5. Where does your (old) brother live?
6. We heard (late) news over the radio. 7. Did you read his (late) novel? 8. This box is (heavy) of all. 9. Your test paper is (bad) than mine.
10. June is (good) month of the year. 11. Whose translation is (good)?
12. Our teacher lives in (far) part of the city. 13. Which is (high)
mountain in the USSR? 14. Your hands are (big) than mine. 15. This
street is (noisy). 16. Peter is (small) of the family. 17. She will get
(thin) when she gets (old). 18. Your dress is (fashionable) of all. 19.
She did the work (well) than my brother. 20. My grandfather is two
years (old) than my grandmother. 21. His watch is 5 minutes (fast)
than yours. 22. Where is (near) bus stop?
9. Руководствуясь смыслом предложения, переведите модальные глаголы (слова), данные в скобках.
1. (Можете ли) you wait for me for 15 minutes? – No, I (не
могу). I (должен) be at home at 2 o'clock, and I (вынужден) to hurry,
because now it is already twenty minutes to two. 2. When (сможете)
you come to see us? – I (возможно) come to visit you in a few days.
Now I'm very busy. I (вынужден) to prepare for a report. 3. You
(нужно) to buy-a new bag. Your bag is old. 4. What (должен) I do to
learn to speak English? 5. Why didn't you come here yesterday? – I
(не мог). I (должен был) to help my grandparents and do some gardening. 6. You (не нужно) go to the library. You (можете) take any
French book you like from me. I've got lots of them. 7. You (придется) call him up and find out when we (должны; нам предстоит) go
on this excursion. 8. (Смогу ли) I get to Pushkin Square by bus 5? –
Of course you will. The bus (должен) to come in a moment. 9. At
what time (должен) the next English class to take place? – It
(должен) to take place on Thursday at 5 o'clock. 10. I (предстоит) to
go to London on a business trip (командировка). 11. You (следует)
work hard at your English if you want to have a good knowledge of
the language.
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10. Поставьте в Future Indefinite, переведите:
1. When he (to finish) this work, he (to go) home. 2. Before he (to
leave) the shop, he (to examine) all the devices. 3. He (must) work as
the head engineer till Petrov (to return) from Leningrad. 4. You will
have to repare the device if something (to be) wrong with it. 5. He (to
be allowed) to stay there until the engineer (to come).
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Оглавление
Part 1 ............................................................................................................ 2
Part 1 ............................................................................................................ 3
Lesson I ............................................................................................................................................ 3
I study at the university........................................................................................................... 3
Universities of England .......................................................................................................... 7
Lesson 2 ........................................................................................................................................... 8
My working day........................................................................................................................... 8
Moscow University .................................................................................................................. 12
Lesson 3 ......................................................................................................................................... 12
Mikhail Lomonosov................................................................................................................. 12
Isaak Newton .............................................................................................................................. 14
Lesson 4 ......................................................................................................................................... 15
Men on the Moon ..................................................................................................................... 15
Exercises........................................................................................................................................ 16
1. Edisons's first invention .................................................................................................. 20
2. The useful gате ................................................................................................................... 20
3. X-rays by post ....................................................................................................................... 21
4. The sense of humour ......................................................................................................... 21
5. About Einstain ...................................................................................................................... 21
6. About Einstain ...................................................................................................................... 21
Part 2 .......................................................................................................... 22
The history of computer........................................................................................................ 22
Languages of a computer .................................................................................................... 23
Electricity...................................................................................................................................... 24
Source of electrical energy ................................................................................................. 25
Types of electric current ...................................................................................................... 27
Semiconductor devices .......................................................................................................... 28
Elements of electric and radio circuits ....................................................................... 31
Part 3 .......................................................................................................... 33
Exercises........................................................................................................................................ 33
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Учебное издание
Основы перевода технических текстов
(для студентов физического факультета)
Практикум
Составители: Потехина Татьяна Борисовна
Туркина Людмила Леонидовна
Редактор, корректор И.В. Бунакова
Компьютерная верстка Е.Л. Шелеховой
Подписано в печать 16.06.2008 г. Формат 60×84/16.
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Отпечатано на ризографе.
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41
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Основы перевода
технических текстов
(для студентов физического факультета)
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